Richards, Leigh R; Rambau, Ramugondo V; Lamb, Jennifer M; Taylor, Peter J; Yang, Fengtang; Schoeman, M Corrie; Goodman, Steven M
The chiropteran fauna of Madagascar comprises eight of the 19 recognized families of bats, including the endemic Myzopodidae. While recent systematic studies of Malagasy bats have contributed to our understanding of the morphological and genetic diversity of the island's fauna, little is known about their cytosystematics. Here we investigate karyotypic relationships among four species, representing four families of Chiroptera endemic to the Malagasy region using cross-species chromosome painting with painting probes of Myotis myotis: Myzopodidae (Myzopoda aurita, 2n = 26), Molossidae (Mormopterus jugularis, 2n = 48), Miniopteridae (Miniopterus griveaudi, 2n = 46), and Vespertilionidae (Myotis goudoti, 2n = 44). This study represents the first time a member of the family Myzopodidae has been investigated using chromosome painting. Painting probes of M. myotis were used to delimit 29, 24, 23, and 22 homologous chromosomal segments in the genomes of M. aurita, M. jugularis, M. griveaudi, and M. goudoti, respectively. Comparison of GTG-banded homologous chromosomes/chromosomal segments among the four species revealed the genome of M. aurita has been structured through 14 fusions of chromosomes and chromosomal segments of M. myotis chromosomes leading to a karyotype consisting solely of bi-armed chromosomes. In addition, chromosome painting revealed a novel X-autosome translocation in M. aurita. Comparison of our results with published chromosome maps provided further evidence for karyotypic conservatism within the genera Mormopterus, Miniopterus, and Myotis. Mapping of chromosomal rearrangements onto a molecular consensus phylogeny revealed ancestral syntenies shared between Myzopoda and other bat species of the infraorders Pteropodiformes and Vespertilioniformes. Our study provides further evidence for the involvement of Robertsonian (Rb) translocations and fusions/fissions in chromosomal evolution within Chiroptera.
Gregg F Gunnell
Full Text Available Myzopodidae is a family of bats today represented by two extant species of the genus Myzopoda that are restricted to the island of Madagascar. These bats possess uniquely derived adhesive pads on their thumbs and ankles that they use for clinging to smooth roosting surfaces. Only one fossil myzopodid has been reported previously, a humerus from Pleistocene deposits at Olduvai Gorge in Tanzania that was tentatively referred to the genus Myzopoda. Here we describe a new genus and two new species of myzopodids based on dental remains from Paleogene deposits in the Fayum Depression in Egypt, and provide an emended diagnosis for the family Myzopodidae. Phasmatonycteris phiomensis n. sp. is represented by four specimens from the early Oligocene Jebel Qatrani Formation and P. butleri n. sp. is known from a single specimen from the late Eocene Birket Qarun Formation. Together these specimens extend the temporal range of Myzopodidae by 36+ million years, and the geographic range by nearly 4000 kilometers. The new myzopodids, along with previously described bats from the Fayum and Australia, suggest that eastern Gondwana played a critical role in the origin and diversification of several bats clades notably including the superfamily Noctilionoidea, the majority of which live in the Neotropics today.
M. Brock Fenton
Full Text Available With over 130 species, bats are the most diverse group of mammals almost everywhere in sub-Saharan Africa. Since 2000, two books (Monadjem et al. 2010; Taylor 2000 have made it much easier to appreciate this reality. Species previously unrecognised are frequent discoveries (e.g. Taylor et al. 2012. Whilst most species are mainly insectivorous, some rely more directly on plants, taking fruit and visiting flowers to obtain nectar and pollen. The combination of mobility, long lifespan and diversity of trophic roles makes bats potentially valuable as indicators of ecosystem health (Cumming & Spiesman 2006. Lack of detailed information, however, makes it easy to overlook bats when focusing on issues of conservation.
M. Brock Fenton
Full Text Available With over 130 species, bats are the most diverse group of mammals almost everywhere in sub-Saharan Africa. Since 2000, two books (Monadjem et al. 2010; Taylor 2000 have made it much easier to appreciate this reality. Species previously unrecognised are frequent discoveries (e.g. Taylor et al. 2012. Whilst most species are mainly insectivorous, some rely more directly on plants, taking fruit and visiting flowers to obtain nectar and pollen. The combination of mobility, long lifespan and diversity of trophic roles makes bats potentially valuable as indicators of ecosystem health (Cumming & Spiesman 2006. Lack of detailed information, however, makes it easy to overlook bats when focusing on issues of conservation.
M. Brock Fenton
With over 130 species, bats are the most diverse group of mammals almost everywhere in sub-Saharan Africa. Since 2000, two books (Monadjem et al. 2010; Taylor 2000) have made it much easier to appreciate this reality. Species previously unrecognised are frequent discoveries (e.g. Taylor et al. 2012). Whilst most species are mainly insectivorous, some rely more directly on plants, taking fruit and visiting flowers to obtain nectar and pollen. The combination of mobility, long lifespan and dive...
Carter, A M; Goodman, S M; Enders, A C
The reproductive tract was examined in four non-pregnant and two gravid specimens of Myzopoda. The ovaries had little interstitial tissue. The uterus was bicornuate and the lenticular placental disk was situated mesometrially in one horn. The interhaemal barrier of the placental labyrinth was of ...
Kasso, Mohammed; Balakrishnan, Mundanthra
Order Chiroptera is the second most diverse and abundant order of mammals with great physiological and ecological diversity. They play important ecological roles as prey and predator, arthropod suppression, seed dispersal, pollination, material and nutrient distribution, and recycle. They have great advantage and disadvantage in economic terms. The economic benefits obtained from bats include biological pest control, plant pollination, seed dispersal, guano mining, bush meat and medicine, aes...
Kirillov, A A; Kirillova, N Iu; Vekhnik, V P
The data on species diversity of trematodes from bats collected in the Middle Volga Region are summarized. According to original and literary data, 20 trematode species were recorded in bats of the region examined. Plagiorchis elegans, Lecithodendrium skrjabini, L. rysavyi, Prosthodendrium hurkovaae, and Pycnoporus megacotyle are specified for the bat fauna of Russia for the first time. For 11 species of parasites, new hosts are recorded. The analysis of bat helminthes demonstrated that the fauna of trematodes of the northern bat (12 species of trematodes), of the pond, and of the Brandt's bats is the most diverse, constituting more than 10 parasite species per bat species. The largest number of final hosts in the Middle Volga Region is characteristic of Plagiorchis koreanus and Prosthodendrium chilostomum; the latter species were revealed in 8 and 7 bat species, respectively. Trematodes of bats possess a high degree of host specificity. 17 species parasitize exclusively in bats out of 20 parasite species registered for the order Chiroptera. Only 3 species (Plagiorchis elegans, P. vespertilionis, and Prosthodendrium chilostomum) show wide degree of specificity, being found in other animals. Taxonomic position, the circle of hosts, collecting sites, and brief data in biology and geographical distribution for each helminth species are specified. Morphological descriptions and original figures for all the trematode species revealed in bats of the Middle Volga Region are given.
Wibbelt, Gudrun; Moore, Marianne S.; Schountz, Tony; Voigt, Christian C.
A conference entitled ‘2nd International Berlin Bat Meeting: Bat Biology and Infectious Diseases’ was held between the 19 and 21 of February 2010 in Berlin, Germany. Researchers from two major disciplines, bat biologists and disease specialists, met for the first time in an interdisciplinary event to share their knowledge about bat-associated diseases. The focus of the meeting was to understand why in particular bats are the hosts of so many of the most virulent diseases globally. During several sessions, key note speakers and participants discussed infectious diseases associated with bats, including viral diseases caused by Henipa-, Filo-, Corona- and Lyssaviruses, the spread of white-nose syndrome in North American bats, bat immunology/immunogenetics, bat parasites, and finally, conservation and human health issues. PMID:20427329
Jones, Kate E; Bininda-Emonds, Olaf R P; Gittleman, John L
Identifying nonrandom clade diversification is a critical first step toward understanding the evolutionary processes underlying any radiation and how best to preserve future phylogenetic diversity. However, differences in diversification rates have not been quantitatively assessed for the majority of groups because of the lack of necessary analytical tools (e.g., complete species-level phylogenies, estimates of divergence times, and robust statistics which incorporate phylogenetic uncertainty and test appropriate null models of clade growth). Here, for the first time, we investigate diversification rate heterogeneity in one of the largest groups studied thus far, the bats (Mammalia: Chiroptera). We use a recent, robust statistical approach (whole-tree likelihood-based relative rate tests) on complete dated species-level supertree phylogenies. As has been demonstrated previously for most other groups, among-lineage diversification rate within bats has not been constant. However, we show that bat diversification is more heterogeneous than in other mammalian clades thus far studied. The whole-tree likelihood-based relative rates tests suggest that clades within the families Phyllostomidae and Molossidae underwent a number of significant changes in relative diversification rate. There is also some evidence for rate shifts within Pteropodidae, Emballonuridae, Rhinolophidae, Hipposideridae, and Vespertilionidae, but the significance of these shifts depends on polytomy resolution within each family. Diversification rate in bats has also not been constant, with the largest diversification rate shifts occurring 30-50 million years ago, a time overlapping with the greatest number of shifts in flowering plant diversification rates.
Bergmans, Wim; Jachmann, Hugo
Five species of bats are recorded from Kasungu National Park, Malawi: Eidolon helvum (Kerr, 1792); Epomophorus anurus Heuglin, 1864; Epomophorus minor Dobson, 1880; Epomops dobsonii (Bocage, 1889); and Scotoecus hindei Thomas, 1901. Some other Malawian records of these species, based on literature
Noguera-Urbano, Elkin A; Escalante, Tania
The global effort to digitize biodiversity occurrence data from collections, museums and other institutions has stimulated the development of important tools to improve the knowledge and conservation of biodiversity. The Global Biodiversity Information Facility (GBIF) enables and opens access to biodiversity data of 321 million of records, from 379 host institutions. Neotropical bats are a highly diverse and specialized group, and the geographic information about them is increasing since few years ago, but there are a few reports about this topic. The aim of this study was to analyze the number of digital records in GBIF of Neotropical bats with distribution in 21 American countries, evaluating their nomenclatural and geographical consistence at scale of country. Moreover, we evaluated the gaps of information on 1 degrees latitude x 1 degrees longitude grids cells. There were over 1/2 million records, but 58% of them have no latitude and longitude data; and 52% full fit nomenclatural and geographic evaluation. We estimated that there are no records in 54% of the analyzed area; the principal gaps are in biodiversity hotspots like the Colombian and Brazilian Amazonia and Southern Venezuela. In conclusion, our study suggests that available data on GBIF have nomenclatural and geographic biases. GBIF data represent partially the bat species richness and the main gaps in information are in South America.
Smith, Jillian D L; Bickham, John W; Gregory, T Ryan
Despite being a group of particular interest in considering relationships between genome size and metabolic parameters, bats have not been well studied from this perspective. This study presents new estimates for 121 "microbat" species from 12 families and complements a previous study on members of the family Pteropodidae ("megabats"). The results confirm that diversity in genome size in bats is very limited even compared with other mammals, varying approximately 2-fold from 1.63 pg in Lophostoma carrikeri to 3.17 pg in Rhinopoma hardwickii and averaging only 2.35 pg ± 0.02 SE (versus 3.5 pg overall for mammals). However, contrary to some other vertebrate groups, and perhaps owing to the narrow range observed, genome size correlations were not apparent with any chromosomal, physiological, flight-related, developmental, or ecological characteristics within the order Chiroptera. Genome size is positively correlated with measures of body size in bats, though the strength of the relationships differs between pteropodids ("megabats") and nonpteropodids ("microbats").
Rediscovery of Meristaspis lateralis (Kolenati) (Acari: Mesostigmata: Spinturnicidae) parasitizing the Egyptian fruit bat, Rousettus aegyptiacus (Geoffroy) (Mammalia: Chiroptera), with a key to mites of bats in Egypt.
Negm, Mohamed W; Fakeer, Mahmoud M
Faunistic information about bat mites in Egypt is scarce. Collection records of parasitic mites, Meristaspis lateralis (Kolenati, 1856) (Mesostigmata: Spinturnicidae), are reported from the Egyptian fruit bat, Rousettus aegyptiacus (Geoffroy, 1810) (Mammalia: Chiroptera) in Assiut Governorate, Egypt. Seven species of bat mites are recognized from Egypt to date. A host-parasite checklist and an identification key to these species are presented.
Yunpeng, Liang; Li, Yu
As the second biggest animal group in mammals, Chiroptera (bats) demonstrates many unique adaptive features in terms of flight, echolocation, auditory acuity, feeding habit, hibernation and immune defense, providing an excellent system for understanding the molecular basis of how organisms adapt to the living environments encountered. In this review, we summarize the researches on the molecular mechanism of the adaptive evolution of Chiroptera, especially the recent researches at the genome levels, suggesting a far more complex evolutionary pattern and functional diversity than previously thought. In the future, along with the increasing numbers of Chiroptera species genomes available, new evolutionary patterns and functional divergence will be revealed, which can promote the further understanding of this animal group and the molecular mechanism of adaptive evolution.
Paksuz, E P; Hayretdağ, S; Olgun, K
Order Chiroptera is the second largest mammal group after rodents. An understanding of the development of the bats, which is a very special mammal group in terms of their lifestyles, morphology and their ability to fly, is very important because most of the adult anatomical differences characterizing species occur during organogenesis. In this study, developmental stages were determined for Myotis myotis species based on external morphological characteristics from embryos obtained from wild-caught pregnant females. The developmental stages of M. myotis were comparable with those of other bat species. © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.
Benda, P.; Faizolahi, K.; Andreas, M.; Obuch, J.; Reiter, A.; Ševčík, M.; Uhrin, M.; Vallo, Peter; Ashrafi, S.
Roč. 76, 3-4 (2012), s. 163-562 ISSN 1211-376X Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : distribution * ecology * echolocation * ectoparasites * Chiroptera * Iran * Middle East * Palaearctic Subject RIV: EG - Zoology
Gunnell, Gregg F; Manthi, Fredrick K
Fossil bats from the Pliocene of Africa are extremely rare, especially in East Africa where meager records have been reported only from two localities in the Omo River Basin Shungura Formation and from a scattering of localities in the Afar Depression, both in Ethiopia. Here we report on a diverse assemblage of bats from Kanapoi in the Turkana Basin that date to approximately 4.19 million years ago. The Kanapoi bat community consists of four different species of fruit bats including a new genus and two new species as well as five species of echolocating bats, the most common of which are two new species of the molossid genus Mops. Additionally, among the echolocating bats, a new species of the emballonurid Saccolaimus is documented at Kanapoi along with an additional Saccolaimus species and a potentially new species of the nycterid Nycteris. Compared to other East African Pliocene bat assemblages, the Kanapoi bat community is unique in preserving molossids and curiously lacks any evidence of cave dwelling bats like rhinolophids or hipposiderids, which are both common at other East African sites. The bats making up the Kanapoi community all typically roost in trees, with some preferring deeper forests and larger trees (molossids), while the others (pteropodids, nycterids and emballonurids) roost in trees near open areas. Living fruit bats that are related to Kanapoi species typically forage for fruits along the margins of forests and in open savannah. The echolocating forms from Kanapoi consist of groups that aerially hawk for insects in open areas between patches of forest and along water courses. The habitats preferred by living relatives of the Kanapoi bats are in agreement with those constructed for Kanapoi based on other lines of evidence. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Yob, J. M.; Field, H.; Rashdi, A. M.; Morrissy, C.; van der Heide, B.; Rota, P.; bin Adzhar, A.; White, J.; Daniels, P.; Jamaluddin, A.; Ksiazek, T.
Nipah virus, family Paramyxoviridae, caused disease in pigs and humans in peninsular Malaysia in 1998-99. Because Nipah virus appears closely related to Hendra virus, wildlife surveillance focused primarily on pteropid bats (suborder Megachiroptera), a natural host of Hendra virus in Australia. We collected 324 bats from 14 species on peninsular Malaysia. Neutralizing antibodies to Nipah virus were demonstrated in five species, suggesting widespread infection in bat populations in peninsular Malaysia. PMID:11384522
Muñoz-Leal, Sebastián; Eriksson, Alan; Santos, Carolina Ferreira; Fischer, Erich; de Almeida, Juliana Cardoso; Luz, Hermes R; Labruna, Marcelo B
Ticks associated with bats have been poorly documented in the Neotropical Zoogeographical Region. In this study, a total of 1028 bats were sampled for tick infestations in the southern portion of the Brazilian Pantanal. A total of 368 ticks, morphologically identified as Ornithodoros hasei (n = 364) and O. mimon (n = 4), were collected from the following bat species: Artibeus planirostris, Platyrrhinus lineatus, Phyllostomus hastatus, Mimon crenulatum and Noctilio albiventris. Morphological identification of O. hasei was confirmed by molecular analysis. Regarding the most abundant bat species, only 40 (6.2%) out of 650 A. planirostris were infested by O. hasei, with a mean intensity of 7.2 ticks per infested bat, or a mean abundance of 0.44 ticks per sampled bat. Noteworthy, one single P. hastatus was infested by 55 O. hasei larvae, in contrast to the 2.5-7.2 range of mean intensity values for the whole study. As a complement to the present study, a total of 8 museum bat specimens (6 Noctilio albiventris and 2 N. leporinus), collected in the northern region of Pantanal, were examined for tick infestations. These bats contained 176 ticks, which were all morphologically identified as O. hasei larvae. Mean intensity of infestation was 22, with a range of 1-46 ticks per infested bat. Our results suggest that A. planirostris might play an important role in the natural life cycle of O. hasei in the Pantanal.
Benda, P.; Červený, J.; Konečný, Adam; Reiter, A.; Ševčík, M.; Uhrin, M.; Vallo, Peter
Roč. 41, - (2010), s. 151-166 ISSN 0024-7774 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60930519 Keywords : bats * North Africa * Western Sahara * distribution * echolocation * Maghreb Subject RIV: EG - Zoology
Smith, Thierry; Rana, Rajendra S.; Missiaen, Pieter; Rose, Kenneth D.; Sahni, Ashok; Singh, Hukam; Singh, Lachham
The geographic origin of bats is still unknown, and fossils of earliest bats are rare and poorly diversified, with, maybe, the exception of Europe. The earliest bats are recorded from the Early Eocene of North America, Europe, North Africa and Australia where they seem to appear suddenly and simultaneously. Until now, the oldest record in Asia was from the Middle Eocene. In this paper, we report the discovery of the oldest bat fauna of Asia dating from the Early Eocene of the Cambay Formation at Vastan Lignite Mine in Western India. The fossil taxa are described on the basis of well-preserved fragments of dentaries and lower teeth. The fauna is highly diversified and is represented by seven species belonging to seven genera and at least four families. Two genera and five species are new. Three species exhibit very primitive dental characters, whereas four others indicate more advanced states. Unexpectedly, this fauna presents strong affinities with the European faunas from the French Paris Basin and the German Messel locality. This could result from the limited fossil record of bats in Asia, but could also suggest new palaeobiogeographic scenarios involving the relative position of India during the Early Eocene.
López-Wilchis, Ricardo; Del Río-Portilla, Miguel Ángel; Guevara-Chumacero, Luis Manuel
We described the complete mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) of the Wagner's mustached bat, Pteronotus personatus, a species belonging to the family Mormoopidae, and compared it with other published mitogenomes of bats (Chiroptera). The mitogenome of P. personatus was 16,570 bp long and contained a typically conserved structure including 13 protein-coding genes, 22 transfer RNA genes, two ribosomal RNA genes, and one control region (D-loop). Most of the genes were encoded on the H-strand, except for eight tRNA and the ND6 genes. The order of protein-coding and rRNA genes was highly conserved in all mitogenomes. All protein-coding genes started with an ATG codon, except for ND2, ND3, and ND5, which initiated with ATA, and terminated with the typical stop codon TAA/TAG or the codon AGA. Phylogenetic trees constructed using Maximum Parsimony, Maximum Likelihood, and Bayesian inference methods showed an identical topology and indicated the monophyly of different families of bats (Mormoopidae, Phyllostomidae, Vespertilionidae, Rhinolophidae, and Pteropopidae) and the existence of two major clades corresponding to the suborders Yangochiroptera and Yinpterochiroptera. The mitogenome sequence provided here will be useful for further phylogenetic analyses and population genetic studies in mormoopid bats.
Ballados-González, G G; Sánchez-Montes, S; Romero-Salas, D; Colunga Salas, P; Gutiérrez-Molina, R; León-Paniagua, L; Becker, I; Méndez-Ojeda, M L; Barrientos-Salcedo, C; Serna-Lagunes, R; Cruz-Romero, A
The genus Leptospira encompass 22 species of spirochaetes, with ten pathogenic species that have been recorded in more than 160 mammals worldwide. In the last two decades, the numbers of records of these agents associated with bats have increased exponentially, particularly in America. Although order Chiroptera represents the second most diverse order of mammals in Mexico, and leptospirosis represents a human and veterinary problem in the country, few studies have been conducted to identify potential wildlife reservoirs. The aim of this study was to detect the presence and diversity of Leptospira sp. in communities of bats in an endemic state of leptospirosis in Mexico. During January to September 2016, 81 bats of ten species from three localities of Veracruz, Mexico, were collected with mist nets. Kidney samples were obtained from all specimens. For the detection of Leptospira sp., we amplified several genes using specific primers. Amplicons of the expected size were submitted to sequencing, and sequences recovered were compared with those of reference deposited in GenBank using the BLAST tool. To identify their phylogenetic position, we realized a reconstruction using maximum-likelihood (ML) method. Twenty-five samples from three bat species (Artibeus lituratus, Choeroniscus godmani and Desmodus rotundus) showed the presence of Leptospira DNA. Sequences recovered were close to Leptospira noguchii, Leptospira weilii and Leptospira interrogans. Our results include the first record of Leptospira in bats from Mexico and exhibit a high diversity of these pathogens circulating in the state. Due to the finding of a large number of positive wild animals, it is necessary to implement a surveillance system in populations of the positive bats as well as in related species, in order to understand their role as carriers of this bacterial genus. © 2018 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.
Eick, Geeta N; Jacobs, David S; Matthee, Conrad A
Bats (Order Chiroptera), the only mammals capable of powered flight and sophisticated laryngeal echolocation, represent one of the most species-rich and ubiquitous orders of mammals. However, phylogenetic relationships within this group are poorly resolved. A robust evolutionary tree of Chiroptera is essential for evaluating the phylogeny of echolocation within Chiroptera, as well as for understanding their biogeographical history. We generated 4 kb of sequence data from portions of four novel nuclear intron markers for multiple representatives of 17 of the 18 recognized extant bat families, as well as the putative bat family Miniopteridae. Three echolocation-call characters were examined by mapping them onto the combined topology: (1) high-duty cycle versus low-duty cycle, (2) high-intensity versus low-intensity call emission, and (3) oral versus nasal emission. Echolocation seems to be highly convergent, and the mapping of echolocation-call design onto our phylogeny does not appear to resolve the question of whether echolocation had a single or two origins. Fossil taxa may also provide insight into the evolution of bats; we therefore evaluate 195 morphological characters in light of our nuclear DNA phylogeny. All but 24 of the morphological characters were found to be homoplasious when mapped onto the supermatrix topology, while the remaining characters provided insufficient information to reconstruct the placement of the fossil bat taxa with respect to extant families. However, a morphological synapomorphy characterizing the Rhinolophoidea was identified and is suggestive of a separate origin of echolocation in this clade. Dispersal-Vicariance analysis together with a relaxed Bayesian clock were used to evaluate possible biogeographic scenarios that could account for the current distribution pattern of extant bat families. Africa was reconstructed as the center of origin of modern-day bat families.
Kovaleva, I M
Study on the morphology and morphogenesis of wing membranes in Bats has revealed some peculiarities in their structure and development. Understanding the embryogenesis of these animals, as well as attraction of data obtained on their molecular genetics and paleontology, allows one to single out some factors that could have initiated evolutionary modifications in development programs. A scenario of the key morphofunctional transformations in the forelimbs during the evolution of chiropterans is given.
Hermes Ribeiro Luz
Full Text Available Abstract In this paper, the authors report ticks parasitizing bats from the Serra das Almas Natural Reserve (RPPN located in the municipality of Crateús, state of Ceará, in the semiarid Caatinga biome of northeastern Brazil. The study was carried out during nine nights in the dry season (July 2012 and 10 nights in the rainy season (February 2013. Only bats of the Phyllostomidae and Mormoopidae families were parasitized by ticks. The species Artibeus planirostris and Carolia perspicillata were the most parasitized. A total of 409 larvae were collected and classified into three genera: Antricola (n = 1, Nothoaspis (n = 1 and Ornithodoros (n = 407. Four species were morphologically identified as Nothoaspis amazoniensis, Ornithodoros cavernicolous, Ornithodoros fonsecai, Ornithodoros hasei, and Ornithodoros marinkellei. Ornithodoros hasei was the most common tick associated with bats in the current study. The present study expand the distributional ranges of at least three soft ticks into the Caatinga biome, and highlight an unexpected richness of argasid ticks inhabiting this arid ecosystem.
Luz, Hermes Ribeiro; Muñoz-Leal, Sebastián; Almeida, Juliana Cardoso de; Faccini, João Luiz Horacio; Labruna, Marcelo Bahia
In this paper, the authors report ticks parasitizing bats from the Serra das Almas Natural Reserve (RPPN) located in the municipality of Crateús, state of Ceará, in the semiarid Caatinga biome of northeastern Brazil. The study was carried out during nine nights in the dry season (July 2012) and 10 nights in the rainy season (February 2013). Only bats of the Phyllostomidae and Mormoopidae families were parasitized by ticks. The species Artibeus planirostris and Carolia perspicillata were the most parasitized. A total of 409 larvae were collected and classified into three genera: Antricola (n = 1), Nothoaspis (n = 1) and Ornithodoros (n = 407). Four species were morphologically identified as Nothoaspis amazoniensis, Ornithodoros cavernicolous, Ornithodoros fonsecai, Ornithodoros hasei, and Ornithodoros marinkellei. Ornithodoros hasei was the most common tick associated with bats in the current study. The present study expand the distributional ranges of at least three soft ticks into the Caatinga biome, and highlight an unexpected richness of argasid ticks inhabiting this arid ecosystem.
Hwang, Jae Yeon; Jin, Gwi-Deuk; Park, Jongbin; Lee, Sang-Goo; Kim, Eun Bae
Complete mitochondria genome sequences of myotis petax (Chiroptera; Microchiroptera; Vespertilionidae) were first identified in the present study. The sequences were obtained from the four individuals and composition of nucleotide AT and GC was about 64.58% and 35.42%, respectively. The lengths of mitogenomes were ranged from 17 296 to 17 299 bp. Total 51 variable sites were observed in the four mitogenomes and 38 sites were singleton polymorphic sites. Phylogenic study revealed that the species would have relatively closed evolutionary distance with m. macrodactylus rather than other species in the genus, myotis. Present study will provide important genomic materials supporting confirmation of taxon of species called bats, which is included in one of the largest orders among the mammals.
Gunnell, Gregg F; Smith, Richard; Smith, Thierry
The bat genus Myotis is represented by 120+ living species and 40+ extinct species and is found on every continent except Antarctica. The time of divergence of Myotis has been contentious as has the time and place of origin of its encompassing group the Vespertilionidae, the most diverse (450+ species) and widely distributed extant bat family. Fossil Myotis species are common, especially in Europe, beginning in the Miocene but earlier records are poor. Recent study of new specimens from the Belgian early Oligocene locality of Boutersem reveals the presence of a relatively large vespertilionid. Morphological comparison and phylogenetic analysis confirms that the new, large form can be confidently assigned to the genus Myotis, making this record the earliest known for that taxon and extending the temporal range of this extant genus to over 33 million years. This suggests that previously published molecular divergence dates for crown myotines (Myotis) are too young by at least 7 million years. Additionally, examination of first fossil appearance data of 1,011 extant placental mammal genera indicates that only 13 first occurred in the middle to late Paleogene (48 to 33 million years ago) and of these, six represent bats, including Myotis. Paleogene members of both major suborders of Chiroptera (Yangochiroptera and Yinpterochiroptera) include extant genera indicating early establishment of successful and long-term adaptive strategies as bats underwent an explosive radiation near the beginning of the Early Eocene Climatic Optimum in the Old World. A second bat adaptive radiation in the New World began coincident with the Mid-Miocene Climatic Optimum.
Hiller, Thomas; Honner, Benjamin; Page, Rachel A; Tschapka, Marco
Bat flies (Streblidae) are diverse, obligate blood-feeding insects and probably the most conspicuous ectoparasites of bats. They show preferences for specific body regions on their host bat, which are reflected in behavioural characteristics. In this study, we corroborate the categorization of bat flies into three ecomorphological groups, focusing only on differences in hind leg morphology. As no detailed phylogeny of bat flies is available, it remains uncertain whether these morphological differences reflect the evolutionary history of bat flies or show convergent adaptations for the host habitat type. We show that the division of the host bat into three distinct habitats contributes to the avoidance of interspecific competition of bat fly species. Finally, we found evidence for density-dependent competition between species belonging to the same ecomorphological group.
Kamani, Joshua; Baneth, Gad; Mitchell, Mark; Mumcuoglu, Kosta Y; Gutiérrez, Ricardo; Harrus, Shimon
Previous and ongoing studies have incriminated bats as reservoirs of several emerging and re-emerging zoonoses. Most of these studies, however, have focused on viral agents and neglected important bacterial pathogens. To date, there has been no report investigating the prevalence of Bartonella spp. in bats and bat flies from Nigeria, despite the fact that bats are used as food and for cultural ritual purposes by some ethnic groups in Nigeria. To elucidate the role of bats as reservoirs of bartonellae, we screened by molecular methods 148 bats and 34 bat flies, Diptera:Hippoboscoidea:Nycteribiidae (Cyclopodia greeffi) from Nigeria for Bartonella spp. Overall, Bartonella spp. DNA was detected in 76 out of 148 (51.4%) bat blood samples tested and 10 out of 24 (41.7%) bat flies tested by qPCR targeting the 16S-23S internal transcribed spacer (ITS) locus. Bartonella was isolated from 23 of 148 (15.5%) bat blood samples, and the isolates were genetically characterized. Prevalence of Bartonella spp. culture-positive samples ranged from 0% to 45.5% among five bat species. Micropterus spp. bats had a significantly higher relative risk of 3.45 for being culture positive compared to Eidolon helvum, Epomophorus spp., Rhinolophus spp., and Chaerephon nigeriae. Bartonella spp. detected in this study fall into three distinct clusters along with other Bartonella spp. isolated from bats and bat flies from Kenya and Ghana, respectively. The isolation of Bartonella spp. in 10.0-45.5% of four out of five bat species screened in this study indicates a widespread infection in bat population in Nigeria. Further investigation is warranted to determine the role of these bacteria as a cause of human and animal diseases in Nigeria.
Valdez, Ernest W.; Ritzi, Christopher M.; Whitaker, John O.
Only a single previous study has examined ectoparasites of the occult bat (Myotis occultus), from which only 2 species of fleas were identified. For our study, we examined 202 individuals, 52 fresh hosts and 150 museum specimens, from New Mexico and southern Colorado for ectoparasites. We recorded 2158 ectoparasites, 634 from fresh hosts and 1524 from museum specimens. Ectoparasites belonged to 10 families and 13 genera of insect or acari and represent new host and locality records. In general, ectoparasites collected from fresh hosts and museum specimens were represented by 4 major species of mite: Macronyssus crosbyi, Alabidocarpus calcaratus, Acanthophthirius lucifugus, and Alabidocarpus nr. eptesicus. From our study, we found fresh hosts to have significantly greater prevalence values for Myodopsylla gentilis (flea), Chiroptonyssus robustipes (mite), and Leptotrombidium myotis (chigger), whereas museum specimens had significantly greater prevalence values for A. calcaratus(mite) and A. nr. eptesicus (mite). There were no significant differences between prevalence values for 4 mites including M. crosbyi, A. lucifugus, Pteracarus nr. minutus, and Cryptonyssussp. Our study represents the only extensive study of ectoparasites on M. occultus and provides evidence for the importance of examining fresh hosts and museum specimens in future ectoparasite studies.
Curtis, Abigail A; Simmons, Nancy B
The mammalian nasal fossa contains a set of delicate and often structurally complex bones called turbinals. Turbinals and associated mucosae function in regulating respiratory heat and water loss, increasing surface area for olfactory tissue, and directing airflow within the nasal fossa. We used high-resolution micro-CT scanning to investigate a unique maxilloturbinal morphology in 37 species from the bat family Rhinolophidae, which we compared with those of families Hipposideridae, Megadermatidae, and Pteropodidae. Rhinolophids exhibit numerous structural modifications along the nasopharyngeal tract associated with emission of high duty cycle echolocation calls via the nostrils. In rhinolophids, we found that the maxilloturbinals and a portion of ethmoturbinal I form a pair of strand-like bony structures on each side of the nasal chamber. These structures project anteriorly from the transverse lamina and complete a hairpin turn to project posteriorly down the nasopharyngeal duct, and vary in length among species. The strand-like maxilloturbinals in Rhinolophidae were not observed in our outgroups and represent a synapomorphy for this family, and are unique in form among mammals. Within Rhinolophidae, maxilloturbinal size and cross-sectional shape were correlated with phylogeny. We hypothesize that strand-shaped maxilloturbinals may function to reduce respiratory heat and water loss without greatly impacting echolocation call transmission since they provide increased mucosal surface area for heat and moisture exchange but occupy minimal space. Alternatively, they may play a role in transmission of echolocation calls since they are located directly along the path sound travels between the larynx and nostrils during call emission. Anat Rec, 300:309-325, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Full Text Available Ectoparasites of bats (Chiroptera, Furipteridae, with a description of a new species of Synthesiostrebla Townsend (Diptera, Streblidae from Brazil. Records of ectoparasites from furipterid bats are restricted to bat flies (Streblidae. Only three streblid species were known before this work: Trichobius pallidus (Curran, 1934, Strebla wiedemanni Kolenati, 1856, and Synthesiostrebla amorphochili Townsend, 1913. A second species of Synthesiostrebla is described here, increasing the geographical distribution of the genus to east of the Andes. Synthesiostrebla cisandina sp. nov. was found on Furipterus horrens (Cuvier, 1828 in southeastern Brazil. Anterior parts of the body, wing, tergite 7, epiproct and male genitalia are illustrated, and a key to females for species of Synthesiostrebla is provided.
Makarikova, Tatiana A; Makarikov, Arseny A
Potorolepis gulyaevi sp. n. (Cestoda: Hymenolepididae) is described from the Chinese horseshoe bat, Rhinolophus sinicus Andersen (Chiroptera: Rhinolophidae), from southern China. The new species differs from known species of the genus by the shape, number and size of rostellar hooks, the relative position and length of the cirrus-sac and the morphology of gravid uterus. This is the first report of a member of the genus from non-marsupial mammals and the first record of a Potorolepis Spassky, 1994 from eastern Asia. The generic diagnosis of Potorolepis is amended.
Rojas, Danny; Warsi, Omar M; Dávalos, Liliana M
The mechanisms underlying the high extant biodiversity in the Neotropics have been controversial since the 19th century. Support for the influence of period-specific changes on diversification often rests on detecting more speciation events during a particular period. The timing of speciation events may reflect the influence of incomplete taxon sampling, protracted speciation, and null processes of lineage accumulation. Here we assess the influence of these factors on the timing of speciation with new multilocus data for New World noctilionoid bats (Chiroptera: Noctilionoidea). Biogeographic analyses revealed the importance of the Neotropics in noctilionoid diversification, and the critical role of dispersal. We detected no shift in speciation rate associated with the Quaternary or pre-Quaternary periods, and instead found an increase in speciation linked to the evolution of the subfamily Stenodermatinae (∼18 Ma). Simulations modeling constant speciation and extinction rates for the phylogeny systematically showed more speciation events in the Quaternary. Since recording more divergence events in the Quaternary can result from lineage accumulation, the age of extant sister species cannot be interpreted as supporting higher speciation rates during this period. Instead, analyzing the factors that influence speciation requires modeling lineage-specific traits and environmental, spatial, and ecological drivers of speciation. © The Author(s) 2016. Published by Oxford University Press, on behalf of the Society of Systematic Biologists. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: email@example.com.
Yoon, Gwang Bae; Park, Yung Chul
The complete mitogenome of the Korean greater tube-nosed bat Murina leucogaster (Chiroptera: Vespertilionidae) was determined. The mitogenome of M. leucogaster is 16,723 bp in length with a total base composition of 32.8% A, 27.5% T, 25.3% C and 14.4% G. All the protein-coding genes (total length of 11,404 bp) were encoded in H-strand except for ND6 in L-strand. Total length of 22 tRNA genes was 1508 bp varying from 62 bp (tRNA(Ser(AGY))) to 74 bp (tRNA(Leu(UUR)) and tRNA(Gln)). The 12S rRNA and 16S rRNA genes were 972 and 1558 bp in length, respectively. The D-loop region was 1383 bp in length and included 54 copies of 6 bp tandem repeat (ACGCAT).
Meganathan, P R; Pagan, Heidi J T; McCulloch, Eve S; Stevens, Richard D; Ray, David A
Order Chiroptera is a unique group of mammals whose members have attained self-powered flight as their main mode of locomotion. Much speculation persists regarding bat evolution; however, lack of sufficient molecular data hampers evolutionary and conservation studies. Of ~1200 species, complete mitochondrial genome sequences are available for only eleven. Additional sequences should be generated if we are to resolve many questions concerning these fascinating mammals. Herein, we describe the complete mitochondrial genomes of three bats: Corynorhinus rafinesquii, Lasiurus borealis and Artibeus lituratus. We also compare the currently available mitochondrial genomes and analyze codon usage in Chiroptera. C. rafinesquii, L. borealis and A. lituratus mitochondrial genomes are 16438 bp, 17048 bp and 16709 bp, respectively. Genome organization and gene arrangements are similar to other bats. Phylogenetic analyses using complete mitochondrial genome sequences support previously established phylogenetic relationships and suggest utility in future studies focusing on the evolutionary aspects of these species. Comprehensive analyses of available bat mitochondrial genomes reveal distinct nucleotide patterns and synonymous codon preferences corresponding to different chiropteran families. These patterns suggest that mutational and selection forces are acting to different extents within Chiroptera and shape their mitochondrial genomes. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Two new species of yellow-shouldered bats Sturnira Gray, 1842 (Chiroptera, Phyllostomidae from Central America and western South America are described using molecular and morphological data. The two new species, which occur in Costa Rica and Panama and in western Ecuador, were previously confused with S. ludovici, and S. lilium and S. luisi, respectively. Sturnira now includes 22 described species, making it the most speciose genus in the Neotropical family Phyllostomidae.
Yoon, Kwang Bae; Park, Yung Chul
The complete mitogenome (NC_021119) of the Ussurian tube-nosed bat Murina ussuriensis (Chiroptera: Vespertilionidae) was annotated and characterized in our recent publication (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/nuccore/NC_021119). Here we provide additional information on methods in detail for obtaining the complete sequence of M. ussuriensis mitogenome. In addition, we describe characteristics of 22 tRNA genes and secondary structure and feature of 22 tRNAs of M. ussuriensis mitogenome.
Kwang Bae Yoon
Full Text Available The complete mitogenome (NC_021119 of the Ussurian tube-nosed bat Murina ussuriensis (Chiroptera: Vespertilionidae was annotated and characterized in our recent publication (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/nuccore/NC_021119. Here we provide additional information on methods in detail for obtaining the complete sequence of M. ussuriensis mitogenome. In addition, we describe characteristics of 22 tRNA genes and secondary structure and feature of 22 tRNAs of M. ussuriensis mitogenome.
Makarikova, Tatiana A
A previously unrecognised species of hymenolepidid cestode attributable to Vampirolepis Spassky, 1954 is described based on specimens from the common noctule bat Nyctalus noctula (Schreber) (Chiroptera: Vespertilionidae) from southeastern Kazakhstan (Dzungarian Alatau). Specimens of Vampirolepis kulkinae n. sp. differ from the morphologically similar congeners based on the number, size and shape of the rostellar hooks. The new species is further distinguished from additional cestodes attributed to Vampirolepis (sensu lato) by the arrangement of the testes in one row, egg structure (i.e. thin outer coat and emryophore without polar filaments) and the relative position and length of the cirrus-sac. This is the first species of the genus Vampirolepis described from Kazakhstan.
Tereba, A.; Čížková, Dagmar; Sundari, A. A.; Rajan, K. E.; Bogdanowicz, W.
Roč. 3, č. 4 (2011), s. 749-751 ISSN 1877-7252 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60930519 Keywords : Chiroptera * Megaderma lyra * Microsatellites * Polymorphism Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 0.485, year: 2011
Farkašová, Helena; Hron, Tomáš; Pačes, Jan; Hulva, P.; Benda, P.; Gifford, R.J.; Elleder, Daniel
Roč. 114, č. 12 (2017), s. 3145-3150 ISSN 0027-8424 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LK11215; GA MŠk(CZ) LM2015047 Institutional support: RVO:68378050 Keywords : Deltaretroviruses * Endogenous retroviruses * Chiroptera Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology OBOR OECD: Virology Impact factor: 9.661, year: 2016
Sotero-Caio, Cibele G.; Baker, Robert J.; Volleth, Marianne
Chiroptera is the second largest order among mammals, with over 1300 species in 21 extant families. The group is extremely diverse in several aspects of its natural history, including dietary strategies, ecology, behavior and morphology. Bat genomes show ample chromosome diversity (from 2n = 14 to 62). As with other mammalian orders, Chiroptera is characterized by clades with low, moderate and extreme chromosomal change. In this article, we will discuss trends of karyotypic evolution within d...
Mao, Xiuguang; Nie, Wenhui; Wang, Jinhuan; Su, Weiting; Ao, Lei; Feng, Qing; Wang, Yingxiang; Volleth, Marianne; Yang, Fengtang
Rhinolophus (Rhinolophidae) is the second most speciose genus in Chiroptera and has extensively diversified diploid chromosome numbers (from 2n = 28 to 62). In spite of many attempts to explore the karyotypic evolution of this genus, most studies have been based on conventional Giemsa staining rather than G-banding. Here we have made a whole set of chromosome-specific painting probes from flow-sorted chromosomes of Aselliscus stoliczkanus (Hipposideridae). These probes have been utilized to establish the first genome-wide homology maps among six Rhinolophus species with four different diploid chromosome numbers (2n = 36, 44, 58, and 62) and three species from other families: Rousettus leschenaulti (2n = 36, Pteropodidae), Hipposideros larvatus (2n = 32, Hipposideridae), and Myotis altarium (2n = 44, Vespertilionidae) by fluorescence in situ hybridization. To facilitate integration with published maps, human paints were also hybridized to A. stoliczkanus chromosomes. Our painting results substantiate the wide occurrence of whole-chromosome arm conservation in Rhinolophus bats and suggest that Robertsonian translocations of different combinations account for their karyotype differences. Parsimony analysis using chromosomal characters has provided some new insights into the Rhinolophus ancestral karyotype and phylogenetic relationships among these Rhinolophus species so far studied. In addition to Robertsonian translocations, our results suggest that whole-arm (reciprocal) translocations involving multiple non-homologous chromosomes as well could have been involved in the karyotypic evolution within Rhinolophus, in particular those bats with low and medium diploid numbers.
Full Text Available Abstract The lesser horseshoe bat Rhinolophus hipposideros was recorded for the first time from Syria in 2005-06. Two solitary hibernating specimens (a male and a female were collected from an underground cave in Basofan village, NW of Aleppo, and from Al Marqab Citadel, Banyas. External and cranial measurements are given for both specimens. The list of recorded species of bats of Syria includes 17 species. Riassunto Prima segnalazione di Rinolofo minore Rhinolophus hipposideros (Bechstein, 1800 (Rhinolophidae, Chiroptera in Siria La specie è stata rinvenuta nel 2005-06 con il ritrovamento di due esemplari solitari ibernanti (un maschio e una femmina, rispettivamente in una grotta presso il paese di Basofan, NO di Aleppo e in Al Marqab, Banyas. Per entrambi gli esemplari sono riportate le misure craniali e esterne. Con il ritrovamento del Rinolofo minore la chirotterofauna della Siria è attualmente rappresentata da 17 specie.
Chen, Yao; Shen, Bin; Zhang, Junpeng; Jones, Gareth; He, Guimei
Old World fruit bats (Pteropodidae) and New World fruit bats (Phyllostomidae) ingest significant quantities of ethanol while foraging. Mitochondrial aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH2, encoded by the Aldh2 gene) plays an important role in ethanol metabolism. To test whether the Aldh2 gene has undergone adaptive evolution in frugivorous and nectarivorous bats in relation to ethanol elimination, we sequenced part of the coding region of the gene (1,143 bp, ~73 % coverage) in 14 bat species, including three Old World fruit bats and two New World fruit bats. Our results showed that the Aldh2 coding sequences are highly conserved across all bat species we examined, and no evidence of positive selection was detected in the ancestral branches leading to Old World fruit bats and New World fruit bats. Further research is needed to determine whether other genes involved in ethanol metabolism have been the targets of positive selection in frugivorous and nectarivorous bats.
Wu, Yi; Motokawa, Masaharu; Harada, Masashi
A new species of the Rhinolophus philippinensis group (Chiroptera: Rhinolophidae) is described from Guangdong, Guangxi, and Jiangxi Provinces in China. Rhinolophus huananus n. sp. is characterized by the horseshoe, as well as by external and cranial characteristics that separate it at the species level from the other members of the philippinensis group. One of the small species of the philippinensis group, R. huananus is intermediate in size between smaller R. siamensis and larger R. macrotis.
Wu, Yi; Motokawa, Masaharu; Harada, Masashi
A new species of the Rhinolophus philippinensis group (Chiroptera: Rhinolophidae) is described from Guangdong, Guangxi, and Jiangxi Provinces in China. Rhinolophus huananus n. sp. is characterized by the horseshoe, as well as by external and cranial characteristics that separate it at the species level from the other members of the philippinensis group. One of the small species of the philippinensis group, R. huananus is intermediate in size between smaller R. siamensis and larger R. macrotis.
Background New World leaf-nosed bats, Phyllostomidae, represent a lineage of Chiroptera marked by unprecedented morphological/ecological diversity and extensive intergeneric chromosomal reorganization. There are still disagreements regarding their systematic relationships due to morphological convergence among some groups. Their history of karyotypic evolution also remains to be documented. Results To better understand the evolutionary relationships within Phyllostomidae, we developed chromosome paints from the bat species Macrotus californicus. We tested the potential of these paints as phylogenetic tools by looking for chromosomal signatures in two lineages of nectarivorous phyllostomids whose independent origins have been statistically supported by molecular phylogenies. By examining the chromosomal homologies defined by chromosome painting among two representatives of the subfamily Glossophaginae (Glossophaga soricina and Anoura cultrata) and one species from the subfamily Lonchophyllinae (Lonchophylla concava), we found chromosomal correspondence in regions not previously detected by other comparative cytogenetic techniques. We proposed the corresponding human chromosomal segments for chromosomes of the investigated species and found two syntenic associations shared by G. soricina and A. cultrata. Conclusion Comparative painting with whole chromosome-specific paints of M. californicus demonstrates an extensive chromosomal reorganization within the two lineages of nectarivorous phyllostomids, with a large number of chromosomes shared between M. californicus and G. soricina. We show that the evolution of nectar-feeding bats occurs mainly by reshuffling of chiropteran Evolutionarily Conserved Units (ECUs). Robertsonian fusions/fissions and inversions seem to be important modifiers of phyllostomid karyotypes, and autapomorphic character states are common within species. Macrotus californicus chromosome paints will be a valuable tool for documenting the pattern of
Sotero-Caio, Cibele G; Volleth, Marianne; Gollahon, Lauren S; Fu, Beiyuan; Cheng, William; Ng, Bee L; Yang, Fengtang; Baker, Robert J
New World leaf-nosed bats, Phyllostomidae, represent a lineage of Chiroptera marked by unprecedented morphological/ecological diversity and extensive intergeneric chromosomal reorganization. There are still disagreements regarding their systematic relationships due to morphological convergence among some groups. Their history of karyotypic evolution also remains to be documented. To better understand the evolutionary relationships within Phyllostomidae, we developed chromosome paints from the bat species Macrotus californicus. We tested the potential of these paints as phylogenetic tools by looking for chromosomal signatures in two lineages of nectarivorous phyllostomids whose independent origins have been statistically supported by molecular phylogenies. By examining the chromosomal homologies defined by chromosome painting among two representatives of the subfamily Glossophaginae (Glossophaga soricina and Anoura cultrata) and one species from the subfamily Lonchophyllinae (Lonchophylla concava), we found chromosomal correspondence in regions not previously detected by other comparative cytogenetic techniques. We proposed the corresponding human chromosomal segments for chromosomes of the investigated species and found two syntenic associations shared by G. soricina and A. cultrata. Comparative painting with whole chromosome-specific paints of M. californicus demonstrates an extensive chromosomal reorganization within the two lineages of nectarivorous phyllostomids, with a large number of chromosomes shared between M. californicus and G. soricina. We show that the evolution of nectar-feeding bats occurs mainly by reshuffling of chiropteran Evolutionarily Conserved Units (ECUs). Robertsonian fusions/fissions and inversions seem to be important modifiers of phyllostomid karyotypes, and autapomorphic character states are common within species. Macrotus californicus chromosome paints will be a valuable tool for documenting the pattern of karyotypic evolution within
Marília A. S. Barros
Full Text Available In temperate zones, insectivorous bats use some types of habitat more frequently than others, and are more active in the warmest periods of the year. We assessed the spatial and seasonal activity patterns of bats in open areas of the southernmost region of Brazil. We tested the hypothesis that bat activity differs among habitat types, among seasons, and is influenced by weather variables. We monitored four 1,500-m transects monthly, from April 2009 to March 2010. Transects corresponded to the five habitat types that predominate in the region. In each sampling session, we detected and counted bat passes with an ultrasound detector (Pettersson D230 and measured climatic variables at the transects. We recorded 1,183 bat passes, and observed the highest activity at the edge of a eucalyptus stand (0.64 bat passes/min and along an irrigation channel (0.54 bat passes/min. The second highest activity values (0.31 and 0.20 bat passes/min, respectively were obtained at the edge of a riparian forest and at the margin of a wetland. The grasslands were used significantly less (0.05 bat passes/min. Bat activity was significantly lower in the winter (0.21 bat passes/min and showed similar values in the autumn (0.33 bat passes/min, spring (0.26 bat passes/min, and summer (0.29 bat passes/min. Bat activity was correlated with temperature, but it was not correlated with wind speed and relative humidity of the air. Our data suggest that, in the study area, insectivorous bats are active throughout the year, and use mostly forest and watercourses areas. These habitat types should be considered prioritary for the conservation of bats in the southernmost region of Brazil.
Sotero-Caio, Cibele G; Baker, Robert J; Volleth, Marianne
Chiroptera is the second largest order among mammals, with over 1300 species in 21 extant families. The group is extremely diverse in several aspects of its natural history, including dietary strategies, ecology, behavior and morphology. Bat genomes show ample chromosome diversity (from 2n = 14 to 62). As with other mammalian orders, Chiroptera is characterized by clades with low, moderate and extreme chromosomal change. In this article, we will discuss trends of karyotypic evolution within distinct bat lineages (especially Phyllostomidae, Hipposideridae and Rhinolophidae), focusing on two perspectives: evolution of genome architecture, modes of chromosomal evolution, and the use of chromosome data to resolve taxonomic problems.
Cibele G. Sotero-Caio
Full Text Available Chiroptera is the second largest order among mammals, with over 1300 species in 21 extant families. The group is extremely diverse in several aspects of its natural history, including dietary strategies, ecology, behavior and morphology. Bat genomes show ample chromosome diversity (from 2n = 14 to 62. As with other mammalian orders, Chiroptera is characterized by clades with low, moderate and extreme chromosomal change. In this article, we will discuss trends of karyotypic evolution within distinct bat lineages (especially Phyllostomidae, Hipposideridae and Rhinolophidae, focusing on two perspectives: evolution of genome architecture, modes of chromosomal evolution, and the use of chromosome data to resolve taxonomic problems.
Cabral, A D; Gama, A R; Sodré, M M; Savani, E S M M; Galvão-Dias, M A; Jordão, L R; Maeda, M M; Yai, L E O; Gennari, S M; Pena, H F J
There are currently no reports on the isolation and molecular examination of Toxoplasma gondii from bats. Here, we report the isolation and genotypic characterisation of two T. gondii isolates from bats. A total of 369 bats from different municipalities in São Paulo state, southeastern Brazil, were captured and euthanised, and collected tissues (heart and pectoral muscle) were processed for each bat or in pools of two or three bats and bioassayed in mice (a total of 283 bioassays). Eleven PCR-RFLP (polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism) markers were used to genotype positive samples: SAG1, SAG2 (5'-3'SAG2 and alt. SAG2), SAG3, BTUB, GRA6, L358, c22-8, c29-2, PK1, CS3 and Apico. The parasite was isolated from two bats from São Paulo city: an insectivorous bat, the velvety free-tailed bat Molossus molossus, and a hematophagous bat, the common vampire bat Desmodus rotundus. Isolates were designated TgBatBr1 and TgBatBr2, respectively. The genotype of the isolate from M. molossus (TgBatBr1) has been previously described in an isolate from a capybara from São Paulo state, and the genotype from the D. rotundus isolate (TgBatBr2) has already been identified in isolates from cats, chickens, capybaras, sheep, a rodent and a common rabbit from different Brazilian states, suggesting that this may be a common T. gondii lineage circulating in some Brazilian regions. Isolation of T. gondii from a hematophagous species is striking. This study reveals that bats can share the same isolates that are found in domesticated and wild terrestrial animals. This is the first report of the isolation and genotyping of T. gondii in chiropterans. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Shen, Bin; Fang, Tao; Yang, Tianxiao; Jones, Gareth; Irwin, David M; Zhang, Shuyi
Frugivorous and nectarivorous bats fuel their metabolism mostly by using carbohydrates and allocate the restricted amounts of ingested proteins mainly for anabolic protein syntheses rather than for catabolic energy production. Thus, it is possible that genes involved in protein (amino acid) catabolism may have undergone relaxed evolution in these fruit- and nectar-eating bats. The tyrosine aminotransferase (TAT, encoded by the Tat gene) is the rate-limiting enzyme in the tyrosine catabolic pathway. To test whether the Tat gene has undergone relaxed evolution in the fruit- and nectar-eating bats, we obtained the Tat coding region from 20 bat species including four Old World fruit bats (Pteropodidae) and two New World fruit bats (Phyllostomidae). Phylogenetic reconstructions revealed a gene tree in which all echolocating bats (including the New World fruit bats) formed a monophyletic group. The phylogenetic conflict appears to stem from accelerated TAT protein sequence evolution in the Old World fruit bats. Our molecular evolutionary analyses confirmed a change in the selection pressure acting on Tat, which was likely caused by a relaxation of the evolutionary constraints on the Tat gene in the Old World fruit bats. Hepatic TAT activity assays showed that TAT activities in species of the Old World fruit bats are significantly lower than those of insectivorous bats and omnivorous mice, which was not caused by a change in TAT protein levels in the liver. Our study provides unambiguous evidence that the Tat gene has undergone relaxed evolution in the Old World fruit bats in response to changes in their metabolism due to the evolution of their special diet.
Full Text Available Frugivorous and nectarivorous bats fuel their metabolism mostly by using carbohydrates and allocate the restricted amounts of ingested proteins mainly for anabolic protein syntheses rather than for catabolic energy production. Thus, it is possible that genes involved in protein (amino acid catabolism may have undergone relaxed evolution in these fruit- and nectar-eating bats. The tyrosine aminotransferase (TAT, encoded by the Tat gene is the rate-limiting enzyme in the tyrosine catabolic pathway. To test whether the Tat gene has undergone relaxed evolution in the fruit- and nectar-eating bats, we obtained the Tat coding region from 20 bat species including four Old World fruit bats (Pteropodidae and two New World fruit bats (Phyllostomidae. Phylogenetic reconstructions revealed a gene tree in which all echolocating bats (including the New World fruit bats formed a monophyletic group. The phylogenetic conflict appears to stem from accelerated TAT protein sequence evolution in the Old World fruit bats. Our molecular evolutionary analyses confirmed a change in the selection pressure acting on Tat, which was likely caused by a relaxation of the evolutionary constraints on the Tat gene in the Old World fruit bats. Hepatic TAT activity assays showed that TAT activities in species of the Old World fruit bats are significantly lower than those of insectivorous bats and omnivorous mice, which was not caused by a change in TAT protein levels in the liver. Our study provides unambiguous evidence that the Tat gene has undergone relaxed evolution in the Old World fruit bats in response to changes in their metabolism due to the evolution of their special diet.
Lord, Jennifer S; Parker, Steve; Parker, Fiona; Brooks, Darren R
Although bats are one of the most successful and diverse of mammalian orders, studies that focus upon bat endoparasites are limited. To further knowledge of bat parasitology, pipistrelle bats (Pipistrellus pipistrellus and P. pygmaeus) were acquired from across the Greater Manchester and Lancashire region of England and examined for gastrointestinal helminths using morphological and molecular analyses. Sixty-eight of 90 adult/juvenile bats (76% prevalence) were infected with at least 1 species of helminth and mean helminth abundance was 48·2 (+/-7·0). All helminths were digenean trematodes and the following species were identified in 51 P. pipistrellus specimens (prevalence in parentheses): Lecithodendrium linstowi (80·4%), L. spathulatum (19·6%), Prosthodendrium sp. (35·3%), Plagiorchis koreanus (29·4%) and Pycnoporus heteroporus (9·8%). Statistical analyses, incorporating multifactorial models, showed that male bats exhibited a significantly more aggregated helminth distribution and lower abundance than females. Positive associations were observed between L. linstowi and L. spathulatum, Prosthodendrium sp. and P. heteroporus and between L. spathulatum and P. koreanus. A revised phylogeny of bat-associated Lecithodendriidae, incorporating novel L. spathulatum and Prosthodendrium sp. 28S rRNA sequences, separated the controversial clade formed by L. linstowi and P. hurkovaae. Further studies are likely to assist the understanding of bat-parasite/pathogen relationships, helminth infracommunity structures and phylogenetics.
Silveira, Maurício; Trevelin, Leonardo; Port-Carvalho, Marcio; Godoi, Simone; Mandetta, Elizabeth Neuenhaus; Cruz-Neto, Ariovaldo P.
We studied the potential contribution of frugivorous bats to the reestablishment of vegetational diversity in a restored area. We analysed the diets of the bat species and the differences between them in the consumption of fruits of autochtonous and allochthonous species. Planted (autochtonous) species were the basis of diets, especially Solanum mauritianum and Cecropia pachystachya, whereas for allochthonous species we found that Piperaceae to be of particular importance. Carollia perspicillata was the main seed disperser for allochthonous species, and potentially the most important bat in the promotion of vegetation diversity in the study area. Our results suggest that frugivorous bats are especially important in the reestablishment of vegetation in disturbed areas, and that restorarion efforts should focus on the planting of different zoochorous species that would guarantee a high year-round fruit production, thereby facilitating natural plant reestablishment by frugivorous bats in regenerating areas.
Ribeiro Mello, Marco Aurelio
In the present study, I described the organization of a Neotropical bat assemblage, and tested whether this organization was variable in time. In an Atlantic Forest reserve in southeastern Brazil bats were captured monthly with mist nets over 4 years, and individuals were classified into guilds. I analyzed only leaf-nosed bats, and observed that guilds of fruit-eating bats dominated the assemblage. This pattern was repeated across months and years. However, among frugivores, canopy and understory guilds peaked during different months, but in both cases during the rainy season, while variation among habitat-opportunistic species was not explained by rainfall. The most reliable ecological service delivered by phyllostomid bats in the area is seed dispersal, although other services may be also important in particular seasons. My results suggest that the observed patterns of temporal species turnover are related to the abundance of preferred food items.
Wiles, G.J.; Jonhson, N.C.
Based on count results, we estimated the population of Mariana fruit bats (Pteropus mariannus Desmarest) on Sarigan, Mariana Islands, to number 150-200 bats in 1999, 185-235 bats in 2000, and about 300-400 bats in 2001. Our results, plus those of two previous surveys, indicate that bat abundance on the island probably remained relatively stable at about 125-235 animals during much of the period from 1983 to 2000, then increased suddenly in 2001, most likely due to immigration from a neighboring island. Sarigan's population differs from those of larger islands in the archipelago by usually having smaller roost sizes, typically 3-75 bats, and large numbers of solitary bats that at times comprise up to half of the population. Colonies and smaller aggregations were composed primarily of harems with multiple females, whereas a nearly equal sex ratio occurred among solitary animals. Colonies roosted in isolated coconut trees in open grasslands and in native forest stands of various sizes, but avoided dense coconut forest. An estimated 30-50% of harem and solitary females possessed young in July 1999. Bats were recorded feeding on just six species of plants, which partly reflects the island's impoverished flora. We speculate that fruit bat abundance on Sarigan is limited primarily by food availability rather than hunting losses, in contrast to some other islands in the Marianas. Our study supports the contention that populations of P. mariannus in the northern Marianas are usually sedentary, but that interisland movements of larger numbers of bats may occur rarely. ?? 2004 by University of Hawai'i Press All rights reserved.
Clarke-Crespo, Emilio; de León, Gerardo Pérez-Ponce; Montiel-Ortega, Salvador; Rubio-Godoy, Miguel
Bats are recognized as potential hosts of pathogens exploiting the food chain to reach them as definitive hosts. However, very little is known about their endoparasites, especially for Neotropical bats. In this study, we assessed the helminth fauna associated with 3 insectivorous bat species roosting in the same single hot cave in central Veracruz, México: Mormoops megalophylla, Pteronotus davyi, and Pteronotus personatus. During a period of 1 yr (April 2007-2008), 135 mormoopid bats in total were collected and examined for helminths. Six parasite species representing 3 types of intestinal helminths were found: 1 cestode Vampirolepis elongatus; 2 trematodes Maxbraunium tubiporum and Ochoterenatrema labda; and 3 nematodes Linustrongylus pteronoti, Molineidae gen. sp., and Capillaria sp. Overall, trematodes were the most abundant parasite group (72.4%), followed by nematodes (20.7%) and cestodes (6.9%). Species-accumulation curves suggest that the worms collected (n = 1,331) from these 6 parasite species comprise the helminth fauna associated with the 3 bat populations studied. The only species shared by the 3 bat species was Capillaria sp. Most (5/6) of the helminth species recorded use Lepidoptera and Diptera as intermediate hosts; therefore, diet is likely the main source of infection. Although insectivorous bats are considered dietary generalist species, the differences found in helminth diversity in these sympatric populations of closely related bat species, suggest that diet partitioning occurs in mormoopid bat communities. Helminths tend to exploit the food chain to reach their final hosts; therefore, studying these parasites can provide useful information to further understand the biology of bats.
