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Sample records for bats avoid radar

  1. Bats avoid radar installations: could electromagnetic fields deter bats from colliding with wind turbines?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barry Nicholls

    Full Text Available Large numbers of bats are killed by collisions with wind turbines, and there is at present no direct method of reducing or preventing this mortality. We therefore determine whether the electromagnetic radiation associated with radar installations can elicit an aversive behavioural response in foraging bats. Four civil air traffic control (ATC radar stations, three military ATC radars and three weather radars were selected, each surrounded by heterogeneous habitat. Three sampling points matched for habitat type and structure, dominant vegetation species, altitude and surrounding land class were located at increasing distances from each station. A portable electromagnetic field meter measured the field strength of the radar at three distances from the source: in close proximity (2 volts/metre, an intermediate point within line of sight of the radar (200-400 m and with an EMF strength 400 m and registering an EMF of zero v/m. At each radar station bat activity was recorded three times with three independent sampling points monitored on each occasion, resulting in a total of 90 samples, 30 of which were obtained within each field strength category. At these sampling points, bat activity was recorded using an automatic bat recording station, operated from sunset to sunrise. Bat activity was significantly reduced in habitats exposed to an EMF strength of greater than 2 v/m when compared to matched sites registering EMF levels of zero. The reduction in bat activity was not significantly different at lower levels of EMF strength within 400 m of the radar. We predict that the reduction in bat activity within habitats exposed to electromagnetic radiation may be a result of thermal induction and an increased risk of hyperthermia.

  2. Sensorimotor Model of Obstacle Avoidance in Echolocating Bats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dieter Vanderelst

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Bat echolocation is an ability consisting of many subtasks such as navigation, prey detection and object recognition. Understanding the echolocation capabilities of bats comes down to isolating the minimal set of acoustic cues needed to complete each task. For some tasks, the minimal cues have already been identified. However, while a number of possible cues have been suggested, little is known about the minimal cues supporting obstacle avoidance in echolocating bats. In this paper, we propose that the Interaural Intensity Difference (IID and travel time of the first millisecond of the echo train are sufficient cues for obstacle avoidance. We describe a simple control algorithm based on the use of these cues in combination with alternating ear positions modeled after the constant frequency bat Rhinolophus rouxii. Using spatial simulations (2D and 3D, we show that simple phonotaxis can steer a bat clear from obstacles without performing a reconstruction of the 3D layout of the scene. As such, this paper presents the first computationally explicit explanation for obstacle avoidance validated in complex simulated environments. Based on additional simulations modelling the FM bat Phyllostomus discolor, we conjecture that the proposed cues can be exploited by constant frequency (CF bats and frequency modulated (FM bats alike. We hypothesize that using a low level yet robust cue for obstacle avoidance allows bats to comply with the hard real-time constraints of this basic behaviour.

  3. Assessing collision risk for birds and bats : radar survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brunet, R. [Genivar SEC, Sherbrooke, PQ (Canada)

    2010-07-01

    This PowerPoint presentation described some of the inventories and instrumentation available for monitoring winged fauna in and around wind farms. In addition to visual observations, bird calls and songs can be recorded to determine the amount and different types of birds located at wind farm sites. Radio-telemetry devices are also used to evaluate bird activities, and nest searches are conducted to determine the amount of eggs or young birds that will soon add to the bird population. Between 90 and 100 percent of birds and bats migrate at night. Acoustic radar, Doppler radar, and maritime surveillance radar instruments are used to monitor night-time activities in wind farm locations. Doppler radar is also used to detect bird and bat migration corridors. Screen-shots of various radar interfaces were presented. tabs., figs.

  4. Doppler micro sense and avoid radar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorwara, Ashok; Molchanov, Pavlo; Asmolova, Olga

    2015-10-01

    There is a need for small Sense and Avoid (SAA) systems for small and micro Unmanned Aerial Systems (UAS) to avoid collisions with obstacles and other aircraft. The proposed SAA systems will give drones the ability to "see" close up and give them the agility to maneuver through tight areas. Doppler radar is proposed for use in this sense and avoid system because in contrast to optical or infrared (IR) systems Doppler can work in more harsh conditions such as at dusk, and in rain and snow. And in contrast to ultrasound based systems, Doppler can better sense small sized obstacles such as wires and it can provide a sensing range from a few inches to several miles. An SAA systems comprised of Doppler radar modules and an array of directional antennas that are distributed around the perimeter of the drone can cover the entire sky. These modules are designed so that they can provide the direction to the obstacle and simultaneously generate an alarm signal if the obstacle enters within the SAA system's adjustable "Protection Border". The alarm signal alerts the drone's autopilot to automatically initiate an avoidance maneuver. A series of Doppler radar modules with different ranges, angles of view and transmitting power have been designed for drones of different sizes and applications. The proposed Doppler radar micro SAA system has simple circuitry, works from a 5 volt source and has low power consumption. It is light weight, inexpensive and it can be used for a variety of small unmanned aircraft.

  5. Session: Avoiding, minimizing, and mitigating avian and bat impacts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thelander, Carl; Kerlinger, Paul

    2004-09-01

    This session at the Wind Energy and Birds/Bats workshop consisted of two presentations followed by a discussion/question answer period. The session addressed a variety of questions related to avoiding, minimizing, and mitigating the avian and bat impacts of wind power development including: what has been learned from operating turbines and mitigating impacts where they are unavoidable, such as at Altamont Pass WRA, and should there be mitigation measures such as habitat creation or land conservation where impacts occur. Other impact minimization and mitigation approaches discussed included: location and siting evaluations; options for construction and operation of wind facilities; turbine lighting; and the physical alignment/orientation. Titles and authors of the presentations were: 'Bird Fatalities in the Altamont Pass Wind Resource Area: A Case Study, Part II' by Carl Thelander and 'Prevention and Mitigation of Avian Impacts at Wind Power Facilities' by Paul Kerlinger.

  6. Sense and avoid radar for micro/nano robots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molchanov, Pavlo A.; Asmolova, Olha

    2014-10-01

    Revolutionary new fly eye radar sensor technologies based on an array of directional antennas is eliminating the need for a mechanical scanning antenna or complicated phase processor. Proposed sense and avoid radar based on fly eye radar technology can be very small, provides continuous surveillance of entire sky (360 degree by azimuth and elevation) and can be applied for separate or swarm of micro/nano UAS or UGS. Monopulse technology increases bearing accuracy several folds and radar can be multi-functional, multi-frequency. Fly eye micro-radars are inexpensive, can be expendable. Prototype of sense and avoid radar with two directional antennas has been designed and bench tested.

  7. See-and-Avoid Collision Avoidance Using ADS-B Signal and Radar Sensing Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — IAI proposes an innovative collision avoidance radar and communication technology to detect and track both cooperative and non-cooperative targets. The system...

  8. Radar-based collision avoidance for unmanned surface vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuang, Jia-yuan; Zhang, Lei; Zhao, Shi-qi; Cao, Jian; Wang, Bo; Sun, Han-bing

    2016-12-01

    Unmanned surface vehicles (USVs) have become a focus of research because of their extensive applications. To ensure safety and reliability and to perform complex tasks autonomously, USVs are required to possess accurate perception of the environment and effective collision avoidance capabilities. To achieve these, investigation into realtime marine radar target detection and autonomous collision avoidance technologies is required, aiming at solving the problems of noise jamming, uneven brightness, target loss, and blind areas in marine radar images. These technologies should also satisfy the requirements of real-time and reliability related to high navigation speeds of USVs. Therefore, this study developed an embedded collision avoidance system based on the marine radar, investigated a highly real-time target detection method which contains adaptive smoothing algorithm and robust segmentation algorithm, developed a stable and reliable dynamic local environment model to ensure the safety of USV navigation, and constructed a collision avoidance algorithm based on velocity obstacle (V-obstacle) which adjusts the USV's heading and speed in real-time. Sea trials results in multi-obstacle avoidance firstly demonstrate the effectiveness and efficiency of the proposed avoidance system, and then verify its great adaptability and relative stability when a USV sailing in a real and complex marine environment. The obtained results will improve the intelligent level of USV and guarantee the safety of USV independent sailing.

  9. Optimizing sampling design to deal with mist-net avoidance in Amazonian birds and bats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Tiago Marques

    Full Text Available Mist netting is a widely used technique to sample bird and bat assemblages. However, captures often decline with time because animals learn and avoid the locations of nets. This avoidance or net shyness can substantially decrease sampling efficiency. We quantified the day-to-day decline in captures of Amazonian birds and bats with mist nets set at the same location for four consecutive days. We also evaluated how net avoidance influences the efficiency of surveys under different logistic scenarios using re-sampling techniques. Net avoidance caused substantial declines in bird and bat captures, although more accentuated in the latter. Most of the decline occurred between the first and second days of netting: 28% in birds and 47% in bats. Captures of commoner species were more affected. The numbers of species detected also declined. Moving nets daily to minimize the avoidance effect increased captures by 30% in birds and 70% in bats. However, moving the location of nets may cause a reduction in netting time and captures. When moving the nets caused the loss of one netting day it was no longer advantageous to move the nets frequently. In bird surveys that could even decrease the number of individuals captured and species detected. Net avoidance can greatly affect sampling efficiency but adjustments in survey design can minimize this. Whenever nets can be moved without losing netting time and the objective is to capture many individuals, they should be moved daily. If the main objective is to survey species present then nets should still be moved for bats, but not for birds. However, if relocating nets causes a significant loss of netting time, moving them to reduce effects of shyness will not improve sampling efficiency in either group. Overall, our findings can improve the design of mist netting sampling strategies in other tropical areas.

  10. Optimizing sampling design to deal with mist-net avoidance in Amazonian birds and bats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques, João Tiago; Ramos Pereira, Maria J; Marques, Tiago A; Santos, Carlos David; Santana, Joana; Beja, Pedro; Palmeirim, Jorge M

    2013-01-01

    Mist netting is a widely used technique to sample bird and bat assemblages. However, captures often decline with time because animals learn and avoid the locations of nets. This avoidance or net shyness can substantially decrease sampling efficiency. We quantified the day-to-day decline in captures of Amazonian birds and bats with mist nets set at the same location for four consecutive days. We also evaluated how net avoidance influences the efficiency of surveys under different logistic scenarios using re-sampling techniques. Net avoidance caused substantial declines in bird and bat captures, although more accentuated in the latter. Most of the decline occurred between the first and second days of netting: 28% in birds and 47% in bats. Captures of commoner species were more affected. The numbers of species detected also declined. Moving nets daily to minimize the avoidance effect increased captures by 30% in birds and 70% in bats. However, moving the location of nets may cause a reduction in netting time and captures. When moving the nets caused the loss of one netting day it was no longer advantageous to move the nets frequently. In bird surveys that could even decrease the number of individuals captured and species detected. Net avoidance can greatly affect sampling efficiency but adjustments in survey design can minimize this. Whenever nets can be moved without losing netting time and the objective is to capture many individuals, they should be moved daily. If the main objective is to survey species present then nets should still be moved for bats, but not for birds. However, if relocating nets causes a significant loss of netting time, moving them to reduce effects of shyness will not improve sampling efficiency in either group. Overall, our findings can improve the design of mist netting sampling strategies in other tropical areas.

  11. Bats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naturescope, 1986

    1986-01-01

    Presents information about bats, including definitions and descriptions of the characteristics of bats. Provides teaching activities such as "Bat and Math,""A Bat Like That,""Bat Party,""Ears in the Dark," and "The Big Bat Mystery." Contains reproducible handouts and quizzes. (TW)

  12. Forward imaging for obstacle avoidance using ultrawideband synthetic aperture radar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Lam H.; Wong, David C.; Stanton, Brian; Smith, Gregory

    2003-09-01

    In support of the Army vision for increased mobility, survivability, and lethality, we are investigating the use of ultra-wideband (UWB) synthetic aperture radar (SAR) technology to enhance unmanned ground vehicle missions. The ability of UWB radar technology to detect objects concealed by foilage could provide an important obstacle avoidance capability for robotic vehicles. This would improve the speed and maneuverability of these vehicles and consequently increase the probability of survivability of U.S. forces. This technology would address the particular challenges that confront robotic vehicles such as large rocks hidden in tall grass and voids such as ditches and bodies of water. ARL has designed and constructed an instrumentation-grade low frequency, UWB synthetic aperture radar for evaluation of the target signatures and underlying phenomenology of stationary tactical targets concealed by foilage and objects buried in the ground. The radar (named BoomSAR) is installed in teh basekt of a 30-ton boom lift and can be operated while the entire boom lift is driven forward slowly, with the boom arm extended as high as 45 m to generate a synthetic aperture. In this paper, we investigate the potential use of the UWB radar in the forward imaging configuration. The paper describes the forward imaging radar and test setup at Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland. We present imagery of "positive" obstacles such as trees, fences, wires, mines, etc., as well as "negative" obstacles such as ditches. Imagery of small targets such as plastic mines is also included. We provide eletromagnetic simulations of forward SAR imagery of plastic mines and compare that to the measurement data.

  13. Multibeam monopulse radar for airborne sense and avoid system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorwara, Ashok; Molchanov, Pavlo

    2016-10-01

    The multibeam monopulse radar for Airborne Based Sense and Avoid (ABSAA) system concept is the next step in the development of passive monopulse direction finder proposed by Stephen E. Lipsky in the 80s. In the proposed system the multibeam monopulse radar with an array of directional antennas is positioned on a small aircaraft or Unmanned Aircraft System (UAS). Radar signals are simultaneously transmitted and received by multiple angle shifted directional antennas with overlapping antenna patterns and the entire sky, 360° for both horizontal and vertical coverage. Digitizing of amplitude and phase of signals in separate directional antennas relative to reference signals provides high-accuracy high-resolution range and azimuth measurement and allows to record real time amplitude and phase of reflected from non-cooperative aircraft signals. High resolution range and azimuth measurement provides minimal tracking errors in both position and velocity of non-cooperative aircraft and determined by sampling frequency of the digitizer. High speed sampling with high-accuracy processor clock provides high resolution phase/time domain measurement even for directional antennas with wide Field of View (FOV). Fourier transform (frequency domain processing) of received radar signals provides signatures and dramatically increases probability of detection for non-cooperative aircraft. Steering of transmitting power and integration, correlation period of received reflected signals for separate antennas (directions) allows dramatically decreased ground clutter for low altitude flights. An open architecture, modular construction allows the combination of a radar sensor with Automatic Dependent Surveillance - Broadcast (ADS-B), electro-optic, acoustic sensors.

  14. A bat inspired technique for clutter reduction in radar sounder systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrer, L.; Bruzzone, L.

    2016-10-01

    Radar Sounders are valuable instruments for subsurface investigation. They are widely employed for the study of planetary bodies around the solar system. Due to their wide antenna beam pattern, off-nadir surface reflections (i.e. clutter) of the transmitted signal can compete with echoes coming from the subsurface thus masking them. Different strategies have been adopted for clutter mitigation. However, none of them proved to be the final solution for this specific problem. Bats are very well known for their ability in discriminating between a prey and unwanted clutter (e.g. foliage) by effectively employing their sonar. According to recent studies, big brown bats can discriminate clutter by transmitting two different carrier frequencies. Most interestingly, there are many striking analogies between the characteristics of the bat sonar and the one of a radar sounder. Among the most important ones, they share the same nadir acquisition geometry and transmitted signal type (i.e. linear frequency modulation). In this paper, we explore the feasibility of exploiting frequency diversity for the purpose of clutter discrimination in radar sounding by mimicking unique bats signal processing strategies. Accordingly, we propose a frequency diversity clutter reduction method based on specific mathematical conditions that, if verified, allow the disambiguation between the clutter and the subsurface signal to be performed. These analytic conditions depend on factors such as difference in central carrier frequencies, surface roughness and subsurface material properties. The method performance has been evaluated by different simulations of meaningful acquisition scenarios which confirm its clutter reduction effectiveness.

  15. No evidence for spectral jamming avoidance in echolocation behavior of foraging pipistrelle bats

    OpenAIRE

    Simone Götze; Jens C Koblitz; Annette Denzinger; Hans-Ulrich Schnitzler

    2016-01-01

    Frequency shifts in signals of bats flying near conspecifics have been interpreted as a spectral jamming avoidance response (JAR). However, several prerequisites supporting a JAR hypothesis have not been controlled for in previous studies. We recorded flight and echolocation behavior of foraging Pipistrellus pipistrellus while flying alone and with a conspecific and tested whether frequency changes were due to a spectral JAR with an increased frequency difference, or whether changes could be ...

  16. No evidence for spectral jamming avoidance in echolocation behavior of foraging pipistrelle bats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Götze, Simone; Koblitz, Jens C; Denzinger, Annette; Schnitzler, Hans-Ulrich

    2016-08-09

    Frequency shifts in signals of bats flying near conspecifics have been interpreted as a spectral jamming avoidance response (JAR). However, several prerequisites supporting a JAR hypothesis have not been controlled for in previous studies. We recorded flight and echolocation behavior of foraging Pipistrellus pipistrellus while flying alone and with a conspecific and tested whether frequency changes were due to a spectral JAR with an increased frequency difference, or whether changes could be explained by other reactions. P. pipistrellus reacted to conspecifics with a reduction of sound duration and often also pulse interval, accompanied by an increase in terminal frequency. This reaction is typical of behavioral situations where targets of interest have captured the bat's attention and initiated a more detailed exploration. All observed frequency changes were predicted by the attention reaction alone, and do not support the JAR hypothesis of increased frequency separation. Reaction distances of 1-11 m suggest that the attention response may be elicited either by detection of the conspecific by short range active echolocation or by long range passive acoustic detection of echolocation calls.

  17. Bats' avoidance of real and virtual objects: implications for the sonar coding of object size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goerlitz, Holger R; Genzel, Daria; Wiegrebe, Lutz

    2012-01-01

    Fast movement in complex environments requires the controlled evasion of obstacles. Sonar-based obstacle evasion involves analysing the acoustic features of object-echoes (e.g., echo amplitude) that correlate with this object's physical features (e.g., object size). Here, we investigated sonar-based obstacle evasion in bats emerging in groups from their day roost. Using video-recordings, we first show that the bats evaded a small real object (ultrasonic loudspeaker) despite the familiar flight situation. Secondly, we studied the sonar coding of object size by adding a larger virtual object. The virtual object echo was generated by real-time convolution of the bats' calls with the acoustic impulse response of a large spherical disc and played from the loudspeaker. Contrary to the real object, the virtual object did not elicit evasive flight, despite the spectro-temporal similarity of real and virtual object echoes. Yet, their spatial echo features differ: virtual object echoes lack the spread of angles of incidence from which the echoes of large objects arrive at a bat's ears (sonar aperture). We hypothesise that this mismatch of spectro-temporal and spatial echo features caused the lack of virtual object evasion and suggest that the sonar aperture of object echoscapes contributes to the sonar coding of object size.

  18. The truth about chickens and bats: ambiguity avoidance distinguishes types of polysemy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabagliati, Hugh; Snedeker, Jesse

    2013-07-01

    Words mean different things in different contexts, a phenomenon called polysemy. People talk about lines of both people and poetry, and about both long distances and long times. Polysemy lets a limited vocabulary capture a great variety of experiences, while highlighting commonalities. But how is this achieved? Are polysemous senses contextually driven modifications of core meanings, or must each sense be memorized separately? We show that participants' ability to avoid referentially ambiguous descriptions of pictures named by polysemous words provides evidence for both possibilities. When senses followed a regular pattern (e.g., animals and the foodstuffs derived from them; noisy chicken, tasty chicken), participants avoided using ambiguous labels in referentially ambiguous situations (e.g., both types of chicken were present), a result indicating that they noticed a common meaning. But when senses were idiosyncratically related (e.g., sheet of glass, drinking glass), participants frequently produced ambiguous labels, a result indicating that the meanings were separately stored. We discuss implications for the relationship between word meanings and concepts.

  19. FMCW radar for the sense function of sense and avoid systems onboard UAVs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Itcia, E.; Wasselin, J.P.; Mazuel, S.; Otten, M.P.G.; Huizing, A.G.

    2013-01-01

    Rockwell Collins France (RCF) radar department is currently developing, in close collaboration with TNO in The Hague, The Netherlands, a Frequency Modulated Continuous Wave (FMCW) radar sensor dedicated to Obstacle Warning function and potentially to air traffic detection. The sensor combines flood

  20. Obstacle avoidance and concealed target detection using the Army Research Lab ultra-wideband synchronous impulse reconstruction (UWB SIRE) forward imaging radar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Lam; Wong, David; Ressler, Marc; Koenig, Francois; Stanton, Brian; Smith, Gregory; Sichina, Jeffrey; Kappra, Karl

    2007-04-01

    The U.S. Army Research Laboratory (ARL), as part of a mission and customer funded exploratory program, has developed a new low-frequency, ultra-wideband (UWB) synthetic aperture radar (SAR) for forward imaging to support the Army's vision of an autonomous navigation system for robotic ground vehicles. These unmanned vehicles, equipped with an array of imaging sensors, will be tasked to help detect man-made obstacles such as concealed targets, enemy minefields, and booby traps, as well as other natural obstacles such as ditches, and bodies of water. The ability of UWB radar technology to help detect concealed objects has been documented in the past and could provide an important obstacle avoidance capability for autonomous navigation systems, which would improve the speed and maneuverability of these vehicles and consequently increase the survivability of the U. S. forces on the battlefield. One of the primary features of the radar is the ability to collect and process data at combat pace in an affordable, compact, and lightweight package. To achieve this, the radar is based on the synchronous impulse reconstruction (SIRE) technique where several relatively slow and inexpensive analog-to-digital (A/D) converters are used to sample the wide bandwidth of the radar signals. We conducted an experiment this winter at Aberdeen Proving Ground (APG) to support the phenomenological studies of the backscatter from positive and negative obstacles for autonomous robotic vehicle navigation, as well as the detection of concealed targets of interest to the Army. In this paper, we briefly describe the UWB SIRE radar and the test setup in the experiment. We will also describe the signal processing and the forward imaging techniques used in the experiment. Finally, we will present imagery of man-made obstacles such as barriers, concertina wires, and mines.

  1. Ground Radar and Guided Munitions: Increased Oversight and Cooperation Can Help Avoid Duplication among the Services’ Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-01

    mandatory . GAO believes the recommendation remains valid as discussed in its report. DOD agreed with the second recommendation. What GAO Found...designation mandatory for all new ground radar programs. Hence, we still believe without this designation for all new ground radar programs, the JROC and...Obtaining Copies of GAO Reports and Testimony Order by Phone Connect with GAO To Report Fraud, Waste, and Abuse in Federal Programs Congressional Relations Public Affairs Please Print on Recycled Paper.

  2. Radar Landmass Simulation Computer Programming (Interim Report).

    Science.gov (United States)

    RADAR SCANNING, TERRAIN), (*NAVAL TRAINING, RADAR OPERATORS), (*FLIGHT SIMULATORS, TERRAIN AVOIDANCE), (* COMPUTER PROGRAMMING , INSTRUCTION MANUALS), PLAN POSITION INDICATORS, REAL TIME, DISPLAY SYSTEMS, RADAR IMAGES, SIMULATION

  3. The Perceived-Threat Behavioral Approach Test (PT-BAT): Measuring Avoidance in High-, Mid-, and Low-Spider-Fearful Participants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cochrane, Andy; Barnes-Holmes, Dermot; Barnes-Holmes, Yvonne

    2008-01-01

    One hundred twenty female participants, with varying levels of spider fear were asked to complete an automated 8-step perceived-threat behavioral approach test (PT-BAT). The steps involved asking the participants if they were willing to put their hand into a number of opaque jars with an incrementally increasing risk of contact with a spider (none…

  4. Active Collision Avoidance for Planetary Landers Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Advancements in radar technology have resulted in commercial, automotive collision avoidance radars. These radar systems typically use 37GHz or 77GHz interferometry...

  5. How do tiger moths jam bat sonar?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corcoran, Aaron J; Barber, Jesse R; Hristov, Nickolay I; Conner, William E

    2011-07-15

    The tiger moth Bertholdia trigona is the only animal in nature known to defend itself by jamming the sonar of its predators - bats. In this study we analyzed the three-dimensional flight paths and echolocation behavior of big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus) attacking B. trigona in a flight room over seven consecutive nights to determine the acoustic mechanism of the sonar-jamming defense. Three mechanisms have been proposed: (1) the phantom echo hypothesis, which states that bats misinterpret moth clicks as echoes; (2) the ranging interference hypothesis, which states that moth clicks degrade the bats' precision in determining target distance; and (3) the masking hypothesis, which states that moth clicks mask the moth echoes entirely, making the moth temporarily invisible. On nights one and two of the experiment, the bats appeared startled by the clicks; however, on nights three through seven, the bats frequently missed their prey by a distance predicted by the ranging interference hypothesis (∼15-20 cm). Three-dimensional simulations show that bats did not avoid phantom targets, and the bats' ability to track clicking prey contradicts the predictions of the masking hypothesis. The moth clicks also forced the bats to reverse their stereotyped pattern of echolocation emissions during attack, even while bats continued pursuit of the moths. This likely further hinders the bats' ability to track prey. These results have implications for the evolution of sonar jamming in tiger moths, and we suggest evolutionary pathways by which sonar jamming may have evolved from other tiger moth defense mechanisms.

  6. Ultraviolet vision may be widespread in bats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorresen, P. Marcos; Cryan, Paul; Dalton, David C.; Wolf, Sandy; Bonaccorso, Frank

    2015-01-01

    Insectivorous bats are well known for their abilities to find and pursue flying insect prey at close range using echolocation, but they also rely heavily on vision. For example, at night bats use vision to orient across landscapes, avoid large obstacles, and locate roosts. Although lacking sharp visual acuity, the eyes of bats evolved to function at very low levels of illumination. Recent evidence based on genetics, immunohistochemistry, and laboratory behavioral trials indicated that many bats can see ultraviolet light (UV), at least at illumination levels similar to or brighter than those before twilight. Despite this growing evidence for potentially widespread UV vision in bats, the prevalence of UV vision among bats remains unknown and has not been studied outside of the laboratory. We used a Y-maze to test whether wild-caught bats could see reflected UV light and whether such UV vision functions at the dim lighting conditions typically experienced by night-flying bats. Seven insectivorous species of bats, representing five genera and three families, showed a statistically significant ‘escape-toward-the-light’ behavior when placed in the Y-maze. Our results provide compelling evidence of widespread dim-light UV vision in bats.

  7. Bats and offshore wind turbines studied in southern Scandinavia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahlen, Ingemar; Bach, Lothar; Baagoee, Hans J.; Pettersson, Jan

    2007-07-15

    A pilot study 2002-2003 at turbines on land showed that certain locations in the landscape could explain some of the casualty risks and the main reasons for collisions were found. During the 2005 introductory studies and in the project 2006 on bats in offshore areas in Kalmarsund we could confirm earlier known flyways from coastal points and found an extensive activity of passing migrants but also of resident species coming from various directions to areas with an abundance of insects. Observations were made at Utgrunden and Yttre Stengrund in Kalmarsund in the Baltic Sea and in Oeresund between Sweden and Denmark. The observers onboard the boats and at the coastal points where bats take off used ultrasound detectors, strong portable spotlights and at special times also thermal camera. Boxes for automatic recording of bats were used on land, were placed on the turbines, and on the boat's cap. These methods resulted in a total of 12,354 observations of bats, 3,830 over the sea and 8,524 on land. Bats fly over the sea in winds up to about 10 m/s, a major part of the activity took place at wind speeds less than 5 m/s. Bats of 10 species were observed on the open sea and all of them were foraging at suitable weather conditions, which means calm weather or light breeze. The bats did not avoid the turbines. On the contrary they stayed for shorter or longer periods hunting close to the windmills because of the accumulation of flying insects. Hunting close to the blades was observed, why the risk of colliding might be comparable to land-based turbines. Bats also used wind turbines for resting. Insects were collected at places and times when bats were observed feeding. Chironomids were dominating, but we also found many other flying species of other insect groups. Insects, but probably also crustaceans, were caught by bats in the water surface. Some terrestrial species occurred among the insects and spiders that were drifting in the air. At times we suppose that their

  8. Antioxidant Defenses in the Brains of Bats during Hibernation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Qiuyuan; Ge, Hanxiao; Liao, Chen-Chong; Liu, Di; Zhang, Shuyi; Pan, Yi-Hsuan

    2016-01-01

    Hibernation is a strategy used by some mammals to survive a cold winter. Small hibernating mammals, such as squirrels and hamsters, use species- and tissue-specific antioxidant defenses to cope with oxidative insults during hibernation. Little is known about antioxidant responses and their regulatory mechanisms in hibernating bats. We found that the total level of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive nitrogen species (RNS) in the brain of each of the two distantly related hibernating bats M. ricketti and R. ferrumequinum at arousal was lower than that at torpid or active state. We also found that the levels of malondialdehyde (product of lipid peroxidation) of the two hibernating species of bats were significantly lower than those of non-hibernating bats R. leschenaultia and C. sphinx. This observation suggests that bats maintain a basal level of ROS/RNS that does no harm to the brain during hibernation. Results of Western blotting showed that hibernating bats expressed higher amounts of antioxidant proteins than non-hibernating bats and that M. ricketti bats upregulated the expression of some enzymes to overcome oxidative stresses, such as superoxide dismutase, glutathione reductase, and catalase. In contrast, R. ferrumequinum bats maintained a relatively high level of superoxide dismutase 2, glutathione reductase, and thioredoxin-2 throughout the three different states of hibernation cycles. The levels of glutathione (GSH) were higher in M. ricketti bats than in R. ferrumequinum bats and were significantly elevated in R. ferrumequinum bats after torpor. These data suggest that M. ricketti bats use mainly antioxidant enzymes and R. ferrumequinum bats rely on both enzymes and low molecular weight antioxidants (e.g., glutathione) to avoid oxidative stresses during arousal. Furthermore, Nrf2 and FOXOs play major roles in the regulation of antioxidant defenses in the brains of bats during hibernation. Our study revealed strategies used by bats against oxidative

  9. Canine tooth wear in captive little brown bats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, D.R.

    1980-01-01

    Upper canine teeth of little brown bats Myotis lucifugus lucifugus held in stainless steel wire mesh cages underwent severe wear which exceeded that observed previously in caged big brown bats, Eptesicus fuscus fuscus. This suggests a relationship between amount of wear and size of the caged bats with damage increasing as size decreases. Rapid wear of canine teeth by little brown bats resembled that observed in big brown bats in that it was limited to the first 2 weeks of captivity. This result indicates a universal interval for acclimation to cage conditions among vespertilionid bats. Dietary toxicants DDE and PCB did not affect the extent of wear. If bats are to be released to the wild, confinement in wire mesh cages should be avoided.

  10. Design of 24 GHz automotive collision avoidance radar and intermediate frequency signal processing circuit%24 GHz车载防撞雷达及中频信号处理电路设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜兴; 刘涛

    2014-01-01

    介绍了 FMCW 雷达测距、测速原理和系统结构;并针对24 GHz 线性调频连续波汽车防撞雷达系统的信号处理问题,对雷达后端中频信号处理电路进行了相关的研究及实现。设计了相应的滤波电路、增益控制放大电路,并取得了良好的效果。该设计提高了防撞雷达系统的测量精度和距离,对汽车主动安全性能起到一定积极作用。%The principle of the measurement of the distance and velocity of the FMCW radar and the structure of the system are described in this paper. To solve the problems of the signal processing of the 24 GHz linear frequency modulation continuous wave automotive anti-collision radar system, the back-end intermediate frequency signal processing circuit is researched and implemented. The corresponding filter circuit and gain control amplifier circuit are designed , and a good result is achieved in improving the measure accuracy and distance of the collision avoidance radar system. This design is useful to improve the performance of the automobile active safety to some extent.

  11. Too Much Bar and Not Enough Mitzvah? A Proposed Research Agenda on Bar/Bat Mitzvah

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoenfeld, Stuart

    2010-01-01

    Jewish educators are understandably interested in research on how bar/bat mitzvah affect Jewish education or research on what Jewish schools have done to avoid the distortions of a focus on bar/bat mitzvah. Research might also focus on the somewhat different and more ambitious topic of the role that bar/bat mitzvah play in contemporary Jewish…

  12. Coded continuous wave meteor radar

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    The concept of coded continuous wave meteor radar is introduced. The radar uses a continuously transmitted pseudo-random waveform, which has several advantages: coding avoids range aliased echoes, which are often seen with commonly used pulsed specular meteor radars (SMRs); continuous transmissions maximize pulse compression gain, allowing operation with significantly lower peak transmit power; the temporal resolution can be changed after ...

  13. Learning about Bats and Rabies

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... About CDC.gov . Rabies Rabies Homepage Share Compartir Learning about bats and rabies Most bats don t ... Monday-Friday Closed Holidays cdcinfo@cdc.gov Bats Learning about bats and rabies Coming in contact with ...

  14. The role of tragus on echolocating bat, Eptesicus fuscus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Chen; Moss, Cynthia

    2005-04-01

    Echolocating bats produce ultrasonic vocal signals and utilize the returning echoes to detect, localize and track prey, and also to avoid obstacles. The pinna and tragus, two major components of the bats external ears, play important roles in filtering returning echoes. The tragus is generally believed to play a role in vertical sound localization. The purpose of this study is to further examine how manipulation of the tragus affects a free-flying bat's prey capture and obstacle avoidance behavior. The first part of this study involved a prey capture experiment, and the bat was trained to catch the tethered mealworms in a large room. The second experiment involved obstacle avoidance, and the bat's task was to fly through the largest opening from a horizontal wire array without touching the wires. In both experiments, the bat performed the tasks under three different conditions: with intact tragus, tragus-deflection and recovery from tragus-deflection. Significantly lower performance was observed in both experiments when tragi were glued down. However, the bat adjusted quickly and returned to baseline performance a few days after the manipulation. The results suggest that tragus-deflection does have effects on both the prey capture and obstacle avoidance behavior. [Work supported by NSF.

  15. Avoidance Eclipse Using Alterable PRF Method Designing for HPRF Radar Seeker%高重频雷达导引头变 PRF 抗遮挡方法设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何华兵; 李文龙; 杨士义

    2015-01-01

    We proposed an avoidance eclipse method using alterable PRF for HPRF radar seeker to solve the problem that the ambiguous range information cannot be used directly to avoid eclipse. Firstly,the PRFs in limited range were analyzed and a couple of PRFs could avoid eclipse were selected. Secondly, two switch methods were designed according to whether the air-borne could provide precise initial distance or not. Lastly,the selected couple of PRFs were used to work based on the two switch methods. The result shows that the proposed method has a good avoidance eclipse performance.%针对高重频 PD 雷达测距模糊,不能直接利用距离信息抗距离遮挡的问题,提出了一种高重频雷达导引头变PRF 抗遮挡方法;对限定频率范围内的 PRF 进行分析,根据优选策略确定一组具备抗遮挡能力的 PRF,针对载机能否提供较精确的初始装订距离,分别设计不同的 PRF 切换方式,由导引头软件控制优选 PRF 组按照不同的方式切换工作,完成抗遮挡任务;仿真试验结果表明:提出的方法具有较好的抗遮挡性能。

  16. Environmental Assessment for the Radar Tomography Range and Equipment Storage Facility, Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-01

    tower ring and equipment storage facility footprint. Proximity to Runway 05R/23L and clear zones for hot cargo pad , Huffman Prairie National Historic...Any tree clearing activities would occur between September 30 and April 1 to avoid the summer maternity season ofthe Indiana bat. In accordance with...ft  concrete  pad  and placed approximately 300 ft from the tower ring. The interior space is a laboratory for  radar testing and a garage/storage area

  17. [Rabies in bats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beranová, Kateřina; Zendulková, Dagmar

    2016-06-01

    Rabies is a zoonosis ending fatally in all mammals, including humans. Unlike the other mammals, this disease is usually not fatal in bats. Rabies is caused by lyssaviruses which are divided into several distinct phylogroups comprising 15 known viruses. It is believed that the original hosts of all lyssaviruses are bats. Classical rabies virus (RABV) occurs in bats across Americas and represents the major cause of rabies in humans and domestic animals there. European bat lyssavirus type 1 (EBLV-1) and European bat lyssavirus type 2 (EBLV-2) are the most frequently diagnosed lyssaviruses in Eurasia. The transmission of EBLV-1 and EBLV-2 from bats to other mammals is very rare. As of now, more detailed information is missing about the other Eurasian lyssaviruses - West Caucasian bat virus (WCBV), Bokeloh bat lyssavirus (BBLV), Aravan virus (ARAV), Irkut virus (IRKV), Khujand virus (KHUV) and Lleida virus. The lyssavirus most frequently found in Africa is Lagos bat virus (LBV). In Australia, only Australian bat lyssavirus (ABLV) has been demonstrated as yet. In the Czech Republic, a total of five cases of rabies in bats were confirmed between 1994 and 2015. Rabies can be transmitted from bats mainly by biting or scratching. Clinically ill bats suffer from nervous disorders or produce abnormal sounds. If rabies is suspected, laboratory tests are essential. Protection of human health is based on pre-exposure and/or post-exposure vaccination. However, the available vaccines do not protect against some newly identified lyssaviruses such as WCBV. Nevertheless, most bat species pose a minimal risk to humans.

  18. Suppression of emission rates improves sonar performance by flying bats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Amanda M; Davis, Kaylee; Smotherman, Michael

    2017-01-31

    Echolocating bats face the challenge of actively sensing their environment through their own emissions, while also hearing calls and echoes of nearby conspecifics. How bats mitigate interference is a long-standing question that has both ecological and technological implications, as biosonar systems continue to outperform man-made sonar systems in noisy, cluttered environments. We recently showed that perched bats decreased calling rates in groups, displaying a behavioral strategy resembling the back-off algorithms used in artificial communication networks to optimize information throughput at the group level. We tested whether free-tailed bats (Tadarida brasiliensis) would employ such a coordinated strategy while performing challenging flight maneuvers, and report here that bats navigating obstacles lowered emission rates when hearing artificial playback of another bat's calls. We measured the impact of acoustic interference on navigation performance and show that the calculated reductions in interference rates are sufficient to reduce interference and improve obstacle avoidance. When bats flew in pairs, each bat responded to the presence of the other as an obstacle by increasing emissions, but hearing the sonar emissions of the nearby bat partially suppressed this response. This behavior supports social cohesion by providing a key mechanism for minimizing mutual interference.

  19. Host and viral ecology determine bat rabies seasonality and maintenance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Dylan B; Webb, Colleen T; Farnsworth, Matthew L; O'Shea, Thomas J; Bowen, Richard A; Smith, David L; Stanley, Thomas R; Ellison, Laura E; Rupprecht, Charles E

    2011-06-21

    Rabies is an acute viral infection that is typically fatal. Most rabies modeling has focused on disease dynamics and control within terrestrial mammals (e.g., raccoons and foxes). As such, rabies in bats has been largely neglected until recently. Because bats have been implicated as natural reservoirs for several emerging zoonotic viruses, including SARS-like corona viruses, henipaviruses, and lyssaviruses, understanding how pathogens are maintained within a population becomes vital. Unfortunately, little is known about maintenance mechanisms for any pathogen in bat populations. We present a mathematical model parameterized with unique data from an extensive study of rabies in a Colorado population of big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus) to elucidate general maintenance mechanisms. We propose that life history patterns of many species of temperate-zone bats, coupled with sufficiently long incubation periods, allows for rabies virus maintenance. Seasonal variability in bat mortality rates, specifically low mortality during hibernation, allows long-term bat population viability. Within viable bat populations, sufficiently long incubation periods allow enough infected individuals to enter hibernation and survive until the following year, and hence avoid an epizootic fadeout of rabies virus. We hypothesize that the slowing effects of hibernation on metabolic and viral activity maintains infected individuals and their pathogens until susceptibles from the annual birth pulse become infected and continue the cycle. This research provides a context to explore similar host ecology and viral dynamics that may explain seasonal patterns and maintenance of other bat-borne diseases.

  20. UCAV近距作战雷达规避轨迹规划研究%Radar Avoiding Trajectory Planning for UCAVs in Air-to-Ground Short Range Strike

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董康生; 曹林平; 丁达理; 刘鹤鸣; 轩永波

    2013-01-01

    The automatic fight trajectory planning for the Uninhabited Combat Aerial Vehicle ( UCAV) in air-to-ground attacking was studied .Firstly,we established a multi-constraint model for UCAV by taking the thrust fuel consumption,flight constraint and weapon shooting terminal constraint into consideration,studied dynamic radar threats for UCAV,and built up a radar detection probability model changed with its posture and position .Then,we analyzed the HP pseudo-spectrum theory and strategy to solve optimal control problem,made simulations for radar-avoiding trajectory planning by taking the minimum time cost ( MT),lowest observable ( LO) probability and constant time ( CT) respectively as the objective function .Three expected trajectories were obtained and analyzed .Precision analysis was made to the simulation results,and the calculation results show that simulation error is kept in the allowed range ,which proves the feasibility of the proposed algorithm .%研究了无人作战飞机( UCAV)自主对地攻击轨迹规划问题。首先,建立了考虑发动机燃油消耗、飞行约束和武器投射终端约束的多约束模型,研究了UCAV动态雷达威胁问题,建立了随姿态和距离变化的精确雷达探测概率模型;其次,详细分析了HP伪谱法基本理论及其求解最优控制问题策略,利用HP伪谱法并结合对地近距作战实战背景,分别以时间最短、威胁代价最小和定时飞行为目标函数进行雷达规避轨迹规划仿真研究,得到了期望的攻击轨迹并对3条轨迹进行了深入对比分析;最后,对仿真结果进行了精度分析,分析计算表明仿真误差在允许范围内,再次验证了方法的可行性。

  1. Simulation Research on Obstacle Avoidance Planning for Mobile Robot Based on Laser Radar%基于激光雷达的移动机器人避障规划仿真研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘杰; 闫清东; 唐正华

    2015-01-01

    Through improving the traditional Vector Field Histogram ( VFH ) algorithm, a kind of outdoor obstacle avoidance planning algorithm for laser radar is proposed. Based on the laser radar and adaptive threshold, through the planning of the target course,the algorithm gets the real-time obstacle avoidance direction of the robot. When there are obstacles between the robot and the target point,the robot obtains the target heading with the maximum threshold. When between the robot and the target point without obstacles,the minimum threshold is used for robots which do not collide with obstacles. Simulation result shows that, when the robot speed is below 0. 8 m/s, it can be safely and smoothly through the complex obstacle area,gets to the goal;Otherwise,the robot gets to the goal with slight rub.%对传统矢量场直方图算法进行改进,使其成为一种适用于将激光雷达作为探测仪的室外避障规划算法。将激光雷达数据作为依据,以自适应阈值为条件,通过对目标航向进行规划,获得机器人行进方向的实时避障算法。当机器人与目标点之间存在障碍物时,以最大阈值获得机器人的目标航向,而当机器人与目标点之间无障碍物时,以最小阈值确保机器人行进过程不会与障碍物发生碰撞。仿真结果表明,在复杂障碍物环境中,当机器人行进速度低于0.8 m/s时,可安全而平滑地通过障碍区,到达目标点;当机器人的行进速度高于0.8 m/s时,虽速度过快,机器人与平台之间会有轻微的剐蹭,但最终亦能到达目标点。

  2. Bat predation by spiders.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Nyffeler

    Full Text Available In this paper more than 50 incidences of bats being captured by spiders are reviewed. Bat-catching spiders have been reported from virtually every continent with the exception of Antarctica (≈ 90% of the incidences occurring in the warmer areas of the globe between latitude 30° N and 30° S. Most reports refer to the Neotropics (42% of observed incidences, Asia (28.8%, and Australia-Papua New Guinea (13.5%. Bat-catching spiders belong to the mygalomorph family Theraphosidae and the araneomorph families Nephilidae, Araneidae, and Sparassidae. In addition to this, an attack attempt by a large araneomorph hunting spider of the family Pisauridae on an immature bat was witnessed. Eighty-eight percent of the reported incidences of bat catches were attributable to web-building spiders and 12% to hunting spiders. Large tropical orb-weavers of the genera Nephila and Eriophora in particular have been observed catching bats in their huge, strong orb-webs (of up to 1.5 m diameter. The majority of identifiable captured bats were small aerial insectivorous bats, belonging to the families Vespertilionidae (64% and Emballonuridae (22% and usually being among the most common bat species in their respective geographic area. While in some instances bats entangled in spider webs may have died of exhaustion, starvation, dehydration, and/or hyperthermia (i.e., non-predation death, there were numerous other instances where spiders were seen actively attacking, killing, and eating the captured bats (i.e., predation. This evidence suggests that spider predation on flying vertebrates is more widespread than previously assumed.

  3. Suppression of emission rates improves sonar performance by flying bats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Amanda M.; Davis, Kaylee; Smotherman, Michael

    2017-01-01

    Echolocating bats face the challenge of actively sensing their environment through their own emissions, while also hearing calls and echoes of nearby conspecifics. How bats mitigate interference is a long-standing question that has both ecological and technological implications, as biosonar systems continue to outperform man-made sonar systems in noisy, cluttered environments. We recently showed that perched bats decreased calling rates in groups, displaying a behavioral strategy resembling the back-off algorithms used in artificial communication networks to optimize information throughput at the group level. We tested whether free-tailed bats (Tadarida brasiliensis) would employ such a coordinated strategy while performing challenging flight maneuvers, and report here that bats navigating obstacles lowered emission rates when hearing artificial playback of another bat’s calls. We measured the impact of acoustic interference on navigation performance and show that the calculated reductions in interference rates are sufficient to reduce interference and improve obstacle avoidance. When bats flew in pairs, each bat responded to the presence of the other as an obstacle by increasing emissions, but hearing the sonar emissions of the nearby bat partially suppressed this response. This behavior supports social cohesion by providing a key mechanism for minimizing mutual interference. PMID:28139707

  4. Bats and SARS

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2006-11-08

    Bats are a natural reservoir for emerging viruses, among them henipaviruses and rabies virus variants. Dr. Nina Marano, Chief, Geographic Medicine and Health Promotion Branch, Division of Global Migration and Quarantine, CDC, explains connection between horseshoe bats and SARS coronavirus transmission.  Created: 11/8/2006 by Emerging Infectious Diseases.   Date Released: 11/17/2006.

  5. Asymmetric radar echo patterns from insects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radar echoes from insects, birds, and bats in the atmosphere exhibit both symmetry and asymmetry in polarimetric patterns. Symmetry refers to similar magnitudes of polarimetric variables at opposite azimuths, and asymmetry relegates to differences in these magnitudes. Asymmetry can be due to diffe...

  6. Wind turbines and bat mortality: Doppler shift profiles and ultrasonic bat-like pulse reflection from moving turbine blades.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Chloe V; Flint, James A; Lepper, Paul A

    2010-10-01

    Bat mortality resulting from actual or near-collision with operational wind turbine rotors is a phenomenon that is widespread but not well understood. Because bats rely on information contained in high-frequency echoes to determine the nature and movement of a target, it is important to consider how ultrasonic pulses similar to those used by bats for echolocation may be interacting with operational turbine rotor blades. By assessing the characteristics of reflected ultrasonic echoes, moving turbine blades operating under low wind speed conditions (<6 m s(-1)) were found to produce distinct Doppler shift profiles at different angles to the rotor. Frequency shifts of up to ±700-800 Hz were produced, which may not be perceptible by some bat species. Monte Carlo simulation of bat-like sampling by echolocation revealed that over 50 rotor echoes could be required by species such as Pipistrellus pipistrellus for accurate interpretation of blade movement, which may not be achieved in the bat's approach time-window. In summary, it was found that echoes returned from moving blades had features which could render them attractive to bats or which might make it difficult for the bat to accurately detect and locate blades in sufficient time to avoid a collision.

  7. Session: Bat ecology related to wind development and lessons learned about impacts on bats from wind development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Greg; Kunz, Thomas

    2004-09-01

    This session at the Wind Energy and Birds/Bats workshop consisted of two paper presentations followed by a discussion/question and answer period. It was the first of the sessions to shift the focus to the issue of wind energy development's impacts specifically to bats. The presentations discussed lessons that have been learned regarding direct and indirect impacts on bats and strategies planned to address such issues. Presenters addressed what the existing science demonstrates about land-based wind turbine impacts on bats, including: mortality, avoidance, direct habitat impacts, species and numbers killed, per turbine rates/per MW generated, and impacts on threatened and endangered species. They discussed whether there is sufficient data for wind turbines and bat impacts for projects in the eastern US, especially on ridge tops. Finally, the subject of offshore impacts on bats was briefly addressed, including what lessons have been learned in Europe and how these can be applied in the U S. Paper one, by Greg Johnson, was titled ''A Review of Bat Impacts at Wind Farms in the US''. Paper two, by Thomas Kunz, was titled ''Wind Power: Bats and Wind Turbines''.

  8. Airborne Sense and Avoid Radar Panel

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-10-01

    land and crop surveys, aerial photography , and critical infrastructure protection—their widespread usage within the National Airspace System is...RFIC) developed for the ABSAA panel enable state-of-the- art performance by providing two indepen- dent channels for the amplification, the phase

  9. Effects of competitive prey capture on flight behavior and sonar beam pattern in paired big brown bats, Eptesicus fuscus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Chen; Reddy, Puduru Viswanadha; Xian, Wei; Krishnaprasad, Perinkulam S; Moss, Cynthia F

    2010-10-01

    Foraging and flight behavior of echolocating bats were quantitatively analyzed in this study. Paired big brown bats, Eptesicus fuscus, competed for a single food item in a large laboratory flight room. Their sonar beam patterns and flight paths were recorded by a microphone array and two high-speed cameras, respectively. Bats often remained in nearly classical pursuit (CP) states when one bat is following another bat. A follower can detect and anticipate the movement of the leader, while the leader has the advantage of gaining access to the prey first. Bats in the trailing position throughout the trial were more successful in accessing the prey. In this study, bats also used their sonar beam to monitor the conspecific's movement and to track the prey. Each bat tended to use its sonar beam to track the prey when it was closer to the worm than to another bat. The trailing bat often directed its sonar beam toward the leading bat in following flight. When two bats flew towards each other, they tended to direct their sonar beam axes away from each other, presumably to avoid signal jamming. This study provides a new perspective on how echolocating bats use their biosonar system to coordinate their flight with conspecifics in a group and how they compete for the same food source with conspecifics.

  10. The bats of Suriname

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Husson, A.M.

    1962-01-01

    CONTENTS I. Introduction.................. 3 A. Scope of the present paper............. 3 B. Measurements................ 7 C. Nomenclature................ 8 D. Acknowledgements............... 9 II. General Part.................. 10 A. History of the study of Suriname bats.......... 10 B. Remarks on

  11. The bats of Wyoming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogan, Michael A.; Cryan, Paul M.; Choate, Jerry R.

    2000-01-01

    We examined 1280 bats of 12 species submitted to the Wyoming State Veterinary Laboratory (WSVL) for ra­bies testing between 1981 and 1992. The most abundant species in the sample was Myotis lucifugus, followed by Epte­sicus fuscus, Lasionycteris noetivagans, M. ciliolabrum, and M. volans. Using the WSVL sample and additional museum specimens, we summarized available records and knowledge for 17 species of bats in Wyoming, Records of the WSVL show that, between 1981 and 1992, 113 bats actually tested positive for rabies. We examined 45 of those rabies­ positive bats; E. fuscus had the highest incidence (60%) in the sample, followed by L. noctivagans (11 %) and L. cinereus (9%).

  12. Quantum radar

    CERN Document Server

    Lanzagorta, Marco

    2011-01-01

    This book offers a concise review of quantum radar theory. Our approach is pedagogical, making emphasis on the physics behind the operation of a hypothetical quantum radar. We concentrate our discussion on the two major models proposed to date: interferometric quantum radar and quantum illumination. In addition, this book offers some new results, including an analytical study of quantum interferometry in the X-band radar region with a variety of atmospheric conditions, a derivation of a quantum radar equation, and a discussion of quantum radar jamming.This book assumes the reader is familiar w

  13. Radar Chart

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Radar Chart collection is an archived product of summarized radar data. The geographic coverage is the 48 contiguous states of the United States. These hourly...

  14. MetaBAT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2014-04-01

    Assembling individual genomes from shotgun metagenomic sequences derived from complex microbial communities is so far one of the most challenging problems in bioinformatics. As it is impractical to directly assemble full-length genomes, a first step that groups contigs from the same organisms, called metagenome binning, has been developed to provide insights of individual organisms. However, current binning methods perform poorly in the context of large complex community, and as a result they fail to recover many novel genomes. To overcome this limitation, we developed integrated software, called MetaBAT, which automatically forms hundreds of individual genome bins from metagenome contigs. Probabilistic models of abundance and tetranucleotide frequency were trained by extensive empirical studies and integrated to decide the membership of contigs iteratively. To test the performance of MetaBAT, we applied MetaBAT to both synthetic and several large-scale real world metagenome datasets. By using two independent metrics, we demonstrate that in all the data sets tested MetaBAT achieves good sensitivity (16~87%) and very high specificity (56~99%) in forming genome bins. Further analyses of the novel genomes recovered from the human gut microbiome suggest a subset of these genomes are potentially associated with pathological conditions. In conclusion, we believe MetaBAT is a powerful tool

  15. Radar Fundamentals, Presentation

    OpenAIRE

    Jenn, David

    2008-01-01

    Topics include: introduction, radar functions, antennas basics, radar range equation, system parameters, electromagnetic waves, scattering mechanisms, radar cross section and stealth, and sample radar systems.

  16. Bat Rabies Surveillance in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schatz, J.; Fooks, A. R.; McElhinney, L.

    2013-01-01

    Rabies is the oldest known zoonotic disease and was also the first recognized bat associated infection in humans. To date, four different lyssavirus species are the causative agents of rabies in European bats: the European Bat Lyssaviruses type 1 and 2 (EBLV-1, EBLV-2), the recently discovered pu...

  17. Electromagnetic Model Reliably Predicts Radar Scattering Characteristics of Airborne Organisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirkovic, Djordje; Stepanian, Phillip M.; Kelly, Jeffrey F.; Chilson, Phillip B.

    2016-10-01

    The radar scattering characteristics of aerial animals are typically obtained from controlled laboratory measurements of a freshly harvested specimen. These measurements are tedious to perform, difficult to replicate, and typically yield only a small subset of the full azimuthal, elevational, and polarimetric radio scattering data. As an alternative, biological applications of radar often assume that the radar cross sections of flying animals are isotropic, since sophisticated computer models are required to estimate the 3D scattering properties of objects having complex shapes. Using the method of moments implemented in the WIPL-D software package, we show for the first time that such electromagnetic modeling techniques (typically applied to man-made objects) can accurately predict organismal radio scattering characteristics from an anatomical model: here the Brazilian free-tailed bat (Tadarida brasiliensis). The simulated scattering properties of the bat agree with controlled measurements and radar observations made during a field study of bats in flight. This numerical technique can produce the full angular set of quantitative polarimetric scattering characteristics, while eliminating many practical difficulties associated with physical measurements. Such a modeling framework can be applied for bird, bat, and insect species, and will help drive a shift in radar biology from a largely qualitative and phenomenological science toward quantitative estimation of animal densities and taxonomic identification.

