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Sample records for bathymodiolus sp mussel

  1. Evolutionary process of deep-sea bathymodiolus mussels.

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    Miyazaki, Jun-Ichi; de Oliveira Martins, Leonardo; Fujita, Yuko; Matsumoto, Hiroto; Fujiwara, Yoshihiro

    2010-04-27

    Since the discovery of deep-sea chemosynthesis-based communities, much work has been done to clarify their organismal and environmental aspects. However, major topics remain to be resolved, including when and how organisms invade and adapt to deep-sea environments; whether strategies for invasion and adaptation are shared by different taxa or unique to each taxon; how organisms extend their distribution and diversity; and how they become isolated to speciate in continuous waters. Deep-sea mussels are one of the dominant organisms in chemosynthesis-based communities, thus investigations of their origin and evolution contribute to resolving questions about life in those communities. We investigated worldwide phylogenetic relationships of deep-sea Bathymodiolus mussels and their mytilid relatives by analyzing nucleotide sequences of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) and NADH dehydrogenase subunit 4 (ND4) genes. Phylogenetic analysis of the concatenated sequence data showed that mussels of the subfamily Bathymodiolinae from vents and seeps were divided into four groups, and that mussels of the subfamily Modiolinae from sunken wood and whale carcasses assumed the outgroup position and shallow-water modioline mussels were positioned more distantly to the bathymodioline mussels. We provisionally hypothesized the evolutionary history of Bathymodilolus mussels by estimating evolutionary time under a relaxed molecular clock model. Diversification of bathymodioline mussels was initiated in the early Miocene, and subsequently diversification of the groups occurred in the early to middle Miocene. The phylogenetic relationships support the "Evolutionary stepping stone hypothesis," in which mytilid ancestors exploited sunken wood and whale carcasses in their progressive adaptation to deep-sea environments. This hypothesis is also supported by the evolutionary transition of symbiosis in that nutritional adaptation to the deep sea proceeded from extracellular

  2. Evolutionary process of deep-sea bathymodiolus mussels.

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    Jun-Ichi Miyazaki

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Since the discovery of deep-sea chemosynthesis-based communities, much work has been done to clarify their organismal and environmental aspects. However, major topics remain to be resolved, including when and how organisms invade and adapt to deep-sea environments; whether strategies for invasion and adaptation are shared by different taxa or unique to each taxon; how organisms extend their distribution and diversity; and how they become isolated to speciate in continuous waters. Deep-sea mussels are one of the dominant organisms in chemosynthesis-based communities, thus investigations of their origin and evolution contribute to resolving questions about life in those communities. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDING: We investigated worldwide phylogenetic relationships of deep-sea Bathymodiolus mussels and their mytilid relatives by analyzing nucleotide sequences of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI and NADH dehydrogenase subunit 4 (ND4 genes. Phylogenetic analysis of the concatenated sequence data showed that mussels of the subfamily Bathymodiolinae from vents and seeps were divided into four groups, and that mussels of the subfamily Modiolinae from sunken wood and whale carcasses assumed the outgroup position and shallow-water modioline mussels were positioned more distantly to the bathymodioline mussels. We provisionally hypothesized the evolutionary history of Bathymodilolus mussels by estimating evolutionary time under a relaxed molecular clock model. Diversification of bathymodioline mussels was initiated in the early Miocene, and subsequently diversification of the groups occurred in the early to middle Miocene. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The phylogenetic relationships support the "Evolutionary stepping stone hypothesis," in which mytilid ancestors exploited sunken wood and whale carcasses in their progressive adaptation to deep-sea environments. This hypothesis is also supported by the evolutionary transition of

  3. Shell carbon isotope indicators of metabolic activity in the deep-sea mussel Bathymodiolus childressi

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    Riekenberg, P. M.; Carney, R. S.; Fry, B.

    2018-04-01

    The incorporation of metabolic carbon (Cm) into shells of mollusks has been used as an indicator of animal condition and availability of food resources in estuarine and freshwater settings. This study examines Cm in Bathymodiolus childressi, a marine cold seep mussel dependent on methanotrophic symbionts. As seeps develop, mature, and go quiescent, methane supply will vary and affect the amount of metabolic carbon deposited into the growing shell. B. childressi (n = 136) were live-collected from two seep sites over a 17 year period in the Northern Gulf of Mexico to investigate whether changes in Cm were detectable between sites and across years. Significant differences in Cm were observed between mussel populations at Brine Pool (15.4 ± 0.4%) and Bush Hill (10.3 ± 0.3%). Cm also changed significantly within each site across year (Bush Hill 1991: 12.2 ± 0.5%, 1992: 17.3 ± 0.8%) and decadal time scales (Brine Pool 1989: 15.5 ± 0.7%, 2006: 19.5 ± 0.7%). These findings agree with previous studies that found mussel condition was higher at Brine Pool and correlate well with a trophic mixing model that indicated significantly higher methane source utilization at the Brine Pool (65 ± 1.1%) than at Bush Hill (49 ± 1.6%). Further development of this method should allow for assessment of Cm in shell assemblages as an indicator of historical resource availability at both active and former cold seep sites.

  4. Phagocytic activities of hemocytes from the deep-sea symbiotic mussels Bathymodiolus japonicus, B. platifrons, and B. septemdierum.

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    Tame, Akihiro; Yoshida, Takao; Ohishi, Kazue; Maruyama, Tadashi

    2015-07-01

    Deep-sea mytilid mussels harbor symbiotic bacteria in their gill epithelial cells that are horizontally or environmentally transmitted to the next generation of hosts. To understand the immune defense system in deep-sea symbiotic mussels, we examined the hemocyte populations of the symbiotic Bathymodiolus mussel species Bathymodiolus japonicus, Bathymodiolus platifrons, and Bathymodiolus septemdierum, and characterized three types of hemocytes: agranulocytes (AGs), basophilic granulocytes (BGs), and eosinophilic granulocytes (EGs). Of these, the EG cells were the largest (diameter, 8.4-10.0 μm) and had eosinophilic cytoplasm with numerous eosinophilic granules (diameter, 0.8-1.2 μm). Meanwhile, the BGs were of medium size (diameter, 6.7-8.0 μm) and contained small basophilic granules (diameter, 0.3-0.4 μm) in basophilic cytoplasm, and the AGs, the smallest of the hemocytes (diameter, 4.8-6.0 μm), had basophilic cytoplasm lacking granules. A lectin binding assay revealed that concanavalin A bound to all three hemocyte types, while wheat germ agglutinin bound exclusively to EGs and BGs. The total hemocyte population densities within the hemolymph of all three Bathymodiolus mussel species were similar (8.4-13.3 × 10(5) cells/mL), and the percentages of circulating AGs, BGs, and EGs in the hemolymph of these organisms were 44.7-48.5%, 14.3-17.6%, and 34.3-41.0%, respectively. To analyze the functional differences between these hemocytes, the phagocytic activity and post-phagocytic phagosome-lysosome fusion events were analyzed in each cell type using a fluorescent Alexa Fluor(®) 488-conjugated Escherichia coli bioparticle and a LysoTracker(®) lysosomal marker, respectively. While the AGs exhibited no phagocytic activity, both types of granulocytes were phagocytic. Of the three hemocyte types, the EGs exhibited the highest level of phagocytic activity as well as rapid phagosome-lysosome fusion, which occurred within 2 h of incubation. Meanwhile, the BGs showed

  5. Metal interactions between the polychaete Branchipolynoe seepensis and the mussel Bathymodiolus azoricus from Mid-Atlantic-Ridge hydrothermal vent fields.

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    Bebianno, Maria João; Cardoso, Cátia; Gomes, Tânia; Blasco, Julian; Santos, Ricardo Serrão; Colaço, Ana

    2018-04-01

    The vent blood-red commensal polynoid polychaete Branchipolynoe seepensis is commonly found in the pallial cavity of the vent mussel Bathymodiolus azoricus, the dominant bivalve species along the Mid-Atlantic-Ridge (MAR) and is known to be kleptoparasitic. Mussels were collected from three hydrothermal vent fields in the MAR: Menez Gwen (850 m depth, MG2, MG3 and MG4), Lucky Strike (1700 m depth, Montségur-MS and Eiffel Tower-ET) and Rainbow (2300 m depth). Polychaetes were absent in all Menez Gwen vent mussels, while the highest percentage was detected in mussels from Lucky Strike, where more than 70% of the mussels had at least one polychaete in their mantle cavity, followed by Rainbow with 33% of mussels with polychaetes. Total metal concentrations (Ag, Cd, Co, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni and Zn) were determined in polychaetes whole body and in the mussel tissues (gills, digestive gland and mantle). To understand the possible metal interactions between symbiont and host, the activity of antioxidant defence (catalase (CAT), metallothioneins (MTs)), biotransformation enzymes (glutathione-s-transferases (GST)) activities and lipid peroxidation (LPO) were determined in polychaete whole soft tissues and in mussel tissues (gills, digestive gland and mantle). Metal concentrations in polychaetes and mussels tissues indicated that the accumulation patterns were species specific and also influenced by, and possibly dependent upon, the inter- and intra-variation of vent physico-chemistry between hydrothermal fields. Despite not detecting any strong correlations between metal and enzymes activities in polychaetes and mussels, when in presence of polychaetes, mussels presented less metal concentrations in the gills and digestive gland and lower activity of enzymatic biomarkers. This leads to infer that the polychaete plays a role on the detoxification process, and the interaction between the polychaete mussel association is probably an adaptation to metals concentrations at the

  6. Multiple I-Type Lysozymes in the Hydrothermal Vent Mussel Bathymodiolus azoricus and Their Role in Symbiotic Plasticity.