Wang, Li; Li, Gang; Wang, Jinhong; Ye, Shaohui; Jones, Gareth; Zhang, Shuyi
Gap junction protein connexin43 (Cx43), encoded by the GJA1 gene, is the most abundant connexin in the cardiovascular system and was reported as a crucial factor maintaining cardiac electrical conduction, as well as having a very important function in facilitating the recycling of potassium ions from hair cells in the cochlea back into the cochlear endolymph during auditory transduction processes. In mammals, bats are the only taxon possessing powered flight, placing exceptional demand on many organismal processes. To meet the demands of flying, the hearts of bats show many specialties. Moreover, ultrasonic echolocation allows bat species to orientate and often detect and locate food in darkness. In this study, we cloned the full-length coding region of GJA1 gene from 12 different species of bats and obtained orthologous sequences from other mammals. We used the maximum likelihood method to analyse the evolution of GJA1 gene in mammals and the lineage of bats. Our results showed this gene is much conserved in mammals, as well as in bats' lineage. Compared with other mammals, we found one private amino acid substitution shared by bats, which is located on the inner loop domain, as well as some species-specific amino acid substitutions. The evolution rate analyses showed the signature of purifying selection on not only different classification level lineages but also the different domains and amino acid residue sites of this gene. Also, we suggested that GJA1 gene could be used as a good molecular marker to do the phylogenetic reconstruction.
Nguyen Truong Son
Full Text Available Bat communities of mainland Southeast Asia can be highly diverse. Many are under threat. Despite this, regional faunal composition is not well documented for many areas, including regions of Vietnam. We assessed the biodiversity of bats in a watershed protection forest in the southeastern Truong Son (Annamite Mountains, southwestern Quang Ngai Province, Vietnam in 2011–2013. Twenty species of insectivorous bats were documented including a high diversity of Murina species Tube-nosed Bats. Diversity and abundance indices were compared with that recorded previously in two nature reserves and one national park in Vietnam, and were higher or comparable in several measures despite the lack of a karst substrate for roosts. Reproduction in the insectivorous bat fauna coincided with the early rainy season. In the late dry season, pregnant females of several species were observed but volant juveniles were not present, whereas in the early wet season adult females were lactating or post-lactating and volant juveniles of nine species were detected. We recorded echolocation calls of 14 bat species; for each species, we compared features of calls with those reported previously in other Asian localities. For some species we found discrepancies in call metrics among studies, perhaps suggesting a greater hidden biodiversity of bats in Southeast Asia.
Full Text Available Few sites have been well sampled for bats, and samplings in islands are even scarcer. Therefore, the objectives of the present study were: (1 to list the bat species of Ilha da Marambaia; (2 to compare richness, abundance and biomass of bat guilds found there; (3 to analyse abundance patterns of bat species; and (4 to compare richness, abundance and composition of the bat fauna among different kinds of environment. To capture bats we used mist nets set in five different environments, totalising 3559.2 net-hours, during 37 nights between October 2006 and August 2008. A total of 1,133 captures were accomplished, comprising 34 species from five families. The most abundant species was Molossus molossus. Frugivorous bats exhibited higher richness, abundance and biomass if compared to other guilds. Most species (N = 22 exhibited abundances between 1 to 10% of all captures. Sixteen species were restricted to just one of the environments sampled. The high richness may be attributed to sampling carried out in several environments, and to the capture of insectivorous species over water bodies.
Duszynski, D W
Fecal samples from 56 Japanese bats representing 6 species in 2 families were examined for coccidian oocysts. Two of the 56 (Rhinolophidae), but only 2 sporulated oocysts were seen, which is not enough to describe a new species.
Enders, A C; Jones, C J P; Taylor, P J
Bats are a highly successful, widely distributed group, with considerable variation in placental structure. The Egyptian slit-faced bat Nycteris thebaica is a member of one of the few families with previously undescribed placentation. It was found that, although the interhemal type of the Nycteris...... placenta is endotheliochorial with a single layer of cytotrophoblast, the arborizing pattern of the maternal vessels and especially the extraordinary major placental artery differs from the placenta of the emballonurid bats to which this family is considered to be most closely related. The major placental...... other bat species. The paraplacenta is extensive with abundant fetal vessels underlying cytotrophoblast and syncytial trophoblast layers, fronting on an endometrium that largely lacks uterine epithelial cells but has large decidual cells and is poorly vascularized. The placenta of Nycteris lacks...
Menozzi, Benedito Donizete; de Novaes Oliveira, Rafael; Paiz, Laís Moraes; Richini-Pereira, Virgínia Bodelão; Langoni, Helio
Bats have aroused growing attention in the public health sphere because they are considered the main reservoir of rabies virus (RABV) in the Americas, in places where canine rabies is under control. Antigenic and genetic studies of RABV isolates have been used to describe the epidemiological profile of rabies and to identify possible hosts/reservoirs for different epidemiological cycles. This study describes the antigenic and genotypic characterization of 19 RABV isolates from central nervous system samples of non-hematophagous bats (Mammalia: Chiroptera). These bats were diagnosed as RABV positive by direct fluorescent antibody and mouse inoculation tests. Antigenic characterization using a panel of eight monoclonal antibodies revealed that 7 of 19 RABV isolates from these bats belonged to variant 3, for which the hematophagous bat species Desmodus rotundus is the main reservoir, and 1 of 19 RABV isolates from an insectivorous bat belonged to variant 4, which is characteristic of these bats. The remaining 11 RABV samples were divided into six non-compatible profiles. The isolates were subjected to reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction for the N gene and partially sequenced. Genetic characterization of these isolates was performed by grouping the sequences obtained with known RABV lineages. The sequences were grouped in clusters by the phylogenetic inference neighbor-joining method, together with another 89 homologous sequences obtained from GenBank. This analysis grouped the isolates into four known lineages: Nyctinomops Brazil, Myotis Brazil, Eptesicus Brazil and D. rotundus Brazil, as well as another cluster that may define a RABV lineage not yet characterized, here named Myotis Brazil II, for which bats of the genus Myotis apparently act as reservoirs. This assumption of a new lineage is also based on the observation of amino acid substitutions, with an average intraspecific identity of 99.8%, varying from 99.6 to 100.0% for nucleotides and 100
Shehab, Adwan; Mamkhair, Inrahim; Amr, Zuhair
Abstract The lesser horseshoe bat Rhinolophus hipposideros was recorded for the first time from Syria in 2005-06. Two solitary hibernating specimens (a male and a female) were collected from an underground cave in Basofan village, NW of Aleppo, and from Al Marqab Citadel, Banyas. External and cranial measurements are given for both specimens. The list of recorded species of bats of Syria includes 17 species. Riassunto&l...
Benda, P.; Lučan, R. K.; Obuch, J.; Reiter, A.; Andreas, M.; Bačkor, P.; Bohnenstengel, T.; Eid, E. K.; Ševčík, M.; Vallo, Peter; Amr, Z. S.
Roč. 74, 3-4 (2010), s. 185-353 ISSN 1211-376X Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60930519 Keywords : bats * distribution * ecology * echolocation * ectoparasites * Middle East * Jordan * Arabia * Palaearctic Region Subject RIV: EG - Zoology
Full Text Available A trade-off between the sensory modalities of vision and hearing is likely to have occurred in echolocating bats as the sophisticated mechanism of laryngeal echolocation requires considerable neural processing and has reduced the reliance of echolocating bats on vision for perceiving the environment. If such a trade-off exists, it is reasonable to hypothesize that some genes involved in visual function may have undergone relaxed selection or even functional loss in echolocating bats. The Gap junction protein, alpha 10 (Gja10, encoded by Gja10 gene is expressed abundantly in mammal retinal horizontal cells and plays an important role in horizontal cell coupling. The interphotoreceptor retinoid-binding protein (Irbp, encoded by the Rbp3 gene is mainly expressed in interphotoreceptor matrix and is known to be critical for normal functioning of the visual cycle. We sequenced Gja10 and Rbp3 genes in a taxonomically wide range of bats with divergent auditory characteristics (35 and 18 species for Gja10 and Rbp3, respectively. Both genes have became pseudogenes in species from the families Hipposideridae and Rhinolophidae that emit constant frequency echolocation calls with Doppler shift compensation at high-duty-cycles (the most sophisticated form of biosonar known, and in some bat species that emit echolocation calls at low-duty-cycles. Our study thus provides further evidence for the hypothesis that a trade-off occurs at the genetic level between vision and echolocation in bats.
Shen, Bin; Fang, Tao; Dai, Mengyao; Jones, Gareth; Zhang, Shuyi
A trade-off between the sensory modalities of vision and hearing is likely to have occurred in echolocating bats as the sophisticated mechanism of laryngeal echolocation requires considerable neural processing and has reduced the reliance of echolocating bats on vision for perceiving the environment. If such a trade-off exists, it is reasonable to hypothesize that some genes involved in visual function may have undergone relaxed selection or even functional loss in echolocating bats. The Gap junction protein, alpha 10 (Gja10, encoded by Gja10 gene) is expressed abundantly in mammal retinal horizontal cells and plays an important role in horizontal cell coupling. The interphotoreceptor retinoid-binding protein (Irbp, encoded by the Rbp3 gene) is mainly expressed in interphotoreceptor matrix and is known to be critical for normal functioning of the visual cycle. We sequenced Gja10 and Rbp3 genes in a taxonomically wide range of bats with divergent auditory characteristics (35 and 18 species for Gja10 and Rbp3, respectively). Both genes have became pseudogenes in species from the families Hipposideridae and Rhinolophidae that emit constant frequency echolocation calls with Doppler shift compensation at high-duty-cycles (the most sophisticated form of biosonar known), and in some bat species that emit echolocation calls at low-duty-cycles. Our study thus provides further evidence for the hypothesis that a trade-off occurs at the genetic level between vision and echolocation in bats.
Marco A. R. Mello
Full Text Available Some bat species seem to be lunar phobic, i.e., they avoid flying in bright areas or during bright periods of the night; however, the evidence is still controversial. We think that part of this controversy comes from pooling data on bat captures and moonlight intensity according to broad categories, such as moon phases, which conceal the high variability among nights. Therefore, we used detailed, long-term field data on three phyllostomid bat species, in order to test the hypothesis of lunar phobia at two different time scales: 1 among nights, by pooling data of different nights according to moon phases and testing for differences in the distribution of captures; and 2 within a night, by analyzing the relationship between capturability and moonlight intensity (measured as illuminance in one-hour intervals for 29 individual nights. Although most captures of the studied bat species occurred in the first half of the night, their activity pattern varied largely among nights, and was not always unimodal as commonly assumed. At the larger time scale, all studied bat species showed evidence of lunar phobia, as they were more frequently captured on dark moon phases. Nevertheless, at the smaller time scale, only Carollia perspicillata (Linnaeus, 1758 was less frequently captured on brighter periods of the night. We propose that the unimodal activity pattern assumed for frugivorous phyllostomid bats may be an artifact of data organization, and that activity and lunar phobia are much more variable than previously assumed.
Krizler C. Tanalgo
Full Text Available The stable microclimate in caves provides a relatively constant habitat for many bat species in the Philippines, but human encroachment continues to disrupt this habitat and imperil many of the species roosting in the caves. In South central Mindanao, the diversity and conservation status of cave bats remain undocumented and unexplored. We employed mist-netting to capture bats from five different caves within the town of Kabacan, northern Cotabato, Philippines. A total of 14 bat species were identified including the Philippine endemics Hipposideros pygmaeus and Ptenochirus jagori and the threatened Megaerops wetmorei. However, despite the declining conservation status of the bats, local disturbance such as bat hunting for bush meat and unregulated tourism are currently taking place in the caves. Large species such as Eonycteris spelaea and Rousettus amplexicaudatus are killed almost every day for food and trade. Therefore, the high species richness, and the presence of endemic and threatened species coupled with the occurrence of anthropogenic disturbances in caves suggests the need for an urgent and effective conservation intervention involving the local government and public community.
Moreno-Brush, Mónica; Portillo, Alejandro; Brändel, Stefan Dominik; Storch, Ilse; Tschapka, Marco; Biester, Harald
In the southeastern Peruvian Amazon, artisanal and small-scale gold mining (ASGM) is estimated to have released up to 300 tonnes of mercury (Hg) to the environment between 1995 and 2007 alone, and is claimed to be responsible for Hg concentrations above international thresholds for aquatic wildlife species. Here, we examined whether Hg concentrations in bat populations are potentially related to regional ASGM-Hg releases. We determined Hg concentrations in the fur of bats collected at three different distances from the major ASGM areas in Peru. Our findings from 204 individuals of 32 species indicate that Hg concentrations in bat fur mainly resulted from differences in feeding habits, because Hg concentrations were significantly higher in omnivorous bats than in frugivorous bats. At least in two species, populations living in ASGM-affected sites harbored higher Hg concentrations than did populations in unaffected sites. Because Hg concentrations reflect Hg dietary exposure, Hg emissions from amalgam roasting sites appear to deposit locally and enter the terrestrial food web. Although our study demonstrates that ASGM activities (and Hg point sources) increase Hg exposure in wildlife, the overall Hg concentrations reported here are relatively low. The measured Hg concentrations were below the toxicity threshold at which adverse neurological effects have been reported in rodents and mink (>10 µg g -1 ), and were in the range of Hg concentrations in the fur of bats from nonpoint source affected sites in other latitudes. This study emphasizes the importance of considering feeding habits when evaluating Hg concentrations in bats and other vertebrates.
Ball, H C; Moussa, F M; Mbimba, T; Orman, R; Safadi, F F; Cooper, L N
Osteoprogenitor cells contribute to the development and maintenance of skeletal tissues. Bats are unique model taxa whose cellular processes are poorly understood, especially in regards to skeletal biology. Forelimb bones of bats, unlike those of terrestrial mammals, bend during flight and function in controlled deformation. As a first step towards understanding the molecular processes governing deposition of this flexible bone matrix, we provide the first method for isolation and differentiation of cell populations derived from the bone marrow and cortical bone of bats, and compare results with those harvested from C57BL/6J mice. Osteogenic capacity of these cells was assessed via absolute quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) and through quantification of in vitro mineral deposition. Results indicate the differentiated bone cells of bats display significantly lower gene expression of known osteogenic markers (Runt-related transcription factor (RUNX2), osteocalcin (BGLAP) and osterix (SP7)), and deposit a less-mineralized matrix compared with murine controls. By characterizing the in vitro performance of osteoprogenitor cells throughout differentiation and matrix production, this study lays the ground work for in vitro manipulations of bat stem and osteoprogenitor cells and extends our understanding of the cellular diversity across mammals that occupy different habitats. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Kumar, Anjali; Divoll, Timothy J; Ganguli, Priya M; Trama, Florencia A; Lamborg, Carl H
Mercury, a toxic trace metal, has been used extensively as an inexpensive and readily available method of extracting gold from fine-grained sediment. Worldwide, artisanal mining is responsible for one third of all mercury released into the environment. By testing bat hair from museum specimens and field collected samples from areas both impacted and unimpacted by artisanal gold mining in Perú, we show monomethylmercury (MMHg) has increased in the last 100 years. MMHg concentrations were also greatest in the highest bat trophic level (insectivores), and in areas experiencing extractive artisanal mining. Reproductive female bats had higher MMHg concentrations, and both juvenile and adult bats from mercury contaminated sites had more MMHg than those from uncontaminated sites. Bats have important ecological functions, providing vital ecosystem services such as pollination, seed dispersal, and insect control. Natural populations can act as environmental sentinels and offer the chance to expand our understanding of, and responses to, environmental and human health concerns. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Luz, Júlia Lins; Costa, Luciana de Moraes; Gomes, Luiz Antonio Costa; Esbérard, Carlos Eduardo Lustosa
In the present study, we investigated the prevalence and intensity of Hectopsylla pulex infection in Molossus rufus and Molossus molossus, the parasite's choice of attachment site, and whether this host-parasite system varies with host size. Twenty-four bats were captured by hand from the roof of a house in Southeastern Brazil. M. rufus exhibited a prevalence of 71.4% and the mean intensity averaged 5 ectoparasites per bat. M. molossus exhibited a prevalence of 90%, and the average mean intensity was 2.11 ectoparasites. The attachment sites were: ear, tragus, shoulder blade and tibia, anus, wing, axilla, mouth and dactylopatagium. A positive correlation was observed between the bats' weight and the number of fleas.
Oleg N. Artaev
Full Text Available This article presents the specific structure and distribution of the bats made in the territory of the Republic of Mordovia (Central Russia from the first half of the 20th century to the present. Occurence, relative abundance and patterns of distribution are briefly assessed for rare species. On this base, recommendations for inclusion these bats in the regional Red Data Book are presented. .In Mordovia twelve species of bats have been observed. There are widespread and numerous species: Pipistrellus nathusii, Myotis daubentonii, M. dasycneme, Nyctalus noctula and Vespertilio murinus. Widespread but less numerous species are: Myotis brandtii and Plecotus auritus. Finally, rare species are: Myotis nattereri, Nyctalus lasiopterus, N. leisleri, Pipistrellus pygmaeus and P. kuhlii.
Júlia Lins Luz
Full Text Available In the present study, we investigated the prevalence and intensity of Hectopsylla pulex infection in Molossus rufus and Molossus molossus, the parasite's choice of attachment site, and whether this host-parasite system varies with host size. Twenty-four bats were captured by hand from the roof of a house in Southeastern Brazil. M. rufus exhibited a prevalence of 71.4% and the mean intensity averaged 5 ectoparasites per bat. M. molossus exhibited a prevalence of 90%, and the average mean intensity was 2.11 ectoparasites. The attachment sites were: ear, tragus, shoulder blade and tibia, anus, wing, axilla, mouth and dactylopatagium. A positive correlation was observed between the bats' weight and the number of fleas.
M. B. Freitas
Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of seasonal variation and fasting on fat reserves of the common vampire bat Desmodus rotundus. Plasma free fatty acids (FFA, along with lipid content of the liver and muscles, and fatty acids from the carcass were obtained from bats fed bovine blood and from whom food was subsequently withheld for 24 and 48 h. Animals were caught during both dry and rainy seasons. In general, fat tissue stores were not significantly influenced by seasonal variation. Lipid content of liver, muscles, and carcass decreased during some food deprivation periods, although the concomitant increase expected in plasma FFA was not observed. Lipid metabolism is hypothesized as being continued by the tissues themselves. In addition, free access to food sources (e.g., domestic livestock throughout the year is believed to contribute to the low seasonal variations in fat reserves observed in the common vampire bat.
van Cakenberghe, V.; de Vree, F.; Leirs, Herwig
The collection of vertebrates made in Kikwit in the aftermath of the 1995 Ebola haemorrhagic fever epidemic included 538 bat specimens, representing 18 species. This collection contains large numbers of a very common species, Chaerephon pumila, but also of Chaerephon ansorgei, which was not yet...... reported in such large numbers. Other rather common African bat species - e.g. Pipistrellus nanus - are represented with two specimens only. Surprisingly, some rare species were found to be present in the collection: e.g. Casinycteris argynnis, Miniopterus minor, Myopterus whitleyi, especially when...
Yoon, Kwang Bae; Lee, Jin Hong; Cho, Jae Youl; Park, Yung Chul
The complete nucleotide sequence of the mitochondrial genome of the Asian particolored bat, Vespertilio sinensis, was determined. The genome organization, gene contents, and codon usage conformed to those of other bat mitochondrial genomes. The total length of the mitogenome of Vespertilio sinensis is 16,971 bp with a total base composition of 32.6% A, 29.6% T, 23.7% C and 14.0% G. The mitogenome consists of 13 protein-coding genes, 2 rRNA (12S and 16S RNA) genes, 22 tRNA genes and 1 control region.
Nogueira, M R; Ventura, A; da Veiga, C C P; Monteiro, L R; Pinheiro, N L; Peracchi, A L
Conjoined twinning is an embryological anomaly rarely reported in wild mammals and with only two previous records in Chiroptera. Here, we report a case of dicephalic parapagus conjoined twins in the Neotropical phyllostomid genus Artibeus. These twins are males and present separated heads and necks, but a conjoined trunk with an expanded upper thoracic region. They developed two complete forelimbs and two complete hindlimbs, all laterally to the trunk. There is a volume in the upper midback and between the heads that resembles a third rudimentary medial forelimb, but X-ray images only suggest the presence of medial skeletal elements of the pectoral girdle (clavicle and scapulae) in this region. The X-ray images also show that vertebral columns run separated from head until the base of lumbar region, where they form a single structure. Using ultrasound images, we detected the presence of two similarly sized and apparently separated hearts. The accumulation of study cases like this will help in the understanding of patterns and process behind this phenomena, and collection material plays a key role in this context. © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.
Full Text Available We studied infestation rates and parasite-host associations between streblid flies and phyllostomid bats in an Atlantic Forest area of Rio de Janeiro state, southeastern Brazil. We captured 301 individuals from seven Phyllostomidae bat species. Out of that total, 69 bats had been parasitised by nine Streblidae species; the most frequent species were Trichobius joblingi and Trichobius tiptoni. The species Paraeuctenodes longipes, associated with Anoura geoffroyi, was the most frequent species. The highest mean intensity was observed for Paraeuctenodes longipes, associated with A. geoffroyi, and Paratrichobius longicrus associated with Artibeus lituratus, both ectoparasite species with a mean intensity of five individuals per bat. Trichobius joblingi exhibited the highest mean abundance, which was over three on its host species. Streblid richness in the study area was similar to the richness found in other studies carried out in the Atlantic Forest. We observed that streblid richness in this biome depends more on inherent characteristics of each physiognomy and on the host-species than on the sampling effort.
van Cakenberghe, V.; de Vree, F.; Leirs, Herwig
The collection of vertebrates made in Kikwit in the aftermath of the 1995 Ebola haemorrhagic fever epidemic included 538 bat specimens, representing 18 species. This collection contains large numbers of a very common species, Chaerephon pumila, but also of Chaerephon ansorgei, which was not yet...
França, D S; Pereira, S N; Maas, A C S; Martins, M A; Bolzan, D P; Lima, I P; Dias, D; Peracchi, A L
We studied infestation rates and parasite-host associations between streblid flies and phyllostomid bats in an Atlantic Forest area of Rio de Janeiro state, southeastern Brazil. We captured 301 individuals from seven Phyllostomidae bat species. Out of that total, 69 bats had been parasitised by nine Streblidae species; the most frequent species were Trichobius joblingi and Trichobius tiptoni. The species Paraeuctenodes longipes, associated with Anoura geoffroyi, was the most frequent species. The highest mean intensity was observed for Paraeuctenodes longipes, associated with A. geoffroyi, and Paratrichobius longicrus associated with Artibeus lituratus, both ectoparasite species with a mean intensity of five individuals per bat. Trichobius joblingi exhibited the highest mean abundance, which was over three on its host species. Streblid richness in the study area was similar to the richness found in other studies carried out in the Atlantic Forest. We observed that streblid richness in this biome depends more on inherent characteristics of each physiognomy and on the host-species than on the sampling effort.
Dos Santos, Francisco C B; Lisboa, Cristiane V; Xavier, Samanta C C; Dario, Maria A; Verde, Rair de S; Calouro, Armando M; Roque, André Luiz R; Jansen, Ana M
Bats are ancient hosts of Trypanosoma species and their flying ability, longevity and adaptability to distinct environments indicate that they are efficient dispersers of parasites. Bats from Acre state (Amazon Biome) were collected in four expeditions conducted in an urban forest (Parque Zoobotânico) and one relatively more preserved area (Seringal Cahoeira) in Rio Branco and Xapuri municipalities. Trypanosoma sp. infection was detected by hemoculture and fresh blood examination. Isolated parasite species were identified by the similarity of the obtained DNA sequence from 18S rDNA polymerase chain reaction and reference strains. Overall, 367 bats from 23 genera and 32 species were examined. Chiropterofauna composition was specific to each municipality, although Artibeus sp. and Carollia sp. prevailed throughout. Trypanosoma sp. infection was detected in 85 bats (23·2%). The most widely distributed and prevalent genotypes were (in order) Trypanosoma cruzi TcI, T. cruzi marinkellei, Trypanosoma dionisii, T. cruzi TcIV and Trypanosoma rangeli. At least one still-undescribed Trypanosoma species was also detected in this study. The detection of T. cruzi TcI and TcIV (the ones associated with Chagas disease in Amazon biome) demonstrates the putative importance of these mammal hosts in the epidemiology of the disease in the Acre State.
Obrist, M K; Fenton, M B; Eger, J L; Schlegel, P A
Using a moveable loudspeaker and an implanted microphone, we studied the sound pressure transformation of the external ears of 47 species of bats from 13 families. We compared pinna gain, directionality of hearing and interaural intensity differences (IID) in echolocating and non-echolocating bats, in species using different echolocation strategies and in species that depend upon prey-generated sounds to locate their targets. In the Pteropodidae, two echolocating species had slightly higher directionality than a non-echolocating species. The ears of phyllostomid and vespertilionid species showed moderate directionality. In the Mormoopidae, the ear directionality of Pteronotus parnellii clearly matched the dominant spectral component of its echolocation calls, unlike the situation in three other species. Species in the Emballonuridae, Molossidae, Rhinopomatidae and two vespertilionids that use narrow-band search-phase echolocation calls showed increasingly sharp tuning of the pinna to the main frequency of their signals. Similar tuning was most evident in Hipposideridae and Rhinolophidae, species specialized for flutter detection via Doppler-shifted echoes of high-duty-cycle narrow-band signals. The large pinnae of bats that use prey-generated sounds to find their targets supply high sound pressure gain at lower frequencies. Increasing domination of a narrow spectral band in echolocation is reflected in the passive acoustic properties of the external ears (sharper directionality). The importance of IIDs for lateralization and horizontal localization is discussed by comparing the behavioural directional performance of bats with their bioacoustical features.
Beguelini, Mateus R; Taboga, Sebastião R; Morielle-Versute, Eliana
Despite the large number of species, their wide distribution, and unique reproductive characteristics, Neotropical bats have been poorly studied, and important aspects of the reproduction of these animals have not been elucidated. We made an ultrastructural analysis of spermatogenesis in Molossus molossus (Molossidae). The process of spermatogonial differentiation is similar to that found in other bats and is also relatively similar to that of Primates, with three main spermatogonia types: A(d), A(p), and B. Meiotic divisions proceed similarly to those of most mammals, and spermiogenesis is clearly divided into 12 steps, in the middle of the range known for bats (9-16 steps). Formation of the acrosome is similar to that known from other mammals; however, the ultrastructure of spermatozoa was found to have unique characteristics, including many wavy acrosomal projections on its surface, which seems to be specific for the family Molossidae. Comparing the ultrastructure of the spermatozoon of M. molossus with other bats already study, we observed that three characters vary: morphology of the outer dense fibers, of the perforatorium, and of the spermatozoon head. The great similarity of morphological characters between M. molossus and Platyrrhinus lineatus suggests that M. molossus is more closely related to the Phyllostomidae than to the Rhinolophidae and the Vespertilionidae. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Background Bats of the family Phyllostomidae show a unique diversity in feeding specializations. This taxon includes species that are highly specialized on insects, blood, small vertebrates, fruits or nectar, and pollen. Feeding specialization is accompanied by morphological, physiological and behavioural adaptations. Several attempts were made to resolve the phylogenetic relationships within this family in order to reconstruct the evolutionary transitions accompanied by nutritional specialization. Nevertheless, the evolution of nectarivory remained equivocal. Results Phylogenetic reconstructions, based on a concatenated nuclear-and mitochondrial data set, revealed a paraphyletic relationship of nectarivorous phyllostomid bats. Our phylogenetic reconstructions indicate that the nectarivorous genera Lonchophylla and Lionycteris are closer related to mainly frugivorous phyllostomids of the subfamilies Rhinophyllinae, Stenodermatinae, Carolliinae, and the insectivorous Glyphonycterinae rather than to nectarivorous bats of the Glossophaginae. This suggests an independent origin of morphological adaptations to a nectarivorous lifestyle within Lonchophyllinae and Glossophaginae. Molecular clock analysis revealed a relatively short time frame of about ten million years for the divergence of subfamilies. Conclusions Our study provides strong support for diphyly of nectarivorous phyllostomids. This is remarkable, since their morphological adaptations to nutrition, like elongated rostrums and tongues, reduced teeth and the ability to use hovering flight while ingestion, closely resemble each other. However, more precise examinations of their tongues (e.g. type and structure of papillae and muscular innervation) revealed levels of difference in line with an independent evolution of nectarivory in these bats. PMID:20525339
Bonaccorso, Frank J.; Todd, Christopher M.; Miles, Adam C.; Gorresen, P. Marcos
We documented nightly movements of Hawaiian hoary bats (Lasiurus cinereus semotus) on the island of Hawai’i. Based on data from 28 radiotagged individuals mean foraging range (FR) was 230.7±72.3 ha, core-use area (CUA) was 25.5±6.9 ha (or 11.1% of mean FR), and the mean long axis (LAX) across the FR was 3,390.8±754.3 m. There was almost no overlap in CUAs among 4 adult males having overlapping foraging areas and tracked simultaneously or within a 90-day window of each other. CUAs of subadults partially overlapped with multiple adult males or with one other subadult. High variance in FRs, cores use areas, and LAX across the FR perhaps reflect localized stochastic variables such as weather, habitat, and food resources. Hawaiian hoary bats use moderately large FRs among insectivorous bats studied with comparable methodologies; however, foraging activity indicated by documentation of acoustic feeding buzzes is concentrated within one or a few disjunct areas cumulatively forming the 50% fixed kernel of CUA. The concentration of feeding activity, low values of individual overlap, and agonistic chasing behavior within CUAs all demonstrate a structured use of individual space by Hawaiian hoary bats.
Full Text Available Sunset and sunrise regulate the activities of most studied bat species. To verify patterns of foraging activity, 29 bat sampling nights were carried out over a dam in Rio de Janeiro city, which resulted in 363 hours with 730 captures, representing 13 species of insectivorous bats. Molossus molossus constituted the bulk of the captures (79.9% and was present in 82.8% of the sampling nights. This bat species exhibited crepuscular and nocturnal activity (from -6 minutes to 900 minutes after the time of sunset. A bimodal activity pattern was observed, and two non-overlapping capture peaks. The first peak lasted from 6 minutes before sunset to 420 minutes after sunset. The second peak began at 564 minutes after sunset and ended just after sunrise. The first capture peak was observed in 75.9% of the nights, and the second peak in 62.1% of the nights. The time of the first capture exhibited a positive linear relationship with sunset and the time of the last capture, a positive linear relationship with sunrise. The existence of a relationship between night length and the difference between first and last captures of each night shows that M. molossus has longer activity the longer the night, showing a seasonal variation in the activity period.
Arriaga–Flores, J. C.
Full Text Available Species’ spatial distribution patterns allow us to understand the establishment of different biotic components in different environmental conditions. This study analyzes the spatial distribution of the Phyllostomidae family in Mexico to identify groups of species that occur in similar sites, the environmental conditions associated with species distribution, and the percent of overlap with human–modified areas. The results suggest six groups of sites with particular species composition. The spatial variation in richness pattern was associated with species tolerance to environmental conditions, such as minimum temperature and tree cover. The convergence between species distribution and modified areas varied per species feeding guild. Insectivorous and nectarivorous bats were sensitive species because they occurred in narrow environmental conditions and their distributions overlapped with areas modified by human activities. The approach implemented here analyzes regional species distributions and estimates their environmental requirements, contributing to the development of optimal conservation strategies for susceptible bat species.
Full Text Available The qualitative and quantitative analyses of the digenean fauna of bats were conducted for the first time in Serbia. The sample comprised of 118 individuals of 12 bat species (Rhinolophus ferrumequinum, Myotis mystacinus, M. alcathoe, M. brandtii, M. oxygnathus, M. myotis, Hypsugo savii, Pipistrellus pipistrellus, P. nathusii, Plecotus auritus, P. austriacus and Nyctalus noctula collected from 15 sites throughout Serbia. Six digenean species were identified: Lecithodendrium linstowi, Plagiorchis sp., Prosthodendrium longiforme, P. chilostomum, P. parvouterus and Mesotretes peregrinus. The helminths were recorded from 35 individual hosts (29.7 %. The species Lecithodendrium linstowi infected the highest percentage of hosts (19.5 %, with a mean abundance of 4.6. GLM analysis of exploratory factors showed that host species and host sex had a significant influence on parasite load, while locality and host age did not influence parasite abundance. No evidence of zoonotic species was found.
Zhang, Lin; Sun, Keping; Feng, Jiang
We sequenced and characterized the complete mitochondrial genome of the big-eared horseshoe bat, Rhinolophus macrotis. Total length of the mitogenome is 16,848 bp, with a base composition of 31.2% A, 25.3% T, 28.8% C and 14.7% G. The mitogenome consists of 13 protein-coding genes, 2 rRNA (12S and 16S rRNA) genes, 22 tRNA genes and 1 control region. It has the same gene arrangement pattern as those of typical vertebrate mitochondrial genome. The results will contribute to our understanding of the taxonomic status and evolution in the genus Rhinolophus bats.
Full Text Available In mitochondrial DNA, variations in the sequence of 16S rRNA region were analyzed to infer the genetic relationship and population history of three sympatric hipposiderid bats, Hipposideros speoris, H. fulvus and H. ater. Based on the DNA sequence data, we observed relatively lower haplotype and higher nucleotide diversity in H. speoris than in the other two species. The pairwise comparisons of the genetic divergence inferred a genetic relationship between the three hipposiderid bats. We used haplotype sequences to construct a phylogenetic tree. Maximum parsimony and Bayesian inference analysis generated a tree with similar topology. H. fulvus and H. ater formed one cluster and H. speoris formed another cluster. Analysis of the demographic history of populations using Jajima’s D test revealed past changes in populations. Comparison of the observed distribution of pairwise differences in the nucleotides with expected sudden expansion model accepts for H. fulvus and H. ater but not for H. speoris populations.
Farkašová, Helena; Hron, Tomáš; Pačes, Jan; Hulva, Pavel; Benda, Petr; Gifford, Robert James; Elleder, Daniel
Retroviruses can create endogenous forms on infiltration into the germline cells of their hosts. These forms are then vertically transmitted and can be considered as genetic fossils of ancient viruses. All retrovirus genera, with the exception of deltaretroviruses, have had their representation identified in the host genome as a virus fossil record. Here we describe an endogenous Deltaretrovirus, identified in the germline of long-fingered bats (Miniopteridae). A single, heavily deleted copy of this retrovirus has been found in the genome of miniopterid species, but not in the genomes of the phylogenetically closest bat families, Vespertilionidae and Cistugonidae. Therefore, the endogenization occurred in a time interval between 20 and 45 million years ago. This discovery closes the last major gap in the retroviral fossil record and provides important insights into the history of deltaretroviruses in mammals.
Lourenço, Elizabete Captivo; Patrício, Priscilla Maria Peixoto; Pinheiro, Michele da Costa; Dias, Renan Medeiros; Famadas, Kátia Maria
Because of the few records of Streblidae on bats, despite extensive study on these mammals in the state of Rio de Janeiro, a survey was carried out in an area of Atlantic Forest, in the municipality of Nova Iguaçu, known as the Tinguá region. Thirteen species were added to the list of Streblidae in the state of Rio de Janeiro, of which two were new records for Brazil. Thirty-one species have now been reported this state.
Yoon, Kwang Bae; Kim, Ji Young; Kim, Hye Ri; Cho, Jae Youl; Park, Yung Chul
There are two subspecies of Rhinolophus ferrumequinum currently recognized in South Korea. The Korean greater horseshoe bat subspecies, Rhinolophus ferrumequinum quelpartis, is distributed only in Jeju Island. The complete mitochondrial genome of the island subspecies was determined and revealed 99.7% similarity to the mainland subspecies Rhinolophus ferrumequinum korai. If d-loop region is excluded, similarity of the two genomes was 99.9%.
Sun, Haijian; Dong, Ji; Shi, Huizhen; Ren, Min; Hua, Panyu
There are two subspecies of Rhinolophus sinicus currently recognized in China. In this study, using next generation sequencing approaches, the complete mitochondrial genome of one subspecies R. s. sinicus was obtained. The total length of the genome sequence is 16,898 bp. The arrangement and contents of R. s. sinicus mitochondrial genes exhibit high similarity with other bats of family Rhinolophida. Phylogenetic reconstructions support the sister relationship of the two subspecies and confirm the subspecies status of our specimen.
Jojic, Vida; Budinski, Ivana; Blagojevic, Jelena; Vujosevic, Mladen
We report the first evaluation of mandibular and cranial modularity in the greater horseshoe bat (Rhinolophus ferrumequinum). Although some authors found no modular pattern of these morphological structures in mammals, we discovered that traits integration in R. ferrumequinum is not uniform throughout the mandible and cranium, but structured into two distinct modules. Allometry does not affect mandibular and cranial modularity in R. ferrumequinum probably as a result of the low fraction of sh...
Sreepada, K. S.; Koubínová, D.; Konečný, Adam; Koubek, Petr; Ráb, Petr; Rábová, Marie; Zima, Jan
Roč. 57, č. 4 (2008), s. 347-357 ISSN 0139-7893 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA6093403; GA MŠk LC06073 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60930519; CEZ:AV0Z50450515 Keywords : bats * karyotype evolution * chromosome banding Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 0.522, year: 2008 http://www.ivb.cz/folia/57/4/347-357_MS1427.pdf
Sotero-Caio, C G; Pieczarka, J C; Nagamachi, C Y; Gomes, A J B; Lira, T C; O'Brien, P C M; Ferguson-Smith, M A; Souza, M J; Santos, N
Substantial effort has been made to elucidate karyotypic evolution of phyllostomid bats, mostly through comparisons of G-banding patterns. However, due to the limited number of G-bands in respective karyotypes and to the similarity of non-homologous bands, an accurate evolutionary history of chromosome segments remains questionable. This is the case for vampire bats (Desmodontinae). Despite several proposed homologies, banding data have not yet provided a detailed understanding of the chromosomal changes within vampire genera. We examined karyotype differentiation of the 3 species within this subfamily using whole chromosomal probes from Phyllostomus hastatus (Phyllostominae) and Carollia brevicauda (Carolliinae). Painting probes of P. hastatus respectively detected 22, 21 and 23 conserved segments in Diphylla ecaudata, Diaemus youngi, and Desmodus rotundus karyotypes, whereas 27, 27 and 28 were respectively detectedwith C. brevicauda paints. Based on the evolutionary relationships proposed by morphological and molecular data, we present probable chromosomal synapomorphies for vampire bats and propose chromosomes that were present in the common ancestor of the 5 genera analyzed. Karyotype comparisons allowed us to relate a number of conserved chromosomal segments among the 5 species, providing a broader database for understanding karyotype evolution in the family. 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.
Full Text Available Metabolic adaptations induced by 24 and 48 hours of fasting were investigated in male and female insectivorous bats (Molossus molossus Pallas, 1766. For this purpose, plasma glucose, non esterified fatty acids (NEFA, glycogen, protein and lipids concentrations in liver and muscles were obtained. Data presented here demonstrate that fed bats showed plasma glucose levels similar to those reported for other mammal species. In response to fasting, glycemia was decreased only in 48 hours fasted females. Plasma NEFA levels were similar in both sexes, and did not exhibit any changes during fasting. Considering the data from energy reserve variations, fed females presented an increased content of liver glycogen as well as higher breast muscle protein and limbs lipids concentrations, compared to fed males. In response to fasting, liver and muscle glycogen levels remained unchanged. Considering protein and lipid reserves, only females showed decreased values following fasting, as seen in breast, limbs and carcass lipids and breast muscle protein reserves, but still fail to keep glucose homeostasis after 48 hours without food. Taken together, our data suggest that the energy metabolism of insectivorous bats may vary according to sexual differences, a pattern that might be associated to different reproduction investments and costs between genders.
Bezerra, Rayanna Hellem Santos; de Vasconcelos, Pedro Fonseca; Bocchiglieri, Adriana
In Brazil, most studies involving parasites of bats (bat flies) treat the mid-west, south-east, and south of the country. This work aimed to characterize the ectoparasites community associated with bats in the Atlantic forest in the state of Sergipe, north-eastern Brazil. Sampling was conducted between January and June 2013 in the Serra de Itabaiana National Park (PNSI) and between November 2013 and June 2015 in the Wildlife Refuge Mata do Junco (RVSMJ). Parasitological indexes were determined, and the influence of host sex and the seasonality in prevalence rates and mean intensity for the most abundant parasites was evaluated. Some 129 parasites were collected in PNSI and 296 in RVSMJ, and 100 and 70.6 %, respectively, belong to the family Streblidae. The differences in parasitological rates in Sergipe in relation to other studies may be associated with the environmental characteristics and the composition of the host community. The influence of sex and the seasonal prevalence of Speiseria ambigua and Trichobius joblingi, associated with Carollia perspicillata, may be associated with a lower rate of female captures and low sampling in the dry season. This is a pioneer study in Sergipe that reveals the occurrence of 16 species of streblids and representatives of Acari and Basilia spp., highlighting the need for more studies to increase the wealth and understanding of host-parasite associations in the state.
Safi, Kamran; Dechmann, Dina K. N.
Vertebrate brains are organized in modules which process information from sensory inputs selectively. Therefore they are probably under different evolutionary pressures. We investigated the impact of environmental influences on specific brain centres in bats. We showed in a phylogenetically independent contrast analysis that the wing area of a species corrected for body size correlated with estimates of habitat complexity. We subsequently compared wing area, as an indirect measure of habitat complexity, with the size of regions associated with hearing, olfaction and spatial memory, while controlling for phylogeny and body mass. The inferior colliculi, the largest sub-cortical auditory centre, showed a strong positive correlation with wing area in echolocating bats. The size of the main olfactory bulb did not increase with wing area, suggesting that the need for olfaction may not increase during the localization of food and orientation in denser habitat. As expected, a larger wing area was linked to a larger hippocampus in all bats. Our results suggest that morphological adaptations related to flight and neuronal capabilities as reflected by the sizes of brain regions coevolved under similar ecological pressures. Thus, habitat complexity presumably influenced and shaped sensory abilities in this mammalian order independently of each other. PMID:15695209
Full Text Available This study aimed to elucidate the diversity of bats in two forest fragments in an area of restinga in the municipality of Jaguaruna, south of Santa Catarina. We performed 18 nights of sampling between November 2006 and September 2008, using in each night’s collection five mist nets installed at ground level, open for six hours after sunset. The Shannon index of diversity (H’ and the expected richness (Jackkinife first order were calculated for the total sampled area. We captured 135 individuals belonging to nine species and two families (Phyllostomidae = 5; Vespertilionidae = 4. Sturnira lilium was the most abundant species (40% of the sample. The diversity index was 1.75 and the estimated richness was 9.94. The observed richness represents 21.5% of the bat fauna recorded in the restinga area of Brazil. The diversity index recorded is close to that observed in other studies on areas of restinga. Studies that provide data on richness and abundance of species in restingas are very important, given the lack of studies on this ecosystem, especially regarding bats and the anthropogenic pressure that they are suffering.
José Luís García-García
Full Text Available The fruit-eating bat, Dermanura tolteca, has a broad geographic distribution in Mexico and it is a very important seed dispersal of Neotropical plants. Nonetheless, information on the biology of this bat species is scarce, especially with regard to demography. We studied some ecological aspects and population dynamics of D. tolteca from Southeastern Mexican State of Oaxaca. The study was conducted in a perennial tropical forest, over a period of 80 nights, a sampling effort of 73 200 mist-net-hour, from May 2006 to August 2007. A total of 176 specimens were captured, 98 females and 78 males. Population size was estimated in 237 individuals in the study area, with a greater number during rainy season. The population density of this bat, in its range of distribution in Mexico is low compared to other nose-leaf bats. Captures were correlated with monthly precipitation, and this result may be linked to food resources abundance in tropical and subtropical areas. The reproductive pattern was bimodal polyestrous, with birth periods between August-September and April-June. Greater body mass was observed in females than males. The male-female ratio and age-related demographics were similar to other noseleaf bats. The biological characteristics of D. tolteca are typical of nose-leaf bats of the family Phyllostomidae. Rev. Biol. Trop. 58 (4: 1323-1334. Epub 2010 December 01.El murciélago Dermanura tolteca presenta una amplia distribución geográfica en México y es un importante dispersor de semillas de una variedad de plantas neotropicales. Sin embargo la información biológica sobre este murciélago es escasa, especialmente en aspectos demográficos. El objetivo de este trabajo fue documentar la dinámica poblacional y varios aspectos ecológicos de la especie. El trabajo fue conducido entre mayo 2006 y agosto 2007 en un bosque tropical perennifolio en el estado de Oaxaca, sureste de México, durante 80 noches, con un esfuerzo de muestreo total de 73
Wu, Yi; Motokawa, Masaharu; Li, Yu-Chun; Harada, Masashi; Chen, Zhong; Lin, Liang-Kong
Karyotypes and chromosomal data are presented for eight bat species representing two families (Rhinolophidae and Vespertilionidae) from Hainan Island, China. The species investigated were Rhinolophus lepidus (2n = 62, FN = 60), R. pusillus (2n = 62, FN = 60), R. affinis (2n = 62, FN = 60), R. sinicus (2n = 36, FN = 60), Myotis horsfieldi (2n = 44, FN = 52), Pipistrellus abramus (2n = 26, FN = 44), Miniopterus australis (2n = 46, FN = 50) and M. schreibersii (2n = 46, FN = 50). The karyotype of Rhinolophus lepidus is reported for the first time.
Several ecomorphological aspects in the European horseshoe bats were studied. The analysis of the data allows to draw some conclusions about possible niche separating parameters. The thesis consists of seven parts, details can be found in the abstracts of each chapter. Verschiedene ökomorphologische Aspekte der europäischen Hufeisennasen-Fledermäuse wurden untersucht. Die Auswertung der Daten erlaubt Rückschlüsse auf mögliche Parameter, die eine Nischentrennung ermöglichen. Die Arbeit best...
Camacho, M Alejandra; Chávez, Daniel; Burneo, Santiago F
The Yasuni Round-eared bat, Lophostoma yasuni, was described in 2004 by morphological analysis of the holotype, the only specimen attributed to this taxon to date. A molecular analysis using cytochrome-b sequences and a new morpholo-gical analysis that includes the holotype of L. yasuni and two specimens of L. carrikeri from near the type locality of L. yasuni were carried out. The new molecular and morphological evidence places L. yasuni within the clade of L. carrikeri. We propose that L. yasuni should therefore be considered as a synonym of L. carrikeri. An emended diagnosis for L. carrikeri extending ranges of craniodental measurements for this species is presented.
Wu, Yi; Motokawa, Masaharu; Li, Yu-Chun; Harada, Masashi; Chen, Zhong; Lin, Liang-Kong
Karyotypes and chromosomal data are presented for eight bat species representing two families (Rhinolophidae and Vespertilionidae) from Hainan Island, China. The species investigated were Rhinolophus lepidus (2n = 62, FN = 60), R. pusillus (2n = 62, FN = 60), R. affinis (2n = 62, FN = 60), R. sinicus (2n = 36, FN = 60), Myotis horsfieldi (2n = 44, FN = 52), Pipistrellus abramus (2n = 26, FN = 44), Miniopterus australis (2n = 46, FN = 50) and M. schreibersii (2n = 46, FN = 50). The karyotype of Rhinolophus lepidus is reported for the first time. PMID:19847322
Gaudioso, Pablo J; Díaz, M Mónica; Barquez, Rubén M
Here we present detailed descriptions and comparisons of the axial skeleton of seven species of bats belonging to five subfamilies of Phyllostomidae of different trophic guilds. The material examined consisted of 34 complete skeletons of seven species. For five of the studied species, previous descriptions have not been conducted, and for the vampires only limited information is available, so that descriptions for these species are here completed. The axial skeleton has characters that allow grouping of the species phylogenetically of the same subfamily and by feeding habits. At the same time, there are characters that associate species from different subfamilies with different types of diet or ways to obtain food.
Shpak A. V.
Full Text Available Parti-coloured bat (Vespertilio murinus Linnaeus, 1758 was considered in Belarus as a migrant species until recently. This point of view was based on the absence of winter records as well as the registrations in Austria and Romania of two V. murinus′ specimens, banded in Belarus. The data, obtained over the past few years, allow to state, that the whole territory of Belarus belongs to the winter range of this species. Hibernating animals were observed exclusively in the anthropogenic roosts.
Full Text Available The regional distribution and relative frequency of endocrine cells in the stomach and intestine of Phyllostomidae: Lonchorhina aurita and Molossidae: Molossus molossus bats were studied immunohistochemically. Three types of immunoreactive (IR endocrine cells - to serotonin (5-HT, gastrin (GAS and enteroglucagon (GLUC - were found in the gastric mucosa and four types of IR cells were identified in the intestinal mucosa. This study showed an interespecfic difference in the regional distribution and relative frequency of endocrine cells in the Chiropteran alimentary tract.
Full Text Available A limited number of studies have focused on the population genetic structure of vampire bats (Desmodus rotundus in America. This medium-sized bat is distributed in tropical areas of the continent with high prevalence in forested livestock areas. The aim of this work was to characterize the vampire population structure and their genetic differentiation. For this, we followed standard methods by which live vampires (caught by mist-netting and preserved material from scientific collections, were obtained for a total of 15 different locations, ranging from Chihuahua (North to Quintana Roo (Southeast. Tissue samples were obtained from both live and collected animals, and the genetic differentiation, within and among localities, was assessed by the use of seven microsatellite loci. Our results showed that all loci were polymorphic and no private alleles were detected. High levels of heterozygosis were detected when the proportion of alleles in each locus were compared. Pairwise F ST and R ST detected significant genetic differentiation among individuals from different localities. Our population structure results indicate the presence of eleven clusters, with a high percentage of assigned individuals to some specific collecting site. Rev. Biol. Trop. 62 (2: 659-669. Epub 2014 June 01.
Ruedi, Manuel; Friedli-Weyeneth, Nicole; Teeling, Emma C; Puechmaille, Sébastien J; Goodman, Steven M
Extant bats of the genus Emballonura have a trans-Indian Ocean distribution, with two endemic species restricted to Madagascar, and eight species occurring in mainland southeast Asia and islands in the western Pacific Ocean. Ancestral Emballonura may have been more widespread on continental areas, but no fossil identified to this genus is known from the Old World. Emballonura belongs to the subfamily Emballonurinae, which occurs in the New and Old World. Relationships of all Old World genera of this subfamily, including Emballonura and members of the genera Coleura from Africa and western Indian Ocean islands and Mosia nigrescens from the western Pacific region, are previously unresolved. Using 1833 bp of nuclear and mitochondrial genes, we reconstructed the phylogenetic history of Old World emballonurine bats. We estimated that these lineages diverged around 30 million years ago into two monophyletic sister groups, one represented by the two taxa of Malagasy Emballonura, Coleura and possibly Mosia, and the other by a radiation of Indo-Pacific Emballonura, hence, rendering the genus Emballonura paraphyletic. The fossil record combined with these phylogenetic relationships suggest at least one long-distance dispersal event across the Indian Ocean, presumably of African origin, giving rise to all Indo-Pacific Emballonura species (and possibly Mosia). Cladogenesis of the extant Malagasy taxa took place during the Quaternary giving rise to two vicariant species, E. atrata in the humid east and E. tiavato in the dry west. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Gomes, Anderson José Baia; Nagamachi, Cleusa Yoshiko; Rodrigues, Luis Reginaldo Ribeiro; Benathar, Thayse Cristine Melo; Ribas, Talita Fernanda Augusto; O'Brien, Patricia Caroline Mary; Yang, Fengtang; Ferguson-Smith, Malcolm Andrew; Pieczarka, Julio Cesar
The subtribe Vampyressina (sensu Baker et al. 2003) encompasses approximately 43 species and seven genera and is a recent and diversified group of New World leaf-nosed bats specialized in fruit eating. The systematics of this group continues to be debated mainly because of the lack of congruence between topologies generated by molecular and morphological data. We analyzed seven species of all genera of vampyressine bats by multidirectional chromosome painting, using whole-chromosome-painting probes from Carollia brevicauda and Phyllostomus hastatus. Phylogenetic analyses were performed using shared discrete chromosomal segments as characters and the Phylogenetic Analysis Using Parsimony (PAUP) software package, using Desmodontinae as outgroup. We also used the Tree Analysis Using New Technology (TNT) software. The result showed a well-supported phylogeny congruent with molecular topologies regarding the sister taxa relationship of Vampyressa and Mesophylla genera, as well as the close relationship between the genus Chiroderma and Vampyriscus. Our results supported the hypothesis that all genera of this subtribe have compound sex chromosome systems that originated from an X-autosome translocation, an ancestral condition observed in the Stenodermatinae. Additional rearrangements occurred independently in the genus Vampyressa and Mesophylla yielding the X1X1X2X2/X1X2Y sex chromosome system. This work presents additional data supporting the hypothesis based on molecular studies regarding the polyphyly of the genus Vampyressa and its sister relationship to Mesophylla.
Rocha, Patrício A da; Pereira, Arivania S; Silvestre, Saulo M; Santana, José Paulo; Beltão-Mendes, Raone; Zortéa, Marlon; Ferrari, Stephen F
Until now, the consumption of leaves by bats has been considered rare or sporadic, even among the herbivorous families Pteropodidae and Phyllostomidae. Among the phyllostomids there are reports of folivory in the genera Artibeus and Platyrrhinus, based on opportunistic observations. Here, we conducted behavioural sampling using camera-trapping in the roost of a colony of Platyrrhinus lineatus already known to consume leaves during the dry and wet seasons, in order to investigate the frequency of leaf consumption, as well as eventual seasonal differences. We observed feeding activity in 80.5% of sampling nights, where fruit was present in 90.3% and leaves at 80.6%, with no significant differences between the consumption of items. When analyzing video recordings, we observed feeding activity in 22.2% of the samples, in which the consumption of fruits was significantly more frequent than the consumption of leaves. We also observed seasonal variation, with the consumption of leaves being significantly higher than that of fruits during the dry season, whereas in the rainy season, fruits were consumed significantly more frequently. Fruits and leaves were consumed in equal proportions during the night, with no differences between the early and late night. Our findings show that the consumption of leaves by herbivorous bats may be more widespread than previously thought. Leaves may often be a regular food item rather than a fallback. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.
Jebb, David; Foley, Nicole M; Puechmaille, Sébastien J; Teeling, Emma C
In this study, we report the complete mitochondrial genome of the Greater Mouse-Eared Bat, Myotis myotis. The mitogenome is 17 213 bp with base composition A (34.2%), G (13%), C (22.4%), and T (30.5%). The genome shows conserved synteny with other mammalian mitogenomes, containing 13 protein-coding genes, 2 ribosomal RNA genes, 22 transfer RNA genes, and 1 control region (D-Loop). The majority of the genes are encoded on the H-Strand, except for ND6 and eight tRNAs. All protein-coding genes start with the ATG start codon, except for ND2, ND3, and ND5 which begin with ATT or ATA. Seven protein-coding genes terminated in a canonical stop codon, TAA or TAG, five contain incomplete stop codons, T or TA. Cytochrome b terminates in the mitochondria specific stop codon AGA. This mitogenome provides a valuable resource for future studies of M. myotis and other bat and mammal species.
Hernández-Canchola, Giovani; León-Paniagua, Livia
With 22 species, Sturnira is the most speciose genus of frugivorous Neotropical bats. Sturnira parvidens inhabits lowland tropical areas from Mexico to Central America. The elevation of this taxon to species level was recent, and discrepancies with respect to its geographic limits and phylogenetic position continue to exist. In order to identify genetic and ecological processes likely involved in the diversification and current distribution of S. parvidens, we evaluated relationships, researched phylogeographic and demographic history, and tested the divergence/conservatism of the climatic niche of this bat. We used data from mitochondrial loci (cytochrome b and the hypervariable D-loop region I) and the nuclear recombination activating gene 1, in 173 samples of S. parvidens and 77 samples of related species. We performed Bayesian analyses to infer phylogenetic relationships and analyzed phylogeographic structure, genetic diversity, divergence times and historical demography. Sturnira bakeri is the sister group of S. parvidens, and inhabits Western Ecuador. The two species diverged c. 1.84Ma, and their distributions are disjunct and separated by Sturnira luisi. Within S. parvidens there are two haplogroups with nearly allopatric distributions that are limited to the Sierra Madre del Sur, on the Mexican Pacific Slope. The divergence time between haplogroups was c. 0.423Ma and we detected signals of demographic expansion. We also analyzed 526 occurrence data of S. parvidens to test for changes in environmental niche of this species. We detected signals of divergence of climatic niche, mainly in temperature and seasonality variables. Likely, both genetic and ecological processes have shaped the evolutionary history of S. parvidens. Despite many climatic fluctuations during the Pleistocene, only the most intense oscillations had an impact on these bats. In addition, ecological differentiation prevents admixture of genetic lineages that are in contact and lack apparent
Sylvia Ceppas Teixeira
Full Text Available A preliminary survey of bats species from the Serra da Tiririca State Park is presented. Two hundred and seventy two bats of 20 species were collected. Comments about reproduction and feeding habits of the captured species are included.
PABLO J. GAUDIOSO
Full Text Available ABSTRACT Here we present detailed descriptions and comparisons of the axial skeleton of seven species of bats belonging to five subfamilies of Phyllostomidae of different trophic guilds. The material examined consisted of 34 complete skeletons of seven species. For five of the studied species, previous descriptions have not been conducted, and for the vampires only limited information is available, so that descriptions for these species are here completed. The axial skeleton has characters that allow grouping of the species phylogenetically of the same subfamily and by feeding habits. At the same time, there are characters that associate species from different subfamilies with different types of diet or ways to obtain food.
Ma, Jin-You; Yu, Yan; Peng, Wen-Feng
A new species of Mesotretes (Trematoda: Mesotretidae) parasitizing the small intestine of Rhinolophus ferrumequinum was obtained by the examination of 48 bats collected from 4 localities in Henan Province, China, from August 2003 to January 2005. This species, Mesotretes jiyuanensis n. sp., is similar to Mesotretes orientalis and Mesotretes hangzhouensis, but mainly differs from them in the ratio of the oral sucker and the ventral sucker, and the distance of the intestinal bifurcation from anterior edge of acetabulum, as well as from the former in the extension of the vitellarium. Mesotretes jiyuanensis n. sp. differs from Mesotretes peregrinus chiefly in the shape of the testes and the distribution of cuticular spines. The ratio of the oral sucker and the ventral sucker in this species also differs from that of M. peregrinus.
Santos, Renata T S; Pires, Laís R M; Albernaz, Edna S S; Andrade, Cleber S; Santiago, Cornélio S; Morielle-Versute, Eliana; Taboga, Sebastião R; Beguelini, Mateus R
Bats are distributed worldwide from tropical to temperate regions. Despite their wide geographical radiation and advances in studies using evolutionary approaches, aspects related to the reproduction of these animals remain poorly explored, especially those related to the male reproductive accessory glands (RAGs). Thus, the aim of this study was to analyze the morphophysiology of the male RAGs in the bat Artibeus lituratus. The RAGs in A. lituratus are composed of a compact intra-abdominal glandular complex, consisting of the prostate with two prostatic regions (ventral and dorsal), plus Littre glands and a pair of extra-abdominal bulbourethral glands. The ventral region of the prostate has an epithelium with variable morphology, due to its holocrine type of secretion. In contrast, the dorsal region has a typical cubic-to-columnar pseudostratified epithelium. Both regions contain two cell types, basal and secretory cells. Similar to the epithelial morphology, the secretion also varies, with the ventral region containing numerous PAS-positive globular vesicles, whereas the dorsal region has a more fluid, hyaline and PAS-negative secretion. Littre glands are dispersed in the connective tissue of the urethra, while the bulbourethral glands are located in the penile root, both glands with cubic-to-columnar pseudostratified epithelium and globular PAS-positive secretion. The results demonstrate that the RAGs of A. lituratus are composed of two prostatic regions, ventral and dorsal, and urethral and bulbourethral glands, with no seminal vesicles. Each prostatic region has unique and distinctive characteristics, with the ventral region presenting an exclusive holocrine nature and the dorsal region having similarities to the ventral prostate of rodents. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Velazco, Paúl M; Patterson, Bruce D
The Yellow-shouldered bats, Genus Sturnira, are widespread, diverse, and abundant throughout the Neotropical Region, but little is known of their phylogeny and biogeography. We collected 4409 bp of DNA from three mitochondrial (cyt-b, ND2, D-loop) and two nuclear (RAG1, RAG2) sequences from 138 individuals representing all but two recognized species of Sturnira and five other phyllostomid bats used as outgroups. The sequence data were subjected to maximum parsimony, maximum likelihood, and Bayesian inference analyses. Results overwhelmingly support the monophyly of the genus Sturnira but not continued recognition of Corvira as a subgenus; the two species (bidens and nana) allocated to that group constitute separate, basal branches on the phylogeny. A total of 21 monophyletic putatively species-level groups were recovered; pairs were separated by an average 7.09% (SD=1.61) pairwise genetic distance in cyt-b, and three of these groups are apparently unnamed. Several well-supported clades are evident, including a complex of seven species formerly confused with S. lilium, a species that is actually limited to the Brazilian Shield. We used four calibration points to construct a time-tree for Sturnira, using BEAST. Sturnira diverged from other stenodermatines in the mid-Miocene, and by the end of that epoch (5.3 Ma), three basal lineages were present. Most living species belong to one of two clades, A and B, which appeared and diversified shortly afterwards, during the Pliocene. Both parsimony (DIVA) and likelihood (Lagrange) methods for reconstructing ancestral ranges indicate that the radiation of Sturnira is rooted in the Andes; all three basal lineages (in order, bidens, nana, and aratathomasi) have strictly or mainly Andean distributions. Only later did Sturnira colonize the Pacific lowlands (Chocó) and thence Central America. Sturnira species that are endemic to Central America appeared after the final emergence of the Panamanian landbridge ~3 Ma. Despite its
Odendaal, Lizelle J; Jacobs, David S
We investigated intraspecific variation in echolocation calls of the Cape horseshoe bat, Rhinolophus capensis, by comparing echolocation and associated morphological parameters among individuals from three populations of this species. The populations were situated in the center and at the western and eastern limits of the distribution of R. capensis. The latter two populations were situated in ecotones between vegetation biomes. Ecotone populations deviated slightly from the allometric relationship between body size and peak frequency for the genus, and there was no relationship between these variables within R. capensis. Nasal chamber length was the best predictor of peak frequency but not correlated with body size. The evolution of echolocation thus appears to have been uncoupled from body size in R. capensis. Furthermore, females used higher frequencies than males, which imply a potential social role for peak frequency. The differences in peak frequency may have originated from random founder effects and then compounded by genetic drift and/or natural selection. The latter may have acted directly on peak frequency altering skull parameters involved in echolocation independently of body size, resulting in the evolution of local acoustic signatures.
