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Sample records for batio3 thin film

  1. Microstructural properties of BaTiO3 ceramics and thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fundora C, A.; Portelles, J.J.; Siqueiros, J.M.

    2000-01-01

    A microstructural study of BaTiO 3 ceramics obtained by the conventional ceramic method is presented. Targets were produced to grow BaTiO 3 thin films by pulsed laser deposition on Pt/Ti/Si (100) substrates. X-ray diffraction, Auger Electron Spectroscopy, X-ray Photon Spectroscopy and Scanning Electron Microscopy were used to study the properties of the BaTiO 3 ceramic samples and thin films, as deposited and after an annealing process. (Author)

  2. Pulsed Laser Deposition of BaTiO3 Thin Films on Different Substrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaodong Yang

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We have studied the deposition of BaTiO3 (BTO thin films on various substrates. Three representative substrates were selected from different types of material systems: (i SrTiO3 single crystals as a typical oxide, (ii Si wafers as a semiconductor, and (iii Ni foils as a magnetostrictive metal. We have compared the ferroelectric properties of BTO thin films obtained by pulsed laser deposition on these diverse substrates.

  3. Excimer laser assisted re-oxidation of BaTiO3 thin films on Ni metal foils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bharadwaja, S. S. N.; Ko, S. W.; Qu, W.; Clark, T.; Rajashekhar, A.; Motyka, M.; Podraza, N.; Randall, C. A.; Trolier-McKinstry, S.

    2016-01-01

    Excimer laser assisted re-oxidation for reduced, crystallized BaTiO 3 thin films on Ni-foils was investigated. It was found that the BaTiO 3 can be re-oxidized at an oxygen partial pressure of ∼50 mTorr and substrate temperature of 350 °C without forming a NiO x interface layer between the film and base metal foil. The dielectric permittivity of re-oxidized films was >1000 with loss tangent values <2% at 100 Hz, 30 mV rms excitation signal. Electron Energy Loss Spectroscopy indicated that BaTiO 3 thin films can be re-oxidized to an oxygen stoichiometry close to ∼3 (e.g., stoichiometric). High resolution cross sectional transmission electron microscopy showed no evidence of NiO x formation between the BaTiO 3 and the Ni foil upon excimer laser re-oxidation. Spectroscopic ellipsometry studies on laser re-oxidized [001] C and [111] C BaTiO 3 single crystals indicate that the re-oxidation of BaTiO 3 single crystals is augmented by photo-excitation of the ozone, as well as laser pulse induced temperature and local stress gradients

  4. Synthesis and characterization of multilayered BaTiO3/NiFe2O4 thin films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Branimir Bajac

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Presented research was focused on the fabrication of multiferroic thin film structures, composed of ferrielectric barium titanate perovskite phase and magnetostrictive nickel ferrite spinel phase. The applicability of different, solution based, deposition techniques (film growth from solution, dip coating and spin coating for thefabrication of multilayered BaTiO3 /NiFe2O4 thin films was investigated. It was shown that only spin coating produces films of desired nanostructure, thickness and smooth and crackfree surfaces.

  5. Preparation and optical properties of gold-dispersed BaTiO3 thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kineri, T; Mori, M [TDK Corp., Tokyo (Japan). R and D Center; Kadono, K; Sakaguchi, T; Miya, M; Wakabayashi, H [Osaka National Research Inst., Osaka (Japan); Tsuchiya, T [Science Univ. of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan). Faculty of Industrial Science and Technology

    1993-12-01

    Recently, metal or semiconductor-doped glasses were widely studied because of their large resonant third-order nonlinearity. These glasses are utilized in an optical information field as all optical logic devices in the future. The gold-doped glass films or thin layers have a large third-order nonlinear susceptibility [chi] and are prepared by r.f. sputtering method, etc. The optical properties, particularly the refractive index or dielectric constant of the matrix, are very important for the optical nonlinearity of these materials. In this study, gold-dispersed BaTiO3 thin films and gold-dispersed SiO2 thin films are prepared using r.f. magnetron sputtering method, and the optical properties of the films are compared. The [chi] of the films are measured and the effect of the matrix of the films on [chi] is investigated. The headings in the paper are: Introduction, Experimental procedure, Results, Discussion, and Conclusion. 13 refs., 9 figs.

  6. Hydrothermal–galvanic couple synthesis of directionally oriented BaTiO3 thin films on TiN-coated substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Chia-Jung; Tsai, Di-You; Chan, Pei-Hsuan; Wu, Chu-Tsun; Lu, Fu-Hsing

    2013-01-01

    BaTiO 3 films were synthesized on TiN-coated Si substrate below 100 °C by a hydrothermal–galvanic couple technique in barium contained alkaline solutions. X-ray diffraction and electron backscatter diffraction results show that the BaTiO 3 thin films were directionally oriented grown on the TiN/Si substrates, i.e., (111) BaTiO 3 over (111) TiN. The surface morphologies revealed that BaTiO 3 nucleated and grew over the TiN surface with a single layer. From kinetic analyses, the growth rates of BaTiO 3 films prepared by the hydrothermal–galvanic couple technique were faster than a hydrothermal method. The galvanic effects were confirmed by investigating the induced currents and energies. The galvanic currents were generated and controlled by both the dissolution of TiN and the formation of BaTiO 3 . The output electric energies increased rapidly with the reaction time and leveled off at the full coverage of BaTiO 3 . - Highlights: • Cubic BaTiO 3 films are synthesized by a hydrothermal–galvanic couple method (HT–GC). • Growth rates of BaTiO 3 films made by HT–GC are faster than a hydrothermal method. • BaTiO 3 films are directionally oriented grown on the TiN/Si substrates. • Galvanic currents are controlled by dissolution of TiN and formation of BaTiO 3

  7. Ferroelectric BaTiO3 thin films on Ti substrate fabricated using pulsed-laser deposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, J; Jiang, J C; Liu, J; Collins, G; Chen, C L; Lin, B; Giurgiutiu, V; Guo, R Y; Bhalla, A; Meletis, E I

    2010-09-01

    We report on the fabrication of ferroelectric BaTiO3 thin films on titanium substrates using pulsed laser deposition and their microstructures and properties. Electron microscopy studies reveal that BaTiO3 films are composed of crystalline assemblage of nanopillars with average cross sections from 100 nm to 200 nm. The BaTiO3 films have good interface structures and strong adhesion with respect to Ti substrates by forming a rutile TiO2 intermediate layer with a gradient microstructure. The room temperature ferroelectric polarization measurements show that the as-deposited BTO films possess nearly the same spontaneous polarization as the bulk BTO ceramics indicating formation of ferroelectric domains in the films. Successful fabrication of such ferroelectric films on Ti has significant importance for the development of new applications such as structural health monitoring spanning from aerospace to civil infrastructure. The work can be extended to integrate other ferroelectric oxide films with various promising properties to monitor the structural health of materials.

  8. Structural characterization and dielectric properties of BaTiO3 thin films obtained by spin coating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Branimir Bajac

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Barium titanate thin films were prepared by spin coating deposition technique of an acetic precursor sol and sintered at 750, 900 and 1050 °C. Phase composition of the obtained thin films was characterized by X-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy. Their morphology was analysed by scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy. Dielectric properties of thin films sintered at 750 and 900 °C were characterized by LCD device, where the influence of sintering temperature on dielectric permittivity and loss tangent was inspected. It was concluded that higher sintering temperature increases grain size and amount of tetragonal phase, hence higher relative permittivity was recorded. The almost constant relative permittivity in the measured frequency (800 Hz–0.5 MHz and temperature (25–200 °C ranges as well as low dielectric loss are very important for the application of BaTiO3 films in microelectronic devices.

  9. Dynamics of ferroelectric nanodomains in BaTiO3 epitaxial thin films via piezoresponse force microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pertsev, N A; Petraru, A; Kohlstedt, H; Waser, R; Bdikin, I K; Kiselev, D; Kholkin, A L

    2008-01-01

    Ferroelectric nanodomains were created in BaTiO 3 thin films by applying a voltage to a sharp conducting tip of a scanning force microscope (SFM). The films were epitaxially grown on SrRuO 3 -covered (001)-oriented SrTiO 3 substrates by a high-pressure sputtering. They appeared to be single-crystalline with the (001) crystallographic orientation relative to the substrate. Using the piezoresponse mode of the SFM to detect the out-of-plane film polarization, the domain sizes were measured as a function of the applied writing voltage and the pulse time. It was found that the time dependence of the domain diameter in a 60 nm thick BaTiO 3 film deviates significantly from the logarithmic law observed earlier in Pb(Zr 0.2 Ti 0.8 )O 3 (PZT) films. At a given writing time, the domain size increases nonlinearly with increasing applied voltage, in contrast to the linear behavior reported earlier for PZT films and LiNbO 3 single crystals. The dynamics of domain growth is analyzed theoretically taking into account the strong inhomogeneity of the external electric field in the film and the influence of the bottom electrode. It is shown that the observed writing time and voltage dependences of the domain size can be explained by the domain-wall creep in the presence of random-bond disorder

  10. X-ray line profile analysis of BaTiO3 thin film prepared by sol-gel deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ooi, Zeen Vee; Saif, Ala'eddin A.; Wahab, Yufridin; Jamal, Zul Azhar Zahid

    2017-04-01

    Barium titanate (BaTiO3) thin film was prepared using sol-gel method and spun-coated on SiO2/Si substrate. The phase and crystallinity of the synthesized film were identified using X-ray diffractometer (XRD), which scanned at the range of 20° to 60°. The phase and lattice parameters of the fabricated film were extracted from the recorded XRD patterns using lattice geometry equations. The crystallite size and lattice strain were determined using X-ray line profile analysis (XLPA) with various approaches. The Scherrer equation was applied to the perovskite peaks of the film to explore the size contribution on the peak broadening. Meanwhile, the Williamson-Hall and size-strain plot (SSP) methods were used to review two main independent contributions, i.e. crystallite sizes and lattice strain, on the X-ray line broadening. From the analysis, it is found that Scherrer method gives smallest crystallite size value by ignoring the strain-induced broadening effect. On the other hand, Williamson-Hall and SSP graphs revealed the existence of the lattice strain within the film, which contributes to the broadening in the Bragg peak. The results that analyzed via both techniques show a linear trend with all data points fitted. However, result obtained from SSP method gives better settlement due to the best fit of the data.

  11. Multiferroic properties of BiFeO3/BaTiO3 multilayered thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, Savita; Tomar, Monika; Kumar, Ashok; Puri, Nitin K.; Gupta, Vinay

    2014-01-01

    Multilayered structures of multiferroic BiFeO 3 (BFO) and ferroelectric BaTiO 3 (BTO) have been fabricated using pulsed laser deposition (PLD). Ferromagnetic and ferroelectric properties of the multilayered system (BFO/BTO) have been investigated. It could be inferred that the magnetization increases with the incorporation of BTO buffer layer, which indicates a coupling between the ferroelectric and ferromagnetic orders. Vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM) measurements performed on the prepared multiferroic samples show that the magnetization is significantly increased (M s =56.88 emu/cm 3 ) for the multilayer system with more number of layers (four) keeping the total thickness of the multilayered system constant (350 nm) meanwhile maintaining the sufficiently enhanced ferroelectric properties (P r =29.68 µC/cm 2 )

  12. Effect of crystal orientation on the phase diagrams, dielectric and piezoelectric properties of epitaxial BaTiO3 thin films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huaping Wu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The influence of crystal orientations on the phase diagrams, dielectric and piezoelectric properties of epitaxial BaTiO3 thin films has been investigated using an expanded nonlinear thermodynamic theory. The calculations reveal that crystal orientation has significant influence on the phase stability and phase transitions in the misfit strain-temperature phase diagrams. In particular, the (110 orientation leads to a lower symmetry and more complicated phase transition than the (111 orientation in BaTiO3 films. The increase of compressive strain will dramatically enhance the Curie temperature TC of (110-oriented BaTiO3 films, which matches well with previous experimental data. The polarization components experience a great change across the boundaries of different phases at room temperature in both (110- and (111-oriented films, which leads to the huge dielectric and piezoelectric responses. A good agreement is found between the present thermodynamics calculation and previous first-principles calculations. Our work provides an insight into how to use crystal orientation, epitaxial strain and temperature to tune the structure and properties of ferroelectrics.

  13. On stoichiometry and intermixing at the spinel/perovskite interface in CoFe2O4/BaTiO3 thin films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tileli, Vasiliki; Duchamp, Martial; Axelsson, Anna-Karin; Valant, Matjaz; Dunin-Borkowski, Rafal E; Alford, Neil McN

    2015-01-07

    The performance of complex oxide heterostructures depends primarily on the interfacial coupling of the two component structures. This interface character inherently varies with the synthesis method and conditions used since even small composition variations can alter the electronic, ferroelectric, or magnetic functional properties of the system. The focus of this article is placed on the interface character of a pulsed laser deposited CoFe2O4/BaTiO3 thin film. Using a range of state-of-the-art transmission electron microscopy methodologies, the roles of substrate morphology, interface stoichiometry, and cation intermixing are determined on the atomic level. The results reveal a surprisingly uneven BaTiO3 substrate surface formed after the film deposition and Fe atom incorporation in the top few monolayers inside the unit cell of the BaTiO3 crystal. Towards the CoFe2O4 side, a disordered region extending several nanometers from the interface was revealed and both Ba and Ti from the substrate were found to diffuse into the spinel layer. The analysis also shows that within this somehow incompatible composite interface, a different phase is formed corresponding to the compound Ba2Fe3Ti5O15, which belongs to the ilmenite crystal structure of FeTiO3 type. The results suggest a chemical activity between these two oxides, which could lead to the synthesis of complex engineered interfaces.

  14. Effects of Nb and Sr doping on crystal structure of epitaxial BaTiO3 thin films on MgO substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Yongsam; Chen, Chunhua; Saiki, Atsushi; Wakiya, Naoki; Shinozaki, Kazuo; Mizutani, Nobuyasu

    2002-01-01

    Niobium (Nb) and strontium (Sr) doped barium titanate (BT) films were deposited by radio frequency (RF) magnetron sputtering with Nb and Sr doped BT ceramic targets, respectively. The effect of Nb and Sr doping on the crystal structure of epitaxial BaTiO 3 thin films on MgO substrates was investigated. The crystal structure of the films was examined using the reciprocal space mapping measurement. All the films exhibit a cube-on-cube relation with respect to the substrates. As the amount of doped Sr increased, both of the in-plane and out-of-plane lattice constants of Sr doped BT films slowly approached the BT bulk values. On the other hand, the lattice constants of Nb doped BT films were rapidly coming close to the bulk values. These indicated that the lattices of doped BT films were relaxed as the amount of doped elements increased. In addition, Nb doping had greater influence on the relaxation of the films than Sr doping for the same content of dopant. (author)

  15. Epitaxial c-axis oriented BaTiO3 thin films on SrTiO3-buffered Si(001) by atomic layer deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ngo, Thong Q.; McDaniel, Martin D.; Ekerdt, John G.; Posadas, Agham B.; Demkov, Alexander A.; Hu, Chengqing; Yu, Edward T.; Bruley, John

    2014-01-01

    Atomic layer deposition (ALD) of epitaxial c-axis oriented BaTiO 3 (BTO) on Si(001) using a thin (1.6 nm) buffer layer of SrTiO 3 (STO) grown by molecular beam epitaxy is reported. The ALD growth of crystalline BTO films at 225  °C used barium bis(triisopropylcyclopentadienyl), titanium tetraisopropoxide, and water as co-reactants. X-ray diffraction (XRD) reveals a high degree of crystallinity and c-axis orientation of as-deposited BTO films. Crystallinity is improved after vacuum annealing at 600  °C. Two-dimensional XRD confirms the tetragonal structure and orientation of 7–20-nm thick films. The effect of the annealing process on the BTO structure is discussed. A clean STO/Si interface is found using in-situ X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and confirmed by cross-sectional scanning transmission electron microscopy. The capacitance-voltage characteristics of 7–20 nm-thick BTO films are examined and show an effective dielectric constant of ∼660 for the heterostructure

  16. Vacancy-induced magnetism in BaTiO3(001) thin films based on density functional theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Dan; Cai, Meng-Qiu; Hu, Wang-Yu; Yu, Ping; Huang, Hai-Tao

    2011-03-14

    The origin of magnetism induced by vacancies on BaTiO(3)(001) surfaces is investigated systematically by first-principles calculations within density-functional theory. The calculated results show that O vacancy is responsible for the magnetism of the BaO-terminated surface and the magnetism of the TiO(2)-terminated surface is induced by Ti vacancy. For the BaO-terminated surface, the magnetism mainly arises from the unpaired electrons that are localized in the O vacancy basin. In contrast, for the TiO(2)-terminated surface, the magnetism mainly originates from the partially occupied O-2p states of the first nearest neighbor O atoms surrounding the Ti vacancy. These results suggest the possibility of implementing magneto-electric coupling in conventional ferroelectric materials.

  17. Ferroelectric properties of BaTiO3/PbZr0.2Ti.08O3 bilayer thin film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salev, Pavel; Yang, Chun; Grigoriev, Alexei

    2014-03-01

    The thin film ferroelectric BaTiO3/PbZr0.2Ti0.8O3 bilayer was epitaxially grown on SrRuO3/SrTiO3 substrate by RF sputtering. Electrical measurements of polarization switching revealed two different switching regimes - a small ferroelectric hysteresis loop at low applied voltage and a larger loop at a high voltage. The measured dielectric permittivity corresponds to weak electrostatic coupling between two layers according to Landau-Ginsburg-Devonshire theory. This weak coupling may allow for independent polarization states to exist in individual layers. This can lead to stable head-to-head and tail-to-tail polarization domain configurations, which would explain the two switching regimes observed in electrical measurements. The compensation of polarization gradient across the interface can be explained by the enhancement of interface charge carrier density due to strong bending of electron energy bands. This work was supported by NSF award DMR-1057159.

  18. Ferroelectric properties of NaNbO3-BaTiO3 thin films deposited on SrRuO3/(001)SrTiO3 substrate by pulsed laser deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamazoe, Seiji; Oda, Shinya; Sakurai, Hiroyuki; Wada, Takahiro; Adachi, Hideaki

    2009-01-01

    (NaNbO 3 ) 1-x (BaTiO 3 ) x (NN-xBT) thin films with low BaTiO 3 (BT) concentrations x (x=0.05 and 0.10) were fabricated on SrRuO 3 /(001)SrTiO 3 (SRO)/(001)STO) substrate by pulsed laser deposition (PLD). X-ray diffraction pattern (XRD) and transmission electron diffraction pattern (TED) showed that NN-0.10BT thin film was epitaxially grown on SRO/(001)STO substrate with a crystallographic relationship of [001] NN-xBT parallel [001] STO . From reciprocal space maps, the lattice parameters of the out-of-plane direction of NN-xBT thin films became larger with an increase in BT concentration, although the lattice parameter of the in-plane was hardly changed by the BT concentration. The value of relative dielectric constant ε r of the NN-xBT thin films were increased with BT concentration. The ε r and the dielectric loss tanδ of NN-0.10BT were 1220 and 0.02 at 1 kHz, respectively. The P-E hysteresis loops of the NN-xBT thin films showed clear ferroelectricity. Although the value of remanent polarization P r decreased with the BT concentration, the behaviors of ε r , P r , and coercive electric field E c of the NN-xBT thin films against the BT concentration accorded with those of NN-xBT ceramics, in which NN-0.10BT ceramics exhibited the largest piezoelectric property. Therefore, the NN-0.10BT thin film is expected to show high piezoelectricity. (author)

  19. Growth of BaTiO3-PVDF composite thick films by using aerosol deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Sung Hwan; Yoon, Young Joon

    2016-01-01

    Barium titanate (BaTiO3)-polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) composite thick films were grown by using aerosol deposition at room temperature with BaTiO3 and PVDF powders. To produce a uniform composition in ceramic and polymer composite films, which show a substantial difference in specific gravity, we used PVDF-coated BaTiO3 powders as the starting materials. An examination of the microstructure confirmed that the BaTiO3 were well distributed in the PVDF matrix in the form of a 0 - 3 compound. The crystallite size in the BaTiO3-PVDF composite thick films was 5 ˜ 50 times higher than that in pure BaTiO3 thick films. PVDF plays a role in suppressing the fragmentation of BaTiO3 powder during the aerosol deposition process and in controlling the relative permittivity.

  20. Hydrothermal growth of highly textured BaTiO3 films composed of nanowires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Zhi; Tang Haixiong; Sodano, Henry A; Lin Yirong

    2013-01-01

    Textured barium titanate (BaTiO 3 ) films are attracting immense research interest due to their lead-free composition and excellent piezoelectric and dielectric properties. Most synthesis methods for these films require a high temperature, leading to the formation of a secondary phase and an overall decrease in the electrical properties of the ceramic. In order to alleviate these issues, a novel fabrication method is introduced by transferring oriented rutile TiO 2 nanowires to a textured BaTiO 3 film at temperatures below 160 °C. The microstructure and thickness of the fabricated BaTiO 3 films were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, and the crystal structure and degree of orientation were evaluated by x-ray diffraction patterns using the Lotgering method. It is shown that the thickness of the BaTiO 3 film can be controlled by the length of TiO 2 nanowire array template, and the degree of orientation of the textured BaTiO 3 films is highly dependent on the film thickness; the crystallographic orientation has been measured to reach up to 87%. The relative dielectric constant (ε r = 1300) and ferroelectric properties (P r = 2.7 μC cm −2 , E c = 4.0 kV mm −1 ) of the textured BaTiO 3 films were also characterized to demonstrate their potential application in sensors, random access memory, and micro-electromechanical systems. (paper)

  1. Self-Organized Ni Nanocrystal Embedded in BaTiO3 Epitaxial Film

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ge FF

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Ni nanocrystals (NCs were embedded in BaTiO3 epitaxial films using the laser molecular beam epitaxy. The processes involving the self-organization of Ni NCs and the epitaxial growth of BaTiO3 were discussed. With the in situ monitoring of reflection high-energy electron diffraction, the nanocomposite films were engineered controllably by the fine alternation of the self-organization of Ni NCs and the epitaxial growth of BaTiO3. The transmission electron microscopy and the X-ray diffraction characterization confirmed that the composite film consists of the Ni NCs layers alternating with the (001/(100-oriented epitaxial BaTiO3 separation layers.

  2. Two steps hydrothermal growth and characterisations of BaTiO3 films composed of nanowires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zawawi, Che Zaheerah Najeehah Che Mohd; Salleh, Shahril; Oon Jew, Lee; Tufail Chaudhary, Kashif; Helmi, Mohamad; Safwan Aziz, Muhammad; Haider, Zuhaib; Ali, Jalil

    2018-05-01

    Barium titanate (BaTiO3) films composed of nanowires have gained considerable research interest due to their lead-free composition and strong energy conversion efficiency. BaTiO3 films can be developed with a simple two steps hydrothermal reactions, which are low cost effective. In this research, BaTiO3 films were fabricated on titanium foil through two steps hydrothermal method namely, the growth of TiO2 and followed by BaTiO3 films. The structural evolutions and the dielectric properties of the films were investigated as well. The structural evolutions of titanium dioxide (TiO2) and BaTiO3 nanowires were characterized using X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. First step of hydrothermal reaction, TiO2 nanowires were prepared in varied temperatures of 160 °C, 200 °C and 250 °C respectively. Second step of hydrothermal reaction was performed to produce a layer of BaTiO3 films.

  3. Nucleation control and inhibition of BaTiO3 films using hydrothermal-electrochemical method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Escobar, Ivan; Silva, Carmen; Silva, Eric; Vargas, Tomas; Fuenzalida, Victor

    1999-01-01

    The microstructure of BaTiO 3 films on titanium by the hydrothermal-electrochemical method was investigated using a three electrode high pressure electrochemical cell in a 0.2 M Ba(OH) 2 electrolyte at 150 0 C. The spontaneous initial linked to pure hydrothermal BaTiO 3 formation can be inhibited by cathodically protecting titanium electrode since its immersion in the electrolyte. The application of initial nucleation pulses of varying the cathodic potentials affected the grain size of the deposit. It is suggested that the formation of a titanium oxide layers is a necessary step previous to the nucleation of BaTiO 3

  4. Effect of Zn-doping on the structural and optical properties of BaTiO3 thin films grown by pulsed laser deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fasasi, A.Y.; Maaza, M.; Rohwer, E.G.; Knoessen, D.; Theron, Ch.; Leitch, A.; Buttner, U.

    2008-01-01

    Thin films of zinc oxide doped barium titanate (BaZn x Ti 1-x O 3 ) have been prepared by pulsed laser ablation using different targets having zinc composition varying between x = 1 to 5 wt.% at a step of 1 wt.% on corning glass microscope slide and silicon substrates. X-ray diffraction analyses showed films to be of tetragonal phase with an average grain size of 20 nm and c/a ratio of 1.08 indicating lattice expansion due to ZnO incorporation. Atomic force microscopy studies of the prepared thin films indicated smooth surfaces with average roughness of 1.84 and 4.6 nm for as-deposited and sintered specimens respectively. Scanning electron microscopy showed films to be smooth and uniform. UV-Visible as well as Fourier Transform Infrared transmission measurements showed a transmission of more than 80% in the visible and 5-20% in the near infrared. The transmittance is strongly affected by annealing. There is a dependence of band gap energy on film thickness as well as on the amount of ZnO added. High ZnO dopant level led to an increase in the band gap

  5. Multiphase nanodomains in a strained BaTiO3 film on a GdScO3 substrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Shunsuke; Inoue, Kazutoshi; Kato, Takeharu; Ikuhara, Yuichi; Yamamoto, Takahisa

    2018-02-01

    Controlling the crystal structure of ferroelectric materials via epitaxial strain, which is a well-known technique in strain engineering, can lead to the formation of unique domain structures generating non-intrinsic phenomena such as electronic conductivity, photovoltages, and enhanced piezoelectric characteristics. Strained BaTiO3 films are promising ferroelectric materials as theoretical modeling predicts that different domain morphologies can introduce additional properties not observed in conventional BaTiO3 ceramics. To rationally design materials for practical application, a thorough understanding of the formation mechanisms and stabilities of different domain structures in strained BaTiO3 films is required. However, there have been very few experimental reports on this topic, and details about the domain structures in strained BaTiO3 films are currently lacking. In this paper, we report multiphase nanodomains in a strained BaTiO3 film deposited on an orthorhombic GdScO3 substrate. The phase-transition behavior of the strained BaTiO3 film reveals that it contains multiple phases at room temperature; the film first undergoes a phase-transition upon heating at around 550 K, and then a paraelectric phase forms at temperatures above 690 K. A picometer-scale analysis of the Ti ion displacements, using an advanced scanning transmission electron microscopy technique, is used to characterize the complex multiphase nanodomains, providing useful insights into the control of domain structures in BaTiO3 films by applying epitaxial strain.

  6. Electrical properties of (1 0 0)-predominant BaTiO3 films derived from alkoxide solutions of two concentrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo Yiping; Suzuki, Kazuyuki; Nishizawa, Kaori; Miki, Takeshi; Kato, Kazumi

    2006-01-01

    Lead-free piezoelectric films with thickness larger than 1 μm integrated on silicon substrates have been receiving considerable attention because of environmental concerns and their potential applications in microelectromechanical systems. We demonstrate that, by chemical solution deposition, it is possible to process (1 0 0)-predominant 1 μm BaTiO 3 films on LaNiO 3 /Pt/TiO x /SiO 2 /Si substrates using thinner high-crystallinity columnar BaTiO 3 films as buffer layers. We point out that this kind of buffer layer prepared with a lower concentration solution on the surface of an LaNiO 3 /Pt electrode is effective in enhancing the crystallinity and orientation degree of final BaTiO 3 films prepared with a higher concentration solution. The 1 μm BaTiO 3 films show good dielectric and insulating characteristics against an applied field, and the conduction current shows Schottky emission behavior at modest voltage and space-charge-limited behavior at higher voltage. We also demonstrate that the (1 0 0)-predominant 1 μm BaTiO 3 films have excellent piezoelectric properties: piezoelectric coefficients d 33 higher than 50 pm/V have been determined for the bare films using atomic force microscopy, which are comparable to those of Pb(Zr,Ti)O 3 films. These results indicate that the (1 0 0)-predominant BaTiO 3 films should be promising candidates for microelectromechanical systems applications

  7. A first-principles study of phase transitions in ultrathin films of BaTiO 3

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We determine the effects of film thickness, epitaxial strain and the nature of electrodes on ferroelectric phase transitions in ultrathin films of BaTiO3 using a first-principles effective Hamiltonian in classical molecular dynamics simulations. We present results for polarization and dielectric properties as a function of temperature ...

  8. Hybrid chitosan–Pluronic F-127 films with BaTiO3:Co nanoparticles: Synthesis and properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuentes, S.; Dubo, J.; Barraza, N.; González, R.; Veloso, E.

    2015-01-01

    In this study, magnetic BaTiO 3 :Co (BT:Co) nanoparticles prepared using a combined sol–gel–hydrothermal technique were dispersed in a chitosan/Pluronic F-127 solution (QO/Pl) to obtain a nanocomposite hybrid films. Nanoparticles and hybrid films were characterized by X-ray powder diffraction, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and alternating gradient magnetometry (AGM). Experimental results indicated that the BT:Co nanoparticles were encapsulated in the QO/Pl hybrid films and that the magnetic properties of the QO/Pl/BT:Co nanocomposites are similar to the naked BT:Co nanoparticles. Results indicate that Co doping produces an enhancement in the ferromagnetic behavior of the BT nanoparticle. The coating restricts this enhancement only to low-fields, leaving the diamagnetic behavior of BT at high-fields. Magnetically stable sizes (PSD) were obtained at 3% Co doping for both naked nanoparticles and hybrid films. These show an increased magnetic memory capacity and a softer magnetic hardness with respect to non-doped BT nanoparticles. - Highlights: • We described the synthesis of magnetic BaTiO 3 :Co dispersed in chitosan (QO)/Pluronic F-127 (Pl) solution by sonication to obtain nanocomposite hybrid films. • We describe the physical and magnetic properties of BaTiO 3 :Co nanoparticles and QO/Pl/BT:Co hybrid films. • The magnetic properties are defines by the presence of magnetic domains. These magnetic domains are close related with the amount of Co in the host lattice. • The prepared phases could be considered as multifunctional materials, with magnetic and ferri-electrical properties, with potential uses in the design of devices

  9. Electric controlling of surface metal-insulator transition in the doped BaTiO3 film

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Xun

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Based on first-principles calculations, the BaTiO3(BTO film with local La-doping is studied. For a selected concentration and position of doping, the surface metal-insulator transition occurs under the applied electric field, and the domain appears near the surface for both bipolar states. Furthermore, for the insulated surface state, i.e., the downward polarization state in the doped film, the gradient bandgap structure is achieved, which favors the absorption of solar energy. Our investigation can provide an alternative avenue in modification of surface property and surface screening effect in polar materials.

  10. Direct detection of cysteine using functionalized BaTiO3 nanoparticles film based self-powered biosensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selvarajan, Sophia; Alluri, Nagamalleswara Rao; Chandrasekhar, Arunkumar; Kim, Sang-Jae

    2017-05-15

    Simple, novel, and direct detection of clinically important biomolecules have continuous demand among scientific community as well as in market. Here, we report the first direct detection and facile fabrication of a cysteine-responsive, film-based, self-powered device. NH 2 functionalized BaTiO 3 nanoparticles (BT-NH 2 NPs) suspended in a three-dimensional matrix of an agarose (Ag) film, were used for cysteine detection. BaTiO 3 nanoparticles (BT NPs) semiconducting as well as piezoelectric properties were harnessed in this study. The changes in surface charge properties of the film with respect to cysteine concentrations were determined using a current-voltage (I-V) technique. The current response increased with cysteine concentration (linear concentration range=10µM-1mM). Based on the properties of the composite (BT/Ag), we created a self-powered cysteine sensor in which the output voltage from a piezoelectric nanogenerator was used to drive the sensor. The potential drop across the sensor was measured as a function of cysteine concentrations. Real-time analysis of sensor performance was carried out on urine samples by non-invasive method. This novel sensor demonstrated good selectivity, linear concentration range and detection limit of 10µM; acceptable for routine analysis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Nanocomposites of ferroelectric polymers with surface-hydroxylated BaTiO 3 nanoparticles for energy storage applications

    KAUST Repository

    Almadhoun, Mahmoud Nassar Mahmoud

    2012-01-01

    A facile surface hydroxylation treatment using hydrogen peroxide to modify the surface of BaTiO 3 nanofillers dispersed in a ferroelectric copolymer host has been investigated. We demonstrate that the surface functionalization of the BaTiO 3 nanofillers (<100 nm) with hydroxyl groups results in as much as two orders of magnitude reduction in the leakage current of nanocomposite thin-film capacitors. This reduction is observed concurrently with the enhancement of the effective permittivity and breakdown strength of the thin-film nanocomposites. Surface modified BaTiO 3 particles display better dispersion within the polymer matrix, resulting in enhanced relative permittivity and reduced dielectric loss. The dielectric behavior of the nanocomposite films containing up to 30 vol.% BaTiO 3 agreed well with the Bruggeman model. These results demonstrate the potential of facile surface hydroxylation of nanoparticles towards the fabrication of higher energy-density nanocomposites. © 2012 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  12. Origin of thermally stable ferroelectricity in a porous barium titanate thin film synthesized through block copolymer templating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norihiro Suzuki

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available A porous barium titanate (BaTiO3 thin film was chemically synthesized using a surfactant-assisted sol-gel method in which micelles of amphipathic diblock copolymers served as structure-directing agents. In the Raman spectrum of the porous BaTiO3 thin film, a peak corresponding to the ferroelectric tetragonal phase was observed at around 710 cm−1, and it remained stable at much higher temperature than the Curie temperature of bulk single-crystal BaTiO3 (∼130 °C. Measurements revealed that the ferroelectricity of the BaTiO3 thin film has high thermal stability. By analyzing high-resolution transmission electron microscope images of the BaTiO3 thin film by the fast Fourier transform mapping method, the spatial distribution of stress in the BaTiO3 framework was clearly visualized. Careful analysis also indicated that the porosity in the BaTiO3 thin film introduced anisotropic compressive stress, which deformed the crystals. The resulting elongated unit cell caused further displacement of the Ti4+ cation from the center of the lattice. This displacement increased the electric dipole moment of the BaTiO3 thin film, effectively enhancing its ferro(piezoelectricity.

  13. Electric double layer transistors with ferroelectric BaTiO3 channels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ito, M.; Matsubara, Y.; Kozuka, Y.; Takahashi, K. S.; Kagawa, F.; Ye, J. T.; Iwasa, Y.; Ueno, K.; Tokura, Y.; Kawasaki, M.

    2014-01-01

    We report the surface conduction of a BaTiO3 thin film using electric double layer transistor (EDLT) structure. A transistor operation was observed at 220 K with an on/off ratio exceeding 10(5), demonstrating that ionic liquid gating is effective to induce carriers at the surface of ferroelectric

  14. Growth and self-assembly of BaTiO3 nanocubes for resistive switching memory cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chu, Dewei; Lin, Xi; Younis, Adnan; Li, Chang Ming; Dang, Feng; Li, Sean

    2014-01-01

    In this work, the self-assembled BaTiO 3 nanocubes based resistive switching memory capacitors are fabricated with hydrothermal and drop-coating approaches. The device exhibits excellent bipolar resistance switching characteristics with ON/OFF ratio of 58–70, better reliability and stability over various polycrystalline BaTiO 3 nanostructures. It is believed that the inter cube junctions is responsible for such a switching behaviour and it can be described by the filament model. The effect of film thickness on switching ratio (ON/OFF) was also investigated in details. - Graphical abstract: This work describes a novel resistive switching memory cell based on self-assembled BaTiO 3 nanocubes. - Highlights: • BaTiO 3 nanocubes were prepared by one step facile hydrothermal method. • Self-assembled BaTiO 3 nanocubes thin films were obtained by drop-coating approach. • The BaTiO 3 nanocubes show excellent resistive switching properties for memory applications

  15. Luminescence enhancement of ZnO-poly(methylmethacrylate) nanocomposite films by incorporation of crystalline BaTiO_3 nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanamori, Tsuyoshi; Han, Yu; Nagao, Daisuke; Kamezawa, Nao; Ishii, Haruyuki; Konno, Mikio

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Dielectric barium titanate (BT) nanoparticles incorporated into luminescence films. • Luminescence intensities increased by the BT nanoparticle incorporation. • Incorporation of highly dielectric nanoparticles effective for luminescence enhancement. - Abstract: Incorporation of highly dielectric nanoparticles into luminescent ZnO-polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) nanocomposite films was undertaken to examine the effect of nanoparticle incorporation on luminescence intensity of the nanocomposite films. ZnO nanoparticles were prepared as inorganic phosphors by a precipitation method. The ZnO nanoparticles were then surface-modified with 3-methacryloxypropyltrimethoxysilane (MPTMS) to be used for fabrication of the ZnO-PMMA nanocomposite film. Barium titanate (BT) nanoparticles were synthesized with a sol-gel method as the highly dielectric nanoparticles, which were also surface-modified with the MPTMS for the incorporation into the nanocomposite films. Luminescence intensity of the nanocomposite films was successfully increased by the nanoparticle incorporation up to a BT content around 15 vol%. The luminescence intensity higher than that measured for the nanocomposite films incorporating SiO_2 nanoparticles indicated that the incorporation of highly dielectric nanoparticles was an effective approach to enhance the luminescence of ZnO nanoparticles in the polymer thin films.

  16. Surface polarization, rumpling, and domain ordering of strained ultrathin BaTiO_3(001) films with in-plane and out-of-plane polarization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dionot, Jelle; Mathieu, Claire; Barrett, Nick; Geneste, Gregory

    2014-01-01

    BaTiO_3 ultrathin films (thickness ≅1.6 nm) with in- and out-of-plane polarization are studied by first-principles calculations. Out-of-plane polarization is simulated using the method proposed by Shimada et al. [Phys. Rev. B 81, 144116 (2010)], which consists in building a supercell containing small domains with alternating up and down polarization. This allows one to investigate the properties of defect free BaTiO_3 ultrathin films with polarization perpendicular to the surface, as a function of in-plane lattice constant, i.e., epitaxial strain. The configurations with polarization perpendicular to the surface (c phase) are found stable under compressive strain, while under tensile strain, the polarization tends to lie in-plane (aa phase), along [110]. In the c phase, the most stable domain width is predicted to be 1 to 2 lattice constants, and the magnitude of the surface rumpling varies according to the direction of the polarization (upwards versus downwards), though its sign is unchanged, the oxygen anions pointing in all cases outwards. Finally, all the surfaces studied are found to be insulating. Analysis of the atom-projected electronic density of states gives insight into the surface contributions to the electronic structure. An important reduction of the Kohn-Sham band gap is predicted at TiO_2 terminations in the c phase (≅1 eV with respect to the aa phase). The Madelung potential at the surface plays the dominant role in modifications of the surface electronic structure. (authors)

  17. Conduction Mechanisms in Multiferroic Multilayer BaTiO3/NiFe2O4/BaTiO3 Memristors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samardzic, N.; Bajac, B.; Srdic, V. V.; Stojanovic, G. M.

    2017-10-01

    Memristive devices and materials are extensively studied as they offer diverse properties and applications in digital, analog and bio-inspired circuits. In this paper, we present an important class of memristors, multiferroic memristors, which are composed of multiferroic multilayer BaTiO3/NiFe2O4/BaTiO3 thin films, fabricated by a spin-coating deposition technique on platinized Si wafers. This cost-effective device shows symmetric and reproducible current-voltage characteristics for the actuating voltage amplitude of ±10 V. The origin of the conduction mechanism was investigated by measuring the electrical response in different voltage and temperature conditions. The results indicate the existence of two mechanisms: thermionic emission and Fowler-Nordheim tunnelling, which alternate with actuating voltage amplitude and operating temperature.

  18. Luminescent Properties of Surface Functionalized BaTiO3 Embedded in Poly(methyl methacrylate)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Requena, Sebastian; Lacoul, Srijan; Strzhemechny, Yuri M.

    2014-01-01

    As-received BaTiO3 nanopowders of average grain sizes 50 nm and 100 nm were functionalized by (3-aminopropyl)triethoxysilane (APTES) and mixed with poly(methyl methacrylate)/toluene solution. The nanocomposite solution was spin coated on Si substrates to form thin films. The photoluminescence spectrum of the pure powder was composed of a bandgap emission at 3.0 eV and multiple bands centered about 2.5 eV. Surface functionalization of the BaTiO3 powder via APTES increases overall luminescence at room temperature while only enhancing bandgap emission at low-temperature. Polymer coating of the functionalized nanoparticles significantly enhances bandgap emissions while decreasing emissions associated with near-surface lattice distortions at 2.5 eV. PMID:28788468

  19. Luminescent Properties of Surface Functionalized BaTiO3 Embedded in Poly(methyl methacrylate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Requena

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available As-received BaTiO3 nanopowders of average grain sizes 50 nm and 100 nm were functionalized by (3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APTES and mixed with poly(methyl methacrylate/toluene solution. The nanocomposite solution was spin coated on Si substrates to form thin films. The photoluminescence spectrum of the pure powder was composed of a bandgap emission at 3.0 eV and multiple bands centered about 2.5 eV. Surface functionalization of the BaTiO3 powder via APTES increases overall luminescence at room temperature while only enhancing bandgap emission at low-temperature. Polymer coating of the functionalized nanoparticles significantly enhances bandgap emissions while decreasing emissions associated with near-surface lattice distortions at 2.5 eV.

  20. Simultaneous achievement of high dielectric constant and low temperature dependence of capacitance in (111-oriented BaTiO3-Bi(Mg0.5Ti0.5O3-BiFeO3 solid solution thin films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junichi Kimura

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The temperature dependence of the capacitance of (111c-oriented (0.90–xBaTiO3-0.10Bi(Mg0.5Ti0.5O3-xBiFeO3 solid solution films is investigated. These films are prepared on (111cSrRuO3/(111Pt/TiO2/SiO2/(100Si substrates by the chemical solution deposition technique. All the films have perovskite structures and the crystal symmetry at room temperature varies with increasing x ratio, from pseudocubic when x = 0–0.30 to rhombohedral when x = 0.50–0.90. The pseudocubic phase shows a high relative dielectric constant (εr (ranging between 400 and 560 at room temperature and an operating frequency of 100 kHz and a low temperature dependence of capacitance up to 400°C, while maintaining a dielectric loss (tan δ value of less than 0.2 at 100 kHz. In contrast, εr for the rhombohedral phase increases monotonically with increasing temperature up to 250°C, and increasingly high tan δ values are recorded at higher temperatures. These results indicate that pseudocubic (0.90–xBaTiO3-0.10Bi(Mg0.5Ti0.5O3-xBiFeO3 solid solution films with (111 orientation are suitable candidates for high-temperature capacitor applications.

  1. thin films

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    microscopy (SEM) studies, respectively. The Fourier transform ... Thin films; chemical synthesis; hydrous tin oxide; FTIR; electrical properties. 1. Introduction ... dehydrogenation of organic compounds (Hattori et al 1987). .... SEM images of (a) bare stainless steel and (b) SnO2:H2O thin film on stainless steel substrate at a ...

  2. Band-offsets at BaTiO3/Cu2O heterojunction and enhanced photoelectrochemical response: theory and experiment(Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Dipika; Satsangi, Vibha R.; Dass Kaura, Sahab; Shrivastav, Rohit; Waghmare, Umesh V.

    2016-10-01

    Band-offsets at BaTiO3/Cu2O heterojunction and enhanced photoelectrochemical response: theory and experiment Dipika Sharmaa, Vibha R. Satsangib, Rohit Shrivastava, Umesh V. Waghmarec, Sahab Dassa aDepartment of Chemistry, Dayalbagh Educational Institute, Agra-282 110 (India) bDepartment of Physics and Computer Sciences, Dayalbagh Educational Institute, Agra-282 110 (India) cTheoretical Sciences Unit, Jawaharlal Nehru Centre for Advanced Scientific Research, Jakkur, Bangalore-560 064 (India) * Phone: +91-9219695960. Fax: +91-562-2801226. E-mail: drsahabdas@gmail.com. Study on photoelectrochemical activity of pristine BaTiO3, Cu2O and BaTiO3/Cu2O heterojunction has been carried out using DFT based band offsets and charge carriers effective mass calculations and their experimental verification. The results of DFT calculations show that BaTiO3 and Cu2O have staggered type band alignment after the heterojunction formation and high mobility of electrons in Cu2O as compared to the electrons in BaTiO3. Staggered type band edges alignment and high mobility of electrons and holes improved the separation of photo-generated charge carriers in BaTiO3/Cu2O heterojunction. To validate the theoretical results experiments were carried out on pristine BaTiO3, Cu2O and BaTiO3/Cu2O heterojunction with varying thickness of Cu2O. All samples were characterized by X- Ray Diffractometer, SEM and UV-Vis spectrometry. Nanostructured thin films of pristine BaTiO3, Cu2O and BaTiO3/Cu2O heterojunction were used as photoelectrode in the photoelectrochemical cell for water splitting reaction. Maximum photocurrent density of 1.44 mA/cm2 at 0.90 V/SCE was exhibited by 442 nm thick BaTiO3/Cu2O heterojunction photoelectrode Increased photocurrent density and enhanced photoconversion efficiency, exhibited by the heterojunction may be attributed to improved conductivity and enhanced separation of the photogenerated carriers at the BaTiO3/Cu2O interface. The experimental results and first

  3. Aggregate linear properties of ferroelectric ceramics and polycrystalline thin films: Calculation by the method of effective piezoelectric medium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pertsev, N. A.; Zembilgotov, A. G.; Waser, R.

    1998-08-01

    The effective dielectric, piezoelectric, and elastic constants of polycrystalline ferroelectric materials are calculated from single-crystal data by an advanced method of effective medium, which takes into account the piezoelectric interactions between grains in full measure. For bulk BaTiO3 and PbTiO3 polarized ceramics, the dependences of material constants on the remanent polarization are reported. Dielectric and elastic constants are computed also for unpolarized c- and a-textured ferroelectric thin films deposited on cubic or amorphous substrates. It is found that the dielectric properties of BaTiO3 and PbTiO3 polycrystalline thin films strongly depend on the type of crystal texture. The influence of two-dimensional clamping by the substrate on the dielectric and piezoelectric responses of polarized films is described quantitatively and shown to be especially important for the piezoelectric charge coefficient of BaTiO3 films.

  4. Novel phases in ferroelectric BaTiO3 thin films : Enhanced piezoelectricity and low hysteresis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Everhardt, Arnoud

    2017-01-01

    Technology is able to provide solutions for the challenges that the modern world needs, and one of the great new ideas is the development of a network of small autonomous, communicating sensors. A combination of microtechnology and energy harvesting is needed for such a network to operate. The

  5. Deposition barium titanate (BaTiO3) doped lanthanum with chemical solution deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iriani, Y.; Nurhadi, N.; Jamaludin, A.

    2016-01-01

    Deposition of Barium Titanate (BaTiO 3 ) thin films used Chemical Solution Deposition (CSD) method and prepared with spin coater. BaTiO 3 is doped with lanthanum, 1%, 2%, and 3%. The thermal process use annealing temperature 900°C and holding time for 3 hours. The result of characterization with x-ray diffraction (XRD) equipment show that the addition of La 3+ doped on Barium Titanate caused the change of angle diffraction.The result of refine with GSAS software shows that lanthanum have been included in the structure of BaTiO 3 . Increasing mol dopant La 3+ cause lattice parameter and crystal volume become smaller. Characterization result using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) equipment show that grain size (grain size) become smaller with increasing mole dopant (x) La 3+ . The result of characterization using Sawyer Tower methods show that all the samples (Barium Titanante and Barium Titanate doped lanthanum) are ferroelectric material. Increasing of mole dopant La 3+ cause smaller coercive field and remanent polarization increases. (paper)

  6. Dielectric enhancement of BaTiO3/SrTiO3 superlattices with embedded Ni nanocrystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiong Zhengwei; Sun Weiguo; Wang Xuemin; Jiang Fan; Wu Weidong

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► The BaTiO 3 /SrTiO 3 superlattices with embedded Ni NCs were successfully fabricated by L-MBE. ► The influence with the various concentrations of Ni nanocrystals embedded in BaTiO 3 /SrTiO 3 superlattices was also discussed. ► The BaTiO 3 /SrTiO 3 superlattices with lower concentration of embedded Ni NCs had higher permittivity and dielectric loss compared with the pure BaTiO 3 /SrTiO 3 superlattices. ► The dielectric enhancement of BaTiO 3 /SrTiO 3 superlattices with embedded Ni NCs was proposed to explained by Drude quasi-free-electron theory. - Abstract: The self-organized Ni nanocrystals (NCs) were embedded in BaTiO 3 /SrTiO 3 superlattices using laser molecular beam epitaxy (L-MBE). The stress of the composite films was increased with the increasing concentration of embedded Ni NCs, as investigation in stress calculation. The influence with the various concentrations of Ni NCs embedded in BaTiO 3 /SrTiO 3 superlattices was also discussed. The internal stress of the films was too strong to epitaxial growth of BaTiO 3 /SrTiO 3 superlattices. Compared with the pure BaTiO 3 /SrTiO 3 superlattices, the BaTiO 3 /SrTiO 3 superlattices with lower concentration of embedded Ni NCs had higher permittivity and dielectric loss. Furthermore, the dielectric enhancement of BaTiO 3 /SrTiO 3 superlattices with embedded Ni NCs was proposed to explained by Drude quasi-free-electron theory.

  7. Enhanced photoelectrochemical properties of 100 MeV Si8+ ion irradiated barium titanate thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solanki, Anjana; Choudhary, Surbhi; Satsangi, Vibha R.; Shrivastav, Rohit; Dass, Sahab

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Effect of 100 MeV Si 8+ ion irradiation on photoelectrochemical (PEC) properties of BaTiO 3 thin films was studied. ► Films were deposited on Indium doped Tin Oxide (ITO) coated glass by sol–gel spin coating technique. ► Optimal irradiation fluence for best PEC response was 5 × 10 11 ion cm −2 . ► Maximum photocurrent density was observed to be 0.7 mA cm −2 at 0.4 V/SCE. ► Enhanced photo-conversion efficiency was due to maximum negative flatband potential, donor density and lowest resistivity. -- Abstract: Effects of high electronic energy deposition on the structure, surface topography, optical property and photoelectrochemical behavior of barium titanate (BaTiO 3 ) thin films were investigated by irradiating films with 100 MeV Si 8+ ions at different ion fluences in the range of 1 × 10 11 –2 × 10 13 ions cm −2 . BaTiO 3 thin films were deposited on indium tin oxide coated glass substrate by sol gel spin coating method. Irradiation induced modifications in the films were analyzed using the results from XRD, SEM, cross sectional SEM, AFM and UV–Vis spectrometry. Maximum photocurrent density of 0.7 mA cm −2 at 0.4 V/SCE and applied bias hydrogen conversion efficiency (ABPE) of 0.73% was observed for BaTiO 3 film irradiated at 5 × 10 11 ions cm −2 , which can be attributed to maximum negative value of the flatband potential and donor density and lowest resistivity

  8. PLD of X7R for thin film capacitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hino, Takanori; Matsumoto, Noriyuki; Nishida, Minoru; Araki, Takao

    2008-01-01

    Thin film capacitors with a thickness of 200 nm were prepared on SrTiO 3 (1 0 0), (1 1 0) and (1 1 1) single crystal substrates at a temperature of 973 K by pulsed laser deposition (PLD) using a KrF excimer laser in an O 2 -O 3 atmosphere with a gas pressure of 1 Pa using an X7R sintered target. As a result, perovskite BaTiO 3 solid solution films were obtained. In the X7R thin films on (1 0 0) and (1 1 0) SrTiO 3 , only diffraction peaks with strong intensities from BaTiO 3 (1 0 0) and (1 1 0), respectively, were observed. X7R films on SrTiO 3 (1 1 1) were grown epitaxially oriented to the crystal plane direction of the substrate by inserting an initial homoepitaxial SrTiO 3 layer with a thickness of 4 nm. The X7R/SrTiO 3 film capacitors yielded a large volumetric efficiency of 50 μF/mm 3 and a temperature coefficient of capacitance (TCC) of -1.3% to 1.3% which satisfies the EIA standard specifications for X7R

  9. Flexoelectricity induced increase of critical thickness in epitaxial ferroelectric thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Hao; Hong Jiawang; Zhang Yihui; Li Faxin; Pei Yongmao; Fang Daining

    2012-01-01

    Flexoelectricity describes the coupling between polarization and strain/stress gradients in insulating crystals. In this paper, using the Landau-Ginsburg-Devonshire phenomenological approach, we found that flexoelectricity could increase the theoretical critical thickness in epitaxial BaTiO 3 thin films, below which the switchable spontaneous polarization vanishes. This increase is remarkable in tensile films while trivial in compressive films due to the electrostriction caused decrease of potential barrier, which can be easily destroyed by the flexoelectricity, between the ferroelectric state and the paraelectric state in tensile films. In addition, the films are still in a uni-polar state even below the critical thickness due to the flexoelectric effect.

  10. Thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strongin, M.; Miller, D.L.

    1976-01-01

    This article reviews the phenomena that occur in films from the point of view of a solid state physicist. Films form the basis for many established and developing technologies. Metal layers have always been important for optical coatings and as protective coatings. In the most sophisticated cases, films and their interaction on silicon surfaces form the basis of modern electronic technology. Films of silicon, GaAs and composites of these materials promise to lead to practical photovoltaic devices

  11. Multiple Interfacial Fe3O4@BaTiO3/P(VDF-HFP) Core-Shell-Matrix Films with Internal Barrier Layer Capacitor (IBLC) Effects and High Energy Storage Density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Ling; Fu, Qiuyun; Xue, Fei; Tang, Xiahui; Zhou, Dongxiang; Tian, Yahui; Wang, Geng; Wang, Chaohong; Gou, Haibo; Xu, Lei

    2017-11-22

    Flexible nanocomposites composed of high dielectric constant fillers and polymer matrix have shown great potential for electrostatic capacitors and energy storage applications. To obtain the composited material with high dielectric constant and high breakdown strength, multi-interfacial composited particles, which composed of conductive cores and insulating shells and possessed the internal barrier layer capacitor (IBLC) effect, were adopted as fillers. Thus, Fe 3 O 4 @BaTiO 3 core-shell particles were prepared and loaded into the poly(vinylidene fluoride-co-hexafluoropropylene) (P(VDF-HFP)) polymer matrix. As the mass fraction of core-shell fillers increased from 2.5 wt % to 30 wt %, the dielectric constant of the films increased, while the loss tangent remained at a low level (capacitor model was also adopted to interpret the efficiency of IBLC effects on the suppressed loss tangent and the superior breakdown strength. This work explored an effective approach to prepare dielectric nanocomposites for energy storage applications experimentally and theoretically.

  12. La-doped BaTiO3 heterostructures: Compensating the polarization discontinuity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. P. Kumah

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available We demonstrate a route to manipulate the polarization and internal electric field of a complex oxide heterostructure using a layering sequence based on the LaAlO3-SrTiO3 interface. By combining sensitive atomic-level mapping of the structure using direct x-ray phase-retrieval methods with theoretical modeling of the electrostatic charge and polarization, we have devised a novel single-domain polar heterostructure. We find that ionic rearrangement results in strain and free energy minimization, and eliminates the polarization discontinuity leading to a two-fold increase of the spontaneous polarization towards the surface of an ultra-thin single-domain BaTiO3 film.

  13. Complementary resistive switching in BaTiO3/NiO bilayer with opposite switching polarities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shuo; Wei, Xianhua; Lei, Yao; Yuan, Xincai; Zeng, Huizhong

    2016-12-01

    Resistive switching behaviors have been investigated in the Au/BaTiO3/NiO/Pt structure by stacking the two elements with different switching types. The conducting atomic force microscope measurements on BaTiO3 thin films and NiO thin films suggest that with the same active resistive switching region, the switching polarities in the two semiconductors are opposite to each other. It is in agreement with the bipolar hysteresis I-V curves with opposite switching polarities for single-layer devices. The bilayer devices show complementary resistive switching (CRS) without electroforming and unipolar resistive switching (URS) after electroforming. The coexistence of CRS and URS is mainly ascribed to the co-effect of electric field and Joule heating mechanisms, indicating that changeable of resistance in this device is dominated by the redistribution of oxygen vacancies in BaTiO3 and the formation, disruption, restoration of conducting filaments in NiO. CRS in bilayer with opposite switching polarities is effective to solve the sneak current without the introduction of any selector elements or an additional metal electrode.

  14. Thin film processes II

    CERN Document Server

    Kern, Werner

    1991-01-01

    This sequel to the 1978 classic, Thin Film Processes, gives a clear, practical exposition of important thin film deposition and etching processes that have not yet been adequately reviewed. It discusses selected processes in tutorial overviews with implementation guide lines and an introduction to the literature. Though edited to stand alone, when taken together, Thin Film Processes II and its predecessor present a thorough grounding in modern thin film techniques.Key Features* Provides an all-new sequel to the 1978 classic, Thin Film Processes* Introduces new topics, and sever

  15. Pyrolyzed thin film carbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tai, Yu-Chong (Inventor); Liger, Matthieu (Inventor); Harder, Theodore (Inventor); Konishi, Satoshi (Inventor); Miserendino, Scott (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    A method of making carbon thin films comprises depositing a catalyst on a substrate, depositing a hydrocarbon in contact with the catalyst and pyrolyzing the hydrocarbon. A method of controlling a carbon thin film density comprises etching a cavity into a substrate, depositing a hydrocarbon into the cavity, and pyrolyzing the hydrocarbon while in the cavity to form a carbon thin film. Controlling a carbon thin film density is achieved by changing the volume of the cavity. Methods of making carbon containing patterned structures are also provided. Carbon thin films and carbon containing patterned structures can be used in NEMS, MEMS, liquid chromatography, and sensor devices.