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    Camille Detree

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was first to identify lysozymes paralogs in the deep sea mussel Bathymodiolus azoricus then to measure their relative expression or activity in different tissue or conditions. B. azoricus is a bivalve that lives close to hydrothermal chimney in the Mid-Atlantic Ridge (MAR. They harbour in specialized gill cells two types of endosymbiont (gram-bacteria: sulphide oxidizing bacteria (SOX and methanotrophic bacteria (MOX. This association is thought to be ruled by specific mechanism or actors of regulation to deal with the presence of symbiont but these mechanisms are still poorly understood. Here, we focused on the implication of lysozyme, a bactericidal enzyme, in this endosymbiosis. The relative expression of Ba-lysozymes paralogs and the global anti-microbial activity, were measured in natural population (Lucky Strike--1700 m, Mid-Atlantic Ridge, and in in situ experimental conditions. B. azoricus individuals were moved away from the hydrothermal fluid to induce a loss of symbiont. Then after 6 days some mussels were brought back to the mussel bed to induce a re-acquisition of symbiotic bacteria. Results show the presence of 6 paralogs in B. azoricus. In absence of symbionts, 3 paralogs are up-regulated while others are not differentially expressed. Moreover the global activity of lysozyme is increasing with the loss of symbiont. All together these results suggest that lysozyme may play a crucial role in symbiont regulation.

  7. Expression patterns of mRNAs for methanotrophy and thiotrophy in symbionts of the hydrothermal vent mussel Bathymodiolus puteoserpentis

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    Wendeberg, Annelie; Zielinski, Frank U; Borowski, Christian; Dubilier, Nicole

    2012-01-01

    The hydrothermal vent mussel Bathymodiolus puteoserpentis (Mytilidae) from the Mid-Atlantic Ridge hosts symbiotic sulfur- and methane-oxidizing bacteria in its gills. In this study, we investigated the activity and distribution of these two symbionts in juvenile mussels from the Logatchev hydrothermal vent field (14°45′N Mid-Atlantic Ridge). Expression patterns of two key genes for chemosynthesis were examined: pmoA (encoding subunit A of the particulate methane monooxygenase) as an indicator for methanotrophy, and aprA (encoding the subunit A of the dissimilatory adenosine-5′-phosphosulfate reductase) as an indicator for thiotrophy. Using simultaneous fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) of rRNA and mRNA we observed highest mRNA FISH signals toward the ciliated epithelium where seawater enters the gills. The levels of mRNA expression differed between individual specimens collected in a single grab from the same sampling site, whereas no obvious differences in symbiont abundance or distribution were observed. We propose that the symbionts respond to the steep temporal and spatial gradients in methane, reduced sulfur compounds and oxygen by modifying gene transcription, whereas changes in symbiont abundance and distribution take much longer than regulation of mRNA expression and may only occur in response to long-term changes in vent fluid geochemistry. PMID:21734728

  8. Influence of CH4 and H2S availability on symbiont distribution, carbon assimilation and transfer in the dual symbiotic vent mussel Bathymodiolus azoricus

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    R. S. Santos

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available High densities of mussels of the genus Bathymodiolus are present at hydrothermal vents of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge. It was previously proposed that the chemistry at vent sites would affect their sulphide- and methane-oxidizing endosymbionts' abundance. In this study, we confirmed the latter assumption using fluorescence in situ hybridization on Bathymodiolus azoricus specimens maintained in a controlled laboratory environment at atmospheric pressure with one, both or none of the chemical substrates. A high level of symbiosis plasticity was observed, methane-oxidizers occupying between 4 and 39% of total bacterial area and both symbionts developing according to the presence or absence of their substrates. Using H13CO3− in the presence of sulphide, or 13CH4, we monitored carbon assimilation by the endosymbionts and its translocation to symbiont-free mussel tissues. Carbon was incorporated from methane and sulphide-oxidized inorganic carbon at rates 3 to 10 times slower in the host muscle tissue than in the symbiont-containing gill tissue. Both symbionts thus contribute actively to B. azoricus nutrition and adapt to the availability of their substrates. Further experiments with varying substrate concentrations using the same set-up should provide useful tools to study and even model the effects of changes in hydrothermal fluids on B. azoricus' chemosynthetic nutrition.

  9. High-throughput sequencing and analysis of the gill tissue transcriptome from the deep-sea hydrothermal vent mussel Bathymodiolus azoricus

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    Gomes Paula

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bathymodiolus azoricus is a deep-sea hydrothermal vent mussel found in association with large faunal communities living in chemosynthetic environments at the bottom of the sea floor near the Azores Islands. Investigation of the exceptional physiological reactions that vent mussels have adopted in their habitat, including responses to environmental microbes, remains a difficult challenge for deep-sea biologists. In an attempt to reveal genes potentially involved in the deep-sea mussel innate immunity we carried out a high-throughput sequence analysis of freshly collected B. azoricus transcriptome using gills tissues as the primary source of immune transcripts given its strategic role in filtering the surrounding waterborne potentially infectious microorganisms. Additionally, a substantial EST data set was produced and from which a comprehensive collection of genes coding for putative proteins was organized in a dedicated database, "DeepSeaVent" the first deep-sea vent animal transcriptome database based on the 454 pyrosequencing technology. Results A normalized cDNA library from gills tissue was sequenced in a full 454 GS-FLX run, producing 778,996 sequencing reads. Assembly of the high quality reads resulted in 75,407 contigs of which 3,071 were singletons. A total of 39,425 transcripts were conceptually translated into amino-sequences of which 22,023 matched known proteins in the NCBI non-redundant protein database, 15,839 revealed conserved protein domains through InterPro functional classification and 9,584 were assigned with Gene Ontology terms. Queries conducted within the database enabled the identification of genes putatively involved in immune and inflammatory reactions which had not been previously evidenced in the vent mussel. Their physical counterpart was confirmed by semi-quantitative quantitative Reverse-Transcription-Polymerase Chain Reactions (RT-PCR and their RNA transcription level by quantitative PCR (q

  10. Post-capture immune gene expression studies in the deep-sea hydrothermal vent mussel Bathymodiolus azoricus acclimatized to atmospheric pressure.

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    Barros, Inês; Divya, Baby; Martins, Inês; Vandeperre, Frederic; Santos, Ricardo Serrão; Bettencourt, Raul

    2015-01-01

    Deep-sea hydrothermal vents are extreme habitats that are distributed worldwide in association with volcanic and tectonic events, resulting thus in the establishment of particular environmental conditions, in which high pressure, steep temperature gradients, and potentially toxic concentrations of sulfur, methane and heavy metals constitute driving factors for the foundation of chemosynthetic-based ecosystems. Of all the different macroorganisms found at deep-sea hydrothermal vents, the mussel Bathymodiolus azoricus is the most abundant species inhabiting the vent ecosystems from the Mid-Atlantic Ridge (MAR). In the present study, the effect of long term acclimatization at atmospheric pressure on host-symbiotic associations were studied in light of the ensuing physiological adaptations from which the immune and endosymbiont gene expressions were concomitantly quantified by means of real-time PCR. The expression of immune genes at 0 h, 12 h, 24 h, 36 h, 48 h, 72 h, 1 week and 3 weeks post-capture acclimatization was investigated and their profiles compared across the samples tested. The gene signal distribution for host immune and bacterial genes followed phasic changes in gene expression at 24 h, 1 week and 3 weeks acclimatization when compared to other time points tested during this temporal expression study. Analyses of the bacterial gene expression also suggested that both bacterial density and activity could contribute to shaping the intricate association between endosymbionts and host immune genes whose expression patterns seem to be concomitant at 1 week acclimatization. Fluorescence in situ hybridization was used to assess the distribution and prevalence of endosymbiont bacteria within gill tissues confirming the gradual loss of sulfur-oxidizing (SOX) and methane-oxidizing (MOX) bacteria during acclimatization. The present study addresses the deep-sea vent mussel B. azoricus as a model organism to study how acclimatization in aquaria and the

  11. Insights into deep-sea adaptations and host-symbiont interactions: A comparative transcriptome study on Bathymodiolus mussels and their coastal relatives.

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    Zheng, Ping; Wang, Minxiao; Li, Chaolun; Sun, Xiaoqing; Wang, Xiaocheng; Sun, Yan; Sun, Song

    2017-10-01

    Mussels (Bivalve: Mytilidae) have adapted to various habitats, from fresh water to the deep sea. To understand their adaptive characteristics in different habitats, particularly in the bathymodiolin mussels in deep-sea chemosynthetic ecosystems, we conducted a comparative transcriptomic analysis between deep-sea bathymodiolin mussels and their shallow-water relatives. A number of gene families related to stress responses were shared across all mussels, without specific or significantly expanded families in deep-sea species, indicating that all mussels are capable of adapting to diverse harsh environments, but that different members of the same gene family may be preferentially utilized by different species. One of the most extraordinary trait of bathymodiolin mussels is their endosymbiosis. Lineage-specific and positively selected TLRs and highly expressed C1QDC proteins were identified in the gills of the bathymodiolins, suggesting their possible functions in symbiont recognition. However, pattern recognition receptors of the bathymodiolins were globally reduced, facilitating the invasion and maintenance of the symbionts obtained by either endocytosis or phagocytosis. Additionally, various transporters were positively selected or more highly expressed in the deep-sea mussels, indicating a means by which necessary materials could be provided for the symbionts. Key genes supporting lysosomal activity were also positively selected or more highly expressed in the deep-sea mussels, suggesting that nutrition fixed by the symbionts can be absorbed in a "farming" way wherein the symbionts are digested by lysosomes. Regulation of key physiological processes including lysosome activity, apoptosis and immune reactions is needed to maintain a stable host-symbiont relationship, but the mechanisms are still unclear. © 2017 The Authors. Molecular Ecology Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Mussels (Mytilus sp.) as an indicator of lead pollution

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    Chow, T.J.; Snyder, H.G.; Snyder, C.B.