Full Text Available Abstract The present paper summarizes the results of 3 years of observation made at six month intervals for six months at a time (18 field surveys in a man-made cave in Northern Latium (Central Italy from April 1992 to April 1995. Its aim is to analyze the main structural and dynamic features of a bat community which hibernates at the shelter. Rhinolophus ferrumequinum and especially Rhinolophus euryale are the most abundant species. Population dynamics of both species as well as that of Rhinoluphus hipposideros show higher levels of abundance between December and February of each semester. In mid-winter, large and sometimes mixed aggregations of Rhinolophus ferrumequinum and Rhinolophus euryale in deep hypothermia occur. A small number of Rhinolophus hipposideros, mainly adult males, was observed. The paper compares the structure of this community to the structure of another community of the same district which has been previously analyzed, in which Vespertilionidae, especially Miniopterus schreibersi, are much more abundant. Despite the difference in species composition, body size was found to be a significant and common feature (as highlighted by forearm length, of the dominant species in both communities, Rhinolophus euryale and Miniopterus schreibersi respectively.
Vuong Tan Tu
Full Text Available In Southeast Asia, bats of the genus Tylonycteris Peters, 1872 have traditionally been classified into two wide-ranging species, T. pachypus (Temminck, 1840 and T. robustula Thomas, 1915. Our comparative phylogeographic analyses based on two mitochondrial and seven nuclear genes, combined with our multivariate morphological analyses, show that these species actually represent cryptic species complexes that share a similar biogeographic history in three major regions, i.e., Sundaland, southern Indochina, and northern Indochina. Our molecular dating estimates suggest that Pleistocene climatic oscillations and sea level changes have repeatedly isolated ancestral populations of Tylonycteris spp. in distant bamboo forest refugia. The analyses indicate, however, that populations of the T. pachypus complex were less affected by forest fragmentation in mainland Southeast Asia than those of the T. robustula complex. Accordingly, we propose several taxonomic changes within the genus Tylonycteris: the species T. fulvida and T. malayana are revalidated, and a new species, T. tonkinensis Tu, Csorba, Ruedi & Hassanin sp. nov., endemic to northern Indochina, is described.
Mário Pinzan Scatena
Full Text Available To establish a technique which minimized the effects of fixation on the extraction of DNA from formalin-fixed tissues preserved in scientific collections we extracted DNA samples from fixed tissues using different methods and evaluated the effect of the different procedures on PCR and sequencing analysis. We investigated muscle and liver tissues from museum specimens of five species of fruit-eating (frugivorous bats of the Neotropical genus Artibeus (Chiroptera, Phyllostomidae: A. fimbriatus, A. lituratus, A. jamaicensis, A. obscurus, and A. planirostris. The results indicated that treatment of tissues in buffered solutions at neutral pH and about 37 °C for at least four days improves the quality and quantity of extracted DNA and the quality of the amplification and sequencing products. However, the comparison between the performance of DNA obtained from fixed and fresh tissues showed that, in spite of the fact that both types of tissue generate reliable sequences for use in phylogenetic analyses, DNA samples from fixed tissues presented a larger rate of errors in the different stages of the study. These results suggest that DNA extracted from formalin-fixed tissue can be used in molecular studies of Neotropical Artibeus bats and that our methodology may be applicable to other animal groups.
Patrícia Helena Gallo
Full Text Available Generally, natural environments have been transformed into small forest remnants, with the consequent habitat loss and species extinction. The North Paraná State is not an exception, since only 2 to 4% of the original ecosystem occurs in small fragments of Stational Semidecidual Forest. We studied the species richness and abundance of bats in two forest fragments from the Fazenda Congonhas, in Rancho Alegre city, Paraná State, Brazil. Four samplings were undertaken in a legally protected native area (107.8ha and in a reforested area (11.8ha between April 2007 and March 2008. Samplings began at nightfall and lasted six hours, during two consecutive nights in each location. The individuals were captured using eight mist nets, with the same capture effort in both environments. A total of 397 individuals, 14 species and 10 genera were captured in the native area; while in the reforested area, 105 individuals, six species and four genera. Artibeus lituratus was the most common species in both fragments (n=328, 65.3%, followed by Artibeus fimbriatus (n=44, 8.8% and Artibeus jamaicensis (n=30, 6.0%. Other species including Platyrrhinus lineatus, Carollia perspicillata, Sturnira lilium, Chrotopterus auritus, Desmodus rotundus, Michronycteris megalotis, Phyllostomus hastatus, Phyllostomus discolor, Myoti levis, Myotis nigricans and Lasiurus blossevillii, accounted for 19.9% of the captures. The native area presented higher values of species richness (S=14 and diversity (H’=1.4802 in comparison to the reforested area (S=6, H’=0.57015. The t-test evidenced a significant difference between diversity among the sites (t=7.1075. Chao 1 index indicated that the sampling effort recorded approximately 78% from the total species richness for the native area and 75% for the reforested area. Therefore, the preservation of the forest fragment is essential since it provides habitat for a diverse community of bats. Forest management and reforestation actions may
Liu, He-Qun; Wei, Jing-Kuan; Li, Bo; Wang, Ming-Shan; Wu, Rui-Qi; Rizak, Joshua D; Zhong, Li; Wang, Lu; Xu, Fu-Qiang; Shen, Yong-Yi; Hu, Xin-Tian; Zhang, Ya-Ping
Dim-light vision is present in all bats, but is divergent among species. Old-World fruit bats (Pteropodidae) have fully developed eyes; the eyes of insectivorous bats are generally degraded, and these bats rely on well-developed echolocation. An exception is the Emballonuridae, which are capable of laryngeal echolocation but prefer to use vision for navigation and have normal eyes. In this study, integrated methods, comprising manganese-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MEMRI), f-VEP and RNA-seq, were utilized to verify the divergence. The results of MEMRI showed that Pteropodidae bats have a much larger superior colliculus (SC)/ inferior colliculus (IC) volume ratio (3:1) than insectivorous bats (1:7). Furthermore, the absolute visual thresholds (log cd/m(2)•s) of Pteropodidae (-6.30 and -6.37) and Emballonuridae (-3.71) bats were lower than those of other insectivorous bats (-1.90). Finally, genes related to the visual pathway showed signs of positive selection, convergent evolution, upregulation and similar gene expression patterns in Pteropodidae and Emballonuridae bats. Different results imply that Pteropodidae and Emballonuridae bats have more developed vision than the insectivorous bats and suggest that further research on bat behavior is warranted.
Arnone,Ives Simões; Trajano,Eleonora; Pulchério-Leite,Atenisi; Passos,Fernando de Camargo
In Brazil, bat migrations have been inferred based on seasonal variations in bat abundances observed for several species, probably as a result of variations in temperature and food availability. However, direct evidence of individual medium to long distance (> 10 km) movements, based on marked specimens, is restricted to large frugivorous bats, genus Artibeus (Phyllostomidae). We report the longest bat movement recorded in Brazil, along 113 km in a straight line, difference in altitude of 738...
Fernando C. Passos
Full Text Available This study was carried out at the Intervales State Park, an Atlantic Rain Forest area in Southeastern Brazil. Bats were monthly mist netted over a full year, and fecal samples were collected for dietary analysis. The seeds found in each sample were identified in the laboratory under a stereoscopic microscope by comparison with seeds taken from ripe fruits collected in the study area. Three hundred and seventy one bats were collected, of which 316 (85.2% were frugivorous. The total number of fecal samples with seeds and/or pulp was 121. Sturnira lilium (E. Geoffroy, 1810 was the most abundant species in the study area (n = 157 captures and Solanaceae fruits accounted for 78.5% of the fecal samples with seeds (n = 56. Artibeus fimbriatus Gray, 1838 (n = 21 samples fed mostly on Cecropiaceae (38% and Moraceae fruits (24%, and Artibeus lituratus (Olfers, 1818 (n = 7 samples on Cecropiaceae (57% and Moraceae (29%. Carollia perspicillata (Linnaeus, 1758 (n = 16 samples fed mostly on Piperaceae fruits (56,3%, but Solanaceae (31,3% and Rosaceae seeds (12,5% were also found in feces. Overall, seeds found in bat feces belong to eight plant families: Solanaceae (n = 67 samples; Cecropiaceae (n = 14; Piperaceae (n = 14; Moraceae (n = 8; Rosaceae (n = 3; Cucurbitaceae (n = 3; Cluseaceae (n = 1, and Araceae (n = 1. The close association of different bat species with fruits of certain plant families and genus may be related to a possible mechanism of resource partitioning that shapes the structure of the community.
Nélio Roberto dos Reis
Full Text Available Study carried out within the urban perimeter of Londrina, which is located in the North of the state of Paraná. The objectives were the identification of urban species of bats and diurnal roosts used by them and the verification of the problems they can cause to the population. The fire brigade, the Autarquia Municipal do Ambiente de Londrina (Municipal Environment Autarchy of Londrina, the Biology Department of the Universidade Estadual de Londrina (State University of Londrina and local residents helped spot the roosts. The collections were carried out in regular intervals between April 1998 and March 1999. By the end of them, 815 bats of 23 different species had been captured. Among these, 12 were found near or inside human constructions: Noctilio albiventris Desmarest, 1818; Artibeits lituratus (Olfers, 1818; Platyrrhinus lineatus (E. Geoffroy, 1810; Eptesicus brasiliensis Desmarest 1819; Lasiurus bore-alls (Muller 1776; Lasiurus ega (Gervais, 1856; Eumops glaucinus (Wagner, 1843; Molossus rufus (E. Geoffroy, 1805; Molossus molossus (Pallas, 1766; Nyctinomops laticaudatus (E. Geoffroy, 1805; Nyctinomops macrotis (Gray, 1840 e Tadarida brasiliensis (i. Geoffroy, 1824. Roost sites comprised expansion joints, roofs, attics and parks, among others. It can be concluded that bats are treated as undesirable animals by the population due to the lack of knowledge about the subject.
Reproductive ecology of Commerson's leaf-nosed bats Hipposideros commersoni (Chiroptera: Hipposideridae) in South-Central Africa: interactions between seasonality and large body size; and implications for conservation.
Cibele Maria Vianna Zanon
Full Text Available The present study aimed to inventory of bats species present in an urban area, located within the main campus of the State University of Maringá, northwestern Paraná State, and to present data on the diet, reproduction, and activity times of the captured species. Collections were performed monthly, between September 2007 and August 2008, and 377 individuals were captured, belonging to four species from the Phyllostomidae family: Artibeus lituratus (90%, Platyrrhinus lineatus (6.4%, Sturnira lilium (2.4%, and Carollia perspicillata (1.3%. The types of fruit ingested consisted especially of Cecropiaceae, Moraceae, Myrtaceae, Piperaceae and Solanaceae. Among the captured exemplars, 51% were female and 49% male. No pregnant females of A. lituratus or males with descended testicles were captured in autumn, and the largest recorded numbers of these groups were verified in winter. With regard to lactating females, A. lituratus was sampled year-round, with predominance during the warmer season. In spite of the low species diversity, the campus area is used by frugivore species that are generalists and are able to feed and reproduce in urbanized areas. In order to increase that diversity, management programs should be implemented so that urbanization and Chiroptera diversity can coexist with lower risks and losses to ecosystems.
Moras, Ligiane Martins; Bernardi, Leopoldo Ferreira de Oliveira; Graciolli, Gustavo; Gregorin, Renato
A total of 71 bat flies belonging to families Nycteribiidae and Streblidae, and 37 mites were collected on 12 species of bats (Phyllostomidae and Vespertilionidae) from the Chapada do Abanador (Minas Gerais, Brazil), between July 2009 and April 2010. Two new occurrences of ectoparasites were recorded on Histiotus velatus (bat fly Basilia producta) and on Carollia perspicillata (mite Parichoronyssus bakeri). Five new occurrences were recorded for the state of Minas Gerais, increasing the range for bat flies Anatrichobius passosi, Paraeuctenodes similis, Basilia juquiensis, Basilia producta and for mite Periglischrus vargasi. Moreover, two new species of mites were recorded for Brazil (P. bakeri and Macronyssus aff. leislerianus). With regard to infracommunities, the most frequent association was between Anastrebla modestini and Exastinion clovisi on bat Anoura geoffroyi. This study contributed to characterize the fauna of bat ectoparasites in representative but poorly-sampled environments of the Atlantic Forest, the campos de altitude (high altitude grasslands) and cloud forests of southern Minas Gerais.
Presents information about bats, including definitions and descriptions of the characteristics of bats. Provides teaching activities such as "Bat and Math,""A Bat Like That,""Bat Party,""Ears in the Dark," and "The Big Bat Mystery." Contains reproducible handouts and quizzes. (TW)
Fullard, J. H.
The islands of Hawai'i offer a unique opportunity for studying the auditory ecology of moths and bats since this habitat has a single species of bat, the Hawaiian hoary bat (Lasiurus cinereus semotus), which exerts the entire predatory selection pressure on the ears of sympatric moths. I compared the moth wings discarded by foraging bats with the number of surviving moths on the island of Kaua'i and concluded that the endemic noctuid Haliophyle euclidias is more heavily preyed upon than similar-sized endemic (e.g. Agrotis diplosticta) and adventive (Agrotis ipsilon and Pseudaletia unipuncta) species. Electrophysiological examinations indicated that, compared with species less preyed upon, H. euclidias has lower auditory sensitivities to the bat's social and echolocation calls, which will result in shorter detection distances of the bat. The poor ears of H. euclidias suggest that this moth coevolved with the bat using non-auditory defences that resulted in auditory degeneration. This moth now suffers higher predation because it is drawn away from its normal habitat by the man-made lights that are exploited by the bat. PMID:11429137
Lays C. Parolin
Full Text Available Abstract The frugivorous phyllostomid bat genera Artibeus , Carollia and Sturnira are important seed dispersers in the Neotropics, and exhibit supposed preferences for fruits of the genus Ficus , Piper and Solanum , respectively. We performed a quantified literature review to test the hypothesis that interactions with plants are consistent throughout the bats´ geographic ranges. Through an extensive literature review we obtained a total of 4,448 records of fruit consumption from 180 publications. To test which fruits were most frequently consumed across the Neotropical region and in each of its component countries these data were organized by bat species and country. In general, considering the 176 botanical genera eaten by these bats, the results showed a high consumption frequency of Ficus (24.0% by Artibeus , Piper (38.7% by Carollia and Solanum (31.0% by Sturnira . Additionally, our findings support the hypothesis of diet consistency throughout the geographic range of these genera. We suggest that this consistency is related to the wide distribution of the study groups (both bats and plants, the phenology of the zoochoric species consumed, the spatial fidelity of bats and the foraging patterns of the different bat species.
Hornok, Sándor; Görföl, Tamás; Estók, Péter; Tu, Vuong Tan; Kontschán, Jenő
In a recent study on ixodid bat ticks from Eurasia, a high genetic difference was found between Ixodes vespertilionis from Europe and Vietnam. Accordingly, it was proposed that I. vespertilionis is a species complex, with at least one additional, hitherto undescribed species. The aim of the present study was to investigate the morphology of bat ticks from Vietnam and to assess their taxonomic status in comparison with those collected in Europe. Ixodid bat ticks (two females and two nymphs) collected from the pomona leaf-nosed bat (Hipposideros pomona) (Hipposideridae) and intermediate horseshoe bat (Rhinolophus affinis) (Rhinolophidae) in Vietnam showed major morphological differences from European isolates of I. vespertilionis, including the shape of the scutum, the enclosure and shape of porose areas, the presence of a caudo-lateral collar-like ridge ventrally on the basis capituli, polytrich coxae with short setae, and grouped (non-linear) arrangement of anterior pit sensillae in Haller's organ. In this study the female and the nymph of an ixodid bat tick species from Vietnam are described for the first time. The genetic and morphological differences between I. vespertilionis Koch, 1844 and these bat ticks from Vietnam justify the status of the latter as a distinct species, Ixodes collaris Hornok n. sp.
Sharifi, Mozafar; Taghinezhad, Najmeh; Mozafari, Fatema; Vaissi, Somaye
We studied variation of ectoparasite load in a free ranging populations of Mehely's horseshoe bat (Rhinolophus mehelyi) on five successive occasions in a nursery roost in western Iran. In total, 87 Rhinolophus mehelyi were captured. The patterns of abundance differed greatly among parasite species but total parasite load was markedly higher in pregnant females in spring and early summer and lower in solitary males. On average, 90% of bats were infested by Eyndhovenia sp. with a mean intensity of 13.79 individuals per bat. Penicillidia sp. and one species from Streblidae were found in 66.7% and 11.49% of bats with parasite load of 2.31 and 1.8 parasite per bat, respectively. Using ratio of forearm length to body mass as an indication of bat health the correlation coefficient between parasite load and the health indicator was 0.002 for males and 0.06 for females indicating that parasite load has no apparent impact on bat's health.
Shen, Yong-Yi; Liu, Jie; Irwin, David M; Zhang, Ya-Ping
Rhodopsin, encoded by the gene Rhodopsin (RH1), is extremely sensitive to light, and is responsible for dim-light vision. Bats are nocturnal mammals that inhabit poor light environments. Megabats (Old-World fruit bats) generally have well-developed eyes, while microbats (insectivorous bats) have developed echolocation and in general their eyes were degraded, however, dramatic differences in the eyes, and their reliance on vision, exist in this group. In this study, we examined the rod opsin gene (RH1), and compared its evolution to that of two cone opsin genes (SWS1 and M/LWS). While phylogenetic reconstruction with the cone opsin genes SWS1 and M/LWS generated a species tree in accord with expectations, the RH1 gene tree united Pteropodidae (Old-World fruit bats) and Yangochiroptera, with very high bootstrap values, suggesting the possibility of convergent evolution. The hypothesis of convergent evolution was further supported when nonsynonymous sites or amino acid sequences were used to construct phylogenies. Reconstructed RH1 sequences at internal nodes of the bat species phylogeny showed that: (1) Old-World fruit bats share an amino acid change (S270G) with the tomb bat; (2) Miniopterus share two amino acid changes (V104I, M183L) with Rhinolophoidea; (3) the amino acid replacement I123V occurred independently on four branches, and the replacements L99M, L266V and I286V occurred each on two branches. The multiple parallel amino acid replacements that occurred in the evolution of bat RH1 suggest the possibility of multiple convergences of their ecological specialization (i.e., various photic environments) during adaptation for the nocturnal lifestyle, and suggest that further attention is needed on the study of the ecology and behavior of bats.
Shen, Yong-Yi; Liu, Jie; Irwin, David M.; Zhang, Ya-Ping
Rhodopsin, encoded by the gene Rhodopsin (RH1), is extremely sensitive to light, and is responsible for dim-light vision. Bats are nocturnal mammals that inhabit poor light environments. Megabats (Old-World fruit bats) generally have well-developed eyes, while microbats (insectivorous bats) have developed echolocation and in general their eyes were degraded, however, dramatic differences in the eyes, and their reliance on vision, exist in this group. In this study, we examined the rod opsin gene (RH1), and compared its evolution to that of two cone opsin genes (SWS1 and M/LWS). While phylogenetic reconstruction with the cone opsin genes SWS1 and M/LWS generated a species tree in accord with expectations, the RH1 gene tree united Pteropodidae (Old-World fruit bats) and Yangochiroptera, with very high bootstrap values, suggesting the possibility of convergent evolution. The hypothesis of convergent evolution was further supported when nonsynonymous sites or amino acid sequences were used to construct phylogenies. Reconstructed RH1 sequences at internal nodes of the bat species phylogeny showed that: (1) Old-World fruit bats share an amino acid change (S270G) with the tomb bat; (2) Miniopterus share two amino acid changes (V104I, M183L) with Rhinolophoidea; (3) the amino acid replacement I123V occurred independently on four branches, and the replacements L99M, L266V and I286V occurred each on two branches. The multiple parallel amino acid replacements that occurred in the evolution of bat RH1 suggest the possibility of multiple convergences of their ecological specialization (i.e., various photic environments) during adaptation for the nocturnal lifestyle, and suggest that further attention is needed on the study of the ecology and behavior of bats. PMID:20098620
Hornok, Sándor; Estók, Péter; Kováts, Dávid; Flaisz, Barbara; Takács, Nóra; Szőke, Krisztina; Krawczyk, Aleksandra; Kontschán, Jenő; Gyuranecz, Miklós; Fedák, András; Farkas, Róbert; Haarsma, Anne-Jifke; Sprong, Hein
Bats are among the most eco-epidemiologically important mammals, owing to their presence in human settlements and animal keeping facilities. Roosting of bats in buildings may bring pathogens of veterinary-medical importance into the environment of domestic animals and humans. In this context bats have long been studied as carriers of various pathogen groups. However, despite their close association with arthropods (both in their food and as their ectoparasites), only a few molecular surveys have been published on their role as carriers of vector-borne protozoa. The aim of the present study was to compensate for this scarcity of information. Altogether 221 (mostly individual) bat faecal samples were collected in Hungary and the Netherlands. The DNA was extracted, and analysed with PCR and sequencing for the presence of arthropod-borne apicomplexan protozoa. Babesia canis canis (with 99-100% homology) was identified in five samples, all from Hungary. Because it was excluded with an Ixodidae-specific PCR that the relevant bats consumed ticks, these sequences derive either from insect carriers of Ba. canis, or from the infection of bats. In one bat faecal sample from the Netherlands a sequence having the highest (99%) homology to Besnoitia besnoiti was amplified. These findings suggest that some aspects of the epidemiology of canine babesiosis are underestimated or unknown, i.e. the potential role of insect-borne mechanical transmission and/or the susceptibility of bats to Ba. canis. In addition, bats need to be added to future studies in the quest for the final host of Be. besnoiti.
Full Text Available Riassunto Ritrovamento del Vespertilio di Brandt Myotis brandtii (Eversmann, 1845 in Piemonte (Chiroptera, Vespertilionidae Viene riportata la cattura con mist-net di 5 maschi adulti di Vespertilio di Brandt Myotis brandtii, nell’agosto 2005, nei pressi dell’abitato di Devero (Baceno, VB, a 1827 metri d’altitudine, nel Parco Naturale Alpe Veglia e Alpe Devero. Tale dato rappresenta la prima segnalazione certa della specie in Piemonte. L’identificazione è stata effettuata sulla base delle caratteristiche dentarie e del pene. Sono fornite indicazioni sulle caratteristiche dei segnali di ecolocalizzazione ottenuti dopo il rilascio degli individui.
Dixon, J. W.
Full Text Available Adequate roost sites for hibernacula are an important factor in the distribution and abundance of temperate batspecies and knowledge of specific hibernacula is necessary to make sound management decisions. Caves are recognized asone of the most important roosting sites for bats, yet surveys in caves are uncommon in North America. This paper presentsdata on the distribution and abundance of bats hibernating in Iowa (U.S.A. caves and includes new hibernacula records.These are the first published records of bats in Iowa caves in almost 25 years.
de Almeida, Juliana Cardoso; Martins, Mayara Almeida; Guedes, Patrícia Gonçalves; Peracchi, Adriano Lucio; Serra-Freire, Nicolau Maues
A first survey of mite species that ectoparasitize bats in the states of Ceará and Mato Grosso was conducted. The specimens of bats and their mites were collected in areas of the Caatinga and Pantanal biomes. A total of 450 spinturnicids representing two genera and ten species was collected from 15 bat species in the Private Reserve of the Natural Patrimony Serra das Almas, Ceará State, Northeast Brazil and 138 spinturnicids represented by two genera and four species were found in seven bats species collected in Private Reserve of the Natural Patrimony Sesc Pantanal, Mato Grosso State, Central-Western Brazil. The occurrence of Cameronieta genus and the species Mesoperiglischrus natali as well as four new associations (Periglischrus iheringi - Chiroderma vizottoi; P. micronycteridis - Micronycteris sanborni; P. paracutisternus - Trachops cirrhosus; Spinturnix americanus - Myotis riparius) are registered for the first time in Brazil.
Almeida, Juliana; Serra-Freire, Nicolau; Peracchi, Adriano
Spinturnicid mites are ectoparasites that infest the wings of bats, and species of the genus Periglischrus Kolenati, 1857 are associated exclusively with bats of the family Phyllostomidae. We tested the hypothesis that a long-term evolutionary association led P. iheringi to choose very specific wing locations to infest the great fruit-eating bats, Artibeus lituratus. Seven anatomical wing regions and the uropatagium from 140 bats were analyzed and a total of 78 parasites were collected. Periglischrus iheringi had a significant preference for the plagiopatagium and dactylopatgium major wing regions (i.e., large, proximal regions) and infestation was directly correlated to area (r=0.9744). However, other factors may also influence mite choice, such as higher and more stable temperature and humidity, vascularization and lower risk of displacement.
Colín-Martínez, Helisama; Morales-Malacara, Juan B; García-Estrada, Carlos
This is the first complete assessment of the ectoparasite fauna on phyllostomid bats in a shaded coffee plantation in Mexico. The study was carried out at Finca San Carlos, in the municipality of Tapachula, southeastern Chiapas, Mexico. The bats were captured over three consecutive nights every month, from December 2005 to November 2006, using four mist nets. We captured 192 phyllostomid bats, representing 18 species, upon which 1,971 ectoparasites, belonging to 11 families and 65 species, were found. We found that 160 of the 192 captured bats were hosts to ectoparasites, giving an infestation prevalence of 83.3%. Of the 65 ectoparasitic species, 14 were classified as monoxenous and 17 as stenoxenous. More ectoparasites were recorded in the dry season (n = 1,439) than the wet season (n = 532), and we recorded some families of ectoparasite on particular areas of the bat body. An ordination of bat species, based on their ectoparasitic species community structure, formed groups at the subfamily level or lower taxonomic categories. We suggest that the close ectoparasite-host relationships could be examined as an additional tool to elucidate the taxonomic relationships between the hosts. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Carlos E.L. Esbérard
Full Text Available Some bat species are able to adapt to urban areas, where they find food and roosts. Despite the high number of parks in Brazilian cities, they did not yet raise the interest of most zoologists, except for some surveys of birds and butterflies. The objectives of the present study were: (i to inventory the bat species of Quinta da Boa Vista (QBV, a large (25 ha urban park centrally located in densely populated Rio de Janeiro, which is Brazil's second largest metropolis; (ii to compare the species richness observed in roosts with the richness recorded through mist netting in flight routes and near fruiting fig trees; and (iii to analyze recaptures of bats marked in this park and recaptured in other sites and vice-versa. Sampling totaled 104 sampling nights resulting in 3,256 captures (including 133 recaptures between April 1989 and December 2004. We also sampled roosts and received some specimens from park visitors and city workers. We documented 21 bat species, predominantly large frugivores. The number of expected species for this park was 24.0 ± 4.6, and the total sampled represented 87.5% of the expected. The recapture of bats marked in surrounding forest fragments and in QBV shows the importance of urban parks for the maintenance of bat diversity. Inspection of roosts produced two species that had not been captured with other methods. Sampling near fruiting fig trees did not differ in terms of richness from sampling carried out far from these trees or during their non-fruiting periods.
Patrícia Beloto Bertola
Full Text Available A total of 443 bat flies belonging to the families Nycteribiidae and Strelidae, were collected on 22 species of bats (Molossidae, Phyllostomidae, and Vespertilionidae from Parque Estadual da Cantareira (São Paulo, Brazil, between January, 2000 and January, 2001. Eighteen new occurrences of bat flies were recorded on Anoura geoffroyi (Anastrebla caudiferae, Glossophaga soricina (A. caudiferae, Sturnira lilium (Trichobius phyllostomae, T. furmani, and Paraeuctenodes similis, Artibeus lituratus (A. caudiferae, A. fimbriatus (Megistopoda proxima, A. obscurus (Metelasmus pseudopterus, Myotis nigricans (M. proxima, M. aranea, Paratrichobius longicrus, M. ruber (Anatrichobius passosi, Joblingia sp., M. levis (A. passosi, M. albescens (A. passosi, Basilia andersoni, and Histiotus velatus (M. aranea. Seven new occurrences were recorded for the state of São Paulo, increasing the range for T. tiptoni, T. furmani, M. proxima, Aspidoptera falcata, A. caudiferae, A. modestini and B. andersoni. The relationships between parasitism and host sex, reproductive stage, age hyperparasitism by fungi are discussed.
Smirnov, D G; Vekhnik, V P
A complex analysis of the food range of 15 bat species inhabiting floodplain ecosystems of the Samara Bend has been performed. It is shown that, in bats, an important component of the structuring of their communities is the division of food resources. The guild structure and position of species in the trophic space are described. Seven food guilds consisting of nonspecialized and specialized species are distinguished. It is noted that most species are characterized by a wide overlapping of their trophic niches, which may be a consequence of their weak competition in an environment that is rich in food resources.
Full Text Available The Brandt’s Bat (Myotis brandtii Eversmann, 1845 is one of the rarest bat species in Ukraine. There are only a few known locations of this species in summer and less known hibernacula in the whole country. Moreover, for territory of the north-eastern Ukraine are known only two underground bat hibernation sites with aggregation more than several tens of individuals. We undertook population surveys of winter aggregations in newly discovered and dug up abandoned sandstone mines in the Chuguev district of the Kharkiv Region (49°54′ N, 36°43′ E from 2007 through 2015. We also surveyed summer bat assemblages in the forests surrounding these mines in 2012. The mines’ microclimate conditions were as follows: temperature +6 °C - +10 °C and humidity 60-80 %. M. brandtii, M. daubentonii (Kuhl, 1817 and Plecotus auritus (Linnaeus, 1758 hibernate in the mines; the first species is most abundant by number of individuals. In midsummer 9 bat species were recorded including the three previously mentioned. M. daubentonii and P. auritus breed in surrounding forest, but M. brandtii does not. One recaptured individual of M. brandtii was minimum 6 years old, providing us the first recorded information on longevity of this species for Ukraine. The total number of bats hibernating in these mines is estimated to be up to 100 individuals; a hibernaculum with several tens of M. brandtii could be classified as more numerous for this species in Ukraine. For this reason, the system of mines in the Kharkiv region needs species protection status and an action plan for monitoring and management.
S.J. Presley; M.R. Willig; L.N. Saldanha; Jr. Wunderle; I. Castro-Arellano
Reduced-impact logging (RIL) represents a viable option for sustainable use of Neotropical lowland forests while minimizing negative effects on local biodiversity. Many Neotropical bats of the family Phyllostomidae provide ecosystem services associated with pollination and seed dispersal that promote the regeneration of disturbed areas; therefore, effects of RIL on...
Šrámek, J.; Gvoždík, Václav; Benda, P.
Roč. 167, č. 1 (2013), s. 165-190 ISSN 0024-4082 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA206/09/0888 Keywords : Arabia * bent-winged bats * cryptic species Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 2.658, year: 2013
A. S. Dias
Full Text Available Vampire bats are important agents in the field and currently regarded as the main reservoir in Latin America in the transmission of rabies of herbivores, thus, these animals are monitored by researchers and animal health protection services and suffer from populational control to minimize the impact of the occurrence of cases of rabies in domestic animals. Rabies is a zoonosis of 100% lethality. The presence of haematofagous flies have been observed in these animals. There of is to highlight the importance of these agents that are restricted parasites of bats and could be responsible for transmission of the rabies virus between them. It is also worth emphasizing the importance of assessing the distribution of these parasites of bats according to the climatic conditions of a given site, because these elements are essential to limit the distribution of these parasites. The presence of parasites in animals presents itself as an important element for understanding the mechanisms that are configured in the control of population of a given agent. The present study aimed to record the occurrence of flies in vampire bats in the Forest of Minas Gerais State.
Santos, João D; Meyer, Christoph F J; Ibáñez, Carlos; Popa-Lisseanu, Ana G; Juste, Javier
For elusive mammals like bats, colonization of new areas and colony formation are poorly understood, as is their relationship with the genetic structure of populations. Understanding dispersal and group formation behaviors is critical not only for a better comprehension of mammalian social dynamics, but also for guiding conservation efforts of rare and endangered species. Using nuclear and mitochondrial markers, we studied patterns of genetic diversity and differentiation among and within breeding colonies of giant noctule bats ( Nyctalus lasiopterus ), their relation to a new colony still in formation, and the impact of this ongoing process on the regionwide genetic makeup. Nuclear differentiation among colonies was relatively low and mostly nonsignificant. Mitochondrial variation followed this pattern, contrasting with findings for other temperate bat species. Our results suggest that this may indicate a recent population expansion. On average, female giant noctules were not more closely related to other colony members than to foreign individuals. This was also true for members of the newly forming colony and those of another, older group sampled shortly after its formation, suggesting that contrary to findings for other temperate bats, giant noctule colonies are not founded by relatives. However, mother-daughter pairs were found in the same populations more often than expected under random dispersal. Given this indication of philopatry, the lack of mitochondrial differentiation among most colonies in the region is probably due to the combination of a recent population expansion and group formation events.
Montoya-Bustamante, Sebastián; Rojas-Díaz, Vladimir; Torres-González, Alba Marina
In any ecosystem, fruits are resources that vary in time and space as well as in nutritional content. Coexistence of species from a trophic guild depends on the division and use of resources. Therefore, the organisms that depend on them as a food source, tend to show a certain degree of specialization. This way, understanding the factors that influence the dynamics of seed dispersal is important for the regeneration and conservation of tropical ecosystems. Our aim was to determine variation in consumption of Piper tuberculatum by fruit bat assemblages in the village of Robles (Jamundí, Valle del Cauca, Colombia). P. tuberculatum is a resource used not only by wildlife but also by people in the village of Robles. Bats were captured in mist nets between June and November 2014, their feces were collected, and the length of the forearm, wing area, leg length and mass were recorded. At the Universidad del Valle seed laboratory, fecal samples were washed, and their content determined. Of the 14 species captured, Sturnira lilium, Carollia brevicauda, Carollia perspicillata and Artibeus lituratus showed signs of having consumed P. tuberculatum. Sturnira lilium was the main consumer of P. tuberculatum fruits, with the greatest number of consumption events of fruit from this plant species, whereas the other bats showed more diversified consumption events. The greatest niche overlap was recorded between C. brevicauda and C. perspicillata, species that showed similar sizes (i.e., wing area and forearm length) followed by S. lilium and C. perspicillata. In contrast, A. lituratus showed the least niche overlap with the other three fruit bats captured. In conclusion, Sturnira lilium showed an interaction Sturnira-Piper, which is the result of low Solanum availability, and this bat species was the largest consumer of P. tuberculatum in the region.
Hu, Kai-Liang; Wei, Li; Zhu, Teng-Teng; Wang, Xu-Zhong; Zhang, Li-Biao
We investigated food (insect) availability in foraging areas utilized by the long-fingered bat Miniopterus fuliginosus using light traps, fish netting and fecal analysis. The dominant preys of M. fuliginosus were Lepidoptera (55%, by volume percent) and Coleoptera (38%) of a relatively large body size. M. fuliginosus has relatively long, narrow wings and a wing span of 6.58+/-0.12 and high wing loading of 9.85+/-0.83 N/m2. The echolocation calls of free flying M. fuliginosus were FM signals, with a pulse duration of 1.45+/-0.06 ms, interpulse interval of 63.08+/-21.55 ms, and low dominant frequency of 44.50+/-2.26 kHz. This study shows that the morphological characteristics and echolocation calls of long-fingered bats are closely linked to their predatory behavior.
Csorba, Gábor; Görföl, Tamás; Wiantoro, Sigit; Kingston, Tigga; Bates, Paul J J; Huang, Joe Chun-Chia
To date, three species of the genus Glischropus are recognized from the Indomalayan zoogeographic region-G. bucephalus from the Indochinese subregion, G. tylopus from the Sundaic subregion (Peninsular Thailand and Malaysia, Borneo, Sumatra, Moluccas) and G. javanus, restricted to Java. The investigation of the holotype and three topotype specimens of G. batjanus supported the view that the name was previously correctly regarded as the junior subjective synonym of G. tylopus. During review of material recently collected in southwestern Sumatra, Indonesia, one specimen of a yet undescribed species of Thick-thumbed bat was identified. G. aquilus n. sp. markedly differs from its congeners by its dark brown pelage, nearly black ear and tragus, and in skull proportions. The phylogenetic analysis based on cytb sequences also supports the specific distinctness of G. aquilus n. sp. Its discovery brings the count to 88 species of bats known from Sumatra.
Mohammad Nurul Islam
Full Text Available This note provides a morphological confirmation of the occurrence of Ratanaworabhans’s Fruit Bat Megaerops niphanae in Bangladesh. Although previously recorded in neighbouring territories in India, this constitutes the first country record for the taxon and highlights the current incompleteness of faunal knowledge and potential for future discoveries in the country. Greater survey effort and sustained investments into developing taxonomic capacity and museum collections in Bangladesh are required to realize this potential however.
Ruiz-Ramoni, Damián; Ramoni-Perazzi, Paolo; Muñoz-Romo, Mariana
Bimodal polyestry is the most common reproductive pattern in tropical bats, and it consists in producing one offspring per female twice a year. Reproductive patterns are closely related to rainfall regimes, frequently occurring twice a year in tropical regions. The goal of our study was to determine the reproductive pattern of the large fruit-eating bat, Artibeus amplus Handley, 1987 in a cave in the Venezuelan Andes inhabited by a large, stable colony. Thus, in this study we describe for the first time this important biological aspect of this unknown Neotropical bat species through the examination of external reproductive characteristics of males (inguinal or scrotal testes) and females (pregnant, lactating, post-lactating), based on 211 individuals (120 males and 91 females) captured between September 2008 and August 2009, in Cueva del Parque Las Escaleras, Estado Táchira, Venezuela. During this period of monthly sampling for a full year, most males displayed large scrotal testes, averaging 10 mm maximum length. The examination of females indicated that although pregnancy was first observed in November 2008, it reached a maximum during January and February 2009. Although adult males with scrotal testes throughout the year could imply that females have more than one pregnancy, our results suggested a seasonally monoestrous reproductive pattern for A. amplus. This study represents the first report of reproductive pattern for this poorly-known Neotropical frugivorous species. The observed monoestrous reproductive pattern supports the existence of synchronization between precipitation and reproduction. This synchronization has been frequently observed in most species of fruit bats. In this study, Artibeus amplus presumably adjust the parturition to anticipate the rainy season, as a strategy that allows maintenance of offspring during high availability of fruits.
Danielle B Morais
Full Text Available Due to the scarcity of information about patterns of spermatogenesis in bats, this study aimed to provide information on the testicular activity of the bat Sturnira lilium along the annual seasons. Thus, a series of morphometrical and stereological analyses were made using the testes of adult S. lilium in order to achieve a better understanding of the sperm production dynamics. Light and transmission electron microscopy analyses were performed in testicular fragments of animals captured during dry and rainy seasons. The testes followed the pattern of organization described for other mammals, and there were no morphological differences between organs collected either in dry or in rainy seasons. Each tubular cross-section in stage 1 was made of 0.5 type-A spermatogonia, 4.4 primary spermatocytes in preleptotene/leptotene, 3.7 in zygotene, 11.9 in pachytene, 35.6 round spermatids and 8.5 Sertoli cells. The mitotic and meiotic indexes were 15.4 and 2.9 cells, respectively, while the spermatogenesis yield was 68.7 cells. The testicular sperm reserves was 37.61×10(6 cells, and daily sperm production per gram of testis averaged 209.68×10(6 cells, both highest averages occurring in the rainy season. S. lilium male bats have a continuous reproductive pattern, high spermatogenesis yield and low support capacity by the Sertoli cells.
Santana, Sharlene E; Geipel, Inga; Dumont, Elizabeth R; Kalka, Margareta B; Kalko, Elisabeth K V
Ecological specialization and resource partitioning are expected to be particularly high in the species-rich communities of tropical vertebrates, yet many species have broader ecological niches than expected. In Neotropical ecosystems, Neotropical leaf-nosed bats (Phyllostomidae) are one of the most ecologically and functionally diverse vertebrate clades. Resource partitioning in phyllostomids might be achieved through differences in the ability to find and process food. We selected Micronycteris microtis, a very small (5-7 g) animalivorous phyllostomid, to explore whether broad resource use is associated with specific morphological, behavioral and performance traits within the phyllostomid radiation. We documented processing of natural prey and measured bite force in free-ranging M. microtis and other sympatric phyllostomids. We found that M. microtis had a remarkably broad diet for prey size and hardness. For the first time, we also report the consumption of vertebrates (lizards), which makes M. microtis the smallest carnivorous bat reported to date. Compared to other phyllostomids, M. microtis had the highest bite force for its size and cranial shape and high performance plasticity. Bite force and cranial shape appear to have evolved rapidly in the M. microtis lineage. High performance capacity and high efficiency in finding motionless prey might be key traits that allow M. microtis, and perhaps other species, to successfully co-exist with other gleaning bats.
Sharlene E Santana
Full Text Available Ecological specialization and resource partitioning are expected to be particularly high in the species-rich communities of tropical vertebrates, yet many species have broader ecological niches than expected. In Neotropical ecosystems, Neotropical leaf-nosed bats (Phyllostomidae are one of the most ecologically and functionally diverse vertebrate clades. Resource partitioning in phyllostomids might be achieved through differences in the ability to find and process food. We selected Micronycteris microtis, a very small (5-7 g animalivorous phyllostomid, to explore whether broad resource use is associated with specific morphological, behavioral and performance traits within the phyllostomid radiation. We documented processing of natural prey and measured bite force in free-ranging M. microtis and other sympatric phyllostomids. We found that M. microtis had a remarkably broad diet for prey size and hardness. For the first time, we also report the consumption of vertebrates (lizards, which makes M. microtis the smallest carnivorous bat reported to date. Compared to other phyllostomids, M. microtis had the highest bite force for its size and cranial shape and high performance plasticity. Bite force and cranial shape appear to have evolved rapidly in the M. microtis lineage. High performance capacity and high efficiency in finding motionless prey might be key traits that allow M. microtis, and perhaps other species, to successfully co-exist with other gleaning bats.
André B. Malekani
Full Text Available As part of biodiversity monitoring in the Kisangani Forest Region, a survey of bats was conducted in three protected areas, specifically Lomami, Yangambi and Epulu. In this pilot study, a total of 201 specimens were collected using Japanese nets of different lengths (6, 9 and 12 m long and a height of 2 m with a mesh size of 2 × 2 cm to capture bats. Captured specimens were identified using determination keys appropriate for the study area. The results of inventories in the three sites revealed that 201 specimens of captured bats belong to 2 sub-orders, 4 families, 9 genera and 12 species. The most abundant species were Epomops franqueti, Megaloglossus woermannii and Myotis bocagii. The following species, Epomops franqueti, Megaloglossus woermanii, Casinycteris argynnis, and Hipposideros caffer were found at all three sites. Based on the Shannon Index, it was observed that the Lomami site has a higher specific diversity than the two other areas (Yangambi and Epulu 1.74 against 1.51 and 1.42 respectively.
Czaplewski, Nicholas J
Thousands of vertebrate fossils have been recovered from the Gray Fossil Site, Tennessee, dating to the Miocene-Pliocene boundary. Among these are but eight specimens of bats representing two different taxa referable to the family Vespertilionidae. Comparison of the fossils with Neogene and Quaternary bats reveals that seven of the eight specimens pertain to a species of Eptesicus that cannot be distinguished from recent North American Eptesicus fuscus . The remaining specimen, a horizontal ramus with m3, is from a smaller vespertilionid bat that cannot confidently be assigned to a genus. Although many vespertilionid genera can be excluded through comparisons, and many extinct named taxa cannot be compared due to nonequivalence of preserved skeletal elements, the second taxon shows morphological similarities to small-bodied taxa with three lower premolar alveoli, three distinct m3 talonid cusps, and m3 postcristid showing the myotodont condition. It resembles especially Nycticeius humeralis and small species of Eptesicus . Eptesicus cf. E. fuscus potentially inhabited eastern North America continuously since the late Hemphillian land mammal age, when other evidence from the Gray Fossil Site indicates the presence in the southern Appalachian Mountains of a warm, subtropical, oak-hickory-conifer forest having autochthonous North American as well as allochthonous biogeographical ties to eastern Asia and tropical-subtropical Middle America.
Nicholas J. Czaplewski
Full Text Available Thousands of vertebrate fossils have been recovered from the Gray Fossil Site, Tennessee, dating to the Miocene-Pliocene boundary. Among these are but eight specimens of bats representing two different taxa referable to the family Vespertilionidae. Comparison of the fossils with Neogene and Quaternary bats reveals that seven of the eight specimens pertain to a species of Eptesicus that cannot be distinguished from recent North American Eptesicus fuscus. The remaining specimen, a horizontal ramus with m3, is from a smaller vespertilionid bat that cannot confidently be assigned to a genus. Although many vespertilionid genera can be excluded through comparisons, and many extinct named taxa cannot be compared due to nonequivalence of preserved skeletal elements, the second taxon shows morphological similarities to small-bodied taxa with three lower premolar alveoli, three distinct m3 talonid cusps, and m3 postcristid showing the myotodont condition. It resembles especially Nycticeius humeralis and small species of Eptesicus. Eptesicus cf. E. fuscus potentially inhabited eastern North America continuously since the late Hemphillian land mammal age, when other evidence from the Gray Fossil Site indicates the presence in the southern Appalachian Mountains of a warm, subtropical, oak-hickory-conifer forest having autochthonous North American as well as allochthonous biogeographical ties to eastern Asia and tropical-subtropical Middle America.
Santana, Sharlene E.; Geipel, Inga; Dumont, Elizabeth R.; Kalka, Margareta B.; Kalko, Elisabeth K. V.
Ecological specialization and resource partitioning are expected to be particularly high in the species-rich communities of tropical vertebrates, yet many species have broader ecological niches than expected. In Neotropical ecosystems, Neotropical leaf-nosed bats (Phyllostomidae) are one of the most ecologically and functionally diverse vertebrate clades. Resource partitioning in phyllostomids might be achieved through differences in the ability to find and process food. We selected Micronycteris microtis, a very small (5–7 g) animalivorous phyllostomid, to explore whether broad resource use is associated with specific morphological, behavioral and performance traits within the phyllostomid radiation. We documented processing of natural prey and measured bite force in free-ranging M. microtis and other sympatric phyllostomids. We found that M. microtis had a remarkably broad diet for prey size and hardness. For the first time, we also report the consumption of vertebrates (lizards), which makes M. microtis the smallest carnivorous bat reported to date. Compared to other phyllostomids, M. microtis had the highest bite force for its size and cranial shape and high performance plasticity. Bite force and cranial shape appear to have evolved rapidly in the M. microtis lineage. High performance capacity and high efficiency in finding motionless prey might be key traits that allow M. microtis, and perhaps other species, to successfully co-exist with other gleaning bats. PMID:22164308
Full Text Available The barbastelle bat, Barbastella barbastellus (Schreber, 1774 is a medium-sized, tree-dwelling vespertilionid classified as ?Endangered? in Italy; in western Europe it may be one of the rarest bat species. B. barbastellus shows roosting preferences that should be regarded as a key point in conservation protocols. We examined roost selection in a breeding population of B. barbastellus from the Abruzzo Lazio and Molise National Park (central Italy at three levels: woodland structure and management type; tree characteristics; and cavity characteristics. In 2001-2002, we fitted 31 adult B. barbastellus (29 lactating females, one pregnant female and one male with 0.48g radio-tags and tracked them to their roost-trees. The bats were tracked for 4.5 ± 3.7 days (range: 0-12 days. We located 33 roosts used by 25 subjects (1.8±1.2 roosts/bat, range 1-5. The bats switched roosts frequently: 13 bats used more than one tree over the study period. A chi-square analysis showed that the roosts were not distributed at random across woodland categories: unmanaged woodland was positively selected, whereas shelterwood-harvested woodland was used in proportion to its availability, and ?pastures+scattered trees? was avoided. Twenty out of 33 roost trees were dead Fagus sylvatica trees; conversely, living F. sylvatica dominated in a tree sample obtained at random; dead trees were used more than expected (Χ² test, P <0.001. Overall, roost trees were significantly taller and had a larger diameter at breast?s height and more cavities than random trees; they also had a lower percent canopy closure than random trees. To highlight which variables were actually associated with selection, we devised a logistic regression model. The full model was significant (P <0.001; removal of tree type and tree height affected the model significantly, but the other variables did not produce detectable effects. The
Shi, Huizhen; Dong, Ji; Irwin, David M; Zhang, Shuyi; Mao, Xiuguang
Transposition of mitochondrial DNA into the nucleus, which gives rise to nuclear mitochondrial DNAs (NUMTs), has been well documented in eukaryotes. However, very few studies have assessed the frequency of these transpositions during the evolutionary history of a specific taxonomic group. Here we used the horseshoe bats (Rhinolophus) as a case study to determine the frequency and relative timing of nuclear transfers of mitochondrial control region sequences. For this, phylogenetic and coalescent analyzes were performed on NUMTs and authentic mtDNA sequences generated from eight horseshoe bat species. Our results suggest at least three independent transpositions, including two ancient and one more recent, during the evolutionary history of Rhinolophus. The two ancient transpositions are represented by the NUMT-1 and -2 clades, with each clade consisting of NUMTs from almost all studied species but originating from different portions of the mtDNA genome. Furthermore, estimates of the most recent common ancestor for each clade corresponded to the time of the initial diversification of this genus. The recent transposition is represented by NUMT-3, which was discovered only in a specific subgroup of Rhinolophus and exhibited a close relationship to its mitochondrial counterpart. Our similarity searches of mtDNA in the R. ferrumequinum genome confirmed the presence of NUMT-1 and NUMT-2 clade sequences and, for the first time, assessed the extent of NUMTs in a bat genome. To our knowledge, this is the first study to report on the frequency of transpositions of mtDNA occurring before the common ancestry of a genus. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Seasonal variation is a key factor regulating energy metabolism and reproduction in several mammals, including bats. This study aimed to track seasonal changes in the energy reserves of the insectivorous bat Molossus molossus associated with its reproductive cycle. Adult males were collected during the four neotropical annual seasons in Viçosa - MG, Brazil. Blood and tissues were collected for metabolic analysis and testes were removed for histology and morphometry. Our results show that liver and breast muscle glycogen concentrations were significantly lower in winter. The adiposity index was significantly higher in the fall compared to winter and spring. Seminiferous tubules were greater in diameter in animals captured in fall and winter, indicating a higher investment in spermatic production during these seasons. The percentage of Leydig cells was higher in summer compared to fall and winter. We suggest that M. molossus presents a type of seasonal reproduction with two peaks of testicular activity: one in fall, with higher sperm production (spermatogenesis, and another in summer, with higher hormone production (steroidogenesis. The metabolic pattern may be associated with reproductive events, especially due to the highest fat storage observed in the fall, which coincides with the further development of the seminiferous tubules.
Falcão Fábio de C.
Full Text Available The Serra do Caraça Reserve is situated in the southern portion of the Espinhaço Mountain Range, and contains areas of "campos de altitude", "cerrado" and atlantic forest. This study had as its objective the registering of the bats species that occur in the reserve. The data collection was carried out in one year through monthly samplings, using mist nets set on trails, and also through hand capture. A total of 246 individuals were collected (0.72 bats/net-hour, distributed across 15 species, belonging to the families Phyllostomidae (83.0%; nine species, Vespertilionidae (12.5%; three species and Molossidae (4.5%; three species. The most abundant species were Sturnira lilium (E. Geoffroy, 1810 (n = 121, 60.5%, Myotis nigricans (Schinz, 1821 (n = 21, 10.5% and Platyrrhinus lineatus (E. Geoffroy, 1810 (n = 10, 5.0%, and less represented were Lasiurus blossevilli (Lesson y Garnot, 1826 (n = 2, 1.0%, Eumops perotis (Schinz, 1821 (n = 2, 1.0% e Vampyressa pusilla (Wagner, 1843 (n = 1, 0.5%. The richness of species found and the non-occurrence of phyllostomines in the reserve could be indicative of some level of forest disturbance.
Full Text Available Most natural forests have been converted for human use, restricting biological life to small forest fragments. Many animals, including some species of bats are disappearing and the list of these species grows every day. It seems that the destruction of the habitat is one of its major causes. This study aimed to analyze how this community of bats was made up in environments with different sizes and quality of habitat. Data from studies conducted in the region of Londrina, Parana, Brazil, from 1982 to 2000 were used. Originally, this area was covered by a semi deciduous forest, especially Aspidosperma polyneuron (Apocynaceae, Ficus insipida (Moraceae, Euterpe edulis (Arecaceae, Croton floribundus (Euforbiaceae, and currently, only small remnants of the original vegetation still exist. The results showed a decline in the number of species caught in smaller areas compared to the largest remnant. In about 18 years of sampling, 42 species of bats were found in the region, representing 67% of the species that occur in Paraná and 24.4% in Brazil. There were two species of Noctilionidae; 21 of Phyllostoma; 11 Vespertilionidae and eight Molossidae. Eight of these were captured only in the largest fragment, Mata dos Godoy State Park (680 ha. Ten species had a low capture rate in the smaller areas with less than three individuals. Of the total sampled, 14 species were found in human buildings, and were able to tolerate modified environments, foraging and even using them as shelter. As the size of the forest area increases, there is a greater variety of ecological opportunities and their physical conditions become more stable, i.e., conditions favorable for growth and survival of a greater number of species. Forest fragmentation limits and creates subpopulations, preserving only long-lived K-strategist animals for some time, where the supporting capacity of the environment is a limiting factor. The reduction of habitats, species and genetic diversity
Reis, N R; Gallo, P H; Peracchi, A L; Lima, L P; Fregonezi, M N
Most natural forests have been converted for human use, restricting biological life to small forest fragments. Many animals, including some species of bats are disappearing and the list of these species grows every day. It seems that the destruction of the habitat is one of its major causes. This study aimed to analyze how this community of bats was made up in environments with different sizes and quality of habitat. Data from studies conducted in the region of Londrina, Parana, Brazil, from 1982 to 2000 were used. Originally, this area was covered by a semi deciduous forest, especially Aspidosperma polyneuron (Apocynaceae), Ficus insipida (Moraceae), Euterpe edulis (Arecaceae), Croton floribundus (Euforbiaceae), and currently, only small remnants of the original vegetation still exist. The results showed a decline in the number of species caught in smaller areas compared to the largest remnant. In about 18 years of sampling, 42 species of bats were found in the region, representing 67% of the species that occur in Paraná and 24.4% in Brazil. There were two species of Noctilionidae; 21 of Phyllostoma; 11 Vespertilionidae and eight Molossidae. Eight of these were captured only in the largest fragment, Mata dos Godoy State Park (680 ha). Ten species had a low capture rate in the smaller areas with less than three individuals. Of the total sampled, 14 species were found in human buildings, and were able to tolerate modified environments, foraging and even using them as shelter. As the size of the forest area increases, there is a greater variety of ecological opportunities and their physical conditions become more stable, i.e., conditions favorable for growth and survival of a greater number of species. Forest fragmentation limits and creates subpopulations, preserving only long-lived K-strategist animals for some time, where the supporting capacity of the environment is a limiting factor. The reduction of habitats, species and genetic diversity resulting from human
The twelve recognized species of nectar-feeding bats of the genus Lonchophylla occur in low- and middle-elevation, humid, Neotropical forests. Morphological and morphometrical analyses of specimens formerly lumped with Lonchophylla mordax O. Thomas (1903) support recognition of Lonchophylla concava Goldman (1914) as a separate species and reveal a third species from the western Pacific lowlands of Colombia and Ecuador that I describe herein as Lonchophylla jornicata. This new species is morphologically similar to Lonchophylla concava but is distinctively larger than that species. Tests for sexual dimorphism within these and other species of Lonchophyllini suggest a tendency for females to have slightly longer, narrower skulls, higher coronoid processes of the mandible, and longer forearms than males.
Salgueiro, P; Ruedi, M; Coelho, M M; Palmeirim, J M
We used three mitochondrial DNA fragments with different substitution rates (ND1, Cyt b and the CR) to infer phylogenetic relationships among six species of the genus Nyctalus, and compare levels of genetic divergence between the insular, vulnerable Nyctalus azoreum and its continental counterpart to assess the origins of the Azorean bat. The larger species found throughout the Palaearctic region (N. lasiopterus, N. aviator and N. noctula) share a unique chromosome formula (2n=42) and form a monophyletic clade in our reconstructions. Nyctalus plancyi (=velutinus), a Chinese taxon with 2n=36 chromosomes, is sometimes included in N. noctula, but is genetically very divergent from the latter and deserves full species status. All Cyt b and CR haplotypes of N. azoreum are closely related and only found in the Azores archipelago, but when compared to continental sequences of N. leisleri, levels of mtDNA divergence are unusually low for mammalian species. This contrasts with the high level of differentiation that N. azoreum has attained in its morphology, ecology, and echolocation calls, suggesting a recent split followed by fast evolutionary change. The molecular data suggest that N. azoreum originated from a European population of N. leisleri, and that the colonisation of the Azores occurred at the end of the Pleistocene. The Madeiran populations of N. leisleri also appear to have a European origin, whereas those of the Canary Islands probably came from North Africa. In spite of its recent origin and low genetic divergence, the Azorean bat is well differentiated and consequently represents a unique evolutionary unit with great conservation value.
MOl1thly changes in the female reproductive organs and the reproductive cycle of Myotis tricolor. (Vespertilionidae : Chiroptera). R.T.F. Bernard. Department of Zoology, University of Natal, Pietermaritzburg. Myotis tricolor was monoestrous and monotocous. The oestrous cycle was characterized by a prolonged period of.
Lu, Guanjun; Lin, Aiqing; Luo, Jinhong; Blondel, Dimitri V; Meiklejohn, Kelly A; Sun, Keping; Feng, Jiang
China is characterized by complex topographic structure and dramatic palaeoclimatic changes, making species biogeography studies particularly interesting. Previous researchers have also demonstrated multiple species experienced complex population histories, meanwhile multiple shelters existed in Chinese mainland. Despite this, species phylogeography is still largely unexplored. In the present study, we used a combination of microsatellites and mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) to investigate the phylogeography of the east Asian fish-eating bat (Myotis pilosus). Phylogenetic analyses showed that M. pilosus comprised three main lineages: A, B and C, which corresponded to distinct geographic populations of the Yangtze Plain (YTP), Sichuan Basin (SCB) and North and South of China (NSC), respectively. The most recent common ancestor of M. pilosus was dated as 0.25 million years before present (BP). Population expansion events were inferred for populations of Clade C, North China Plain region, Clade B and YunGui Plateau region at 38,700, 15,900, 4,520 and 4,520 years BP, respectively. Conflicting results were obtained from mtDNA and microsatellite analyses; strong population genetic structure was obtained from mtDNA data but not microsatellite data. The microsatellite data indicated that genetic subdivision fits an isolation-by-distance (IBD) model, but the mtDNA data failed to support this model. Our results suggested that Pleistocene climatic oscillations might have had a profound influence on the demographic history of M. pilosus. Spatial genetic structures of maternal lineages that are different from those observed in other sympatric bats species may be as a result of interactions among special population history and local environmental factors. There are at least three possible refugia for M. pilosus during glacial episodes. Apparently contradictory genetic structure patterns of mtDNA and microsatellite could be explained by male-mediated gene flow among populations. This
Full Text Available Bats can be monoestrous or polyestrous, and seasonal or non-seasonal in their reproductive patterns. The strategy adopted by each species or population depends on the regional climate. The objective this study was to analyze reproductive data of Sturnira lilium from long-term sampling carried out in several sites in Rio de Janeiro states, southeastern Brazil. We carried out sampling in 42 sites (with altitudes ranging from sea level to 1300 m a.s.l. from May 1989 to December 2011. In total, we obtained 2602 captures of S. lilium: 1242 captures of adult females, 1225 captures of adult males, and 136 captures of subadults. The sex ratio was 0.99 males: 1 female. The reproductive season varied from eight to twelve months a year, and it was not related to the total accumulated rainfall. Sturnira lilium have continuously polyestrous reproduction with postpartum estrus and pregnant females can be observed in all months except July. In the present study, the highest proportions of pregnant females were observed in the months with the highest rainfall.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Various mechanisms such as geographic barriers and glacial episodes have been proposed as determinants of intra-specific and inter-specific differentiation of populations, and the distribution of their genetic diversity. More recently, habitat and climate differences, and corresponding adaptations have been shown to be forces influencing the phylogeographic evolution of some vertebrates. In this study, we examined the contribution of these various factors on the genetic differentiation of the bent-winged bat, Miniopterus schreibersii, in southeastern Europe and Anatolia. Results and conclusion Our results showed differentiation in mitochondrial DNA coupled with weaker nuclear differentiation. We found evidence for restriction of lineages to geographical areas for hundreds of generations. The results showed that the most likely ancestral haplotype was restricted to the same geographic area (the Balkans for at least 6,000 years. We were able to delineate the migration routes during the population expansion process, which followed the coasts and the inland for different nested mitochondrial clades. Hence, we were able to describe a scenario showing how multiple biotic and abiotic events including glacial periods, climate and historical dispersal patterns complemented each other in causing regional and local differentiation within a species.
Dool, Serena E; Puechmaille, Sebastien J; Foley, Nicole M; Allegrini, Benjamin; Bastian, Anna; Mutumi, Gregory L; Maluleke, Tinyiko G; Odendaal, Lizelle J; Teeling, Emma C; Jacobs, David S
Despite many studies illustrating the perils of utilising mitochondrial DNA in phylogenetic studies, it remains one of the most widely used genetic markers for this purpose. Over the last decade, nuclear introns have been proposed as alternative markers for phylogenetic reconstruction. However, the resolution capabilities of mtDNA and nuclear introns have rarely been quantified and compared. In the current study we generated a novel ∼5kb dataset comprising six nuclear introns and a mtDNA fragment. We assessed the relative resolution capabilities of the six intronic fragments with respect to each other, when used in various combinations together, and when compared to the traditionally used mtDNA. We focused on a major clade in the horseshoe bat family (Afro-Palaearctic clade; Rhinolophidae) as our case study. This old, widely distributed and speciose group contains a high level of conserved morphology. This morphological stasis renders the reconstruction of the phylogeny of this group with traditional morphological characters complex. We sampled multiple individuals per species to represent their geographic distributions as best as possible (122 individuals, 24 species, 68 localities). We reconstructed the species phylogeny using several complementary methods (partitioned Maximum Likelihood and Bayesian and Bayesian multispecies-coalescent) and made inferences based on consensus across these methods. We computed pairwise comparisons based on Robinson-Foulds tree distance metric between all Bayesian topologies generated (27,000) for every gene(s) and visualised the tree space using multidimensional scaling (MDS) plots. Using our supported species phylogeny we estimated the ancestral state of key traits of interest within this group, e.g. echolocation peak frequency which has been implicated in speciation. Our results revealed many potential cryptic species within this group, even in taxa where this was not suspected a priori and also found evidence for mt
Christidis, Les; Goodman, Steven M; Naughton, Kate; Appleton, Belinda
The past decade has seen a proliferation of new species of Miniopterus bats (family Miniopteridae) recognized from Madagascar and the neighboring Comoros archipelago. The interspecific relationships of these taxa, their colonization history, and the evolution of this presumed adaptive radiation have not been sufficiently explored. Using the mitochondrial cytochrome-b gene, we present a phylogeny of the Malagasy members of this widespread Old World genus, based on 218 sequences, of which 82 are new and 136 derived from previous studies. Phylogenetic analyses recovered 18 clades, which divide into five primary lineages: (1) M. griveaudi; (2) M. mahafaliensis, M. sororculus and X3; (3) M. majori, M. gleni and M. griffithsi; (4) M. brachytragos; M. aelleniA, and M. aelleniB; and (5) M. manavi and M. petersoni recovered as sister species, which were in turn linked to a group comprising M. egeri and five genetically distinct populations referred to herein as P3, P4, P5, P6 and P7. Beast analysis indicated that the initial divergence within the Malagasy Miniopterus radiation took place 4.5 Myr; most species diverged between 4 and 2.5 Myr, and a secondary period was between 1.25 and 1 Myr. DNA K2P-distances between recognized taxa ranged from 12.9% to 2.5% and intraspecific variation was less than 1.8%. Of the 18 identified clades, Latin binomials are only associated with 11, which indicates much greater differentiation than currently recognized for Malagasy Miniopterus. These data are placed in a context of the dispersal history of this genus on the island and patterns of ecological diversity.