  16. Morphology controlled ultrafine BaTiO3 based PVDF-HFP ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    21

    ... for real applications. Kew Words: Polygonal, Barium Titanate, Hydrothermal, Dielectric and Sensor. 1. 2 ... structure and can be tuned further by substituting various dopants (Sr, Ca and Zr). .... Modified BaTiO3 induces less displacement of Ti and O ions along c- axis and .... sputter coated on both sides with gold. The films ...

  17. Synchrotron X-ray studies of epitaxial ferroelectric thin films and nanostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klug, Jeffrey A.

    The study of ferroelectric thin films is a field of considerable scientific and technological interest. In this dissertation synchrotron x-ray techniques were applied to examine the effects of lateral confinement and epitaxial strain in ferroelectric thin films and nanostructures. Three materials systems were investigated: laterally confined epitaxial BiFeO3 nanostructures on SrTiO3 (001), ultra-thin commensurate SrTiO 3 films on Si (001), and coherently strained films of BaTiO3 on DyScO3 (110). Epitaxial films of BiFeO3 were deposited by radio frequency magnetron sputtering on SrRuO3 coated SrTiO 3 (001) substrates. Laterally confined nanostructures were fabricated using focused ion-beam processing and subsequently characterized with focused beam x-ray nanodiffraction measurements with unprecedented spatial resolution. Results from a series of rectangular nanostructures with lateral dimensions between 500 nm and 1 mum and a comparably-sized region of the unpatterned BiFeO3 film revealed qualitatively similar distributions of local strain and lattice rotation with a 2-3 times larger magnitude of variation observed in those of the nanostructures compared to the unpatterned film. This indicates that lateral confinement leads to enhanced variation in the local strain and lattice rotation fields in epitaxial BiFeO3 nanostructures. A commensurate 2 nm thick film of SrTiO3 on Si was characterized by the x-ray standing wave (XSW) technique to determine the Sr and Ti cation positions in the strained unit cell in order to verify strain-induced ferroelectricity in SrTiO3/Si. A Si (004) XSW measurement at 10°C indicated that the average Ti displacement from the midpoint between Sr planes was consistent in magnitude to that predicted by a density functional theory (DFT) calculated ferroelectric structure. The Ti displacement determined from a 35°C measurement better matched a DFT-predicted nonpolar structure. The thin film extension of the XSW technique was employed to

  18. Ceramic Composite Thin Films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruoff, Rodney S. (Inventor); Stankovich, Sasha (Inventor); Dikin, Dmitriy A. (Inventor); Nguyen, SonBinh T. (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    A ceramic composite thin film or layer includes individual graphene oxide and/or electrically conductive graphene sheets dispersed in a ceramic (e.g. silica) matrix. The thin film or layer can be electrically conductive film or layer depending the amount of graphene sheets present. The composite films or layers are transparent, chemically inert and compatible with both glass and hydrophilic SiOx/silicon substrates. The composite film or layer can be produced by making a suspension of graphene oxide sheet fragments, introducing a silica-precursor or silica to the suspension to form a sol, depositing the sol on a substrate as thin film or layer, at least partially reducing the graphene oxide sheets to conductive graphene sheets, and thermally consolidating the thin film or layer to form a silica matrix in which the graphene oxide and/or graphene sheets are dispersed.

  19. Symmetry, strain, defects, and the nonlinear optical response of crystalline BaTiO3/silicon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kormondy, Kristy; Abel, Stefan; Popoff, Youri; Sousa, Marilyne; Caimi, Daniele; Siegwart, Heinz; Marchiori, Chiara; Rossell, Marta; Demkov, Alex; Fompeyrine, Jean

    Recent progress has been made towards exploiting the linear electro-optic or Pockels effect in ferroelectric BaTiO3 (BTO) for novel integrated silicon photonics devices. In such structures, the crystalline symmetry and domain structure of BTO determine which electro-optic tensor elements are accessible under application of an external electric field. For epitaxial thin films of BTO on Si (001), the role of defects in strain relaxation can lead to very different crystalline symmetry even for films of identical thickness. Indeed, through geometric phase analysis of high-resolution scanning transmission electron microscopy images, we map changes of the in-plane and out-of-plane lattice parameters across two 80-nm-thick BTO films. A corresponding 20% difference in the effective electro-optic response was measured by analyzing induced rotation of the polarization of a laser beam (λ = 1550 nm) transmitted through lithographically defined electrodes. Understanding, controlling, and modelling the role of BTO symmetry in nonlinear optics is of fundamental importance for the development of a hybrid BTO/Si photonics platform.. Work supported by the NSF (IRES-1358111), AFOSR (FA9550-12-10494), and European Commission (FP7-ICT-2013-11-619456-SITOGA).

  20. Estudio del perfil de defectos y de las propiedades eléctricas de BaTiO3 dopado con Nb y La

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Castro, M. S.

    2002-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is to study the impact of two different and typical donor –dopants; Nb2O5 and La2O3, on the electrical properties of BaTiO3. Besides, the influence of Nb5+ and La3+ on the charge compensation mechanism was evaluated. On this way, it was determined that, the defect structure is not only affected by the dopant ion but also by its concentration. Amount of dopant also affects the electrical properties of BaTiO3 ceramics. In fact, for low Nb2O5 or La2O3 concentration, electronic compensation prevails, leading to a low – resistive material with an important PTCR effect. By EPR an increases in the oxygen vacancies with a low lanthanum addition was determined. This phenomenon could be associated to the lanthanum acceptor behavior. On the other hand, high dopant concentration leads to a high – resistive material showing GBBL characteristics. In this case, a high content of double – ionized barium vacancies able to trap electrons, and a thin glassy – phase film covering the BaTiO3 grains lead to a high – resistive material. This phenomenon encourages the hypothesis in which barium vacancies act as acceptor centers at the grain boundaries in BaTiO3 ceramics.En este trabajo, se estudia el impacto de la adición de Nb2O5 o La2O3 sobre las propiedades eléctricas de cerámicos basados en BaTiO3. Asimismo, se estudia la influencia de estos dos típicos dopantes en los mecanismos de compensación de cargas. En este sentido, se ha determinado que la estructura de defectos en el BaTiO3 no sólo se encuentra afectada por el tipo de dopante sino tambien por su concentración. En efecto, para bajas concentraciones de Nb2O5 o La2O3, predomina un mecanismo de compensación de cargas por generación de electrones. Sin embargo, los resultados de EPR muestran que la adición de una pequeña cantidad de La2O3 produce un notable incremento en la concentración de vacantes de oxígeno respecto del BaTiO3 sin dopar. Este fenómeno podr

  1. Thin Film & Deposition Systems (Windows)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Coating Lab: Contains chambers for growing thin film window coatings. Plasma Applications Coating Lab: Contains chambers for growing thin film window coatings. Solar...

  2. Biomimetic thin film synthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graff, G.L.; Campbell, A.A.; Gordon, N.R.

    1995-05-01

    The purpose of this program is to develop a new process for forming thin film coatings and to demonstrate that the biomimetic thin film technology developed at PNL is useful for industrial applications. In the biomimetic process, mineral deposition from aqueous solution is controlled by organic functional groups attached to the underlying substrate surface. The coatings process is simple, benign, inexpensive, energy efficient, and particularly suited for temperature sensitive substrate materials (such as polymers). In addition, biomimetic thin films can be deposited uniformly on complex shaped and porous substrates providing a unique capability over more traditional line-of-sight methods.

  3. Thin film device applications

    CERN Document Server

    Kaur, Inderjeet

    1983-01-01

    Two-dimensional materials created ab initio by the process of condensation of atoms, molecules, or ions, called thin films, have unique properties significantly different from the corresponding bulk materials as a result of their physical dimensions, geometry, nonequilibrium microstructure, and metallurgy. Further, these characteristic features of thin films can be drasti­ cally modified and tailored to obtain the desired and required physical characteristics. These features form the basis of development of a host of extraordinary active and passive thin film device applications in the last two decades. On the one extreme, these applications are in the submicron dimensions in such areas as very large scale integration (VLSI), Josephson junction quantum interference devices, magnetic bubbles, and integrated optics. On the other extreme, large-area thin films are being used as selective coatings for solar thermal conversion, solar cells for photovoltaic conver­ sion, and protection and passivating layers. Ind...

  4. Dielectric and piezoelectric properties of lead-free (Bi,Na)TiO3-based thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abazari, M.; Safari, A.; Bharadwaja, S. S. N.; Trolier-McKinstry, S.

    2010-02-01

    Dielectric and piezoelectric properties of morphotropic phase boundary (Bi,Na)TiO3-(Bi,K)TiO3-BaTiO3 epitaxial thin films deposited on SrRuO3 coated SrTiO3 substrates were reported. Thin films of 350 nm thickness exhibited small signal dielectric permittivity and loss tangent values of 750 and 0.15, respectively, at 1 kHz. Ferroelectric hysteresis measurements indicated a remanent polarization value of 30 μC/cm2 with a coercive field of 85-100 kV/cm. The thin film transverse piezoelectric coefficient (e31,f) of these films after poling at 600 kV/cm was found to be -2.2 C/m2. The results indicate that these BNT-based thin films are a potential candidate for lead-free piezoelectric devices.

  5. Thin film tritium dosimetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, Paul R.

    1976-01-01

    The present invention provides a method for tritium dosimetry. A dosimeter comprising a thin film of a material having relatively sensitive RITAC-RITAP dosimetry properties is exposed to radiation from tritium, and after the dosimeter has been removed from the source of the radiation, the low energy electron dose deposited in the thin film is determined by radiation-induced, thermally-activated polarization dosimetry techniques.

  6. Ferroelectric properties of composites containing BaTiO3 nanoparticles of various sizes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adam, Jens; Lehnert, Tobias; Klein, Gabi; McMeeking, Robert M

    2014-01-01

    Size effects, including the occurrence of superparaelectric phases associated with small scale, are a significant research topic for ferroelectrics. Relevant phenomena have been explored in detail, e.g. for homogeneous, thin ferroelectric films, but the related effects associated with nanoparticles are usually only inferred from their structural properties. In contrast, this paper describes all the steps and concepts necessary for the direct characterization and quantitative assessment of the ferroelectric properties of as-synthesized and as-received nanoparticles. The method adopted uses electrical polarization measurements on polymer matrix composites containing ferroelectric nanoparticles. It is applied to ten different BaTiO 3 particle types covering a size range from 10 nm to 0.8 μm. The influence of variations of particle characteristics such as tetragonality and dielectric constant is considered based on measurements of these properties. For composites containing different particle types a clearly differing polarization behaviour is found. For decreasing particle size, increasing electric field is required to achieve a given level of polarization. The size dependence of a measure related to the coercive field revealed by this work is qualitatively in line with the state of the knowledge for ferroelectrics having small dimensions. For the first time, such results and size effects are described based on data from experiments on collections of actual nanoparticles. (paper)

  7. Ferroelectric properties of composites containing BaTiO 3 nanoparticles of various sizes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adam, Jens; Lehnert, Tobias; Klein, Gabi; McMeeking, Robert M.

    2014-01-01

    Size effects, including the occurrence of superparaelectric phases associated with small scale, are a significant research topic for ferroelectrics. Relevant phenomena have been explored in detail, e.g. for homogeneous, thin ferroelectric films, but the related effects associated with nanoparticles are usually only inferred from their structural properties. In contrast, this paper describes all the steps and concepts necessary for the direct characterization and quantitative assessment of the ferroelectric properties of as-synthesized and as-received nanoparticles. The method adopted uses electrical polarization measurements on polymer matrix composites containing ferroelectric nanoparticles. It is applied to ten different BaTiO3 particle types covering a size range from 10 nm to 0.8 μm. The influence of variations of particle characteristics such as tetragonality and dielectric constant is considered based on measurements of these properties. For composites containing different particle types a clearly differing polarization behaviour is found. For decreasing particle size, increasing electric field is required to achieve a given level of polarization. The size dependence of a measure related to the coercive field revealed by this work is qualitatively in line with the state of the knowledge for ferroelectrics having small dimensions. For the first time, such results and size effects are described based on data from experiments on collections of actual nanoparticles.

  8. Thin films and nanomaterials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jayakumar, S.; Kannan, M.D.; Prasanna, S.

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this book is to disseminate the most recent research in Thin Films, Nanomaterials, Corrosion and Metallurgy presented at the International Conference on Advanced Materials (ICAM 2011) held in PSG College of Technology, Coimbatore, India during 12-16 December 2011. The book is a compilation of 113 chapters written by active researchers providing information and critical insights into the recent advancements that have taken place. Important new applications are possible today in the fields of microelectronics, opto-electronics, metallurgy and energy by the application of thin films on solid surfaces. Recent progress in high vacuum technology and new materials has a remarkable effect in thin film quality and cost. This has led to the development of new single or multi-layered thin film devices with diverse applications in a multitude of production areas, such as optics, thermal barrier coatings and wear protections, enhancing service life of tools and to protect materials against thermal and atmospheric influence. On the other hand, thin film process techniques and research are strongly related to the basic research activities in nano technology, an increasingly important field with countless opportunities for applications due to the emergence of new properties at the nanoscale level. Materials and structures that are designed and fabricated at the nano scale level, offer the potential to produce new devices and processes that may enhance efficiencies and reduce costs in many areas, as photovoltaic systems, hydrogen storage, fuel cells and solar thermal systems. In the book, the contributed papers are classified under two sections i) thin films and ii) nanomaterials. The thin film section includes single or multi layer conducting, insulating or semiconducting films synthesized by a wide variety of physical or chemical techniques and characterized or analyzed for different applications. The nanomaterials section deals with novel or exciting materials

  9. Thickness dependent charge transport in ferroelectric BaTiO3 heterojunctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Pooja; Rout, P. K.; Singh, Manju; Rakshit, R. K.; Dogra, Anjana

    2015-09-01

    We have investigated the effect of ferroelectric barium titanate (BaTiO3) film thickness on the charge transport mechanism in pulsed laser deposited epitaxial metal-ferroelectric semiconductor junctions. The current (I)-voltage (V) measurements across the junctions comprising of 20-500 nm thick BaTiO3 and conducting bottom electrode (Nb: SrTiO3 substrate or La2/3Ca1/3MnO3 buffer layer) demonstrate the space charge limited conduction. Further analysis indicates a reduction in the ratio of free to trapped carriers with increasing thickness in spite of decreasing trap density. Such behaviour arises the deepening of the shallow trap levels (I-V curves implies a bipolar resistive switching behaviour, which can be explained in terms of charge trapping and de-trapping process.

  10. Thin Film Microbatteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dudney, Nancy J.

    2008-01-01

    Thin film batteries are built layer by layer by vapor deposition. The resulting battery is formed of parallel plates, much as an ordinary battery construction, just much thinner. The figure (Fig. 1) shows an example of a thin film battery layout where films are deposited symmetrically onto both sides of a supporting substrate. The full stack of films is only 10 to 15 (micro)m thick, but including the support at least doubles the overall battery thickness. When the support is thin, the entire battery can be flexible. At least six companies have commercialized or are very close to commercializing such all-solid-state thin film batteries and market research predicts a growing market and a variety of applications including sensors, RFID tags, and smarter cards. In principle with a large deposition system, a thin film battery might cover a square meter, but in practice, most development is targeting individual cells with active areas less than 25 cm 2 . For very small battery areas, 2 , microfabrication processes have been developed. Typically the assembled batteries have capacities from 0.1 to 5 mAh. The operation of a thin film battery is depicted in the schematic diagram (Fig. 2). Very simply, when the battery is allowed to discharge, a Li + ion migrates from the anode to the cathode film by diffusing through the solid electrolyte. When the anode and cathode reactions are reversible, as for an intercalation compound or alloy, the battery can be recharged by reversing the current. The difference in the electrochemical potential of the lithium determines the cell voltage. Most of the thin films used in current commercial variations of this thin film battery are deposited in vacuum chambers by RF and DC magnetron sputtering and by thermal evaporation onto unheated substrates. In addition, many publications report exploring a variety of other physical and chemical vapor deposition processes, such as pulsed laser deposition, electron cyclotron resonance sputtering, and

  11. Optical thin film deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macleod, H.A.

    1979-01-01

    The potential usefulness in the production of optical thin-film coatings of some of the processes for thin film deposition which can be classified under the heading of ion-assisted techniques is examined. Thermal evaporation is the process which is virtually universally used for this purpose and which has been developed to a stage where performance is in almost all respects high. Areas where further improvements would be of value, and the possibility that ion-assisted deposition might lead to such improvements, are discussed. (author)

  12. Thin Film Photovoltaics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zweibel, K.

    1998-11-19

    The motivation to develop thin film technologies dates back to the inception of photovoltaics. It is an idea based on achieving truly low-cost photovoltaics appropriate for mass production and energy significant markets. The key to the idea is the use of pennies worth of active materials. Since sunlight carries relatively little energy in comparison with combustion-based energy sources, photovoltaic (PV) modules must be cheap to produce energy that can be competitive. Thin films are presumed to be the answer to that low-cost requirement. But how cheap do they have to be? The following is an oversimplified analysis that allows some insight into this question.

  13. Thin film ceramic thermocouples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory, Otto (Inventor); Fralick, Gustave (Inventor); Wrbanek, John (Inventor); You, Tao (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    A thin film ceramic thermocouple (10) having two ceramic thermocouple (12, 14) that are in contact with each other in at least on point to form a junction, and wherein each element was prepared in a different oxygen/nitrogen/argon plasma. Since each element is prepared under different plasma conditions, they have different electrical conductivity and different charge carrier concentration. The thin film thermocouple (10) can be transparent. A versatile ceramic sensor system having an RTD heat flux sensor can be combined with a thermocouple and a strain sensor to yield a multifunctional ceramic sensor array. The transparent ceramic temperature sensor that could ultimately be used for calibration of optical sensors.

  14. Thin film metal-oxides

    CERN Document Server

    Ramanathan, Shriram

    2009-01-01

    Presents an account of the fundamental structure-property relations in oxide thin films. This title discusses the functional properties of thin film oxides in the context of applications in the electronics and renewable energy technologies.

  15. NMR characterization of thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerald II, Rex E.; Klingler, Robert J.; Rathke, Jerome W.; Diaz, Rocio; Vukovic, Lela

    2010-06-15

    A method, apparatus, and system for characterizing thin film materials. The method, apparatus, and system includes a container for receiving a starting material, applying a gravitational force, a magnetic force, and an electric force or combinations thereof to at least the starting material, forming a thin film material, sensing an NMR signal from the thin film material and analyzing the NMR signal to characterize the thin film of material.

  16. NMR characterization of thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerald, II, Rex E.; Klingler, Robert J.; Rathke, Jerome W.; Diaz, Rocio; Vukovic, Lela

    2008-11-25

    A method, apparatus, and system for characterizing thin film materials. The method, apparatus, and system includes a container for receiving a starting material, applying a gravitational force, a magnetic force, and an electric force or combinations thereof to at least the starting material, forming a thin film material, sensing an NMR signal from the thin film material and analyzing the NMR signal to characterize the thin film of material.

  17. Rare Earth Oxide Thin Films

    CERN Document Server

    Fanciulli, Marco

    2007-01-01

    Thin rare earth (RE) oxide films are emerging materials for microelectronic, nanoelectronic, and spintronic applications. The state-of-the-art of thin film deposition techniques as well as the structural, physical, chemical, and electrical properties of thin RE oxide films and of their interface with semiconducting substrates are discussed. The aim is to identify proper methodologies for the development of RE oxides thin films and to evaluate their effectiveness as innovative materials in different applications.

  18. Spin-Coating and Characterization of Multiferroic MFe2O4 (M=Co, Ni) / BaTiO3 Bilayers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quandt, Norman; Roth, Robert; Syrowatka, Frank; Steimecke, Matthias; Ebbinghaus, Stefan G.

    2016-01-01

    Bilayer films of MFe2O4 (M=Co, Ni) and BaTiO3 were prepared by spin coating of N,N-dimethylformamide/acetic acid solutions on platinum coated silicon wafers. Five coating steps were applied to get the desired thickness of 150 nm for both the ferrite and perovskite layer. XRD, IR and Raman spectroscopy revealed the formation of phase-pure ferrite spinels and BaTiO3. Smooth surfaces with roughnesses in the order of 3 to 5 nm were found in AFM investigations. Saturation magnetization of 347 emu cm-3 for the CoFe2O4/BaTiO3 and 188 emu cm-3 for the NiFe2O4/BaTiO3 bilayer, respectively were found. For the CoFe2O4/BaTiO3 bilayer a strong magnetic anisotropy was observed with coercivity fields of 5.1 kOe and 3.3 kOe (applied magnetic field perpendicular and parallel to film surface), while for the NiFe2O4/BaTiO3 bilayer this effect is less pronounced. Saturated polarization hysteresis loops prove the presence of ferroelectricity in both systems.

  19. Selective inorganic thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phillips, M.L.F.; Weisenbach, L.A.; Anderson, M.T. [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM (United States)] [and others

    1995-05-01

    This project is developing inorganic thin films as membranes for gas separation applications, and as discriminating coatings for liquid-phase chemical sensors. Our goal is to synthesize these coatings with tailored porosity and surface chemistry on porous substrates and on acoustic and optical sensors. Molecular sieve films offer the possibility of performing separations involving hydrogen, air, and natural gas constituents at elevated temperatures with very high separation factors. We are focusing on improving permeability and molecular sieve properties of crystalline zeolitic membranes made by hydrothermally reacting layered multicomponent sol-gel films deposited on mesoporous substrates. We also used acoustic plate mode (APM) oscillator and surface plasmon resonance (SPR) sensor elements as substrates for sol-gel films, and have both used these modified sensors to determine physical properties of the films and have determined the sensitivity and selectivity of these sensors to aqueous chemical species.

  20. Electrical properties of resistive switches based on Ba1-χSrχTiO3 thin films prepared by RF co-sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marquez H, A.; Hernandez R, E.; Zapata T, M.; Guillen R, J.; Cruz, M. P.; Calzadilla A, O.; Melendez L, M.

    2010-01-01

    In this work, was proposed the use of Ba 1-χ Sr χ TiO 3 (0≤x≤1) thin films for the construction of metal-insulator-metal heterostructures; and their great potential for the development of non-volatile resistance memories (ReRAM) is shown. The deposition of Ba 1-χ Sr χ TiO 3 thin films was done by the RF co-sputtering technique using two magnetron sputtering cathodes with BaTiO 3 and SrTiO 3 targets. The chemical composition (x parameter) in the deposited Ba 1-χ Sr χ TiO 3 thin films was varied through the RF powder applied to the targets. The constructed metal-insulator-metal heterostructures were Al/Ba 1-χ Sr χ TiO 3 /nichrome. The I-V measurements of the heterostructures showed that their hysteretic characteristics change depending on the Ba/Sr ratio of the Ba 1-χ Sr χ TiO 3 thin films; the Ba/Sr ratio was determined by employing the energy dispersive spectroscopy; Sem micrographs showed that Ba 1-χ Sr χ TiO 3 thin films were uniform without cracks or pinholes. Additionally, the analysis of the X-ray diffraction results indicated the substitutional incorporation of Sr into the BaTiO 3 lattice and the obtainment of crystalline films for the entire range of the x values. (Author)

  1. BaTiO3–P(VDF-HFP) nanocomposite dielectrics—Influence of surface modification and dispersion additives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ehrhardt, Claudia; Fettkenhauer, Christian; Glenneberg, Jens; Münchgesang, Wolfram; Pientschke, Christoph; Großmann, Thomas; Zenkner, Mandy; Wagner, Gerald; Leipner, Hartmut S.; Buchsteiner, Alexandra; Diestelhorst, Martin; Lemm, Sebastian; Beige, Horst; Ebbinghaus, Stefan G.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Polymer composites were prepared using a sol–gel synthesized BaTiO 3 . • BaTiO 3 surface hydroxyle groups act as linkers for surfactant molecules. • The effect of chemical adjustment between surfactant and polymer host is studied. • A positive effect of an additional dispersant was found. • Dielectric properties of the resulting composite films are presented. -- Abstract: We report on BaTiO 3 –polymer composites as dielectrics for film capacitors. BaTiO 3 was synthesized by a sol–gel soft-chemistry method leading to spherical nanoparticles with a high degree of surface hydroxyl groups which turned out to be important for the bonding of surfactant molecules. As surfactants, n-octylphosphonic acid and 2,3,4,5,6-pentafluorobenzyl phosphonic acid were used to inhibit particle agglomeration and to improve the wetting behaviour with the polymer. The phosphonic acid-coated BaTiO 3 nanoparticles were dispersed in solutions of poly(vinylidefluoride-co-hexafluoropropylene). Composite films were prepared by the spin-coating technique. A systematic study was performed on the influence of varying oxide fractions, different surfactants and the effect of additional dispersion aids such as sodium dodecyl sulphate or BYK-W 9010 on the quality and dielectric properties of the films obtained. The chemical adjustment of the 2,3,4,5,6-pentaflourobenzyl phosphonic acid within the fluorinated organic host form a more uniform particle distribution and increase relative permittivity of the resulting composite material compared to the unflourinated surfactant. Additionally, an enhancement of the relative permittivity can be realized by adding of dispersants. These two components can increase the relative permittivity by factor 5 compared to the pure polymer material

  2. Superconducting oxypnictide thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reisner, Andreas; Kidszun, Martin; Reich, Elke; Holzapfel, Bernhard; Schultz, Ludwig; Haindl, Silvia [IFW Dresden, Institute of Metallic Materials (Germany); Thersleff, Thomas [Uppsala University, Angstrom Laboratory (Sweden)

    2012-07-01

    We present an overview on the oxypnictide thin film preparation. So far, only LaAlO{sub 3} (001) single crystalline substrates provided a successful growth using pulsed laser deposition in combination with a post annealing process. Further experiments on the in-situ deposition will be reported. The structure of the films was investigated by X-ray diffractometry and transmission electron microscopy. Transport properties were measured with different applied fields to obtain a magnetic phase diagram for this new type of superconductor.

  3. Mechanics of Thin Films

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-02-06

    and the second geometry was that of squat cylinders (diameter 6.4 mm, height 6.4 mm). These two geometries were tested in thermal shock tests, and a...milder [13]. More recently, Lau, Rahman and stressa nce ntrati, tha n films of lmalla rat ve spc Delale calculated the free edge singularity for stress...thickness of 3 mm); the second geometry was that As an example of the shielding effect of thin films, we of squat cylinders (diameter 6.4 mm, height 6.4

  4. Thin film processes

    CERN Document Server

    Vossen, John L

    1978-01-01

    Remarkable advances have been made in recent years in the science and technology of thin film processes for deposition and etching. It is the purpose of this book to bring together tutorial reviews of selected filmdeposition and etching processes from a process viewpoint. Emphasis is placed on the practical use of the processes to provide working guidelines for their implementation, a guide to the literature, and an overview of each process.

  5. Handbook of thin film technology

    CERN Document Server

    Frey, Hartmut

    2015-01-01

    “Handbook of Thin Film Technology” covers all aspects of coatings preparation, characterization and applications. Different deposition techniques based on vacuum and plasma processes are presented. Methods of surface and thin film analysis including coating thickness, structural, optical, electrical, mechanical and magnetic properties of films are detailed described. The several applications of thin coatings and a special chapter focusing on nanoparticle-based films can be found in this handbook. A complete reference for students and professionals interested in the science and technology of thin films.

  6. Thin films for precision optics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Araujo, J.F.; Maurici, N.; Castro, J.C. de

    1983-01-01

    The technology of producing dielectric and/or metallic thin films for high precision optical components is discussed. Computer programs were developed in order to calculate and register, graphically, reflectance and transmittance spectra of multi-layer films. The technology of vacuum evaporation of several materials was implemented in our thin-films laboratory; various films for optics were then developed. The possibility of first calculate film characteristics and then produce the film is of great advantage since it reduces the time required to produce a new type of film and also reduces the cost of the project. (C.L.B.) [pt

  7. Microstructure of Thin Films

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-02-07

    Proceedings, Thin film Technologies II, 652, 256-263, (1986) B. Schmitt, J.P. Borgogno, G. Albrand and E. Pelletier, "In situ and air index measurements...34 SPIE Proceedings, "Optical Components and Systems", 805, 128 (1987) 11 B. Schmitt, J.P. Borgogno, G. Albrand and E. Pelletier. "In situ and air index...aT , m..a, lot,, o ,,f,02,d I4 k -1-1..... autocovariance lengths, less than 0.5 um, indicate that , 514n, ob0 o p’,Ofclllc....,,o,,oy0,1- agua sblrt

  8. Host thin films incorporating nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qureshi, Uzma

    The focus of this research project was the investigation of the functional properties of thin films that incorporate a secondary nanoparticulate phase. In particular to assess if the secondary nanoparticulate material enhanced a functional property of the coating on glass. In order to achieve this, new thin film deposition methods were developed, namely use of nanopowder precursors, an aerosol assisted transport technique and an aerosol into atmospheric pressure chemical vapour deposition system. Aerosol assisted chemical vapour deposition (AACVD) was used to deposit 8 series of thin films on glass. Five different nanoparticles silver, gold, ceria, tungsten oxide and zinc oxide were tested and shown to successfully deposit thin films incorporating nanoparticles within a host matrix. Silver nanoparticles were synthesised and doped within a titania film by AACVD. This improved solar control properties. A unique aerosol assisted chemical vapour deposition (AACVD) into atmospheric pressure chemical vapour deposition (APCVD) system was used to deposit films of Au nanoparticles and thin films of gold nanoparticles incorporated within a host titania matrix. Incorporation of high refractive index contrast metal oxide particles within a host film altered the film colour. The key goal was to test the potential of nanopowder forms and transfer the suspended nanopowder via an aerosol to a substrate in order to deposit a thin film. Discrete tungsten oxide nanoparticles or ceria nanoparticles within a titanium dioxide thin film enhanced the self-cleaning and photo-induced super-hydrophilicity. The nanopowder precursor study was extended by deposition of zinc oxide thin films incorporating Au nanoparticles and also ZnO films deposited from a ZnO nanopowder precursor. Incorporation of Au nanoparticles within a VO: host matrix improved the thermochromic response, optical and colour properties. Composite VC/TiC and Au nanoparticle/V02/Ti02 thin films displayed three useful

  9. Thin-film photovoltaic technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhattacharya, R.N. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, CO (United States)

    2010-07-01

    The high material and processing costs associated with single-crystal and polycrystalline silicon wafers that are commonly used in photovoltaic cells render these modules expensive. This presentation described thin-film solar cell technology as a promising alternative to silicon solar cell technology. Cadmium telluride (CdTe) thin films along with copper, indium, gallium, and selenium (CIGS) thin films have become the leaders in this field. Their large optical absorption coefficient can be attributed to a direct energy gap that allows the use of thin layers (1-2 {mu}m) of active material. The efficiency of thin-film solar cell devices based on CIGS is 20 per cent, compared to 16.7 per cent for thin-film solar cell devices based on CdTe. IBM recently reported an efficiency of 9.7 per cent for a new type of inorganic thin-film solar cell based on a Cu{sub 2}ZnSn(S, Se){sub 4} compound. The efficiency of an organic thin-film solar cell is 7.9 per cent. This presentation included a graph of PV device efficiencies and discussed technological advances in non-vacuum deposited, CIGS-based thin-film solar cells. 1 fig.

  10. Polymer Thin Film Stabilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, A. C.; Oslanec, R.; Composto, R. J.; Vlcek, P.

    1998-03-01

    We study the dewetting dynamics of thin polystyrene (PS) films deposited on silicon oxide surfaces using optical (OM) and atomic force (AFM) microscopes. Quantitative analysis of the hole diameter as a function of annealing time at 175^oC shows that blending poly(styrene-block-methyl-methacrylate) (PS-b-PMMA) with PS acts to dramatically slow down the dewetting rate and even stops holes growth before they impinge. AFM studies show that the hole floor is smooth for a pure PS film but contains residual polymer for the blend. At 5% vol., a PS-b-PMMA with high molar mass and low PMMA is a more effective stabilizing agent than a low molar mass/high PMMA additive. The optimum copolymer concentration is 3% vol. beyond which film stability doesn't improve. Although dewetting is slowed down relative to pure PS, PS/PS-b-PMMA bilayers dewet at a faster rate than blends having the same overall additive concentration.

  11. Thin films: Past, present, future

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zweibel, K

    1995-04-01

    This report describes the characteristics of the thin film photovoltaic modules necessary for an acceptable rate of return for rural areas and underdeveloped countries. The topics of the paper include a development of goals of cost and performance for an acceptable PV system, a review of current technologies for meeting these goals, issues and opportunities in thin film technologies.

  12. Thin-film solar cell

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Metselaar, J.W.; Kuznetsov, V.I.

    1998-01-01

    The invention relates to a thin-film solar cell provided with at least one p-i-n junction comprising at least one p-i junction which is at an angle alpha with that surface of the thin-film solar cell which collects light during operation and at least one i-n junction which is at an angle beta with

  13. Thin-film solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aberle, Armin G.

    2009-01-01

    The rapid progress that is being made with inorganic thin-film photovoltaic (PV) technologies, both in the laboratory and in industry, is reviewed. While amorphous silicon based PV modules have been around for more than 20 years, recent industrial developments include the first polycrystalline silicon thin-film solar cells on glass and the first tandem solar cells based on stacks of amorphous and microcrystalline silicon films ('micromorph cells'). Significant thin-film PV production levels are also being set up for cadmium telluride and copper indium diselenide.

  14. Modulation of resistive switching characteristics for individual BaTiO3 microfiber by surface oxygen vacancies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miao, Zhilei; Chen, Lei; Zhou, Fang; Wang, Qiang

    2018-01-01

    Different from traditional thin-film BaTiO3 (BTO) RRAM device with planar structure, individual microfiber-shaped RRAM device, showing promising application potentials in the micro-sized non-volatile memory system, has not been investigated so far to demonstrate resistive switching behavior. In this work, individual sol-gel BTO microfiber has been formed using the draw-bench method, followed by annealing in different atmospheres of air and argon, respectively. The resistive switching characteristics of the individual BTO microfiber have been investigated by employing double-probe SEM measurement system, which shows great convenience to test local electrical properties by modulating the contact sites between the W probes and the BTO microfiber. For the sample annealed in air, the average resistive ON/OFF ratio is as high as 108, enhanced about four orders in comparison with the counterpart that annealed in Argon. For the sample annealed in argon ambience, the weakened resistive ON/OFF ratio can be attributed to the increased presence of oxygen vacancies in the surface of BTO fibers, and the underlying electrical conduction mechanisms are also discussed.

  15. Dynamic Displacement Disorder of Cubic BaTiO3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paściak, M.; Welberry, T. R.; Kulda, J.; Leoni, S.; Hlinka, J.

    2018-04-01

    The three-dimensional distribution of the x-ray diffuse scattering intensity of BaTiO3 has been recorded in a synchrotron experiment and simultaneously computed using molecular dynamics simulations of a shell model. Together, these have allowed the details of the disorder in paraelectric BaTiO3 to be clarified. The narrow sheets of diffuse scattering, related to the famous anisotropic longitudinal correlations of Ti ions, are shown to be caused by the overdamped anharmonic soft phonon branch. This finding demonstrates that the occurrence of narrow sheets of diffuse scattering agrees with a displacive picture of the cubic phase of this textbook ferroelectric material. The presented methodology allows one to go beyond the harmonic approximation in the analysis of phonons and phonon-related scattering.

  16. Interface control in BaTiO3 based supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maglione, Mario; Elissalde, Catherine; Chung, U.-Chan

    2010-03-01

    Core shell BaTiO3 based particles sintered using advanced processes provide a high control of grain boundaries in bulk composites. As a result, supercapacitor behavior was evidenced which came from the balance between inner grain conductivity and grain boundary dielectric barrier. Thanks to the core-shell structure of the starting particles, improved control of the effective dielectric parameters can be achieved.

  17. Strain and electric field mediated manipulation of magnetism in La_(_1_-_x_)Sr_xMnO_3/BaTiO_3 heterostructures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmitz, Markus

    2016-01-01

    Heterostructures of ferromagnetic La_1_-_xSr_xMnO_3 (LSMO) and ferroelectric BaTiO_3 (BTO) were produced and investigated for their structural and magnetic properties. The combination of these ferroic properties can lead to an artificial multiferroic. Special emphasis was given to the manipulation of magnetic properties by applying electric fields. A magneto-electric coupling could be observed in the heterostructures under investigation. Epitaxial LSMO thin films were grown on BTO substrates using a state-of-the-art oxide molecular beam epitaxy (OMBE) and a high oxygen sputtering system (HOPSS). Stoichiometric La_1_-_xSr_xMnO_3 films with doping levels of x=0.5 and x=0.3 were produced. The film quality in terms of roughness and crystalline structure was confirmed by X-ray scattering methods. The presence of structural domains in the BaTiO_3 single crystal substrate, whose proportion could be altered due to the application of electric fields, was shown by X-ray diffraction. Tensile strain is induced into the epitaxial La_1_-_xSr_xMnO_3 films in the whole temperature range under investigation. The magnetization of LSMO alteres by the variation of strain induced into the film, generated by the different structural phases of single crystal BaTiO_3 substrates. The magnetization shows sharp steps at the structural phase transition temperatures of BTO. The evaluation of magnetic hysteresis loops reveals a change of the magnetic anisotropy of LSMO for each structural phase of BTO, but also within the orthorhombic phase. Special focus was given to the manipulation of magnetic properties by the application of electric fields. A newly established measurement option was used to determine the magnetic response to an applied electric field as a function of temperature and magnetic field. The electrically induced modification of the magnetization is profound near the structural phase transition temperatures. Electrical hysteresis loops give a detailed view on the influence of the

  18. Microstructure and dielectric parameters of epitaxial SrRuO3/BaTiO3/SrRuO3 heterostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boikov, Yu. A.; Claeson, T.

    2001-05-01

    Epitaxial films of ferroelectric barium titanate are desirable in a number of applications but their properties are inferior to those of bulk material. Relations between microstructure and dielectric properties may give better understanding of limitations. Trilayer heterostructures SrRuO3/BaTiO3/SrRuO3 were grown by laser ablation on (100)LaAlO3 and (100)MgO substrates. The BaTiO3 layer was granular in structure. When grown on (100)SrRuO3/(100)LaAlO3, it was preferentially a-axis oriented due to tensile mechanical stress. Using (100)MgO as a substrate, on the other hand, produced a mixture of about equal value of a-axis and c-axis oriented grains of BaTiO3. The dielectric permittivity, ɛ, of the BaTiO3 layer was almost twice as large, at T>200 K and f=100 kHz, for the LaAlO3 substrate as compared to the MgO one. Its maximum value (ɛ/ɛ0≈6200) depended on temperature of growth, grain size, and electric field and compares well with optimal values commonly used for ceramic material. The maximum in the ɛ(T) shifted from about 370 to 320 K when the grain size in the BaTiO3 film decreased from 100 to 40 nm. At T300 K, hysteresis loops in polarization versus electric field were roughly symmetric. The BaTiO3 films grown on (100)SrRuO3/(100)MgO exhibit the largest remnant polarizations and coercive fields in the temperature range 100-380 K.

  19. Characterization of organic thin films

    CERN Document Server

    Ulman, Abraham; Evans, Charles A

    2009-01-01

    Thin films based upon organic materials are at the heart of much of the revolution in modern technology, from advanced electronics, to optics to sensors to biomedical engineering. This volume in the Materials Characterization series introduces the major common types of analysis used in characterizing of thin films and the various appropriate characterization technologies for each. Materials such as Langmuir-Blodgett films and self-assembled monolayers are first introduced, followed by analysis of surface properties and the various characterization technologies used for such. Readers will find detailed information on: -Various spectroscopic approaches to characterization of organic thin films, including infrared spectroscopy and Raman spectroscopy -X-Ray diffraction techniques, High Resolution EELS studies, and X-Ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy -Concise Summaries of major characterization technologies for organic thin films, including Auger Electron Spectroscopy, Dynamic Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry, and Tra...

  20. Low temperature dielectric relaxation and charged defects in ferroelectric thin films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Artemenko

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available We report a dielectric relaxation in BaTiO3-based ferroelectric thin films of different composition and with several growth modes: sputtering (with and without magnetron and sol-gel. The relaxation was observed at cryogenic temperatures (T < 100 K for frequencies from 100 Hz up to 10 MHz. This relaxation activation energy is always lower than 200 meV and is very similar to the relaxation that we reported in the parent bulk perovskites. Based on our Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR investigation, we ascribe this dielectric relaxation to the hopping of electrons among Ti3+-V(O charged defects. Being dependent on the growth process and on the amount of oxygen vacancies, this relaxation can be a useful probe of defects in actual integrated capacitors with no need for specific shaping.

  1. Interfaces and thin films physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Equer, B.

    1988-01-01

    The 1988 progress report of the Interfaces and Thin Film Physics laboratory (Polytechnic School France) is presented. The research program is focused on the thin films and on the interfaces of the amorphous semiconductor materials: silicon and silicon germanium, silicon-carbon and silicon-nitrogen alloys. In particular, the following topics are discussed: the basic processes and the kinetics of the reactive gas deposition, the amorphous materials manufacturing, the physico-chemical characterization of thin films and interfaces and the electron transport in amorphous semiconductors. The construction and optimization of experimental devices, as well as the activities concerning instrumentation, are also described [fr

  2. Multiferroicity in oxide thin films and heterostructures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glavic, Artur

    2012-01-01

    In this work a variety of different systems of transition metal oxides ABO 3 (perovskite materials, where B stands for a transition metal and A for a rare earth element) were produced as thin films and heterostructures and analyzed for the structural, magnetic and ferroelectric properties. For the epitaxial film preparation mostly pulse laser deposition (PLD) was applied. For one series high pressure oxide sputter deposition was used as well. The bulk multiferroics TbMnO 3 and DyMnO 3 , which develop their electric polarization due to a cycloidal magnetic order, have been prepared as single layers with thicknesses between 2 and 200 nm on YAlO 3 substrates using PLD and sputter deposition. The structural characterization of the surfaces and crystal structure where performed using X-ray reflectometry and diffraction, respectively. These yielded low surface roughness and good epitaxial growth. The magnetic behavior was macroscopically measured with SQUID magnetometry and microscopically with polarized neutron diffraction and resonant magnetic X-ray scattering. While all investigated samples showed antiferromagnetic order, comparable with the collinear magnetic phase of their bulk materials, only the sputter deposited samples exhibited the multiferroic low temperature cycloidal order. The investigation of the optical second harmonic generation in a TbMnO 3 sample could proof the presence of a ferroelectric order in the low temperature phase. The respective transition temperatures of the thin films have been very similar to those of the bulk materials. In contrast an increase in the rare earth ordering temperature has been observed, which reduces the Mn order slightly, an effect not known from bulk TbMnO 3 crystals. The coupling of the antiferromagnetic order in TbMnO 3 to ferromagnetic layers of LaCoO 3 was investigated in super-lattices containing 20 bilayers produced with PLD on the same substrates. The SQUID magnetometry yielded a strong influence of the

  3. Preparation and characterization of self-assembled percolative BaTiO3–CoFe2O4 nanocomposites via magnetron co-sputtering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qian Yang

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available BaTiO3–CoFe2O4 composite films were prepared on (100 SrTiO3 substrates by using a radio-frequency magnetron co-sputtering method at 750 °C. These films contained highly (001-oriented crystalline phases of perovskite BaTiO3 and spinel CoFe2O4, which can form a self-assembled nanostructure with BaTiO3 well-dispersed into CoFe2O4 under optimized sputtering conditions. A prominent dielectric percolation behavior was observed in the self-assembled nanocomposite. Compared with pure BaTiO3 films sputtered under similar conditions, the nanocomposite film showed higher dielectric constants and lower dielectric losses together with a dramatically suppressed frequency dispersion. This dielectric percolation phenomenon can be explained by the 'micro-capacitor' model, which was supported by measurement results of the electric polarization and leakage current.

  4. Thin-Film Power Transformers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katti, Romney R.

    1995-01-01

    Transformer core made of thin layers of insulating material interspersed with thin layers of ferromagnetic material. Flux-linking conductors made of thinner nonferromagnetic-conductor/insulator multilayers wrapped around core. Transformers have geometric features finer than those of transformers made in customary way by machining and mechanical pressing. In addition, some thin-film materials exhibit magnetic-flux-carrying capabilities superior to those of customary bulk transformer materials. Suitable for low-cost, high-yield mass production.

  5. Size effects in thin films

    CERN Document Server

    Tellier, CR; Siddall, G

    1982-01-01

    A complete and comprehensive study of transport phenomena in thin continuous metal films, this book reviews work carried out on external-surface and grain-boundary electron scattering and proposes new theoretical equations for transport properties of these films. It presents a complete theoretical view of the field, and considers imperfection and impurity effects.

  6. Effect of lithium doping in BaTiO3 ceramics for vibration sensor application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Praveen, E.; Murugan, S.; Jayakumar, K.

    2018-04-01

    Phase pure undoped and Lithium doped BaTiO3 particles have been synthesized by high temperature solid-state reaction method. Substitution of Lithium at the Ba2+ site in BaTiO3 lattice has been investigated. The structural, vibrational, electrical and mechanical characterization have been carried out. The poled samples were used as a sensing element for the detection of mechanical oscillations and the presence of 80 Hz pulse in the output spectrum manifest the response of the sensor element to the applied mechanical stress. In comparison with pure BaTiO3 the sensitivity of Li doped BaTiO3 is 14 times greater than the pure BaTiO3. This confirms that Li doped BaTiO3 could be an efficient candidate for the functionalization of vibration sensors in space application.

  7. Optical properties of BaTiO3 nanoparticles and silver nanoprisms in polymer host matrices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Requena, Sebastian

    Nanocomposites are materials comprised of a host matrix, such as glass or polymer, with embedded nanoparticles. Embedding nanoparticles into the host makes it possible to create materials with properties that are distinctly unique from those of their host and nanoparticle constituents. Nanocomposites can have superior mechanical, thermal, and optical properties compared to their host materials. We characterized the photoluminescent properties of BaTiO3 polymer nanocomposites and the effects of chemically modifying the nanoparticles surface on said properties. BaTiO3 nanopowders of average grain sizes 50 nm and 100 nm were functionalized by (3-aminopropyl)triethoxysilane (3APTS) and mixed with poly(methyl methacrylate)/toluene solution. The nanocomposites films morphology and chemical structure were studied via AFM and FTIR. The photoluminescence spectrum of the pure nanoparticles was composed of an emission at ˜3.0 eV and multiple bands centered at ˜2.5 eV. Surface functionalization of the BaTiO3 nanoparticles via 3APTS increased overall luminescence at room temperature while only enhancing the ˜3.0 eV emission at low-temperature. On the other hand, polymer coating of the functionalized nanoparticles significantly enhances ˜3.0 eV emissions while decreasing emissions associated with near-surface lattice distortions at ˜2.5 eV. Chemical modification of the surface with 3APTS and PMMA presents a pathway to tune and control the photoluminescent properties of BTO nanoparticles. We also present optical studies of two different size distributions of silver triangular nanoprisms, one with a dipole resonance at ˜520 nm and the other with a dipole resonance at ˜650 nm, placed in different media. The silver nanoprisms were embedded in a polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) polymer matrix and oriented by stretching the polymer/nanoprism nanocomposite films. We observe significantly increased linear dichroism in the region associated with the plasmonic in-plane dipole mode upon

  8. Phase stabilization in plasma sprayed BaTiO3

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ctibor, Pavel; Seiner, Hanuš; Sedláček, J.; Pala, Zdeněk; Vaněk, Přemysl

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 39, č. 5 (2013), s. 5039-5048 ISSN 0272-8842 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA101/09/0702 Institutional support: RVO:61389021 ; RVO:61388998 ; RVO:68378271 Keywords : Spectroscopy * BaTiO3 * Plasma spraying * Spark plasma sintering Subject RIV: JH - Ceramics, Fire-Resistant Materials and Glass; BJ - Thermodynamics (UT-L); JH - Ceramics, Fire-Resistant Materials and Glass (FZU-D) Impact factor: 2.086, year: 2013 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0272884212013582

  9. Electro-Caloric Properties of BT/PZT Multilayer Thin Films Prepared by Sol-Gel Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Min-Su; Lee, Sung-Gap; Kim, Kyeong-Min

    2018-09-01

    In this study, Barium Titanate (BT)/Lead Zirconate Titanate (PZT) multilayer thin films were fabricated by the spin-coating method on Pt (200 nm)/Ti (10 nm) SiO2 (100 nm)/P-Si (100) substrates using BaTiO3 and Pb(Zr0.90Ti0.10)O3 metal alkoxide solutions. The coating and heating procedure was repeated several times to form the multilayer thin films. All of BT/PZT multilayer thin films show X-ray diffraction patterns typical to a polycrystalline perovskite structure and a uniform and void free grain microstructure. The thickness of the BT and PZT film by one-cycle of drying/sintering was approximately 50 nm and all of the films consisted of fine grains with a flat surface morphology. The electrocaloric properties of BT/PZT thin films were investigated by indirect estimation. The results showed that the temperature change ΔT can be calculated as a function of temperature using Maxwell's relation; the temperature change reaches a maximum value of ~1.85 °C at 135 °C under an applied electric field of 260 kV/cm.

  10. Superconducting thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hebard, A.F.; Vandenberg, J.M.

    1982-01-01

    This invention relates to granular metal and metal oxide superconducting films formed by ion beam sputter deposition. Illustratively, the films comprise irregularly shaped, randomly oriented, small lead grains interspersed in an insulating lead oxide matrix. The films are hillock-resistant when subjected to thermal cycling and exhibit unusual josephson-type switching characteristics. Depending on the oxygen content, a film may behave in a manner similar to that of a plurality of series connected josephson junctions, or the film may have a voltage difference in a direction parallel to a major surface of the film that is capable of being switched from zero voltage difference to a finite voltage difference in response to a current larger than the critical current

  11. Beryllium thin films for resistor applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiet, O.

    1972-01-01

    Beryllium thin films have a protective oxidation resistant property at high temperature and high recrystallization temperature. However, the experimental film has very low temperature coefficient of resistance.

  12. Aerosol Combustion Synthesis of Nanopowders and Processing to Functional Thin Films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Eongyu

    In this dissertation, the advantages of liquid-feed flame spray pyrolysis (LF-FSP) process in producing nanoparticles (NPs) as well as processing the produced NPs to ceramic/polymer nanocomposite films and high density polycrystalline ceramic films are demonstrated. The LF-FSP process aerosolizes alcohol solutions of metalloorganic precursors by oxygen and combusts them at > 1500 °C. The combustion products are rapidly quenched ( 10s of ms) to green and potentially lower cost alternative. We then show the versatility of NPs in formulating flexible ceramic/polymer nanocomposites (BaTiO3/epoxy) with superior properties. Volume fractions of the BaTiO3 filler and composite film thicknesses were controlled to adjust the net dielectric constant and the capacitance. Measured net dielectric constants further deviated from theory, with increasing solids loadings, due to NP agglomeration. Wound nanocomposite capacitors showed ten times higher capacitance compared to the commercial counterpart. Following series of studies explore the use of flame made NPs in processing Li+ conducting membranes. Systematic doping studies were conducted in the LiTi2(PO4)3 system to modify the lattice constant, conduction channel width, and sintering behavior by introducing Al3+ and Si4+ dopants. Excess Li2O content was also adjusted to observe its effect on final microstructures and phase compositions. Improved densification rates were found in Li1.7 Al0.3Ti1.7Si0.4P2.6O 12 composition and thin films (52+/-1 microm) with conductivities of 0.3-0.5 mS cm-1 were achieved. Li6.25M0.25La3Zr2O12 (M = Al3+, Ga3+) thin films (25-28 microm) with conductivities of 0.2-1.3 mS cm-1 were also successfully processed using flame made NPs, overcoming processing challenges extant, resulting in significantly reduced energy input required for densification. Heating schedules, sintering atmospheres, and types of substrates were controlled to observe their effect on the sintering behavior. Furthermore, green film

  13. Synthesis and luminescence properties of BaTiO3:RE (RE = Gd , Dy ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    thermoluminescence (TL) properties of BaTiO3 samples doped with Gd3+, Dy3+, Tb3+ and Lu3+ were investigated. ... electron microscope using an accelerating voltage of 20 kV. .... doping of 1% mole Gd3+ ion into the BaTiO3 compound.

  14. Semiconductor-nanocrystal/conjugated polymer thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alivisatos, A. Paul; Dittmer, Janke J.; Huynh, Wendy U.; Milliron, Delia

    2014-06-17

    The invention described herein provides for thin films and methods of making comprising inorganic semiconductor-nanocrystals dispersed in semiconducting-polymers in high loading amounts. The invention also describes photovoltaic devices incorporating the thin films.

  15. Preparation of thin vyns films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blanc, R.; Chedin, P.; Gizon, A.

    1965-01-01

    The fabrication of thin films of VYNS resin (copolymer of chloride and vinyl acetate) of superficial density from 3 to 50 μg/cm 2 with solutions in cyclohexanone is presented. Study and discussion of some properties compared with formvar film (polyvinyl formals). It appears that both can be used as source supports but formvar films are prepared more easily and more quickly, in addition they withstand higher temperatures. The main quality of VYNS is that they can be easily separated even several days after their preparation [fr

  16. Nanocrystal thin film fabrication methods and apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kagan, Cherie R.; Kim, David K.; Choi, Ji-Hyuk; Lai, Yuming

    2018-01-09

    Nanocrystal thin film devices and methods for fabricating nanocrystal thin film devices are disclosed. The nanocrystal thin films are diffused with a dopant such as Indium, Potassium, Tin, etc. to reduce surface states. The thin film devices may be exposed to air during a portion of the fabrication. This enables fabrication of nanocrystal-based devices using a wider range of techniques such as photolithography and photolithographic patterning in an air environment.

  17. Fabrication of Crack-Free Barium Titanate Thin Film with High Dielectric Constant Using Sub-Micrometric Scale Layer-by-Layer E-Jet Deposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junsheng Liang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Dense and crack-free barium titanate (BaTiO3, BTO thin films with a thickness of less than 4 μm were prepared by using sub-micrometric scale, layer-by-layer electrohydrodynamic jet (E-jet deposition of the suspension ink which is composed of BTO nanopowder and BTO sol. Impacts of the jet height and line-to-line pitch of the deposition on the micro-structure of BTO thin films were investigated. Results show that crack-free BTO thin films can be prepared with 4 mm jet height and 300 μm line-to-line pitch in this work. Dielectric constant of the prepared BTO thin film was recorded as high as 2940 at 1 kHz at room temperature. Meanwhile, low dissipation factor of the BTO thin film of about 8.6% at 1 kHz was also obtained. The layer-by-layer E-jet deposition technique developed in this work has been proved to be a cost-effective, flexible and easy to control approach for the preparation of high-quality solid thin film.

  18. Synthesis and characterization of BaTiO3 ferroelectric material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osman, K.I.

    2011-01-01

    BaTiO 3 powder was prepared at low temperatures using the solid-state reaction, starting with two different precursors; the BaCO 3 /TiO 2 and the Ba(NO 3 ) 2 /TiO 2 powder mixtures. It was found that, a single phase BaTiO 3 was formed after calcination at 750 degree C for 10 h and at 600 degree C for 6 h for the first and second mixtures, respectively. Thermal and XRD analyses were used to study the formation kinetics of BaTiO 3 . Contracting volume reaction model was found to control both reactions. The SEM of the as milled powder, TMA, TG and thermodynamics analysis have been used to propose a realistic approach describing the reaction mechanism of BaTiO 3 . Characterization and the dielectric properties of the sintered BaTiO 3 were investigated. The relative permittivity and the dielectric loss measured at room temperature and at 1 khz were 2028.5 and 0.043 for BaTiO 3 prepared from BaCO 3 /TiO 2 , while they were 1805.33 and 0.41 for BaTiO 3 prepared from Ba(NO 3 ) 2 /TiO 2 .

  19. Thin films of soft matter

    CERN Document Server

    Kalliadasis, Serafim

    2007-01-01

    A detailed overview and comprehensive analysis of the main theoretical and experimental advances on free surface thin film and jet flows of soft matter is given. At the theoretical front the book outlines the basic equations and boundary conditions and the derivation of low-dimensional models for the evolution of the free surface. Such models include long-wave expansions and equations of the boundary layer type and are analyzed via linear stability analysis, weakly nonlinear theories and strongly nonlinear analysis including construction of stationary periodic and solitary wave and similarity solutions. At the experimental front a variety of very recent experimental developments is outlined and the link between theory and experiments is illustrated. Such experiments include spreading drops and bubbles, imbibitions, singularity formation at interfaces and experimental characterization of thin films using atomic force microscopy, ellipsometry and contact angle measurements and analysis of patterns using Minkows...