    1976-01-01

    The lead contents of two species of mussels (Mytilus californianus and M. edulis) collected along the Pacific coast from Piedras Blancas, California to Punta Bnada, Baja California were determined by isotope dilution method. The whole soft parts of the mussels, on a dry weight basis, contained from 0.27 to 42 ppm of lead which can be related to their local habitats. The gill tissues of the mussels showed the highest lead concentration

  13. Procedures for conducting underwater searches for invasive mussels (Dreissena sp.)

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    Adams, Noah

    2010-01-01

    Zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha) were first detected in the Great Lakes in 1988. They were likely transported as larvae or young adults inside the ballast tanks of large ocean-going ships originating from Europe. Since their introduction, they have spread throughout the Eastern, Midwestern, and Southern United States. In 2007, Quagga mussels (Dreissena rostriformis bugensis) were found in the Western United States in Lake Mead, Nevada; part of the Lower Colorado River Basin. State and Federal managers are concerned that the mussels (hereafter referred to as dreissenid mussels or mussels) will continue to spread to the Columbia River Basin and have a major impact on the region?s ecosystem, water delivery infrastructure, hydroelectric projects, and the economy. The transport and use of recreational watercraft throughout the Western United States could easily result in spreading mussels to the Columbia River Basin. The number of recreational watercraft using Lake Mead can range from 350 to 3,500 a day (Bryan Moore, National Park Service, oral commun., June 21, 2008). Because recreational watercrafts are readily moved around and mussels may survive for a period of time when they are out of the water, there is a high potential to spread mussels from Lake Mead to other waterways in the Western United States. Efforts are being made to prevent the spread of mussels; however, there is great concern that these efforts will not be 100 percent successful. When prevention efforts fail, early detection of mussels may provide an opportunity to implement rapid response management actions to minimize the impact. Control and eradication efforts are more likely to be successful if they are implemented when the density of mussels is low and the area of infestation is small. Once the population grows and becomes established, the mussels are extremely difficult, if not impossible, to control. Although chemicals may be used to kill the mussels, the chemicals that are currently

  14. Biogeochemistry in highly reduced mussel farm sediments during macrofaunal recolonization by Amphiura filiformis and Nephtys sp.

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    Lindqvist, Stina; Norling, Karl; Hulth, Stefan

    2009-04-01

    Mussel farming is considered a viable means for reducing coastal eutrophication. This study assessed the importance of bioturbation by recolonizing fauna for benthic solute fluxes and porewater distributions in manipulated mussel farm sediments. Three consecutive time-series flux incubations were performed during an experimental period of three weeks in sieved farm sediment treated with the brittle star Amphiura filiformis and the polychaete Nephtys sp. The functional behavior of Nephtys sp. and interactions between Nephtys sp. and the spontaneously colonizing spionid Malacoceros fuliginosus determined the biogeochemical response in the Nephtys sp. treatment. For example, the oxic zone was restricted and benthic nitrate and silicate fluxes were reduced compared to the brittle star treatment. A. filiformis seemed to enhance the bioadvective solute transport, although an increased supply of oxygen was due to the highly reducing conditions of the sediment mainly seen as secondary effects related to porewater distributions and benthic nutrient fluxes.

  15. Evaluation of the natural prevalence of Vibrio spp. in Uruguayan mussels (Mytilus sp.) and their control using irradiation

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    Lopez, C.

    2001-01-01

    The presence of potentially pathogenic bacteria belonging to the Vibrionacea, especially Vibrio cholerae, and of Salmonella spp., was examined in fresh Uruguayan mussels (Mytilus sp.) during two annual seasons. The radiation decimal reduction dose (D 10 ) of various toxigenic strains of Vibrio cholerae was determined to vary in vitro between 0.11 and 0.19 kGy. These results and those from the examination of natural Vibrio spp. contamination in mussels were used to conclude that 1.0 kGy would be enough to render Uruguayan mussels Vibrio-safe. Mussels irradiated in the shell at the optical dose survived long enough to allow the eventual introduction of irradiation as an effective intervention measure without affecting local marketing practices, and making it possible to market the fresh mussels live, as required by Uruguayan legislation. (author)

  16. Haplosporidium raabei n. sp. (Haplosporidia): a parasite of zebra mussels, Dreissena polymorpha (Pallas, 1771).

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    Molloy, D P; Giambérini, L; Stokes, N A; Burreson, E M; Ovcharenko, M A

    2012-04-01

    Extensive connective tissue lysis is a common outcome of haplosporidian infection. Although such infections in marine invertebrates are well documented, they are relatively rarely observed in freshwater invertebrates. Herein, we report a field study using a comprehensive series of methodologies (histology, dissection, electron microscopy, gene sequence analysis, and molecular phylogenetics) to investigate the morphology, taxonomy, systematics, geographical distribution, pathogenicity, and seasonal and annual prevalence of a haplosporidian observed in zebra mussels, Dreissena polymorpha. Based on its genetic sequence, morphology, and host, we describe Haplosporidium raabei n. sp. from D. polymorpha - the first haplosporidian species from a freshwater bivalve. Haplosporidium raabei is rare as we observed it in histological sections in only 0·7% of the zebra mussels collected from 43 water bodies across 11 European countries and in none that were collected from 10 water bodies in the United States. In contrast to its low prevalences, disease intensities were quite high with 79·5% of infections advanced to sporogenesis.

  17. Species distribution and population connectivity of deep-sea mussels at hydrocarbon seeps in the Gulf of Mexico.

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    Baptiste Faure

    Full Text Available Hydrocarbon seepage is widespread and patchy in the Gulf of Mexico, and six species of symbiont containing bathymodiolin mussels are found on active seeps over wide and overlapping depth and geographic ranges. We use mitochondrial genes to discriminate among the previously known and a newly discovered species and to assess the connectivity among populations of the same species in the northern Gulf of Mexico (GoM. Our results generally validate the morphologically based distribution of the three previously known GoM species of Bathymodiolus, although we found that approximately 10% of the morphologically based identifications were incorrect and this resulted in some inaccuracies with respect to their previously assigned depth and geographical distribution patterns. These data allowed us to confirm that sympatry of two species of Bathymodiolus within a single patch of mussels is common. A new species of bathymodiolin, Bathymodiolus sp. nov., closely related to B. heckerae was also discovered. The two species live at the same depths but have not been found in sympatry and both have small effective population sizes. We found evidence for genetic structure within populations of the three species of Bathymodiolinae for which we had samples from multiple sites and suggest limited connectivity for populations at some sites. Despite relatively small sample sizes, genetic diversity indices suggest the largest population sizes for B. childressi and Tamu fisheri and the smallest for B. heckerae and B. sp. nov. among the GoM bathymodiolins. Moreover, we detected an excess of rare variants indicating recent demographic changes and population expansions for the four species of bathymodiolins from the Gulf of Mexico.

  18. Metabolic and physiological interdependencies in the Bathymodiolus azoricus symbiosis.

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    Ponnudurai, Ruby; Kleiner, Manuel; Sayavedra, Lizbeth; Petersen, Jillian M; Moche, Martin; Otto, Andreas; Becher, Dörte; Takeuchi, Takeshi; Satoh, Noriyuki; Dubilier, Nicole; Schweder, Thomas; Markert, Stephanie

    2017-02-01

    The hydrothermal vent mussel Bathymodiolus azoricus lives in an intimate symbiosis with two types of chemosynthetic Gammaproteobacteria in its gills: a sulfur oxidizer and a methane oxidizer. Despite numerous investigations over the last decades, the degree of interdependence between the three symbiotic partners, their individual metabolic contributions, as well as the mechanism of carbon transfer from the symbionts to the host are poorly understood. We used a combination of proteomics and genomics to investigate the physiology and metabolism of the individual symbiotic partners. Our study revealed that key metabolic functions are most likely accomplished jointly by B. azoricus and its symbionts: (1) CO 2 is pre-concentrated by the host for carbon fixation by the sulfur-oxidizing symbiont, and (2) the host replenishes essential biosynthetic TCA cycle intermediates for the sulfur-oxidizing symbiont. In return (3), the sulfur oxidizer may compensate for the host's putative deficiency in amino acid and cofactor biosynthesis. We also identified numerous 'symbiosis-specific' host proteins by comparing symbiont-containing and symbiont-free host tissues and symbiont fractions. These proteins included a large complement of host digestive enzymes in the gill that are likely involved in symbiont digestion and carbon transfer from the symbionts to the host.

  19. Ophryoglena hemophaga n. sp. (Ciliophora: Ophryoglenidae): a parasite of the digestive gland of zebra mussels Dreissena polymorpha.