  18. Acoustic scanning of natural scenes by echolocation in the big brown bat, Eptesicus fuscus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Surlykke, Annemarie; Ghose, Kaushik; Moss, Cynthia F

    2009-01-01

    Echolocation allows bats to orient and localize prey in complete darkness. The sonar beam of the big brown bat, Eptesicus fuscus, is directional but broad enough to provide audible echo information from within a 60-90 deg. cone. This suggests that the big brown bat could interrogate a natural scene...... without fixating each important object separately. We tested this idea by measuring the directional aim and duration of the bat's sonar beam as it performed in a dual task, obstacle avoidance and insect capture. Bats were trained to fly through one of two openings in a fine net to take a tethered insect...... at variable distances behind the net. The bats sequentially scanned the edges of the net opening and the prey by centering the axis of their sonar beam with an accuracy of approximately 5 deg. The bats also shifted the duration of their sonar calls, revealing sequential sampling along the range axis. Changes...

  19. Radar equations for modern radar

    CERN Document Server

    Barton, David K

    2012-01-01

    Based on the classic Radar Range-Performance Analysis from 1980, this practical volume extends that work to ensure applicability of radar equations to the design and analysis of modern radars. This unique book helps you identify what information on the radar and its environment is needed to predict detection range. Moreover, it provides equations and data to improve the accuracy of range calculations. You find detailed information on propagation effects, methods of range calculation in environments that include clutter, jamming and thermal noise, as well as loss factors that reduce radar perfo

  20. Avoid Logs to Avoid Ticks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    莫文佳

    2004-01-01

    扁虱是莱姆关节炎的罪魁祸首。研究人员为了弄明白何处扁虱最猖獗, 不惜以身作饵,他们发现:The ticks were all over the log surface。因此告诫人 们:Avoid sitting on logs。

  1. A Biomimetic Ultrasonic Whistle for Use as a Bat Deterrent on Wind Turbines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sievert, Paul; Seyed-Aghazadeh, Banafsheh; Carlson, Daniel; Dowling, Zara; Modarres-Sadeghi, Yahya

    2016-11-01

    As wind energy continues to gain worldwide prominence, more and more turbines are detrimentally influencing bat colonies. In 2012 alone, an estimated 600,000 bats were killed by wind turbines in the United States. Bats show a tendency to fly towards turbines. The objective of this work is to deter bats from the proximity of the swept area of operational wind turbine blades. Established field studies have shown that bats avoid broadband ultrasonic noise on the same frequency spectrum as their echolocation chirps. A biomimetic ultrasonic pulse generator for use as a bat deterrent on wind turbines is designed and studied experimentally. This device, which works based on the fundamentals of flow-induced oscillations of a flexible sheet is a whistle-like device inspired by a bat larynx, mechanically powered via air flow on a wind turbine blade. Current device prototypes have proven robust at producing ultrasound across the 20 - 70 kHz range for flow inlet velocities of 4 - 14 m/s. Ultimately, a deterrent as described here could provide a reliable, cost-effective means of alerting bats to the presence of moving turbine blades, reducing bat mortality at wind facilities, and reducing regulatory uncertainty for wind facility developers. The financial support provided by the US Department of Energy, and the Massachusetts Clean Energy center is acknowledged.

  2. Indiana Bat Project data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, Richard A.

    2016-01-01

    Our model is a full-annual-cycle population model {hostetler2015full} that tracks groups of bat surviving through four seasons: breeding season/summer, fall migration, non-breeding/winter, and spring migration. Our state variables are groups of bats that use a specific maternity colony/breeding site and hibernaculum/non-breeding site. Bats are also accounted for by life stages (juveniles/first-year breeders versus adults) and seasonal habitats (breeding versus non-breeding) during each year, This leads to four states variable (here depicted in vector notation): the population of juveniles during the non-breeding season, the population of adults during the non-breeding season, the population of juveniles during the breeding season, and the population of adults during the breeding season, Each vector's elements depict a specific migratory pathway, e.g., is comprised of elements, {non-breeding sites}, {breeding sites}The variables may be summed by either breeding site or non-breeding site to calculate the total population using a specific geographic location. Within our code, we account for this using an index column for breeding sites and an index column for non-breeding sides within the data table. Our choice of state variables caused the time step (i.e. \\(t\\)) to be 1 year. However, we recorded the population of each group during the breeding and non-breeding season as an artifact of our state-variable choice. We choose these state variables partially for their biological information and partially to simplify programming. We ran our simulation for 30 years because the USFWS currently issues Indiana Bat take permits for 30 years. Our model covers the range of the Indiana Bat, which is approximately the eastern half of the contiguous United States (Figure \\ref{fig:BatInput}). The boundaries of our range was based upon the United States boundary, the NatureServe Range map, and observations of the species. The maximum migration distance was 500-km, which was based

  3. Bat flight and zoonotic viruses

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Shea, Thomas; Cryan, Paul M.; Cunningham, Andrew A.; Fooks, Anthony R.; Hayman, David T.S.; Luis, Angela D.; Peel, Alison J.; Plowright, Raina K.; Wood, James L.N.

    2014-01-01

    Bats are sources of high viral diversity and high-profile zoonotic viruses worldwide. Although apparently not pathogenic in their reservoir hosts, some viruses from bats severely affect other mammals, including humans. Examples include severe acute respiratory syndrome coronaviruses, Ebola and Marburg viruses, and Nipah and Hendra viruses. Factors underlying high viral diversity in bats are the subject of speculation. We hypothesize that flight, a factor common to all bats but to no other mammals, provides an intensive selective force for coexistence with viral parasites through a daily cycle that elevates metabolism and body temperature analogous to the febrile response in other mammals. On an evolutionary scale, this host–virus interaction might have resulted in the large diversity of zoonotic viruses in bats, possibly through bat viruses adapting to be more tolerant of the fever response and less virulent to their natural hosts.

  4. Social Grooming in Bats: Are Vampire Bats Exceptional?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Gerald; Leffer, Lauren

    2015-01-01

    Evidence for long-term cooperative relationships comes from several social birds and mammals. Vampire bats demonstrate cooperative social bonds, and like primates, they maintain these bonds through social grooming. It is unclear, however, to what extent vampires are special among bats in this regard. We compared social grooming rates of common vampire bats Desmodus rotundus and four other group-living bats, Artibeus jamaicensis, Carollia perspicillata, Eidolon helvum and Rousettus aegyptiacus, under the same captive conditions of fixed association and no ectoparasites. We conducted 13 focal sampling sessions for each combination of sex and species, for a total of 1560 presence/absence observations per species. We observed evidence for social grooming in all species, but social grooming rates were on average 14 times higher in vampire bats than in other species. Self-grooming rates did not differ. Vampire bats spent 3.7% of their awake time social grooming (95% CI = 1.5-6.3%), whereas bats of the other species spent 0.1-0.5% of their awake time social grooming. Together with past data, this result supports the hypothesis that the elevated social grooming rate in the vampire bat is an adaptive trait, linked to their social bonding and unique regurgitated food sharing behavior.

  5. Social Grooming in Bats: Are Vampire Bats Exceptional?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerald Carter

    Full Text Available Evidence for long-term cooperative relationships comes from several social birds and mammals. Vampire bats demonstrate cooperative social bonds, and like primates, they maintain these bonds through social grooming. It is unclear, however, to what extent vampires are special among bats in this regard. We compared social grooming rates of common vampire bats Desmodus rotundus and four other group-living bats, Artibeus jamaicensis, Carollia perspicillata, Eidolon helvum and Rousettus aegyptiacus, under the same captive conditions of fixed association and no ectoparasites. We conducted 13 focal sampling sessions for each combination of sex and species, for a total of 1560 presence/absence observations per species. We observed evidence for social grooming in all species, but social grooming rates were on average 14 times higher in vampire bats than in other species. Self-grooming rates did not differ. Vampire bats spent 3.7% of their awake time social grooming (95% CI = 1.5-6.3%, whereas bats of the other species spent 0.1-0.5% of their awake time social grooming. Together with past data, this result supports the hypothesis that the elevated social grooming rate in the vampire bat is an adaptive trait, linked to their social bonding and unique regurgitated food sharing behavior.

  6. Bats coordinate sonar and flight behavior as they forage in open and cluttered environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falk, Benjamin; Jakobsen, Lasse; Surlykke, Annemarie; Moss, Cynthia F

    2014-12-15

    Echolocating bats use active sensing as they emit sounds and listen to the returning echoes to probe their environment for navigation, obstacle avoidance and pursuit of prey. The sensing behavior of bats includes the planning of 3D spatial trajectory paths, which are guided by echo information. In this study, we examined the relationship between active sonar sampling and flight motor output as bats changed environments from open space to an artificial forest in a laboratory flight room. Using high-speed video and audio recordings, we reconstructed and analyzed 3D flight trajectories, sonar beam aim and acoustic sonar emission patterns as the bats captured prey. We found that big brown bats adjusted their sonar call structure, temporal patterning and flight speed in response to environmental change. The sonar beam aim of the bats predicted the flight turn rate in both the open room and the forest. However, the relationship between sonar beam aim and turn rate changed in the forest during the final stage of prey pursuit, during which the bat made shallower turns. We found flight stereotypy developed over multiple days in the forest, but did not find evidence for a reduction in active sonar sampling with experience. The temporal patterning of sonar sound groups was related to path planning around obstacles in the forest. Together, these results contribute to our understanding of how bats coordinate echolocation and flight behavior to represent and navigate their environment.

  7. Wind power's impact on birds and bats; Vindkraftens paaverkan paa faaglar och fladdermoess

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-05-15

    Wind turbines can be a danger to birds and bats. Therefore it is important to place the turbines correct. The risks can be minimized with the help of knowledge of birds and bats behavior. It was found in a synthesis report published 2011, where research from Europe and the U.S. are summarized. The report shows which environments should be avoided and the species that are affected in different areas. This popular science brochure is based on the synthesis report 'Wind power's impact on birds and bats'.

  8. The aural anatomy of bats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pye, Ade

    1970-01-01

    The fine structure of the ears of 62 species of bats from 13 families has been studied by means of serial sections. The bats were caught alive in Britain, West Indies, Panama, Central and North Africa and were intra-vitally perfused with fixative in order to obtain perfect preservation of the intern

  9. Bartonella spp. in Bats, Guatemala

    OpenAIRE

    BAI, YING; Kosoy, Michael; Recuenco, Sergio; Alvarez, Danilo; Moran, David; Turmelle, Amy; Ellison, James; Garcia, Daniel L.; Estevez, Alejandra; Lindblade, Kim; Rupprecht, Charles

    2011-01-01

    To better understand the role of bats as reservoirs of Bartonella spp., we estimated Bartonella spp. prevalence and genetic diversity in bats in Guatemala during 2009. We found prevalence of 33% and identified 21 genetic variants of 13 phylogroups. Vampire bat–associated Bartonella spp. may cause undiagnosed illnesses in humans.

  10. Vampire bat control in Mexico

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schmidt, U.; Greenhall, A.M.; Lopez-Forment, W.

    1970-01-01

    Though usually beneficial, bats sometimes are a nuisance to humans (Greenhall & Stell, 1960), or may even constitute serious economic problems and health hazards. Most important in this respect are the vampire bats, especially of the genus Desmodus, which are abundant from northern Argentina through

  11. Automated Acoustic Identification of Bats

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-01

    routine assesses a combination of signal quality indicators such as amplitude, frequency bandwidth, tonal trend of the signal, signal to noise ratio ...signal strength as indicated by a low signal to noise ratio ...bats All North American bats emit regular pulses of vocalizations during flight to generate echoes they use for navigation, detecting, and pursuing

  12. Weather Radar Stations

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — These data represent Next-Generation Radar (NEXRAD) and Terminal Doppler Weather Radar (TDWR) weather radar stations within the US. The NEXRAD radar stations are...

  13. The Netherlands Bird Avoidance Model, Final Report

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shamoun-Baranes, J.; Bouten, W.; Sierdsema, H.; van Belle, J.; van Gasteren, J.R.; van Loon, E.E.

    2006-01-01

    The NL-BAM was developed as a web-based decision support tool to be used by the bird hazard avoidance experts in the ecology unit of the Royal Netherlands Air Force. The NL-BAM will be used together with the ROBIN 4 radar system to provide BirdTAMS, for real time warnings and flight planning and to

  14. Coded continuous wave meteor radar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vierinen, Juha; Chau, Jorge L.; Pfeffer, Nico; Clahsen, Matthias; Stober, Gunter

    2016-03-01

    The concept of a coded continuous wave specular meteor radar (SMR) is described. The radar uses a continuously transmitted pseudorandom phase-modulated waveform, which has several advantages compared to conventional pulsed SMRs. The coding avoids range and Doppler aliasing, which are in some cases problematic with pulsed radars. Continuous transmissions maximize pulse compression gain, allowing operation at lower peak power than a pulsed system. With continuous coding, the temporal and spectral resolution are not dependent on the transmit waveform and they can be fairly flexibly changed after performing a measurement. The low signal-to-noise ratio before pulse compression, combined with independent pseudorandom transmit waveforms, allows multiple geographically separated transmitters to be used in the same frequency band simultaneously without significantly interfering with each other. Because the same frequency band can be used by multiple transmitters, the same interferometric receiver antennas can be used to receive multiple transmitters at the same time. The principles of the signal processing are discussed, in addition to discussion of several practical ways to increase computation speed, and how to optimally detect meteor echoes. Measurements from a campaign performed with a coded continuous wave SMR are shown and compared with two standard pulsed SMR measurements. The type of meteor radar described in this paper would be suited for use in a large-scale multi-static network of meteor radar transmitters and receivers. Such a system would be useful for increasing the number of meteor detections to obtain improved meteor radar data products.

  15. Population size and natural history of Mariana fruit bats (Chiroptera: Pteropodidae) on Sarigan, Mariana Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiles, G.J.; Jonhson, N.C.

    2004-01-01

    Based on count results, we estimated the population of Mariana fruit bats (Pteropus mariannus Desmarest) on Sarigan, Mariana Islands, to number 150-200 bats in 1999, 185-235 bats in 2000, and about 300-400 bats in 2001. Our results, plus those of two previous surveys, indicate that bat abundance on the island probably remained relatively stable at about 125-235 animals during much of the period from 1983 to 2000, then increased suddenly in 2001, most likely due to immigration from a neighboring island. Sarigan's population differs from those of larger islands in the archipelago by usually having smaller roost sizes, typically 3-75 bats, and large numbers of solitary bats that at times comprise up to half of the population. Colonies and smaller aggregations were composed primarily of harems with multiple females, whereas a nearly equal sex ratio occurred among solitary animals. Colonies roosted in isolated coconut trees in open grasslands and in native forest stands of various sizes, but avoided dense coconut forest. An estimated 30-50% of harem and solitary females possessed young in July 1999. Bats were recorded feeding on just six species of plants, which partly reflects the island's impoverished flora. We speculate that fruit bat abundance on Sarigan is limited primarily by food availability rather than hunting losses, in contrast to some other islands in the Marianas. Our study supports the contention that populations of P. mariannus in the northern Marianas are usually sedentary, but that interisland movements of larger numbers of bats may occur rarely. ?? 2004 by University of Hawai'i Press All rights reserved.

  16. Wind turbines in Switzerland - Bat mortality; Eoliennes en Suisse - Mortalite de chauves-souris

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leuzinger, Y.; Lugon, A.; Bontadina, F.

    2008-03-15

    There are growing concerns about possible negative impact of wind turbines on bats. In this study we evaluated the occurrence of bat mortality caused by wind turbines in Switzerland. From about 20 existing wind turbines in year 2007 we selected five medium to large sized turbines in two hilly regions of Switzerland. Between June and October we searched 10 times in regular intervals for carcasses on the ground (total 50 controls) in a circle of up to 40 m distance to the tower. We measured detectability and bait removal rates by experiments at every site (using 12 dummy bats and 10 dead mice per site, respectively). Two bat carcasses were found at two sites, one of the migrating species N. leisleri in August, another in September, belonging to the non-migrating species P. pipistrellus. The detectability was 74 {+-} 13% (mean {+-} standard deviation). The removal rate was 72 {+-} 25% in the first 2-3 days and an average of 91% in the control intervals of 15 days. Estimates of seasonal bat mortality, corrected for season, detectability and removal rate, revealed an average of 8.2 (range 4.9 - 11.4) dead bats per turbine and season. This study demonstrates the occurrence of bat mortality caused by wind turbines in Switzerland. However, the estimated mortality per season remains in international comparisons small to medium at the studied sites. The mortality of individuals of endangered and protected species is a serious issue, but most important, the long-term effect on populations is difficult to assess. In the case of the investigated wind turbines the negative impact on bats does not generally preclude the development of wind energy sites in Switzerland. We recommend avoiding sites in and near woodlands. The abundance of local and migratory bats at planned sites should be evaluated, obligatory in the case of larger wind parks and at exposed sites (ridge tops, mountain passes, river valleys), in order to consider adequately bat conservation. (author)

  17. Bat 21: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-04-02

    review from Library Journal : While he [Anderson] succeeds in telling a rousing tale...one questions whether this ought to be considered more fiction...Day in a Long War, Random House, 1989.1 27. Lane, Mel D. "Bat 21." Library Journal , Vol. 105, 15 October 1980, pp. 2194-2195. 28. Stone, Judy. " ’Bat...5. Ibid., 187. 6. Ibid., liner notes. 7. Interview, p. 88. 8. Anderson, pp. 186. 9. Anderson, copyright notes. 10. Mel D. Lane, "Bat 21," Library

  18. Modeling perspectives on echolocation strategies inspired by bats flying in groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yuan; Abaid, Nicole

    2015-12-21

    Bats navigating with echolocation - which is a type of active sensing achieved by interpreting echoes resulting from self-generated ultrasonic pulses - exhibit unique behaviors during group flight. While bats may benefit from eavesdropping on their peers׳ echolocation, they also potentially suffer from confusion between their own and peers׳ pulses, caused by an effect called frequency jamming. This hardship of group flight is supported by experimental observations of bats simplifying their sound-scape by shifting their pulse frequencies or suppressing echolocation altogether. Here, we investigate eavesdropping and varying pulse emission rate from a modeling perspective to understand these behaviors׳ potential benefits and detriments. We define an agent-based model of echolocating bats avoiding collisions in a three-dimensional tunnel. Through simulation, we show that bats with reasonably accurate eavesdropping can reduce collisions compared to those neglecting information from peers. In large populations, bats minimize frequency jamming by decreasing pulse emission rate, while collision risk increases; conversely, increasing pulse emission rate minimizes collisions by allowing more sensing information generated per bat. These strategies offer benefits for both biological and engineered systems, since frequency jamming is a concern in systems using active sensing.

  19. Bat flight with bad wings: is flight metabolism affected by damaged wings?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voigt, Christian C

    2013-04-15

    Infection of North American bats with the keratin-digesting fungus Geomyces destructans often results in holes and ruptures of wing membranes, yet it is unknown whether flight performance and metabolism of bats are altered by such injuries. I conducted flight experiments in a circular flight arena with Myotis albescens and M. nigricans individuals with an intact or ruptured trailing edge of one of the plagiopatagial membranes. In both species, individuals with damaged wings were lighter, had a higher aspect ratio (squared wing span divided by wing area) and an increased wing loading (weight divided by wing area) than conspecifics with intact wings. Bats with an asymmetric reduction of the wing area flew at similar speeds to conspecifics with intact wings but performed fewer flight manoeuvres. Individuals with damaged wings showed lower metabolic rates during flight than conspecifics with intact wings, even when controlling for body mass differences; the difference in mass-specific metabolic rate may be attributable to the lower number of flight manoeuvres (U-turns) by bats with damaged wings compared with conspecifics with intact wings. Possibly, bats compensated for an asymmetric reduction in wing area by lowering their body mass and avoiding flight manoeuvres. In conclusion, it may be that bats suffer from moderate wing damage not directly, by experiencing increased metabolic rate, but indirectly, by a reduced manoeuvrability and foraging success. This could impede a bat's ability to gain sufficient body mass before hibernation.

  20. Bat eyes have ultraviolet-sensitive cone photoreceptors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brigitte Müller

    Full Text Available Mammalian retinae have rod photoreceptors for night vision and cone photoreceptors for daylight and colour vision. For colour discrimination, most mammals possess two cone populations with two visual pigments (opsins that have absorption maxima at short wavelengths (blue or ultraviolet light and long wavelengths (green or red light. Microchiropteran bats, which use echolocation to navigate and forage in complete darkness, have long been considered to have pure rod retinae. Here we use opsin immunohistochemistry to show that two phyllostomid microbats, Glossophaga soricina and Carollia perspicillata, possess a significant population of cones and express two cone opsins, a shortwave-sensitive (S opsin and a longwave-sensitive (L opsin. A substantial population of cones expresses S opsin exclusively, whereas the other cones mostly coexpress L and S opsin. S opsin gene analysis suggests ultraviolet (UV, wavelengths <400 nm sensitivity, and corneal electroretinogram recordings reveal an elevated sensitivity to UV light which is mediated by an S cone visual pigment. Therefore bats have retained the ancestral UV tuning of the S cone pigment. We conclude that bats have the prerequisite for daylight vision, dichromatic colour vision, and UV vision. For bats, the UV-sensitive cones may be advantageous for visual orientation at twilight, predator avoidance, and detection of UV-reflecting flowers for those that feed on nectar.

  1. Echo-acoustic flow dynamically modifies the cortical map of target range in bats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartenstein, Sophia K.; Gerstenberg, Nadine; Vanderelst, Dieter; Peremans, Herbert; Firzlaff, Uwe

    2014-08-01

    Echolocating bats use the delay between their sonar emissions and the reflected echoes to measure target range, a crucial parameter for avoiding collisions or capturing prey. In many bat species, target range is represented as an orderly organized map of echo delay in the auditory cortex. Here we show that the map of target range in bats is dynamically modified by the continuously changing flow of acoustic information perceived during flight (‘echo-acoustic flow’). Combining dynamic acoustic stimulation in virtual space with extracellular recordings, we found that neurons in the auditory cortex of the bat Phyllostomus discolor encode echo-acoustic flow information on the geometric relation between targets and the bat’s flight trajectory, rather than echo delay per se. Specifically, the cortical representation of close-range targets is enlarged when the lateral passing distance of the target decreases. This flow-dependent enlargement of target representation may trigger adaptive behaviours such as vocal control or flight manoeuvres.

  2. BGD: a database of bat genomes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianfei Fang

    Full Text Available Bats account for ~20% of mammalian species, and are the only mammals with true powered flight. For the sake of their specialized phenotypic traits, many researches have been devoted to examine the evolution of bats. Until now, some whole genome sequences of bats have been assembled and annotated, however, a uniform resource for the annotated bat genomes is still unavailable. To make the extensive data associated with the bat genomes accessible to the general biological communities, we established a Bat Genome Database (BGD. BGD is an open-access, web-available portal that integrates available data of bat genomes and genes. It hosts data from six bat species, including two megabats and four microbats. Users can query the gene annotations using efficient searching engine, and it offers browsable tracks of bat genomes. Furthermore, an easy-to-use phylogenetic analysis tool was also provided to facilitate online phylogeny study of genes. To the best of our knowledge, BGD is the first database of bat genomes. It will extend our understanding of the bat evolution and be advantageous to the bat sequences analysis. BGD is freely available at: http://donglab.ecnu.edu.cn/databases/BatGenome/.

  3. Limitations of Radar Coordinates

    OpenAIRE

    Bini, Donato; Lusanna, Luca; Mashhoon, Bahram

    2004-01-01

    The construction of a radar coordinate system about the world line of an observer is discussed. Radar coordinates for a hyperbolic observer as well as a uniformly rotating observer are described in detail. The utility of the notion of radar distance and the admissibility of radar coordinates are investigated. Our results provide a critical assessment of the physical significance of radar coordinates.

  4. [Bats and Viruses: complex relationships].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodhain, F

    2015-10-01

    With more than 1 200 species, bats and flying foxes (Order Chiroptera) constitute the most important and diverse order of Mammals after Rodents. Many species of bats are insectivorous while others are frugivorous and few of them are hematophagous. Some of these animals fly during the night, others are crepuscular or diurnal. Some fly long distances during seasonal migrations. Many species are colonial cave-dwelling, living in a rather small home range while others are relatively solitary. However, in spite of the importance of bats for terrestrial biotic communities and ecosystem ecology, the diversity in their biology and lifestyles remain poorly known and underappreciated. More than sixty viruses have been detected or isolated in bats; these animals are therefore involved in the natural cycles of many of them. This is the case, for instance, of rabies virus and other Lyssavirus (Family Rhabdoviridae), Nipah and Hendra viruses (Paramyxoviridae), Ebola and Marburg viruses (Filoviridae), SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV (Coronaviridae). For these zoonotic viruses, a number of bat species are considered as important reservoir hosts, efficient disseminators or even directly responsible of the transmission. Some of these bat-borne viruses cause highly pathogenic diseases while others are of potential significance for humans and domestic or wild animals; so, bats are an important risk in human and animal public health. Moreover, some groups of viruses developed through different phylogenetic mechanisms of coevolution between viruses and bats. The fact that most of these viral infections are asymptomatic in bats has been observed since a long time but the mechanisms of the viral persistence are not clearly understood. The various bioecology of the different bat populations allows exchange of virus between migrating and non-migrating conspecific species. For a better understanding of the role of bats in the circulation of these viral zoonoses, epidemiologists must pay attention to

  5. Teachers Avoiding Learners' Avoidance: Is It Possible?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tadayyon, Maedeh; Zarrinabadi, Nourollah; Ketabi, Saeed

    2016-01-01

    Dealing with learners who prefer to take the back seat and avoid classroom participation can be every teacher's nightmare. This lack of participation may cause teacher frustration, and possibly the only way to reduce this lack of participation is to access the concept of avoidance strategy. Avoidance strategy is the abandonment of a classroom task…

  6. Coded continuous wave meteor radar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Vierinen

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The concept of coded continuous wave meteor radar is introduced. The radar uses a continuously transmitted pseudo-random waveform, which has several advantages: coding avoids range aliased echoes, which are often seen with commonly used pulsed specular meteor radars (SMRs; continuous transmissions maximize pulse compression gain, allowing operation with significantly lower peak transmit power; the temporal resolution can be changed after performing a measurement, as it does not depend on pulse spacing; and the low signal to noise ratio allows multiple geographically separated transmitters to be used in the same frequency band without significantly interfering with each other. The latter allows the same receiver antennas to be used to receive multiple transmitters. The principles of the signal processing are discussed, in addition to discussion of several practical ways to increase computation speed, and how to optimally detect meteor echoes. Measurements from a campaign performed with a coded continuous wave SMR are shown and compared with two standard pulsed SMR measurements. The type of meteor radar described in this paper would be suited for use in a large scale multi-static network of meteor radar transmitters and receivers. This would, for example, provide higher spatio-temporal resolution for mesospheric wind field measurements.

  7. Coded continuous wave meteor radar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vierinen, J.; Chau, J. L.; Pfeffer, N.; Clahsen, M.; Stober, G.

    2015-07-01

    The concept of coded continuous wave meteor radar is introduced. The radar uses a continuously transmitted pseudo-random waveform, which has several advantages: coding avoids range aliased echoes, which are often seen with commonly used pulsed specular meteor radars (SMRs); continuous transmissions maximize pulse compression gain, allowing operation with significantly lower peak transmit power; the temporal resolution can be changed after performing a measurement, as it does not depend on pulse spacing; and the low signal to noise ratio allows multiple geographically separated transmitters to be used in the same frequency band without significantly interfering with each other. The latter allows the same receiver antennas to be used to receive multiple transmitters. The principles of the signal processing are discussed, in addition to discussion of several practical ways to increase computation speed, and how to optimally detect meteor echoes. Measurements from a campaign performed with a coded continuous wave SMR are shown and compared with two standard pulsed SMR measurements. The type of meteor radar described in this paper would be suited for use in a large scale multi-static network of meteor radar transmitters and receivers. This would, for example, provide higher spatio-temporal resolution for mesospheric wind field measurements.

  8. Take Caution When Bats Are Near

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... potential exposure to a rabid animal, including bats. Histoplasmosis is another disease associated with bats. Its symptoms ... it can be fatal if untreated. In addition, Histoplasmosis is caused by a fungus that grows in ...

  9. Bat study in the Kharaa region, Mongolia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ariunbold Jargalsaikhan

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Our study objectives were to determine bat species composition and to study the genetic variations and sound characteristics in bats of the Kharaa, Shatan, and Ulgii areas of Mongolia. This study is the first bat survey in this area. Nineteen species were from Mongolia. Six bat species belonged to three genera. We performed mitochondrial DNA sequencing of Myotis bombinus, Myotis gracilis, and Myotis petax to confirm the morphological identification of these species. We also determined the sound frequencies of the six bat species, based on their echolocation calls. The conservation status was determined using World Conservation Union red list categories and criteria. Sixteen bats from three species were ringed during this study and three artificial boxes were placed on trees in the Kharaa River Valley. Other than the northern bat, all species were eastern Palearctic. The northern bat (Eptesicus nilssonii species is widespread in the northern Palearctic region.

  10. Survey for bats in Jackson County, Colorado

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report covers a targeted bat survey of Jackson County in north-central Colorado to better understand the abundance and distribution of bats in Colorado. The...

  11. Swing Weights of Baseball and Softball Bats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Dan

    2010-01-01

    Baseball and softball bats are sold according to length in inches and weight in ounces. Much to the consternation of players buying new bats, however, not all bats that weigh the same swing the same. The reason for this has to do with moment of inertia of the bat about a pivot point on the handle, or what the sporting goods industry refers to as…

  12. Bat predation on nocturnally migrating birds

    OpenAIRE

    Ibáñez, Carlos; Juste, Javier; García-Mudarra, Juan L.; Agirre-Mendi, Pablo T.

    2001-01-01

    Bat predation on birds is a very rare phenomenon in nature. Most documented reports of bird-eating bats refer to tropical bats that occasionally capture resting birds. Millions of small birds concen- trate and cross over the world’s temperate regions during migra- tion, mainly at night, but no nocturnal predators are known to benefit from this enormous food resource. An analysis of 14,000 fecal pellets of the greater noctule bat (Nyctalus lasiopterus) reveals that this species captures a...

  13. RADAR PPI Scope Overlay

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — RADAR PPI Scope Overlays are used to position a RADAR image over a station at the correct resolution. The archive maintains several different RADAR resolution types,...

  14. High activity enables life on a high-sugar diet: blood glucose regulation in nectar-feeding bats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelm, Detlev H; Simon, Ralph; Kuhlow, Doreen; Voigt, Christian C; Ristow, Michael

    2011-12-01

    High blood glucose levels caused by excessive sugar consumption are detrimental to mammalian health and life expectancy. Despite consuming vast quantities of sugar-rich floral nectar, nectar-feeding bats are long-lived, provoking the question of how they regulate blood glucose. We investigated blood glucose levels in nectar-feeding bats (Glossophaga soricina) in experiments in which we varied the amount of dietary sugar or flight time. Blood glucose levels increased with the quantity of glucose ingested and exceeded 25 mmol l(-1) blood in resting bats, which is among the highest values ever recorded in mammals fed sugar quantities similar to their natural diet. During normal feeding, blood glucose values decreased with increasing flight time, but only fell to expected values when bats spent 75 per cent of their time airborne. Either nectar-feeding bats have evolved mechanisms to avoid negative health effects of hyperglycaemia, or high activity is key to balancing blood glucose levels during foraging. We suggest that the coevolutionary specialization of bats towards a nectar diet was supported by the high activity and elevated metabolic rates of these bats. High activity may have conferred benefits to the bats in terms of behavioural interactions and foraging success, and is simultaneously likely to have increased their efficiency as plant pollinators.

  15. Advances in bistatic radar

    CERN Document Server

    Willis, Nick

    2007-01-01

    Advances in Bistatic Radar updates and extends bistatic and multistatic radar developments since publication of Willis' Bistatic Radar in 1991. New and recently declassified military applications are documented. Civil applications are detailed including commercial and scientific systems. Leading radar engineers provide expertise to each of these applications. Advances in Bistatic Radar consists of two major sections: Bistatic/Multistatic Radar Systems and Bistatic Clutter and Signal Processing. Starting with a history update, the first section documents the early and now declassified military

  16. Coronavirus antibodies in African bat species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Marcel A; Paweska, Janusz T; Leman, Patricia A; Drosten, Christian; Grywna, Klaus; Kemp, Alan; Braack, Leo; Sonnenberg, Karen; Niedrig, Matthias; Swanepoel, Robert

    2007-09-01

    Asian bats have been identified as potential reservoir hosts of coronaviruses associated with severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS-CoV). We detected antibody reactive with SARS-CoV antigen in 47 (6.7%) of 705 bat serum specimens comprising 26 species collected in Africa; thus, African bats may harbor agents related to putative group 4 CoV.

  17. Guide to the BATS Resource Trunk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arizona Game and Fish Dept., Phoenix.

    This guide provides detailed information, resources, and activities to teach students about the bats of Arizona. Chapters include: (1) "What is a Bat?"; (2) "Megabat or Microbat?"; (3) "Bat Anatomy"; (4) Diet and Feeding"; (5) Echolocation"; (6) Reproduction and Lifespan"; (7) "Flight"; (8) "Migration and Hibernation"; (9) Habitat and Roost…

  18. Intensity and directionality of bat echolocation signals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Lasse; Brinkløv, Signe; Surlykke, Annemarie

    2013-01-01

    and the louder open space hunting bats have been recorded at above 135 dB SPL. This implies that maximum emitted intensities are generally 30 dB or more above initial estimates. Bats' dynamic control of acoustic features also includes the intensity and directionality of their sonar calls. Aerial hawking bats...

  19. Adaptive evolution of Leptin in heterothermic bats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lihong Yuan

    Full Text Available Heterothermy (hibernation and daily torpor is a key strategy that animals use to survive in harsh conditions and is widely employed by bats, which are found in diverse habitats and climates. Bats comprise more than 20% of all mammals and although heterothermy occurs in divergent lineages of bats, suggesting it might be an ancestral condition, its evolutionary history is complicated by complex phylogeographic patterns. Here, we use Leptin, which regulates lipid metabolism and is crucial for thermogenesis of hibernators, as molecular marker and combine physiological, molecular and biochemical analyses to explore the possible evolutionary history of heterothermy in bat. The two tropical fruit bats examined here were homeothermic; in contrast, the two tropical insectivorous bats were clearly heterothermic. Molecular evolutionary analyses of the Leptin gene revealed positive selection in the ancestors of all bats, which was maintained or further enhanced the lineages comprising mostly heterothermic species. In contrast, we found evidence of relaxed selection in homeothermic species. Biochemical assays of bat Leptin on the activity on adipocyte degradation revealed that Leptin in heterothermic bats was more lipolytic than in homeothermic bats. This shows that evolutionary sequence changes in this protein are indeed functional and support the interpretation of our physiological results and the molecular evolutionary analyses. Our combined data strongly support the hypothesis that heterothermy is the ancestral state of bats and that this involved adaptive changes in Leptin. Subsequent loss of heterothermy in some tropical lineages of bats likely was associated with range and dietary shifts.

  20. A perspective on bats (Chiroptera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Brock Fenton

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available With over 130 species, bats are the most diverse group of mammals almost everywhere in sub-Saharan Africa. Since 2000, two books (Monadjem et al. 2010; Taylor 2000 have made it much easier to appreciate this reality. Species previously unrecognised are frequent discoveries (e.g. Taylor et al. 2012. Whilst most species are mainly insectivorous, some rely more directly on plants, taking fruit and visiting flowers to obtain nectar and pollen. The combination of mobility, long lifespan and diversity of trophic roles makes bats potentially valuable as indicators of ecosystem health (Cumming & Spiesman 2006. Lack of detailed information, however, makes it easy to overlook bats when focusing on issues of conservation.

  1. Novel Coronaviruses and Astroviruses in Bats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Daniel K. W. Chu; J. S. Malik Peiris; Leo L. M. Poon

    2009-01-01

    Zoonotic transmissions of emerging pathogens from wildlife to human have shaped the history of mankind. These events have also highlighted our poor understanding of microorganisms circulated in wild animals. Coronaviruses and astroviruses, which can be found from a wide range of mammals, were recently detected in bats. Strikingly, these bat viruses are genetically highly diverse and these interesting findings might help to better understand the evolution and ecology of these viruses. The discoveries of these novel bats viruses not only suggested that bats are important hosts for these virus families, but also reiterated the role of bats as a reservoir of viruses that might pose a zoonotic threat to human health.

  2. Habitat use of bats in relation to wind turbines revealed by GPS tracking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roeleke, Manuel; Blohm, Torsten; Kramer-Schadt, Stephanie; Yovel, Yossi; Voigt, Christian C

    2016-07-04

    Worldwide, many countries aim at countering global climate change by promoting renewable energy. Yet, recent studies highlight that so-called green energy, such as wind energy, may come at environmental costs, for example when wind turbines kill birds and bats. Using miniaturized GPS loggers, we studied how an open-space foraging bat with high collision risk with wind turbines, the common noctule Nyctalus noctula (Schreber, 1774), interacts with wind turbines. We compared actual flight trajectories to correlated random walks to identify habitat variables explaining the movements of bats. Both sexes preferred wetlands but used conventionally managed cropland less than expected based on availability. During midsummer, females traversed the land on relatively long flight paths and repeatedly came close to wind turbines. Their flight heights above ground suggested a high risk of colliding with wind turbines. In contrast, males recorded in early summer commuted straight between roosts and foraging areas and overall flew lower than the operating range of most turbine blades, suggesting a lower collision risk. Flight heights of bats suggest that during summer the risk of collision with wind turbines was high for most studied bats at the majority of currently installed wind turbines. For siting of wind parks, preferred bat habitats and commuting routes should be identified and avoided.

  3. Habitat use of bats in relation to wind turbines revealed by GPS tracking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roeleke, Manuel; Blohm, Torsten; Kramer-Schadt, Stephanie; Yovel, Yossi; Voigt, Christian C.

    2016-01-01

    Worldwide, many countries aim at countering global climate change by promoting renewable energy. Yet, recent studies highlight that so-called green energy, such as wind energy, may come at environmental costs, for example when wind turbines kill birds and bats. Using miniaturized GPS loggers, we studied how an open-space foraging bat with high collision risk with wind turbines, the common noctule Nyctalus noctula (Schreber, 1774), interacts with wind turbines. We compared actual flight trajectories to correlated random walks to identify habitat variables explaining the movements of bats. Both sexes preferred wetlands but used conventionally managed cropland less than expected based on availability. During midsummer, females traversed the land on relatively long flight paths and repeatedly came close to wind turbines. Their flight heights above ground suggested a high risk of colliding with wind turbines. In contrast, males recorded in early summer commuted straight between roosts and foraging areas and overall flew lower than the operating range of most turbine blades, suggesting a lower collision risk. Flight heights of bats suggest that during summer the risk of collision with wind turbines was high for most studied bats at the majority of currently installed wind turbines. For siting of wind parks, preferred bat habitats and commuting routes should be identified and avoided. PMID:27373219

  4. Effects of moonlight on the capturability of frugivorous phyllostomid bats (Chiroptera: Phyllostomidae at different time scales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco A. R. Mello

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Some bat species seem to be lunar phobic, i.e., they avoid flying in bright areas or during bright periods of the night; however, the evidence is still controversial. We think that part of this controversy comes from pooling data on bat captures and moonlight intensity according to broad categories, such as moon phases, which conceal the high variability among nights. Therefore, we used detailed, long-term field data on three phyllostomid bat species, in order to test the hypothesis of lunar phobia at two different time scales: 1 among nights, by pooling data of different nights according to moon phases and testing for differences in the distribution of captures; and 2 within a night, by analyzing the relationship between capturability and moonlight intensity (measured as illuminance in one-hour intervals for 29 individual nights. Although most captures of the studied bat species occurred in the first half of the night, their activity pattern varied largely among nights, and was not always unimodal as commonly assumed. At the larger time scale, all studied bat species showed evidence of lunar phobia, as they were more frequently captured on dark moon phases. Nevertheless, at the smaller time scale, only Carollia perspicillata (Linnaeus, 1758 was less frequently captured on brighter periods of the night. We propose that the unimodal activity pattern assumed for frugivorous phyllostomid bats may be an artifact of data organization, and that activity and lunar phobia are much more variable than previously assumed.

  5. Habitat use of bats in relation to wind turbines revealed by GPS tracking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roeleke, Manuel; Blohm, Torsten; Kramer-Schadt, Stephanie; Yovel, Yossi; Voigt, Christian C.

    2016-07-01

    Worldwide, many countries aim at countering global climate change by promoting renewable energy. Yet, recent studies highlight that so-called green energy, such as wind energy, may come at environmental costs, for example when wind turbines kill birds and bats. Using miniaturized GPS loggers, we studied how an open-space foraging bat with high collision risk with wind turbines, the common noctule Nyctalus noctula (Schreber, 1774), interacts with wind turbines. We compared actual flight trajectories to correlated random walks to identify habitat variables explaining the movements of bats. Both sexes preferred wetlands but used conventionally managed cropland less than expected based on availability. During midsummer, females traversed the land on relatively long flight paths and repeatedly came close to wind turbines. Their flight heights above ground suggested a high risk of colliding with wind turbines. In contrast, males recorded in early summer commuted straight between roosts and foraging areas and overall flew lower than the operating range of most turbine blades, suggesting a lower collision risk. Flight heights of bats suggest that during summer the risk of collision with wind turbines was high for most studied bats at the majority of currently installed wind turbines. For siting of wind parks, preferred bat habitats and commuting routes should be identified and avoided.

  6. Radar-to-Radar Interference Suppression for Distributed Radar Sensor Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Wen-Qin Wang; Huaizong Shao

    2014-01-01

    Radar sensor networks, including bi- and multi-static radars, provide several operational advantages, like reduced vulnerability, good system flexibility and an increased radar cross-section. However, radar-to-radar interference suppression is a major problem in distributed radar sensor networks. In this paper, we present a cross-matched filtering-based radar-to-radar interference suppression algorithm. This algorithm first uses an iterative filtering algorithm to suppress the radar-to-radar ...

  7. A One Health Message about Bats Increases Intentions to Follow Public Health Guidance on Bat Rabies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hang Lu

    Full Text Available Since 1960, bat rabies variants have become the greatest source of human rabies deaths in the United States. Improving rabies awareness and preventing human exposure to rabid bats remains a national public health priority today. Concurrently, conservation of bats and the ecosystem benefits they provide is of increasing importance due to declining populations of many bat species. This study used a visitor-intercept experiment (N = 521 in two U.S. national parks where human and bat interactions occur on an occasional basis to examine the relative persuasiveness of four messages differing in the provision of benefit and uncertainty information on intentions to adopt a rabies exposure prevention behavior. We found that acknowledging benefits of bats in a risk message led to greater intentions to adopt the recommended rabies exposure prevention behavior without unnecessarily stigmatizing bats. These results signify the importance of communicating benefits of bats in bat rabies prevention messages to benefit both human and wildlife health.

  8. BAT-BORNE RABIES IN LATIN AMERICA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis E. Escobar

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The situation of rabies in America is complex: rabies in dogs has decreased dramatically, but bats are increasingly recognized as natural reservoirs of other rabies variants. Here, bat species known to be rabies-positive with different antigenic variants, are summarized in relation to bat conservation status across Latin America. Rabies virus is widespread in Latin American bat species, 22.5%75 of bat species have been confirmed as rabies-positive. Most bat species found rabies positive are classified by the International Union for Conservation of Nature as “Least Concern”. According to diet type, insectivorous bats had the most species known as rabies reservoirs, while in proportion hematophagous bats were the most important. Research at coarse spatial scales must strive to understand rabies ecology; basic information on distribution and population dynamics of many Latin American and Caribbean bat species is needed; and detailed information on effects of landscape change in driving bat-borne rabies outbreaks remains unassessed. Finally, integrated approaches including public health, ecology, and conservation biology are needed to understand and prevent emergent diseases in bats.

  9. Wind generated by an attacking bat: anemometric measurements and detection by the praying mantis cercal system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Triblehorn, Jeffrey D; Yager, David D

    2006-04-01

    The wind-sensitive cercal system, well-known for mediating terrestrial escape responses, may also mediate insect aerial bat-avoidance responses triggered by wind generated by the approaching bat. One crucial question is whether enough time exists between detection and capture for the insect to perform a successful evasive maneuver. A previous study estimated this time to be 16 ms, based on cockroach behavioral latencies and a prediction for the detection time derived from a simulated predator moving toward a simulated prey. However, the detection time may be underestimated since both the simulated predator and prey lacked certain characteristics present in the natural situation. In the present study, actual detection times are measured by recording from wind-sensitive interneurons of a tethered praying mantis that serves as the target for a flying, attacking bat. Furthermore, using hot-wire anemometry, we describe and quantify the wind generated by an attacking bat. Anemometer measurements revealed that the velocity of the bat-generated wind consistently peaks early with a high acceleration component (an important parameter for triggering wind-mediated terrestrial responses). The physiological recordings determined that the mantis cercal system detected an approaching bat 74 ms before contact, which would provide the insect with 36 ms to perform a maneuver before capture. This should be sufficient time for the mantis to respond. Although it probably would not have time for a full response that completely evades the bat, even a partial response might alter the mantid's trajectory enough to cause the bat to mishandle the insect, allowing it to escape.

  10. Lignite coke moving bed adsorber for cement plants - BAT or beyond BAT?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schoenberger, H. [European Commission, Seville (Spain). Joint Research Center

    2011-06-15

    The IPPC Directive requires permits which must contain emission limit values and other conditions based on BAT. The BAT are characterised and the terms 'conditional BAT' and 'beyond BAT' are defined and explained. The borderline between BAT and beyond BAT is explained by means of an outstanding example which is the lignite coke moving bed adsorber for the abatement of the waste gas from a cement plant where waste for co-incineration is fed to a considerable extent is described in detail. Worldwide, this technique has been successfully applied at one cement plant for sixteen years.

  11. Bat Flight and Zoonotic Viruses

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2014-05-30

    Reginald Tucker reads an abridged version of the EID perspective Bat Flight and Zoonotic Viruses.  Created: 5/30/2014 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 6/2/2014.

  12. How to mitigate impacts of wind farms on bats? A review of potential conservation measures in the European context

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peste, Filipa, E-mail: filipapeste@gmail.com [Centre for Environmental and Marine Studies (CESAM) (Portugal); Department of Biology, University of Aveiro (Portugal); Paula, Anabela [Bioinsight - Ambiente e Biodiversidade, Lda. Lisboa (Portugal); Silva, Luís P. da [Centre for Environmental and Marine Studies (CESAM) (Portugal); Department of Biology, University of Aveiro (Portugal); MARE and CEF, Department of Life Sciences, University of Coimbra (Portugal); Bernardino, Joana; Pereira, Pedro [Bio3 - Estudos e Projectos em Biologia e Recursos Naturais, Lda. Almada (Portugal); Mascarenhas, Miguel [Bioinsight - Ambiente e Biodiversidade, Lda. Lisboa (Portugal); Costa, Hugo [Bio3 - Estudos e Projectos em Biologia e Recursos Naturais, Lda. Almada (Portugal); Vieira, José; Bastos, Carlos [Department of Electronics, Telecommunications and Informatics / IEETA, University of Aveiro (Portugal); Fonseca, Carlos [Centre for Environmental and Marine Studies (CESAM) (Portugal); Department of Biology, University of Aveiro (Portugal); Pereira, Maria João Ramos [Centre for Environmental and Marine Studies (CESAM) (Portugal); PPGBAN, Department of Zoology, Institute of Biosciences, Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul (Brazil); PPGEC, Federal University of Mato Grosso do Sul (Brazil)

    2015-02-15

    Wind energy is growing worldwide as a source of power generation. Bat assemblages may be negatively affected by wind farms due to the fatality of a significant number of individuals after colliding with the moving turbines or experiencing barotrauma. The implementation of wind farms should follow standard procedures to prevent such negative impacts: avoid, reduce and offset, in what is known as the mitigation hierarchy. According to this approach avoiding impacts is the priority, followed by the minimisation of the identified impacts, and finally, when residual negative impacts still remain, those must be offset or at least compensated. This paper presents a review on conservation measures for bats and presents some guidelines within the compensation scenario, focusing on negative impacts that remain after avoidance and minimisation measures. The conservation strategies presented aim at the improvement of the ecological conditions for the bat assemblage as a whole. While developed under the European context, the proposed measures are potentially applicable elsewhere, taking into consideration the specificity of each region in terms of bat assemblages present, landscape features and policy context regarding nature and biodiversity conservation and management. An analysis of potential opportunities and constraints arising from the implementation of offset/compensation programmes and gaps in the current knowledge is also considered. - Highlights: • Wind energy impacts bat populations in ways not yet fully understood. • As the use of windfarms is growing worldwide greater impacts on bat populations are also expected. • Mitigation hierarchy provides a way to reduce impacts from new wind farm facilities. • Compensation measures may be used to reduce the residual effects on bat populations. • Identify bats ecological needs and compensate according to the existing surroundings.

  13. Pedestrian recognition using automotive radar sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartsch, A.; Fitzek, F.; Rasshofer, R. H.

    2012-09-01

    The application of modern series production automotive radar sensors to pedestrian recognition is an important topic in research on future driver assistance systems. The aim of this paper is to understand the potential and limits of such sensors in pedestrian recognition. This knowledge could be used to develop next generation radar sensors with improved pedestrian recognition capabilities. A new raw radar data signal processing algorithm is proposed that allows deep insights into the object classification process. The impact of raw radar data properties can be directly observed in every layer of the classification system by avoiding machine learning and tracking. This gives information on the limiting factors of raw radar data in terms of classification decision making. To accomplish the very challenging distinction between pedestrians and static objects, five significant and stable object features from the spatial distribution and Doppler information are found. Experimental results with data from a 77 GHz automotive radar sensor show that over 95% of pedestrians can be classified correctly under optimal conditions, which is compareable to modern machine learning systems. The impact of the pedestrian's direction of movement, occlusion, antenna beam elevation angle, linear vehicle movement, and other factors are investigated and discussed. The results show that under real life conditions, radar only based pedestrian recognition is limited due to insufficient Doppler frequency and spatial resolution as well as antenna side lobe effects.

  14. Bat Species Occurrence and Long-Term Bat Population Monitoring on Refuges using Acoustical Detection.

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This is a proposal to: Determine baseline occurrence of bat species on refuges in the southeast during the breeding season. 2. Index bat populations on a species by...

  15. Bartonella species in bats (Chiroptera) and bat flies (Nycteribiidae) from Nigeria, West Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamani, Joshua; Baneth, Gad; Mitchell, Mark; Mumcuoglu, Kosta Y; Gutiérrez, Ricardo; Harrus, Shimon

    2014-09-01

    Previous and ongoing studies have incriminated bats as reservoirs of several emerging and re-emerging zoonoses. Most of these studies, however, have focused on viral agents and neglected important bacterial pathogens. To date, there has been no report investigating the prevalence of Bartonella spp. in bats and bat flies from Nigeria, despite the fact that bats are used as food and for cultural ritual purposes by some ethnic groups in Nigeria. To elucidate the role of bats as reservoirs of bartonellae, we screened by molecular methods 148 bats and 34 bat flies, Diptera:Hippoboscoidea:Nycteribiidae (Cyclopodia greeffi) from Nigeria for Bartonella spp. Overall, Bartonella spp. DNA was detected in 76 out of 148 (51.4%) bat blood samples tested and 10 out of 24 (41.7%) bat flies tested by qPCR targeting the 16S-23S internal transcribed spacer (ITS) locus. Bartonella was isolated from 23 of 148 (15.5%) bat blood samples, and the isolates were genetically characterized. Prevalence of Bartonella spp. culture-positive samples ranged from 0% to 45.5% among five bat species. Micropterus spp. bats had a significantly higher relative risk of 3.45 for being culture positive compared to Eidolon helvum, Epomophorus spp., Rhinolophus spp., and Chaerephon nigeriae. Bartonella spp. detected in this study fall into three distinct clusters along with other Bartonella spp. isolated from bats and bat flies from Kenya and Ghana, respectively. The isolation of Bartonella spp. in 10.0-45.5% of four out of five bat species screened in this study indicates a widespread infection in bat population in Nigeria. Further investigation is warranted to determine the role of these bacteria as a cause of human and animal diseases in Nigeria.

  16. Molecular determinants of bat wing development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sears, K E

    2008-01-01

    The specialization of the forelimb into a wing allowed bats to become the only mammals to achieve powered flight. Recent studies in developmental biology have begun to elucidate the molecular mechanisms behind elements of this important morphological transformation. Specifically, researchers have identified molecular changes contributing to: the formation of the bat wing membrane, the elongation of skeletal elements of the bat wing and the reduction of the bat ulna. The general picture emerging from this research is that small changes in the expression of genes critical to many aspects of development have driven large changes in bat wing morphology. Thus, bats can be added to the growing list of groups in which expression changes in key developmental genes have been linked to the evolution of morphological innovations (e.g. early bilaterians, cetaceans, insects).

  17. Correlating Flight Behavior and Radar Measurements for Species Based Classification of Bird Radar Echoes for Wind Energy Site Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werth, S. P.; Frasier, S. J.

    2015-12-01

    Wind energy is one of the fastest-growing segments of the world energy market, offering a clean and abundant source of electricity. However, wind energy facilities can have detrimental effects on wildlife, especially birds and bats. Monitoring systems based on marine navigation radar are often used to quantify migration near potential wind sites, but the ability to reliably distinguish between bats and different varieties of birds has not been practically achieved. This classification capability would enable wind site selection that protects more vulnerable species, such as bats and raptors. Flight behavior, such as wing beat frequency, changes in speed, or changes in orientation, are known to vary by species [1]. The ability to extract these properties from radar data could ultimately enable a species based classification scheme. In this work, we analyze the relationship between radar measurements and bird flight behavior in echoes from avifauna. During the 2014 fall migration season, the UMass dual polarized weather radar was used to collect low elevation observations of migrating birds as they traversed through a fixed antenna beam. The radar was run during the night time, in clear-air conditions. Data was coherently integrated, and detections of biological targets exceeding an SNR threshold were extracted. Detections without some dominant frequency content (i.e. clear periodicity, potentially the wing beat frequency) were removed from the sample in order to isolate observations suspected to contain a single species or bird. For the remaining detections, measurements including the polarimetric products and the Doppler spectrum were extracted at each time step over the duration of the observation. The periodic and time changing nature of some of these different measurements was found to have a strong correlation with flight behavior (i.e. flapping vs. gliding behavior). Assumptions about flight behavior and orientation were corroborated through scattering

  18. Presence of European bat lyssavirus RNas in apparently healthy Rousettus aegyptiacus bats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wellenberg, G.J.; Audry, L.; Ronsholt, L.; Poel, van der W.H.M.; Bruschke, C.J.M.; Bourhy, H.