Beguelini, Mateus R; Góes, Rejane M; Rahal, Paula; Morielle-Versute, Eliana; Taboga, Sebastião R
Myotis nigricans is a species of vespertilionid bat, whose males show two periods of total testicular regression during the annual reproductive cycle in the northwest São Paulo State, Brazil. Thus, the aim of this study was to investigate the impact of total testicular regression on the prostatic morphophisyology and its regulation. The prostatic complex (PC) of animals from the four periods of the reproductive cycle (active, regressing, regressed, and recrudescence) was analyzed by different histological, morphometric, and immunohistochemical procedures to characterize its variations, analyze its hormonal regulation and evaluate whether the prostate is affected by the processes of testicular regression and recrudescence. The results indicated a decrease in the prostatic parameters from the active to regressed periods, which are related to decreases in the testicular production of testosterone and in the prostatic expression of androgen receptor (AR), estrogen receptor α (ERα) and aromatase. However, in regressed-recrudescence periods, the prostatic expression of AR, ERα and aromatase increased, indicating the reactivation of the PC. Despite this, the PC appears to have a slower reactivation and seems not to follow the testicular recrudescence in morphological and morphometric terms. With these data, we demonstrate that the prostatic physiology is directly affected by total testicular regression and conclude that it is regulated by testosterone and estrogen, via the production of testosterone by the testes, its conversion to dihydrotestosterone by 5α-redutase and to estrogen by aromatase, and the activation/deactivation of AR and ERα in epithelial cells, which regulate cell expression and proliferation. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Full Text Available The past decade has seen a proliferation of new species of Miniopterus bats (family Miniopteridae recognized from Madagascar and the neighboring Comoros archipelago. The interspecific relationships of these taxa, their colonization history, and the evolution of this presumed adaptive radiation have not been sufficiently explored. Using the mitochondrial cytochrome-b gene, we present a phylogeny of the Malagasy members of this widespread Old World genus, based on 218 sequences, of which 82 are new and 136 derived from previous studies. Phylogenetic analyses recovered 18 clades, which divide into five primary lineages: (1 M. griveaudi; (2 M. mahafaliensis, M. sororculus and X3; (3 M. majori, M. gleni and M. griffithsi; (4 M. brachytragos; M. aelleniA, and M. aelleniB; and (5 M. manavi and M. petersoni recovered as sister species, which were in turn linked to a group comprising M. egeri and five genetically distinct populations referred to herein as P3, P4, P5, P6 and P7. Beast analysis indicated that the initial divergence within the Malagasy Miniopterus radiation took place 4.5 Myr; most species diverged between 4 and 2.5 Myr, and a secondary period was between 1.25 and 1 Myr. DNA K2P-distances between recognized taxa ranged from 12.9% to 2.5% and intraspecific variation was less than 1.8%. Of the 18 identified clades, Latin binomials are only associated with 11, which indicates much greater differentiation than currently recognized for Malagasy Miniopterus. These data are placed in a context of the dispersal history of this genus on the island and patterns of ecological diversity.
Christidis, Les; Goodman, Steven M.; Naughton, Kate; Appleton, Belinda
The past decade has seen a proliferation of new species of Miniopterus bats (family Miniopteridae) recognized from Madagascar and the neighboring Comoros archipelago. The interspecific relationships of these taxa, their colonization history, and the evolution of this presumed adaptive radiation have not been sufficiently explored. Using the mitochondrial cytochrome-b gene, we present a phylogeny of the Malagasy members of this widespread Old World genus, based on 218 sequences, of which 82 are new and 136 derived from previous studies. Phylogenetic analyses recovered 18 clades, which divide into five primary lineages: (1) M. griveaudi; (2) M. mahafaliensis, M. sororculus and X3; (3) M. majori, M. gleni and M. griffithsi; (4) M. brachytragos; M. aelleniA, and M. aelleniB; and (5) M. manavi and M. petersoni recovered as sister species, which were in turn linked to a group comprising M. egeri and five genetically distinct populations referred to herein as P3, P4, P5, P6 and P7. Beast analysis indicated that the initial divergence within the Malagasy Miniopterus radiation took place 4.5 Myr; most species diverged between 4 and 2.5 Myr, and a secondary period was between 1.25 and 1 Myr. DNA K2P-distances between recognized taxa ranged from 12.9% to 2.5% and intraspecific variation was less than 1.8%. Of the 18 identified clades, Latin binomials are only associated with 11, which indicates much greater differentiation than currently recognized for Malagasy Miniopterus. These data are placed in a context of the dispersal history of this genus on the island and patterns of ecological diversity. PMID:24642892
Walker Melissa J.
Full Text Available The Darién province in eastern Panama is one of the most unexplored and biodiverse regions in the world. The Chucantí Nature Reserve, in Serranía de Majé, consists of a diverse tropical cloud forest ecosystem. The aim of this research was to explore and study host associations of a tripartite system of bats, ectoparasitic flies on bats (Diptera, Streblidae, and ectoparasitic fungi (Ascomycota, Laboulbeniales that use bat flies as hosts. We captured bats at Chucantí, screened each bat for presence of bat flies, and screened collected bat flies for presence of Laboulbeniales. We mistnetted for 68 mistnet hours and captured 227 bats representing 17 species. We captured Micronycteris schmidtorum, a species previously unreported in Darién. In addition, we encountered the rarely collected Platyrrhinus dorsalis, representing the westernmost report for this species. Of all captured bats, 148 carried bat flies (65%. The number of sampled bat flies was 437, representing 16 species. One species represents a new country record (Trichobius anducei and five species represent first reports for Darién (Basilia anceps, Anatrichobius scorzai, Nycterophilia parnelli, T. johnsonae, T. parasiticus. All 74 bat fly species currently reported in Panama are presented in tabulated form. Of all screened bat flies, 30 bore Laboulbeniales fungi (7%. Based on both morphology and large ribosomal subunit (LSU sequence data, we delimited 7 species of Laboulbeniales: Gloeandromyces nycteribiidarum (newly reported for Panama, G. pageanus, G. streblae, Nycteromyces streblidinus, and 3 undescribed species. Of the 30 infected flies, 21 were Trichobius joblingi. This species was the only host on which we observed double infections of Laboulbeniales.
Walker, Melissa J; Dorrestein, Annabel; Camacho, Jasmin J; Meckler, Lauren A; Silas, Kirk A; Hiller, Thomas; Haelewaters, Danny
The Darién province in eastern Panama is one of the most unexplored and biodiverse regions in the world. The Chucantí Nature Reserve, in Serranía de Majé, consists of a diverse tropical cloud forest ecosystem. The aim of this research was to explore and study host associations of a tripartite system of bats, ectoparasitic flies on bats (Diptera, Streblidae), and ectoparasitic fungi (Ascomycota, Laboulbeniales) that use bat flies as hosts. We captured bats at Chucantí, screened each bat for presence of bat flies, and screened collected bat flies for presence of Laboulbeniales. We mistnetted for 68 mistnet hours and captured 227 bats representing 17 species. We captured Micronycteris schmidtorum, a species previously unreported in Darién. In addition, we encountered the rarely collected Platyrrhinus dorsalis, representing the westernmost report for this species. Of all captured bats, 148 carried bat flies (65%). The number of sampled bat flies was 437, representing 16 species. One species represents a new country record (Trichobius anducei) and five species represent first reports for Darién (Basilia anceps, Anatrichobius scorzai, Nycterophilia parnelli, T. johnsonae, T. parasiticus). All 74 bat fly species currently reported in Panama are presented in tabulated form. Of all screened bat flies, 30 bore Laboulbeniales fungi (7%). Based on both morphology and large ribosomal subunit (LSU) sequence data, we delimited 7 species of Laboulbeniales: Gloeandromyces nycteribiidarum (newly reported for Panama), G. pageanus, G. streblae, Nycteromyces streblidinus, and 3 undescribed species. Of the 30 infected flies, 21 were Trichobius joblingi. This species was the only host on which we observed double infections of Laboulbeniales. © M.J. Walker et al., published by EDP Sciences, 2018.
Yin, Qiuyuan; Zhu, Lei; Liu, Di; Irwin, David M; Zhang, Shuyi; Pan, Yi-Hsuan
Mammals developed antioxidant systems to defend against oxidative damage in their daily life. Enzymatic antioxidants and low molecular weight antioxidants (LMWAs) constitute major parts of the antioxidant systems. Nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2 (Nrf2, encoded by the Nrf2 gene) is a central transcriptional regulator, regulating transcription, of many antioxidant enzymes. Frugivorous bats eat large amounts of fruits that contain high levels of LMWAs such as vitamin C, thus, a reliance on LMWAs might greatly reduce the need for antioxidant enzymes in comparison to insectivorous bats. Therefore, it is possible that frugivorous bats have a reduced need for Nrf2 function due to their substantial intake of diet-antioxidants. To test whether the Nrf2 gene has undergone relaxed evolution in fruit-eating bats, we obtained Nrf2 sequences from 16 species of bats, including four Old World fruit bats (Pteropodidae) and one New World fruit bat (Phyllostomidae). Our molecular evolutionary analyses revealed changes in the selection pressure acting on Nrf2 gene and identified seven specific amino acid substitutions that occurred on the ancestral lineage leading to Old World fruit bats. Biochemical experiments were conducted to examine Nrf2 in Old World fruit bats and showed that the amount of catalase, which is regulated by Nrf2, was significantly lower in the brain, heart and liver of Old World fruit bats despite higher levels of Nrf2 protein in Old World fruit bats. Computational predictions suggest that three of these seven amino acid replacements might be deleterious to Nrf2 function. Therefore, the results suggest that Nrf2 gene might have experienced relaxed constraint in Old World fruit bats, however, we cannot rule out the possibility of positive selection. Our study provides the first data on the molecular adaptation of Nrf2 gene in frugivorous bats in compensation to the increased levels of LWMAs from their fruit-diet.
Fang, Lu; Shen, Bin; Irwin, David M; Zhang, Shuyi
Glycogen synthase, which catalyzes the synthesis of glycogen, is especially important for Old World (Pteropodidae) and New World (Phyllostomidae) fruit bats that ingest high-carbohydrate diets. Glycogen synthase 1, encoded by the Gys1 gene, is the glycogen synthase isozyme that functions in muscles. To determine whether Gys1 has undergone adaptive evolution in bats with carbohydrate-rich diets, in comparison to insect-eating sister bat taxa, we sequenced the coding region of the Gys1 gene from 10 species of bats, including two Old World fruit bats (Pteropodidae) and a New World fruit bat (Phyllostomidae). Our results show no evidence for positive selection in the Gys1 coding sequence on the ancestral Old World and the New World Artibeus lituratus branches. Tests for convergent evolution indicated convergence of the sequences and one parallel amino acid substitution (T395A) was detected on these branches, which was likely driven by natural selection.
FÁBIO A.M. SOARES
Full Text Available ABSTRACT This study reports the occurrence of bat species and their ectoparasites to a mangrove area of the State of Pernambuco. The bats were captured for seven consecutive months in four mangrove areas. Sampling occurred for 12 consecutive hours each night collection where mist-nets were used. Eighty-three bats of 14 species were captured. Of these, only 53 Phyllostomidae family bats found themselves parasited. We identified seven species of flies of the family Streblidae parasitizing bats. The diversity of bats is H’ = 2.19 for all areas sampled and the prevalence of streblid ranged from 8.3 to 66,6. The mean intensity ranged from one and five. It is reported for the first time the occurrence of Lophostoma brasiliense to the mangrove ecosystem, besides two species of streblid to Pernambuco.
A new species of Parichoronyssus (Acari: Dermanyssoidea: Macronyssidae) from bats of the genus Phyllostomus (Chiroptera: Phyllostomidae) in Peru and Venezuela, with keys to the species of Parichoronyssus.
Morales-Malacara, Juan B; Guerrero, Ricardo
Parichoronyssus bakeri new species was found on two phyllostomid bats species, the greater spear-nosed bat, Phyllostomus hastatus (Pallas), and the lesser spear-nosed bat, Phyllostomus elongatus (E. Geoffroy), in Pakitza, National Park Manu, Madre de Dios, Peru, including additional material examined from Venezuela. The female, male, deutonymph, and protonymph are described and illustrated. A key to the seven species of Parichoronyssus is provided.
Claire F.R. Wordley
Full Text Available Salim Ali’s Fruit Bat Latidens salimalii is an IUCN Red listed Endangered species known only from a few locations in southern India. Here we report three records of Latidens salimalii from the Valparai plateau and Anamalai Tiger Reserve in Tamil Nadu where this species has not been previously recorded. This bat was caught in riparian habitats close to or inside intact tropical wet forest in the Western Ghats.
Baird, Amy B; Braun, Janet K; Engstrom, Mark D; Holbert, Ashlyn C; Huerta, Maritza G; Lim, Burton K; Mares, Michael A; Patton, John C; Bickham, John W
Previous studies on genetics of hoary bats produced differing conclusions on the timing of their colonization of the Hawaiian Islands and whether or not North American (Aeorestes cinereus) and Hawaiian (A. semotus) hoary bats are distinct species. One study, using mtDNA COI and nuclear Rag2 and CMA1, concluded that hoary bats colonized the Hawaiian Islands no more than 10,000 years ago based on indications of population expansion at that time using Extended Bayesian Skyline Plots. The other study, using 3 mtDNA and 1 Y-chromosome locus, concluded that the Hawaiian Islands were colonized about 1 million years ago. To address the marked inconsistencies between those studies, we examined DNA sequences from 4 mitochondrial and 2 nuclear loci in lasiurine bats to investigate the timing of colonization of the Hawaiian Islands by hoary bats, test the hypothesis that Hawaiian and North American hoary bats belong to different species, and further investigate the generic level taxonomy within the tribe. Phylogenetic analysis and dating of the nodes of mtDNA haplotypes and of nuclear CMA1 alleles show that A. semotus invaded the Hawaiian Islands approximately 1.35 Ma and that multiple arrivals of A. cinereus occurred much more recently. Extended Bayesian Skyline plots show population expansion at about 20,000 years ago in the Hawaiian Islands, which we conclude does not represent the timing of colonization of the Hawaiian Islands given the high degree of genetic differentiation among A. cinereus and A. semotus (4.2% divergence at mtDNA Cytb) and the high degree of genetic diversity within A. semotus. Rather, population expansion 20,000 years ago could have resulted from colonization of additional islands, expansion after a bottleneck, or other factors. New genetic data also support the recognition of A. semotus and A. cinereus as distinct species, a finding consistent with previous morphological and behavioral studies. The phylogenetic analysis of CMA1 alleles shows the
de Almeida, Juliana Cardoso; Gomes, Luiz Antonio Costa; Owen, Robert D
We evaluated morphometric variation of the mite Periglischrus torrealbai (Spinturnicidae) on three species of host bats: Phyllostomus discolor, P. hastatus, and Tonatia bidens (Phyllostomidae). A total of 67 females and 74 males of P. torrealbai were collected from 41 host individuals of these three bat species that were sampled in Brazil, Paraguay, and Peru. Twenty-one measurements from the dorsal side and 28 from the ventral side were recorded from female mites and 21 dorsal and 34 ventral measurements were taken from males. To evaluate morphological variation of P. torrealbai on different species of host bats, principal component analysis and unweighted pair-group method using arithmetic averages cluster analysis with Euclidean distances were used. Both analyses showed three groups of mites clearly separated: group 1 comprised all ectoparasites collected from T. bidens, group 2 included all mites from P. hastatus, and group 3 had all those from P. discolor. This result indicates that P. torrealbai varies morphologically by host bat species and suggests that this nominal species comprises three morphologically distinct species. In the present study, we record for the first time, the association between P. torrealbai and T. bidens. Our data reinforce the high relationship of specificity between Periglischrus mites and phyllostomid bat species.
First record of Parakosa flexipes (Acari: Chirodiscidae parasitizing a free-tailed bat (Chiroptera: Molossidae in Brazil Primeiro registro de Parakosa flexipes (Acari: Chirodiscidae parasitando um morcego-de-cauda-livre (Chiroptera: Molossidae no Brasil
Luiz Antonio Costa Gomes
Full Text Available The present study reports the occurrence of Parakosa flexipes (Pinichpongse (Chirodiscidae for the first time in Brazil, along with its infection sites on Molossus rufus E. Geoffroy. Thirty-eight bats were caught using mist nets that were placed near a house at the Mars Center for Cocoa Science in the state of Bahia, of which 14 (37% were parasitized by P. flexipes. Parakosa flexipes was observed parasitizing M. rufus on hairs that were evidently longer than others distributed over the bat's body, where up to three parasites could be spotted on a single hair.O presente estudo registra a ocorrência de Parakosa flexipes (Pinichpongse pela primeira vez no Brasil, bem como seus sítios de infecção em Molossus rufus E. Geoffroy. Foram capturados 38 morcegos com redes-de-neblina, dispostas próximas a uma residência da "Mars Center for Cocoa Science" no Sul da Bahia, dos quais 14 (37% estavam parasitados por P. flexipes. Parakosa flexipes foi observada parasitando M. rufus em pelos evidentemente maiores que os demais distribuídos pelo corpo do morcego, onde se pôde observar até três parasitos em um único pelo.
Full Text Available We provide the echolocation call characteristics of two endemic Hipposiderid bats, the Kolar Leaf-nosed Bat Hipposideros hypophyllus and Durga Das’s Leaf-nosed Bat H. durgadasi from Kolar district, Karnataka, India for the first time. The calls consisted of a constant frequency (CF component followed by a frequency modulated (FM tail. It was found that, on comparison with the call frequencies of other members of the bicolor group of the genus Hipposideros previously reported from different parts of southeast Asia, H. durgadasi, though larger than H. cineraceus, called at a much higher frequency (168.4 – 175.7 kHz. H. hypophyllus, on the other hand, called between 103.0 – 106.4 kHz. In this paper we present our findings and analysis of the calls of these endemic species.
Full Text Available Otomops wroughtoni is an extremely rare molossid bat, known so far by a single breeding colony in southwestern India and two single individuals recorded in Meghalaya and Cambodia. We report here the discovery of three new roosts located in large karstic caves of the Jaintia Hills, in southeastern Meghalaya. Visual counts indicate that at least 90 individuals occupied these new roosts in February 2014, which doubles the known world population of this species. The new populations of Wroughton’s Free-tailed Bats from the Jaintia Hills have considerable value for the conservation of this elusive species. Although these bats are protected under national laws, their cave roosts and hunting habitats are subjected to severe and ongoing degradation. A protection plan that would include more extensive surveys and a strict conservation of these caves should be implemented rapidly to mitigate these threats.
Berrizbeitia, M Fernanda López; Sánchez, R Tatiana; Barquez, Ruben M; Díaz, M Monica
The mammalian and flea fauna of La Rioja Province is one of the least known from northwestern Argentina. In this study, the distribution and nomenclature of 13 species of fleas of bats and rodents from La Rioja Province are updated. Four species of fleas are recorded for the first time in La Rioja Province including a new record for northwestern Argentina, and two new flea-host associations. An identification key and distribution map are included for all known species of Siphonaptera of bats and rodents from La Rioja Province, Argentina.
Woodman, N.; Timm, R.M.
The Neotropical Lonchophyllini (Chiropter: Phyllostomidae) currently comprise four genera and thirteen species of nectar-feeding bats. These species often are separated into larger-bodied (eight species) and smaller-bodied (five species) forms to aid in identification. Our morphological and morphometrical analyses of the smaller Lonchophyllini revealed the existence of two distinctive, previously undescribed species of bats of the genus Lonchophylla from western South America. We describe a new form from Amazonian Peru as Lonchophylla pattoni and one from western Colombia as Lonchophylla cadenai. Phyllogenetic analysis of the Lonchophyllini based primarily on morphological characters indicates that these two new species are closely related to Lonchophylla thomasi.
M. Fernanda López Berrizbeitia
Full Text Available The mammalian and flea fauna of La Rioja Province is one of the least known from northwestern Argentina. In this study, the distribution and nomenclature of 13 species of fleas of bats and rodents from La Rioja Province are updated. Four species of fleas are recorded for the first time in La Rioja Province including a new record for northwestern Argentina, and two new flea-host associations. An identification key and distribution map are included for all known species of Siphonaptera of bats and rodents from La Rioja Province, Argentina.
Crasso Paulo Bosco Breviglieri
Full Text Available Worldwide, there are descriptions of cases in which bats are found dead due to human actions. The main records are related to the influence of barbed-wire fences, electrical nets, pesticides, and wind turbines. In Brazil, these data are poorly explored and deserve more attention from researchers and government agencies. This note aims to describe two records of bats (Molossus molossus and Molossus rufus found dead in barbed-wire fences, in the northwestern São Paulo state, Brazil. Furthermore, it briefly discusses the possible relation between this kind of accident and closeness of barbed-wire fences to foraging or shelter areas for these species.
Khwanmunee, Jiraporn; Leelawatwattana, Ladda; Prapunpoj, Porntip
Bats are mammals in the order Chiroptera. Although many extensive morphologic and molecular genetics analyses have been attempted, phylogenetic relationships of bats has not been completely resolved. The paraphyly of microbats is of particular controversy that needs to be confirmed. In this study, we attempted to use the nucleotide sequence of transthyretin (TTR) intron 1 to resolve the relationship among bats. To explore its utility, the complete sequences of TTR gene and intron 1 region of bats in Vespertilionidae: genus Eptesicus (Eptesicus fuscus) and genus Myotis (Myotis brandtii, Myotis davidii, and Myotis lucifugus), and Pteropodidae (Pteropus alecto and Pteropus vampyrus) were extracted from the retrieved sequences, whereas those of Rhinoluphus affinis and Scotophilus kuhlii were amplified and sequenced. The derived overall amino sequences of bat TTRs were found to be very similar to those in other eutherians but differed from those in other classes of vertebrates. However, missing of amino acids from N-terminal or C-terminal region was observed. The phylogenetic analysis of amino acid sequences suggested bat and other eutherian TTRs lineal descent from a single most recent common ancestor which differed from those of non-placental mammals and the other classes of vertebrates. The splicing of bat TTR precursor mRNAs was similar to those of other eutherian but different from those of marsupial, bird, reptile and amphibian. Based on TTR intron 1 sequence, the inferred evolutionary relationship within Chiroptera revealed more closely relatedness of R. affinis to megabats than to microbats. Accordingly, the paraphyly of microbats was suggested.
Partição de recursos alimentares entre quatro espécies de morcegos frugívoros (Chiroptera, Phyllostomidae Partition of food resources among four species of frugivorous bats (Chiroptera, Phyllostomidae
Marília Feleciano Muller
Full Text Available This study was carried out in the region of Londrina, Paraná, Brazil in three different areas: a primary forest, a disturbed primary forest and an open area. Within 207 hours of capture, 990 individuals were collected, 939 of them being fruit-eating bats. Carollia perspicillata (Linnaeus, 1758, Sturnira lilium (Geoffroy, 1810, Platyrrhinus lineatus (Geoffroy, 1810 and Artibeus lituratus (Olfers, 1818 were the four most collected species in a total of 899 individuals. A. lituratus was found in greater number in all the areas, showing significant variation in relation to the size of the forests. The partition of food resources among the four most collected species was known through the analysis of their feces. The coexixtence of these species can be explained by their investing in different foods or their diverging time activity.
Diet of the fishing bat Noctilio leporinus (Linnaeus (Mammalia, Chiroptera in a mangrove area of southern Brazil Dieta do morcego-pescador Noctilio leporinus (Linnaeus (Mammalia, Chiroptera em uma área de manguezal do sul do Brasil
Marcelo O. Bordignon
Full Text Available From January to December 1999, the diet of Noctilio leporinus (Linnaeus, 1758 was determined in a salt-water ecosystem, by analysing the feces of bats captured in mist nets. Of the 61 samples analyzed, most contained remains of fish (90.2%, followed by insects (70.5% and crustaceous (29.5%. The most frequent fishes species were: silversides Atherinella brasiliensis (Quoy & Gaimard, 1825, anchovies Cetengraulis edentulus (Cuvier, 1829 and scaly sardines Ophisthonema oglinum (Lesueur, 1818. The most frequent insects were moths (Saturniidae and beetles (Cerambycidae, Scarabaeidae and Coccinellidae, as well as two species of bat ectoparasites (Streblidae. Among the crustaceous the shrimp (Palaemonidae and crabs (Gecarcinidae are was present. The consumption of fish, insects and crustaceans was different for the males and females throughout the year.De janeiro a dezembro de 1999, foi estudada a dieta de Noctilio leporinus (Linnaeus, 1758 em um ecossistema de manguezal, através da análise das fezes de morcegos capturados com redes-neblina. Das 61 amostras analisadas, a maioria continha fragmentos de peixes (90.2%, seguido de insetos (70.5% e crustáceos (29,5%. As espécies de peixes mais freqüentes foram: peixe-rei Atherinella brasiliensis (Quoy & Gaimard, 1825, manjuba Cetengraulis edentulus (Cuvier, 1829 e sardinha Ophisthonema oglinum (Lesueur, 1818. Os insetos mais freqüentes foram mariposas (Saturniidae e besouros (Cerambycidae, Scarabaeidae e Coccinellidae, além de duas espécies de ectoparasitas (Streblidae. Entre os crustáceos, houve a presença apenas de camarões (Palaemonidae e siris (Gecarcinidae. O consumo de peixes, insetos e crustáceos foi diferente para machos e fêmeas ao longo do ano.
Hassanin, Alexandre; Nesi, Nicolas; Marin, Julie; Kadjo, Blaise; Pourrut, Xavier; Leroy, Éric; Gembu, Guy-Crispin; Musaba Akawa, Prescott; Ngoagouni, Carine; Nakouné, Emmanuel; Ruedi, Manuel; Tshikung, Didier; Pongombo Shongo, Célestin; Bonillo, Céline
Both Ebolavirus and Marburgvirus were detected in several fruit bat species of the family Pteropodidae, suggesting that this taxon plays a key role in the life cycle of filoviruses. After four decades of Zaire Ebolavirus (ZEBOV) outbreaks in Central Africa, the virus was detected for the first time in West Africa in 2014. To better understand the role of fruit bats as potential reservoirs and circulating hosts between Central and West Africa, we examine here the phylogeny and comparative phylogeography of Pteropodidae. Our phylogenetic results confirm the existence of four independent lineages of African fruit bats: the genera Eidolon and Rousettus, and the tribes Epomophorini and Scotonycterini, and indicate that the three species suspected to represent ZEBOV reservoir hosts (Epomops franqueti, Hypsignathus monstrosus, and Myonycteris torquata) belong to an African clade that diversified rapidly around 8-7 Mya. To test for phylogeographic structure and for recent gene flow from Central to West Africa, we analysed the nucleotide variation of 675 cytochrome b gene (Cytb) sequences, representing eight fruit bat species collected in 48 geographic localities. Within Epomophorina, our mitochondrial data do not support the monophyly of two genera (Epomops and Epomophorus) and four species (Epomophorus gambianus, Epomops franqueti, Epomops buettikoferi, and Micropteropus pusillus). In Epomops, however, we found two geographic haplogroups corresponding to the Congo Basin and Upper Guinea forests, respectively. By contrast, we found no genetic differentiation between Central and West African populations for all species known to make seasonal movements, Eidolon helvum, E. gambianus, H. monstrosus, M. pusillus, Nanonycteris veldkampii, and Rousettus aegyptiacus. Our results suggest that only three fruit bat species were able to disperse directly ZEBOV from the Congo Basin to Upper Guinea: E. helvum, H. monstrosus, and R. aegyptiacus. Copyright © 2016 Académie des
Poel, van der W.H.M.; Lina, P.H.C.; Kramps, J.A.
Bats classified in the order Chiroptera are the most abundant and widely distributed non-human mammalian species in the world. Several bat species are reservoir hosts of zoonotic viruses and therefore can be a public health hazard. Lyssaviruses of different genotypes have emerged from bats in
Predação de morcegos por Chrotopterus auritus (Peters (Mammalia, Chiroptera no pantanal de Mato Grosso do Sul, Brasil Bat predation by Chrotopterus auritus (Peters (Mammalia, Chiroptera in pantanal of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil
Marcelo Oscar Bordignon
Full Text Available Foi registrada a predação de Carollia perspiscillata (Linnaeus, 1758 e Peropterix macrotis (Wagner, 1843 por Chrotopterus autitus (Peters, 1856 em uma caverna na morraria do Urucum em Corumbá, centro-oeste do Brasil. Os fragmentos de asas e um crânio encontrados sob o local de pouso de C. auritus junto às fezes, após comparados com material de coleção, mostraram que este morcego alimenta-se oportunamente de outras espécies de morcegos ocupantes do mesmo abrigo.The predation of Carollia perspiscillata (Linnaeus, 1758 and Peropterix macrotis (Wagner, 1843 by Chrotopterus auritus (Peters, 1856 was registered in a cave at Urucum's mountains of Corumbá, Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. The wing fragments and cranium finded under feces deposites, in replace point of C. auritus, were comparated with colection reference material and revealed that C. auritus can eat occasionaly other bat species that inhabit in same roost.
Full Text Available Cantor’s leaf-nosed bat is distributed in the South Asian and Southeast Asian region and recorded from few localities of India including one locality record from Bihar in Eastern India. Here we report its range extension in Eastern India and first record from Odisha. We recommend that the chiropteran diversity of Odisha need to be assessed for further inventories, particularly in the Eastern Ghats range.
Wing Membrane Biopsies for Bat Cytogenetics: Finding of 2n = 54 in Irish Rhinolophushipposideros (Rhinolophidae, Chiroptera, Mammalia) Supports Two Geographically Separated Chromosomal Variants in Europe.
Kacprzyk, Joanna; Teeling, Emma C; Kelleher, Conor; Volleth, Marianne
In Europe, 2 different diploid chromosome numbers, 2n = 54 and 2n = 56, have been described in the lesser horseshoe bat (Rhinolophushipposideros). The eastern form with 2n = 56 extends from the Czech Republic to Greece. To date, specimens with 54 chromosomes have been reported only from Spain and Germany. This study expands the distributional area of the western variant to Ireland. Strikingly, this distribution of European chromosomal variants is in contrast to the available molecular data that indicate little genetic differentiation of R. hipposideros populations spanning Northwestern to Central Europe. Further, we have developed an optimized protocol for establishing fibroblast cell cultures, suitable for karyotype analyses, from 3-mm wing membrane biopsies. This is a useful technique for cytogenetic studies of endangered bat species, as this non-lethal sampling method imposes only minimum stress to the animal without lasting adverse effects and is routinely used to sample tissue probes for molecular genetic studies in bats. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.
Full Text Available We examined whether, like many parasite-host systems of coevolution, a group of obligate parasitic bat flies (Trichobius phyllostomae Kessel and related species cospeciate with their hosts. We first did a cladistic analysis of the T. phyllostomae group and combined that analysis with a phylogenetic hypothesis from the literature for the Stenodermatinae bats. The cladistic analysis included, as outgroups, one species from each morphological group and complex of Trichobius Gervais, and one species from the following genera: Paratrichobius Miranda-Ribeiro, Megistopoda Macquart, Megistapophysys Dick & Wenzel, Neotrichobius Wenzel & Aitken, Speiseria Kessel and Strebla Wiedemann. The cladogram was rooted with a species of Strebla in the subfamily Streblinae. One cladogram was obtained and which found Trichobius to be polyphyletic. The phylogenetic hypothesis as follows: (Paratrichobius, (Neotrichobius, (Megistopoda, Megistapophysis is the sister-group of the phyllostomae group and the following relationships within the ingroup, (((T. vampyropis Wenzel, Trichobius sp. 2 ((T. hispidus Wenzel, T. petersoni Wenzel ((Trichobius sp. 1 (T. phyllostomae, T. brennani Wenzel. When we compared phylogenies through historical association analyses, cospeciation was uncommon, while host-switching was more common and better explained the association between the phyllostomae group and their bat hosts.
Geographical distribution of bat flies (Diptera: Nycteribiidae and Streblidae), including two new records, Nycteribia allotopa and N. formosana, collected from bats (Chiroptera: Rhinolophidae and Vespertilionidae) in the Republic of Korea.
Kim, Heung Chul; Han, Sang Hoon; Dick, Carl W; Choi, Yong Gun; Chong, Sung Tae; Klein, Terry A; Rueda, Leopoldo M
As part of the 65(th) Medical Brigade, U.S. Army, arthropod-borne disease surveillance program and in collaboration with the Korea National Institute of Biological Resources (NIBR), bats were captured from caves and abandoned mines in the Republic of Korea. A total of 39 adult bat flies including five species of Nycteribiidae [Penicillidia jenynsii, Nycteribia parvula, N. formosana, N. allotopa mikado, and an unidentified species of Nycteribia (N. cf. formosana)], and one species of Streblidae, Brachytarsina kanoi, were collected from bats belonging to two families, Rhinolophidae and Vespertilionidae. This is the first report of N. allotopa mikado and N. formosana from the Republic of Korea. © 2012 The Society for Vector Ecology.
Martins, Fabiane F; Beguelini, Mateus R; Puga, Cintia C I; Morielle-Versute, Eliana; Vilamaior, Patricia S L; Taboga, Sebastião R
The male reproductive accessory glands (RAGs) are important organs that contribute to the secretion of different substances that composed the ejaculate. Despite this important function, their composition, anatomy and function vary widely between species. Thus, the RAGs of three species of phyllostomid bats were morphologically and ultrastructurally characterized and compared in this study. The RAGs of the three analyzed species are composed of a prostate and a pair of bulbourethral glands (BG). In all species, the prostate is composed of three well-defined regions (ventral, dorsolateral and dorsal regions). The ventral region showed an atypical epithelium (undefined) with no obvious cellular limits and a holocrine PAS-positive secretion. The dorsolateral region of Carollia perspicillata and Phyllostomus discolor showed a pseudostratified cubic morphology, and that from Glossophaga soricina had a columnar morphology endowed with cytoplasmic projections and stereocilia. The dorsal region of the three analyzed species is composed of a pseudostratified columnar epithelium endowed with stereocilia; however, G. soricina also presented cytoplasmic projections in the apical portions of the secretory cells similar to those in the dorsolateral region. The BG of the three analyzed species are composed of a pseudostratified columnar epithelium including basal and PAS-positive secretory cells. In conclusion, this study morphologically and ultrastructurally characterized the RAGs of three species of phyllostomid bats, demonstrating the presence of a novel third prostatic region in species of this family. The results also showed the absence of seminal vesicles and ampullary glands, and better characterized the holocrine pattern of the prostatic ventral region, which is unique to bats. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.
Diversidad de frutos que consumen tres especies de murciélagos (Chiroptera: Phyllostomidae en la selva lacandona, Chiapas, México Diversity of fruits consumed by three species of bats (Chiroptera:Phyllostomidae in the Lacandona rainforest, Chiapas, Mexico
Full Text Available Este estudio amplía el conocimiento de los hábitos alimentarios de 3 especies de murciélagos frugívoros como dispersores de semillas en 2 localidades de la selva alta perennifolia en la zona sur de la Reserva de la Biosfera de Montes Azules (REBIMA, y dentro del Ejido Playón de la Gloria (PDLG. Se estimó la abundancia relativa de Artibeus lituratus, Carollia perspicillata y Sturnira lilium, así como la diversidad y categoría sucesional de los frutos que consumen estas 3 especies en ambas localidades, mediante la identificación de semillas en las excretas. La división de especies vegetales por categoría sucesional mostró que A. lituratus y C. perspicillata consumen frutos tanto de especies pioneras como de especies persistentes, mientras que S. lilium únicamente se alimenta de especies pioneras. Durante la época seca A. lituratus y C. perspicillata presentaron una mayor diversidad y riqueza de especies consumidas dentro de la REBIMA, en tanto que en la época de lluvia mostraron mayor diversidad y riqueza dentro de PDLG; es decir, la diversidad de semillas colectadas por ambos dispersores responde a la época anual. S. lilium presentó mayor riqueza y diversidad dentro de PDLG a lo largo del muestreo indicando preferencia por frutos establecidos en estadios tempranos en la sucesión vegetal.This study examined the feeding habits of three species of frugivorous bats in relation to their role as seed dispersers in two localities, one in a Neotropical rainforest area in the southern part of the Montes Azules Biosphere Reserve (REBIMA, and the other in Ejido Playón de la Gloria (PDLG. We estimated the relative abundance of Artibeus lituratus, Carollia perspicillata and Sturnira lilium. We determined the diversity and the successional category of fruits consumed by these species in both localities through the identification of seeds in their feces. The plant species diversity based on successional category showed that A. lituratus and C
Arroyo-Cabrales, Joaquín; Gardner, Alfred; Sigé, Bernard; Catzeflis, Francois; McCarthy, Timothy J.
Gervais, in 1856, described the bats collected during Castelnau’s expedition through South America (1843–1847). We report that Phyllostoma angusticeps (Gervais, 1856), long treated as a junior synonym of Phyllostomus discolor(Wagner, 1843), is not a representative of the genus Phyllostomus. In fact, as we demonstrate, it represents the taxon known as Trachops cirrhosus. We also provide a summary, in tabular form, of the genera and species first described by Gervais (1856).
Shahabi, Saeed; Akmali, Vahid; Sharifi, Mozafar
To examine the level of genetic differentiation in the sequences of the mitochondrial D-loop gene of Rhinolophus ferrumequinum, and to evaluate the current taxonomic status of this species, 50 tissue samples of greater horseshoe bats were collected in 2011-2015 from 21 different localities in northwest, northeast, west, central, and south regions of Iran. Twenty-two published D-loop sequences from Europe (Switzerland, United Kingdom, Bulgaria, and Tunisia), and Anatolia (south, west, and east Turkey) were downloaded from GenBank. Molecular genetic analyses revealed remarkable variation among populations of R. ferrumequinum. Two major clades with strong support were identified within the greater horseshoe bat. One of these clades consists of individuals of R. ferrumequinum from Iran and eastern Turkey, and is further subdivided into two subclades. A second clade includes samples from western Turkey and Europe. The two subclades from Iran and Turkey and the second clade from western Turkey and Europe represent three diagnosable categories, which most probably warrant three subspecies for the species. Thus, based on genetic differences, it is clear that two subspecific populations are found in Iran: R. f. irani (southern Iran) and R. f. proximus (northern Iran).
Puga, Cíntia C I; Beguelini, Mateus R; Morielle-Versute, Eliana; Vilamaior, Patricia S L; Taboga, Sebastião R
This study evaluated the effects of testosterone in the bulbourethral glands (BG) of the bat, Artibeus planirostris, by performing castration and posterior hormonal supplementation of the animals. The results showed a decrease in testosterone levels in animals 15days after castration, which induced a small reduction in epithelium height, percentage of AR+ cells, and an increase in the amount of basal cells. This reduction became more severe in groups castrated for longer periods (19 and 22days), where there was also an increase in apoptotic cells. Moreover, the hormonal supplementation increased testosterone levels (after 3 and 7days of supplementation), causing a glandular reactivation that increased the epithelium height and AR expression. In conclusion, BG took longer to respond to ablation of testosterone than other reproductive glands, since it showed evident aspects of regression only in animals 22days after castrated. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Development and characterization of 10 microsatellite markers in the Cape horseshoe bat, Rhinolophus capensis (Chiroptera, Rhinolophidae) and cross-amplification in southern African Rhinolophus species.
Nesi, Nicolas; Jacobs, David S; Feldheim, Kevin; Bishop, Jacqueline M
The Cape horseshoe bat, Rhinolophus capensis, is endemic to the Cape region of South Africa. Coalescent analysis of mitochondrial DNA sequence data suggests extensive historical gene flow between populations despite strong geographic variation of their echolocation call phenotype. Nevertheless the fine-scale genetic structure and evolutionary ecology of R. capensis remains poorly understood. Here we describe the development of 10 novel polymorphic microsatellite loci to investigate of the dispersal ecology of R. capensis and to facilitate taxonomic studies of Rhinolophus species in southern Africa. We report 10 microsatellite primer pairs that consistently amplify scorable and polymorphic loci across 12 African rhinolophid species. Initial analysis of two populations of R. capensis from South Africa revealed moderate to high levels of allelic variation with 4-14 alleles per locus and observed heterozygosities of 0.450-0.900. No evidence of linkage disequilibrium was observed and eight of the loci showed no departure from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. Cross-species utility of these markers revealed consistently amplifiable polymorphic loci in eleven additional rhinolophid species. The cross-amplification success of the microsatellites developed here provides a cost-effective set of population genetic marker for the study of rhinolophid evolutionary ecology and conservation in southern Africa.
Najafi, Nargess; Akmali, Vahid; Sharifi, Mozafar
Molecular phylogeography and species distribution modelling (SDM) suggest that late Quaternary glacial cycles have portrayed a significant role in structuring current population genetic structure and diversity. Based on phylogenetic relationships using Bayesian inference and maximum likelihood of 535 bp mtDNA (D-loop) and 745 bp mtDNA (Cytb) in 62 individuals of the Mediterranean Horseshoe Bat, Rhinolophus euryale, from 13 different localities in Iran we identified two subspecific populations with differing population genetic structure distributed in southern Zagros Mts. and northern Elburz Mts. Analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) obtained from D-loop sequences indicates that 21.18% of sequence variation is distributed among populations and 10.84% within them. Moreover, a degree of genetic subdivision, mainly attributable to the existence of significant variance among the two regions is shown (θCT = 0.68, p = .005). The positive and significant correlation between geographic and genetic distances (R 2 = 0.28, r = 0.529, p = .000) is obtained following controlling for environmental distance. Spatial distribution of haplotypes indicates that marginal population of the species in southern part of the species range have occupied this section as a glacial refugia. However, this genetic variation, in conjunction with results of the SDM shows a massive postglacial range expansion for R. euryale towards higher latitudes in Iran.
Mateus R Beguelini
Full Text Available Myotis nigricans is a species of vespertilionid bat, whose males show two periods of total testicular regression within the same annual reproductive cycle in the northwest São Paulo State, Brazil. Studies have demonstrated that its epididymis has an elongation of the caudal portion, which stores spermatozoa during the period of testicular regression in July, but that they had no sperm during the regression in November. Thus, the aim of this study was to analyze the impact of the total testicular regression in the epididymal morphophysiology and patterns of its hormonal regulation. The results demonstrate a continuous activity of the epididymis from the Active to the Regressing periods; a morphofunctional regression of the epididymis in the Regressed period; and a slow recrudescence process. Thus, we concluded that the processes of total testicular regression and posterior recrudescence suffered by M. nigricans also impact the physiology of the epididymis, but with a delay in epididymal response. Epididymal physiology is regulated by testosterone and estrogen, through the production and secretion of testosterone by the testes, its conduction to the epididymis (mainly through luminal fluid, conversion of testosterone to dihydrotestosterone by the 5α-reductase enzyme (mainly in epithelial cells and to estrogen by aromatase; and through the activation/deactivation of the androgen receptor and estrogen receptor α in epithelial cells, which regulate the epithelial cell morphophysiology, prevents cell death and regulates their protein expression and secretion, which ensures the maturation and storage of the spermatozoa.
Molinari, Jesús; Bustos, Xiomar E; Burneo, Santiago F; Camacho, M Alejandra; Moreno, S Andrea; Fermín, Gustavo
Sturnira is the most speciose genus of New World leaf-nosed bats (Phyllostomidae). We name Sturnira adrianae, new species. This taxon is born polytypic, divided into a larger subspecies (S. a. adrianae) widespread in the mountains of northern and western Venezuela, and northern Colombia, and a smaller subspecies (S. a. caripana) endemic to the mountains of northeastern Venezuela. The new species inhabits evergreen, deciduous, and cloud forests at mainly medium (1000-2000 m) elevations. It has long been confused with S. ludovici, but it is more closely related to S. oporaphilum. It can be distinguished from other species of Sturnira by genetic data, and based on discrete and continuously varying characters. Within the genus, the new species belongs to a clade that also includes S. oporaphilum, S. ludovici, S. hondurensis, and S. burtonlimi. The larger new subspecies is the largest member of this clade. The two new subspecies are the most sexually dimorphic members of this clade. The smaller new subspecies is restricted to small mountain systems undergoing severe deforestation processes, therefore can be assigned to the Vulnerable (VU) conservation category of the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN).
Lourenço, Elizabete Captivo; Almeida, Juliana Cardoso; Famadas, Kátia Maria
The family Streblidae consists of obligate hematophagous ectoparasites of bats. The richness of Streblidae may be affected by environmental and host-related variables, collection methods, and sampling effort. The purposes of this study were to list the Streblidae species recorded in Brazil, verify their distribution in the Brazilian biomes and states, and pinpoint the parameters that favored the greatest richness. Through queries in online databases and libraries, 86 publications were found containing records of 83 species in 24 genera. The state with the largest number of publications was São Paulo and Federal District presented the highest richness of Streblidae. The largest number of records of Streblidae species was in Cerrado biome. The meta-analyses utilizing 26 Brazilian inventories showed that the richness of Streblidae was positively correlated with the number of flies and richness and abundance of Phyllostomidae. We hope that the results of this study will contribute to a better understanding of the distribution of research on Streblidae in Brazil and confirming the specificity between Streblidae and Phyllostomidae.
Campolina-Silva, Gabriel H; Hess, Rex A; Oliveira, Cleida A
The balance between cell proliferation and apoptosis is important for maintenance of male fertility, being influenced by a variety of stimuli including androgens and estrogens. However, studies concerning regulation of these processes along the male reproductive tract under physiological conditions are scarce. Therefore, in this study, we investigated the profile of cell proliferation and apoptosis in the efferent ductules and epididymis of the Neotropical bat Artibeus lituratus, a seasonal breeder that presents natural variation in components of the androgen and estrogen responsive systems along the circannual cycle. Low rates of cell proliferation and apoptosis were found in the efferent ductules and epididymis of A. lituratus during the reproductive period, as few epithelial cells were positive for MCM7 (proliferation marker) and cleaved caspase-3 or TUNEL (apoptosis markers). In contrast, during the regressive period, the rate of both proliferating and apoptotic cells was significantly higher in the epithelium lining the efferent ductules as well as throughout the epididymis. The increased proliferative activity at this phase was positively correlated with the expression of estrogen receptor alpha (ERα), whereas the variation in apoptosis appears to be unrelated to the local expression of androgen and estrogen receptors. Together, these data suggest that cell proliferation and apoptosis are differentially modulated in the efferent ductules and epididymis of A. lituratus during the annual reproductive cycle, and support the hypothesis that ERα may be important in preparing the male reproductive tract for sexual recrudescence. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Beguelini, Mateus R.; Góes, Rejane M.; Rahal, Paula; Morielle-Versute, Eliana; Taboga, Sebastião R.
Myotis nigricans is a species of vespertilionid bat, whose males show two periods of total testicular regression within the same annual reproductive cycle in the northwest São Paulo State, Brazil. Studies have demonstrated that its epididymis has an elongation of the caudal portion, which stores spermatozoa during the period of testicular regression in July, but that they had no sperm during the regression in November. Thus, the aim of this study was to analyze the impact of the total testicular regression in the epididymal morphophysiology and patterns of its hormonal regulation. The results demonstrate a continuous activity of the epididymis from the Active to the Regressing periods; a morphofunctional regression of the epididymis in the Regressed period; and a slow recrudescence process. Thus, we concluded that the processes of total testicular regression and posterior recrudescence suffered by M. nigricans also impact the physiology of the epididymis, but with a delay in epididymal response. Epididymal physiology is regulated by testosterone and estrogen, through the production and secretion of testosterone by the testes, its conduction to the epididymis (mainly through luminal fluid), conversion of testosterone to dihydrotestosterone by the 5α-reductase enzyme (mainly in epithelial cells) and to estrogen by aromatase; and through the activation/deactivation of the androgen receptor and estrogen receptor α in epithelial cells, which regulate the epithelial cell morphophysiology, prevents cell death and regulates their protein expression and secretion, which ensures the maturation and storage of the spermatozoa. PMID:26057377
Hassanin, Alexandre; Khouider, Souraya; Gembu, Guy-Crispin; Goodman, Steven M; Kadjo, Blaise; Nesi, Nicolas; Pourrut, Xavier; Nakouné, Emmanuel; Bonillo, Céline
The hypothesis of Pleistocene forest refugia was tested using comparative phylogeography of Scotonycterini, a fruit bat tribe endemic to Africa containing four species: Scotonycteris zenkeri, Casinycteris argynnis, C. campomaanensis, and C. ophiodon. Patterns of genetic structure were assessed using 105 Scotonycterini (including material from three holotypes) collected at 37 localities, and DNA sequences from the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene (1140 nt) and 12 nuclear introns (9641 nt). Phylogenetic trees and molecular dating were inferred by Bayesian methods. Multilocus analyses were performed using supermatrix, SuperTRI, and *BEAST approaches. Mitochondrial analyses reveal strong phylogeographical structure in Scotonycteris, with four divergent haplogroups (4.9-8.7%), from Upper Guinea, Cameroon, western Equatorial Africa, and eastern Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC). In C. argynnis, we identify two mtDNA haplogroups corresponding to western and eastern Equatorial Africa (1.4-2.1%). In C. ophiodon, the mtDNA haplotypes from Cameroon and Ivory Coast differ by only 1.3%. Nuclear analyses confirm the validity of the recently described C. campomaanensis and indicate that western and eastern populations of C. argynnis are not fully isolated. All mtDNA clusters detected in Scotonycteris are found to be monophyletic based on the nuclear dataset, except in eastern DRC. In the nuclear tree, the clade from western Equatorial Africa is closely related to individuals from eastern DRC, whereas in the mitochondrial tree it appears to be the sister-group of the Cameroon clade. Migrate-n analyses support gene flow from western Equatorial Africa to eastern DRC. Molecular dating indicates that Pleistocene forest refugia have played an important role in shaping the evolution of Scotonycterini, with two phases of allopatric speciation at approximately 2.7 and 1.6 Mya, resulting from isolation in three main forest areas corresponding to Upper Guinea, Cameroon, and Equatorial
Jennifer M. Menzel; Michael A. Menzel; John C. Kilgo; W. Mark Ford; John W. Edwards
Bat activity in the southeastern United States is concentrated over riparian areas and wetland habitats. The restoration and creation of wetlands for mitigation purposes is becoming common in the Southeast. Understanding the effects of these restoration efforts on wetland flora and fauna is thus becoming increasingly important. Because bats (Order: Chiroptera) consist...
Theodore J. Weller; William J. Zielinski
Standardized survey methods are important for obtaining reliable information on wildlife populations. As a precursor to creating a regional bat-survey (Chiroptera) protocol, we distributed a questionnaire via e-mail to biologists responsible for conducting bat surveys in the United States and Canada. We received 415 responses from 45 states and 7 Canadian provinces or...
Anomalias e variações na fórmula dentária em morcegos do gênero Artibeus Leach (Chiroptera, Phyllostomidae Anomalies and variation in the dental formula of bats of the genus Artibeus Leach (Chiroptera, Phyllostomidae
Ana Maria Rui
Full Text Available Descreve-se a ocorrência e analisa-se as causas de anomalias dentárias em Artibeus lituratus (Olfers, 1818 e A. fimbriatus Gray, 1838 (Chiroptera: Phyllostomidae provenientes de populações do Estado do Rio Grande do Sul, sul do Brasil. São discutidas, com base no material examinado e em ampla revisão da literatura, as variações quanto à presença dos terceiros molares superior e inferior entre diferentes espécies de Artibeus Leach, 1821. Foram analisados 104 crânios de A. lituratus e 44 de A. fimbriatus quanto à fórmula dentária. Em A. lituratus ocorreram dois casos de dentes extranumerários, um incisivo superior e um terceiro molar superior direito, e um de agênese dentária dos terceiros molares inferiores. Em A. fimbriatus constatou-se a ocorrência de um segundo pré-molar superior direito extranumerário. As ocorrências do terceiro molar superior em A. lituratus e do segundo pré-molar superior em A. fimbriatus são casos de atavismos. Em Artibeus (Artibeus ocorrem variações quanto à presença do terceiro molar superior, de maior ou menor intensidade, em praticamente todas as espécies. Estas variações ocorrem tanto a nível intrapopulacional quanto geográfico. Já o terceiro molar inferior está ausente em baixa freqüência em várias populações de diferentes espécies. Os terceiros molares superiores e inferiores estão em processo de desaparecimento na linhagem dos Artibeus (Artibeus. O fato destes dentes já não ocorrerem em algumas espécies, terem ocorrência variável em outras e serem sempre estruturas reduzidas e simplificadas, sem função na mastigação, são indicativos deste processo evolutivo. A variação intensa observada quanto à ocorrência do terceiro molar superior inviabiliza o seu uso como caráter útil na identificação de espécies.This paper describes and analyzes the causes of dental formula anomalies in the bats Artibeus lituratus (Olfers, 1818 and Artibeus fimbriatus Gray, 1838
Streblidae (Diptera, Hippoboscoidea sobre morcegos filostomídeos (Chiroptera, Phyllostomidae em cavernas do Distrito Federal Brasil Streblid batflies (Diptera, Streblidae on phyllostomid bats from eaves in Distrito Federal Brazil
Full Text Available A survey of streblid batflies on phyllostomid bats was carried out from caves in Distrito Federal, Brazil during 1997 and 1998. Thirteen species were found on eight species of bats. Two species of batflies, Trichobius lonchophyllae Wenzel, 1966 and T. propinquus Wenzel, 1976, are new records for Brazil.
Hance, P; Garnotel, E; Morillon, M
Zoonosis is the cause of the vast majority of emerging diseases. Bats that occupy the second place in the mammal class play an important role. Whether they belong to the microchiroptera suborder or to the megachiroptera suborder, bats on all five continents have been implicated in transmission of numerous pathogens including not only viruses such as Lyssavirus (e.g. rabies), Hepanivirus (e.g. Hendra and Nipah virus) and recently coronavirus (e.g. SARS-like coronavirus and Ebola virus) but also fungus such as histoplasmosis. By modifying environmental conditions and encroaching on their biotope, human intervention has probably contributed to the introduction of chiropteras into an epidemiologic chain in which they previously had no place, thus promoting the emergence of new pathogens.
First record of the Diadem Leaf-Nosed Bat Hipposideros diadema (E. Geoffroy, 1813 (Chiroptera: Hipposideridae from the Andaman Islands, India with the possible occurrence of a hitherto unreported subspecies
Full Text Available The Diadem Leaf-nosed Bat Hipposideros diadema (E. Geoffroy, 1813 is recorded for the first time from the Andaman Islands, India. A solitary female specimen was collected on October 13, 2015 from a limestone cave on Baratang Island. Cranial measurements and other morphological characters indicate that the specimen differs from the endemic subspecies, the Nicobar Diadem Leaf-nosed Bat Hipposideros diadema nicobarensis (Dobson, 1871, but compares favourably with the South-east Asian subspecies, Mason’s Diadem Leaf-nosed Bat Hipposideros diadema masoni (Dobson, 1872, in description, craniodental characters, and echolocation calls. This is the first record of Hipposideros diadema (E. Geoffroy, 1813 from Andaman Islands, and the subspecies Mason’s Diadem Leaf-nosed Bat Hipposideros diadema masoni (Dobson, 1872 from India.
Liu, Zhi-Xiao; Zhang, You-Xiang; Zhang, Li-Biao
Chinese chiropterologists have made significant improvements into research on bat taxonomy and distribution. Overall, scholars recorded 6 new species of bats, alongside 11 species recorded species in the Chinese Mainland and 4 new bat species of Murina in Taiwan. Chinese chiropterologists intensively cooperated with the international experts on bats, and adopted several new, multidisciplinary methods to carry out their studies. Likewise, in China, an increased awareness of bat conservation has been growing. While publications on Chiroptera are continuing to increase increased in China, the methodology of these studies remains to be further developed in hopes of revealing the new and cryptic bat species. Considering the vast territory of China and the migrational habit of bats, we expect that with more refined methodology, more new species of bats and their distributions may be uncovered in the near future. Concurrently, it is important to reexamine the known species by the new taxonomic methods and fauna analysis through which the distribution and subdivision of bats can be updated. Additionally, an international platform for exchanging information of bats needs to be established to enhance the academic cooperation for bat researches. It is highly possible that China will soon become an important research center on taxonomy, distribution, phylogenetics and diversity evolution of Chiroptera, especially as Chinese researchers continues create new knowledge for bats at the α, β and γ taxonomic levels.
Juhl, Peter Møller; Cutanda Henriquez, Vicente; Vanderelst, Dieter
Overskrift: ChiRoPing (Chiroptera, Robots, and Sonar) is an EU-funded research project aimed at understanding how bats use their echolocation perception ability and apply this knowledge to the design of new robotic senses. Four species of bats are selected for the study and models of their heads...... including minute details of ears, mouth and nose are obtained through CT scans. The project involves, among other things, the use of numerical methods on such scanned models to study the role of their features in the bat sensorial performance. As the bats operate at very high frequencies and as their ears...
Moscas ectoparasitas (Diptera, Streblidae de morcegos (Chiroptera, Phyllostomidae no sul do Brasil: associações hospedeiros-parasitos e taxas de infestação Ectoparasitic flies (Diptera, Streblidae of bats (Chiroptera, Phyllostomidae in southern Brazil: hosts-parasites associations and infestation rates
Ana M. Rui
Full Text Available As associações hospedeiros-parasitos e as taxas de infestação de dípteros ectoparasitos da família Streblidae foram estudadas em morcegos da família Phyllostomidae na Floresta Atlântica no extremo sul do Brasil. Para as espécies mais abundantes de filostomídeos, foi examinado se há diferenças nos valores de prevalência e intensidade média dos ectoparasitos nas diferentes estações do ano e conforme sexo e idade do hospedeiro. Em quatro espécies de filostomídeos (Anoura caudifera (E. Geoffroy, 1818, Artibeus fimbriatus Gray, 1838, Artibeus lituratus (Olfers, 1818 e Sturnira lilium E. Geoffroy, 1810 foram coletados 118 indivíduos de sete espécies de Streblidae (Anastrebla caudiferae Wenzel, 1976, Megistopoda aranea (Coquillett, 1899, Megistopoda proxima (Séguy, 1926, Metelasmus pseudopterus Coquillett, 1907, Paratrichobius longicrus (Miranda Ribeiro, 1907, Trichobius phyllostomae Kessel, 1925 e Trichobius tiptoni Wenzel, 1976. Para A. lituratus, A. fimbriatus e S. lilium, as taxas de infestação foram baixas e houve uma tendência à infestação ser maior no verão e outono, fato provavelmente relacionado à sazonalidade de temperatura na região, que afeta as taxas reprodutivas e a mortalidade dos ectoparasitos. A infestação por P. longicrus em A. lituratus não foi afetada pelo sexo e idade do hospedeiro. Para S. lilium, a infestação por M. proxima não foi afetada por sexo e idade do hospedeiro, com exceção da maior prevalência de ectoparasitos em indivíduos jovens. Os dados indicam que não existem diferenças comportamentais ligadas a sexo e idade do hospedeiro que favoreçam ou comprometam a infestação por Streblidae nestas espécies de morcegos filostomídeos.Hosts-parasites associations, including infestation rates, between ectoparasitic bat flies of the family Streblidae and bats of the family Phyllostomidae were studied in Atlantic Forest habitats in southern Brazil. For the more abundant phyllostomid bats
Yu, Danna; Qian, Kenan; Storey, Kenneth B; Hu, Yizhong; Zhang, Jiayong
The mitochondrial genome of the little brown bat, Myotis lucifugus (Chiroptera: Vespertilionidae), is a circular molecule of 17,038 bp in length, containing 22 transfer RNAs genes, 13 protein-coding genes, two ribosomal RNAs, and one D-loop region. The A + T content of the overall base composition of the H-strand is 63.2% with individual nucleotides comprising T 29.8%, C 23.4%, A 33.3%, and G 13.5%. In BI and ML trees, we found M. lucifugus is a sister clade to M. brandtii, Myotis is a sister clade to Murina, and Pipistrellus is a sister clade to (Chalinolobus + (Eptesicus + Vespertilio)) (1.00 in BI, >100% in ML). The monophyly of Myotis, Murina, and Plecotus is well supported (1.00 in BI, 100% in ML).