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    Molloy, Daniel P; Lynn, Denis H; Giamberini, Laure

    2005-07-18

    Ophryoglena hemophaga n. sp. is described from a freshwater Dreissena polymorpha population in the Rhine delta of the Netherlands. This is the first ophryoglenine species (order Hymenostomatida, suborder Ophryoglenina) recorded as a molluscan parasite. As is typical of ciliates in the suborder Ophryoglenina, O. hemophaga exhibits a polymorphic life history with cystment and reproduction by palintomy. Trophonts were observed within digestive gland lumina, and zebra mussel hemocytes were present in some of their digestive vacuoles. The presence of a single, longitudinal tract of multiple contractile vacuoles represents its most unique feature and distinguishes it from all other described Ophryoglena spp. The number of somatic kineties of O. hemophaga (range 100 to 124) is also distinguishing as it is one of the lowest for [corrected] an Ophryoglena sp. Other characteristics of this species include: ovoid to elongate trophonts 96 to 288 microm in length, with an elongate macronucleus 41 to 65 microm in length; tomonts 50 to 150 microm in diameter producing a clear mucous cyst envelope, whose thickness is approximately half of the tomont diameter; elongated theronts 96 to 131 microm in length which emerge after 1 to 3 cell divisions taking 36 to 48 h at 20 +/- 3 degrees C. Protomonts and theronts are, respectively, negatively and positively phototactic--characteristics that likely aid in maintenance of infection in zebra mussel populations.

  20. Antifouling Activity towards Mussel by Small-Molecule Compounds from a Strain of Vibrio alginolyticus Bacterium Associated with Sea Anemone Haliplanella sp.

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    Wang, Xiang; Huang, Yanqiu; Sheng, Yanqing; Su, Pei; Qiu, Yan; Ke, Caihuan; Feng, Danqing

    2017-03-28

    Mussels are major fouling organisms causing serious technical and economic problems. In this study, antifouling activity towards mussel was found in three compounds isolated from a marine bacterium associated with the sea anemone Haliplanella sp. This bacterial strain, called PE2, was identified as Vibrio alginolyticus using morphology, biochemical tests, and phylogenetic analysis based on sequences of 16S rRNA and four housekeeping genes ( rpoD, gyrB, rctB, and toxR ). Three small-molecule compounds (indole, 3-formylindole, and cyclo (Pro-Leu)) were purified from the ethyl acetate extract of V. alginolyticus PE2 using column chromatography techniques. They all significantly inhibited byssal thread production of the green mussel Perna viridis , with EC 50 values of 24.45 μg/ml for indole, 50.07 μg/ml for 3-formylindole, and 49.24 μg/ml for cyclo (Pro-Leu). Previous research on the antifouling activity of metabolites from marine bacteria towards mussels is scarce. Indole, 3-formylindole and cyclo (Pro-Leu) also exhibited antifouling activity against settlement of the barnacle Balanus albicostatus (EC 50 values of 8.84, 0.43, and 11.35 μg/ml, respectively) and the marine bacterium Pseudomonas sp. (EC 50 values of 42.68, 69.68, and 39.05 μg/ml, respectively). These results suggested that the three compounds are potentially useful for environmentally friendly mussel control and/or the development of new antifouling additives that are effective against several biofoulers.

  1. Arsenic speciation in shrimp and mussel from the Mid-Atlantic hydrothermal vents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Erik Huusfeldt; Quetel, C. R.; Munoz, R.

    1997-01-01

    Specimens of shrimp (Rimicaris exoculata) and mussel (Bathymodiolus puteoserpentis) were collected 3500 m below the ocean surface at the hydrothermal vents of the mid-Atlantic Ridge (TAG and Snake Pit sites, respectively). Arsenic, a potentially toxic element, is among the substances emitted...... by the hydrothermal vents. The hydrothermal vent shrimp, which are known to be a primary consumer of the primary producing chemolithoautotrophic bacteria, contained arsenic at 13 mu g g(-1) almost exclusively as arsenobetaine (AsB). Arsenic was present in the soft:issues of the mussel at 40 mu g g(-1) and the major...... of arsenic species found in the shrimp and mussel species in the deep-sea is similar to that found in their counterparts from the ocean surface. It is concluded that the autotrophic bacteria of the hydrothermal vent ecosystem and the symbiotic bacteria harboured in the mussel species are responsible...

  2. The transcriptome of Bathymodiolus azoricus gill reveals expression of genes from endosymbionts and free-living deep-sea bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egas, Conceição; Pinheiro, Miguel; Gomes, Paula; Barroso, Cristina; Bettencourt, Raul

    2012-08-01

    Deep-sea environments are largely unexplored habitats where a surprising number of species may be found in large communities, thriving regardless of the darkness, extreme cold, and high pressure. Their unique geochemical features result in reducing environments rich in methane and sulfides, sustaining complex chemosynthetic ecosystems that represent one of the most surprising findings in oceans in the last 40 years. The deep-sea Lucky Strike hydrothermal vent field, located in the Mid Atlantic Ridge, is home to large vent mussel communities where Bathymodiolus azoricus represents the dominant faunal biomass, owing its survival to symbiotic associations with methylotrophic or methanotrophic and thiotrophic bacteria. The recent transcriptome sequencing and analysis of gill tissues from B. azoricus revealed a number of genes of bacterial origin, hereby analyzed to provide a functional insight into the gill microbial community. The transcripts supported a metabolically active microbiome and a variety of mechanisms and pathways, evidencing also the sulfur and methane metabolisms. Taxonomic affiliation of transcripts and 16S rRNA community profiling revealed a microbial community dominated by thiotrophic and methanotrophic endosymbionts of B. azoricus and the presence of a Sulfurovum-like epsilonbacterium.

  3. Insights into methane dynamics from analysis of authigenic carbonates and chemosynthetic mussels at newly-discovered Atlantic Margin seeps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prouty, Nancy G.; Sahy, Diana; Ruppel, Carolyn D.; Roark, E. Brendan; Condon, Dan; Brooke, Sandra; Ross, Steve W.; Demopoulos, Amanda W.J.

    2016-01-01

    The recent discovery of active methane venting along the US northern and mid-Atlantic margin represents a new source of global methane not previously accounted for in carbon budgets from this region. However, uncertainty remains as to the origin and history of methane seepage along this tectonically inactive passive margin. Here we present the first isotopic analyses of authigenic carbonates and methanotrophic deep-sea mussels, Bathymodiolus   sp., and the first direct constraints on the timing of past methane emission, based on samples collected at the upper slope Baltimore Canyon (∼385 m water depth) and deepwater Norfolk (∼1600 m) seep fields within the area of newly-discovered venting. The authigenic carbonates at both sites were dominated by aragonite, with an average  signature of −47‰, a value consistent with microbially driven anaerobic oxidation of methane-rich fluids occurring at or near the sediment–water interface. Authigenic carbonate U and Sr isotope data further support the inference of carbonate precipitation from seawater-derived fluids rather than from formation fluids from deep aquifers. Carbonate stable and radiocarbon ( and ) isotope values from living Bathymodiolus   sp. specimens are lighter than those of seawater dissolved inorganic carbon, highlighting the influence of fossil carbon from methane on carbonate precipitation. U–Th dates on authigenic carbonates suggest seepage at Baltimore Canyon between 14.7±0.6 ka to 15.7±1.6 ka, and at the Norfolk seep field between 1.0±0.7 ka to 3.3±1.3 ka, providing constraint on the longevity of methane efflux at these sites. The age of the brecciated authigenic carbonates and the occurrence of pockmarks at the Baltimore Canyon upper slope could suggest a link between sediment delivery during Pleistocene sea-level lowstand, accumulation of pore fluid overpressure from sediment compaction, and release of overpressure through subsequent venting. Calculations show that

  4. Photobacterium galatheae sp. nov., a bioactive bacterium isolated from a mussel in the Solomon Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Machado, Henrique; Giubergia, Sonia; Mateiu, Ramona Valentina

    2015-01-01

    A novel, Gram-negative marine bacterium, S2753T, was isolated from a mussel of the Solomon Sea, Solomon Islands. Analysis of the 16S rRNA gene sequence and whole genome sequence data placed strain S2753T in the genus Photobacterium with the closest relative being Photobacterium halotolerans DSM...... 18316T (97.7 % 16S rRNA gene similarity). Strain S2753T was able to grow from 15 to 40 °C and in NaCl concentrations of 0.5 to 9 % (w/v). The predominant fatty acids were 16 : 1ω7c/16 : 1ω6c (27.9 %), 16 : 0 (22.1 %) and 18 : 1ω7c/8 : 1ω6c (21.4 %). The genomic DNA G+C mol content was 49.5 mol%. Based...... is genomically distinct enough to be considered a novel species. The name Photobacterium galatheae is proposed and the type-strain is S2753T( = LMG 28894T = DSM 100496T)....