    2002-01-01

    Apparently healthy Rousettus aegyptiacus bats were randomly chosen from a Dutch colony naturally infected with European bat lyssavirus subgenotype 1a (EBL1a). These bats were euthanised three months after the first evidence of an EBL1a infection in the colony. EBL1a genomic and antigenomic RNAs of t

  19. Detection of European bat lyssavirus type 2 in Danish Daubenton’s bats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Thomas Bruun; Chriél, Mariann; Baagøe, Hans J.;

    European bat lyssavirus (EBLV) is considered to be endemic in the Danish bat populations, but limited information exists about the types of EBLV strains currently in circulation. EBLV type 1 (EBLV-1) is seen as the predominant type in the Serotine bats (Eptesicus serotinus) with the latest case...

  20. Behavior of bats at wind turbines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cryan, Paul M; Gorresen, P Marcos; Hein, Cris D; Schirmacher, Michael R; Diehl, Robert H; Huso, Manuela M; Hayman, David T S; Fricker, Paul D; Bonaccorso, Frank J; Johnson, Douglas H; Heist, Kevin; Dalton, David C

    2014-10-21

    Wind turbines are causing unprecedented numbers of bat fatalities. Many fatalities involve tree-roosting bats, but reasons for this higher susceptibility remain unknown. To better understand behaviors associated with risk, we monitored bats at three experimentally manipulated wind turbines in Indiana, United States, from July 29 to October 1, 2012, using thermal cameras and other methods. We observed bats on 993 occasions and saw many behaviors, including close approaches, flight loops and dives, hovering, and chases. Most bats altered course toward turbines during observation. Based on these new observations, we tested the hypotheses that wind speed and blade rotation speed influenced the way that bats interacted with turbines. We found that bats were detected more frequently at lower wind speeds and typically approached turbines on the leeward (downwind) side. The proportion of leeward approaches increased with wind speed when blades were prevented from turning, yet decreased when blades could turn. Bats were observed more frequently at turbines on moonlit nights. Taken together, these observations suggest that bats may orient toward turbines by sensing air currents and using vision, and that air turbulence caused by fast-moving blades creates conditions that are less attractive to bats passing in close proximity. Tree bats may respond to streams of air flowing downwind from trees at night while searching for roosts, conspecifics, and nocturnal insect prey that could accumulate in such flows. Fatalities of tree bats at turbines may be the consequence of behaviors that evolved to provide selective advantages when elicited by tall trees, but are now maladaptive when elicited by wind turbines.

  1. Convergences in the diversification of bats

    OpenAIRE

    M. Brock Fenton

    2010-01-01

    Twenty-five characters or suites of characters from bats are considered in light of changes in bat classification. The characters include some associated with flower-visiting (two), echolocation (12), roosting (six), reproduction (two) and three are of unknown adaptive function. In both the 1998 and 2006 classifications of bats into suborders (Megachiroptera and Microchiroptera versus Yinpterochiroptera and Yangochiroptera, respectively), some convergences between suborders are the same (e.g....

  2. Behavior of bats at wind turbines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cryan, Paul M.; Gorresen, P. Marcos; Hine, Cris D.; Schirmacher, Michael; Diehl, Robert H.; Huso, Manuela M.; Hayman, David T.S.; Fricker, Paul D.; Bonaccorso, Frank J.; Johnson, Douglas H.; Heist, Kevin W.; Dalton, David C.

    2014-01-01

    Wind turbines are causing unprecedented numbers of bat fatalities. Many fatalities involve tree-roosting bats, but reasons for this higher susceptibility remain unknown. To better understand behaviors associated with risk, we monitored bats at three experimentally manipulated wind turbines in Indiana, United States, from July 29 to October 1, 2012, using thermal cameras and other methods. We observed bats on 993 occasions and saw many behaviors, including close approaches, flight loops and dives, hovering, and chases. Most bats altered course toward turbines during observation. Based on these new observations, we tested the hypotheses that wind speed and blade rotation speed influenced the way that bats interacted with turbines. We found that bats were detected more frequently at lower wind speeds and typically approached turbines on the leeward (downwind) side. The proportion of leeward approaches increased with wind speed when blades were prevented from turning, yet decreased when blades could turn. Bats were observed more frequently at turbines on moonlit nights. Taken together, these observations suggest that bats may orient toward turbines by sensing air currents and using vision, and that air turbulence caused by fast-moving blades creates conditions that are less attractive to bats passing in close proximity. Tree bats may respond to streams of air flowing downwind from trees at night while searching for roosts, conspecifics, and nocturnal insect prey that could accumulate in such flows. Fatalities of tree bats at turbines may be the consequence of behaviors that evolved to provide selective advantages when elicited by tall trees, but are now maladaptive when elicited by wind turbines.

  3. Adaptive radar resource management

    CERN Document Server

    Moo, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Radar Resource Management (RRM) is vital for optimizing the performance of modern phased array radars, which are the primary sensor for aircraft, ships, and land platforms. Adaptive Radar Resource Management gives an introduction to radar resource management (RRM), presenting a clear overview of different approaches and techniques, making it very suitable for radar practitioners and researchers in industry and universities. Coverage includes: RRM's role in optimizing the performance of modern phased array radars The advantages of adaptivity in implementing RRMThe role that modelling and

  4. Radar and ARPA manual

    CERN Document Server

    Bole, A G

    2013-01-01

    Radar and ARPA Manual focuses on the theoretical and practical aspects of electronic navigation. The manual first discusses basic radar principles, including principles of range and bearing measurements and picture orientation and presentation. The text then looks at the operational principles of radar systems. Function of units; aerial, receiver, and display principles; transmitter principles; and sitting of units on board ships are discussed. The book also describes target detection, Automatic Radar Plotting Aids (ARPA), and operational controls of radar systems, and then discusses radar plo

  5. Bat flight: aerodynamics, kinematics and flight morphology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedenström, Anders; Johansson, L Christoffer

    2015-03-01

    Bats evolved the ability of powered flight more than 50 million years ago. The modern bat is an efficient flyer and recent research on bat flight has revealed many intriguing facts. By using particle image velocimetry to visualize wake vortices, both the magnitude and time-history of aerodynamic forces can be estimated. At most speeds the downstroke generates both lift and thrust, whereas the function of the upstroke changes with forward flight speed. At hovering and slow speed bats use a leading edge vortex to enhance the lift beyond that allowed by steady aerodynamics and an inverted wing during the upstroke to further aid weight support. The bat wing and its skeleton exhibit many features and control mechanisms that are presumed to improve flight performance. Whereas bats appear aerodynamically less efficient than birds when it comes to cruising flight, they have the edge over birds when it comes to manoeuvring. There is a direct relationship between kinematics and the aerodynamic performance, but there is still a lack of knowledge about how (and if) the bat controls the movements and shape (planform and camber) of the wing. Considering the relatively few bat species whose aerodynamic tracks have been characterized, there is scope for new discoveries and a need to study species representing more extreme positions in the bat morphospace.

  6. Green roofs provide habitat for urban bats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.L. Parkins

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Understanding bat use of human-altered habitat is critical for developing effective conservation plans for this ecologically important taxon. Green roofs, building rooftops covered in growing medium and vegetation, are increasingly important conservation tools that make use of underutilized space to provide breeding and foraging grounds for urban wildlife. Green roofs are especially important in highly urbanized areas such as New York City (NYC, which has more rooftops (34% than green space (13%. To date, no studies have examined the extent to which North American bats utilize urban green roofs. To investigate the role of green roofs in supporting urban bats, we monitored bat activity using ultrasonic recorders on four green and four conventional roofs located in highly developed areas of NYC, which were paired to control for location, height, and local variability in surrounding habitat and species diversity. We then identified bat vocalizations on these recordings to the species level. We documented the presence of five of nine possible bat species over both roof types: Lasiurus borealis, L. cinereus, L. noctivagans, P. subflavus,andE. fuscus. Of the bat calls that could be identified to the species level, 66% were from L. borealis. Overall levels of bat activity were higher over green roofs than over conventional roofs. This study provides evidence that, in addition to well documented ecosystem benefits, urban green roofs contribute to urban habitat availability for several North American bat species.

  7. Influence of landscape structure and human modifications on insect biomass and bat foraging activity in an urban landscape.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caragh G Threlfall

    Full Text Available Urban landscapes are often located in biologically diverse, productive regions. As such, urbanization may have dramatic consequences for this diversity, largely due to changes in the structure and function of urban communities. We examined the influence of landscape productivity (indexed by geology, housing density and vegetation clearing on the spatial distribution of nocturnal insect biomass and the foraging activity of insectivorous bats in the urban landscape of Sydney, Australia. Nocturnal insect biomass (g and bat foraging activity were sampled from 113 sites representing backyard, open space, bushland and riparian landscape elements, across urban, suburban and vegetated landscapes within 60 km of Sydney's Central Business District. We found that insect biomass was at least an order of magnitude greater within suburban landscapes in bushland and backyard elements located on the most fertile shale influenced geologies (both p<0.001 compared to nutrient poor sandstone landscapes. Similarly, the feeding activity of bats was greatest in bushland, and riparian elements within suburbs on fertile geologies (p = 0.039. Regression tree analysis indicated that the same three variables explained the major proportion of the variation in insect biomass and bat foraging activity. These were ambient temperature (positive, housing density (negative and the percent of fertile shale geologies (positive in the landscape; however variation in insect biomass did not directly explain bat foraging activity. We suggest that prey may be unavailable to bats in highly urbanized areas if these areas are avoided by many species, suggesting that reduced feeding activity may reflect under-use of urban habitats by bats. Restoration activities to improve ecological function and maintain the activity of a diversity of bat species should focus on maintaining and restoring bushland and riparian habitat, particularly in areas with fertile geology as these were key bat

  8. Weather Radar Impact Zones

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These data represent an inventory of the national impacts of wind turbine interference with NEXRAD radar stations. This inventory was developed by the NOAA Radar...

  9. Digital LPI Radar Detector

    OpenAIRE

    Ong, Peng Ghee; Teng, Haw Kiad

    2001-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited The function of a Low Probability ofIntercept (LPI) radar is to prevent its interception by an Electronic Support (ES) receiver. This objective is generally achieved through the use of a radar waveform that is mismatched to those waveforms for which an ES receiver is tuned. This allows the radar to achieve a processing gain, with respect to the ES receiver, that is equal to the time-bandwidth product ofthe radar waveform. This...

  10. A comparison of bats and rodents as reservoirs of zoonotic viruses: are bats special?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luis, Angela D; Hayman, David T S; O'Shea, Thomas J; Cryan, Paul M; Gilbert, Amy T; Pulliam, Juliet R C; Mills, James N; Timonin, Mary E; Willis, Craig K R; Cunningham, Andrew A; Fooks, Anthony R; Rupprecht, Charles E; Wood, James L N; Webb, Colleen T

    2013-04-01

    Bats are the natural reservoirs of a number of high-impact viral zoonoses. We present a quantitative analysis to address the hypothesis that bats are unique in their propensity to host zoonotic viruses based on a comparison with rodents, another important host order. We found that bats indeed host more zoonotic viruses per species than rodents, and we identified life-history and ecological factors that promote zoonotic viral richness. More zoonotic viruses are hosted by species whose distributions overlap with a greater number of other species in the same taxonomic order (sympatry). Specifically in bats, there was evidence for increased zoonotic viral richness in species with smaller litters (one young), greater longevity and more litters per year. Furthermore, our results point to a new hypothesis to explain in part why bats host more zoonotic viruses per species: the stronger effect of sympatry in bats and more viruses shared between bat species suggests that interspecific transmission is more prevalent among bats than among rodents. Although bats host more zoonotic viruses per species, the total number of zoonotic viruses identified in bats (61) was lower than in rodents (68), a result of there being approximately twice the number of rodent species as bat species. Therefore, rodents should still be a serious concern as reservoirs of emerging viruses. These findings shed light on disease emergence and perpetuation mechanisms and may help lead to a predictive framework for identifying future emerging infectious virus reservoirs.

  11. A comparison of bats and rodents as reservoirs of zoonotic viruses: are bats special?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luis, Angela D.; Hayman, David T.S.; O'Shea, Thomas J.; Cryan, Paul M.; Gilbert, Amy T.; Pulliam, Juliet R.C.; Mills, James N.; Timonin, Mary E.; Willis, Craig K.R.; Cunningham, Andrew A.; Fooks, Anthony R.; Rupprecht, Charles E.; Wood, James L.N.; Webb, Colleen T.

    2013-01-01

    Bats are the natural reservoirs of a number of high-impact viral zoonoses. We present a quantitative analysis to address the hypothesis that bats are unique in their propensity to host zoonotic viruses based on a comparison with rodents, another important host order. We found that bats indeed host more zoonotic viruses per species than rodents, and we identified life-history and ecological factors that promote zoonotic viral richness. More zoonotic viruses are hosted by species whose distributions overlap with a greater number of other species in the same taxonomic order (sympatry). Specifically in bats, there was evidence for increased zoonotic viral richness in species with smaller litters (one young), greater longevity and more litters per year. Furthermore, our results point to a new hypothesis to explain in part why bats host more zoonotic viruses per species: the stronger effect of sympatry in bats and more viruses shared between bat species suggests that interspecific transmission is more prevalent among bats than among rodents. Although bats host more zoonotic viruses per species, the total number of zoonotic viruses identified in bats (61) was lower than in rodents (68), a result of there being approximately twice the number of rodent species as bat species. Therefore, rodents should still be a serious concern as reservoirs of emerging viruses. These findings shed light on disease emergence and perpetuation mechanisms and may help lead to a predictive framework for identifying future emerging infectious virus reservoirs.

  12. Network radar countermeasure systems integrating radar and radar countermeasures

    CERN Document Server

    Jiang, Qiuxi

    2016-01-01

    This is the very first book to present the network radar countermeasure system. It explains in detail the systematic concept of combining radar and radar countermeasures from the perspective of the information acquisition of target location, the optimization of the reconnaissance and detection, the integrated attack of the signals and facilities, and technological and legal developments concerning the networked system. It achieves the integration of the initiative and passivity, detection and jamming. The book explains how the system locates targets, completes target identification, tracks targets and compiles the data.

  13. Radar: Human Safety Net

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritz, John M.

    2016-01-01

    Radar is a technology that can be used to detect distant objects not visible to the human eye. A predecessor of radar, called the telemobiloscope, was first used to detect ships in the fog in 1904 off the German coast. Many scientists have worked on the development and refinement of radar (Hertz with electromagnetic waves; Popov with determining…

  14. Radar and wind turbines; Radar en windturbines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Doorn, H.

    2010-03-15

    In the last years the developments of wind parks were hampered because of their possible effect on the radar for observation of air traffic. Work is currently being done on a new assessment model for wind turbines under the auspices of the steering group National Security for the military radar systems. Air traffic control Netherlands (LVNL) will look at the options for civil radars to join in. [Dutch] In de afgelopen jaren zijn windparkontwikkelingen onder meer belemmerd vanwege mogelijke effecten op radar voor de waarneming van luchtverkeer. Onder auspicien van de stuurgroep Nationale Veiligheid voor de militaire radarsystemen op land wordt gewerkt aan een nieuw beoordelingsmodel voor windturbines. De Luchtverkeersleiding Nederland (LVNL) zal bezien in hoeverre de civiele radars hierbij kunnen aansluiten.

  15. Bats initiate vital agroecological interactions in corn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maine, Josiah J; Boyles, Justin G

    2015-10-01

    In agroecosystems worldwide, bats are voracious predators of crop pests and may provide services to farmers worth billions of U.S. dollars. However, such valuations make untested assumptions about the ecological effect of bats in agroecosystems. Specifically, estimates of the value of pest suppression services assume bats consume sufficient numbers of crop pests to affect impact pest reproduction and subsequent damage to crops. Corn is an essential crop for farmers, and is grown on more than 150 million hectares worldwide. Using large exclosures in corn fields, we show that bats exert sufficient pressure on crop pests to suppress larval densities and damage in this cosmopolitan crop. In addition, we show that bats suppress pest-associated fungal growth and mycotoxin in corn. We estimate the suppression of herbivory by insectivorous bats is worth more than 1 billion USD globally on this crop alone, and bats may further benefit farmers by indirectly suppressing pest-associated fungal growth and toxic compounds on corn. Bats face a variety of threats globally, but their relevance as predators of insects in ubiquitous corn-dominated landscapes underlines the economic and ecological importance of conserving biodiversity.

  16. Dengue Virus in Bats from Southeastern Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sotomayor-Bonilla, Jesús; Chaves, Andrea; Rico-Chávez, Oscar; Rostal, Melinda K.; Ojeda-Flores, Rafael; Salas-Rojas, Mónica; Aguilar-Setien, Álvaro; Ibáñez-Bernal, Sergio; Barbachano-Guerrero, Arturo; Gutiérrez-Espeleta, Gustavo; Aguilar-Faisal, J. Leopoldo; Aguirre, A. Alonso; Daszak, Peter; Suzán, Gerardo

    2014-01-01

    To identify the relationship between landscape use and dengue virus (DENV) occurrence in bats, we investigated the presence of DENV from anthropogenically changed and unaltered landscapes in two Biosphere Reserves: Calakmul (Campeche) and Montes Azules (Chiapas) in southern Mexico. Spleen samples of 146 bats, belonging to 16 species, were tested for four DENV serotypes with standard reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) protocols. Six bats (4.1%) tested positive for DENV-2: four bats in Calakmul (two Glossophaga soricina, one Artibeus jamaicensis, and one A. lituratus) and two bats in Montes Azules (both A. lituratus). No effect of anthropogenic disturbance on the occurrence of DENV was detected; however, all three RT-PCR–positive bat species are considered abundant species in the Neotropics and well-adapted to disturbed habitats. To our knowledge, this study is the first study conducted in southeastern Mexico to identify DENV-2 in bats by a widely accepted RT-PCR protocol. The role that bats play on DENV's ecology remains undetermined. PMID:24752688

  17. Vampire Bat Rabies: Ecology, Epidemiology and Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas Johnson

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Extensive surveillance in bat populations in response to recent emerging diseases has revealed that this group of mammals acts as a reservoir for a large range of viruses. However, the oldest known association between a zoonotic virus and a bat is that between rabies virus and the vampire bat. Vampire bats are only found in Latin America and their unique method of obtaining nutrition, blood-feeding or haematophagy, has only evolved in the New World. The adaptations that enable blood-feeding also make the vampire bat highly effective at transmitting rabies virus. Whether the virus was present in pre-Columbian America or was introduced is much disputed, however, the introduction of Old World livestock and associated landscape modification, which continues to the present day, has enabled vampire bat populations to increase. This in turn has provided the conditions for rabies re-emergence to threaten both livestock and human populations as vampire bats target large mammals. This review considers the ecology of the vampire bat that make it such an efficient vector for rabies, the current status of vampire-transmitted rabies and the future prospects for spread by this virus and its control.

  18. Target Images in the Sonar of Bats

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-10-01

    targets was regulated by controlling the delay of the echoes electronically. The bat was rewarded with a piece of a mealworm offered in forceps for each...and on the test-days each bat was run on a number of trials that was determined by its current body weight and the quantity of mealworms consumed

  19. Avoiding health information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbour, Joshua B; Rintamaki, Lance S; Ramsey, Jason A; Brashers, Dale E

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated why and how individuals avoid health information to support the development of models of uncertainty and information management and offer insights for those dealing with the information and uncertainty inherent to health and illness. Participants from student (n = 507) and community (n = 418) samples reported that they avoided health information to (a) maintain hope or deniability, (b) resist overexposure, (c) accept limits of action, (d) manage flawed information, (e) maintain boundaries, and (f) continue with life/activities. They also reported strategies for avoiding information, including removing or ignoring stimuli (e.g., avoiding people who might provide health advice) and controlling conversations (e.g., withholding information, changing the subject). Results suggest a link between previous experience with serious illness and health information avoidance. Building on uncertainty management theory, this study demonstrated that health information avoidance is situational, relatively common, not necessarily unhealthy, and may be used to accomplish multiple communication goals.

  20. Fat and fed: frequent use of summer torpor in a subtropical bat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stawski, Clare; Geiser, Fritz

    2010-01-01

    A widely held view is that torpor is avoided by mammals whenever possible because of potential costs associated with reduced body temperatures and slowed metabolic processes. We examined this hypothesis by quantifying use of torpor in relation to body condition of free-ranging northern long-eared bats ( Nyctophilus bifax, approximately 10 g), a species known to hibernate, from a subtropical region during the austral summer when insects were abundant. Temperature-telemetry revealed that bats used torpor on 85% of observation days and on 38% of all nights. Torpor bouts ranged from 0.7 to 21.2 h, but the relationship between duration of torpor bouts and ambient temperature was not significant. However, skin temperature of torpid bats was positively correlated with ambient temperature. Against predictions, individuals with a high body condition index (i.e., good fat/energy reserves) expressed longer and deeper torpor bouts and also employed torpor more often during the activity phase at night than those with low body condition index. We provide the first evidence that use of torpor in a free-ranging subtropical mammal is positively related with high body condition index. This suggests that employment of torpor is maximised and foraging minimised not because of food shortages or low energy stores but likely to avoid predation when bats are not required to feed.

  1. Bat predation on nocturnally migrating birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibáñez, C; Juste, J; García-Mudarra, J L; Agirre-Mendi, P T

    2001-08-14

    Bat predation on birds is a very rare phenomenon in nature. Most documented reports of bird-eating bats refer to tropical bats that occasionally capture resting birds. Millions of small birds concentrate and cross over the world's temperate regions during migration, mainly at night, but no nocturnal predators are known to benefit from this enormous food resource. An analysis of 14,000 fecal pellets of the greater noctule bat (Nyctalus lasiopterus) reveals that this species captures and eats large numbers of migrating passerines, making it the only bat species so far known that regularly preys on birds. The echolocation characteristics and wing morphology of this species strongly suggest that it captures birds in flight.

  2. Bats and Viruses: a Brief Review

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lin-Fa Wang

    2009-01-01

    Bats, probably the most abundant, diverse and geographically dispersed vertebrates on earth, have recently been shown to be the reservoir hosts of a number of emerging viruses responsible for severe human and livestock disease outbreaks. Flying foxes have been demonstrated to be the natural reservoir for Hendra and Nipah viruses. Evidence supporting the possibility of bats as potential reservoirs for SARS coronavirus (SARS-CoV) and Ebola virus has also been reported. The recent discovery of these viruses and other viruses occurring naturally in the bat population provides a unique insight into a diverse pool of potentially emergent and pathogenic viruses. The factors which influence the ability of zoonotic viruses to effectively cross the species barrier from bats to other animal populations are poorly understood. A brief review is provided here on the recently emerged bat viruses and on current and future strategies for research in this area.

  3. Poxviruses in Bats … so What?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kate S. Baker

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Poxviruses are important pathogens of man and numerous domestic and wild animal species. Cross species (including zoonotic poxvirus infections can have drastic consequences for the recipient host. Bats are a diverse order of mammals known to carry lethal viral zoonoses such as Rabies, Hendra, Nipah, and SARS. Consequent targeted research is revealing bats to be infected with a rich diversity of novel viruses. Poxviruses were recently identified in bats and the settings in which they were found were dramatically different. Here, we review the natural history of poxviruses in bats and highlight the relationship of the viruses to each other and their context in the Poxviridae family. In addition to considering the zoonotic potential of these viruses, we reflect on the broader implications of these findings. Specifically, the potential to explore and exploit this newfound relationship to study coevolution and cross species transmission together with fundamental aspects of poxvirus host tropism as well as bat virology and immunology.

  4. Bats and Rodents Shape Mammalian Retroviral Phylogeny.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Jie; Tachedjian, Gilda; Wang, Lin-Fa

    2015-11-09

    Endogenous retroviruses (ERVs) represent past retroviral infections and accordingly can provide an ideal framework to infer virus-host interaction over their evolutionary history. In this study, we target high quality Pol sequences from 7,994 Class I and 8,119 Class II ERVs from 69 mammalian genomes and surprisingly find that retroviruses harbored by bats and rodents combined occupy the major phylogenetic diversity of both classes. By analyzing transmission patterns of 30 well-defined ERV clades, we corroborate the previously published observation that rodents are more competent as originators of mammalian retroviruses and reveal that bats are more capable of receiving retroviruses from non-bat mammalian origins. The powerful retroviral hosting ability of bats is further supported by a detailed analysis revealing that the novel bat gammaretrovirus, Rhinolophus ferrumequinum retrovirus, likely originated from tree shrews. Taken together, this study advances our understanding of host-shaped mammalian retroviral evolution in general.

  5. Understanding radar systems

    CERN Document Server

    Kingsley, Simon

    1999-01-01

    What is radar? What systems are currently in use? How do they work? This book provides engineers and scientists with answers to these critical questions, focusing on actual radar systems in use today. It is a perfect resource for those just entering the field, or as a quick refresher for experienced practitioners. The book leads readers through the specialized language and calculations that comprise the complex world of radar engineering as seen in dozens of state-of-the-art radar systems. An easy to read, wide ranging guide to the world of modern radar systems.

  6. Pulse Doppler radar

    CERN Document Server

    Alabaster, Clive

    2012-01-01

    This book is a practitioner's guide to all aspects of pulse Doppler radar. It concentrates on airborne military radar systems since they are the most used, most complex, and most interesting of the pulse Doppler radars; however, ground-based and non-military systems are also included. It covers the fundamental science, signal processing, hardware issues, systems design and case studies of typical systems. It will be a useful resource for engineers of all types (hardware, software and systems), academics, post-graduate students, scientists in radar and radar electronic warfare sectors and milit

  7. Multidimensional radar picture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waz, Mariusz

    2010-05-01

    In marine navigation systems, the three-dimensional (3D) visualization is often and often used. Echosonders and sonars working in hydroacustic systems can present pictures in three dimensions. Currently, vector maps also offer 3D presentation. This presentation is used in aviation and underwater navigation. In the nearest future three-dimensional presentation may be obligatory presentation in displays of navigation systems. A part of these systems work with radar and communicates with it transmitting data in a digital form. 3D presentation of radar picture require a new technology to develop. In the first step it is necessary to compile digital form of radar signal. The modern navigation radar do not present data in three-dimensional form. Progress in technology of digital signal processing make it possible to create multidimensional radar pictures. For instance, the RSC (Radar Scan Converter) - digital radar picture recording and transforming tool can be used to create new picture online. Using RSC and techniques of modern computer graphics multidimensional radar pictures can be generated. The radar pictures mentioned should be readable for ECDIS. The paper presents a method for generating multidimensional radar picture from original signal coming from radar receiver.

  8. Bursting neurons and ultrasound avoidance in crickets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gary eMarsat

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Decision making in invertebrates often relies on simple neural circuits composed of only a few identified neurons. The relative simplicity of these circuits makes it possible to identify the key computation and neural properties underlying decisions. In this review, we summarize recent research on the neural basis of ultrasound avoidance in crickets, a response that allows escape from echolocating bats. The key neural property shaping behavioral output is high-frequency bursting of an identified interneuron, AN2, which carries information about ultrasound stimuli from receptor neurons to the brain. AN2's spike train consists of clusters of spikes –bursts– that may be interspersed with isolated, non-burst spikes. AN2 firing is necessary and sufficient to trigger avoidance steering but only high-rate firing, such as occurs in bursts, evokes this response. AN2 bursts are therefore at the core of the computation involved in deciding whether or not to steer away from ultrasound. Bursts in AN2 are triggered by synaptic input from nearly synchronous bursts in ultrasound receptors. Thus the population response at the very first stage of sensory processing –the auditory receptor- already differentiates the features of the stimulus that will trigger a behavioral response from those that will not. Adaptation, both intrinsic to AN2 and within ultrasound receptors, scales the burst-generating features according to the stimulus statistics, thus filtering out background noise and ensuring that bursts occur selectively in response to salient peaks in ultrasound intensity. Furthermore AN2’s sensitivity to ultrasound varies adaptively with predation pressure, through both developmental and evolutionary mechanisms. We discuss how this key relationship between bursting and the triggering of avoidance behavior is also observed in other invertebrate systems such as the avoidance of looming visual stimuli in locusts or heat avoidance in beetles.

  9. Bursting neurons and ultrasound avoidance in crickets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsat, Gary; Pollack, Gerald S

    2012-01-01

    Decision making in invertebrates often relies on simple neural circuits composed of only a few identified neurons. The relative simplicity of these circuits makes it possible to identify the key computation and neural properties underlying decisions. In this review, we summarize recent research on the neural basis of ultrasound avoidance in crickets, a response that allows escape from echolocating bats. The key neural property shaping behavioral output is high-frequency bursting of an identified interneuron, AN2, which carries information about ultrasound stimuli from receptor neurons to the brain. AN2's spike train consists of clusters of spikes - bursts - that may be interspersed with isolated, non-burst spikes. AN2 firing is necessary and sufficient to trigger avoidance steering but only high-rate firing, such as occurs in bursts, evokes this response. AN2 bursts are therefore at the core of the computation involved in deciding whether or not to steer away from ultrasound. Bursts in AN2 are triggered by synaptic input from nearly synchronous bursts in ultrasound receptors. Thus the population response at the very first stage of sensory processing - the auditory receptor - already differentiates the features of the stimulus that will trigger a behavioral response from those that will not. Adaptation, both intrinsic to AN2 and within ultrasound receptors, scales the burst-generating features according to the stimulus statistics, thus filtering out background noise and ensuring that bursts occur selectively in response to salient peaks in ultrasound intensity. Furthermore AN2's sensitivity to ultrasound varies adaptively with predation pressure, through both developmental and evolutionary mechanisms. We discuss how this key relationship between bursting and the triggering of avoidance behavior is also observed in other invertebrate systems such as the avoidance of looming visual stimuli in locusts or heat avoidance in beetles.

  10. Alphacoronaviruses Detected in French Bats Are Phylogeographically Linked to Coronaviruses of European Bats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goffard, Anne; Demanche, Christine; Arthur, Laurent; Pinçon, Claire; Michaux, Johan; Dubuisson, Jean

    2015-01-01

    Bats are a reservoir for a diverse range of viruses, including coronaviruses (CoVs). To determine the presence of CoVs in French bats, fecal samples were collected between July and August of 2014 from four bat species in seven different locations around the city of Bourges in France. We present for the first time the presence of alpha-CoVs in French Pipistrellus pipistrellus bat species with an estimated prevalence of 4.2%. Based on the analysis of a fragment of the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) gene, phylogenetic analyses show that alpha-CoVs sequences detected in French bats are closely related to other European bat alpha-CoVs. Phylogeographic analyses of RdRp sequences show that several CoVs strains circulate in European bats: (i) old strains detected that have probably diverged a long time ago and are detected in different bat subspecies; (ii) strains detected in Myotis and Pipistrellus bat species that have more recently diverged. Our findings support previous observations describing the complexity of the detected CoVs in bats worldwide. PMID:26633467

  11. Alphacoronaviruses Detected in French Bats Are Phylogeographically Linked to Coronaviruses of European Bats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Goffard

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Bats are a reservoir for a diverse range of viruses, including coronaviruses (CoVs. To determine the presence of CoVs in French bats, fecal samples were collected between July and August of 2014 from four bat species in seven different locations around the city of Bourges in France. We present for the first time the presence of alpha-CoVs in French Pipistrellus pipistrellus bat species with an estimated prevalence of 4.2%. Based on the analysis of a fragment of the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp gene, phylogenetic analyses show that alpha-CoVs sequences detected in French bats are closely related to other European bat alpha-CoVs. Phylogeographic analyses of RdRp sequences show that several CoVs strains circulate in European bats: (i old strains detected that have probably diverged a long time ago and are detected in different bat subspecies; (ii strains detected in Myotis and Pipistrellus bat species that have more recently diverged. Our findings support previous observations describing the complexity of the detected CoVs in bats worldwide.

  12. Vampire bats exhibit evolutionary reduction of bitter taste receptor genes common to other bats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Wei; Zhao, Huabin

    2014-08-01

    The bitter taste serves as an important natural defence against the ingestion of poisonous foods and is thus believed to be indispensable in animals. However, vampire bats are obligate blood feeders that show a reduced behavioural response towards bitter-tasting compounds. To test whether bitter taste receptor genes (T2Rs) have been relaxed from selective constraint in vampire bats, we sampled all three vampire bat species and 11 non-vampire bats, and sequenced nine one-to-one orthologous T2Rs that are assumed to be functionally conserved in all bats. We generated 85 T2R sequences and found that vampire bats have a significantly greater percentage of pseudogenes than other bats. These results strongly suggest a relaxation of selective constraint and a reduction of bitter taste function in vampire bats. We also found that vampire bats retain many intact T2Rs, and that the taste signalling pathway gene Calhm1 remains complete and intact with strong functional constraint. These results suggest the presence of some bitter taste function in vampire bats, although it is not likely to play a major role in food selection. Together, our study suggests that the evolutionary reduction of bitter taste function in animals is more pervasive than previously believed, and highlights the importance of extra-oral functions of taste receptor genes.

  13. Alphacoronaviruses Detected in French Bats Are Phylogeographically Linked to Coronaviruses of European Bats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goffard, Anne; Demanche, Christine; Arthur, Laurent; Pinçon, Claire; Michaux, Johan; Dubuisson, Jean

    2015-12-02

    Bats are a reservoir for a diverse range of viruses, including coronaviruses (CoVs). To determine the presence of CoVs in French bats, fecal samples were collected between July and August of 2014 from four bat species in seven different locations around the city of Bourges in France. We present for the first time the presence of alpha-CoVs in French Pipistrellus pipistrellus bat species with an estimated prevalence of 4.2%. Based on the analysis of a fragment of the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) gene, phylogenetic analyses show that alpha-CoVs sequences detected in French bats are closely related to other European bat alpha-CoVs. Phylogeographic analyses of RdRp sequences show that several CoVs strains circulate in European bats: (i) old strains detected that have probably diverged a long time ago and are detected in different bat subspecies; (ii) strains detected in Myotis and Pipistrellus bat species that have more recently diverged. Our findings support previous observations describing the complexity of the detected CoVs in bats worldwide.

  14. 75 FR 4840 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Indiana Bat; 30-Day Scoping Period for a National...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-29

    ... Incidental Take Permit AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice of intent to conduct a 30... added to the list of Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants on March 11, 1967 (32 FR 4001). It is... avoid and minimize impacts to Indiana bats, including the impact of lethal take. Various methods...

  15. See-and-Avoid Collision Avoidance Using ADS-B Signal and Radar Sensing Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — IAI proposes an innovative solution to enable unrestricted flight in low-altitude airspace for small aircrafts This solution includes an L-band RF transceiver-sensor...

  16. Deconstructing the Essential Elements of Bat Flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tafti, Danesh; Viswanath, Kamal; Krishnamurthy, Nagendra

    2013-11-01

    There are over 1000 bat species worldwide with a wide range of wing morphologies. Bat wing motion is characterized by an active adaptive three-dimensional highly deformable wing surface which is distinctive in its complex kinematics facilitated by the skeletal and skin membrane manipulation, large deviations from the stroke plane, and large wing cambers. In this study we use measured wing kinematics of a fruit bat in a straight line climbing path to study the fluid dynamics and the forces generated by the wing using an Immersed Boundary Method. This is followed by a proper orthogonal decomposition to investigate the dimensional complexity as well as the key kinematic modes used by the bat during a representative flapping cycle. It is shown that the complex wing motion of the fruit bat can mostly be broken down into canonical descriptors of wing motion such as translation, rotation, out of stroke deviation, and cambering, which the bat uses with great efficacy to generate lift and thrust. Research supported through a grant from the Army Research Office (ARO). Bat wing kinemtaics was provided by Dr. Kenny Breuer, Brown University.

  17. Non-kin cooperation in bats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, Gerald S; Carter, Gerald G; Bohn, Kirsten M; Adams, Danielle M

    2016-02-01

    Many bats are extremely social. In some cases, individuals remain together for years or even decades and engage in mutually beneficial behaviours among non-related individuals. Here, we summarize ways in which unrelated bats cooperate while roosting, foraging, feeding or caring for offspring. For each situation, we ask if cooperation involves an investment, and if so, what mechanisms might ensure a return. While some cooperative outcomes are likely a by-product of selfish behaviour as they are in many other vertebrates, we explain how cooperative investments can occur in several situations and are particularly evident in food sharing among common vampire bats (Desmodus rotundus) and alloparental care by greater spear-nosed bats (Phyllostomus hastatus). Fieldwork and experiments on vampire bats indicate that sharing blood with non-kin expands the number of possible donors beyond kin and promotes reciprocal help by strengthening long-term social bonds. Similarly, more than 25 years of recapture data and field observations of greater spear-nosed bats reveal multiple cooperative investments occurring within stable groups of non-kin. These studies illustrate how bats can serve as models for understanding how cooperation is regulated in social vertebrates.

  18. Bats of the Savannah River Site and vicinity.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M.A. Menzel; J.M. Menzel; J.C. Kilgo; W.M. Ford; T.C. Carter; J.W. Edwards

    2003-10-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy's Savannah River Site supports a diverse bat community. Nine species occur there regularly, including the eastern pipistrelle (Pipistrellus subflavus), southeastern myotis (Myotis austroriparius), evening bat (Nycticeius humeralis), Rafinesque's big-eared bat (Corynorhinus rafinesquii), silver-haired bat (Lasionycteris noctivagans), eastern red bat (Lasiurus borealis), Seminole bat (L. seminolus), hoary bat (L. cinereus), and big brown bat (Eptesicus fuscus). There are extralimital capture records for two additional species: little brown bat (M. lucifigus) and northern yellow bat (Lasiurus intermedius). Acoustical sampling has documented the presence of Brazilian free-tailed bats (Tadarida brasiliensis), but none has been captured. Among those species common to the Site, the southeastern myotis and Rafinesque's big-eared bat are listed in South Carolina as threatened and endangered, respectively. The presence of those two species, and a growing concern for the conservation of forest-dwelling bats, led to extensive and focused research on the Savannah River Site between 1996 and 2002. Summarizing this and other bat research, we provide species accounts that discuss morphology and distribution, roosting and foraging behaviors, home range characteristics, habitat relations, and reproductive biology. We also present information on conservation needs and rabies issues; and, finally, identification keys that may be useful wherever the bat species we describe are found.

  19. Lunar phobia in the greater fishing bat Noctilio leporinus (Chiroptera: Noctilionidae)

    OpenAIRE

    S. Börk, Karrigan

    2006-01-01

    The nightly activity patterns of Noctilio leporinus, a piscivorous neotropical bat, were documented by visual observation over one lunar cycle at a large dock in Golfito, Costa Rica. The activity patterns were compared to the intensity of the moonlight, and a strong correlation between darkness and activity was observed (n = 776, r2 = 0.96). This correlation has been observed in many species of mammals and may indicate adaptation by potential prey species to avoid predation by visually orient...

  20. European bat lyssaviruses: an emerging zoonosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fooks, A. R.; Brookes, S. M.; Johnson, N.; McElhinney, L. M.; Hutson, A. M.

    2003-01-01

    In Europe, two bat lyssaviruses referred to as European bat lyssaviruses (EBLVs) types 1 and 2 (genotypes 5 and 6 respectively) which are closely related to classical rabies virus are responsible for an emerging zoonosis. EBLVs are host restricted to bats, and have been known to infect not only their primary hosts but also in rare circumstances, induce spillover infections to terrestrial mammals including domestic livestock, wildlife and man. Although spillover infections have occurred, there has been no evidence that the virus adapted to a new host. Since 1977, four human deaths from EBLVs have been reported. None of them had a record of prophylactic rabies immunization. Only fragmentary data exist about the effectiveness of current vaccines in cross-protection against EBLVs. It is clear that EBLV in bats cannot be eliminated using conventional strategies similar to the control programmes based on vaccine baits used for fox rabies in Europe during the 1980s. Due to the protected status of bats in Europe, our knowledge of EBLV prevalence and epidemiology is limited. It is possible that EBLV is under-reported and that the recorded cases of EBLV represent only a small proportion of the actual number of infected bats. For this reason, any interaction between man and bats in Europe must be considered as a possible exposure. Human exposure through biting incidents, especially unprovoked attacks, should be treated immediately with rabies post-exposure treatment and the bat, where possible, retained for laboratory analysis. Preventative measures include educating all bat handlers of the risks posed by rabies-infected animals and advising them to be immunized. This review provides a brief history of EBLVs, their distribution in host species and the public health risks. PMID:14959767

  1. Rabies virus infection in Eptesicus fuscus bats born in captivity (naive bats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    April D Davis

    Full Text Available The study of rabies virus infection in bats can be challenging due to quarantine requirements, husbandry concerns, genetic differences among animals, and lack of medical history. To date, all rabies virus (RABV studies in bats have been performed in wild caught animals. Determining the RABV exposure history of a wild caught bat based on the presence or absence of viral neutralizing antibodies (VNA may be misleading. Previous studies have demonstrated that the presence of VNA following natural or experimental inoculation is often ephemeral. With this knowledge, it is difficult to determine if a seronegative, wild caught bat has been previously exposed to RABV. The influence of prior rabies exposure in healthy, wild caught bats is unknown. To investigate the pathogenesis of RABV infection in bats born in captivity (naïve bats, naïve bats were inoculated intramuscularly with one of two Eptesicus fuscus rabies virus variants, EfV1 or EfV2. To determine the host response to a heterologous RABV, a separate group of naïve bats were inoculated with a Lasionycteris noctivagans RABV (LnV1. Six months following the first inoculation, all bats were challenged with EfV2. Our results indicate that naïve bats may have some level of innate resistance to intramuscular RABV inoculation. Additionally, naïve bats inoculated with the LnV demonstrated the lowest clinical infection rate of all groups. However, primary inoculation with EfV1 or LnV did not appear to be protective against a challenge with the more pathogenic EfV2.

  2. Ecological factors associated with European bat lyssavirus seroprevalence in spanish bats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordi Serra-Cobo

    Full Text Available Bats have been proposed as major reservoirs for diverse emerging infectious viral diseases, with rabies being the best known in Europe. However, studies exploring the ecological interaction between lyssaviruses and their natural hosts are scarce. This study completes our active surveillance work on Spanish bat colonies that began in 1992. Herein, we analyzed ecological factors that might affect the infection dynamics observed in those colonies. Between 2001 and 2011, we collected and tested 2,393 blood samples and 45 dead bats from 25 localities and 20 bat species. The results for dead confirmed the presence of EBLV-1 RNA in six species analyzed (for the first time in Myotis capaccinii. Samples positive for European bat lyssavirus-1 (EBLV-1-neutralizing antibodies were detected in 68% of the localities sampled and in 13 bat species, seven of which were found for the first time (even in Myotis daubentonii, a species to date always linked to EBLV-2. EBLV-1 seroprevalence (20.7% ranged between 11.1 and 40.2% among bat species and seasonal variation was observed, with significantly higher antibody prevalence in summer (July. EBLV-1 seroprevalence was significantly associated with colony size and species richness. Higher seroprevalence percentages were found in large multispecific colonies, suggesting that intra- and interspecific contacts are major risk factors for EBLV-1 transmission in bat colonies. Although bat-roosting behavior strongly determines EBLV-1 variability, we also found some evidence that bat phylogeny might be involved in bat-species seroprevalence. The results of this study highlight the importance of life history and roost ecology in understanding EBLV-1-prevalence patterns in bat colonies and also provide useful information for public health officials.

  3. Ecological Factors Associated with European Bat Lyssavirus Seroprevalence in Spanish Bats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serra-Cobo, Jordi; López-Roig, Marc; Seguí, Magdalena; Sánchez, Luisa Pilar; Nadal, Jacint; Borrás, Miquel; Lavenir, Rachel; Bourhy, Hervé

    2013-01-01

    Bats have been proposed as major reservoirs for diverse emerging infectious viral diseases, with rabies being the best known in Europe. However, studies exploring the ecological interaction between lyssaviruses and their natural hosts are scarce. This study completes our active surveillance work on Spanish bat colonies that began in 1992. Herein, we analyzed ecological factors that might affect the infection dynamics observed in those colonies. Between 2001 and 2011, we collected and tested 2,393 blood samples and 45 dead bats from 25 localities and 20 bat species. The results for dead confirmed the presence of EBLV-1 RNA in six species analyzed (for the first time in Myotis capaccinii). Samples positive for European bat lyssavirus-1 (EBLV-1)–neutralizing antibodies were detected in 68% of the localities sampled and in 13 bat species, seven of which were found for the first time (even in Myotis daubentonii, a species to date always linked to EBLV-2). EBLV-1 seroprevalence (20.7%) ranged between 11.1 and 40.2% among bat species and seasonal variation was observed, with significantly higher antibody prevalence in summer (July). EBLV-1 seroprevalence was significantly associated with colony size and species richness. Higher seroprevalence percentages were found in large multispecific colonies, suggesting that intra- and interspecific contacts are major risk factors for EBLV-1 transmission in bat colonies. Although bat-roosting behavior strongly determines EBLV-1 variability, we also found some evidence that bat phylogeny might be involved in bat-species seroprevalence. The results of this study highlight the importance of life history and roost ecology in understanding EBLV-1–prevalence patterns in bat colonies and also provide useful information for public health officials. PMID:23700480

  4. A New Metaheuristic Bat-Inspired Algorithm

    CERN Document Server

    Yang, Xin-She

    2010-01-01

    Metaheuristic algorithms such as particle swarm optimization, firefly algorithm and harmony search are now becoming powerful methods for solving many tough optimization problems. In this paper, we propose a new metaheuristic method, the Bat Algorithm, based on the echolocation behaviour of bats. We also intend to combine the advantages of existing algorithms into the new bat algorithm. After a detailed formulation and explanation of its implementation, we will then compare the proposed algorithm with other existing algorithms, including genetic algorithms and particle swarm optimization. Simulations show that the proposed algorithm seems much superior to other algorithms, and further studies are also discussed.

  5. Navigation: Bat orientation using Earth's magnetic field

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holland, Richard A.; Thorup, Kasper; Vonhof, Maarten J.;

    2006-01-01

    Bats famously orientate at night by echolocation 1 , but this works over only a short range, and little is known about how they navigate over longer distances 2 . Here we show that the homing behaviour of Eptesicus fuscus, known as the big brown bat, can be altered by artificially shifting the Ea...... the Earth's magnetic field, indicating that these bats rely on a magnetic compass to return to their home roost. This finding adds to the impressive array of sensory abilities possessed by this animal for navigation in the dark....

  6. Navigation: bat orientation using Earth's magnetic field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holland, Richard A; Thorup, Kasper; Vonhof, Maarten J; Cochran, William W; Wikelski, Martin

    2006-12-07

    Bats famously orientate at night by echolocation, but this works over only a short range, and little is known about how they navigate over longer distances. Here we show that the homing behaviour of Eptesicus fuscus, known as the big brown bat, can be altered by artificially shifting the Earth's magnetic field, indicating that these bats rely on a magnetic compass to return to their home roost. This finding adds to the impressive array of sensory abilities possessed by this animal for navigation in the dark.

  7. How the bat got its buzz

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ratcliffe, John M; Elemans, Coen P H; Jakobsen, Lasse

    2013-01-01

    its importance for hunting success. Superfast muscles, previously unknown in mammals, are responsible for the extreme vocalization rate. Some bats produce a second phase-buzz II-defined by a large drop in the fundamental frequency (F(0)) of their calls. By doing so, bats broaden their acoustic field...... tension. Furthermore, we propose that buzz II represents a countermeasure against the evasive flight of eared prey in the evolutionary arms-race that saw the independent evolution of bat-detecting ears in various groups of night-flying insects....

  8. Description to wear debris boundaries by radar graph fractal method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU HongTao; GE ShiRong

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, radar graph fractal method is introduced to describe wear debris boundaries.Research results show that it is a nice way to describe wear debris boundaries.Since the longest axis is selected as the first coordinate axis, its center point selected as the center point of the radar graph, and the coordinate value of wear debris boundary selected as the measure parameter, the limitations existing in Yard fractal measure method can be avoided.For any wear debris, its radar graph fractal dimension value is one and only, and as the wear debris shape changes from round to strip, the radar graph fractal dimension value also changes from low to high, showing strong uniqueness and independence.Due to the fact that the researched wear debris is gotten in different wear states, the results also prove that radar graph fractal dimension value is correlated with frictional pairs work condition and wear state.Radar graph fractal method is compared with Yard fractal measure methods, and results show that radar graph fractal dimension values gotten from different wear debris have enough value grads to avoid effect of errors, and provide higher sensitivity for wear debris shape.This paper also discusses the influencing factors for radar graph fractal method.With the increase of the decomposing degree value, the radar graph fractal dimension tends to keep stable at one certain value, showing the typical characteristic of the fractal theory.All this proves that radar graph fractal method is an effective description method for wear debris boundaries.

  9. Bird Avoidance Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This is an unpublished report on the bird avoidance model to predict bird strike hazards with low flying aircraft. Included is peak periods for different species of...

  10. Avoiding Computer Viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowe, Joyce; And Others

    1989-01-01

    The threat of computer sabotage is a real concern to business teachers and others responsible for academic computer facilities. Teachers can minimize the possibility. Eight suggestions for avoiding computer viruses are given. (JOW)

  11. Phased-array radar design application of radar fundamentals

    CERN Document Server

    Jeffrey, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    Phased-Array Radar Design is a text-reference designed for electrical engineering graduate students in colleges and universities as well as for corporate in-house training programs for radar design engineers, especially systems engineers and analysts who would like to gain hands-on, practical knowledge and skills in radar design fundamentals, advanced radar concepts, trade-offs for radar design and radar performance analysis.

  12. Passive MIMO Radar Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-01

    from history to future”. Proc. 11th Int. Radar Symp. (IRS), 1–4. 2010. [58] Levanon, N. “ Interferometry against differential Doppler: performance...2141, 2013. [71] Richards, M. A., J. A. Scheer, and W. A. Holm. Principles of Modern Radar , volume 1. SciTech Publishing, Inc., 2010. [72] Scharf, L...PASSIVE MIMO RADAR DETECTION DISSERTATION Daniel E. Hack, Civilian AFIT-ENG-DS-13-S-07 DEPARTMENT OF THE AIR FORCE AIR UNIVERSITY AIR FORCE INSTITUTE

  13. A Comparison of the Radar Ray Path Equations and Approximations for Use in Radar Data Assimilation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    The radar ray path equations are used to determine the physical location of each radar measurement.These equations are necessary for mapping radar data to computational grids for diagnosis, display and numerical weather prediction (NWP). They are also used to determine the forward operators for assimilation of radar data into forecast models. In this paper, a stepwise ray tracing method is developed. The influence of the atmospheric refractive index on the ray path equations at different locations related to an intense cold front is examined against the ray path derived from the new tracing method. It is shown that the radar ray path is not very sensitive to sharp vertical gradients of refractive index caused by the strong temperature inversion and large moisture gradient in this case. In the paper, the errors caused by using the simplified straight ray path equations are also examined. It is found that there will be significant errors in the physical location of radar measurements if the earth's curvature is not considered, especially at lower elevation angles. A reduced form of the equation for beam height calculation is derived using Taylor series expansion. It is computationally more efficient and also avoids the need to use double precision variables to mitigate the small difference between two large terms in the original form. The accuracy of this reduced form is found to be sufficient for modeling use.

  14. Color-avoiding percolation

    CERN Document Server

    Krause, Sebastian M; Zlatić, Vinko

    2016-01-01

    Many real world networks have groups of similar nodes which are vulnerable to the same failure or adversary. Nodes can be colored in such a way that colors encode the shared vulnerabilities. Using multiple paths to avoid these vulnerabilities can greatly improve network robustness. Color-avoiding percolation provides a theoretical framework for analyzing this scenario, focusing on the maximal set of nodes which can be connected via multiple color-avoiding paths. In this paper we extend the basic theory of color-avoiding percolation that was published in [Krause et. al., Phys. Rev. X 6 (2016) 041022]. We explicitly account for the fact that the same particular link can be part of different paths avoiding different colors. This fact was previously accounted for with a heuristic approximation. We compare this approximation with a new, more exact theory and show that the new theory is substantially more accurate for many avoided colors. Further, we formulate our new theory with differentiated node functions, as s...

  15. Radar Signature Calculation Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — FUNCTION: The calculation, analysis, and visualization of the spatially extended radar signatures of complex objects such as ships in a sea multipath environment and...

  16. Doppler radar physiological sensing

    CERN Document Server

    Lubecke, Victor M; Droitcour, Amy D; Park, Byung-Kwon; Singh, Aditya

    2016-01-01

    Presents a comprehensive description of the theory and practical implementation of Doppler radar-based physiological monitoring. This book includes an overview of current physiological monitoring techniques and explains the fundamental technology used in remote non-contact monitoring methods. Basic radio wave propagation and radar principles are introduced along with the fundamentals of physiological motion and measurement. Specific design and implementation considerations for physiological monitoring radar systems are then discussed in detail. The authors address current research and commercial development of Doppler radar based physiological monitoring for healthcare and other applications.

  17. Bats as reservoirs of severe emerging infectious diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Hui-Ju; Wen, Hong-ling; Zhou, Chuan-Min; Chen, Fang-Fang; Luo, Li-Mei; Liu, Jian-wei; Yu, Xue-Jie

    2015-07-01

    In recent years severe infectious diseases have been constantly emerging, causing panic in the world. Now we know that many of these terrible diseases are caused by viruses originated from bats (Table 1), such as Ebola virus, Marburg, SARS coronavirus (SARS-CoV), MERS coronavirus (MERS-CoV), Nipah virus (NiV) and Hendra virus (HeV). These viruses have co-evolved with bats due to bats' special social, biological and immunological features. Although bats are not in close contact with humans, spillover of viruses from bats to intermediate animal hosts, such as horses, pigs, civets, or non-human primates, is thought to be the most likely mode to cause human infection. Humans may also become infected with viruses through aerosol by intruding into bat roosting caves or via direct contact with bats, such as catching bats or been bitten by bats.

  18. Economic Dispatch Using Modified Bat Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aadil Latif

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Economic dispatch is an important non-linear optimization task in power systems. In this process, the total power demand is distributed amongst the generating units such that each unit satisfies its generation limit constraints and the cost of power production is minimized. This paper presents an over view of three optimization algorithms namely real coded genetic algorithm, particle swarm optimization and a relatively new optimization technique called bat algorithm. This study will further propose modifications to the original bat. Simulations are carried out for two test cases. First is a six-generator power system with a simplified convex objective function. The second test case is a five-generator system with a non-convex objective function. Finally the results of the modified algorithm are compared with the results of genetic algorithm, particle swarm and the original bat algorithm. The results demonstrate the improvement in the Bat Algorithm.

  19. The Bats of Latium : Past and Present

    OpenAIRE

    Crucitti, Pierangelo

    2010-01-01

    After briefly reviewing past research, the present status of our knowledge on the bats of Latium, Central Italy, one of the richest biodiversity districts of the Central Mediterranean Ecoregion, is  outlined, highlighting the contribution of Benedetto Lanza.

  20. North American Bat Ranges - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer portrays our current understanding of the distributions of United States and Canadian bat species during the past 100-150 years. The specimen and...