With more than 1 200 species, bats and flying foxes (Order Chiroptera) constitute the most important and diverse order of Mammals after Rodents. Many species of bats are insectivorous while others are frugivorous and few of them are hematophagous. Some of these animals fly during the night, others are crepuscular or diurnal. Some fly long distances during seasonal migrations. Many species are colonial cave-dwelling, living in a rather small home range while others are relatively solitary. However, in spite of the importance of bats for terrestrial biotic communities and ecosystem ecology, the diversity in their biology and lifestyles remain poorly known and underappreciated. More than sixty viruses have been detected or isolated in bats; these animals are therefore involved in the natural cycles of many of them. This is the case, for instance, of rabies virus and other Lyssavirus (Family Rhabdoviridae), Nipah and Hendra viruses (Paramyxoviridae), Ebola and Marburg viruses (Filoviridae), SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV (Coronaviridae). For these zoonotic viruses, a number of bat species are considered as important reservoir hosts, efficient disseminators or even directly responsible of the transmission. Some of these bat-borne viruses cause highly pathogenic diseases while others are of potential significance for humans and domestic or wild animals; so, bats are an important risk in human and animal public health. Moreover, some groups of viruses developed through different phylogenetic mechanisms of coevolution between viruses and bats. The fact that most of these viral infections are asymptomatic in bats has been observed since a long time but the mechanisms of the viral persistence are not clearly understood. The various bioecology of the different bat populations allows exchange of virus between migrating and non-migrating conspecific species. For a better understanding of the role of bats in the circulation of these viral zoonoses, epidemiologists must pay attention to
A dieta dos morcegos frugívoros (Mammalia, Chiroptera, Phyllostomidae de um pequeno remanescente de Floresta Estacionai Semidecidual do sul do Brasil The diet of fruit-eating bats (Mammalia, Chiroptera, Phyllostomidae in a small Semideciduous Seasonal Forest remnant in south Brazil
Sandra Bos Mikich
Full Text Available The diet of some leaf-nosed frugivorous bats - Artibeus Leach, 1821, Carollia perspicillata (Linnaeus, 1758 and Sturnira lilium (e. Geoffroy, 1810 - was studied for nine consecutive months through faecal analysis of individuais captured with mist-nets in a small forest remnant of Paraná state, Brazil. The analysis revealed that Artibeus spp. exhibited preference for fruits of Ficus spp. and Carollia perspicillata for those of Piper spp., which is in accordance with the results of previous studies. But contrary to what was expected, fruit of Solanum spp. were not found for the diet of Sturnira lilium in spite of their high availabilily (16 species in the study area and their known relationship with this bat genus. The species of consumed fruit belonged to several plant life forms (trees, bushes, and lianas and occurred in several habitais. This result emphasizes the importance of keeping habitat diversity, especially in small isolated reserves. Most consumed fruits were green, in agreement with the chiropterochoric syndrome, but ali seeds were small due to limitations of the sampling method. Fruit species abundance in the study area did not seem to have influenced their consumption, but intra-specific fruit availability did so, since most fruits were consumed within their intra-annual peak of availability.
Ludmilla M. S. Aguiar
Full Text Available We examined food habits of Vespertilionidae bats Myotis nigricans (Schinz, 1821 and Eptesicus furinalis (d'Orbigny, 1847 by fecal analysis in cerrado sensu stricto and gallery forests, within APA - Gama-Cabeça-de-Veado, Brasília, Distrito Federal, Brazil. Out of 20 fecal samples collected, seven were of Eptesicus furinalis and 13 of Myotis nigricans. The diet of E. furinalis included six orders of insects: Coleoptera (5/7 by items presence, Lepidoptera and Hymenoptera (3/7, Diptera, Hemiptera and Homoptera (1/7. The diet of M. nigricans included all the main orders consumed by E. furinalis (6/13, 4/13, 4/13, 3/13, 1/13, and 4/13 respectively and one other order: Orthoptera (1/13. Homoptera, Diptera and Orthoptera were collected only in bats captured in gallery forest. There is 80% of overlap in the diet of these two species. Predation on species of Scarabeidae, Hesperiidae, Sphingidae and Saturniidae families confirms bats potential as biological control agents of pests in agricultural ecosystems.Foi examinado o hábito alimentar das espécies de Vespertilionidae Myotis nigricans (Schinz, 1821 e Eptesicus furinalis (d'Orbigny, 1847 por meio de análise de amostras fecais coletadas em animais capturados em área de cerrado sensu stricto e matas de galeria, na APA - Gama-Cabeça-de-Veado, Brasília, Distrito Federal, Brasil. Um total de 20 amostras fecais foi analisado, sendo sete de E. furinalis e 13 de M. nigricans. A dieta de E. furinalis incluiu seis ordens de insetos: Coleoptera (5/7 (presença na amostra total, Lepidoptera e Hymenoptera (3/7, Diptera, Hemiptera e Homoptera (1/7. A dieta de M. nigricans incluiu todas as ordens consumidas por E. furinalis (6/13, 4/13, 4/13, 3/13, 1/13, and 4/13 respectively e uma ordem a mais: Orthoptera (1/13. Homoptera, Diptera e Orthoptera só foram amostrados para morcegos capturados em mata de galeria. Há 80% de sobreposição na dieta destas duas espécies. A predação sobre espécies das fam
Padrão de atividade e comportamento de forrageamento do morcego-pescador Noctilio leporinus (Linnaeus (Chiroptera, Noctilionidae na Baía de Guaratuba, Paraná, Brasil Activity pattern and foraging behavior of bulldog-bat Noctilio leporinus (Linnaeus, (Chiroptera, Noctilionidae in Guaratuba Bay, Paraná State, Brazil
Marcelo O. Bordignon
Full Text Available Entre 18 de janeiro a 16 de dezembro de 1999 foi estudado o comportamento de forrageamento e o padrão de atividade do morcego-pescador Noctilio leporinus (Linnaeus, 1758, em uma área de manguezal na Baía de Guaratuba, Sul do Brasil. Os grupos de N. leporinus observados permaneceram em atividade ao longo de todo o período noturno, mas com um aparente padrão bimodal. Durante os meses de abril a setembro, N. leporinus inicia a sua atividade geralmente às 18:00 h, uma hora mais cedo do que durante os meses de outubro a março, quando inicia sua atividade geralmente às 19:00 h. O comportamento de predação sobre os cardumes de peixes mostrou variações quanto ao local de forrageamento ao longo do período de atividade. Em baixos níveis de maré, os grupos de morcegos pescaram longe da margem em águas mais profundas, mas nos níveis de maré alta os grupos de morcegos permaneceram pescando sempre junto à margem, em águas mais rasas. Este padrão de comportamento em N. leporinus parece ser determinado pelo padrão de deslocamento dos cardumes de peixes na área de estudo.From January 18 to December 16 of 1999 the foraging behavior and activity pattern of fishing bat Noctilio leporinus (Linnaeus, 1758 were studied in mangrove ecosystem of Guaratuba Bay, southern Brazil. The groups of N. leporinus observed remained active during all nightly period but showed an apparent bimodal pattern. During April and September N. leporinus generally begin their activity at 18:00h, one hour earlier than October to March months, when their activity started at 19:00 h. The foraging behavior on fish shoal varied spatially along all the activity period. During low tide level the bat groups remained fishing distant from margin on deeper water, but during high tide level the bats were always observed fishing close to the margin on flat water. This pattern in foraging behavior of N. leporinus appears to be determined by the fish shoal displacement pattern in
Predação oportunista de Artibeus planirostris (Spix, 1823 e Carollia perspicillata (Linnaeus, 1758 (Chiroptera, Phyllostomidae por marsupiais e anuro na APA do Rio Curiaú, Amapá, Brasil Opportunistic predation of Artibeus planirostris (Spix, 1823 and Carollia perspicillata (Linnaeus, 1758 (Chiroptera, Phyllostomidae by marsupials and anuran in the APA do Rio Curiaú, Amapá State, Brazil
Isai Jorge de Castro
Full Text Available Durante estudos com morcegos em floresta de várzea na APA do Rio Curiaú, Amapá, Brasil, observamos três casos de predações oportunistas de morcegos frugívoros capturados em redes de neblina. Duas destas predações ocorreram por marsupiais e uma por anuro. Artibeus planirostris (Spix, 1823 (Chiroptera, Phyllostomidae foi predado por Didelphis marsupialis Linnaeus, 1758 e Philander opossum (Linnaeus, 1758 (Didelphimorphia, Didelphidae. Carollia perspicillata (Linnaeus, 1758 (Chiroptera, Phyllostomidae foi predado por Leptodactylus pentadactylus (Laurenti, 1768 (Anura, Leptodactylidae. A vocalização dos morcegos provavelmente atraiu os marsupiais para a rede, onde estes os predaram aproveitando que estavam presos. Este tipo de interação pode ocorrer naturalmente, no entanto, com maior dificuldade de registro.We observed three occasional predations of bats captured in mist nets by marsupials and a frog during studies in a várzea forest in the Amapá state. Artibeus planirostris (Spix, 1823 (Chiroptera, Phyllostomidae was preyed upon by Didelphis marsupialis Linnaeus, 1758 and Philander opossum (Linnaeus, 1758 (Didelphimorphia, Didelphidae. Carollia perspicillata (Linnaeus, 1758 (Chiroptera, Phyllostomidae was preyed on by Leptodactylus pentadactylus (Laurenti, 1768 (Anura, Leptodactylidae. The bats vocalizations probably attracted the marsupials and a frog to the mist nets where they preyed. This interaction form can occur naturally, however, are more difficult to observed.
Luzia H Queiroz da Silva
Full Text Available Descreve-se o isolamento e a identificação do vírus rábico em morcegos insetívoros Molossus ater, no Estado de São Paulo, nos municípios de Araçatuba, Penápolis e São José do Rio Preto. A maioria dos exemplares foi capturada ainda com vida, não havendo, porém, contato com pessoas ou animais. O diagnóstico foi realizado pelas provas de imunofluorescência direta e inoculação intracerebral em camundongos.This is a report of rabies infection in insectivorous bat Molossus ater in the city districts of Araçatuba, Penápolis and São José do Rio Preto, in São Paulo state, Brazil. Fluorescent antibody test detected the virus in the brain and isolation was obtained by intracerebral inoculation of mice with nervous tissue and organs suspension. There was no contact with humans or other animals.
Eveline de Cássia Batista de Almeida Alves
Full Text Available Sialoliths are calcified structures that develop into the salivary duct system, they have a round or oval shape and are usually asymptomatic. They result from the deposition of calcium salts around focal areas of organic matter and grow continuously, with the possibility of causing obstruction and reduced salivary flow. Commonly reported in humans, sialoliths may also affect, less frequently, the salivary glands of domestic and wild animals. This paper aimed to describe the histopathological characteristics of a sialolith affecting the excretory duct in the salivary gland of an adult male specimen of the tropical bat Artibeus lituratus (Chiroptera: Phyllostomidae. This specimen was collected in the urban area of Vitória de Santo Antão, Pernambuco, Brazil. Histological preparations were stained with hematoxylin and eosin (HE and histochemical techniques with Schiff-periodic acid (PAS and Alcian blue (pH 1.0 and 2.5 were applied for a better characterization and description of the sialolith. Although the formation of sialoliths is very common in the salivary glands of mammals, its occurrence in bats had not been reported before.
O que é melhor para manter a riqueza de espécies de morcegos (Mammalia, Chiroptera: um fragmento florestal grande ou vários fragmentos de pequeno tamanho? What is better for maintaining the richness of bat (Mammalia, Chiroptera species: a large forest fragment or many small fragments?
Nelio Roberto dos Reis
Full Text Available This study was carried out with the objective of evaluating if the size of forest fragments affects the diversity of bat species. In order to do that, seven fragments were studied in Londrina, Paraná: five small fragments, whose areas varied between 1 and 10 ha; a fragment which is considered medium-sized (Parque Municipal Arthur Thomas - 85,47 ha.; and a large fragment (Parque Estadual Mata dos Godoy - 680 ha.. Thirty three species were collected. Ten species were common to all three types of fragments: Chrotopterus auritus (Peters, 1856, Carollia perspicillata (Linnaeus, 1758, Artibeus fimbriatus Gray, 1838, Artibeus lituratus (Olfers, 1818, Platyrrhinus lineatus (E. Geoffroy, 1810, Pygoderma bilabiatum (Wagner, 1843, Sturnira lilium (E. Geoffroy, 1810, Vampyressa pusilla (Wagner, 1843, Eptesicus brasiliensis (Desmarest, 1819, and Myotis nigricans (Schinz, 1821. Eight species were only found in the large fragment: Noctilio albiventris Desmarest, 1818, Glossophaga soricina (Pallas, 1766, Uroderma bilobatum Peters, 1866, Diaemus youngi (Jentink,1893, Diphylla ecaudata Spix, 1823, Eptesicus furinalis (d'Orbigny, 1847, Histiotus velatus (I. Geoffroy, 1824 and Myotis levis (I. Geoffroy, 1824. Five were only found in the small fragments: Noctilio leporinus (Linnaeus, 1758, Phyllostomus discolor Wagner, 1843, Chiroderma villosum Peters, 1860, Eptesicus sp. e Rogheessa tumida H. Allen, 1866. Chiroderma doriae, which is threatened by extinction, was captured in the large fragment and in one of the small fragments; M. ruber, also threatened by extinction, was captured in the medium-sized and large fragments. We believe that the major cause for the loss of organic diversity is not rational exploitation, but the destruction of habitats, a result of the expansion of irrational human activities.
Eimeria peltocephali n. sp., (Apicomplexa:Eimeriidae from the Freshwater Turtle Peltocephalus dumerilianus (Chelonia:Pelomusidae and Eimeria molossi n. sp., from the Bat, Molossus ater (Mammalia:Chiroptera
Full Text Available The oocyst is described of Eimeria peltocephali n.sp. from faeces of the freshwater turtle Peltocephalus dumerilianus from Barcelos, State of Amazonas, Brazil. Sporulation is exogenous and fully developed oocysts are elongate, ellipsoidal or cylindrical, frequently curved to a banana-shape, 54.4 x19.1 (37.5 - 68.7 x 18.7-20.0 µm, shape-index 2.8 (1.8 -3.9. The oocyst wall is a single thin, colourless layer about 1 µm thick, with no micropyle. There is a bulky oocyst residuum, at first spherical to ellipsoidal, 19 x 16 (16. 2 -26.2 x 16 - 21.5µm , but becoming dispersed on maturation. There are no polar bodies. The sporocysts, 19.1 x 6.8 ( 17.5 -21.2 x 6.2 -7.5 µm, shape- index 2.8 (2.3 -3.2, are usually disposed in pairs at each end of the oocyst, and bear an inconspicuous Stieda body in the form of a flat cap. The sporozoites are elongate and slightly curved around the residuum. No refractile bodies were seen. Eimeria molossi n.sp., is described from the molossid bat Molossus ater. Sporulation is exogenous and the mature oocysts are predominantly broadly ellipsoidal, 23.4 x 17.5 (18-30 x 15-22.5 µm, shape-index 1.3 (1-1.6. The oocyst wall is about 2 µm thick, and of three layers: an inner thin, colourless one and two outer layers which are thicker, yellowish-brown, prominently striated and in close apposition. There is no micropyle or oocyst residuum, but one and occasionally two polar bodies are usually present. Sporocysts are ellipsoidal, 10.2 x 7.5 (10-12.5 x 7.5 µm, shape-index 1.4 (1.3-1.7 with an inconspicuous Stieda body. Endogenous stages are described in the epithelial cells of the small intestine
Turner, G. G.; Meteyer, C. U.; Barton, H.; Gumbs, J. F.; Reeder, D. M.; Overton, B.; Banďouchová, H.; Bartonička, T.; Martínková, Natália; Pikula, J.; Zukal, Jan; Blehert, D. S.
Roč. 50, č. 3 (2014), s. 566-573 ISSN 0090-3558 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP506/12/1064 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : bats * Chiroptera * dermatomycosis * fungal infection * ultraviolet (UV) fluorescence * white-nose syndrome Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine Impact factor: 1.355, year: 2014
Genevieve Spanjer Wright
Full Text Available Vocalizations serving a variety of social functions have been reported in many bat species (Order Chiroptera. While echolocation by big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus has been the subject of extensive study, calls used by this species for communication have received comparatively little research attention. Here, we report on a rich repertoire of vocalizations produced by big brown bats in a large flight room equipped with synchronized high speed stereo video and audio recording equipment. Bats were studied individually and in pairs, while sex, age, and experience with a novel foraging task were varied. We used Discriminant Function Analysis to classify six different vocalizations that were recorded when two bats were present. Contingency table analyses revealed a higher prevalence of social calls when males were present, and some call types varied in frequency of emission based on trial type or bat age. Bats flew closer together around the time some social calls were emitted, indicating that communicative calls may be selectively produced when conspecifics fly near one another. These findings are the first reports of social calls from flying big brown bats and provide insight into the function of communicative vocalizations emitted by this species.
Ao, Lei; Mao, Xiuguang; Nie, Wenhui; Gu, Xiaoming; Feng, Qing; Wang, Jinhuan; Su, Weiting; Wang, Yingxiang; Volleth, Marianne; Yang, Fengtang
Bats are a unique but enigmatic group of mammals and have a world-wide distribution. The phylogenetic relationships of extant bats are far from being resolved. Here, we investigated the karyotypic relationships of representative species from four families of the order Chiroptera by comparative chromosome painting and banding. A complete set of painting probes derived from flow-sorted chromosomes of Myotis myotis (family Vespertilionidae) were hybridized onto metaphases of Cynopterus sphinx (2n = 34, family Pteropodidae), Rhinolophus sinicus (2n=36, family Rhinolophidae) and Aselliscus stoliczkanus (2n=30, family Hipposideridae) and delimited 27, 30 and 25 conserved chromosomal segments in the three genomes, respectively. The results substantiate that Robertsonian translocation is the main mode of chromosome evolution in the order Chiroptera, with extensive conservation of whole chromosomal arms. The use of M. myotis (2n=44) probes has enabled the integration of C. sphinx, R. sinicus and A. stoliczkanus chromosomes into the previously established comparative maps between human and Eonycteris spelaea (2n=36), Rhinolophus mehelyi (2n=58), Hipposideros larvatus (2n=32), and M. myotis. Our results provide the first cytogenetic signature rearrangement that supports the grouping of Pteropodidae and Rhinolophoidea in a common clade (i.e. Pteropodiformes or Yinpterochiroptera) and thus improve our understanding on the karyotypic relationships and genome phylogeny of these bat species.
Carter, Anthony M; Mess, Andrea
Recent advances in molecular phylogenetics indicate that the order Chiroptera is monophyletic and that one of four lineages of microbats (Rhinolophoidea) shares a common origin with megabats. Against this background we undertook a comprehensive analysis of placental evolution in bats. We defined...... a range of characters and character states associated with female reproduction, early development, placentation and the neonate. These were then mapped on a pre-existing hypothesis of bat relationships that represents the current view from molecular studies. Our purpose was threefold. First......, on the assumption of bat monophyly, we wished to establish the stem species pattern of extant chiropterans. Secondly, we asked whether there are derived character conditions in support of a common origin for Rhinolophoidea and the megabats. Thirdly, we looked for evolutionary character transformations...
Phillips, Amanda J.; Scott, Catherine; Matthews, Catherine E.
This article describes a lesson on bats developed for kindergartners, which uses models of bats to teach about their physiology, diet, and habitat. The lesson uses craft sticks, wax paper, and colored construction paper that kindergarten teachers can use to help their students compare the features of 4 different kinds of bats. The use of online…
Aguilar, Isaac-Cesar; Kagan, David
The sight of a broken bat in Major League Baseball can produce anything from a humorous dribbler in the infield to a frightening pointed projectile headed for the stands. Bats usually break at the weakest point, typically in the handle. Breaking happens because the wood gets bent beyond the breaking point due to the wave sent down the bat created…
Menzel, Jennifer M.; Michael A. Menzel; John C. Kilgo; W. Mark Ford;
Abstract: Bat activity in the southeastern United States is concentrated over riparian areas and wetland habitats. The restoration and creation of wetlands for mitigation purposes is becoming common in the Southeast. Understanding the effects of these restoration efforts on wetland flora and fauna is thus becoming increasingly important. Because bats (Order: Chiroptera) consist of many species that are of conservation concern and are commonly associated with wetland and riparian habitats in the Southeast (making them a good general indicator for the condition of wetland habitats), we monitored bat activity over restored and reference Carolina bays surrounded by pine savanna (Pinus spp.) or mixed pine-hardwood habitat types at the Savannah River Site in South Carolina. In order to determine how wetland restoration efforts affected the bat community, we monitored bat activity above drained Carolina bays pre- and post-restoration. Our results indicate that bat activity was greater over reference (i.e., undrained) than drained bays prior to the restorative efforts. One year following combined hydrologic and vegetation treatment, however, bat activity was generally greater over restored than reference bays. Bat activity was also greater over both reference and restored bays than in random, forested interior locations. We found significantly more bat activity after restoration than prior to restoration for all but one species in the treatment bays, suggesting that Carolina bay restoration can have almost immediate positive impacts on bat activity.
Koubínová, D.; Sreepada, K. S.; Koubek, Petr; Zima, Jan
Roč. 12, č. 2 (2010), s. 393-400 ISSN 1508-1109 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA6093403; GA MŠk LC06073 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60930519 Keywords : chromosomal evolution * karyosystematics * Robertsonian translocations Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 1.012, year: 2010
Calisher, Charles H.; Holmes, Kathryn V.; Dominguez, Samuel R.; Schountz, Tony; Cryan, Paul M.
Emerging pathogens, many of them viruses, continue to surprise us, providing many newly recognized diseases to study and to try to control. Many of these emergent viruses are zoonotic, transmitted from reservoirs in wild or domestic animals to humans, either by insect vectors or by exposure to the droppings or tissues of such animals. One rich- but, until recently, underappreciated-source of emergent viruses is bats (Chiroptera, meaning "hand wing"). Accounting for 1,116, or nearly one fourth, of the 4,600 recognized species of mammals, bats are grouped into two suborders Megachiroptera, which contains a single family, Pteropodidae, consisting of 42 genera and 186 species, and Microchiroptera, which contains 17 families, 160 genera, and 930 species. Although bats are among the most abundant, diverse, and geographically dispersed orders of terrestrial mammals, research on these flying mammals historically focused more on their habits and outward characteristics than on their role in carrying microorganisms and transmitting pathogens to other species. Even in those cases where bats were known to carry particular pathogens, the microbiologists who studied those pathogens typically knew little about the bat hosts. Hence, investigators now are seeking to explain how variations of anatomy, physiology, ecology, and behavior influence the roles of bats as hosts for viral pathogens.
Faith M Walker
Full Text Available Bat guano is a relatively untapped reservoir of information, having great utility as a DNA source because it is often available at roosts even when bats are not and is an easy type of sample to collect from a difficult-to-study mammalian order. Recent advances from microbial community studies in primer design, sequencing, and analysis enable fast, accurate, and cost-effective species identification. Here, we borrow from this discipline to develop an order-wide DNA mini-barcode assay (Species from Feces based on a segment of the mitochondrial gene cytochrome c oxidase I (COI. The assay works effectively with fecal DNA and is conveniently transferable to low-cost, high-throughput Illumina MiSeq technology that also allows simultaneous pairing with other markers. Our PCR primers target a region of COI that is highly discriminatory among Chiroptera (92% species-level identification of barcoded species, and are sufficiently degenerate to allow hybridization across diverse bat taxa. We successfully validated our system with 54 bat species across both suborders. Despite abundant arthropod prey DNA in guano, our primers were highly specific to bats; no arthropod DNA was detected in thousands of feces run on Sanger and Illumina platforms. The assay is extendable to fecal pellets of unknown age as well as individual and pooled guano, to allow for individual (using singular fecal pellets and community (using combined pellets collected from across long-term roost sites analyses. We developed a searchable database (http://nau.edu/CEFNS/Forestry/Research/Bats/Search-Tool/ that allows users to determine the discriminatory capability of our markers for bat species of interest. Our assay has applications worldwide for examining disease impacts on vulnerable species, determining species assemblages within roosts, and assessing the presence of bat species that are vulnerable or facing extinction. The development and analytical pathways are rapid, reliable, and
Walker, Faith M; Williamson, Charles H D; Sanchez, Daniel E; Sobek, Colin J; Chambers, Carol L
Bat guano is a relatively untapped reservoir of information, having great utility as a DNA source because it is often available at roosts even when bats are not and is an easy type of sample to collect from a difficult-to-study mammalian order. Recent advances from microbial community studies in primer design, sequencing, and analysis enable fast, accurate, and cost-effective species identification. Here, we borrow from this discipline to develop an order-wide DNA mini-barcode assay (Species from Feces) based on a segment of the mitochondrial gene cytochrome c oxidase I (COI). The assay works effectively with fecal DNA and is conveniently transferable to low-cost, high-throughput Illumina MiSeq technology that also allows simultaneous pairing with other markers. Our PCR primers target a region of COI that is highly discriminatory among Chiroptera (92% species-level identification of barcoded species), and are sufficiently degenerate to allow hybridization across diverse bat taxa. We successfully validated our system with 54 bat species across both suborders. Despite abundant arthropod prey DNA in guano, our primers were highly specific to bats; no arthropod DNA was detected in thousands of feces run on Sanger and Illumina platforms. The assay is extendable to fecal pellets of unknown age as well as individual and pooled guano, to allow for individual (using singular fecal pellets) and community (using combined pellets collected from across long-term roost sites) analyses. We developed a searchable database (http://nau.edu/CEFNS/Forestry/Research/Bats/Search-Tool/) that allows users to determine the discriminatory capability of our markers for bat species of interest. Our assay has applications worldwide for examining disease impacts on vulnerable species, determining species assemblages within roosts, and assessing the presence of bat species that are vulnerable or facing extinction. The development and analytical pathways are rapid, reliable, and inexpensive, and
Full Text Available The natural colonisation of many remote oceanic islands by bats, including those of the western Indian Ocean, has been facilitated by their unique capability among mammals for powered flight. In the western Indian Ocean region, only the Malagasy islands of Madagascar and the Comoros archipelago have been naturally colonised by non-volant mammals. Despite their greater potential for inter-island dispersal, and thus gene transfer, endemicity of Chiroptera in the western Indian Ocean islands is high. Given their vulnerability to stochastic and anthropogenic disturbances, greater focus needs to be placed on investigating the demographic and ecological history of bats on Western Indian Ocean islands to safeguard not only their future, but also the ecosystem functioning on these islands, for which they are undoubtedly such an integral part. Here, I summarise the taxonomic and life history information available on bats from Western Indian Ocean islands and highlight knowledge gaps and conservation issues that threaten the continued persistence of some species.
Laar, van Vincent; Daan, Serge
On a trip to Greece between the 25th April and the 25th July 1963, the authors collected (on the mainland and some islands in the Aegean) insects, amphibians and reptiles as well as 194 mammals. Among the mammals, mainly rodents and insectivores, there were also 27 bats, belonging to five species.
Velazco, Paúl M.; Gardner, Alfred L.
The Neotropical bat genus Platyrrhinus (Chiroptera: Phyllostomidae: Stenodermatinae) currently comprises 15 species. Our morphological and morphometric analysis of large and medium-sized Platyrrhinus revealed a distinctive Undescribed species from western South America. We also recognize P. aquilus (Handley & Ferris 1972) and P. umbratus (Lyon 1902) as valid species. We describe P. nitelinea sp. nov. from western Colombia and Ecuador and provide emended diagnoses along with descriptions of P. aquilus, P.. dorsalis, and P. umbratus. Phylogenetic analysis of Platyrrhinus based on morphological characters indicates that P. aquilus is closely related to P. aurarius and P. nigellus, P. umbratus to P. chocoensis, and P. nitelinea to P. vittatus.
Volokhov, D V; Becker, D J; Bergner, L M; Camus, M S; Orton, R J; Chizhikov, V E; Altizer, S M; Streicker, D G
Bats (Order: Chiroptera) have been widely studied as reservoir hosts for viruses of concern for human and animal health. However, whether bats are equally competent hosts of non-viral pathogens such as bacteria remains an important open question. Here, we surveyed blood and saliva samples of vampire bats from Peru and Belize for hemotropic Mycoplasma spp. (hemoplasmas), bacteria that can cause inapparent infection or anemia in hosts. 16S rRNA gene amplification of blood showed 67% (150/223) of common vampire bats (Desmodus rotundus) were infected by hemoplasmas. Sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene amplicons revealed three novel genotypes that were phylogenetically related but not identical to hemoplasmas described from other (non-vampire) bat species, rodents, humans, and non-human primates. Hemoplasma prevalence in vampire bats was highest in non-reproductive and young individuals, did not differ by country, and was relatively stable over time (i.e., endemic). Metagenomics from pooled D. rotundus saliva from Peru detected non-hemotropic Mycoplasma species and hemoplasma genotypes phylogenetically similar to those identified in blood, providing indirect evidence for potential direct transmission of hemoplasmas through biting or social contacts. This study demonstrates vampire bats host several novel hemoplasmas and sheds light on risk factors for infection and basic transmission routes. Given the high frequency of direct contacts that arise when vampire bats feed on humans, domestic animals, and wildlife, the potential of these bacteria to be transmitted between species should be investigated in future work.
Ferreira, Marcelo; Soldati, Aline; Rodrigues, Sirlene S S; Benjamin, Laércio Dos Anjos
The insectivorous bat Myotis nigricans is widely distributed throughout the Neotropics, including Brazil, and has a reproductive biology that is affected by climate and food availability. To evaluate the reproductive capacity of this species, morphofunctional parameters of the testes were correlated with environmental variables and the body condition of individuals captured. After bats had been killed, their testes were removed, fixed in Karnovsky's fluid for 24h and embedded in resin for evaluation by light microscopy. The mean annual tubulosomatic index (0.58%) and the percentage of seminiferous tubules in the testes (88.96%) were the highest ever recorded for the Order Chiroptera. The percentage of Leydig cells and volume of the cytoplasm of Leydig cells were higher in the rainy than dry season (80.62±3.19% and 573.57±166.95μm, respectively; mean±s.d.). Conversely, the percentage of nuclei of the Leydig cells in the dry season (26.17±3.70%; mean±s.d.) and the total number of Leydig cells (6.38±1.84×109; mean±s.d.) were higher in the dry season. The results of the present study could help in future conservation of these bats because they provide a better understanding of the bats' reproductive strategies and how the species can adapt to changes.
Volleth, M; Heller, K G; Pfeiffer, R A; Hameister, H
Fluorescence in-situ hybridization with human whole chromosome painting probes (WCPs) was applied to compare the karyotypes of members of five bat families. Twenty-five evolutionarily conserved units (ECUs) were identified by ZOO-FISH analysis. In 10 of these 25 ECUs, thorough GTG-band comparison revealed an identical banding pattern in all families studied. Differences in the remaining ECUs were used as characters to judge the phylogenetic relationships within Chiroptera. Close relationships were found between Rhinolophidae and Hipposideridae. Also closely related are the representatives of the yangochiropteran families Phyllostomidae (genus studied: Glossophaga, Volleth et al. 1999), Molossidae and Vespertilionidae. All microchiropteran species studied here share four common features not found in the megachiropteran species Eonycteris spelaea. Two of these are considered as derived characters with a high probability of parallel evolution. On the other hand, Eonycteris shares one common, probably derived feature with the rhinolophoid families Rhinolophidae and Hipposideridae and an additional one only with Hipposideridae. At the moment, the relationships between Yangochiroptera, Rhinolophoidea and Megachiroptera must be left in an unsolved trichotomy. Comparison of neighboring segment combinations found in Chiroptera with those found in other mammalian taxa revealed six synapomorphic features for Chiroptera. Therefore, for karyological reasons, monophyly of Chiroptera is strongly supported.
Shen, Bin; Han, Xiuqun; Jones, Gareth; Rossiter, Stephen J.; Zhang, Shuyi
Myosin VI (encoded by the Myo6 gene) is highly expressed in the inner and outer hair cells of the ear, retina, and polarized epithelial cells such as kidney proximal tubule cells and intestinal enterocytes. The Myo6 gene is thought to be involved in a wide range of physiological functions such as hearing, vision, and clathrin-mediated endocytosis. Bats (Chiroptera) represent one of the most fascinating mammal groups for molecular evolutionary studies of the Myo6 gene. A diversity of specialized adaptations occur among different bat lineages, such as echolocation and associated high-frequency hearing in laryngeal echolocating bats, large eyes and a strong dependence on vision in Old World fruit bats (Pteropodidae), and specialized high-carbohydrate but low-nitrogen diets in both Old World and New World fruit bats (Phyllostomidae). To investigate what role(s) the Myo6 gene might fulfill in bats, we sequenced the coding region of the Myo6 gene in 15 bat species and used molecular evolutionary analyses to detect evidence of positive selection in different bat lineages. We also conducted real-time PCR assays to explore the expression levels of Myo6 in a range of tissues from three representative bat species. Molecular evolutionary analyses revealed that the Myo6 gene, which was widely considered as a hearing gene, has undergone adaptive evolution in the Old World fruit bats which lack laryngeal echolocation and associated high-frequency hearing. Real-time PCR showed the highest expression level of the Myo6 gene in the kidney among ten tissues examined in three bat species, indicating an important role for this gene in kidney function. We suggest that Myo6 has undergone adaptive evolution in Old World fruit bats in relation to receptor-mediated endocytosis for the preservation of protein and essential nutrients. PMID:23620821
Full Text Available Myosin VI (encoded by the Myo6 gene is highly expressed in the inner and outer hair cells of the ear, retina, and polarized epithelial cells such as kidney proximal tubule cells and intestinal enterocytes. The Myo6 gene is thought to be involved in a wide range of physiological functions such as hearing, vision, and clathrin-mediated endocytosis. Bats (Chiroptera represent one of the most fascinating mammal groups for molecular evolutionary studies of the Myo6 gene. A diversity of specialized adaptations occur among different bat lineages, such as echolocation and associated high-frequency hearing in laryngeal echolocating bats, large eyes and a strong dependence on vision in Old World fruit bats (Pteropodidae, and specialized high-carbohydrate but low-nitrogen diets in both Old World and New World fruit bats (Phyllostomidae. To investigate what role(s the Myo6 gene might fulfill in bats, we sequenced the coding region of the Myo6 gene in 15 bat species and used molecular evolutionary analyses to detect evidence of positive selection in different bat lineages. We also conducted real-time PCR assays to explore the expression levels of Myo6 in a range of tissues from three representative bat species. Molecular evolutionary analyses revealed that the Myo6 gene, which was widely considered as a hearing gene, has undergone adaptive evolution in the Old World fruit bats which lack laryngeal echolocation and associated high-frequency hearing. Real-time PCR showed the highest expression level of the Myo6 gene in the kidney among ten tissues examined in three bat species, indicating an important role for this gene in kidney function. We suggest that Myo6 has undergone adaptive evolution in Old World fruit bats in relation to receptor-mediated endocytosis for the preservation of protein and essential nutrients.
A new species of nematode, Pterygodermatites (Pterygodermatites) mexicana n. sp., is described based on specimens recovered from the intestine of the gray sac-winged bat, Balantiopteryx plicata (Chiroptera, Emballonuridae), from the Biosphere Reserve “Sierra de Huautla” in the state of Morelos, Mexico. This is the second species in the genus described from bats in the New World, since most of the rictaluriids reported in these hosts belong to the closely related genus Rictularia Froelich, 1802. However, members of Rictularia possess only a single oesophageal tooth at the base of the buccal capsule, whereas in the current nematodes three conspicuous oesophageal teeth are present. They are therefore included in Pterygodermatites Wedl, 1861. The new species is characterized by the presence of 23 small denticles on the periphery of the buccal capsule and by the presence of 40 and 66 pairs of cuticular processes in males and females, respectively. Additionally, males possess 3–4 ventral precloacal fan-like processes, and the cuticular processes of females are divided into 40 pairs of comb-like and 26 pairs of spine-like processes; the vulva opens on the level of approximately pair 40. The dorsally directed stoma and the 40 prevulvar cuticular processes makes it difficult to place the species in any of the subgenera present in the New World, yet characters correspond with the diagnosis of Pterygodermatites (Pterygodermatites) in the Mediterranean region and North Africa. PMID:24267823
Full Text Available Background A wide range of microorganisms inhabit animal skin. This microbial community (microbiome plays an important role in host defense against pathogens and disease. Bats (Chiroptera: Mammalia are an ecologically and evolutionarily diversified group with a relatively unexplored skin microbiome. The bat skin microbiome could play a role in disease resistance, for example, to white nose syndrome (WNS, an infection which has been devastating North American bat populations. However, fundamental knowledge of the bat skin microbiome is needed before understanding its role in health and disease resistance. Captive neotropical frugivorous bats Artibeus jamaicensis and Carollia perspicillataprovide a simple controlled system in which to characterize the factors shaping the bat microbiome. Here, we aimed to determine the relative importance of habitat and host species on the bat skin microbiome. Methods We performed high-throughput 16S rRNA gene sequencing of the skin microbiome of two different bat species living in captivity in two different habitats. In the first habitat, A. jamaicensis and C. perspicillata lived together, while the second habitat contained only A. jamaicensis. Results We found that both habitat and host species shape the composition and diversity of the skin microbiome, with habitat having the strongest influence. Cohabitating A. jamaicensis and C. perspicillata shared more similar skin microbiomes than members of the same species (A. jamaicensis across two habitats. Discussion These results suggest that in captivity, the skin microbial community is homogenised by the shared environments and individual proximities of bats living together in the same habitat, at the expense of the innate host species factors. The predominant influence of habitat suggests that environmental microorganisms or pathogens might colonize bat skin. We also propose that bat populations could differ in pathogen susceptibility depending on their immediate
Lemieux-Labonté, Virginie; Tromas, Nicolas; Shapiro, B Jesse; Lapointe, François-Joseph
A wide range of microorganisms inhabit animal skin. This microbial community (microbiome) plays an important role in host defense against pathogens and disease. Bats (Chiroptera: Mammalia) are an ecologically and evolutionarily diversified group with a relatively unexplored skin microbiome. The bat skin microbiome could play a role in disease resistance, for example, to white nose syndrome (WNS), an infection which has been devastating North American bat populations. However, fundamental knowledge of the bat skin microbiome is needed before understanding its role in health and disease resistance. Captive neotropical frugivorous bats Artibeus jamaicensis and Carollia perspicillataprovide a simple controlled system in which to characterize the factors shaping the bat microbiome. Here, we aimed to determine the relative importance of habitat and host species on the bat skin microbiome. We performed high-throughput 16S rRNA gene sequencing of the skin microbiome of two different bat species living in captivity in two different habitats. In the first habitat, A. jamaicensis and C. perspicillata lived together, while the second habitat contained only A. jamaicensis. We found that both habitat and host species shape the composition and diversity of the skin microbiome, with habitat having the strongest influence. Cohabitating A. jamaicensis and C. perspicillata shared more similar skin microbiomes than members of the same species (A. jamaicensis) across two habitats. These results suggest that in captivity, the skin microbial community is homogenised by the shared environments and individual proximities of bats living together in the same habitat, at the expense of the innate host species factors. The predominant influence of habitat suggests that environmental microorganisms or pathogens might colonize bat skin. We also propose that bat populations could differ in pathogen susceptibility depending on their immediate environment and habitat.
Full Text Available Bats (order Chiroptera form a large proportion of the species-rich mammalian fauna of the Philippines, and while the threats posed to these animals are well documented, for many species there is currently insufficient data to enable even a basic assessment of their conservation status. This is true for Panay Island, located in the Western Visayas region of the archipelago, where the need for surveying remaining suitable bat habitat has been identified as a priority. Between 5 April and 9 May 2011 a survey of 21 caves was undertaken on Panay, along the central section of the west coast of the island and within the southern section of the Northwest Panay Peninsula. Survey methods included visual observations, emergence counts and the recording of echolocation calls. Of the caves surveyed, 19 were found to support bats or show signs of their use, and at least 12 different species were observed. Three large maternity colonies of the Common Rousette Rousettus amplexicaudatus and two of the Dusky Roundleaf Bat Hipposideros ater were noted as having particular significance in terms of their conservation value for local populations. Potential maternity colonies of Asian Lesser False Vampire Megaderma spasma, Black-bearded Tomb Bat Taphozous melanopogon and Diadem Roundleaf Bat Hipposideros diadema were also observed but not confirmed. M. spasma was the most frequently encountered species, occurring in small numbers at five different caves. Other species/genera encountered in small numbers were the Arcuate Horseshoe Bat Rhinolophus arcuatus, Common Short-nosed Fruit Bat Cynopterus brachyotis, Philippine Sheath-tailed Bat Emballonura alecto, Yellow-faced Horseshoe Bat Rhinolophus virgo, Bent-wing (Miniopterus and Myotis bat species, and at least one other Horseshoe (Rhinolophus bat species. Ten of the caves were confirmed to support multiple bat species. An indication of current threats and recommendations for further survey and management priorities are
de Araújo, Ramon Everton Ferreira; Nagamachi, Cleusa Yoshiko; da Costa, Marlyson Jeremias Rodrigues; Noronha, Renata Coelho Rodrigues; Rodrigues, Luís Reginaldo Ribeiro; Pieczarka, Julio César
Twelve specimens of the bat Cormura brevirostris (Emballonuridae: Chiroptera) were collected from four localities in the Brazilian Amazon region and analyzed by classical and molecular cytogenetics. The diploid number and autosomal fundamental number were as previously reported (2n = 22 and FNa = 40, respectively). Fluorescence in situ hybridization using rDNA probes and silver nitrate technique demonstrated the presence of two NOR sites and the presence of internal telomeric sequences at pericentromeric regions of all chromosomes with exception of Y. Based on meiotic studies and chromosome banding we suggest that the sex chromosome pair of C. brevirostris was equivocally identified as it appears in the literature. Meiotic analysis demonstrated that at diplotene-diakinesis the cells had a ring conformation involving four chromosome pairs. This suggests the occurrence of multiple reciprocal translocations among these chromosomes, which is a very rare phenomenon in vertebrates, and has never been described in Eutheria.
Pérez-Jordá, Juan L.; Ibáñez, Carlos; Muñoz-Cervera, Marina; Tellez, Antonio
To determine the prevalence of European Bat Lyssavirus 1 (EBL1), antibodies plasma samples were obtained from 175 serotine bats (Eptesicus serotinus) from four colonies in southern Spain between September of 1991 and September 1992. Five bats were detected with EBL1 virus in one colony in 1989. The prevalence of antibodies rose to 74% in one of the colonies studied (Villarrasa) in the spring of 1992. After a few months the prevalence declined to under 10%. Individuals with a high antibody lev...
Full Text Available Background: Human consumption of bats poses an increasing public health threat globally. Communities in which bat guano is mined from caves have extensive exposure to bat excreta, often harvest bats for consumption, and are at risk for bat-borne diseases. Methods: This rapid ethnographic study was conducted in four provinces of Thailand (Ratchaburi, Sakaeo, Nakorn Sawan, and Phitsanulok, where bat guano was mined and sold during the period April–August 2014. The aim of this study was to understand behaviors and risk perceptions associated with bat conservation, exposure to bats and their excreta, and bat consumption. Sixty-seven respondents playing various roles in bat guano mining, packaging, sale, and use as fertilizer participated in the study. Data were collected through interviews and/or focus group discussions. Results: In spite of a bat conservation program dating back to the 1980s, the benefits of conserving bats and the risks associated with bat consumption were not clear and infrequently articulated by study respondents. Discussion: Since bat consumption continues, albeit covertly, the risk of bat-borne diseases remains high. There is an opportunity to reduce the risk of bat-borne diseases in guano-mining communities by strengthening bat conservation efforts and raising awareness of the health risks of bat consumption. Further research is suggested to test behavior change strategies for reducing bat consumption.
Suwannarong, Kanokwan; Schuler, Sidney
Human consumption of bats poses an increasing public health threat globally. Communities in which bat guano is mined from caves have extensive exposure to bat excreta, often harvest bats for consumption, and are at risk for bat-borne diseases. This rapid ethnographic study was conducted in four provinces of Thailand (Ratchaburi, Sakaeo, Nakorn Sawan, and Phitsanulok), where bat guano was mined and sold during the period April-August 2014. The aim of this study was to understand behaviors and risk perceptions associated with bat conservation, exposure to bats and their excreta, and bat consumption. Sixty-seven respondents playing various roles in bat guano mining, packaging, sale, and use as fertilizer participated in the study. Data were collected through interviews and/or focus group discussions. In spite of a bat conservation program dating back to the 1980s, the benefits of conserving bats and the risks associated with bat consumption were not clear and infrequently articulated by study respondents. Since bat consumption continues, albeit covertly, the risk of bat-borne diseases remains high. There is an opportunity to reduce the risk of bat-borne diseases in guano-mining communities by strengthening bat conservation efforts and raising awareness of the health risks of bat consumption. Further research is suggested to test behavior change strategies for reducing bat consumption.
Becker, Daniel J; Chumchal, Matthew M; Broders, Hugh G; Korstian, Jennifer M; Clare, Elizabeth L; Rainwater, Thomas R; Platt, Steven G; Simmons, Nancy B; Fenton, M Brock
Mercury (Hg) is a persistent and widespread heavy metal with neurotoxic effects in wildlife. While bioaccumulation of Hg has historically been studied in aquatic food webs, terrestrial consumers can become contaminated with Hg when they feed on aquatic organisms (e.g., emergent aquatic insects, fish, and amphibians). However, the extent to which dietary connectivity to aquatic ecosystems can explain patterns of Hg bioaccumulation in terrestrial consumers has not been well studied. Bats (Order: Chiroptera) can serve as a model system for illuminating the trophic transfer of Hg given their high dietary diversity and foraging links to both aquatic and terrestrial food webs. Here we quantitatively characterize the dietary correlates of long-term exposure to Hg across a diverse local assemblage of bats in Belize and more globally across bat species from around the world with a comparative analysis of hair samples. Our data demonstrate considerable interspecific variation in hair total Hg concentrations in bats that span three orders of magnitude across species, ranging from 0.04 mg/kg in frugivorous bats (Artibeus spp.) to 145.27 mg/kg in the piscivorous Noctilio leporinus. Hg concentrations showed strong phylogenetic signal and were best explained by dietary connectivity of bat species to aquatic food webs. Our results highlight that phylogeny can be predictive of Hg concentrations through similarity in diet and how interspecific variation in feeding strategies influences chronic exposure to Hg and enables movement of contaminants from aquatic to terrestrial ecosystems. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Marcili, Arlei; da Costa, Andrea P; Soares, Herbert S; Acosta, Igor da C L; de Lima, Julia T R; Minervino, Antonio H H; Melo, Andréia T L; Aguiar, Daniel M; Pacheco, Richard C; Gennari, Solange M
In the order Chiroptera, more than 30 trypanosome species belonging to the subgenera Herpetosoma, Schizotrypanum, Megatrypanum, and Trypanozoon have been described. The species Trypanosoma cruzi , Trypanosoma cruzi marinkellei, and Trypanosoma dionisii are the most common in bats and belong to the Schizotrypanum subgenus. Bats from 2 different biomes, Pantanal and Amazonia/Cerrado in the state of Mato Grosso, Brazil, were evaluated according to the presence of trypanosome parasites by means of hemoculture and PCR in primary samples (blood samples). A total of 211 bats from 20 different species were caught and the trypanosome prevalence, evaluated through hemoculture, was 9.0% (19), 15.5% (13), and 4.8% (6) in the municipalities of Confresa (Amazonia/Cerrado biome) and Poconé (Pantanal biome). Among the 123 primary samples obtained from the bats, only 3 (2.4%) were positive. Phylogenetic analysis using trypanosomatid barcoding (V7V8 region of SSU rDNA) identified all the isolates and primary samples as T. c. marinkellei. The sequences of the isolates were segregated according to the bat host genus or species and suggest that co-evolutionary patterns exist between hosts and parasites. Further studies in different Brazilian regions and biomes need to be conducted in order to gain real understanding of the diversity of trypanosomes in bats.
Wang, Zhe; Zhu, Tengteng; Xue, Huiling; Fang, Na; Zhang, Junpeng; Zhang, Libiao; Pang, Jian; Teeling, Emma C; Zhang, Shuyi
Bat laryngeal echolocation is considered as one of the most complex and diverse modes of auditory sensory perception in animals and its evolutionary history has been the cause of many scientific controversies in the past two decades. To date, the majority of scientific evidence supports that bats (Chiroptera) are divided into two subordinal groups: Yinpterochiroptera, containing the laryngeal echolocating superfamily Rhinolophidae as sister taxa to the non-laryngeal echolocating family Pteropodidae; and Yangochiroptera, containing all other laryngeal echolocating lineages. This topology has led to an unanswered question in mammalian biology: was laryngeal echolocation lost in the ancestral pteropodids or gained convergently in the echolocating bat lineages? To date, there is insufficient and conflicting evidence from fossil, genomic, morphological and phylogenomic data to resolve this question. We detail an ontogenetic study of fetal cochlear development from seven species of bats and five outgroup mammals and show that in early fetal development, all bats including the non-laryngeal echolocating pteropodids have a similarly large cochlea typically associated with laryngeal echolocation abilities. The subsequent cochlear growth rate in the pteropodids is the slowest of all mammals and leads to the pteropodids and the non-echolocating lineages eventually sharing a similar cochlear morphospace as adults. The results suggest that pteropodids maintain a vestigial developmental stage indicative of past echolocation capabilities and thus support a single origin of laryngeal echolocation in bats.
Primeiro registro de Rhynchopsyllus pulex (Siphonaptera: Tungidae em Nyctinomops laticaudatus (Chiroptera: Molossidae no Brasil First record of Rhynchopsyllus pulex (Siphonaptera: Tungidae in Nyctinomops laticaudatus (Chiroptera: Molossidae in Brazil
Sílvia Gonzalez Monteiro
Full Text Available Descreve-se o parasitismo de Rhynchopsyllus pulex (Siphonaptera: Tungidae em Nyctinomops laticaudatus (Chiroptera no município de Santa Maria, Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil.The parasitism of Rhynchopsyllus pulex (Siphonaptera: Tungidae is described in Nyctinomops laticaudatus (Chiroptera in the county of Santa Maria, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil.
Full Text Available Bats (Chiroptera host major human pathogenic viruses including corona-, paramyxo, rhabdo- and filoviruses. We analyzed six different cell lines from either Yinpterochiroptera (including African flying foxes and a rhinolophid bat or Yangochiroptera (genera Carollia and Tadarida for susceptibility to infection by different enveloped RNA viruses. None of the cells were sensitive to infection by transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV, a porcine coronavirus, or to infection mediated by the Spike (S protein of SARS-coronavirus (SARS-CoV incorporated into pseudotypes based on vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV. The resistance to infection was overcome if cells were transfected to express the respective cellular receptor, porcine aminopeptidase N for TGEV or angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 for SARS-CoV. VSV pseudotypes containing the S proteins of two bat SARS-related CoV (Bg08 and Rp3 were unable to infect any of the six tested bat cell lines. By contrast, viral pseudotypes containing the surface protein GP of Marburg virus from the family Filoviridae infected all six cell lines though at different efficiency. Notably, all cells were sensitive to infection by two paramyxoviruses (Sendai virus and bovine respiratory syncytial virus and three influenza viruses from different subtypes. These results indicate that bat cells are more resistant to infection by coronaviruses than to infection by paramyxoviruses, filoviruses and influenza viruses. Furthermore, these results show a receptor-dependent restriction of the infection of bat cells by CoV. The implications for the isolation of coronaviruses from bats are discussed.
Riskin, Daniel K; Parsons, Stuart; Schutt, William A; Carter, Gerald G; Hermanson, John W
Bats (Chiroptera) are generally awkward crawlers, but the common vampire bat (Desmodus rotundus) and the New Zealand short-tailed bat (Mystacina tuberculata) have independently evolved the ability to manoeuvre well on the ground. In this study we describe the kinematics of locomotion in both species, and the kinetics of locomotion in M. tuberculata. We sought to determine whether these bats move terrestrially the way other quadrupeds do, or whether they possess altogether different patterns of movement on the ground than are observed in quadrupeds that do not fly. Using high-speed video analyses of bats moving on a treadmill, we observed that both species possess symmetrical lateral-sequence gaits similar to the kinematically defined walks of a broad range of tetrapods. At high speeds, D. rotundus use an asymmetrical bounding gait that appears to converge on the bounding gaits of small terrestrial mammals, but with the roles of the forelimbs and hindlimbs reversed. This gait was not performed by M. tuberculata. Many animals that possess a single kinematic gait shift with increasing speed from a kinetic walk (where kinetic and potential energy of the centre of mass oscillate out of phase from each other) to a kinetic run (where they oscillate in phase). To determine whether the single kinematic gait of M. tuberculata meets the kinetic definition of a walk, a run, or a gait that functions as a walk at low speed and a run at high speed, we used force plates and high-speed video recordings to characterize the energetics of the centre of mass in that species. Although oscillations in kinetic and potential energy were of similar magnitudes, M. tuberculata did not use pendulum-like exchanges of energy between them to the extent that many other quadrupedal animals do, and did not transition from a kinetic walk to kinetic run with increasing speed. The gait of M. tuberculata is kinematically a walk, but kinetically run-like at all speeds.
da Costa, Andréa P; Nunes, Pablo Henrique; Leite, Beatriz Helena Santos; Ferreira, Juliana Isabel G da S; Tonhosolo, Renata; da Rosa, Adriana Ruckert; da Rocha, Patricio Adriano; Aires, Caroline Cotrim; Gennari, Solange Maria; Marcili, Arlei
The Trypanosoma comprises flagellates able to infect many mammalian species and is transmitted by several groups of invertebrates. The order Chiroptera can be infected by the subgenera Herpetosoma, Schizotrypanum, Megatrypanum and Trypanozoon. In this study, we described the diversity of bats trypanosomes, inferring the phylogenetic relationships among the trypanosomes from bats caught Belo Monte Hydroeletric area (Brazilian Amazonia). Trypanosomes from bats were isolated by haemoculture, and the molecular phylogeny based on small subunit rDNA (SSU rDNA) and glycosomal-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (gGAPDH) gene sequences. Morphological characterization included light and scanning electron microscopy. A total of 157 bats were caught in the area belonging 6 Families (Emballonuridae, Furipteridae, Mormoopidae, Natalidae, Phyllostomidae and Vespertilionidae) and 34 species. The bat trypanosome prevalence, as evaluated through haemoculture, was 5,7%. Phylogenetic trees grouped the isolates in T. cruzi branch (TCI and TCbat lineage), T. cruzi marinkellei and Trypanosoma wauwau from Pteronotus parnellii. This is the first isolate from T. wauwau in Para state. The occurrence of T. cruzi in the Belo Monte Hydroeletric area (UHE Belo Monte) in Amazon/Brazil attentive to the risk of migration human population required for the works of the dam and new cities that grow in the vicinity of these businesses, but it is a zoonosis already known to the Amazon region, and the presence of unclassified Trypanosoma species, attend to the large parasitic biodiversity still unknown. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Orbach, Dara N; Veselka, Nina; Dzal, Yvonne; Lazure, Louis; Fenton, M Brock
In the wild, frugivorous and nectarivorous bats often eat fermenting fruits and nectar, and thus may consume levels of ethanol that could induce inebriation. To understand if consumption of ethanol by bats alters their access to food and general survival requires examination of behavioural responses to its ingestion, as well as assessment of interspecific variation in those responses. We predicted that bats fed ethanol would show impaired flight and echolocation behaviour compared to bats fed control sugar water, and that there would be behavioural differences among species. We fed wild caught Artibeus jamaicensis, A. lituratus, A. phaeotis, Carollia sowelli, Glossophaga soricina, and Sturnira lilium (Chiroptera, Phyllostomidae) sugar water (44 g of table sugar in 500 ml of water) or sugar water with ethanol before challenging them to fly through an obstacle course while we simultaneously recorded their echolocation calls. We used bat saliva, a non-invasive proxy, to measure blood ethanol concentrations ranging from 0 to >0.3% immediately before flight trials. Flight performance and echolocation behaviour were not significantly affected by consumption of ethanol, but species differed in their blood alcohol concentrations after consuming it. The bats we studied display a tolerance for ethanol that could have ramifications for the adaptive radiation of frugivorous and nectarivorous bats by allowing them to use ephemeral food resources over a wide span of time. By sampling across phyllostomid genera, we show that patterns of apparent ethanol tolerance in New World bats are broad, and thus may have been an important early step in the evolution of frugivory and nectarivory in these animals.
Vidovszky, Márton; Kohl, Claudia; Boldogh, Sándor; Görföl, Tamás; Wibbelt, Gudrun; Kurth, Andreas; Harrach, Balázs
From over 1250 extant species of the order Chiroptera, 25 and 28 are known to occur in Germany and Hungary, respectively. Close to 350 samples originating from 28 bat species (17 from Germany, 27 from Hungary) were screened for the presence of adenoviruses (AdVs) using a nested PCR that targets the DNA polymerase gene of AdVs. An additional PCR was designed and applied to amplify a fragment from the gene encoding the IVa2 protein of mastadenoviruses. All German samples originated from organs of bats found moribund or dead. The Hungarian samples were excrements collected from colonies of known bat species, throat or rectal swab samples, taken from live individuals that had been captured for faunistic surveys and migration studies, as well as internal organs of dead specimens. Overall, 51 samples (14.73%) were found positive. We detected 28 seemingly novel and six previously described bat AdVs by sequencing the PCR products. The positivity rate was the highest among the guano samples of bat colonies. In phylogeny reconstructions, the AdVs detected in bats clustered roughly, but not perfectly, according to the hosts' families (Vespertilionidae, Rhinolophidae, Hipposideridae, Phyllostomidae and Pteropodidae). In a few cases, identical sequences were derived from animals of closely related species. On the other hand, some bat species proved to harbour more than one type of AdV. The high prevalence of infection and the large number of chiropteran species worldwide make us hypothesise that hundreds of different yet unknown AdV types might circulate in bats.
Downs, Colleen T; Awuah, Adwoa; Jordaan, Maryna; Magagula, Londiwe; Mkhize, Truth; Paine, Christine; Raymond-Bourret, Esmaella; Hart, Lorinda A
The significance of sleep and factors that affect it have been well documented, however, in light of global climate change the effect of temperature on sleep patterns has only recently gained attention. Unlike many mammals, bats (order: Chiroptera) are nocturnal and little is known about their sleep and the effects of ambient temperature (Ta) on their sleep. Consequently we investigated seasonal temperature effects on sleep behaviour and surface body temperature of free-ranging Wahlberg's epauletted fruit bat, Epomophorus wahlbergi, at a tree roost. Sleep behaviours of E. wahlbergi were recorded, including: sleep duration and sleep incidences (i.e. one eye open and both eyes closed). Sleep differed significantly across all the individuals in terms of sleep duration and sleep incidences. Individuals generally spent more time awake than sleeping. The percentage of each day bats spent asleep was significantly higher during winter (27.6%), compared with summer (15.6%). In summer, 20.7% of the sleeping bats used one eye open sleep, and this is possibly the first evidence of one-eye-sleep in non-marine mammals. Sleep duration decreased with extreme heat as bats spent significantly more time trying to cool by licking their fur, spreading their wings and panting. Skin temperatures of E. wahlbergi were significantly higher when Ta was ≥35°C and no bats slept at these high temperatures. Consequently extremely hot days negatively impact roosting fruit bats, as they were forced to be awake to cool themselves. This has implications for these bats given predicted climate change scenarios.
Full Text Available We investigated the reactions of four bat species from four different lineages to UV light: Hipposideros armiger (Hodgson, 1835 and Scotophilus kuhlii Leach, 1821, which use constant frequency (CF or frequency modulation (FM echolocation, respectively; and Rousettus leschenaultii (Desmarest, 1820 and Cynopterus sphinx (Vahl, 1797, cave and tree-roosting Old World fruit bats, respectively. Following acclimation and training involving aversive stimuli when exposed to UV light, individuals of S. kuhlii and C. sphinx exposed to such stimuli displayed conditioned reflexes such as body crouching, wing retracting, horizontal crawling, flying and/or vocalization, whereas individuals of H. armiger and R. leschenaultii, in most cue-testing sessions, remained still on receiving the stimuli. Our behavioral study provides direct evidence for the diversity of cone-based UV vision in the order Chiroptera and further supports our earlier postulate that, due to possible sensory tradeoffs and roosting ecology, defects in the short wavelength opsin genes have resulted in loss of UV vision in CF bats, but not in FM bats. In addition, Old World fruit bats roosting in caves have lost UV vision, but those roosting in trees have not. Bats are thus the third mammalian taxon to retain ancestral cone-based UV sensitivity in some species.
Yongquan Zhou; Jian Xie; Liangliang Li; Mingzhi Ma
Bat algorithm (BA) is a novel stochastic global optimization algorithm. Cloud model is an effective tool in transforming between qualitative concepts and their quantitative representation. Based on the bat echolocation mechanism and excellent characteristics of cloud model on uncertainty knowledge representation, a new cloud model bat algorithm (CBA) is proposed. This paper focuses on remodeling echolocation model based on living and preying characteristics of bats, utilizing the transformati...
Gutierrez, Eduardo de A; Schott, Ryan K; Preston, Matthew W; Loureiro, Lívia O; Lim, Burton K; Chang, Belinda S W
Bats represent one of the largest and most striking nocturnal mammalian radiations, exhibiting many visual system specializations for performance in light-limited environments. Despite representing the greatest ecological diversity and species richness in Chiroptera, Neotropical lineages have been undersampled in molecular studies, limiting the potential for identifying signatures of selection on visual genes associated with differences in bat ecology. Here, we investigated how diverse ecological pressures mediate long-term shifts in selection upon long-wavelength ( Lws ) and short-wavelength ( Sws1 ) opsins, photosensitive cone pigments that form the basis of colour vision in most mammals, including bats. We used codon-based likelihood clade models to test whether ecological variables associated with reliance on visual information (e.g. echolocation ability and diet) or exposure to varying light environments (e.g. roosting behaviour and foraging habitat) mediated shifts in evolutionary rates in bat cone opsin genes. Using additional cone opsin sequences from newly sequenced eye transcriptomes of six Neotropical bat species, we found significant evidence for different ecological pressures influencing the evolution of the cone opsins. While Lws is evolving under significantly lower constraint in highly specialized high-duty cycle echolocating lineages, which have enhanced sonar ability to detect and track targets, variation in Sws1 constraint was significantly associated with foraging habitat, exhibiting elevated rates of evolution in species that forage among vegetation. This suggests that increased reliance on echolocation as well as the spectral environment experienced by foraging bats may differentially influence the evolution of different cone opsins. Our study demonstrates that different ecological variables may underlie contrasting evolutionary patterns in bat visual opsins, and highlights the suitability of clade models for testing ecological hypotheses of
Zhou, Yongquan; Xie, Jian; Li, Liangliang; Ma, Mingzhi
Bat algorithm (BA) is a novel stochastic global optimization algorithm. Cloud model is an effective tool in transforming between qualitative concepts and their quantitative representation. Based on the bat echolocation mechanism and excellent characteristics of cloud model on uncertainty knowledge representation, a new cloud model bat algorithm (CBA) is proposed. This paper focuses on remodeling echolocation model based on living and preying characteristics of bats, utilizing the transformation theory of cloud model to depict the qualitative concept: "bats approach their prey." Furthermore, Lévy flight mode and population information communication mechanism of bats are introduced to balance the advantage between exploration and exploitation. The simulation results show that the cloud model bat algorithm has good performance on functions optimization.
Full Text Available Bat algorithm (BA is a novel stochastic global optimization algorithm. Cloud model is an effective tool in transforming between qualitative concepts and their quantitative representation. Based on the bat echolocation mechanism and excellent characteristics of cloud model on uncertainty knowledge representation, a new cloud model bat algorithm (CBA is proposed. This paper focuses on remodeling echolocation model based on living and preying characteristics of bats, utilizing the transformation theory of cloud model to depict the qualitative concept: “bats approach their prey.” Furthermore, Lévy flight mode and population information communication mechanism of bats are introduced to balance the advantage between exploration and exploitation. The simulation results show that the cloud model bat algorithm has good performance on functions optimization.