  5. Molecular identification of differentially regulated genes in the hydrothermal-vent species Bathymodiolus thermophilus and Paralvinella pandorae in response to temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shillito Bruce

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hydrothermal vents and cold seeps represent oases of life in the deep-sea environment, but are also characterized by challenging physical and chemical conditions. The effect of temperature fluctuations on vent organisms in their habitat has not been well explored, in particular at a molecular level, most gene expression studies being conducted on coastal marine species. In order to better understand the response of hydrothermal organisms to different temperature regimes, differentially expressed genes (obtained by a subtractive suppression hybridization approach were identified in the mussel Bathymodiolus thermophilus and the annelid Paralvinella pandorae irlandei to characterize the physiological processes involved when animals are subjected to long term exposure (2 days at two contrasting temperatures (10° versus 20°C, while maintained at in situ pressures. To avoid a potential effect of pressure, the experimental animals were initially thermally acclimated for 24 hours in a pressurized vessel. Results For each species, we produced two subtractive cDNA libraries (forward and reverse from sets of deep-sea mussels and annelids exposed together to a thermal challenge under pressure. RNA extracted from the gills, adductor muscle, mantle and foot tissue were used for B. thermophilus. For the annelid model, whole animals (small individuals were used. For each of the four libraries, we sequenced 200 clones, resulting in 78 and 83 unique sequences in mussels and annelids (about 20% of the sequencing effort, respectively, with only half of them corresponding to known genes. Real-time PCR was used to validate differentially expressed genes identified in the corresponding libraries. Strong expression variations have been observed for some specific genes such as the intracellular hemoglobin, the nidogen protein, and Rab7 in P. pandorae, and the SPARC protein, cyclophilin, foot protein and adhesive plaque protein in B. thermophilus

  6. The effect of Chinese pond mussel (Anodonta woodiana as a biofilter on biochemical oxygen demand level in catfish (Clarias sp. farming waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wibowo W.B.

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Catfish farming, especially intensive farming will produce waste in the form of feces and leftover feed containing organic matter. Fish feeds are the highest (80% contributor to organic matter in the farming environment. The amount of fish feeds not consumed or wasted in the bottom waters is about 20-50%. Waste from fish feeds and feces will accumulate and degrade the water quality. Chinese pond mussel (Anodonta woodiana is a filter feeder capable of removing materials such as sediments and organic matter from the water column. The purpose of this research is to identify the effect of Chinese pond mussel (Anodonta woodiana on the COD level in catfish farming waste. This study used a completely randomized factorial design with three treatment factors. The treatment factors were treatment factor of size (S i.e. S0=control, S1=6-7 cm, S2=10-11 cm, treatment factor of density (D i.e. D0=control, D1=5 mussels, D2=10 mussels, and D3=15 mussels, and treatment factor of time (at the 9th, 18th, and 36th hour. This experiment used three replications in a 10-liter container. Water quality parameters analyzed were temperature, pH, and COD. The result of this research showed that the best effect of Chinese pond mussel on the COD level was found in the treatment factor of density of 10 mussels with the size of 6-7 cm at the 9th hour. Factors having a significant effect on the COD level were size and density. The interaction between time and density factors and between size and density factors had a significant effect on COD level. The interaction between time, size, and density factors had a significant effect on COD level.

  7. Mussel watch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contamination of U.S. coastal areas may be decreasing as a result of environmental regulations that have banned or curtailed toxic chemicals, concludes a report by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. The report, “Recent Trends in Coastal Environmental Quality: Results from the Mussel Watch Project,” presents results of analyzing chemical concentrations found in mussel and oyster tissues collected every year since 1986.These mollusks are collected once a year at more than 240 sites nationwide and analyzed for over 70 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, polychlorinated biphenyls, chlorinated pesticides, butyltins, and toxic trace elements such as copper, cadmium, and lead. The report states that from 1986 to 1993 there were many more decreases than increases in chemical concentrations in coastal regions. These decreasing trends were not unexpected; all of the monitored chlorinated hydrocarbons have been banned for use in the United States, and tributyltin has been banned as a biocide on recreational boats.

  8. The Transcriptome of Bathymodiolus azoricus Gill Reveals Expression of Genes from Endosymbionts and Free-Living Deep-Sea Bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raul Bettencourt

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Deep-sea environments are largely unexplored habitats where a surprising number of species may be found in large communities, thriving regardless of the darkness, extreme cold, and high pressure. Their unique geochemical features result in reducing environments rich in methane and sulfides, sustaining complex chemosynthetic ecosystems that represent one of the most surprising findings in oceans in the last 40 years. The deep-sea Lucky Strike hydrothermal vent field, located in the Mid Atlantic Ridge, is home to large vent mussel communities where Bathymodiolus azoricus represents the dominant faunal biomass, owing its survival to symbiotic associations with methylotrophic or methanotrophic and thiotrophic bacteria. The recent transcriptome sequencing and analysis of gill tissues from B. azoricus revealed a number of genes of bacterial origin, hereby analyzed to provide a functional insight into the gill microbial community. The transcripts supported a metabolically active microbiome and a variety of mechanisms and pathways, evidencing also the sulfur and methane metabolisms. Taxonomic affiliation of transcripts and 16S rRNA community profiling revealed a microbial community dominated by thiotrophic and methanotrophic endosymbionts of B. azoricus and the presence of a Sulfurovum-like epsilonbacterium.

  9. Estabilidade físico-química e mercado do mexilhão (Perna perna cultivado em Ubatuba - SP Physicochemical stability and market of mussels (Perna perna cultivated in Ubatuba - SP, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Érika Fabiane Furlan

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available O presente estudo objetivou caracterizar o mexilhão Perna perna como alimento no que se refere à estabilidade físico-química, valor nutricional e consumo. Os mexilhões avaliados foram coletados em três regiões distintas do litoral norte de São Paulo: praia da Barra Seca, praia do Engenho da Almada e costão do Cedro. Determinou-se a composição centesimal (umidade, proteína bruta, carboidrato, lipídios e cinza, o valor calórico, o pH e as bases voláteis nitrogenadas totais. Paralelamente foi realizado estudo de mercado, através de questionários não estruturados, aplicados aos comerciantes e consumidores locais. Detectou-se variação dos constituintes químicos dos mexilhões em função da sazonalidade, bem como, do local de origem destes. Estes constituem uma fonte protéica (9,1 g.100 g-1, com baixo teor lipídico (1,1 g.100 g-1 e calórico (72,7 Kcal.100 g-1. Apresentaram uma estabilidade físico-química de 4 dias, sob temperatura de 10 °C (±1, conforme aferido pelos resultados apresentados, que não se correlacionaram entre si. No geral, os estabelecimentos comerciais apontaram uma preferência pela aquisição do mexilhão sem as conchas e uma maior demanda do produto preparado na forma de vinagrete. Foi diagnosticado o desconhecimento do produto pelos consumidores e conseqüente necessidade de marketing visando sua promoção.This research work consisted of characterizing Perna perna mussel as a food in terms of its physicochemical stability, nutritional value and consumption. Specimens of the mussel were collected from three sites off the northern coast of the state of São Paulo, namely Barra Seca, Engenho da Almada and Costão do Cedro. The centesimal composition (humidity, crude protein, carbohydrates, lipids and ash, caloric value, pH and total basic volatile nitrogen were determined. A market study was also carried out based on a nonstructured questionnaire distributed to local tradesmen and consumers. The

  10. The importance of methane and thiosulfate in the metabolism of the bacterial symbionts of two deep-sea mussels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, C.R.; Childress, J.J.; Oremland, R.S.; Bidigare, R.R.

    1987-01-01

    Undescribed hydrocarbon-seep mussels were collected from the Louisiana Slope, Gulf of Mexico, during March 1986, and the ultrastructure of their gills was examined and compared to Bathymodiolus thermophilus, a mussel collected from the deep-sea hydrothermal vents on the Gala??pagos Rift in March 1985. These closely related mytilids both contain abundant symbiotic bacteria in their gills. However, the bacteria from the two species are distinctly different in both morphology and biochemistry, and are housed differently within the gills of the two mussels. The symbionts from the seep mussel are larger than the symbionts from B. thermophilus and, unlike the latter, contain stacked intracytoplasmic membranes. In the seep mussel three or fewer symbionts appear to be contained in each host-cell vacuole, while in B. thermophilus there are often more than twenty bacteria visible in a single section through a vacuole. The methanotrophic nature of the seep-mussel symbionts was confirmed in 14C-methane uptake experiments by the appearance of label in both CO2 and acid-stable, non-volatile, organic compounds after a 3 h incubation of isolated gill tissue. Furthermore, methane consumption was correlated with methanol dehydrogenase activity in isolated gill tissue. Activity of ribulose-1,5-biphosphate (RuBP) carboxylase and 14CO2 assimilation studies indicate the presence of either a second type of symbiont or contaminating bacteria on the gills of freshly captured seep mussels. A reevaluation of the nutrition of the symbionts in B. thermophilus indicates that while the major symbiont is not a methanotroph, its status as a sulfur-oxidizing chemoautotroph, as has been suggested previously, is far from proven. ?? 1987 Springer-Verlag.

  11. The zebra mussel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertran, A.; Esparza, J.L.; Munte, L.

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this article is, on the one hand, to provide information about the zebra mussel, its behavior, its effect on the ecosystem and the problems it poses for industry (especially in the CNA cooling systems) and, on the other hand, to review the strategies and technologies needed to control de mussel and to present the solution adopted by the power plant to combat the plague. (Author).