  1. Somatosensory substrates of flight control in bats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Kara L; Chadha, Mohit; deSouza, Laura A; Sterbing-D'Angelo, Susanne J; Moss, Cynthia F; Lumpkin, Ellen A

    2015-05-12

    Flight maneuvers require rapid sensory integration to generate adaptive motor output. Bats achieve remarkable agility with modified forelimbs that serve as airfoils while retaining capacity for object manipulation. Wing sensory inputs provide behaviorally relevant information to guide flight; however, components of wing sensory-motor circuits have not been analyzed. Here, we elucidate the organization of wing innervation in an insectivore, the big brown bat, Eptesicus fuscus. We demonstrate that wing sensory innervation differs from other vertebrate forelimbs, revealing a peripheral basis for the atypical topographic organization reported for bat somatosensory nuclei. Furthermore, the wing is innervated by an unusual complement of sensory neurons poised to report airflow and touch. Finally, we report that cortical neurons encode tactile and airflow inputs with sparse activity patterns. Together, our findings identify neural substrates of somatosensation in the bat wing and imply that evolutionary pressures giving rise to mammalian flight led to unusual sensorimotor projections.

  2. Somatosensory Substrates of Flight Control in Bats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kara L. Marshall

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Flight maneuvers require rapid sensory integration to generate adaptive motor output. Bats achieve remarkable agility with modified forelimbs that serve as airfoils while retaining capacity for object manipulation. Wing sensory inputs provide behaviorally relevant information to guide flight; however, components of wing sensory-motor circuits have not been analyzed. Here, we elucidate the organization of wing innervation in an insectivore, the big brown bat, Eptesicus fuscus. We demonstrate that wing sensory innervation differs from other vertebrate forelimbs, revealing a peripheral basis for the atypical topographic organization reported for bat somatosensory nuclei. Furthermore, the wing is innervated by an unusual complement of sensory neurons poised to report airflow and touch. Finally, we report that cortical neurons encode tactile and airflow inputs with sparse activity patterns. Together, our findings identify neural substrates of somatosensation in the bat wing and imply that evolutionary pressures giving rise to mammalian flight led to unusual sensorimotor projections.

  3. Site 300 Bat Monitoring Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drennan, Joe [Garcia and Associates, San Francisco, CA (United States); Tortosa, Justin [Garcia and Associates, San Francisco, CA (United States)

    2016-07-18

    From June 15 to 18, 2015, GANDA biologist Graham Neale assisted in programming and fieldtesting of the bat monitoring equipment. The equipment was deployed in the field on a meteorological (MET) tower within Site 300 on June 18, 2015.

  4. SWIFT BAT Survey of AGN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tueller, J.; Mushotzky, R. F.; Barthelmy, S.; Cannizzo, J. K.; Gehrels, N.; Markwardt, C. B.; Skinner, G. K.; Winter, L. M.

    2008-01-01

    We present the results1 of the analysis of the first 9 months of data of the Swift BAT survey of AGN in the 14-195 keV band. Using archival X-ray data or follow-up Swift XRT observations, we have identified 129 (103 AGN) of 130 objects detected at [b] > 15deg and with significance > 4.8-delta. One source remains unidentified. These same X-ray data have allowed measurement of the X-ray properties of the objects. We fit a power law to the logN - log S distribution, and find the slope to be 1.42+/-0.14. Characterizing the differential luminosity function data as a broken power law, we find a break luminosity logL*(ergs/s)= 43.85+/-0.26. We obtain a mean photon index 1.98 in the 14-195 keV band, with an rms spread of 0.27. Integration of our luminosity function gives a local volume density of AGN above 10(exp 41) erg/s of 2.4x10(exp -3) Mpc(sup -3), which is about 10% of the total luminous local galaxy density above M* = -19.75. We have obtained X-ray spectra from the literature and from Swift XRT follow-up observations. These show that the distribution of log nH is essentially flat from nH = 10(exp 20)/sq cm to 10(exp 24)/sq cm, with 50% of the objects having column densities of less than 10(exp 22)/sq cm. BAT Seyfert galaxies have a median redshift of 0.03, a maximum log luminosity of 45.1, and approximately half have log nH > 22.

  5. Bat distribution size or shape as determinant of viral richness in african bats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaël D Maganga

    Full Text Available The rising incidence of emerging infectious diseases (EID is mostly linked to biodiversity loss, changes in habitat use and increasing habitat fragmentation. Bats are linked to a growing number of EID but few studies have explored the factors of viral richness in bats. These may have implications for role of bats as potential reservoirs. We investigated the determinants of viral richness in 15 species of African bats (8 Pteropodidae and 7 microchiroptera in Central and West Africa for which we provide new information on virus infection and bat phylogeny. We performed the first comparative analysis testing the correlation of the fragmented geographical distribution (defined as the perimeter to area ratio with viral richness in bats. Because of their potential effect, sampling effort, host body weight, ecological and behavioural traits such as roosting behaviour, migration and geographical range, were included into the analysis as variables. The results showed that the geographical distribution size, shape and host body weight have significant effects on viral richness in bats. Viral richness was higher in large-bodied bats which had larger and more fragmented distribution areas. Accumulation of viruses may be related to the historical expansion and contraction of bat species distribution range, with potentially strong effects of distribution edges on virus transmission. Two potential explanations may explain these results. A positive distribution edge effect on the abundance or distribution of some bat species could have facilitated host switches. Alternatively, parasitism could play a direct role in shaping the distribution range of hosts through host local extinction by virulent parasites. This study highlights the importance of considering the fragmentation of bat species geographical distribution in order to understand their role in the circulation of viruses in Africa.

  6. MICROSTRIP COUPLER DESIGN USING BAT ALGORITHM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EzgiDeniz Ulker

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Evolutionary and swarm algorithms have found many applications in design problems since todays computing power enables these algorithms to find solutions to complicated design problems very fast. Newly proposed hybridalgorithm, bat algorithm, has been applied for the design of microwave microstrip couplers for the first time. Simulation results indicate that the bat algorithm is a very fast algorithm and it produces very reliable results.

  7. Airborne Collision Detection and Avoidance for Small UAS Sense and Avoid Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahawneh, Laith Rasmi

    The increasing demand to integrate unmanned aircraft systems (UAS) into the national airspace is motivated by the rapid growth of the UAS industry, especially small UAS weighing less than 55 pounds. Their use however has been limited by the Federal Aviation Administration regulations due to collision risk they pose, safety and regulatory concerns. Therefore, before civil aviation authorities can approve routine UAS flight operations, UAS must be equipped with sense-and-avoid technology comparable to the see-and-avoid requirements for manned aircraft. The sense-and-avoid problem includes several important aspects including regulatory and system-level requirements, design specifications and performance standards, intruder detecting and tracking, collision risk assessment, and finally path planning and collision avoidance. In this dissertation, our primary focus is on developing an collision detection, risk assessment and avoidance framework that is computationally affordable and suitable to run on-board small UAS. To begin with, we address the minimum sensing range for the sense-and-avoid (SAA) system. We present an approximate close form analytical solution to compute the minimum sensing range to safely avoid an imminent collision. The approach is then demonstrated using a radar sensor prototype that achieves the required minimum sensing range. In the area of collision risk assessment and collision prediction, we present two approaches to estimate the collision risk of an encounter scenario. The first is a deterministic approach similar to those been developed for Traffic Alert and Collision Avoidance (TCAS) in manned aviation. We extend the approach to account for uncertainties of state estimates by deriving an analytic expression to propagate the error variance using Taylor series approximation. To address unanticipated intruders maneuvers, we propose an innovative probabilistic approach to quantify likely intruder trajectories and estimate the probability of

  8. Short range automotive radar based on UWB pseudo-random coding

    OpenAIRE

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, a radar system for short range automotive application based on ultra-wideband (UWB) technology is studied. UWB uses very short pulses, so that the spectrum of the transmitted signals may spread over several Gigahertzes. In order to increase, from one part, the resolution in distance of this radar system and to avoid, from another part, multi-users interferences for an optimal detectability, we propose to improve the radar performances by using coding techniques. It consists on ...

  9. Heavy metal contamination in bats in Britain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walker, L.A. [NERC Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Monks Wood, Abbots Ripton, Huntingdon, Cambridgeshire PE28 2LS (United Kingdom); Simpson, V.R. [Wildlife Veterinary Investigation Centre, Jollys Bottom Farm, Chacewater, Truro, Cornwall TR4 8PB (United Kingdom); Rockett, L. [NERC Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Monks Wood, Abbots Ripton, Huntingdon, Cambridgeshire PE28 2LS (United Kingdom); Wienburg, C.L. [NERC Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Monks Wood, Abbots Ripton, Huntingdon, Cambridgeshire PE28 2LS (United Kingdom); Shore, R.F. [NERC Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Monks Wood, Abbots Ripton, Huntingdon, Cambridgeshire PE28 2LS (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: rfs@ceh.ac.uk

    2007-07-15

    Toxic metals are bioaccumulated by insectivorous mammals but few studies (none from Britain) have quantified residues in bats. We measured renal mercury (Hg), lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd) concentrations in bats from south-west England to determine how they varied with species, sex, age, and over time, and if they were likely to cause adverse effects. Residues were generally highest in whiskered bats (Myotis mystacinus). Compared with other species, pipistrelle (Pipistrellus spp) and Natterer's bats (Myotis nattereri) had significantly lower kidney Hg and Pb concentrations, respectively. Renal Hg increased over time in pipistrelles but the contributory sources are unknown. Kidney Pb did not decrease over time despite concurrent declines in atmospheric Pb. Overall, median renal metal concentrations were similar to those in bats from mainland Europe and 6- to 10-fold below those associated with clinical effect, although 5% of pipistrelles had kidney Pb residues diagnostic of acute lead poisoning. - Heavy metal contamination has been quantified in bats from Britain for the first time and indicates increased accumulation of Hg and no reduction in Pb.

  10. Convergences in the diversification of bats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Brock FENTON

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Twenty-five characters or suites of characters from bats are considered in light of changes in bat classification. The characters include some associated with flower-visiting (two, echolocation (12, roosting (six, reproduction (two and three are of unknown adaptive function. In both the 1998 and 2006 classifications of bats into suborders (Megachiroptera and Microchiroptera versus Yinpterochiroptera and Yangochiroptera, respectively, some convergences between suborders are the same (e.g., foliage roosting, tent building, but others associated with echolocation differ substantially. In the 1998 phylogeny convergences associated with echolocation (high duty cycle echolocation, nasal emission of echolocation calls occurred among the Microchiroptera. In the 2006 phylogeny, they occur between Yinpterochiroptera and Yangochiroptera. While some traits apparently arose independently in two suborders (e.g., foliage-roosting, tent building, low intensity echolocation calls, noseleafs, nasal emission of echolocation calls, high duty cycle echolocation behaviour, others appear to have been ancestral (roosting in narrow spaces, laryngeal echolocation, stylohyal-tympanic contact, oral emission of echolocation calls, and small litter size. A narrow profile through the chest is typical of bats reflecting the thoracic skeleton. This feature suggests that the ancestors of bats spent the day in small crevices. Features associated with laryngeal echolocation appear to be ancestral, suggesting that echolocation evolved early in bats but was subsequently lost in one yinpterochiropteran lineage [Current Zoology 56 (4: 454–468, 2010].

  11. [Specific bacterial diversity in bats of different food guilds in Southern sierra Oaxaca, Mexico].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galicia, Mónica Marcela; Buenrostro, Alejandra; García, Jesús

    2014-12-01

    of diet and/or by transfer of bacteria from their preys. These bacteria may be indigenous to these bats and play the role of mutual benefit, providing the host with stable growth conditions and supplemental nutrients, while the microbiota contributes to host nutrition, development of the immune system, stabilization of the microbial population and to avoid pathogens colonization. By understanding the importance of the relation- ship between host and its bacterial populations, the conservation efforts being made to protect species such as bats may be improved.

  12. Differential responses to woodland character and landscape context by cryptic bats in urban environments.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul R Lintott

    Full Text Available Urbanisation is one of the most dramatic forms of land use change which relatively few species can adapt to. Determining how and why species respond differently to urban habitats is important in predicting future biodiversity loss as urban areas rapidly expand. Understanding how morphological or behavioural traits can influence species adaptability to the built environment may enable us to improve the effectiveness of conservation efforts. Although many bat species are able to exploit human resources, bat species richness generally declines with increasing urbanisation and there is considerable variation in the responses of different bat species to urbanisation. Here, we use acoustic recordings from two cryptic, and largely sympatric European bat species to assess differential responses in their use of fragmented urban woodland and the surrounding urban matrix. There was a high probability of P. pygmaeus activity relative to P. pipistrellus in woodlands with low clutter and understory cover which were surrounded by low levels of built environment. Additionally, the probability of recording P. pygmaeus relative to P. pipistrellus was considerably higher in urban woodland interior or edge habitat in contrast to urban grey or non-wooded green space. These results show differential habitat use occurring between two morphologically similar species; whilst the underlying mechanism for this partitioning is unknown it may be driven by competition avoidance over foraging resources. Their differing response to urbanisation indicates the difficulties involved when attempting to assess how adaptable a species is to urbanisation for conservation purposes.

  13. Aspects of Radar Polarimetry

    OpenAIRE

    Lüneburg, Ernst

    2002-01-01

    This contribution is a tutorial introduction to the phenomenological theory of radar polarimetry for the coherent scatter case emphasizing monostatic backscattering and forward scattering (transmission). Characteristic similarities and differences between radar polarimetry and optical polarimetry and the role of linear and antilinear operators (time-reversal) are pointed out and typical polarimetric invariants are identified.

  14. Determination of radar MTF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chambers, D. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)

    1994-11-15

    The ultimate goal of the Current Meter Array (CMA) is to be able to compare the current patterns detected with the array with radar images of the water surface. The internal wave current patterns modulate the waves on the water surface giving a detectable modulation of the radar cross-section (RCS). The function relating the RCS modulations to the current patterns is the Modulation Transfer Function (MTF). By comparing radar images directly with co-located CMA measurements the MTF can be determined. In this talk radar images and CMA measurements from a recent experiment at Loch Linnhe, Scotland, will be used to make the first direct determination of MTF for an X and S band radar at low grazing angles. The technical problems associated with comparing radar images to CMA data will be explained and the solution method discussed. The results suggest the both current and strain rate contribute equally to the radar modulation for X band. For S band, the strain rate contributes more than the current. The magnitude of the MTF and the RCS modulations are consistent with previous estimates when the wind is blowing perpendicular to the radar look direction.

  15. Radar illusion via metamaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Wei Xiang; Cui, Tie Jun

    2011-02-01

    An optical illusion is an image of a real target perceived by the eye that is deceptive or misleading due to a physiological illusion or a specific visual trick. The recently developed metamaterials provide efficient approaches to generate a perfect optical illusion. However, all existing research on metamaterial illusions has been limited to theory and numerical simulations. Here, we propose the concept of a radar illusion, which can make the electromagnetic (EM) image of a target gathered by radar look like a different target, and we realize a radar illusion device experimentally to change the radar image of a metallic target into a dielectric target with predesigned size and material parameters. It is well known that the radar signatures of metallic and dielectric objects are significantly different. However, when a metallic target is enclosed by the proposed illusion device, its EM scattering characteristics will be identical to that of a predesigned dielectric object under the illumination of radar waves. Such an illusion device will confuse the radar, and hence the real EM properties of the metallic target cannot be perceived. We designed and fabricated the radar illusion device using artificial metamaterials in the microwave frequency, and good illusion performances are observed in the experimental results.

  16. Java Radar Analysis Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaczek, Mariusz P.

    2005-01-01

    Java Radar Analysis Tool (JRAT) is a computer program for analyzing two-dimensional (2D) scatter plots derived from radar returns showing pieces of the disintegrating Space Shuttle Columbia. JRAT can also be applied to similar plots representing radar returns showing aviation accidents, and to scatter plots in general. The 2D scatter plots include overhead map views and side altitude views. The superposition of points in these views makes searching difficult. JRAT enables three-dimensional (3D) viewing: by use of a mouse and keyboard, the user can rotate to any desired viewing angle. The 3D view can include overlaid trajectories and search footprints to enhance situational awareness in searching for pieces. JRAT also enables playback: time-tagged radar-return data can be displayed in time order and an animated 3D model can be moved through the scene to show the locations of the Columbia (or other vehicle) at the times of the corresponding radar events. The combination of overlays and playback enables the user to correlate a radar return with a position of the vehicle to determine whether the return is valid. JRAT can optionally filter single radar returns, enabling the user to selectively hide or highlight a desired radar return.

  17. Keeping bats cool in the winter: hibernating bats and their exposure to 'hot' incandescent lamplight

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haarsma, A.J.; Hullu, de E.

    2012-01-01

    In order to monitor bat population trends, an annual census is performed of all known underground hibernacula in Europe. During these censuses, bats are sometimes found to show signs of arousal, presumably from non-tactile stimuli caused by the observer, e.g. air currents, sound, light or an increas

  18. Micropower impulse radar imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hall, M.S.

    1995-11-01

    From designs developed at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) in radar and imaging technologies, there exists the potential for a variety of applications in both public and private sectors. Presently tests are being conducted for the detection of buried mines and the analysis of civil structures. These new systems use a patented ultra-wide band (impulse) radar technology known as Micropower Impulse Radar (GPR) imaging systems. LLNL has also developed signal processing software capable of producing 2-D and 3-D images of objects embedded in materials such as soil, wood and concrete. My assignment while at LLNL has focused on the testing of different radar configurations and applications, as well as assisting in the creation of computer algorithms which enable the radar to scan target areas of different geometeries.

  19. Are flying wildlife attracted to (or do they avoid) wind turbines?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larkin, Ronald [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana, IL (United States). Board of Trustees

    2010-03-31

    A DOE-sponsored research project found strong evidence that flying wildlife avoid or are attracted to commercial-scale wind turbines from a distance. Some nocturnally migrating birds avoid flying near turbines and few or none change flight paths to approach them. High-flying bats less often avoid flying near turbines and some are attracted to them from a distance, although bats’ flight paths were often complex and convoluted. The findings are being prepared for submission to a peer-reviewed scientific journal (Larkin, in prep 2013).

  20. Principles of modern radar radar applications

    CERN Document Server

    Scheer, James A

    2013-01-01

    Principles of Modern Radar: Radar Applications is the third of the three-volume seriesof what was originally designed to be accomplished in one volume. As the final volumeof the set, it finishes the original vision of a complete yet bounded reference for radartechnology. This volume describes fifteen different system applications or class ofapplications in more detail than can be found in Volumes I or II.As different as the applications described, there is a difference in how these topicsare treated by the authors. Whereas in Volumes I and II there is strict adherence tochapter format and leve

  1. Development of bat flight: morphologic and molecular evolution of bat wing digits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sears, Karen E; Behringer, Richard R; Rasweiler, John J; Niswander, Lee A

    2006-04-25

    The earliest fossil bats resemble their modern counterparts in possessing greatly elongated digits to support the wing membrane, which is an anatomical hallmark of powered flight. To quantitatively confirm these similarities, we performed a morphometric analysis of wing bones from fossil and modern bats. We found that the lengths of the third, fourth, and fifth digits (the primary supportive elements of the wing) have remained constant relative to body size over the last 50 million years. This absence of transitional forms in the fossil record led us to look elsewhere to understand bat wing evolution. Investigating embryonic development, we found that the digits in bats (Carollia perspicillata) are initially similar in size to those of mice (Mus musculus) but that, subsequently, bat digits greatly lengthen. The developmental timing of the change in wing digit length points to a change in longitudinal cartilage growth, a process that depends on the relative proliferation and differentiation of chondrocytes. We found that bat forelimb digits exhibit relatively high rates of chondrocyte proliferation and differentiation. We show that bone morphogenetic protein 2 (Bmp2) can stimulate cartilage proliferation and differentiation and increase digit length in the bat embryonic forelimb. Also, we show that Bmp2 expression and Bmp signaling are increased in bat forelimb embryonic digits relative to mouse or bat hind limb digits. Together, our results suggest that an up-regulation of the Bmp pathway is one of the major factors in the developmental elongation of bat forelimb digits, and it is potentially a key mechanism in their evolutionary elongation as well.

  2. A comparison of the effectiveness of methods of deterring pteropodid bats from feeding on commercial fruit in Madagascar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatamo E.A. Raharimihaja

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available We compared the effectiveness of methods of deterring Pteropus rufus from feeding on commercial fruit in east central and southeastern Madagascar in 2012–2013 during the Litchi chinensis harvest. Two of the three methods used, installing plastic flags and ringing bells in the trees, were derived from those used by litchi growers in the southeast.  We improved and standardized these methods and compared their effectiveness with an organic product made from dried blood and vegetable oil (Plantskydd® with a taste and odour aimed at deterring mammal feeding.  The bats damaged from 440–7,040 g of litchi fruits per tree and two of the three methods reduced the fruit lost to bats: the plastic flags and the organic deterrent.  There were significant differences in the damage levels between the study sites and between our three methods of deterrence.  The plastic flags and bell ringing methods were significantly less effective in reducing the fruit bat damage compared to the taste deterrent.  The latter was most effective when it had enough time to dry and adhere to the fruits after spraying and before rain.  Its effectiveness was further demonstrated in flight cage experiments during which Rousettus madagascariensis avoided litchis treated with Plantskydd®.  Analysis of bat faecal samples revealed no feeding preference but the collected samples contained large numbers of Ficus seeds, suggesting that the bats feed extensively on Ficus fruits rather than on fruit of economic importance.  Apart from fruit ripeness, tree productivity or other phenological factors did not affect the amount of fruit eaten by the bats.   More fruits were damaged by birds than bats at both study sites. 

  3. Contaminant studies on endangered bats in northeastern Oklahoma

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Three federally listed endangered bat species are known to inhabit Oklahoma. The gray bat (Myotis grisescens) is probably the most abundant, and is presently known...

  4. Isolation of genetically diverse Marburg viruses from Egyptian fruit bats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan S Towner

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available In July and September 2007, miners working in Kitaka Cave, Uganda, were diagnosed with Marburg hemorrhagic fever. The likely source of infection in the cave was Egyptian fruit bats (Rousettus aegyptiacus based on detection of Marburg virus RNA in 31/611 (5.1% bats, virus-specific antibody in bat sera, and isolation of genetically diverse virus from bat tissues. The virus isolates were collected nine months apart, demonstrating long-term virus circulation. The bat colony was estimated to be over 100,000 animals using mark and re-capture methods, predicting the presence of over 5,000 virus-infected bats. The genetically diverse virus genome sequences from bats and miners closely matched. These data indicate common Egyptian fruit bats can represent a major natural reservoir and source of Marburg virus with potential for spillover into humans.

  5. Isolation of genetically diverse Marburg viruses from Egyptian fruit bats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Towner, Jonathan S; Amman, Brian R; Sealy, Tara K; Carroll, Serena A Reeder; Comer, James A; Kemp, Alan; Swanepoel, Robert; Paddock, Christopher D; Balinandi, Stephen; Khristova, Marina L; Formenty, Pierre B H; Albarino, Cesar G; Miller, David M; Reed, Zachary D; Kayiwa, John T; Mills, James N; Cannon, Deborah L; Greer, Patricia W; Byaruhanga, Emmanuel; Farnon, Eileen C; Atimnedi, Patrick; Okware, Samuel; Katongole-Mbidde, Edward; Downing, Robert; Tappero, Jordan W; Zaki, Sherif R; Ksiazek, Thomas G; Nichol, Stuart T; Rollin, Pierre E

    2009-07-01

    In July and September 2007, miners working in Kitaka Cave, Uganda, were diagnosed with Marburg hemorrhagic fever. The likely source of infection in the cave was Egyptian fruit bats (Rousettus aegyptiacus) based on detection of Marburg virus RNA in 31/611 (5.1%) bats, virus-specific antibody in bat sera, and isolation of genetically diverse virus from bat tissues. The virus isolates were collected nine months apart, demonstrating long-term virus circulation. The bat colony was estimated to be over 100,000 animals using mark and re-capture methods, predicting the presence of over 5,000 virus-infected bats. The genetically diverse virus genome sequences from bats and miners closely matched. These data indicate common Egyptian fruit bats can represent a major natural reservoir and source of Marburg virus with potential for spillover into humans.

  6. Report of bat survey Walnut Creek Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Bats are an integral and significant part of the mammalian fauna of Iowa (Bowles 1975, Clark et al. 1987). In particular, the nine species of bats in Iowa are...

  7. On partitions avoiding right crossings

    CERN Document Server

    Yan, Sherry H F

    2011-01-01

    Recently, Chen et al. derived the generating function for partitions avoiding right nestings and posed the problem of finding the generating function for partitions avoiding right crossings. In this paper, we derive the generating function for partitions avoiding right crossings via an intermediate structure of partial matchings avoiding 2-right crossings and right nestings. We show that there is a bijection between partial matchings avoiding 2-right crossing and right nestings and partitions avoiding right crossings.

  8. Development and Testing of the VAHIRR Radar Product

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, Joe III; Miller, Juli; Charnasky, Debbie; Gillen, Robert; Lafosse, Richard; Hoeth, Brian; Hood, Doris; McNamara, Todd

    2008-01-01

    Lightning Launch Commit Criteria (LLCC) and Flight Rules (FR) are used for launches and landings at government and commercial spaceports. They are designed to avoid natural and triggered lightning strikes to space vehicles, which can endanger the vehicle, payload, and general public. The previous LLCC and FR were shown to be overly restrictive, potentially leading to costly launch delays and scrubs. A radar algorithm called Volume Averaged Height Integrated Radar Reflectivity (VAHIRR), along with new LLCC and FR for anvil clouds, were developed using data collected by the Airborne Field Mill II research program. VAHIRR is calculated at every horizontal position in the coverage area of the radar and can be displayed similar to a two-dimensional derived reflectivity product, such as composite reflectivity or echo tops. It is the arithmetic product of two quantities not currently generated by the Weather Surveillance Radar 1988 Doppler (WSR-88D): a volume average of the reflectivity measured in dBZ and the average cloud thickness based on the average echo top height and base height. This presentation will describe the VAHIRR algorithm, and then explain how the VAHIRR radar product was implemented and tested on a clone of the National Weather Service's (NWS) Open Radar Product Generator (ORPG-clone). The VAHIRR radar product was then incorporated into the Advanced Weather Interactive Processing System (AWIPS), to make it more convenient for weather forecasters to utilize. Finally, the reliability of the VAHIRR radar product was tested with real-time level II radar data from the WSR-88D NWS Melbourne radar.

  9. Radar cross section

    CERN Document Server

    Knott, Gene; Tuley, Michael

    2004-01-01

    This is the second edition of the first and foremost book on this subject for self-study, training, and course work. Radar cross section (RCS) is a comparison of two radar signal strengths. One is the strength of the radar beam sweeping over a target, the other is the strength of the reflected echo sensed by the receiver. This book shows how the RCS ?gauge? can be predicted for theoretical objects and how it can be measured for real targets. Predicting RCS is not easy, even for simple objects like spheres or cylinders, but this book explains the two ?exact? forms of theory so well that even a

  10. Radar and electronic navigation

    CERN Document Server

    Sonnenberg, G J

    2013-01-01

    Radar and Electronic Navigation, Sixth Edition discusses radar in marine navigation, underwater navigational aids, direction finding, the Decca navigator system, and the Omega system. The book also describes the Loran system for position fixing, the navy navigation satellite system, and the global positioning system (GPS). It reviews the principles, operation, presentations, specifications, and uses of radar. It also describes GPS, a real time position-fixing system in three dimensions (longitude, latitude, altitude), plus velocity information with Universal Time Coordinated (UTC). It is accur

  11. Sexually selected infanticide in a polygynous bat.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirjam Knörnschild

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Adult individuals of many species kill unrelated conspecific infants for several adaptive reasons ranging from predation or resource competition to the prevention of misdirected parental care. Moreover, infanticide can increase the reproductive success of the aggressor by killing the offspring of competitors and thereafter mating with the victimized females. This sexually selected infanticide predominantly occurs in polygynous species, with convincing evidence for primates, carnivores, equids, and rodents. Evidence for bats was predicted but lacking. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here we report the first case, to our knowledge, of sexually selected infanticide in a bat, the polygynous white-throated round-eared bat, Lophostoma silvicolum. Behavioral studies in a free-living population revealed that an adult male repeatedly attacked and injured the pups of two females belonging to his harem, ultimately causing the death of one pup. The infanticidal male subsequently mated with the mother of the victimized pup and this copulation occurred earlier than any other in his harem. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our findings indicate that sexually selected infanticide is more widespread than previously thought, adding bats as a new taxon performing this strategy. Future work on other bats, especially polygynous species in the tropics, has great potential to investigate the selective pressures influencing the evolution of sexually selected infanticide and to study how infanticide impacts reproductive strategies and social structures of different species.

  12. Foraging ranges of insectivorous bats shift relative to changes in mosquito abundance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leroy Gonsalves

    Full Text Available The need to develop effective management strategies for insectivorous bat populations requires an understanding of factors influencing habitat use. Availability of pest prey, such as mosquitoes is likely to be one such factor. To assess whether this is the case, we radio-tracked Vespadelus vulturnus Thomas (little forest bat, a predator of Aedes vigilax Skuse (saltmarsh mosquito, in saltmarsh and adjacent coastal swamp forest during periods of high and low Ae. vigilax abundance. When mosquito abundance in structurally-open saltmarsh was similar to the more cluttered coastal swamp forest, use of saltmarsh by V. vulturnus was disproportionately greater than its availability, with saltmarsh selected preferentially for foraging. However, at times of low Ae. vigilax abundance in saltmarsh, use of saltmarsh by V. vulturnus was reduced and all habitats were used in proportion to availability in the study area. This is the first radio-tracking study to demonstrate a shift in foraging range by an insectivorous bat species correlated with fluctuations in the distribution and abundance of a particular prey resource. The shift in foraging range by V. vulturnus, corresponding with a spatio-temporal variation in abundance of Ae. vigilax highlights the importance of mosquitoes as a dietary item. Broadscale pest control of Ae. vigilax may have ecological implications for the diet and habitat use of V. vulturnus. An adaptive management approach is proposed, whereby careful monitoring of insectivorous bat populations is recommended before and after any application of broadscale mosquito control measures. We also suggest a precautionary approach is taken such that broadscale control of mosquitoes avoids the lactation period of bats, a time when their energetic demands are greatest and when there is reduced risk of contracting mosquito-borne diseases transmitted by Ae. vigilax.

  13. Monitoring bat activity at the Dutch EEZ in 2014

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lagerveld, S.; Jonge Poerink, B.; Vries, de P.

    2015-01-01

    IMARES conducted studies in 2012 and 2013 to monitor offshore bat activity with passive acoustic ultrasonic recorders. In the follow-up project reported here, more data on the offshore occurrence of bats was collected in 2014. Using the same methodology as in 2012 and 2013, bat activity was monitore

  14. Rabies in the insectivorous bat Tadarida brasiliensis in Southeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uieda Wilson

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available This is the first recorded case of rabies in the insectivorous bat Tadarida brasiliensis in the State of S. Paulo, Southeastern Brazil. The infected bat was found in the afternoon while hanging on the internal wall of an urban building. This observation reinforces the notion as to the caution one must exercise regarding bats found in unusual situations.

  15. Multiple mortality events in bats: a global review

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Shea, Thomas J.; Cryan, Paul; Hayman, David TH; Plowright, Raina K.; Streicker, Daniel G.

    2016-01-01

    Despite conservation concerns for many species of bats, factors causing mortality in bats have not been reviewed since 1970. Here, we review and qualitatively describe trends in the occurrence and apparent causes of multiple mortality events (MMEs) in bats around the world.

  16. Acute pasteurellosis in wild big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blehert, David S.; Maluping, Ramón P.; Green, David E.; Berlowski-Zier, Brenda M.; Ballmann, Anne E.; Langenberg, Julia

    2014-01-01

    We report acute fatal pasteurellosis in wild big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus) in Wisconsin, USA. Mortality of approximately 100 bats was documented over 4 wk, with no evidence for predatory injuries. Pasteurella multocida serotype 1 was isolated from multiple internal organs from four of five bats examined postmortem.

  17. Food resource partitioning inb syntopic nectarivorous bats on Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    We analyzed stable isotopes (δ13C, δ15N) to estimate the importance of plants and insects to the diet of two nectar-feeding bats on Puerto Rico, the brown flower bat (Erophylla bombifrons) and the Greater Antillean long-tongued bat (Monophyllus redmani). Concentrations of stable ...

  18. Isolation of a European bat lyssavirus type 2 from a Daubenton's bat in the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, N; Selden, D; Parsons, G; Healy, D; Brookes, S M; McElhinney, L M; Hutson, A M; Fooks, A R

    2003-03-29

    European bat lyssavirus type 2 (EBLV-2) has been isolated once previously from a bat in the UK in June 1996. In September 2002, a Daubenton's bat (Myotis daubentonii) found in Lancashire developed abnormal behaviour, including unprovoked aggression, while it was in captivity. Brain samples from the bat were tested for virus of the Lyssavirus genus, which includes EBLV-2 (genotype 6), and classical rabies virus (genotype 1). A positive fluorescent antibody test confirmed that it was infected with a lyssavirus, and PCR and genomic sequencing identified the virus as an EBLV-2a. Phylogenetic comparisons with all the published sequences from genotype 6 showed that it was closely related to the previous isolate of EBLV-2 in the UK and suggested links to isolates from bats in The Netherlands. The isolation of EBLV-2 from a bat found on the west coast of England provides evidence that this virus may be present within the UK Daubenton's bat population at a low prevalence level.

  19. Recognizing and tracking humans and vehicles using radar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahmoush, David; Silvious, Jerry

    2010-01-01

    Dynamic obstacles like vehicles and animals can be distinguished from humans using their radar micro-Doppler signature. This allows customizing the robotic path algorithm to avoid highly sensitive and unpredictable obstacles like humans and rapidly moving obstacles like vehicles. We demonstrate the extraction of stride rate and other information associated with gait for enhanced person recognition from radar data. We describe the radar sensors used for the measurements, the algorithms used for the detection, tracking, and classification of people and vehicles, as well as describe some of the features that can be extracted. These features can serve as rudimentary identifying information in a scene with multiple subjects. We measure human subjects in indoor and outdoor clutter backgrounds for identification and gather ground truth using video to validate the radar data.

  20. Application of laser radar to autonomous spacecraft landing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gleichman, Kurt; Tchoryk, Peter, Jr.; Sampson, Robert E.

    1991-01-01

    This paper discusses the scenario of an autonomous landing like that required for the Mars Rover Sample Return Mission. An application of laser radar for conducting autonomous hazard detection and avoidance is discussed. A trade-study is performed to identify operational and implementation constraints as well as the state of the art in component technology.

  1. Bird radar validation in the field by time-referencing line-transect surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dokter, Adriaan M; Baptist, Martin J; Ens, Bruno J; Krijgsveld, Karen L; van Loon, E Emiel

    2013-01-01

    Track-while-scan bird radars are widely used in ornithological studies, but often the precise detection capabilities of these systems are unknown. Quantification of radar performance is essential to avoid observational biases, which requires practical methods for validating a radar's detection capability in specific field settings. In this study a method to quantify the detection capability of a bird radar is presented, as well a demonstration of this method in a case study. By time-referencing line-transect surveys, visually identified birds were automatically linked to individual tracks using their transect crossing time. Detection probabilities were determined as the fraction of the total set of visual observations that could be linked to radar tracks. To avoid ambiguities in assigning radar tracks to visual observations, the observer's accuracy in determining a bird's transect crossing time was taken into account. The accuracy was determined by examining the effect of a time lag applied to the visual observations on the number of matches found with radar tracks. Effects of flight altitude, distance, surface substrate and species size on the detection probability by the radar were quantified in a marine intertidal study area. Detection probability varied strongly with all these factors, as well as species-specific flight behaviour. The effective detection range for single birds flying at low altitude for an X-band marine radar based system was estimated at ~1.5 km. Within this range the fraction of individual flying birds that were detected by the radar was 0.50 ± 0.06 with a detection bias towards higher flight altitudes, larger birds and high tide situations. Besides radar validation, which we consider essential when quantification of bird numbers is important, our method of linking radar tracks to ground-truthed field observations can facilitate species-specific studies using surveillance radars. The methodology may prove equally useful for optimising

  2. Wind Profiling Radar

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Clutter present in radar return signals as used for wind profiling is substantially removed by carrying out a Daubechies wavelet transformation on a time series of...

  3. Imaging Radar Polarimetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    vanZyl, J. J.; Zebker, H. A.

    1993-01-01

    In this paper, we review the state of the art in imaging radar polarimetry, examine current developments in sensor technology and implementation for recording polarimetric measurements, and describe techniques and areas of application for the new remote sensing data.

  4. Deciphering the bat virome catalog to better understand the ecological diversity of bat viruses and the bat origin of emerging infectious diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Zhiqiang; Yang, Li; Ren, Xianwen; He, Guimei; Zhang, Junpeng; Yang, Jian; Qian, Zhaohui; Dong, Jie; Sun, Lilian; Zhu, Yafang; Du, Jiang; Yang, Fan; Zhang, Shuyi; Jin, Qi

    2016-03-01

    Studies have demonstrated that ~60%-80% of emerging infectious diseases (EIDs) in humans originated from wild life. Bats are natural reservoirs of a large variety of viruses, including many important zoonotic viruses that cause severe diseases in humans and domestic animals. However, the understanding of the viral population and the ecological diversity residing in bat populations is unclear, which complicates the determination of the origins of certain EIDs. Here, using bats as a typical wildlife reservoir model, virome analysis was conducted based on pharyngeal and anal swab samples of 4440 bat individuals of 40 major bat species throughout China. The purpose of this study was to survey the ecological and biological diversities of viruses residing in these bat species, to investigate the presence of potential bat-borne zoonotic viruses and to evaluate the impacts of these viruses on public health. The data obtained in this study revealed an overview of the viral community present in these bat samples. Many novel bat viruses were reported for the first time and some bat viruses closely related to known human or animal pathogens were identified. This genetic evidence provides new clues in the search for the origin or evolution pattern of certain viruses, such as coronaviruses and noroviruses. These data offer meaningful ecological information for predicting and tracing wildlife-originated EIDs.

  5. Downhole pulse radar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Hsi-Tien

    1987-09-28

    A borehole logging tool generates a fast rise-time, short duration, high peak-power radar pulse having broad energy distribution between 30 MHz and 300 MHz through a directional transmitting and receiving antennas having barium titanate in the electromagnetically active region to reduce the wavelength to within an order of magnitude of the diameter of the antenna. Radar returns from geological discontinuities are sampled for transmission uphole. 7 figs.

  6. Current Status and habitat associations of the endangered Indiana bat and three other bat species of special concern on the Cache River National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Interim NRPC report Indiana bat for Rafinesque's big-eared bat Southeastern myotis, Northern long-eared bat to determine status, habitat use & preference....

  7. Bats Use Geomagnetic Field: Behavior and Mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Y.; Tian, L.; Zhang, B.; Zhu, R.

    2015-12-01

    It has been known that numerous animals can use the Earth's magnetic field for spatial orientation and long-distance navigation, nevertheless, how animals can respond to the magnetic field remain mostly ambiguous. The intensities of the global geomagnetic field varies between 23 and 66 μT, and the geomagnetic field intensity could drop to 10% during geomagnetic polarity reversals or geomagnetic excursions. Such dramatic changes of the geomagnetic field may pose a significant challenge for the evolution of magnetic compass in animals. For examples, it is vital whether the magnetic compass can still work in such very weak magnetic fields. Our previous experiment has demonstrated that a migratory bat (Nyctalus plancyi) uses a polarity compass for orientation during roosting when exposed to an artificial magnetic field (100 μT). Recently, we experimentally tested whether the N. plancyi can sense very weak magnetic fields that were even lower than those of the present-day geomagnetic field. Results showed: 1) the bats can sense the magnetic north in a field strength of present-day local geomagnetic field (51μT); 2) As the field intensity decreased to only 1/5th of the natural intensity (10 μT), the bats still responded by positioning themselves at the magnetic north. Notably, as the field polarity was artificially reversed, the bats still preferred the new magnetic north, even at the lowest field strength tested (10 μT). Hence, N. plancyi is able to detect the direction of a magnetic field with intensity range from twice to 1/5th of the present-day field strength. This allows them to orient themselves across the entire range of present-day global geomagnetic field strengths and sense very weak magnetic fields. We propose that this high sensitivity might have evolved in bats as the geomagnetic field strength varied and the polarity reversed tens of times over the past fifty million years since the origin of bats. The physiological mechanisms underlying

  8. Discovery of a Novel Bat Gammaherpesvirus

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Zoonosis is the leading cause of emerging infectious diseases. In a recent article, R. S. Shabman et al. (mSphere 1[1]:e00070-15, 2016, http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/mSphere.00070-15) report the identification of a novel gammaherpesvirus in a cell line derived from the microbat Myotis velifer incautus. This is the first report on a replicating, infectious gammaherpesvirus from bats. The new virus is named bat gammaherpesvirus 8 (BGHV8), also known as Myotis gammaherpesvirus 8, and is abl...

  9. Bat Algorithm for Multi-objective Optimisation

    CERN Document Server

    Yang, Xin-She

    2012-01-01

    Engineering optimization is typically multiobjective and multidisciplinary with complex constraints, and the solution of such complex problems requires efficient optimization algorithms. Recently, Xin-She Yang proposed a bat-inspired algorithm for solving nonlinear, global optimisation problems. In this paper, we extend this algorithm to solve multiobjective optimisation problems. The proposed multiobjective bat algorithm (MOBA) is first validated against a subset of test functions, and then applied to solve multiobjective design problems such as welded beam design. Simulation results suggest that the proposed algorithm works efficiently.

  10. Bat Predation by Cercopithecus Monkeys: Implications for Zoonotic Disease Transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tapanes, Elizabeth; Detwiler, Kate M; Cords, Marina

    2016-06-01

    The relationship between bats and primates, which may contribute to zoonotic disease transmission, is poorly documented. We provide the first behavioral accounts of predation on bats by Cercopithecus monkeys, both of which are known to harbor zoonotic disease. We witnessed 13 bat predation events over 6.5 years in two forests in Kenya and Tanzania. Monkeys sometimes had prolonged contact with the bat carcass, consuming it entirely. All predation events occurred in forest-edge or plantation habitat. Predator-prey relations between bats and primates are little considered by disease ecologists, but may contribute to transmission of zoonotic disease, including Ebolavirus.

  11. Adaptive vocal behavior drives perception by echolocation in bats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moss, Cynthia F; Chiu, Chen; Surlykke, Annemarie

    2011-01-01

    Echolocation operates through adaptive sensorimotor systems that collectively enable the bat to localize and track sonar objects as it flies. The features of sonar signals used by a bat to probe its surroundings determine the information available to its acoustic imaging system. In turn, the bat......'s perception of a complex scene guides its active adjustments in the features of subsequent sonar vocalizations. Here, we propose that the bat's active vocal-motor behaviors play directly into its representation of a dynamic auditory scene....

  12. Bats limit insects in a neotropical agroforestry system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams-Guillén, Kimberly; Perfecto, Ivette; Vandermeer, John

    2008-04-04

    Exclosure experiments have demonstrated the effects of bird predation on arthropods. In a Mexican coffee plantation, we excluded foliage-gleaning bird and bat predators from coffee plants. Effects of bats and birds were additive. In the dry season, birds reduced arthropods in coffee plants by 30%; birds and bats together reduced arthropods by 46%. In the wet season, bats reduced arthropods by 84%, whereas birds reduced them by only 58%. We conclude that previous "bird" exclosure experiments may have systematically underestimated the effects of bats.

  13. Saccharomyces cerevisiae Bat1 and Bat2 aminotransferases have functionally diverged from the ancestral-like Kluyveromyces lactis orthologous enzyme.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maritrini Colón

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Gene duplication is a key evolutionary mechanism providing material for the generation of genes with new or modified functions. The fate of duplicated gene copies has been amply discussed and several models have been put forward to account for duplicate conservation. The specialization model considers that duplication of a bifunctional ancestral gene could result in the preservation of both copies through subfunctionalization, resulting in the distribution of the two ancestral functions between the gene duplicates. Here we investigate whether the presumed bifunctional character displayed by the single branched chain amino acid aminotransferase present in K. lactis has been distributed in the two paralogous genes present in S. cerevisiae, and whether this conservation has impacted S. cerevisiae metabolism. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Our results show that the KlBat1 orthologous BCAT is a bifunctional enzyme, which participates in the biosynthesis and catabolism of branched chain aminoacids (BCAAs. This dual role has been distributed in S. cerevisiae Bat1 and Bat2 paralogous proteins, supporting the specialization model posed to explain the evolution of gene duplications. BAT1 is highly expressed under biosynthetic conditions, while BAT2 expression is highest under catabolic conditions. Bat1 and Bat2 differential relocalization has favored their physiological function, since biosynthetic precursors are generated in the mitochondria (Bat1, while catabolic substrates are accumulated in the cytosol (Bat2. Under respiratory conditions, in the presence of ammonium and BCAAs the batbat2Δ double mutant shows impaired growth, indicating that Bat1 and Bat2 could play redundant roles. In K. lactis wild type growth is independent of BCAA degradation, since a Klbat1Δ mutant grows under this condition. CONCLUSIONS: Our study shows that BAT1 and BAT2 differential expression and subcellular relocalization has resulted in the distribution of the

  14. Predicting attention and avoidance: when do avoiders attend?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Rupert; Knäuper, Bärbel

    2009-09-01

    Three avoidance measures, the Miller Behavioural Style Scale (MBSS), Index of Self-Regulation of Emotion (ISE) and Mainz Coping Inventory (MCI), were compared in their ability to predict attention and avoidance of threats in the emotional Stroop task. It was also examined if the avoidance mechanism of individuals who would normally avoid threat-indicating words becomes disrupted under conditions of dopamine reduction. Results show that only the ISE predicted attention/avoidance of threat-indicating words. In addition, the avoidance mechanism, as measured by the ISE and MCI, was not activated when regular smokers abstained from smoking.

  15. Novel Bartonella Species in Insectivorous Bats, Northern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Hui-Ju; Wen, Hong-ling; Zhao, Li; Liu, Jian-wei; Luo, Li-Mei; Zhou, Chuan-Min; Qin, Xiang-Rong; Zhu, Ye-Lei; Zheng, Xue-Xing

    2017-01-01

    Bartonella species are emerging human pathogens. Bats are known to carry diverse Bartonella species, some of which are capable of infecting humans. However, as the second largest mammalian group by a number of species, the role of bats as the reservoirs of Bartonella species is not fully explored, in term of their species diversity and worldwide distribution. China, especially Northern China, harbors a number of endemic insectivorous bat species; however, to our knowledge, there are not yet studies about Bartonella in bats in China. The aim of the study was to investigate the prevalence and genetic diversity of Bartonella species in bats in Northern China. Bartonella species were detected by PCR amplification of gltA gene in 25.2% (27/107) bats in Mengyin County, Shandong Province of China, including 1/3 Rhinolophus ferrumequinum, 2/10 Rhinolophus pusillus, 9/16 Myotis fimbriatus, 1/5 Myotis ricketti, 14/58 Myotis pequinius. Phylogenetic analysis showed that Bartonella species detected in bats in this study clustered into ten groups, and some might be novel Bartonella species. An association between Bartonella species and bat species was demonstrated and co-infection with different Bartonella species in a single bat was also observed. Our findings expanded our knowledge on the genetic diversity of Bartonella in bats, and shed light on the ecology of bat-borne Bartonella species. PMID:28081122

  16. Education to Action: Improving Public Perception of Bats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Hoffmaster

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Public perception of bats has historically been largely negative with bats often portrayed as carriers of disease. Bats are commonly associated with vampire lore and thus elicit largely fearful reactions despite the fact that they are a vital and valuable part of the ecosystem. Bats provide a variety of essential services from pest control to plant pollination. Despite the benefits of bats to the environment and the economy, bats are suffering at the hands of humans. They are victims of turbines, human encroachment, pesticides, and, most recently, white nose syndrome. Because of their critical importance to the environment, humans should do what they can to help protect bats. We propose that humans will be more likely to do so if their perceptions and attitudes toward bats can be significantly improved. In a preliminary study we found some support for the idea that people can be educated about bats through bat oriented events and exhibits, and that this greater knowledge can inspire humans to act to save bats.

  17. Avoidable waste management costs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hsu, K.; Burns, M.; Priebe, S.; Robinson, P.

    1995-01-01

    This report describes the activity based costing method used to acquire variable (volume dependent or avoidable) waste management cost data for routine operations at Department of Energy (DOE) facilities. Waste volumes from environmental restoration, facility stabilization activities, and legacy waste were specifically excluded from this effort. A core team consisting of Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site, and Oak Ridge Reservation developed and piloted the methodology, which can be used to determine avoidable waste management costs. The method developed to gather information was based on activity based costing, which is a common industrial engineering technique. Sites submitted separate flow diagrams that showed the progression of work from activity to activity for each waste type or treatability group. Each activity on a flow diagram was described in a narrative, which detailed the scope of the activity. Labor and material costs based on a unit quantity of waste being processed were then summed to generate a total cost for that flow diagram. Cross-complex values were calculated by determining a weighted average for each waste type or treatability group based on the volume generated. This study will provide DOE and contractors with a better understanding of waste management processes and their associated costs. Other potential benefits include providing cost data for sites to perform consistent cost/benefit analysis of waste minimization and pollution prevention (WMIN/PP) options identified during pollution prevention opportunity assessments and providing a means for prioritizing and allocating limited resources for WMIN/PP.

  18. Evidence of Hantavirus Infection Among Bats in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabino-Santos, Gilberto; Maia, Felipe Gonçalves Motta; Vieira, Thallyta Maria; de Lara Muylaert, Renata; Lima, Sabrina Miranda; Gonçalves, Cristieli Barros; Barroso, Patricia Doerl; Melo, Maria Norma; Jonsson, Colleen B; Goodin, Douglas; Salazar-Bravo, Jorge; Figueiredo, Luiz Tadeu Moraes

    2015-08-01

    Hantaviruses are zoonotic viruses harbored by rodents, bats, and shrews. At present, only rodent-borne hantaviruses are associated with severe illness in humans. New species of hantaviruses have been recently identified in bats and shrews greatly expanding the potential reservoirs and ranges of these viruses. Brazil has one of the highest incidences of hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome in South America, hence it is critical to know what is the prevalence of hantaviruses in Brazil. Although much is known about rodent reservoirs, little is known regarding bats. We captured 270 bats from February 2012 to April 2014. Serum was screened for the presence of antibodies against a recombinant nucleoprotein (rN) of Araraquara virus (ARAQV). The prevalence of antibody to hantavirus was 9/53 with an overall seroprevalence of 17%. Previous studies have shown only insectivorous bats to harbor hantavirus; however, in our study, of the nine seropositive bats, five were frugivorous, one was carnivorous, and three were sanguivorous phyllostomid bats.

  19. Negative regulators of brown adipose tissue (BAT)-mediated thermogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Bal Krishan; Patil, Mallikarjun; Satyanarayana, Ande

    2014-12-01

    Brown adipose tissue (BAT) is specialized for energy expenditure, a process called adaptive thermogenesis. PET-CT scans recently demonstrated the existence of metabolically active BAT in adult humans, which revitalized our interest in BAT. Increasing the amount and/or activity of BAT holds tremendous promise for the treatment of obesity and its associated diseases. PGC1α is the master regulator of UCP1-mediated thermogenesis in BAT. A number of proteins have been identified to influence thermogenesis either positively or negatively through regulating the expression or transcriptional activity of PGC1α. Therefore, BAT activation can be achieved by either inducing the expression of positive regulators of PGC1α or by inhibiting the repressors of the PGC1α/UCP1 pathway. Here, we review the most important negative regulators of PGC1α/UCP1 signaling and their mechanism of action in BAT-mediated thermogenesis.

  20. Bats as reservoir hosts of human bacterial pathogen, Bartonella mayotimonensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veikkolainen, Ville; Vesterinen, Eero J; Lilley, Thomas M; Pulliainen, Arto T

    2014-06-01

    A plethora of pathogenic viruses colonize bats. However, bat bacterial flora and its zoonotic threat remain ill defined. In a study initially conducted as a quantitative metagenomic analysis of the fecal bacterial flora of the Daubenton's bat in Finland, we unexpectedly detected DNA of several hemotrophic and ectoparasite-transmitted bacterial genera, including Bartonella. Bartonella spp. also were either detected or isolated from the peripheral blood of Daubenton's, northern, and whiskered bats and were detected in the ectoparasites of Daubenton's, northern, and Brandt's bats. The blood isolates belong to the Candidatus-status species B. mayotimonensis, a recently identified etiologic agent of endocarditis in humans, and a new Bartonella species (B. naantaliensis sp. nov.). Phylogenetic analysis of bat-colonizing Bartonella spp. throughout the world demonstrates a distinct B. mayotimonensis cluster in the Northern Hemisphere. The findings of this field study highlight bats as potent reservoirs of human bacterial pathogens.

  1. Processing of 3D Weather Radar Data with Application for Assimilation in the NWP Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ośródka Katarzyna

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper is focused on the processing of 3D weather radar data to minimize the impact of a number of errors from different sources, both meteorological and non-meteorological. The data is also quantitatively characterized in terms of its quality. A set of dedicated algorithms based on analysis of the reflectivity field pattern is described. All the developed algorithms were tested on data from the Polish radar network POLRAD. Quality control plays a key role in avoiding the introduction of incorrect information into applications using radar data. One of the quality control methods is radar data assimilation in numerical weather prediction models to estimate initial conditions of the atmosphere. The study shows an experiment with quality controlled radar data assimilation in the COAMPS model using the ensemble Kalman filter technique. The analysis proved the potential of radar data for such applications; however, further investigations will be indispensable.

  2. Bat Accelerated Regions Identify a Bat Forelimb Specific Enhancer in the HoxD Locus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Betty M Booker

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The molecular events leading to the development of the bat wing remain largely unknown, and are thought to be caused, in part, by changes in gene expression during limb development. These expression changes could be instigated by variations in gene regulatory enhancers. Here, we used a comparative genomics approach to identify regions that evolved rapidly in the bat ancestor, but are highly conserved in other vertebrates. We discovered 166 bat accelerated regions (BARs that overlap H3K27ac and p300 ChIP-seq peaks in developing mouse limbs. Using a mouse enhancer assay, we show that five Myotis lucifugus BARs drive gene expression in the developing mouse limb, with the majority showing differential enhancer activity compared to the mouse orthologous BAR sequences. These include BAR116, which is located telomeric to the HoxD cluster and had robust forelimb expression for the M. lucifugus sequence and no activity for the mouse sequence at embryonic day 12.5. Developing limb expression analysis of Hoxd10-Hoxd13 in Miniopterus natalensis bats showed a high-forelimb weak-hindlimb expression for Hoxd10-Hoxd11, similar to the expression trend observed for M. lucifugus BAR116 in mice, suggesting that it could be involved in the regulation of the bat HoxD complex. Combined, our results highlight novel regulatory regions that could be instrumental for the morphological differences leading to the development of the bat wing.