  20. Review of thin film superconductivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kihlstrom, K.E.

    1989-01-01

    Advances in thin film superconductivity are critical to the success of many proposed applications. The authors review several of the prominent techniques currently used to produce thin films of the high temperature superconductors including electron beam co-deposition, sputtering (both multiple and composite source configurations) and laser ablation. The authors look at the relevant parameters for each and evaluate the advantages and disadvantages of each technique. In addition, promising work on in situ oxidation is discussed. Also addressed are efforts to find optimum substrate materials and substrate buffer layers for various applications. The current state of the art for T c , J c and H c2 is presented for the yttrium, bismuth, and thallium compounds

  1. Polycrystalline thin films : A review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valvoda, V [Charles Univ., Prague (Czech Republic). Faculty of Mathematics and Physics

    1996-09-01

    Polycrystalline thin films can be described in terms of grain morphology and in terms of their packing by the Thornton`s zone model as a function of temperature of deposition and as a function of energy of deposited atoms. Grain size and preferred grain orientation (texture) can be determined by X-ray diffraction (XRD) methods. A review of XRD analytical methods of texture analysis is given with main attention paid to simple empirical functions used for texture description and for structure analysis by joint texture refinement. To illustrate the methods of detailed structure analysis of thin polycrystalline films, examples of multilayers are used with the aim to show experiments and data evaluation to determine layer thickness, periodicity, interface roughness, lattice spacing, strain and the size of diffraction coherent volumes. The methods of low angle and high angle XRD are described and discussed with respect to their complementary information content.

  2. Magnetization in permalloy thin films

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Thin films of permalloy (Ni80Fe20) were prepared using an Ar+N2 mixture with magnetron ... alloys of Ni and Fe) take an important place. NiFe alloy with a ... room temperature (∼298 K, without intentional heating) on Si(100) substrates. A base pressure of 1×10−6 mbar was achieved prior to the deposition. Three different ...

  3. Thin-Film Material Science and Processing | Materials Science | NREL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thin-Film Material Science and Processing Thin-Film Material Science and Processing Photo of a , a prime example of this research is thin-film photovoltaics (PV). Thin films are important because cadmium telluride thin film, showing from top to bottom: glass, transparent conducting oxide (thin layer

  4. Photoconductivity of thin organic films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tkachenko, Nikolai V.; Chukharev, Vladimir; Kaplas, Petra; Tolkki, Antti; Efimov, Alexander; Haring, Kimmo; Viheriaelae, Jukka; Niemi, Tapio; Lemmetyinen, Helge

    2010-01-01

    Thin organic films were deposited on silicon oxide surfaces with golden interdigitated electrodes (interelectrode gap was 2 μm), and the film resistivities were measured in dark and under white light illumination. The compounds selected for the measurements include molecules widely used in solar cell applications, such as polythiophene (PHT), fullerene (C 60 ), pyrelene tetracarboxylic diimide (PTCDI) and copper phthalocyanine (CuPc), as well as molecules potentially interesting for photovoltaic applications, e.g. porphyrin-fullerene dyads. The films were deposited using thermal evaporation (e.g. for C 60 and CuPc films), spin coating for PHT, and Langmuir-Schaeffer for the layer-by-layer deposition of porphyrin-fullerene dyads. The most conducting materials in the series are films of PHT and CuPc with resistivities 1.2 x 10 3 Ω m and 3 x 10 4 Ω m, respectively. Under light illumination resistivity of all films decreases, with the strongest light effect observed for PTCDI, for which resistivity decreases by 100 times, from 3.2 x 10 8 Ω m in dark to 3.1 x 10 6 Ω m under the light.

  5. Flexible thin film magnetoimpedance sensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurlyandskaya, G.V.; Fernández, E.; Svalov, A.; Burgoa Beitia, A.; García-Arribas, A.; Larrañaga, A.

    2016-01-01

    Magnetically soft thin film deposited onto polymer substrates is an attractive option for flexible electronics including magnetoimpedance (MI) applications. MI FeNi/Ti based thin film sensitive elements were designed and prepared using the sputtering technique by deposition onto rigid and flexible substrates at different deposition rates. Their structure, magnetic properties and MI were comparatively analyzed. The main structural features were sufficiently accurately reproduced in the case of deposition onto cyclo olefine polymer substrates compared to glass substrates for the same conditions. Although for the best condition (28 nm/min rate) of the deposition onto polymer a significant reduction of the MI field sensitivity was found satisfactory for sensor applications sensitivity: 45%/Oe was obtained for a frequency of 60 MHz. - Highlights: • [FeNi/Ti] 3 /Cu/[FeNi/Ti] 3 films were prepared by sputtering at different deposition rates. • Polymer substrates insure sufficiently accurate reproducibility of the film structure. • High deposition rate of 28 nm/min insures the highest values of the magnetoimpedance sensitivity. • Deposition onto polymer results in the satisfactory magnetoimpedance sensitivity of 45%/Oe.

  6. Flexible thin film magnetoimpedance sensors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurlyandskaya, G.V., E-mail: galina@we.lc.ehu.es [Universidad del País Vasco, UPV/EHU, Departamento de Electricidad y Electrónica, P.O. Box 644, Bilbao 48080 (Spain); Ural Federal University, Laboratory of Magnetic sensoric, Lenin Ave. 51, 620083 Ekaterinburg (Russian Federation); Fernández, E. [BCMaterials UPV-EHU, Vizcaya Science and Technology Park, 48160 Derio (Spain); Svalov, A. [Universidad del País Vasco, UPV/EHU, Departamento de Electricidad y Electrónica, P.O. Box 644, Bilbao 48080 (Spain); Ural Federal University, Laboratory of Magnetic sensoric, Lenin Ave. 51, 620083 Ekaterinburg (Russian Federation); Burgoa Beitia, A. [Universidad del País Vasco, UPV/EHU, Departamento de Electricidad y Electrónica, P.O. Box 644, Bilbao 48080 (Spain); García-Arribas, A. [Universidad del País Vasco, UPV/EHU, Departamento de Electricidad y Electrónica, P.O. Box 644, Bilbao 48080 (Spain); BCMaterials UPV-EHU, Vizcaya Science and Technology Park, 48160 Derio (Spain); Larrañaga, A. [SGIker, Servicios Generales de Investigación, Universidad del País Vasco (UPV/EHU), 48080 Bilbao (Spain)

    2016-10-01

    Magnetically soft thin film deposited onto polymer substrates is an attractive option for flexible electronics including magnetoimpedance (MI) applications. MI FeNi/Ti based thin film sensitive elements were designed and prepared using the sputtering technique by deposition onto rigid and flexible substrates at different deposition rates. Their structure, magnetic properties and MI were comparatively analyzed. The main structural features were sufficiently accurately reproduced in the case of deposition onto cyclo olefine polymer substrates compared to glass substrates for the same conditions. Although for the best condition (28 nm/min rate) of the deposition onto polymer a significant reduction of the MI field sensitivity was found satisfactory for sensor applications sensitivity: 45%/Oe was obtained for a frequency of 60 MHz. - Highlights: • [FeNi/Ti]{sub 3}/Cu/[FeNi/Ti]{sub 3} films were prepared by sputtering at different deposition rates. • Polymer substrates insure sufficiently accurate reproducibility of the film structure. • High deposition rate of 28 nm/min insures the highest values of the magnetoimpedance sensitivity. • Deposition onto polymer results in the satisfactory magnetoimpedance sensitivity of 45%/Oe.

  7. Characterization of nanocrystalline cadmium telluride thin films ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    tion method, successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR), are described. For deposition of CdTe thin films ... By conducting several trials optimization of the adsorption, reaction and rinsing time duration for CdTe thin film .... The electrical resistivity of CdTe films was studied in air. Figure 3 shows the variation of log ...

  8. Controlled Confinement of Half-metallic 2D Electron Gas in BaTiO3/Ba2FeReO6/BaTiO3 Heterostructures: A First-principles Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha-Dasgupta, Tanusri; Baidya, Santu; Waghmare, Umesh; Paramekanti, Arun

    Using density functional theory calculations, we establish that the half-metallicity of bulk Ba2FeReO6 survives down i to 1 nm thickness in BaTiO3/Ba2FeReO6/BaTiO3 heterostructures grown along the (001) and (111) directions. The confinement of the two-dimensional (2D) electron gas in this quantum well structure arises from the suppressed hybridization between Re/Fe d states and unoccupied Ti d states, and it is further strengthened by polar fields for the (111) direction. This mechanism, distinct from the polar catastrophe, leads to an order of magnitude stronger confinement of the 2D electron gas than that at the LaAlO3/SrTiO3 interface. We further show low-energy bands of (111) heterostructure display nontrivial topological character. Our work opens up the possibility of realizing ultra-thin spintronic devices. Journal Ref: Phys. Rev. B 92, 161106(R) (2015) S.B. and T.S.D thank Department of Science and Technology, India for the support through Thematic Unit of Excellence. AP was supported by NSERC (Canada).

  9. Synthesis of BaTiO3 powder from barium titanyl oxalate (BTO ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    the synthesis of BaTiO3 from the mixture of barium car- bonate and titanium dioxide employing microwave heat- ing. They observed that hypostoichiometric TiO2 (TiO2–x) reacted with BaCO3 in the presence of microwave field at temperature as low as 350°C to give the mixture of hexa- gonal and tetragonal forms of BaTiO3 ...

  10. Wet routes of high purity BaTiO3 nanopowders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Liqiu; Liu Liang; Xue Dongfeng; Kang Hongmin; Liu Changhou

    2007-01-01

    High purity BaTiO 3 nanopowders were prepared in wet routes through stearic acid gel (SAG) and acetic acid gel (AAG) techniques, respectively. BaTiO 3 samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscope, Fourier transform infrared spectrometry, X-ray fluorescence spectrometry, and thermal gravimetric analysis. The present results indicate that both methods have a similar reaction process during calcination, while BaTiO 3 crystallites were initially formed at 550 deg. C by SAG and 800 deg. C by AAG. Both methods could produce BaTiO 3 powders with a cubic perovskite structure, while they had different grain size distributions within 25-50 nm for SAG and 50-80 nm for AAG. BaTiO 3 samples prepared by SAG had a lower agglomeration than those by AAG. SAG has shown many distinctive advantages in the preparation of high purity BaTiO 3 nanopowders, without Ba and Ti losses and hazardous wastes

  11. Thin films for emerging applications v.16

    CERN Document Server

    Francombe, Maurice H

    1992-01-01

    Following in the long-standing tradition of excellence established by this serial, this volume provides a focused look at contemporary applications. High Tc superconducting thin films are discussed in terms of ion beam and sputtering deposition, vacuum evaporation, laser ablation, MOCVD, and other deposition processes in addition to their ultimate applications. Detailed treatment is also given to permanent magnet thin films, lateral diffusion and electromigration in metallic thin films, and fracture and cracking phenomena in thin films adhering to high-elongation substrates.

  12. Analysis of Hard Thin Film Coating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Dashen

    1998-01-01

    MSFC is interested in developing hard thin film coating for bearings. The wearing of the bearing is an important problem for space flight engine. Hard thin film coating can drastically improve the surface of the bearing and improve the wear-endurance of the bearing. However, many fundamental problems in surface physics, plasma deposition, etc, need further research. The approach is using electron cyclotron resonance chemical vapor deposition (ECRCVD) to deposit hard thin film an stainless steel bearing. The thin films in consideration include SiC, SiN and other materials. An ECRCVD deposition system is being assembled at MSFC.

  13. Influence of applied electric field annealing on the microwave properties of (Ba0.5Sr0.5)TiO3 thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Kwang-Hwan; Lee, Chil-Hyoung; Kang, Chong-Yun; Yoon, Seok-Jin; Lee, Young-Pak

    2007-04-01

    The effect of heat treatment in electric field on the structure and dielectric properties at microwave range of rf magnetron sputtering derived (Ba0.5Sr0.5)TiO3 thin films have been studied. It has been demonstrated that postannealing in the proper electric field can increase the dielectric constant and the tunability. The increased out-of-plane lattice constant in the electric-annealed films indicated the formation of small polar regions with tetragonal structure, which are responsible for the increased dielectric constant and tunability. It was proposed that the segregation of Ti3+ ions caused by electric annealing could induce the formation of BaTiO3-like regions, which are ferroelectric at room temperature. And in dielectric loss, as the Ti-O bonding lengths increase, the energy scattering on the ferroelectric mode also increases. So, the value of dielectric loss is slightly increased.

  14. Progress in thin film techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weingarten, W.

    1996-01-01

    Progress since the last Workshop is reported on superconducting accelerating RF cavities coated with thin films. The materials investigated are Nb, Nb 3 Sn, NbN and NbTiN, the techniques applied are diffusion from the vapour phase (Nb 3 Sn, NbN), the bronze process (Nb 3 Sn), and sputter deposition on a copper substrate (Nb, NbTiN). Specially designed cavities for sample evaluation by RF methods have been developed (triaxial cavity). New experimental techniques to assess the RF amplitude dependence of the surface resistance are presented (with emphasis on niobium films sputter deposited on copper). Evidence is increasing that they are caused by magnetic flux penetration into the surface layer. (R.P.)

  15. High temperature superconductor thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Correra, L.

    1992-01-01

    Interdisciplinary research on superconducting oxides is the main focus of the contributors in this volume. Several aspects of the thin film field from fundamental properties to applications are examined. Interesting results for the Bi system are also reviewed. The 132 papers, including 8 invited, report mainly on the 1-2-3 system, indicating that the Y-Ba-Cu-O and related compounds are still the most intensively studied materials in this field. The volume attests to the significant progress that has been made in this field, as well as reporting on the challenging problems that still remain to be solved. The papers are presented in five chapters, subsequently on properties, film growth and processing, substrates and multilayers, structural characterization, and applications

  16. Minerals deposited as thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vazquez, Cristina; Leyt, D.V. de; Custo, Graciela

    1987-01-01

    Free matrix effects are due to thin film deposits. Thus, it was decided to investigate this technique as a possibility to use pure oxide of the desired element, extrapolating its concentration from analytical curves made with avoiding, at the same time, mathematical corrections. The proposed method was employed to determine iron and titanium concentrations in geological samples. The range studied was 0.1-5%m/m for titanium and 5-20%m/m for iron. For both elements the reproducibility was about 7% and differences between this method and other chemical determinations were 15% for titanium and 7% for iron. (Author) [es

  17. Thin Film Photovoltaic Partnership Project | Photovoltaic Research | NREL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thin Film Photovoltaic Partnership Project Thin Film Photovoltaic Partnership Project NREL's Thin Film Photovoltaic (PV) Partnership Project led R&D on emerging thin-film solar technologies in the United States from 1994 to 2009. The project made many advances in thin-film PV technologies that allowed

  18. Improvement of β-phase crystal formation in a BaTiO3-modified PVDF membrane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, SHEN; Lei, GONG; Shuhua, CHEN; Shiping, ZHAN; Cheng, ZHANG; Tao, SHAO

    2018-04-01

    In this paper, low temperature plasma is used to modify the surface of barium titanate (BaTiO3) nanoparticles in order to enhance the interfacial compatibility between ferroelectric poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) and BaTiO3 nanoparticles. The results demonstrate that oxygenic groups are successfully attached to the BaTiO3 surface, and the quantity of the functional groups increases with the treatment voltage. Furthermore, the effect of modified BaTiO3 nanoparticles on the morphology and crystal structure of the PVDF/BaTiO3 membrane is investigated. The results reveal that the dispersion of BaTiO3 nanoparticles in the PVDF matrix was greatly improved due to the modification of the BaTiO3 nanoparticles by air plasma. It is worth noting that the formation of a β-phase in a PVDF/modified BaTiO3 membrane is observably promoted, which results from the strong interaction between PVDF chains and oxygenic groups fixed on the BaTiO3 surface and the better dispersion of BaTiO3 nanoparticles in the PVDF matrix. Besides, the PVDF/modified BaTiO3 membrane at the treatment voltage of 24 kV exhibits a lower water contact angle (≈68.4°) compared with the unmodified one (≈86.7°). Meanwhile, the dielectric constant of PVDF/BaTiO3 nanocomposites increases with the increase of working voltage.

  19. BaTiO3-based nanolayers and nanotubes: first-principles calculations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evarestov, Robert A; Bandura, Andrei V; Kuruch, Dmitrii D

    2013-01-30

    The first-principles calculations using hybrid exchange-correlation functional and localized atomic basis set are performed for BaTiO(3) (BTO) nanolayers and nanotubes (NTs) with the structure optimization. Both the cubic and the ferroelectric BTO phases are used for the nanolayers and NTs modeling. It follows from the calculations that nanolayers of the different ferroelectric BTO phases have the practically identical surface energies and are more stable than nanolayers of the cubic phase. Thin nanosheets composed of three or more dense layers of (0 1 0) and (0 1 1[overline]) faces preserve the ferroelectric displacements inherent to the initial bulk phase. The structure and stability of BTO single-wall NTs depends on the original bulk crystal phase and a wall thickness. The majority of the considered NTs with the low formation and strain energies has the mirror plane perpendicular to the tube axis and therefore cannot exhibit ferroelectricity. The NTs folded from (0 1 1[overline]) layers may show antiferroelectric arrangement of Ti-O bonds. Comparison of stability of the BTO-based and SrTiO(3)-based NTs shows that the former are more stable than the latter. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Thin liquid films dewetting and polymer flow

    CERN Document Server

    Blossey, Ralf

    2012-01-01

    This book is a treatise on the thermodynamic and dynamic properties of thin liquid films at solid surfaces and, in particular, their rupture instabilities. For the quantitative study of these phenomena, polymer thin films haven proven to be an invaluable experimental model system.   What is it that makes thin film instabilities special and interesting, warranting a whole book? There are several answers to this. Firstly, thin polymeric films have an important range of applications, and with the increase in the number of technologies available to produce and to study them, this range is likely to expand. An understanding of their instabilities is therefore of practical relevance for the design of such films.   Secondly, thin liquid films are an interdisciplinary research topic. Interdisciplinary research is surely not an end to itself, but in this case it leads to a fairly heterogeneous community of theoretical and experimental physicists, engineers, physical chemists, mathematicians and others working on the...

  1. Solution based approaches for the morphology control of BaTiO3 particulates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florentina Maxim

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Within the action COST 539 - ELENA our contribution was aimed at studying solution based approaches for the morphology control of BaTiO3 particulates. Initially, our kinetic analysis and systematic structural and morphological studies, demonstrated that during hydrothermal synthesis from layered titanate nanotubes (TiNTS, BaTiO3 forms via two mechanisms depending on the temperature and time. At low temperatures (90°C, “wild” type BaTiO3 dendritic particles with cubic structure were formed through a phase boundary topotactic reaction. At higher temperatures and/or for longer times time, the reaction is controlled by a dissolution precipitation mechanism and “seaweed” type BaTiO3 dendrites are formed. Our results unambiguously elucidated why TiNTs do not routinely act as templates for the formation of 1D BaTiO3.In our subsequent investigations, the effect of additives on the aqueous and hydrothermal synthesis of BaTiO3 was assessed. We reported that although the tested additives influenced the growth of BaTiO3, their behaviour varied; poly(acrylic acid (PAA adsorbed on specific crystallographic faces changing the growth kinetics and inducing the oriented attachment of the particles; poly(vinyl pyrrolidone (PVP, sodium dodecylsulfate (SDS and hydroxypropylmethylcellulose (HPMC act as growth inhibitors rather than crystal habit modifiers; and DFructose appeared to increase the activation energy for nucleation, resulting in small crystals (26 nm. Our work clearly indicates that the synthesis of 1D nanostructures of complex oxides by chemical methods is non trivial.

  2. Highly textured fresnoite thin films synthesized in situ by pulsed laser deposition with CO2 laser direct heating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lorenz, Michael; Stölzel, Marko; Brachwitz, Kerstin; Hochmuth, Holger; Grundmann, Marius; De Pablos-Martin, Araceli; Patzig, Christian; Höche, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Fresnoite Ba 2 TiSi 2 O 8 (BTS) thin films were grown and crystallized in situ using pulsed laser deposition (PLD) with CO 2 laser direct heating of the a-plane sapphire (1 1 0) substrates up to 1250 °C. Starting with 775 °C growth temperature, (0 0 1)- and (1 1 0)-textured BTS and BaTiO 3 phases, respectively, could be assigned in the films, and the typical fern-like BTS crystallization patterns appear. For higher process temperatures of 1100 to 1250 °C, atomically smooth, terraced surface of the films was found, accompanied by crystalline high-temperature phases of Ba–Ti–Si oxides. HAADF micrographs taken in both scanning transmission electron microscopy and energy-dispersive x-ray spectrometry mode show details of morphology and elemental distribution inside the films and at the interface. To balance the inherent Si deficiency of the BTS films, growth from glassy BTS × 2 SiO 2 and BTS × 2.5 SiO 2 targets was considered as well. The latter targets are ideal for PLD since the employed glasses possess 100% of the theoretical density and are homogeneous at the atomic scale. (paper)

  3. Intrinsically conductive polymer thin film piezoresistors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lillemose, Michael; Spieser, Martin; Christiansen, N.O.

    2008-01-01

    We report on the piezoresistive effect in the intrinsically conductive polymer, polyaniline. A process recipe for indirect patterning of thin film polyaniline has been developed. Using a specially designed chip, the polyaniline thin films have been characterised with respect to resistivity...

  4. Excimer Laser Deposition of PLZT Thin Films

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Petersen, GAry

    1991-01-01

    .... In order to integrate these devices into optical systems, the production of high quality thin films with high transparency and perovskite crystal structure is desired. This requires development of deposition technologies to overcome the challenges of depositing and processing PLZT thin films.

  5. Thin films of mixed metal compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mickelsen, Reid A.; Chen, Wen S.

    1985-01-01

    A compositionally uniform thin film of a mixed metal compound is formed by simultaneously evaporating a first metal compound and a second metal compound from independent sources. The mean free path between the vapor particles is reduced by a gas and the mixed vapors are deposited uniformly. The invention finds particular utility in forming thin film heterojunction solar cells.

  6. Field ion microscope studies on thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cavaleru, A.; Scortaru, A.

    1976-01-01

    A review of the progress made in the last years in FIM application to thin film structure studies and adatom properties important in the nucleation stage of thin film growth: substrate binding and mobility of individual adatoms, behaviour of adatoms clusters is presented. (author)

  7. Cellulose triacetate, thin film dielectric capacitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yen, Shiao-Ping S. (Inventor); Jow, T. Richard (Inventor)

    1995-01-01

    Very thin films of cellulose triacetate are cast from a solution containing a small amount of high boiling temperature, non-solvent which evaporates last and lifts the film from the casting surface. Stretched, oriented, crystallized films have high electrical breakdown properties. Metallized films less than about 2 microns in thickness form self-healing electrodes for high energy density, pulsed power capacitors. Thicker films can be utilized as a dielectric for a capacitor.

  8. Nanostructured thin films and coatings functional properties

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Sam

    2010-01-01

    The second volume in ""The Handbook of Nanostructured Thin Films and Coatings"" set, this book focuses on functional properties, including optical, electronic, and electrical properties, as well as related devices and applications. It explores the large-scale fabrication of functional thin films with nanoarchitecture via chemical routes, the fabrication and characterization of SiC nanostructured/nanocomposite films, and low-dimensional nanocomposite fabrication and applications. The book also presents the properties of sol-gel-derived nanostructured thin films as well as silicon nanocrystals e

  9. BDS thin film damage competition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stolz, Christopher J.; Thomas, Michael D.; Griffin, Andrew J.

    2008-10-01

    A laser damage competition was held at the 2008 Boulder Damage Symposium in order to determine the current status of thin film laser resistance within the private, academic, and government sectors. This damage competition allows a direct comparison of the current state-of-the-art of high laser resistance coatings since they are all tested using the same damage test setup and the same protocol. A normal incidence high reflector multilayer coating was selected at a wavelength of 1064 nm. The substrates were provided by the submitters. A double blind test assured sample and submitter anonymity so only a summary of the results are presented here. In addition to the laser resistance results, details of deposition processes, coating materials, and layer count will also be shared.

  10. Method of producing thin cellulose nitrate film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lupica, S.B.

    1975-01-01

    An improved method for forming a thin nitrocellulose film of reproducible thickness is described. The film is a cellulose nitrate film, 10 to 20 microns in thickness, cast from a solution of cellulose nitrate in tetrahydrofuran, said solution containing from 7 to 15 percent, by weight, of dioctyl phthalate, said cellulose nitrate having a nitrogen content of from 10 to 13 percent

  11. Lattice distortion under an electric field in BaTiO3 piezoelectric single crystal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tazaki, Ryoko; Fu Desheng; Daimon, Masahiro; Koshihara, Shin-ya; Itoh, Mitsuru

    2009-01-01

    Lattice distortions under an electric field in a mono-domain of BaTiO 3 ferroelectric crystal have been detected with synchrotron x-ray radiation. The variation of the lattice constant with an electric field observed with high angle diffraction shows a linear response nature of the piezoelectric effect. When an electric field is applied along the spontaneous polarization direction, the c-axis of the lattice elongates and the a-axis of the lattice shrinks at a rate of d 33 = 149 ± 54 pm V -1 and d 31 = -82 ± 61 pm V -1 ; these represent the longitudinal and transverse piezoelectric coefficients of BaTiO 3 crystal, respectively. These results give an insight into the intrinsic piezoelectric response on the lattice scale in BaTiO 3 that has been widely used to explore high performance lead-free piezoelectric alloys.

  12. Study of radiation damage in BaTiO3, using Molecular-dynamics simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez, E.; Abreu, Y.; Cruz, C. M.; Pinnera, I.; Leyva, A.

    2015-01-01

    Molecular-dynamics (MD) simulations were used to calculate atomic displacement probability curves along main crystallographic directions in BaTiO 3 perovskite. A primary knock-on atom (PKA) with a energy range between 10 to 300 eV in principal crystallographic directions at 300 K was introduced. For each sublattice, the simulation was repeated from different initial conditions to estimate the variation in the defect formation process. The formation of Frenkel pairs vary considerably with crystallographic direction and sublattice. Major quantity oxygen defects were found for all the simulated crystallographic directions. Threshold displacement energies are calculated for each atomic specie in the BaTiO 3 material. Also simulations with SRIM code, modeling + Mn implantation in a BaTiO 3 target, at 250 keV were made. (Author)

  13. Macro stress mapping on thin film buckling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goudeau, P.; Villain, P.; Renault, P.-O.; Tamura, N.; Celestre, R.S.; Padmore, H.A.

    2002-11-06

    Thin films deposited by Physical Vapour Deposition techniques on substrates generally exhibit large residual stresses which may be responsible of thin film buckling in the case of compressive stresses. Since the 80's, a lot of theoretical work has been done to develop mechanical models but only a few experimental work has been done on this subject to support these theoretical approaches and nothing concerning local stress measurement mainly because of the small dimension of the buckling (few 10th mm). This paper deals with the application of micro beam X-ray diffraction available on synchrotron radiation sources for stress mapping analysis of gold thin film buckling.

  14. Flow method for rapid production of Batio3 nanoparticles in supercritical water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atashfaraz, M.; Shariati-Niassar, M.; Ohara, Satoshi; Takami, S.; Umetsu, M.; Naka, T.; Adschiri, T.

    2006-01-01

    Fine BaTiO 3 nanoparticles were obtained by hydrothermal synthesis under supercritical conditions with batch and flow type experimental methods. Mixture of barium hydroxide and titanium oxide starting solution was treated in the supercritical wafer at 400 d eg C and 30 MPa. The size of nanoparticles synthesized in the flow type experiment was smaller than that in the batch type. Rapid heating in a flow, reactor is effective to synthesize smaller size and narrower particle size distribution for the BaTiO 3 , nanoparticles. The mechanism for this result was discussed based on the solubility of titanium oxide

  15. Syntheses of nanocrystalline BaTiO3 and their optical properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, J.; Chu, J.; Zhang, M.

    Stoichiometric and titanium-excess nanocrystalline barium titanates were synthesized using a hydrothermal process at various hydrothermal temperatures and with further heat treatment at 500 °C and 900 °C. Owing to the different process conditions, the excess titanium exists in different states and configurations within the nanocrystalline BaTiO3 matrix; this was demonstrated by X-ray diffraction, Raman scattering, and photoluminescence. In these nanocrystalline BaTiO3, the 590, 571, 543 and 694 nm light emission bands were observed; mechanisms leading to such emissions were also discussed.

  16. Influence of Impurities on the Luminescence of Er3+ Doped BaTiO3 Nanophosphors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. D. Webler

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The influence of the presence of barium carbonate (BaCO3 phase on the luminescence properties of barium titanate nanocrystals (BaTiO3 powders was investigated. Structural and optical characterizations of erbium (Er3+ doped BaTiO3 synthesized by the sol-emulsion-gel were performed. Using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and X-ray powder diffraction, we identified the presence of impurities related to BaCO3 and quantified its fraction. It was observed that the presence of BaCO3 phase, even at low levels, depletes significantly the infrared-to-visible upconverted luminescence efficiency of the produced nanopowders.

  17. Solid thin film materials for use in thin film charge-coupled devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lynch, S.J.

    1983-01-01

    Solid thin films deposited by vacuum deposition were evaluated to ascertain their effectiveness for use in the manufacturing of charge-coupled devices (CCDs). Optical and electrical characteristics of tellurium and Bi 2 Te 3 solid thin films were obtained in order to design and to simulate successfully the operation of thin film (TF) CCDs. In this article some of the material differences between single-crystal material and the island-structured thin film used in TFCCDs are discussed. The electrical parameters were obtained and tabulated, e.g. the mobility, conductivity, dielectric constants, permittivity, lifetime of holes and electrons in the thin films and drift diffusion constants. The optical parameters were also measured and analyzed. After the design was complete, experimental TFCCDs were manufactured and were successfully operated utilizing the aforementioned solid thin films. (Auth.)

  18. Passivation Effects in Copper Thin Films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiederhirn, G.; Nucci, J.; Richter, G.; Arzt, E.; Balk, T. J.; Dehm, G.

    2006-01-01

    We studied the influence of a 10 nm AlxOy passivation on the stress-temperature behavior of 100 nm and 1 μm thick Cu films. At low temperatures, the passivation induces a large tensile stress increase in the 100 nm film; however, its effect on the 1 μm film is negligible. At high temperatures, the opposite behavior is observed; while the passivation does not change the 100 nm film behavior, it strengthens the 1 μm film by driving it deeper into compression. These observations are explained in light of a combination of constrained diffusional creep and dislocation dynamics unique to ultra-thin films

  19. Thermal conductivity model for nanoporous thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Congliang; Zhao, Xinpeng; Regner, Keith; Yang, Ronggui

    2018-03-01

    Nanoporous thin films have attracted great interest because of their extremely low thermal conductivity and potential applications in thin thermal insulators and thermoelectrics. Although there are some numerical and experimental studies about the thermal conductivity of nanoporous thin films, a simplified model is still needed to provide a straightforward prediction. In this paper, by including the phonon scattering lifetimes due to film thickness boundary scattering, nanopore scattering and the frequency-dependent intrinsic phonon-phonon scattering, a fitting-parameter-free model based on the kinetic theory of phonon transport is developed to predict both the in-plane and the cross-plane thermal conductivities of nanoporous thin films. With input parameters such as the lattice constants, thermal conductivity, and the group velocity of acoustic phonons of bulk silicon, our model shows a good agreement with available experimental and numerical results of nanoporous silicon thin films. It illustrates that the size effect of film thickness boundary scattering not only depends on the film thickness but also on the size of nanopores, and a larger nanopore leads to a stronger size effect of the film thickness. Our model also reveals that there are different optimal structures for getting the lowest in-plane and cross-plane thermal conductivities.

  20. Epitaxy, thin films and superlattices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jagd Christensen, Morten

    1997-05-01

    This report is the result of structural investigations of 3d transition metal superlattices consisting of Fe/V, Cr/Mn, V/Mn and Fe/Mn, and a structural and magnetic study of a series of Ho/Pr alloys. The work includes preparation and characterization of substrates as well as growth of thin films and Fe/V superlattices by molecular beam epitaxy, including in-situ characterization by reflection high energy electron diffraction and Auger electron spectroscopy. Structural characterization has been done by x-ray diffraction and neutron diffraction. The x-ray diffraction experiments have been performed on the rotating copper anode at Risoe, and at synchrotron facilities in Hamburg and Brookhaven, and the neutron scattering was done at the Danish research reactor DR3 at Risoe. In addition to longitudinal scans, giving information about the structural parameters in the modulation direction, non-specular scans were also performed. This type of scans gives information about in-plane orientation and lattice parameters. From the analysis, structural information is obtained about lattice parameters, epitaxial strain, coherence lengths and crystallographic orientation for the superlattice systems, except Fe/Mn superlattices, which could not be modelled. For the Ho/Pr alloys, x-ray magnetic scattering was performed, and the crystal and magnetic structure was investigated. (au)

  1. Epitaxy, thin films and superlattices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jagd Christensen, Morten

    1997-05-01

    This report is the result of structural investigations of 3d transition metal superlattices consisting of Fe/V, Cr/Mn, V/Mn and Fe/Mn, and a structural and magnetic study of a series of Ho/Pr alloys. The work includes preparation and characterization of substrates as well as growth of thin films and Fe/V superlattices by molecular beam epitaxy, including in-situ characterization by reflection high energy electron diffraction and Auger electron spectroscopy. Structural characterization has been done by x-ray diffraction and neutron diffraction. The x-ray diffraction experiments have been performed on the rotating copper anode at Risoe, and at synchrotron facilities in Hamburg and Brookhaven, and the neutron scattering was done at the Danish research reactor DR3 at Risoe. In addition to longitudinal scans, giving information about the structural parameters in the modulation direction, non-specular scans were also performed. This type of scans gives information about in-plane orientation and lattice parameters. From the analysis, structural information is obtained about lattice parameters, epitaxial strain, coherence lengths and crystallographic orientation for the superlattice systems, except Fe/Mn superlattices, which could not be modelled. For the Ho/Pr alloys, x-ray magnetic scattering was performed, and the crystal and magnetic structure was investigated. (au) 14 tabs.; 58 ills., 96 refs.

  2. Flush Mounting Of Thin-Film Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Thomas C., Sr.

    1992-01-01

    Technique developed for mounting thin-film sensors flush with surfaces like aerodynamic surfaces of aircraft, which often have compound curvatures. Sensor mounted in recess by use of vacuum pad and materials selected for specific application. Technique involves use of materials tailored to thermal properties of substrate in which sensor mounted. Together with customized materials, enables flush mounting of thin-film sensors in most situations in which recesses for sensors provided. Useful in both aircraft and automotive industries.

  3. Thin film description by wavelet coefficients statistics

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Boldyš, Jiří; Hrach, R.

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 55, č. 1 (2005), s. 55-64 ISSN 0011-4626 Grant - others:GA UK(CZ) 173/2003 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10750506 Keywords : thin films * wavelet transform * descriptors * histogram model Subject RIV: BD - Theory of Information Impact factor: 0.360, year: 2005 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2009/ZOI/boldys-thin film description by wavelet coefficients statistics .pdf

  4. Photoluminescence properties of perovskite multilayer thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Macario, Leilane Roberta; Longo, Elson, E-mail: leilanemacario@gmail.com [Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos (UFSCar), SP (Brazil); Mazzo, Tatiana Martelli [Universidade Federal de Sao Paulo (UNIFESP), SP (Brazil); Bouquet, Valerie; Deputier, Stephanie; Ollivier, Sophie; Guilloux-Viry, Maryline [Universite de Rennes (France)

    2016-07-01

    Full text: The knowledge of the optical properties of thin films is important in many scientific, technological and industrial applications of thin films such as photoconductivity, solar energy, photography, and numerous other applications [1]. In this study, perovskite type oxides were grown by pulsed laser deposition [2] in order to obtain thin films with applicable optical properties. The LaNiO{sub 3} (LN), BaTiO{sub 3} (BT) and KNbO{sub 3} (KNb) targets were prepared by solid-state reaction. The X-ray Diffraction revealed the presence of the desired phases, containing the elements of interest in the targets and in the thin films that were produced. The LN, BT and KNb thin films were polycrystalline and the corresponding diffraction peaks were indexed in the with JCPDS cards n. 00-033-0711, n. 00-005-0626, and n. 00-009-0156, respectively. The multilayers films were polycrystalline. The majority of the micrographs obtained by scanning electron microscopy presented films with a thickness from 100 to 400 nm. The photoluminescent (PL) emission spectra of thin films show different broad bands that occupies large region of the visible spectrum, ranging from about 300-350 to 600-650 nm of the electromagnetic spectrum. The PL emission is associated with the order-disorder structural, even small structural changes can modify the interactions between electronic states. The structural disorder results in formation of new energy levels in the forbidden region. The proximity or distance of these new energy levels formed in relation to valence band and to the conduction band results in PL spectra located at higher or lower energies. These interactions change the electronic states which can be influenced by defects, particularly the interface defects between the layers of the thin films. The presence of defects results in changes in the broad band matrix intensity and in displacement of the PL emission maximum. (author)

  5. Nanosphere lithography applied to magnetic thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gleason, Russell

    Magnetic nanostructures have widespread applications in many areas of physics and engineering, and nanosphere lithography has recently emerged as promising tool for the fabrication of such nanostructures. The goal of this research is to explore the magnetic properties of a thin film of ferromagnetic material deposited onto a hexagonally close-packed monolayer array of polystyrene nanospheres, and how they differ from the magnetic properties of a typical flat thin film. The first portion of this research focuses on determining the optimum conditions for depositing a monolayer of nanospheres onto chemically pretreated silicon substrates (via drop-coating) and the subsequent characterization of the deposited nanosphere layer with scanning electron microscopy. Single layers of permalloy (Ni80Fe20) are then deposited on top of the nanosphere array via DC magnetron sputtering, resulting in a thin film array of magnetic nanocaps. The coercivities of the thin films are measured using a home-built magneto-optical Kerr effect (MOKE) system in longitudinal arrangement. MOKE measurements show that for a single layer of permalloy (Py), the coercivity of a thin film deposited onto an array of nanospheres increases compared to that of a flat thin film. In addition, the coercivity increases as the nanosphere size decreases for the same deposited layer. It is postulated that magnetic exchange decoupling between neighboring nanocaps suppresses the propagation of magnetic domain walls, and this pinning of the domain walls is thought to be the primary source of the increase in coercivity.

  6. First-principles calculations on the four phases of BaTiO3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evarestov, Robert A; Bandura, Andrei V

    2012-04-30

    The calculations based on linear combination of atomic orbitals basis functions as implemented in CRYSTAL09 computer code have been performed for cubic, tetragonal, orthorhombic, and rhombohedral modifications of BaTiO(3) crystal. Structural and electronic properties as well as phonon frequencies were obtained using local density approximation, generalized gradient approximation, and hybrid exchange-correlation density functional theory (DFT) functionals for four stable phases of BaTiO(3). A comparison was made between the results of different DFT techniques. It is concluded that the hybrid PBE0 [J. P. Perdew, K. Burke, M. Ernzerhof, J. Chem. Phys. 1996, 105, 9982.] functional is able to predict correctly the structural stability and phonon properties both for cubic and ferroelectric phases of BaTiO(3). The comparative phonon symmetry analysis in BaTiO(3) four phases has been made basing on the site symmetry and irreducible representation indexes for the first time. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Positron annihilation lifetime study of positive temperature coefficient BaTiO3 samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ling Chen; Mingkang Teng; Guanghou Wang; Xiaoyun Li; Tianchang Lu

    1989-01-01

    In order to investigate the doped vacancies in BaTiO 3 samples as well as their influence on the positive temperature coefficient (PTC) the positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy was applied. Two groups of BaTiO 3 samples with BaO excess were prepared by doping different concentrations of La 2 O 3 and Nb 2 O 5 , respectively in the range from 0.1 to 3 at%. A third group of samples of two Sb-doped PTC BaTiO 3 semiconductors with excess BaO or TiO 2 were studied by the aid of positron technique before and after being reduced. It is shown that the positron lifetime parameters are sensitive to changes in the vacancy concentration in BaTiO 3 ceramics near the 0.1 mol% region. But they are almost unchanged during reduction processing; the resistivity of samples changed by one to two orders of magnitude through the reduction. It can be concluded that the PTC effect is due to oxygen on the grain boundary rather than vacancies, and that the Heywang-Jonker model is more reasonable

  8. Linear electro-optical properties of tetragonal BaTiO 3

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Linear optical susceptibility and clamped linear electro-optical tensor coefficients of tetragonal BaTiO3 are calculated using a formalism based on bond charge theory. Calculated values are in close agreement with experimental data. The covalent Ti–O bonds constituting distorted TiO6 octahedral groups are found to be ...

  9. Structure and properties of plasma sprayed BaTiO3 coatings after thermal posttreatment

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ctibor, Pavel; Sedláček, J.; Pala, Zdeněk

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 41, č. 6 (2015), s. 7453-7460 ISSN 0272-8842 Institutional support: RVO:61389021 Keywords : Electrical properties * BaTiO3 * Plasma spraying * Annealing * Microstructure Subject RIV: JH - Ceramics, Fire-Resistant Materials and Glass Impact factor: 2.758, year: 2015 http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ceramint.2015.02.065

  10. Characterization, dielectric and electrical behaviour of BaTiO3 ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    of λ = 0⋅1542 nm, for crystal structure determination. Scherrer's equation and ... ion, releasing one molecule of propanol and one molecule of triethanolamine in .... The OH, CO2 and CO3 peaks were reduced in the sam- ple of BaTiO3 when ...

  11. Grain-size effects on thermal properties of BaTiO3 ceramics

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    decreasing grain size. Furthermore, the Curie temperature shifts to lower temperature with decreasing grain size. Keywords. Nanocrystalline ceramics; thermal properties; size effect. 1. Introduction. BaTiO3 has been widely used in the electronic industry for its high dielectric constant and low losses above room temperature ...

  12. Tailoring electronic structure of polyazomethines thin films

    OpenAIRE

    J. Weszka; B. Hajduk; M. Domański; M. Chwastek; J. Jurusik; B. Jarząbek; H. Bednarski; P. Jarka

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this work is to show how electronic properties of polyazomethine thin films deposited by chemical vapor deposition method (CVD) can be tailored by manipulating technological parameters of pristine films preparation as well as modifying them while the as-prepared films put into iodine atmosphere.Design/methodology/approach: The recent achievements in the field of designing and preparation methods to be used while preparing polymer photovoltaic solar cells or optoelectronic ...

  13. Electrochemical fabrication of nanoporous polypyrrole thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Mei; Yuan Jinying; Shi Gaoquan

    2008-01-01

    Polypyrrole thin films with pores in nanometer scale were synthesized by direct electrochemical oxidation of pyrrole in a mixed electrolyte of isopropyl alcohol, boron trifluoride diethyl etherate, sodium dodecylsulfonate and poly(ethylene glycol) using well-aligned ZnO nanowires arrays as templates. The thin films exhibit high conductivity of ca. σ rt ∼ 20.5 s/cm and can be driven to bend during redox processes in 1.0 M lithium perchlorate aqueous solution. The movement rate of an actuator based on this nanoporous film was measured to be over 90 o /s at a driving potential of 0.8 V (vs. Ag/AgCl)

  14. Polymer surfaces, interfaces and thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stamm, M [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Polymerforschung, Mainz (Germany)

    1996-11-01

    Neutron reflectometry can be used in various ways to investigate surfaces, interfaces and thin films of polymers. Its potential comes mostly from the possibilities offered by selective deuteration, where a particular component can be made visible with respect to its activity at the interface. In addition the depth resolution is much better than with most other direct techniques, and details of the profiles may be resolved. Several examples will be discussed including the segment diffusion at the interface between two polymer films, the determination of the narrow interfaces between incompatible polymer blends and the development of order in thin diblock copolymer films. (author) 10 figs., 2 tabs., 38 refs.

  15. Polymer surfaces, interfaces and thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stamm, M.

    1996-01-01

    Neutron reflectometry can be used in various ways to investigate surfaces, interfaces and thin films of polymers. Its potential comes mostly from the possibilities offered by selective deuteration, where a particular component can be made visible with respect to its activity at the interface. In addition the depth resolution is much better than with most other direct techniques, and details of the profiles may be resolved. Several examples will be discussed including the segment diffusion at the interface between two polymer films, the determination of the narrow interfaces between incompatible polymer blends and the development of order in thin diblock copolymer films. (author) 10 figs., 2 tabs., 38 refs

  16. Microstructure evolution and electrical characterization of Lanthanum doped Barium Titanate (BaTiO_3) ceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Billah, Masum; Ahmed, A.; Rahman, Md. Miftaur; Mahbub, Rubbayat; Gafur, M. A.; Bashar, M. Shahriar

    2016-01-01

    In the current work, we investigated the structural and dielectric properties of Lanthanum oxide (La_2O_3) doped Barium Titanate (BaTiO_3) ceramics and established a correlation between them. Solid state sintering method was used to dope BaTiO_3 with 0.3, 0.5 and 0.7 mole% La_2O_3 under different sintering parameters. The raw materials used were La_2O_3 nano powder of ~80 nm grain size and 99.995% purity and BaTiO_3 nano powder of 100 nm grain size and 99.99% purity. Grain size distribution and morphology of fracture surface of sintered pellets were examined by Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscope and X-Ray Diffraction analysis was conducted to confirm the formation of desired crystal structure. The research result reveal that grain size and electrical properties of BaTiO_3 ceramic significantly enhanced for small amount of doping (up to 0.5 mole% La_2O_3) and then decreased with increasing doping concentration. Desired grain growth (0.80-1.3 µm) and high densification (<90% theoretical density) were found by proper combination of temperature, sintering parameters and doping concentration. We found the resultant stable value of dielectric constant was 10000-12000 at 100-300 Hz in the temperature range of 30°-50° C for 0.5 mole% La_2O_3 with corresponding shift of curie temperature around 30° C. So overall this research showed that proper La"3"+ concentration can control the grain size, increase density, lower curie temperature and hence significantly improve the electrical properties of BaTiO_3 ceramics.

  17. PLD prepared bioactive BaTiO.sub.3./sub. films on TiNb implants

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jelínek, Miroslav; Vaněk, Přemysl; Tolde, Z.; Buixaderas, Elena; Kocourek, Tomáš; Studnička, Václav; Drahokoupil, Jan; Petzelt, Jan; Remsa, Jan; Tyunina, Marina

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 70, Jan (2017), s. 334-339 ISSN 0928-4931 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA15-05864S; GA ČR(CZ) GA15-01558S Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : BaTiO 3 * thin films * pld * implants * TiNb * ferroelectricity Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism OBOR OECD: Condensed matter physics (including formerly solid state physics, supercond.)

  18. Simulated Thin-Film Growth and Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schillaci, Michael

    2001-06-01

    Thin-films have become the cornerstone of the electronics, telecommunications, and broadband markets. A list of potential products includes: computer boards and chips, satellites, cell phones, fuel cells, superconductors, flat panel displays, optical waveguides, building and automotive windows, food and beverage plastic containers, metal foils, pipe plating, vision ware, manufacturing equipment and turbine engines. For all of these reasons a basic understanding of the physical processes involved in both growing and imaging thin-films can provide a wonderful research project for advanced undergraduate and first-year graduate students. After producing rudimentary two- and three-dimensional thin-film models incorporating ballsitic deposition and nearest neighbor Coulomb-type interactions, the QM tunneling equations are used to produce simulated scanning tunneling microscope (SSTM) images of the films. A discussion of computational platforms, languages, and software packages that may be used to accomplish similar results is also given.

  19. Restructuring in block copolymer thin films

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Posselt, Dorthe; Zhang, Jianqi; Smilgies, Detlef-M.

    2017-01-01

    Block copolymer (BCP) thin films have been proposed for a number of nanotechnology applications, such as nanolithography and as nanotemplates, nanoporous membranes and sensors. Solvent vapor annealing (SVA) has emerged as a powerful technique for manipulating and controlling the structure of BCP...... thin films, e.g., by healing defects, by altering the orientation of the microdomains and by changing the morphology. Due to high time resolution and compatibility with SVA environments, grazing-incidence small-angle X-ray scattering (GISAXS) is an indispensable technique for studying the SVA process......, providing information of the BCP thin film structure both laterally and along the film normal. Especially, state-of-the-art combined GISAXS/SVA setups at synchrotron sources have facilitated in situ and real-time studies of the SVA process with a time resolution of a few seconds, giving important insight...

  20. Nanostructured thin films as functional coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lazar, Manoj A; Tadvani, Jalil K; Tung, Wing Sze; Lopez, Lorena; Daoud, Walid A, E-mail: Walid.Daoud@sci.monash.edu.au [School of Applied Sciences and Engineering, Monash University, Churchill, VIC 3842 (Australia)

    2010-06-15

    Nanostructured thin films is one of the highly exploiting research areas particularly in applications such as photovoltaics, photocatalysis and sensor technologies. Highly tuned thin films, in terms of thickness, crystallinity, porosity and optical properties, can be fabricated on different substrates using the sol-gel method, chemical solution deposition (CSD), electrochemical etching, along with other conventional methods such as chemical vapour deposition (CVD) and physical vapour deposition (PVD). The above mentioned properties of these films are usually characterised using surface analysis techniques such as XRD, SEM, TEM, AFM, ellipsometry, electrochemistry, SAXS, reflectance spectroscopy, STM, XPS, SIMS, ESCA, X-ray topography and DOSY-NMR. This article presents a short review of the preparation and characterisation of thin films of nanocrystalline titanium dioxide and modified silicon as well as their application in solar cells, water treatment, water splitting, self cleaning fabrics, sensors, optoelectronic devices and lab on chip systems.

  1. DC magnetron sputtering prepared Ag-C thin film anode for thin film lithium ion microbatteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Y.; Tu, J.P.; Shi, D.Q.; Huang, X.H.; Wu, H.M.; Yuan, Y.F.; Zhao, X.B.

    2007-01-01

    An Ag-C thin film was prepared by DC magnetron co-sputtering, using pure silver and graphite as the targets. The microstructure and morphology of the deposited thin film were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Electrochemical performances of the Ag-C thin film anode were investigated by means of discharge/charge and cyclic voltammogram (CV) tests in model cells. The electrochemical impedance spectrum (EIS) characteristics and the chemical diffusion coefficient, D Li of the Ag-C thin film electrode at different discharging states were discussed. It was believed that the excellent cycling performance of the Ag-C electrode was ascribed to the good conductivity of silver and the volume stability of the thin film

  2. Microscopic local fatigue in PZT thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, B S; Wu, A; Vilarinho, P M

    2007-01-01

    The reduction in switchable polarization during fatigue largely limits the application of PZT thin films in ferroelectric nonvolatile memories. So, it is very important to understand the fatigue mechanism in PZT films, especially at a nanoscale level. In this paper, nanoscale fatigue properties in PZT thin films have been studied by piezoresponse force microscopy and local piezoloops. It has been found that a piezoloop obtained on a fatigued point exhibits a much more pinched shape and a local imprint phenomenon is observed after severe fatigue. Furthermore, the domain structure evolves from a simple single-peak profile to a complex fluctuant one. However, there is only some shift of the piezoloop when a unipolar field with the same amplitude is applied on the film. The available experimental data show that there exist obvious domain wall pinning and injection of electrons into the film during fatigue. Finally, a schematic illustration is suggested to explain the possible fatigue mechanism

  3. Optical constant of thin gold films

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yakubovsky, D. I.; Fedyanin, D. Yu; Arsenin, A. V.

    2017-01-01

    The performance of metal-based devices is limited by ohmic losses in the metal, which are determined by electron scattering. The structural properties of gold thin films also play an important role in the film quality, which may affect its' optical properties and the overall capability...... and spectroscopic ellipsometry, the structural morphology and optical properties of polycrystalline gold thin films (fabricated by e-beam deposition at a low sputtering rate smooth gold) in the thickness range of 20 - 200 nm. By extracting the real and imaginary dielectric function and the Drude parameter...... of the device. At the same time, metal films of different thicknesses are needed for different applications and, since these films are polycrystalline, their internal properties and surface roughness can greatly vary from one thickness to another. In this work, we study, using atomic force microscopy...

  4. Thermal conductivity of nanoscale thin nickel films

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YUAN Shiping; JIANG Peixue

    2005-01-01

    The inhomogeneous non-equilibrium molecular dynamics (NEMD) scheme is applied to model phonon heat conduction in thin nickel films. The electronic contribution to the thermal conductivity of the film is deduced from the electrical conductivity through the use of the Wiedemann-Franz law. At the average temperature of T = 300 K, which is lower than the Debye temperature ()D = 450 K,the results show that in a film thickness range of about 1-11 nm, the calculated cross-plane thermal conductivity decreases almost linearly with the decreasing film thickness, exhibiting a remarkable reduction compared with the bulk value. The electrical and thermal conductivities are anisotropic in thin nickel films for the thickness under about 10 nm. The phonon mean free path is estimated and the size effect on the thermal conductivity is attributed to the reduction of the phonon mean free path according to the kinetic theory.

  5. Magnetostrictive thin films prepared by RF sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carabias, I.; Martinez, A.; Garcia, M.A.; Pina, E.; Gonzalez, J.M.; Hernando, A.; Crespo, P.

    2005-01-01

    Fe 80 B 20 thin films have been prepared by ion beam sputtering magnetron on room temperature. The films were fabricated on different substrates to compare the different magnetic and structural properties. In particular the growth of films on flexible substrates (PDMS, Kapton) has been studied to allow a simple integration of the system in miniaturized magnetostrictive devices. X-ray diffraction patterns indicate that films are mainly amorphous although the presence of some Fe nanoparticles cannot be ruled out. The coercive field of thin films ranges between 15 and 35 Oe, depending on substrate. Magnetostriction measurements indicate the strong dependence of the saturation magnetostriction with the substrate. Samples on flexible substrates exhibit a better performance than samples deposited onto glass substrates

  6. Critical behavior of ferromagnetic Ising thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cossio, P.; Mazo-Zuluaga, J.; Restrepo, J.

    2006-01-01

    In the present work, we study the magnetic properties and critical behavior of simple cubic ferromagnetic thin films. We simulate LxLxd films with semifree boundary conditions on the basis of the Monte Carlo method and the Ising model with nearest neighbor interactions. A Metropolis dynamics was implemented to carry out the energy minimization process. For different film thickness, in the nanometer range, we compute the temperature dependence of the magnetization, the magnetic susceptibility and the fourth order Binder's cumulant. Bulk and surface contributions of these quantities are computed in a differentiated fashion. Additionally, according to finite size scaling theory, we estimate the critical exponents for the correlation length, magnetic susceptibility, and magnetization. Results reveal a strong dependence of critical temperature and critical exponents on the film thickness. The obtained critical exponents are finally compared to those reported in literature for thin films

  7. Thin Films in the Photovoltaic Industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaeger-Waldau, A.

    2008-03-01

    In the past years, the yearly world market growth rate for Photovoltaics was an average of more than 40%, which makes it one of the fastest growing industries at present. Business analysts predict the market volume to increase to 40 billion euros in 2010 and expect rising profit margins and lower prices for consumers at the same time. Today PV is still dominated by wafer based Crystalline Silicon Technology as the 'working horse' in the global market, but thin films are gaining market shares. For 2007 around 12% are expected. The current silicon shortage and high demand has kept prices higher than anticipated from the learning curve experience and has widened the windows of opportunities for thin film solar modules. Current production capacity estimates for thin films vary between 3 and 6 GW in 2010, representing a 20% market share for these technologies. Despite the higher growth rates for thin film technologies compared with the industry average, Thin Film Photovoltaic Technologies are still facing a number of challenges to maintain this growth and increase market shares. The four main topics which were discussed during the workshop were: Potential for cost reduction; Standardization; Recycling; Performance over the lifetime.

  8. Lithium ion intercalation into thin film anatase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kundrata, I.; Froehlich, K.; Ballo, P.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this work is to find the optimal parameters for thin film TiO 2 anatase grown by Atomic layer deposition (ALD) for use as electrode in lithium ion batteries. Two parameters, the optimal film thickness and growth conditions are aimed for. Optimal film thickness for achieving optimum between capacity gained from volume and capacity gained by changing of the intercalation constant and optimal growth conditions for film conformity on structured substrates with high aspect ratio. Here we presents first results from this ongoing research and discuss future outlooks. (authors)

  9. Ion beam-based characterization of multicomponent oxide thin films and thin film layered structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krauss, A.R.; Rangaswamy, M.; Lin, Yuping; Gruen, D.M.; Schultz, J.A.; Schmidt, H.K.; Chang, R.P.H.