  12. Zebra mussel monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hennagir, T.

    1994-01-01

    In less than a decade, zebra mussels have become the latest environmental scourge to plague the North American power industry. Infestations in the Great Lakes region have already reached natural disaster proportions. The invasion shows little sign of subsiding; Michigan's inland waters are the next most likely threatened area. In the southern United States, the mussles' migration has extended about 50 miles deeper than experts had originally predicted. By the year 2000, zebra mussel monitoring and control efforts will cost business and industry $5 billion, according to the federal Aquatic Nuisance Prevention and Control Act of 1990. Estimates of more than $1 million to control mussel fouling are projected for the Great Lakes area alone. While small independent hydropower stations are not as susceptible to zebra mussles as coal or nuclear facilities, there is cause for concern. Infestations can quickly foul hydropower plant components, hampering equipment operation and reducing facility efficiency. In extreme cases, leaving the mussels unchecked can result in stoplog gate flow blockage or false water level gauge readings. Advance prevention is often an effective first-line of defense against this troublesome, rapidly spreading and extremely prolific mollusk. Mussel monitoring efforts should begin a year in advance of when zebra mussels are expected to appear in a given location. Hydropower facility components that come into contact or rely exclusively on raw water are at greatest risk, as are other external components such as embayment walls, screens, trashracks and fish ladders.

  13. A portable infrared photoplethysmograph: heartbeat of Mytilus galloprovincialis analyzed by MRI and application to Bathymodiolus septemdierum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eriko Seo

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Infrared photoplethysmogram (IR-PPG and magnetic resonance image (MRI of the Mytilus galloprovincialis heart were obtained simultaneously. Heart rate was varied by changing temperature, aerial exposure and hypoxia. Higher heart rates (35-20 beat min−1 were usually observed at 20°C under the aerobic condition, and typical IR-PPG represented a single peak (peak v. The upward and downward slopes of the peak v corresponded to the filling and contracting of the ventricle, respectively. A double-peak IR-PPG was observed in a wide range of heart rates (5 to 35 beats min−1 under various conditions. The initial peak v corresponded to the filling of the ventricle, and the origin of the second peak (v’ varied with the heart rate. A flat IR-PPG with a noise-level represented cardiac arrest. Although large movement of the shells and the foot caused slow waves or a baseline drift of the IR-PPG, the heart rate can be calculated from the v-v interval. Based on these results, we assembled a portable IR-PPG recording system, and measured the heartbeats of Bathymodiolus septemdierum (Mytilidae for 24 h on a research vessel just after sampling from the deep sea, showing that IR-PPG is a noninvasive, economical, robust method that can be used in field experiments.

  14. The role of shore crabs and mussel density in mussel losses at a commercial intertidal mussel plot after seeding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Capelle, Jacob J.; Scheiberlich, Gerard; Wijsman, Jeroen W.M.; Smaal, Aad C.

    2016-01-01

    Mussel losses peak after relaying seed on culture plots. The present paper is an attempt to examine the role of shore crab predation and initial mussel density on mussel losses in mussel bottom culture using an intertidal culture plot as a case study. Because of their small size and loose

  15. International mussel watch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farrington, J.W.; Tripp, B.W.

    1993-01-01

    Deliberate and inadvertent discharges of chemical contaminants of environmental concern to the world's coastal ocean will continue for the foreseeable future, as human population increases and human habitation intensifies in the coastal zone worldwide. The goal of the International Mussel Watch Project is to provide an assessment of the status and trends of chemical contaminants in the world's coastal waters. These data are critical for protecting both the health of people who consume seafood and the health of coastal ecosystems. The International Mussel Watch Project is a global-scale monitoring program based on the concept of a sentinel organism capable of detecting trends in concentrations of several important marine contaminants. These included chlorinated pesticides, fossil-fuel hydrocarbons, and radionuclides from the nuclear fuel cycle and nuclear weapons testing fallout. Since the 1970's, scientists of several countries have been using common bivalve organisms, such as the blue mussels and oysters, to monitor chemical contaminants in coastal waters. Bivalve mollusks are good monitors for several reasons that include their ability to bioconcentrate the chemical contaminants of interest and their sedentary nature, which makes them representative of a specific place

  16. High Pressure Inactivation of HAV within Mussels

    Science.gov (United States)

    The potential of hepatitis A virus (HAV) to be inactivated within Mediterranean mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis) and blue mussels (Mytilus edulis) by high pressure processing was evaluated. HAV was bioaccumulated within mussels to approximately 6-log10 PFU by exposure of mussels to HAV-contamina...

  17. Quality of mussels cultivated and commercialized in Ubatuba, SP, Brazil: monitoration Bacillus cereus and Staphylococcus aureus growth after post-harvest processing Tratamento térmico de mexilhões Perna perna como forma de assegurar a qualidade: avaliação do crescimento de Bacillus cereus e de Staphylococcus aureus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Oliveira Salán

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Aiming at improving the quality of Perna perna mussels cultivated and commercialized in Ubatuba, SP, Brazil, the growth and elimination of Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus cereus artificially inoculated in mussels were studied. The inoculation was carried out in "in natura" and pre-cooked mussels for 30 min, and after that the mussels were kept for 10 hours at room temperature (25 ± 1 °C and under refrigeration (7 ± 1 °C. Six thermal treatments were evaluated: three using steam (5, 10 and 15 minutes and three in boiling water (5, 10 and 15 minutes, in order to find the best time/temperature binomial to provide pathogenic control. Yield and physical-chemical and sensory characteristics were evaluated. All thermal treatments were efficient to eliminate microorganisms in 2 logarithmic cycles. However, the boiling water treatments presented better results than the steam treatments. The physical-chemical and sensory analyses did not show statistical differences among the thermal treatments studied. The best performances were reached in the shortest times of heat exposure. Overall, the treatments in boiling water presented better results than the steam treatments.Buscando a qualidade do mexilhão Perna perna cultivado e comercializado no município de Ubatuba, SP, foram estudados o crescimento e o controle de Staphylococcus aureus e Bacillus cereus inoculados artificialmente em mexilhões in natura e pré-cozidos, mantidos por 10 horas à temperatura ambiente (25 ± 1 °C e sob refrigeração (7 ± 1 °C. Foram estabelecidos seis tipos de tratamentos térmicos, sendo três sob vapor (5, 10 e 15 minutos e três por imersão em água (5, 10 e 15 minutos, buscando estabelecer o binômio que proporcionasse a diminuição da contagem microbiana. Posteriormente, foram avaliados o rendimento, os aspectos físico-químicos e sensoriais. Todos os tratamentos térmicos foram eficientes, pois reduziram a contagem microbiana em pelo menos 2 ciclos logar

  18. Post-capture immune gene expression studies in the deep-sea hydrothermal vent mussel Bathymodiolus azoricus acclimatized to atmospheric pressure

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Barros, I.; Divya, B.; Martins, I.; Vandeperre, F.; Santos, R.S.; Bettencourt, R.

    -inflammatory cytokines such as interleukins, interferon, TNF, responsible for direct innate response and for triggering adaptive immune cells [43]. On the other hand, the pro-inflammatory cytokine TNF is considered as a multifunctional immune modulator that plays... the immune responses and host-adapted bacteria in- teractions. The study of innate immunity in B. azoricus has been mainly focused on the demonstration of the conservation of the immune system and its constituents [17,18], apparently homolo- gous...

  19. Mussel Sites - 2009 [ds658

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — Freshwater mussels are one of the most imperiled groups of organisms on the planet (Williams et al.1993, Strayer et al.2004, Strayer 2006, R´Egnier et al.2009)....

  20. Dreissenid mussel research priorities workshop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sytsma, Mark; Phillips, Stephen; Counihan, Timothy D.

    2015-01-01

    Currently, dreissenid mussels have yet to be detected in the northwestern part of the United States and western Canada. Infestation of one of the jurisdictions within the mussel-free Pacific Northwest would likely have significant economic, soci­etal and environmental implications for the entire region. Understanding the biology and environmental tolerances of dreissenid mussels, and effectiveness of various man­agement strategies, is key to prevention.On November 4-5, 2015, the Aquatic Bioinvasion Research and Policy Institute and the Center for Lakes and Reservoirs at Portland State University, the US Geological Survey, and the Pacific States Marine Fisheries Commission, convened a Dreissenid Mussel Research Priorities Workshop funded by the Great Northern Landscape Conservation Cooperative. The purpose of the workshop was to review dreissenid research priorities in the 2010 Quagga-Zebra Mussel Action Plan for Western U.S. Waters, reassess those priorities, incorporate new information and emerging trends, and develop priorities to strategically focus research efforts on zebra and quagga mussels in the Pacific Northwest and ensure that future research is focused on the highest priorities. It is important to note that there is some repetition among dreissenid research priority categories (e.g., prevention, detection, control, monitoring, and biology).Workshop participants with research experience in dreissenid mussel biology and management were identified by a literature review. State and federal agency managers were also invited to the workshop to ensure relevancy and practicality of the work­shop outcomes. A total of 28 experts (see sidebar) in mussel biology, ecology, and management attended the workshop.

  1. Mussel-inspired chemistry and its application

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yang, J.