  3. The distribution of bats in The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Braaksma, S.

    1970-01-01

    The Research Institute for Nature Management (R.I.N.) has compiled all available information on the distribution of bats in the Netherlands up till 1968. The data were derived from literature and museum specimens, as well as from numerous unpublished observations. Around 1960 much was known already

  4. Biaxial mechanical characterization of bat wing skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skulborstad, A J; Swartz, S M; Goulbourne, N C

    2015-04-21

    The highly flexible and stretchable wing skin of bats, together with the skeletal structure and musculature, enables large changes in wing shape during flight. Such compliance distinguishes bat wings from those of all other flying animals. Although several studies have investigated the aerodynamics and kinematics of bats, few have examined the complex histology and mechanical response of the wing skin. This work presents the first biaxial characterization of the local deformation, mechanical properties, and fiber kinematics of bat wing skin. Analysis of these data has provided insight into the relationships among the structural morphology, mechanical properties, and functionality of wing skin. Large spatial variations in tissue deformation and non-negligible fiber strains in the cross-fiber direction for both chordwise and spanwise fibers indicate fibers should be modeled as two-dimensional elements. The macroscopic constitutive behavior was anisotropic and nonlinear, with very low spanwise and chordwise stiffness (hundreds of kilopascals) in the toe region of the stress-strain curve. The structural arrangement of the fibers and matrix facilitates a low energy mechanism for wing deployment and extension, and we fabricate examples of skins capturing this mechanism. We propose a comprehensive deformation map for the entire loading regime. The results of this work underscore the importance of biaxial field approaches for soft heterogeneous tissue, and provide a foundation for development of bio-inspired skins to probe the effects of the wing skin properties on aerodynamic performance.

  5. Analysis of bat wings for morphing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leylek, Emily A.; Manzo, Justin E.; Garcia, Ephrahim

    2008-03-01

    The morphing of wings from three different bat species is studied using an extension of the Weissinger method. To understand how camber affects performance factors such as lift and lift to drag ratio, XFOIL is used to study thin (3% thickness to chord ratio) airfoils at a low Reynolds number of 100,000. The maximum camber of 9% yielded the largest lift coefficient, and a mid-range camber of 7% yielded the largest lift to drag ratio. Correlations between bat wing morphology and flight characteristics are covered, and the three bat wing planforms chosen represent various combinations of morphological components and different flight modes. The wings are studied using the extended Weissinger method in an "unmorphed" configuration using a thin, symmetric airfoil across the span of the wing through angles of attack of 0°-15°. The wings are then run in the Weissinger method at angles of attack of -2° to 12° in a "morphed" configuration modeled after bat wings seen in flight, where the camber of the airfoils comprising the wings is varied along the span and a twist distribution along the span is introduced. The morphed wing configurations increase the lift coefficient over 1000% from the unmorphed configuration and increase the lift to drag ratio over 175%. The results of the three different species correlate well with their flight in nature.

  6. Bat records from Malawi (Mammalia, Chiroptera)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergmans, Wim; Jachmann, Hugo

    1983-01-01

    Five species of bats are recorded from Kasungu National Park, Malawi: Eidolon helvum (Kerr, 1792); Epomophorus anurus Heuglin, 1864; Epomophorus minor Dobson, 1880; Epomops dobsonii (Bocage, 1889); and Scotoecus hindei Thomas, 1901. Some other Malawian records of these species, based on literature a

  7. Bats respond to very weak magnetic fields.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lan-Xiang Tian

    Full Text Available How animals, including mammals, can respond to and utilize the direction and intensity of the Earth's magnetic field for orientation and navigation is contentious. In this study, we experimentally tested whether the Chinese Noctule, Nyctalus plancyi (Vespertilionidae can sense magnetic field strengths that were even lower than those of the present-day geomagnetic field. Such field strengths occurred during geomagnetic excursions or polarity reversals and thus may have played an important role in the evolution of a magnetic sense. We found that in a present-day local geomagnetic field, the bats showed a clear preference for positioning themselves at the magnetic north. As the field intensity decreased to only 1/5th of the natural intensity (i.e., 10 μT; the lowest field strength tested here, the bats still responded by positioning themselves at the magnetic north. When the field polarity was artificially reversed, the bats still preferred the new magnetic north, even at the lowest field strength tested (10 μT, despite the fact that the artificial field orientation was opposite to the natural geomagnetic field (P<0.05. Hence, N. plancyi is able to detect the direction of a magnetic field even at 1/5th of the present-day field strength. This high sensitivity to magnetic fields may explain how magnetic orientation could have evolved in bats even as the Earth's magnetic field strength varied and the polarity reversed tens of times over the past fifty million years.

  8. The wake of hovering flight in bats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Håkansson, Jonas; Hedenström, Anders; Winter, York; Johansson, L. Christoffer

    2015-01-01

    Hovering means stationary flight at zero net forward speed, which can be achieved by animals through muscle powered flapping flight. Small bats capable of hovering typically do so with a downstroke in an inclined stroke plane, and with an aerodynamically active outer wing during the upstroke. The magnitude and time history of aerodynamic forces should be reflected by vorticity shed into the wake. We thus expect hovering bats to generate a characteristic wake, but this has until now never been studied. Here we trained nectar-feeding bats, Leptonycteris yerbabuenae, to hover at a feeder and using time-resolved stereoscopic particle image velocimetry in conjunction with high-speed kinematic analysis we show that hovering nectar-feeding bats produce a series of bilateral stacked vortex loops. Vortex visualizations suggest that the downstroke produces the majority of the weight support, but that the upstroke contributes positively to the lift production. However, the relative contributions from downstroke and upstroke could not be determined on the basis of the wake, because wake elements from down- and upstroke mix and interact. We also use a modified actuator disc model to estimate lift force, power and flap efficiency. Based on our quantitative wake-induced velocities, the model accounts for weight support well (108%). Estimates of aerodynamic efficiency suggest hovering flight is less efficient than forward flapping flight, while the overall energy conversion efficiency (mechanical power output/metabolic power) was estimated at 13%. PMID:26179990

  9. Personality variation in little brown bats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allyson K Menzies

    Full Text Available Animal personality or temperament refers to individual differences in behaviour that are repeatable over time and across contexts. Personality has been linked to life-history traits, energetic traits and fitness, with implications for the evolution of behaviour. Personality has been quantified for a range of taxa (e.g., fish, songbirds, small mammals but, so far, there has been little work on personality in bats, despite their diversity and potential as a model taxon for comparative studies. We used a novel environment test to quantify personality in little brown bats (Myotis lucifugus and assess the short-term repeatability of a range of behaviours. We tested the hypothesis that development influences values of personality traits and predicted that trait values associated with activity would increase between newly volant, pre-weaning young-of-the-year (YOY and more mature, self-sufficient YOY. We identified personality dimensions that were consistent with past studies of other taxa and found that these traits were repeatable over a 24-hour period. Consistent with our prediction, older YOY captured at a fall swarming site prior to hibernation had higher activity scores than younger YOY bats captured at a maternity colony, suggesting that personality traits vary as development progresses in YOY bats. Thus, we found evidence of short-term consistency of personality within individuals but with the potential for temporal flexibility of traits, depending on age.

  10. Human betacoronavirus 2c EMC/2012-related viruses in bats, Ghana and Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annan, Augustina; Baldwin, Heather J; Corman, Victor Max; Klose, Stefan M; Owusu, Michael; Nkrumah, Evans Ewald; Badu, Ebenezer Kofi; Anti, Priscilla; Agbenyega, Olivia; Meyer, Benjamin; Oppong, Samuel; Sarkodie, Yaw Adu; Kalko, Elisabeth K V; Lina, Peter H C; Godlevska, Elena V; Reusken, Chantal; Seebens, Antje; Gloza-Rausch, Florian; Vallo, Peter; Tschapka, Marco; Drosten, Christian; Drexler, Jan Felix

    2013-03-01

    We screened fecal specimens of 4,758 bats from Ghana and 272 bats from 4 European countries for betacoronaviruses. Viruses related to the novel human betacoronavirus EMC/2012 were detected in 46 (24.9%) of 185 Nycteris bats and 40 (14.7%) of 272 Pipistrellus bats. Their genetic relatedness indicated EMC/2012 originated from bats.

  11. Market forces and technological substitutes cause fluctuations in the value of bat pest-control services for cotton.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura López-Hoffman

    Full Text Available Critics of the market-based, ecosystem services approach to biodiversity conservation worry that volatile market conditions and technological substitutes will diminish the value of ecosystem services and obviate the "economic benefits" arguments for conservation. To explore the effects of market forces and substitutes on service values, we assessed how the value of the pest-control services provided by Mexican free-tailed bats (Tadarida brasiliensis mexicana to cotton production in the southwestern U.S. has changed over time. We calculated service values each year from 1990 through 2008 by estimating the value of avoided crop damage and the reduced social and private costs of insecticide use in the presence of bats. Over this period, the ecosystem service value declined by 79% ($19.09 million U.S. dollars due to the introduction and widespread adoption of Bt (Bacillus thuringiensis cotton transgenically modified to express its own pesticide, falling global cotton prices and the reduction in the number of hectares in the U.S. planted with cotton. Our results demonstrate that fluctuations in market conditions can cause temporal variation in ecosystem service values even when ecosystem function--in this case bat population numbers--is held constant. Evidence is accumulating, however, of the evolution of pest resistance to Bt cotton, suggesting that the value of bat pest-control services may increase again. This gives rise to an economic option value argument for conserving Mexican free-tailed bat populations. We anticipate that these results will spur discussion about the role of ecosystem services in biodiversity conservation in general, and bat conservation in particular.

  12. Market forces and technological substitutes cause fluctuations in the value of bat pest-control services for cotton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Hoffman, Laura; Wiederholt, Ruscena; Sansone, Chris; Bagstad, Kenneth J; Cryan, Paul; Diffendorfer, Jay E; Goldstein, Joshua; Lasharr, Kelsie; Loomis, John; McCracken, Gary; Medellín, Rodrigo A; Russell, Amy; Semmens, Darius

    2014-01-01

    Critics of the market-based, ecosystem services approach to biodiversity conservation worry that volatile market conditions and technological substitutes will diminish the value of ecosystem services and obviate the "economic benefits" arguments for conservation. To explore the effects of market forces and substitutes on service values, we assessed how the value of the pest-control services provided by Mexican free-tailed bats (Tadarida brasiliensis mexicana) to cotton production in the southwestern U.S. has changed over time. We calculated service values each year from 1990 through 2008 by estimating the value of avoided crop damage and the reduced social and private costs of insecticide use in the presence of bats. Over this period, the ecosystem service value declined by 79% ($19.09 million U.S. dollars) due to the introduction and widespread adoption of Bt (Bacillus thuringiensis) cotton transgenically modified to express its own pesticide, falling global cotton prices and the reduction in the number of hectares in the U.S. planted with cotton. Our results demonstrate that fluctuations in market conditions can cause temporal variation in ecosystem service values even when ecosystem function--in this case bat population numbers--is held constant. Evidence is accumulating, however, of the evolution of pest resistance to Bt cotton, suggesting that the value of bat pest-control services may increase again. This gives rise to an economic option value argument for conserving Mexican free-tailed bat populations. We anticipate that these results will spur discussion about the role of ecosystem services in biodiversity conservation in general, and bat conservation in particular.

  13. Experimental evidence for the effect of small wind turbine proximity and operation on bird and bat activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minderman, Jeroen; Pendlebury, Chris J; Pearce-Higgins, James W; Park, Kirsty J

    2012-01-01

    The development of renewable energy technologies such as wind turbines forms a vital part of strategies to reduce greenhouse gas emissions worldwide. Although large wind farms generate the majority of wind energy, the small wind turbine (SWT, units generating wind farms on birds and bats, effects of SWTs on wildlife have not been studied and are likely to be different due to their potential siting in a wider range of habitats. We present the first study to quantify the effects of SWTs on birds and bats. Using a field experiment, we show that bird activity is similar in two distance bands surrounding a sample of SWTs (between 6-18 m hub height) and is not affected by SWT operation at the fine scale studied. At shorter distances from operating turbines (0-5 m), bat activity (measured as the probability of a bat "pass" per hour) decreases from 84% (71-91%) to 28% (11-54%) as wind speed increases from 0 to 14 m/s. This effect is weaker at greater distances (20-25 m) from operating turbines (activity decreases from 80% (65-89%) to 59% (32-81%)), and absent when they are braked. We conclude that bats avoid operating SWTs but that this effect diminishes within 20 m. Such displacement effects may have important consequences especially in landscapes where suitable habitat is limiting. Planning guidance for SWTs is currently lacking. Based on our results we recommend that they are sited at least 20 m away from potentially valuable bat habitat.

  14. Market forces and technological substitutes cause fluctuations in the value of bat pest-control services for cotton

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Hoffman, Laura; Wiederholt, Ruscena; Sansone, Chris; Bagstad, Kenneth J.; Cryan, Paul M.; Diffendorfer, James E.; Goldstein, Joshua; LaSharr, Kelsie; Loomis, John; McCracken, Gary; Medellin, Rodrigo A.; Russell, Amy; Semmens, Darius J.

    2014-01-01

    Critics of the market-based, ecosystem services approach to biodiversity conservation worry that volatile market conditions and technological substitutes will diminish the value of ecosystem services and obviate the “economic benefits” arguments for conservation. To explore the effects of market forces and substitutes on service values, we assessed how the value of the pest-control services provided by Mexican free-tailed bats (Tadarida brasiliensis mexicana) to cotton production in the southwestern U.S. has changed over time. We calculated service values each year from 1990 through 2008 by estimating the value of avoided crop damage and the reduced social and private costs of insecticide use in the presence of bats. Over this period, the ecosystem service value declined by 79% ($19.09 million U.S. dollars) due to the introduction and widespread adoption of Bt (Bacillus thuringiensis) cotton transgenically modified to express its own pesticide, falling global cotton prices and the reduction in the number of hectares in the U.S. planted with cotton. Our results demonstrate that fluctuations in market conditions can cause temporal variation in ecosystem service values even when ecosystem function – in this case bat population numbers – is held constant. Evidence is accumulating, however, of the evolution of pest resistance to Bt cotton, suggesting that the value of bat pest-control services may increase again. This gives rise to an economic option value argument for conserving Mexican free-tailed bat populations. We anticipate that these results will spur discussion about the role of ecosystem services in biodiversity conservation in general, and bat conservation in particular.

  15. Experimental evidence for the effect of small wind turbine proximity and operation on bird and bat activity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeroen Minderman

    Full Text Available The development of renewable energy technologies such as wind turbines forms a vital part of strategies to reduce greenhouse gas emissions worldwide. Although large wind farms generate the majority of wind energy, the small wind turbine (SWT, units generating <50 kW sector is growing rapidly. In spite of evidence of effects of large wind farms on birds and bats, effects of SWTs on wildlife have not been studied and are likely to be different due to their potential siting in a wider range of habitats. We present the first study to quantify the effects of SWTs on birds and bats. Using a field experiment, we show that bird activity is similar in two distance bands surrounding a sample of SWTs (between 6-18 m hub height and is not affected by SWT operation at the fine scale studied. At shorter distances from operating turbines (0-5 m, bat activity (measured as the probability of a bat "pass" per hour decreases from 84% (71-91% to 28% (11-54% as wind speed increases from 0 to 14 m/s. This effect is weaker at greater distances (20-25 m from operating turbines (activity decreases from 80% (65-89% to 59% (32-81%, and absent when they are braked. We conclude that bats avoid operating SWTs but that this effect diminishes within 20 m. Such displacement effects may have important consequences especially in landscapes where suitable habitat is limiting. Planning guidance for SWTs is currently lacking. Based on our results we recommend that they are sited at least 20 m away from potentially valuable bat habitat.

  16. Design of Millimeter-wave SiGe Frequency Doubler and Output Buffer for Automotive Radar Applications

    OpenAIRE

    2007-01-01

    Automotive Radars have introduced various functions on automobiles for driver’s safety and comfort, as part of the Intelligent Transportation System (ITS) including Adaptive Cruise Control (ACC), collision warning or avoidance, blind spot surveillance and parking assistance. Although such radar systems with 24 GHz carrier frequency are already in use but due to some regulatory issues, recently a permanent band has been allocated at 77-81 GHz, allowing for long-term development of the radar se...

  17. Airport Surveillance Radar : Model 7 -

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — The Airport Surveillance Radar Model 7 (ASR-7) is a short-range (60 nautical miles (nmi)) analog radar system used to detect and report the presence and location of...

  18. Airport Surveillance Radar : Model 8 -

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — The Airport Surveillance Radar Model 8 (ASR-8) is a short-range (60 nautical mile (nmi)), analog radar system used to detect and report the presence and location of...

  19. Radar for tracer particles

    CERN Document Server

    Ott, Felix; Huang, Kai

    2016-01-01

    We introduce a radar system capable of tracking a $5$mm spherical target continuously in three dimensions. The $10$GHz (X-band) radar system has a transmission power of $1$W and operates in the near field of the horn antennae. By comparing the phase shift of the electromagnetic wave traveling through the free space with an IQ-Mixer, we obtain the relative movement of the target with respect to the antennae. From the azimuth and inclination angles of the receiving antennae obtained in the calibration, we reconstruct the target trajectory in a three-dimensional Cartesian system. Finally, we test the tracking algorithm with target moving in circular as well as in pendulum motions, and discuss the capability of the radar system.

  20. Mercury accumulation in bats near hydroelectric reservoirs in Peninsular Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syaripuddin, Khairunnisa; Kumar, Anjali; Sing, Kong-Wah; Halim, Muhammad-Rasul Abdullah; Nursyereen, Muhammad-Nasir; Wilson, John-James

    2014-09-01

    In large man-made reservoirs such as those resulting from hydroelectric dam construction, bacteria transform the relatively harmless inorganic mercury naturally present in soil and the submerged plant matter into toxic methylmercury. Methylmercury then enters food webs and can accumulate in organisms at higher trophic levels. Bats feeding on insects emerging from aquatic systems can show accumulation of mercury consumed through their insect prey. In this study, we investigated whether the concentration of mercury in the fur of insectivorous bat species was significantly higher than that in the fur of frugivorous bat species, sampled near hydroelectric reservoirs in Peninsular Malaysia. Bats were sampled at Temenggor Lake and Kenyir Lake and fur samples from the most abundant genera of the two feeding guilds-insectivorous (Hipposideros and Rhinolophus) and frugivorous (Cynopterus and Megaerops) were collected for mercury analysis. We found significantly higher concentrations of total mercury in the fur of insectivorous bats. Mercury concentrations also differed significantly between insectivorous bats sampled at the two sites, with bats from Kenyir Lake, the younger reservoir, showing higher mercury concentrations, and between the insectivorous genera, with Hipposideros bats showing higher mercury concentrations. Ten bats (H. cf. larvatus) sampled at Kenyir Lake had mercury concentrations approaching or exceeding 10 mg/kg, which is the threshold at which detrimental effects occur in humans, bats and mice.

  1. Timing matters: sonar call groups facilitate target localization in bats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kothari, Ninad B; Wohlgemuth, Melville J; Hulgard, Katrine; Surlykke, Annemarie; Moss, Cynthia F

    2014-01-01

    To successfully negotiate a cluttered environment, an echolocating bat must control the timing of motor behaviors in response to dynamic sensory information. Here we detail the big brown bat's adaptive temporal control over sonar call production for tracking prey, moving predictably or unpredictably, under different experimental conditions. We studied the adaptive control of vocal-motor behaviors in free-flying big brown bats, Eptesicus fuscus, as they captured tethered and free-flying insects, in open and cluttered environments. We also studied adaptive sonar behavior in bats trained to track moving targets from a resting position. In each of these experiments, bats adjusted the features of their calls to separate target and clutter. Under many task conditions, flying bats produced prominent sonar sound groups identified as clusters of echolocation pulses with relatively stable intervals, surrounded by longer pulse intervals. In experiments where bats tracked approaching targets from a resting position, bats also produced sonar sound groups, and the prevalence of these sonar sound groups increased when motion of the target was unpredictable. We hypothesize that sonar sound groups produced during flight, and the sonar call doublets produced by a bat tracking a target from a resting position, help the animal resolve dynamic target location and represent the echo scene in greater detail. Collectively, our data reveal adaptive temporal control over sonar call production that allows the bat to negotiate a complex and dynamic environment.

  2. Radar Control Optimal Resource Allocation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-07-13

    14. ABSTRACT This proposal will work towards the eventual realization of a long term goal of developing, waveforms and other radar resources... realizable radar system. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Radar Systems, Radar Resource Scheduling, Golay Codes, Doppler Resilient Processing...special case, a function can be fitted to q(·, S) and the optimal value of Γ found in closed-form. Interestingly, the optimal Γ for 3 Distribution A

  3. Mode S Baseline Radar Tracking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-11-01

    range units and 20 azimuth units) overlaying the position of the beacon reports. In the cases analyzed where beacon reports were not radar reinforced ...82/53 j~ C ~ 7 C _ _ _ _ _ _ 4. Title end Su.btitle 5. Neget at. November 1982 MDDE S BASELINE RADAR TRACKIN4G 6. Poelin Orgeuianti.. Cede ACT-100...Ground Clutter 33 Mode S/ARTS III 100-Scan False Radar Track Summary 74 34 Percent Beacon Radar Reinforcement 77 vii INTRODUCTION PURPOSE. The purpose of

  4. Localizing Ground-Penetrating Radar

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-11-01

    ing Ground-Penetrating Radar (LGPR) uses very high frequency (VHF) radar reflections of underground features to generate base- line maps and then...Innovative ground- penetrating radar that maps underground geological features provides autonomous vehicles with real-time localization. Localizing...NOV 2014 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2014 to 00-00-2014 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Localizing Ground-Penetrating Radar 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER

  5. A decade of U.S. Air Force bat strikes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peurach, Suzanne C.; Dove, Carla J.; Stepko, Laura

    2009-01-01

    From 1997 through 2007, 821 bat strikes were reported to the U.S. Air Force (USAF) Safety Center by aircraft personnel or ground crew and sent to the National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution, for identification. Many samples were identified by macroscopic and or microscopic comparisons with bat specimens housed in the museum and augmented during the last 2 years by DNA analysis. Bat remains from USAF strikes during this period were received at the museum from 40 states in the United States and from 20 countries. We confirmed that 46% of the strikes were caused by bats, but we did not identify them further; we identified 5% only to the family or genus level, and 49% to the species level. Fifty-five of the 101 bat-strike samples submitted for DNA analysis have been identified to the species level. Twenty-five bat species have been recorded striking USAF planes worldwide. The Brazilian free-tailed bat (Tadarida brasiliensis; n = 173) is the species most commonly identified in USAF strike impacts, followed by the red bat (Lasiurus borealis; n = 83). Bat strikes peak during the spring and fall, with >57% occurring from August through October; 82% of the reports that included time of strike were recorded between 2100 and 0900 hours. More than 12% of the bat strikes were reported at >300 m above ground level (AGL). Although $825,000 and >50% of this sum was attributable to 5 bat-strike incidents. Only 5 bats from the 10 most damaging bat strikes were identified to the species level, either because we did not receive remains with the reports or the sample was insufficient for identification.

  6. Ground penetrating radar for determining volumetric soil water content ; results of comparative measurements at two test sites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Overmeeren, R.A. van; Sariowan, S.V.; Gehrels, J.C.

    1997-01-01

    Ground penetrating radar (GPR) can provide information on the soil water content of the unsaturated zone in sandy deposits via measurements from the surface, and so avoids drilling. Proof of this was found from measurements of radar wave velocities carried out ten times over 13 months at two test si

  7. Investigating rainfall estimation from radar measurements using neural networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Alqudah

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Rainfall observed on the ground is dependent on the four dimensional structure of precipitation aloft. Scanning radars can observe the four dimensional structure of precipitation. Neural network is a nonparametric method to represent the nonlinear relationship between radar measurements and rainfall rate. The relationship is derived directly from a dataset consisting of radar measurements and rain gauge measurements. The performance of neural network based rainfall estimation is subject to many factors, such as the representativeness and sufficiency of the training dataset, the generalization capability of the network to new data, seasonal changes, and regional changes. Improving the performance of the neural network for real time applications is of great interest. The goal of this paper is to investigate the performance of rainfall estimation based on Radial Basis Function (RBF neural networks using radar reflectivity as input and rain gauge as the target. Data from Melbourne, Florida NEXRAD (Next Generation Weather Radar ground radar (KMLB over different years along with rain gauge measurements are used to conduct various investigations related to this problem. A direct gauge comparison study is done to demonstrate the improvement brought in by the neural networks and to show the feasibility of this system. The principal components analysis (PCA technique is also used to reduce the dimensionality of the training dataset. Reducing the dimensionality of the input training data will reduce the training time as well as reduce the network complexity which will also avoid over fitting.

  8. Distribution of the Chuckwalla, Western Burrowing Owl, and Six Bat Species on the Nevada Test Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cathy A. Willis

    1997-05-01

    Field Surveys were conducted in 1996 to determine the current distribution of several animal species of concern on the Nevada Test Site (NTS). They included the chuckwall (Sauromalus obesus), western burrowing owl (Speotyto cunicularia), and six species of bats. Nineteen chuckwallas and 118 scat locations were found during the chuckwalla field study. Eighteen western burrowing owls were found at 12 sighting locations during the 1996 field study. Of the eleven bat species of concern which might occur on the NTS, five, and possibly six, were captured during this survey. The U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office, takes certain management actions to protect and conserve the chuckwalla, western burrowing owl, and bats on the NTS. These actions are described and include: (1) conducting surveys at sites of proposed land-disturbing activities (2) altering projects whenever possible to avoid or minimize impacts to these species (3) maintaining a geospatial database of known habitat for species of concern (4) sharing sighting and trap location data gathered on the NTS with other local land and resource managers, and (5) conducting periodic field surveys to monitor these species distribution and relative abundance on the NTS.

  9. Homocysteine homeostasis and betaine-homocysteine S-methyltransferase expression in the brain of hibernating bats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yijian Zhang

    Full Text Available Elevated homocysteine is an important risk factor that increases cerebrovascular and neurodegenerative disease morbidity. In mammals, B vitamin supplementation can reduce homocysteine levels. Whether, and how, hibernating mammals, that essentially stop ingesting B vitamins, maintain homocysteine metabolism and avoid cerebrovascular impacts and neurodegeneration remain unclear. Here, we compare homocysteine levels in the brains of torpid bats, active bats and rats to identify the molecules involved in homocysteine homeostasis. We found that homocysteine does not elevate in torpid brains, despite declining vitamin B levels. At low levels of vitamin B6 and B12, we found no change in total expression level of the two main enzymes involved in homocysteine metabolism (methionine synthase and cystathionine β-synthase, but a 1.85-fold increase in the expression of the coenzyme-independent betaine-homocysteine S-methyltransferase (BHMT. BHMT expression was observed in the amygdala of basal ganglia and the cerebral cortex where BHMT levels were clearly elevated during torpor. This is the first report of BHMT protein expression in the brain and suggests that BHMT modulates homocysteine in the brains of hibernating bats. BHMT may have a neuroprotective role in the brains of hibernating mammals and further research on this system could expand our biomedical understanding of certain cerebrovascular and neurodegenerative disease processes.

  10. Lunar phobia in the greater fishing bat Noctilio leporinus (Chiroptera: Noctilionidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Börk, Karrigan S

    2006-12-01

    The nightly activity patterns of Noctilio leporinus, a piscivorous neotropical bat, were documented by visual observation over one lunar cycle at a large dock in Golfito, Costa Rica. The activity patterns were compared to the intensity of the moonlight, and a strong correlation between darkness and activity was observed (n = 776, r2 = 0.96). This correlation has been observed in many species of mammals and may indicate adaptation by potential prey species to avoid predation by visually oriented nighttime predators and/or an adaptation by predators to maximize hunting success.

  11. Ground penetrating radar

    CERN Document Server

    Daniels, David J

    2004-01-01

    Ground-penetrating radar has come to public attention in recent criminal investigations, but has actually been a developing and maturing remote sensing field for some time. In the light of recent expansion of the technique to a wide range of applications, the need for an up-to-date reference has become pressing. This fully revised and expanded edition of the best-selling Surface-Penetrating Radar (IEE, 1996) presents, for the non-specialist user or engineer, all the key elements of this technique, which span several disciplines including electromagnetics, geophysics and signal processing. The

  12. Noise Radar Technology Basics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-12-01

    poursuite, estimation Doppler, polarimétrie, interférométrie, sondage du sol ou profilage de la sous- surface , détection, imagerie SAR (radar à synthèse...mesure de distance et d’estimation Doppler. Deux récepteurs de traitement cohérent, soit le récepteur de corrélation et le récep- teur de traitement DSP... traitement spectral double) des échos radar sont décrits et une estimation de leur portée est présentée. Les capacités LPI (faible probabilité

  13. Status Of Imaging Radar Polarimetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Zyl, Jakob J.; Zebker, Howard A.

    1991-01-01

    Report pulls together information on imaging radar polarimetry from a variety of sources. Topics include theory, equipment, and experimental data. Reviews state of the art, examines current applicable developments in radar equipment, describes recording and processing of radar polarimetric measurements, and discusses interpretation and application of resulting polarimetric images.

  14. Human walking estimation with radar

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dorp, Ph. van; Groen, F.C.A.

    2003-01-01

    Radar can be used to observe humans that are obscured by objects such as walls. These humans cannot be visually observed. The radar measurements are used to animate an obscured human in virtual reality. This requires detailed information about the motion. The radar measurements give detailed informa

  15. Use of radars to monitor stream discharge by noncontact methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, J.E.; Cheng, R.T.; Haeni, F.P.; Melcher, N.; Spicer, K.R.; Hayes, E.; Plant, W.; Hayes, K.; Teague, C.; Barrick, D.

    2006-01-01

    Conventional measurements of river flows are costly, time-consuming, and frequently dangerous. This report evaluates the use of a continuous wave microwave radar, a monostatic UHF Doppler radar, a pulsed Doppler microwave radar, and a ground-penetrating radar to measure river flows continuously over long periods and without touching the water with any instruments. The experiments duplicate the flow records from conventional stream gauging stations on the San Joaquin River in California and the Cowlitz River in Washington. The purpose of the experiments was to directly measure the parameters necessary to compute flow: surface velocity (converted to mean velocity) and cross-sectional area, thereby avoiding the uncertainty, complexity, and cost of maintaining rating curves. River channel cross sections were measured by ground-penetrating radar suspended above the river. River surface water velocity was obtained by Bragg scattering of microwave and UHF Doppler radars, and the surface velocity data were converted to mean velocity on the basis of detailed velocity profiles measured by current meters and hydroacoustic instruments. Experiments using these radars to acquire a continuous record of flow were conducted for 4 weeks on the San Joaquin River and for 16 weeks on the Cowlitz River. At the San Joaquin River the radar noncontact measurements produced discharges more than 20% higher than the other independent measurements in the early part of the experiment. After the first 3 days, the noncontact radar discharge measurements were within 5% of the rating values. On the Cowlitz River at Castle Rock, correlation coefficients between the USGS stream gauging station rating curve discharge and discharge computed from three different Doppler radar systems and GPR data over the 16 week experiment were 0.883, 0.969, and 0.992. Noncontact radar results were within a few percent of discharge values obtained by gauging station, current meter, and hydroacoustic methods. Time

  16. Migration of bats past a remote island offers clues toward the problem of bat fatalities at wind turbines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cryan, P.M.; Brown, A.C.

    2007-01-01

    Wind energy is rapidly becoming a viable source of alternative energy, but wind turbines are killing bats in many areas of North America. Most of the bats killed by turbines thus far have been migratory species that roost in trees throughout the year, and the highest fatality events appear to coincide with autumn migration. Hoary bats (Lasiurus cinereus) are highly migratory and one of the most frequently killed species at wind turbines. We analyzed a long-term data set to investigate how weather and moonlight influenced the occurrence of hoary bats at an island stopover point along their migration route. We then related our results to the problem of bat fatalities at wind turbines. We found that relatively low wind speeds, low moon illumination, and relatively high degrees of cloud cover were important predictors of bat arrivals and departures, and that low barometric pressure was an additional variable that helped predict arrivals. Slight differences in the conditions under which bats arrived and departed from the island suggest that hoary bats may be more likely to arrive on the island with passing storm fronts in autumn. These results also indicate that fatalities of hoary bats at wind turbines may be predictable events, that the species may be drawn to prominent landmarks that they see during migration, and that they regularly migrate over the ocean. Additional observations from this and other studies suggest that the problem of bat fatalities at wind turbines may be associated with flocking and autumn mating behaviors.

  17. Monitoring Sensitive Bat Species at Los Alamos National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schoenberg, Kari M. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2014-01-15

    Bats play a critical role in ecosystems and are vulnerable to disturbance and disruption by human activities. In recent decades, bat populations in the United States and elsewhere have decreased tremendously. There are 47 different species of bat in the United States and 28 of these occur in New Mexico with 15 different species documented at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) and surrounding areas. Euderma maculatum(the spotted bat) is listed as “threatened” by the state of New Mexico and is known to occur at LANL. Four other species of bats are listed as “sensitive” and also occur here. In 1995, a four year study was initiated at LANL to assess the status of bat species of concern, elucidate distribution and relative abundance, and obtain information on roosting sites. There have been no definitive studies since then. Biologists in the Environmental Protection Division at LANL initiated a multi-year monitoring program for bats in May 2013 to implement the Biological Resources Management Plan. The objective of this ongoing study is to monitor bat species diversity and seasonal activity over time at LANL. Bat species diversity and seasonal activity were measured using an acoustic bat detector, the Pettersson D500X. This ultrasound recording unit is intended for long-term, unattended recording of bat and other high frequency animal calls. During 2013, the detector was deployed at two locations around LANL. Study sites were selected based on proximity to water where bats may be foraging. Recorded bat calls were analyzed using Sonobat, software that can help determine specific species of bat through their calls. A list of bat species at the two sites was developed and compared to lists from previous studies. Species diversity and seasonal activity, measured as the number of call sequences recorded each month, were compared between sites and among months. A total of 17,923 bat calls were recorded representing 15 species. Results indicate that there is a

  18. Vampire bat salivary plasminogen activator promotes rapid and sustained reperfusion without concomitant systemic plasminogen activation in a canine model of arterial thrombosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mellott, M J; Stabilito, I I; Holahan, M A; Cuca, G C; Wang, S; Li, P; Barrett, J S; Lynch, J J; Gardell, S J

    1992-02-01

    corresponding complex with t-PA was observed in plasma samples from the t-PA-treated dogs. The sustained recanalization and improved blood flow in the bat-PA group relative to the t-PA group and the avoidance of fibrinogenolysis by bat-PA, despite its prolonged mean residence time, suggest that bat-PA may be superior to t-PA as a thrombolytic agent.

  19. Scaling of wingbeat frequency with body mass in bats and limits to maximum bat size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norberg, Ulla M Lindhe; Norberg, R Åke

    2012-03-01

    The ability to fly opens up ecological opportunities but flight mechanics and muscle energetics impose constraints, one of which is that the maximum body size must be kept below a rather low limit. The muscle power available for flight increases in proportion to flight muscle mass and wingbeat frequency. The maximum wingbeat frequency attainable among increasingly large animals decreases faster than the minimum frequency required, so eventually they coincide, thereby defining the maximum body mass at which the available power just matches up to the power required for sustained aerobic flight. Here, we report new wingbeat frequency data for 27 morphologically diverse bat species representing nine families, and additional data from the literature for another 38 species, together spanning a range from 2.0 to 870 g. For these species, wingbeat frequency decreases with increasing body mass as M(b)(-0.26). We filmed 25 of our 27 species in free flight outdoors, and for these the wingbeat frequency varies as M(b)(-0.30). These exponents are strikingly similar to the body mass dependency M(b)(-0.27) among birds, but the wingbeat frequency is higher in birds than in bats for any given body mass. The downstroke muscle mass is also a larger proportion of the body mass in birds. We applied these empirically based scaling functions for wingbeat frequency in bats to biomechanical theories about how the power required for flight and the power available converge as animal size increases. To this end we estimated the muscle mass-specific power required for the largest flying extant bird (12-16 kg) and assumed that the largest potential bat would exert similar muscle mass-specific power. Given the observed scaling of wingbeat frequency and the proportion of the body mass that is made up by flight muscles in birds and bats, we estimated the maximum potential body mass for bats to be 1.1-2.3 kg. The largest bats, extinct or extant, weigh 1.6 kg. This is within the range expected if it

  20. Habitat use of migratory bats killed during autumn at wind turbines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voigt, Christian C; Lindecke, Oliver; Schönborn, Sophia; Kramer-Schadt, Stephanie; Lehmann, David

    2016-04-01

    The killing of large numbers of migratory bats at wind turbines is a pressing conservation problem. Even though avoidance and mitigation measures could benefit from a better knowledge of the species' migratory habits, we lack basic information about what habitats and corridors bats use during migration. We studied the isotopic niche dimensions of three bat species that are frequently killed at wind turbines in Germany: non-migratory Pipistrellus pipistrellus, mid-distance migratory Nyctalus noctula, and long- distance migratory Pipistrellus nathusii. We measured stable carbon and nitrogen isotope ratios (δ¹³C, δ¹⁵N) in five tissues that differed in isotopic retention time (fur, wing membrane tissue, muscle, liver, blood) to shed light on the species-specific habitat use during the autumn migration period using standard ellipse areas (SEAc). Further, we used stable isotope ratios of non-exchangeable hydrogen (δ²H(K)) in fur keratin to assess the breeding origin of bats. We inferred from isotopic composition (δ¹³C, δ¹⁵N) of fur keratin that isotopic niche dimensions of P. nathusii was distinct from that of N. noctula and P. pipistrellus, probably because P. nathusii was using more aquatic habitats than the other two species. Isoscape origin models supported that traveled distances before dying at wind turbines was largest for P. nathusii, intermediate for N. noctula, and shortest for P. pipistrellus. Isotopic niche dimensions calculated for each sample type separately reflected the species' migratory behavior. Pipistrellus pipistrellus and N. noctula showed similar isotopic niche breadth across all tissue types, whereas SEAc values of P. nathusii increased in tissues with slow turnaround time. Isotopic data suggested that P. nathusii consistently used aquatic habitats throughout the autumn period, whereas N. noctula showed a stronger association with terrestrial habitats during autumn compared to the pre-migration period.

  1. Great tits search for, capture, kill and eat hibernating bats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estók, Péter; Zsebok, Sándor; Siemers, Björn M

    2010-02-23

    Ecological pressure paired with opportunism can lead to surprising innovations in animal behaviour. Here, we report predation of great tits (Parus major) on hibernating pipistrelle bats (Pipistrellus pipistrellus) at a Hungarian cave. Over two winters, we directly observed 18 predation events. The tits specifically and systematically searched for and killed bats for food. A substantial decrease in predation on bats after experimental provisioning of food to the tits further supports the hypothesis that bat-killing serves a foraging purpose in times of food scarcity. We finally conducted a playback experiment to test whether tits would eavesdrop on calls of awakening bats to find them in rock crevices. The tits could clearly hear the calls and were attracted to the loudspeaker. Records for tit predation on bats at this cave now span more than ten years and thus raise the question of whether cultural transmission plays a role for the spread of this foraging innovation.

  2. Electrolyte depletion in white-nose syndrome bats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cryan, Paul M.; Meteyer, Carol Uphoff; Blehert, David S.; Lorch, Jeffrey M.; Reeder, DeeAnn M.; Turner, Gregory G.; Webb, Julie; Behr, Melissa; Verant, Michelle L.; Russell, Robin E.; Castle, Kevin T.

    2013-01-01

    The emerging wildlife disease white-nose syndrome is causing widespread mortality in hibernating North American bats. White-nose syndrome occurs when the fungus Geomyces destructans infects the living skin of bats during hibernation, but links between infection and mortality are underexplored. We analyzed blood from hibernating bats and compared blood electrolyte levels to wing damage caused by the fungus. Sodium and chloride tended to decrease as wing damage increased in severity. Depletion of these electrolytes suggests that infected bats may become hypotonically dehydrated during winter. Although bats regularly arouse from hibernation to drink during winter, water available in hibernacula may not contain sufficient electrolytes to offset winter losses caused by disease. Damage to bat wings from G. destructans may cause life-threatening electrolyte imbalances.

  3. Bartonella species in bat flies (Diptera: Nycteribiidae) from western Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Billeter, S A; Hayman, D T S; Peel, A J; Baker, K; Wood, J L N; Cunningham, A; Suu-Ire, R; Dittmar, K; Kosoy, M Y

    2012-03-01

    Bat flies are obligate ectoparasites of bats and it has been hypothesized that they may be involved in the transmission of Bartonella species between bats. A survey was conducted to identify whether Cyclopodia greefi greefi (Diptera: Nycteribiidae) collected from Ghana and 2 islands in the Gulf of Guinea harbour Bartonella. In total, 137 adult flies removed from Eidolon helvum, the straw-coloured fruit bat, were screened for the presence of Bartonella by culture and PCR analysis. Bartonella DNA was detected in 91 (66·4%) of the specimens examined and 1 strain of a Bartonella sp., initially identified in E. helvum blood from Kenya, was obtained from a bat fly collected in Ghana. This is the first study, to our knowledge, to report the identification and isolation of Bartonella in bat flies from western Africa.

  4. Synthetic Aperture Radar Interferometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosen, P. A.; Hensley, S.; Joughin, I. R.; Li, F.; Madsen, S. N.; Rodriguez, E.; Goldstein, R. M.

    1998-01-01

    Synthetic aperture radar interferometry is an imaging technique for measuring the topography of a surface, its changes over time, and other changes in the detailed characteristics of the surface. This paper reviews the techniques of interferometry, systems and limitations, and applications in a rapidly growing area of science and engineering.

  5. Compressive CFAR radar detection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Anitori, L.; Otten, M.P.G.; Rossum, W.L. van; Maleki, A.; Baraniuk, R.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we develop the first Compressive Sensing (CS) adaptive radar detector. We propose three novel architectures and demonstrate how a classical Constant False Alarm Rate (CFAR) detector can be combined with ℓ1-norm minimization. Using asymptotic arguments and the Complex Approximate Messag

  6. Compressive CFAR Radar Processing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Anitori, L.; Rossum, W.L. van; Otten, M.P.G.; Maleki, A.; Baraniuk, R.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we investigate the performance of a combined Compressive Sensing (CS) Constant False Alarm Rate (CFAR) radar processor under different interference scenarios using both the Cell Averaging (CA) and Order Statistic (OS) CFAR detectors. Using the properties of the Complex Approximate Mess

  7. The Newcastle meteor radar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keay, Colin

    1987-01-01

    A brief history and development of the Newcastle Meteor Radar system is given. Also described are its geographical coordinates and its method of operation. The initial objective when the project was commenced was to develop an entirely digital analyzer capable of recognizing meteor echo signals and recording as many of their parameters as possible. This objective was achieved.

  8. Causes of bat fatalities at wind turbines: Hypotheses and predictions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cryan, P.M.; Barclay, R.M.R.

    2009-01-01

    Thousands of industrial-scale wind turbines are being built across the world each year to meet the growing demand for sustainable energy. Bats of certain species are dying at wind turbines in unprecedented numbers. Species of bats consistently affected by turbines tend to be those that rely on trees as roosts and most migrate long distances. Although considerable progress has been made in recent years toward better understanding the problem, the causes of bat fatalities at turbines remain unclear. In this synthesis, we review hypothesized causes of bat fatalities at turbines. Hypotheses of cause fall into 2 general categoriesproximate and ultimate. Proximate causes explain the direct means by which bats die at turbines and include collision with towers and rotating blades, and barotrauma. Ultimate causes explain why bats come close to turbines and include 3 general types: random collisions, coincidental collisions, and collisions that result from attraction of bats to turbines. The random collision hypothesis posits that interactions between bats and turbines are random events and that fatalities are representative of the bats present at a site. Coincidental hypotheses posit that certain aspects of bat distribution or behavior put them at risk of collision and include aggregation during migration and seasonal increases in flight activity associated with feeding or mating. A surprising number of attraction hypotheses suggest that bats might be attracted to turbines out of curiosity, misperception, or as potential feeding, roosting, flocking, and mating opportunities. Identifying, prioritizing, and testing hypothesized causes of bat collisions with wind turbines are vital steps toward developing practical solutions to the problem. ?? 2009 American Society of Mammalogists.

  9. Diseases in free-ranging bats from Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wibbelt Gudrun

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The emergence of important viral diseases and their potential threat to humans has increased the interest in bats as potential reservoir species. Whereas the majority of studies determined the occurrence of specific zoonotic agents in chiropteran species, little is known about actual bat pathogens and impacts of disease on bat mortality. Combined pathological and microbiological investigations in free-ranging bats are sparse and often limited by small sample sizes. In the present study about 500 deceased bats of 19 European species (family Vespertilionidae were subjected to a post-mortem examination followed by histo-pathological and bacteriological investigations. The bat carcasses originated from different geographical regions in Germany and were collected by bat researchers and bat rehabilitation centers. Results Pathological examination revealed inflammatory lesions in more than half of the investigated bats. Lung was the predominantly affected organ (40% irrespective of bat species, sex and age. To a lesser extent non-inflammatory organ tissue changes were observed. Comparative analysis of histo-pathology and bacteriology results identified 22 different bacterial species that were clearly associated with pathological lesions. Besides disease-related mortality, traumatic injuries represented an additional major cause of death. Here, attacks by domestic cats accounted for almost a half of these cases. Conclusions The present study shows that free-ranging bats not only serve as a reservoir of infectious agents, they are also vulnerable to various infectious diseases. Some of these microbial agents have zoonotic potential, but there is no evidence that European bats would pose a higher health hazard risk to humans in comparison to other wildlife.

  10. Leishmania (L.) mexicana Infected Bats in Mexico: Novel Potential Reservoirs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berzunza-Cruz, Miriam; Rodríguez-Moreno, Ángel; Gutiérrez-Granados, Gabriel; González-Salazar, Constantino; Stephens, Christopher R.; Hidalgo-Mihart, Mircea; Marina, Carlos F.; Rebollar-Téllez, Eduardo A.; Bailón-Martínez, Dulce; Balcells, Cristina Domingo; Ibarra-Cerdeña, Carlos N.; Sánchez-Cordero, Víctor; Becker, Ingeborg

    2015-01-01

    Leishmania (Leishmania) mexicana causes cutaneous leishmaniasis, an endemic zoonosis affecting a growing number of patients in the southeastern states of Mexico. Some foci are found in shade-grown cocoa and coffee plantations, or near perennial forests that provide rich breeding grounds for the sand fly vectors, but also harbor a variety of bat species that live off the abundant fruits provided by these shade-giving trees. The close proximity between sand flies and bats makes their interaction feasible, yet bats infected with Leishmania (L.) mexicana have not been reported. Here we analyzed 420 bats from six states of Mexico that had reported patients with leishmaniasis. Tissues of bats, including skin, heart, liver and/or spleen were screened by PCR for Leishmania (L.) mexicana DNA. We found that 41 bats (9.77%), belonging to 13 species, showed positive PCR results in various tissues. The infected tissues showed no evidence of macroscopic lesions. Of the infected bats, 12 species were frugivorous, insectivorous or nectarivorous, and only one species was sanguivorous (Desmodus rotundus), and most of them belonged to the family Phyllostomidae. The eco-region where most of the infected bats were caught is the Gulf Coastal Plain of Chiapas and Tabasco. Through experimental infections of two Tadarida brasiliensis bats in captivity, we show that this species can harbor viable, infective Leishmania (L.) mexicana parasites that are capable of infecting BALB/c mice. We conclude that various species of bats belonging to the family Phyllostomidae are possible reservoir hosts for Leishmania (L.) mexicana, if it can be shown that such bats are infective for the sand fly vector. Further studies are needed to determine how these bats become infected, how long the parasite remains viable inside these potential hosts and whether they are infective to sand flies to fully evaluate their impact on disease epidemiology. PMID:25629729

  11. Leishmania (L. mexicana infected bats in Mexico: novel potential reservoirs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miriam Berzunza-Cruz

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Leishmania (Leishmania mexicana causes cutaneous leishmaniasis, an endemic zoonosis affecting a growing number of patients in the southeastern states of Mexico. Some foci are found in shade-grown cocoa and coffee plantations, or near perennial forests that provide rich breeding grounds for the sand fly vectors, but also harbor a variety of bat species that live off the abundant fruits provided by these shade-giving trees. The close proximity between sand flies and bats makes their interaction feasible, yet bats infected with Leishmania (L. mexicana have not been reported. Here we analyzed 420 bats from six states of Mexico that had reported patients with leishmaniasis. Tissues of bats, including skin, heart, liver and/or spleen were screened by PCR for Leishmania (L. mexicana DNA. We found that 41 bats (9.77%, belonging to 13 species, showed positive PCR results in various tissues. The infected tissues showed no evidence of macroscopic lesions. Of the infected bats, 12 species were frugivorous, insectivorous or nectarivorous, and only one species was sanguivorous (Desmodus rotundus, and most of them belonged to the family Phyllostomidae. The eco-region where most of the infected bats were caught is the Gulf Coastal Plain of Chiapas and Tabasco. Through experimental infections of two Tadarida brasiliensis bats in captivity, we show that this species can harbor viable, infective Leishmania (L. mexicana parasites that are capable of infecting BALB/c mice. We conclude that various species of bats belonging to the family Phyllostomidae are possible reservoir hosts for Leishmania (L. mexicana, if it can be shown that such bats are infective for the sand fly vector. Further studies are needed to determine how these bats become infected, how long the parasite remains viable inside these potential hosts and whether they are infective to sand flies to fully evaluate their impact on disease epidemiology.

  12. Radar Observations of Asteroids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostro, S. J.

    2003-05-01

    During the past 25 years, radar investigations have provided otherwise unavailable information about the physical and dynamical properties of more than 200 asteroids. Measurements of the distribution of echo power in time delay and Doppler frequency provide two-dimensional images with spatial resolution as fine as a decameter. Sequences of delay-Doppler images can be used to produce geologically detailed three-dimensional models, to define the rotation state precisely, to constrain the internal density distribution, and to estimate the trajectory of the object's center of mass. Radar wavelengths (4 to 13 cm) and the observer's control of transmitted and received polarizations make the observations sensitive to near-surface bulk density and macroscopic structure. Since delay-Doppler positional measurements are orthogonal to optical angle measurements and typically have much finer fractional precision, they are powerful for refining orbits and prediction ephemerides. Radar astrometry can add decades or centuries to the interval over which an asteroid's close Earth approaches can accurately be predicted and can significantly refine collision probability estimates based on optical astrometry alone. In the highly unlikely case that a small body is on course for an Earth collision in this century, radar reconnaissance would almost immediately distinguish between an impact trajectory and a near miss and would dramatically reduce the difficulty and cost of any effort to prevent the collision. The sizes and rotation periods of radar-detected asteroids span more than four orders of magnitude. These observations have revealed both stony and metallic objects, elongated and nonconvex shapes as well as nearly featureless spheroids, small-scale morphology ranging from smoother than the lunar regolith to rougher than the rockiest terrain on Mars, craters and diverse linear structures, non-principal-axis spin states, contact binaries, and binary systems.

  13. Bat white-nose syndrome: An emerging fungal pathogen?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blehert, D.S.; Hicks, A.C.; Behr, M.; Meteyer, C.U.; Berlowski-Zier, B. M.; Buckles, E.L.; Coleman, J.T.H.; Darling, S.R.; Gargas, A.; Niver, R.; Okoniewski, J.C.; Rudd, R.J.; Stone, W.B.

    2009-01-01

    White-nose syndrome (WNS) is a condition associated with an unprecedented bat mortality event in the northeastern United States. Since the winter of 2006*2007, bat declines exceeding 75% have been observed at surveyed hibernacula. Affected bats often present with visually striking white fungal growth on their muzzles, ears, and/or wing membranes. Direct microscopy and culture analyses demonstrated that the skin of WNS-affected bats is colonized by a psychro-philic fungus that is phylogenetically related to Geomyces spp. but with a conidial morphology distinct from characterized members of this genus. This report characterizes the cutaneous fungal infection associated with WNS.

  14. Evolutionary change in the brain size of bats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Lu; Brown, J-P; Stampanoni, Marco; Marone, Federica; Isler, Karin; Martin, Robert D

    2012-01-01

    It has been widely recognized that mammal brain size predominantly increases over evolutionary time. Safi et al. [Biol Lett 2005;1:283-286] questioned the generality of this trend, arguing that brain size evolution among bats involved reduction in multiple lineages as well as enlargement in others. Our study explored the direction of change in the evolution of bat brain size by estimating brain volume in fossil bats, using synchrotron radiation X-ray tomographic microscopy. Virtual endocasts were generated from 2 Hipposideros species: 3 specimens of Oligocene Hipposideros schlosseri (∼35 Ma) and 3 of Miocene Hipposideros bouziguensis (∼20 Ma). Upper molar tooth dimensions (M(2) length × width) collected for 43 extant insectivorous bat species were used to derive empirical formulae to estimate body mass in the fossil bats. Brain size was found to be relatively smaller in the fossil bats than in the average extant bat both with raw data and after allowing for phylogenetic inertia. Phylogenetic modeling of ancestral relative brain size with and without fossil bats confirmed a general trend towards evolutionary increase in this bat lineage.

  15. Bat white-nose syndrome: an emerging fungal pathogen?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blehert, David S; Hicks, Alan C; Behr, Melissa; Meteyer, Carol U; Berlowski-Zier, Brenda M; Buckles, Elizabeth L; Coleman, Jeremy T H; Darling, Scott R; Gargas, Andrea; Niver, Robyn; Okoniewski, Joseph C; Rudd, Robert J; Stone, Ward B

    2009-01-09

    White-nose syndrome (WNS) is a condition associated with an unprecedented bat mortality event in the northeastern United States. Since the winter of 2006*2007, bat declines exceeding 75% have been observed at surveyed hibernacula. Affected bats often present with visually striking white fungal growth on their muzzles, ears, and/or wing membranes. Direct microscopy and culture analyses demonstrated that the skin of WNS-affected bats is colonized by a psychrophilic fungus that is phylogenetically related to Geomyces spp. but with a conidial morphology distinct from characterized members of this genus. This report characterizes the cutaneous fungal infection associated with WNS.

  16. Ticks infesting bats (Mammalia: Chiroptera) in the Brazilian Pantanal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz-Leal, Sebastián; Eriksson, Alan; Santos, Carolina Ferreira; Fischer, Erich; de Almeida, Juliana Cardoso; Luz, Hermes R; Labruna, Marcelo B

    2016-05-01

    Ticks associated with bats have been poorly documented in the Neotropical Zoogeographical Region. In this study, a total of 1028 bats were sampled for tick infestations in the southern portion of the Brazilian Pantanal. A total of 368 ticks, morphologically identified as Ornithodoros hasei (n = 364) and O. mimon (n = 4), were collected from the following bat species: Artibeus planirostris, Platyrrhinus lineatus, Phyllostomus hastatus, Mimon crenulatum and Noctilio albiventris. Morphological identification of O. hasei was confirmed by molecular analysis. Regarding the most abundant bat species, only 40 (6.2%) out of 650 A. planirostris were infested by O. hasei, with a mean intensity of 7.2 ticks per infested bat, or a mean abundance of 0.44 ticks per sampled bat. Noteworthy, one single P. hastatus was infested by 55 O. hasei larvae, in contrast to the 2.5-7.2 range of mean intensity values for the whole study. As a complement to the present study, a total of 8 museum bat specimens (6 Noctilio albiventris and 2 N. leporinus), collected in the northern region of Pantanal, were examined for tick infestations. These bats contained 176 ticks, which were all morphologically identified as O. hasei larvae. Mean intensity of infestation was 22, with a range of 1-46 ticks per infested bat. Our results suggest that A. planirostris might play an important role in the natural life cycle of O. hasei in the Pantanal.