    1992-01-01

    Fabrication of thin film layered structures of multi-component materials such as high temperature superconductors, ferroelectric and electro-optic materials, and alloy semiconductors, and the development of hybrid materials requires understanding of film growth and interface properties. For High Temperature Superconductors, the superconducting coherence length is extremely short (5--15 Angstrom), and fabrication of reliable devices will require control of film properties at extremely sharp interfaces; it will be necessary to verify the integrity of thin layers and layered structure devices over thicknesses comparable to the atomic layer spacing. Analytical techniques which probe the first 1--2 atomic layers are therefore necessary for in-situ characterization of relevant thin film growth processes. However, most surface-analytical techniques are sensitive to a region within 10--40 Angstrom of the surface and are physically incompatible with thin film deposition and are typically restricted to ultra high vacuum conditions. A review of ion beam-based analytical methods for the characterization of thin film and multi-layered thin film structures incorporating layers of multicomponent oxides is presented. Particular attention will be paid to the use of time-of-flight techniques based on the use of 1- 15 key ion beams which show potential for use as nondestructive, real-time, in-situ surface diagnostics for the growth of multicomponent metal and metal oxide thin films

  10. Effects of vacancies on atom displacement threshold energy calculations through Molecular Dynamics Methods in BaTiO3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez Lazo, Eduardo; Cruz Inclán, Carlos M.; Rodríguez Rodríguez, Arturo; Guzmán Martínez, Fernando; Abreu Alfonso, Yamiel; Piñera Hernández, Ibrahin; Leyva Fabelo, Antonio

    2017-09-01

    A primary approach for evaluating the influence of point defects like vacancies on atom displacement threshold energies values Td in BaTiO3 is attempted. For this purpose Molecular Dynamics Methods, MD, were applied based on previous Td calculations on an ideal tetragonal crystalline structure. It is an important issue in achieving more realistic simulations of radiation damage effects in BaTiO3 ceramic materials. It also involves irradiated samples under severe radiation damage effects due to high fluency expositions. In addition to the above mentioned atom displacement events supported by a single primary knock-on atom, PKA, a new mechanism was introduced. It corresponds to the simultaneous excitation of two close primary knock-on atoms in BaTiO3, which might take place under a high flux irradiation. Therefore, two different BaTiO3 Td MD calculation trials were accomplished. Firstly, single PKA excitations in a defective BaTiO3 tetragonal crystalline structure, consisting in a 2×2×2 BaTiO3 perovskite like super cell, were considered. It contains vacancies on Ba and O atomic positions under the requirements of electrical charge balance. Alternatively, double PKA excitations in a perfect BaTiO3 tetragonal unit cell were also simulated. On this basis, the corresponding primary knock-on atom (PKA) defect formation probability functions were calculated at principal crystal directions, and compared with the previous one we calculated and reported at an ideal BaTiO3 tetrahedral crystal structure. As a general result, a diminution of Td values arises in present calculations in comparison with those calculated for single PKA excitation in an ideal BaTiO3 crystal structure.

  11. Organic thin films and surfaces directions for the nineties

    CERN Document Server

    Ulman, Abraham

    1995-01-01

    Physics of Thin Films has been one of the longest running continuing series in thin film science consisting of 20 volumes since 1963. The series contains some of the highest quality studies of the properties ofvarious thin films materials and systems.In order to be able to reflect the development of todays science and to cover all modern aspects of thin films, the series, beginning with Volume 20, will move beyond the basic physics of thin films. It will address the most important aspects of both inorganic and organic thin films, in both their theoretical as well as technological aspects. Ther

  12. Síntesis de polvos de BaTiO3 por mecanoquímica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Villaquirán Raigoza, C. F.

    2002-02-01

    Full Text Available The barium titanato, BaTiO3, is one of the electronic ceramics with more history of technological application in the industry of the ceramic capacitores. The actual technological demands, and the high quality required for the electronic devices, have driven to new alternatives of prosecution of these materials and to optimize the traditional techniques of raw materials synthesis it prevails. An alternative synthesis is to use the mechanical energy to modify the physiochemical properties of the dispersed system and to favor the obtaining of powders of BaTiO3. In this work the results are indicated obtained when using mechanical activation, physicochemistry, in the obtaining of the BaTiO3. It has been analyzed the effect of the time of mill and the nature of the precursor of the titanium on the transformation of phases in the samples during the thermal treatment to that are subjected. X-ray diffraction, DRX, was used to study the phases evolution and infrared spectroscopy, FTIR, to determine the functional groups present in the samples.El titanato de bario, BaTiO3, es uno de los cerámicos electrónicos con mayor historia de aplicación tecnológica en la industria de los capacitores cerámicos. Las demandas tecnológicas actuales, y la alta calidad requerida para los dispositivos electrónicos, han conducido a nuevas alternativas de procesamiento de estos materiales y a optimizar las técnicas tradicionales de síntesis de materia prima. Una alternativa de síntesis es utilizar la energía mecánica para modificar las propiedades fisicoquímicas del sistema disperso y favorecer la obtención de polvos de BaTiO3. En este trabajo se indican los resultados obtenidos al utilizar activación mecánica, mecanoquímica, en la obtención del BaTiO3. Se ha analizado el efecto del tiempo de molienda y la naturaleza del precursor del titanio sobre la transformación de fases que experimentan las muestras durante el tratamiento térmico a que son sometidas. Para estudiar la evolución de fases se utilizó difracción de rayos-x, DRX, y espectroscopia infrarroja, FTIR, para determinar los grupos funcionales presentes en las muestras.

  13. Magnetic characterisation of longitudinal thin film media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dova, P.

    1998-09-01

    Magnetic characterisation techniques, as applied to longitudinal thin film media, have been investigated. These included the study of the differentials of the remanence curves, the delta-M plot and the examination of the critical volumes. Several thin film structures, which are currently used or are being considered for future media applications, have been examined using these techniques. Most of the films were Co-alloys with the exception of a set of Barium ferrite films. Both monolayer and multilayer structures were studied. It was found that the study of activation volumes provides a better insight into the reversal mechanisms of magnetic media, especially in the case of complex structures such as multilayer films and films with bicrystal microstructure. Furthermore, an evaluation study of different methods of determining critical volumes showed that the method using time dependence measurements and the micromagnetic approach is the most appropriate. The magnetic characteristics of the thin film media under investigation were correlated with their microstructure and, where possible, with their noise performance. Magnetic force microscopy was also used for acquiring quasi-domain images in the ac-demagnetised state. It was found that in all Co-alloy films the dominant intergranular coupling is magnetising in nature, the level of which is governed by the Cr content in the magnetic layer. In the case of laminated media it was found that when non-magnetic spacers are used, the nature of the interlayer coupling depends on the spacer thickness. In double layer structures with no spacer, the top layer replicates the crystallographic texture of the bottom layer, and the overall film properties are a combination of the two layers. In bicrystal films the coupling is determined by the Cr segregation in the grain boundaries. Furthermore, the presence of stacking faults in bicrystal films deteriorates their thermal stability, but can be prevented by improving the epitaxial

  14. Vibration welding system with thin film sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Wayne W; Abell, Jeffrey A; Li, Xiaochun; Choi, Hongseok; Zhao, Jingzhou

    2014-03-18

    A vibration welding system includes an anvil, a welding horn, a thin film sensor, and a process controller. The anvil and horn include working surfaces that contact a work piece during the welding process. The sensor measures a control value at the working surface. The measured control value is transmitted to the controller, which controls the system in part using the measured control value. The thin film sensor may include a plurality of thermopiles and thermocouples which collectively measure temperature and heat flux at the working surface. A method includes providing a welder device with a slot adjacent to a working surface of the welder device, inserting the thin film sensor into the slot, and using the sensor to measure a control value at the working surface. A process controller then controls the vibration welding system in part using the measured control value.

  15. Solid surfaces, interfaces and thin films

    CERN Document Server

    Lüth, Hans

    2015-01-01

    This book emphasises both experimental and theoretical aspects of surface, interface and thin-film physics. As in previous editions the preparation of surfaces and thin films, their atomic and morphological structure, their vibronic and electronic properties as well as fundamentals of adsorption are treated. Because of their importance in modern information technology and nanostructure research, particular emphasis is paid to electronic surface and interface states, semiconductor space charge layers and heterostructures. A special chapter of the book is devoted to collective phenomena at interfaces and in thin films such as superconductivity and magnetism. The latter topic includes the meanwhile important issues giant magnetoresistance and spin-transfer torque mechanism, both effects being of high interest in information technology. In this new edition, for the first time, the effect of spin-orbit coupling on surface states is treated. In this context the class of the recently detected topological insulators,...

  16. Thin films for the manipulation of light

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piegari, Angela; Sytchkova, Anna

    2015-01-01

    The manipulation of light is typically accomplished by a series of optical surfaces on which the incident beam is reflected, or through which the beam is transmitted. Thin film coatings help to modify the behavior of such surfaces for obtaining the desired result: antireflection coatings to reduce reflection losses, high-reflectance mirrors, filters to divide or combine beams of different wavelengths, and many other types. The amount of light that is transmitted or reflected depends on the optical parameters of the materials and on interference phenomena in thin-film structures. Dedicated software is available to design the proper coating for each requirement. There are several applications of optical thin films, many of them are useful in the everyday life, many others are dedicated to scientific purposes, as will be described in this paper [it

  17. Thin Film Photovoltaic/Thermal Solar Panels

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    David JOHNSTON

    2008-01-01

    A solar panel is described.in which thin films of semiconductor are deposited onto a metal substrate.The semiconductor-metal combination forms a thin film photovoltaic cell,and also acts as a reflector,absorber tandem, which acts as a solar selective surface,thus enhancing the solar thermal performance of the collector plate.The use of thin films reduces the distance heat is required to flow from the absorbing surface to the metal plate and heat exchange conduits.Computer modelling demonstrated that,by suitable choice of materials,photovohaic efficiency call be maintained,with thermal performance slishtly reduced,compared to that for thermal-only panels.By grading the absorber layer-to reduce the band gap in the lower region-the thermal performance can be improved,approaching that for a thermal-only solar panel.

  18. Nanostructured thin films and coatings mechanical properties

    CERN Document Server

    2010-01-01

    The first volume in "The Handbook of Nanostructured Thin Films and Coatings" set, this book concentrates on the mechanical properties, such as hardness, toughness, and adhesion, of thin films and coatings. It discusses processing, properties, and performance and provides a detailed analysis of theories and size effects. The book presents the fundamentals of hard and superhard nanocomposites and heterostructures, assesses fracture toughness and interfacial adhesion strength of thin films and hard nanocomposite coatings, and covers the processing and mechanical properties of hybrid sol-gel-derived nanocomposite coatings. It also uses nanomechanics to optimize coatings for cutting tools and explores various other coatings, such as diamond, metal-containing amorphous carbon nanostructured, and transition metal nitride-based nanolayered multilayer coatings.

  19. Solid Surfaces, Interfaces and Thin Films

    CERN Document Server

    Lüth, Hans

    2010-01-01

    This book emphasises both experimental and theoretical aspects of surface, interface and thin film physics. As in previous editions the preparation of surfaces and thin films, their atomic and morphological, their vibronic and electronic properties as well as fundamentals of adsorption are treated. Because of their importance in modern information technology and nanostructure physics particular emphasis is paid to electronic surface and interface states, semiconductor space charge layers and heterostructures as well as to superconductor/semiconductor interfaces and magnetic thin films. The latter topic was significantly extended in this new edition by more details about the giant magnetoresistance and a section about the spin-transfer torque mechanism including one new problem as exercise. Two new panels about Kerr-effect and spin-polarized scanning tunnelling microscopy were added, too. Furthermore, the meanwhile important group III-nitride surfaces and high-k oxide/semiconductor interfaces are shortly discu...

  20. Domains in Ferroic Crystals and Thin Films

    CERN Document Server

    Tagantsev, Alexander K; Fousek, Jan

    2010-01-01

    Domains in Ferroic Crystals and Thin Films presents experimental findings and theoretical understanding of ferroic (non-magnetic) domains developed during the past 60 years. It addresses the situation by looking specifically at bulk crystals and thin films, with a particular focus on recently-developed microelectronic applications and methods for observation of domains with techniques such as scanning force microscopy, polarized light microscopy, scanning optical microscopy, electron microscopy, and surface decorating techniques. Domains in Ferroic Crystals and Thin Films covers a large area of material properties and effects connected with static and dynamic properties of domains, which are extremely relevant to materials referred to as ferroics. In most solid state physics books, one large group of ferroics is customarily covered: those in which magnetic properties play a dominant role. Numerous books are specifically devoted to magnetic ferroics and cover a wide spectrum of magnetic domain phenomena. In co...

  1. Thin film oxygen partial pressure sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wortman, J. J.; Harrison, J. W.; Honbarrier, H. L.; Yen, J.

    1972-01-01

    The development is described of a laboratory model oxygen partial pressure sensor using a sputtered zinc oxide thin film. The film is operated at about 400 C through the use of a miniature silicon bar. Because of the unique resistance versus temperature relation of the silicon bar, control of the operational temperature is achieved by controlling the resistance. A circuit for accomplishing this is described. The response of sputtered zinc oxide films of various thicknesses to oxygen, nitrogen, argon, carbon dioxide, and water vapor caused a change in the film resistance. Over a large range, film conductance varied approximately as the square root of the oxygen partial pressure. The presence of water vapor in the gas stream caused a shift in the film conductance at a given oxygen partial pressure. A theoretical model is presented to explain the characteristic features of the zinc oxide response to oxygen.

  2. Magnetite thin films: A simulational approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazo-Zuluaga, J.; Restrepo, J.

    2006-01-01

    In the present work the study of the magnetic properties of magnetite thin films is addressed by means of the Monte Carlo method and the Ising model. We simulate LxLxd magnetite thin films (d being the film thickness and L the transversal linear dimension) with periodic boundary conditions along transversal directions and free boundary conditions along d direction. In our model, both the three-dimensional inverse spinel structure and the interactions scheme involving tetrahedral and octahedral sites have been considered in a realistic way. Results reveal a power-law dependence of the critical temperature with the film thickness accordingly by an exponent ν=0.81 and ruled out by finite-size scaling theory. Estimates for the critical exponents of the magnetization and the specific heat are finally presented and discussed

  3. Feasibility Study of Thin Film Thermocouple Piles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sisk, R. C.

    2001-01-01

    Historically, thermopile detectors, generators, and refrigerators based on bulk materials have been used to measure temperature, generate power for spacecraft, and cool sensors for scientific investigations. New potential uses of small, low-power, thin film thermopiles are in the area of microelectromechanical systems since power requirements decrease as electrical and mechanical machines shrink in size. In this research activity, thin film thermopile devices are fabricated utilizing radio frequency sputter coating and photoresist lift-off techniques. Electrical characterizations are performed on two designs in order to investigate the feasibility of generating small amounts of power, utilizing any available waste heat as the energy source.

  4. Novel chemical analysis for thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Usui, Toshio; Kamei, Masayuki; Aoki, Yuji; Morishita, Tadataka; Tanaka, Shoji

    1991-01-01

    Scanning electron microscopy and total-reflection-angle X-ray spectroscopy (SEM-TRAXS) was applied for fluorescence X-ray analysis of 50A- and 125A-thick Au thin films on Si(100). The intensity of the AuM line (2.15 keV) emitted from the Au thin films varied as a function of the take-off angle (θ t ) with respect to the film surface; the intensity of AuM line from the 125A-thick Au thin film was 1.5 times as large as that of SiK α line (1.74 keV) emitted from the Si substrate when θ t = 0deg-3deg, in the vicinity of a critical angle for total external reflection of the AuM line at Si (0.81deg). In addition, the intensity of the AuM line emitted from the 50A-thick Au thin film was also sufficiently strong for chemical analysis. (author)

  5. Perovskite Thin Films via Atomic Layer Deposition

    KAUST Repository

    Sutherland, Brandon R.; Hoogland, Sjoerd; Adachi, Michael M.; Kanjanaboos, Pongsakorn; Wong, Chris T. O.; McDowell, Jeffrey J.; Xu, Jixian; Voznyy, Oleksandr; Ning, Zhijun; Houtepen, Arjan J.; Sargent, Edward H.

    2014-01-01

    © 2014 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA. (Graph Presented) A new method to deposit perovskite thin films that benefit from the thickness control and conformality of atomic layer deposition (ALD) is detailed. A seed layer of ALD PbS is place-exchanged with PbI2 and subsequently CH3NH3PbI3 perovskite. These films show promising optical properties, with gain coefficients of 3200 ± 830 cm-1.

  6. Perovskite Thin Films via Atomic Layer Deposition

    KAUST Repository

    Sutherland, Brandon R.

    2014-10-30

    © 2014 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA. (Graph Presented) A new method to deposit perovskite thin films that benefit from the thickness control and conformality of atomic layer deposition (ALD) is detailed. A seed layer of ALD PbS is place-exchanged with PbI2 and subsequently CH3NH3PbI3 perovskite. These films show promising optical properties, with gain coefficients of 3200 ± 830 cm-1.

  7. Mechanical integrity of thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoffman, R.W.

    1979-01-01

    Mechanical considerations starting with the initial film deposition including questions of adhesion and grading the interface are reviewed. Growth stresses, limiting thickness, stress relief, control aging, and creep are described

  8. First-principles calculations on thermodynamic properties of BaTiO3 rhombohedral phase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandura, Andrei V; Evarestov, Robert A

    2012-07-05

    The calculations based on the linear combination of atomic orbitals have been performed for the low-temperature phase of BaTiO(3) crystal. Structural and electronic properties, as well as phonon frequencies were obtained using hybrid PBE0 exchange-correlation functional. The calculated frequencies and total energies at different volumes have been used to determine the equation of state and thermal contribution to the Helmholtz free energy within the quasiharmonic approximation. For the first time, the bulk modulus, volume thermal expansion coefficient, heat capacity, and Grüneisen parameters in BaTiO(3) rhombohedral phase have been estimated at zero pressure and temperatures form 0 to 200 K, based on the results of first-principles calculations. Empirical equation has been proposed to reproduce the temperature dependence of the calculated quantities. The agreement between the theoretical and experimental thermodynamic properties was found to be satisfactory. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Surface structures and dielectric response of ultrafine BaTiO3 particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang, B.; Peng, J.L.; Bursill, L.A.

    1998-01-01

    Characteristic differences are observed for the dielectric response and microstructures of BaTiO 3 nanoscale fine powders prepared using sol gel (SG) and steric acid gel (SAG) methods. The former exhibit a critical size below which there is no paraelectric/ferroelectric phase transition whereas BaTiO 3 prepared via the SAG route remained cubic for all conditions. Atomic resolution images of both varieties showed a high density of interesting surface steps and facets. Computer simulated images of surface structure models showed that the outer (100) surface was typically a BaO layer and that at corners and ledges the steps are typically finished with Ba+2 ions; i.e. the surfaces and steps are Ba-rich. Otherwise the surfaces were typically clean and free of amorphous layers. The relationship between the observed surfaces structures and theoretical models for size effects on the dielectric properties is discussed. (authors)

  10. Oxygen-vacancy defects on BaTiO3 (001) surface: a quantum chemical study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duque, Carlos; Stashans, Arvids

    2003-01-01

    A quantum-chemical study of technologically important BaTiO 3 crystal and oxygen-vacancy defects on its (001) surface is reported in the present work. The computations are made using a quantum-chemical method developed for periodic systems (crystals), which is based on the Hartree-Fock theory. The atomic rearrangement due to the surface creation is obtained for a pure BaTiO 3 by means of the periodic large unit cell (LUC) model and using an automated geometry optimisation procedure. The same technique is employed to study the electronic and structural properties of the material due to the presence of an O vacancy and F centre (two electrons trapped in an oxygen vacancy). The computations are carried out for both cubic and tetragonal lattices

  11. Ab Initio Calculations for the BaTiO3 (001) Surface Structure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XUE Xu-Yan; WANG Chun-Lei; ZHONG Wei-Lie

    2004-01-01

    @@ The ab initio method within the local density approximation is applied to calculate cubic BaTiO3 (001) surface relaxation and rumpling for two different terminations (BaO and TiO2). Our calculations demonstrate that cubic perovskite BaTiO3 crystals possess surface polarization, accompanied by the presence of the relevant electric field.We analyse their electronic structures (band structure, density of states and the electronic density redistribution with emphasis on the covalency effects). The results are also compared with that of the previous ab initio calculations. Considerable increases of Ti-O chemical bond covalency nearby the surface have been observed.The band gap reduces especially for the TiO2 termination.

  12. Simulation of iron impurity in BaTiO3 crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stashans, Arvids; Castillo, Darwin

    2009-01-01

    Iron-doped barium titanate (BaTiO 3 ) has been simulated taking into account cubic and tetragonal crystallographic lattices of the crystal. A quantum-chemical method based on the Hartree-Fock formalism has been used throughout the study. The calculated equilibrium structures of Fe-doped crystals reveal the defect-inward displacements of the Ti and O atoms whereas the shifts for the Ba atoms are encountered to be away with respect to the Fe impurity. According to the analysis of electron density population and electron band structure it is found that some unusual chemical bonding might take place between the Fe atom and its six adjacent O atoms. The role of Fe impurity in the ferroelectric polarization of the tetragonal BaTiO 3 crystal has been discussed too.

  13. Effect of BaTiO3 Nanopowder Concentration on Rheological Behaviour of Ceramic Inkjet Inks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyrpal, R.; Dulina, I.; Ragulya, A.

    2015-04-01

    The relationship between rheological properties of ceramic inkjet inks based on BaTiO3 nanopowder and solid phase concentration has been investigated. In the ink volume takes place the formation periodic colloidal structures (PCS). The determining factor of structure formation is powder-dispersant ratio. Structural constitution of in the system with the low pigment concentration represented as PCS2, that contains solid particles in deflocculated that stabilized by the presence of adsorption-solvate layers. Dilatant structure formation for such inks explained by constrained conditions of the interaction. Samples with high BaTiO3 concentration have been classified as PKS1. Dilatant properties of the PKS1 resulted in particles rearrangement under the influence of the flow. In the region of some values powder-dispersant ratio take place conversation PKS2 to PKS1 and ink structure transformation from monodisperse to aggregate state.

  14. Mesoscale simulations of confined Nafion thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanya, P.; Sharman, J.; Elliott, J. A.

    2017-12-01

    The morphology and transport properties of thin films of the ionomer Nafion, with thicknesses on the order of the bulk cluster size, have been investigated as a model system to explain the anomalous behaviour of catalyst/electrode-polymer interfaces in membrane electrode assemblies. We have employed dissipative particle dynamics (DPD) to investigate the interaction of water and fluorocarbon chains, with carbon and quartz as confining materials, for a wide range of operational water contents and film thicknesses. We found confinement-induced clustering of water perpendicular to the thin film. Hydrophobic carbon forms a water depletion zone near the film interface, whereas hydrophilic quartz results in a zone with excess water. There are, on average, oscillating water-rich and fluorocarbon-rich regions, in agreement with experimental results from neutron reflectometry. Water diffusivity shows increasing directional anisotropy of up to 30% with decreasing film thickness, depending on the hydrophilicity of the confining material. A percolation analysis revealed significant differences in water clustering and connectivity with the confining material. These findings indicate the fundamentally different nature of ionomer thin films, compared to membranes, and suggest explanations for increased ionic resistances observed in the catalyst layer.

  15. Processing of thin SU-8 films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keller, Stephan; Blagoi, Gabriela; Lillemose, Michael; Haefliger, Daniel; Boisen, Anja

    2008-01-01

    This paper summarizes the results of the process optimization for SU-8 films with thicknesses ≤5 µm. The influence of soft-bake conditions, exposure dose and post-exposure-bake parameters on residual film stress, structural stability and lithographic resolution was investigated. Conventionally, the SU-8 is soft-baked after spin coating to remove the solvent. After the exposure, a post-exposure bake at a high temperature T PEB ≥ 90 °C is required to cross-link the resist. However, for thin SU-8 films this often results in cracking or delamination due to residual film stress. The approach of the process optimization is to keep a considerable amount of the solvent in the SU-8 before exposure to facilitate photo-acid diffusion and to increase the mobility of the monomers. The experiments demonstrate that a replacement of the soft-bake by a short solvent evaporation time at ambient temperature allows cross-linking of the thin SU-8 films even at a low T PEB = 50 °C. Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy is used to confirm the increased cross-linking density. The low thermal stress due to the reduced T PEB and the improved structural stability result in crack-free structures and solve the issue of delamination. The knowledge of the influence of different processing parameters on the responses allows the design of optimized processes for thin SU-8 films depending on the specific application

  16. Thin films prepared from tungstate glass matrix

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montanari, B.; Ribeiro, S.J.L.; Messaddeq, Y. [Departamento de Quimica Geral e Inorganica, Instituto de Quimica, Sao Paulo State University-UNESP, CP 355, CEP 14800-900, Araraquara, SP (Brazil); Li, M.S. [Instituto de Fisica, USP, CP 369, CEP 13560-970, Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil); Poirier, G. [Departamento de Ciencias Exatas, UNIFAL-MG, CEP 37130-000, Alfenas-MG (Brazil)], E-mail: gael@unifal-mg.edu.br

    2008-01-30

    Vitreous samples containing high concentrations of WO{sub 3} (above 40% M) have been used as a target to prepare thin films. Such films were deposited using the electron beam evaporation method onto soda-lime glass substrates. These films were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), perfilometry, X-ray energy dispersion spectroscopy (EDS), M-Lines and UV-vis absorption spectroscopy. In this work, experimental parameters were established to obtain stable thin films showing a chemical composition close to the glass precursor composition and with a high concentration of WO{sub 3}. These amorphous thin films of about 4 {mu}m in thickness exhibit a deep blue coloration but they can be bleached by thermal treatment near the glass transition temperature. Such bleached films show several guided modes in the visible region and have a high refractive index. Controlled crystallization was realized and thus it was possible to obtain WO{sub 3} microcrystals in the amorphous phase.

  17. The effects of additive on microstructure and electrical properties of batio3 ceramics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paunović Vesna V.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper comparative investigations of microstructure and dielectric properties of BaTiO3 ceramics doped with 1.0 wt% of Nb2O5, MnCO3 and CaZrO3 have been done. BaTiO3 samples were prepared using conventional method of solid state sintering at 13000C for two hours. Two distinguish micro structural regions can be observed in sample doped with Nb2O5. The first one, with a very small grained microstructure and the other one, with a rod like grains. In MnCO3 and CaZrO3 doped ceramics the uniform microstructure is formed with average grain size about 0.5- 2µm and 3-5µm respectively. The highest value of dielectric permittivity at room temperature and the greatest change of permittivity in function of temperature were observed in MnCO3/BaTiO3. In all investigated samples dielectric constant after initially large value at low frequency attains a constant value at f = 6kHz. A dissipation factor is independent of frequency greater than 10 kHz and, depending of systems, lies in the range from 0.035 to 0.25. At temperatures above Curie temperatures, the permittivity of all investigated samples follows a Curie- Weiss law. A slight shift of Curie temperature to the lower temperatures, in respect of Curie temperature for undoped BaTiO3, was observed in all investigated samples.

  18. Fabrication and electrical investigations of Pb-doped BaTiO_3 ceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sareecha, N.; Shah, W.A.; Maqsood, A.; Anis-ur-Rehman, M.; Latif Mirza, M.

    2017-01-01

    Electrical properties of Pb doped BaTiO_3; PBT are investigated in the wide range of temperatures (40–700 °C) at 1 kHz frequency. PBT ceramics were fabricated through solid state sintering method. Pre fired BaTiO_3 prepared with Ba/Ti molar ratio of 0.98 was doped with PbCO_3 (<1 mole %). XRD patterns indicated perovskite phase with tetragonal structures (P4mm). Morphological studies (SEM) revealed grain development with increasing lead contents. With lead doping and its variation, Curie temperature (T_C) was shifted from 120 to 200 °C with broad dielectric constant peaks and dielectric anomalies with relaxor behavior were observed. Resistivity decreased with increasing temperature, all specimens showed semiconductor behavior with negative temperature coefficient of resistivity (NTCR) characteristics. Mobility of electrons increased with thermal activation due to hopping of charge carriers from one site to another. Ohmic conductivities and associated activation energies were evaluated by impedance spectroscopy. Conductivity followed the Arrhenius law with E_a = 1.187–1.169 eV which can be attributed to the ionic conduction owning to doubly ionized oxygen vacancies. Well-defined hysteresis P-E loops measured at room temperature depicted ferroelectric properties of the materials. - Graphical abstract: Temperature dependence of dielectric constant (Ɛ′) and resistivity (ρ) for pure and Pb-doped BaTiO_3 ceramics at 1 k Hz frequency. - Highlights: • Pb-doped BaTiO_3ceramics were fabricated through solid state sintering. • Electrical properties were studied at the temperatures 40–700 °C at 1 kHz. • Specimens showed negative temperature coefficient of resistivity characteristics. • Conductivity followed the Arrhenius law with E_a = 1.187–1.169 eV. • Ionic conduction was supposed to be responsible for conduction process.

  19. Properties of TiO2 prepared by acid treatment of BaTiO3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okada, Kiyoshi; Yanagisawa, Tomoki; Kameshima, Yoshikazu; Nakajima, Akira

    2007-01-01

    TiO 3 powders were prepared by acid treatment of BaTiO 3 and their properties were investigated. The BaTiO 3 powder was subjected to HNO 3 in concentrations ranging from 10 -3 to 8 M at 90 deg. C for 0.5-6 h. Dissolution of BaTiO 3 and precipitation of TiO 2 occurred at acid concentrations of 2-5 M. BaTiO 3 dissolves completely to form a clear solution at reaction times of 0.5-1 h, but a rutile precipitate is formed after 2 h of acid treatment. By contrast, anatase is precipitated by adjusting the pH of the clear solution to 2-3 using NaOH or NH 4 OH solution. The rutile crystals were small and rod-shaped, consisting of many small coherent domains connected by grain boundaries with small inclination angles and edge dislocations, giving them a high specific surface area (S BET ). With increasing HNO 3 concentration, the S BET value increased from 100 to 170 m 2 /g while the crystallite size decreased from 25 to 11 nm. The anatase crystals obtained here were very small equi-axial particles with a smaller crystallite size than the rutile and S BET values of about 270 m 2 /g (higher than the rutile samples). The photocatalytic activity of these TiO 2 was determined from the decomposition rate of Methylene Blue under ultraviolet irradiation. Higher decomposition rates were obtained with larger crystallite sizes resulting from heat treatment. The maximum decomposition rates were obtained in samples heated at 500-600 deg. C. The photocatalytic activity of the TiO 2 was found to depend more strongly on the sample crystallite size than on S BET

  20. Atomic Structure Control of Silica Thin Films on Pt(111)

    KAUST Repository

    Crampton, Andrew S; Ridge, Claron J.; Rö tzer, Marian David; Zwaschka, Gregor; Braun, Thomas; D'Elia, Valerio; Basset, Jean-Marie; Schweinberger, Florian Frank; Gü nther, Sebastian; Heiz, Ueli

    2015-01-01

    Metal oxide thin films grown on metal single crystals are commonly used to model heterogeneous catalyst supports. The structure and properties of thin silicon dioxide films grown on metal single crystals have only recently been thoroughly

  1. Optical characterization of niobium pentoxide thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pawlicka, A.

    1996-01-01

    Thin films of Nb 2 O 5 were obtained by sol-gel method using ultrasonic irradiation and deposited by dip-coating technique. After calcination at temperatures superior than 500 deg C these films (300 nm thick) were characterized by cyclic voltametry and cronoamperometry. The memory measurements, color efficiency, optical density as a function of wave number and applied potential were effectuated to determine their electrochromic properties. The study of electrochromic properties of these films shows that the insertion process of lithium is reversible and changes their coloration from transparent (T=80%) to dark blue (T=20%). (author)

  2. Electrical resistivity of ferrimagnetic magnetite thin film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varshney, Dinesh; Yogi, A.; Kaurav, N.; Gupta, R.P.; Phase, D.M.

    2006-01-01

    We have grown Fe 3 O 4 (III) epitaxial film on Al 2 O 3 (0001) substrate by pulsed laser deposition, with thickness of 130 nm. X-ray diffraction studies of magnetite show the spinel cubic structure of film with preferential (III) orientation. The electrical resistivity measurement demonstrates that the properties of thin film of magnetite are basically similar to those of bulk magnetite and clearly shows semiconductor-insulator transition at Verwey transition temperature (≅140 K). We have found higher Verwey transition temperature when compared with earlier reports on similar type of system. Possible causes for increase in transition temperature are discussed. (author)

  3. Surface Plasmon Waves on Thin Metal Films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig, Alan Ellsworth

    Surface-plasmon polaritons propagating on thin metal films bounded by dielectrics of nearly equal refractive indexes comprise two bound modes. Calculations indicate that, while the modes are degenerate on thick films, both the real and the imaginary components of the propagation constants for the modes split into two branches on successively thinner films. Considering these non-degenerate modes, the mode exhibiting a symmetric (antisymmetric) transverse profile of the longitudinally polarized electric field component, has propagation constant components both of which increase (decrease) with decreasing film thickness. Theoretical propagation constant eigenvalue (PCE) curves have been plotted which delineate this dependence of both propagation constant components on film thickness. By means of a retroreflecting, hemispherical glass coupler in an attenuated total reflection (ATR) configuration, light of wavelength 632.8 nm coupled to the modes of thin silver films deposited on polished glass substrates. Lorentzian lineshape dips in the plots of reflectance vs. angle of incidence indicate the presence of the plasmon modes. The real and imaginary components of the propagation constraints (i.e., the propagation constant and loss coefficient) were calculated from the angular positions and widths of the ATR resonances recorded. Films of several thicknesses were probed. Results which support the theoretically predicted curves were reported.

  4. New techniques for producing thin boron films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, G.E.

    1988-01-01

    A review will be presented of methods for producing thin boron films using an electron gun. Previous papers have had the problem of spattering of the boron source during the evaporation. Methods for reducing this problem will also be presented. 12 refs., 4 figs

  5. Intelligent Processing of Ferroelectric Thin Films

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-05-31

    unsatisfactory. To detect the electroopic effects of thin films deposited on opaque substrates a waveguide refractometry of category 3 was reported. An advantage...of the waveguide refractometry is its capability of resolving the change in ordinary index from the change in the extraordinary index. Some successes

  6. Tailored piezoelectric thin films for energy harvester

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wan, X.

    2013-01-01

    Piezoelectric materials are excellent materials to transfer mechanical energy into electrical energy, which can be stored and used to power other devices. PiezoMEMS is a good way to combine silicon wafer processing and piezoelectric thin film technology and lead to a variety of miniaturized and

  7. Amperometric Noise at Thin Film Band Electrodes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Simon T.; Heien, Michael L.; Taboryski, Rafael

    2012-01-01

    Background current noise is often a significant limitation when using constant-potential amperometry for biosensor application such as amperometric recordings of transmitter release from single cells through exocytosis. In this paper, we fabricated thin-film electrodes of gold and conductive...

  8. Stabilized thin film heterostructure for electrochemical applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2015-01-01

    The invention provides a method for the formation of a thin film multi-layered heterostructure upon a substrate, said method comprising the steps of: a. providing a substrate; b. depositing a buffer layer upon said substrate, said buffer layer being a layer of stable ionic conductor (B); c. depos...

  9. Reliability growth of thin film resistors contact

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lugin A. N.

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Necessity of resistive layer growth under the contact and in the contact zone of resistive element is shown in order to reduce peak values of current flow and power dissipation in the contact of thin film resistor, thereby to increase the resistor stability to parametric and catastrophic failures.

  10. Bilaterally Microstructured Thin Polydimethylsiloxane Film Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vudayagiri, Sindhu; Yu, Liyun; Hassouneh, Suzan Sager

    2015-01-01

    Thin PDMS films with complex microstructures are used in the manufacturing of dielectric electro active polymer (DEAP) actuators, sensors and generators, to protect the metal electrode from large strains and to assure controlled actuation. The current manufacturing process at Danfoss Polypower A/...

  11. Flexible thin-film NFC tags

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Myny, K.; Tripathi, A.K.; Steen, J.L. van der; Cobb, B.

    2015-01-01

    Thin-film transistor technologies have great potential to become the key technology for leafnode Internet of Things by utilizing the NFC protocol as a communication medium. The main requirements are manufacturability on flexible substrates at a low cost while maintaining good device performance

  12. Magnetic surfaces, thin films, and multilayers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parkin, S.S.P.; Renard, J.P.; Shinjo, T.; Zinn, W.

    1992-01-01

    This paper details recent developments in the magnetism of surfaces, thin films and multilayers. More than 20 invited contributions and more than 60 contributed papers attest to the great interest and vitality of this subject. In recent years the study of magnetic surfaces, thin films and multilayers has undergone a renaissance, partly motivated by the development of new growth and characterization techniques, but perhaps more so by the discovery of many exciting new properties, some quite unanticipated. These include, most recently, the discovery of enormous values of magnetoresistance in magnetic multilayers far exceeding those found in magnetic single layer films and the discovery of oscillatory interlayer coupling in transition metal multilayers. These experimental studies have motivated much theoretical work. However these developments are to a large extent powered by materials engineering and our ability to control and understand the growth of thin layers just a few atoms thick. The preparation of single crystal thin film layers and multilayers remains important for many studies, in particular, for properties dependent. These studies obviously require engineering not just a layer thicknesses but of lateral dimensions as well. The properties of such structures are already proving to be a great interest

  13. Electrical characterization of thin film ferroelectric capacitors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tiggelman, M.P.J.; Reimann, K.; Klee, M.; Beelen, D.; Keur, W.; Schmitz, Jurriaan; Hueting, Raymond Josephus Engelbart

    2006-01-01

    Tunable capacitors can be used to facilitate the reduction of components in wireless technologies. The tunability of the capacitors is caused by the sensitivity of the relative dielectric constant to a change in polarization with electric field. Thin film ferroelectric MIM capacitors on silicon

  14. Internal stress control of boron thin film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Satomi, N.; Kitamura, M.; Sasaki, T.; Nishikawa, M.

    1998-01-01

    The occurrence of stress in thin films has led to serious stability problems in practical use. We have investigated the stress in the boron films to find the deposition condition of the boron films with less stress. It was found that the stress in the boron film varies sufficiently from compressive to tensile stress, that is from -1.0 to 1.4 GPa, depending on the evaporation conditions, such as deposition rate and the substrate temperature. Hydrogen ion bombardment resulted in the enhancement of the compressive stress, possibly due to ion peening effect, while under helium ion bombardment, stress relief was observed. The boron film with nearly zero stress was obtained by the evaporation at a deposition rate of 0.5 nm s -1 and substrate temperature of 300 C. (orig.)

  15. Correlated dewetting patterns in thin polystyrene films

    CERN Document Server

    Neto, C; Seemann, R; Blossey, R; Becker, J; Grün, G

    2003-01-01

    We describe preliminary results of experiments and simulations concerned with the dewetting of thin polystyrene films (thickness < 7 nm) on top of silicon oxide wafers. In the experiments we scratched an initially flat film with an atomic force microscopy (AFM) tip, producing dry channels in the film. Dewetting of the films was imaged in situ using AFM and a correlated pattern of holes ('satellite holes') was observed along the rims bordering the channels. The development of this complex film rupture process was simulated and the results of experiments and simulations are in good agreement. On the basis of these results, we attempt to explain the appearance of satellite holes and their positions relative to pre-existing holes.

  16. Correlated dewetting patterns in thin polystyrene films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neto, Chiara; Jacobs, Karin; Seemann, Ralf; Blossey, Ralf; Becker, Juergen; Gruen, Guenther

    2003-01-01

    We describe preliminary results of experiments and simulations concerned with the dewetting of thin polystyrene films (thickness < 7 nm) on top of silicon oxide wafers. In the experiments we scratched an initially flat film with an atomic force microscopy (AFM) tip, producing dry channels in the film. Dewetting of the films was imaged in situ using AFM and a correlated pattern of holes ('satellite holes') was observed along the rims bordering the channels. The development of this complex film rupture process was simulated and the results of experiments and simulations are in good agreement. On the basis of these results, we attempt to explain the appearance of satellite holes and their positions relative to pre-existing holes

  17. Rim instability of bursting thin smectic films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trittel, Torsten; John, Thomas; Tsuji, Kinko; Stannarius, Ralf

    2013-05-01

    The rupture of thin smectic bubbles is studied by means of high speed video imaging. Bubbles of centimeter diameter and film thicknesses in the nanometer range are pierced, and the instabilities of the moving rim around the opening hole are described. Scaling laws describe the relation between film thickness and features of the filamentation process of the rim. A flapping motion of the retracting smectic film is assumed as the origin of the observed filamentation instability. A comparison with similar phenomena in soap bubbles is made. The present experiments extend studies on soap films [H. Lhuissier and E. Villermaux, Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 054501 (2009), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.103.054501] to much thinner, uniform films of thermotropic liquid crystals.

  18. Internal stress control of boron thin film

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Satomi, N.; Kitamura, M.; Sasaki, T.; Nishikawa, M. [Osaka Univ., Suita (Japan). Graduate Sch. of Eng.

    1998-09-01

    The occurrence of stress in thin films has led to serious stability problems in practical use. We have investigated the stress in the boron films to find the deposition condition of the boron films with less stress. It was found that the stress in the boron film varies sufficiently from compressive to tensile stress, that is from -1.0 to 1.4 GPa, depending on the evaporation conditions, such as deposition rate and the substrate temperature. Hydrogen ion bombardment resulted in the enhancement of the compressive stress, possibly due to ion peening effect, while under helium ion bombardment, stress relief was observed. The boron film with nearly zero stress was obtained by the evaporation at a deposition rate of 0.5 nm s{sup -1} and substrate temperature of 300 C. (orig.) 12 refs.

  19. Dielectric loss of strontium titanate thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalberth, Mark Joseph

    1999-12-01

    Interest in strontium titanate (STO) thin films for microwave device applications continues to grow, fueled by the telecommunications industry's interest in phase shifters and tunable filters. The optimization of these devices depends upon increasing the phase or frequency tuning and decreasing the losses in the films. Currently, the dielectric response of thin film STO is poorly understood through lack of data and a theory to describe it. We have studied the growth of STO using pulsed laser deposition and single crystal substrates like lanthanum aluminate and neodymium gallate. We have researched ways to use ring resonators to accurately measure the dielectric response as a function of temperature, electric field, and frequency from low radio frequencies to a few gigahertz. Our films grown on lanthanum aluminate show marked frequency dispersion in the real part of the dielectric constant and hints of thermally activated loss behavior. We also found that films grown with conditions that optimized the dielectric constant showed increased losses. In an attempt to simplify the system, we developed a technique called epitaxial lift off, which has allowed us to study films removed from their growth substrates. These free standing films have low losses and show obvious thermally activated behavior. The "amount of tuning," as measured by a figure of merit, KE, is greater in these films than in the films still attached to their growth substrates. We have developed a theory that describes the real and imaginary parts of the dielectric constant. The theory models the real part using a mean field description of the ionic motion in the crystal and includes the loss by incorporating the motion of charged defects in the films.

  20. Thin film preparation of semiconducting iron pyrite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smestad, Greg P.; Ennaoui, Ahmed; Fiechter, Sebastian; Hofmann, Wolfgang; Tributsch, Helmut; Kautek, Wolfgang

    1990-08-01

    Pyrite (Fe52) has been investigated as a promising new absorber material for thin film solar cell applications because of its high optical absorption coefficient of 1OL cm1, and its bandgap of 0.9 to 1.0 eV. Thin layers have been prepared by Metal Organic Chemical Vapor Deposition, MOCVD, Chemical Spray Pyrolysis, CSP, Chemical Vapor Transport, CVT, and Sulfurization of Iron Oxide films, 510. It is postulated that for the material FeS2, if x is not zero, a high point defect concentration results from replacing 2 dipoles by single S atoms. This causes the observed photovoltages and solar conversion efficiencies to be lower than expected. Using the Fe-O-S ternary phase diagram and the related activity plots, a thermodynamic understanding is formulated for the resulting composition of each of these types of films. It is found that by operating in the oxide portion of the phase diagram, the resulting oxidation state favors pyrite formation over FeS. By proper orientation of the grains relative to the film surface, and by control of pinholes and stoichiometry, an efficient thin film photovolatic solar cell material could be achieved.

  1. Electrochemical fabrication of nanoporous polypyrrole thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li Mei [Key Laboratory of Organic Optoelectronics and Molecular Engineering (Ministry of Education), Department of Chemistry, Tsinghua University, Beijing, 100084 (China); Yuan Jinying [Key Laboratory of Organic Optoelectronics and Molecular Engineering (Ministry of Education), Department of Chemistry, Tsinghua University, Beijing, 100084 (China)], E-mail: yuanjy@mail.tsinghua.edu.cn; Shi Gaoquan [Key Laboratory of Organic Optoelectronics and Molecular Engineering (Ministry of Education), Department of Chemistry, Tsinghua University, Beijing, 100084 (China)], E-mail: gshi@mail.tsinghua.edu.cn

    2008-04-30

    Polypyrrole thin films with pores in nanometer scale were synthesized by direct electrochemical oxidation of pyrrole in a mixed electrolyte of isopropyl alcohol, boron trifluoride diethyl etherate, sodium dodecylsulfonate and poly(ethylene glycol) using well-aligned ZnO nanowires arrays as templates. The thin films exhibit high conductivity of ca. {sigma}{sub rt} {approx} 20.5 s/cm and can be driven to bend during redox processes in 1.0 M lithium perchlorate aqueous solution. The movement rate of an actuator based on this nanoporous film was measured to be over 90{sup o}/s at a driving potential of 0.8 V (vs. Ag/AgCl)

  2. Dynamics in thin folded polymer films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croll, Andrew; Rozairo, Damith

    Origami and Kirigami inspired structures depend on a complex interplay between geometry and material properties. While clearly important to the overall function, very little attention has focused on how extreme curvatures and singularities in real materials influence the overall dynamic behaviour of folded structures. In this work we use a set of three polymer thin films in order to closely examine the interaction of material and geometry. Specifically, we use polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS), polystyrene (PS) and polycarbonate (PC) thin films which we subject to loading in several model geometries of varying complexity. Depending on the material, vastly different responses are noted in our experiments; D-cones can annihilate, cut or lead to a crumpling cascade when pushed through a film. Remarkably, order can be generated with additional perturbation. Finally, the role of adhesion in complex folded structures can be addressed. AFOSR under the Young Investigator Program (FA9550-15-1-0168).

  3. Chemical Synthesis of Porous Barium Titanate Thin Film and Thermal Stabilization of Ferroelectric Phase by Porosity-Induced Strain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Norihiro; Osada, Minoru; Billah, Motasim; Bando, Yoshio; Yamauchi, Yusuke; Hossain, Shahriar A

    2018-03-27

    Barium titanate (BaTiO3, hereafter BT) is an established ferroelectric material first discovered in the 1940s and still widely used because of its well-balanced ferroelectricity, piezoelectricity, and dielectric constant. In addition, BT does not contain any toxic elements. Therefore, it is considered to be an eco-friendly material, which has attracted considerable interest as a replacement for lead zirconate titanate (PZT). However, bulk BT loses its ferroelectricity at approximately 130 °C, thus, it cannot be used at high temperatures. Because of the growing demand for high-temperature ferroelectric materials, it is important to enhance the thermal stability of ferroelectricity in BT. In previous studies, strain originating from the lattice mismatch at hetero-interfaces has been used. However, the sample preparation in this approach requires complicated and expensive physical processes, which are undesirable for practical applications. In this study, we propose a chemical synthesis of a porous material as an alternative means of introducing strain. We synthesized a porous BT thin film using a surfactant-assisted sol-gel method, in which self-assembled amphipathic surfactant micelles were used as an organic template. Through a series of studies, we clarified that the introduction of pores had a similar effect on distorting the BT crystal lattice, to that of a hetero-interface, leading to the enhancement and stabilization of ferroelectricity. Owing to its simplicity and cost effectiveness, this fabrication process has considerable advantages over conventional methods.

  4. Synthesis of flower-like BaTiO3/Fe3O4 hierarchically structured particles and their electrorheological and magnetic properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Baoxiang; Yin, Yichao; Liu, Chenjie; Yu, Shoushan; Chen, Kezheng

    2013-07-21

    Flower-like BaTiO3/Fe3O4 hierarchically structured particles composed of nano-scale structures on micro-scale materials were synthesized by a simple solvothermal approach and characterized by the means of X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), magnetic testing and rotary viscometer. The influences on the morphology and structure of solvothermal times, type and amount of surfactant, EG : H2O ratio, etc. were studied. Magnetic testing results show that the samples have strong magnetism and they exhibit superparamagnetic behavior, as evidenced by no coercivity and the remanence at room temperature, due to their very small sizes, observed on the M-H loop. The saturation magnetization (M(s)) value can achieve 18.3 emu g(-1). The electrorheological (ER) effect was investigated using a suspension of the flower-like BaTiO3/Fe3O4 hierarchically structured particles dispersed in silicone oil. We can observe a slight shear-thinning behavior of shear viscosity at a low shear rate region even at zero applied electric field and a Newtonian fluid behavior at high shear rate regions.

  5. Temperature-dependent leakage current behavior of epitaxial Bi0.5Na0.5TiO3-based thin films made by pulsed laser deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hejazi, M. M.; Safari, A.

    2011-11-01

    This paper discusses the electrical conduction mechanisms in a 0.88 Bi0.5Na0.5TiO3-0.08 Bi0.5K0.5TiO3-0.04 BaTiO3 thin film in the temperature range of 200-350 K. The film was deposited on a SrRuO3/SrTiO3 substrate by pulsed laser deposition technique. At all measurement temperatures, the leakage current behavior of the film matched well with the Lampert's triangle bounded by three straight lines of different slopes. The relative location of the triangle sides varied with temperature due to its effect on the density of charge carriers and un-filled traps. At low electric fields, the ohmic conduction governed the leakage mechanism. The calculated activation energy of the trap is 0.19 eV implying the presence of shallow traps in the film. With increasing the applied field, an abrupt increase in the leakage current was observed. This was attributed to a trap-filling process by the injected carriers. At sufficiently high electric fields, the leakage current obeyed the Child's trap-free square law suggesting the space charge limited current was the dominant mechanism.

  6. Magnon dispersion in thin magnetic films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balashov, T; Wulfhekel, W; Buczek, P; Sandratskii, L; Ernst, A

    2014-01-01

    Although the dispersion of magnons has been measured in many bulk materials, few studies deal with the changes in the dispersion when the material is in the form of a thin film, a system that is of interest for applications. Here we review inelastic tunneling spectroscopy studies of magnon dispersion in Mn/Cu 3 Au(1 0 0) and present new studies on Co and Ni thin films on Cu(1 0 0). The dispersion in Mn and Co films closely follows the dispersion of bulk samples with negligible dependence on thickness. The lifetime of magnons depends slightly on film thickness, and decreases considerably as the magnon energy increases. In Ni/Cu(1 0 0) films the thickness dependence of dispersion is much more pronounced. The measurements indicate a considerable mode softening for thinner films. Magnon lifetimes decrease dramatically near the edge of the Brillouin zone due to a close proximity of the Stoner continuum. The experimental study is supported by first-principles calculations. (paper)

  7. Magnon dispersion in thin magnetic films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balashov, T; Buczek, P; Sandratskii, L; Ernst, A; Wulfhekel, W

    2014-10-01

    Although the dispersion of magnons has been measured in many bulk materials, few studies deal with the changes in the dispersion when the material is in the form of a thin film, a system that is of interest for applications. Here we review inelastic tunneling spectroscopy studies of magnon dispersion in Mn/Cu3Au(1 0 0) and present new studies on Co and Ni thin films on Cu(1 0 0). The dispersion in Mn and Co films closely follows the dispersion of bulk samples with negligible dependence on thickness. The lifetime of magnons depends slightly on film thickness, and decreases considerably as the magnon energy increases. In Ni/Cu(1 0 0) films the thickness dependence of dispersion is much more pronounced. The measurements indicate a considerable mode softening for thinner films. Magnon lifetimes decrease dramatically near the edge of the Brillouin zone due to a close proximity of the Stoner continuum. The experimental study is supported by first-principles calculations.

  8. Function and application of ultra thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sasabe, Hiroyuki

    1988-02-01

    A film 10-100mm thick which is strong dynamically to some extent and has possibility to manifest fuctions of high degree different from the nature extrapolated from the normal thin film is called an ultra thin film. As an example of its concrete application, there is an electro-luminescence element which is made by laminating 5 layers of LB films of poly-L-phenylalanine on a n-GaP and has vapor-deposited gold electrodes. When voltage of 5V is imposed to it, light emission of 565nm can be observed and the emission efficiency of 2% is obtained. Besides, it has an excellent stability through the lapse of time. There is also a junction element and the ion concentration injected into macromolecule films of this element has a Gaussian distribution from the surface towards the direction of depth. Accordingly, the most active domain in terms of semiconductor as the result of doping is the location in the neighborhood of the peak. Furthermore, a photo memory is also proposed. It is applied to the artificial hemoglobine which is made of LB films, suggesting the feasibility of creating the artificial protein capable of functioning in the conditions in which the natural protein is unable to function. (5 figs, 1 tab, 7 refs)

  9. Thin film diamond microstructure applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roppel, T.; Ellis, C.; Ramesham, R.; Jaworske, D.; Baginski, M. E.; Lee, S. Y.

    1991-01-01

    Selective deposition and abrasion, as well as etching in atomic oxygen or reduced-pressure air, have been used to prepare patterned polycrystalline diamond films which, on further processing by anisotropic Si etching, yield the microstructures of such devices as flow sensors and accelerometers. Both types of sensor have been experimentally tested in the respective functions of hot-wire anemometer and both single- and double-hinged accelerometer.

  10. Thin film bismuth iron oxides useful for piezoelectric devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeches, Robert J.; Martin, Lane W.; Ramesh, Ramamoorthy

    2016-05-31

    The present invention provides for a composition comprising a thin film of BiFeO.sub.3 having a thickness ranging from 20 nm to 300 nm, a first electrode in contact with the BiFeO.sub.3 thin film, and a second electrode in contact with the BiFeO.sub.3 thin film; wherein the first and second electrodes are in electrical communication. The composition is free or essentially free of lead (Pb). The BFO thin film is has the piezoelectric property of changing its volume and/or shape when an electric field is applied to the BFO thin film.

  11. Nanostructured thin film coatings with different strengthening effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panfilov Yury

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A number of articles on strengthening thin film coatings were analyzed and a lot of unusual strengthening effects, such as super high hardness and plasticity simultaneously, ultra low friction coefficient, high wear-resistance, curve rigidity increasing of drills with small diameter, associated with process formation of nanostructured coatings by the different thin film deposition methods were detected. Vacuum coater with RF magnetron sputtering system and ion-beam source and arc evaporator for nanostructured thin film coating manufacture are represented. Diamond Like Carbon and MoS2 thin film coatings, Ti, Al, Nb, Cr, nitride, carbide, and carbo-nitride thin film materials are described as strengthening coatings.

  12. Physical Vapor Deposition of Thin Films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahan, John E.

    2000-01-01

    A unified treatment of the theories, data, and technologies underlying physical vapor deposition methods With electronic, optical, and magnetic coating technologies increasingly dominating manufacturing in the high-tech industries, there is a growing need for expertise in physical vapor deposition of thin films. This important new work provides researchers and engineers in this field with the information they need to tackle thin film processes in the real world. Presenting a cohesive, thoroughly developed treatment of both fundamental and applied topics, Physical Vapor Deposition of Thin Films incorporates many critical results from across the literature as it imparts a working knowledge of a variety of present-day techniques. Numerous worked examples, extensive references, and more than 100 illustrations and photographs accompany coverage of: * Thermal evaporation, sputtering, and pulsed laser deposition techniques * Key theories and phenomena, including the kinetic theory of gases, adsorption and condensation, high-vacuum pumping dynamics, and sputtering discharges * Trends in sputter yield data and a new simplified collisional model of sputter yield for pure element targets * Quantitative models for film deposition rate, thickness profiles, and thermalization of the sputtered beam

  13. Flexible magnetic thin films and devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheng, Ping; Wang, Baomin; Li, Runwei

    2018-01-01

    Flexible electronic devices are highly attractive for a variety of applications such as flexible circuit boards, solar cells, paper-like displays, and sensitive skin, due to their stretchable, biocompatible, light-weight, portable, and low cost properties. Due to magnetic devices being important parts of electronic devices, it is essential to study the magnetic properties of magnetic thin films and devices fabricated on flexible substrates. In this review, we mainly introduce the recent progress in flexible magnetic thin films and devices, including the study on the stress-dependent magnetic properties of magnetic thin films and devices, and controlling the properties of flexible magnetic films by stress-related multi-fields, and the design and fabrication of flexible magnetic devices. Project supported by the National Key R&D Program of China (No. 2016YFA0201102), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Nos. 51571208, 51301191, 51525103, 11274321, 11474295, 51401230), the Youth Innovation Promotion Association of the Chinese Academy of Sciences (No. 2016270), the Key Research Program of the Chinese Academy of Sciences (No. KJZD-EW-M05), the Ningbo Major Project for Science and Technology (No. 2014B11011), the Ningbo Science and Technology Innovation Team (No. 2015B11001), and the Ningbo Natural Science Foundation (No. 2015A610110).

  14. Nanocomposite thin films for triggerable drug delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vannozzi, Lorenzo; Iacovacci, Veronica; Menciassi, Arianna; Ricotti, Leonardo

    2018-05-01

    Traditional drug release systems normally rely on a passive delivery of therapeutic compounds, which can be partially programmed, prior to injection or implantation, through variations in the material composition. With this strategy, the drug release kinetics cannot be remotely modified and thus adapted to changing therapeutic needs. To overcome this issue, drug delivery systems able to respond to external stimuli are highly desirable, as they allow a high level of temporal and spatial control over drug release kinetics, in an operator-dependent fashion. Areas covered: On-demand drug delivery systems actually represent a frontier in this field and are attracting an increasing interest at both research and industrial level. Stimuli-responsive thin films, enabled by nanofillers, hold a tremendous potential in the field of triggerable drug delivery systems. The inclusion of responsive elements in homogeneous or heterogeneous thin film-shaped polymeric matrices strengthens and/or adds intriguing properties to conventional (bare) materials in film shape. Expert opinion: This Expert Opinion review aims to discuss the approaches currently pursued to achieve an effective on-demand drug delivery, through nanocomposite thin films. Different triggering mechanisms allowing a fine control on drug delivery are described, together with current challenges and possible future applications in therapy and surgery.