    2016-01-01

    Mussels can affix themselves to a variety of wet surfaces under harsh marine conditions by secreting liquid mussel foot proteins (mfps) as superglues. Inside the mussel, the superglues are fluid-like and are kept at low pH, i.e. pH 3. Upon secretion into seawater at pH 8, the superglues are cured

  2. Sewage-induced disturbance on polychaetes inhabiting intertidal mussel beds of Brachidontes rodriguezii off Mar del Plata (SW Atlantic, Argentina.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodolfo Elías

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Continuous and short-term disturbances are produced on intertidal Brachidontes rodriguezii mussel beds by the sewage outfall of Mar del Plata, SW Atlantic. The effects on the associated polychaetes living on and between mussels were investigated, in both the spatial and short-term temporal scales. Multivariate methods show that the polychaete fauna was influenced by tidal level, total amount of sediment accumulated between mussels, distance from the sewage outfall, organic carbon of interstitial sediments, and sewage volume before and after the summer season. Environmental variables in the water column fitted with a spatial and temporal organic gradient. Capitella ‘capitata’ sp. showed typical opportunistic behaviour in relation to organic enrichment, as did Neanthes succinea, both being numerically dominant near the sewage discharge. Cirratulus sp., Caulleriella alata, and Boccardia polybranchia were common at intermediate distances from the outfall. Syllis prolixa, S. gracilis, and Protoariciella uncinata reached their highest abundance at intermediate stations and were characteristic of the control site. Close to the outfall mussel density and dominance is low, and opportunist polychaetes successfully colonize organically enriched interstitial sediments. At intermediate distances from the outfall sediments retained by mussels reach their maximum values, and density of polychaetes is also high. The control station is characterized by monolayered mussel beds and very low diversity of polychaetes. Opportunistic polychaetes increase in response to short-term increases of sewage discharge during the summer season (November-March.

  3. Short-chain alkanes fuel mussel and sponge Cycloclasticus symbionts from deep-sea gas and oil seeps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubin-Blum, Maxim; Antony, Chakkiath Paul; Borowski, Christian; Sayavedra, Lizbeth; Pape, Thomas; Sahling, Heiko; Bohrmann, Gerhard; Kleiner, Manuel; Redmond, Molly C; Valentine, David L; Dubilier, Nicole

    2017-06-19

    Cycloclasticus bacteria are ubiquitous in oil-rich regions of the ocean and are known for their ability to degrade polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). In this study, we describe Cycloclasticus that have established a symbiosis with Bathymodiolus heckerae mussels and poecilosclerid sponges from asphalt-rich, deep-sea oil seeps at Campeche Knolls in the southern Gulf of Mexico. Genomic and transcriptomic analyses revealed that, in contrast to all previously known Cycloclasticus, the symbiotic Cycloclasticus appears to lack the genes needed for PAH degradation. Instead, these symbionts use propane and other short-chain alkanes such as ethane and butane as carbon and energy sources, thus expanding the limited range of substrates known to power chemosynthetic symbioses. Analyses of short-chain alkanes in the environment of the Campeche Knolls symbioses revealed that these are present at high concentrations (in the μM to mM range). Comparative genomic analyses revealed high similarities between the genes used by the symbiotic Cycloclasticus to degrade short-chain alkanes and those of free-living Cycloclasticus that bloomed during the Deepwater Horizon oil spill. Our results indicate that the metabolic versatility of bacteria within the Cycloclasticus clade is higher than previously assumed, and highlight the expanded role of these keystone species in the degradation of marine hydrocarbons.

  4. Zebra Mussel Chemical Control Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    are 3 to 5 years. Zebra mussels are filter feeders, opening their shells to allow ingestion of particulates. When their sensitive chemoreceptors alert...used for oxidation of iron and manganese and to correct taste and odor problems in treated water because of its ability to produce oxidation reactions

  5. Polymethylene-interrupted fatty acids: Biomarkers for native and exotic mussels in the Laurentian Great Lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mezek, Tadej; Sverko, Ed; Ruddy, Martina D.; Zaruk, Donna; Capretta, Alfredo; Hebert, Craig E.; Fisk, Aaron T.; McGoldrick, Daryl J.; Newton, Teresa J.; Sutton, Trent M.; Koops, Marten A.; Muir, Andrew M.; Johnson, Timothy B.; Ebener, Mark P.; Arts, Michael T.

    2011-01-01

    Freshwater organisms synthesize a wide variety of fatty acids (FAs); however, the ability to synthesize and/or subsequently modify a particular FA is not universal, making it possible to use certain FAs as biomarkers. Herein we document the occurrence of unusual FAs (polymethylene-interrupted fatty acids; PMI-FAs) in select freshwater organisms in the Laurentian Great Lakes. We did not detect PMI-FAs in: (a) natural seston from Lake Erie and Hamilton Harbor (Lake Ontario), (b) various species of laboratory-cultured algae including a green alga (Scenedesmus obliquus), two cyanobacteria (Aphanizomenon flos-aquae and Synechococystis sp.), two diatoms (Asterionella formosa, Diatoma elongatum) and a chrysophyte (Dinobryon cylindricum) or, (c) zooplankton (Daphnia spp., calanoid or cyclopoid copepods) from Lake Ontario, suggesting that PMI-FAs are not substantively incorporated into consumers at the phytoplankton–zooplankton interface. However, these unusual FAs comprised 4-6% of total fatty acids (on a dry tissue weight basis) of native fat mucket (Lampsilis siliquoidea) and plain pocketbook (L. cardium) mussels and in invasive zebra (Dreissena polymorpha) and quagga (D. bugensis) mussels. We were able to clearly partition Great Lakes' mussels into three separate groups (zebra, quagga, and native mussels) based solely on their PMI-FA profiles. We also provide evidence for the trophic transfer of PMI-FAs from mussels to various fishes in Lakes Ontario and Michigan, further underlining the potential usefulness of PMI-FAs for tracking the dietary contribution of mollusks in food web and contaminant-fate studies.

  6. Mussel Shell Impaction in the Esophagus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunmin Kim

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Mussels are commonly used in cooking around the world. The mussel shell breaks more easily than other shells, and the edge of the broken mussel shell is sharp. Impaction can ultimately cause erosion, perforation and fistula. Aside from these complications, the pain can be very intense. Therefore, it is essential to verify and remove the shell as soon as possible. In this report we describe the process of diagnosing and treating mussel shell impaction in the esophagus. Physicians can overlook this unusual foreign body impaction due to lack of experience. When physicians encounter a patient with severe chest pain after a meal with mussels, mussel shell impaction should be considered when diagnosing and treating the patient.

  7. Zebra mussels invade Lake Erie muds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berkman, Paul Arthur; Haltuch, Melissa A.; Tichich, Emily; Garton, David W.; Kennedy, Gregory W.; Gannon, John E.; Mackey, Scudder D.; Fuller, Jonathan A.; Liebenthal, Dale L.

    1998-01-01

    Zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha) originated in western Russia but have now become widespread in Europe and North America. They are widely known for their conspicuous invasion of rocks and other hard substrates in North American and European watersheds. We have found beds of zebra mussels directly colonizing sand and mud sediments each year across hundreds of square kilometres of North America's Lake Erie. This transformation of sedimentary habitats into mussel beds represents an unforeseen change in the invasive capacity of this species.

  8. Environmental DNA mapping of Zebra Mussel populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amberg, Jon J.; Merkes, Christopher

    2016-01-01

    Environmental DNA (eDNA) has become a popular tool for detecting aquatic invasive species, but advancements have made it possible to potentially answer other questions like reproduction, movement, and abundance of the targeted organism. In this study we developed a Zebra Mussel (Dreissena polymorpha) eDNA protocol. We then determined if this assay could be used to help determine Zebra Mussel biomass in a lake with a well-established population of Zebra Mussels and a lake with an emerging population of mussels. Our eDNA assay detected DNA of Zebra Mussels but not DNA from more than 20 other species of fish and mussels, many commonly found in Minnesota waters. Our assay did not predict biomass. We did find that DNA from Zebra Mussels accumulated in softer substrates in both lakes, even though the mussels were predominately on the harder substrates. Therefore, we concluded that eDNA may be useful to detect the presence of Zebra Mussels in these lakes but our assay/approach could not predict biomass.

  9. Fish and mussels: importance of fish for freshwater mussel conservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronaldo Sousa

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Co-extinctions have received trivial consideration in discussions about the global conservation crisis, even though recent studies have emphasised their importance. This situation is even more pronounced in freshwater ecosystems where this phenomenon is largely unrecognized. In this presentation we explore the role of fish for freshwater mussels’ conservation. Freshwater mussels’ need fish as a host to complete their life cycle and given this premise is expected that changes in the fish community due to species extinctions or additions may have great effects. We reviewed the published information and we found: 1 that most of the studies were published in the last few years; 2 that most of the studies were performed in North America (69%, which is probably due to the high number of endemic threatened species in this continent; 3 that most of the mussel species that are specialists in fish hosting are listed as vulnerable or endangered (55%; 4 most studies were performed in laboratory (83% and 5 that the majority of studies were focused on life cycle or on identifying suitable fish hosts of freshwater mussel species with few studies focusing on threats. Since the interaction between fish and freshwater mussels can be easily disrupted and serious threats to this interaction have arisen (e.g. loss and fragmentation of habitat, changes in river flow, climate change, introduction of invasive species, pollution a more holistic approach is needed to find the best management strategies to conserve these animals. In addition, more field studies are required and more information on African, South American and Asian species is essential. Neglect the possible fundamental role of fish in the decline or extinction of freshwater mussels may impair the success of any measure devoted to their conservation; therefore, this issue cannot be ignored.