  17. Bats and Emerging Infections: An Ecological and Virological Puzzle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serra-Cobo, Jordi; López-Roig, Marc

    2016-10-09

    More than 200 viruses have been detected in bats. Some unique bat characteristics can explain the roles played in the maintenance and transmission of viruses: long phylogenetic history can have originated coevolution processes, great number of species are adapted to live in different environments, big mobility, long lifespan and gregarious behaviour of many species.To analyse zoonoses long longitudinal studies are needed with a multidisciplinary approximation to obtain the following eco-epidemiological data: colony size, number of bats per species, population structure, behaviour of each species, degree of contact between bats, social structure, remaining time of bats in the colony, colony type, foraging area, turnover rate of individuals, shelter temperature, relationship with other colonies and co-infection processes. These data allows assessing the epidemiological risk and which preventive measures are necessary to take.The structure and functionality of ecosystems are changing worldwide at an unprecedented rate and can modify the interactions between humans and infected bats. There are more or less local factors that can affect the emergence and spread of diseases (environmental alterations, changes in land use, human population growth, changes in human socioeconomic behavior or social structure, people mobility increase, trade increase, forest fires, extreme weather events, wars, breakdown in public health infrastructure, etc.).Twenty-three percent of all bat species in the world are decreasing. How does the regression of bat species affect the dynamic of viruses? The dichotomy between health risk and bat preservation is compatible with a preventive task based on more information and training.

  18. Neotropical Bats from Costa Rica harbour Diverse Coronaviruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira-Soto, A; Taylor-Castillo, L; Vargas-Vargas, N; Rodríguez-Herrera, B; Jiménez, C; Corrales-Aguilar, E

    2015-11-01

    Bats are hosts of diverse coronaviruses (CoVs) known to potentially cross the host-species barrier. For analysing coronavirus diversity in a bat species-rich country, a total of 421 anal swabs/faecal samples from Costa Rican bats were screened for CoV RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) gene sequences by a pancoronavirus PCR. Six families, 24 genera and 41 species of bats were analysed. The detection rate for CoV was 1%. Individuals (n = 4) from four different species of frugivorous (Artibeus jamaicensis, Carollia perspicillata and Carollia castanea) and nectivorous (Glossophaga soricina) bats were positive for coronavirus-derived nucleic acids. Analysis of 440 nt. RdRp sequences allocated all Costa Rican bat CoVs to the α-CoV group. Several CoVs sequences clustered near previously described CoVs from the same species of bat, but were phylogenetically distant from the human CoV sequences identified to date, suggesting no recent spillover events. The Glossophaga soricina CoV sequence is sufficiently dissimilar (26% homology to the closest known bat CoVs) to represent a unique coronavirus not clustering near other CoVs found in the same bat species so far, implying an even higher CoV diversity than previously suspected.

  19. Identifying Hendra virus diversity in pteropid bats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ina Smith

    Full Text Available Hendra virus (HeV causes a zoonotic disease with high mortality that is transmitted to humans from bats of the genus Pteropus (flying foxes via an intermediary equine host. Factors promoting spillover from bats to horses are uncertain at this time, but plausibly encompass host and/or agent and/or environmental factors. There is a lack of HeV sequence information derived from the natural bat host, as previously sequences have only been obtained from horses or humans following spillover events. In order to obtain an insight into possible variants of HeV circulating in flying foxes, collection of urine was undertaken in multiple flying fox roosts in Queensland, Australia. HeV was found to be geographically widespread in flying foxes with a number of HeV variants circulating at the one time at multiple locations, while at times the same variant was found circulating at disparate locations. Sequence diversity within variants allowed differentiation on the basis of nucleotide changes, and hypervariable regions in the genome were identified that could be used to differentiate circulating variants. Further, during the study, HeV was isolated from the urine of flying foxes on four occasions from three different locations. The data indicates that spillover events do not correlate with particular HeV isolates, suggesting that host and/or environmental factors are the primary determinants of bat-horse spillover. Thus future spillover events are likely to occur, and there is an on-going need for effective risk management strategies for both human and animal health.

  20. Bats of the Western Indian Ocean Islands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John O’Brien

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The natural colonisation of many remote oceanic islands by bats, including those of the western Indian Ocean, has been facilitated by their unique capability among mammals for powered flight. In the western Indian Ocean region, only the Malagasy islands of Madagascar and the Comoros archipelago have been naturally colonised by non-volant mammals. Despite their greater potential for inter-island dispersal, and thus gene transfer, endemicity of Chiroptera in the western Indian Ocean islands is high. Given their vulnerability to stochastic and anthropogenic disturbances, greater focus needs to be placed on investigating the demographic and ecological history of bats on Western Indian Ocean islands to safeguard not only their future, but also the ecosystem functioning on these islands, for which they are undoubtedly such an integral part. Here, I summarise the taxonomic and life history information available on bats from Western Indian Ocean islands and highlight knowledge gaps and conservation issues that threaten the continued persistence of some species.

  1. An autocorrelation model of bat sonar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiegrebe, Lutz

    2008-06-01

    Their sonar system allows echolocating bats to navigate with high skill through a complex, three- dimensional environment at high speed and low light. The auditory analysis of the echoes of their ultrasonic sounds requires a detailed comparison of the emission and echoes. Here an auditory model of bat sonar is introduced and evaluated against a set of psychophysical phantom-target, echo-acoustic experiments. The model consists of a relatively detailed simulation of auditory peripheral processing in the bat, Phyllostomus discolor, followed by a functional module consisting of a strobed, normalised, autocorrelation in each frequency channel. The model output is accumulated in a sonar image buffer. The model evaluation is based on the comparison of the image-buffer contents generated in individually simulated psychophysical trials. The model provides reasonably good predictions for both temporal and spectral behavioural sonar processing in terms of sonar delay-, roughness, and phase sensitivity and in terms of sensitivity to the temporal separations in two-front targets and the classification of spectrally divergent phantom targets.

  2. [Geographic data for Neotropical bats (Chiroptera)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noguera-Urbano, Elkin A; Escalante, Tania

    2014-03-01

    The global effort to digitize biodiversity occurrence data from collections, museums and other institutions has stimulated the development of important tools to improve the knowledge and conservation of biodiversity. The Global Biodiversity Information Facility (GBIF) enables and opens access to biodiversity data of 321 million of records, from 379 host institutions. Neotropical bats are a highly diverse and specialized group, and the geographic information about them is increasing since few years ago, but there are a few reports about this topic. The aim of this study was to analyze the number of digital records in GBIF of Neotropical bats with distribution in 21 American countries, evaluating their nomenclatural and geographical consistence at scale of country. Moreover, we evaluated the gaps of information on 1 degrees latitude x 1 degrees longitude grids cells. There were over 1/2 million records, but 58% of them have no latitude and longitude data; and 52% full fit nomenclatural and geographic evaluation. We estimated that there are no records in 54% of the analyzed area; the principal gaps are in biodiversity hotspots like the Colombian and Brazilian Amazonia and Southern Venezuela. In conclusion, our study suggests that available data on GBIF have nomenclatural and geographic biases. GBIF data represent partially the bat species richness and the main gaps in information are in South America.

  3. Visual-Motor Control in Baseball Batting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rob Gray

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available With margins for error of a few milliseconds and fractions of an inch it is not surprising that hitting a baseball is considered to be one of the most difficult acts in all of sports. We have been investigating this challenging behavior using a virtual baseball batting setup in which simulations of an approaching ball, pitcher, and field are combined with real-time recording of bat and limb movements. I will present evidence that baseball batting involves variable pre-programmed control in which the swing direction and movement time (MT are set prior to the initiation of the action but can take different values from swing-to-swing. This programming process utilizes both advance information (pitch history and count and optical information picked-up very early in the ball's flight (ball time to contact TTC and rotation direction. The pre-programmed value of MT is used to determine a critical value of TTC for swing initiation. Finally, because a baseball swing is an action that is occasionally interrupted online (i.e., a “check swing”, I will discuss experiments that examine when this pre-programmed action can be stopped and the sources of optical information that trigger stopping.

  4. Macro-motion detection using ultra-wideband impulse radar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xin Li; Dengyu Qiao; Ye Li

    2014-01-01

    Radar has the advantage of being able to detect hidden individuals, which can be used in homeland security, disaster rescue, and healthcare monitoring-related applications. Human macro-motion detection using ultra-wideband impulse radar is studied in this paper. First, a frequency domain analysis is carried out to show that the macro-motion yields a bandpass signal in slow-time. Second, the FTFW (fast-time frequency windowing), which has the advantage of avoiding the measuring range reduction, and the HLF (high-pass linear-phase filter), which can preserve the motion signal effectively, are proposed to preprocess the radar echo. Last, a threshold decision method, based on the energy detector structure, is presented.

  5. Multitarget Identification and Localization Using Bistatic MIMO Radar Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guisheng Liao

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available A scheme for multitarget identification and localization using bistatic MIMO radar systems is proposed. Multitarget can be distinguished by Capon method, as well as the targets angles with respect to transmitter and receiver can be synthesized using the received signals. Thus, the locations of the multiple targets are obtained and spatial synchronization problem in traditional bistatic radars is avoided. The maximum number of targets that can be uniquely identified by proposed method is also analyzed. It is indicated that the product of the numbers of receive and transmit elements minus-one targets can be identified by exploiting the fluctuating of the radar cross section (RCS of the targets. Cramer-Rao bounds (CRB are derived to obtain more insights of this scheme. Simulation results demonstrate the performances of the proposed method using Swerling II target model in various scenarios.

  6. Signal processing technique for randomly discontinuous spectra HF radar waveforms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张东坡; 刘兴钊

    2004-01-01

    A major problem with all high frequency (HF) radars is a relatively poor range resolution available due to many interference sources. To avoid the interferences in frequency domain and operate with wideband, the randomly discontinuous spectra (RDS) signal is employed. However, it results in high range sidelobes when matching the reflected echo, which is much more difficult for target detection. A new signal processing technique that is radically different from the conventional technique to lower range sidelobes is introduced. This method is based on suppressing the selfclutter of the radar range ambiguity function (AF) by mismatched filtering. An effective algorithm is adopted to solve the filter coefficients. Simulation results show that the peak sidelobe level can be reduced to -30dB and the achievable system bandwidth is about 400KHz. The technique is adaptable to practical radar systems and applicable for other realtime signal processing.

  7. Airborne Collision Avoidance System X

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-01

    avoidance system on behalf of the Federal Aviation Adminis- tration (FAA). The current Traffic Alert and Collision Avoidance System II (TCAS II...transformations to the National Airspace System are being imple- mented through the FAA’s Next-Genera- tion Air Transportation System (NextGen). With the goal...weighted states to provide a single, optimal action. If a collision avoidance This work is sponsored by the Federal Aviation Administration under Air

  8. Photographic estimation of roosting density of Geoffroys Rousette Fruit Bat Rousettus amplexicaudatus (Chiroptera: Pteropodidae at Monfort Bat Cave, Philippines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Carpenter

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Conservation and management of bats requires reliable and repeatable data regarding the size and patterns of variation in size of bat colonies. Counts and densities calculated via photography have proven more accurate and repeatable than visual counts and ocular estimates. Unfortunately, the potential of photography to investigate the size of a bat colony and roost density has rarely been explored. In the summer of 2006, a colony of Geoffroys Rousette Fruit Bat, Rousettus amplexicaudatus, was photo-documented in the Monfort Bat Cave, in the Island Garden City of Samal, Davao del Norte, Mindanao, Philippines. We selected 39 images to develop roost density estimates. Mean (+or-SE roosting density was 403+or-167.1 bats/m2 and 452.3+or-168.8 bats/m2 on the walls and ceiling of the cave, respectively; densities were not significantly different from each other (P=0.38. Based on these standardized data, we estimate that the initial 100m of the cave contained 883,526 bats. Ultimately, this photographic technique can be used to develop a statistical approach which involves repeatable estimates of colony size for Geoffroys Rousette Fruit Bats at Monfort Cave and will enhance ongoing monitoring activities throughout this species range.

  9. The role of ultrasonic bat detectors in improving inventory and monitoring surveys in Vietnamese karst bat assemblages

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Neil M. FUREY; Iain J. MACKIE; Paul A. RACEY

    2009-01-01

    Bats account for 30% of mammal diversity in SE Asia and are potential bioindieators of wider biodiversity impacts resulting from habitat loss and climate change. As existing sampling techniques in the region typically fall to record bats that habitually fly in open areas and at higher altitudes, current inventory efforts are less than comprehensive. Acoustic sampling with bat detectors may help to overcome these limitations for insectivorous bats, but has yet to be tested in mainland SE Asia. To do so, we sampled bats while simultaneously recording the echolocation calls of insectivorous species commuting and foraging in a variety of karst habitats in north Vietnam. Monitoring of cave-dwelling bats was also undertaken. Discriminant function analysis of 367 echolocation calls produced by 30 insectivorous species showed that acoustic identification was feasible by correctly classifying 89. 1% of caLls. In all habitats, acoustic sampling and capture methods recorded significantly more species each night than capture methods alone. Capture methods consequently failed to record 29% (ten spp. of aerial insectivores) of the bat fauna in commuting and foraging habitats and 11% ( two spp. ) of that in our cave sample. Only four of these species were subsequently captured following significantly greater sampling effort. This strongly suggests that acoustic methods axe indispensable for maximizing bat inventory completeness in SE Asia. As accurate inventories and monitoring are essential for effective species conservation, we recommend the inclusion of acoustic sampling in future studies of bat assemblages across the region [Current Zoology 55 (5) : 327 - 341, 2009].

  10. Bat Acoustic Survey Report for ORNL: Bat Species Distribution on the Oak Ridge Reservation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCracken, Kitty [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Giffen, Neil R. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Haines, Angelina [XCEL Engineering Inc., Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Guge, B. J. [Tennessee Technological Univ., Cookeville, TN (United States); Evans, James W. [Tennessee Wildlife Resources Agency (TWRA), Nashville, TN (United States)

    2015-10-01

    This report summarizes results of a three-year acoustic survey of bat species on the US Department of Energy (DOE) Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. The survey was implemented through the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Natural Resources Management Program and included researchers from the ORNL Environmental Sciences Division and ORNL Facilities and Operations Directorate, Tennessee Wildlife Resources Agency’s ORR wildlife manager, a student from Tennessee Technological University, and a technician contracted through Excel Corp. One hundred and twenty-six sites were surveyed reservation-wide using Wildlife Acoustics SM2+ Acoustic Bat Detectors.

  11. An MSK Radar Waveform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quirk, Kevin J.; Srinivasan, Meera

    2012-01-01

    The minimum-shift-keying (MSK) radar waveform is formed by periodically extending a waveform that separately modulates the in-phase and quadrature- phase components of the carrier with offset pulse-shaped pseudo noise (PN) sequences. To generate this waveform, a pair of periodic PN sequences is each passed through a pulse-shaping filter with a half sinusoid impulse response. These shaped PN waveforms are then offset by half a chip time and are separately modulated on the in-phase and quadrature phase components of an RF carrier. This new radar waveform allows an increase in radar resolution without the need for additional spectrum. In addition, it provides self-interference suppression and configurable peak sidelobes. Compared strictly on the basis of the expressions for delay resolution, main-lobe bandwidth, effective Doppler bandwidth, and peak ambiguity sidelobe, it appears that bi-phase coded (BPC) outperforms the new MSK waveform. However, a radar waveform must meet certain constraints imposed by the transmission and reception of the modulation, as well as criteria dictated by the observation. In particular, the phase discontinuity of the BPC waveform presents a significant impediment to the achievement of finer resolutions in radar measurements a limitation that is overcome by using the continuous phase MSK waveform. The phase continuity, and the lower fractional out-of-band power of MSK, increases the allowable bandwidth compared with BPC, resulting in a factor of two increase in the range resolution of the radar. The MSK waveform also has been demonstrated to have an ambiguity sidelobe structure very similar to BPC, where the sidelobe levels can be decreased by increasing the length of the m-sequence used in its generation. This ability to set the peak sidelobe level is advantageous as it allows the system to be configured to a variety of targets, including those with a larger dynamic range. Other conventionally used waveforms that possess an even greater

  12. Stimulus conflict triggers behavioral avoidance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dignath, David; Eder, Andreas B

    2015-12-01

    According to a recent extension of the conflict-monitoring theory, conflict between two competing response tendencies is registered as an aversive event and triggers a motivation to avoid the source of conflict. In the present study, we tested this assumption. Over five experiments, we examined whether conflict is associated with an avoidance motivation and whether stimulus conflict or response conflict triggers an avoidance tendency. Participants first performed a color Stroop task. In a subsequent motivation test, participants responded to Stroop stimuli with approach- and avoidance-related lever movements. These results showed that Stroop-conflict stimuli increased the frequency of avoidance responses in a free-choice motivation test, and also increased the speed of avoidance relative to approach responses in a forced-choice test. High and low proportions of response conflict in the Stroop task had no effect on avoidance in the motivation test. Avoidance of conflict was, however, obtained even with new conflict stimuli that had not been presented before in a Stroop task, and when the Stroop task was replaced with an unrelated filler task. Taken together, these results suggest that stimulus conflict is sufficient to trigger avoidance.

  13. Ultrasonic predator-prey interactions in water– convergent evolution with insects and bats in air?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria eWilson

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Toothed whales and bats have independently evolved biosonar systems to navigate and locate and catch prey. Such active sensing allows them to operate in darkness, but with the potential cost of warning prey by the emission of intense ultrasonic signals. At least six orders of nocturnal insects have independently evolved ears sensitive to ultrasound and exhibit evasive maneuvers when exposed to bat calls. Among aquatic prey on the other hand, the ability to detect and avoid ultrasound emitting predators seems to be limited to only one subfamily of Clupeidae: the Alosinae (shad and menhaden. These differences are likely rooted in the different physical properties of air and water where cuticular mechanoreceptors have been adapted to serve as ultrasound sensitive ears, whereas ultrasound detection in water have called for sensory cells mechanically connected to highly specialized gas volumes that can oscillate at high frequencies. In addition, there are most likely differences in the risk of predation between insects and fish from echolocating predators. The selection pressure among insects for evolving ultrasound sensitive ears is high, because essentially all nocturnal predation on flying insects stems from echolocating bats. In the interaction between toothed whales and their prey the selection pressure seems weaker, because toothed whales are by no means the only marine predators placing a selection pressure on their prey to evolve specific means to detect and avoid them.Toothed whales can generate extremely intense sound pressure levels, and it has been suggested that they may use these to debilitate prey. Recent experiments however, show that neither fish with swim bladder, nor squid are debilitated by such signals. This strongly suggests that the production of high amplitude ultrasonic clicks serve the function of improving the detection range of the toothed whale biosonar system rather than debilitation of prey.

  14. Win(d)-Win(d) Solutions for wind developers and bats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hein, Cris; Schirmacher, Michael; Arnett, Ed; Huso, Manuela

    2011-10-31

    Bat Conservation International initiated a multi-year, pre-construction study in mid-summer 2009 to investigate patterns of bat activity and evaluate the use of acoustic monitoring to predict mortality of bats at the proposed Resolute Wind Energy Project (RWEP) in east-central Wyoming. The primary objectives of this study were to: (1) determine levels and patterns of activity for three phonic groups of bats (high-frequency emitting bats, low-frequency emitting bats, and hoary bats) using the proposed wind facility prior to construction of turbines; (2) determine if bat activity can be predicted based on weather patterns; correlate bat activity with weather variables; and (3) combine results from this study with those from similar efforts to determine if indices of pre-construction bat activity can be used to predict post-construction bat fatalities at proposed wind facilities. We report results from two years of pre-construction data collection.

  15. Design of Excitatory Signal and Matched Filter for Compressed Pulsed Radar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Argel Gonzalez Padilla

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper is presented pulse compression technique in radar, focusing on Linear Frequency Modulation (LFM. Matched Filter characteristics are the elements considered for pulse compression, algebraic operations are derived to avoid the signal phase effect received by detection capacity. A hardware system for pulse compression in language description hardware is implemented. The product obtained is a first step in radar techniques to improve resolution capacity.

  16. Radar cross-sectional study using noise radar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freundorfer, A. P.; Siddiqui, J. Y.; Antar, Y. M. M.

    2015-05-01

    A noise radar system is proposed with capabilities to measure and acquire the radar cross-section (RCS) of targets. The proposed system can cover a noise bandwidth of near DC to 50 GHz. The noise radar RCS measurements were conducted for selective targets like spheres and carpenter squares with and without dielectric bodies for a noise band of 400MHz-5000MHz. The bandwidth of operation was limited by the multiplier and the antennae used.

  17. Chemical avoidance responses of fishes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tierney, Keith B

    2016-05-01

    The hydrosphere is a repository for all of our waste and mistakes, be they sewage, garbage, process-affected waters, runoff, and gases. For fish living in environments receiving undesirable inputs, moving away seems an obvious way to avoid harm. While this should occur, there are numerous examples where it will not. The inability to avoid harmful environments may lead to sensory impairments that in turn limit the ability to avoid other dangers or locate benefits. For avoidance to occur, the danger must first be perceived, which may not happen if the fish is 'blinded' in some capacity. Second, the danger must be recognized for what it is, which may also not happen if the fish is cognitively confused or impaired. Third, it is possible that the fish may not be able to leave the area, or worse, learns to prefer a toxic environment. Concerning generating regulations around avoidance, there are two possibilities: that an avoidance threshold be used to set guidelines for effluent release with the intention of driving fishes away; the second is to set a contaminant concentration that would not affect the avoidance or attraction responses to other cues. With the complexities of the modern world in which we release diverse pollutants, from light to municipal effluents full of 1000s of chemicals, to the diversity present in ecosystems, it is impossible to have avoidance data on every stimulus-species combination. Nevertheless, we may be able to use existing avoidance response data to predict the likelihood of avoidance of untested stimuli. Where we cannot, this review includes a framework that can be used to direct new research. This review is intended to collate existing avoidance response data, provide a framework for making decisions in the absence of data, and suggest studies that would facilitate the prediction of risk to fish health in environments receiving intentional and unintentional human-based chemical inputs.

  18. The Radar Roadmap

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT Same as Report ( SAR ) 18. NUMBER OF PAGES 25 19a. NAME OF RESPONSIBLE PERSON a. REPORT unclassified b. ABSTRACT unclassified c...ABSTRACT Same as Report ( SAR ) 18. NUMBER OF PAGES 25 19a. NAME OF RESPONSIBLE PERSON a. REPORT unclassified b. ABSTRACT unclassified c. THIS PAGE...object bistatic radars. The former allows high resolution without the use of pulse compression techniques and the latter promises cheaper systems by

  19. Imaging synthetic aperture radar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Bryan L.; Cordaro, J. Thomas

    1997-01-01

    A linear-FM SAR imaging radar method and apparatus to produce a real-time image by first arranging the returned signals into a plurality of subaperture arrays, the columns of each subaperture array having samples of dechirped baseband pulses, and further including a processing of each subaperture array to obtain coarse-resolution in azimuth, then fine-resolution in range, and lastly, to combine the processed subapertures to obtain the final fine-resolution in azimuth. Greater efficiency is achieved because both the transmitted signal and a local oscillator signal mixed with the returned signal can be varied on a pulse-to-pulse basis as a function of radar motion. Moreover, a novel circuit can adjust the sampling location and the A/D sample rate of the combined dechirped baseband signal which greatly reduces processing time and hardware. The processing steps include implementing a window function, stabilizing either a central reference point and/or all other points of a subaperture with respect to doppler frequency and/or range as a function of radar motion, sorting and compressing the signals using a standard fourier transforms. The stabilization of each processing part is accomplished with vector multiplication using waveforms generated as a function of radar motion wherein these waveforms may be synthesized in integrated circuits. Stabilization of range migration as a function of doppler frequency by simple vector multiplication is a particularly useful feature of the invention; as is stabilization of azimuth migration by correcting for spatially varying phase errors prior to the application of an autofocus process.

  20. Netted LPI RADARs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-01

    easier and, since they cover most of the space around the antenna, can expose it easily at various bearings ). Typical sidelobe levels for conventional...modern radar systems results in an electro- magnetic environment where the receiver should expect very few pulses. Staggered PRF and frequency agility...detector, a logarithmic amplitude compressor , and a signal encoder. All subunits are digitally controlled by computer as to frequency, sweep rate, and

  1. Radar Investigations of Asteroids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostro, S.

    2004-05-01

    Radar investigations have provided otherwise unavailable information about the physical and dynamical properties of about 230 asteroids. Measurements of the distribution of echo power in time delay (range) and Doppler frequency (line-of-sight velocity) provide two-dimensional images with spatial resolution as fine as a decameter. Sequences of delay-Doppler images can be used to produce geologically detailed three-dimensional models, to define the rotation state precisely, to constrain the internal density distribution, and to estimate the trajectory of the object's center of mass. Radar wavelengths (4 to 13 cm) and the observer's control of transmitted and received polarizations make the observations sensitive to near-surface bulk density and macroscopic structure. Since delay-Doppler measurements are orthogonal to optical angle measurements and typically have much finer fractional precision, they are powerful for refining orbits and prediction ephemerides. Such astrometric measurements can add decades or centuries to the interval over which an asteroid's close Earth approaches can accurately be predicted and can significantly refine collision probability estimates based on optical astrometry alone. In the highly unlikely case that a small body is on course for an Earth collision in this century, radar reconnaissance would almost immediately distinguish between an impact trajectory and a near miss and would dramatically reduce the difficulty and cost of any effort to prevent the collision. The sizes and rotation periods of radar-detected asteroids span more than four orders of magnitude. The observations have revealed both stony and metallic objects, elongated and nonconvex shapes as well as nearly featureless spheroids, small-scale morphology ranging from smoother than the lunar regolith to rougher than the rockiest terrain on Mars, craters and diverse linear structures, non-principal-axis spin states, contact binaries, and binary systems.

  2. The foraging ecology of the mountain long-eared bat Plecotus macrobullaris revealed with DNA mini-barcodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alberdi, Antton; Garin, Inazio; Aizpurua, Ostaizka; Aihartza, Joxerra

    2012-01-01

    Molecular analysis of diet overcomes the considerable limitations of traditional techniques for identifying prey remains in bat faeces. We collected faeces from individual Mountain Long-eared Bats Plecotus macrobullaris trapped using mist nets during the summers of 2009 and 2010 in the Pyrenees. We analysed their diet using DNA mini-barcodes to identify prey species. In addition, we inferred some basic features of the bat's foraging ecology that had not yet been addressed. P. macrobullaris fed almost exclusively on moths (97.8%). As prey we detected one dipteran genus (Tipulidae) and 29 moth taxa: 28 were identified at species level (23 Noctuidae, 1 Crambidae, 1 Geometridae, 1 Pyralidae, 1 Sphingidae, 1 Tortricidae), and one at genus level (Rhyacia sp., Noctuidae). Known ecological information about the prey species allowed us to determine that bats had foraged at elevations between 1,500 and 2,500 m amsl (above mean sea level), mostly in subalpine meadows, followed by other open habitats such as orophilous grasslands and alpine meadows. No forest prey species were identified in the diet. As 96.4% of identified prey species were tympanate moths and no evidence of gleaning behaviour was revealed, we suggest P. macrobullaris probably forages by aerial hawking using faint echolocation pulses to avoid detection by hearing moths. As we could identify 87.8% of the analysed sequences (64.1% of the MOTUs, Molecular Operational Taxonomic Units) at species level, we conclude that DNA mini-barcodes are a very useful tool to analyse the diet of moth-specialist bats.

  3. The foraging ecology of the mountain long-eared bat Plecotus macrobullaris revealed with DNA mini-barcodes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antton Alberdi

    Full Text Available Molecular analysis of diet overcomes the considerable limitations of traditional techniques for identifying prey remains in bat faeces. We collected faeces from individual Mountain Long-eared Bats Plecotus macrobullaris trapped using mist nets during the summers of 2009 and 2010 in the Pyrenees. We analysed their diet using DNA mini-barcodes to identify prey species. In addition, we inferred some basic features of the bat's foraging ecology that had not yet been addressed. P. macrobullaris fed almost exclusively on moths (97.8%. As prey we detected one dipteran genus (Tipulidae and 29 moth taxa: 28 were identified at species level (23 Noctuidae, 1 Crambidae, 1 Geometridae, 1 Pyralidae, 1 Sphingidae, 1 Tortricidae, and one at genus level (Rhyacia sp., Noctuidae. Known ecological information about the prey species allowed us to determine that bats had foraged at elevations between 1,500 and 2,500 m amsl (above mean sea level, mostly in subalpine meadows, followed by other open habitats such as orophilous grasslands and alpine meadows. No forest prey species were identified in the diet. As 96.4% of identified prey species were tympanate moths and no evidence of gleaning behaviour was revealed, we suggest P. macrobullaris probably forages by aerial hawking using faint echolocation pulses to avoid detection by hearing moths. As we could identify 87.8% of the analysed sequences (64.1% of the MOTUs, Molecular Operational Taxonomic Units at species level, we conclude that DNA mini-barcodes are a very useful tool to analyse the diet of moth-specialist bats.

  4. Nordic Snow Radar Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemmetyinen, Juha; Kontu, Anna; Pulliainen, Jouni; Vehviläinen, Juho; Rautiainen, Kimmo; Wiesmann, Andreas; Mätzler, Christian; Werner, Charles; Rott, Helmut; Nagler, Thomas; Schneebeli, Martin; Proksch, Martin; Schüttemeyer, Dirk; Kern, Michael; Davidson, Malcolm W. J.

    2016-09-01

    The objective of the Nordic Snow Radar Experiment (NoSREx) campaign was to provide a continuous time series of active and passive microwave observations of snow cover at a representative location of the Arctic boreal forest area, covering a whole winter season. The activity was a part of Phase A studies for the ESA Earth Explorer 7 candidate mission CoReH2O (Cold Regions Hydrology High-resolution Observatory). The NoSREx campaign, conducted at the Finnish Meteorological Institute Arctic Research Centre (FMI-ARC) in Sodankylä, Finland, hosted a frequency scanning scatterometer operating at frequencies from X- to Ku-band. The radar observations were complemented by a microwave dual-polarization radiometer system operating from X- to W-bands. In situ measurements consisted of manual snow pit measurements at the main test site as well as extensive automated measurements on snow, ground and meteorological parameters. This study provides a summary of the obtained data, detailing measurement protocols for each microwave instrument and in situ reference data. A first analysis of the microwave signatures against snow parameters is given, also comparing observed radar backscattering and microwave emission to predictions of an active/passive forward model. All data, including the raw data observations, are available for research purposes through the European Space Agency and the Finnish Meteorological Institute. A consolidated dataset of observations, comprising the key microwave and in situ observations, is provided through the ESA campaign data portal to enable easy access to the data.

  5. Radar gun hazards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-12-20

    Radar guns - hand-held units used by the law to nail speeders - have been in use since the early '60s. Now they've been accused of causing cancer. Police officers in several states have so far filed eight suits against the manufacturer, claiming that they have contracted rare forms of cancer, such as of the eyelid and the testicle, from frequent proximity to the devices. Spurred by concerns expressed by police groups, researchers at the Rochester Institute of Technology are conducting what they believe to be the first research of its kind in the nation. Last month psychologist John Violanti, an expert in policy psychology and health, sent out a one-page survey to 6,000 active and retired police officers in New York State, asking them about their health and their use of radar guns. Violanti says melanoma, leukemia, and lymph node cancer may be linked to these as well as other electromagnetic devices. The Food and Drug Administration earlier this year issued a warning about radar guns, telling users not to operate them closer than 6 inches from the body. But this may not be a sufficient safeguard since the instruments can give off crisscrossing wave emissions within a police vehicle. The survey will be used to help determine if it would be safer to mount the guns, which are currently either hand-held or mounted on dashboards, outside troopers' cars.

  6. Radar clutter classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stehwien, Wolfgang

    1989-11-01

    The problem of classifying radar clutter as found on air traffic control radar systems is studied. An algorithm based on Bayes decision theory and the parametric maximum a posteriori probability classifier is developed to perform this classification automatically. This classifier employs a quadratic discriminant function and is optimum for feature vectors that are distributed according to the multivariate normal density. Separable clutter classes are most likely to arise from the analysis of the Doppler spectrum. Specifically, a feature set based on the complex reflection coefficients of the lattice prediction error filter is proposed. The classifier is tested using data recorded from L-band air traffic control radars. The Doppler spectra of these data are examined; the properties of the feature set computed using these data are studied in terms of both the marginal and multivariate statistics. Several strategies involving different numbers of features, class assignments, and data set pretesting according to Doppler frequency and signal to noise ratio were evaluated before settling on a workable algorithm. Final results are presented in terms of experimental misclassification rates and simulated and classified plane position indicator displays.

  7. A spectral domain approach to modelling of EM scattering for Synthetic Aperture Radar target recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabry, R.; Vachon, P. W.

    2005-08-01

    A Fourier-based technique for electromagnetic (EM) wave reconstruction with application to polarimetric airborne and spaceborne radar data exploitation is presented. The method is different from conventional modelling techniques for Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) applications as a result of the full electromagnetic treatment of field interactions with the scatterer, the possibility of introducing new and controllable feature classes for target classification, and accurate decomposition of the source impulse response function that avoids potential errors (e.g. loss of coherent information) associated with the spherical phase approximations. The capability of extracting scatterer information such as the coherent radar cross section (RCS) is explored.

  8. FMWC Radar for Breath Detection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Suhr, Lau Frejstrup; Tafur Monroy, Idelfonso; Vegas Olmos, Juan José

    We report on the experimental demonstration of an FMCW radar operating in the 25.7 - 26.6 GHz range with a repetition rate of 500 sweeps per second. The radar is able to track the breathing rate of an adult human from a distance of 1 meter. The experiments have utilized a 50 second recording window...... to accurately track the breathing rate. The radar utilizes a saw tooth modulation format and a low latency receiver. A breath tracking radar is useful both in medical scenarios, diagnosing disorders such as sleep apnea, and for home use where the user can monitor its health. Breathing is a central part of every...... radar chip which, through the use of a simple modulation scheme, is able to measure the breathing rate of an adult human from a distance. A high frequency output makes sure that the radar cannot penetrate solid obstacles which is a wanted feature in private homes where people therefore cannot measure...

  9. Detection of Weather Radar Clutter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøvith, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    Weather radars provide valuable information on precipitation in the atmosphere but due to the way radars work, not only precipitation is observed by the weather radar. Weather radar clutter, echoes from non-precipitating targets, occur frequently in the data, resulting in lowered data quality....... Especially in the application of weather radar data in quantitative precipitation estimation and forecasting a high data quality is important. Clutter detection is one of the key components in achieving this goal. This thesis presents three methods for detection of clutter. The methods use supervised...... and precipitating and non-precipitating clouds. Another method uses the difference in the motion field of clutter and precipitation measured between two radar images. Furthermore, the direction of the wind field extracted from a weather model is used. The third method uses information about the refractive index...

  10. NOVEL RADAR SIGNAL SORTING METHOD BASED ON GEOMETRIC COVERING

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    万建; 国强; 宋文明

    2013-01-01

    With the increase of complexity of electromagnetic environment and continuous appearance of advanced system radars ,signals received by radar reconnaissance receivers become even more intensive and complex .There-fore ,traditional radar sorting methods based on neural network algorithms and support vector machine (SVM ) cannot process them effectively .Aiming at solving this problem ,a novel radar signal sorting method based on the cloud model theory and the geometric covering algorithm is proposed .By applying the geometric covering algo-rithm to divide input signals into different covering domains based on their distribution characteristics ,the method can overcome a typical problem that it is easy for traditional sorting algorithms to fall into the local extrema due to the use of complex nonlinear equation to describe input signals .The method uses the cloud model to describe the membership degree between signals to be sorted and their covering domains ,thus it avoids the disadvantage that traditional sorting methods based on hard clustering cannot deinterleave the signal samples with overlapped param-eters .Experimental results show that the presented method can effectively sort advanced system radar signals with overlapped parameters in complex electromagnetic environment .

  11. European Bats as Carriers of Viruses with Zoonotic Potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Kohl

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Bats are being increasingly recognized as reservoir hosts of highly pathogenic and zoonotic emerging viruses (Marburg virus, Nipah virus, Hendra virus, Rabies virus, and coronaviruses. While numerous studies have focused on the mentioned highly human-pathogenic bat viruses in tropical regions, little is known on similar human-pathogenic viruses that may be present in European bats. Although novel viruses are being detected, their zoonotic potential remains unclear unless further studies are conducted. At present, it is assumed that the risk posed by bats to the general public is rather low. In this review, selected viruses detected and isolated in Europe are discussed from our point of view in regard to their human-pathogenic potential. All European bat species and their roosts are legally protected and some European species are even endangered. Nevertheless, the increasing public fear of bats and their viruses is an obstacle to their protection. Educating the public regarding bat lyssaviruses might result in reduced threats to both the public and the bats.

  12. The use of edge habitats by commuting and foraging bats.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verboom, B.

    1998-01-01

    Travelling routes and foraging areas of many bat species are mainly along edge habitats, such as treelines, hedgerows, forest edges, and canal banks. This thesis deals with the effects of density, configuration, and structural features of edge habitats on the occurrence of bats. Four hypothetical fu

  13. The distribution of bats on the Adriatic islands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dulić, Beatrica; Tvrtković, Nikola

    1970-01-01

    The bat fauna of the Adriatic islands is very poorly known in comparison with that of the coastal continental regions (Kolombatović, 1882, 1884; Dulić, 1959). Although ten species of bats are recorded, the data for most of the islands except the island of Lastovo (Dulić, 1968) are scarce, and of an

  14. On a collection of Bats from the West-Indies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jentink, F.A.

    1893-01-01

    The collection of Bats hereafter described has been presented to the Leyden Museum by our well known correspondent Dr. C. G. Young from Berbice, New Amsterdam, British Guyana. This collection tells us that, although our knowledge about the Bats may have increased during the latest years, much remain

  15. Echolocating bats cry out loud to detect their prey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Surlykke, Annemarie; Kalko, Elisabeth K V

    2008-01-01

    Echolocating bats have successfully exploited a broad range of habitats and prey. Much research has demonstrated how time-frequency structure of echolocation calls of different species is adapted to acoustic constraints of habitats and foraging behaviors. However, the intensity of bat calls has b...

  16. [NEW FINDINGS OF BAT ECTOPARASITES (CHIROPTERA: VESPERTILIONIDAE) IN SOUTHERN SIBERIA].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orlova, M V; Zhigalin, A V; Khritankov, A M

    2015-01-01

    The data on new findings of ectoparasites (mites and insects) of bats (Chiroptera: Vespertilionidae) in the Western Sayan and Tuva are represented. The bat fly Basilia mongolensis mongolensis Theodor, 1966 was discovered in the territory of Russia for the first time. Gamasid mite Spinturnix bregetovae Stanyukovich, 1995 is new for the region. New hosts were described for some ectoparasites.

  17. Emergence time in forest bats: the influence of canopy closure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, Danilo; Cistrone, Luca; Jones, Gareth

    2007-01-01

    The role of the forest canopy in protecting bats roosting in forest from predators is poorly known. We analysed the effect of canopy closure on emergence time in Barbastella barbastellus in a mountainous area of central Italy. We used radio-tracking to locate roosts and filmed evening emergence. Comparisons were made between roosts in open areas and those in dense forest. Median emergence time and illuminance were correlated. Moreover, from pregnancy to late lactation bats emerged progressively earlier, probably because of the exceptionally high wing loading affecting pregnant bats and the high energy demand of lactation. A significant influence of canopy closure on median emergence time was revealed after adjusting for the effects of light and reproductive state. Bats in open habitat emerged later than those roosting beneath closed canopy. In cluttered habitats, predators relying on vision may find it more difficult to detect and catch bats at light levels which would offer more chances of success when attacking prey in open habitats. Bats in dense forest are less vulnerable to predators and may take advantage of an earlier emergence by prolonging foraging. Although more vulnerable, lactating females roosting at open sites may benefit from warmer roosting conditions. Roosts in dense forest may be preferred under intense predation pressure. Forest management should favour canopy heterogeneity to provide bats with a range of roosting conditions. Our work emphasises the role of a fine-grained spatial scale in the roosting ecology of forest bats.

  18. Going, Going, Gone! The Making of a Baseball Bat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantu, Diana

    2012-01-01

    From little league players to professional athletes, baseball has become a sport that is not only fun to play and watch, but also a sport driven by innovation and technology. One particular piece of baseball equipment that has undergone many changes is the baseball bat. Prior to the early 1970s, wooden bats were the only choice available. Today,…

  19. Bat Dynamics of Female Fast Pitch Softball Batters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messier, Stephen P.; Owen, Marjorie G.

    1984-01-01

    Female fast pitch softball batters served in an examination of the dynamic characteristics of the bat during the swing through the use of three-dimensional cinematographic analysis techniques. These results were compared with those from previous studies of baseball batting. Findings are listed. (Author/DF)

  20. Novel Waddlia Intracellular Bacterium in Artibeus intermedius Fruit Bats, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierlé, Sebastián Aguilar; Morales, Cirani Obregón; Martínez, Leonardo Perea; Ceballos, Nidia Aréchiga; Rivero, Juan José Pérez; Díaz, Osvaldo López; Brayton, Kelly A; Setién, Alvaro Aguilar

    2015-12-01

    An intracellular bacterium was isolated from fruit bats (Artibeus intermedius) in Cocoyoc, Mexico. The bacterium caused severe lesions in the lungs and spleens of bats and intracytoplasmic vacuoles in cell cultures. Sequence analyses showed it is related to Waddlia spp. (order Chlamydiales). We propose to call this bacterium Waddlia cocoyoc.

  1. Bats track and exploit changes in insect pest populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    The role of bats or any generalist predator in suppressing prey populations depends on the predator’s ability to exploit available prey in space and time. Using a qPCR faecal DNA assay, we document significant association between numbers of Brazilian free-tailed bats (Tadarida brasiliensis) consumin...

  2. European bats as carriers of viruses with zoonotic potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohl, Claudia; Kurth, Andreas

    2014-08-13

    Bats are being increasingly recognized as reservoir hosts of highly pathogenic and zoonotic emerging viruses (Marburg virus, Nipah virus, Hendra virus, Rabies virus, and coronaviruses). While numerous studies have focused on the mentioned highly human-pathogenic bat viruses in tropical regions, little is known on similar human-pathogenic viruses that may be present in European bats. Although novel viruses are being detected, their zoonotic potential remains unclear unless further studies are conducted. At present, it is assumed that the risk posed by bats to the general public is rather low. In this review, selected viruses detected and isolated in Europe are discussed from our point of view in regard to their human-pathogenic potential. All European bat species and their roosts are legally protected and some European species are even endangered. Nevertheless, the increasing public fear of bats and their viruses is an obstacle to their protection. Educating the public regarding bat lyssaviruses might result in reduced threats to both the public and the bats.

  3. Convergent acoustic field of view in echolocating bats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Lasse; Ratcliffe, John M; Surlykke, Annemarie

    2013-01-01

    into more directional sound beams. Therefore, bats that emit their calls through their mouths should show a relationship between mouth size and wavelength, driving smaller bats to signals of higher frequency. We found that in a flight room mimicking a closed habitat, six aerial hawking vespertilionid...

  4. Social calls of flying big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Genevieve Spanjer Wright

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Vocalizations serving a variety of social functions have been reported in many bat species (Order Chiroptera. While echolocation by big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus has been the subject of extensive study, calls used by this species for communication have received comparatively little research attention. Here, we report on a rich repertoire of vocalizations produced by big brown bats in a large flight room equipped with synchronized high speed stereo video and audio recording equipment. Bats were studied individually and in pairs, while sex, age, and experience with a novel foraging task were varied. We used Discriminant Function Analysis to classify six different vocalizations that were recorded when two bats were present. Contingency table analyses revealed a higher prevalence of social calls when males were present, and some call types varied in frequency of emission based on trial type or bat age. Bats flew closer together around the time some social calls were emitted, indicating that communicative calls may be selectively produced when conspecifics fly near one another. These findings are the first reports of social calls from flying big brown bats and provide insight into the function of communicative vocalizations emitted by this species.

  5. Radar techniques using array antennas

    CERN Document Server

    Wirth, Wulf-Dieter

    2013-01-01

    Radar Techniques Using Array Antennas is a thorough introduction to the possibilities of radar technology based on electronic steerable and active array antennas. Topics covered include array signal processing, array calibration, adaptive digital beamforming, adaptive monopulse, superresolution, pulse compression, sequential detection, target detection with long pulse series, space-time adaptive processing (STAP), moving target detection using synthetic aperture radar (SAR), target imaging, energy management and system parameter relations. The discussed methods are confirmed by simulation stud

  6. A plan for the North American Bat Monitoring Program (NABat)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loeb, Susan C.; Rodhouse, Thomas J.; Ellison, Laura E.; Lausen, Cori L.; Reichard, Jonathan D.; Irvine, Kathryn M.; Ingersoll, Thomas E.; Coleman, Jeremy; Thogmartin, Wayne E.; Sauer, John R.; Francis, Charles M.; Bayless, Mylea L.; Stanley, Thomas R.; Johnson, Douglas H.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the North American Bat Monitoring Program (NABat) is to create a continent-wide program to monitor bats at local to rangewide scales that will provide reliable data to promote effective conservation decisionmaking and the long-term viability of bat populations across the continent. This is an international, multiagency program. Four approaches will be used to gather monitoring data to assess changes in bat distributions and abundances: winter hibernaculum counts, maternity colony counts, mobile acoustic surveys along road transects, and acoustic surveys at stationary points. These monitoring approaches are described along with methods for identifying species recorded by acoustic detectors. Other chapters describe the sampling design, the database management system (Bat Population Database), and statistical approaches that can be used to analyze data collected through this program.

  7. Echo-acoustic flow affects flight in bats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kugler, Kathrin; Greiter, Wolfgang; Luksch, Harald; Firzlaff, Uwe; Wiegrebe, Lutz

    2016-06-15

    Flying animals need to react fast to rapid changes in their environment. Visually guided animals use optic flow, generated by their movement through structured environments. Nocturnal bats cannot make use of optic flow, but rely mostly on echolocation. Here, we show that bats exploit echo-acoustic flow to negotiate flight through narrow passages. Specifically, bats' flight between lateral structures is significantly affected by the echo-acoustic salience of those structures, independent of their physical distance. This is true even though echolocation, unlike vision, provides explicit distance cues. Moreover, the bats reduced the echolocation sound levels in stronger flow, probably to compensate for the increased summary target strength of the lateral reflectors. However, bats did not reduce flight velocity under stronger echo-acoustic flow. Our results demonstrate that sensory flow is a ubiquitous principle for flight guidance, independent of the fundamentally different peripheral representation of flow across the senses of vision and echolocation.

  8. Watching the dark: new surveillance cameras are changing bat research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cryan, Paul M.; Gorresen, P. Marcos

    2014-01-01

    It is, according to an old proverb, “better to light a candle than to curse the darkness.” And those of us trying to discover new insights into the mysterious lives of bats often do a lot of cursing in the darkness. Bats do most things under cover of night, and often in places where humans and most other animals can’t go. This dark inaccessibility is great for bats, but not so great for those of us trying to study them. Successful conservation hinges on understanding bat behaviors and needs, as well as identifying and addressing the things that threaten them in the darkness. But how do we light a candle without scaring the bats away or altering their behavior?

  9. Bats as 'special' reservoirs for emerging zoonotic pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brook, Cara E; Dobson, Andrew P

    2015-03-01

    The ongoing West African Ebola epidemic highlights a recurring trend in the zoonotic emergence of virulent pathogens likely to come from bat reservoirs that has caused epidemiologists to ask 'Are bats special reservoirs for emerging zoonotic pathogens?' We collate evidence from the past decade to delineate mitochondrial mechanisms of bat physiology that have evolved to mitigate oxidative stress incurred during metabolically costly activities such as flight. We further describe how such mechanisms might have generated pleiotropic effects responsible for tumor mitigation and pathogen control in bat hosts. These synergisms may enable 'special' tolerance of intracellular pathogens in bat hosts; paradoxically, this may leave them more susceptible to immunopathological morbidity when attempting to clear extracellular infections such as 'white-nose syndrome' (WNS).

  10. Novel paramyxoviruses in free-ranging European bats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Kurth

    Full Text Available The zoonotic potential of paramyxoviruses is particularly demonstrated by their broad host range like the highly pathogenic Hendra and Nipah viruses originating from bats. But while so far all bat-borne paramyxoviruses have been identified in fruit bats across Africa, Australia, South America, and Asia, we describe the detection and characterization of the first paramyxoviruses in free-ranging European bats. Moreover, we examined the possible impact of paramyxovirus infection on individual animals by comparing histo-pathological findings and virological results. Organs from deceased insectivorous bats of various species were sampled in Germany and tested for paramyxovirus RNA in parallel to a histo-pathological examination. Nucleic acids of three novel paramyxoviruses were detected, two viruses in phylogenetic relationship to the recently proposed genus Jeilongvirus and one closely related to the genus Rubulavirus. Two infected animals revealed subclinical pathological changes within their kidneys, suggestive of a similar pathogenesis as the one described in fruit bats experimentally infected with Hendra virus.Our findings indicate the presence of bat-born paramyxoviruses in geographic areas free of fruit bat species and therefore emphasize a possible virus-host co-evolution in European bats. Since these novel viruses are related to the very distinct genera Rubulavirus and Jeilongvirus, a similarly broad genetic diversity among paramyxoviruses in other Microchiroptera compared to Megachiroptera can be assumed. Given that the infected bats were either found in close proximity to heavily populated human habitation or areas of intensive agricultural use, a potential risk of the emergence of zoonotic paramyxoviruses in Europe needs to be considered.

  11. Microsatellite instability detection using BAT-25 and BAT-26 by Real Time PCR and HPLC in colorectal cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marjan Rismanchi

    2014-03-01

    Conclusion: The sensitivity and specificity of real time PCR in MSI detection is the same as sequencing method and more than HPLC. BAT-26 marker is more sensitive than BAT-25 and MSI detection with Real time PCR could be considered as an accu-rate method to diagnose MSI in CRC tissues not sera.

  12. 75 FR 57097 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; BATS Exchange, Inc.; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-17

    ... of Proposed Rule Change To Adopt BATS Rule 2.12, Entitled ``BATS Trading, Inc. as Inbound Router... new BATS Rule 2.12, entitled ``BATS Trading, Inc. as Inbound Router'' and to make other related... router in its capacity as a routing facility of the Exchange. The Exchange is proposing to adopt the...

  13. 78 FR 37644 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; BATS Exchange, Inc.; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-21

    ... COMMISSION Self-Regulatory Organizations; BATS Exchange, Inc.; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness of Proposed Rule Change Related to Fees for Use of BATS Exchange, Inc. June 17, 2013. Pursuant to...\\ notice is hereby given that on June 4, 2013, BATS Exchange, Inc. (the ``Exchange'' or ``BATS'')...

  14. 78 FR 51235 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; BATS Exchange, Inc.; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-20

    ... COMMISSION Self-Regulatory Organizations; BATS Exchange, Inc.; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness of Proposed Rule Change Related to Fees for Use of BATS Exchange, Inc. August 14, 2013. Pursuant to...\\ notice is hereby given that on August 7, 2013, BATS Exchange, Inc. (the ``Exchange'' or ``BATS'')...

  15. Diet of spotted bats (Euderma maculatum) in Arizona as indicated by fecal analysis and stable isotopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    We assessed diet of spotted bats (Euderma maculatum (J.A. Allen, 1891)) by visual analysis of bat feces and stable carbon (δ13C) and nitrogen (δ15N) isotope analysis of bat feces, wing, hair, and insect prey. We collected 33 fecal samples from spotted bats and trapped 3755 insect...

  16. 78 FR 62804 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; BATS Exchange, Inc.; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-22

    ... COMMISSION Self-Regulatory Organizations; BATS Exchange, Inc.; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness of Proposed Rule Change Related to Fees for Use of BATS Exchange, Inc. October 11, 2013. Pursuant to...\\ notice is hereby given that on October 1, 2013, BATS Exchange, Inc. (the ``Exchange'' or ``BATS'')...

  17. 75 FR 66170 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; BATS Exchange, Inc.; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-27

    ... COMMISSION Self-Regulatory Organizations; BATS Exchange, Inc.; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness of Proposed Rule Change Related to Fees for Use of BATS Exchange, Inc. October 21, 2010. Pursuant to...\\ notice is hereby given that on October 14, 2010, BATS Exchange, Inc. (``BATS'' or the ``Exchange'')...

  18. 77 FR 35735 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; BATS Exchange, Inc.; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-14

    ... COMMISSION Self-Regulatory Organizations; BATS Exchange, Inc.; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness of Proposed Rule Change Related to Fees for Use of BATS Exchange, Inc. June 8, 2012. Pursuant to... is hereby given that on May 31, 2012, BATS Exchange, Inc. (the ``Exchange'' or ``BATS'') filed...

  19. 78 FR 16306 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; BATS Exchange, Inc.; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-14

    ... COMMISSION Self-Regulatory Organizations; BATS Exchange, Inc.; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness of Proposed Rule Change Related to Fees for Use of BATS Exchange, Inc. March 8, 2013. Pursuant to...\\ notice is hereby given that on March 1, 2013, BATS Exchange, Inc. (the ``Exchange'' or ``BATS'')...

  20. 78 FR 51261 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; BATS Exchange, Inc.; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-20

    ... COMMISSION Self-Regulatory Organizations; BATS Exchange, Inc.; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness of Proposed Rule Change Related to Fees for Use of BATS Exchange, Inc. August 14, 2013. Pursuant to...\\ notice is hereby given that on August 1, 2013, BATS Exchange, Inc. (the ``Exchange'' or ``BATS'')...

  1. 77 FR 23307 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; BATS Exchange, Inc.; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-18

    ... COMMISSION Self-Regulatory Organizations; BATS Exchange, Inc.; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness of Proposed Rule Change Related to Fees for Use of BATS Exchange, Inc. April 12, 2012. Pursuant to... is hereby given that on April 2, 2012, BATS Exchange, Inc. (the ``Exchange'' or ``BATS'') filed...

  2. 75 FR 66183 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; BATS Exchange, Inc.; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-27

    ...), 75 FR 51295 (August 19, 2010) (order approving application of BATS Y-Exchange, Inc. for registration... COMMISSION Self-Regulatory Organizations; BATS Exchange, Inc.; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness of Proposed Rule Change by BATS Exchange, Inc. To Amend BATS Rule 11.13, Entitled ``Order...