  15. Optical thin films and coatings from materials to applications

    CERN Document Server

    Flory, Francois

    2013-01-01

    Optical coatings, including mirrors, anti-reflection coatings, beam splitters, and filters, are an integral part of most modern optical systems. This book provides an overview of thin film materials, the properties, design and manufacture of optical coatings and their use across a variety of application areas.$bOptical coatings, including mirrors, anti-reflection coatings, beam splitters, and filters, are an integral part of most modern optical systems. Optical thin films and coatings provides an overview of thin film materials, the properties, design and manufacture of optical coatings and their use across a variety of application areas. Part one explores the design and manufacture of optical coatings. Part two highlights unconventional features of optical thin films including scattering properties of random structures in thin films, optical properties of thin film materials at short wavelengths, thermal properties and colour effects. Part three focusses on novel materials for optical thin films and coatings...

  16. Temperature dependence of LRE-HRE-TM thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zuoyi; Cheng, Xiaomin; Lin, Gengqi; Li, Zhen; Huang, Zhixin; Jin, Fang; Wang, Xianran; Yang, Xiaofei

    2003-04-01

    Temperature dependence of the properties of RE-TM thin films is very important for MO recording. In this paper, we studied the temperature dependence of the magnetic and magneto-optical properties of the amorphous LRE-HRE-TM single layer thin films and LRE-HRE-TM/HRE-TM couple-bilayered thin films. For LRE-HRE-TM single layer thin films, the temperature dependence of the magnetization was investigated by using the mean field theory. The experimental and theoretical results matched very well. With the LRE substitution in HRE-TM thin film, the compensation temperature Tcomp decreased and the curie temperature Tc remained unchanged. Kerr rotation angle became larger and the saturation magnetization Ms at room temperature increased. For LRE-HRE-TM/HRE-TM couple-bilayered thin films, comparisons of the temperature dependences of the coercivities and Kerr rotation angles were made between isolated sublayers and couple-bilayered thin film.

  17. Application-related properties of giant magnetostrictive thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, S.H.; Kim, H.J.; Na, S.M.; Suh, S.J.

    2002-01-01

    In an effort to facilitate the utilization of giant magnetostrictive thin films in microdevices, application-related properties of these thin films, which include induced anisotropy, residual stress and corrosion properties, are investigated. A large induced anisotropy with an energy of 6x10 4 J/m 3 is formed in field-sputtered amorphous Sm-Fe-B thin films, resulting in a large magnetostriction anisotropy. Two components of residual stress, intrinsic compressive stress and tensile stress due to the difference of the thermal expansion coefficients between the substrate and thin film, are identified. The variation of residual stress with fabrication parameter and annealing temperature, and its influence on mechanical bending and magnetic properties are examined. Better corrosion properties are observed in Sm-Fe thin films than in Tb-Fe. Corrosion properties of Tb-Fe thin films, however, are much improved with the introduction of nitrogen to the thin films without deteriorating magnetostrictive properties

  18. In situ annealing of hydroxyapatite thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, Shevon; Haluska, Michael; Narayan, Roger J.; Snyder, Robert L.

    2006-01-01

    Hydroxyapatite is a bioactive ceramic that mimics the mineral composition of natural bone. Unfortunately, problems with adhesion, poor mechanical integrity, and incomplete bone ingrowth limit the use of many conventional hydroxyapatite surfaces. In this work, we have developed a novel technique to produce crystalline hydroxyapatite thin films involving pulsed laser deposition and postdeposition annealing. Hydroxyapatite films were deposited on Ti-6Al-4V alloy and Si (100) using pulsed laser deposition, and annealed within a high temperature X-ray diffraction system. The transformation from amorphous to crystalline hydroxyapatite was observed at 340 deg. C. Mechanical and adhesive properties were examined using nanoindentation and scratch adhesion testing, respectively. Nanohardness and Young's modulus values of 3.48 and 91.24 GPa were realized in unannealed hydroxyapatite films. Unannealed and 350 deg. C annealed hydroxyapatite films exhibited excellent adhesion to Ti-6Al-4V alloy substrates. We anticipate that the adhesion and biological properties of crystalline hydroxyapatite thin films may be enhanced by further consideration of deposition and annealing parameters

  19. Thermal conductivities of thin, sputtered optical films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henager, C.H. Jr.; Pawlewicz, W.T.

    1991-05-01

    The normal component of the thin film thermal conductivity has been measured for the first time for several advanced sputtered optical materials. Included are data for single layers of boron nitride (BN), aluminum nitride (AIN), silicon aluminum nitride (Si-Al-N), silicon aluminum oxynitride (Si-Al-O-N), silicon carbide (SiC), and for dielectric-enhanced metal reflectors of the form Al(SiO 2 /Si 3 N 4 ) n and Al(Al 2 O 3 /AIN) n . Sputtered films of more conventional materials like SiO 2 , Al 2 O 3 , Ta 2 O 5 , Ti, and Si have also been measured. The data show that thin film thermal conductivities are typically 10 to 100 times lower than conductivities for the same materials in bulk form. Structural disorder in the amorphous or very fine-grained films appears to account for most of the conductivity difference. Conclusive evidence for a film/substrate interface contribution is presented

  20. Electromagnetic properties of thin film lead superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moriyama, K.

    1978-01-01

    The dependence of critical film magnetic field H/sub cf/ on temperature, thickness, and surface texture of lead superconducting films was investigated, as well as the relationship between the applied magnetic field and the applied current at the critical field. Temperature and thickness dependence data were consistent with the predictions of London, of Ginzburg, and of Bardeen, Cooper, and Schreiffer. The values of H/sub cf/ of lead films deposited on a rough surface were consistently lower than for those on a smooth surface and so were not in agreement with any currently accepted theory. The degree of lowering of H/sub cf/ by a rough surface was greater in thin films than in thick films. The expected dependence of penetration depth lambda on thickness d was not observed, and the range of lambda was somewhat greater than expected. The range of coherence length was greater than predicted. The prediction for temperature dependence of critical current by Glover and Coffey was found to involve some oversimplification, and a suggested correction is supported by the data. For applied magnetic fields perpendicular to the applied current and parallel to the film surface, the relationship between the critical values of the magnetic field and the current was as predicted for lead films by Alphonse and Bergstein

  1. Factors influencing formation of highly dispersed BaTiO3 nanospheres with uniform sizes in static hydrothermal synthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao, Jiabing; Shi, Haiyue; Dong, Huina; Zhang, Rui; Chen, Deliang

    2015-01-01

    Highly dispersed BaTiO 3 nanospheres with uniform sizes have important applications in micro/nanoscale functional devices. To achieve well-dispersed spherical BaTiO 3 nanocrystals, we carried out as reported in this paper the systematic investigation on the factors that influence the formation of BaTiO 3 nanospheres by the static hydrothermal process, including the NaOH concentrations [NaOH], molar Ba/Ti ratios (R Ba/Ti ), hydrothermal temperatures, and durations, with an emphasis on understanding the related mechanisms. Barium nitrate and TiO 2 sols derived from tetrabutyl titanate were used as the starting materials. The as-synthesized BaTiO 3 samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray analysis, thermogravimetry, differential thermal analysis, and FT-IR spectra. The highly dispersed BaTiO 3 nanospheres (76 ± 13 nm) were achieved under the optimum hydrothermal conditions at 200 °C for 10 h: [NaOH] = 2.0 mol L −1 and R Ba/Ti  = 1.5. Higher NaOH concentrations, higher Ba/Ti ratios, higher hydrothermal temperatures, and longer hydrothermal durations are favorable in forming BaTiO 3 nanospheres with larger fractions of tetragonal phase and higher yields; but too long hydrothermal durations resulted in abnormal growth and reduced the uniformity in particle sizes. The possible formation mechanisms for BaTiO 3 nanocrystals under the static hydrothermal conditions were investigated

  2. Multiferroic oxide thin films and heterostructures

    KAUST Repository

    Lu, Chengliang

    2015-05-26

    Multiferroic materials promise a tantalizing perspective of novel applications in next-generation electronic, memory, and energy harvesting technologies, and at the same time they also represent a grand scientific challenge on understanding complex solid state systems with strong correlations between multiple degrees of freedom. In this review, we highlight the opportunities and obstacles in growing multiferroic thin films with chemical and structural integrity and integrating them in functional devices. Besides the magnetoelectric effect, multiferroics exhibit excellent resistant switching and photovoltaic properties, and there are plenty opportunities for them to integrate with other ferromagnetic and superconducting materials. The challenges include, but not limited, defect-related leakage in thin films, weak magnetism, and poor control on interface coupling. Although our focuses are Bi-based perovskites and rare earth manganites, the insights are also applicable to other multiferroic materials. We will also review some examples of multiferroic applications in spintronics, memory, and photovoltaic devices.

  3. Domain switching of fatigued ferroelectric thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tak Lim, Yun; Yeog Son, Jong; Shin, Young-Han

    2014-05-01

    We investigate the domain wall speed of a ferroelectric PbZr0.48Ti0.52O3 (PZT) thin film using an atomic force microscope incorporated with a mercury-probe system to control the degree of electrical fatigue. The depolarization field in the PZT thin film decreases with increasing the degree of electrical fatigue. We find that the wide-range activation field previously reported in ferroelectric domains result from the change of the depolarization field caused by the electrical fatigue. Domain wall speed exhibits universal behavior to the effective electric field (defined by an applied electric field minus the depolarization field), regardless of the degree of the electrical fatigue.

  4. Domain switching of fatigued ferroelectric thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tak Lim, Yun; Yeog Son, Jong; Shin, Young-Han

    2014-01-01

    We investigate the domain wall speed of a ferroelectric PbZr 0.48 Ti 0.52 O 3 (PZT) thin film using an atomic force microscope incorporated with a mercury-probe system to control the degree of electrical fatigue. The depolarization field in the PZT thin film decreases with increasing the degree of electrical fatigue. We find that the wide-range activation field previously reported in ferroelectric domains result from the change of the depolarization field caused by the electrical fatigue. Domain wall speed exhibits universal behavior to the effective electric field (defined by an applied electric field minus the depolarization field), regardless of the degree of the electrical fatigue

  5. Highly coercive thin-film nanostructures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, J.; Skomski, R.; Kashyap, A.; Sorge, K.D.; Sui, Y.; Daniil, M.; Gao, L.; Yan, M.L.; Liou, S.-H.; Kirby, R.D.; Sellmyer, D.J.

    2005-01-01

    The processing, structure, and magnetism of highly coercive Sm-Co and FePt thin-film nanostructures are investigated. The structures include 1:5 based Sm-Co-Cu-Ti magnets, particulate FePt:C thin films, and FePt nanotubes. As in other systems, the coercivity depends on texture and imperfections, but there are some additional features. A specific coercivity mechanism in particulate media is a discrete pinning mode intermediate between Stoner-Wohlfarth rotation and ordinary domain-wall pinning. This mechanism yields a coercivity maximum for intermediate intergranular exchange and explains the occurrence of coercivities of 5 T in particulate Sm-Co-Cu-Ti magnets

  6. High efficiency thin-film solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schock, Hans-Werner [Helmholtz Zentrum Berlin (Germany). Solar Energy

    2012-11-01

    Production of photovoltaics is growing worldwide on a gigawatt scale. Among the thin film technologies, Cu(In,Ga)S,Se{sub 2} (CIS or CIGS) based solar cells have been the focus of more and more attention. This paper aims to analyze the success of CIGS based solar cells and the potential of this technology for future photovoltaics large-scale production. Specific material properties make CIS unique and allow the preparation of the material with a wide range of processing options. The huge potential lies in the possibility to take advantage of modern thin film processing equipment and combine it with very high efficiencies beyond 20% already achieved on the laboratory scale. A sustainable development of this technology could be realized by modifying the materials and replacing indium by abundant elements. (orig.)

  7. Quantifying clustering in disordered carbon thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carey, J.D.

    2006-01-01

    The quantification of disorder and the effects of clustering in the sp 2 phase of amorphous carbon thin films are discussed. The sp 2 phase is described in terms of disordered nanometer-sized conductive sp 2 clusters embedded in a less conductive sp 3 matrix. Quantification of the clustering of the sp 2 phase is estimated from optical as well as from electron and nuclear magnetic resonance methods. Unlike in other disordered group IV thin film semiconductors, we show that care must be exercised in attributing a meaning to the Urbach energy extracted from absorption measurements in the disordered carbon system. The influence of structural disorder, associated with sp 2 clusters of similar size, and topological disorder due to undistorted clusters of different sizes is also discussed. Extensions of this description to other systems are also presented

  8. Thin film photovoltaic panel and method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackerman, Bruce; Albright, Scot P.; Jordan, John F.

    1991-06-11

    A thin film photovoltaic panel includes a backcap for protecting the active components of the photovoltaic cells from adverse environmental elements. A spacing between the backcap and a top electrode layer is preferably filled with a desiccant to further reduce water vapor contamination of the environment surrounding the photovoltaic cells. The contamination of the spacing between the backcap and the cells may be further reduced by passing a selected gas through the spacing subsequent to sealing the backcap to the base of the photovoltaic panels, and once purged this spacing may be filled with an inert gas. The techniques of the present invention are preferably applied to thin film photovoltaic panels each formed from a plurality of photovoltaic cells arranged on a vitreous substrate. The stability of photovoltaic conversion efficiency remains relatively high during the life of the photovoltaic panel, and the cost of manufacturing highly efficient panels with such improved stability is significantly reduced.

  9. Strain quantification in epitaxial thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cushley, M

    2008-01-01

    Strain arising in epitaxial thin films can be beneficial in some cases but devastating in others. By altering the lattice parameters, strain may give a thin film properties hitherto unseen in the bulk material. On the other hand, heavily strained systems are prone to develop lattice defects in order to relieve the strain, which can cause device failure or, at least, a decrease in functionality. Using convergent beam electron diffraction (CBED) and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), it is possible to determine local strains within a material. By comparing the results from CBED and HRTEM experiments, it is possible to gain a complete view of a material, including the strain and any lattice defects present. As well as looking at how the two experimental techniques differ from each other, I will also look at how results from different image analysis algorithms compare. Strain in Si/SiGe samples and BST/SRO/MgO capacitor structures will be discussed.

  10. Method of formation of thin film component

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wada, Chikara; Kato, Kinya

    1988-04-16

    In the production process of component which is carrying thin film device, such as thin film transistor, acid treatment is applied for etching or for preventing contamination. In case of barium borsilicate glass base, the base is affected by the acid treatment resulting the decrease of transparency. To avoid the effect, deposition of SiO/sub 2/ layer on the surface of the base is usually applied. This invention relates to the protective method of barium borosilicate surface by harnessing the effect of coexisting ion in the acid treatment bath. The method is to add 0.03-5 mol/l of phosphoric acid or its salt in the bath. By the effect of coexisting ion, barium borsilicate glass surface was protected from the damage. (2 figs)

  11. Thin film solar cell technology in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diehl, W.; Sittinger, V.; Szyszka, B.

    2005-01-01

    Within the scope of limited nonrenewable energy resources and the limited capacity of the ecosystem for greenhouse gases and nuclear waste, sustainability is one important target in the future. Different energy scenarios showed the huge potential for photovoltaics (PV) to solve this energy problem. Nevertheless, in the last decade, PV had an average growth rate of over 20% per year. In 2002, the solar industry delivered more than 500 MWp/year of photovoltaic generators [A. Jaeger-Waldau, A European Roadmap for PV R and D, E-MRS Spring Meeting, (2003)]. More than 85% of the current production involves crystalline silicon technologies. These technologies still have a high cost reduction potential, but this will be limited by the silicon feedstock. On the other hand the so-called second generation thin film solar cells based on a-Si, Cu(In,Ga)(Se,S 2 (CIGS) or CdTe have material thicknesses of a few microns as a result of their direct band gap. Also, the possibility of circuit integration offers an additional cost reduction potential. Especially in Germany, there are a few companies who focus on thin film solar cells. Today, there are two manufacturers with production lines: the Phototronics (PST) division of RWE-Schott Solar with a-Si thin film technology and the former Antec Solar GmbH (now Antec Solar Energy GmbH) featuring the CdTe technology. A pilot line based on CIGS technology is run by Wuerth Solar GmbH. There is also a variety of research activity at other companies, namely, at Shell Solar, Sulfurcell Solartechnik GmbH, Solarion GmbH and the CIS-Solartechnik GmbH. We will give an overview on research activity on various thin film technologies, as well as different manufacturing and production processes in the companies mentioned above. (Author)

  12. Optical characterization of thin solid films

    CERN Document Server

    Ohlídal, Miloslav

    2018-01-01

    This book is an up-to-date survey of the major optical characterization techniques for thin solid films. Emphasis is placed on practicability of the various approaches. Relevant fundamentals are briefly reviewed before demonstrating the application of these techniques to practically relevant research and development topics. The book is written by international top experts, all of whom are involved in industrial research and development projects.

  13. Thin-film silicon solar cell technology

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Shah, A. V.; Schade, H.; Vaněček, Milan; Meier, J.; Vallat-Sauvain, E.; Wyrsch, N.; Kroll, U.; Droz, C.; Bailat, J.

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 12, - (2004), s. 113-142 ISSN 1062-7995 R&D Projects: GA MŽP SN/320/11/03 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1010914 Keywords : thin-film silicon modules * hydrogenerated amorphous silicon(a-Si:H) * hydrogenerated microcrystalline (ćc-Si:H) * transparent conductive oxydes(TCOs) * building-integrated photovoltaics(BIPV) Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 1.196, year: 2004

  14. The carbonization of thin polyaniline films

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Morávková, Zuzana; Trchová, Miroslava; Exnerová, Milena; Stejskal, Jaroslav

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 520, č. 19 (2012), s. 6088-6094 ISSN 0040-6090 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA400500905; GA AV ČR IAA100500902; GA ČR GAP205/12/0911 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40500505 Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : polyaniline * thin films * infrared spectroscopy Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 1.604, year: 2012

  15. Study of obliquely deposited thin cobalt films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szmaja, W.; Kozlowski, W.; Balcerski, J.; Kowalczyk, P.J.; Grobelny, J.; Cichomski, M.

    2010-01-01

    Research highlights: → The paper reports simultaneously on the magnetic domain structure of obliquely deposited thin cobalt films (40 nm and 100 nm thick) and their morphological structure. Such studies are in fact rare (Refs. cited in the paper). → Moreover, to our knowledge, observations of the morphological structure of these films have not yet been carried out simultaneously by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). → The films of both thicknesses were found to have uniaxial in-plane magnetic anisotropy. → The magnetic microstructure of the films 40 nm thick was composed of domains running and magnetized predominantly in the direction perpendicular to the incidence plane of the vapor beam. → As the film thickness was changed from 40 nm to 100 nm, the magnetic anisotropy was observed to change from the direction perpendicular to parallel with respect to the incidence plane. → Thanks to the application of TEM and AFM, complementary information on the morphological structure of the films could be obtained. → In comparison with TEM images, AFM images revealed grains larger in size and slightly elongated in the direction perpendicular rather than parallel to the incidence plane. → These experimental findings clearly show that surface diffusion plays an important role in the process of film growth. → For the films 40 nm thick, the alignment of columnar grains in the direction perpendicular to the incidence plane was observed. → This correlates well with the magnetic domain structure of these films. → For the films 100 nm thick, the perpendicular alignment of columnar grains could also be found, although in fact with larger difficulty. → TEM studies showed that the films consisted mainly of the hexagonal close-packed (HCP) crystalline structure, but no preferred crystallographic orientation of the grains could be detected for the films of both thicknesses. → For the films 100 nm thick, the alignment of

  16. P-type CuxS thin films: Integration in a thin film transistor structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nunes de Carvalho, C.; Parreira, P.; Lavareda, G.; Brogueira, P.; Amaral, A.

    2013-01-01

    Cu x S thin films, 80 nm thick, are deposited by vacuum thermal evaporation of sulfur-rich powder mixture, Cu 2 S:S (50:50 wt.%) with no intentional heating of the substrate. The process of deposition occurs at very low deposition rates (0.1–0.3 nm/s) to avoid the formation of Cu or S-rich films. The evolution of Cu x S films surface properties (morphology/roughness) under post deposition mild annealing in air at 270 °C and their integration in a thin film transistor (TFT) are the main objectives of this study. Accordingly, Scanning Electron Microscopy studies show Cu x S films with different surface morphologies, depending on the post deposition annealing conditions. For the shortest annealing time, the Cu x S films look to be constructed of grains with large dimension at the surface (approximately 100 nm) and consequently, irregular shape. For the longest annealing time, films with a fine-grained surface are found, with some randomly distributed large particles bound to this fine-grained surface. Atomic Force Microscopy results indicate an increase of the root-mean-square roughness of Cu x S surface with annealing time, from 13.6 up to 37.4 nm, for 255 and 345 s, respectively. The preliminary integration of Cu x S films in a TFT bottom-gate type structure allowed the study of the feasibility and compatibility of this material with the remaining stages of a TFT fabrication as well as the determination of the p-type characteristic of the Cu x S material. - Highlights: • Surface properties of annealed Cu x S films. • Variation of conductivity with annealing temperatures of Cu x S films. • Application of evaporated Cu x S films in a thin film transistor (TFT) structure. • Determination of Cu x S p-type characteristic from TFT behaviour

  17. Neutron reflectivity of electrodeposited thin magnetic films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooper, Joshaniel F.K.; Vyas, Kunal N.; Steinke, Nina-J.; Love, David M.; Kinane, Christian J.; Barnes, Crispin H.W.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Electrodeposited magnetic bi-layers were measured by polarised neutron reflectivity. • When growing a CoNiCu alloy from a single bath a Cu rich region is initially formed. • This Cu rich region is formed in the first layer but not subsequent ones. • Ni deposition is inhibited in thin film growth and Co deposits anomalously. • Alloy magnetism and neutron scattering length give a self-consistent model. - Abstract: We present a polarised neutron reflectivity (PNR) study of magnetic/non-magnetic (CoNiCu/Cu) thin films grown by single bath electrodeposition. We find that the composition is neither homogeneous with time, nor consistent with bulk values. Instead an initial, non-magnetic copper rich layer is formed, around 2 nm thick. This layer is formed by the deposition of the dilute, but rapidly diffusing, Cu 2+ ions near the electrode surface at the start of growth, before the region is depleted and the deposition becomes mass transport limited. After the region has been depleted, by growth etc., this layer does not form and thus may be prevented by growing a copper buffer layer immediately preceding the magnetic layer growth. As has been previously found, cobalt deposits anomalously compared to nickel, and even inhibits Ni deposition in thin films. The layer magnetisation and average neutron scattering length are fitted independently but both depend upon the alloy composition. Thus these parameters can be used to check for model self-consistency, increasing confidence in the derived composition

  18. Preventing Thin Film Dewetting via Graphene Capping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Peigen; Bai, Peter; Omrani, Arash A; Xiao, Yihan; Meaker, Kacey L; Tsai, Hsin-Zon; Yan, Aiming; Jung, Han Sae; Khajeh, Ramin; Rodgers, Griffin F; Kim, Youngkyou; Aikawa, Andrew S; Kolaczkowski, Mattew A; Liu, Yi; Zettl, Alex; Xu, Ke; Crommie, Michael F; Xu, Ting

    2017-09-01

    A monolayer 2D capping layer with high Young's modulus is shown to be able to effectively suppress the dewetting of underlying thin films of small organic semiconductor molecule, polymer, and polycrystalline metal, respectively. To verify the universality of this capping layer approach, the dewetting experiments are performed for single-layer graphene transferred onto polystyrene (PS), semiconducting thienoazacoronene (EH-TAC), gold, and also MoS 2 on PS. Thermodynamic modeling indicates that the exceptionally high Young's modulus and surface conformity of 2D capping layers such as graphene and MoS 2 substantially suppress surface fluctuations and thus dewetting. As long as the uncovered area is smaller than the fluctuation wavelength of the thin film in a dewetting process via spinodal decomposition, the dewetting should be suppressed. The 2D monolayer-capping approach opens up exciting new possibilities to enhance the thermal stability and expands the processing parameters for thin film materials without significantly altering their physical properties. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Aluminum nitride and nanodiamond thin film microstructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knoebber, Fabian; Bludau, Oliver; Roehlig, Claus-Christian; Williams, Oliver; Sah, Ram Ekwal; Kirste, Lutz; Cimalla, Volker; Lebedev, Vadim; Nebel, Christoph; Ambacher, Oliver [Fraunhofer-Institute for Applied Solid State Physics, Freiburg (Germany)

    2010-07-01

    In this work, aluminum nitride (AlN) and nanocrystalline diamond (NCD) thin film microstructures have been developed. Freestanding NCD membranes were coated with a piezoelectrical AlN layer in order to build tunable micro-lens arrays. For the evaluation of the single material quality, AlN and NCD thin films on silicon substrates were fabricated using RF magnetron sputtering and microwave chemical vapor deposition techniques, respectively. The crystal quality of AlN was investigated by X-ray diffraction. The piezoelectric constant d{sub 33} was determined by scanning laser vibrometry. The NCD thin films were optimized with respect to surface roughness, mechanical stability, intrinsic stress and transparency. To determine the mechanical properties of the materials, both, micromechanical resonator and membrane structures were fabricated and measured by magnetomotive resonant frequency spectroscopy and bulging experiments, respectively. Finally, the behavior of AlN/NCD heterostructures was modeled using the finite element method and the first structures were characterized by piezoelectrical measurements.

  20. Process for forming thin film, heat treatment process of thin film sheet, and heat treatment apparatus therefor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, S.

    1984-01-01

    The invention provides a process for forming a magnetic thin film on a base film, a heat treatment process of a thin film sheet consisting of the base film and the magnetic thin film, and an apparatus for performing heat treatment of the thin film sheet. Tension applied to the thin film sheet is substantially equal to that applied to the base film when the magnetic thin film is formed thereon. Then, the thin film sheet is treated with heat. The thin film sheet is heated with a given temperature gradient to a reactive temperature at which heat shrinkage occurs, while the tension is being applied thereto. Thereafter, the thin film sheet to which the tension is still applied is cooled with substantially the same temperature gradient as applied in heating. The heat treatment apparatus has a film driving unit including a supply reel, a take-up reel, a drive source and guide rollers; a heating unit including heating plates, heater blocks and a temperature controller for heating the sheet to the reactive temperature; and a heat insulating unit including a thermostat and another temperature controller for maintaining the sheet at the nonreactive temperature which is slightly lower than the reactive temperature

  1. Collective Behavior of Amoebae in Thin Films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Albert

    2005-03-01

    We have discovered new aspects of social behavior in Dictyostelium discoideum by culturing high density colonies in liquid media depleted of nutrients in confined geometries by using three different preparations: I. thin (15-40um thick) and II. ultrathin (behavior of cells despite flattening that increased their areas by over an order of magnitude. We also observed that the earliest synchronized response of cells following the onset of starvation, a precursor to aggregation, was hastened by reducing the thickness of the aqueous culture layer. We were surprised to find that the threshold concentration for aggregation was raised by thin film confinement when compared to bulk behavior. Finally, both the ultra thin and microfluidic preparations reveal, with new clarity, vortex states of aggregation.

  2. Compensation mechanisms at high temperature in Y-doped BaTiO3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paredes-Olguín, M.; Lira-Hernández, I.A.; Gómez-Yáñez, C.; Espino-Cortés, F.P.

    2013-01-01

    Samples of BaTiO 3 with different concentrations of Y were synthesized from powders. The mixtures of powders were pressed and sintered at 1500 °C for 1 h. Two groups of samples were processed, one satisfying Ba/(Ti+Y) 3+ occupies the Ti 4+ lattice sites. The conductivity behavior as a function of Y concentration suggests that the compensation mechanisms are hole and oxygen vacancies. Due to the presence of charge carriers in the material, high values for the dielectric constant and dielectric loss were observed. Analysis of the microstructure showed that the average grain size decreases as the Y concentration is increased.

  3. Anelastic anomalies and negative Poisson's ratio in tetragonal BaTiO3 ceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dong Liang; Stone, Donald S.; Lakes, Roderic S.

    2010-01-01

    Anelastic anomalies (sharp variations in modulus and damping with temperature) were observed in tetragonal BaTiO 3 via broadband viscoelastic spectroscopy after aging at 50 deg. C for 15 h. The effect was most pronounced under electrical short circuit condition, at low frequency and under small excitation strain (10 -6 ). Softening in bulk modulus and negative Poisson's ratio were observed near 60 deg. C. Effects are attributed to an oxygen vacancy mechanism. A relaxational model cannot account for sharp response at smaller strains. Heterogeneity of negative stiffness is considered as a cause.

  4. Nitrogen induced ferromagnetism in Cobalt doped BaTiO3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chandrima Mitra

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The electronic structure and magnetism of Cobalt doped BaTiO3 (BaTi1−xCoxO3 is investigated. Substitutional Nitrogen on an Oxygen site is found to play an important role in inducing net magnetic moments in the system. The presence of a Nitrogen atom as nearest neighbour to a Cobalt atom is crucial in producing spin splitting of both the Nitrogen and Cobalt states thereby introducing a net local magnetic moment. The introduction of Nitrogen is further found to enhance ferromagnetic interactions between Cobalt atoms.

  5. Decorating TiO2 Nanowires with BaTiO3 Nanoparticles: A New Approach Leading to Substantially Enhanced Energy Storage Capability of High-k Polymer Nanocomposites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Da; Wang, Guanyao; Huang, Yanhui; Jiang, Pingkai; Huang, Xingyi

    2018-01-31

    The urgent demand of high energy density and high power density devices has triggered significant interest in high dielectric constant (high-k) flexible nanocomposites comprising dielectric polymer and high-k inorganic nanofiller. However, the large electrical mismatch between polymer and nanofiller usually leads to earlier electric failure of the nanocomposites, resulting in an undesirable decrease of electrical energy storage capability. A few studies show that the introduction of moderate-k shell onto a high-k nanofiller surface can decrease the dielectric constant mismatch, and thus, the corresponding nanocomposites can withstand high electric field. Unfortunately, the low apparent dielectric enhancement of the nanocomposites and high electrical conductivity mismatch between matrix and nanofiller still result in low energy density and low efficiency. In this study, it is demonstrated that encapsulating moderate-k nanofiller with high-k but low electrical conductivity shell is effective to significantly enhance the energy storage capability of dielectric polymer nanocomposites. Specifically, using BaTiO 3 nanoparticles encapsulated TiO 2 (BaTiO 3 @TiO 2 ) core-shell nanowires as filler, the corresponding poly(vinylidene fluoride-co-hexafluoropylene) nanocomposites exhibit superior energy storage capability in comparison with the nanocomposites filled by either BaTiO 3 or TiO 2 nanowires. The nanocomposite film with 5 wt % BaTiO 3 @TiO 2 nanowires possesses an ultrahigh discharged energy density of 9.95 J cm -3 at 500 MV m -1 , much higher than that of commercial biaxial-oriented polypropylene (BOPP) (3.56 J cm -3 at 600 MV m -1 ). This new strategy and corresponding results presented here provide new insights into the design of dielectric polymer nanocomposites with high electrical energy storage capability.

  6. Ion beam deposited epitaxial thin silicon films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orrman-Rossiter, K.G.; Al-Bayati, A.H.; Armour, D.G.; Donnelly, S.E.; Berg, J.A. van den

    1991-01-01

    Deposition of thin films using low energy, mass-separated ion beams is a potentially important low temperature method of producing epitaxial layers. In these experiments silicon films were grown on Si (001) substrates using 10-200 eV 28 Si + and 30 Si + ions at substrate temperatures in the range 273-1073 K, under ultrahigh-vacuum conditions (deposition pressure -7 Pa). The film crystallinity was assessed in situ using medium energy ion scattering (MEIS). Films of crystallinity comparable to bulk samples were grown using 10-40 eV 28 Si + and 30 Si + ions at deposition temperatures in the range 623-823 K. These experiments confirmed the role of key experimental parameters such as ion energy, substrate temperature during deposition, and the surface treatment prior to deposition. It was found that a high temperature in situ anneal (1350-1450 K) gave the best results for epitaxial nucleation, whereas low energy (20-40 eV) Cl + ion bombardment resulted in amorphous film growth. The deposition energy for good epitaxial growth indicates that it is necessary to provide enough energy to induce local mobility but not to cause atomic displacements leading to the buildup of stable defects, e.g. divacancies, below the surface layer of the growing film. (orig.)

  7. Infrared characterization of strontium titanate thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Almeida, B.G.; Pietka, A.; Mendes, J.A.

    2004-01-01

    Strontium titanate thin films have been prepared at different oxygen pressures with various post-deposition annealing treatments. The films were deposited by pulsed laser ablation at room temperature on Si(0 0 1) substrates with a silica buffer layer. Infrared reflectance measurements were performed in order to determine relevant film parameters such as layer thicknesses and chemical composition. The infrared reflectance spectra were fitted by using adequate dielectric function forms for each layer. The fitting procedure provided the extraction of the dielectric functions of the strontium titanate film, the silica layer and the substrate. The as-deposited films are found to be amorphous, and their infrared spectra present peaks corresponding to modes with high damping constants. As the annealing time and temperature increases the strontium titanate layer becomes more ordered so that it can be described by its SrTiO 3 bulk mode parameters. Also, the silica layer grows along with the ordering of the strontium titanate film, due to oxidation during annealing

  8. Superconducting properties of iron chalcogenide thin films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Mele

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Iron chalcogenides, binary FeSe, FeTe and ternary FeTexSe1−x, FeTexS1−x and FeTe:Ox, are the simplest compounds amongst the recently discovered iron-based superconductors. Thin films of iron chalcogenides present many attractive features that are covered in this review, such as: (i easy fabrication and epitaxial growth on common single-crystal substrates; (ii strong enhancement of superconducting transition temperature with respect to the bulk parent compounds (in FeTe0.5Se0.5, zero-resistance transition temperature Tc0bulk = 13.5 K, but Tc0film = 19 K on LaAlO3 substrate; (iii high critical current density (Jc ~ 0.5 ×106 A cm2 at 4.2 K and 0 T for FeTe0.5Se0.5 film deposited on CaF2, and similar values on flexible metallic substrates (Hastelloy tapes buffered by ion-beam assisted deposition with a weak dependence on magnetic field; (iv high upper critical field (~50 T for FeTe0.5Se0.5, Bc2(0, with a low anisotropy, γ ~ 2. These highlights explain why thin films of iron chalcogenides have been widely studied in recent years and are considered as promising materials for applications requiring high magnetic fields (20–50 T and low temperatures (2–10 K.

  9. Thermal decomposition of titanium deuteride thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malinowski, M.E.

    1983-01-01

    The thermal desorption spectra of deuterium from essentially clean titanium deuteride thin films were measured by ramp heating the films in vacuum; the film thicknesses ranged from 20 to 220 nm and the ramp rates varied from 0.5 to about 3 0 C s - 1 . Each desorption spectrum consisted of a low nearly constant rate at low temperatures followed by a highly peaked rate at higher temperatures. The cleanliness and thinness of the films permitted a description of desorption rates in terms of a simple phenomenological model based on detailed balancing in which the low temperature pressure-composition characteristics of the two-phase (α-(α+#betta#)-#betta#) region of the Ti-D system were used as input data. At temperatures below 340 0 C the model predictions were in excellent agreement with the experimentally measured desorption spectra. Interpretations of the spectra in terms of 'decomposition trajectories'' are possible using this model, and this approach is also used to explain deviations of the spectra from the model at temperatures of 340 0 C and above. (Auth.)

  10. Electrical resistivity of thin metal films

    CERN Document Server

    Wissmann, Peter

    2007-01-01

    The aim of the book is to give an actual survey on the resistivity of thin metal and semiconductor films interacting with gases. We discuss the influence of the substrate material and the annealing treatment of the films, presenting our experimental data as well as theoretical models to calculate the scattering cross section of the conduction electrons in the frame-work of the scattering hypothesis. Main emphasis is laid on the comparison of gold and silver films which exhibit nearly the same lattice structure but differ in their chemical activity. In conclusion, the most important quantity for the interpretation is the surface charging z while the correlation with the optical data or the frustrated IR vibrations seems the show a more material-specific character. Z can be calculated on the basis of the density functional formalism or the self-consistent field approximation using Mulliken’s population analysis.

  11. Sulfated cellulose thin films with antithrombin affinity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Cellulose thin films were chemically modified by in situ sulfation to produce surfaces with anticoagulant characteristics. Two celluloses differing in their degree of polymerization (DP: CEL I (DP 215–240 and CEL II (DP 1300–1400 were tethered to maleic anhydride copolymer (MA layers and subsequently exposed to SO3•NMe3 solutions at elevated temperature. The impact of the resulting sulfation on the physicochemical properties of the cellulose films was investigated with respect to film thickness, atomic composition, wettability and roughness. The sulfation was optimized to gain a maximal surface concentration of sulfate groups. The scavenging of antithrombin (AT by the surfaces was determined to conclude on their potential anticoagulant properties.

  12. Preparation and properties of antimony thin film anode materials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SU Shufa; CAO Gaoshao; ZHAO Xinbing

    2004-01-01

    Metallic antimony thin films were deposited by magnetron sputtering and electrodeposition. Electrochemical properties of the thin film as anode materials for lithium-ion batteries were investigated and compared with those of antimony powder. It was found that both magnetron sputtering and electrodeposition are easily controllable processes to deposit antimony films with fiat charge/discharge potential plateaus. The electrochemical performances of antimony thin films, especially those prepared with magnetron sputtering, are better than those of antimony powder. The reversible capacities of the magnetron sputtered antimony thin film are above 400 mA h g-1 in the first 15 cycles.

  13. Highly piezoelectric BaTiO3 nanorod bundle arrays using epitaxially grown TiO2 nanomaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Seon-Min; Yang, Su Chul

    2018-06-01

    Low-dimensional piezoelectric nanostructures such as nanoparticles, nanotubes, nanowires, nanoribbons and nanosheets have been developed for potential applications as energy harvesters, tunable sensors, functional transducers and low-power actuators. In this study, lead-free BaTiO 3 nanorod bundle arrays (NBA) with highly piezoelectric properties were successfully synthesized on fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) substrate via a two-step process consisting of TiO2 epitaxial growth and BaTiO3 conversion. Through the TiO2 epitaxial growth on FTO substrate, (001) oriented TiO2 nanostructures formed vertically-aligned NBA with a bundle diameter of 80 nm and an aspect ratio of six. In particular, chemical etching of the TiO2 NBA was conducted to enlarge the surface area for effective Ba2+ ion diffusion during the perovskite conversion process from TiO2 to BaTiO3. The final structure of perovskite BaTiO3 NBA was found to exhibit a feasible piezoelectric response of 3.56 nm with a clear phase change of 180° from the single BaTiO3 bundle, by point piezoelectric forced microscopy (PFM) analysis. Consequently, highly piezoelectric NBA could be a promising nanostructure for various nanoscale electronic devices.

  14. Highly piezoelectric BaTiO3 nanorod bundle arrays using epitaxially grown TiO2 nanomaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Seon-Min; Yang, Su Chul

    2018-06-08

    Low-dimensional piezoelectric nanostructures such as nanoparticles, nanotubes, nanowires, nanoribbons and nanosheets have been developed for potential applications as energy harvesters, tunable sensors, functional transducers and low-power actuators. In this study, lead-free BaTiO 3 nanorod bundle arrays (NBA) with highly piezoelectric properties were successfully synthesized on fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) substrate via a two-step process consisting of TiO 2 epitaxial growth and BaTiO 3 conversion. Through the TiO 2 epitaxial growth on FTO substrate, (001) oriented TiO 2 nanostructures formed vertically-aligned NBA with a bundle diameter of 80 nm and an aspect ratio of six. In particular, chemical etching of the TiO 2 NBA was conducted to enlarge the surface area for effective Ba 2+ ion diffusion during the perovskite conversion process from TiO 2 to BaTiO 3 . The final structure of perovskite BaTiO 3 NBA was found to exhibit a feasible piezoelectric response of 3.56 nm with a clear phase change of 180° from the single BaTiO 3 bundle, by point piezoelectric forced microscopy (PFM) analysis. Consequently, highly piezoelectric NBA could be a promising nanostructure for various nanoscale electronic devices.

  15. Structural characterization of vacuum evaporated ZnSe thin films

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The lattice parameter, grain size, average internal stress, microstrain, dislocation density and degree of pre- ferred orientation in the film are calculated and correlated with Ts. Keywords. ZnSe thin films; X-ray diffraction; average internal stress; microstrain; dislocation density. 1. Introduction. Thin films of ZnSe has attracted ...

  16. Scanning tunneling spectroscopy of Pb thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becker, Michael

    2010-12-13

    The present thesis deals with the electronic structure, work function and single-atom contact conductance of Pb thin films, investigated with a low-temperature scanning tunneling microscope. The electronic structure of Pb(111) thin films on Ag(111) surfaces is investigated using scanning tunneling spectroscopy (STS). Quantum size effects, in particular, quantum well states (QWSs), play a crucial role in the electronic and physical properties of these films. Quantitative analysis of the spectra yields the QWS energies as a function of film thickness, the Pb bulk-band dispersion in {gamma}-L direction, scattering phase shifts at the Pb/Ag interface and vacuum barrier as well as the lifetime broadening at anti {gamma}. The work function {phi} is an important property of surfaces, which influences catalytic reactivity and charge injection at interfaces. It controls the availability of charge carriers in front of a surface. Modifying {phi} has been achieved by deposition of metals and molecules. For investigating {phi} at the atomic scale, scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) has become a widely used technique. STM measures an apparent barrier height {phi}{sub a}, which is commonly related to the sample work function {phi}{sub s} by: {phi}{sub a}=({phi}{sub s}+{phi}{sub t}- vertical stroke eV vertical stroke)/2, with {phi}{sub t} the work function of the tunneling tip, V the applied tunneling bias voltage, and -e the electron charge. Hence, the effect of the finite voltage in STM on {phi}{sub a} is assumed to be linear and the comparison of {phi}{sub a} measured at different surface sites is assumed to yield quantitative information about work function differences. Here, the dependence of {phi}{sub a} on the Pb film thickness and applied bias voltage V is investigated. {phi}{sub a} is found to vary significantly with V. This bias dependence leads to drastic changes and even inversion of contrast in spatial maps of {phi}{sub a}, which are related to the QWSs in the Pb

  17. Preparation and characterization of vanadium oxide thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monfort, O.; Plesch, G. [Comenius University of Bratislava, Faculty of Natural Sciences, Department of Inorganic Chemistry, 84215 Bratislava (Slovakia); Roch, T. [Comenius University of Bratislava, Faculty of Mathematics Physics and Informatics, Department of Experimental Physics, 84248 Bratislava (Slovakia)

    2013-04-16

    The thermotropic VO{sub 2} films have many applications, since they exhibit semiconductor-conductor switching properties at temperature around 70 grad C. Vanadium oxide thin films were prepared via sol-gel method. Spin coater was used to depose these films on Si/SiO{sub 2} and lime glass substrates. Thin films of V{sub 2}O{sub 5} can be reduced to metastable VO{sub 2} thin films at the temperature of 450 grad C under the pressure of 10{sup -2} Pa. These films are then converted to thermotropic VO{sub 2} at 700 grad C in argon under normal pressure. (authors)

  18. Thin film structures and phase stability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clemens, B.M.; Johnson, W.L.

    1990-01-01

    This was a two day symposium, with invited and contributed papers as well as an evening poster session. The first day concentrated on solid state reactions with invited talks by Lindsay Greer from the University of Cambridge, King Tu from IBM Yorktown Heights, and Carl Thompson from MIT. Professor Greer observed that the diffusion of Zr is 10 6 times slower than that of Ni in amorphous NiZr, confirming that Ni is the mobile species in solid state amorphization. King Tu explained the formation of metastable phases in this film diffusion couples by the concept of maximum rate of free energy change. Carl Thompson discussed the formation of amorphous phases in metal silicon systems, and discussed a two stage nucleation and growth process. The contributed papers also generated discussion on topics such as phase segregation, amorphous silicide formation, room temperature oxidation of silicon, and nucleation during ion beam irradiation. There was a lively poster session on Monday evening with papers on a wide variety of topics covering the general area of thin film science. The second day had sessions Epitaxy and Multilayer Structure I and II, with the morning focussing on epitaxial and heteroepitaxial growth of thin films. Robin Farrow of IBM Almaden led off with an invited talk where he reported on some remarkable success he and his co-workers have had in growing single crystal epitaxial thin films and superlattices of silver, iron, cobalt and platinum on GaAs. This was followed by several talks on epitaxial growth and characterization. The afternoon focused on interfaces and structure of multilayered materials. A session on possible stress origins of the supermodulus effect was highlighted by lively interaction from the audience. Most of the papers presented at the symposium are presented in this book

  19. Gold nanoparticles decorated on BaTiO3 as photocatalyst: effect of SPR and ferroelectricity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miao, Zhilei; Chen, Lei; Wang, Rui; Yuan, Rongchun; Zhou, Fang; Lv, Pengfei; Zhang, Xiuyun; Wang, Qiang

    2018-02-01

    BaTiO3(BTO) powders with cubic(C) and tetragonal(T) crystalline structures were prepared by sol-gel method followed by calcination at different temperatures, and they were decorated with gold nanoparticles(AuNPs) to form Au-T-BTO and Au-C-BTO respectively. All the samples (C-BTO, T-BTO, Au-C-BTO and Au-T-BTO) were used as photo-catalysts for the degradation of Rhodamine B (RhB). Au-T-BTO exhibits the highest photocatalytic activity due to thecombined effect of surface plasmon resonance (SPR) and the ferroelectricity of the tetragonalphase BTO. The light absorption peaks at 500 to 600 nm verify the presence of SPR effect from Au NPs. Based on density functional theory (DFC) within the generalized gradient approximation (GGA) approach, it was demonstrated that the tetragonal phase BaTiO3 shows a spontaneous polarization with the calculated value of 0.34 C m-2, which is absent in thecubic phase. The internal space charge layer in tetragonal phase BTO enhances the separation of photoexcited carriers due to the spontaneous ferroelectric polarization, which also benefits photocatalytic activities.

  20. Understanding the peculiarities of the piezoelectric effect in macro-porous BaTiO3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roscow, James I; Topolov, Vitaly Yu; Bowen, Christopher R; Taylor, John; Panich, Anatoly E

    2016-01-01

    This work demonstrates the potential of porous BaTiO 3 for piezoelectric sensor and energy-harvesting applications by manufacture of materials, detailed characterisation and application of new models. Ferroelectric macro-porous BaTiO 3 ceramics for piezoelectric applications are manufactured for a range of relative densities, α  = 0.30-0.95, using the burned out polymer spheres method. The piezoelectric activity and relevant parameters for specific applications are interpreted by developing two models: a model of a 3-0 composite and a 'composite in composite' model. The appropriate ranges of relative density for the application of these models to accurately predict piezoelectric properties are examined. The two models are extended to take into account the effect of 90° domain-wall mobility within ceramic grains on the piezoelectric coefficients [Formula: see text]. It is shown that porous ferroelectrics provide a novel route to form materials with large piezoelectric anisotropy [Formula: see text] at 0.20 ≤ α ≤ 0.45 and achieve a high squared figure of merit [Formula: see text] [Formula: see text]. The modelling approach allows a detailed analysis of the relationships between the properties of the monolithic and porous materials for the design of porous structures with optimum properties.

  1. Self-Limited Growth in Pentacene Thin Films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pachmajer, Stefan; Jones, Andrew O F; Truger, Magdalena; Röthel, Christian; Salzmann, Ingo; Werzer, Oliver; Resel, Roland

    2017-04-05

    Pentacene is one of the most studied organic semiconducting materials. While many aspects of the film formation have already been identified in very thin films, this study provides new insight into the transition from the metastable thin-film phase to bulk phase polymorphs. This study focuses on the growth behavior of pentacene within thin films as a function of film thickness ranging from 20 to 300 nm. By employing various X-ray diffraction methods, combined with supporting atomic force microscopy investigations, one crystalline orientation for the thin-film phase is observed, while three differently tilted bulk phase orientations are found. First, bulk phase crystallites grow with their 00L planes parallel to the substrate surface; second, however, crystallites tilted by 0.75° with respect to the substrate are found, which clearly dominate the former in ratio; third, a different bulk phase polymorph with crystallites tilted by 21° is found. The transition from the thin-film phase to the bulk phase is rationalized by the nucleation of the latter at crystal facets of the thin-film-phase crystallites. This leads to a self-limiting growth of the thin-film phase and explains the thickness-dependent phase behavior observed in pentacene thin films, showing that a large amount of material is present in the bulk phase much earlier during the film growth than previously thought.

  2. Theoretical investigation of the thermodynamic properties of metallic thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hung, Vu Van; Phuong, Duong Dai; Hoa, Nguyen Thi; Hieu, Ho Khac

    2015-01-01

    The thermodynamic properties of metallic thin films with face-centered cubic structure at ambient conditions were investigated using the statistical moment method including the anharmonicity effects of thermal lattice vibrations. The analytical expressions of Helmholtz free energy, lattice parameter, linear thermal expansion coefficient, specific heats at the constant volume and constant pressure were derived in terms of the power moments of the atomic displacements. Numerical calculations of thermodynamic properties have been performed for Au and Al thin films and compared with those of bulk metals. This research proposes that thermodynamic quantities of thin films approach the values of bulk when the thickness of thin film is about 70 nm. - Highlights: • Thermodynamic properties of thin films were investigated using the moment method. • Expressions of Helmholtz energy, expansion coefficient, specific heats were derived. • Calculations for Au, Al thin films were performed and compared with those of bulks

  3. Theoretical investigation of the thermodynamic properties of metallic thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hung, Vu Van [Vietnam Education Publishing House, 81 Tran Hung Dao, Hanoi (Viet Nam); Phuong, Duong Dai [Hanoi National University of Education, 136 Xuan Thuy, Hanoi (Viet Nam); Hoa, Nguyen Thi [University of Transport and Communications, Lang Thuong, Dong Da, Hanoi (Viet Nam); Hieu, Ho Khac, E-mail: hieuhk@duytan.edu.vn [Institute of Research and Development, Duy Tan University, K7/25 Quang Trung, Danang (Viet Nam)

    2015-05-29

    The thermodynamic properties of metallic thin films with face-centered cubic structure at ambient conditions were investigated using the statistical moment method including the anharmonicity effects of thermal lattice vibrations. The analytical expressions of Helmholtz free energy, lattice parameter, linear thermal expansion coefficient, specific heats at the constant volume and constant pressure were derived in terms of the power moments of the atomic displacements. Numerical calculations of thermodynamic properties have been performed for Au and Al thin films and compared with those of bulk metals. This research proposes that thermodynamic quantities of thin films approach the values of bulk when the thickness of thin film is about 70 nm. - Highlights: • Thermodynamic properties of thin films were investigated using the moment method. • Expressions of Helmholtz energy, expansion coefficient, specific heats were derived. • Calculations for Au, Al thin films were performed and compared with those of bulks.

  4. PZT Thin Film Piezoelectric Traveling Wave Motor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Dexin; Zhang, Baoan; Yang, Genqing; Jiao, Jiwei; Lu, Jianguo; Wang, Weiyuan

    1995-01-01

    With the development of micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS), its various applications are attracting more and more attention. Among MEMS, micro motors, electrostatic and electromagnetic, are the typical and important ones. As an alternative approach, the piezoelectric traveling wave micro motor, based on thin film material and integrated circuit technologies, circumvents many of the drawbacks of the above mentioned two types of motors and displays distinct advantages. In this paper we report on a lead-zirconate-titanate (PZT) piezoelectric thin film traveling wave motor. The PZT film with a thickness of 150 micrometers and a diameter of 8 mm was first deposited onto a metal substrate as the stator material. Then, eight sections were patterned to form the stator electrodes. The rotor had an 8 kHz frequency power supply. The rotation speed of the motor is 100 rpm. The relationship of the friction between the stator and the rotor and the structure of the rotor on rotation were also studied.

  5. Solution processed pentacene thin films and their structural properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tao Chunlan; Zhang Xuhui; Zhang Fujia; Liu Yiyang; Zhang Haoli

    2007-01-01

    The paper reported the solution process of pentacene thin films from organic solvent O-dichlorobenzene. The pentacene thin films obtained from different conditions were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and UV-vis spectroscopy. The result shows that the pentacene solution was successfully obtained at a minimum temperature of 40 deg. C. The optimum temperature of forming pentacene thin films was 100 deg. C

  6. Polarized Neutron Reflectivity Simulation of Ferromagnet/ Antiferromagnet Thin Films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Ki Yeon; Lee, Jeong Soo

    2008-02-15

    This report investigates the current simulating and fitting programs capable of calculating the polarized neutron reflectivity of the exchange-biased ferromagnet/antiferromagnet magnetic thin films. The adequate programs are selected depending on whether nonspin flip and spin flip reflectivities of magnetic thin films and good user interface are available or not. The exchange-biased systems such as Fe/Cr, Co/CoO, CoFe/IrMn/Py thin films have been simulated successfully with selected programs.

  7. Piezoelectric properties of electrospun nanofibers of BaTiO3; Propiedades piezoeletricas de nanofibras eletrofiadas de BaTiO3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carvalho, L.F.R.M.; Melo, G.F.; Goncalves, A.M.; Eiras, J.A.; Bretas, R.E.S., E-mail: bretas@ufscar.br [Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos (UFSCar), SP (Brazil)

    2016-07-01

    BaTiO3 nanofibers were produced by the electrospinning method from a mixture of a solution of the precursors Ba (CH{sub 3}COO){sub 2} and [(CH{sub 3}){sub 2}CHO]{sub 4}Ti in acetic acid and a solution of poly(vinylpyrrolidone) in ethanol. A voltage of 10 kV and a working distance of 4.6 cm were used for the electrospinning, at controlled room temperature and humidity of 21 °C and 60% respectively. Nanofibers as spun were dried in air on an air-circulating oven at 100 °C for one hour to remove residual solvent and were subsequently calcined at 750 °C during 2 h. The morphology, crystallographic structure and piezoelectric properties of the nanofibers were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray angle (WAXS) and Piezoresponse Force Microscopy (PFM), respectively. The average diameter of the nanofibers was 414 nm with an aspect ratio of 40. By PFM, there was strong evidence that the nanofibers had piezoelectric activity. (author)

  8. Ferroelectric properties of barium strontium titanate thin films grown by RF co-sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zapata-Navarro, A.; Marquez-Herrera, A.; Cruz-Jauregui, M.P.; Calzada, M.L.

    2005-01-01

    In this work, we present the variation of the ferroelectric properties of Ba 1-x Sr x TiO 3 films deposited on Pt/TiO 2 /SiO 2 /Si substrates by RF co-sputtering with 0≤x≤1. The co-sputtering was done using a single magnetron with BaTiO 3 /SrTiO 3 targets in a pie mosaics configuration. Smooth and uniform films were obtained using the same conditions of growth and annealing temperature. The X-ray diffraction and EDS results show that the processes were managed to obtain crystalline materials with x from 0 to 1. The behaviour of P-E loops suggests that the ferroelectric properties of the films were tuned by changing the concentration of the cation. (copyright 2005 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  9. Tin oxide transparent thin-film transistors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Presley, R E; Munsee, C L; Park, C-H; Hong, D; Wager, J F; Keszler, D A

    2004-01-01

    A SnO 2 transparent thin-film transistor (TTFT) is demonstrated. The SnO 2 channel layer is deposited by RF magnetron sputtering and then rapid thermal annealed in O 2 at 600 deg. C. The TTFT is highly transparent, and enhancement-mode behaviour is achieved by employing a very thin channel layer (10-20 nm). Maximum field-effect mobilities of 0.8 cm 2 V -1 s -1 and 2.0 cm 2 V -1 s -1 are obtained for enhancement- and depletion-mode devices, respectively. The transparent nature and the large drain current on-to-off ratio of 10 5 associated with the enhancement-mode behaviour of these devices may prove useful for novel gas-sensor applications

  10. Deposition and characterisation of epitaxial oxide thin films for SOFCs

    KAUST Repository

    Santiso, José ; Burriel, Mó nica

    2010-01-01

    This paper reviews the recent advances in the use of thin films, mostly epitaxial, for fundamental studies of materials for solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) applications. These studies include the influence of film microstructure, crystal orientation

  11. Switching, storage, and erasure effects in a superconducting thin film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Testardi, L.R.

    1976-01-01

    Thin niobium films can be switched from a superconducting to a resistive state permanently by application of a short electrical pulse. Application of a short pulse of opposite polarity returns the film to the superconducting state

  12. CO2 gas sensitivity of sputtered zinc oxide thin films

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    TECS

    Gas sensitivity; ZnO; sputtering; XRD patterns; structure; thin films. 1. Introduction. Because zinc ... voltage and absorption properties of those fabricated films have been ... tations are useful in many physical applications. The in- plane (Hegde ...

  13. Physics of thin films advances in research and development

    CERN Document Server

    Hass, Georg; Vossen, John L

    2013-01-01

    Physics of Thin Films: Advances in Research and Development, Volume 12 reviews advances that have been made in research and development concerning the physics of thin films. This volume covers a wide range of preparative approaches, physics phenomena, and applications related to thin films. This book is comprised of four chapters and begins with a discussion on metal coatings and protective layers for front surface mirrors used at various angles of incidence from the ultraviolet to the far infrared. Thin-film materials and deposition conditions suitable for minimizing reflectance changes with

  14. Sputtering materials for VLSI and thin film devices

    CERN Document Server

    Sarkar, Jaydeep

    2010-01-01

    An important resource for students, engineers and researchers working in the area of thin film deposition using physical vapor deposition (e.g. sputtering) for semiconductor, liquid crystal displays, high density recording media and photovoltaic device (e.g. thin film solar cell) manufacturing. This book also reviews microelectronics industry topics such as history of inventions and technology trends, recent developments in sputtering technologies, manufacturing steps that require sputtering of thin films, the properties of thin films and the role of sputtering target performance on overall p

  15. Thin-Film Materials Synthesis and Processing Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — FUNCTION: Provides a wide capability for deposition and processing of thin films, including sputter and ion-beam deposition, thermal evaporation, electro-deposition,...