Akbar, Haroon; Pinçon, Claire; Aliouat-Denis, Cecile-Marie; Derouiche, Sandra; Taylor, Maria-Lucia; Pottier, Muriel; Carreto-Binaghi, Laura-Helena; González-González, Antonio E.; Courpon, Aurore; Barriel, Véronique; Guillot, Jacques; Chabé, Magali; Suarez-Alvarez, Roberto O.; Aliouat, El Moukhtar; Dei-Cas, Eduardo
Bats belong to a wide variety of species and occupy diversified habitats, from cities to the countryside. Their different diets (i.e., nectarivore, frugivore, insectivore, hematophage) lead Chiroptera to colonize a range of ecological niches. These flying mammals exert an undisputable impact on both ecosystems and circulation of pathogens that they harbor. Pneumocystis species are recognized as major opportunistic fungal pathogens which cause life-threatening pneumonia in severely immunocompromised or weakened mammals. Pneumocystis consists of a heterogeneous group of highly adapted host-specific fungal parasites that colonize a wide range of mammalian hosts. In the present study, 216 lungs of 19 bat species, sampled from diverse biotopes in the New and Old Worlds, were examined. Each bat species may be harboring a specific Pneumocystis species. We report 32.9% of Pneumocystis carriage in wild bats (41.9% in Microchiroptera). Ecological and behavioral factors (elevation, crowding, migration) seemed to influence the Pneumocystis carriage. This study suggests that Pneumocystis-host association may yield much information on Pneumocystis transmission, phylogeny, and biology in mammals. Moreover, the link between genetic variability of Pneumocystis isolated from populations of the same bat species and their geographic area could be exploited in terms of phylogeography. PMID:23001662
Badrane, Hassan; Tordo, Noël
Lyssaviruses are unsegmented RNA viruses causing rabies. Their vectors belong to the Carnivora and Chiroptera orders. We studied 36 carnivoran and 17 chiropteran lyssaviruses representing the main genotypes and variants. We compared their genes encoding the surface glycoprotein, which is responsible for receptor recognition and membrane fusion. The glycoprotein is the main protecting antigen and bears virulence determinants. Point mutation is the main force in lyssavirus evolution, as Sawyer's test and phylogenetic analysis showed no evidence of recombination. Tests of neutrality indicated a neutral model of evolution, also supported by globally high ratios of synonymous substitutions (dS) to nonsynonymous substitutions (dN) (>7). Relative-rate tests suggested similar rates of evolution for all lyssavirus lineages. Therefore, the absence of recombination and similar evolutionary rates make phylogeny-based conclusions reliable. Phylogenetic reconstruction strongly supported the hypothesis that host switching occurred in the history of lyssaviruses. Indeed, lyssaviruses evolved in chiropters long before the emergence of carnivoran rabies, very likely following spillovers from bats. Using dated isolates, the average rate of evolution was estimated to be roughly 4.3 × 10−4 dS/site/year. Consequently, the emergence of carnivoran rabies from chiropteran lyssaviruses was determined to have occurred 888 to 1,459 years ago. Glycoprotein segments accumulating more dN than dS were distinctly detected in carnivoran and chiropteran lyssaviruses. They may have contributed to the adaptation of the virus to the two distinct mammal orders. In carnivoran lyssaviruses they overlapped the main antigenic sites, II and III, whereas in chiropteran lyssaviruses they were located in regions of unknown functions. PMID:11483755
Elizabeth L Clare
Full Text Available DNA barcoding using the cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 gene (COI is frequently employed as an efficient method of species identification in animal life and may also be used to estimate species richness, particularly in understudied faunas. Despite numerous past demonstrations of the efficiency of this technique, few studies have attempted to employ DNA barcoding methodologies on a large geographic scale, particularly within tropical regions. In this study we survey current and potential species diversity using DNA barcodes with a collection of more than 9000 individuals from 163 species of Neotropical bats (order Chiroptera. This represents one of the largest surveys to employ this strategy on any animal group and is certainly the largest to date for land vertebrates. Our analysis documents the utility of this tool over great geographic distances and across extraordinarily diverse habitats. Among the 163 included species 98.8% possessed distinct sets of COI haplotypes making them easily recognizable at this locus. We detected only a single case of shared haplotypes. Intraspecific diversity in the region was high among currently recognized species (mean of 1.38%, range 0-11.79% with respect to birds, though comparable to other bat assemblages. In 44 of 163 cases, well-supported, distinct intraspecific lineages were identified which may suggest the presence of cryptic species though mean and maximum intraspecific divergence were not good predictors of their presence. In all cases, intraspecific lineages require additional investigation using complementary molecular techniques and additional characters such as morphology and acoustic data. Our analysis provides strong support for the continued assembly of DNA barcoding libraries and ongoing taxonomic investigation of bats.
Greenhall, Arthur M.
The soundest long-term solution for the management of bats that enter buildings and cause a nuisance problem or present a public health hazard is by batproofing the structure. Chemical toxicants do not solve house bat problems and may create worse ones. This manual describes batproofing techniques that will provide effective and acceptable alternatives for dealing with house bat problems and hazards. Recent declines in bat populations and greater appreciation of the ecological importance of bats have identified the need for sound management strategies that will encourage bat conservation while protecting human health and solving nuisance problems. One of the best deterrents against house bats is to improve the energy efficiency of the structure since bats may enter holes through which heat is lost. Heat conservation methods used for batproofing will also be eligible for Federal residential energy tax credits. The manual should be useful to homeowners, public health officials, physicians, veterinarians, conservationists, and others interested or concerned about bat interactions with humans.
Nyffeler, Martin; Knörnschild, Mirjam
In this paper more than 50 incidences of bats being captured by spiders are reviewed. Bat-catching spiders have been reported from virtually every continent with the exception of Antarctica (∼90% of the incidences occurring in the warmer areas of the globe between latitude 30° N and 30° S). Most reports refer to the Neotropics (42% of observed incidences), Asia (28.8%), and Australia-Papua New Guinea (13.5%). Bat-catching spiders belong to the mygalomorph family Theraphosidae and the araneomorph families Nephilidae, Araneidae, and Sparassidae. In addition to this, an attack attempt by a large araneomorph hunting spider of the family Pisauridae on an immature bat was witnessed. Eighty-eight percent of the reported incidences of bat catches were attributable to web-building spiders and 12% to hunting spiders. Large tropical orb-weavers of the genera Nephila and Eriophora in particular have been observed catching bats in their huge, strong orb-webs (of up to 1.5 m diameter). The majority of identifiable captured bats were small aerial insectivorous bats, belonging to the families Vespertilionidae (64%) and Emballonuridae (22%) and usually being among the most common bat species in their respective geographic area. While in some instances bats entangled in spider webs may have died of exhaustion, starvation, dehydration, and/or hyperthermia (i.e., non-predation death), there were numerous other instances where spiders were seen actively attacking, killing, and eating the captured bats (i.e., predation). This evidence suggests that spider predation on flying vertebrates is more widespread than previously assumed. PMID:23516436
de Castro Ferreira, Eduardo; Pereira, Agnes Antônio Sampaio; Silveira, Maurício; Margonari, Carina; Marcon, Glaucia Elisete Barbosa; de Oliveira França, Adriana; Castro, Ludiele Souza; Bordignon, Marcelo Oscar; Fischer, Erich; Tomas, Walfrido Moraes; Dorval, Maria Elizabeth Cavalheiros; Gontijo, Célia Maria Ferreira
In the New World genus Leishmania parasites are etiological agents of neglected zoonoses known as leishmaniasis. Its epidemiology is very complex due to the participation of several species of sand fly vectors and mammalian hosts, and man is an accidental host. Control is very difficult because of the different epidemiological patterns of transmission observed. Studies about Leishmania spp. infection in bats are so scarce, which represents a large gap in knowledge about the role of these animals in the transmission cycle of these pathogens, especially when considering that Chiroptera is one of the most abundant and diverse orders among mammals. Leishmaniasis in Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil are remarkably frequent, probably due to the abundance of its regional mastofauna. The recent record of L. braziliensis in bats from this state indicates the need to clarify the role of these mammals in the transmission cycle. In this study we evaluated the presence of Leishmania parasites in the skin of different species of bats, using PCR directed to Leishmania spp. kDNA for screening followed by PCR/RFLP analysis of the hsp70 gene for the identification of parasite species. Leishmania species identification was confirmed by PCR directed to the G6PD gene of L. braziliensis, followed by sequencing of the PCR product. Samples from 47 bats were processed, of which in three specimens (6.38%) was detected the presence of Leishmania sp. kDNA. PCR/RFLP and sequencing identified the species involved in the infection as L. braziliensis in all of them. This is the first report of Leishmania braziliensis in bats from Pantanal ecosystem and the first record of this species in Platyrrhinus lineatus and Artibeus planirostris, bats with a wide distribution in South America. These results reinforce the need to deepen the knowledge about the possibility of bats act as reservoirs of Leishmania spp. especially considering their ability of dispersion and occupation of anthropic environments
Bats are a natural reservoir for emerging viruses, among them henipaviruses and rabies virus variants. Dr. Nina Marano, Chief, Geographic Medicine and Health Promotion Branch, Division of Global Migration and Quarantine, CDC, explains connection between horseshoe bats and SARS coronavirus transmission. Created: 11/8/2006 by Emerging Infectious Diseases. Date Released: 11/17/2006.
Guo, Wen-Ping; Lin, Xian-Dan; Wang, Wen; Tian, Jun-Hua; Cong, Mei-Li; Zhang, Hai-Lin; Wang, Miao-Ruo; Zhou, Run-Hong; Wang, Jian-Bo; Li, Ming-Hui; Xu, Jianguo; Holmes, Edward C; Zhang, Yong-Zhen
Hantaviruses are among the most important zoonotic pathogens of humans and the subject of heightened global attention. Despite the importance of hantaviruses for public health, there is no consensus on their evolutionary history and especially the frequency of virus-host co-divergence versus cross-species virus transmission. Documenting the extent of hantavirus biodiversity, and particularly their range of mammalian hosts, is critical to resolving this issue. Here, we describe four novel hantaviruses (Huangpi virus, Lianghe virus, Longquan virus, and Yakeshi virus) sampled from bats and shrews in China, and which are distinct from other known hantaviruses. Huangpi virus was found in Pipistrellus abramus, Lianghe virus in Anourosorex squamipes, Longquan virus in Rhinolophus affinis, Rhinolophus sinicus, and Rhinolophus monoceros, and Yakeshi virus in Sorex isodon, respectively. A phylogenetic analysis of the available diversity of hantaviruses reveals the existence of four phylogroups that infect a range of mammalian hosts, as well as the occurrence of ancient reassortment events between the phylogroups. Notably, the phylogenetic histories of the viruses are not always congruent with those of their hosts, suggesting that cross-species transmission has played a major role during hantavirus evolution and at all taxonomic levels, although we also noted some evidence for virus-host co-divergence. Our phylogenetic analysis also suggests that hantaviruses might have first appeared in Chiroptera (bats) or Soricomorpha (moles and shrews), before emerging in rodent species. Overall, these data indicate that bats are likely to be important natural reservoir hosts of hantaviruses.
Schmieder, Daniela A; Benítez, Hugo A; Borissov, Ivailo M; Fruciano, Carmelo
External morphology is commonly used to identify bats as well as to investigate flight and foraging behavior, typically relying on simple length and area measures or ratios. However, geometric morphometrics is increasingly used in the biological sciences to analyse variation in shape and discriminate among species and populations. Here we compare the ability of traditional versus geometric morphometric methods in discriminating between closely related bat species--in this case European horseshoe bats (Rhinolophidae, Chiroptera)--based on morphology of the wing, body and tail. In addition to comparing morphometric methods, we used geometric morphometrics to detect interspecies differences as shape changes. Geometric morphometrics yielded improved species discrimination relative to traditional methods. The predicted shape for the variation along the between group principal components revealed that the largest differences between species lay in the extent to which the wing reaches in the direction of the head. This strong trend in interspecific shape variation is associated with size, which we interpret as an evolutionary allometry pattern.
Daniela A Schmieder
Full Text Available External morphology is commonly used to identify bats as well as to investigate flight and foraging behavior, typically relying on simple length and area measures or ratios. However, geometric morphometrics is increasingly used in the biological sciences to analyse variation in shape and discriminate among species and populations. Here we compare the ability of traditional versus geometric morphometric methods in discriminating between closely related bat species--in this case European horseshoe bats (Rhinolophidae, Chiroptera--based on morphology of the wing, body and tail. In addition to comparing morphometric methods, we used geometric morphometrics to detect interspecies differences as shape changes. Geometric morphometrics yielded improved species discrimination relative to traditional methods. The predicted shape for the variation along the between group principal components revealed that the largest differences between species lay in the extent to which the wing reaches in the direction of the head. This strong trend in interspecific shape variation is associated with size, which we interpret as an evolutionary allometry pattern.
Full Text Available Hantaviruses are among the most important zoonotic pathogens of humans and the subject of heightened global attention. Despite the importance of hantaviruses for public health, there is no consensus on their evolutionary history and especially the frequency of virus-host co-divergence versus cross-species virus transmission. Documenting the extent of hantavirus biodiversity, and particularly their range of mammalian hosts, is critical to resolving this issue. Here, we describe four novel hantaviruses (Huangpi virus, Lianghe virus, Longquan virus, and Yakeshi virus sampled from bats and shrews in China, and which are distinct from other known hantaviruses. Huangpi virus was found in Pipistrellus abramus, Lianghe virus in Anourosorex squamipes, Longquan virus in Rhinolophus affinis, Rhinolophus sinicus, and Rhinolophus monoceros, and Yakeshi virus in Sorex isodon, respectively. A phylogenetic analysis of the available diversity of hantaviruses reveals the existence of four phylogroups that infect a range of mammalian hosts, as well as the occurrence of ancient reassortment events between the phylogroups. Notably, the phylogenetic histories of the viruses are not always congruent with those of their hosts, suggesting that cross-species transmission has played a major role during hantavirus evolution and at all taxonomic levels, although we also noted some evidence for virus-host co-divergence. Our phylogenetic analysis also suggests that hantaviruses might have first appeared in Chiroptera (bats or Soricomorpha (moles and shrews, before emerging in rodent species. Overall, these data indicate that bats are likely to be important natural reservoir hosts of hantaviruses.
Richard K. B. Jenkins and Paul A. Racey
Dec 1, 2008 ... preferred, small insectivorous bats are also eaten. The national hunting season for bats is widely ignored and both unsuitable hunting practices and high offtake represent a serious threat to bat populations in some areas. Bat bushmeat may be an important source of protein for Malagasy people during ...
Stading, Ben R; Osorio, Jorge E; Velasco-Villa, Andres; Smotherman, Michael; Kingstad-Bakke, Brock; Rocke, Tonie E
Bats (Order Chiroptera) are an abundant group of mammals with tremendous ecological value as insectivores and plant dispersers, but their role as reservoirs of zoonotic diseases has received more attention in the last decade. With the goal of managing disease in free-ranging bats, we tested modified vaccinia Ankara (MVA) and raccoon poxvirus (RCN) as potential vaccine vectors in the Brazilian Free-tailed bat (Tadarida brasiliensis), using biophotonic in vivo imaging and immunogenicity studies. Animals were administered recombinant poxviral vectors expressing the luciferase gene (MVA-luc, RCN-luc) through oronasal (ON) or intramuscular (IM) routes and subsequently monitored for bioluminescent signal indicative of viral infection. No clinical illness was noted after exposure to any of the vectors, and limited luciferase expression was observed. Higher and longer levels of expression were observed with the RCN-luc construct. When given IM, luciferase expression was limited to the site of injection, while ON exposure led to initial expression in the oral cavity, often followed by secondary replication at another location, likely the gastric mucosa or gastric associated lymphatic tissue. Viral DNA was detected in oral swabs up to 7 and 9 days post infection (dpi) for MVA and RCN, respectively. While no live virus was detected in oral swabs from MVA-infected bats, titers up to 3.88 x 10 4 PFU/ml were recovered from oral swabs of RCN-infected bats. Viral DNA was also detected in fecal samples from two bats inoculated IM with RCN, but no live virus was recovered. Finally, we examined the immunogenicity of a RCN based rabies vaccine (RCN-G) following ON administration. Significant rabies neutralizing antibody titers were detected in the serum of immunized bats using the rapid fluorescence focus inhibition test (RFFIT). These studies highlight the safety and immunogenicity of attenuated poxviruses and their potential use as vaccine vectors in bats. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Stading, Benjamin; Osorio, Jorge E.; Velasco-Villa, Andres; Smotherman, Michael; Kingstad-Bakke, Brock; Rocke, Tonie E.
Bats (Order Chiroptera) are an abundant group of mammals with tremendous ecological value as insectivores and plant dispersers, but their role as reservoirs of zoonotic diseases has received more attention in the last decade. With the goal of managing disease in free-ranging bats, we tested modified vaccinia Ankara (MVA) and raccoon poxvirus (RCN) as potential vaccine vectors in the Brazilian Free-tailed bat (Tadarida brasiliensis), using biophotonic in vivo imaging and immunogenicity studies. Animals were administered recombinant poxviral vectors expressing the luciferase gene (MVA-luc, RCN-luc) through oronasal (ON) or intramuscular (IM) routes and subsequently monitored for bioluminescent signal indicative of viral infection. No clinical illness was noted after exposure to any of the vectors, and limited luciferase expression was observed. Higher and longer levels of expression were observed with the RCN-luc construct. When given IM, luciferase expression was limited to the site of injection, while ON exposure led to initial expression in the oral cavity, often followed by secondary replication at another location, likely the gastric mucosa or gastric associated lymphatic tissue. Viral DNA was detected in oral swabs up to 7 and 9 days post infection (dpi) for MVA and RCN, respectively. While no live virus was detected in oral swabs from MVA-infected bats, titers up to 3.88 x 104 PFU/ml were recovered from oral swabs of RCN-infected bats. Viral DNA was also detected in fecal samples from two bats inoculated IM with RCN, but no live virus was recovered. Finally, we examined the immunogenicity of a RCN based rabies vaccine (RCN-G) following ON administration. Significant rabies neutralizing antibody titers were detected in the serum of immunized bats using the rapid fluorescence focus inhibition test (RFFIT). These studies highlight the safety and immunogenicity of attenuated poxviruses and their potential use as vaccine vectors in bats.
Yoon, Kwang Bae; Kim, Ji Young; Cho, Jae Youl; Park, Yung Chul
The total length of the mitogenome of Rhinolophus ferrumequinum korai is 16,839 bp with a total base composition of 31.8% A, 25.4% T, 28.7% C, and 14.0% G. The mitogenome consists of 13 protein-coding genes, 2 rRNA (12S and 16S RNA) genes, 22 tRNA genes, and 1 control region.
Vallo, Peter; Benda, P.; Červený, J.; Koubek, Petr
Roč. 79, č. 2 (2015), s. 225-231 ISSN 0025-1461 R&D Projects: GA ČR GP206/09/P624; GA AV ČR IAA6093404 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : cranial morphometrics * cytochrome b * phylogeny * zinc finger protein Y Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 0.538, year: 2015
Benda, P.; Vallo, Peter; Hulva, P.; Horáček, I.
Roč. 67, č. 6 (2012), s. 1230-1244 ISSN 0006-3088 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : Rousettus * morphometrics * mtDNA * taxonomy * distribution Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 0.506, year: 2012
Warner, J.W.; Patton, J.L.; Gardner, A.L.; Baker, R.J.
Examination of 135 specimens representing 21 species from seven genera of the family Molossidae revealed diploid numbers ranging from 34 to 48. Seventeen species from six genera have diploid numbers of 48. Geographic variation and polymorphism were found only in Eumops glaucinus. Chromosomal variation within the family is presumed to be primarily due to changes in diploid number resulting from Robertsonian translocations.
Marcelo R. Nogueira
Full Text Available Saccopteryx leptura (Schreber, 1774 is reported from two new localities in southeastern Brazil, both in Atlantic forest remains in the state of Rio de Janeiro. Analysisof food material showed that individuals from both localities had preyedon insects in the order Hymenoptera. Cheek contents were available from one specimen, and in this case identification of the food item (flying ants achieved generic level (Pheidole Westwood, 1841. Aspects in the social behavior observed in a colony suggest that the same traits documented in Central American populations (small colonies, monogamic mating system, and retention of young for up to a year in the parental unit may also characterize this species in the southern most part of its range. In both external and craniodental selected measurements, specimens from Rio de Janeiro were close to the upper limits of the ranges known for the species.
CONTENTS I. Introduction.................. 3 A. Scope of the present paper............. 3 B. Measurements................ 7 C. Nomenclature................ 8 D. Acknowledgements............... 9 II. General Part.................. 10 A. History of the study of Suriname bats.......... 10 B. Remarks on
Vermont Center for Geographic Information — This dataset includes towns that contain documented hibernacula or summer range occupied by federally endangered Indiana bats. Survey data used to create this...
... genetic information. Reassortment can sometimes lead to the emergence of new flu viruses capable of infecting humans. Yellow-shouldered ... important for public health because bats represent a new animal species that may act as a source of flu ...
Kinzie, Kevin; Rominger, Kathryn M.
The project objective was to advance the development and testing of an Near commercial bat-deterrent system with a goal to increase the current GE deterrent system effectiveness to over 50% with broad species applicability. Additionally, the research supported by this program has provided insights into bat behavior and ultrasonic deterrent design that had not previously been explored. Prior research and development had demonstrated the effectiveness of a commercial-grade, air-powered, ultrasonic bat deterrent to be between 30-50% depending upon the species of bat. However, the previous research provided limited insight into the behavioral responses of bats in the presence of ultrasonic deterrent sound fields that could be utilized to improve effectiveness. A unique bat flight room was utilized to observe the behavioral characteristics of bats in the presence of ultrasonic sound fields. Behavioral testing in the bat flight facility demonstrated that ultrasonic sounds similar to those produced by the GE deterrent influenced the activities and behaviors, primarily those associated with foraging, of the species exposed. The study also indicated that continuous and pulsing ultrasonic signals had a similar effect on the bats, and confirmed that as ultrasonic sounds attenuate, their influence on the bats’ activities and behavior decreases. Ground testing at Wolf Ridge Wind, LLC and Shawnee National Forest assessed both continuous and pulsing deterrent signals emitted from the GE deterrent system and further enhanced the behavioral understanding of bats in the presence of the deterrent. With these data and observations, the existing 4-nozzle continuous, or steady, emission ultrasonic system was redesigned to a 6-nozzle system that could emit a pulsing signal covering a larger air space around a turbine. Twelve GE 1.6-100 turbines were outfitted with the deterrent system and a formal three-month field study was performed using daily carcass searches beneath the 12
... Rabies Day Rabies and Kids! Rabies Learning about bats and rabies Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir ... areas where they might contact people and pets. Bats and human rabies in the United States Rabies ...
Schatz, J.; Fooks, A. R.; McElhinney, L.
Rabies is the oldest known zoonotic disease and was also the first recognized bat associated infection in humans. To date, four different lyssavirus species are the causative agents of rabies in European bats: the European Bat Lyssaviruses type 1 and 2 (EBLV-1, EBLV-2), the recently discovered pu...
Haelewaters, Danny; Pfliegler, Walter P.; Szentiványi, Tamara; Földvári, Mihály; Sándor, Attila D.; Barti, Levente; Camacho, Jasmin J.; Gort, Gerrit; Estók, Péter; Hiller, Thomas; Dick, Carl W.; Pfister, Donald H.
Background: Bat flies (Streblidae and Nycteribiidae) are among the most specialized families of the order Diptera. Members of these two related families have an obligate ectoparasitic lifestyle on bats, and they are known disease vectors for their hosts. However, bat flies have their own
Schatz, J.; Fooks, A.R.; McElhinney, L.M.; Horton, D.; Echevarria, J.; Vázquez-Morón, S.; Kooi, E.A.; Rasmussen, T.B.; Müller, T.; Freuling, C.
Rabies is the oldest known zoonotic disease and was also the first recognized bat associated infection in humans. To date, four different lyssavirus species are the causative agents of rabies in European bats: the European Bat Lyssaviruses type 1 and 2 (EBLV-1, EBLV-2), the recently discovered
Sonntag, Michael; Mühldorfer, Kristin; Speck, Stephanie; Wibbelt, Gudrun
We tested 55 deceased vespertilionid bats of 12 species from southern Germany for virus infections. A new adenovirus was isolated from tissue samples of 2 Pipistrellus pipistrellus bats, which represents the only chiropteran virus isolate found in Europe besides lyssavirus (rabies virus). Evidence was found for adenovirus transmission between bats. PMID:19961700
Assembling individual genomes from shotgun metagenomic sequences derived from complex microbial communities is so far one of the most challenging problems in bioinformatics. As it is impractical to directly assemble full-length genomes, a first step that groups contigs from the same organisms, called metagenome binning, has been developed to provide insights of individual organisms. However, current binning methods perform poorly in the context of large complex community, and as a result they fail to recover many novel genomes. To overcome this limitation, we developed integrated software, called MetaBAT, which automatically forms hundreds of individual genome bins from metagenome contigs. Probabilistic models of abundance and tetranucleotide frequency were trained by extensive empirical studies and integrated to decide the membership of contigs iteratively. To test the performance of MetaBAT, we applied MetaBAT to both synthetic and several large-scale real world metagenome datasets. By using two independent metrics, we demonstrate that in all the data sets tested MetaBAT achieves good sensitivity (16~87%) and very high specificity (56~99%) in forming genome bins. Further analyses of the novel genomes recovered from the human gut microbiome suggest a subset of these genomes are potentially associated with pathological conditions. In conclusion, we believe MetaBAT is a powerful tool
Botero-Castro, Fidel; Tilak, Marie-ka; Justy, Fabienne; Catzeflis, François; Delsuc, Frédéric; Douzery, Emmanuel J P
Leaf-nosed bats (Phyllostomidae) are one of the most studied groups within the order Chiroptera mainly because of their outstanding species richness and diversity in morphological and ecological traits. Rapid diversification and multiple homoplasies have made the phylogeny of the family difficult to solve using morphological characters. Molecular data have contributed to shed light on the evolutionary history of phyllostomid bats, yet several relationships remain unresolved at the intra-familial level. Complete mitochondrial genomes have proven useful to deal with this kind of situation in other groups of mammals by providing access to a large number of molecular characters. At present, there are only two mitogenomes available for phyllostomid bats hinting at the need for further exploration of the mitogenomic approach in this group. We used both standard Sanger sequencing of PCR products and next-generation sequencing (NGS) of shotgun genomic DNA to obtain new complete mitochondrial genomes from 10 species of phyllostomid bats, including representatives of major subfamilies, plus one outgroup belonging to the closely-related mormoopids. We then evaluated the contribution of mitogenomics to the resolution of the phylogeny of leaf-nosed bats and compared the results to those based on mitochondrial genes and the RAG2 and VWF nuclear makers. Our results demonstrate the advantages of the Illumina NGS approach to efficiently obtain mitogenomes of phyllostomid bats. The phylogenetic signal provided by entire mitogenomes is highly comparable to the one of a concatenation of individual mitochondrial and nuclear markers, and allows increasing both resolution and statistical support for several clades. This enhanced phylogenetic signal is the result of combining markers with heterogeneous evolutionary rates representing a large number of nucleotide sites. Our results illustrate the potential of the NGS mitogenomic approach for resolving the evolutionary history of
AZEVEDO, M. S.
Lonchorhina aurita é uma espécie da família Phyllostomidae (Chiroptera) com ampla distribuição geográfica, ocorrendo desde o sul do México até o leste do Brasil. Estudos preliminares demonstraram evidências para uma estruturação de suas populações em sul e norte da Mata Atlântica (MA) baseada em um pequeno número amostral de poucas localidades distintas, além de uma controversa história taxonômica. Assim, o presente estudo buscou identificar o padrão filogeográfico e populacional de L. aurita...
James D Hale
Full Text Available Urbanization is characterized by high levels of sealed land-cover, and small, geometrically complex, fragmented land-use patches. The extent and density of urbanized land-use is increasing, with implications for habitat quality, connectivity and city ecology. Little is known about densification thresholds for urban ecosystem function, and the response of mammals, nocturnal and cryptic taxa are poorly studied in this respect. Bats (Chiroptera are sensitive to changing urban form at a species, guild and community level, so are ideal model organisms for analyses of this nature.We surveyed bats around urban ponds in the West Midlands conurbation, United Kingdom (UK. Sites were stratified between five urban land classes, representing a gradient of built land-cover at the 1 km(2 scale. Models for bat presence and activity were developed using land-cover and land-use data from multiple radii around each pond. Structural connectivity of tree networks was used as an indicator of the functional connectivity between habitats. All species were sensitive to measures of urban density. Some were also sensitive to landscape composition and structural connectivity at different spatial scales. These results represent new findings for an urban area. The activity of Pipistrellus pipistrellus (Schreber 1774 exhibited a non-linear relationship with the area of built land-cover, being much reduced beyond the threshold of ∼60% built surface. The presence of tree networks appears to mitigate the negative effects of urbanization for this species.Our results suggest that increasing urban density negatively impacts the study species. This has implications for infill development policy, built density targets and the compact city debate. Bats were also sensitive to the composition and structure of the urban form at a range of spatial scales, with implications for land-use planning and management. Protecting and establishing tree networks may improve the resilience of some
Full Text Available Major roads can reduce bat abundance and diversity over considerable distances. To mitigate against these effects and comply with environmental law, many European countries install bridges, gantries or underpasses to make roads permeable and safer to cross. However, through lack of appropriate monitoring, there is little evidence to support their effectiveness. Three underpasses and four bat gantries were investigated in northern England. Echolocation call recordings and observations were used to determine the number of bats using underpasses in preference to crossing the road above, and the height at which bats crossed. At gantries, proximity to the gantry and height of crossing bats were measured. Data were compared to those from adjacent, severed commuting routes that had no crossing structure. At one underpass 96% of bats flew through it in preference to crossing the road. This underpass was located on a pre-construction commuting route that allowed bats to pass without changing flight height or direction. At two underpasses attempts to divert bats from their original commuting routes were unsuccessful and bats crossed the road at the height of passing vehicles. Underpasses have the potential to allow bats to cross roads safely if built on pre-construction commuting routes. Bat gantries were ineffective and used by a very small proportion of bats, even up to nine years after construction. Most bats near gantries crossed roads along severed, pre-construction commuting routes at heights that put them in the path of vehicles. Crossing height was strongly correlated with verge height, suggesting that elevated verges may have some value in mitigation, but increased flight height may be at the cost of reduced permeability. Green bridges should be explored as an alternative form of mitigation. Robust monitoring is essential to assess objectively the case for mitigation and to ensure effective mitigation.
Full Text Available Abstract Between 1994 and 2008, we studied the structure of harems in Nyctalus leisleri and factors that determine their size by monitoring 90 bat-boxes placed in a beech forest in the natural reserve Pian degli Ontani (Tuscany, northern Italy. The number of females in the harem positively correlated with the number of males defending a harem. The number of males in the mating area did not significantly influence harem size, whilst we found a significant correlation between the variance in harem size and mean harem size. This may be explained by the existence of an uneven aggregation favouring few males. A strong relation was found between males’ age (estimated by teeth wear and mean harem size.
Riassunto Dimensioni dell'harem e tattiche riproduttive dei maschi di Nyctalus leisleri (Kuhl, 1817 (Chiroptera, Vespertilionidae. Sono presentati i risultati di uno studio sulla struttura dell'harem in Nyctalus leisleri e sui fattori che ne determinano la dimensione. Tra il 1994 e il 2008, sono stati monitorati 90 rifugi artificiali (bat-box per pipistrelli collocati in una faggeta della Riserva Statale di Pian degli Ontani (Pistoia, Toscana. Il numero di femmine presenti nel harem è risultato positivamente correlato con il numero di maschi presenti nell’area di accoppiamento. Il numero di maschi presenti non influenza la dimensione media dell'harem mentre una significativa correlazione positiva è stata evidenziata tra il valore della varianza delle dimensioni dell'harem e la sua dimensione media. Tale relazione suggerisce che le femmine tendono ad aggregarsi, favorendo i maschi più competitivi. Infine è stato evidenziato un modello generale dove sia i maschi giovani sia quelli ad età più avanzata (stimata in base all’usura dei denti hanno minor capacità di formare harem con un numero elevato di femmine.
on advertisement to take products to the doorsteps of potential consumers. Consequently, local and ... ideation, encoding and presentation of visual information to target audiences in a way that breaks cultural bounds and ... BAT realises the importance of cultural attributes in ads in such a culture sensitive environment like ...
Full Text Available Para estudiar la asimilación protoplasmática de los granos de polen de cactáceas columnares en dos especies de murciélagos glosofaginos, determinamos el porcentaje de granos de polen vacíos (digeridos en muestras fecales de Glossophaga longirostris y Leptonycteris curasoae , capturados en una zona árida de Venezuela. Para determinar el porcentaje de granos de polen digeridos por los murciélagos, aplicamos un colorante sobre las muestras fecales que permite diferenciar sin dificultad el polen vacio del polen lleno. Después de cuantificar los granos de polen de ambas categorías en las muestras fecales, los valores fueron corregidos tomando en cuenta el porcentaje de polen vacío (previo a la antesis en las flores maduras de las especies de cactáceas columnares (Subpilocereus repandus, Stenocereus griseus y Pilosocereus tillianus . G. longirostris asimila el 64.2% de los granos de polen que ingiere y L. curasoae asimila el 71.3%. Estos elevados porcentajes confirman la importancia del polen en la dieta de estos murciélagos, dado su alto contenido de nitrógenoDigestibility of columnar cacti pollen grains in the glosophagine bats Glossophaga longirostris and Leptonycteris curasoae (Chiroptera: Phyllostomidae. We examined the protoplasmic assimilation of columnar cacti pollen grains in two species of Venezuelan desert glosophagine bats, Glossophaga longirostris and Leptonycteris curasoae, by determining the amount of empty (digested pollen grains found in their fecal samples. To determine the amount of empty pollen grains, the fecal samples were stained to differ between empty and full (non-digested pollen grains. The number of empty and full pollen grains observed in the fecal samples were corrected using the amount of aborted pollens present (before anthesis in flowers of the columnar cacti species (Subpilocereus repandus, Stenocereus griseus and Pilosocereus tillianus used by bats as food in the study site; G. longirostris and L
Simmons, Nancy B; Seymour, Kevin L; Habersetzer, Jörg; Gunnell, Gregg F
Laryngeal echolocation, used by most living bats to form images of their surroundings and to detect and capture flying prey, is considered to be a key innovation for the evolutionary success of bats, and palaeontologists have long sought osteological correlates of echolocation that can be used to infer the behaviour of fossil bats. Veselka et al. argued that the most reliable trait indicating echolocation capabilities in bats is an articulation between the stylohyal bone (part of the hyoid apparatus that supports the throat and larynx) and the tympanic bone, which forms the floor of the middle ear. They examined the oldest and most primitive known bat, Onychonycteris finneyi (early Eocene, USA), and argued that it showed evidence of this stylohyal-tympanic articulation, from which they concluded that O. finneyi may have been capable of echolocation. We disagree with their interpretation of key fossil data and instead argue that O. finneyi was probably not an echolocating bat.
O'Shea, Thomas J.; Cryan, Paul M.; Cunningham, Andrew A.; Fooks, Anthony R.; Hayman, David T.S.; Luis, Angela D.; Peel, Alison J.; Plowright, Raina K.; Wood, James L.N.
Bats are sources of high viral diversity and high-profile zoonotic viruses worldwide. Although apparently not pathogenic in their reservoir hosts, some viruses from bats severely affect other mammals, including humans. Examples include severe acute respiratory syndrome coronaviruses, Ebola and Marburg viruses, and Nipah and Hendra viruses. Factors underlying high viral diversity in bats are the subject of speculation. We hypothesize that flight, a factor common to all bats but to no other mammals, provides an intensive selective force for coexistence with viral parasites through a daily cycle that elevates metabolism and body temperature analogous to the febrile response in other mammals. On an evolutionary scale, this host–virus interaction might have resulted in the large diversity of zoonotic viruses in bats, possibly through bat viruses adapting to be more tolerant of the fever response and less virulent to their natural hosts.
Lien, Amy; Markwardt, Craig B.; Krimm, Hans Albert; Barthelmy, Scott D.; Cenko, Bradley
We will present the current status of the Swift/BAT detector. In particular, we will report the updated detector gain calibration, the number of enable detectors, and the global bad time intervals with potential calibration issues. We will also summarize the results of the yearly BAT calibration using the Crab nebula. Finally, we will discuss the effects on the BAT survey, such as the sensitivity, localization, and spectral analysis, due to the changes in detector status.
Clark, Donald R.
Although the boom days of prospectors and gold nuggets are long gone, modern technology enables gold to continue to be extracted from ore. Unfortunately, the extraction method has often been disastrous for bats and other wildlife, an issue I first became aware of in early 1989. Phone calls from Drs. Merlin Tuttle and Elizabeth Pierson, a BCI member and bat researcher from Berkeley, California, alerted me that bats were dying from apparent cyanide poisoning at gold mines in the western United States.
Full Text Available A survey of chiropteran fauna was conducted during the period from March 1994 to May 1998 in Pedra Branca State Park, Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro State. A total of 681 specimens of 24 species were recorded: Chrotopterus auritus (Peters, 1856; Micronycteris megalotis (Gray, 1842; Micronycteris minuta (Gervais, 1856; Mimmon bennettii (Gray, 1838; Phyllostomus hastatus (Pallas, 1767; Tonatia bidens (Von Spix, 1823; Lonchophylla bokermanni Sazima, Vizotto & Taddei, 1978; Lonchophylla mordax Thomas, 1903; Anoura caudifera (E. Geoffroy, 1818; Glosso-phaga soricina (Pallas, 1766; Carollia perspicillata (Linnaeus, 1758; Artibeus fimbriatus Gray, 1838; Artibeus lituratus (Olfers, 1818; Artibeus obscuras Schinz, 1821; Chiroderma doriae Thomas, 1891; Platyrrhinus lineatus (E. Geoffroy, 1810; Platyrrhinus recifinus (Thomas, 1901; Sturnira lilium (E. Geoffroy, 1810; Vampyressa pusilla (Wagner, 1843; Desmodus rotundus (E. Geoffroy, 1810; Diphylla ecaudata Von Spix, 1823; Eptesicus brasiliensis (DesMarest, 1819; Myotis nigricans (Schinz, 1821 and Molossus molossus (Palas, 1766. One external (forearm length and 13 cranial meansurements were studied for 23 species. The meansurements of male and female specimens were treated separately. Comments about some taxonomic respects for some species studied are also included.
Teeling, Emma C; Vernes, Sonja C; Dávalos, Liliana M
Bats are unique among mammals, possessing some of the rarest mammalian adaptations, including true self-powered flight, laryngeal echolocation, exceptional longevity, unique immunity, contracted genomes, and vocal learning. They provide key ecosystem services, pollinating tropical plants, dispers......Bats are unique among mammals, possessing some of the rarest mammalian adaptations, including true self-powered flight, laryngeal echolocation, exceptional longevity, unique immunity, contracted genomes, and vocal learning. They provide key ecosystem services, pollinating tropical plants...... and endangered. Here we announce Bat1K, an initiative to sequence the genomes of all living bat species (n∼1,300) to chromosome-level assembly. The Bat1K genome consortium unites bat biologists (>148 members as of writing), computational scientists, conservation organizations, genome technologists, and any...... interested individuals committed to a better understanding of the genetic and evolutionary mechanisms that underlie the unique adaptations of bats. Our aim is to catalog the unique genetic diversity present in all living bats to better understand the molecular basis of their unique adaptations; uncover...
Full Text Available Evidence for long-term cooperative relationships comes from several social birds and mammals. Vampire bats demonstrate cooperative social bonds, and like primates, they maintain these bonds through social grooming. It is unclear, however, to what extent vampires are special among bats in this regard. We compared social grooming rates of common vampire bats Desmodus rotundus and four other group-living bats, Artibeus jamaicensis, Carollia perspicillata, Eidolon helvum and Rousettus aegyptiacus, under the same captive conditions of fixed association and no ectoparasites. We conducted 13 focal sampling sessions for each combination of sex and species, for a total of 1560 presence/absence observations per species. We observed evidence for social grooming in all species, but social grooming rates were on average 14 times higher in vampire bats than in other species. Self-grooming rates did not differ. Vampire bats spent 3.7% of their awake time social grooming (95% CI = 1.5-6.3%, whereas bats of the other species spent 0.1-0.5% of their awake time social grooming. Together with past data, this result supports the hypothesis that the elevated social grooming rate in the vampire bat is an adaptive trait, linked to their social bonding and unique regurgitated food sharing behavior.
Carter, Gerald; Leffer, Lauren
Evidence for long-term cooperative relationships comes from several social birds and mammals. Vampire bats demonstrate cooperative social bonds, and like primates, they maintain these bonds through social grooming. It is unclear, however, to what extent vampires are special among bats in this regard. We compared social grooming rates of common vampire bats Desmodus rotundus and four other group-living bats, Artibeus jamaicensis, Carollia perspicillata, Eidolon helvum and Rousettus aegyptiacus, under the same captive conditions of fixed association and no ectoparasites. We conducted 13 focal sampling sessions for each combination of sex and species, for a total of 1560 presence/absence observations per species. We observed evidence for social grooming in all species, but social grooming rates were on average 14 times higher in vampire bats than in other species. Self-grooming rates did not differ. Vampire bats spent 3.7% of their awake time social grooming (95% CI = 1.5-6.3%), whereas bats of the other species spent 0.1-0.5% of their awake time social grooming. Together with past data, this result supports the hypothesis that the elevated social grooming rate in the vampire bat is an adaptive trait, linked to their social bonding and unique regurgitated food sharing behavior.
Ortega-García, Stephanie; Guevara, Lázaro; Arroyo-Cabrales, Joaquín; Lindig-Cisneros, Roberto; Martínez-Meyer, Enrique; Vega, Ernesto; Schondube, Jorge E
The thermal niche of a species is one of the main determinants of its ecology and biogeography. In this study, we determined the thermal niche of 23 species of Neotropical nectar-feeding bats of the subfamily Glossophaginae (Chiroptera, Phyllostomidae). We calculated their thermal niches using temperature data obtained from collection records, by generating a distribution curve of the maximum and minimum temperatures per locality, and using the inflection points of the temperature distributions to estimate the species optimal (STZ) and suboptimal (SRZ) zones of the thermal niche. Additionally, by mapping the values of the STZ and SRZ on a phylogeny of the group, we generated a hypothesis of the evolution of the thermal niches of this clade of nectar-feeding bats. Finally, we used the characteristics of their thermal niches to predict the responses of these organisms to climate change. We found a large variation in the width and limits of the thermal niches of nectar-feeding bats. Additionally, while the upper limits of the thermal niches varied little among species, their lower limits differ wildly. The ancestral reconstruction of the thermal niche indicated that this group of Neotropical bats evolved under cooler temperatures. The two clades inside the Glossophaginae differ in the evolution of their thermal niches, with most members of the clade Choeronycterines evolving "colder" thermal niches, while the majority of the species in the clade Glossophagines evolving "warmer" thermal niches. By comparing thermal niches with climate change models, we found that all species could be affected by an increase of 1°C in temperature at the end of this century. This suggests that even nocturnal species could suffer important physiological costs from global warming. Our study highlights the value of scientific collections to obtain ecologically significant physiological data for a large number of species.
Smith, Jillian D.L.; Gregory, T. Ryan
It has long been recognized that bats and birds contain less DNA in their genomes than their non-flying relatives. It has been suggested that this relates to the high metabolic demands of powered flight, a notion that is supported by the fact that pterosaurs also appear to have exhibited small genomes. Given the long-standing interest in this question, it is surprising that almost no data have been presented regarding genome size diversity among megabats (family Pteropodidae). The present study provides genome size estimates for 43 species of megabats in an effort to fill this gap and to test the hypothesis that all bats, and not just microbats, possess small genomes. Intriguingly, megabats appear to be even more constrained in terms of genome size than the members of other bat families. PMID:19324635
Novaes, Roberto Leonan Morim; Souza, Renan de França; Ribeiro, Edvandro Abreu; Siqueira, André Costa; Greco, Alexandre Verçosa; Moratelli, Ricardo
Myotis occurs from tropical to temperate regions throughout the globe, and it is the largest bat genus with more than 100 species. Most species are insect-eaters, but a few also feed on other invertebrates and fishes; there is no confirmed evidence of a plant item in their diet. During fieldwork in the Brazilian Atlantic Forest, small seeds were retrieved from the feces of one adult female of the Black Myotis, Myotis nigricans-one of the most common Neotropical bats. In a germination experiment, 40% of those seeds grew into seedlings. Our findings are the first evidence of fruit consumption for any Myotis species. We reject a possible contamination because the cotton bag was never used before for bats. This study is the first evidence of frugivory in the genus Myotis.
The fine structure of the ears of 62 species of bats from 13 families has been studied by means of serial sections. The bats were caught alive in Britain, West Indies, Panama, Central and North Africa and were intra-vitally perfused with fixative in order to obtain perfect preservation of the
Schmid, Michael; Steinlein, Claus; Lomb, Christian; Volleth, Marianne
5-Methylcytosine-rich heterochromatic regions were demonstrated in metaphase chromosomes of 5 species of Chiroptera by indirect immunofluorescence using a monoclonal anti-5-methylcytosine antibody. These species belong to 4 genera and 2 families and are characterized by divergent karyotypes. One species (Glauconycteris beatrix) has an extremely low diploid chromosome number of 2n = 22 with only meta- to submetacentric elements and remarkably large amounts of constitutive heterochromatin located in the centromeric and pericentromeric regions of all chromosome pairs. Two species (G. beatrix and Neoromicia cf. guineensis) possess X-autosome translocations. In all species, the hypermethylated chromosome segments correspond to constitutive heterochromatin, and the numbers and positions of hypermethylated chromosome segments in the karyotypes are constant and species-specific. In some species (Pipistrellus hesperidus, Neoromicia cf. somalicus), there are several smaller chromosome pairs in which the bright anti-5-methylcytosine antibody labeling is not restricted to constitutively heterochromatic regions but is observed along the whole lengths of these chromosomes. The nature of these additional hypermethylated regions is discussed. The analysis of 5-methylcytosine-rich chromosome regions elucidates valuable data for chiropteran cytogenetics and reflects the high pace of evolution of the repetitive DNA fraction in their genomes. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.
Chiroptera: Vespertilionidae) from the southern African subregion. M. van der Merwe and I.L. Rautenbach. Mammal Research Institute, University of Pretoria, Pretoria and Transvaal Museum, Pretoria. Nycticeius schlieffenii is a monestrous species that ...
Ludmilla Moura de Souza Aguiar
Full Text Available In Brazil, there are two published references on the diet of American kestrel falcons, Falco sparverius Linnaeus, 1758, and one is for the Cerrado biome. The only mammal prey so far found in the diet of F. sparverius was the rodent Calomys tener (Winge, 1887. Herein we report on daily hunting activities by American kestrel falcons at a factory in the city of Uberlândia, state of Minas Gerais, southeastern Brazil, during an attempt to remove a bat colony. Two American kestrel falcons were observed on 14 occasions during two consecutive days: in two of these occasions, they were hunting in pairs, from 12:00 p.m. to 3:00 p.m. on 06/X/2003, and from 07:00 a.m. to 11:00 a.m. on 07/X/2003. During this period, American kestrel falcons made 27 hunting attempts and captured four bats of the same species, Nyctinomops laticaudatus (E. Geoffroy St.-Hilaire, 1805 (14.81% success. This report corroborates observations made in the Northern hemisphere, where bats are a dietary item of this falcon. Our findings are noteworthy because they reveal that the known natural predators of bats are few not only in Brazil but also worldwide.
Swartz, S. M; Breuer, K. S
Bats fly with astounding agility, maneuverability and efficiency. Their flight mechanics are completely different from those of insects and birds and characterized by several unique aeromechanical features including: (1...
Carleton J Phillips
Full Text Available We hypothesized that evolution of salivary gland secretory proteome has been important in adaptation to insectivory, the most common dietary strategy among Chiroptera. A submandibular salivary gland (SMG transcriptome was sequenced for the little brown bat, Myotis lucifugus. The likely secretory proteome of 23 genes included seven (RETNLB, PSAP, CLU, APOE, LCN2, C3, CEL related to M. lucifugus insectivorous diet and metabolism. Six of the secretory proteins probably are endocrine, whereas one (CEL most likely is exocrine. The encoded proteins are associated with lipid hydrolysis, regulation of lipid metabolism, lipid transport, and insulin resistance. They are capable of processing exogenous lipids for flight metabolism while foraging. Salivary carboxyl ester lipase (CEL is thought to hydrolyze insect lipophorins, which probably are absorbed across the gastric mucosa during feeding. The other six proteins are predicted either to maintain these lipids at high blood concentrations or to facilitate transport and uptake by flight muscles. Expression of these seven genes and coordinated secretion from a single organ is novel to this insectivorous bat, and apparently has evolved through instances of gene duplication, gene recruitment, and nucleotide selection. Four of the recruited genes are single-copy in the Myotis genome, whereas three have undergone duplication(s with two of these genes exhibiting evolutionary 'bursts' of duplication resulting in multiple paralogs. Evidence for episodic directional selection was found for six of seven genes, reinforcing the conclusion that the recruited genes have important roles in adaptation to insectivory and the metabolic demands of flight. Intragenic frequencies of mobile- element-like sequences differed from frequencies in the whole M. lucifugus genome. Differences among recruited genes imply separate evolutionary trajectories and that adaptation was not a single, coordinated event.
Feijó, Anderson; Da Rocha, Patrício Adriano; Althoff, Sergio Luiz
Histiotus are vespertilionid bats endemic to South America, easily recognized by its very long ears. During a twelve-month bat inventory in northeastern Brazil, eleven specimens of Histiotus were collected with a unique combination of characters that did not match those of any known species. In this paper, we describe these specimens as a new species. Histiotus sp. nov is distinguished from its congeners by its pale transparent wings and translucent ears, a triangular-shaped ear with a prominent lobe in the inner border connected by a band (~4 mm) across the forehead; its general golden-brownish body color and well-marked bicolor dorsal hairs. Its geographic distribution is unique among vespertilionids, arranged in a northeast-southwest diagonal across South America, includes the Caatinga and Cerrado of Brazil and Chaco of Bolivia. The available data suggest a seasonal reproductive pattern, with births occurring in the mid to late rainy season.
Barriga Bonilla, Ernesto
This work is a contribution to the systematic and zoogeographical knowledge of the Colombian mammals. Three species of bats (Artibeus concolor, Chiroderma trinitatum gorgasi and Todarida laticaudata) are recorded by first time from this country Artibeus concolor (a species known up to date by three specimens recorded in the literature, two of them apparently lost) is redescribed on the bases of six specimens collected in the vicinity of Mitú, Vaupés, The species is closely related to the symp...
Theodore L. Turocy
This paper applies the theory of zero-sum stochastic games to assess the validity of baseball's ancient wisdom that batting last confers a strategic advantage. Results from numerical calculation of Markov perfect equilibrium suggest that the team that bats last will have an advantage if in fact the offense has, in some sense, more useful strategic actions available than the defense. An example is provided where the advantage depends on details of the teams playing. Regardless of which team ha...
Anti, Priscilla; Owusu, Michael; Agbenyega, Olivia; Annan, Augustina; Badu, Ebenezer Kofi; Nkrumah, Evans Ewald; Tschapka, Marco; Oppong, Samuel; Adu-Sarkodie, Yaw
Because some bats host viruses with zoonotic potential, we investigated human–bat interactions in rural Ghana during 2011–2012. Nearly half (46.6%) of respondents regularly visited bat caves; 37.4% had been bitten, scratched, or exposed to bat urine; and 45.6% ate bat meat. Human–bat interactions in rural Ghana are frequent and diverse. PMID:26177344
Anti, Priscilla; Owusu, Michael; Agbenyega, Olivia; Annan, Augustina; Badu, Ebenezer Kofi; Nkrumah, Evans Ewald; Tschapka, Marco; Oppong, Samuel; Adu-Sarkodie, Yaw; Drosten, Christian
Because some bats host viruses with zoonotic potential, we investigated human-bat interactions in rural Ghana during 2011-2012. Nearly half (46.6%) of respondents regularly visited bat caves; 37.4% had been bitten, scratched, or exposed to bat urine; and 45.6% ate bat meat. Human-bat interactions in rural Ghana are frequent and diverse.
Openshaw, J J; Hegde, S; Sazzad, H M S; Khan, S U; Hossain, M J; Epstein, J H; Daszak, P; Gurley, E S; Luby, S P
Bats are an important reservoir for emerging zoonotic pathogens. Close human-bat interactions, including the sharing of living spaces and hunting and butchering of bats for food and medicines, may lead to spillover of zoonotic disease into human populations. We used bat exposure and environmental data gathered from 207 Bangladeshi villages to characterize bat exposures and hunting in Bangladesh. Eleven percent of households reported having a bat roost near their homes, 65% reported seeing bats flying over their households at dusk, and 31% reported seeing bats inside their compounds or courtyard areas. Twenty percent of households reported that members had at least daily exposure to bats. Bat hunting occurred in 49% of the villages surveyed and was more likely to occur in households that reported nearby bat roosts (adjusted prevalence ratio [aPR] 2.3, 95% CI 1.1-4.9) and villages located in north-west (aPR 7.5, 95% CI 2.5-23.0) and south-west (aPR 6.8, 95% CI 2.1-21.6) regions. Our results suggest high exposure to bats and widespread hunting throughout Bangladesh. This has implications for both zoonotic disease spillover and bat conservation. © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.
We review the prompt emission properties of Swift BAT gamma-ray bursts (GRBs). We present the global properties of BAT GRBs based on their spectral and temporal characteristics. The BAT T90 and T50 durations peak at 80 and 20 s, respectively. The peak energy (Epeak) of about 60% of BAT GRBs is very likely to be less than 1.00 keV. We also present the BAT characteristics of GRBs with soft spectra, so called Xray flashes (XRFs). We will compare the BAT GRBs and XRFs parameter distribution to the other missions.
Full Text Available Bats account for ~20% of mammalian species, and are the only mammals with true powered flight. For the sake of their specialized phenotypic traits, many researches have been devoted to examine the evolution of bats. Until now, some whole genome sequences of bats have been assembled and annotated, however, a uniform resource for the annotated bat genomes is still unavailable. To make the extensive data associated with the bat genomes accessible to the general biological communities, we established a Bat Genome Database (BGD. BGD is an open-access, web-available portal that integrates available data of bat genomes and genes. It hosts data from six bat species, including two megabats and four microbats. Users can query the gene annotations using efficient searching engine, and it offers browsable tracks of bat genomes. Furthermore, an easy-to-use phylogenetic analysis tool was also provided to facilitate online phylogeny study of genes. To the best of our knowledge, BGD is the first database of bat genomes. It will extend our understanding of the bat evolution and be advantageous to the bat sequences analysis. BGD is freely available at: http://donglab.ecnu.edu.cn/databases/BatGenome/.
Fang, Jianfei; Wang, Xuan; Mu, Shuo; Zhang, Shuyi; Dong, Dong
Bats account for ~20% of mammalian species, and are the only mammals with true powered flight. For the sake of their specialized phenotypic traits, many researches have been devoted to examine the evolution of bats. Until now, some whole genome sequences of bats have been assembled and annotated, however, a uniform resource for the annotated bat genomes is still unavailable. To make the extensive data associated with the bat genomes accessible to the general biological communities, we established a Bat Genome Database (BGD). BGD is an open-access, web-available portal that integrates available data of bat genomes and genes. It hosts data from six bat species, including two megabats and four microbats. Users can query the gene annotations using efficient searching engine, and it offers browsable tracks of bat genomes. Furthermore, an easy-to-use phylogenetic analysis tool was also provided to facilitate online phylogeny study of genes. To the best of our knowledge, BGD is the first database of bat genomes. It will extend our understanding of the bat evolution and be advantageous to the bat sequences analysis. BGD is freely available at: http://donglab.ecnu.edu.cn/databases/BatGenome/.
Crisco, Joseph J; Osvalds, Nikolas J; Rainbow, Michael J
The purpose of this study was to compute the three-dimensional kinetics required to swing three youth baseball bats of varying moments of inertia (MOI). 306 swings by 22 male players (13-18 yrs.) were analyzed. Inverse dynamics with respect to the batter's hands were computed given the known kinematics and physical properties of the bats. We found that peak force increased with larger bat MOI and was strongly correlated with bat tip speed. In contrast, peak moments were weakly correlated with bat MOI and bat tip speed. Throughout the swing, the force applied to the bat was dominated by a component aligned with the long axis of the bat and directed away from the bat knob, while the moment applied to the bat was minimal until just prior to ball impact. These results indicate that players act to mostly "pull" the bat during their swing until just prior to ball impact, at which point they rapidly increase the moment on the bat. This kinetic analysis provides novel insight into the forces and moments used to swing baseball bats.
Full Text Available Our study objectives were to determine bat species composition and to study the genetic variations and sound characteristics in bats of the Kharaa, Shatan, and Ulgii areas of Mongolia. This study is the first bat survey in this area. Nineteen species were from Mongolia. Six bat species belonged to three genera. We performed mitochondrial DNA sequencing of Myotis bombinus, Myotis gracilis, and Myotis petax to confirm the morphological identification of these species. We also determined the sound frequencies of the six bat species, based on their echolocation calls. The conservation status was determined using World Conservation Union red list categories and criteria. Sixteen bats from three species were ringed during this study and three artificial boxes were placed on trees in the Kharaa River Valley. Other than the northern bat, all species were eastern Palearctic. The northern bat (Eptesicus nilssonii species is widespread in the northern Palearctic region.
Jones, Gareth; Teeling, Emma C
Recent molecular phylogenies have changed our perspective on the evolution of echolocation in bats. These phylogenies suggest that certain bats with sophisticated echolocation (e.g. horseshoe bats) share a common ancestry with non-echolocating bats (e.g. Old World fruit bats). One interpretation of these trees presumes that laryngeal echolocation (calls produced in the larynx) probably evolved in the ancestor of all extant bats. Echolocation might have subsequently been lost in Old World fruit bats, only to evolve secondarily (by tongue clicking) in this family. Remarkable acoustic features such as Doppler shift compensation, whispering echolocation and nasal emission of sound each show multiple convergent origins in bats. The extensive adaptive radiation in echolocation call design is shaped largely by ecology, showing how perceptual challenges imposed by the environment can often override phylogenetic constraints.
Elenise A. Bastos Sipinski
Full Text Available A study on the ecology of Chiroptera was made at the Reserve of Volta Velha on the Northern coast of Santa Catarina. This study aimed at knowing the frequency of the individuals colleeted in each season, part of their feeding diet and their time of activity as well as their breeding activity. The investigation was carried out from March, 1990 to February, 1991 by means of periodical captures which ocurred during four days each month totalizing 144 hours of net use. One hundred and thirty-five individuals belonging to 15 different species were caught. Sturnira lilium (Geoffroy, 1810, Artibeus lituratus (Olfers, 1818 and Myotis nigricans (Schinz, 1821 were captured in the highest number throughout the seasons of the year. Fruit-eating bats confirm their feeding preference for Cecropiaceae, Solanaceae. Myrtaceae and Piperaceae. The births occurred mostly in seasons other than the dry. Around 1:15 hours after sunset was the time when the highest numher of individuals were collected in the nets.
, Desmodus rotundus (Chiroptera: Phyllostomidae. This study addresses the composition of microbial flora in the vampire bat (Desmodus rotundus primarily because all available data are outdated, and because of the economical significance of this bat species. Twenty-one bats were collected and their aerobic bacteria documented separately for stomach and intestine. Bacteria were identified through the Analytical Profile Index (API, and results analyzed with the APILAB software. A total of thirty bacterial species were isolated from sixteen females and five males. The most common species were Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus, although other bacteria, such as Acinetobacter johnsonii, Enterobacter sakazakii, Staphylococcus chromogenes, S. hyicus and S. xylosus were also common. The number of species found in the stomach and intestine was significantly different, and the intestine presented a higher diversity compared to the stomach. This has previously been found in other mammals and it is attributed to a reduction of acidity. Most of the species found in this study are considered normal components of the digestive tract of mammals, although other bacteria common in the skin of mammals and from aquatic environments were found. Bacteria from the skin may invade the vampire’s stomach and/or intestine when the bat has contact with its prey, and may suggest that the vampire’s feeding habit facilitates the invasion of other microbes not common in its digestive tract. The fact that bacteria from aquatic environments were also found suggests that D. rotundus, as previously found by other researchers, drinks free water when available, and water may be another source of microbial invasion. Rev. Biol. Trop. 54 (3: 717-724. Epub 2006 Sept. 29.
Baseball and softball bats are sold according to length in inches and weight in ounces. Much to the consternation of players buying new bats, however, not all bats that weigh the same swing the same. The reason for this has to do with moment of inertia of the bat about a pivot point on the handle, or what the sporting goods industry refers to as…
Bats are eaten by people throughout Madagascar and although the larger species like Pteropus rufus, Eidolon dupreanum, Rousettus madagascariensis and Hipposideros commersoni are preferred, small insectivorous bats are also eaten. The national hunting season for bats is widely ignored and both unsuitable
Cordeiro, Rossana de Aguiar; e Silva, Kylvia Rocha de Castro; Brilhante, Raimunda Sâmia Nogueira; Moura, Francisco Bergson Pinheiro; Duarte, Naylê Francelino Holanda; Marques, Francisca Jakelyne de Farias; Cordeiro, Rebecca de Aguiar; Filho, Renato Evando Moreira; de Araújo, Roberto Wagner Bezerra; Bandeira, Tereza de Jesus Pinheiro Gomes; Rocha, Marcos Fábio Gadelha; Sidrim, José Júlio Costa
To analyze the eco-epidemiologic aspects of Histoplasma capsulatum in Brazil, we tested 83 bats for this fungus. Although H. capsulatum was not isolated, Coccidioides posadasii was recovered from Carollia perspicillata bat lungs. Immunologic studies detected coccidioidal antibodies and antigens in Glossophaga soricina and Desmodus rotundus bats.
Cordeiro, Rossana de Aguiar; Rocha de Castro e Silva, Kylvia; Brilhante, Raimunda Sâmia Nogueira; Moura, Francisco Bergson Pinheiro; Duarte, Naylê Francelino Holanda; Marques, Francisca Jakelyne de Farias; Cordeiro, Rebecca de Aguiar; Filho, Renato Evando Moreira; Bezerra de Araújo, Roberto Wagner; Bandeira, Tereza de Jesus Pinheiro Gomes; Rocha, Marcos Fábio Gadelha; Sidrim, José Júlio Costa
To analyze the eco-epidemiologic aspects of Histoplasma capsulatum in Brazil, we tested 83 bats for this fungus. Although H. capsulatum was not isolated, Coccidioides posadasii was recovered from Carollia perspicillata bat lungs. Immunologic studies detected coccidioidal antibodies and antigens in Glossophaga soricina and Desmodus rotundus bats.