  3. 76 FR 50803 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; BATS Exchange, Inc.; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-16

    ... COMMISSION Self-Regulatory Organizations; BATS Exchange, Inc.; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness of Proposed Rule Change Related to Fees for Use of BATS Exchange, Inc. August 10, 2011. Pursuant to...\\ notice is hereby given that on July 29, 2011, BATS Exchange, Inc. (the ``Exchange'' or ``BATS'')...

  4. 75 FR 20418 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; BATS Exchange, Inc.; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-19

    ... COMMISSION Self-Regulatory Organizations; BATS Exchange, Inc.; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness of Proposed Rule Change Related to Fees for Use of BATS Exchange, Inc. April 9, 2010. Pursuant to...\\ notice is hereby given that on March 31, 2010, BATS Exchange, Inc. (the ``Exchange'' or ``BATS'')...

  5. 75 FR 27847 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; BATS Exchange, Inc.; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-18

    ... COMMISSION Self-Regulatory Organizations; BATS Exchange, Inc.; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness of Proposed Rule Change Related to Fees for Use of BATS Exchange, Inc. May 11, 2010. Pursuant to...\\ notice is hereby given that on May 4, 2010, BATS Exchange, Inc. (the ``Exchange'' or ``BATS'') filed...

  6. 77 FR 31059 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; BATS Exchange, Inc.; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-24

    ... COMMISSION Self-Regulatory Organizations; BATS Exchange, Inc.; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness of Proposed Rule Change Related to Fees for Use of BATS Exchange, Inc. May 18, 2012. Pursuant to...\\ notice is hereby given that on May 11, 2012, BATS Exchange, Inc. (the ``Exchange'' or ``BATS'')...

  7. 78 FR 51257 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; BATS Exchange, Inc.; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-20

    ... COMMISSION Self-Regulatory Organizations; BATS Exchange, Inc.; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness of Proposed Rule Change Related to Fees for Use of BATS Exchange, Inc. August 14, 2013. Pursuant to...\\ notice is hereby given that on August 2, 2013, BATS Exchange, Inc. (the ``Exchange'' or ``BATS'')...

  8. 76 FR 20414 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; BATS Exchange, Inc.; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-12

    ... COMMISSION Self-Regulatory Organizations; BATS Exchange, Inc.; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness of Proposed Rule Change Related to Fees for Use of BATS Exchange, Inc. April 6, 2011. Pursuant to...\\ notice is hereby given that, on April 1, 2011, BATS Exchange, Inc. (the ``Exchange'' or ``BATS'')...

  9. 49 CFR 40.213 - What training requirements must STTs and BATs meet?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false What training requirements must STTs and BATs meet... requirements must STTs and BATs meet? To be permitted to act as a BAT or STT in the DOT alcohol testing program...). (1) Qualification training must be in accordance with the DOT Model BAT or STT Course, as...

  10. Removing interfering clutter associated with radar pulses that an airborne radar receives from a radar transponder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ormesher, Richard C.; Axline, Robert M.

    2008-12-02

    Interfering clutter in radar pulses received by an airborne radar system from a radar transponder can be suppressed by developing a representation of the incoming echo-voltage time-series that permits the clutter associated with predetermined parts of the time-series to be estimated. These estimates can be used to estimate and suppress the clutter associated with other parts of the time-series.

  11. Pattern Avoidance in Ternary Trees

    CERN Document Server

    Gabriel, Nathan; Pudwell, Lara; Tay, Samuel

    2011-01-01

    This paper considers the enumeration of ternary trees (i.e. rooted ordered trees in which each vertex has 0 or 3 children) avoiding a contiguous ternary tree pattern. We begin by finding recurrence relations for several simple tree patterns; then, for more complex trees, we compute generating functions by extending a known algorithm for pattern-avoiding binary trees. Next, we present an alternate one-dimensional notation for trees which we use to find bijections that explain why certain pairs of tree patterns yield the same avoidance generating function. Finally, we compare our bijections to known "replacement rules" for binary trees and generalize these bijections to a larger class of trees.

  12. Bats, Blood-Feeders and Biodiversity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bohmann, Kristine

    DNA metabarcoding of environmental samples has rapidly become a valuable tool for ecological studies such as biodiversity and diet studies. To reveal the diversity in environmental samples such as soil, water, and faeces, this approach principally employs PCR amplification of environmental DNA...... minimising the occurrence of errors. Centered around metabarcoding dietary studies of bat droppings and leech gut contents, this continuous exploration and refinement is reflected in both the work and structure of this thesis. After a thesis introduction and two chapters on environmental DNA and biodiversity...

  13. Radar foundations for imaging and advanced concepts

    CERN Document Server

    Sullivan, Roger

    2004-01-01

    Through courses internally taught at IDA, Dr. Roger Sullivan has devised a book that brings readers fully up to speed on the most essential quantitave aspects of general radar in order to introduce study of the most exciting and relevant applications to radar imaging and advanced concepts: Synthetic Aperture Radar (4 chapters), Space-time Adaptive Processing, moving target indication (MTI), bistatic radar, low probability of intercept (LPI) radar, weather radar, and ground-penetrating radar. Whether you're a radar novice or experienced professional, this is an essential refer

  14. Using sutures to attach miniature tracking tags to small bats for multimonth movement and behavioral studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castle, Kevin T.; Weller, Theodore J.; Cryan, Paul M.; Hein, Cris D.; Schirmacher, Michael R.

    2015-01-01

    1. Determining the detailed movements of individual animals often requires them to carry tracking devices, but tracking broad-scale movement of small bats (brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus) in Colorado and hoary bats (Lasiurus cinereus) in California. 3. GPS tags and data loggers were sutured to 17 bats in this study. Three tagged bats were recaptured seven months after initial deployment, with tags still attached; none of these bats showed ill effects from the tag. No severe injuries were apparent upon recapture of 6 additional bats that carried tags up to 26 days after attachment, however one of the bats exhibited skin chafing. 4. Use of absorbable sutures to affix small tracking devices seems to be a safe, effective method for studying movements of bats over multiple months, although additional testing is warranted. This new attachment method has the potential to quickly advance our understanding of small bats, particularly as more-sophisticated miniature tracking devices (e.g., satellite tags) become available.

  15. Cloning and molecular evolution of the aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 gene (Aldh2) in bats (Chiroptera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yao; Shen, Bin; Zhang, Junpeng; Jones, Gareth; He, Guimei

    2013-02-01

    Old World fruit bats (Pteropodidae) and New World fruit bats (Phyllostomidae) ingest significant quantities of ethanol while foraging. Mitochondrial aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH2, encoded by the Aldh2 gene) plays an important role in ethanol metabolism. To test whether the Aldh2 gene has undergone adaptive evolution in frugivorous and nectarivorous bats in relation to ethanol elimination, we sequenced part of the coding region of the gene (1,143 bp, ~73 % coverage) in 14 bat species, including three Old World fruit bats and two New World fruit bats. Our results showed that the Aldh2 coding sequences are highly conserved across all bat species we examined, and no evidence of positive selection was detected in the ancestral branches leading to Old World fruit bats and New World fruit bats. Further research is needed to determine whether other genes involved in ethanol metabolism have been the targets of positive selection in frugivorous and nectarivorous bats.

  16. Broadview Radar Altimetry Toolbox

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mondéjar, Albert; Benveniste, Jérôme; Naeije, Marc; Escolà, Roger; Moyano, Gorka; Roca, Mònica; Terra-Homem, Miguel; Friaças, Ana; Martinho, Fernando; Schrama, Ernst; Ambrózio, Américo; Restano, Marco

    2016-07-01

    The universal altimetry toolbox, BRAT (Broadview Radar Altimetry Toolbox) which can read all previous and current altimetry missions' data, incorporates now the capability to read the upcoming Sentinel-3 L1 and L2 products. ESA endeavoured to develop and supply this capability to support the users of the future Sentinel-3 SAR Altimetry Mission. BRAT is a collection of tools and tutorial documents designed to facilitate the processing of radar altimetry data. This project started in 2005 from the joint efforts of ESA (European Space Agency) and CNES (Centre National d'Études Spatiales), and it is freely available at http://earth.esa.int/brat. The tools enable users to interact with the most common altimetry data formats. The BratGUI is the front-end for the powerful command line tools that are part of the BRAT suite. BRAT can also be used in conjunction with MATLAB/IDL (via reading routines) or in C/C++/Fortran via a programming API, allowing the user to obtain desired data, bypassing the data-formatting hassle. BRAT can be used simply to visualise data quickly, or to translate the data into other formats such as NetCDF, ASCII text files, KML (Google Earth) and raster images (JPEG, PNG, etc.). Several kinds of computations can be done within BRAT involving combinations of data fields that the user can save for posterior reuse or using the already embedded formulas that include the standard oceanographic altimetry formulas. The Radar Altimeter Tutorial, that contains a strong introduction to altimetry, shows its applications in different fields such as Oceanography, Cryosphere, Geodesy, Hydrology among others. Included are also "use cases", with step-by-step examples, on how to use the toolbox in the different contexts. The Sentinel-3 SAR Altimetry Toolbox shall benefit from the current BRAT version. While developing the toolbox we will revamp of the Graphical User Interface and provide, among other enhancements, support for reading the upcoming S3 datasets and

  17. Neuromorphic UAS Collision Avoidance Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Using biologically-inspired neuromorphic optic flow algorithms is a novel approach in collision avoidance for UAS. Traditional computer vision algorithms rely on...

  18. Things to Avoid When Breastfeeding

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... need to avoid fish that are high in mercury, namely, shark, swordfish, king mackerel, and tilefish. When you do eat fish, it’s important to eat varieties that contain less mercury, such as canned light tuna, shrimp, salmon, pollock, ...

  19. Avoiding Gluten Cross-Contamination

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Avoiding Gluten Cross-Contamination Reviewed by Sharon Denny, MS, RDN Published April 22, 2014 Print Email You might not think twice about the pot you use to boil water, the plate you put your food on or even the ...

  20. Vision-based obstacle avoidance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galbraith, John

    2006-07-18

    A method for allowing a robot to avoid objects along a programmed path: first, a field of view for an electronic imager of the robot is established along a path where the electronic imager obtains the object location information within the field of view; second, a population coded control signal is then derived from the object location information and is transmitted to the robot; finally, the robot then responds to the control signal and avoids the detected object.

  1. Weather Radar Technology Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-08-15

    Preparation). MISCELLANEOUS Donaldson Jr, R.J., 1987: "Significance of the 40th Anniversary Conference." Address at the Battan Memorial and 40th Anni - versary...Bergen and Albers (1987). They have achieved -37 -29 -25 -6 4 7 magnificent results for reducing general -35 -28 -19 -7 -3 4 ambiguity. 283 284 285 3.2... Albers , 1988: Two- and the National Severe Storms Laboratory S-band three-dimensional de-aliasing of Doppler radar in Norman, Oklahoma. For three

  2. Imaging with Synthetic Aperture Radar

    CERN Document Server

    Massonnet, Didier

    2008-01-01

    Describing a field that has been transformed by the recent availability of data from a new generation of space and airborne systems, the authors offer a synthetic geometrical approach to the description of synthetic aperture radar, one that addresses physicists, radar specialists, as well as experts in image processing.  

  3. Terahertz radar cross section measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iwaszczuk, Krzysztof; Heiselberg, Henning; Jepsen, Peter Uhd

    2010-01-01

    We perform angle- and frequency-resolved radar cross section (RCS) measurements on objects at terahertz frequencies. Our RCS measurements are performed on a scale model aircraft of size 5-10 cm in polar and azimuthal configurations, and correspond closely to RCS measurements with conventional radar...

  4. Performance indicators modern surveillance radar

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nooij, P.N.C.; Theil, A.

    2014-01-01

    Blake chart computations are widely employed to rank detection coverage capabilities of competitive search radar systems. Developed for comparable 2D radar systems with a mechanically rotating reflector antenna, it was not necessary to regard update rate and plot quality in Blake's chart. To charact

  5. Measuring human behaviour with radar

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dorp, Ph. van

    2001-01-01

    The paper presents human motion measurements with the experimental Frequency Modulated Continuous Wave(FMCW) radar at TNO-FEL. The aim of these measurements is to analyse the Doppler velocity spectrum of humans. These analysis give insight in measuring human behaviour with radar for security applica

  6. Synthetic Aperture Radar - Hardware Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Rosner

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Experimental real and synthetic aperture radar are developed from the base-band digital unit to the analogue RF parts, based on solid state units, using pulse compression for radar imaging. Proper QPSK code is found for matched filter.

  7. A radar image time series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leberl, F.; Fuchs, H.; Ford, J. P.

    1981-01-01

    A set of ten side-looking radar images of a mining area in Arizona that were aquired over a period of 14 yr are studied to demonstrate the photogrammetric differential-rectification technique applied to radar images and to examine changes that occurred in the area over time. Five of the images are rectified by using ground control points and a digital height model taken from a map. Residual coordinate errors in ground control are reduced from several hundred meters in all cases to + or - 19 to 70 m. The contents of the radar images are compared with a Landsat image and with aerial photographs. Effects of radar system parameters on radar images are briefly reviewed.

  8. Radar image registration and rectification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naraghi, M.; Stromberg, W. D.

    1983-01-01

    Two techniques for radar image registration and rectification are presented. In the registration method, a general 2-D polynomial transform is defined to accomplish the geometric mapping from one image into the other. The degree and coefficients of the polynomial are obtained using an a priori found tiepoint data set. In the second part of the paper, a rectification procedure is developed that models the distortion present in the radar image in terms of the radar sensor's platform parameters and the topographic variations of the imaged scene. This model, the ephemeris data and the digital topographic data are then used in rectifying the radar image. The two techniques are then used in registering and rectifying two examples of radar imagery. Each method is discussed as to its benefits, shortcomings and registration accuracy.

  9. Toxicity of methyl parathion to bats: Mortality and coordination loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, D.R.

    1986-01-01

    The 24-h oral LD50 of methyl parathion (phosphorothioic acid O,O-dimethyl O-(4-nitrophenyl) ester) to little brown bats (Myotis lucifugus) (372 mg/kg) was 8.5 times the LD50 for mice (Mus musculus) (44 mg/kg). However, orally dosed mice either died or appeared behaviorally normal after 2 to 3 h, whereas many dosed bats, although alive at 24 h, could not right themselves when placed on their backs. The oral dose estimated to cause this loss of coordination in 50% of a sample of big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus) was one-third or less the LD50 of this species. Cholinesterase activity depression in brains of little brown bats was similar whether dosage was oral or dermal. With death as the criterion, bats proved relatively insensitive to methyl parathion in 24-h tests, but considerations of the chemical's potential to cause coordination loss, leading to capture and death by predators, coupled with bats' naturally low reproductive rates, suggest possible injury to exposed bat populations.

  10. The sonar aperture and its neural representation in bats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinrich, Melina; Warmbold, Alexander; Hoffmann, Susanne; Firzlaff, Uwe; Wiegrebe, Lutz

    2011-10-26

    As opposed to visual imaging, biosonar imaging of spatial object properties represents a challenge for the auditory system because its sensory epithelium is not arranged along space axes. For echolocating bats, object width is encoded by the amplitude of its echo (echo intensity) but also by the naturally covarying spread of angles of incidence from which the echoes impinge on the bat's ears (sonar aperture). It is unclear whether bats use the echo intensity and/or the sonar aperture to estimate an object's width. We addressed this question in a combined psychophysical and electrophysiological approach. In three virtual-object playback experiments, bats of the species Phyllostomus discolor had to discriminate simple reflections of their own echolocation calls differing in echo intensity, sonar aperture, or both. Discrimination performance for objects with physically correct covariation of sonar aperture and echo intensity ("object width") did not differ from discrimination performances when only the sonar aperture was varied. Thus, the bats were able to detect changes in object width in the absence of intensity cues. The psychophysical results are reflected in the responses of a population of units in the auditory midbrain and cortex that responded strongest to echoes from objects with a specific sonar aperture, regardless of variations in echo intensity. Neurometric functions obtained from cortical units encoding the sonar aperture are sufficient to explain the behavioral performance of the bats. These current data show that the sonar aperture is a behaviorally relevant and reliably encoded cue for object size in bat sonar.

  11. Modeling the colonization of Hawaii by hoary bats (Lasiurus cinereus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonaccorso, Frank J.; McGuire, Liam P.

    2013-01-01

    The Hawaiian archipelago, the most isolated cluster of islands on Earth, has been colonized successfully twice by bats. The putative “lava tube bat” of Hawaii is extinct, whereas the Hawaiian Hoary Bat, Lasiurus cinereus semotus, survives as an endangered species. We conducted a three-stage analysis to identify conditions under which hoary bats originally colonized Hawaii. We used FLIGHT to determine if stores of fat would provide the energy necessary to fly from the Farallon Islands (California) to Hawaii, a distance of 3,665 km. The Farallons are a known stopover and the closest landfall to Hawaii for hoary bats during migrations within North America. Our modeling variables included physiological, morphological, and behavioral data characterizing North American Hoary Bat populations. The second step of our modeling process investigated the potential limiting factor of water during flight. The third step in our modeling examines the role that prevailing trade winds may have played in colonization flights. Of our 36 modeling scenarios, 17 (47 %) require tailwind assistance within the range of observed wind speeds, and 7 of these scenarios required −1 tailwinds as regularly expected due to easterly trade winds. Therefore the climatic conditions needed for bats to colonize Hawaii may not occur infrequently either in contemporary times or since the end of the Pleistocene. Hawaii’s hoary bats have undergone divergence from mainland populations resulting in smaller body size and unique pelage color.

  12. 100 years of radar

    CERN Document Server

    Galati, Gaspare

    2016-01-01

    This book offers fascinating insights into the key technical and scientific developments in the history of radar, from the first patent, taken out by Hülsmeyer in 1904, through to the present day. Landmark events are highlighted and fascinating insights provided into the exceptional people who made possible the progress in the field, including the scientists and technologists who worked independently and under strict secrecy in various countries across the world in the 1930s and the big businessmen who played an important role after World War II. The book encourages multiple levels of reading. The author is a leading radar researcher who is ideally placed to offer a technical/scientific perspective as well as a historical one. He has taken care to structure and write the book in such a way as to appeal to both non-specialists and experts. The book is not sponsored by any company or body, either formally or informally, and is therefore entirely unbiased. The text is enriched by approximately three hundred ima...

  13. 77 FR 15153 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; BATS Exchange, Inc.; Notice of Filing of Proposed Rule Change by...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-14

    ... BATS Exchange, Inc. to Amend BATS Rule 2.12, Entitled ``BATS Trading, Inc. as Inbound Router'' March 12... BATS Rule 2.12, Entitled ``BATS Trading, Inc. as Inbound Router'' and To Make Related Changes); 65516... Effectiveness of Proposed Rule Change to Extend the Pilot Period of the Inbound Router, as Described in Rule...

  14. Bats and wind energy: a literature synthesis and annotated bibliography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellison, Laura E.

    2012-01-01

    Turbines have been used to harness energy from wind for hundreds of years. However, with growing concerns about climate change, wind energy has only recently entered the mainstream of global electricity production. Since early on in the development of wind-energy production, concerns have arisen about the potential impacts of turbines to wildlife; these concerns have especially focused on the mortality of birds. Despite recent improvements to turbines that have resulted in reduced mortality of birds, there is clear evidence that bat mortality at wind turbines is of far greater conservation concern. Bats of certain species are dying by the thousands at turbines across North America, and the species consistently affected tend to be those that rely on trees as roosts and most migrate long distances. Turbine-related bat mortalities are now affecting nearly a quarter of all bat species occurring in the United States and Canada. Most documented bat mortality at wind-energy facilities has occurred in late summer and early fall and has involved tree bats, with hoary bats (Lasiurus cinereus) being the most prevalent among fatalities. This literature synthesis and annotated bibliography focuses on refereed journal publications and theses about bats and wind-energy development in North America (United States and Canada). Thirty-six publications and eight theses were found, and their key findings were summarized. These publications date from 1996 through 2011, with the bulk of publications appearing from 2007 to present, reflecting the relatively recent conservation concerns about bats and wind energy. The idea for this Open-File Report formed while organizing a joint U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service/U.S. Geological Survey "Bats and Wind Energy Workshop," on January 25-26, 2012. The purposes of the workshop were to develop a list of research priorities to support decision making concerning bats with respect to siting and operations of wind-energy facilities across the United

  15. High prevalence of Trypanosoma vegrandis in bats from Western Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austen, Jill M; O'Dea, Mark; Jackson, Bethany; Ryan, Una

    2015-12-15

    The present study describes the first report of Trypanosoma vegrandis in bats using morphology and sequence analysis of the 18S rRNA gene. The PCR prevalence of T. vegrandis in bats was 81.8% (18/22). The high prevalence of T. vegrandis in the present study suggests that bats may play an important role in the epidemiology of T. vegrandis in Australia. T. vegrandis appears to be geographically dispersed, has a wide distribution in Australia and low levels of host specificity.

  16. Radar Interferometric Imaging of Near-Earth Asteroids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margot, J. L.; Nolan, M. C.

    1999-09-01

    High resolution imagery and a three-dimensional characterization of Near-Earth Asteroids (NEAs) can be obtained with ground-based radars. The Arecibo and Goldstone radar systems yield data at spatial resolutions comparable to the highest resolution spacecraft images of asteroids obtained to date. The use of radar interferometry techniques can further improve imaging and shape reconstruction algorithms [1],[2] and may allow direct measurements of the topography of NEAs. A two-element radar interferometer of appropriate baseline provides an observable, the interferometric phase, which can be used to extract three-dimensional information about the target [3], hence giving additional control in shape modeling procedures. The measurement of interferometric phase also opens the possibility of mapping the topography of an asteroid, in a manner similar to that applied recently to the Moon [4]. Simulations show that this is feasible when potential ambiguities in range-Doppler imaging are avoided, for instance when elongated objects are in a favorable orientation. Radar interferometric imaging of 6489 Golevka was attempted during its June 1999 close approach to Earth [5]. The Arecibo 305 m telescope was used to transmit, and the DSN 70 m antenna in Madrid formed the second element of the interferometer. The Arecibo-Madrid baseline defined an ideal fringe pattern for interferometric mapping, but technical difficulties prevented imaging of the Madrid data. Radar interferometry concepts and simulation results will be presented, as well as any new data acquired before the meeting. [1] R. S. Hudson and S. J. Ostro (1994). Science, 263, 940. [2] R. S. Hudson and S. J. Ostro (1995). Science, 270, 84. [3] I. I. Shapiro et al. (1972). Science, 178, 939. [4] J. L. Margot et al. (1999). Science, 284, 1658. [5] J. L. Margot and M. C. Nolan (1999). ACM Meeting, July 26-30, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY.

  17. Approach/avoidance in dreams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malcolm-Smith, Susan; Koopowitz, Sheri; Pantelis, Eleni; Solms, Mark

    2012-03-01

    The influential threat simulation theory (TST) asserts that dreaming yields adaptive advantage by providing a virtual environment in which threat-avoidance may be safely rehearsed. We have previously found the incidence of biologically threatening dreams to be around 20%, with successful threat avoidance occurring in approximately one-fifth of such dreams. TST asserts that threat avoidance is over-represented relative to other possible dream contents. To begin assessing this issue, we contrasted the incidence of 'avoidance' dreams with that of their opposite: 'approach' dreams. Because TST states that the threat-avoidance function is only fully activated in ecologically valid (biologically threatening) contexts, we also performed this contrast for populations living in both high- and low-threat environments. We find that 'approach' dreams are significantly more prevalent across both contexts. We suggest these results are more consistent with the view that dreaming is generated by reward-seeking systems than by fear-conditioning systems, although reward-seeking is clearly not the only factor determining the content of dreams.

  18. The Second Swift BAT Gamma-Ray Burst Catalog

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barthelmy, S. D.; Baumgartner, W. H.; Cummings, J. R.; Fenimore, E. E.; Gehrels, N.; Krimm, H. A.; Markwardt, C. B.; Palmer, D. M.; Parsons, A. M.; Sato, G.; Stamatikos, M.; Tueller, J.; Ukwatta, T. N.; Zhang, B.

    2010-01-01

    We present the second Swift Burst Alert Telescope (BAT) catalog of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs), which contains 476 bursts detected by the BAT between 2004 December 19 and 2009 December 21. This catalog (hereafter the BAT2 catalog) presents burst trigger time, location, 90% error radius, duration, fluence, peak flux, time-averaged spectral parameters and time-resolved spectral parametert:; measured by the BAT. In the correlation study of various observed parameters extracted from the BAT prompt emission data, we distinguish among long-duration GRBs (L-GRBs), short-duration GRBs (S-GRBs), and short-duration GRBs with extended emission (S-GRBs with E.E.) to investigate differences in the prompt emission properties. The fraction of L-GRBs, S-GRBs and S-GRBs with E.E. in the catalog are 89%, 8% and 2% respectively. We compare the BAT prompt emission properties with the BATSE, BeppoSAX and HETE-2 GRB samples. We also correlate the observed prompt emission properties with the redshifts for the GRBs with known redshift. The BAT T90 and T50 durations peak at 70 s and 30 s, respectively. We confirm that the spectra of the BAT S-GRBs are generally harder than those of the L-GRBs. The time-averaged spectra of the BAT S GRBs with E.E. are similar to those of the L-GRBs. Whereas, the spectra of the initial short spikes of the S-GRBs with E.E. are similar to those of the S-GRBs. We show that the BAT GRB samples are significantly softer than the BATSE bright GRBs, and that the time-averaged E obs/peak of the BAT GRBs peaks at 80 keV which is significantly lower energy than those of the BATSE sample which peak at 320 keV. The time-averaged spectral properties of the BAT GRB sample are similar to those of the HETE-2 GRB samples. By time-resolved spectral analysis, we find that 10% of the BAT observed photon indices are outside the allowed region of the synchrotron shock model. The observed durations of the BAT high redshift GRBs are not systematically longer than those of the moderate

  19. Radar signature acquisition using an indigenously designed noise radar system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freundorfer, A. P.; Siddiqui, J. Y.; Antar, Y. M. M.; Thayaparan, T.

    2011-06-01

    A new design of a noise radar system is proposed with capabilities to measure and acquire the radar signature of various targets. The proposed system can cover a noise bandwidth of near DC to 30 GHz. The noise radar signature measurements were conducted for selective targets like spheres and carpenter squares with and without dielectric bodies for a noise band of 400MHz-3000MHz. The bandwidth of operation was limited by the multiplier and the antennae used. The measured results of the target signatures were verified with the simulation results.

  20. Monitoring seasonal bat activity on a coastal barrier island in Maryland, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Joshua B; Gates, J Edward; Zegre, Nicolas P

    2011-02-01

    Research on effects of wind turbines on bats has increased dramatically in recent years because of significant numbers of bats killed by rotating wind turbine blades. Whereas most research has focused on the Midwest and inland portions of eastern North America, bat activity and migration on the Atlantic Coast has largely been unexamined. We used three long-term acoustic monitoring stations to determine seasonal bat activity patterns on the Assateague Island National Seashore, a barrier island off the coast of Maryland, from 2005 to 2006. We recorded five species, including eastern red bats (Lasiurus borealis), big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus), hoary bats (Lasiurus cinereus), tri-colored bats (Perimyotis subflavus), and silver-haired bats (Lasionycteris noctivagans). Seasonal bat activity (number of bat passes recorded) followed a cosine function and gradually increased beginning in April, peaked in August, and declined gradually until cessation in December. Based on autoregressive models, inter-night bat activity was autocorrelated for lags of seven nights or fewer but varied among acoustic monitoring stations. Higher nightly temperatures and lower wind speeds positively affected bat activity. When autoregressive model predictions were fitted to the observed nightly bat pass totals, model residuals>2 standard deviations from the mean existed only during migration periods, indicating that periodic increases in bat activity could not be accounted for by seasonal trends and weather variables alone. Rather, the additional bat passes were attributable to migrating bats. We conclude that bats, specifically eastern red, hoary, and silver-haired bats, use this barrier island during migration and that this phenomenon may have implications for the development of near and offshore wind energy.

  1. Molecular Survey of Bacterial Zoonotic Agents in Bats from the Country of Georgia (Caucasus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osikowicz, Lynn; McKee, Clifton; Kuzmin, Ivan; Kandaurov, Andrei; Babuadze, Giorgi; Natradze, Ioseb; Imnadze, Paata; Kosoy, Michael

    2017-01-01

    Bats are important reservoirs for many zoonotic pathogens. However, no surveys of bacterial pathogens in bats have been performed in the Caucasus region. To understand the occurrence and distribution of bacterial infections in these mammals, 218 bats belonging to eight species collected from four regions of Georgia were examined for Bartonella, Brucella, Leptospira, and Yersinia using molecular approaches. Bartonella DNA was detected in 77 (35%) bats from all eight species and was distributed in all four regions. The prevalence ranged 6–50% per bat species. The Bartonella DNA represented 25 unique genetic variants that clustered into 21 lineages. Brucella DNA was detected in two Miniopterus schreibersii bats and in two Myotis blythii bats, all of which were from Imereti (west-central region). Leptospira DNA was detected in 25 (13%) bats that included four M. schreibersii bats and 21 M. blythii bats collected from two regions. The Leptospira sequences represented five genetic variants with one of them being closely related to the zoonotic pathogen L. interrogans (98.6% genetic identity). No Yersinia DNA was detected in the bats. Mixed infections were observed in several cases. One M. blythii bat and one M. schreibersii bat were co-infected with Bartonella, Brucella, and Leptospira; one M. blythii bat and one M. schreibersii bat were co-infected with Bartonella and Brucella; 15 M. blythii bats and three M. schreibersii bats were co-infected with Bartonella and Leptospira. Our results suggest that bats in Georgia are exposed to multiple bacterial infections. Further studies are needed to evaluate pathogenicity of these agents to bats and their zoonotic potential. PMID:28129398

  2. Use of binaural cues for sound localization in two species of Phyllostomidae: the Greater spear-nosed bat (Phyllostomus hastatus) and the Short-tailed fruit bat (Carollia perspicillata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heffner, Rickye S; Koay, Gimseong; Heffner, Henry E

    2010-11-01

    Unlike humans, not all mammals use both of the binaural cues for sound localization. Whether an animal uses these cues can be determined by testing its ability to localize pure tones; specifically, low frequencies are localized using time-difference cues, and high frequencies are localized using intensity-difference cues. We determined the ability to use binaural cues in 2 New World bats, Phyllostomus hastatus, large omnivores, and Carollia perspicillata, small frugivores, by testing their tone-localization ability using a conditioned avoidance procedure. Both species easily localized high-frequency tones, indicating that they could use the interaural intensity-difference cue. However, neither species was able to use the phase-difference cue to localize either low-frequency pure tones or amplitude-modulated tones (which provided an envelope for additional time analysis). We now know of 3 bat species that cannot use binaural time cues and 2 that can. Further exploration of localization in bats may provide insight into the neural analysis of time cues in species that do not hear low frequencies.

  3. Bat Mx1 and Oas1, but not Pkr are highly induced by bat interferon and viral infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Peng; Cowled, Christopher; Wang, Lin-Fa; Baker, Michelle L

    2013-01-01

    Bats harbour many emerging and re-emerging viruses, several of which are highly pathogenic in other mammals but cause no diseases in bats. As the interferon (IFN) response represents a first line of defence against viral infection, the ability of bats to control viral replication may be linked to the activation of the IFN system. The three most studied antiviral IFN-stimulated genes (ISGs) in other mammals; Pkr, Mx1 and Oas1 were examined in our model bat species, Pteropus alecto. Our results demonstrate that the three ISGs from P. alecto are highly conserved in their functional domains and promoter elements compared to corresponding genes from other mammals. However, P. alecto Oas1 contains two IFN-stimulated response elements (ISRE) in its promoter region compared with the single ISRE present in human OAS1 which may lead to higher IFN inducibility of the bat gene. Both Oas1 and Mx1 were induced in a highly IFN-dependent manner following stimulation with IFN or synthetic double-strand RNA (dsRNA) whereas Pkr showed evidence of being induced in an IFN-independent manner. Furthermore, bat Oas1 appeared to be the most inducible of the three ISGs following either IFN stimulation or viral infection, providing evidence that Oas1 may play a more important role in antiviral activity in bats compared with Mx1 or Pkr. Our results have important implications for the different roles of ISGs in bats and provide the first step in understanding the role of these molecules in the ability of bats to coexist with viruses.

  4. The use of radar for bathymetry assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aardoom, J.H.; Greidanus, H.S.F.

    1998-01-01

    The bottom topography in shallow seas can be observed by air- and spaceborne imaging radar. Bathymetric information derived from radar data is limited in accuracy, but radar has a good spatial coverage. The accuracy can be increased by assimilating the radar imagery into existing or insitu gathered

  5. Radar signal analysis and processing using Matlab

    CERN Document Server

    Mahafza, Bassem R

    2008-01-01

    Offering radar-related software for the analysis and design of radar waveform and signal processing, this book provides comprehensive coverage of radar signals and signal processing techniques and algorithms. It contains numerous graphical plots, common radar-related functions, table format outputs, and end-of-chapter problems. The complete set of MATLAB[registered] functions and routines are available for download online.

  6. Radar, Insect Population Ecology, and Pest Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaughn, C. R. (Editor); Wolf, W. (Editor); Klassen, W. (Editor)

    1979-01-01

    Discussions included: (1) the potential role of radar in insect ecology studies and pest management; (2) the potential role of radar in correlating atmospheric phenomena with insect movement; (3) the present and future radar systems; (4) program objectives required to adapt radar to insect ecology studies and pest management; and (5) the specific action items to achieve the objectives.

  7. Motive to Avoid Success, Locus of Control, and Reinforcement Avoidance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katovsky, Walter

    Subjects were four groups of 12 college women, high or low in motive to avoid success (MAS) and locus of control (LC), were reinforced for response A on a fixed partial reinforcement schedule on three concept learning tasks, one task consisting of combined reward and punishment, another of reward only, and one of punishment only. Response B was…

  8. Signal processing in noise waveform radar

    CERN Document Server

    Kulpa, Krzysztof

    2013-01-01

    This book is devoted to the emerging technology of noise waveform radar and its signal processing aspects. It is a new kind of radar, which use noise-like waveform to illuminate the target. The book includes an introduction to basic radar theory, starting from classical pulse radar, signal compression, and wave radar. The book then discusses the properties, difficulties and potential of noise radar systems, primarily for low-power and short-range civil applications. The contribution of modern signal processing techniques to making noise radar practical are emphasized, and application examples

  9. Air and spaceborne radar systems an introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Lacomme, Philippe; Hardange, Jean-Philippe; Normant, Eric

    2001-01-01

    A practical tool on radar systems that will be of major help to technicians, student engineers and engineers working in industry and in radar research and development. The many users of radar as well as systems engineers and designers will also find it highly useful. Also of interest to pilots and flight engineers and military command personnel and military contractors. """"This introduction to the field of radar is intended for actual users of radar. It focuses on the history, main principles, functions, modes, properties and specific nature of modern airborne radar. The book examines radar's

  10. Rediscovery of Meristaspis lateralis (Kolenati) (Acari: Mesostigmata: Spinturnicidae) parasitizing the Egyptian fruit bat, Rousettus aegyptiacus (Geoffroy) (Mammalia: Chiroptera), with a key to mites of bats in Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negm, Mohamed W; Fakeer, Mahmoud M

    2014-04-01

    Faunistic information about bat mites in Egypt is scarce. Collection records of parasitic mites, Meristaspis lateralis (Kolenati, 1856) (Mesostigmata: Spinturnicidae), are reported from the Egyptian fruit bat, Rousettus aegyptiacus (Geoffroy, 1810) (Mammalia: Chiroptera) in Assiut Governorate, Egypt. Seven species of bat mites are recognized from Egypt to date. A host-parasite checklist and an identification key to these species are presented.

  11. Bacterial diversity indicates dietary overlap among bats of different feeding habits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banskar, Sunil; Mourya, Devendra T; Shouche, Yogesh S

    2016-01-01

    Bats are among the most conspicuous mammals with extraordinary adaptations. They play a key role in the ecosystem. Frugivorous bats are important seed dispersing agents that help in maintaining forest tree diversity, while insectivorous bats are natural insect pest control agents. Several previous reports suggest that bats are reservoir of viruses; nonetheless their bacterial counterparts are relatively less explored. The present study describes the microbial diversity associated with the intestine of bats from different regions of India. Our observations stipulate that there is substantial sharing of bacterial communities between the insectivorous and frugivorous bats, which signifies fairly large dietary overlap. We also observed the presence of higher abundance of Mycoplasma in Cynopterus species of bats, indicating possible Mycoplasma infection. Considering the scarcity of literature related to microbial communities of bat intestinal tract, this study can direct future microbial diversity studies in bats with reference to their dietary habits, host-bacteria interaction and zoonosis.

  12. Introduction to radar target recognition

    CERN Document Server

    Tait, P

    2006-01-01

    This new text provides an overview of the radar target recognition process and covers the key techniques being developed for operational systems. It is based on the fundamental scientific principles of high resolution radar, and explains how the techniques can be used in real systems, taking into account the characteristics of practical radar system designs and component limitations. It also addresses operational aspects, such as how high resolution modes would fit in with other functions such as detection and tracking. Mathematics is kept to a minimum and the complex techniques and issues are

  13. 77 HHz radar for automobile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. M. Lyashuk

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Modern requirements to safety and comfort of drivers and passengers of a car cause continuous development of corresponding technical facilities. Technologies that provide implementation of these requirements are on the first place for the developers of cars. One of the most important requirement is an analysis of road situation, where various sensors are used. One of them is radar. Principle of action, basic parameters and application of radar RS-200 is considered in this article. Radar is used in modern cars of brand Mersedes Benz and works on frequency 77 HHz. It uses the LFM (linear frequency modulation with the programmatic setting of resolution for distance.

  14. Gyroklystron-Powered WARLOC Radar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danly, B. G.; Cheung, W. J.; Gregers-Hansen, V.; Linde, G.; Ngo, M.

    2003-12-01

    A high-power, coherent, W-band (94 GHz) millimeter-wave radar has been developed at the Naval Research Laboratory. This radar, named WARLOC, employs a 100 kW peak power, 10 kW average power gyro-klystron as the final power amplifier, an overmoded transmission line system, and a quasi-optical duplexer, together with a high gain antenna, four-channel receiver, and state-of-the-art signal processing. The gyro-amplifiers and the implementation in the WARLOC radar will be described.

  15. Space noise synthetic aperture radar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulpa, Krzysztof S.

    2006-03-01

    The paper presents limitations of space borne synthetic aperture radars, caused by range and Doppler velocity ambiguities, and the concept of usage of the noise radar technology for creation of high-resolution space SAR images. The noise SAR is free from limitation caused by the periodicity of pulse waveform ambiguity function, and therefore this technology can be used in the future space missions. The basic concept of noise SAR image formation is also presented. The image formation algorithm has been verified using the simulated data produced by Raw Radar Data Simulator.

  16. Genetic structure, spatial organization, and dispersal in two populations of bat-eared foxes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamler, Jan F; Gray, Melissa M; Oh, Annie; Macdonald, David W

    2013-09-01

    We incorporated radio-telemetry data with genetic analysis of bat-eared foxes (Otocyon megalotis) from individuals in 32 different groups to examine relatedness and spatial organization in two populations in South Africa that differed in density, home-range sizes, and group sizes. Kin clustering occurred only for female dyads in the high-density population. Relatedness was negatively correlated with distance only for female dyads in the high-density population, and for male and mixed-sex dyads in the low-density population. Home-range overlap of neighboring female dyads was significantly greater in the high compared to low-density population, whereas overlap within other dyads was similar between populations. Amount of home-range overlap between neighbors was positively correlated with genetic relatedness for all dyad-site combinations, except for female and male dyads in the low-density population. Foxes from all age and sex classes dispersed, although females (mostly adults) dispersed farther than males. Yearlings dispersed later in the high-density population, and overall exhibited a male-biased dispersal pattern. Our results indicated that genetic structure within populations of bat-eared foxes was sex-biased, and was interrelated to density and group sizes, as well as sex-biases in philopatry and dispersal distances. We conclude that a combination of male-biased dispersal rates, adult dispersals, and sex-biased dispersal distances likely helped to facilitate inbreeding avoidance in this evolutionarily unique species of Canidae.

  17. Under the Radar

    CERN Document Server

    Goss, WM

    2010-01-01

    This is the biography of Ruby Payne-Scott (1912 to 1981). As the first female radio astronomer (and one of the first people in the world to consider radio astronomy), she made classic contributions to solar radio physics. She also played a major role in the design of the Australian government's Council for Scientific and Industrial Research radars, which were in turn of vital importance in the Southwest Pacific Theatre in World War II and were used by Australian, US and New Zealand personnel. From a sociological perspective, her career also offers many examples of the perils of being a female academic in the first half of the 20th century. Written in an engaging style and complemented by many historical photographs this book gives a fascinating insight into the beginning of radio astronomy and the role of a pioneering woman in astronomy.

  18. Improved Bat Algorithm Applied to Multilevel Image Thresholding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adis Alihodzic

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Multilevel image thresholding is a very important image processing technique that is used as a basis for image segmentation and further higher level processing. However, the required computational time for exhaustive search grows exponentially with the number of desired thresholds. Swarm intelligence metaheuristics are well known as successful and efficient optimization methods for intractable problems. In this paper, we adjusted one of the latest swarm intelligence algorithms, the bat algorithm, for the multilevel image thresholding problem. The results of testing on standard benchmark images show that the bat algorithm is comparable with other state-of-the-art algorithms. We improved standard bat algorithm, where our modifications add some elements from the differential evolution and from the artificial bee colony algorithm. Our new proposed improved bat algorithm proved to be better than five other state-of-the-art algorithms, improving quality of results in all cases and significantly improving convergence speed.

  19. Experimental Studies Cast Doubt on Deceit Syndrome of Bat Flower

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    @@ Bat Flower (Tacca chantrieri) is a southwest China's species of a tropical plant genus called Tacca,which features near black flowers,conspicuous involucral bracts and whisker-like filiform bracteoles.

  20. Do bigger bats need more time to forage?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CEL. Esbérard

    Full Text Available We test the hypothesis is that bats using the same area and at the same time would be using similar preys, but they would have different foraging times due to specific differences in biomass. A total of 730 captures was analyzed 13 species of Vespertilionidae and Molossidae bats netted over a small dam in southeastern Brazil from 1993 and 1999. The relationship between the average time of captures and the biomass of the species of Vespertilinidae and Molossidae most frequent (captures > 4 was positive and significant (r = 0.83, p = 0.022, N = 7. Two lines are discussed to answer the longer foraging time for bigger bats: 1 larger insectivorous bats don't consume proportionally larger preys and 2 larger insects are less available.

  1. Indiana Bat (Myotis sodalis) Draft Recovery Plan: First Revision

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service's Draft recovery plan for Indiana bats, a Federally endangered species. First revision. The purpose of this draft recovery plan is to...

  2. Bats, emerging infectious diseases, and the rabies paradigm revisited

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan V. Kuzmin

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The significance of bats as sources of emerging infectious diseases has been increasingly appreciated, and new data have been accumulated rapidly during recent years. For some emerging pathogens the bat origin has been confirmed (such as lyssaviruses, henipaviruses, coronaviruses, for other it has been suggested (filoviruses. Several recently identified viruses remain to be ‘orphan’ but have a potential for further emergence (such as Tioman, Menangle, and Pulau viruses. In the present review we summarize information on major bat-associated emerging infections and discuss specific characteristics of bats as carriers of pathogens (from evolutionary, ecological, and immunological positions. We also discuss drivers and forces of an infectious disease emergence and describe various existing and potential approaches for control and prevention of such infections at individual, populational, and societal levels.

  3. Bats and birds increase crop yield in tropical agroforestry landscapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maas, Bea; Clough, Yann; Tscharntke, Teja

    2013-12-01

    Human welfare is significantly linked to ecosystem services such as the suppression of pest insects by birds and bats. However, effects of biocontrol services on tropical cash crop yield are still largely unknown. For the first time, we manipulated the access of birds and bats in an exclosure experiment (day, night and full exclosures compared to open controls in Indonesian cacao agroforestry) and quantified the arthropod communities, the fruit development and the final yield over a long time period (15 months). We found that bat and bird exclusion increased insect herbivore abundance, despite the concurrent release of mesopredators such as ants and spiders, and negatively affected fruit development, with final crop yield decreasing by 31% across local (shade cover) and landscape (distance to primary forest) gradients. Our results highlight the tremendous economic impact of common insectivorous birds and bats, which need to become an essential part of sustainable landscape management.

  4. Asia's First Bat Research Center Established in Beijing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    @@ In cooperation with a local government, the CAS Institute of Zoology (IOZ) has established Asia's first bat research and protection center in Fangshan, a southwest suburb of Beijing. Its opening ceremony was held on November 16, 2004.

  5. Science et débat public sur le vivant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piron Florence

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Quels sont les repères éthiques et politiques que les sociétés se donnent pour respecter la vie et le vivant selon leur culture ? D’où viennent les débats et les dissensus? Au-delà des débats de société suscités par le vivant aujourd’hui, il est essentiel de mettre au jour les présupposés épistémologiques qui, en plus des politiques scientifiques, orientent les recherches sur le vivant qui, ensuite, sont mobilisées comme moyen de légitimation des arguments dans ces débats. La science apparaît alors comme une institution non neutre, inscrite dans la culture, qui influence les débats publics sur le vivant, au lieu de seulement les éclairer.

  6. Bat Surveys on Theodore Roosevelt National Wildlife Refuge Complex

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Mist net, Anabat, telemetry, and roost surveys were conducted from April-October 2007 to determine bat species diversity and relative abundance on Theodore Roosevelt...

  7. Summary on Bats and Roost Trees Noxubee NWR

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Availability and characteristics of Cavity trees used by Rafinesque's Big-eared Bat in bottamland hardwoods in Mississippi. We surveyed approximately 1,250 ha of...

  8. Bats from Fazenda Intervales, Southeastern Brazil: species account and comparison between different sampling methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine V. Portfors

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available Assessing the composition of an area's bat fauna is typically accomplished by using captures or by monitoring echolocation calls with bat detectors. The two methods may not provide the same data regarding species composition. Mist nets and harp traps may be biased towards sampling low flying species, and bat detectors biased towards detecting high intensity echolocators. A comparison of the bat fauna of Fazenda Intervales, southeastern Brazil, as revealed by mist nets and harp trap captures, checking roosts and by monitoring echolocation calls of flying bats illustrates this point. A total of 17 species of bats was sampled. Fourteen bat species were captured and the echolocation calls of 12 species were recorded, three of them not revealed by mist nets or harp traps. The different sampling methods provided different pictures of the bat fauna. Phyllostomid bats dominated the catches in mist nets, but in the field their echolocation calls were never detected. No single sampling approach provided a complete assessment of the bat fauna in the study area. In general, bats producing low intensity echolocation calls, such as phyllostomids, are more easily assessed by netting, and bats producing high intensity echolocation calls are better surveyed by bat detectors. The results demonstrate that a combined and varied approach to sampling is required for a complete assessment of the bat fauna of an area.

  9. Tropical secondary forest management influences frugivorous bat composition, abundance and fruit consumption in Chiapas, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vleut, Ivar; Levy-Tacher, Samuel Israel; de Boer, Willem Frederik; Galindo-González, Jorge; Vazquez, Luis-Bernardo

    2013-01-01

    Most studies on frugivorous bat assemblages in secondary forests have concentrated on differences among successional stages, and have disregarded the effect of forest management. Secondary forest management practices alter the vegetation structure and fruit availability, important factors associated with differences in frugivorous bat assemblage structure, and fruit consumption and can therefore modify forest succession. Our objective was to elucidate factors (forest structural variables and fruit availability) determining bat diversity, abundance, composition and species-specific abundance of bats in (i) secondary forests managed by Lacandon farmers dominated by Ochroma pyramidale, in (ii) secondary forests without management, and in (iii) mature rain forests in Chiapas, Southern Mexico. Frugivorous bat species diversity (Shannon H') was similar between forest types. However, bat abundance was highest in rain forest and O. pyramidale forests. Bat species composition was different among forest types with more Carollia sowelli and Sturnira lilium captures in O. pyramidale forests. Overall, bat fruit consumption was dominated by early-successional shrubs, highest late-successional fruit consumption was found in rain forests and more bats consumed early-successional shrub fruits in O. pyramidale forests. Ochroma pyramidale forests presented a higher canopy openness, tree height, lower tree density and diversity of fruit than secondary forests. Tree density and canopy openness were negatively correlated with bat species diversity and bat abundance, but bat abundance increased with fruit abundance and tree height. Hence, secondary forest management alters forests' structural characteristics and resource availability, and shapes the frugivorous bat community structure, and thereby the fruit consumption by bats.

  10. Vampire bat-transmitted rabies in cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arellano-Sota, C

    1988-01-01

    A short history of bovine paralytic rabies in the Americas is given. Based on information from the Animal Health Yearbook--a cooperative publication of the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), the World Health Organization (WHO), and the International Office of Epizootics (OIE)--a comparison is made of the epidemiology of the disease in 1968, 1978, and 1985. An important reduction in the number of cases of rabies was observed in some countries (Bolivia, Brazil, Guatemala, Mexico, Nicaragua, and Panama), mainly as a result of the use of effective vaccines that are now available and of the application of new technology to reduce the vampire bat population, the vector of the disease in cattle. The trials performed in Argentina and Mexico in the 1960s and 1970s provide enough evidence that many vaccines will protect cattle against bovine paralytic rabies. Results of these trials are presented.

  11. Unveiling the Hidden Bat Diversity of a Neotropical Montane Forest

    OpenAIRE

    Chaverri, Gloriana; Garin, Inazio; Alberdi, Antton; Jimenez, Lide; Castillo-Salazar, Cristian; Aihartza, Joxerra

    2016-01-01

    Mountain environments, characterized by high levels of endemism, are at risk of experiencing significant biodiversity loss due to current trends in global warming. While many acknowledge their importance and vulnerability, these ecosystems still remain poorly studied, particularly for taxa that are difficult to sample such as bats. Aiming to estimate the amount of cryptic diversity among bats of a Neotropical montane cloud forest in Talamanca Range—south-east Central America—, we performed a ...

  12. Fruit bats as a natural reservoir of zoonotic viruses

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    As a natural reservoir of manifold zoonotic viruses, fruit bats have been involved in at least three emerging zoonoses in recent years. This paper aims to introduce the epidemiological characteristics of these diseases emerged in the Australasian region between 1994 and 1999, transmission pathways of the newly discovered viruses and the relationship between the changed entironment of fruit bats and occurrences of these emerging diseases and provide a clue for the epidemiological investigations of SARS.

  13. Trawling bats exploit an echo-acoustic ground effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zsebok, Sandor; Kroll, Ferdinand; Heinrich, Melina; Genzel, Daria; Siemers, Björn M; Wiegrebe, Lutz

    2013-01-01

    A water surface acts not only as an optic mirror but also as an acoustic mirror. Echolocation calls emitted by bats at low heights above water are reflected away from the bat, and hence the background clutter is reduced. Moreover, targets on the surface create an enhanced echo. Here, we formally quantified the effect of the surface and target height on both target detection and -discrimination in a combined laboratory and field approach with Myotis daubentonii. In a two-alternative, forced-choice paradigm, the bats had to detect a mealworm and discriminate it from an inedible dummy (20 mm PVC disc). Psychophysical performance was measured as a function of height above either smooth surfaces (water or PVC) or above a clutter surface (artificial grass). At low heights above the clutter surface (10, 20, or 35 cm), the bats' detection performance was worse than above a smooth surface. At a height of 50 cm, the surface structure had no influence on target detection. Above the clutter surface, also target discrimination was significantly impaired with decreasing target height. A detailed analysis of the bats' echolocation calls during target approach shows that above the clutter surface, the bats produce calls with significantly higher peak frequency. Flight-path reconstruction revealed that the bats attacked an target from below over water but from above over a clutter surface. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that trawling bats exploit an echo-acoustic ground effect, in terms of a spatio-temporal integration of direct reflections with indirect reflections from the water surface, to optimize prey detection and -discrimination not only for prey on the water but also for some range above.

  14. Molecular Detection of Candidatus Bartonella hemsundetiensis in Bats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lilley, Thomas M; Veikkolainen, Ville; Pulliainen, Arto T

    2015-11-01

    Although bats have been implicated as reservoir hosts for a number of zoonotic and life-threatening viruses, the bat bacterial flora and its zoonotic threat remain elusive. However, members of the vector-borne bacterial genera Bartonella causing various human as well as animal diseases have recently been isolated or detected from bats and their ectoparasites. In this study, we sampled 124 insectivorous microbats (Daubenton's bat, Myotis daubentonii) for peripheral blood in southwestern Finland in 2010. A Bartonella-specific PCR targeting rpoB (RNA polymerase β-subunit) was positive with blood samples from 46 bats (prevalence 37%). Scaled mass indexes of the infected and noninfected bats did not differ (p = 0.057). One rpoB sequence was identical with the rpoB sequence of B. naantaliensis strain 2574/1, previously isolated from bats in Finland. The rest of the sequences were highly similar to each other with nucleotide identity scores of 96% or higher. Nucleotide identity scores to the previously described type strain sequences of Bartonella or other database entries were no higher than 87%. Sequence analyses of another gene, gltA (citrate synthase), gave no higher than 90% nucleotide identity scores. On the basis of the conventional 95% sequence similarity cutoff in bacterial species delineation, a novel species of Bartonella was detected. We propose a species name Candidatus B. hemsundetiensis. Phylogenetic analyses based on rpoB and gltA sequences indicate that Candidatus B. hemsundetiensis clusters in a deep-branching position close to the ancestral species B. tamiae and B. bacilliformis. Our study reinforces the importance of bats as reservoirs of Bartonella.

  15. Establishment, immortalisation and characterisation of pteropid bat cell lines.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gary Crameri

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Bats are the suspected natural reservoir hosts for a number of new and emerging zoonotic viruses including Nipah virus, Hendra virus, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus and Ebola virus. Since the discovery of SARS-like coronaviruses in Chinese horseshoe bats, attempts to isolate a SL-CoV from bats have failed and attempts to isolate other bat-borne viruses in various mammalian cell lines have been similarly unsuccessful. New stable bat cell lines are needed to help with these investigations and as tools to assist in the study of bat immunology and virus-host interactions. METHODOLOGY/FINDINGS: Black flying foxes (Pteropus alecto were captured from the wild and transported live to the laboratory for primary cell culture preparation using a variety of different methods and culture media. Primary cells were successfully cultured from 20 different organs. Cell immortalisation can occur spontaneously, however we used a retroviral system to immortalise cells via the transfer and stable production of the Simian virus 40 Large T antigen and the human telomerase reverse transcriptase protein. Initial infection experiments with both cloned and uncloned cell lines using Hendra and Nipah viruses demonstrated varying degrees of infection efficiency between the different cell lines, although it was possible to infect cells in all tissue types. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The approaches developed and optimised in this study should be applicable to bats of other species. We are in the process of generating further cell lines from a number of different bat species using the methodology established in this study.