  16. Characterizations of photoconductivity of graphene oxide thin films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiang-Kuo Chang-Jian

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Characterizations of photoresponse of a graphene oxide (GO thin film to a near infrared laser light were studied. Results showed the photocurrent in the GO thin film was cathodic, always flowing in an opposite direction to the initial current generated by the preset bias voltage that shows a fundamental discrepancy from the photocurrent in the reduced graphene oxide thin film. Light illumination on the GO thin film thus results in more free electrons that offset the initial current. By examining GO thin films reduced at different temperatures, the critical temperature for reversing the photocurrent from cathodic to anodic was found around 187°C. The dynamic photoresponse for the GO thin film was further characterized through the response time constants within the laser on and off durations, denoted as τon and τoff, respectively. τon for the GO thin film was comparable to the other carbon-based thin films such as carbon nanotubes and graphenes. τoff was, however, much larger than that of the other's. This discrepancy was attributable to the retardation of exciton recombination rate thanks to the existing oxygen functional groups and defects in the GO thin films.

  17. Magneto electric effects in BaTiO3-CoFe2O4 bulk composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, Shivani; Caltun, O. F.; Sreenivas, K.

    2012-11-01

    Influence of a static magnetic field (HDC) on the hysteresis and remanence in the longitudinal and transverse magneto electric voltage coefficients (MEVC) observed in [BaTiO3]1-x-[CoFe2O4]x bulk composites are analyzed. Remanence in MEVC at zero bias (HDC=0) is stronger in the transverse configuration over the longitudinal case. The observed hysteretic behavior in MEVC vs. HDC is correlated with the changes observed in the magnetostriction characteristics (λ and dλ/dH) reported for [BaTiO3]1-x-[CoFe2O4]x bulk composites.

  18. Effects of crystallization on structural and dielectric properties of thin amorphous films of (1 - x)BaTiO3-xSrTiO3 (x=0-0.5, 1.0)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawano, H.; Morii, K.; Nakayama, Y.

    1993-05-01

    The possibilities for fabricating solid solutions of (Ba1-x,Srx)TiO3 (x≤0.5,1.0) by crystallization of amorphous films and for improving their dielectric properties by adjusting the Sr content were investigated. Thin amorphous films were prepared from powder targets consisting of mixtures of BaTiO3 and SrTiO3 by sputtering with a neutralized Ar-ion beam. The amorphous films crystallized into (Ba1-x, Srx)TiO3 solid solutions with a cubic perovskite-type structure after annealing in air at 923 K for more than 1 h. The Debye-type dielectric relaxation was observed for the amorphous films, whereas the crystallized films showed paraelectric behavior. The relative dielectric constants were of the order of 20 for the amorphous samples, but increased greatly after crystallization to about 60-200, depending on the composition; a larger increase in the dielectric constant was observed in the higher Sr content films, in the range x≤0.5, which could be correlated with an increase in the grain size of the crystallites. The crystallization processes responsible for the difference in the grain size are discussed based on the microstructural observations.

  19. Atomic Structure Control of Silica Thin Films on Pt(111)

    KAUST Repository

    Crampton, Andrew S

    2015-05-27

    Metal oxide thin films grown on metal single crystals are commonly used to model heterogeneous catalyst supports. The structure and properties of thin silicon dioxide films grown on metal single crystals have only recently been thoroughly characterized and their spectral properties well established. We report the successful growth of a three- dimensional, vitreous silicon dioxide thin film on the Pt(111) surface and reproduce the closed bilayer structure previously reported. The confirmation of the three dimensional nature of the film is unequivocally shown by the infrared absorption band at 1252 cm−1. Temperature programmed desorption was used to show that this three-dimensional thin film covers the Pt(111) surface to such an extent that its application as a catalyst support for clusters/nanoparticles is possible. The growth of a three-dimensional film was seen to be directly correlated with the amount of oxygen present on the surface after the silicon evaporation process. This excess of oxygen is tentatively attributed to atomic oxygen being generated in the evaporator. The identification of atomic oxygen as a necessary building block for the formation of a three-dimensional thin film opens up new possibilities for thin film growth on metal supports, whereby simply changing the type of oxygen enables thin films with different atomic structures to be synthesized. This is a novel approach to tune the synthesis parameters of thin films to grow a specific structure and expands the options for modeling common amorphous silica supports under ultra high vacuum conditions.

  20. Tension Tests of Copper Thin Films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Kyung Jo; Kim, Chung Youb [Chonnam Nat’l Univ., Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-08-15

    Tension tests for copper thin films with thickness of 12 μm were performed by using a digital image correlation method based on consecutive digital images. When calculating deformation using digital image correlation, a large deformation causes errors in the calculated result. In this study, the calculation procedure was improved to reduce the error, so that the full field deformation and the strain of the specimen could be accurately and directly measured on its surface. From the calculated result, it can be seen that the strain distribution is not uniform and its variation is severe, unlike the distribution in a common bulk specimen. This might result from the surface roughness introduced in the films during the fabrication process by electro-deposition.

  1. Seebeck effect of some thin film carbides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beensh-Marchwicka, G.; Prociow, E.

    2002-01-01

    Several materials have been investigated for high-temperature thin film thermocouple applications. These include silicon carbide with boron (Si-C-B), ternary composition based on Si-C-Mn, fourfold composition based on Si-C-Zr-B and tantalum carbide (TaC). All materials were deposited on quartz or glass substrates using the pulse sputter deposition technique. Electrical conduction and thermoelectric power were measured for various compositions at 300-550 K. It has been found, that the efficiency of thermoelectric power of films containing Si-C base composition was varied from 0.0015-0.034 μW/cmK 2 . However for TaC the value about 0.093 μW/cmK 2 was obtained. (author)

  2. TEM characterization of nanodiamond thin films.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qin, L.-C.; Zhou, D.; Krauss, A. R.; Gruen, D. M.; Chemistry

    1998-05-01

    The microstructure of thin films grown by microwave plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (MPCVD) from fullerene C{sub 60} precursors has been characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), selected-area electron diffraction (SAED), bright-field electron microscopy, high-resolution electron microscopy (HREM), and parallel electron energy loss spectroscopy (PEELS). The films are composed of nanosize crystallites of diamond, and no graphitic or amorphous phases were observed. The diamond crystallite size measured from lattice images shows that most grains range between 3-5 nm, reflecting a gamma distribution. SAED gave no evidence of either sp2-bonded glassy carbon or sp3-bonded diamondlike amorphous carbon. The sp2-bonded configuration found in PEELS was attributed to grain boundary carbon atoms, which constitute 5-10% of the total. Occasionally observed larger diamond grains tend to be highly faulted.

  3. Studies of tantalum nitride thin film resistors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Langley, R.A.

    1975-01-01

    Backscattering of 2-MeV He ions was used to correlate the electrical properties of sputtered TaN/sub x/ thin-film resistors with their N content. The properties measured were sheet resistance, differential Seebeck potential (DSP), thermal coefficient of resistance (TCR), and stability. Resistivity and DSP are linearly dependent on N content for N/Ta ratios of 0.25 to 0.55. TCR decreases sharply below N/Ta = 0.35 and is relatively constant from 0.35 to 0.55. Stability is independent of N content. (DLC)

  4. Methods for producing thin film charge selective transport layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammond, Scott Ryan; Olson, Dana C.; van Hest, Marinus Franciscus Antonius Maria

    2018-01-02

    Methods for producing thin film charge selective transport layers are provided. In one embodiment, a method for forming a thin film charge selective transport layer comprises: providing a precursor solution comprising a metal containing reactive precursor material dissolved into a complexing solvent; depositing the precursor solution onto a surface of a substrate to form a film; and forming a charge selective transport layer on the substrate by annealing the film.

  5. Chemical vapour deposition of thin-film dielectrics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasilev, Vladislav Yu; Repinsky, Sergei M

    2005-01-01

    Data on the chemical vapour deposition of thin-film dielectrics based on silicon nitride, silicon oxynitride and silicon dioxide and on phosphorus- and boron-containing silicate glasses are generalised. The equipment and layer deposition procedures are described. Attention is focussed on the analysis and discussion of the deposition kinetics and on the kinetic models for film growth. The film growth processes are characterised and data on the key physicochemical properties of thin-film covalent dielectric materials are given.

  6. Characterization of ultrasonic spray pyrolysed ruthenium oxide thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patil, P.S.; Ennaoui, E.A.; Lokhande, C.D.; Mueller, M.; Giersig, M.; Diesner, K.; Tributsch, H. [Hahn-Meitner-Institut Berlin GmbH (Germany). Bereich Physikalische Chemie

    1997-11-21

    The ultrasonic spray pyrolysis (USP) technique was employed to deposit ruthenium oxide thin films. The films were prepared at 190 C substrate temperature and further annealed at 350 C for 30 min in air. The films were 0.22 {mu} thick and black grey in color. The structural, compositional and optical properties of ruthenium oxide thin films are reported. Contactless transient photoconductivity measurement was carried out to calculate the decay time of excess charge carriers in ruthenium oxide thin films. (orig.) 28 refs.

  7. Nitrogen incorporation in sputter deposited molybdenum nitride thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stöber, Laura, E-mail: laura.stoeber@tuwien.ac.at; Patocka, Florian, E-mail: florian.patocka@tuwien.ac.at; Schneider, Michael, E-mail: michael.schneider@tuwien.ac.at; Schmid, Ulrich, E-mail: ulrich.e366.schmid@tuwien.ac.at [Institute of Sensor and Actuator Systems, TU Wien, Gußhausstraße 27-29, A-1040 Vienna (Austria); Konrath, Jens Peter, E-mail: jenspeter.konrath@infineon.com; Haberl, Verena, E-mail: verena.haberl@infineon.com [Infineon Technologies Austria AG, Siemensstraße 2, 9500 Villach (Austria)

    2016-03-15

    In this paper, the authors report on the high temperature performance of sputter deposited molybdenum (Mo) and molybdenum nitride (Mo{sub 2}N) thin films. Various argon and nitrogen gas compositions are applied for thin film synthetization, and the amount of nitrogen incorporation is determined by Auger measurements. Furthermore, effusion measurements identifying the binding conditions of the nitrogen in the thin film are performed up to 1000 °C. These results are in excellent agreement with film stress and scanning electron microscope analyses, both indicating stable film properties up to annealing temperatures of 500 °C.

  8. Dimensional scaling of perovskite ferroelectric thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keech, Ryan R.

    Dimensional size reduction has been the cornerstone of the exponential improvement in silicon based logic devices for decades. However, fundamental limits in the device physics were reached ˜2003, halting further reductions in clock speed without significant penalties in power consumption. This has motivated the research into next generation transistors and switching devices to reinstate the scaling laws for clock speed. This dissertation aims to support the scaling of devices that are based on ferroelectricity and piezoelectricity and to provide a roadmap for the corresponding materials performance. First, a scalable growth process to obtain highly {001}-oriented lead magnesium niobate - lead titanate (PMN-PT) thin films was developed, motivated by the high piezoelectric responses observed in bulk single crystals. It was found that deposition of a 2-3 nm thick PbO buffer layer on {111} Pt thin film bottom electrodes, prior to chemical solution deposition of PMN-PT reduces the driving force for Pb diffusion from the PMN-PT to the bottom electrode, and facilitates nucleation of {001}-oriented perovskite grains. Energy dispersive spectroscopy demonstrated that up to 10% of the Pb from a PMN-PT precursor solution may diffuse into the bottom electrode. PMN-PT grains with a mixed {101}/{111} orientation in a matrix of Pb-deficient pyrochlore phase were then promoted near the interface. When this is prevented, phase pure films with {001} orientation with Lotgering factors of 0.98-1.0, can be achieved. The resulting films of only 300 nm in thickness exhibit longitudinal effective d33,f coefficients of ˜90 pm/V and strain values of ˜1% prior to breakdown. 300 nm thick epitaxial and polycrystalline lead magnesium niobate - lead titanate (70PMN-30PT) blanket thin films were studied for the relative contributions to property thickness dependence from interfacial and grain boundary low permittivity layers. Epitaxial PMN-PT films were grown on SrRuO 3 /(001)SrTiO3, while

  9. Recent progress of obliquely deposited thin films for industrial applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Motofumi; Itoh, Tadayoshi; Taga, Yasunori

    1999-06-01

    More than 10 years ago, birefringent films of metal oxides were formed by oblique vapor deposition and investigated with a view of their application to optical retardation plates. The retardation function of the films was explained in terms of the birefringence caused by the characteristic anisotropic nanostructure inside the films. These films are now classified in the genre of the so-called sculptured thin films. However, the birefringent films thus prepared are not yet industrialized even now due to the crucial lack of the durability and the yield of products. In this review paper, we describe the present status of application process of the retardation films to the information systems such as compact disc and digital versatile disc devices with a special emphasis on the uniformity of retardation properties in a large area and the stability of the optical properties of the obliquely deposited thin films. Finally, further challenges for wide application of the obliquely deposited thin films are also discussed.

  10. Operating method of amorphous thin film semiconductor element

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mori, Koshiro; Ono, Masaharu; Hanabusa, Akira; Osawa, Michio; Arita, Takashi

    1988-05-31

    The existing technologies concerning amorphous thin film semiconductor elements are the technologies concerning the formation of either a thin film transistor or an amorphous Si solar cell on a substrate. In order to drive a thin film transistor for electronic equipment control by the output power of an amorphous Si solar cell, it has been obliged to drive the transistor weth an amorphous solar cell which was formed on a substrate different from that for the transistor. Accordingly, the space for the amorphous solar cell, which was formed on the different substrate, was additionally needed on the substrate for the thin film transistor. In order to solve the above problem, this invention proposes an operating method of an amorphous thin film semiconductor element that after forming an amorphous Si solar cell through lamination on the insulation coating film which covers the thin film transistor formed on the substrate, the thin film transistor is driven by the output power of this solar cell. The invention eliminates the above superfluous space and reduces the size of the amorphous thin film semiconductor element including the electric source. (3 figs)

  11. Calcul théorique de l’hystérésis thermique de BaTiO3 pur et dopé au fer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aattar, M.; Khatib, D.; Noheda, B.

    1999-01-01

    Theory of thermal hysteresis of pure and iron doped BaTiO3. The value of the thermal hysteresis of pure and iron doped BaTiO3 was calculated using an effective field model taking into account dipolar and quadripolar interactions. The calculation is performed using a self-consistent method. The

  12. Stable organic thin-film transistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Xiaojia; Fuentes-Hernandez, Canek; Wang, Cheng-Yin; Park, Youngrak; Kippelen, Bernard

    2018-01-01

    Organic thin-film transistors (OTFTs) can be fabricated at moderate temperatures and through cost-effective solution-based processes on a wide range of low-cost flexible and deformable substrates. Although the charge mobility of state-of-the-art OTFTs is superior to that of amorphous silicon and approaches that of amorphous oxide thin-film transistors (TFTs), their operational stability generally remains inferior and a point of concern for their commercial deployment. We report on an exhaustive characterization of OTFTs with an ultrathin bilayer gate dielectric comprising the amorphous fluoropolymer CYTOP and an Al2O3:HfO2 nanolaminate. Threshold voltage shifts measured at room temperature over time periods up to 5.9 × 105 s do not vary monotonically and remain below 0.2 V in microcrystalline OTFTs (μc-OTFTs) with field-effect carrier mobility values up to 1.6 cm2 V−1 s−1. Modeling of these shifts as a function of time with a double stretched-exponential (DSE) function suggests that two compensating aging mechanisms are at play and responsible for this high stability. The measured threshold voltage shifts at temperatures up to 75°C represent at least a one-order-of-magnitude improvement in the operational stability over previous reports, bringing OTFT technologies to a performance level comparable to that reported in the scientific literature for other commercial TFTs technologies. PMID:29340301

  13. Properties of superconducting thin-film microbridges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pei, S.S.

    1978-01-01

    This work reports investigations upon the dependences of critical current and current phase relation on the dimensions of a superconducting thin-film microbridge. A model has been developed upon the Volkov's hyperbolic bridges and the Zaitsev's boundary conditions to calculate the spatial variation of the order parameter for given bridge dimensions. The results indicate that the rigid boundary conditions are good approximations to narrow bridges (W much less than L) only. The critical current density of the bridge has been calculated also as a function of the bridge dimensions. It is found that the critical current density of small bridges is enhanced above its mean field critical value due to the proximity effects of the banks. Very good agreement is found between the calculated enhancement of the critical current density and the experimental results. Direct measurements have been made on the current phase relation of indium bridges with width smaller than 0.6 μm. The difficulties due to the extra phase shifts from the series thin film electrodes are overcome by a specially designed double loop configuration which has an extra low effective inductance. It is found that the current phase relation of small bridges (W,L, xi, the results agree with the predictions of rigid boundary calculations as expected by our model

  14. Optical characteristics of the thin-film scintillator detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muga, L.; Burnsed, D.

    1976-01-01

    A study of the thin-film detector (TFD) was made in which various light guide and scintillator film support configurations were tested for efficiency of light coupling. Masking of selected portions of the photomultiplier (PM) tube face revealed the extent to which emitted light was received at the exposed PM surfaces. By blocking off selected areas of the scintillator film surface from direct view of the PM tube faces, a measure of the light-guiding efficiency of the film and its support could be estimated. The picture that emerges is that, as the light which is initially trapped in the thin film spreads radially outward from the ion entrance/exit point, it is scattered out of the film by minute imperfections. Optimum signals were obtained by a configuration in which the thin scintillator film was supported on a thin rectangular Celluloid frame inserted within a highly polished metal cylindrical sleeve

  15. Polycystalline silicon thin films for electronic applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaeger, Christian Claus

    2012-01-15

    For the thin polycrystalline Si films fabricated with the aluminium-induced-layer-exchange (ALILE) process a good structural quality up to a layer-thickness value of 10 nm was determined. For 5 nm thick layers however after the layer exchange no closes poly-silicon film was present. In this case the substrate was covered with spherically arranged semiconductor material. Furthermore amorphous contributions in the layer could be determined. The electrical characterization of the samples at room temperature proved a high hole concentration in the range 10{sup 18} cm{sup -3} up to 9.10{sup 19} cm{sup -3}, which is influenced by the process temperature and the layer thickness. Hereby higher hole concentrations at higher process temperatures and thinner films were observed. Furthermore above 150-200 K a thermically activated behaviour of the electrical conductivity was observed. At lower temperatures a deviation of the measured characteristic from the exponential Arrhenius behaviour was determined. For low temperatures (below 20 K) the conductivity follows the behaviour {sigma}{proportional_to}[-(T{sub 0}/T){sup 1/4}]. The hole mobility in the layers was lowered by a passivation step, which can be explained by defect states at the grain boundaries. The for these very thin layers present situation was simulated in the framework of the model of Seto, whereby both the defect states at the grain boundaries (with an area density Q{sub t}) and the defect states at the interfaces (with an area density Q{sub it}) were regarded. By this the values Q{sub t}{approx}(3-4).10{sup 12} cm{sup -2} and Q{sub it}{approx}(2-5).10{sup 12} cm{sup -2} could be determined for these thin ALILE layers on quartz substrates. Additionally th R-ALILE process was studied, which uses the reverse precursor-layer sequence substrate/amorphous silicon/oxide/aluminium. Hereby two steps in the crystallization process of the R-ALILE process were found. First a substrate/Al-Si mixture/poly-Si layer structure

  16. Optical constants and structural properties of thin gold films

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yakubovsky, Dmitry I.; Arsenin, Aleksey V.; Stebunov, Yury V.

    2017-01-01

    We report a comprehensive experimental study of optical and electrical properties of thin polycrystalline gold films in a wide range of film thicknesses (from 20 to 200 nm). Our experimental results are supported by theoretical calculations based on the measured morphology of the fabricated gold...... rules for thin-film plasmonic and nanophotonic devices....... films. We demonstrate that the dielectric function of the metal is determined by its structural morphology. Although the fabrication process can be absolutely the same for different films, the dielectric function can strongly depend on the film thickness. Our studies show that the imaginary part...

  17. Improving dielectric properties of BaTiO_3/poly(vinylidene fluoride) composites by employing core-shell structured BaTiO_3@Poly(methylmethacrylate) and BaTiO_3@Poly(trifluoroethyl methacrylate) nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Xianhong; Zhao, Sidi; Wang, Fang; Ma, Yuhong; Wang, Li; Chen, Dong; Zhao, Changwen; Yang, Wantai

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Core-shell structured BT@PMMA and BT@PTFEMA nanoparticles were synthesized. • The dispersity of BT nanoparticles in PVDF matrix was improved significantly. • Dielectric properties both of BT@PMMA/PVDF and BT@PTFEMA/PVDF composites were improved. • The frequency dependence of dielectric constant attenuation of BT@PTFEMA/PVDF composites was smaller than that of BT@PMMA/PVDF composites. - Abstract: Polymer based dielectric composites were fabricated through incorporation of core-shell structured BaTiO_3 (BT) nanoparticles into PVDF matrix by means of solution blending. Core-shell structured BT nanoparticles with different shell composition and shell thickness were prepared by grafting methacrylate monomer (MMA or TFEMA) onto the surface of BT nanoparticles via surface initiated atom transfer radical polymerization (SI-ATRP). The content of the grafted polymer and the micro-morphology of the core-shell structured BT nanoparticles were investigated by thermo gravimetric analyses (TGA) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM), respectively. The dielectric properties were measured by broadband dielectric spectroscopy. The results showed that high dielectric constant and low dielectric loss are successfully realized in the polymer based composites. Moreover, the type of the grafted polymer and its content had different effect on the dielectric constant. In detail, the attenuation of dielectric constant was 16.6% for BT@PMMA1/PVDF and 10.7% for BT@PMMA2/PVDF composite in the range of 10 Hz to 100 kHz, in which the grafted content of PMMA was 5.5% and 8.0%, respectively. However, the attenuation of dielectric constant was 5.5% for BT@PTFEMA1/PVDF and 4.0% for BT@PTFEMA2/PVDF composite, in which the grafted content of PTFEMA was 1.5% and 2.0%, respectively. These attractive features of BT@PTFEMA/PVDF composites suggested that dielectric ceramic fillers modified with fluorinated polymer can be used to prepare high performance composites, especially those with low dielectric loss and high dielectric constant.

  18. High dielectric constant and energy density induced by the tunable TiO2 interfacial buffer layer in PVDF nanocomposite contained with core-shell structured TiO2@BaTiO3 nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Penghao; Jia, Zhuye; Shen, Zhonghui; Wang, Peng; Liu, Xiaoru

    2018-05-01

    To realize application in high-capacity capacitors and portable electric devices, large energy density is eagerly desired for polymer-based nanocomposite. The core-shell structured nanofillers with inorganic buffer layer are recently supposed to be promising in improving the dielectric property of polymer nanocomposite. In this work, core-shell structured TO@BT nanoparticles with crystalline TiO2 buffer layer coated on BaTiO3 nanoparticle were fabricated via solution method and heat treatment. The thickness of the TO buffer layer can be tailored by modulating the additive amount of the titanate coupling agent in preparation process, and the apparent dielectric properties of nanocomposite are much related to the thickness of the TO layer. The relatively thin TO layer prefer to generate high polarization to increase dielectric constant while the relatively thick TO layer would rather to homogenize field to maintain breakdown strength. Simulation of electric field distribution in the interfacial region reveals the improving effect of the TO buffer layer on the dielectric properties of nanocomposite which accords with the experimental results well. The optimized nanoparticle TO@BT-2 with a mean thickness of 3-5 nm buffer layer of TO is effective in increasing both the ε and Eb in the PVDF composite film. The maximal discharged energy density of 8.78 J/cm3 with high energy efficiency above 0.6 is obtained in TO@BT-2/PVDF nanocomposite with 2.5 vol% loading close to the breakdown strength of 380 kV/mm. The present study demonstrates the approach to optimize the structure of core-shell nanoparticles by modulating buffer layer and provides a new way to further enlarge energy density in polymer nanocomposite.

  19. Magnetostriction in composites of LiFe5O8-BaTiO3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarah, P.; Suryanarayana, S.V.

    2003-01-01

    Polycrystalline lithium ferrite, LiFe 5 O 8 was prepared by adopting two preparation techniques, the solid-state double sintering method and the sol-gel method. This ferrite powder was thoroughly mixed with barium titanate, BaTiO 3 for preparation of di-phasic composites of lithium ferrite and barium titanate. X-ray diffraction study of these composites revealed the presence of both the phases. Magnetostriction of these composites was measured in varying magnetic fields. The value of magnetostriction for the composites prepared by the sol-gel method was found to be higher than the values obtained in case of composites prepared by the solid-state method. Magnetostriction was found to decrease with increasing content of barium titanate. The saturation field was found to increase with the introduction of barium titanate

  20. Effect of mechanical milling on barium titanate (BaTiO3) perovskite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Rajan Kumar; Sanodia, Sagar; Jain, Neha; Kumar, Ranveer

    2018-05-01

    Commercial Barium Titanate BaTiO3 (BT) is milled by planetary ball mill in acetone medium using stainless steel bowl & ball for different hours. BT is an important perovskite oxide with structure ABO3. BT has applications in electro-optic devices, energy storing devices such as photovoltaic cells, thermistors, multiceramic capacitors & DRAMs etc. BT is non-toxic & environment friendly ceramic with high dielectric and piezoelectric property so it can be used as the substitute of PZT & PbTiO3. Here, we have investigated the effect of milling time and temperature on particle size and phase transition of BT powder. We used use Raman spectroscopy for studying the spectra of BT; XRD is used for structural study. Intensity (height) of Raman spectra and XRD spectra continuously decrease with increasing the milling hours and width if these spectra increases which indicates, decrease in BT size.

  1. Thinning and rupture of a thin liquid film on a heated surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bankoff, S.G.; Davis, S.H.

    1992-08-05

    Results on the dynamics and stability of thin films are summarized on the following topics: forced dryout, film instabilities on a horizontal plane and on inclined planes, instrumentation, coating flows, and droplet spreading. (DLC)

  2. Microstructural and dielectrical characterization of Ho doped BaTiO3 ceramics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marjanović Miloš

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The Ho doped BaTiO3 ceramics, with different Ho2O3 content, ranging from 0.01 to 1.0 wt % Ho, were investigated regarding their microstructural and dielectric characteristics. Doped BaTiO3 were prepared using conventional solid state reaction and sintered at 1380°C for four hours. SEM analysis of Ho/BaTiO3 doped ceramics showed that the low doped samples exhibit mainly fairly uniform and homogeneous microstructure with the grain size ranged from 20-40 μm. In the samples with the higher dopant concentration the abnormal grain growth is inhibited and the grain size ranged between 2-10 μm. Measurements of dielectric properties were carried out as a function of temperature up to 180 °C at different frequencies. The samples doped with 0.01wt % of Ho, exhibit the high value of dielectric permittivity (εr = 2160 at room temperature. A nearly flat permittivity-response was obtained in specimens with higher additive content. Using a Curie-Weiss law and modified Curie-Weiss law the Curie constant (C, Curie temperature (Tc and a critical exponent of nonlinearity (g were calculated. The Curie temperature of doped samples were ranged from 128 to 130°C. The Curie constant for all series of samples decrease with increase of dopant concentration and the lowest values were observed on samples doped with 0.01 wt % of holmium. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. OI 172057: Directed synthesis, structure and properties of multifunctional materials i br. TR 32026

  3. Microbridge tests on gallium nitride thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Hai-You; Li, Zhi-Ying; Lu, Jun-Yong; Wang, Zhi-Jia; Zhang, Tong-Yi; Wang, Chong-Shun; Lau, Kei-May; Chen, Kevin Jing

    2009-01-01

    In this work, we develop further the microbridge testing method by deriving a closed formula of deflection versus load, which is applied at an arbitrary position on the microbridge beam. Testing a single beam at various positions allows us to characterize simultaneouslyYoung's modulus and residual stress of the beam. The developed method was then used to characterize the mechanical properties of GaN thin films on patterned-Si (1 1 1) substrates grown by metal organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD). The microbridge samples were fabricated by using the microelectromechanical fabrication technique and tested with a nanoindentation system. Young's modulus and residual stress of the GaN films were determined to be 287 ± 190 GPa and 851 ± 155 MPa, respectively. In addition, alternative measurements of the residual stress, Young's modulus and hardness of the GaN films, were conducted with micro-Raman spectroscopy and the nanoindentation test, yielding the corresponding values of 847 ± 46 MPa, 269.0 ± 7.0 GPa and 17.8 ± 1.1 GPa

  4. Surface microtopography of thin silver films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Manuel F. M.; Almeida, Jose B.

    1991-01-01

    The authors present ne applications for the recently developed nori-contact optical inicrotopographer emphasizing the results of topographic inspections of thin silver films edges. These films were produced by sputtering of silver through different masks, using a planar magnetron source. The results show the influence ot the thickness and position of the masks on the topography of the film near its edge. Topographic information is obtained from the horizontal shift incurred by the bright spot on an horizontal surface, which is displaced vertically, when this is illuminated by an oblique collimated laser beam. The laser beam is focused onto the surface into a diffraction limited spot and is made to sweep the surface to be examined.. The horizontal position of the bright spot is continuously imaged onto a light detector array and the information about individual detectors that are activated is used to compute the corresponding horizontal shift on the reference plane. Simple trignometric calculations are used to relate the horizontal shift to the distance between the surface and a reference plane at each sampling point and thus a map of the surface topography can be built.

  5. Controlled nanostructuration of polycrystalline tungsten thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Girault, B. [Institut P' (UPR 3346 CNRS), Universite de Poitiers, ENSMA, Bd Pierre et Marie Curie, 86962 Futuroscope Cedex (France); Institut de Recherche en Genie Civil et Mecanique (UMR CNRS 6183), LUNAM Universite, Universite de Nantes, Centrale Nantes, CRTT, 37 Bd de l' Universite, BP 406, 44602 Saint-Nazaire Cedex (France); Eyidi, D.; Goudeau, P.; Guerin, P.; Bourhis, E. Le; Renault, P.-O. [Institut P' (UPR 3346 CNRS), Universite de Poitiers, ENSMA, Bd Pierre et Marie Curie, 86962 Futuroscope Cedex (France); Sauvage, T. [CEMHTI/CNRS (UPR 3079 CNRS), Universite d' Orleans, 3A rue de la Ferollerie, 45071 Orleans Cedex 2 (France)

    2013-05-07

    Nanostructured tungsten thin films have been obtained by ion beam sputtering technique stopping periodically the growing. The total thickness was maintained constant while nanostructure control was obtained using different stopping periods in order to induce film stratification. The effect of tungsten sublayers' thicknesses on film composition, residual stresses, and crystalline texture evolution has been established. Our study reveals that tungsten crystallizes in both stable {alpha}- and metastable {beta}-phases and that volume proportions evolve with deposited sublayers' thicknesses. {alpha}-W phase shows original fiber texture development with two major preferential crystallographic orientations, namely, {alpha}-W<110> and unexpectedly {alpha}-W<111> texture components. The partial pressure of oxygen and presence of carbon have been identified as critical parameters for the growth of metastable {beta}-W phase. Moreover, the texture development of {alpha}-W phase with two texture components is shown to be the result of a competition between crystallographic planes energy minimization and crystallographic orientation channeling effect maximization. Controlled grain size can be achieved for the {alpha}-W phase structure over 3 nm stratification step. Below, the {beta}-W phase structure becomes predominant.

  6. Effects of Reaction Medium on the Phase Synthesis and Particle Size Evolution of BaTiO3

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stawski, Thomasz M.; Veldhuis, Sjoerd A.; Göbel, Ole; ten Elshof, Johan E.; Blank, David H.A.

    2010-01-01

    The low-temperature alkoxide–hydroxide precipitation synthesis of nanosized crystalline barium titanate (BaTiO3) in nonaqueous media is presented. In this report, we show the influence of the reaction medium on the nature of the product by investigating the reaction of titanium (IV) isopropoxide

  7. Microwave-Hydrothermal Synthesis and Characterization of High-Purity Nb Doped BaTiO3 Nanocrystals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Khanfekr

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The synthesis of Nb doped BaTiO3 has been investigated under Microwave-Hydrothermal (MH conditions in the temperature of 150°C for only 2 h using C16H36O4Ti, BaH2O2.8H2O and NbCl5 as Ba, Ti and  Nb sources, respectively.  Typical experiments performed on MH processing have not yet reported for Nb doped BaTiO3.  In the MH process, the formation of high purity nano tetragonal Nb-BaTiO3 was strongly enhanced. New hydrothermal method was used instead of the previous solid state reaction for the BaTiO3±Nb2O3 system. The new method uses high pressure to create nano dimension particles in a lower time and temperature. In case of the phase evolution studies, the XRD pattern measurements and Raman spectroscopy were performed. TEM and FE-SEM images were taken for the detailed analysis of the particle size, surface and morphology.  Synthesis of Nb doped BaTiO3 with the Microwave-hydrothermal provides an advantage of fast crystallization and reduced crystal size when compared to existing methods.

  8. Surfactant induced flows in thin liquid films : an experimental study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sinz, D.K.N.

    2012-01-01

    The topic of the experimental work summarized in my thesis is the flow in thin liquid films induced by non-uniformly distributed surfactants. The flow dynamics as a consequence of the deposition of a droplet of an insoluble surfactant onto a thin liquid film covering a solid substrate where

  9. Optimized grid design for thin film solar panels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deelen, J. van; Klerk, L.; Barink, M.

    2014-01-01

    There is a gap in efficiency between record thin film cells and mass produced thin film solar panels. In this paper we quantify the effect of monolithic integration on power output for various configurations by modeling and present metallization as a way to improve efficiency of solar panels. Grid

  10. Dynamics of a spreading thin film with gravitational counterflow ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    film climbing up on a vertical substrate against gravity shows interesting dynamics ... For the spreading of a thin film several theoretical studies have shown quantitative agree- ..... The two critical values of this param- ... Davis J M, Fischer B J and Troian S M 2003 A general approach to the linear stability of thin spreading.

  11. Plastic response of thin films due to thermal cycling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nicola, L.; van der Giessen, E.; Needleman, A.; Ahzi, S; Cherkaoui, M; Khaleel, MA; Zbib, HM; Zikry, MA; Lamatina, B

    2004-01-01

    Discrete dislocation simulations of thin films on semi-infinite substrates under cyclic thermal loading are presented. The thin film is modelled as a two-dimensional single crystal under plane strain conditions. Dislocations of edge character can be generated from initially present sources and glide

  12. Cadmium sulphide thin film for application in gamma radiation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cadmium Sulphide (CdS) thin film was prepared using pyrolytic spraying technique and then irradiated at varied gamma dosage. The CdS thin film absorption before gamma irradiation was 0.6497. Absorbed doses were computed using standard equation established for an integrating dosimeter. The plot of absorbed dose ...

  13. Electrical properties of epitaxially grown VOx thin films

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rata, A.D.; Chezan, A.R; Presura, C.N.; Hibma, T

    2003-01-01

    High quality VOx thin films on MgO(100) substrates were prepared and studied from the structural and electronic point of view. Epitaxial growth was confirmed by RHEED and XRD techniques. The oxygen content of VOx thin films as a function of oxygen flux was determined using RBS. The upper and lower

  14. Determination of oxygen diffusion kinetics during thin film ruthenium oxidation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coloma Ribera, R.; van de Kruijs, Robbert Wilhelmus Elisabeth; Yakshin, Andrey; Bijkerk, Frederik

    2015-01-01

    In situ X-ray reflectivity was used to reveal oxygen diffusion kinetics for thermal oxidation of polycrystalline ruthenium thin films and accurate determination of activation energies for this process. Diffusion rates in nanometer thin RuO2 films were found to show Arrhenius behaviour. However, a

  15. Thin films of metal-organic compounds and metal nanoparticle

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Thin films of metal-organic compounds and metal nanoparticle-embedded polymers for nonlinear optical applications. S Philip Anthony Shatabdi Porel D ... Thin films based on two very different metal-organic systems are developed and some nonlinear optical applications are explored. A family of zinc complexes which ...

  16. Fabrication and Performance Study of Uniform Thin Film Integrated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The transmission line model of a uniform rectangular thin film R-C-KR structure consisting of a dielectric layer of constant per unit shunt capacitance C sandwiched between two resistive thin films of constant per unit length resistances R and KR has been analysed using the concept of matrix parameter functions. The above ...

  17. Thermal stability of gold-PS nanocomposites thin films

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Low-temperature transmission electron microscopy (TEM) studies were performed on polystyrene (PS, w = 234 K) – Au nanoparticle composite thin films that were annealed up to 350°C under reduced pressure conditions. The composite thin films were prepared by wet chemical approach and the samples were then ...

  18. Thermal properties and stabilities of polymer thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanaya, Toshiji; Kawashima, Kazuko; Inoue, Rintaro; Miyazaki, Tsukasa

    2009-01-01

    Recent extensive studies have revealed that polymer thin films showed very interesting but unusual thermal properties and stabilities. In the article we show that X-ray reflectivity and neutron reflectivity are very powerful tools to study the anomalous properties of polymer thin films. (author)

  19. Piezoelectric MEMS: Ferroelectric thin films for MEMS applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanno, Isaku

    2018-04-01

    In recent years, piezoelectric microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) have attracted attention as next-generation functional microdevices. Typical applications of piezoelectric MEMS are micropumps for inkjet heads or micro-gyrosensors, which are composed of piezoelectric Pb(Zr,Ti)O3 (PZT) thin films and have already been commercialized. In addition, piezoelectric vibration energy harvesters (PVEHs), which are regarded as one of the key devices for Internet of Things (IoT)-related technologies, are promising future applications of piezoelectric MEMS. Significant features of piezoelectric MEMS are their simple structure and high energy conversion efficiency between mechanical and electrical domains even on the microscale. The device performance strongly depends on the function of the piezoelectric thin films, especially on their transverse piezoelectric properties, indicating that the deposition of high-quality piezoelectric thin films is a crucial technology for piezoelectric MEMS. On the other hand, although the difficulty in measuring the precise piezoelectric coefficients of thin films is a serious obstacle in the research and development of piezoelectric thin films, a simple unimorph cantilever measurement method has been proposed to obtain precise values of the direct or converse transverse piezoelectric coefficient of thin films, and recently this method has become to be the standardized testing method. In this article, I will introduce fundamental technologies of piezoelectric thin films and related microdevices, especially focusing on the deposition of PZT thin films and evaluation methods for their transverse piezoelectric properties.

  20. Density functional study of ferromagnetism in alkali metal thin films

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    thickness uniform jellium model (UJM), and it is argued that within LSDA or GGA, alkali metal thin films cannot be claimed to have an FM ground state. Relevance of these results to the experiments on transition metal-doped alkali metal thin films ...

  1. NbN thin films for superconducting radio frequency cavities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roach, W. M.; Skuza, J. R.; Beringer, D. B.; Li, Z.; Clavero, C.; Lukaszew, R. A.

    2012-12-01

    NbN thin films have the potential to be incorporated into radio frequency cavities in a multilayer coating to overcome the fundamental field gradient limit of 50 MV m-1 for the bulk niobium based technology that is currently implemented in particle accelerators. In addition to having a larger critical field value than bulk niobium, NbN films develop smoother surfaces which are optimal for cavity performance and lead to fewer losses. Here, we present a study on the correlation of film deposition parameters, surface morphology, microstructure, transport properties and superconducting properties of NbN thin films. We have achieved films with bulk-like lattice parameters and superconducting transition temperatures. These NbN films have a lower surface roughness than similarly grown niobium films of comparable thickness. The potential application of NbN thin films in accelerator cavities is discussed.

  2. NbN thin films for superconducting radio frequency cavities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roach, W M; Clavero, C; Lukaszew, R A; Skuza, J R; Beringer, D B; Li, Z

    2012-01-01

    NbN thin films have the potential to be incorporated into radio frequency cavities in a multilayer coating to overcome the fundamental field gradient limit of 50 MV m −1 for the bulk niobium based technology that is currently implemented in particle accelerators. In addition to having a larger critical field value than bulk niobium, NbN films develop smoother surfaces which are optimal for cavity performance and lead to fewer losses. Here, we present a study on the correlation of film deposition parameters, surface morphology, microstructure, transport properties and superconducting properties of NbN thin films. We have achieved films with bulk-like lattice parameters and superconducting transition temperatures. These NbN films have a lower surface roughness than similarly grown niobium films of comparable thickness. The potential application of NbN thin films in accelerator cavities is discussed. (paper)

  3. Magnetic damping phenomena in ferromagnetic thin-films and multilayers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azzawi, S.; Hindmarch, A. T.; Atkinson, D.

    2017-11-01

    Damped ferromagnetic precession is an important mechanism underpinning the magnetisation processes in ferromagnetic materials. In thin-film ferromagnets and ferromagnetic/non-magnetic multilayers, the role of precession and damping can be critical for spintronic device functionality and as a consequence there has been significant research activity. This paper presents a review of damping in ferromagnetic thin-films and multilayers and collates the results of many experimental studies to present a coherent synthesis of the field. The terms that are used to define damping are discussed with the aim of providing consistent definitions for damping phenomena. A description of the theoretical basis of damping is presented from early developments to the latest discussions of damping in ferromagnetic thin-films and multilayers. An overview of the time and frequency domain methods used to study precessional magnetisation behaviour and damping in thin-films and multilayers is also presented. Finally, a review of the experimental observations of magnetic damping in ferromagnetic thin-films and multilayers is presented with the most recent explanations. This brings together the results from many studies and includes the effects of ferromagnetic film thickness, the effects of composition on damping in thin-film ferromagnetic alloys, the influence of non-magnetic dopants in ferromagnetic films and the effects of combining thin-film ferromagnets with various non-magnetic layers in multilayered configurations.

  4. Etude de capacités en couches minces à base d'oxydes métalliques à très forte constante diélectrique, BaTiO3, SrTiO3 et SrTiO3/BaTiO3 déposées par pulvérisation par faisceau d'ions

    OpenAIRE

    Guillan , Julie

    2005-01-01

    In a view of miniaturization in microelectronics and more particularly in the sector of mobile phone, perovskites materials with very high permittivity are interesting candidates to replace dielectrics currently used in the development of Metal/Insulator/Metal (MIM) capacitor. This work is devoted to the development and the characterization of thin layers of strontium titanate (SrTiO3) and barium titanate (BaTiO3) deposited by Ion Beam Sputtering (IBS) in capacitive structure Pt/high-k/Pt.An ...

  5. Nanocoatings and ultra-thin films technologies and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Tiginyanu, Ion

    2011-01-01

    Gives a comprehensive account of the developments of nanocoatings and ultra-thin films. This book covers the fundamentals, processes of deposition and characterisation of nanocoatings, as well as the applications. It is suitable for the glass and glazing, automotive, electronics, aerospace, construction and biomedical industries in particular.$bCoatings are used for a wide range of applications, from anti-fogging coatings for glass through to corrosion control in the aerospace and automotive industries. Nanocoatings and ultra-thin films provides an up-to-date review of the fundamentals, processes of deposition, characterisation and applications of nanocoatings. Part one covers technologies used in the creation and analysis of thin films, including chapters on current and advanced coating technologies in industry, nanostructured thin films from amphiphilic molecules, chemical and physical vapour deposition methods and methods for analysing nanocoatings and ultra-thin films. Part two focuses on the applications...

  6. Infrared analysis of thin films amorphous, hydrogenated carbon on silicon

    CERN Document Server

    Jacob, W; Schwarz-Selinger, T

    2000-01-01

    The infrared analysis of thin films on a thick substrate is discussed using the example of plasma-deposited, amorphous, hydrogenated carbon layers (a-C:H) on silicon substrates. The framework for the optical analysis of thin films is presented. The main characteristic of thin film optics is the occurrence of interference effects due to the coherent superposition of light multiply reflected at the various internal and external interfaces of the optical system. These interference effects lead to a sinusoidal variation of the transmitted and reflected intensity. As a consequence, the Lambert-Beer law is not applicable for the determination of the absorption coefficient of thin films. Furthermore, observable changes of the transmission and reflection spectra occur in the vicinity of strong absorption bands due to the Kramers-Kronig relation. For a sound data evaluation these effects have to be included in the analysis. To be able to extract the full information contained in a measured optical thin film spectrum, ...

  7. Room temperature ferroelectricity in continuous croconic acid thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang, Xuanyuan; Lu, Haidong; Yin, Yuewei; Ahmadi, Zahra; Costa, Paulo S. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Nebraska, Lincoln, Nebraska 68588 (United States); Zhang, Xiaozhe [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Nebraska, Lincoln, Nebraska 68588 (United States); Department of Physics, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an 710049 (China); Wang, Xiao; Yu, Le; Cheng, Xuemei [Department of Physics, Bryn Mawr College, Bryn Mawr, Pennsylvania 19010 (United States); DiChiara, Anthony D. [Advanced Photon Source, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States); Gruverman, Alexei, E-mail: alexei-gruverman@unl.edu, E-mail: a.enders@me.com, E-mail: xiaoshan.xu@unl.edu; Enders, Axel, E-mail: alexei-gruverman@unl.edu, E-mail: a.enders@me.com, E-mail: xiaoshan.xu@unl.edu; Xu, Xiaoshan, E-mail: alexei-gruverman@unl.edu, E-mail: a.enders@me.com, E-mail: xiaoshan.xu@unl.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Nebraska, Lincoln, Nebraska 68588 (United States); Nebraska Center for Materials and Nanoscience, University of Nebraska, Lincoln, Nebraska 68588 (United States)

    2016-09-05

    Ferroelectricity at room temperature has been demonstrated in nanometer-thin quasi 2D croconic acid thin films, by the polarization hysteresis loop measurements in macroscopic capacitor geometry, along with observation and manipulation of the nanoscale domain structure by piezoresponse force microscopy. The fabrication of continuous thin films of the hydrogen-bonded croconic acid was achieved by the suppression of the thermal decomposition using low evaporation temperatures in high vacuum, combined with growth conditions far from thermal equilibrium. For nominal coverages ≥20 nm, quasi 2D and polycrystalline films, with an average grain size of 50–100 nm and 3.5 nm roughness, can be obtained. Spontaneous ferroelectric domain structures of the thin films have been observed and appear to correlate with the grain patterns. The application of this solvent-free growth protocol may be a key to the development of flexible organic ferroelectric thin films for electronic applications.

  8. Room temperature deposition of magnetite thin films on organic substrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arisi, E.; Bergenti, I.; Cavallini, M.; Murgia, M.; Riminucci, A.; Ruani, G.; Dediu, V.

    2007-01-01

    We report on the growth of magnetite films directly on thin layers of organic semiconductors by means of an electron beam ablation method. The deposition was performed at room temperature in a reactive plasma atmosphere. Thin films show ferromagnetic (FM) hysteresis loops and coercive fields of hundreds of Oersted. Micro Raman analysis indicates no presence of spurious phases. The morphology of the magnetite film is strongly influenced by the morphology of the underlayer of the organic semiconductor. These results open the way for the application of magnetite thin films in the field of organic spintronics

  9. Thin Films for Advanced Glazing Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ann-Louise Anderson

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Functional thin films provide many opportunities for advanced glazing systems. This can be achieved by adding additional functionalities such as self-cleaning or power generation, or alternately by providing energy demand reduction through the management or modulation of solar heat gain or blackbody radiation using spectrally selective films or chromogenic materials. Self-cleaning materials have been generating increasing interest for the past two decades. They may be based on hydrophobic or hydrophilic systems and are often inspired by nature, for example hydrophobic systems based on mimicking the lotus leaf. These materials help to maintain the aesthetic properties of the building, help to maintain a comfortable working environment and in the case of photocatalytic materials, may provide external pollutant remediation. Power generation through window coatings is a relatively new idea and is based around the use of semi-transparent solar cells as windows. In this fashion, energy can be generated whilst also absorbing some solar heat. There is also the possibility, in the case of dye sensitized solar cells, to tune the coloration of the window that provides unheralded external aesthetic possibilities. Materials and coatings for energy demand reduction is highly desirable in an increasingly energy intensive world. We discuss new developments with low emissivity coatings as the need to replace scarce indium becomes more apparent. We go on to discuss thermochromic systems based on vanadium dioxide films. Such systems are dynamic in nature and present a more sophisticated and potentially more beneficial approach to reducing energy demand than static systems such as low emissivity and solar control coatings. The ability to be able to tune some of the material parameters in order to optimize the film performance for a given climate provides exciting opportunities for future technologies. In this article, we review recent progress and challenges in

  10. Modifying thin film diamond for electronic applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baral, B.

    1999-01-01

    The unique combination of properties that diamond possesses are being exploited in both electronic and mechanical applications. An important step forward in the field has been the ability to grow thin film diamond by chemical vapour deposition (CVD) methods and to control parameters such as crystal orientation, dopant level and surface roughness. An extensive understanding of the surface of any potential electronic material is vital to fully comprehend its behaviour within device structures. The surface itself ultimately controls key aspects of device performance when interfaced with other materials. This study has provided insight into important chemical reactions on polycrystalline CVD diamond surfaces, addressing how certain surface modifications will ultimately affect the properties of the material. A review of the structure, bonding, properties and potential of diamond along with an account of the current state of diamond technology and CVD diamond growth is provided. The experimental chapter reviews bulk material and surface analytical techniques employed in this work and is followed by an investigation of cleaning treatments for polycrystalline CVD diamond aimed at removing non-diamond carbon from the surface. Selective acid etch treatments are compared and contrasted for efficacy with excimer laser irradiation and hydrogen plasma etching. The adsorption/desorption kinetics of potential dopant-containing precursors on polycrystalline CVD diamond surfaces have been investigated to compare their effectiveness at introducing dopants into the diamond during the growth stage. Both boron and sulphur-containing precursor compounds have been investigated. Treating polycrystalline CVD diamond in various atmospheres / combination of atmospheres has been performed to enhance electron field emission from the films. Films which do not emit electrons under low field conditions can be modified such that they emit at fields as low as 10 V/μm. The origin of this enhancement

  11. Evaluation of residual stress in sputtered tantalum thin-film

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-masha’al, Asa’ad, E-mail: asaad.al@ed.ac.uk; Bunting, Andrew; Cheung, Rebecca

    2016-05-15

    Highlights: • Tantalum thin-films have been deposited by DC magnetron sputtering system. • Thin-film stress is observed to be strongly influenced by sputtering pressure. • Transition towards the compressive stress is ascribed to the annealing at 300 °C. • Expose thin-film to air ambient or ion bombardment lead to a noticeable change in the residual stress. - Abstract: The influence of deposition conditions on the residual stress of sputtered tantalum thin-film has been evaluated in the present study. Films have been deposited by DC magnetron sputtering and curvature measurement method has been employed to calculate the residual stress of the films. Transitions of tantalum film stress from compressive to tensile state have been observed as the sputtering pressure increases. Also, the effect of annealing process at temperature range of 90–300 °C in oxygen ambient on the residual stress of the films has been studied. The results demonstrate that the residual stress of the films that have been deposited at lower sputtering pressure has become more compressive when annealed at 300 °C. Furthermore, the impact of exposure to atmospheric ambient on the tantalum film stress has been investigated by monitoring the variation of the residual stress of both annealed and unannealed films over time. The as-deposited films have been exposed to pure Argon energy bombardment and as result, a high compressive stress has been developed in the films.

  12. The Structure and Stability of Molybdenum Ditelluride Thin Films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhouling Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Molybdenum-tellurium alloy thin films were fabricated by electron beam evaporation and the films were annealed in different conditions in N2 ambient. The hexagonal molybdenum ditelluride thin films with well crystallization annealed at 470°C or higher were obtained by solid state reactions. Thermal stability measurements indicate the formation of MoTe2 took place at about 350°C, and a subtle weight-loss was in the range between 30°C and 500°C. The evolution of the chemistry for Mo-Te thin films was performed to investigate the growth of the MoTe2 thin films free of any secondary phase. And the effect of other postdeposition treatments on the film characteristics was also investigated.

  13. Investigation of ferromagnetism in oxygen deficient hafnium oxide thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hildebrandt, Erwin; Kurian, Jose; Krockenberger, Yoshiharu; Alff, Lambert [Institut fuer Materialwissenschaft, TU Darmstadt (Germany); Suter, Andreas [PSI, Villingen (Switzerland); Wilhelm, Fabrice; Rogalev, Andrei [ESRF, Grenoble (France)

    2008-07-01

    Oxygen deficient thin films of hafnium oxide were grown on single crystal r-cut and c-cut sapphire by reactive molecular beam epitaxy. RF-activated oxygen was used for the in situ oxidation of hafnium oxide thin films. Oxidation conditions were varied substantially in order to create oxygen deficiency in hafnium oxide films intentionally. The films were characterized by X-ray and magnetic measurements. X-ray diffraction studies show an increase in lattice parameter with increasing oxygen deficiency. Oxygen deficient hafnium oxide thin films also showed a decreasing bandgap with increase in oxygen deficiency. The magnetisation studies carried out with SQUID did not show any sign of ferromagnetism in the whole oxygen deficiency range. X-ray magnetic circular dichroism measurements also confirmed the absence of ferromagnetism in oxygen deficient hafnium oxide thin films.

  14. In vitro behaviour of nanocrystalline silver-sputtered thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piedade, A P; Vieira, M T; Martins, A; Silva, F

    2007-01-01

    Silver thin films were deposited with different preferential orientations and special attention was paid to the bioreactivity of the surfaces. The study was essentially focused on the evaluation of the films by x-ray diffraction (XRD), atomic force microscopy (AFM), high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), electron probe microanalysis (EPMA) and contact angle measurements. The deposited thin films were characterized before and after immersion in S-enriched simulated human plasma in order to estimate the influence of the preferential crystallographic orientation on the in vitro behaviour. Silver thin films with and without (111) preferential crystallographic orientation were deposited by r.f. magnetron sputtering to yield nanocrystalline coatings, high compact structures, very hydrophobic surfaces and low roughness. These properties reduce the chemisorption of reactive species onto the film surface. The in vitro tests indicate that silver thin films can be used as coatings for biomaterials applications

  15. Novel photon management for thin-film photovoltaics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menon, Rajesh [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States)

    2016-11-11

    The objective of this project is to enable commercially viable thin-film photovoltaics whose efficiencies are increased by over 10% using a novel optical spectral-separation technique. A thin planar diffractive optic is proposed that efficiently separates the solar spectrum and assigns these bands to optimal thin-film sub-cells. An integrated device that is comprised of the optical element, an array of sub-cells and associated packaging is proposed.

  16. Altering properties of cerium oxide thin films by Rh doping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ševčíková, Klára; Nehasil, Václav; Vorokhta, Mykhailo; Haviar, Stanislav; Matolín, Vladimír

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Thin films of ceria doped by rhodium deposited by RF magnetron sputtering. • Concentration of rhodium has great impact on properties of Rh–CeO x thin films. • Intensive oxygen migration in films with low concentration of rhodium. • Oxygen migration suppressed in films with high amount of Rh dopants. - Abstract: Ceria containing highly dispersed ions of rhodium is a promising material for catalytic applications. The Rh–CeO x thin films with different concentrations of rhodium were deposited by RF magnetron sputtering and were studied by soft and hard X-ray photoelectron spectroscopies, Temperature programmed reaction and X-ray powder diffraction techniques. The sputtered films consist of rhodium–cerium mixed oxide where cerium exhibits a mixed valency of Ce 4+ and Ce 3+ and rhodium occurs in two oxidation states, Rh 3+ and Rh n+ . We show that the concentration of rhodium has a great influence on the chemical composition, structure and reducibility of the Rh–CeO x thin films. The films with low concentrations of rhodium are polycrystalline, while the films with higher amount of Rh dopants are amorphous. The morphology of the films strongly influences the mobility of oxygen in the material. Therefore, varying the concentration of rhodium in Rh–CeO x thin films leads to preparing materials with different properties

  17. Pulsed laser deposition and characterisation of thin superconducting films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morone, A [CNR, zona industriale di Tito Scalo, Potenza (Italy). Istituto per i Materiali Speciali

    1996-09-01

    Same concepts on pulsed laser deposition of thin films will be discussed and same examples of high transition temperature (HTc) BiSrCaCuO (BISCO) and low transition temperature NbN/MgO/NbN multilayers will be presented. X-ray and others characterizations of these films will be reported and discussed. Electrical properties of superconducting thin films will be realized as a function of structural and morphological aspect.

  18. Thin film coatings for space electrical power system applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulino, Daniel A.

    1988-01-01

    This paper examines some of the ways in which thin film coatings can play a role in aerospace applications. Space systems discussed include photovoltaic and solar dynamic electric power generation systems, including applications in environmental protection, thermal energy storage, and radiator emittance enhancement. Potential applications of diamondlike films to both atmospheric and space based systems are examined. Also, potential uses of thin films of the recently discovered high-temperature superconductive materials are discussed.

  19. Preparation and optical characterization of DNA-riboflavin thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulson, Bjorn; Shin, Inchul; Kong, Byungjoo; Sauer, Gregor; Dugasani, Sreekantha Reddy; Khazaeinezhad, Reza; Jung, Woohyun; Joo, Boram; Oh, Kyunghwan

    2016-09-01

    Thin films of DNA biopolymer thin film are fabricated by a drop casting process on glass and silicon substrates, as well as freestanding. The refractive index is measured by elliposmetry and in bulk DNA film the refractive index is shown to be increased in the 600 to 900 nm DNA transparency window by doping with riboflavin. Further analysis with FT-IR, Raman, and XRD are used to determine whether binding between riboflavin and DNA occurs.

  20. Thin film adhesion by nanoindentation-induced superlayers. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerberich, William W.; Volinsky, A.A.