Aguiar,Ludmilla Moura de Souza; Motta,Adarene; Esberárd,Carlos
In Brazil, there are two published references on the diet of American kestrel falcons, Falco sparverius Linnaeus, 1758, and one is for the Cerrado biome. The only mammal prey so far found in the diet of F. sparverius was the rodent Calomys tener (Winge, 1887). Herein we report on daily hunting activities by American kestrel falcons at a factory in the city of Uberlândia, state of Minas Gerais, southeastern Brazil, during an attempt to remove a bat colony. Two American kestrel falcons were obs...
Moratelli, Ricardo; Wilson, Don E.; Gardner, Alfred; Fisher, Robert D.; Gutiérrez, Eliécer E.
We describe a new species of bat in the genus Myotis (Vespertilionidae: Myotinae) from the district of Sipaliwini, Suriname. The new species (Myotis clydejonesi sp. nov.), known from a single specimen, is sister to a clade of M. nigricans (Schinz) from southern South America, but differs from all Neotropical species of Myotis in qualitative and quantitative morphological characters and in its cytochrome-b gene sequence. Our findings also indicate that M. nigricans remains composite and provide support for restricting M. nigricans (sensu stricto) to southern South America.
Benda, P.; Gazaryan, S.; Vallo, Peter
Roč. 40, č. 6 (2016), s. 842-863 ISSN 1300-0179 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : Myotis * mtDNA * cytochrome b * morphometrics * identification * taxonomy * Middle East, Palaearctic Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 0.785, year: 2016
Xiao, Yanhong; Sun, Keping; Feng, Jiang
Rhinolophus ferrumequinum nippon and Rhinolophus ferrumequinum tragatus are two subspecies of Rhinolophus ferrumequinum currently recognized in China. In this study, their mitochondrial genomes were completely sequenced and annotated. Phylogenetic analyses indicated that R. f. nippon has a close relationship with two subspecies of R. ferrumequinum from Korea with 0.1% divergence, which indicated they are synonyms.
Puerma, Eva; Acosta, Manuel J; Barragán, Maria José L; Martínez, Sergio; Marchal, Juan Alberto; Bullejos, Mónica; Sánchez, Antonio
The karyotype of individuals of the species Rhinolophus hipposideros from Spain present a chromosome number of 2n = 54 (NFa = 62). The described karyotype for these specimens is very similar to another previously described in individual from Bulgaria. However, the presence of one additional pair of autosomal acrocentric chromosomes in the Bulgarian karyotype and the differences in X chromosome morphology indicated that we have described a new karyotype variant in this species. In addition, we have analyzed several clones of 1.4 and 1 kb of a PstI repeated DNA sequence from the genome of R. hipposideros. The repeated sequence included a region with high identity with the 5S rDNA genes and flanking regions, with no homology with GenBank sequences. Search for polymerase III regulatory elements demonstrated the presence of type I promoter elements (A-box, Intermediate Element and C-box) in the 5S rDNA region. In addition, upstream regulatory elements, as a D-box and Sp1 binding sequences, were present in flanking regions. All data indicated that the cloned repeated sequences are the functional rDNA genes from this species. Finally, FISH demonstrated the presence of rDNA in nine chromosome pairs, which is surprising as most mammals have only one carrier chromosome pair.
Robert G. Trujillo; John C. Patton; Duane A. Schlitter; John W. Bickham
The genus Scotophilusis composed of 15 recognized species with 7 species distributed throughout sub-Saharan Africa, 4 distributed across southern and southeastern Asia, 3 endemic to Madagascar, and 1 endemic to Reunion Island. Scotophilusis plagued with problems in species definition, and systematic relationships among members of...
Ahmim, Mourad; Moali, Aissa
We analyzed the diet of four rhinolophids (Rhinolophus ferrumequinum, R. hipposideros, R. euryale and R. blasii) in the region of Kabylia Babors, in northern Algeria. Between March 2007 and January 2008 we sampled droppings at ten sites and carried out a morphological identification of prey remains. Three main groups of Arthropoda (Insecta, Chilopoda and Araneida) were preyed upon but frequencies varied across species. The insect prey most frequently preyed upon by R. ferrumequinum are Dipter...
Yoon, Kwang Bae; Kim, Ji Young; Park, Yung Chul
We describe the characteristics of complete mitogenome of C. brachyotis in this article. The complete mitogenome of C. brachyotis is 16,701 bp long with a total base composition of 32.4% A, 25.7% T, 27.7% C and 14.2% G. The mitogenome consists of 13 protein-coding genes (11,408 bp), (KM659865) two rRNA (12S rRNA and 16S rRNA) genes (2,539 bp), 22 tRNA genes (1518 bp) and one control region (1239 bp).
Moratelli, Ricardo; Dias, Daniela
We describe Lonchophyllainexpectata sp. n. from the Caatinga of Brazil. This new species can be distinguished from all known species of Lonchophylla that occur in Brazil by dental traits, cranial size, and fur colour. Specimens of Lonchophyllainexpectata have been misidentified as Lonchophyllamordax; but Lonchophyllainexpectata is a pale-venter species, similar in external appearance to Lonchophylladekeyseri. We have found Lonchophyllainexpectata in the Caatinga of North-eastern Brazil; Lonchophyllamordax along the eastern border of the Caatinga and in the Atlantic Forest-Caatinga ecotone in North-eastern Brazil; and Lonchophylladekeyseri in the Cerrado of Mid-western Brazil, in the Brazilian Cerrado-Caatinga ecotone, and as far west as the Cerrado of Bolivia.
Full Text Available The existance of bats in cave type with diverge managerial system are influenced abundance and species bats. This research was conducted from January to June 2012 that counting abundance and to identify bats at Gunung Kendeng Karst Area Pati Central Java. The bats were collected by using mist net and stalk net at flying track surrounding cave’s mouth of Pancur Cave, Serut Cave, Bandung Cave, Pawon Cave, Larangan Cave and Gantung Cave. Bats abundance at Pancur Cave amount ± 484 bats, Serut Cave amount ± 1233 bats, Bandung Cave amount ± 715 bats, Pawon Cave amount ± 392 bats, Larangan Cave ± 23 bats and Gantung Cave ± 5 bats. The six species were collected from this research, such as Cyanopterus horsfieldii, Hipposederos larvatus, Hipposideros bicolor, Rhinolophus affinis, Murina suilla dan Miniopterus australis. The analyst result is used Diversity Index of Shannon-Wiennner showed the highest diversity at Pancur Cave (H=0,35054 and the lowest at Gantung Cave (H=0,13633. Similarity index of shannon Evenness is showed the highest similarity at Pancur Cave (E=0,50572 and the lowest at Larangan Cave (E=0. Domination index of simpson is showed the highest domination at Pancur Cave (C=0,06805 and the lowest at Gantung Cave (C=0,00189. Hipposederos larvatus and Miniopterus australis are species that common and often founded during this research.
Constantine, Denny G.; Blehert, David S.
Bat Rabies and Other Lyssavirus Infections offers readers an overview of the virus variants that cause bat rabies, and geographical patterns in occurrence of this disease. The section Species Susceptibility describes infection rates and trends among bats, humans, and other animals. Disease Ecology considers the biological and environmental dynamics of the disease in various species of bats. Points to Ponder: Interspecies Interactions in Potential Bat Rabies Transmission Settings discusses the narrowing interface of bat colonies and human society and how humans and domestic animals play a role in transmission of bat rabies. Disease Prevention and Control outlines how to limit exposure to rabid bats and other animals. Appendixes include extensive tables of reported infections in bat species and in humans, and a glossary of technical terms is included. The author, Denny G. Constantine, helped define rabies infection in insect-eating bats and has investigated bat rabies ecology for more than half a century. He has authored more than 90 papers during the course of his career and is widely considered to be the world's foremost authority on the disease. Currently, Dr. Constantine is a public health officer emeritus and veterinary epidemiologist for the California Department of Health Services Viral and Rickettsial Disease Laboratory. Milt Friend, first director of the USGS National Wildlife Health Center, wrote the foreword. David Blehert, a USGS microbiologist who is investigating the emergence and causes of bat white-nose syndrome, edited the volume. Bat Rabies is intended for scholars and the general public. Dr. Constantine presents the material in a simple, straightforward manner that serves both audiences. The goal of the author is to increase people's understanding of both bat and disease ecology and also provide a balanced perspective on human risks pertaining to bat rabies.
Barragán, M J L; Martínez, S; Marchal, J A; Fernández, R; Bullejos, M; Díaz de la Guardia, R; Sánchez, A
This paper reports the molecular and cytogenetic characterization of a HindIII family of satellite DNA in the bat species Pipistrellus pipistrellus. This satellite is organized in tandem repeats of 418 bp monomer units, and represents approximately 3% of the whole genome. The consensus sequence from five cloned monomer units has an A-T content of 62.20%. We have found differences in the ladder pattern of bands between two populations of the same species. These differences are probably because of the absence of the target sites for the HindIII enzyme in most monomer units of one population, but not in the other. Fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) localized the satellite DNA in the pericentromeric regions of all autosomes and the X chromosome, but it was absent from the Y chromosome. Digestion of genomic DNAs with HpaII and its isoschizomer MspI demonstrated that these repetitive DNA sequences are not methylated. Other bat species were tested for the presence of this repetitive DNA. It was absent in five Vespertilionidae and one Rhinolophidae species, indicating that it could be a species/genus specific, repetitive DNA family.
Full Text Available A reproductive colony of Phylloderma stenops was established in captivity. The bats were maintained in 1/2" wired screen cages sized 90 × 60 × 80 cm in a room with cycles of 13 hours of light and 11 hours of dark and with temperature and humidity ranging from 27 to 31 °C and 75 to 90% respectively. Bats were fed with a semi-liquid diet composed of chopped fruits, raw eggs, bovine meat, dog food, honey, dehydrated shrimp, salt and a vitamin and mineral complex offered daily. In the first two years of confinement the diet was complemented with laboratory-raised cockroaches, mealworms, young mice and seasonal fruits. Nine births occurred from three wild caught females 770-1050 days after capture and two captive-born females. Births occurred in September, February and November-December. The neonate measured 15.0 g of weight and present 34.1 mm of forearm length. Two captive-born females gave birth for the first time at 402-445 days of age. Phylloderma stenops species presents postpartum oestrus, gestation of 5.5 months, lactation of 3.3 months and sexual maturity at 8.0-8.5 months. Fetuses are palpable around two months before birth and females may present synchronisation of births.
Jakobsen, Lasse; Brinkl?v, Signe; Surlykke, Annemarie
The paper reviews current knowledge of intensity and directionality of bat echolocation signals. Recent studies have revealed that echolocating bats can be much louder than previously believed. Bats previously dubbed “whispering” can emit calls with source levels up to 110 dB SPL at 10 cm and the louder open space hunting bats have been recorded at above 135 dB SPL. This implies that maximum emitted intensities are generally 30 dB or more above initial estimates. Bats' dynamic control of acou...
Corcoran, Aaron J; Barber, Jesse R; Hristov, Nickolay I; Conner, William E
The tiger moth Bertholdia trigona is the only animal in nature known to defend itself by jamming the sonar of its predators - bats. In this study we analyzed the three-dimensional flight paths and echolocation behavior of big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus) attacking B. trigona in a flight room over seven consecutive nights to determine the acoustic mechanism of the sonar-jamming defense. Three mechanisms have been proposed: (1) the phantom echo hypothesis, which states that bats misinterpret moth clicks as echoes; (2) the ranging interference hypothesis, which states that moth clicks degrade the bats' precision in determining target distance; and (3) the masking hypothesis, which states that moth clicks mask the moth echoes entirely, making the moth temporarily invisible. On nights one and two of the experiment, the bats appeared startled by the clicks; however, on nights three through seven, the bats frequently missed their prey by a distance predicted by the ranging interference hypothesis (∼15-20 cm). Three-dimensional simulations show that bats did not avoid phantom targets, and the bats' ability to track clicking prey contradicts the predictions of the masking hypothesis. The moth clicks also forced the bats to reverse their stereotyped pattern of echolocation emissions during attack, even while bats continued pursuit of the moths. This likely further hinders the bats' ability to track prey. These results have implications for the evolution of sonar jamming in tiger moths, and we suggest evolutionary pathways by which sonar jamming may have evolved from other tiger moth defense mechanisms.
Luis E. Escobar
Full Text Available The situation of rabies in America is complex: rabies in dogs has decreased dramatically, but bats are increasingly recognized as natural reservoirs of other rabies variants. Here, bat species known to be rabies-positive with different antigenic variants, are summarized in relation to bat conservation status across Latin America. Rabies virus is widespread in Latin American bat species, 22.5%75 of bat species have been confirmed as rabies-positive. Most bat species found rabies positive are classified by the International Union for Conservation of Nature as “Least Concern”. According to diet type, insectivorous bats had the most species known as rabies reservoirs, while in proportion hematophagous bats were the most important. Research at coarse spatial scales must strive to understand rabies ecology; basic information on distribution and population dynamics of many Latin American and Caribbean bat species is needed; and detailed information on effects of landscape change in driving bat-borne rabies outbreaks remains unassessed. Finally, integrated approaches including public health, ecology, and conservation biology are needed to understand and prevent emergent diseases in bats.
Jakobsen, Lasse; Brinkløv, Signe; Surlykke, Annemarie
The paper reviews current knowledge of intensity and directionality of bat echolocation signals. Recent studies have revealed that echolocating bats can be much louder than previously believed. Bats previously dubbed "whispering" can emit calls with source levels up to 110 dB SPL at 10 cm...... and the louder open space hunting bats have been recorded at above 135 dB SPL. This implies that maximum emitted intensities are generally 30 dB or more above initial estimates. Bats' dynamic control of acoustic features also includes the intensity and directionality of their sonar calls. Aerial hawking bats...... will increase signal directionality in the field along with intensity thus increasing sonar range. During the last phase of prey pursuit, vespertilionid bats broaden their echolocation beam considerably, probably to counter evasive maneuvers of eared prey. We highlight how multiple call parameters (frequency...
Schatz, Juliane; Freuling, Conrad Martin; Auer, Ernst; Goharriz, Hooman; Harbusch, Christine; Johnson, Nicholas; Kaipf, Ingrid; Mettenleiter, Thomas Christoph; Mühldorfer, Kristin; Mühle, Ralf-Udo; Ohlendorf, Bernd; Pott-Dörfer, Bärbel; Prüger, Julia; Ali, Hanan Sheikh; Stiefel, Dagmar; Teubner, Jens; Ulrich, Rainer Günter; Wibbelt, Gudrun; Müller, Thomas
In Germany, rabies in bats is a notifiable zoonotic disease, which is caused by European bat lyssaviruses type 1 and 2 (EBLV-1 and 2), and the recently discovered new lyssavirus species Bokeloh bat lyssavirus (BBLV). As the understanding of bat rabies in insectivorous bat species is limited, in addition to routine bat rabies diagnosis, an enhanced passive surveillance study, i.e. the retrospective investigation of dead bats that had not been tested for rabies, was initiated in 1998 to study the distribution, abundance and epidemiology of lyssavirus infections in bats from Germany. A total number of 5478 individuals representing 21 bat species within two families were included in this study. The Noctule bat (Nyctalus noctula) and the Common pipistrelle (Pipistrellus pipistrellus) represented the most specimens submitted. Of all investigated bats, 1.17% tested positive for lyssaviruses using the fluorescent antibody test (FAT). The vast majority of positive cases was identified as EBLV-1, predominately associated with the Serotine bat (Eptesicus serotinus). However, rabies cases in other species, i.e. Nathusius' pipistrelle bat (Pipistrellus nathusii), P. pipistrellus and Brown long-eared bat (Plecotus auritus) were also characterized as EBLV-1. In contrast, EBLV-2 was isolated from three Daubenton's bats (Myotis daubentonii). These three cases contribute significantly to the understanding of EBLV-2 infections in Germany as only one case had been reported prior to this study. This enhanced passive surveillance indicated that besides known reservoir species, further bat species are affected by lyssavirus infections. Given the increasing diversity of lyssaviruses and bats as reservoir host species worldwide, lyssavirus positive specimens, i.e. both bat and virus need to be confirmed by molecular techniques.
Auer, Ernst; Goharriz, Hooman; Harbusch, Christine; Johnson, Nicholas; Kaipf, Ingrid; Mettenleiter, Thomas Christoph; Mühldorfer, Kristin; Mühle, Ralf-Udo; Ohlendorf, Bernd; Pott-Dörfer, Bärbel; Prüger, Julia; Ali, Hanan Sheikh; Stiefel, Dagmar; Teubner, Jens; Ulrich, Rainer Günter; Wibbelt, Gudrun; Müller, Thomas
In Germany, rabies in bats is a notifiable zoonotic disease, which is caused by European bat lyssaviruses type 1 and 2 (EBLV-1 and 2), and the recently discovered new lyssavirus species Bokeloh bat lyssavirus (BBLV). As the understanding of bat rabies in insectivorous bat species is limited, in addition to routine bat rabies diagnosis, an enhanced passive surveillance study, i.e. the retrospective investigation of dead bats that had not been tested for rabies, was initiated in 1998 to study the distribution, abundance and epidemiology of lyssavirus infections in bats from Germany. A total number of 5478 individuals representing 21 bat species within two families were included in this study. The Noctule bat (Nyctalus noctula) and the Common pipistrelle (Pipistrellus pipistrellus) represented the most specimens submitted. Of all investigated bats, 1.17% tested positive for lyssaviruses using the fluorescent antibody test (FAT). The vast majority of positive cases was identified as EBLV-1, predominately associated with the Serotine bat (Eptesicus serotinus). However, rabies cases in other species, i.e. Nathusius' pipistrelle bat (Pipistrellus nathusii), P. pipistrellus and Brown long-eared bat (Plecotus auritus) were also characterized as EBLV-1. In contrast, EBLV-2 was isolated from three Daubenton's bats (Myotis daubentonii). These three cases contribute significantly to the understanding of EBLV-2 infections in Germany as only one case had been reported prior to this study. This enhanced passive surveillance indicated that besides known reservoir species, further bat species are affected by lyssavirus infections. Given the increasing diversity of lyssaviruses and bats as reservoir host species worldwide, lyssavirus positive specimens, i.e. both bat and virus need to be confirmed by molecular techniques. PMID:24784117
One of the first principles of cricket batsmanship for batting coaches is to teach junior cricketers to play using a straight bat. This requires the bat to be lifted directly towards the stumps with the bat face facing downwards. No study has yet examined whether there are differences in the batting back lift techniques (BTT) of ...
Teeling, Emma C; Vernes, Sonja C; Dávalos, Liliana M; Ray, David A; Gilbert, M Thomas P; Myers, Eugene
Bats are unique among mammals, possessing some of the rarest mammalian adaptations, including true self-powered flight, laryngeal echolocation, exceptional longevity, unique immunity, contracted genomes, and vocal learning. They provide key ecosystem services, pollinating tropical plants, dispersing seeds, and controlling insect pest populations, thus driving healthy ecosystems. They account for more than 20% of all living mammalian diversity, and their crown-group evolutionary history dates back to the Eocene. Despite their great numbers and diversity, many species are threatened and endangered. Here we announce Bat1K, an initiative to sequence the genomes of all living bat species (n∼1,300) to chromosome-level assembly. The Bat1K genome consortium unites bat biologists (>148 members as of writing), computational scientists, conservation organizations, genome technologists, and any interested individuals committed to a better understanding of the genetic and evolutionary mechanisms that underlie the unique adaptations of bats. Our aim is to catalog the unique genetic diversity present in all living bats to better understand the molecular basis of their unique adaptations; uncover their evolutionary history; link genotype with phenotype; and ultimately better understand, promote, and conserve bats. Here we review the unique adaptations of bats and highlight how chromosome-level genome assemblies can uncover the molecular basis of these traits. We present a novel sequencing and assembly strategy and review the striking societal and scientific benefits that will result from the Bat1K initiative.
Reginald Tucker reads an abridged version of the EID perspective Bat Flight and Zoonotic Viruses. Created: 5/30/2014 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID). Date Released: 6/2/2014.
Jan Felix Drexler
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Henipaviruses (Hendra and Nipah virus are highly pathogenic members of the family Paramyxoviridae. Fruit-eating bats of the Pteropus genus have been suggested as their natural reservoir. Human Henipavirus infections have been reported in a region extending from Australia via Malaysia into Bangladesh, compatible with the geographic range of Pteropus. These bats do not occur in continental Africa, but a whole range of other fruit bats is encountered. One of the most abundant is Eidolon helvum, the African Straw-coloured fruit bat. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Feces from E. helvum roosting in an urban setting in Kumasi/Ghana were tested for Henipavirus RNA. Sequences of three novel viruses in phylogenetic relationship to known Henipaviruses were detected. Virus RNA concentrations in feces were low. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The finding of novel putative Henipaviruses outside Australia and Asia contributes a significant extension of the region of potential endemicity of one of the most pathogenic virus genera known in humans.
Morales-Malacara, J B; López, R
Four hundred nineteen arthropod ectoparasites were taken from Plecotus mexicanus (Vespertilionidae) collected in the state of Tlaxcala, Mexico: the insects Trichobius corynorhini Cockerell (Diptera: Streblidae) and Myodopsylla collinsi Kohls (Siphonaptera: Ischnopsyllidae) and the mites Macronyssus longisetosus (Furman) and M. unidens Radovsky (Macronyssidae), Spinturnix sp. (Spinturnicidae), Pteracarus elegans Dusbádek & Wilson and Acanthophthirius (Myotimyobia) sp. (Myobiidae), and Whartonia glenni Brennan (Trombiculidae). P. mexicanus is reported in the state of Tlaxcala for the first time. This is the first survey of ectoparasites of this bat, and all parasite associations with P. mexicanus are new host records as well as new range records for Tlaxcala. This is the first report from Mexico; it records a major southern extension of the ranges of M. longisetosus, M. unidens, and P. elegans. The genus Acanthophthirius is also reported in Mexico for the first time.
Almeida, Brunna; Novaes, Roberto Leonan Morim; Aguieiras, Marcia; Souza, Renan de França; Esbérard, Carlos Eduardo Lustosa; Geise, Lena
Lonchophylla Thomas, 1903 is a Neotropical bat genus that comprises 12 species, with little cytogenetic information available. Here we present the description of the karyotype of three species collected in Southeastern Brazil. Lonchophylla bokermanni Sazima, Vizotto & Taddei, 1978, Lonchophylla dekeyseri Taddei, Vizotto & Sazima, 1983, and Lonchophylla peracchii Dias, Moratelli & Esberard, 2013 showed the same diploid number 2n = 28 and the same autosomal fundamental number FNa = 50, in both Lonchophylla bokermanni and Lonchophylla peracchii. We observed that the karyotypes were also cytogenetically similar when we compared the studied species with other species within the same genus. It is therefore not possible to differentiate the species using only karyotypes with conventional staining. However, this information increases the knowledge of the genus and can be one more important character for a better phylogenetic comprehension of this taxon.
Judson, S D; Frank, H K; Hadly, E A
Species in the bacterial genus, Bartonella, can cause disease in both humans and animals. Previous reports of Bartonella in bats and ectoparasitic bat flies suggest that bats could serve as mammalian hosts and bat flies as arthropod vectors. We compared the prevalence and genetic similarity of bartonellae in individual Costa Rican bats and their bat flies using molecular and sequencing methods targeting the citrate synthase gene (gltA). Bartonellae were more prevalent in bat flies than in bats, and genetic variants were sometimes, but not always, shared between bats and their bat flies. The detected bartonellae genetic variants were diverse, and some were similar to species known to cause disease in humans and other mammals. The high prevalence and sharing of bartonellae in bat flies and bats support a role for bat flies as a potential vector for Bartonella, while the genetic diversity and similarity to known species suggest that bartonellae could spill over into humans and animals sharing the landscape. © 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.
Gorresen, P. Marcos; Cryan, Paul; Dalton, David C.; Wolf, Sandy; Bonaccorso, Frank
Insectivorous bats are well known for their abilities to find and pursue flying insect prey at close range using echolocation, but they also rely heavily on vision. For example, at night bats use vision to orient across landscapes, avoid large obstacles, and locate roosts. Although lacking sharp visual acuity, the eyes of bats evolved to function at very low levels of illumination. Recent evidence based on genetics, immunohistochemistry, and laboratory behavioral trials indicated that many bats can see ultraviolet light (UV), at least at illumination levels similar to or brighter than those before twilight. Despite this growing evidence for potentially widespread UV vision in bats, the prevalence of UV vision among bats remains unknown and has not been studied outside of the laboratory. We used a Y-maze to test whether wild-caught bats could see reflected UV light and whether such UV vision functions at the dim lighting conditions typically experienced by night-flying bats. Seven insectivorous species of bats, representing five genera and three families, showed a statistically significant ‘escape-toward-the-light’ behavior when placed in the Y-maze. Our results provide compelling evidence of widespread dim-light UV vision in bats.
Freuling, Conrad; Vos, Ad; Johnson, Nicholas; Fooks, Anthony R; Müller, Thomas
Although classical rabies is one of the earliest identified and best studied infectious diseases, there is still limited knowledge about lyssaviruses and their major natural hosts, bats. Focussing on bat rabies in Europe caused by European bat lyssaviruses 1 (EBLV-1) and 2, for instance the association of EBLV-1 to Eptesicus bats and EBLV-2 to Myotis daubentonii and M. dasycneme together with an apparent clustering of cases is one question still to be answered. Furthermore, the question whether EBLVs are less virulent or bats less susceptible is the key to the understanding of the disease. Accumulating evidence from experimental studies and field observations, however, has resulted in contradicting hypotheses. Serological surveys, using tools developed for classical rabies, are often used for bat rabies surveillance. However, such surveys are hampered by the lack of validated methods applicable for bat sera. Bats seem to play a prominent role as reservoir for viral pathogens and the unique biology of bats especially the immune response may contribute to this. Considering all known aspects, bat rabies seems to form a yet unsolvable entanglement, reminiscent of the ancient tale of the Gordian knot. In this manuscript we will not be able to untangle this knot, but we hope to offer some suggestions of where to start.
Bats in agroecosystems around California's Central Coast: A full quarter of California's land area is farmland. Crops account for 32.5 billion of California's GDP. Insect control is a big problem for farmers, and California bats eat only insects, saving farmers an estimated 3 to $53 billion a year. As farmers maximize crop yield, they use more pesticides, herbicides, and fertilizers, which contaminate runoff streams that bats drink from. Also, pesticide use kills bats' sole food source: insects. My research objective was to find out how farm management practices and landscape complexity affect bat diversity and activity, and to see which one affects bat activity more. We monitored 18 sites, including conventional, organic, and low and high-complexity landscapes. We noted more bat activity at sites with high complexity landscapes and organic practices than at sites with either low-complexity landscapes or conventional farming practices. I captured and processed bats and recorded data. I also classified insects collected from light traps. I learned how to handle bats and measure forearm length and weight, as well as how to indentify their gender. I took hair clippings and fecal samples, which yield data about the bats' diet. Their diet, in turn, gives us data about which pests they eat and therefore help control. I also learned about bats' echolocation: they have a special muscle over their ears that closes when they echolocate so that they don't burst their own eardrum. Also, some insects have evolved a special call that will disrupt bats echolocation so bats can't track it.
dan Gito Hadiprayitno, Siti Rabiatul Fajri, Agil Al Idrus
A research on diversity of bats of cave in the south area of Lombok island was conducted.Five caves survied for this research were Gale-Gale, Buwun, Kenculit, Raksasa, and cave PantaiSurga. Survey was done during Mart to Mei 2014. Samples of bat were obtained by using Mistnet. The bats were observed and identified in the Biology Laboratorium FMIPA University ofMataram. This research fully identified 12 species from 6 Famili of bats. The species are such as:Hipposederos ater, Rhinolopus simple...
Ratcliffe, John M; Elemans, Coen P H; Jakobsen, Lasse
Since the discovery of echolocation in bats, the final phase of an attack on a flying insect, the 'terminal buzz', has proved enigmatic. During the buzz, bats increase information update rates by producing vocalizations up to 220 times s(-1). The buzz's ubiquity in hawking and trawling bats implies...... its importance for hunting success. Superfast muscles, previously unknown in mammals, are responsible for the extreme vocalization rate. Some bats produce a second phase-buzz II-defined by a large drop in the fundamental frequency (F(0)) of their calls. By doing so, bats broaden their acoustic field...... tension. Furthermore, we propose that buzz II represents a countermeasure against the evasive flight of eared prey in the evolutionary arms-race that saw the independent evolution of bat-detecting ears in various groups of night-flying insects....
Wellenberg, G.J.; Audry, L.; Ronsholt, L.; Poel, van der W.H.M.; Bruschke, C.J.M.; Bourhy, H.
Apparently healthy Rousettus aegyptiacus bats were randomly chosen from a Dutch colony naturally infected with European bat lyssavirus subgenotype 1a (EBL1a). These bats were euthanised three months after the first evidence of an EBL1a infection in the colony. EBL1a genomic and antigenomic RNAs of
Roger W. Perry
Fire is increasingly being used in oak forests to promote oak regeneration, improve wildlife habitat, and reduce hazardous fuel loads. Although recent research has begun to shed light on the relationships among fire, bats, and bat habitat, these interactions are not yet fully understood. Fire may affect bats directly through heat and smoke during the burning process or...
Roger W. Perry
Fire is increasingly being used in oak forests to promote oak regeneration, improve wildlife habitat, and reduce hazardous fuel loads. Although recent research has begun to shed light on the relationships among fire, bats, and bat habitat, these interactions are not yet fully understood. Fire may affect bats directly through heat and smoke during the burning process or...
Rasmussen, Thomas Bruun; Chriél, Mariann; Baagøe, Hans J.
European bat lyssavirus (EBLV) is considered to be endemic in the Danish bat populations, but limited information exists about the types of EBLV strains currently in circulation. EBLV type 1 (EBLV-1) is seen as the predominant type in the Serotine bats (Eptesicus serotinus) with the latest case...
Picard-Meyer, Evelyne; Servat, Alexandre; Wasniewski, Marine; Gaillard, Matthieu; Borel, Christophe; Cliquet, Florence
Rabies is a fatal viral encephalitic disease that is caused by lyssaviruses which can affect all mammals, including human and bats. In Europe, bat rabies cases are attributed to five different lyssavirus species, the majority of rabid bats being attributed to European bat 1 lyssavirus (EBLV-1), circulating mainly in serotine bats (Eptesicus serotinus). In France, rabies in bats is under surveillance since 1989, with 77 positive cases reported between 1989 and 2016. In the frame of the bat rabies surveillance, an unusual mortality of serotine bats was reported in 2009 in a village in North-East France. Six juvenile bats from an E. serotinus maternity colony counting ~200 individuals were found to be infected with EBLV-1. The active surveillance of the colony by capture sessions of bats from July to September 2009 showed a high detection rate of neutralising EBLV-1 antibodies (≈ 50%) in the colony. Moreover, one out of 111 animals tested was found to shed viable virus in saliva, while lyssavirus RNA was detected by RT-PCR for five individuals. This study demonstrated that the lyssavirus infection in the serotine maternity colony was followed by a high rate of bat rabies immunity after circulation of the virus in the colony. The ratio of seropositive bats is probably indicative of an efficient virus transmission coupled to a rapid circulation of EBLV-1 in the colony.
M. Brock FENTON
Twenty-five characters or suites of characters from bats are considered in light of changes in bat classification. The characters include some associated with flower-visiting (two), echolocation (12), roosting (six), reproduction (two) and three are of unknown adaptive function. In both the 1998 and 2006 classifications of bats into suborders (Megachiroptera and Microchiroptera versus Yinpterochiroptera and Yangochiroptera, respectively), some convergences between suborders are the same (e.g....
Cryan, Paul M; Gorresen, P Marcos; Hein, Cris D; Schirmacher, Michael R; Diehl, Robert H; Huso, Manuela M; Hayman, David T S; Fricker, Paul D; Bonaccorso, Frank J; Johnson, Douglas H; Heist, Kevin; Dalton, David C
Wind turbines are causing unprecedented numbers of bat fatalities. Many fatalities involve tree-roosting bats, but reasons for this higher susceptibility remain unknown. To better understand behaviors associated with risk, we monitored bats at three experimentally manipulated wind turbines in Indiana, United States, from July 29 to October 1, 2012, using thermal cameras and other methods. We observed bats on 993 occasions and saw many behaviors, including close approaches, flight loops and dives, hovering, and chases. Most bats altered course toward turbines during observation. Based on these new observations, we tested the hypotheses that wind speed and blade rotation speed influenced the way that bats interacted with turbines. We found that bats were detected more frequently at lower wind speeds and typically approached turbines on the leeward (downwind) side. The proportion of leeward approaches increased with wind speed when blades were prevented from turning, yet decreased when blades could turn. Bats were observed more frequently at turbines on moonlit nights. Taken together, these observations suggest that bats may orient toward turbines by sensing air currents and using vision, and that air turbulence caused by fast-moving blades creates conditions that are less attractive to bats passing in close proximity. Tree bats may respond to streams of air flowing downwind from trees at night while searching for roosts, conspecifics, and nocturnal insect prey that could accumulate in such flows. Fatalities of tree bats at turbines may be the consequence of behaviors that evolved to provide selective advantages when elicited by tall trees, but are now maladaptive when elicited by wind turbines.
Full Text Available Understanding bat use of human-altered habitat is critical for developing effective conservation plans for this ecologically important taxon. Green roofs, building rooftops covered in growing medium and vegetation, are increasingly important conservation tools that make use of underutilized space to provide breeding and foraging grounds for urban wildlife. Green roofs are especially important in highly urbanized areas such as New York City (NYC, which has more rooftops (34% than green space (13%. To date, no studies have examined the extent to which North American bats utilize urban green roofs. To investigate the role of green roofs in supporting urban bats, we monitored bat activity using ultrasonic recorders on four green and four conventional roofs located in highly developed areas of NYC, which were paired to control for location, height, and local variability in surrounding habitat and species diversity. We then identified bat vocalizations on these recordings to the species level. We documented the presence of five of nine possible bat species over both roof types: Lasiurus borealis, L. cinereus, L. noctivagans, P. subflavus,andE. fuscus. Of the bat calls that could be identified to the species level, 66% were from L. borealis. Overall levels of bat activity were higher over green roofs than over conventional roofs. This study provides evidence that, in addition to well documented ecosystem benefits, urban green roofs contribute to urban habitat availability for several North American bat species.
Hedenström, Anders; Johansson, L Christoffer
Bats evolved the ability of powered flight more than 50 million years ago. The modern bat is an efficient flyer and recent research on bat flight has revealed many intriguing facts. By using particle image velocimetry to visualize wake vortices, both the magnitude and time-history of aerodynamic forces can be estimated. At most speeds the downstroke generates both lift and thrust, whereas the function of the upstroke changes with forward flight speed. At hovering and slow speed bats use a leading edge vortex to enhance the lift beyond that allowed by steady aerodynamics and an inverted wing during the upstroke to further aid weight support. The bat wing and its skeleton exhibit many features and control mechanisms that are presumed to improve flight performance. Whereas bats appear aerodynamically less efficient than birds when it comes to cruising flight, they have the edge over birds when it comes to manoeuvring. There is a direct relationship between kinematics and the aerodynamic performance, but there is still a lack of knowledge about how (and if) the bat controls the movements and shape (planform and camber) of the wing. Considering the relatively few bat species whose aerodynamic tracks have been characterized, there is scope for new discoveries and a need to study species representing more extreme positions in the bat morphospace. © 2015. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.
McGuiness, F. [Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources, Peterborough, ON (Canada). Renewable Energy Resources; Stewart, J. [Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources, Toronto, ON (Canada). Wildlife Section
None of the 8 species of bats in Ontario are considered as species at risk. However, all bats in Ontario are protected under the Fish and Wildlife Conservation Act. The Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources (MNR) is responsible for identifying significant wildlife habitat for bats, including hibernacula and maternity roosts. The MNR's role in wind development includes environmental assessments (EA) and surveys. The MNR bat guideline includes a summary of Ontario species, a literature review of research related to wind turbines and bats, and a review of methods for assessing and monitoring bats. Guideline development includes a bat working group responsible for obtaining data on risk factors and monitoring requirements. The MNR has determined that site selection is critical for minimizing potential impacts. Wind farm proponents can use MNR data, information, and maps for their site selection process. Information requirements include bat species data; habitat data; and meteorological data. The presence of risk factors results in a sensitivity rating. The MNR is also developing a site sensitivity mapping project in order to assist proponents in making siting decisions. All proposed sites are required to conduct pre-construction site surveys. Acoustic detectors and radar are used to determine bat activity at the site. Monitoring and mitigation strategies include selective wind turbine shutdown during key periods or weather conditions. tabs., figs.
Keller, B.L.; Bosworth, W.R.; Doering, R.W.
This progress report describes activities over the current reporting period to characterize the habitats of bats on the INEL. Research tasks are entitled Monitoring bat habitation of caves on the INEL to determine species present, numbers, and seasons of use; Monitor bat use of man-made ponds at the INEL to determine species present and rates of use of these waters; If the Big Lost River is flowing on the INEL and/or if the Big Lost River sinks contain water, determine species present, numbers and seasons of use; Determine the habitat requirement of Townsend`s big-eared bats, including the microclimate of caves containing Townsend`s big-eared bats as compared to other caves that do not contain bats; Determine and describe an economical and efficient bat census technique to be used periodically by INEL scientists to determine the status of bats on the INEL; and Provide a suggestive management and protective plan for bat species on the INEL that might, in the future, be added to the endangered and sensitive list;
follicular development occur during winter. Copulatiun, ovu- lation and fertilization occur in August (late winLer) and hirths, in Decemher after a gestation of about four months. S.-Afr. Tydskr. Dierk. 1995.30(1). Discussion. Reproductive asymmetry is commOn among the Chiroptera. (Jerrett 1977; Wimsatl 1979 for review) and ...
Zukal, Jan; Pikula, J.; Banďouchová, H.
Roč. 80, č. 3 (2015), s. 220-227 ISSN 1616-5047 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP506/12/1064 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : Bioaccumulation * Chiroptera * Heavy metals * Metalloids * Review Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 1.595, year: 2015
Nokireki, Tiina; Sironen, Tarja; Smura, Teemu; Karkamo, Veera; Sihvonen, Liisa; Gadd, Tuija
European bat lyssavirus type 2 (EBLV-2) was detected in Finland in a Daubenton's bat (Myotis daubentonii) found in the municipality of Inkoo (60°02'45″N, 024°00'20″E). The bat showed neurological signs and was later found dead. The laboratory analysis revealed the presence of lyssavirus, and the virus was characterized as EBLV-2. This isolation of EBLV-2 was the second time that the virus has been detected in a Daubenton's bat in Finland. This provides additional proof that EBLV-2 is endemic in the Finnish Daubenton's bat population.
Luis, Angela D.; Hayman, David T. S.; O'Shea, Thomas J.; Cryan, Paul M.; Gilbert, Amy T.; Pulliam, Juliet R. C.; Mills, James N.; Timonin, Mary E.; Willis, Craig K. R.; Cunningham, Andrew A.; Fooks, Anthony R.; Rupprecht, Charles E.; Wood, James L. N.; Webb, Colleen T.
Bats are the natural reservoirs of a number of high-impact viral zoonoses. We present a quantitative analysis to address the hypothesis that bats are unique in their propensity to host zoonotic viruses based on a comparison with rodents, another important host order. We found that bats indeed host more zoonotic viruses per species than rodents, and we identified life-history and ecological factors that promote zoonotic viral richness. More zoonotic viruses are hosted by species whose distributions overlap with a greater number of other species in the same taxonomic order (sympatry). Specifically in bats, there was evidence for increased zoonotic viral richness in species with smaller litters (one young), greater longevity and more litters per year. Furthermore, our results point to a new hypothesis to explain in part why bats host more zoonotic viruses per species: the stronger effect of sympatry in bats and more viruses shared between bat species suggests that interspecific transmission is more prevalent among bats than among rodents. Although bats host more zoonotic viruses per species, the total number of zoonotic viruses identified in bats (61) was lower than in rodents (68), a result of there being approximately twice the number of rodent species as bat species. Therefore, rodents should still be a serious concern as reservoirs of emerging viruses. These findings shed light on disease emergence and perpetuation mechanisms and may help lead to a predictive framework for identifying future emerging infectious virus reservoirs. PMID:23378666
Luis, Angela D.; Hayman, David T.S.; O'Shea, Thomas J.; Cryan, Paul M.; Gilbert, Amy T.; Pulliam, Juliet R.C.; Mills, James N.; Timonin, Mary E.; Willis, Craig K.R.; Cunningham, Andrew A.; Fooks, Anthony R.; Rupprecht, Charles E.; Wood, James L.N.; Webb, Colleen T.
Bats are the natural reservoirs of a number of high-impact viral zoonoses. We present a quantitative analysis to address the hypothesis that bats are unique in their propensity to host zoonotic viruses based on a comparison with rodents, another important host order. We found that bats indeed host more zoonotic viruses per species than rodents, and we identified life-history and ecological factors that promote zoonotic viral richness. More zoonotic viruses are hosted by species whose distributions overlap with a greater number of other species in the same taxonomic order (sympatry). Specifically in bats, there was evidence for increased zoonotic viral richness in species with smaller litters (one young), greater longevity and more litters per year. Furthermore, our results point to a new hypothesis to explain in part why bats host more zoonotic viruses per species: the stronger effect of sympatry in bats and more viruses shared between bat species suggests that interspecific transmission is more prevalent among bats than among rodents. Although bats host more zoonotic viruses per species, the total number of zoonotic viruses identified in bats (61) was lower than in rodents (68), a result of there being approximately twice the number of rodent species as bat species. Therefore, rodents should still be a serious concern as reservoirs of emerging viruses. These findings shed light on disease emergence and perpetuation mechanisms and may help lead to a predictive framework for identifying future emerging infectious virus reservoirs.
Echolocating bats emit ultrasonic vocalizations and listen to echoes reflected back from objects in the path of the sound beam to build a spatial representation of their surroundings. Important to understanding the representation of space through echolocation are detailed studies of the cues used for localization, the sonar emission patterns and how this information is assembled. This thesis includes three studies, one on the directional properties of the sonar receiver, one on the directional properties of the sonar transmitter, and a model that demonstrates the role of action in building a representation of auditory space. The general importance of this work to a broader understanding of spatial localization is discussed. Investigations of the directional properties of the sonar receiver reveal that interaural level difference and monaural spectral notch cues are both dependent on sound source azimuth and elevation. This redundancy allows flexibility that an echolocating bat may need when coping with complex computational demands for sound localization. Using a novel method to measure bat sonar emission patterns from freely behaving bats, I show that the sonar beam shape varies between vocalizations. Consequently, the auditory system of a bat may need to adapt its computations to accurately localize objects using changing acoustic inputs. Extra-auditory signals that carry information about pinna position and beam shape are required for auditory localization of sound sources. The auditory system must learn associations between extra-auditory signals and acoustic spatial cues. Furthermore, the auditory system must adapt to changes in acoustic input that occur with changes in pinna position and vocalization parameters. These demands on the nervous system suggest that sound localization is achieved through the interaction of behavioral control and acoustic inputs. A sensorimotor model demonstrates how an organism can learn space through auditory-motor contingencies
Plowright, Raina K.; Eby, Peggy; Hudson, Peter J.; Smith, Ina L.; Westcott, David; Bryden, Wayne L.; Middleton, Deborah; Reid, Peter A.; McFarlane, Rosemary A.; Martin, Gerardo; Tabor, Gary M.; Skerratt, Lee F.; Anderson, Dale L.; Crameri, Gary; Quammen, David; Jordan, David; Freeman, Paul; Wang, Lin-Fa; Epstein, Jonathan H.; Marsh, Glenn A.; Kung, Nina Y.; McCallum, Hamish
Viruses that originate in bats may be the most notorious emerging zoonoses that spill over from wildlife into domestic animals and humans. Understanding how these infections filter through ecological systems to cause disease in humans is of profound importance to public health. Transmission of viruses from bats to humans requires a hierarchy of enabling conditions that connect the distribution of reservoir hosts, viral infection within these hosts, and exposure and susceptibility of recipient hosts. For many emerging bat viruses, spillover also requires viral shedding from bats, and survival of the virus in the environment. Focusing on Hendra virus, but also addressing Nipah virus, Ebola virus, Marburg virus and coronaviruses, we delineate this cross-species spillover dynamic from the within-host processes that drive virus excretion to land-use changes that increase interaction among species. We describe how land-use changes may affect co-occurrence and contact between bats and recipient hosts. Two hypotheses may explain temporal and spatial pulses of virus shedding in bat populations: episodic shedding from persistently infected bats or transient epidemics that occur as virus is transmitted among bat populations. Management of livestock also may affect the probability of exposure and disease. Interventions to decrease the probability of virus spillover can be implemented at multiple levels from targeting the reservoir host to managing recipient host exposure and susceptibility. PMID:25392474
Schizamniogenesis in the rusty bat,. Pipistrellus rusticus. M. van der Merwe. Mammal Research Institute, University of Pretoria, Pretoria,. 0002 Republic of South Africa. Received 20 September 1993; accepled 3 May 1994. Rusty bats are seasonally mono estrous, carrying a single foetus in each of the two uterine horns.
Sotomayor-Bonilla, Jesús; Chaves, Andrea; Rico-Chávez, Oscar; Rostal, Melinda K.; Ojeda-Flores, Rafael; Salas-Rojas, Mónica; Aguilar-Setien, Álvaro; Ibáñez-Bernal, Sergio; Barbachano-Guerrero, Arturo; Gutiérrez-Espeleta, Gustavo; Aguilar-Faisal, J. Leopoldo; Aguirre, A. Alonso; Daszak, Peter; Suzán, Gerardo
To identify the relationship between landscape use and dengue virus (DENV) occurrence in bats, we investigated the presence of DENV from anthropogenically changed and unaltered landscapes in two Biosphere Reserves: Calakmul (Campeche) and Montes Azules (Chiapas) in southern Mexico. Spleen samples of 146 bats, belonging to 16 species, were tested for four DENV serotypes with standard reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) protocols. Six bats (4.1%) tested positive for DENV-2: four bats in Calakmul (two Glossophaga soricina, one Artibeus jamaicensis, and one A. lituratus) and two bats in Montes Azules (both A. lituratus). No effect of anthropogenic disturbance on the occurrence of DENV was detected; however, all three RT-PCR–positive bat species are considered abundant species in the Neotropics and well-adapted to disturbed habitats. To our knowledge, this study is the first study conducted in southeastern Mexico to identify DENV-2 in bats by a widely accepted RT-PCR protocol. The role that bats play on DENV's ecology remains undetermined. PMID:24752688
Full Text Available The paper reviews current knowledge of intensity and directionality of bat echolocation signals. Recent studies have revealed that echolocating bats can be much louder than previously believed. Bats previously dubbed whispering can emit calls with source levels up to 110 dB SPL at 10 cm and the louder open space hunting bats have been recorded at above 135 dB SPL. This implies that maximum emitted intensities are generally 30 dB or more above initial estimates. Bats’ dynamic control of acoustic features also includes the intensity and directionality of their sonar calls. Aerial hawking bats will increase signal directionality in the field along with intensity thus increasing sonar range. During the last phase of prey pursuit, vespertilionid bats broaden their echolocation beam considerably, probably to counter evasive manoeuvres of eared prey. We highlight how multiple call parameters (frequency, duration, intensity and directionality of echolocation signals in unison define the search volume probed by bats and in turn how bats perceive their surroundings. Small changes to individual parameters can, in combination, drastically change the bat’s perception, facilitating successful navigation and food acquisition across a vast range of ecological niches. To better understand the function of echolocation in the natural habitat it is critical to determine multiple acoustic features of the echolocation calls. The combined (interactive effects, not only of frequency and time parameters, but also of intensity and directionality, define the bat’s view of its acoustic scene.
Two research programs investigating bat mortalities at Vision Quest Windelectric's 68 MW Summerview Wind Farm in southern Alberta were reviewed. Field teams discovered 532 bat carcasses during the first year of routine post-construction monitoring at the wind farm. The problem appeared to be confined to the fall migration, with over 90 per cent of mortalities found during the fall. Most collisions occurred on low-wind speed nights. Thermal imaging has shown that the bats collided with moving blades. However, very little is known about the migratory patterns that bring them into contact with the wind farms. Vision Quest has provided funding for a study to examine the echolocation abilities of bats during migration, the influence of weather conditions, the wind speed of bats, and whether or not there is anything about the turbines that attracts them. Preliminary studies have suggested that machines that were on low wind shutdown had fewer collisions. It was anticipated that a comparison between activity levels at Summerview with other wind farms or sites will provide clues about the high levels of collision. In addition to the study, the United States based EcoSystems Technology will track bat behaviour during the fall migration using radar. Alberta Fish and Wildlife is currently developing a set of guidelines for siting and monitoring wind projects and has asked the Alberta Bat Action Team to develop a set of monitoring protocols to help in predicting the risk to bats prior to the construction of wind farms.
Patrick Drane; James Sherwood; Renzo Colosimo; David Kretschmann
Over the span of three months in 2008, 2232 baseball bats broke while being used during Major League Baseball (MLB) games; of which 756 were classified as Multi Piece Failures (MPFs). This rate of failure motivated Major League Baseball to explore options for potential changes in the bat regulations to reduce the rate. After a study of the information that could be...
Roger W. Perry; Ronald E. Thill
We radiotracked nine hoary bats (Lasiurus cinereus) and characterized 12 roosts during late spring and early summer in the Ouachita Mountains of central Arkansas. Hoary bats generally roosted on the easterly sides of tree canopies in the foliage of white oaks (Quercus alba), post oaks (Q. stellata) and shortleaf pines (Pinus...
Johnson, Nicholas; Aréchiga-Ceballos, Nidia; Aguilar-Setien, Alvaro
Extensive surveillance in bat populations in response to recent emerging diseases has revealed that this group of mammals acts as a reservoir for a large range of viruses. However, the oldest known association between a zoonotic virus and a bat is that between rabies virus and the vampire bat. Vampire bats are only found in Latin America and their unique method of obtaining nutrition, blood-feeding or haematophagy, has only evolved in the New World. The adaptations that enable blood-feeding also make the vampire bat highly effective at transmitting rabies virus. Whether the virus was present in pre-Columbian America or was introduced is much disputed, however, the introduction of Old World livestock and associated landscape modification, which continues to the present day, has enabled vampire bat populations to increase. This in turn has provided the conditions for rabies re-emergence to threaten both livestock and human populations as vampire bats target large mammals. This review considers the ecology of the vampire bat that make it such an efficient vector for rabies, the current status of vampire-transmitted rabies and the future prospects for spread by this virus and its control. PMID:24784570
Joshua B. Johnson; W. Mark Ford; Jane L. Rodrigue; John W. Edwards
Significant bat mortality events associated with wind energy expansion, particularly in the Appalachians, have highlighted the need for development of possible mitigation practices to reduce or prevent strike mortality. Other than increasing turbine cut-in speed, acoustic deterrents probably hold the greatest promise for reducing bat mortality. However, acoustic...
L. Wunder; A.B. Carey
Of the 15 species of bats in the Pacific Northwest, 11 are known to make regular use of the forest canopy for roosting, foraging, and reproduction. This paper reviews roosting requirements, foraging, and the importance of landscape-scale factors to canopy using species in the Northwest. Many northwest bats use several different types of tree roosts. Common roosting...
Kate S. Baker
Full Text Available Poxviruses are important pathogens of man and numerous domestic and wild animal species. Cross species (including zoonotic poxvirus infections can have drastic consequences for the recipient host. Bats are a diverse order of mammals known to carry lethal viral zoonoses such as Rabies, Hendra, Nipah, and SARS. Consequent targeted research is revealing bats to be infected with a rich diversity of novel viruses. Poxviruses were recently identified in bats and the settings in which they were found were dramatically different. Here, we review the natural history of poxviruses in bats and highlight the relationship of the viruses to each other and their context in the Poxviridae family. In addition to considering the zoonotic potential of these viruses, we reflect on the broader implications of these findings. Specifically, the potential to explore and exploit this newfound relationship to study coevolution and cross species transmission together with fundamental aspects of poxvirus host tropism as well as bat virology and immunology.
Parsons, A.; Barthelmy, S.; Cummings, J.; Gehrels, N.; Hullinger, D.; Krimm, H.; Markwardt, C.; Tueller, J.; Fenimore, E.; Palmer, D.; Sato, G.; Takahashi, T.; Nakazawa, K.; Okada, Y.; Takahashi, H.; Suzuki, M.; Tashiro, M.
The Burst Alert Telescope (BAT), a large coded aperture instrument with a wide field-of-view (FOV), provides the gamma-ray burst triggers and locations for the Swift Gamma-Ray Burst Explorer. In addition to providing this imaging information, BAT will perform a 15 keV - 150 keV all-sky hard x-ray survey based on the serendipitous pointings resulting from the study of gamma-ray bursts, and will also monitor the sky for transient hard x-ray sources. For BAT to provide spectral and photometric information for the gamma-ray bursts, the transient sources and the all-sky survey, the BAT instrument response must be determined to an increasingly greater accuracy. This paper describes the spectral models and the ground calibration experiments used to determine the BAT response to an accuracy suitable for gamma-ray burst studies
Castonguay, M. [Pesca Environnement, Maria, PQ (Canada)
Environmental monitoring at wind turbine arrays is needed before, during and after project development. Pesca Environmental evaluates the impact of proposed wind turbine arrays on birds and chiroptera by examining their migration patterns through visual and auditory observations during the springtime reproductive and nesting season as well as in the autumn. In order to complete a feasibility study, spring migration patterns of birds and chiroptera must be documented and characterized. In addition to building an inventory of birds and chiroptera, Pesca examines bird behaviour and flight patterns and nesting locations. figs.
Hong, Wei; Zhao, Huabin
The bitter taste serves as an important natural defence against the ingestion of poisonous foods and is thus believed to be indispensable in animals. However, vampire bats are obligate blood feeders that show a reduced behavioural response towards bitter-tasting compounds. To test whether bitter taste receptor genes (T2Rs) have been relaxed from selective constraint in vampire bats, we sampled all three vampire bat species and 11 non-vampire bats, and sequenced nine one-to-one orthologous T2Rs that are assumed to be functionally conserved in all bats. We generated 85 T2R sequences and found that vampire bats have a significantly greater percentage of pseudogenes than other bats. These results strongly suggest a relaxation of selective constraint and a reduction of bitter taste function in vampire bats. We also found that vampire bats retain many intact T2Rs, and that the taste signalling pathway gene Calhm1 remains complete and intact with strong functional constraint. These results suggest the presence of some bitter taste function in vampire bats, although it is not likely to play a major role in food selection. Together, our study suggests that the evolutionary reduction of bitter taste function in animals is more pervasive than previously believed, and highlights the importance of extra-oral functions of taste receptor genes. PMID:24966321
Ding, Nai-Zheng; Xu, Dong-Shuai; Sun, Yuan-Yuan; He, Hong-Bin; He, Cheng-Qiang
Bat virus host shifts can result in the spread of diseases with significant effects. The rabies virus (RABV) is able to infect almost all mammals and is therefore a useful model for the study of host shift mechanisms. Carnivore RABVs originated from two historical host shifts from bat viruses. To reveal the genetic pathways by which bat RABVs changed their host tropism from bats to carnivores, we investigated the second permanent bat-to-carnivore shift resulting in two carnivore variants, known as raccoon RABV (RRV) and south-central skunk RABV (SCSKV). We found that their glycoprotein (G) genes are the result of recombination between an American bat virus and a carnivore virus. This recombination allowed the bat RABV to acquire the head of the G-protein ectodomain of the carnivore virus. This region is involved in receptor recognition and binding, response to changes in the pH microenvironment, trimerization of G proteins, and cell-to-cell transmission during the viral infection. Therefore, this recombination event may have significantly improved the variant's adaptability to carnivores, altering its host tropism and thus leading to large-scale epidemics in striped skunk and raccoon.
Full Text Available Abstract Captivity observation on body weight cycle and digestive efficiency in Pipistrellus kuhlii and Hypsugo savii (Chiroptera: Vespertilionidae Many bat species of cold-temperate climate are subject to seasonal variation of temperature and food availability. Fat reserve during summer-autumn is therefore a physiological adaptation to spend the winter months by hibernating or to sustain migration. During a research on bats in urban areas, two juveniles of Kuhl's bat (Pipistrellus kuhlii, 2 females and two juveniles of Savi's bat (Hypsugo savii, 1 male and 1 female were collected in 1997 in the urban area of Florence (central Italy. Bats were kept in a cage of 50x40x30 cm with a temperature between 17° and 22° C. Every day they were weighted with an electronic balance before eating mealworms (Tenebrio molitor. Digestive efficiency, calculated on dry material, was about 90% for both species. In about six months P. kuhlii and H. savii increased on the average of 450% and 280% in weight respectively. Deposition of fat reserve seemed to be faster in P. kuhlii than in H. savii. Both species showed a circannual cycle in the variation of weight. Riassunto Molte specie di pipistrelli dei climi temperato-freddi sono soggette a marcate variazioni stagionali di temperatura e disponibilità di cibo. L'accumulo di grasso in tarda estate-autunno è quindi un adattamento fisiologico per trascorrere in ibernazione i mesi invernali o per intraprendere la migrazione. Nell'ambito di una ricerca pluriennale sui pipistrelli in ambienti urbani, 4 esemplari giovani, di cui 2 di Pipistrello albolimbato (Pipistrellus kuhlii, 2 femmine e due di Pipistrello di Savi (Hypsugo savii, 1 maschio e 1 femmina, sono stati raccolti nella pianura di Firenze durante l'estate del 1997 e mantenuti in un contenitore di 50x40x30 cm ad
Quinn, Emma K; Massey, Peter D; Cox-Witton, Keren; Paterson, Beverley J; Eastwood, Keith; Durrheim, David N
Australian bat lyssavirus (ABLV) infects a number of flying fox and insectivorous bats species in Australia. Human infection with ABLV is inevitably fatal unless prior vaccination and/or post-exposure treatment (PET) is given. Despite ongoing public health messaging about the risks associated with bat contact, surveillance data have revealed a four-fold increase in the number of people receiving PET for bat exposure in NSW between 2007 and 2011. Our study aimed to better understand these human - bat interactions in order to identify additional risk communication messages that could lower the risk of potential ABLV exposure. All people aged 18 years or over whom received PET for non-occupation related potential ABLV exposure in the Hunter New England Local Health District of Australia between July 2011 and July 2013 were considered eligible for the study. Eligible participants were invited to a telephone interview to explore the circumstances of their bat contact. Interviews were then transcribed and thematically analysed by two independent investigators. Of 21 eligible participants that were able to be contacted, 16 consented and participated in a telephone interview. Participants reported bats as being widespread in their environment but reported a general lack of awareness about ABLV, particularly the risk of disease from bat scratches. Participants who attempted to 'rescue' bats did so because of a deep concern for the bat's welfare. Participants reported a change in risk perception after the exposure event and provided suggestions for public health messages that could be used to raise awareness about ABLV. Reframing the current risk messages to account for the genuine concern of people for bat welfare may enhance the communication. The potential risk to the person and possible harm to the bat from an attempted 'rescue' should be promoted, along with contact details for animal rescue groups. The potential risk of ABLV from bat scratches merits greater emphasis.
Kim, Yoo-Kyung; Park, Su-Gon; Kim, Tae-Wook; Park, Jun-Ho; Adhikari, Pradeep; Kim, Garam; Park, Seon-Mi; Lee, Jun-Won; Oh, Dae-Ju; Han, Sang-Hyun; Oh, Hong-Shik
The complete mitochondrial genome of the Far Eastern Myotis, Myotis bombinus (Chiroptera, Vespertilionidae) is determined in this study. It is 17 128 base pairs in length with 13 protein-coding genes, 2 ribosomal RNAs, 22 transfer RNAs, and a non-coding control region. Its gene order is identical to that of other typical vertebrates. There are two tandem repeat sequences in the non-coding control region. Each repeat sequences contains 5 copies of 81 nucleotides and 42 copies of 6 nucleotides. Phylogenetic tree of mt 13 protein-coding gene sequences of 18 species in the family Vespertilionidae shows two distinct clades. Clade I consists of Myotis and Murina, while Clade II contains all other species analyzed.
Yong, Kylie Su Mei; Ng, Justin Han Jia; Her, Zhisheng; Hey, Ying Ying; Tan, Sue Yee; Tan, Wilson Wei Sheng; Irac, Sergio Erdal; Liu, Min; Chan, Xue Ying; Gunawan, Merry; Foo, Randy Jee Hiang; Low, Dolyce Hong Wen; Mendenhall, Ian Hewitt; Chionh, Yok Teng; Dutertre, Charles-Antoine; Chen, Qingfeng; Wang, Lin-Fa
Bats are an important animal model with long lifespans, low incidences of tumorigenesis and an ability to asymptomatically harbour pathogens. Currently, in vivo studies of bats are hampered due to their low reproduction rates. To overcome this, we transplanted bat cells from bone marrow (BM) and spleen into an immunodeficient mouse strain NOD-scid IL-2R -/- (NSG), and have successfully established stable, long-term reconstitution of bat immune cells in mice (bat-mice). Immune functionality of our bat-mouse model was demonstrated through generation of antigen-specific antibody response by bat cells following immunization. Post-engraftment of total bat BM cells and splenocytes, bat immune cells survived, expanded and repopulated the mouse without any observable clinical abnormalities. Utilizing bat's remarkable immunological functions, this novel model has a potential to be transformed into a powerful platform for basic and translational research.
M.A. Menzel; J.M. Menzel; J.C. Kilgo; W.M. Ford; T.C. Carter; J.W. Edwards
The U.S. Department of Energy's Savannah River Site supports a diverse bat community. Nine species occur there regularly, including the eastern pipistrelle (Pipistrellus subflavus), southeastern myotis (Myotis austroriparius), evening bat (Nycticeius humeralis), Rafinesque's big-eared bat (Corynorhinus rafinesquii), silver-haired bat (Lasionycteris noctivagans), eastern red bat (Lasiurus borealis), Seminole bat (L. seminolus), hoary bat (L. cinereus), and big brown bat (Eptesicus fuscus). There are extralimital capture records for two additional species: little brown bat (M. lucifigus) and northern yellow bat (Lasiurus intermedius). Acoustical sampling has documented the presence of Brazilian free-tailed bats (Tadarida brasiliensis), but none has been captured. Among those species common to the Site, the southeastern myotis and Rafinesque's big-eared bat are listed in South Carolina as threatened and endangered, respectively. The presence of those two species, and a growing concern for the conservation of forest-dwelling bats, led to extensive and focused research on the Savannah River Site between 1996 and 2002. Summarizing this and other bat research, we provide species accounts that discuss morphology and distribution, roosting and foraging behaviors, home range characteristics, habitat relations, and reproductive biology. We also present information on conservation needs and rabies issues; and, finally, identification keys that may be useful wherever the bat species we describe are found.