  16. Book review: Bats: A world of science and mystery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cryan, Paul

    2015-01-01

    This book has something for everyone, from casual seekers of fascinating eye candy to professional scientists interested in the latest discoveries. Without losing sight of how mysterious bats remain despite decades of research, the authors deftly introduce readers to bats and the people who study them. The book is nice to look at, easy to understand, and interesting in many ways. These stories stick in the reader's memory long after being read—a sign of great scientific communication.

  17. Alphacoronaviruses in New World bats: prevalence, persistence, phylogeny, and potential for interaction with humans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina Osborne

    Full Text Available Bats are reservoirs for many different coronaviruses (CoVs as well as many other important zoonotic viruses. We sampled feces and/or anal swabs of 1,044 insectivorous bats of 2 families and 17 species from 21 different locations within Colorado from 2007 to 2009. We detected alphacoronavirus RNA in bats of 4 species: big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus, 10% prevalence; long-legged bats (Myotis volans, 8% prevalence; little brown bats (Myotis lucifugus, 3% prevalence; and western long-eared bats (Myotis evotis, 2% prevalence. Overall, juvenile bats were twice as likely to be positive for CoV RNA as adult bats. At two of the rural sampling sites, CoV RNAs were detected in big brown and long-legged bats during the three sequential summers of this study. CoV RNA was detected in big brown bats in all five of the urban maternity roosts sampled throughout each of the periods tested. Individually tagged big brown bats that were positive for CoV RNA and later sampled again all became CoV RNA negative. Nucleotide sequences in the RdRp gene fell into 3 main clusters, all distinct from those of Old World bats. Similar nucleotide sequences were found in amplicons from gene 1b and the spike gene in both a big-brown and a long-legged bat, indicating that a CoV may be capable of infecting bats of different genera. These data suggest that ongoing evolution of CoVs in bats creates the possibility of a continued threat for emergence into hosts of other species. Alphacoronavirus RNA was detected at a high prevalence in big brown bats in roosts in close proximity to human habitations (10% and known to have direct contact with people (19%, suggesting that significant potential opportunities exist for cross-species transmission of these viruses. Further CoV surveillance studies in bats throughout the Americas are warranted.

  18. Geographic origins and population genetics of bats killed at wind-energy facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pylant, Cortney L; Nelson, David M; Fitzpatrick, Matthew C; Gates, J Edward; Keller, Stephen R

    2016-07-01

    An unanticipated impact of wind-energy development has been large-scale mortality of insectivorous bats. In eastern North America, where mortality rates are among the highest in the world, the hoary bat (Lasiurus cinereus) and the eastern red bat (L. borealis) comprise the majority of turbine-associated bat mortality. Both species are migratory tree bats with widespread distributions; however, little is known regarding the geographic origins of bats killed at wind-energy facilities or the diversity and population structure of affected species. We addressed these unknowns by measuring stable hydrogen isotope ratios (δ(2) H) and conducting population genetic analyses of bats killed at wind-energy facilities in the central Appalachian Mountains (USA) to determine the summering origins, effective size, structure, and temporal stability of populations. Our results indicate that ~1% of hoary bat mortalities and ~57% of red bat mortalities derive from non-local sources, with no relationship between the proportion of non-local bats and sex, location of mortality, or month of mortality. Additionally, our data indicate that hoary bats in our sample consist of an unstructured population with a small effective size (Ne ) and either a stable or declining history. Red bats also showed no evidence of population genetic structure, but in contrast to hoary bats, the diversity contained in our red bat samples is consistent with a much larger Ne that reflects a demographic expansion after a bottleneck. These results suggest that the impacts of mortality associated with intensive wind-energy development may affect bat species dissimilarly, with red bats potentially better able to absorb sustained mortality than hoary bats because of their larger Ne . Our results provide important baseline data and also illustrate the utility of stable isotopes and population genetics for monitoring bat populations affected by wind-energy development.

  19. Alphacoronaviruses in New World Bats: Prevalence, Persistence, Phylogeny, and Potential for Interaction with Humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osborne, Christina; Cryan, Paul M.; O'Shea, Thomas J.; Oko, Lauren M.; Ndaluka, Christina; Calisher, Charles H.; Berglund, Andrew D.; Klavetter, Mead L.; Holmes, Kathryn V.; Dominguez, Samuel R.; Montgomery, Joel Mark

    2011-01-01

    Bats are reservoirs for many different coronaviruses (CoVs) as well as many other important zoonotic viruses. We sampled feces and/or anal swabs of 1,044 insectivorous bats of 2 families and 17 species from 21 different locations within Colorado from 2007 to 2009. We detected alphacoronavirus RNA in bats of 4 species: big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus), 10% prevalence; long-legged bats (Myotis volans), 8% prevalence; little brown bats (Myotis lucifugus), 3% prevalence; and western long-eared bats (Myotis evotis), 2% prevalence. Overall, juvenile bats were twice as likely to be positive for CoV RNA as adult bats. At two of the rural sampling sites, CoV RNAs were detected in big brown and long-legged bats during the three sequential summers of this study. CoV RNA was detected in big brown bats in all five of the urban maternity roosts sampled throughout each of the periods tested. Individually tagged big brown bats that were positive for CoV RNA and later sampled again all became CoV RNA negative. Nucleotide sequences in the RdRp gene fell into 3 main clusters, all distinct from those of Old World bats. Similar nucleotide sequences were found in amplicons from gene 1b and the spike gene in both a big-brown and a long-legged bat, indicating that a CoV may be capable of infecting bats of different genera. These data suggest that ongoing evolution of CoVs in bats creates the possibility of a continued threat for emergence into hosts of other species. Alphacoronavirus RNA was detected at a high prevalence in big brown bats in roosts in close proximity to human habitations (10%) and known to have direct contact with people (19%), suggesting that significant potential opportunities exist for cross-species transmission of these viruses. Further CoV surveillance studies in bats throughout the Americas are warranted.

  20. Avoiding plagiarism in academic writing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Irene

    Plagiarism means taking the work of another and presenting it as one's own, resulting in potential upset for the original author and disrepute for the professions involved. This article aims to explore the issue of plagiarism and some mechanisms for detection and avoidance.

  1. Avoiding unfavourable outcomes in liposuction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atul Khanna

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The origin of liposuction can be traced to an adverse event by Dujarrier in 1921 when he used a uterine curette to remove fat from the knees of a ballerina ending in an amputation secondary to damage of the femoral artery. The history of liposuction since then has been one of avoiding complications and optimising outcome. After this adverse event, liposuction was abandoned until the 1960′s when Schrudde revived the practice using small stab incisions and sharp curettage with the secondary suction to aspirate the freed tissue. This technique was associated with a high incidence of complications especially seroma and skin necrosis. Illouz then replaced the curette with a blunt cannula connected to vacuum pump thus avoiding the complications of a sharp curette. Despite the presence of various techniques for liposuction, suction assisted liposuction (SAL is still the standard technique of liposuction. This article aims to discuss literature regarding the various aspects of liposuction (SAL and to highlight the salient points in the literature and in the senior author′s experience in order to avoid unfavourable outcomes in liposuction. A literature review on avoiding complication is in liposuction including some of the seminal papers on liposuction. Liposuction is generally a safe procedure with reproducible outcome. Just like any surgical procedure it should be treated with the utmost care. Illouz published 10 commandments for liposuction in 1989 and we review these commandments to demonstrate how liposuction has evolved.

  2. Avoidance: grammatical or semantic causes?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hulstijn, J.H.; Marchena, E.

    1989-01-01

    This article follows up on a study by Dagut and Laufer (1985), who found that Hebrew learners of English avoid phrasal verbs, such as ‘let down’, while preferring one-word verbs, such as ‘;disappoint’, since phrasal verbs do not exist in Hebrew. A corollary derived from Dagut and Laufer's study is t

  3. 78 FR 36612 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; BATS Y-Exchange, Inc.; Notice of Filing and Immediate...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-18

    ... of a Proposed Rule Change To Amend Rule 2.11, Entitled ``BATS Trading, Inc. as Outbound Router'' June... ``BATS Trading, Inc. as Outbound Router'', with respect to the authority of the Exchange or BATS...

  4. Numerical investigation of wake structures of slow-flying bats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shizhao; Zhang, Xing; He, Guowei

    2010-11-01

    Recently, some unique features of wake structure in bat flight have been revealed by experiments. It is found that the flow structure of bat flight is more complex than that of bird. A conceptual wake model of bat flight has been "rebuilt" using 2D DPIV images, but there is some risk of missing the details regarding dynamics of 3D vortex structures. Detailed flow information is still needed to understand the unsteady flow in bat flying. In this work, we perform 3D simulation of bat flying at the Reynolds number of 1000 (based on upstream flow and mean chord length) using the immersed boundary method. The geometry and wing-beat kinematics of bat are taken from the work of Watts et al (2001). The topology and evolution of the wake structures are described. The variation of topology in wake structures with the flapping Strouhal number is investigated. Moreover, the link between the generation of high lift and leading edge vortex is also studied.

  5. Immunology of Bats and Their Viruses: Challenges and Opportunities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tony Schountz

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Bats are reservoir hosts of several high-impact viruses that cause significant human diseases, including Nipah virus, Marburg virus and rabies virus. They also harbor many other viruses that are thought to have caused disease in humans after spillover into intermediate hosts, including SARS and MERS coronaviruses. As is usual with reservoir hosts, these viruses apparently cause little or no pathology in bats. Despite the importance of bats as reservoir hosts of zoonotic and potentially zoonotic agents, virtually nothing is known about the host/virus relationships; principally because few colonies of bats are available for experimental infections, a lack of reagents, methods and expertise for studying bat antiviral responses and immunology, and the difficulty of conducting meaningful field work. These challenges can be addressed, in part, with new technologies that are species-independent that can provide insight into the interactions of bats and viruses, which should clarify how the viruses persist in nature, and what risk factors might facilitate transmission to humans and livestock.

  6. Bird or bat: comparing airframe design and flight performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedenström, Anders; Johansson, L Christoffer; Spedding, Geoffrey R

    2009-03-01

    Birds and bats have evolved powered flight independently, which makes a comparison of evolutionary 'design' solutions potentially interesting. In this paper we highlight similarities and differences with respect to flight characteristics, including morphology, flight kinematics, aerodynamics, energetics and flight performance. Birds' size range is 0.002-15 kg and bats' size range is 0.002-1.5 kg. The wingbeat kinematics differ between birds and bats, which is mainly due to the different flexing of the wing during the upstroke and constraints by having a wing of feathers and a skin membrane, respectively. Aerodynamically, bats appear to generate a more complex wake than birds. Bats may be more closely adapted for slow maneuvering flight than birds, as required by their aerial hawking foraging habits. The metabolic rate and power required to fly are similar among birds and bats. Both groups share many characteristics associated with flight, such as for example low amounts of DNA in cells, the ability to accumulate fat as fuel for hibernation and migration, and parallel habitat-related wing shape adaptations.

  7. Spatial expansions and travelling waves of rabies in vampire bats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valderrama, William; Streicker, Daniel G.

    2016-01-01

    A major obstacle to anticipating the cross-species transmission of zoonotic diseases and developing novel strategies for their control is the scarcity of data informing how these pathogens circulate within natural reservoir populations. Vampire bats are the primary reservoir of rabies in Latin America, where the disease remains among the most important viral zoonoses affecting humans and livestock. Unpredictable spatiotemporal dynamics of rabies within bat populations have precluded anticipation of outbreaks and undermined widespread bat culling programs. By analysing 1146 vampire bat-transmitted rabies (VBR) outbreaks in livestock across 12 years in Peru, we demonstrate that viral expansions into historically uninfected zones have doubled the recent burden of VBR. Viral expansions are geographically widespread, but severely constrained by high elevation peaks in the Andes mountains. Within Andean valleys, invasions form wavefronts that are advancing towards large, unvaccinated livestock populations that are heavily bitten by bats, which together will fuel high transmission and mortality. Using spatial models, we forecast the pathways of ongoing VBR epizootics across heterogeneous landscapes. These results directly inform vaccination strategies to mitigate impending viral emergence, reveal VBR as an emerging rather than an enzootic disease and create opportunities to test novel interventions to manage viruses in bat reservoirs.

  8. Early diversification trend and Asian origin for extent bat lineages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, W; Wu, Y; Yang, G

    2014-10-01

    Bats are a unique mammalian group, which belong to one of the largest and most diverse mammalian radiations, but their early diversification is still poorly understood, and conflicting hypotheses have emerged regarding their biogeographic history. Understanding their diversification is crucial for untangling the enigmatic evolutionary history of bats. In this study, we elucidated the rate of diversification and the biogeographic history of extant bat lineages using genus-level chronograms. The results suggest that a rapid adaptive radiation persisted from the emergence of crown bats until the Early Eocene Climatic Optimum, whereas there was a major deceleration in diversification around 35-49 Ma. There was a positive association between changes in the palaeotemperature and the net diversification rate until 35 Ma, which suggests that the palaeotemperature may have played an important role in the regulation of ecological opportunities. By contrast, there were unexpectedly higher diversification rates around 25-35 Ma during a period characterized by intense and long-lasting global cooling, which implies that intrinsic innovations or adaptations may have released some lineages from the intense selective pressures associated with these severe conditions. Our reconstruction of the ancestral distribution suggests an Asian origin for bats, thereby indicating that the current panglobal but disjunct distribution pattern of extant bats may be related to events involving seriate cross-continental dispersal and local extinction, as well as the influence of geological events and the expansion and contraction of megathermal rainforests during the Tertiary.

  9. Immunology of bats and their viruses: challenges and opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schountz, Tony

    2014-12-01

    Bats are reservoir hosts of several high-impact viruses that cause significant human diseases, including Nipah virus, Marburg virus and rabies virus. They also harbor many other viruses that are thought to have caused disease in humans after spillover into intermediate hosts, including SARS and MERS coronaviruses. As is usual with reservoir hosts, these viruses apparently cause little or no pathology in bats. Despite the importance of bats as reservoir hosts of zoonotic and potentially zoonotic agents, virtually nothing is known about the host/virus relationships; principally because few colonies of bats are available for experimental infections, a lack of reagents, methods and expertise for studying bat antiviral responses and immunology, and the difficulty of conducting meaningful field work. These challenges can be addressed, in part, with new technologies that are species-independent that can provide insight into the interactions of bats and viruses, which should clarify how the viruses persist in nature, and what risk factors might facilitate transmission to humans and livestock.

  10. Mineral Licks Attract Neotropical Seed-Dispersing Bats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian C. Voigt

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Unlike most terrestrial mammals, female bats must supply their offspring with all required nutrients until pups achieve virtually adult size, at which time they are able to fly and become independent. Access to nutrients may be especially challenging for reproductively active females in mineral-poor landscapes such as tropical rainforests. We hypothesized that pregnant and lactating females from tropical landscapes acquire essential nutrients from locally-available mineral licks. We captured ten times as many bats at mineral licks than at control sites in a lowland rainforest in eastern Ecuador. Among bats captured at mineral licks, the sex ratio was heavily biased toward females, and a significantly higher portion of females captured at these sites, compared to control sites, were reproductively active (pregnant and lactating. Enrichment of N15 in relation to N14 in wing tissue indicated that bats captured at mineral licks were mostly fruit-eating species. Given the high visitation rates of reproductive active females at mineral licks, it is likely that mineral licks are important for fruit-eating female bats as a mineral source during late pregnancy and lactation. By sustaining high population densities of fruit-eating bats that disperse seeds, mineral licks may have an indirect influence on local plant species richness.

  11. Avoiding the Negative: Blue Jeans Baseball

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maggard, Bob

    1978-01-01

    Blue Jeans Baseball, for eight- to twelve-year old children, is based on the concept that everyone plays. No coaches are allowed; everyone bats once per inning; defensive players rotate positions. These and other rules reduce the emphasis on competition and increase the emphasis on skill development. (MJB)

  12. Follow the BAT: Monitoring Swift BAT FoV for Prompt Optical Emission from Gamma-ray Bursts

    CERN Document Server

    Ukwatta, T N; Dhuga, K S; Gehrels, N

    2011-01-01

    We investigate the feasibility of implementing a system called 'Follow the BAT' that will coordinate ground-based robotic optical and near infrared (NIR) telescopes to monitor the Swift BAT field-of-view (FoV). The system will optimize the monitoring locations in the BAT FoV based on individual robotic telescopes' location, FoV, sensitivity and local weather conditions. The aim is to perform coordinated BAT FoV monitoring by professional as well as amateur astronomers around the world. The scientific goal of the proposed system is to facilitate detection of prompt optical and NIR emission from GRBs, especially from short duration GRBs. We have performed a Monte Carlo simulation to investigate the feasibility of the project.

  13. Bat Species Occurrence and Long-Term Bat Population Monitoring on Refuges Using Acoustical Detection - 2012-2015 Summary

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Long-term trend monitoring efforts for bats on National Wildlife Refuges have been prompted by a paucity of significant population information and precipitous...

  14. Air Defense Radar Operations Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Facility consists of laboratories, experimental test equipment including state-of-theart test bed radar, and test ranges. The facilities are used to design, develop,...

  15. Compressive Sensing for MIMO Radar

    CERN Document Server

    Yu, Yao; Poor, H Vincent

    2009-01-01

    Multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) radar systems have been shown to achieve superior resolution as compared to traditional radar systems with the same number of transmit and receive antennas. This paper considers a distributed MIMO radar scenario, in which each transmit element is a node in a wireless network, and investigates the use of compressive sampling for direction-of-arrival (DOA) estimation. According to the theory of compressive sampling, a signal that is sparse in some domain can be recovered based on far fewer samples than required by the Nyquist sampling theorem. The DOA of targets form a sparse vector in the angle space, and therefore, compressive sampling can be applied for DOA estimation. The proposed approach achieves the superior resolution of MIMO radar with far fewer samples than other approaches. This is particularly useful in a distributed scenario, in which the results at each receive node need to be transmitted to a fusion center for further processing.

  16. Using Stable Isotopes to Infer the Impacts of Habitat Change on the Diets and Vertical Stratification of Frugivorous Bats in Madagascar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reuter, Kim E.; Wills, Abigail R.; Lee, Raymond W.; Cordes, Erik E.; Sewall, Brent J.

    2016-01-01

    Human-modified habitats are expanding rapidly; many tropical countries have highly fragmented and degraded forests. Preserving biodiversity in these areas involves protecting species–like frugivorous bats–that are important to forest regeneration. Fruit bats provide critical ecosystem services including seed dispersal, but studies of how their diets are affected by habitat change have often been rather localized. This study used stable isotope analyses (δ15N and δ13C measurement) to examine how two fruit bat species in Madagascar, Pteropus rufus (n = 138) and Eidolon dupreanum (n = 52) are impacted by habitat change across a large spatial scale. Limited data for Rousettus madagascariensis are also presented. Our results indicated that the three species had broadly overlapping diets. Differences in diet were nonetheless detectable between P. rufus and E. dupreanum, and these diets shifted when they co-occurred, suggesting resource partitioning across habitats and vertical strata within the canopy to avoid competition. Changes in diet were correlated with a decrease in forest cover, though at a larger spatial scale in P. rufus than in E. dupreanum. These results suggest fruit bat species exhibit differing responses to habitat change, highlight the threats fruit bats face from habitat change, and clarify the spatial scales at which conservation efforts could be implemented. PMID:27097316

  17. Integrating a Microwave Radiometer into Radar Hardware for Simultaneous Data Collection Between the Instruments

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLinden, Matthew; Piepmeier, Jeffrey

    2013-01-01

    The conventional method for integrating a radiometer into radar hardware is to share the RF front end between the instruments, and to have separate IF receivers that take data at separate times. Alternatively, the radar and radiometer could share the antenna through the use of a diplexer, but have completely independent receivers. This novel method shares the radar's RF electronics and digital receiver with the radiometer, while allowing for simultaneous operation of the radar and radiometer. Radars and radiometers, while often having near-identical RF receivers, generally have substantially different IF and baseband receivers. Operation of the two instruments simultaneously is difficult, since airborne radars will pulse at a rate of hundreds of microseconds. Radiometer integration time is typically 10s or 100s of milliseconds. The bandwidth of radar may be 1 to 25 MHz, while a radiometer will have an RF bandwidth of up to a GHz. As such, the conventional method of integrating radar and radiometer hardware is to share the highfrequency RF receiver, but to have separate IF subsystems and digitizers. To avoid corruption of the radiometer data, the radar is turned off during the radiometer dwell time. This method utilizes a modern radar digital receiver to allow simultaneous operation of a radiometer and radar with a shared RF front end and digital receiver. The radiometer signal is coupled out after the first down-conversion stage. From there, the radar transmit frequencies are heavily filtered, and the bands outside the transmit filter are amplified and passed to a detector diode. This diode produces a DC output proportional to the input power. For a conventional radiometer, this level would be digitized. By taking this DC output and mixing it with a system oscillator at 10 MHz, the signal can instead be digitized by a second channel on the radar digital receiver (which typically do not accept DC inputs), and can be down-converted to a DC level again digitally. This

  18. SMAP RADAR Calibration and Validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, R. D.; Jaruwatanadilok, S.; Chaubel, M. J.; Spencer, M.; Chan, S. F.; Chen, C. W.; Fore, A.

    2015-12-01

    The Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) mission launched on Jan 31, 2015. The mission employs L-band radar and radiometer measurements to estimate soil moisture with 4% volumetric accuracy at a resolution of 10 km, and freeze-thaw state at a resolution of 1-3 km. Immediately following launch, there was a three month instrument checkout period, followed by six months of level 1 (L1) calibration and validation. In this presentation, we will discuss the calibration and validation activities and results for the L1 radar data. Early SMAP radar data were used to check commanded timing parameters, and to work out issues in the low- and high-resolution radar processors. From April 3-13 the radar collected receive only mode data to conduct a survey of RFI sources. Analysis of the RFI environment led to a preferred operating frequency. The RFI survey data were also used to validate noise subtraction and scaling operations in the radar processors. Normal radar operations resumed on April 13. All radar data were examined closely for image quality and calibration issues which led to improvements in the radar data products for the beta release at the end of July. Radar data were used to determine and correct for small biases in the reported spacecraft attitude. Geo-location was validated against coastline positions and the known positions of corner reflectors. Residual errors at the time of the beta release are about 350 m. Intra-swath biases in the high-resolution backscatter images are reduced to less than 0.3 dB for all polarizations. Radiometric cross-calibration with Aquarius was performed using areas of the Amazon rain forest. Cross-calibration was also examined using ocean data from the low-resolution processor and comparing with the Aquarius wind model function. Using all a-priori calibration constants provided good results with co-polarized measurements matching to better than 1 dB, and cross-polarized measurements matching to about 1 dB in the beta release. During the

  19. Orthogonal on-off control of radar pulses for the suppression of mutual interference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yong Cheol

    1998-10-01

    Intelligent vehicles of the future will be guided by radars and other sensors to avoid obstacles. When multiple vehicles move simultaneously in autonomous navigational mode, mutual interference among car radars becomes a serious problem. An obstacle is illuminated with electromagnetic pulses from several radars. The signal at a radar receiver is actually a mixture of the self-reflection and the reflection of interfering pulses emitted by others. When standardized pulse- type radars are employed on vehicles for obstacle avoidance and so self-pulse and interfering pulses have identical pulse repetition interval, this SI (synchronous Interference) is very difficult to separate from the true reflection. We present a method of suppressing such a synchronous interference. By controlling the pulse emission of a radar in a binary orthogonal ON, OFF pattern, the true self-reflection can be separated from the false one. Two range maps are generated, TRM (true-reflection map) and SIM (synchronous- interference map). TRM is updated for every ON interval and SIM is updated for every OFF interval of the self-radar. SIM represents the SI of interfering radars while TRM keeps a record of a mixture of the true self-reflection and SI. Hence the true obstacles can be identified by the set subtraction operation. The performance of the proposed method is compared with that of the conventional M of N method. Bayesian analysis shows that the probability of false alarm is improved by order of 103 to approximately 106 while the deterioration in the probability of detection is negligible.

  20. Model-Based Radar Power Calculations for Ultra-Wideband (UWB) Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-01

    performance in complex scenarios. Among these scenarios are ground penetrating radar and forward-looking radar for landmine and improvised explosive...Model-Based Radar Power Calculations for Ultra-Wideband (UWB) Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) by Traian Dogaru ARL-TN-0548 June 2013...2013 Model-Based Radar Power Calculations for Ultra-Wideband (UWB) Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) Traian Dogaru Sensors and Electron

  1. Multifunction Radar for Airborne Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-07-01

    technoloigies nuvelles tint fail letur apparition : desc exercent une influence deicisive sur les cotncepts radar de dcmain. ULmnigrationit Treis Grande...various speeds (including speed zero). The aircraft equipped with the radar could also be at any altitude, above any type of earth surface, and...Microwave Backscattering from Water Waves", AGARD Conference on Propagation Factors Affecting Remote Sensing by Radio Waves, AGARD Conf. Proceedings, No

  2. Radar Imaging and Target Identification

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-02-09

    Methods in Wave Propagation, Vaxjo, Swe- den. • February 19, 2008, "Radar Imaging", math colloquium, Brigham- Young University. • January 31, 2008...manuscript, namely "Radar detection using sparsely distributed 19 apertures in urban environments", Ling Wang, II- Young Son, Trond Varslot, C. Evren...Coinmun. COM- 20, pp. 774-780, 1972. [24] M. Tomlinson, "New automatic equalizer employing modulo arithmetic," Electron. Lett. 7, pp. 138-139, 1971

  3. Haystack Ultrawideband Satellite Imaging Radar

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-01

    enable long-range imaging. In 2013, a major upgrade to the facility was completed, adding a millimeter - wave W-band radar capability to Haystack’s X...diameter antenna was completely rebuilt to provide a 100 μm root-mean-square (rms) surface accuracy to support operation at the 3 mm wave - length (W...electromagnetic wave propagation through the troposphere. − The signal processing system lev- eraged Lincoln Laboratory‘s Radar Open Systems

  4. Mitigating the Impact of Bats in Historic Churches: The Response of Natterer's Bats Myotis nattereri to Artificial Roosts and Deterrence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeale, Matt R K; Bennitt, Emily; Newson, Stuart E; Packman, Charlotte; Browne, William J; Harris, Stephen; Jones, Gareth; Stone, Emma

    2016-01-01

    Bats frequently roost in historic churches, and these colonies are of considerable conservation value. Inside churches, bat droppings and urine can cause damage to the historic fabric of the building and to items of cultural significance. In extreme cases, large quantities of droppings can restrict the use of a church for worship and/or other community functions. In the United Kingdom, bats and their roosts are protected by law, and striking a balance between conserving the natural and cultural heritage can be a significant challenge. We investigated mitigation strategies that could be employed in churches and other historic buildings to alleviate problems caused by bats without adversely affecting their welfare or conservation status. We used a combination of artificial roost provision and deterrence at churches in Norfolk, England, where significant maternity colonies of Natterer's bats Myotis nattereri damage church features. Radio-tracking data and population modelling showed that excluding M. nattereri from churches is likely to have a negative impact on their welfare and conservation status, but that judicious use of deterrents, especially high intensity ultrasound, can mitigate problems caused by bats. We show that deterrence can be used to move bats humanely from specific roosting sites within a church and limit the spread of droppings and urine so that problems to congregations and damage to cultural heritage can be much reduced. In addition, construction of bespoke roost spaces within churches can allow bats to continue to roost within the fabric of the building without flying in the church interior. We highlight that deterrence has the potential to cause serious harm to M. nattereri populations if not used judiciously, and so the effects of deterrents will need careful monitoring, and their use needs strict regulation.

  5. Development of a frequency-modulated ultrasonic sensor inspired by bat echolocation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kepa, Krzysztof; Abaid, Nicole

    2015-03-01

    Bats have evolved to sense using ultrasonic signals with a variety of different frequency signatures which interact with their environment. Among these signals, those with time-varying frequencies may enable the animals to gather more complex information for obstacle avoidance and target tracking. Taking inspiration from this system, we present the development of a sonar sensor capable of generating frequency-modulated ultrasonic signals. The device is based on a miniature mobile computer, with on board data capture and processing capabilities, which is designed for eventual autonomous operation in a robotic swarm. The hardware and software components of the sensor are detailed, as well their integration. Preliminary results for target detection using both frequency-modulated and constant frequency signals are discussed.

  6. Flight Deck Weather Avoidance Decision Support: Implementation and Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Shu-Chieh; Luna, Rocio; Johnson, Walter W.

    2013-01-01

    Weather related disruptions account for seventy percent of the delays in the National Airspace System (NAS). A key component in the weather plan of the Next Generation of Air Transportation System (NextGen) is to assimilate observed weather information and probabilistic forecasts into the decision process of flight crews and air traffic controllers. In this research we explore supporting flight crew weather decision making through the development of a flight deck predicted weather display system that utilizes weather predictions generated by ground-based radar. This system integrates and presents this weather information, together with in-flight trajectory modification tools, within a cockpit display of traffic information (CDTI) prototype. that the CDTI features 2D and perspective 3D visualization models of weather. The weather forecast products that we implemented were the Corridor Integrated Weather System (CIWS) and the Convective Weather Avoidance Model (CWAM), both developed by MIT Lincoln Lab. We evaluated the use of CIWS and CWAM for flight deck weather avoidance in two part-task experiments. Experiment 1 compared pilots' en route weather avoidance performance in four weather information conditions that differed in the type and amount of predicted forecast (CIWS current weather only, CIWS current and historical weather, CIWS current and forecast weather, CIWS current and forecast weather and CWAM predictions). Experiment 2 compared the use of perspective 3D and 21/2D presentations of weather for flight deck weather avoidance. Results showed that pilots could take advantage of longer range predicted weather forecasts in performing en route weather avoidance but more research will be needed to determine what combinations of information are optimal and how best to present them.

  7. Genetic approaches to the conservation of migratory bats: a study of the eastern red bat (Lasiurus borealis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maarten J. Vonhof

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Documented fatalities of bats at wind turbines have raised serious concerns about the future impacts of increased wind power development on populations of migratory bat species. However, for most bat species we have no knowledge of the size of populations and their demographic trends, the degree of structuring into discrete subpopulations, and whether different subpopulations use spatially segregated migratory routes. Here, we utilize genetic data from eastern red bats (Lasiurus borealis, one of the species most highly affected by wind power development in North America, to (1 evaluate patterns of population structure across the landscape, (2 estimate effective population size (Ne, and (3 assess signals of growth or decline in population size. Using data on both nuclear and mitochondrial DNA variation, we demonstrate that this species forms a single, panmictic population across their range with no evidence for the historical use of divergent migratory pathways by any portion of the population. Further, using coalescent estimates we estimate that the effective size of this population is in the hundreds of thousands to millions of individuals. The high levels of gene flow and connectivity across the population of eastern red bats indicate that monitoring and management of eastern red bats must integrate information across the range of this species.

  8. Proceedings of the Wind Energy and Birds/Bats Workshop: Understanding and Resolving Bird and Bat Impacts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwartz, Susan Savitt (ed.)

    2004-09-01

    Most conservation groups support the development of wind energy in the US as an alternative to fossil and nuclear-fueled power plants to meet growing demand for electrical energy. However, concerns have surfaced over the potential threat to birds, bats, and other wildlife from the construction and operation of wind turbine facilities. Co-sponsored by the American Bird Conservancy (ABC) and the American Wind Energy Association (AWEA), the Wind Energy and Birds/Bats Workshop was convened to examine current research on the impacts of wind energy development on avian and bat species and to discuss the most effective ways to mitigate such impacts. On 18-19 May 2004, 82 representatives from government, non-government organizations, private business, and academia met to (1) review the status of the wind industry and current project development practices, including pre-development risk assessment and post-construction monitoring; (2) learn what is known about direct, indirect (habitat), and cumulative impacts on birds and bats from existing wind projects; about relevant aspects of bat and bird migration ecology; about offshore wind development experience in Europe; and about preventing, minimizing, and mitigating avian and bat impacts; (3) review wind development guidelines developed by the USFWS and the Washington State Department of Fish and Wildlife; and (4) identify topics needing further research and to discuss what can be done to ensure that research is both credible and accessible. These Workshop Proceedings include detailed summaries of the presentations made and the discussions that followed.

  9. Logarithmic Laplacian Prior Based Bayesian Inverse Synthetic Aperture Radar Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shuanghui; Liu, Yongxiang; Li, Xiang; Bi, Guoan

    2016-04-28

    This paper presents a novel Inverse Synthetic Aperture Radar Imaging (ISAR) algorithm based on a new sparse prior, known as the logarithmic Laplacian prior. The newly proposed logarithmic Laplacian prior has a narrower main lobe with higher tail values than the Laplacian prior, which helps to achieve performance improvement on sparse representation. The logarithmic Laplacian prior is used for ISAR imaging within the Bayesian framework to achieve better focused radar image. In the proposed method of ISAR imaging, the phase errors are jointly estimated based on the minimum entropy criterion to accomplish autofocusing. The maximum a posterior (MAP) estimation and the maximum likelihood estimation (MLE) are utilized to estimate the model parameters to avoid manually tuning process. Additionally, the fast Fourier Transform (FFT) and Hadamard product are used to minimize the required computational efficiency. Experimental results based on both simulated and measured data validate that the proposed algorithm outperforms the traditional sparse ISAR imaging algorithms in terms of resolution improvement and noise suppression.

  10. Separate DOD and DOA Estimation for Bistatic MIMO Radar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Li

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel MUSIC-type algorithm is derived in this paper for the direction of departure (DOD and direction of arrival (DOA estimation in a bistatic MIMO radar. Through rearranging the received signal matrix, we illustrate that the DOD and the DOA can be separately estimated. Compared with conventional MUSIC-type algorithms, the proposed separate MUSIC algorithm can avoid the interference between DOD and DOA estimations effectively. Therefore, it is expected to give a better angle estimation performance and have a much lower computational complexity. Meanwhile, we demonstrate that our method is also effective for coherent targets in MIMO radar. Simulation results verify the efficiency of the proposed method, particularly when the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR is low and/or the number of snapshots is small.

  11. Anthropogenic noise alters bat activity levels and echolocation calls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessie P. Bunkley

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Negative impacts from anthropogenic noise are well documented for many wildlife taxa. Investigations of the effects of noise on bats however, have not been conducted outside of the laboratory. Bats that hunt arthropods rely on auditory information to forage. Part of this acoustic information can fall within the spectrum of anthropogenic noise, which can potentially interfere with signal reception and processing. Compressor stations associated with natural gas extraction produce broadband noise 24 hours a day, 365 days a year. With over half a million producing gas wells in the U.S. this infrastructure is a major source of noise pollution across the landscape. We conducted a ‘natural experiment’ in the second largest gas extraction field in the U.S. to investigate the potential effects of gas compressor station noise on the activity levels of the local bat assemblage. We used acoustic monitoring to compare the activity level (number of minutes in a night with a bat call of the bat assemblage at sites with compressor stations to sites lacking this infrastructure. We found that activity levels for the Brazilian free-tailed bat (Tadarida brasiliensis were 40% lower at loud compressor sites compared to quieter well pads, whereas the activity levels of four other species (Myotis californicus, M. cillolabrum, M. lucifugus, Parastrellus hesperus were not affected by noise. Furthermore, our results reveal that the assemblage of bat species emitting low frequency (35 kHz echolocation did not exhibit altered activity levels in noise. Lower activity levels of Brazilian free-tailed bats at loud sites indicate a potential reduction in habitat for this species. Additionally, a comparison of echolocation search calls produced by free-tailed bats at sites with and without compressor stations reveal that this species modifies its echolocation search calls in noise—producing longer calls with a narrower bandwidth. Call alterations might affect prey

  12. Habitat use and seasonal activity of insectivorous bats (Mammalia: Chiroptera in the grasslands of southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marília A. S. Barros

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In temperate zones, insectivorous bats use some types of habitat more frequently than others, and are more active in the warmest periods of the year. We assessed the spatial and seasonal activity patterns of bats in open areas of the southernmost region of Brazil. We tested the hypothesis that bat activity differs among habitat types, among seasons, and is influenced by weather variables. We monitored four 1,500-m transects monthly, from April 2009 to March 2010. Transects corresponded to the five habitat types that predominate in the region. In each sampling session, we detected and counted bat passes with an ultrasound detector (Pettersson D230 and measured climatic variables at the transects. We recorded 1,183 bat passes, and observed the highest activity at the edge of a eucalyptus stand (0.64 bat passes/min and along an irrigation channel (0.54 bat passes/min. The second highest activity values (0.31 and 0.20 bat passes/min, respectively were obtained at the edge of a riparian forest and at the margin of a wetland. The grasslands were used significantly less (0.05 bat passes/min. Bat activity was significantly lower in the winter (0.21 bat passes/min and showed similar values in the autumn (0.33 bat passes/min, spring (0.26 bat passes/min, and summer (0.29 bat passes/min. Bat activity was correlated with temperature, but it was not correlated with wind speed and relative humidity of the air. Our data suggest that, in the study area, insectivorous bats are active throughout the year, and use mostly forest and watercourses areas. These habitat types should be considered prioritary for the conservation of bats in the southernmost region of Brazil.

  13. Distribution, foraging behavior, and capture results of the spotted bat (Euderma maculatum) in central Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodhouse, T.J.; McCaffrey, M.F.; Wright, R.G.

    2005-01-01

    The spotted bat (Euderma maculatum) has been virtually unknown in Oregon despite the existence of potential habitat in many areas of the state. In 2002 and 2003 we searched for spotted bats along the John Day, Deschutes, and Crooked Rivers and at a remote dry canyon southeast of the city of Bend in central Oregon. The species was documented through the use of mist-nets, a bat detector, and recognition of audible spotted bat calls. Spotted bats were found at 11 locations in 6 Oregon counties. Nightly activity patterns of spotted bats were unpredictable. Spotted bats were found in 78% of search areas but on only 48% of survey nights. We observed spotted bats foraging above fields and low upland slopes adjacent to rivers and creeks and along the rims of cliffs. Estimated flying heights of spotted bats ranged from 3 m to 50 m aboveground. The species was difficult to capture and was captured only after considerable experimentation with methods and materials. Three spotted bats were captured toward the end of the project in 2003 and accounted for only 0.5% of all bats captured during the study. Although we attached radio transmitters to 2 spotted bats, we found no roost locations. We believe additional spotted bat surveys in Oregon are warranted, especially in higher-elevation habitats, but recommend that to increase their effectiveness, surveys accommodate the unique foraging behavior of the species.

  14. Insect prey eaten by Hoary Bats (Lasiurus cinereus) prior to fatal collisions with wind turbines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdez, Ernest W.; Cryan, Paul M.

    2013-01-01

    Wind turbines are being deployed all across the world to meet the growing demand for energy, and in many areas, these turbines are causing the deaths of insectivorous migratory bats. One of the hypothesized causes of bat susceptibility is that bats are attracted to insects on or near the turbines. We examined insect remains in the stomachs and intestines of hoary bats (Lasiurus cinereus) found dead beneath wind turbines in New York and Texas to evaluate the hypothesis that bats die while feeding at turbines. Most of the bats we examined had full stomachs, indicating that they fed in the minutes to hours leading up to their deaths. However, we did not find prey in the mouths or throats of any bats that would indicate the bats died while capturing prey. Hoary bats fed mostly on moths, but we also detected the regular presence of beetles, true bugs, and crickets. Presence of terrestrial insects in stomachs indicates that bats may have gleaned them from the ground or the turbine surfaces, yet aerial capture of winged insect stages cannot be ruled out. Our findings confirm earlier studies that indicate hoary bats feed during migration and eat mostly moths. Future studies on bat behaviors and insect presence at wind turbines could help determine whether feeding at turbines is a major fatality risk for bats.

  15. Obstacle Avoidance Through Visual Teleoperation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Usman Keerio

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a novel controlling approach forHumanoid Robot to work safely in critical situations like badlight environment using Visual Teleoperation. In this regardmodeling environments for Humanoid Teleoperation Systemis developed. Here virtual reality modeling environmentincludes development of virtual Humanoid BHR-2, andvirtual objects like table etc. The main goal of this work is toenhance our visual teleoperation system for BHR-2 in orderto avoid any collision during real time operation. SoftwareMaya is used for modeling and simulations. Maya plug-insin VC++ provides efficient modeling rule, real timeinteraction, and time saving rendering approach in a virtualenvironment. In this paper the validity of proposed scheme isshown by conducting experiments using offline step overtrajectory to avoid obstacle in bad light environment.

  16. Consumer Privacy and Marketing Avoidance

    OpenAIRE

    Il-Horn Hann; Kai-Lung Hui; Sang-Yong Tom Lee; Ivan Png

    2005-01-01

    We introduce consumer avoidance into analytical marketing research. We show that consumer efforts to conceal themselves and to deflect marketing have a crucial impact on sellers¡¯ marketing strategy. Under reasonable conditions, seller marketing is a strategic complement with consumer concealment. Hence, consumer measures to conceal themselves from marketing will increase its cost-effectiveness and lead sellers to market more. Policies that encourage consumers to conceal their identities woul...

  17. Natural and experimental infection of sheep with European bat lyssavirus type-1 of Danish bat origin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tjørnehøj, Kirsten; Fooks, A.R.; Agerholm, J.S.

    2006-01-01

    . In a serological investigation in two of the herds, from which three of the diseased animals originated, EBLV-1 neutralizing antibodies were detected in only one of 69 sheep. Ill follow-up surveys, 2110 sheep sera collected at Danish slaughterhouses during 2000 were all negative for EBLV-1-antibodies, and EBLV-1......In 1998 and 2002, European bat lyssavirus type-1 (EBLV-1) was demonstrated in brain tissue of five Danish sheep suffering from micrological disorders. Four of the five sheep also had encephalic listeriosis. The animals originated from four flocks on pastures within a limited area of western Jutland...

  18. Bat Rabies in France: A 24-Year Retrospective Epidemiological Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picard-Meyer, Evelyne; Robardet, Emmanuelle; Arthur, Laurent; Larcher, Gérald; Harbusch, Christine; Servat, Alexandre; Cliquet, Florence

    2014-01-01

    Since bat rabies surveillance was first implemented in France in 1989, 48 autochthonous rabies cases without human contamination have been reported using routine diagnosis methods. In this retrospective study, data on bats submitted for rabies testing were analysed in order to better understand the epidemiology of EBLV-1 in bats in France and to investigate some epidemiological trends. Of the 3176 bats submitted for rabies diagnosis from 1989 to 2013, 1.96% (48/2447 analysed) were diagnosed positive. Among the twelve recognised virus species within the Lyssavirus genus, two species were isolated in France. 47 positive bats were morphologically identified as Eptesicus serotinus and were shown to be infected by both the EBLV-1a and the EBLV-1b lineages. Isolation of BBLV in Myotis nattereri was reported once in the north-east of France in 2012. The phylogenetic characterisation of all 47 French EBLV-1 isolates sampled between 1989 and 2013 and the French BBLV sample against 21 referenced partial nucleoprotein sequences confirmed the low genetic diversity of EBLV-1 despite its extensive geographical range. Statistical analysis performed on the serotine bat data collected from 1989 to 2013 showed seasonal variation of rabies occurrence with a significantly higher proportion of positive samples detected during the autumn compared to the spring and the summer period (34% of positive bats detected in autumn, 15% in summer, 13% in spring and 12% in winter). In this study, we have provided the details of the geographical distribution of EBLV-1a in the south-west of France and the north-south division of EBLV-1b with its subdivisions into three phylogenetic groups: group B1 in the north-west, group B2 in the centre and group B3 in the north-east of France. PMID:24892287

  19. Two novel parvoviruses in frugivorous New and Old World bats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Canuti

    Full Text Available Bats, a globally distributed group of mammals with high ecological importance, are increasingly recognized as natural reservoir hosts for viral agents of significance to human and animal health. In the present study, we evaluated pools of blood samples obtained from two phylogenetically distant bat families, in particular from flying foxes (Pteropodidae, Eidolon helvum in West Africa, and from two species of New World leaf-nosed fruit bats (Phyllostomidae, Artibeus jamaicensis and Artibeus lituratus in Central America. A sequence-independent virus discovery technique (VIDISCA was used in combination with high throughput sequencing to detect two novel parvoviruses: a PARV4-like virus named Eh-BtPV-1 in Eidolon helvum from Ghana and the first member of a putative new genus in Artibeus jamaicensis from Panama (Aj-BtPV-1. Those viruses were circulating in the corresponding bat colony at rates of 7-8%. Aj-BtPV-1 was also found in Artibeus lituratus (5.5%. Both viruses were detected in the blood of infected animals at high concentrations: up to 10E8 and to 10E10 copies/ml for Aj-BtPV-1 and Eh-BtPV-1 respectively. Eh-BtPV-1 was additionally detected in all organs collected from bats (brain, lungs, liver, spleen, kidneys and intestine and spleen and kidneys were identified as the most likely sites where viral replication takes place. Our study shows that bat parvoviruses share common ancestors with known parvoviruses of humans and livestock. We also provide evidence that a variety of Parvovirinae are able to cause active infection in bats and that they are widely distributed in these animals with different geographic origin, ecologies and climatic ranges.

  20. Scanning behavior in echolocating common pipistrelle bats (Pipistrellus pipistrellus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna-Maria Seibert

    Full Text Available Echolocating bats construct an auditory world sequentially by analyzing successive pulse-echo pairs. Many other mammals rely upon a visual world, acquired by sequential foveal fixations connected by visual gaze saccades. We investigated the scanning behavior of bats and compared it to visual scanning. We assumed that each pulse-echo pair evaluation corresponds to a foveal fixation and that sonar beam movements between pulses can be seen as acoustic gaze saccades. We used a two-dimensional 16 microphone array to determine the sonar beam direction of succeeding pulses and to characterize the three dimensional scanning behavior in the common pipistrelle bat (Pipistrellus pipistrellus flying in the field. We also used variations of signal amplitude of single microphone recordings as indicator for scanning behavior in open space. We analyzed 33 flight sequences containing more than 700 echolocation calls to determine bat positions, source levels, and beam aiming. When searching for prey and orienting in space, bats moved their sonar beam in all directions, often alternately back and forth. They also produced sequences with irregular or no scanning movements. When approaching the array, the scanning movements were much smaller and the beam was moved over the array in small steps. Differences in the scanning pattern at various recording sites indicated that the scanning behavior depended on the echolocation task that was being performed. The scanning angles varied over a wide range and were often larger than the maximum angle measurable by our array. We found that echolocating bats use a "saccade and fixate" strategy similar to vision. Through the use of scanning movements, bats are capable of finding and exploring targets in a wide search cone centered along flight direction.

  1. Scanning behavior in echolocating common pipistrelle bats (Pipistrellus pipistrellus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seibert, Anna-Maria; Koblitz, Jens C; Denzinger, Annette; Schnitzler, Hans-Ulrich

    2013-01-01

    Echolocating bats construct an auditory world sequentially by analyzing successive pulse-echo pairs. Many other mammals rely upon a visual world, acquired by sequential foveal fixations connected by visual gaze saccades. We investigated the scanning behavior of bats and compared it to visual scanning. We assumed that each pulse-echo pair evaluation corresponds to a foveal fixation and that sonar beam movements between pulses can be seen as acoustic gaze saccades. We used a two-dimensional 16 microphone array to determine the sonar beam direction of succeeding pulses and to characterize the three dimensional scanning behavior in the common pipistrelle bat (Pipistrellus pipistrellus) flying in the field. We also used variations of signal amplitude of single microphone recordings as indicator for scanning behavior in open space. We analyzed 33 flight sequences containing more than 700 echolocation calls to determine bat positions, source levels, and beam aiming. When searching for prey and orienting in space, bats moved their sonar beam in all directions, often alternately back and forth. They also produced sequences with irregular or no scanning movements. When approaching the array, the scanning movements were much smaller and the beam was moved over the array in small steps. Differences in the scanning pattern at various recording sites indicated that the scanning behavior depended on the echolocation task that was being performed. The scanning angles varied over a wide range and were often larger than the maximum angle measurable by our array. We found that echolocating bats use a "saccade and fixate" strategy similar to vision. Through the use of scanning movements, bats are capable of finding and exploring targets in a wide search cone centered along flight direction.

  2. HPRF pulse Doppler stepped frequency radar

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LONG Teng; REN LiXiang

    2009-01-01

    Stepped frequency radar Is a well known scheme to generate high range resolution profile (HRRP) of targets. Through appropriate radar parameter design, the radar enables both unambiguous velocity measurement and high resolution ranging within a single dwell in a high pulse repetition frequency (HPRF) mode. This paper analyzes in detail the design principle of the HPRF stepped frequency radar system, the solution to its ambiguity issue, as well as its signal processing method. Both theoretical analysis and simulation results demonstrate that the proposed radar scheme can work independently to solve the problem of motion compensation, and is therefore highly applicable to many new types of radar.

  3. Adaptive filters applied on radar signals

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    This master thesis has been performed at SAAB AB in Järfälla, Sweden.A radar warning receiver must alert the user when someone highlights it with radarsignals. Radar signals used today varies and has a wide frequency band. In order todetect all possible radar signals the radar warning receiver must have a widebandwidth. This results in that the noise power will be high in the radar warningreceiver and weak radar signals will be hard to detect or even undetected.The aim of the thesis work was ...

  4. Characteristics of mesosphere echoes over Antarctica obtained using PANSY and MF radars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsutsumi, Masaki; Nakamura, Takuji; Sato, Toru; Nishimura, Koji; Sato, Kaoru; Tomikawa, Yoshihiro; Kohma, Masashi

    2016-07-01

    In the polar region characteristic radar echoes are observed from the mesosphere by using a VHF system. The nature of the echoes is distinctively different between summer and winter and those echoes are called Polar Mesosphere Summer Echoes (PMSEs) and Polar Mesosphere Winter Echoes (PMWEs), respectively. Since the PMSEs are usually very strong and can be easily measured with a small radar system, their nature is relatively well understood. On the other hand PMWEs are much weaker and they are still only poorly understood. The PANSY radar (47MHz) at Syowa station (69S) is the only large aperture atmospheric radar in the Antarctic, and can continuously survey the dynamics of the middle atmosphere with high time and height resolutions [Sato et al., 2014]. Nishiyama et al [2014] reported the first study of PMWEs using PANSY radar and showed a seasonal and local time dependence of these echoes. An MF radar system (2.4MHz) is co-located at Syowa, and has been operating for mesosphere and lower thermosphere observations. Although the MF radar has only a much poorer height resolution and is incapable of vertical wind measurement, it can almost continuously measure mesosphere day and night. In this study the nature of the mesosphere echoes, mainly PMWEs, are being studied using the two radars based on the observation made in 2015. These radars are operated using largely different radio frequencies and can provide complementary information with each other such as wind velocities and also echo scattering mechanisms. Horizontal wind velocities have been compared between the two radars with a great care mostly in the MF radar winds in order to avoid possible biases inherent in the correlation analysis technique employed for the MF radar wind measurement. A careful analysis has shown that the horizontal wind velocities agree well between the two systems with a high correlation coefficient around 0.8 throughout the height region of 65-85km. Aspect sensitivities estimated using

  5. Mobile Acoustical Bat Monitoring Annual Summary Report CY 2014 and 2015 - Fern Cave National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — These reports summarize bat calls collected along transects at Fern Cave NWR between 2014 and 2015. Calls were classified using Bat Call ID ([BCID] version 2.5a)...

  6. Mobile Acoustical Bat Monitoring Annual Summary Report CY 2012-2013 - Fern Cave National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes bat calls collected along transects at Fern Cave NWR in 2012 and 2013. Calls were classified using Bat Call ID ([BCID] version 2.5a) software...

  7. Mobile Acoustical Bat Monitoring Annual Summary Report CY 2012-2013 - Coldwater River National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes bat calls collected along transects at Coldwater River NWR in 2012 and 2013. Calls were classified using Bat Call ID ([BCID] version 2.5a)...

  8. Mobile Acoustical Bat Monitoring Annual Summary Report CY 2012 to 2015 - Mathews Brake National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — These reports summarize bat calls collected along transects at Mathews Brake National Wildlife Refuge between 2012 and 2015. Calls were classified using Bat Call ID...

  9. Mobile Acoustical Bat Monitoring Annual Summary Report CY 2014 to 2015 - Key Cave National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — These reports summarize bat calls collected along transects at Key Cave NWR between 2014 and 2015. Calls were classified using Bat Call ID ([BCID] version 2.5a)...

  10. Mobile Acoustical Bat Monitoring Annual Summary Report CY 2012 to 2015 - Big Oaks National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — These reports summarize bat calls collected along transects at Big Oaks NWR between 2012 and 2015. Calls were classified using Bat Call ID ([BCID] version 2.5a)...

  11. Mobile Acoustical Bat Monitoring Annual Summary Report CY 2014 - Big Branch Marsh National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — These reports summarize bat calls collected along transects at Big Branch Marsh NWR in 2014. Calls were classified using Bat Call ID ([BCID] version 2.5a) software...

  12. Mobile Acoustical Bat Monitoring Annual Summary Report CY 2013 to 2015 - Middle Mississippi National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — These reports summarize bat calls collected along transects at Middle Mississippi NWR between 2013 and 2015. Calls were classified using Bat Call ID ([BCID] version...

  13. Mobile Acoustical Bat Monitoring Annual Summary Report CY 2013 to 2016 - Overflow National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — These reports summarize bat calls collected along transects at Overflow NWR between 2013 and 2015. Calls were classified using Bat Call ID ([BCID] version 2.5a)...

  14. Mobile Acoustical Bat Monitoring Annual Summary Report CY 2012 to 2015 - Tennessee National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — These reports summarize bat calls collected along transects at Tennessee NWR between 2012 and 2015. Calls were classified using Bat Call ID ([BCID] version 2.5a)...

  15. Mobile Acoustical Bat Monitoring Annual Summary Report CY 2015 - Piedmont National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — These reports summarize bat calls collected along transects at Piedmont NWR in 2015. Calls were classified using Bat Call ID ([BCID] version 2.5a) software and...

  16. Mobile Acoustical Bat Monitoring Annual Summary Report CY 2012 to 2014 - Upper Ouachita National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — These reports summarize bat calls collected along transects at Upper Ouachita NWR between 2012 and 2014. Calls were classified using Bat Call ID ([BCID] version...

  17. Mobile Acoustical Bat Monitoring Annual Summary Report CY 2014 - Bogue Chitto National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — These reports summarize bat calls collected along transects at Bogue Chitto NWR in 2014. Calls were classified using Bat Call ID ([BCID] version 2.5a) software and...

  18. Mobile Acoustical Bat Monitoring Annual Summary Report CY 2012 to 2015 - Cypress Creek National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — These reports summarize bat calls collected along transects at Cypress Creek NWR between 2012 and 2015. Calls were classified using Bat Call ID ([BCID] version 2.5a)...

  19. Mobile Acoustical Bat Monitoring Annual Summary Report CY 2012 to 2015 - Mingo National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — These reports summarize bat calls collected along transects at Mingo National Wildlife Refuge between 2012 and 2015. Calls were classified using Bat Call ID ([BCID]...

  20. Mobile Acoustical Bat Monitoring Annual Summary Report CY 2012 to 2015 - Cache River National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — These reports summarize bat calls collected along transects at Cache River NWR between 2012 and 2015. Calls were classified using Bat Call ID ([BCID] version 2.5a)...