    2001-06-01

    This work has analyzed the key variables of indentation tip radius, contact radius, delamination radius, residual stress and superlayer/film/interlayer properties on nanoindentation measurements of adhesion. The goal to connect practical works of adhesion for very thin films to true works of adhesion has been achieved. A review of this work titled ''Interfacial toughness measurements of thin metal films,'' which has been submitted to Acta Materialia, is included.

  1. Simple turbulence measurements with azopolymer thin films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barillé, Regis; Pérez, Darío G; Morille, Yohann; Zielińska, Sonia; Ortyl, Ewelina

    2013-04-01

    A simple method to measure the influence on the laser beam propagation by a turbid medium is proposed. This measurement is based on the inscription of a surface relief grating (SRG) on an azopolymer thin film. The grating obtained with a single laser beam after propagation into a turbulent medium is perturbed and directly analyzed by a CCD camera through its diffraction pattern. Later, by scanning the surface pattern with an atomic force microscope, the inscribed SRG is analyzed with the Radon transform. This method has the advantage of using a single beam to remotely inscribe a grating detecting perturbations during the beam path. A method to evaluate the refractive index constant structure is developed.

  2. Thin film femtosecond laser damage competition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stolz, Christopher J.; Ristau, Detlev; Turowski, Marcus; Blaschke, Holger

    2009-10-01

    In order to determine the current status of thin film laser resistance within the private, academic, and government sectors, a damage competition was started at the 2008 Boulder Damage Symposium. This damage competition allows a direct comparison of the current state of the art of high laser resistance coatings since they are tested using the same damage test setup and the same protocol. In 2009 a high reflector coating was selected at a wavelength of 786 nm at normal incidence at a pulse length of 180 femtoseconds. A double blind test assured sample and submitter anonymity so only a summary of the results are presented here. In addition to the laser resistance results, details of deposition processes, coating materials and layer count, and spectral results will also be shared.

  3. PZT thin film actuated elastic fin micromotor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubois, M A; Muralt, P

    1998-01-01

    A piezoelectric elastic fin micromotor based on a PbZr(0.53 )Ti(0.47)O(3) thin film driving a micromachined silicon membrane was fabricated and studied. The stator was characterized by interferometry, and a laser set-up was used to measure the angular velocity and acceleration of the motor. The torque, the output power, and the efficiency of the device were extracted from these measurements. Values up to 1020 rpm and 0.94 microNm were observed for the velocity and the torque, respectively, which would be sufficient for a wristwatch application. The present version exhibited an efficiency of 0.17%, which could theoretically be increased to 4.8%

  4. Quantitative MFM on superconducting thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stopfel, Henry; Vock, Silvia; Shapoval, Tetyana; Neu, Volker; Wolff, Ulrike; Haindl, Silvia; Engelmann, Jan; Schaefer, Rudolf; Holzapfel, Bernhard; Schultz, Ludwig [IFW Dresden, Institute for Metallic Material (Germany); Inosov, Dmytro S. [Max Planck Institute for Solid State Research, Stuttgart (Germany)

    2012-07-01

    Quantitative interpretation of magnetic force microscopy (MFM) data is a challenge, because the measured signal is a convolution between the magnetization of the tip and the stray field emanated by the sample. It was established theoretically that the field distribution just above the surface of the superconductor can be well approximated by the stray field of a magnetic monopole. The description of the MFM tip, however, needs a second approximation. The temperature-dependent vortex-distribution images on a NbN thin film were fitted using two different tip models. Firstly, the magnetic tip was assumed to be a monopole that leads to the simple monopole-monopole model for the tip-sample interaction force. Performing a 2D fitting of the data with this model, we extracted λ, Δ and the vortex pinning force. Secondly, a geometrical model was applied to calculate the tip-transfer-function of the MFM tip using the numerical BEM method.

  5. Multiferroics and magnetoelectrics: thin films and nanostructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, L W; Crane, S P; Chu, Y-H; Holcomb, M B; Gajek, M; Huijben, M; Yang, C-H; Balke, N; Ramesh, R [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Department of Physics, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Materials Sciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)], E-mail: lwmartin@lbl.gov

    2008-10-29

    Multiferroic materials, or materials that simultaneously possess two or more ferroic order parameters, have returned to the forefront of materials research. Driven by the desire to achieve new functionalities-such as electrical control of ferromagnetism at room temperature-researchers have undertaken a concerted effort to identify and understand the complexities of multiferroic materials. The ability to create high quality thin film multiferroics stands as one of the single most important landmarks in this flurry of research activity. In this review we discuss the basics of multiferroics including the important order parameters and magnetoelectric coupling in materials. We then discuss in detail the growth of single phase, horizontal multilayer, and vertical heterostructure multiferroics. The review ends with a look to the future and how multiferroics can be used to create new functionalities in materials.

  6. Multiferroics and magnetoelectrics: thin films and nanostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, L. W.; Crane, S. P.; Chu, Y.-H.; Holcomb, M. B.; Gajek, M.; Huijben, M.; Yang, C.-H.; Balke, N.; Ramesh, R.

    2008-10-01

    Multiferroic materials, or materials that simultaneously possess two or more ferroic order parameters, have returned to the forefront of materials research. Driven by the desire to achieve new functionalities—such as electrical control of ferromagnetism at room temperature—researchers have undertaken a concerted effort to identify and understand the complexities of multiferroic materials. The ability to create high quality thin film multiferroics stands as one of the single most important landmarks in this flurry of research activity. In this review we discuss the basics of multiferroics including the important order parameters and magnetoelectric coupling in materials. We then discuss in detail the growth of single phase, horizontal multilayer, and vertical heterostructure multiferroics. The review ends with a look to the future and how multiferroics can be used to create new functionalities in materials.

  7. Multiferroics and magnetoelectrics: thin films and nanostructures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, L W; Crane, S P; Chu, Y-H; Holcomb, M B; Gajek, M; Huijben, M; Yang, C-H; Balke, N; Ramesh, R

    2008-01-01

    Multiferroic materials, or materials that simultaneously possess two or more ferroic order parameters, have returned to the forefront of materials research. Driven by the desire to achieve new functionalities-such as electrical control of ferromagnetism at room temperature-researchers have undertaken a concerted effort to identify and understand the complexities of multiferroic materials. The ability to create high quality thin film multiferroics stands as one of the single most important landmarks in this flurry of research activity. In this review we discuss the basics of multiferroics including the important order parameters and magnetoelectric coupling in materials. We then discuss in detail the growth of single phase, horizontal multilayer, and vertical heterostructure multiferroics. The review ends with a look to the future and how multiferroics can be used to create new functionalities in materials.

  8. Fluctuation conductivity of thin superconductive vanadium films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dmitrenko, I.M.; Sidorenko, A.S.; Fogel, N.Y.

    1982-01-01

    Resistive transitions into the superconductive state are studied in thin [d >T/sub c/ the experimental data on the excess conductivity of the films agree qualitatively and quantitively with Aslamazov--Larkin theory. There is no Maki--Thompson contribution to fluctuation conductivity. Near T/sub c/ the excess conductivity sigma' changes exponentially with temperature in accordance with the predictions of the theory of the critical fluctuations of the order parameter. The values of the effective charge carrier mass defined from data on sigma' for the low fluctuation and critical fluctuation regions differ markedly. This difference is within the spread of effective masses for various charge carrier groups already known for vanadium. Causes of the difference in resistive behavior for the regions T >T/sub c/ are considered

  9. The Characterization of Thin Film Nickel Titanium Shape Memory Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris Odum, Nicole Latrice

    Shape memory alloys (SMA) are able to recover their original shape through the appropriate heat or stress exposure after enduring mechanical deformation at a low temperature. Numerous alloy systems have been discovered which produce this unique feature like TiNb, AgCd, NiAl, NiTi, and CuZnAl. Since their discovery, bulk scale SMAs have undergone extensive material property investigations and are employed in real world applications. However, its thin film counterparts have been modestly investigated and applied. Researchers have introduced numerous theoretical microelectromechanical system (MEMS) devices; yet, the research community's overall unfamiliarity with the thin film properties has delayed growth in this area. In addition, it has been difficult to outline efficient thin film processing techniques. In this dissertation, NiTi thin film processing and characterization techniques will be outlined and discussed. NiTi thin films---1 mum thick---were produced using sputter deposition techniques. Substrate bound thin films were deposited to analysis the surface using Scanning Electron Microscopy; the film composition was obtained using Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy; the phases were identified using X-ray diffraction; and the transformation temperatures acquired using resistivity testing. Microfabrication processing and sputter deposition were employed to develop tensile membranes for membrane deflection experimentation to gain insight on the mechanical properties of the thin films. The incorporation of these findings will aid in the movement of SMA microactuation devices from theory to fruition and greatly benefit industries such as medicinal and aeronautical.

  10. Thin Film Approaches to the SRF Cavity Problem Fabrication and Characterization of Superconducting Thin Films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beringer, Douglas [College of William and Mary, Williamsburg, VA (United States)

    2017-08-01

    Superconducting Radio Frequency (SRF) cavities are responsible for the acceleration of charged particles to relativistic velocities in most modern linear accelerators, such as those employed at high-energy research facilities like Thomas Jefferson National Laboratory’s CEBAF and the LHC at CERN. Recognizing SRF as primarily a surface phenomenon enables the possibility of applying thin films to the interior surface of SRF cavities, opening a formidable tool chest of opportunities by combining and designing materials that offer greater performance benefit. Thus, while improvements in radio frequency cavity design and refinements in cavity processing techniques have improved accelerator performance and efficiency – 1.5 GHz bulk niobium SRF cavities have achieved accelerating gradients in excess of 35 MV/m – there exist fundamental material bounds in bulk superconductors limiting the maximally sustained accelerating field gradient (≈ 45 MV/m for Nb) where inevitable thermodynamic breakdown occurs. With state of the art Nb based cavity design fast approaching these theoretical limits, novel material innovations must be sought in order to realize next generation SRF cavities. One proposed method to improve SRF performance is to utilize thin film superconducting-insulating-superconducting (SIS) multilayer structures to effectively magnetically screen a bulk superconducting layer such that it can operate at higher field gradients before suffering critically detrimental SRF losses. This dissertation focuses on the production and characterization of thin film superconductors for such SIS layers for radio frequency applications. Correlated studies on structure, surface morphology and superconducting properties of epitaxial Nb and MgB2 thin films are presented.

  11. Fluorine doped vanadium dioxide thin films for smart windows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiri, Pragna; Warwick, Michael E.A.; Ridley, Ian; Binions, Russell

    2011-01-01

    Thermochromic fluorine doped thin films of vanadium dioxide were deposited from the aerosol assisted chemical vapour deposition reaction of vanadyl acetylacetonate, ethanol and trifluoroacetic acid on glass substrates. The films were characterised with scanning electron microscopy, variable temperature Raman spectroscopy and variable temperature UV/Vis spectroscopy. The incorporation of fluorine in the films led to an increase in the visible transmittance of the films whilst retaining the thermochromic properties. This approach shows promise for improving the aesthetic properties of vanadium dioxide thin films.

  12. Sensing of volatile organic compounds by copper phthalocyanine thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridhi, R.; Saini, G. S. S.; Tripathi, S. K.

    2017-02-01

    Thin films of copper phthalocyanine have been deposited by thermal evaporation technique. We have subsequently exposed these films to the vapours of methanol, ethanol and propanol. Optical absorption, infrared spectra and electrical conductivities of these films before and after exposure to chemical vapours have been recorded in order to study their sensing mechanisms towards organic vapours. These films exhibit maximum sensing response to methanol while low sensitivities of the films towards ethanol and propanol have been observed. The changes in sensitivities have been correlated with presence of carbon groups in the chemical vapours. The effect of different types of electrodes on response-recovery times of the thin film with organic vapours has been studied and compared. The electrodes gap distance affects the sensitivity as well as response-recovery time values of the thin films.

  13. Glass transition and thermal expansivity of polystyrene thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inoue, R.; Kanaya, T.; Miyazaki, T.; Nishida, K.; Tsukushi, I.; Shibata, K.

    2006-01-01

    We have studied glass transition temperature and thermal expansivity of polystyrene thin films supported on silicon substrate using X-ray reflectivity and inelastic neutron scattering techniques. In annealing experiments, we have found that the reported apparent negative expansivity of polymer thin films is caused by unrelaxed structure due to insufficient annealing. Using well-annealed films, we have evaluated glass transition temperature T g and thermal expansivity as a function of film thickness. The glass transition temperature decreases with film thickness and is constant below about 10 nm, suggesting the surface glass transition temperature of 355 K, which is lower than that in bulk. We have also found that the thermal expansivity in the glassy state decreases with film thickness even after annealing. The decrease has been attributed to hardening of harmonic force constant arising from chain confinement in a thin film. This idea has been confirmed in the inelastic neutron scattering measurements

  14. Glass transition and thermal expansivity of polystyrene thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Inoue, R. [Institute for Chemical Research, Kyoto University, Uji, Kyoto-fu 611-0011 (Japan); Kanaya, T. [Institute for Chemical Research, Kyoto University, Uji, Kyoto-fu 611-0011 (Japan)]. E-mail: kanaya@scl.kyoto-u.ac.jp; Miyazaki, T. [Nitto Denko Corporation, 1-1-2 Shimohozumi, Ibaraki, Osaka-fu 567-8680 (Japan); Nishida, K. [Institute for Chemical Research, Kyoto University, Uji, Kyoto-fu 611-0011 (Japan); Tsukushi, I. [Chiba Institute of Technology, Narashino, Chiba-ken 275-0023 (Japan); Shibata, K. [Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, Tokai, Ibaraki-ken 319-1195 (Japan)

    2006-12-20

    We have studied glass transition temperature and thermal expansivity of polystyrene thin films supported on silicon substrate using X-ray reflectivity and inelastic neutron scattering techniques. In annealing experiments, we have found that the reported apparent negative expansivity of polymer thin films is caused by unrelaxed structure due to insufficient annealing. Using well-annealed films, we have evaluated glass transition temperature T {sub g} and thermal expansivity as a function of film thickness. The glass transition temperature decreases with film thickness and is constant below about 10 nm, suggesting the surface glass transition temperature of 355 K, which is lower than that in bulk. We have also found that the thermal expansivity in the glassy state decreases with film thickness even after annealing. The decrease has been attributed to hardening of harmonic force constant arising from chain confinement in a thin film. This idea has been confirmed in the inelastic neutron scattering measurements.

  15. Thin film characterization by resonantly excited internal standing waves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Di Fonzio, S [SINCROTRONE TRIESTE, Trieste (Italy)

    1996-09-01

    This contribution describes how a standing wave excited in a thin film can be used for the characterization of the properties of the film. By means of grazing incidence X-ray reflectometry one can deduce the total film thickness. On the other hand in making use of a strong resonance effect in the electric field intensity distribution inside a thin film on a bulk substrate one can learn more about the internal structure of the film. The profile of the internal standing wave is proven by diffraction experiments. The most appropriate non-destructive technique for the subsequent thin film characterization is angularly dependent X-ray fluorescence analysis. The existence of the resonance makes it a powerful tool for the detection of impurities and of ultra-thin maker layers, for which the position can be determined with very high precision (about 1% of the total film thickness). This latter aspect will be discussed here on samples which had a thin Ti marker layer at different positions in a carbon film. Due to the resonance enhancement it was still possible to perform these experiments with a standard laboratory x-ray tube and with standard laboratory tool for marker or impurity detection in thin films.

  16. Thin Film Approaches to the SRF Cavity Problem: Fabrication and Characterization of Superconducting Thin Films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beringer, Douglas B.

    Superconducting Radio Frequency (SRF) cavities are responsible for the acceleration of charged particles to relativistic velocities in most modern linear accelerators, such as those employed at high-energy research facilities like Thomas Jefferson National Laboratory's CEBAF and the LHC at CERN. Recognizing SRF as primarily a surface phenomenon enables the possibility of applying thin films to the interior surface of SRF cavities, opening a formidable tool chest of opportunities by combining and designing materials that offer greater benefit. Thus, while improvements in radio frequency cavity design and refinements in cavity processing techniques have improved accelerator performance and efficiency - 1.5 GHz bulk niobium SRF cavities have achieved accelerating gradients in excess of 35 MV/m - there exist fundamental material bounds in bulk superconductors limiting the maximally sustained accelerating field gradient (approximately 45 MV/m for Niobium) where inevitable thermodynamic breakdown occurs. With state of the art niobium based cavity design fast approaching these theoretical limits, novel material innovations must be sought in order to realize next generation SRF cavities. One proposed method to improve SRF performance is to utilize thin film superconducting-insulating-superconducting (SIS) multilayer structures to effectively magnetically screen a bulk superconducting layer such that it can operate at higher field gradients before suffering critically detrimental SRF losses. This dissertation focuses on the production and characterization of thin film superconductors for such SIS layers for radio-frequency applications.

  17. Thin-film growth and the shadow instability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karunasiri, R.P.U.; Bruinsma, R.; Rudnick, J.

    1989-01-01

    We propose a growth model for deposition of thin amorphous films by the sputtering technique. For small values of the diffusion constant, the film develops a self-similar mountain landscape. As the diffusion constant is increased a regime is reached where growth of compact flat films is possible up to a critical height. Further deposition leads to surface roughening

  18. Inhomogeneous strain states in sputter deposited tungsten thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noyan, I.C.; Shaw, T.M.; Goldsmith, C.C.

    1997-01-01

    The results of an x-ray diffraction study of dc-magnetron sputtered tungsten thin films are reported. It is shown that the phase transformation from the β to α W can cause multilayered single-phase films where the layers have very different stress states even if the films are in the 500 nm thickness range. copyright 1997 American Institute of Physics

  19. Strain-induced properties of epitaxial VOx thin films

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rata, AD; Hibma, T

    We have grown VOx thin films on different substrates in order to investigate the influence of epitaxial strain on the transport properties. We found that the electric conductivity is much larger for films grown under compressive strain on SrTiO3 substrates, as compared to bulk material and VOx films

  20. Electrical Conductivity of CUXS Thin Film Deposited by Chemical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Thin films of CuxS have successfully been deposited on glass substrates using the Chemical Bath Deposition (CBD) technique. The films were then investigated for their electrical properties. The results showed that the electrical conductivities of the CuxS films with different molarities (n) of thiourea (Tu), determined using ...

  1. Photoinduced conductivity in tin dioxide thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muraoka, Y.; Takubo, N.; Hiroi, Z.

    2009-01-01

    The effects of ultraviolet light irradiation on the conducting properties of SnO 2-x thin films grown epitaxially on TiO 2 or Al 2 O 3 single-crystal substrates are studied at room temperature. A large increase in conductivity by two to four orders of magnitude is observed with light irradiation in an inert atmosphere and remains after the light is removed. The high-conducting state reverts to the original low-conducting state by exposing it to oxygen gas. These reversible phenomena are ascribed to the desorption and adsorption of negatively charged oxygen species at the grain boundaries, which critically change the mobility of electron carriers already present inside grains by changing the potential barrier height at the grain boundary. The UV light irradiation provides us with an easy and useful route to achieve a high-conducting state even at low carrier density in transparent conducting oxides and also to draw an invisible conducting wire or a specific pattern on an insulating film.

  2. Electrodeposition of thin Pd-Ag films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasler, P.; Allmendinger, T.

    1993-01-01

    Thin Pd-Ag layers were electroplated preferably on brass and on nickel substrates using a two-compartment cell separated by an anion exchange membrane. The weakly alkaline electrolyte contained glycine-glycinate as the major complexing agents. The plating experiments were usually carried out without stirring, at different potentials and temperatures and in the absence or in the presence of sodium benzaldehyde-2,4-disulphonate (BDS). The samples were characterized by scanning electron microscopy and light microscopy. Their compositions were determined analytically by the inductively coupled plasma technique. In addition, the film porosity was tested. Electrodeposition in almost limiting current conditions for both components and without simultaneous hydrogen evolution led to deposits with compositions being in good agreement with the molar metal ratio in the electrolyte (77:23). The best results were achieved between 0 and -50 mV with respect to a reversible hydrogen electrode at 0 C in the presence of BDS. These deposits were bright, had good adherence and exhibited no pores at a film thickness of 1.2 μm. At too negative potentials, the deposits became black and powdery. (orig.)

  3. Mechanics of evolving thin film structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Jim

    In the Stranski-Krastanov system, the lattice mismatch between the film and the substrate causes the film to break into islands. During annealing, both the surface energy and the elastic energy drive the islands to coarsen. Motivated by several related studies, we suggest that stable islands should form when a stiff ceiling is placed at a small gap above the film. We show that the role of elasticity is reversed: with the ceiling, the total elastic energy stored in the system increases as the islands coarsen laterally. Consequently, the islands select an equilibrium size to minimize the combined elastic energy and surface energy. In lithographically-induced self-assembly, when a two-phase fluid confined between parallel substrates is subjected to an electric field, one phase can self-assemble into a triangular lattice of islands in another phase. We describe a theory of the stability of the island lattice. The islands select the equilibrium diameter to minimize the combined interface energy and electrostatic energy. Furthermore, we study compressed SiGe thin film islands fabricated on a glass layer, which itself lies on a silicon wafer. Upon annealing, the glass flows, and the islands relax. A small island relaxes by in-plane expansion. A large island, however, wrinkles at the center before the in-plane relaxation arrives. The wrinkles may cause significant tensile stress in the island, leading to fracture. We model the island by the von Karman plate theory and the glass layer by the Reynolds lubrication theory. Numerical simulations evolve the in-plane expansion and the wrinkles simultaneously. We determine the critical island size, below which in-plane expansion prevails over wrinkling. Finally, in devices that integrate dissimilar materials in small dimensions, crack extension in one material often accompanies inelastic deformation in another. We analyze a channel crack advancing in an elastic film under tension, while an underlayer creeps. We use a two

  4. Subtractive fabrication of ferroelectric thin films with precisely controlled thickness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ievlev, Anton V.; Chyasnavichyus, Marius; Leonard, Donovan N.; Agar, Joshua C.; Velarde, Gabriel A.; Martin, Lane W.; Kalinin, Sergei V.; Maksymovych, Petro; Ovchinnikova, Olga S.

    2018-04-01

    The ability to control thin-film growth has led to advances in our understanding of fundamental physics as well as to the emergence of novel technologies. However, common thin-film growth techniques introduce a number of limitations related to the concentration of defects on film interfaces and surfaces that limit the scope of systems that can be produced and studied experimentally. Here, we developed an ion-beam based subtractive fabrication process that enables creation and modification of thin films with pre-defined thicknesses. To accomplish this we transformed a multimodal imaging platform that combines time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry with atomic force microscopy to a unique fabrication tool that allows for precise sputtering of the nanometer-thin layers of material. To demonstrate fabrication of thin-films with in situ feedback and control on film thickness and functionality we systematically studied thickness dependence of ferroelectric switching of lead-zirconate-titanate, within a single epitaxial film. Our results demonstrate that through a subtractive film fabrication process we can control the piezoelectric response as a function of film thickness as well as improve on the overall piezoelectric response versus an untreated film.

  5. Sol-Gel Synthesis and Characterization of Ba1-xGdxTiO3+δ Thin Films on SiO2/Si Substrates Using Spin-Coating Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yen Chin TEH

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Ba1-xGdxTiO3+δ, at x = 0, 0.05, 0.1, 0.15, 0.2, (BGT thin films have been fabricated on SiO2/Si substrate using Sol-Gel method. The microstructure and surface morphology of the fabricated films have been investigated using X-ray diffraction (XRD and atomic force microscopy (AFM. The XRD results show that the fabricated films are crystalline with perovskite structure. There is a shifting of the preferred peak at 31.5o to a higher angle as the doping ratio increases suggesting a distortion lattice exists in the films, which could be due to the substitution of Gd3+ ions into Ba-site. The decreasing of lattice constants confirms the substitution of Gd3+ in BaTiO3 lattice structure. The microstrain and dislocation density are found to be increased with the increase of Gd3+ doping, which attributed to the reduction of lattice volume that due to the ionic size mismatch effect. The AFM results show decreasing trend in both average grain size and roughness parameters. Therefore, the microstructure and surface morphology of BGT samples is strongly dependent on the Gd3+ doping concentration that mainly due to the difference ionic radius substitution.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.ms.23.1.13954

  6. Ajuste teórico de las curvas PTCR de BaTiO3 dopado con niobio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Castro, M. S.

    2002-02-01

    Full Text Available In this work, a theoretical fitting to the experimental PTCR effect in slightly Nb-doped BaTiO3 from the Heywang-Jonker model is simulated. Besides, a qualitative approach was used to evaluate the GBBL characteristics of strongly Nb - doped BaTiO3. In both cases, a link between the electrical properties and the defect profile developed in these based - BaTiO3 ceramics was established. From the results, good agreement between experimental and calculated results was obtained for the PTCR ceramics. Asmall increment in Nb2O5 concentration leads to an increasing in the concentration of occupied acceptor states, the energy of the surface state and also the barrier height. In these cases, microstructural observations shown an important grain growth with average grain size between 10 and 100μm. EPR results clearly indicate low concentration of cationic vacancies for these materials. This phenomenon is associated to a charge-compensation mechanism in slightly-doped BaTiO3, that result in a semiconducting behaviour. On the other hand, the electrical behaviour of strongly–doped BaTiO3 moves away from the PTCR effect, and the material becomes insulating with noticeable GBBL characteristics. In this case, microstructural observations along defect structure analysis encourage the hypothesis in which barium vacancies act as acceptor at grain boundaries and play and important role in restricting grain growth of Nb2O5-BaTiO3 ceramics.En este trabajo se determinó la influencia de la concentración de Nb2O5 sobre el comportamiento PTCR de cerámicos basados en BaTiO3. Por otra parte, se estudió el impacto de una gran concentración del dopante sobre el comportamiento GBBL del BaTiO3. En ambos casos, se estableció una relación entre las propiedades eléctricas observadas y la estructura de defectos iónicos desarrollada. La aplicación del modelo de Heywang-Jonker permite el ajuste teórico de las curvas de resistividad – temperatura de los cerámicos PTCR estudiados. Se determinó que la incorporación de concentraciones crecientes de Nb2O5 se traduce en un incremento de la densidad de estados aceptores, en la energía de estados superficiales y en la altura de la barrera de potencial a temperatura ambiente. En estos materiales, la presencia de un mecanismo de compensación de cargas electrónico en granos que han alcanzado un gran desarrollo, origina un comportamiento tipo semiconductor. Sin embargo, la incorporación de altas concentraciones de Nb2O5 provoca una alejamiento del comportamiento PTCR y el material exhibe un efecto NTCR junto con fuertes características GBBL (grain boundary – barrier layer. Las observaciones microscópicas y el análisis de la estructura de defectos iónicos respaldan la hipótesis en la que las vacantes de bario actúan como estados aceptores y ejercen un importante rol en la inhibición del crecimiento de grano durante el sinterizado del BaTiO3 dopado con Nb2O5.

  7. Zn2+ in-situ substitution behavior during the formation of BaTiO3 coatings from plasma-sprayed powders collected in liquid nitrogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhe; Xing, Zhiguo; Wang, Haidou; Xue, Zifan; Chen, Shuying; Cui, Xiufang; Jin, Guo

    2018-04-01

    The dielectric performance of BaTiO3 ceramic coatings is enhanced significantly by the addition of ZnO. In this study, the maximum relative permittivity value (εr ≈ 923) was measured in BaTiO3 coatings with ZnO added at 6 wt%. The Curie temperature (Tc) was in the range of 111 °C-121 °C for all of the ZnO-modified BaTiO3 coatings. Tc shifted to low temperatures as the ZnO content increased. Detailed analyses were performed to determine the phase composition and optical band gaps of powders collected in liquid nitrogen, which showed that the Zn2+ ions were incorporated into the BaTiO3 lattice where they substituted into the Ti4+ sites, and the composite powders (BaTiO3 + 6 wt% ZnO) tolerated high temperatures in the plasma beam. In addition, some residual Zn accumulated in the grain boundary in the form of ZnO. X-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy showed that the substitution led to changes in the compositional and structural properties. The red shift in the optical band gap of BaTiO3 indicated that the ZnTi'' defects caused by the dopants acted as carriers in the doped BaTiO3 coatings.

  8. Thermoelectric effects of amorphous Ga-Sn-O thin film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuda, Tokiyoshi; Uenuma, Mutsunori; Kimura, Mutsumi

    2017-07-01

    The thermoelectric effects of an amorphous Ga-Sn-O (a-GTO) thin film have been evaluated as a physical parameter of a novel oxide semiconductor. Currently, a-GTO thin films are greatly desired not only because they do not contain rare metals and are therefore free from problems on the exhaustion of resources and the increase in cost but also because their initial characteristics and performance stabilities are excellent when they are used in thin-film transistors. In this study, an a-GTO thin film was deposited on a quartz substrate by RF magnetron sputtering and postannealing was performed in air at 350 °C for 1 h using an annealing furnace. The Seebeck coefficient and electrical conductivity of the a-GTO thin film were -137 µV/K and 31.8 S/cm at room temperature, and -183 µV/K and 43.8 S/cm at 397 K, respectively, and as a result, the power factor was 1.47 µW/(cm·K2) at 397 K; these values were roughly as high as those of amorphous In-Ga-Zn-O (a-IGZO) thin films. Therefore, a-GTO thin films will be a candidate material for thermoelectric devices fabricated in a large area at a low cost by controlling the carrier mobility, carrier density, device structures, and so forth.

  9. Relaxation in Thin Polymer Films Mapped across the Film Thickness by Astigmatic Single-Molecule Imaging

    KAUST Repository

    Oba, Tatsuya; Vacha, Martin

    2012-01-01

    We have studied relaxation processes in thin supported films of poly(methyl acrylate) at the temperature corresponding to 13 K above the glass transition by monitoring the reorientation of single perylenediimide molecules doped into the films

  10. Resistivity of thiol-modified gold thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Correa-Puerta, Jonathan; Del Campo, Valeria; Henríquez, Ricardo; Häberle, Patricio

    2014-01-01

    In this work, we study the effect of thiol self assembled monolayers on the electrical resistivity of metallic thin films. The analysis is based on the Fuchs–Sondheimer–Lucas theory and on electrical transport measurements. We determined resistivity change due to dodecanethiol adsorption on gold thin films. For this purpose, we controlled the deposition and annealing temperatures of the films to change the surface topography and to diminish the effect of electron grain boundary scattering. Results show that the electrical response to the absorption of thiols strongly depends on the initial topography of the surface. - Highlights: • We study the effect of self assembled monolayers on the resistivity of thin films. • Fuchs–Sondheimer theory reproduces the resistivity increase due to thiol deposition. • We determined resistivity change due to dodecanethiol deposition on gold thin films. • The electrical response strongly depends on the substrate surface topography

  11. Electrochemical Deposition of Lanthanum Telluride Thin Films and Nanowires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chi, Su (Ike); Farias, Stephen; Cammarata, Robert

    2013-03-01

    Tellurium alloys are characterized by their high performance thermoelectric properties and recent research has shown nanostructured tellurium alloys display even greater performance than bulk equivalents. Increased thermoelectric efficiency of nanostructured materials have led to significant interests in developing thin film and nanowire structures. Here, we report on the first successful electrodeposition of lanthanum telluride thin films and nanowires. The electrodeposition of lanthanum telluride thin films is performed in ionic liquids at room temperature. The synthesis of nanowires involves electrodepositing lanthanum telluride arrays into anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) nanoporous membranes. These novel procedures can serve as an alternative means of simple, inexpensive and laboratory-environment friendly methods to synthesize nanostructured thermoelectric materials. The thermoelectric properties of thin films and nanowires will be presented to compare to current state-of-the-art thermoelectric materials. The morphologies and chemical compositions of the deposited films and nanowires are characterized using SEM and EDAX analysis.

  12. Effect of solution concentration on MEH-PPV thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Affendi, I. H. H.; Sarah, M. S. P.; Alrokayan, Salman A. H.; Khan, Haseeb A.; Rusop, M.

    2018-05-01

    MEH-PPV thin films were prepared with a mixture of THF (tetrahydrofuran) solution deposited by spin coating method. The surface topology of MEH-PPV thin film were characterize by atomic force microscopy (AFM) and optical properties of absorption spectra were characterized by using Ultraviolet-visible-near-infrared (UV-Vis-NIR). The MEH-PPV concentration variation affects the surface and optical properties of the thin film where 0.5 mg/ml MEH-PPV concentration have a good surface topology provided the same film also gives the highest absorption coefficient were then deposited to a TiO2 thin film forming composite layer. The composite layer then shows low current flow of short circuit current of Isc = -5.313E-7 A.

  13. Resistivity of thiol-modified gold thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Correa-Puerta, Jonathan [Instituto de Física, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Valparaíso, Av. Universidad 330, Curauma, Valparaíso (Chile); Del Campo, Valeria [Departamento de Física, Universidad Técnica Federico Santa María, Av. España 1680, Valparaiso 2390123 (Chile); Henríquez, Ricardo, E-mail: ricardo.henriquez@usm.cl [Departamento de Física, Universidad Técnica Federico Santa María, Av. España 1680, Valparaiso 2390123 (Chile); Häberle, Patricio [Departamento de Física, Universidad Técnica Federico Santa María, Av. España 1680, Valparaiso 2390123 (Chile)

    2014-11-03

    In this work, we study the effect of thiol self assembled monolayers on the electrical resistivity of metallic thin films. The analysis is based on the Fuchs–Sondheimer–Lucas theory and on electrical transport measurements. We determined resistivity change due to dodecanethiol adsorption on gold thin films. For this purpose, we controlled the deposition and annealing temperatures of the films to change the surface topography and to diminish the effect of electron grain boundary scattering. Results show that the electrical response to the absorption of thiols strongly depends on the initial topography of the surface. - Highlights: • We study the effect of self assembled monolayers on the resistivity of thin films. • Fuchs–Sondheimer theory reproduces the resistivity increase due to thiol deposition. • We determined resistivity change due to dodecanethiol deposition on gold thin films. • The electrical response strongly depends on the substrate surface topography.

  14. Valence control of cobalt oxide thin films by annealing atmosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Shijing; Zhang Boping; Zhao Cuihua; Li Songjie; Zhang Meixia; Yan Liping

    2011-01-01

    The cobalt oxide (CoO and Co 3 O 4 ) thin films were successfully prepared using a spin-coating technique by a chemical solution method with CH 3 OCH 2 CH 2 OH and Co(NO 3 ) 2 .6H 2 O as starting materials. The grayish cobalt oxide films had uniform crystalline grains with less than 50 nm in diameter. The phase structure is able to tailor by controlling the annealing atmosphere and temperature, in which Co 3 O 4 thin film was obtained by annealing in air at 300-600, and N 2 at 300, and transferred to CoO thin film by raising annealing temperature in N 2 . The fitted X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) spectra of the Co2p electrons are distinguishable from different valence states of cobalt oxide especially for their satellite structure. The valence control of cobalt oxide thin films by annealing atmosphere contributes to the tailored optical absorption property.

  15. Laser nanostructuring of ZnO thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nedyalkov, N., E-mail: nned@ie.bas.bg [Department of Electronics and Electrical Engineering, Keio University, 3-14-1 Hiyoshi Kohoku-ku, Yokohama-shi, Kanagawa-ken 223-8522 (Japan); Institute of Electronics, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Tzarigradsko shousse 72, Sofia 1784 (Bulgaria); Koleva, M.; Nikov, R.; Atanasov, P. [Institute of Electronics, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Tzarigradsko shousse 72, Sofia 1784 (Bulgaria); Nakajima, Y.; Takami, A.; Shibata, A.; Terakawa, M. [Department of Electronics and Electrical Engineering, Keio University, 3-14-1 Hiyoshi Kohoku-ku, Yokohama-shi, Kanagawa-ken 223-8522 (Japan)

    2016-06-30

    Highlights: • Nanosecond laser pulse nanostructuring of ZnO thin films on metal substrate is demonstrated. • Two regimes of the thin film modification are observed depending on the applied laser fluence. • At high fluence regime the ZnO film is homogeneously decomposed into nanosized particles. • The characteristic size of the formed nanostructures corresponds to the domain size of the thin film. - Abstract: In this work, results on laser processing of thin zinc oxide films deposited on metal substrate are presented. ZnO films are obtained by classical nanosecond pulsed laser deposition method in oxygen atmosphere on tantalum substrate. The produced films are then processed by nanosecond laser pulses at wavelength of 355 nm. The laser processing parameters and the film thickness are varied and their influence on the fabricated structures is estimated. The film morphology after the laser treatment is found to depend strongly on the laser fluence as two regimes are defined. It is shown that at certain conditions (high fluence regime) the laser treatment of the film leads to formation of a discrete nanostructure, composed of spherical like nanoparticles with narrow size distribution. The dynamics of the melt film on the substrate and fast cooling are found to be the main mechanisms for fabrication of the observed structures. The demonstrated method is an alternative way for direct fabrication of ZnO nanostructures on metal which can be easy implemented in applications as resistive sensor devices, electroluminescent elements, solar cell technology.

  16. Oxidation of ruthenium thin films using atomic oxygen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCoy, A.P.; Bogan, J.; Brady, A.; Hughes, G.

    2015-12-31

    In this study, the use of atomic oxygen to oxidise ruthenium thin films is assessed. Atomic layer deposited (ALD) ruthenium thin films (~ 3 nm) were exposed to varying amounts of atomic oxygen and the results were compared to the impact of exposures to molecular oxygen. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy studies reveal substantial oxidation of metallic ruthenium films to RuO{sub 2} at exposures as low as ~ 10{sup 2} L at 575 K when atomic oxygen was used. Higher exposures of molecular oxygen resulted in no metal oxidation highlighting the benefits of using atomic oxygen to form RuO{sub 2}. Additionally, the partial oxidation of these ruthenium films occurred at temperatures as low as 293 K (room temperature) in an atomic oxygen environment. - Highlights: • X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy study of the oxidation of Ru thin films • Oxidation of Ru thin films using atomic oxygen • Comparison between atomic oxygen and molecular oxygen treatments on Ru thin films • Fully oxidised RuO{sub 2} thin films formed with low exposures to atomic oxygen.

  17. Molecular simulation of freestanding amorphous nickel thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dong, T.Q. [Université Paris-Est, Laboratoire Modélisation et Simulation Multi Echelle, UMR 8208 CNRS, 5 Boulevard Descartes, 77454 Marne-la-Vallée, Cedex 2 (France); Hoang, V.V., E-mail: vvhoang2002@yahoo.com [Department of Physics, Institute of Technology, National University of Ho Chi Minh City, 268 Ly Thuong Kiet Street, District 10, Ho Chi Minh City (Viet Nam); Lauriat, G. [Université Paris-Est, Laboratoire Modélisation et Simulation Multi Echelle, UMR 8208 CNRS, 5 Boulevard Descartes, 77454 Marne-la-Vallée, Cedex 2 (France)

    2013-10-31

    Size effects on glass formation in freestanding Ni thin films have been studied via molecular dynamics simulation with the n-body Gupta interatomic potential. Atomic mechanism of glass formation in the films is determined via analysis of the spatio-temporal arrangements of solid-like atoms occurred upon cooling from the melt. Solid-like atoms are detected via the Lindemann ratio. We find that solid-like atoms initiate and grow mainly in the interior of the film and grow outward. Their number increases with decreasing temperature and at a glass transition temperature they dominate in the system to form a relatively rigid glassy state of a thin film shape. We find the existence of a mobile surface layer in both liquid and glassy states which can play an important role in various surface properties of amorphous Ni thin films. We find that glass formation is size independent for models containing 4000 to 108,000 atoms. Moreover, structure of amorphous Ni thin films has been studied in details via coordination number, Honeycutt–Andersen analysis, and density profile which reveal that amorphous thin films exhibit two different parts: interior and surface layer. The former exhibits almost the same structure like that found for the bulk while the latter behaves a more porous structure containing a large amount of undercoordinated sites which are the origin of various surface behaviors of the amorphous Ni or Ni-based thin films found in practice. - Highlights: • Glass formation is analyzed via spatio-temporal arrangements of solid-like atoms. • Amorphous Ni thin film exhibits two different parts: surface and interior. • Mobile surface layer enhances various surface properties of the amorphous Ni thin films. • Undercoordinated sites play an important role in various surface activities.

  18. Multifunctional Parylene-C Microfibrous Thin Films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chindam, Chandraprakash

    Towards sustainable development, multifunctional products have many advantageous over single-function products: reduction in number of parts, raw material, assembly time, and cost involved in a product's life cycle. My goal for this thesis was to demonstrate the multifunctionalities of Parylene-C microfibrous thin films. To achieve this goal, I chose Parylene C, a polymer, because the fabrication of periodic mediums of Parylene C in the form of microfibrous thin films (muFTFs) was already established. A muFTFs is a parallel arrangement of identical micrometer-sized fibers of shapes cylindrical, chevronic, or helical. Furthermore, Parylene C had three existing functions: in medical-device industries as corrosion-resistive coatings, in electronic industries as electrically insulating coatings, and in biomedical research for tissue-culture substrates. As the functionalities of a material are dependent on the microstructure and physical properties, the investigation made for this thesis was two-fold: (1) Experimentally, I determined the wetting, mechanical, and dielectric properties of columnar muFTFs and examined the microstructural and molecular differences between bulk films and muFTFs. (2) Using physical properties of bulk film, I computationally determined the elastodynamic and determined the electromagnetic filtering capabilities of Parylene-C muFTFs. Several columnar muFTFs of Parylene C were fabricated by varying the monomer deposition angle. Following are the significant experimental findings: 1. Molecular and microstructural characteristics: The dependence of the microfiber inclination angle on the monomer deposition angle was classified into four regimes of two different types. X-ray diffraction experiments indicated that the columnar muFTFs contain three crystal planes not evident in bulk Parylene-C films and that the columnar muFTFs are less crystalline than bulk films. Infrared absorbance spectra revealed that the atomic bonding is the same in all

  19. Fabrication and Film Qualification of Sr Modified Pb(Ca) TiO3 Thin Films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naw Hla Myat San; Khin Aye Thwe; Than Than Win; Yin Maung Maung; Ko Ko Kyaw Soe

    2011-12-01

    Strontium and calcium - modified lead titanate (Pb0.7 Ca0.15 Sr0.15 ) TiO3 (PCST)thin films were prepared by using spin coating technique. Phase transition of PCST was interpreted by means of Er-T characteristics. Process temperature dependence on micro-structure of PCST film was studied. Charge conduction mechanism of PCST thin film was also investigated for film qualification.

  20. Development of neutron diffuse scattering analysis code by thin film and multilayer film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soyama, Kazuhiko

    2004-01-01

    To research surface structure of thin film and multilayer film by neutron, a neutron diffuse scattering analysis code using DWBA (Distorted-Wave Bron Approximation) principle was developed. Subjects using this code contain the surface and interface properties of solid/solid, solid/liquid, liquid/liquid and gas/liquid, and metal, magnetism and polymer thin film and biomembran. The roughness of surface and interface of substance shows fractal self-similarity and its analytical model is based on DWBA theory by Sinha. The surface and interface properties by diffuse scattering are investigated on the basis of the theoretical model. The calculation values are proved to be agreed with the experimental values. On neutron diffuse scattering by thin film, roughness of surface of thin film, correlation function, neutron propagation by thin film, diffuse scattering by DWBA theory, measurement model, SDIFFF (neutron diffuse scattering analysis program by thin film) and simulation results are explained. On neutron diffuse scattering by multilayer film, roughness of multilayer film, principle of diffuse scattering, measurement method and simulation examples by MDIFF (neutron diffuse scattering analysis program by multilayer film) are explained. (S.Y.)To research surface structure of thin film and multilayer film by neutron, a neutron diffuse scattering analysis code using DWBA (Distorted-Wave Bron Approximation) principle was developed. Subjects using this code contain the surface and interface properties of solid/solid, solid/liquid, liquid/liquid and gas/liquid, and metal, magnetism and polymer thin film and biomembran. The roughness of surface and interface of substance shows fractal self-similarity and its analytical model is based on DWBA theory by Sinha. The surface and interface properties by diffuse scattering are investigated on the basis of the theoretical model. The calculation values are proved to be agreed with the experimental values. On neutron diffuse scattering

  1. Buckling of Thin Films in Nano-Scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li L.A.

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Investigation of thin film buckling is important for life prediction of MEMS device which are damaged mainly by the delamination and buckling of thin films. In this paper the mechanical and thermal properties of compressed thin film titanium films with 150 nm thickness deposited on an organic glass substrate under mechanical and thermal loads were measured and characterized. In order to simulate the thin films which subjected to compound loads and the buckle modes the external uniaxial compression and thermal loading were subjected to the specimen by the symmetric loading device and the electrical film in this experiment. The temperature of the thin film deposited on substrate was measured using thermoelectric couple. The range of temperature accords with the temperature range of the MEMS. It is found that the size and number of the delamination and buckling of the film are depended upon the pre-fixed mechanical loading and thermal temperature. The thermal transient conduction and thermal stability of the film and substrate was studied with finite element method.

  2. Stability of tetraphenyl butadiene thin films in liquid xenon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanguino, P.; Balau, F.; Botelho do Rego, A.M.; Pereira, A.; Chepel, V.

    2016-01-01

    Tetraphenyl butadiene (TPB) is widely used in particle detectors as a wavelength shifter. In this work we studied the stability of TPB thin films when immersed in liquid xenon (LXe). The thin films were deposited on glass and quartz substrates by thermal evaporation. Morphological and chemical surface properties were monitored before and after immersion into LXe by scanning electron microscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. No appreciable changes have been detected with these two methods. Grain size and surface chemical composition were found to be identical before and after submersion into LXe. However, the film thickness, measured via optical transmission in the ultraviolet–visible wavelength regions, decreased by 1.6 μg/cm 2 (24%) after immersion in LXe during 20 h. These results suggest the necessity of using a protective thin film over the Tetraphenyl butadiene when used as a wavelength shifter in LXe particle detectors. - Highlights: • Stability of tetraphenyl butadiene (TPB) thin films immersed in liquid xenon (LXe). • Thermally evaporated TPB thin films were immersed in LXe for 20 h. • Film morphology and chemical surface properties remained unchanged. • Surface density of the films decreased by 1.6 μg/cm 2 (24%) after immersion in LXe. • For using in LXe particle detectors, TPB films should be protected with a coating.

  3. Fabrication of BaTiO3/Ni composite particles and their electro-magneto responsive properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu, Yaping; Gao, Lingxiang; Wang, Lijuan; Xie, Zunyuan; Gao, Meixiang; Zhang, Weiqiang

    2017-01-01

    Graphical abstract: The spherical BaTiO 3 /Ni particles with excellent structure were made by one-step method through fixing the metal Ni(0) reduced by a specific reducing agent (N 2 H 4 ·H 2 O) on the surface of the BaTiO 3 particles with grain diameter of ∼500 nm. BaTiO 3 /Ni particle has double responses of electric and magnetic field simultaneously. Consequentially, coating magnetic metal on BT particle is proposed an effective method to prepare novel electro-magneto responsive particles and one basis of electro-magneto responsive elastomers. - Highlights: • The BaTiO 3 /Ni composite particles were fabricated. • The content of Ni(0) in nickel sheath is 70.2%. • The BaTiO 3 /Ni particles have double responses of electric and magnetic field. - Abstract: BaTiO 3 (BT)/Ni composite particles were made by one-step method through agglomerating the metal Ni(0) nanoparticles reduced by a specific reducing agent (N 2 H 4 ·H 2 O) on the surface of BT sphere with diameter of ∼500 nm. The BT/Ni composite particles were characterized by the means of scanning electron microscope (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffractometer (XRD) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). In BT/Ni particles, pure BT spherical particle was coated with Ni nanoparticles agglomerated on its surface. The average thickness of the Ni sheath was ∼30 nm and the content of Ni(0) and Ni (II) in the sheath were 70.2% and 29.8%, respectively. The responsive effects of BT/Ni particles filled in hydrogel elastomer were investigated by the viscoelastic properties. The results indicate that the BT/Ni particles exhibit electro and magneto coordinated responsive properties (E = 1 kV/mm, H = 0.1 T/mm), which is superior to BT particles with individual electro response.

  4. Modification of thin film properties by ion bombardment during deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harper, J.M.E.; Cuomo, J.J.; Gambino, R.J.; Kaufman, H.R.

    1984-01-01

    Many thin film deposition techniques involve some form of energetic particle bombardment of the growing film. The degree of bombardment greatly influences the film composition, structure and other properties. While in some techniques the degree of bombardment is secondary to the original process design, in recent years more deposition systems are being designed with the capability for controlled ion bombardment of thin films during deposition. The highest degree of control is obtained with ion beam sources which operate independently of the vapor source providing the thin film material. Other plasma techniques offer varying degrees of control of energetic particle bombardment. Deposition methods involving ion bombardment are described, and the basic processes with which film properties are modified by ion bombardment are summarized. (Auth.)

  5. Electrochromic properties of nanocrystalline MoO3 thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsu, C.-S.; Chan, C.-C.; Huang, H.-T.; Peng, C.-H.; Hsu, W.-C.

    2008-01-01

    Electrochromic MoO 3 thin films were prepared by a sol-gel spin-coating technique. The spin-coated films were initially amorphous; they were calcined, producing nanocrystalline MoO 3 thin films. The effects of annealing temperatures ranging from 100 o C to 500 o C were investigated. The electrochemical and electrochromic properties of the films were measured by cyclic voltammetry and by in-situ optical transmittance techniques in 1 M LiClO 4 /propylene carbonate electrolyte. Experimental results showed that the transmittance of MoO 3 thin films heat-treated at 350 o C varied from 80% to 35% at λ = 550 nm (ΔT = ∼ 45%) and from 86% to 21% at λ ≥ 700 nm (ΔT = ∼ 65%) after coloration. Films heat-treated at 350 deg. C exhibited the best electrochromic properties in the present study

  6. Residual stress in spin-cast polyurethane thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Hong; Zhang, Li, E-mail: lizhang@mae.cuhk.edu.hk [Department of Mechanical and Automation Engineering, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin N.T., Hong Kong (China); Chow Yuk Ho Technology Centre for Innovative Medicine, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin N.T., Hong Kong (China)

    2015-01-19

    Residual stress is inevitable during spin-casting. Herein, we report a straightforward method to evaluate the residual stress in as-cast polyurethane thin films using area shrinkage measurement of films in floating state, which shows that the residual stress is independent of radial location on the substrate and decreased with decreasing film thickness below a critical value. We demonstrate that the residual stress is developed due to the solvent evaporation after vitrification during spin-casting and the polymer chains in thin films may undergo vitrification at an increased concentration. The buildup of residual stress in spin-cast polymer films provides an insight into the size effects on the nature of polymer thin films.

  7. Copper zinc tin sulfide-based thin film solar cells

    CERN Document Server

    Ito, Kentaro

    2014-01-01

    Beginning with an overview and historical background of Copper Zinc Tin Sulphide (CZTS) technology, subsequent chapters cover properties of CZTS thin films, different preparation methods of CZTS thin films, a comparative study of CZTS and CIGS solar cell, computational approach, and future applications of CZTS thin film solar modules to both ground-mount and rooftop installation. The semiconducting compound (CZTS) is made up earth-abundant, low-cost and non-toxic elements, which make it an ideal candidate to replace Cu(In,Ga)Se2 (CIGS) and CdTe solar cells which face material scarcity and tox

  8. Optical modeling and simulation of thin-film photovoltaic devices

    CERN Document Server

    Krc, Janez

    2013-01-01

    In wafer-based and thin-film photovoltaic (PV) devices, the management of light is a crucial aspect of optimization since trapping sunlight in active parts of PV devices is essential for efficient energy conversions. Optical modeling and simulation enable efficient analysis and optimization of the optical situation in optoelectronic and PV devices. Optical Modeling and Simulation of Thin-Film Photovoltaic Devices provides readers with a thorough guide to performing optical modeling and simulations of thin-film solar cells and PV modules. It offers insight on examples of existing optical models

  9. The state of the art of thin-film photovoltaics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Surek, T.

    1993-10-01

    Thin-film photovoltaic technologies, based on materials such as amorphous or polycrystalline silicon, copper indium diselenide, cadmium telluride, and gallium arsenide, offer the potential for significantly reducing the cost of electricity generated by photovoltaics. The significant progress in the technologies, from the laboratory to the marketplace, is reviewed. The common concerns and questions raised about thin films are addressed. Based on the progress to date and the potential of these technologies, along with continuing investments by the private sector to commercialize the technologies, one can conclude that thin-film PV will provide a competitive alternative for large-scale power generation in the future

  10. Thin film circuits for future applications. Pt. 2. Evaporation technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haug, G; Houska, K H; Schmidt, H J; Sprengel, H P; Wohak, K

    1976-06-01

    Investigations of thin film diffusion processes and reactions with encapsulation materials resulted in improved long term stability of evaporated NiCr resistors, SiO capacitors and NiCr/Au conductors for thin film circuits. Stable NiCr resistor networks can be formed on ceramic substrates, and SiO capacitors of good quality can be deposited on the new very smooth ceramic substrates. The knowledge of the influence of evaporation parameters make the production of SiO capacitors with definite properties and good reproducibility possible. The range of capacitance of tantalum thin film circuits can be extended by integration with evaporated SiO capacitors.

  11. XRay Study of Transfer Printed Pentacene Thin Films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shao, Y.; Solin, S. A.; Hines, D. R.; Williams, E. D.

    2007-01-01

    We investigated the structural properties and transfer properties of pentacene thin films fabricated by thermal deposition and transfer printing onto SiO2 and plastic substrates, respectively. The dependence of the crystallite size on the printing time, temperature and pressure were measured. The increases of crystalline size were observed when pentacene thin films were printed under specific conditions, e.g. 120 deg. C and 600 psi and can be correlated with the improvement of the field effect mobility of pentacene thin-film transistors

  12. Optical properties of CeO 2 thin films

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Cerium oxide (CeO2) thin films have been prepared by electron beam evaporation technique onto glass substrate at a pressure of about 6 × 10-6 Torr. The thickness of CeO2 films ranges from 140–180 nm. The optical properties of cerium oxide films are studied in the wavelength range of 200–850 nm. The film is highly ...

  13. Principles of electron backscattering by solids and thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niedrig, H.

    1977-01-01

    The parameters concerning the electron backscattering from thin films and solids (atomic scattering cross-section, atomic number, single/multiple scattering, film thickness of self-supporting films and of surface films on bulk substrates, scattering angular distribution, angle of incidence, diffraction effects) are described. Their influence on some important contrast mechanisms in scanning electron microscopy (thickness contrast, Z/material contrast, tilting/topography contrast, orientation contrast) is discussed. The main backscattering electron detection systems are briefly described. (orig.) [de

  14. Some Aspects of the Failure Mechanisms in BaTiO3-Based Multilayer Ceramic Capacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, David Donhang; Sampson, Michael J.

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this presentation is to gain insight into possible failure mechanisms in BaTiO3-based ceramic capacitors that may be associated with the reliability degradation that accompanies a reduction in dielectric thickness, as reported by Intel Corporation in 2010. The volumetric efficiency (microF/cm3) of a multilayer ceramic capacitor (MLCC) has been shown to not increase limitlessly due to the grain size effect on the dielectric constant of ferroelectric ceramic BaTiO3 material. The reliability of an MLCC has been discussed with respect to its structure. The MLCCs with higher numbers of dielectric layers will pose more challenges for the reliability of dielectric material, which is the case for most base-metal-electrode (BME) capacitors. A number of MLCCs manufactured using both precious-metal-electrode (PME) and BME technology, with 25 V rating and various chip sizes and capacitances, were tested at accelerated stress levels. Most of these MLCCs had a failure behavior with two mixed failure modes: the well-known rapid dielectric wearout, and so-called 'early failures." The two failure modes can be distinguished when the testing data were presented and normalized at use-level using a 2-parameter Weibull plot. The early failures had a slope parameter of Beta >1, indicating that the early failures are not infant mortalities. Early failures are triggered due to external electrical overstress and become dominant as dielectric layer thickness decreases, accompanied by a dramatic reduction in reliability. This indicates that early failures are the main cause of the reliability degradation in MLCCs as dielectric layer thickness decreases. All of the early failures are characterized by an avalanche-like breakdown leakage current. The failures have been attributed to the extrinsic minor construction defects introduced during fabrication of the capacitors. A reliability model including dielectric thickness and extrinsic defect feature size is proposed in this presentation. The model can be used to explain the Intel-reported reliability degradation in MLCCs with respect to the reduction of dielectric thickness. It can also be used to estimate the reliability of a MLCC based on its construction and microstructure parameters such as dielectric thickness, average grain size, and number of dielectric layers. Measures for preventing early failures are also discussed in this document.

  15. Dewetting of thin polymer film on rough substrate: II. Experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volodin, Pylyp; Kondyurin, Alexey

    2008-01-01

    The theory of the dewetting process developed for a model of substrate-film interaction forces was examined by an experimental investigation of the dewetting process of thin polystyrene (PS) films on chemically etched silicon substrates. In the dependence on PS films thickness and silicon roughness, various situations of dewetting were observed as follows: (i) if the wavelength of the substrate roughness is much larger than the critical spinodal wavelength of a film, then spinodal dewetting of the film is observed; (ii) if the wavelength of the substrate roughness is smaller than the critical wavelength of the film and the substrate roughness is larger in comparison with film thickness, then the dewetting due to substrate roughness is observed and the dewetted film patterns repeat the rough substrate structure; (iii) if the wavelength of the substrate roughness is smaller than the critical wavelength of the film and the substrate roughness is small in comparison with the film thickness, then spinodal dewetting proceeds

  16. Nanocomposites of ferroelectric polymers with surface-hydroxylated BaTiO 3 nanoparticles for energy storage applications

    KAUST Repository

    Almadhoun, Mahmoud Nassar Mahmoud; Bhansali, Unnat Sampatraj; Alshareef, Husam N.