Corcoran, Aaron J; Hristov, Nickolay I
Bats and their insect prey rely on acoustic sensing in predator prey encounters--echolocation in bats, tympanic hearing in moths. Some insects also emit sounds for bat defense. Here, we describe a previously unknown sound-producing organ in Geometrid moths--a prothoracic tymbal in the orange beggar moth (Eubaphe unicolor) that generates bursts of ultrasonic clicks in response to tactile stimulation and playback of a bat echolocation attack sequence. Using scanning electron microscopy and high-speed videography, we demonstrate that E. unicolor and phylogenetically distant tiger moths have evolved serially homologous thoracic tymbal organs with fundamentally similar functional morphology, a striking example of convergent evolution. We compared E. unicolor clicks to that of five sympatric tiger moths and found that 9 of 13 E. unicolor clicking parameters were within the range of sympatric tiger moths. Remaining differences may result from the small size of the E. unicolor tymbal. Four of the five sympatric clicking tiger moth species were unpalatable to bats (0-20% eaten), whereas E. unicolor was palatable to bats (86% eaten). Based on these results, we hypothesize that E. unicolor evolved tymbal organs that mimic the sounds produced by toxic tiger moths when attacked by echolocating bats.
Jones, Gareth; Holderied, Marc W
Bat echolocation calls provide remarkable examples of 'good design' through evolution by natural selection. Theory developed from acoustics and sonar engineering permits a strong predictive basis for understanding echolocation performance. Call features, such as frequency, bandwidth, duration and pulse interval are all related to ecological niche. Recent technological breakthroughs have aided our understanding of adaptive aspects of call design in free-living bats. Stereo videogrammetry, laser scanning of habitat features and acoustic flight path tracking permit reconstruction of the flight paths of echolocating bats relative to obstacles and prey in nature. These methods show that echolocation calls are among the most intense airborne vocalizations produced by animals. Acoustic tracking has clarified how and why bats vary call structure in relation to flight speed. Bats using broadband echolocation calls adjust call design in a range-dependent manner so that nearby obstacles are localized accurately. Recent phylogenetic analyses based on gene sequences show that particular types of echolocation signals have evolved independently in several lineages of bats. Call design is often influenced more by perceptual challenges imposed by the environment than by phylogeny, and provides excellent examples of convergent evolution. Now that whole genome sequences of bats are imminent, understanding the functional genomics of echolocation will become a major challenge.
Jones, Gareth; Holderied, Marc W
Bat echolocation calls provide remarkable examples of ‘good design’ through evolution by natural selection. Theory developed from acoustics and sonar engineering permits a strong predictive basis for understanding echolocation performance. Call features, such as frequency, bandwidth, duration and pulse interval are all related to ecological niche. Recent technological breakthroughs have aided our understanding of adaptive aspects of call design in free-living bats. Stereo videogrammetry, laser scanning of habitat features and acoustic flight path tracking permit reconstruction of the flight paths of echolocating bats relative to obstacles and prey in nature. These methods show that echolocation calls are among the most intense airborne vocalizations produced by animals. Acoustic tracking has clarified how and why bats vary call structure in relation to flight speed. Bats using broadband echolocation calls adjust call design in a range-dependent manner so that nearby obstacles are localized accurately. Recent phylogenetic analyses based on gene sequences show that particular types of echolocation signals have evolved independently in several lineages of bats. Call design is often influenced more by perceptual challenges imposed by the environment than by phylogeny, and provides excellent examples of convergent evolution. Now that whole genome sequences of bats are imminent, understanding the functional genomics of echolocation will become a major challenge. PMID:17251105
Fenton, M. Brock
Bats hunting flying insects adjust the design of their echolocation calls according to the situation in which they forage and stage in an attack. Changes in call design across attack sequences alert other bats within earshot to the presence of prey, demonstrating a continuum in roles for biosonar signals between orientation and communication. Many aerial-feeding bats change the design of their echolocation calls in the presence of echolocating conspecifics. Bats may change frequency parameters, durations, and/or intensities of their calls. While a variety of free-tailed bats (Molossidae Otomops martiensseni, Tadarida teniotis, Molossus molossus) consistently change their echolocation calls when more than one bat is flying in an area, at least one sheath-tailed bat (Emballonuridae Taphozous perforatus) does not. Changes in echolocation calls may maximize jamming avoidance and/or enhance the communicative function of the calls. The data for molossids support the hypothesis that when hunting some species fly in formation. Here, variation in individual call design could provide positional information and reduce the chances of mid-air collisions.
Hagan, R.C.; Fullbright, H.J.
The beta attenuation transmission system (BATS) is an automated radiation gauge designed for quantitative measurement of component thickness in explosive detonators. The BATS was designed and built by Group M-1, the Nondestructive Testing Group, of the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory to measure the areal thickness, in mg/cm 2 , of a cylinder of high explosive (HE) enclosed within a plastic holder. The problem is to determine the density of the HE. A 90 Sr source is collimated by a 0.25 x 1.59-mm slit, and the transmitted beta-particle flux is detected by a plastic scintillator, coupled to a photomultiplier tube. The detonator is transported through the radiation beam by a leadscrew, ballnut, stepping-motor combination. Continuous analog position data are available, derived from the output from a linear-actuated potentiometer attached to the scanner. A linear electrometer amplifies the detected signal, which is then integrated for a preselected time, to obtain the desired statistical accuracy. A microprocessor (μP) is used to control the scanner position and to make the data readings at the assigned positions. The data are stored, and, at the completion of the scan, are processed into the desired format. The final answer is displayed to the operator or output to a peripheral device for permanent record. The characteristics of the radiation source, the collimator, the signal detection and conditioning, and the final results are described in detail. The scanner and the microprocessor control system are briefly outlined
Serra-Cobo, Jordi; López-Roig, Marc; Seguí, Magdalena; Sánchez, Luisa Pilar; Nadal, Jacint; Borrás, Miquel; Lavenir, Rachel; Bourhy, Hervé
Bats have been proposed as major reservoirs for diverse emerging infectious viral diseases, with rabies being the best known in Europe. However, studies exploring the ecological interaction between lyssaviruses and their natural hosts are scarce. This study completes our active surveillance work on Spanish bat colonies that began in 1992. Herein, we analyzed ecological factors that might affect the infection dynamics observed in those colonies. Between 2001 and 2011, we collected and tested 2,393 blood samples and 45 dead bats from 25 localities and 20 bat species. The results for dead confirmed the presence of EBLV-1 RNA in six species analyzed (for the first time in Myotis capaccinii). Samples positive for European bat lyssavirus-1 (EBLV-1)–neutralizing antibodies were detected in 68% of the localities sampled and in 13 bat species, seven of which were found for the first time (even in Myotis daubentonii, a species to date always linked to EBLV-2). EBLV-1 seroprevalence (20.7%) ranged between 11.1 and 40.2% among bat species and seasonal variation was observed, with significantly higher antibody prevalence in summer (July). EBLV-1 seroprevalence was significantly associated with colony size and species richness. Higher seroprevalence percentages were found in large multispecific colonies, suggesting that intra- and interspecific contacts are major risk factors for EBLV-1 transmission in bat colonies. Although bat-roosting behavior strongly determines EBLV-1 variability, we also found some evidence that bat phylogeny might be involved in bat-species seroprevalence. The results of this study highlight the importance of life history and roost ecology in understanding EBLV-1–prevalence patterns in bat colonies and also provide useful information for public health officials. PMID:23700480
April D Davis
Full Text Available The study of rabies virus infection in bats can be challenging due to quarantine requirements, husbandry concerns, genetic differences among animals, and lack of medical history. To date, all rabies virus (RABV studies in bats have been performed in wild caught animals. Determining the RABV exposure history of a wild caught bat based on the presence or absence of viral neutralizing antibodies (VNA may be misleading. Previous studies have demonstrated that the presence of VNA following natural or experimental inoculation is often ephemeral. With this knowledge, it is difficult to determine if a seronegative, wild caught bat has been previously exposed to RABV. The influence of prior rabies exposure in healthy, wild caught bats is unknown. To investigate the pathogenesis of RABV infection in bats born in captivity (naïve bats, naïve bats were inoculated intramuscularly with one of two Eptesicus fuscus rabies virus variants, EfV1 or EfV2. To determine the host response to a heterologous RABV, a separate group of naïve bats were inoculated with a Lasionycteris noctivagans RABV (LnV1. Six months following the first inoculation, all bats were challenged with EfV2. Our results indicate that naïve bats may have some level of innate resistance to intramuscular RABV inoculation. Additionally, naïve bats inoculated with the LnV demonstrated the lowest clinical infection rate of all groups. However, primary inoculation with EfV1 or LnV did not appear to be protective against a challenge with the more pathogenic EfV2.
Holland, Richard A.; Thorup, Kasper; Vonhof, Maarten J.
Bats famously orientate at night by echolocation 1 , but this works over only a short range, and little is known about how they navigate over longer distances 2 . Here we show that the homing behaviour of Eptesicus fuscus, known as the big brown bat, can be altered by artificially shifting...... the Earth's magnetic field, indicating that these bats rely on a magnetic compass to return to their home roost. This finding adds to the impressive array of sensory abilities possessed by this animal for navigation in the dark....
Maxinová, E.; Šustr, Vladimír; Uhrin, M.
Roč. 3, č. 1 (2017), s. 91-96 E-ISSN 1339-8474 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : bats * winter season * faecal matter * diet analysis * amylase * chitinases Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour OBOR OECD: Ecology
Full Text Available Excessive water loss during the day due to heat stress in bats of the genus Pteropus appears to be inevitable, because these bats are exposed to direct sunlight. Rain also affects the rest pattern of the Indian Flying Fox Pteropus giganteus during the day. When rain occurred during the day, most of the bats hung in a slanting position and did not exhibit any movements. After rain, they licked both ventral and dorsal surfaces of the wing membrane and scratched their body with their thumb claws. They also licked the water droplets that remained on the leaves and branches of the tree. Even though their rest had been affected by the rain the bats utilized the water droplets to quench their thirst, cool their body and clean their fur. The construction of water reservoirs near Pteropus roosts will help to assure their long-term conservation.
Full Text Available The infestation of Rhynchopsyllus pulex on the bat Molossus molossus was observed using mist-nets opened between constructions in the Primatological Center, in Guapimirim, State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.
Freuling, Conrad M; Binger, Tabea; Beer, Martin; Adu-Sarkodie, Yaw; Schatz, Juliane; Fischer, Melina; Hanke, Dennis; Hoffmann, Bernd; Höper, Dirk; Mettenleiter, Thomas C; Oppong, Samual K; Drosten, Christian; Müller, Thomas
A brain sample of a straw-coloured fruit bat (Eidolon helvum) from Ghana without evident signs of disease tested positive by generic Lyssavirus RT-PCR and direct antigen staining. Sequence analysis confirmed the presence of a Lagos bat virus belonging to phylogenetic lineage A. Virus neutralization tests using the isolate with sera from the same group of bats yielded neutralizing antibodies in 74% of 567 animals. No cross-neutralization was observed against a different Lagos bat virus (lineage B). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
López-Wilchis, Ricardo; Flores-Romero, Mayela; Guevara-Chumacero, Luis M.; Serrato-Díaz, Alejandra; Díaz-Larrea, Jhoana; Salgado-Mejía, Fernando; Ibáñez, Carlos; Salles, Leandro O.; Juste, Javier
One of the major challenges to understanding the evolution of Neotropical bats concerns our capacity to successfully scrutinize phylogenetic patterns associated with cases of cryptic species complexes. In this study Pteronotus parnellii is examined as a selected example of a known lineage of mormoopid bat that potentially contains several cryptic species. A samples of 452 individuals from 83 different localities, essentially covering its entire mainland distribution, was evaluated using two g...
Wanzeller Ana LM
Full Text Available The Mojuí dos Campos virus (MDCV was isolated from the blood of an unidentified bat (Chiroptera captured in Mojuí dos Campos, Santarém, State of Pará, Brazil, in 1975 and considerated to be antigenically different from other 102 arboviruses belonging to several antigenic groups isolated in the Amazon region or another region by complement fixation tests. The objective of this work was to develop a morphologic, an antigenic and physicochemical characterization of this virus. MDCV produces cytopathic effect in Vero cells, 24 h post-infection (p.i, and the degree of cellular destruction increases after a few hours. Negative staining electron microscopy of the supernatant of Vero cell cultures showed the presence of coated viral particles with a diameter of around 98 nm. Ultrathin sections of Vero cells, and brain and liver of newborn mice infected with MDCV showed an assembly of the viral particles into the Golgi vesicles. The synthesis kinetics of the proteins for MDCV were similar to that observed for other bunyaviruses, and viral proteins could be detected as early as 6 h p.i. Our results reinforce the original studies which had classified MDCV in the family Bunyaviridae, genus Bunyavirus as an ungrouped virus, and it may represent the prototype of a new serogroup.
Drennan, Joe [Garcia and Associates, San Francisco, CA (United States); Tortosa, Justin [Garcia and Associates, San Francisco, CA (United States)
From June 15 to 18, 2015, GANDA biologist Graham Neale assisted in programming and fieldtesting of the bat monitoring equipment. The equipment was deployed in the field on a meteorological (MET) tower within Site 300 on June 18, 2015.
Knörnschild, Mirjam; Jung, Kirsten; Nagy, Martina; Metz, Markus; Kalko, Elisabeth
Bat echolocation is primarily used for orientation and foraging but also holds great potential for social communication. The communicative function of echolocation calls is still largely unstudied, especially in the wild. Eavesdropping on vocal signatures encoding social information in echolocation calls has not, to our knowledge, been studied in free-living bats so far. We analysed echolocation calls of the polygynous bat Saccopteryx bilineata and found pronounced vocal signatures encoding sex and individual identity. We showed experimentally that free-living males discriminate approaching male and female conspecifics solely based on their echolocation calls. Males always produced aggressive vocalizations when hearing male echolocation calls and courtship vocalizations when hearing female echolocation calls; hence, they responded with complex social vocalizations in the appropriate social context. Our study demonstrates that social information encoded in bat echolocation calls plays a crucial and hitherto underestimated role for eavesdropping conspecifics and thus facilitates social communication in a highly mobile nocturnal mammal.
Kara L. Marshall
Full Text Available Flight maneuvers require rapid sensory integration to generate adaptive motor output. Bats achieve remarkable agility with modified forelimbs that serve as airfoils while retaining capacity for object manipulation. Wing sensory inputs provide behaviorally relevant information to guide flight; however, components of wing sensory-motor circuits have not been analyzed. Here, we elucidate the organization of wing innervation in an insectivore, the big brown bat, Eptesicus fuscus. We demonstrate that wing sensory innervation differs from other vertebrate forelimbs, revealing a peripheral basis for the atypical topographic organization reported for bat somatosensory nuclei. Furthermore, the wing is innervated by an unusual complement of sensory neurons poised to report airflow and touch. Finally, we report that cortical neurons encode tactile and airflow inputs with sparse activity patterns. Together, our findings identify neural substrates of somatosensation in the bat wing and imply that evolutionary pressures giving rise to mammalian flight led to unusual sensorimotor projections.
Jessie A. Glaeser; Martin J. Pfeiffer; Daniel L. Lindner
Devastating. Catastrophic. Unprecedented. This is how white-nose syndrome of bats (WNS) is characterized. It is one of the deadliest wildlife diseases ever observed and could have significant impacts on outdoor recreation, agriculture and wildlife management.
Gaël D Maganga
Full Text Available The rising incidence of emerging infectious diseases (EID is mostly linked to biodiversity loss, changes in habitat use and increasing habitat fragmentation. Bats are linked to a growing number of EID but few studies have explored the factors of viral richness in bats. These may have implications for role of bats as potential reservoirs. We investigated the determinants of viral richness in 15 species of African bats (8 Pteropodidae and 7 microchiroptera in Central and West Africa for which we provide new information on virus infection and bat phylogeny. We performed the first comparative analysis testing the correlation of the fragmented geographical distribution (defined as the perimeter to area ratio with viral richness in bats. Because of their potential effect, sampling effort, host body weight, ecological and behavioural traits such as roosting behaviour, migration and geographical range, were included into the analysis as variables. The results showed that the geographical distribution size, shape and host body weight have significant effects on viral richness in bats. Viral richness was higher in large-bodied bats which had larger and more fragmented distribution areas. Accumulation of viruses may be related to the historical expansion and contraction of bat species distribution range, with potentially strong effects of distribution edges on virus transmission. Two potential explanations may explain these results. A positive distribution edge effect on the abundance or distribution of some bat species could have facilitated host switches. Alternatively, parasitism could play a direct role in shaping the distribution range of hosts through host local extinction by virulent parasites. This study highlights the importance of considering the fragmentation of bat species geographical distribution in order to understand their role in the circulation of viruses in Africa.
Denzinger, Annette; Schnitzler, Hans-Ulrich
Throughout evolution the foraging and echolocation behaviors as well as the motor systems of bats have been adapted to the tasks they have to perform while searching and acquiring food. When bats exploit the same class of environmental resources in a similar way, they perform comparable tasks and thus share similar adaptations independent of their phylogeny. Species with similar adaptations are assigned to guilds or functional groups. Habitat type and foraging mode mainly determine the foraging tasks and thus the adaptations of bats. Therefore, we use habitat type and foraging mode to define seven guilds. The habitat types open, edge and narrow space are defined according to the bats' echolocation behavior in relation to the distance between bat and background or food item and background. Bats foraging in the aerial, trawling, flutter detecting, or active gleaning mode use only echolocation to acquire their food. When foraging in the passive gleaning mode bats do not use echolocation but rely on sensory cues from the food item to find it. Bat communities often comprise large numbers of species with a high diversity in foraging areas, foraging modes, and diets. The assignment of species living under similar constraints into guilds identifies patterns of community structure and helps to understand the factors that underlie the organization of highly diverse bat communities. Bat species from different guilds do not compete for food as they differ in their foraging behavior and in the environmental resources they use. However, sympatric living species belonging to the same guild often exploit the same class of resources. To avoid competition they should differ in their niche dimensions. The fine grain structure of bat communities below the rather coarse classification into guilds is determined by mechanisms that result in niche partitioning. PMID:23840190
Denzinger, Annette; Schnitzler, Hans-Ulrich
Throughout evolution the foraging and echolocation behaviors as well as the motor systems of bats have been adapted to the tasks they have to perform while searching and acquiring food. When bats exploit the same class of environmental resources in a similar way, they perform comparable tasks and thus share similar adaptations independent of their phylogeny. Species with similar adaptations are assigned to guilds or functional groups. Habitat type and foraging mode mainly determine the foraging tasks and thus the adaptations of bats. Therefore, we use habitat type and foraging mode to define seven guilds. The habitat types open, edge and narrow space are defined according to the bats' echolocation behavior in relation to the distance between bat and background or food item and background. Bats foraging in the aerial, trawling, flutter detecting, or active gleaning mode use only echolocation to acquire their food. When foraging in the passive gleaning mode bats do not use echolocation but rely on sensory cues from the food item to find it. Bat communities often comprise large numbers of species with a high diversity in foraging areas, foraging modes, and diets. The assignment of species living under similar constraints into guilds identifies patterns of community structure and helps to understand the factors that underlie the organization of highly diverse bat communities. Bat species from different guilds do not compete for food as they differ in their foraging behavior and in the environmental resources they use. However, sympatric living species belonging to the same guild often exploit the same class of resources. To avoid competition they should differ in their niche dimensions. The fine grain structure of bat communities below the rather coarse classification into guilds is determined by mechanisms that result in niche partitioning.
Jones, Gareth; Holderied, Marc W
Bat echolocation calls provide remarkable examples of ‘good design’ through evolution by natural selection. Theory developed from acoustics and sonar engineering permits a strong predictive basis for understanding echolocation performance. Call features, such as frequency, bandwidth, duration and pulse interval are all related to ecological niche. Recent technological breakthroughs have aided our understanding of adaptive aspects of call design in free-living bats. Stereo videogrammetry, lase...
Ohta, Yoichi; Ishii, Yasumitsu; Ikudome, Sachi; Nakamoto, Hiroki
The effects of weighted bat warm-up on adjustment of upper limb muscle activity were investigated during baseball bat swinging under dynamic conditions that require a spatial and temporal adjustment of the swinging to hit a moving target. Seven male college baseball players participated in this study. Using a batting simulator, the task was to swing the standard bat coincident with the arrival timing and position of a moving target after three warm-up swings using a standard or weighted bat. There was no significant effect of weighted bat warm-up on muscle activity before impact associated with temporal or spatial movement corrections. However, lower inhibition of the extensor carpi ulnaris muscle activity was observed in a velocity-changed condition in the weighted bat warm-up, as compared to a standard bat warm-up. It is suggested that weighted bat warm-up decreases the adjustment ability associated with inhibition of muscle activation under movement correction conditions.
Jones, Kate E; Purvis, Andy; Gittleman, John L
We investigated patterns and processes of extinction and threat in bats using a multivariate phylogenetic comparative approach. Of nearly 1,000 species worldwide, 239 are considered threatened by the International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN) and 12 are extinct. Small geographic ranges and low wing aspect ratios are independently found to predict extinction risk in bats, which explains 48% of the total variance in IUCN assessments of threat. The pattern and correlates of extinction risk in the two bat suborders are significantly different. A higher proportion (4%) of megachiropteran species have gone extinct in the last 500 years than microchiropteran bats (0.3%), and a higher proportion is currently at risk of extinction (Megachiroptera: 34%; Microchiroptera: 22%). While correlates of microchiropteran extinction risk are the same as in the order as a whole, megachiropteran extinction is correlated more with reproductive rate and less with wing morphology. Bat extinction risk is not randomly distributed phylogenetically: closely related species have more similar levels of threat than would be expected if extinction risk were random. Given the unbalanced nature of the evolutionary diversification of bats, it is probable that the amount of phylogenetic diversity lost if currently threatened taxa disappear may be greater than in other clades with numerically more threatened species.
M. Brock FENTON
Full Text Available Twenty-five characters or suites of characters from bats are considered in light of changes in bat classification. The characters include some associated with flower-visiting (two, echolocation (12, roosting (six, reproduction (two and three are of unknown adaptive function. In both the 1998 and 2006 classifications of bats into suborders (Megachiroptera and Microchiroptera versus Yinpterochiroptera and Yangochiroptera, respectively, some convergences between suborders are the same (e.g., foliage roosting, tent building, but others associated with echolocation differ substantially. In the 1998 phylogeny convergences associated with echolocation (high duty cycle echolocation, nasal emission of echolocation calls occurred among the Microchiroptera. In the 2006 phylogeny, they occur between Yinpterochiroptera and Yangochiroptera. While some traits apparently arose independently in two suborders (e.g., foliage-roosting, tent building, low intensity echolocation calls, noseleafs, nasal emission of echolocation calls, high duty cycle echolocation behaviour, others appear to have been ancestral (roosting in narrow spaces, laryngeal echolocation, stylohyal-tympanic contact, oral emission of echolocation calls, and small litter size. A narrow profile through the chest is typical of bats reflecting the thoracic skeleton. This feature suggests that the ancestors of bats spent the day in small crevices. Features associated with laryngeal echolocation appear to be ancestral, suggesting that echolocation evolved early in bats but was subsequently lost in one yinpterochiropteran lineage [Current Zoology 56 (4: 454–468, 2010].
Walker, L.A.; Simpson, V.R.; Rockett, L.; Wienburg, C.L.; Shore, R.F.
Toxic metals are bioaccumulated by insectivorous mammals but few studies (none from Britain) have quantified residues in bats. We measured renal mercury (Hg), lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd) concentrations in bats from south-west England to determine how they varied with species, sex, age, and over time, and if they were likely to cause adverse effects. Residues were generally highest in whiskered bats (Myotis mystacinus). Compared with other species, pipistrelle (Pipistrellus spp) and Natterer's bats (Myotis nattereri) had significantly lower kidney Hg and Pb concentrations, respectively. Renal Hg increased over time in pipistrelles but the contributory sources are unknown. Kidney Pb did not decrease over time despite concurrent declines in atmospheric Pb. Overall, median renal metal concentrations were similar to those in bats from mainland Europe and 6- to 10-fold below those associated with clinical effect, although 5% of pipistrelles had kidney Pb residues diagnostic of acute lead poisoning. - Heavy metal contamination has been quantified in bats from Britain for the first time and indicates increased accumulation of Hg and no reduction in Pb
Jones, Gareth; Siemers, Björn M
Ecological constraints often shape the echolocation pulses emitted by bat species. Consequently some (but not all) bats emit species-specific echolocation pulses. Because echolocation pulses are often intense and emitted at high rates, they are potential targets for eavesdropping by other bats. Echolocation pulses can also vary within species according to sex, body size, age, social group and geographic location. Whether these features can be recognised by other bats can only be determined reliably by playback experiments, which have shown that echolocation pulses do provide sufficient information for the identification of sex and individual in one species. Playbacks also show that bats can locate conspecifics and heterospecifics at foraging and roost sites by eavesdropping on echolocation pulses. Guilds of echolocating bat species often partition their use of pulse frequencies. Ecology, allometric scaling and phylogeny play roles here, but are not sufficient to explain this partitioning. Evidence is accumulating to support the hypothesis that frequency partitioning evolved to facilitate intraspecific communication. Acoustic character displacement occurs in at least one instance. Future research can relate genetic population structure to regional variation in echolocation pulse features and elucidate those acoustic features that most contribute to discrimination of individuals.
Barber, Jesse R.; Kawahara, Akito Y.
Bats and moths have been engaged in aerial warfare for nearly 65 Myr. This arms race has produced a suite of counter-adaptations in moths, including bat-detecting ears. One set of defensive strategies involves the active production of sound; tiger moths' ultrasonic replies to bat attack have been shown to startle bats, warn the predators of bad taste and jam their biosonar. Here, we report that hawkmoths in the Choerocampina produce entirely ultrasonic sounds in response to tactile stimulation and the playback of biosonar attack sequences. Males do so by grating modified scraper scales on the outer surface of the genital valves against the inner margin of the last abdominal tergum. Preliminary data indicate that females also produce ultrasound to touch and playback of echolocation attack, but they do so with an entirely different mechanism. The anti-bat function of these sounds is unknown but might include startling, cross-family acoustic mimicry, warning of unprofitability or physical defence and/or jamming of echolocation. Hawkmoths present a novel and tractable system to study both the function and evolution of anti-bat defences. PMID:23825084
Susan Loeb; Joy O' Keefe
The Indiana bat (Myotis sodalist) is an endangered species and the northern long-eared bat (M. septentrionalis) has been proposed for listing as endangered. Both species are found throughout the Appalachians, and they commonly inhabit fire-dependent ecosystems such as pine and pine-oak forests. Due to their legal status, prescribed burns in areas where these species...
Kváč, Martin; Hořická, Anna; Sak, Bohumil; Prediger, Jitka; Salát, Jiří; Širmarová, Jana; Bartonička, Tomáš; Clark, Mark; Chelladurai, Jeba Rose Jennifer Jesudoss; Gillam, Erin; McEvoy, John
Bats from the families Rhinolophidae (n = 90) and Vespertilionidae (n = 191) in the USA and Czech Republic were screened for the presence of Cryptosporidium by microscopic and molecular analysis of faecal samples collected from rectum of dissected animals and from the ground beneath roosting sites. Cryptosporidium oocysts were not detected in any of the 281 faecal specimens examined using the aniline-carbol-methyl violet staining method. Nested PCR amplification, sequencing and phylogenetic analysis of the small ribosomal subunit rRNA and actin genes were used to identify isolates and infer evolutionary relationships. Cryptosporidium parvum was identified in a western small-footed bat (Myotis ciliolabrum) from the USA and a common pipistrelle bats (Pipistrellus pipistrellus) from the Czech Republic. Two novel genotypes were identified and named Cryptosporidium bat genotype III and IV. Bat genotype III was found in two big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus) from the USA. Bat genotype IV was detected in two common pipistrelle bats from the Czech Republic.
Haarsma, A.J.; Hullu, de E.
In order to monitor bat population trends, an annual census is performed of all known underground hibernacula in Europe. During these censuses, bats are sometimes found to show signs of arousal, presumably from non-tactile stimuli caused by the observer, e.g. air currents, sound, light or an
Maganga, G. D.; Bourgarel, M.; Vallo, Peter; Dallo, T. D.; Ngoagouni, C.; Drexler, J. F.; Drosten, C.; Nakouné, E. R.; Leroy, E. M.; Morand, S.
Roč. 9, č. 6 (2014), e100172 E-ISSN 1932-6203 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : cytochrome-b gene * fruit bats * Rousettus aegyptiacus * Eidolon helvum * species richness * Marburg virus * molecular phylogeny * infectious diseases * geographical range * neotropical bats Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 3.234, year: 2014
Goody, Deborah; Pfeifer, Alexander
In the last decade, exosomes have gained interest as a new type of intercellular communication between cells and tissues. Exosomes are circulating, cell-derived lipid vesicles smaller than 200 nm that contain proteins and nucleic acids, including microRNAs (miRNAs), and are able to modify cellular targets. Exosomal miRNAs function as signalling molecules that regulate the transcription of their target genes and can cause phenotypic transformation of recipient cells. Recent studies have shown that brown fat secretes exosomes as a form of communication with other metabolic organs such as the liver. Moreover, it has been shown that levels of miRNAs in BAT-derived exosomes change after BAT activation in vitro and in vivo. Thus, BAT-derived exosomes can be used as potential biomarkers of BAT activity. Here, we review the present knowledge about BAT-derived exosomes and their role in metabolism.
Full Text Available Throughout evolution the foraging and echolocation behaviors as well as the motor systems of bats have been adapted to the tasks they have to perform while searching and acquiring food. When bats exploit the same class of environmental resources in a similar way, they perform comparable tasks and thus share similar adaptations independent of their phylogeny. Species with similar adaptations are assigned to guilds or functional groups. Habitat type and foraging mode mainly determine the foraging tasks and thus the adaptations of bats. Therefore we use habitat type and foraging mode to define seven guilds. The habitat types open, edge and narrow space are defined according to the bats’ echolocation behavior in relation to the distance between bat and background or food item and background. Bats foraging in the aerial, trawling, flutter detecting, or active gleaning mode use only echolocation to acquire their food. When foraging in the passive gleaning mode bats do not use echolocation but rely on sensory cues from the food item to find it. Bat communities often comprise large numbers of species with a high diversity in foraging areas, foraging modes, and diets. The assignment of species living under similar constraints into guilds identifies pattern of community structure and helps to understand the factors that underlie the organization of highly diverse bat communities. Bat species from different guilds do not compete for food as they differ in their foraging behavior and in the environmental resources they use. However, sympatric living species belonging to the same guild often exploit the same class of resources. To avoid competition they should differ in their niche dimensions. The fine grain structure of bat communities below the rather coarse classification into guilds is determined by mechanisms that result in niche partitioning.
virtud de su importancia como reservorio de la diversidad biológica que tipifica los ecosistemas boscosos de la Cordillera de la Costa, una bio-región altamente amenazada como consecuencia de un elevado crecimiento socio-económico.Bats (Chiroptera: Mammalia from Yurubí National Park, Venezuela: taxonomic list and community study. Bats represent a key component in the dynamics of many terrestrial ecosystems, and one of the groups of mammals with the highest levels of diversification in the Neotropics. Here we describe the results of a study of the bat fauna from Yurubí National Park (mountain area in Northern Venezuela, that includes a taxonomic list and the characterization of some community attributes in forested areas. Data was collected from zoological collections and diversified sampling methods from February to July of 2009 in an altitudinal gradient (100-1 500m, with three principal ecological units: semideciduous, evergreen and cloud forests. We recorded 64 species grouped in five families (63% of the bats known from La Cordillera de la Costa, of which Phyllostomidae was the dominant taxa (42 species; 66% of total, followed by Vespertilionidae, Molossidae, Emballonuridae and Mormoopidae. The community with the highest taxonomic diversification was found in the lowest elevation range, while the lowest number of species was found at the highest range. Eleven trophic guilds were identified; the insectivorous guild was the richest, whereas the frugivorous was the most abundant. Our results allow us to indicate these forest ecosystems have an appropriate conservation status, taking into account the presence of a relatively high proportion of species from the subfamily Phyllostominae, as well as the presence of other species with conservation priorities. All these aspects, and the fact that this represents a reservoir of the biological diversity of the forest ecosystems of La Cordillera de la Costa, make this protected area of an essential conservation value, in a
Falconaro, Antonella C; Vega, Rocío M; Viozzi, Gustavo P
Most of the studies on chiropteran endoparasites in Argentina come from the Central and Northeast regions of the country, and there is only one parasitological study of bats from the Argentinean Patagonia. The aim of this study is to describe the helminth fauna of 42 Myotis chiloensis, comparing the composition and the structure of the endoparasite communities between two populations, inhabiting different environments in Andean humid forest and the ecotone between forest and Patagonian steppe. A total of 697 helminths were recovered from 33 bats: five species of trematodes, Ochoterenatrema sp., Paralecithodendrium sp., Parabascus limatulus , Parabascus sp., and Postorchigenes cf. joannae , two species of cestodes, Vampirolepis sp. 1 and Vampirolepis sp. 2, and three species of nematodes, Allintoshius baudi , Physaloptera sp., and Physocephalus sp. All the helminths, but Physocephalus sp., were recovered from the small and large intestine. This is the first survey of M. chiloensis ' helminth fauna. All the species, but A. baudi , represent new records of helminths in Patagonian bats. There were differences of parasite species richness between localities and both bat populations share almost half of the endoparasite species. Different preferences for intestinal regions were found for three species of trematodes in the bats from the site in the humid forest. Myotis chiloensis serves as both a definitive and intermediate host for endoparasites in the Patagonian ecosystem.
The physical principles and signal processing techniques underlying bat echolocation are investigated. It is shown, by calculation and simulation, how the measured echolocation performance of bats can be achieved.
Nélio Roberto dos Reis
Full Text Available Due to the lack of information concerning mammals in the North of Paraná State, Brazil. a preliminary survey of bat species of the region of Londrina is presented. Three hundred and thirty four individuais of 18 species belonging to Phyllostomidae, Desmodontidae, Vespertilionidae and Molossidae families were collected. Data were gathered related to threir feeding habits, reproduction and time of achvity.
Reijniers, Jonas; Vanderelst, Dieter; Peremans, Herbert
Abstract: It has been argued that an important part of understanding bat echolocation comes down to understanding the morphology of the bat sound processing apparatus. In this Letter we present a method based on information theory that allows us to assess target localization performance of bat sonar, without a priori knowledge on the position, size, or shape of the reflecting target. We demonstrate this method using simulated directivity patterns of the frequency-modulated bat Micronycteris m...
Pozo, Francisco; Juste, Javier; Vázquez-Morón, Sonia; Anar-López, Carolina; Ibáñez, Carlos; Garin, Inazio; Aihartza, Joxerra; Casas, Inmaculada; Tenorio, Antonio; Echevarría, Juan E.
A thorough search for bat herpesviruses was carried out in oropharyngeal samples taken from most of the bat species present in the Iberian Peninsula from the Vespertilionidae, Miniopteridae, Molossidae and Rhinolophidae families, in addition to a colony of captive fruit bats from the Pteropodidae family. By using two degenerate consensus PCR methods targeting two conserved genes, distinct and previously unrecognized bat-hosted herpesviruses were identified for the most of the tested species. ...
Nokireki, T; Tammiranta, N; Kokkonen, U-M; Kantala, T; Gadd, T
A tentative novel member of the genus Lyssavirus, designated as Kotalahti bat lyssavirus, was detected in a Brandt's bat (Myotis brandtii) in Finland. Based on phylogenetic analysis, the virus differs from other known lyssaviruses, being closely related to Khujand virus, Aravan virus, Bokeloh bat lyssavirus and European bat lyssavirus 2. © 2018 The Authors. Transboundary and Emerging Diseases Published by Blackwell Verlag GmbH.
Yin, Qiuyuan; Ge, Hanxiao; Liao, Chen-Chong; Liu, Di; Zhang, Shuyi; Pan, Yi-Hsuan
Hibernation is a strategy used by some mammals to survive a cold winter. Small hibernating mammals, such as squirrels and hamsters, use species- and tissue-specific antioxidant defenses to cope with oxidative insults during hibernation. Little is known about antioxidant responses and their regulatory mechanisms in hibernating bats. We found that the total level of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive nitrogen species (RNS) in the brain of each of the two distantly related hibernating bats M. ricketti and R. ferrumequinum at arousal was lower than that at torpid or active state. We also found that the levels of malondialdehyde (product of lipid peroxidation) of the two hibernating species of bats were significantly lower than those of non-hibernating bats R. leschenaultia and C. sphinx. This observation suggests that bats maintain a basal level of ROS/RNS that does no harm to the brain during hibernation. Results of Western blotting showed that hibernating bats expressed higher amounts of antioxidant proteins than non-hibernating bats and that M. ricketti bats upregulated the expression of some enzymes to overcome oxidative stresses, such as superoxide dismutase, glutathione reductase, and catalase. In contrast, R. ferrumequinum bats maintained a relatively high level of superoxide dismutase 2, glutathione reductase, and thioredoxin-2 throughout the three different states of hibernation cycles. The levels of glutathione (GSH) were higher in M. ricketti bats than in R. ferrumequinum bats and were significantly elevated in R. ferrumequinum bats after torpor. These data suggest that M. ricketti bats use mainly antioxidant enzymes and R. ferrumequinum bats rely on both enzymes and low molecular weight antioxidants (e.g., glutathione) to avoid oxidative stresses during arousal. Furthermore, Nrf2 and FOXOs play major roles in the regulation of antioxidant defenses in the brains of bats during hibernation. Our study revealed strategies used by bats against oxidative
Occurrence of white-winged vampire bat, Diaemus youngi (Mammalia, Chiroptera, in the Cerrado of Distrito Federal, Brazil Ocorrência de Diaemus youngi (Mammalia, Chiroptera no Cerrado do Distrito Federal
Ludmilla M. de S. Aguiar
Full Text Available Authors cite Diaemus youngi (Jentik, 1893 as occurring in all the Brazilian territory. In spite of that, there are no reports of capture sites for D. youngi in the literature for Distrito Federal or Cerrado of Central Brazil. Here we report the first precise record of this species for Central Brazil, rural area of Distrito Federal, and provide information on its biology, conservation and distribution in Brazil, according to our data and information from the literature.A espécie Diaemus youngi (Jentik, 1893 é considerada por alguns autores como ocorrendo para todo o Brasil incluindo o bioma Cerrado e área rural do Distrito Federal. No entanto não há na literatura nenhum registro do local de coleta dessa espécie para essas regiões. Reportamos aqui o primeiro registro no Cerrado do Brasil Central, área rural do Distrito Federal, e alguns dados sobre a biologia, conservação e distribuição geográfica da espécie no Brasil, de acordo com dados desse trabalho e da literatura.
O'Shea, Thomas J.; Cryan, Paul; Hayman, David TH; Plowright, Raina K.; Streicker, Daniel G.
Despite conservation concerns for many species of bats, factors causing mortality in bats have not been reviewed since 1970. Here, we review and qualitatively describe trends in the occurrence and apparent causes of multiple mortality events (MMEs) in bats around the world.
Madagascar has many synanthropic bat species but relatively little is known about how people interact with them. A preliminary assessment on the presence of bats in buildings and their interactions with people was conducted in the eastern town of Moramanga. Fifty of the 156 buildings were reported to contain active bat ...
Generally,Wahlberg's epauletted fruit bat (Epomophorus wahlbergi) roost in trees or under the eaves of buildings. This study investigated the roosting dynamics of E. wahlbergi in the urban environment of Pietermaritzburg, South Africa. To determine roost fidelity bats were radiotracked to daytime roosts. Bats were found to ...
Rusty bats are seasonally monoestrous, carrying a single foetus in each of the two uterine horns. Implantation is superficial with amniogenesis initiated very early during embryogenesis. Contrary to most other bat species where the amnion is formed by folding, it is formed by cavitation in the rusty bat.
We analyzed stable isotopes (δ13C, δ15N) to estimate the importance of plants and insects to the diet of two nectar-feeding bats on Puerto Rico, the brown flower bat (Erophylla bombifrons) and the Greater Antillean long-tongued bat (Monophyllus redmani). Concentrations of stable ...
The reproductive pattern of the female rusty bat, Pipistrellus rusticus, was investigated by means of a histological examination of the ovarian follicles as well as early embryonic development. Bats were collected from two localities in Limpopo Province. Female rusty bats are seasonal monestrous breeders, initiating ...
Kitzes, Justin; Merenlender, Adina
Although the negative impacts of roads on many terrestrial vertebrate and bird populations are well documented, there have been few studies of the road ecology of bats. To examine the effects of large roads on bat populations, we used acoustic recorders to survey bat activity along ten 300 m transects bordering three large highways in northern California, applying a newly developed statistical classifier to identify recorded calls to the species level. Nightly counts of bat passes were analyzed with generalized linear mixed models to determine the relationship between bat activity and distance from a road. Total bat activity recorded at points adjacent to roads was found to be approximately one-half the level observed at 300 m. Statistically significant road effects were also found for the Brazilian free-tailed bat (Tadarida brasiliensis), big brown bat (Eptesicus fuscus), hoary bat (Lasiurus cinereus), and silver-haired bat (Lasionycteris noctivagans). The road effect was found to be temperature dependent, with hot days both increasing total activity at night and reducing the difference between activity levels near and far from roads. These results suggest that the environmental impacts of road construction may include degradation of bat habitat and that mitigation activities for this habitat loss may be necessary to protect bat populations.
Lagerveld, S.; Jonge Poerink, B.; Vries, de P.
IMARES conducted studies in 2012 and 2013 to monitor offshore bat activity with passive acoustic ultrasonic recorders. In the follow-up project reported here, more data on the offshore occurrence of bats was collected in 2014. Using the same methodology as in 2012 and 2013, bat activity was
Kathryn M. Womack; Sybill K. Amelon; Frank R. Thompson
Little information exists on resource selection by foraging Indiana bats (Myotis sodalis) during the maternity season. Existing studies are based on modest sample sizes because of the rarity of this endangered species and the difficulty of radio-tracking bats. Our objectives were to determine resource selection by foraging Indiana bats during the maternity season and...
Space Memory in Bats: Most animals have space memory in that they return to the same place after the day or night ... The other species of insectivorous bats ofMadurai, nine in all, do have roost memory but not space ... cally, the auditory region of the brain of insectivorous bats are disproportionately large compared to the.
Scheffer, Karin Corrêa; Iamamoto, Keila; Asano, Karen Miyuki; Mori, Enio; Estevez Garcia, Andrea Isabel; Achkar, Samira M; Fahl, Williande Oliveira
Rabies continues to be a challenge for public health authorities and a constraint to the livestock industry in Latin America. Wild and domestic canines and vampire bats are the main transmitter species and reservoirs of the disease. Currently, variations observed in the epidemiological profile of rabies, where the species of hematophagous bat Desmodus rotundus constitutes the main transmitting species. Over the years, knowledge has accumulated about the ecology, biology and behavior of this species and the natural history of rabies, which should lead to continuous development of methods of population control of d. Rotundus as well as prevention and diagnostic tools for rabies. Ecological relationships of this species with other hematophagous and non-hematophagous bats is unknown, and there is much room for improvement in reporting systems and surveillance, as well as creating greater awareness among the farming community. Understanding the impact of human-induced environmental changes on the rabies virus in bats should be cause for further investigation. This will require a combination of field studies with mathematical models and new diagnostic tools. This review aims to present the most relevant issues on the role of hematophagous bats as reservoirs and transmitters of the rabies virus.
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Adult individuals of many species kill unrelated conspecific infants for several adaptive reasons ranging from predation or resource competition to the prevention of misdirected parental care. Moreover, infanticide can increase the reproductive success of the aggressor by killing the offspring of competitors and thereafter mating with the victimized females. This sexually selected infanticide predominantly occurs in polygynous species, with convincing evidence for primates, carnivores, equids, and rodents. Evidence for bats was predicted but lacking. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here we report the first case, to our knowledge, of sexually selected infanticide in a bat, the polygynous white-throated round-eared bat, Lophostoma silvicolum. Behavioral studies in a free-living population revealed that an adult male repeatedly attacked and injured the pups of two females belonging to his harem, ultimately causing the death of one pup. The infanticidal male subsequently mated with the mother of the victimized pup and this copulation occurred earlier than any other in his harem. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our findings indicate that sexually selected infanticide is more widespread than previously thought, adding bats as a new taxon performing this strategy. Future work on other bats, especially polygynous species in the tropics, has great potential to investigate the selective pressures influencing the evolution of sexually selected infanticide and to study how infanticide impacts reproductive strategies and social structures of different species.
Li, Gang; Wang, Jinhong; Rossiter, Stephen J.; Jones, Gareth; Cotton, James A.; Zhang, Shuyi
The remarkable high-frequency sensitivity and selectivity of the mammalian auditory system has been attributed to the evolution of mechanical amplification, in which sound waves are amplified by outer hair cells in the cochlea. This process is driven by the recently discovered protein prestin, encoded by the gene Prestin. Echolocating bats use ultrasound for orientation and hunting and possess the highest frequency hearing of all mammals. To test for the involvement of Prestin in the evolution of bat echolocation, we sequenced the coding region in echolocating and nonecholocating species. The resulting putative gene tree showed strong support for a monophyletic assemblage of echolocating species, conflicting with the species phylogeny in which echolocators are paraphyletic. We reject the possibilities that this conflict arises from either gene duplication and loss or relaxed selection in nonecholocating fruit bats. Instead, we hypothesize that the putative gene tree reflects convergence at stretches of functional importance. Convergence is supported by the recovery of the species tree from alignments of hydrophobic transmembrane domains, and the putative gene tree from the intra- and extracellular domains. We also found evidence that Prestin has undergone Darwinian selection associated with the evolution of specialized constant-frequency echolocation, which is characterized by sharp auditory tuning. Our study of a hearing gene in bats strongly implicates Prestin in the evolution of echolocation, and suggests independent evolution of high-frequency hearing in bats. These results highlight the potential problems of extracting phylogenetic signals from functional genes that may be prone to convergence. PMID:18776049
Kingston, Tigga; Rossiter, Stephen J
Evolutionary divergence between species is facilitated by ecological shifts, and divergence is particularly rapid when such shifts also promote assortative mating. Horseshoe bats are a diverse Old World family (Rhinolophidae) that have undergone a rapid radiation in the past 5 million years. These insectivorous bats use a predominantly pure-tone echolocation call matched to an auditory fovea (an over-representation of the pure-tone frequency in the cochlea and inferior colliculus) to detect the minute changes in echo amplitude and frequency generated when an insect flutters its wings. The emitted signal is the accentuated second harmonic of a series in which the fundamental and remaining harmonics are filtered out. Here we show that three distinct, sympatric size morphs of the large-eared horseshoe bat (Rhinolophus philippinensis) echolocate at different harmonics of the same fundamental frequency. These morphs have undergone recent genetic divergence, and this process has occurred in parallel more than once. We suggest that switching harmonics creates a discontinuity in the bats' perception of available prey that can initiate disruptive selection. Moreover, because call frequency in horseshoe bats has a dual function in resource acquisition and communication, ecological selection on frequency might lead to assortative mating and ultimately reproductive isolation and speciation, regardless of external barriers to gene flow.
David T S Hayman
Full Text Available Ebolaviruses (EBOV (family Filoviridae cause viral hemorrhagic fevers in humans and non-human primates when they spill over from their wildlife reservoir hosts with case fatality rates of up to 90%. Fruit bats may act as reservoirs of the Filoviridae. The migratory fruit bat, Eidolon helvum, is common across sub-Saharan Africa and lives in large colonies, often situated in cities. We screened sera from 262 E. helvum using indirect fluorescent tests for antibodies against EBOV subtype Zaire. We detected a seropositive bat from Accra, Ghana, and confirmed this using western blot analysis. The bat was also seropositive for Lagos bat virus, a Lyssavirus, by virus neutralization test. The bat was fitted with a radio transmitter and was last detected in Accra 13 months after release post-sampling, demonstrating long-term survival. Antibodies to filoviruses have not been previously demonstrated in E. helvum. Radio-telemetry data demonstrates long-term survival of an individual bat following exposure to viruses of families that can be highly pathogenic to other mammal species. Because E. helvum typically lives in large urban colonies and is a source of bushmeat in some regions, further studies should determine if this species forms a reservoir for EBOV from which spillover infections into the human population may occur.
Moratelli, Ricardo; Calisher, Charles H
An increasingly asked question is 'can we confidently link bats with emerging viruses?'. No, or not yet, is the qualified answer based on the evidence available. Although more than 200 viruses - some of them deadly zoonotic viruses - have been isolated from or otherwise detected in bats, the supposed connections between bats, bat viruses and human diseases have been raised more on speculation than on evidence supporting their direct or indirect roles in the epidemiology of diseases (except for rabies). However, we are convinced that the evidence points in that direction and that at some point it will be proved that bats are competent hosts for at least a few zoonotic viruses. In this review, we cover aspects of bat biology, ecology and evolution that might be relevant in medical investigations and we provide a historical synthesis of some disease outbreaks causally linked to bats. We provide evolutionary-based hypotheses to tentatively explain the viral transmission route through mammalian intermediate hosts and to explain the geographic concentration of most outbreaks, but both are no more than speculations that still require formal assessment. PMID:25742261
Foo, Cecily F; Bennett, Victoria J; Hale, Amanda M; Korstian, Jennifer M; Schildt, Alison J; Williams, Dean A
Although the ultimate causes of high bat fatalities at wind farms are not well understood, several lines of evidence suggest that bats are attracted to wind turbines. One hypothesis is that bats would be attracted to turbines as a foraging resource if the insects that bats prey upon are commonly present on and around the turbine towers. To investigate the role that foraging activity may play in bat fatalities, we conducted a series of surveys at a wind farm in the southern Great Plains of the US from 2011-2016. From acoustic monitoring we recorded foraging activity, including feeding buzzes indicative of prey capture, in the immediate vicinity of turbine towers from all six bat species known to be present at this site. From insect surveys we found Lepidoptera, Coleoptera, and Orthoptera in consistently high proportions over several years suggesting that food resources for bats were consistently available at wind turbines. We used DNA barcoding techniques to assess bat diet composition of (1) stomach contents from 47 eastern red bat ( Lasiurus borealis ) and 24 hoary bat ( Lasiurus cinereus ) carcasses collected in fatality searches, and (2) fecal pellets from 23 eastern red bats that were found on turbine towers, transformers, and tower doors. We found that the majority of the eastern red bat and hoary bat stomachs, the two bat species most commonly found in fatality searches at this site, were full or partially full, indicating that the bats were likely killed while foraging. Although Lepidoptera and Orthoptera dominated the diets of these two bat species, both consumed a range of prey items with individual bats having from one to six insect species in their stomachs at the time of death. The prey items identified from eastern red bat fecal pellets showed similar results. A comparison of the turbine insect community to the diet analysis results revealed that the most abundant insects at wind turbines, including terrestrial insects such as crickets and several
Luiz Augustinho Menezes da Silva
Full Text Available Rabies virus was detected in bats (Molossus molossus from an urban area in the City of Recife, State of Pernambuco, Brazil. Four individuals were found during the day in visible, non-habitual places, lying on the ground, but still alive. No contact occurred with people or animals. Of these, only two were identified; it was not possible to identify two specimens, since they were incinerated prior to identification. Diagnosis was positive by direct immunofluorescence and intracerebral inoculation in mice. This study presents the first instance in which the virus was detected in insectivorous bats in the State of Pernambuco.
Tatag Bagus Putra Prakarsa
Full Text Available Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui diversitas kelelawar penghuni gua di gua Ngerong. Penelitian ini merupakan penelitian Nature Snapshop Experiment (NSE. Penelitian ini dilaksanakan pada bulan November - Desember 2011 di gua Ngerong, Desa Rengel, Kecamatan Rengel, Kabupaten Tuban, Jawa Timur. Penangkapan dilakukan dengan metode tangkap langsung. Penangkapan dilakukan dengan menggunakan misnet dan handnet. Kelelawar diidentifikasi berdasarkan pengukuran morfometri dan ciri morfologi mengacu kunci identifikasi Suyanto, 2001 dan Payne et al., 2000. Seluruh data dianalisis secara deskriptif. Di gua Ngerong terdapat 9 spesies dari 4 famili atau 60% dari total spesies kelelawar penghuni gua di kawasan karst Tuban. Enam spesies anggota Subordo Microchiroptera yang merupakan insectivor dan 3 spesies anggota Subordo Megachiroptera yang merupakan frugivor dan nictivor. Keanekaragaman di gua Ngerong tergolong tinggi dengan nilai Simpson's Diversity Index sebesar 0,76. Tingginya diversitas kelelawar penghuni gua Ngerong berbanding lurus dengan panjang lorong gua Ngerong. gua Ngerong merupakan gua terpanjang di kawasan karst Tuban, dengan panjang lorong mencapai 1800m.kata kunci: Kelelawar (Chiroptera, Diversitas, Gua Ngerong, Biospeleologi, Karst
Wu, Yi; Motokawa, Masaharu; Harada, Masashi; Thong, Vu Dinh; Lin, Liang-Kong; Li, Yu-Chun
Based on 203 specimens belonging to the Rhinolophus "pusillus group" (Mammalia: Chiroptera: Rhinolophidae), univariate and multivariate morphometric analyses using 19 characters were performed to assess the confused species taxonomy. The results indicated that R. pusillus (including calidus, parcus, and szechuanus) in the continental region and Hainan Island of China and "R. cornutus" in Japan are morphologically divergent species. Rhinolophus cornutus should be further split into R. cornutus (including orii, pumilus, and miyakonis) in the main islands of Japan, the Amami and Okinawa Group of the central Ryukyu Archipelago, and Miyako Group of the southern Ryukyus; and R. perditus and R. imaizumii from the Yaeyama Group in the southern Ryukyus. Rhinolophus monoceros from Taiwan is morphologically more similar to species in Japan than to R. pusillus. In addition to R. pusillus, another form that is morphologically similar to species in Japan was recognized from Langzhong in Sichuan Province; this may represent an undescribed species, and further examination is necessary to determine its taxonomic status. Specimens from Guang'an in Sichuan Province, China, are also different from the others, and are characterized by the smallest skull size. Although further studies are required, these specimens were tentatively identified as R. subbadius.
Goldberg, Tony L; Bennett, Andrew J; Kityo, Robert; Kuhn, Jens H; Chapman, Colin A
Bats are natural reservoir hosts of highly virulent pathogens such as Marburg virus, Nipah virus, and SARS coronavirus. However, little is known about the role of bat ectoparasites in transmitting and maintaining such viruses. The intricate relationship between bats and their ectoparasites suggests that ectoparasites might serve as viral vectors, but evidence to date is scant. Bat flies, in particular, are highly specialized obligate hematophagous ectoparasites that incidentally bite humans. Using next-generation sequencing, we discovered a novel ledantevirus (mononegaviral family Rhabdoviridae, genus Ledantevirus) in nycteribiid bat flies infesting pteropodid bats in western Uganda. Mitochondrial DNA analyses revealed that both the bat flies and their bat hosts belong to putative new species. The coding-complete genome of the new virus, named Kanyawara virus (KYAV), is only distantly related to that of its closest known relative, Mount Elgon bat virus, and was found at high titers in bat flies but not in blood or on mucosal surfaces of host bats. Viral genome analysis indicates unusually low CpG dinucleotide depletion in KYAV compared to other ledanteviruses and rhabdovirus groups, with KYAV displaying values similar to rhabdoviruses of arthropods. Our findings highlight the possibility of a yet-to-be-discovered diversity of potentially pathogenic viruses in bat ectoparasites.
Wu, Zhiqiang; Yang, Li; Ren, Xianwen; He, Guimei; Zhang, Junpeng; Yang, Jian; Qian, Zhaohui; Dong, Jie; Sun, Lilian; Zhu, Yafang; Du, Jiang; Yang, Fan; Zhang, Shuyi; Jin, Qi
Studies have demonstrated that ~60%-80% of emerging infectious diseases (EIDs) in humans originated from wild life. Bats are natural reservoirs of a large variety of viruses, including many important zoonotic viruses that cause severe diseases in humans and domestic animals. However, the understanding of the viral population and the ecological diversity residing in bat populations is unclear, which complicates the determination of the origins of certain EIDs. Here, using bats as a typical wildlife reservoir model, virome analysis was conducted based on pharyngeal and anal swab samples of 4440 bat individuals of 40 major bat species throughout China. The purpose of this study was to survey the ecological and biological diversities of viruses residing in these bat species, to investigate the presence of potential bat-borne zoonotic viruses and to evaluate the impacts of these viruses on public health. The data obtained in this study revealed an overview of the viral community present in these bat samples. Many novel bat viruses were reported for the first time and some bat viruses closely related to known human or animal pathogens were identified. This genetic evidence provides new clues in the search for the origin or evolution pattern of certain viruses, such as coronaviruses and noroviruses. These data offer meaningful ecological information for predicting and tracing wildlife-originated EIDs.
Kokurewicz, Tomasz; Ogórek, Rafał; Pusz, Wojciech; Matkowski, Krzysztof
The "Nietoperek" bat reserve located in Western Poland is one of the largest bat hibernation sites in the European Union with nearly 38,000 bats from 12 species. Nietoperek is part of a built underground fortification system from WWII. The aims of the study were (1) to determine the fungal species composition and changes during hibernation season in relation to bat number and microclimatic conditions and (2) evaluate the potential threat of fungi for bat assemblages and humans visiting the complex. Airborne fungi were collected in the beginning, middle and end of hibernation period (9 November 2013 and 17 January and 15 March 2014) in 12 study sites, one outside and 11 inside the complex. Ambient temperature (T a) and relative humidity (RH) were measured by the use of data loggers, and species composition of bats was recorded from the study sites. The collision method (Air Ideal 3P) sampler was used to detect 34 species of airborne fungi including Pseudogymnoascus destructans (Pd). The density of airborne fungi isolated from the outdoor air samples varied from 102 to 242 CFU/1 m(3) of air and from 12 to 1198 CFU in the underground air samples. There was a positive relationship between number of bats and the concentration of fungi. The concentration of airborne fungi increased with the increase of bats number. Analysis of other possible ways of spore transport to the underground indicated that the number of bats was the primary factor determining the number of fungal spores in that hibernation site. Microclimatic conditions where Pd was found (median 8.7 °C, min-max 6.1-9.9 °C and 100 %, min-max 77.5-100.0 %) were preferred by hibernating Myotis myotis and Myotis daubentonii; therefore, these species are most probably especially prone to infection by this fungi species. The spores of fungi found in the underground can be pathogenic for humans and animals, especially for immunocompromised persons, even though their concentrations did not exceed limits and
Greif, Stefan; Zsebők, Sándor; Schmieder, Daniela; Siemers, Björn M
Sensory traps pose a considerable and often fatal risk for animals, leading them to misinterpret their environment. Bats predominantly rely on their echolocation system to forage, orientate, and navigate. We found that bats can mistake smooth, vertical surfaces as clear flight paths, repeatedly colliding with them, likely as a result of their acoustic mirror properties. The probability of collision is influenced by the number of echolocation calls and by the amount of time spent in front of the surface. The echolocation call analysis corroborates that bats perceive smooth, vertical surfaces as open flyways. Reporting on occurrences with different species in the wild, we argue that it is necessary to more closely monitor potentially dangerous locations with acoustic mirror properties (such as glass fronts) to assess the true frequency of fatalities around these sensory traps. Copyright © 2017 The Authors, some rights reserved; exclusive licensee American Association for the Advancement of Science. No claim to original U.S. Government Works.
Salim Mattar V
Full Text Available Bats are a group of extraordinarily specialized vertebrates and are the only mammals capable of flying; their nocturnal habits have stigmatized them to such an extent that in the Hollywood film productions Count Dracula of the Carpathian Mountains was considered the first vampire man; even before Batman himself. In ecosystems, bats are actors with leading roles, 70% of them are insectivores, pollinators, or frugivorous and contribute to the regeneration of forests by disseminating seeds. Some are even fish hunters. Although their large population is mostly distributed in the tropics, they are cosmopolitan and are also found in the Northern Hemisphere. The population of these bats has been displaced in the South American tropics, due to, among many factors, illegal mining, pesticide spraying, indiscriminate deforestation to provide pasture for cattle, and the invasion of their habitats by humans (1.
Wang, Daryi; Oakley, Todd; Mower, Jeffrey; Shimmin, Lawrence C; Yim, Sokchea; Honeycutt, Rodney L; Tsao, Hsienshao; Li, Wen-Hsiung
The two suborders of bats, Megachiroptera (megabats) and Microchiroptera (microbats), use different sensory modalities for perceiving their environment. Megabats are crepuscular and rely on a well-developed eyes and visual pathway, whereas microbats occupy a nocturnal niche and use acoustic orientation or echolocation more than vision as the major means of perceiving their environment. In view of the differences associated with their sensory systems, we decided to investigate the function and evolution of color vision (opsin genes) in these two suborders of bats. The middle/long wavelength (M/L) and short wavelength (S) opsin genes were sequenced from two frugivorous species of megabats, Haplonycteris fischeri and Pteropus dasymallus formosus, and one insectivorous species of microbat, Myotis velifer. Contrary to the situation in primates, where many nocturnal species have lost the functional S opsin gene, both crepuscular and strictly nocturnal species of bats that we examined have functional M/L and S opsin genes. Surprisingly, the S opsin in these bats may be sensitive to UV light, which is relatively more abundant at dawn and at dusk. The M/L opsin in these bats appears to be the L type, which is sensitive to red and may be helpful for identifying fruits among leaves or for other purposes. Most interestingly, H. fischeri has a recent duplication of the M/L opsin gene, representing to date the only known case of opsin gene duplication in non-primate mammals. Some of these observations are unexpected and may provide insights into the effect of nocturnal life on the evolution of opsin genes in mammals and the evolution of the life history traits of bats in general.
Moss, Cynthia F; Chiu, Chen; Surlykke, Annemarie
Echolocation operates through adaptive sensorimotor systems that collectively enable the bat to localize and track sonar objects as it flies. The features of sonar signals used by a bat to probe its surroundings determine the information available to its acoustic imaging system. In turn, the bat......'s perception of a complex scene guides its active adjustments in the features of subsequent sonar vocalizations. Here, we propose that the bat's active vocal-motor behaviors play directly into its representation of a dynamic auditory scene....