    2012-01-01

    nanofillers (<100 nm) with hydroxyl groups results in as much as two orders of magnitude reduction in the leakage current of nanocomposite thin-film capacitors. This reduction is observed concurrently with the enhancement of the effective permittivity

  17. Ideal glass transitions in thin films: An energy landscape perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truskett, Thomas M.; Ganesan, Venkat

    2003-07-01

    We introduce a mean-field model for the potential energy landscape of a thin fluid film confined between parallel substrates. The model predicts how the number of accessible basins on the energy landscape and, consequently, the film's ideal glass transition temperature depend on bulk pressure, film thickness, and the strength of the fluid-fluid and fluid-substrate interactions. The predictions are in qualitative agreement with the experimental trends for the kinetic glass transition temperature of thin films, suggesting the utility of landscape-based approaches for studying the behavior of confined fluids.

  18. Strain Relaxation and Vacancy Creation in Thin Platinum Films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gruber, W.; Chakravarty, S.; Schmidt, H.; Baehtz, C.; Leitenberger, W.; Bruns, M.; Kobler, A.; Kuebel, C.

    2011-01-01

    Synchrotron based combined in situ x-ray diffractometry and reflectometry is used to investigate the role of vacancies for the relaxation of residual stress in thin metallic Pt films. From the experimentally determined relative changes of the lattice parameter a and of the film thickness L the modification of vacancy concentration and residual strain was derived as a function of annealing time at 130 deg. C. The results indicate that relaxation of strain resulting from compressive stress is accompanied by the creation of vacancies at the free film surface. This proves experimentally the postulated dominant role of vacancies for stress relaxation in thin metal films close to room temperature.

  19. Soft Magnetic Multilayered Thin Films for HF Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loizos, George; Giannopoulos, George; Serletis, Christos; Maity, Tuhin; Roy, Saibal; Lupu, Nicoleta; Kijima, Hanae; Yamaguchi, Masahiro; Niarchos, Dimitris

    Multilayered thin films from various soft magnetic materials were successfully prepared by magnetron sputtering in Ar atmosphere. The magnetic properties and microstructure were investigated. It is found that the films show good soft magnetic properties: magnetic coercivity of 1-10 Oe and saturation magnetization higher than 1T. The initial permeability of the films is greater than 300 and flattens up to 600 MHz. The multilayer thin film properties in combination with their easy, fast and reproducible fabrication indicate that they are potential candidates for high frequency applications.

  20. Microwave Josephson generation in thin film superconducting bridges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gubankov, V.N.; Koshelets, V.P.; Ovsyannikov, G.A.

    1975-01-01

    Thin-film bridges have some advantage over other types of superconducting weak links: good definition of electromagnetic parameters and of weak region geometry. Up to now Josephson properties of bridges have been investigated by using indirect methods (the effect of magnetic field on the critical current I 0 , the bridge behavior in a microwave field, etc.). Direct experimental observation of Josephson radiation from autonomous thin film bridges is reported. Microwave radiation in tin bridges of 'variable' thickness has been investigated where the thickness of the film forming the bridge is far less than the thickness of the bank films. (Auth.)

  1. Photoinduced hydrophobic surface of graphene oxide thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Xiaoyan; Song Peng; Cui Xiaoli

    2012-01-01

    Graphene oxide (GO) thin films were deposited on transparent conducting oxide substrates and glass slides by spin coating method at room temperature. The wettability of GO thin films before and after ultraviolet (UV) irradiation was characterized with water contact angles, which increased from 27.3° to 57.6° after 3 h of irradiation, indicating a photo-induced hydrophobic surface. The UV–vis absorption spectra, Raman spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and conductivity measurements of GO films before and after UV irradiation were taken to study the mechanism of photoinduced hydrophobic surface of GO thin films. It is demonstrated that the photoinduced hydrophobic surface is ascribed to the elimination of oxygen-containing functional groups on GO molecules. This work provides a simple strategy to control the wettability properties of GO thin films by UV irradiation. - Highlights: ► Photoinduced hydrophobic surface of graphene oxide thin films has been demonstrated. ► Elimination of oxygen-containing functional groups in graphene oxide achieved by UV irradiation. ► We provide novel strategy to control surface wettability of GO thin films by UV irradiation.

  2. Tools to synthesize the learning of thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rojas, Roberto; Fuster, Gonzalo; Sluesarenko, Viktor

    2011-01-01

    After a review of textbooks written for undergraduate courses in physics, we have found that discussions on thin films are mostly incomplete. They consider the reflected and not the transmitted light for two instead of the four types of thin films. In this work, we complement the discussion in elementary textbooks, by analysing the phase differences required to match the conditions for constructive and destructive interference, in the reflected and transmitted light in four types of thin films. We consider thin films with varied sequences in the refractive index, which we identify as barriers, wells and stairs (up and down). Also, we use the conservation of energy in order to understand the complementary colour fringes observed in the reflected and transmitted light through thin films. We analyse systematically the phase changes by introducing a phase table and we synthesize the results in a circular diagram matching 16 physical situations of interference and their corresponding conditions on the film thickness. The phase table and the circular diagram are a pair of tools easily assimilated by students, and useful to organize, analyse and activate the knowledge about thin films.

  3. Thin Films for X-ray Optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conley, Raymond

    Focusing x-rays with refraction requires an entire array of lens instead of a single element, each contributing a minute amount of focusing to the system. In contrast to their visible light counterparts, diffractive optics require a certain depth along the optical axis in order to provide sufficient phase shift. Mirrors reflect only at very shallow angles. In order to increase the angle of incidence, contribution from constructive interference within many layers needs to be collected. This requires a multilayer coating. Thin films have become a central ingredient for many x-ray optics due to the ease of which material composition and thickness can be controlled. Chapter 1 starts with a short introduction and survey of the field of x-ray optics. This begins with an explanation of reflective multilayers. Focusing optics are presented next, including mirrors, zone plates, refractive lenses, and multilayer Laue lens (MLL). The strengths and weaknesses of each "species" of optic are briefly discussed, alongside fabrication issues and the ultimate performance for each. Practical considerations on the use of thin-films for x-ray optics fabrication span a wide array of topics including material systems selection and instrumentation design. Sputter deposition is utilized exclusively for the work included herein because this method of thin-film deposition allows a wide array of deposition parameters to be controlled. This chapter also includes a short description of two deposition systems I have designed. Chapter 2 covers a small sampling of some of my work on reflective multilayers, and outlines two of the deposition systems I have designed and built at the Advanced Photon Source. A three-stripe double multilayer monochromator is presented as a case study in order to detail specifications, fabrication, and performance of this prolific breed of x-ray optics. The APS Rotary Deposition System was the first deposition system in the world designed specifically for multilayer

  4. Structural and electrical properties of Barium Titanate (BaTiO3 and Neodymium doped BaTiO3 (Ba0.995Nd0.005TiO3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuan Sulong Tuan Amirah

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Barium titanate (BaTiO3 and Neodymium (Nd doped BaTiO3 with composition Ba0.995Nd0.005TiO3 were prepared using conventional solid state reaction method to study the dielectric properties of materials. Pure phase samples were found at final heating temperature of 1400°C for overnight. X-ray diffraction analysis reveals the changes in the lattice parameter and unit cell volume of the pure perovskite tetragonal structure with space group (P4mm. Electrical analysis is carried out to investigate the dielectric properties, conductivity behaviour and dielectric loss of BaTiO3 and Ba0.995Nd0.005TiO3. Ba0.995Nd0.005TiO3 have a broaden dielectric peaks with high permittivity of 8000 and reasonably low loss tan δ which is about 0.004 (1 kHz.

  5. Thermionic vacuum arc (TVA) technique for magnesium thin film deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balbag, M.Z., E-mail: zbalbag@ogu.edu.t [Eskisehir Osmangazi University, Education Faculty, Primary Education, Meselik Campus, Eskisehir 26480 (Turkey); Pat, S.; Ozkan, M.; Ekem, N. [Eskisehir Osmangazi University, Art and Science Faculty, Physics Department, Eskisehir 26480 (Turkey); Musa, G. [Ovidius University, Physics Department, Constanta (Romania)

    2010-08-15

    In this study, magnesium thin films were deposited on glass substrate by the Thermionic Vacuum Arc (TVA) technique for the first time. We present a different technique for deposition of high-quality magnesium thin films. By means of this technique, the production of films is achieved by condensing the plasma of anode material generated using Thermionic Vacuum Arc (TVA) under high vacuum conditions onto the surface to be coated. The crystal orientation and morphology of the deposited films were investigated by using XRD, EDX, SEM and AFM. The aim of this study is to search the use of TVA technique to coat magnesium thin films and to determine some of the physical properties of the films generated. Furthermore, this study will contribute to the scientific studies which search the thin films of magnesium or the compounds containing magnesium. In future, this study will be preliminary work to entirely produce magnesium diboride (MgB{sub 2}) superconductor thin film with the TVA technique.

  6. ITO thin films deposited by advanced pulsed laser deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Viespe, Cristian; Nicolae, Ionut; Sima, Cornelia; Grigoriu, Constantin; Medianu, Rares

    2007-01-01

    Indium tin oxide thin films were deposited by computer assisted advanced PLD method in order to obtain transparent, conductive and homogeneous films on a large area. The films were deposited on glass substrates. We studied the influence of the temperature (room temperature (RT)-180 deg. C), pressure (1-6 x 10 -2 Torr), laser fluence (1-4 J/cm 2 ) and wavelength (266-355 nm) on the film properties. The deposition rate, roughness, film structure, optical transmission, electrical conductivity measurements were done. We deposited uniform ITO thin films (thickness 100-600 nm, roughness 5-10 nm) between RT and 180 deg. C on a large area (5 x 5 cm 2 ). The films have electrical resistivity of 8 x 10 -4 Ω cm at RT, 5 x 10 -4 Ω cm at 180 deg. C and an optical transmission in the visible range, around 89%

  7. Fractal corrections of BaTiO3-ceramic sintering parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitić V.V.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Morphology of ceramics grains and pores as well as Brownian character of particle dynamics inside ceramics specimen contributes to better understanding of the sintering process. BaTiO3-ceramics, studied in this paper, has light fractal form and it is emanated in three aspects. First, the surface of grains, even in starting green body as well as distribution of grains shows fractal behavior. Second, existence of pores and their distribution follow the rules of fractal geometry. Third, movement of particles inside viscous flow underlies the rule of Brownian motion, which is essentially a fractal category. These three elements, each in its domain influence sintering dynamics, and can be described by dimensionless quantitative factors, αs αp and αm, being normalized to the interval [0,1]. Following sintering process, the associate formulae of Frenkel, Scherer and Mackenzie-Shuttleworth are shown from the angle of view of ceramics fractal dimension changing that approaches to 3. Also, it is shown that the energy balance is not violated after applying fractal correction to quasi equilibrium of the energy emanating from surface area reduction ES and energy adopted by viscous flow Ef .[Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 172057: Directed synthesis, structure and properties of multifunctional materials

  8. Piezoelectric properties of electrospun nanofibers of BaTiO3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carvalho, L.F.R.M.; Melo, G.F.; Goncalves, A.M.; Eiras, J.A.; Bretas, R.E.S.

    2016-01-01

    BaTiO3 nanofibers were produced by the electrospinning method from a mixture of a solution of the precursors Ba (CH_3COO)_2 and [(CH_3)_2CHO]_4Ti in acetic acid and a solution of poly(vinylpyrrolidone) in ethanol. A voltage of 10 kV and a working distance of 4.6 cm were used for the electrospinning, at controlled room temperature and humidity of 21 °C and 60% respectively. Nanofibers as spun were dried in air on an air-circulating oven at 100 °C for one hour to remove residual solvent and were subsequently calcined at 750 °C during 2 h. The morphology, crystallographic structure and piezoelectric properties of the nanofibers were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray angle (WAXS) and Piezoresponse Force Microscopy (PFM), respectively. The average diameter of the nanofibers was 414 nm with an aspect ratio of 40. By PFM, there was strong evidence that the nanofibers had piezoelectric activity. (author)

  9. Room Temperature Monoclinic Phase in BaTiO3 Single Crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denev, Sava; Kumar, Amit; Barnes, Andrew; Vlahos, Eftihia; Shepard, Gabriella; Gopalan, Venkatraman

    2010-03-01

    BaTiO3 is a well studied ferroelectric material for the last half century. It is well known to show phase transitions to tetragonal, orthorhombic and rhombohedral phases upon cooling. Yet, some old and some recent studies have argued that all these phases co-exist with a second phase with monoclinic distortion. Using optical second harmonic generation (SHG) at room temperature we directly present evidence for such monoclininc phase co-existing with tetragonal phase at room temperature. We observe domains with the expected tetragonal symmetry exhibiting 90^o and 180^o domain walls. However, at points of higher stress at the tips of the interpenetrating tetragonal domains we observe a well pronounced metastable ``staircase pattern'' with a micron-scale fine structure. Polarization studies show that this phase can be explained only by monoclinic symmetry. This phase is very sensitive to external perturbations such as temperature and fields, hence stabilizing this phase at room temperature could lead to large properties' tunability.

  10. Enhanced dielectric and ferroelectric characteristics in Ca-modified BaTiO3 ceramics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao Na Zhu

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Synergic modification of BaTiO3 ceramics was investigated by Ca-substitution, and the superior dielectric and ferroelectric properties were determined together with the structure evolution. X-ray diffraction (XRD analysis demonstrated a large solubility limit above x = 0.25 in Ba1−xCaxTiO3 solid solution where the fine grain structure was observed with increasing x. Room temperature dielectric constant as high as 1655 was achieved in the present ceramics together with the significantly reduced dielectric loss of 0.013 (x = 0.20 at 100 kHz, where the Curie temperature kept almost a constant while other two transition temperatures decreased continuously with increasing x. More importantly, the remanent polarization Pr and dielectric strength Eb were significantly enhanced by Ca-substitution, and the best Pr (11.34 μC/cm2 and the highest dielectric strength Eb (75 kV/cm were acquired at x = 0.25. The present ceramics should be very desirable for the applications such as high density energy storage devices.

  11. Influence of domain on grain size effects of the dielectric properties of BaTiO3 nanoceramics and nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fang Chao; Chen Liangyan; Zhou Dongxiang

    2013-01-01

    The dielectric property of BaTiO 3 nanoparticles and nanoceramics has been studied on the basis of Ginsburg-Landau-Devonshire thermodynamic theory. In this paper, considering nanodomains, Landau coefficients have been written as a function of grain size, and the dielectric constant of the material has been calculated at a variety of temperatures and grain size. The results indicate that with decreasing grain size, the dielectric peak decreases. The two lower dielectric peaks of the orthorhombic-rhombohedral phase and tetragonal-orthorhombic phase move to higher temperature, while cubic-tetragonal phase dielectric peak moves to lower temperature. The dielectric constant of BaTiO 3 ceramics decreases with decreasing grain size. The dielectric constant peak at room temperature is at the grain size which is larger than the critical grain size 17-30 nm. The calculated result is consistent with the experimental data.

  12. Size Tunable Synthesis of Highly Crystalline BaTiO3 Nanoparticles using Salt-Assisted Spray Pyrolysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Itoh, Yoshifumi; Lenggoro, I. Wuled; Okuyama, Kikuo; Maedler, Lutz; Pratsinis, Sotiris E.

    2003-01-01

    Highly crystalline, dense BaTiO 3 nanoparticles in a size range from 30 to 360nm with a narrow size distribution (σ g = 1.2-1.4) were prepared at various synthesis temperatures using a salt-assisted spray pyrolysis (SASP) method without the need for post-annealing. The effect of synthesis temperature on particle size, crystallinity and surface morphology of the nanoparticles were characterized by X-ray diffraction and scanning/transmission electron microscopy. The nature of the crystalline structure was analyzed by Rietveld refinement and Raman spectroscopy. The particle size decreased with decreasing operation temperature. The crystal phase was transformed from tetragonal to cubic at a particles size of about 50nm at room temperature. SASP can be used to produce high weight fraction of tetragonal BaTiO 3 nanoparticles down to 64nm in a single step

  13. Broadband back grating design for thin film solar cells

    KAUST Repository

    Janjua, Bilal; Jabbour, Ghassan E.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, design based on tapered circular grating structure was studied, to provide broadband enhancement in thin film amorphous silicon solar cells. In comparison to planar structure an absorption enhancement of ~ 7% was realized.

  14. Laser-Printed Organic Thin-Film Transistors

    KAUST Repository

    Diemer, Peter J.; Harper, Angela F.; Niazi, Muhammad Rizwan; Petty, Anthony J.; Anthony, John E.; Amassian, Aram; Jurchescu, Oana D.

    2017-01-01

    their incorporation in large-scale manufacturing processes. Here, the first ever organic thin-film transistor fabricated with an electrophotographic laser printing process using a standard office laser printer is reported. This completely solvent-free additive

  15. Preparation of Nb thin films with bulk transition temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peirce, L H [Florida State Univ., Tallahassee (USA). Dept. of Physics

    1984-08-01

    Thin films (1000-2000 A) of Nb were prepared with bulk transition temperatures (9.25 K) by evaporation from an electron gun. Necessary substrate temperatures, evaporation rates and H/sub 2/O pressures were determined.

  16. A Variational approach to thin film hydrodynamics of binary mixtures

    KAUST Repository

    Xu, Xinpeng; Thiele, Uwe; Qian, Tiezheng

    2015-01-01

    In order to model the dynamics of thin films of mixtures, solutions, and suspensions, a thermodynamically consistent formulation is needed such that various coexisting dissipative processes with cross couplings can be correctly described

  17. Chemical solution deposition of functional oxide thin films

    CERN Document Server

    Schneller, Theodor; Kosec, Marija

    2014-01-01

    Chemical Solution Deposition (CSD) is a highly-flexible and inexpensive technique for the fabrication of functional oxide thin films. Featuring nearly 400 illustrations, this text covers all aspects of the technique.

  18. Mechanism of spontaneous hole formation in thin polymeric films

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yu, Kaijia; Rasmussen, Henrik K.; Román Marín, José Manuel

    2012-01-01

    We show computationally that (molten) thin polymeric film containing nonequilibrium configurations originating from a solvent evaporation may develop holes spontaneously in the molten state, and that they appear delayed. Polymers above the glass transition temperature are liquids where the flow...

  19. Simple gun for vapor deposition of organic thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, N.; Seki, K.; Inokuchi, H.

    1987-01-01

    A simple evaporation gun for preparing organic thin films was fabricated using commercially available parts of an electron gun for a TV Braun tube. The device permits sample heating to be easily controlled because of the small heat capacity

  20. Multiferroic iron oxide thin films at room temperature

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Gich, M.; Fina, I.; Morelli, Alessio; Sánchez, F.; Alexe, M.; Gazquez, J.; Fontcuberta, J.; Roig, A.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 26, č. 27 (2014), s. 4645-4652 ISSN 0935-9648 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : multiferroic * iron oxide * thin film Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 17.493, year: 2014

  1. Bandtail characteristics in InN thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen, W.Z.; Jiang, L.F.; Yang, H.F.; Meng, F.Y.; Ogawa, H.; Guo, Q.X.

    2002-01-01

    The Urbach bandtail characteristics in InN thin films grown by radio-frequency magnetron sputtering on sapphire (0001) substrates have been investigated both theoretically and experimentally. The bandtail parameter in InN thin films has been obtained by temperature-dependent transmission spectra, with the aid of a detailed calculation of the transmission profile. A bandtail model based on the calculation of density of occupied states and the carrier-phonon interaction has been employed to analyze the temperature-dependent bandtail characteristics. The bandtail parameter is in the range of 90-120 meV in the InN thin film. It is found that the carrier-phonon interaction in InN is weak and the structural disorder contribution (∼90 meV) dominates over the interactive terms. The high structural disorder in InN thin films may relate to the high nonradiative recombination centers

  2. High Performance Thin-Film Composite Forward Osmosis Membrane

    KAUST Repository

    Yip, Ngai Yin; Tiraferri, Alberto; Phillip, William A.; Schiffman, Jessica D.; Elimelech, Menachem

    2010-01-01

    obstacle hindering further advancements of this technology. This work presents the development of a high performance thin-film composite membrane for forward osmosis applications. The membrane consists of a selective polyamide active layer formed

  3. A thin film hydroponic system for plant studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hines, Robert; Prince, Ralph; Muller, Eldon; Schuerger, Andrew

    1990-01-01

    The Land Pavillion, EPCOT Center, houses a hydroponic, thin film growing system identical to that residing in NASA's Biomass Production Chamber at Kennedy Space Center. The system is targeted for plant disease and nutrition studies. The system is described.

  4. Phonon transport across nano-scale curved thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mansoor, Saad B.; Yilbas, Bekir S., E-mail: bsyilbas@kfupm.edu.sa

    2016-12-15

    Phonon transport across the curve thin silicon film due to temperature disturbance at film edges is examined. The equation for radiative transport is considered via incorporating Boltzmann transport equation for the energy transfer. The effect of the thin film curvature on phonon transport characteristics is assessed. In the analysis, the film arc length along the film centerline is considered to be constant and the film arc angle is varied to obtain various film curvatures. Equivalent equilibrium temperature is introduced to assess the phonon intensity distribution inside the curved thin film. It is found that equivalent equilibrium temperature decay along the arc length is sharper than that of in the radial direction, which is more pronounced in the region close to the film inner radius. Reducing film arc angle increases the film curvature; in which case, phonon intensity decay becomes sharp in the close region of the high temperature edge. Equivalent equilibrium temperature demonstrates non-symmetric distribution along the radial direction, which is more pronounced in the near region of the high temperature edge.

  5. Phonon transport across nano-scale curved thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mansoor, Saad B.; Yilbas, Bekir S.

    2016-01-01

    Phonon transport across the curve thin silicon film due to temperature disturbance at film edges is examined. The equation for radiative transport is considered via incorporating Boltzmann transport equation for the energy transfer. The effect of the thin film curvature on phonon transport characteristics is assessed. In the analysis, the film arc length along the film centerline is considered to be constant and the film arc angle is varied to obtain various film curvatures. Equivalent equilibrium temperature is introduced to assess the phonon intensity distribution inside the curved thin film. It is found that equivalent equilibrium temperature decay along the arc length is sharper than that of in the radial direction, which is more pronounced in the region close to the film inner radius. Reducing film arc angle increases the film curvature; in which case, phonon intensity decay becomes sharp in the close region of the high temperature edge. Equivalent equilibrium temperature demonstrates non-symmetric distribution along the radial direction, which is more pronounced in the near region of the high temperature edge.

  6. Inverse bilayer magnetoelectric thin film sensor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yarar, E.; Piorra, A.; Quandt, E., E-mail: eq@tf.uni-kiel.de [Chair for Inorganic Functional Materials, Institute for Materials Science, Faculty of Engineering, Kiel University, Kaiserstraße 2, D-24143 Kiel (Germany); Salzer, S.; Höft, M.; Knöchel, R. [Microwave Laboratory, Institute of Electrical and Information Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Kiel University, Kaiserstraße 2, D-24143 Kiel (Germany); Hrkac, V.; Kienle, L. [Chair for Synthesis and Real Structure, Institute for Materials Science, Faculty of Engineering, Kiel University, Kaiserstraße 2, D-24143 Kiel (Germany)

    2016-07-11

    Prior investigations on magnetoelectric (ME) thin film sensors using amorphous FeCoSiB as a magnetostrictive layer and AlN as a piezoelectric layer revealed a limit of detection (LOD) in the range of a few pT/Hz{sup 1/2} in the mechanical resonance. These sensors are comprised of a Si/SiO{sub 2}/Pt/AlN/FeCoSiB layer stack, as dictated by the temperatures required for the deposition of the layers. A low temperature deposition route of very high quality AlN allows the reversal of the deposition sequence, thus allowing the amorphous FeCoSiB to be deposited on the very smooth Si substrate. As a consequence, the LOD could be enhanced by almost an order of magnitude reaching 400 fT/Hz{sup 1/2} at the mechanical resonance of the sensor. Giant ME coefficients (α{sub ME}) as high as 5 kV/cm Oe were measured. Transmission electron microscopy investigations revealed highly c-axis oriented growth of the AlN starting from the Pt-AlN interface with local epitaxy.

  7. Degradation analysis of thin film photovoltaic modules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radue, C.; Dyk, E.E. van

    2009-01-01

    Five thin film photovoltaic modules were deployed outdoors under open circuit conditions after a thorough indoor evaluation. Two technology types were investigated: amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) and copper indium gallium diselenide (CIGS). Two 14 W a-Si:H modules, labelled Si-1 and Si-2, were investigated. Both exhibited degradation, initially due to the well-known light-induced degradation described by Staebler and Wronski [Applied Physics Letters 31 (4) (1977) 292], and thereafter due to other degradation modes such as cell degradation. The various degradation modes contributing to the degradation of the a-Si:H modules will be discussed. The initial maximum power output (P MAX ) of Si-1 was 9.92 W, with the initial light-induced degradation for Si-1 ∼30% and a total degradation of ∼42%. For Si-2 the initial P MAX was 7.93 W, with initial light-induced degradation of ∼10% and a total degradation of ∼17%. Three CIGS modules were investigated: two 20 W modules labelled CIGS-1 and CIGS-2, and a 40 W module labelled CIGS-3. CIGS-2 exhibited stable performance while CIGS-1 and CIGS-3 exhibited degradation. CIGS is known to be stable over long periods of time, and thus the possible reasons for the degradation of the two modules are discussed.

  8. Degradation analysis of thin film photovoltaic modules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Radue, C., E-mail: chantelle.radue@nmmu.ac.z [Department of Physics, PO Box 77000, Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University, Port Elizabeth 6031 (South Africa); Dyk, E.E. van [Department of Physics, PO Box 77000, Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University, Port Elizabeth 6031 (South Africa)

    2009-12-01

    Five thin film photovoltaic modules were deployed outdoors under open circuit conditions after a thorough indoor evaluation. Two technology types were investigated: amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) and copper indium gallium diselenide (CIGS). Two 14 W a-Si:H modules, labelled Si-1 and Si-2, were investigated. Both exhibited degradation, initially due to the well-known light-induced degradation described by Staebler and Wronski [Applied Physics Letters 31 (4) (1977) 292], and thereafter due to other degradation modes such as cell degradation. The various degradation modes contributing to the degradation of the a-Si:H modules will be discussed. The initial maximum power output (P{sub MAX}) of Si-1 was 9.92 W, with the initial light-induced degradation for Si-1 approx30% and a total degradation of approx42%. For Si-2 the initial P{sub MAX} was 7.93 W, with initial light-induced degradation of approx10% and a total degradation of approx17%. Three CIGS modules were investigated: two 20 W modules labelled CIGS-1 and CIGS-2, and a 40 W module labelled CIGS-3. CIGS-2 exhibited stable performance while CIGS-1 and CIGS-3 exhibited degradation. CIGS is known to be stable over long periods of time, and thus the possible reasons for the degradation of the two modules are discussed.

  9. Product reliability and thin-film photovoltaics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaston, Ryan; Feist, Rebekah; Yeung, Simon; Hus, Mike; Bernius, Mark; Langlois, Marc; Bury, Scott; Granata, Jennifer; Quintana, Michael; Carlson, Carl; Sarakakis, Georgios; Ogden, Douglas; Mettas, Adamantios

    2009-08-01

    Despite significant growth in photovoltaics (PV) over the last few years, only approximately 1.07 billion kWhr of electricity is estimated to have been generated from PV in the US during 2008, or 0.27% of total electrical generation. PV market penetration is set for a paradigm shift, as fluctuating hydrocarbon prices and an acknowledgement of the environmental impacts associated with their use, combined with breakthrough new PV technologies, such as thin-film and BIPV, are driving the cost of energy generated with PV to parity or cost advantage versus more traditional forms of energy generation. In addition to reaching cost parity with grid supplied power, a key to the long-term success of PV as a viable energy alternative is the reliability of systems in the field. New technologies may or may not have the same failure modes as previous technologies. Reliability testing and product lifetime issues continue to be one of the key bottlenecks in the rapid commercialization of PV technologies today. In this paper, we highlight the critical need for moving away from relying on traditional qualification and safety tests as a measure of reliability and focus instead on designing for reliability and its integration into the product development process. A drive towards quantitative predictive accelerated testing is emphasized and an industrial collaboration model addressing reliability challenges is proposed.

  10. Magnetostatic excitations in thin ferrite films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zil'berman, P.E.; Lugovskoi, A.V.

    1987-01-01

    The authors discuss the influence of the exchange interaction and dissipative processes in thin ferrite films on the eigenfrequency spectrum of magnetostatic standing waves and on the dispersion relation and attenuation of magnetostatic traveling waves. For the first time they obtain explicitly the dispersion relation for magnetostatic waves (MSWs) in a tangential saturating magnetic field H 0 to second order (inclusive) in the exchange interaction parameter λ. The authors obtain computer solutions for this equation in the complex frequency (ω) plane (for standing waves) or wave-number (q) plane (for traveling waves). The authors show that the dispersion relation constructed from the standing-wave spectrum is different from that of the traveling waves if λ≠0, even if dissipation is neglected. The traveling waves have auxiliary branches of the dispersion relation with weak damping near the spin-wave-resonance (SWR) frequencies. Dissipation has only a relatively weak effect on the frequency spectrum of the standing waves, shifting it upward. For the traveling waves, however, dissipation leads to qualitative changes in the structure of the dispersion relation, giving rise to new branches, forbidden bands, reentrant and anomalous-dispersion regions

  11. Thin film deposition using rarefied gas jet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pradhan, Sahadev, , Dr.

    2017-06-01

    The rarefied gas jet of aluminium is studied at Mach number Ma = (Uj /√{ kbTj / mg }) in the range .01 PVD) process for the development of the highly oriented pure metallic aluminum thin film with uniform thickness and strong adhesion on the surface of the substrate in the form of ionic plasma, so that the substrate can be protected from corrosion and oxidation and thereby enhance the lifetime and safety, and to introduce the desired surface properties for a given application. Here, H is the characteristic dimension, U_j and T_j are the jet velocity and temperature, n_d is the number density of the jet, m and d are the molecular mass and diameter, and kbis the Boltzmann constant. An important finding is that the capture width (cross-section of the gas jet deposited on the substrate) is symmetric around the centerline of the substrate, and decreases with increased Mach number due to an increase in the momentum of the gas molecules. DSMC simulation results reveals that at low Knudsen number ((Kn=0.01); shorter mean free paths), the atoms experience more collisions, which direct them toward the substrate. However, the atoms also move with lower momentum at low Mach number, which allows scattering collisions to rapidly direct the atoms to the substrate.

  12. Nanopolar reorientation in ferroelectric thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hubert, C.; Levy, J.; Rivkin, T. V.; Carlson, C.; Parilla, P. A.; Perkins, J. D.; Ginley, D. S.

    2001-01-01

    The influence of varying oxygen pressure P(O 2 ) during the growth of Ba 0.4 Sr 0.6 TiO 3 thin films is investigated using dielectric and local optical probes. A transition from in-plane to out-of-plane ferroelectricity is observed with increasing P(O 2 ). Signatures of in-plane and out-of-plane ferroelectricity are identified using dielectric response and time-resolved confocal scanning optical microscopy (TRCSOM). At the crossover pressure between in-plane and out-of-plane polarization (P c =85 mTorr), TRCSOM measurements reveal a soft, highly dispersive out-of-plane polarization that reorients in plane under modest applied electric fields. At higher deposition pressures, the out-of-plane polarization is hardened and is less dispersive at microwave frequencies, and the dielectric tuning is suppressed. Nanopolar reorientation is believed to be responsible for the marked increase in dielectric tuning at P(O 2 )=P c

  13. Trends and new applications in thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    The proceedings of this symposium comprise 95 communications from which 64 were selected and fall into the scope of INIS subject categories, and 1 was selected for ETDE indexing. The selected communications deal with the techniques used for thin films preparation using chemical or physical vapor deposition techniques (plasma-arc or jet spraying, cathode sputtering, reactive DC or RF magnetron sputtering, plasma-ion deposition, ion implantation, electron or ion beam spraying, ion beam assisted plasma etching, dynamic ion mixing, distributed electron cyclotron resonance plasma sputtering, laser induced plasma sputtering etc..). The effects and interactions with the substrates (ion implantation, crystal growth, crystal-phase transformations, microstructures, penetration depth, changes in lattice parameters etc..) are analysed using various techniques such as grazing incidence X-ray diffraction, X-ray reflectometry, X-ray and angle resolved electron spectroscopy, Auger electron spectroscopy, Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy, SEM, TEM, IR absorption spectroscopy, UV or visible emission spectroscopy, conversion electron Moessbauer spectroscopy, X-ray fluorescence, mass spectroscopy, optical ellipsometry etc.. Mechanical tests such as scratch, microhardness and wear tests are also performed on the coatings to analyse their mechanical properties. (J.S.)

  14. Lasing in liquid crystal thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palto, S. P. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Shubnikov Institute of Crystallography (Russian Federation)], E-mail: palto@online.ru

    2006-09-15

    A lasing condition is formulated in matrix form for optically anisotropic thin films. Lasing behavior of liquid-crystal slabs is analyzed. In particular, it is shown that if the spatial extent of a liquid crystal slab is much larger than its thickness, then laser emission is feasible not only along the normal to the slab, but also in the entire angular sector. The generated laser light can be observed experimentally as a spot or as concentric rings on a screen. The lowest lasing threshold corresponds to in-plane sliding modes leaking into the substrate. The feedback required for lasing is provided by reflection from the interfaces, rather than edges, of the liquid-crystal slab operating as a planar Fabry-Perot cavity. For cholesteric liquid crystals, it is shown that energy loss to the sliding modes leaking into the substrates and escaping through their edges is a key factor that limits the efficiency of band-edge emission along the normal to the slab.

  15. Silicon Thin-Film Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guy Beaucarne

    2007-01-01

    with plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD. In spite of the fundamental limitation of this material due to its disorder and metastability, the technology is now gaining industrial momentum thanks to the entry of equipment manufacturers with experience with large-area PECVD. Microcrystalline Si (also called nanocrystalline Si is a material with crystallites in the nanometer range in an amorphous matrix, and which contains less defects than amorphous silicon. Its lower bandgap makes it particularly appropriate as active material for the bottom cell in tandem and triple junction devices. The combination of an amorphous silicon top cell and a microcrystalline bottom cell has yielded promising results, but much work is needed to implement it on large-area and to limit light-induced degradation. Finally thin-film polysilicon solar cells, with grain size in the micrometer range, has recently emerged as an alternative photovoltaic technology. The layers have a grain size ranging from 1 μm to several tens of microns, and are formed at a temperature ranging from 600 to more than 1000∘C. Solid Phase Crystallization has yielded the best results so far but there has recently been fast progress with seed layer approaches, particularly those using the aluminum-induced crystallization technique.

  16. Nanostructured refractory thin films for solar applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ollier, E.; Dunoyer, N.; Dellea, O.; Szambolics, H.

    2014-08-01

    Selective solar absorbers are key elements of all solar thermal systems. Solar thermal panels and Concentrated Solar Power (CSP) systems aim respectively at producing heat and electricity. In both cases, a surface receives the solar radiation and is designed to have the highest optical absorption (lowest optical reflectivity) of the solar radiation in the visible wavelength range where the solar intensity is the highest. It also has a low emissivity in the infrared (IR) range in order to avoid radiative thermal losses. Current solutions in the state of the art usually consist in deposited interferential thin films or in cermets [1]. Structured surfaces have been proposed and have been simulated because they are supposed to be more efficient when the solar radiation is not normal to the receiving surface and because they could potentially be fabricated with refractory materials able to sustain high operating temperatures. This work presents a new method to fabricate micro/nanostructured surfaces on molybdenum (refractory metal with a melting temperature of 2623°C). This method now allows obtaining a refractory selective surface with an excellent optical selectivity and a very high absorption in the visible range. This high absorption performance was obtained by achieving a double structuration at micro and nano scales thanks to an innovative process flow.

  17. Properties of Spray Pyrolysied Copper Oxide Thin Films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. S. Roy

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Copper oxide (CuO thin films were deposited on well cleaned glass substrates by spray pyrolysis technique (SPT from cupric acetate (Cu(CH3COO2.H2O precursor solutions of 0.05 – 0.15 M molar concentrations (MC at a substrate temperature of 350 °C and at an air pressure of 1 bar. Effect of varying MC on the surface morphology, structural optical and electrical properties of CuO thin films were investigated. XRD patterns of the prepared films revealed the formation of CuO thin films having monoclinic structure with the main CuO (111 orientation and crystalline size ranging from 8.02 to 9.05 nm was observed. The optical transmission of the film was found to decrease with the increase of MC. The optical band gap of the thin films for 0.10 M was fond to be 1.60 eV. The room temperature electrical resistivity varies from 31 and 24 ohm.cm for the films grown with MC of 0.05 and 0.10 M respectively. The change in resistivity of the films was studied with respect to the change in temperature was shown that semiconductor nature is present. This information is expected to underlie the successful development of CuO films for solar windows and other semi-conductor applications including gas sensors.

  18. Laser-induced damage to thin film dielectric coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walker, T.W.

    1980-01-01

    The laser-induced damage thresholds of dielectric thin film coatings have been found to be more than an order of magnitude lower than the bulk material damage thresholds. Prior damage studies have been inconclusive in determining the damage mechanism which is operative in thin films. A program was conducted in which thin film damage thresholds were measured as a function of laser wavelength (1.06 μm, 0.53 μm, 0.35 μm and 0.26 μm), laser pulse length (5 and 15 nanoseconds), film materials and film thickness. The large matrix of data was compared to predictions given by avalanche ionization, multiphoton ionization and impurity theories of laser damage. When Mie absorption cross-sections and the exact thermal equations were included into the impurity theory excellent agreement with the data was found. The avalanche and multiphoton damage theories could not account for most parametric variations in the data. For example, the damage thresholds for most films increased as the film thickness decreased and only the impurity theory could account for this behavior. Other observed changes in damage threshold with changes in laser wavelength, pulse length and film material could only be adequately explained by the impurity theory. The conclusion which results from this study is that laser damage in thin film coatings results from absorbing impurities included during the deposition process

  19. Structure and properties of plasma sprayed BaTiO(3) coatings: Spray parameters versus structure and photocatalytic activity

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ctibor, Pavel; Ageorges, H.; Štengl, Václav; Murafa, Nataliya; Píš, I.; Zahoranová, T.; Nehasil, V.; Pala, Zdeněk

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 37, č. 7 (2011), s. 2561-2567 ISSN 0272-8842 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAAX00430803 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20430508; CEZ:AV0Z40320502 Keywords : Spectroscopy * Optical properties * BaTiO3 * Plasma spraying * Photocatalysis Subject RIV: JH - Ceramics, Fire-Resistant Materials and Glass Impact factor: 1.751, year: 2011 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0272884211002173

  20. The influence of high hydrostatic pressure on lattice parameters of a single crystal of BaTiO3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malinowski, M.; Lukaszewicz, K.; Asbrink, S.

    1986-01-01

    The lattice parameters of a single crystal of BaTiO 3 have been measured under high hydrostatic pressure up to 5 GPa using a diamond-anvil high-pressure cell of a new design. The lattice becomes cubic at 2.08(8) GPa and stays cubic at higher pressures. The pressure dependence of the tetragonal-cubic transition temperature is estimated to be -46 K GPa -1 . (orig.)

  1. Characterization of thin films with synchrotron radiation in SPring-8

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komiya, Satoshi

    2005-01-01

    Many studies about thin films by using synchrotron radiation in SPring-8 were reviewed. Structural analyses and assessment of thin films used for electronics, and also assessment of insulating films for the gate used in LSI were carried out. Film thickness, unevenness, and density of SiO 2 films in order of nanomer thickness were determined by interference fringes of x-ray reflection curves. The interface structure of (SiO 2 /Si) films was studied by x-ray crystal truncation rod scattering, and the correlation between leakage character depending on nitrogen concentration and interface structure was clarified on SiON film. The oxygen concentration in HfO films in nanometer thickness was determined by x-ray fluorescence analysis, and the interface reaction for HfO 2 /SiO 2 was clearly observed by electron spectroscopy. The structure of amorphous thin films with large dielectric constant was analyzed by x-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) spectrum. Devices fabricated from multi-layer films showing giant magnetic resistance were developed for hard disk with a large memory. The character of giant magnetic resistance was governed by multi-layer thin film structure piled up by magnetic and nonmagnetic polycrystalline thin metals. For the multi-layer structure, the concentration distribution of constituent elements was determined to the direction of film thickness by x-ray reflection analysis and grazing incident x-ray fluorescence analysis. In the semiconductor laser source, Ga 1-x In x N, used for DVD, the local structure around In ions was studied by XAFS since constituent instability, especially overpopulation of In element, caused the deterioration of lifetime and light emission of the laser. The lattice constant of the light emission layer in InGaAs was measured by x-ray micro-beams. (author)

  2. Application of HTSC-thin films in microwave bandpass filters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jha, A.R.

    1993-01-01

    This paper reveals unique performance capabilities of High-Temperature Superconducting Thin-Film (HTSCTFs) for possible applications in microwave bandpass filters (BPFs). Microwave filters fabricated with HTSCTFs have demonstrated lowest insertion loss, highest rejection, and sharpest skirt selectivity. Thin films of Yttrium Barium Copper Oxide (YBCO), Bismuth Strontium Calcium Copper Oxide (BSCCO) and Thallium Calcium Barium Copper Oxide (TCBCO) will be most attractive for filters

  3. Liquid phase epitaxial growth of heterostructured hierarchical MOF thin films

    KAUST Repository

    Chernikova, Valeriya; Shekhah, Osama; Spanopoulos, Ioannis; Trikalitis, Pantelis N.; Eddaoudi, Mohamed

    2017-01-01

    Precise control of epitaxial growth of MOF-on-MOF thin films, for ordered hierarchical tbo-type structures is demonstrated. The heterostructured MOF thin film was fabricated by successful sequential deposition of layers from two different MOFs. The 2-periodic layers, edge-transitive 4,4-square lattices regarded as supermolecular building layers, were commendably cross-linked using a combination of inorganic/organic and organic pillars.

  4. Liquid phase epitaxial growth of heterostructured hierarchical MOF thin films

    KAUST Repository

    Chernikova, Valeriya

    2017-05-10

    Precise control of epitaxial growth of MOF-on-MOF thin films, for ordered hierarchical tbo-type structures is demonstrated. The heterostructured MOF thin film was fabricated by successful sequential deposition of layers from two different MOFs. The 2-periodic layers, edge-transitive 4,4-square lattices regarded as supermolecular building layers, were commendably cross-linked using a combination of inorganic/organic and organic pillars.

  5. Simple flash evaporator for making thin films of compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hemanadhan, M.; Bapanayya, Ch.; Agarwal, S. C. [Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology, Kanpur 208016 (India)

    2010-07-15

    A simple and compact arrangement for flash evaporation is described. It uses a cell phone vibrator for powder dispensing that can be incorporated into a vacuum deposition chamber without any major alterations. The performance of the flash evaporation system is checked by making thin films of the optical memory chalcogenide glass Ge{sub 2}Sb{sub 2}Te{sub 5} (GST). Energy dispersive x-ray analysis shows that the flash evaporation preserves the stoichiometry in thin films.

  6. Chapter 23. Single and Heterostructure Multiferroic Thin Films

    OpenAIRE

    Barbier , Antoine

    2018-01-01

    International audience; Multiferroic oxide materials exhibiting several long range ferroic orders are of high interest because of their wide range of potential applications. The incorporation of their genuine properties in new devices, offering additional physical properties, requires often elaborating them in form of thin films. Retaining their multiferroic characteristics is very challenging. However, thin films can be structured on the nanometer scale and additional degrees of freedom, suc...

  7. Deposition and characterisation of epitaxial oxide thin films for SOFCs

    KAUST Repository

    Santiso, José

    2010-10-24

    This paper reviews the recent advances in the use of thin films, mostly epitaxial, for fundamental studies of materials for solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) applications. These studies include the influence of film microstructure, crystal orientation and strain in oxide ionic conducting materials used as electrolytes, such as fluorites, and in mixed ionic and electronic conducting materials used as electrodes, typically oxides with perovskite or perovskite-related layered structures. The recent effort towards the enhancement of the electrochemical performance of SOFC materials through the deposition of artificial film heterostructures is also presented. These thin films have been engineered at a nanoscale level, such as the case of epitaxial multilayers or nanocomposite cermet materials. The recent progress in the implementation of thin films in SOFC devices is also reported. © 2010 Springer-Verlag.

  8. Facile Low Temperature Hydrothermal Synthesis of BaTiO3 Nanoparticles Studied by In Situ X-ray Diffraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ola G. Grendal

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Ferroelectric materials are crucial for today’s technological society and nanostructured ferroelectric materials are important for the downscaling of devices. Controlled and reproducible synthesis of these materials are, therefore, of immense importance. Hydrothermal synthesis is a well-established synthesis route, with a large parameter space for optimization, but a better understanding of nucleation and growth mechanisms is needed for full utilization and control. Here we use in situ X-ray diffraction to follow the nucleation and growth of BaTiO3 formed by hydrothermal synthesis using two different titanium precursors, an amorphous titania precipitate slurry and a Ti-citric acid complex solution. Sequential Rietveld refinement was used to extract the time dependency of lattice parameters, crystallite size, strain, and atomic displacement parameters. Phase pure BaTiO3 nanoparticles, 10–15 nm in size, were successfully synthesized at different temperatures (100, 125, and 150 °C from both precursors after reaction times, ranging from a few seconds to several hours. The two precursors resulted in phase pure BaTiO3 with similar final crystallite size. Finally, two different growth mechanisms were revealed, where the effect of surfactants present during hydrothermal synthesis is discussed as one of the key parameters.

  9. Oxygen 1s excitation and tetragonal distortion from core-hole effect in BaTiO3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bugnet, Matthieu; Radtke, Guillaume; Botton, Gianluigi A.

    2013-11-01

    The accurate description of the O 1s excitation in BaTiO3 has been elusive so far. In this Rapid Communication, the electronic structure and the high-resolution electron energy-loss near-edge structures of the O K edge in tetragonal BaTiO3 are investigated using first-principles calculations. The results demonstrate a clear correlation between the broadening of the lower energy fine structure and the anisotropic effects induced by the core-hole potential, which are directly related to the structural distortion occurring in tetragonal BaTiO3. Moreover, we show that a significant improvement of the description of higher-lying structures can be obtained when correcting the energy position of the Ba 4f states. This demonstrates that the O 1s spectrum can be a very effective probe of the distortion and changes in the local electronic structure, and be used as a sensitive tool for studying new materials and ferroelectric transitions.

  10. Thin films as an emerging platform for drug delivery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandeep Karki

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Pharmaceutical scientists throughout the world are trying to explore thin films as a novel drug delivery tool. Thin films have been identified as an alternative approach to conventional dosage forms. The thin films are considered to be convenient to swallow, self-administrable, and fast dissolving dosage form, all of which make it as a versatile platform for drug delivery. This delivery system has been used for both systemic and local action via several routes such as oral, buccal, sublingual, ocular, and transdermal routes. The design of efficient thin films requires a comprehensive knowledge of the pharmacological and pharmaceutical properties of drugs and polymers along with an appropriate selection of manufacturing processes. Therefore, the aim of this review is to provide an overview of the critical factors affecting the formulation of thin films, including the physico-chemical properties of polymers and drugs, anatomical and physiological constraints, as well as the characterization methods and quality specifications to circumvent the difficulties associated with formulation design. It also highlights the recent trends and perspectives to develop thin film products by various companies.

  11. The optical properties of plasma polymerized polyaniline thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goktas, Hilal, E-mail: hilal_goktas@yahoo.com [Canakkale Onsekiz Mart University, Physics Department, 17020 Canakkale (Turkey); Demircioglu, Zahide; Sel, Kivanc [Canakkale Onsekiz Mart University, Physics Department, 17020 Canakkale (Turkey); Gunes, Taylan [Yalova University, Energy Systems Engineering Department, 77100 Yalova (Turkey); Kaya, Ismet [Canakkale Onsekiz Mart University, Chemistry Department, 17020 Canakkale (Turkey)

    2013-12-02

    We report herein the characterizations of polyaniline thin films synthesized using double discharge plasma system. Quartz glass substrates were coated at a pressure of 80 Pa, 19.0 kV pulsed and 1.5 kV dc potential. The substrates were located at different regions in the reactor to evaluate the influence of the position on the morphological and molecular structure of the obtained thin films. The molecular structure of the thin films was investigated by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and UV–visible photospectrometers (UV–vis), and the morphological studies were carried out by scanning electron microscope. The FTIR and UV–vis data revealed that the molecular structures of the synthesized thin films were in the form of leuocoemeraldine and exhibited similar structures with the films produced via chemical or electrochemical methods. The optical energy band gap values of the as-grown samples ranged from 2.5 to 3.1 eV, which indicated that these materials have potential applications in semiconductor devices. The refractive index in the transparent region (from 650 to 1000 nm) steadily decreased from 1.9 to 1.4 and the extinction coefficient was found to be on order of 10{sup −4}. The synthesized thin films showed various degrees of granular morphologies depending on the location of the substrate in the reactor. - Highlights: • Polyaniline thin films were synthesized for the first time via double discharge plasma system. • The films have similar structure to that of the chemically synthesized films. • The morphology of the films could be tuned by this technique. • These materials would have potential applications at semiconductor devices.

  12. Magnetic behavior of La2/3Ca1/3MnO3 / BaTiO3 bilayers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ordonez, John E.; Gomez, Maria E.; Lopera, Wilson; Marin, Lorena; Pardo, Jose A.; Morellon, Luis; Algarabel, Pedro; Prieto, Pedro

    2013-03-01

    We have grown ferroelectric BaTiO3(BTO) and ferromagnetic La2/3Ca1/3MnO3 (LCMO) onto (001) SrTiO3 and Nb:SrTiO3 by pulsed laser deposition (PLD) at pure oxygen atmosphere, and a substrate temperature of 820° C, seeking for a multiferroic behavior in this structure. From x-ray diffraction (XRD) we found lattice parameter aBTO=4.068 Å, and aLCMO=3.804 Å, for each individual layer. In the BTO/LCMO bilayer, (002)-Bragg peak for BTO maintain its position whereas (002) LCMO peak shift to lower Bragg angle indicating a strained LCMO film. Magnetization measurements reveal an increase in the Curie temperature from 170 K to 220 K for the bilayer when LCMO (t = 47 nm) is deposited on BTO (t=52 nm) film, while depositing the BTO (50 nm) above LCMO (48 nm) the Curie temperature remains at values close to that obtained for a LCMO single layer (~175 K), deposited under identical growth parameters This work has been supported by Instituto de Nanociencias de Aragón, Zaragoza, Spain, ``El Patrimonio Autónomo Fondo Nacional de Financiamiento para CT&I FJC'' COLCIENCIAS-CENM Contract RC 275-2011 and Research Project COLCIENCIAS-UNIVALLE.

  13. Emergent Topological Phenomena in Thin Films of Pyrochlore Iridates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Bohm-Jung; Nagaosa, Naoto

    2014-06-01

    Because of the recent development of thin film and artificial superstructure growth techniques, it is possible to control the dimensionality of the system, smoothly between two and three dimensions. In this Letter we unveil the dimensional crossover of emergent topological phenomena in correlated topological materials. In particular, by focusing on the thin film of pyrochlore iridate antiferromagnets grown along the [111] direction, we demonstrate that the thin film can have a giant anomalous Hall conductance, proportional to the thickness of the film, even though there is no Hall effect in 3D bulk material. Moreover, in the case of ultrathin films, a quantized anomalous Hall conductance can be observed, despite the fact that the system is an antiferromagnet. In addition, we uncover the emergence of a new topological phase, the nontrivial topological properties of which are hidden in the bulk insulator and manifest only in thin films. This shows that the thin film of correlated topological materials is a new platform to search for unexplored novel topological phenomena.

  14. Nanometric thin film membranes manufactured on square meter scale: ultra-thin films for CO 2 capture

    KAUST Repository

    Yave, Wilfredo; Car, Anja; Wind, Jan; Peinemann, Klaus Viktor

    2010-01-01

    Miniaturization and manipulation of materials at nanometer scale are key challenges in nanoscience and nanotechnology. In membrane science and technology, the fabrication of ultra-thin polymer films (defect-free) on square meter scale with uniform

  15. Geometric shape control of thin film ferroelectrics and resulting structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKee, Rodney A.; Walker, Frederick J.

    2000-01-01

    A monolithic crystalline structure and a method of making involves a semiconductor substrate, such as silicon, and a ferroelectric film, such as BaTiO.sub.3, overlying the surface of the substrate wherein the atomic layers of the ferroelectric film directly overlie the surface of the substrate. By controlling the geometry of the ferroelectric thin film, either during build-up of the thin film or through appropriate treatment of the thin film adjacent the boundary thereof, the in-plane tensile strain within the ferroelectric film is relieved to the extent necessary to permit the ferroelectric film to be poled out-of-plane, thereby effecting in-plane switching of the polarization of the underlying substrate material. The method of the invention includes the steps involved in effecting a discontinuity of the mechanical restraint at the boundary of the ferroelectric film atop the semiconductor substrate by, for example, either removing material from a ferroelectric film which has already been built upon the substrate, building up a ferroelectric film upon the substrate in a mesa-shaped geometry or inducing the discontinuity at the boundary by ion beam deposition techniques.

  16. Characterisation and optical vapour sensing properties of PMMA thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Capan, I. [Balikesir University, Science and Arts Faculty, Physics Department, 10100 Balikesir (Turkey)], E-mail: inci.capan@gmail.com; Tarimci, C. [Ankara University, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Engineering Physics, 06100, Tandogan, Ankara (Turkey); Hassan, A.K. [Sheffield Hallam University, Materials and Engineering Research Institute, City Campus, Pond Street, Sheffield S1 1WB (United Kingdom); Tanrisever, T. [Balikesir University, Science and Arts Faculty, Chemistry Department, 10100 Balikesir (Turkey)

    2009-01-01

    The present article reports on the characterisation of spin coated thin films of poly (methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) for their use in organic vapour sensing application. Thin film properties of PMMA are studied by UV-visible spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy and surface plasmon resonance (SPR) technique. Results obtained show that homogeneous thin films with thickness in the range between 6 and 15 nm have been successfully prepared when films were spun at speeds between 1000-5000 rpm. Using SPR technique, the sensing properties of the spun films were studied on exposures to several halohydrocarbons including chloroform, dichloromethane and trichloroethylene. Data from measured kinetic response have been used to evaluate the sensitivity of the studied films to the various analyte molecules in terms of normalised response (%) per unit concentration (ppm). The highest PMMA film sensitivity of 0.067 normalised response per ppm was observed for chloroform vapour, for films spun at 1000 rpm. The high film's sensitivity to chloroform vapour was ascribed mainly to its solubility parameter and molar volume values. Effect of film thickness on the vapour sensing properties is also discussed.

  17. Thin films of metal-organic compounds and metal nanoparticle ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Optical limiting capability of the nanoparticle-embedded polymer film is demonstrated. Keywords. Polar crystal; uniaxial orientational order; thin film; second harmonic gen- eration; silver ... able content of metal nanoparticles would be of considerable value from an appli- ... polar chain and perpendicular to it [10].

  18. Magnetic hysteresis measurements of thin films under isotropic stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holland, Patrick; Dubey, Archana; Geerts, Wilhelmus

    2000-10-01

    Nowadays, ferromagnetic thin films are widely applied in devices for information technology (credit cards, video recorder tapes, floppies, hard disks) and sensors (air bags, anti-breaking systems, navigation systems). Thus, with the increase in the use of magnetic media continued investigation of magnetic properties of materials is necessary to help in determining the useful properties of materials for new or improved applications. We are currently interested in studying the effect of applied external stress on Kerr hysteresis curves of thin magnetic films. The Ni and NiFe films were grown using DC magnetron sputtering with Ar as the sputter gas (pAr=4 mTorr; Tsub=55-190 C). Seed and cap layers of Ti were used on all films for adhesion and oxidation protection, respectively. A brass membrane pressure cell was designed to apply in-plane isotropic stress to thin films. In this pressure cell, gas pressure is used to deform a flexible substrate onto which a thin magnetic film has been sputtered. The curvature of the samples could be controlled by changing the gas pressure to the cell. Magneto-Optical in-plane hysteresis curves at different values of strain were measured. The results obtained show that the stress sensitivity is dependent on the film thickness. For the 500nm NiFe films, the coercivity strongly decreased as a function of the applied stress.

  19. Preparation of self-supporting thin metal target films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Xiuying; Ge Suxian; Yin Jianhua; Yin Xu; Jin Genming

    1989-01-01

    The preparation method and equipment for thin metal self-supporting target without oil contamination are described. The influence of target films contaminated by oil vapor on accuracy of nuclear-physics experimental data are also discussed. The analytical results on carbon content in the prepared films of three elements show that the equipment is very effective for eliminating contamination

  20. Ellipsometric investigations of pyrolytically deposited thin indium oxide films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winkler, U.

    1980-01-01

    Ellipsometric measurements have been carried out of thin indium oxide films deposited pyrolytically on glass substrates. It was found that the roughness of the films affected the measuring results. Therefore, only after applying a two-layer model a reasonable interpretation of the measuring results became possible