  10. Zebra mussel adhesion: structure of the byssal adhesive apparatus in the freshwater mussel, Dreissena polymorpha.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farsad, Nikrooz; Sone, Eli D

    2012-03-01

    The freshwater zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha) owes a large part of its success as an invasive species to its ability to attach to a wide variety of substrates. As in marine mussels, this attachment is achieved by a proteinaceous byssus, a series of threads joined at a stem that connect the mussel to adhesive plaques secreted onto the substrate. Although the zebra mussel byssus is superficially similar to marine mussels, significant structural and compositional differences suggest that further investigation of the adhesion mechanisms in this freshwater species is warranted. Here we present an ultrastructural examination of the zebra mussel byssus, with emphasis on interfaces that are critical to its adhesive function. By examining the attached plaques, we show that adhesion is mediated by a uniform electron dense layer on the underside of the plaque. This layer is only 10-20 nm thick and makes direct and continuous contact with the substrate. The plaque itself is fibrous, and curiously can exhibit either a dense or porous morphology. In zebra mussels, a graded interface between the animal and the substrate mussels is achieved by interdigitation of uniform threads with the stem, in contrast to marine mussels, where the threads themselves are non-uniform. Our observations of several novel aspects of zebra mussel byssal ultrastructure may have important implications not only for preventing biofouling by the zebra mussel, but for the development of new bioadhesives as well. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. A dominance shift from the zebra mussel to the invasive quagga mussel may alter the trophic transfer of metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matthews, Jonathan; Schipper, Aafke M.; Hendriks, A. Jan; Yen Le, T.T.; Vaate, Abraham bij de; Velde, Gerard van der; Leuven, Rob S.E.W.

    2015-01-01

    Bioinvasions are a major cause of biodiversity and ecosystem changes. The rapid range expansion of the invasive quagga mussel (Dreissena rostriformis bugensis) causing a dominance shift from zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha) to quagga mussels, may alter the risk of secondary poisoning to predators. Mussel samples were collected from various water bodies in the Netherlands, divided into size classes, and analysed for metal concentrations. Concentrations of nickel and copper in quagga mussels were significantly lower than in zebra mussels overall. In lakes, quagga mussels contained significantly higher concentrations of aluminium, iron and lead yet significantly lower concentrations of zinc66, cadmium111, copper, nickel, cobalt and molybdenum than zebra mussels. In the river water type quagga mussel soft tissues contained significantly lower concentrations of zinc66. Our results suggest that a dominance shift from zebra to quagga mussels may reduce metal exposure of predator species. - Highlights: • Invading quagga mussels often displace existing zebra mussels. • Interspecies difference in metal concentration may alter exposure of predators. • Zebra and quagga mussel soft tissue were analysed for metal concentrations. • Generally, quagga mussels contained lower concentrations of metals. • A dominance shift to quagga mussels may reduce metal exposure of predators. - A shift in dominance from zebra mussels to invading quagga mussels may reduce the transfer of metals to predator species

  12. An Inverse Almost Ideal Demand System for Mussels in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nguyen, Thong Tien

    2012-01-01

    for farmed mussels from Spain, France, Italy, and the Netherlands are inflexible, while demand for Denmark's wild stock mussels is flexible. Dutch mussels are deemed a luxury food, while preferences for mussels from other countries appear independent of the level of total expenditure (i.e., homothetic...

  13. Spatial organisation and biomass development after relaying of mussel seed

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Capelle, J.J.; Wijsman, J.W.M.; Schellekens, T.; van Stralen, M.R.; Herman, P.M.J.; Smaal, A.C.

    2014-01-01

    It is not known whether and by what factors spatial heterogeneity in mussels (Mytilus edulis L.) affects mussel production in human-created mussel beds. In a field experiment, the same number of mussels was relayed on four different areas within plots of the same size, resulting in four treatments

  14. Research continues on zebra mussel control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    Researchers are working on many fronts to learn methods for controlling and combatting zebra mussels, a species of mussel that can attach to the inside of water intakes at hydroelectric and thermal power plants, and can reduce or block water flow. Biologists at the University of Toledo in Ohio report that compounds from the African soapberry plant called lemmatoxins are lethal to zebra mussels. In laboratory tests, researchers have determined 1 to 2 milligrams of purified lemmatoxins per liter will kill the mussels. In field tests, biologist Harold Lee flushed water through a mussel-infested pipe. He found that the berry extract killed mussels in four to eight hours, making continuous treatment of water intake pipes unnecessary, according to a report in New Scientists. The University of Toledo participated in another project, funded by the American Water Works Association Research Foundation. That project team included the cities of Toledo and Cleveland, Ohio, Finkbeiner, Pettis ampersand Strout, Ltd. consulting engineers, and researchers from Ohio's Case Western Reserve University. The team identified a chemical oxidant, sodium hypochlorite, as a cost-effective agent for controlling zebra mussels at water treatment plant intakes. Toledo has used the sodium hypochlorite and reports the chemical has cleared colonies of zebra mussels that had attached to the intake of its water treatment plant

  15. Glacial history of the European marine mussels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smietanka, B.; Burzynski, A.; Hummel, H.; Wenne, R.

    2014-01-01

    Mussels of the genus Mytilus have been used to assess the circumglacial phylogeography of the intertidal zone. These mussels are representative components of the intertidal zone and have rapidly evolving mitochondrial DNA, suitable for high resolution phylogeographic analyses. In Europe, the three

  16. Zebra mussels anchor byssal threads faster and tighter than quagga mussels in flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peyer, Suzanne M; McCarthy, Alice J; Lee, Carol Eunmi

    2009-07-01

    While the invasive zebra mussel Dreissena polymorpha has rapidly spread throughout the Great Lakes and inland waterways, it is being displaced by the quagga mussel Dreissena bugensis in shallow water habitats. However, zebra mussels remain dominant in areas with higher water velocity. We hypothesized that the persistence of zebra over quagga mussels in habitats with higher water velocity might result from greater rate and strength of byssal thread attachment. We examined whether zebra mussels relative to quagga mussels have: (1) higher byssal thread synthesis rate, (2) lower dislodgment in flow and (3) greater mechanical force required for detachment from substrate. Specifically, we examined byssal thread synthesis rate and dislodgment of both species in response to water velocities of 0, 50, 100 and 180 cm s(-1). Byssal thread synthesis rate was significantly higher for zebra than for quagga mussels at all velocities. Dislodgment from the substrate increased for both species with increasing velocity but was significantly lower for zebra than for quagga mussels. We also tested the mechanical force to detach mussels after short (32 h) and long (two and three months) periods of attachment on hard substrate. Detachment force was significantly higher for zebra than for quagga mussels only after short-term attachment. Higher byssal thread synthesis rate in zebra mussels was a likely factor that minimized their dislodgment in flow and increased short-term attachment strength. Differences in byssal thread synthesis rate between the two species might partly account for the ability of zebra mussels to maintain dominance over quagga mussels in habitats with high velocities.

  17. A dominance shift from the zebra mussel to the invasive quagga mussel may alter the trophic transfer of metals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Jonathan; Schipper, Aafke M; Hendriks, A Jan; Yen Le, T T; Bij de Vaate, Abraham; van der Velde, Gerard; Leuven, Rob S E W

    2015-08-01

    Bioinvasions are a major cause of biodiversity and ecosystem changes. The rapid range expansion of the invasive quagga mussel (Dreissena rostriformis bugensis) causing a dominance shift from zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha) to quagga mussels, may alter the risk of secondary poisoning to predators. Mussel samples were collected from various water bodies in the Netherlands, divided into size classes, and analysed for metal concentrations. Concentrations of nickel and copper in quagga mussels were significantly lower than in zebra mussels overall. In lakes, quagga mussels contained significantly higher concentrations of aluminium, iron and lead yet significantly lower concentrations of zinc66, cadmium111, copper, nickel, cobalt and molybdenum than zebra mussels. In the river water type quagga mussel soft tissues contained significantly lower concentrations of zinc66. Our results suggest that a dominance shift from zebra to quagga mussels may reduce metal exposure of predator species. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. A new barrier to dispersal trapped old genetic clines that escaped the Easter Microplate tension zone of the Pacific vent mussels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plouviez, Sophie; Faure, Baptiste; Le Guen, Dominique; Lallier, François H; Bierne, Nicolas; Jollivet, Didier

    2013-01-01

    Comparative phylogeography of deep-sea hydrothermal vent species has uncovered several genetic breaks between populations inhabiting northern and southern latitudes of the East Pacific Rise. However, the geographic width and position of genetic clines are variable among species. In this report, we further characterize the position and strength of barriers to gene flow between populations of the deep-sea vent mussel Bathymodiolus thermophilus. Eight allozyme loci and DNA sequences of four nuclear genes were added to previously published sequences of the cytochrome c oxidase subunit I gene. Our data confirm the presence of two barriers to gene flow, one located at the Easter Microplate (between 21°33'S and 31°S) recently described as a hybrid zone, and the second positioned between 7°25'S and 14°S with each affecting different loci. Coalescence analysis indicates a single vicariant event at the origin of divergence between clades for all nuclear loci, although the clines are now spatially discordant. We thus hypothesize that the Easter Microplate barrier has recently been relaxed after a long period of isolation and that some genetic clines have escaped the barrier and moved northward where they have subsequently been trapped by a reinforcing barrier to gene flow between 7°25'S and 14°S.

  19. Assessing the health status of farmed mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis) through histological, microbiological and biomarker analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matozzo, Valerio; Ercolini, Carlo; Serracca, Laura; Battistini, Roberta; Rossini, Irene; Granato, Giulia; Quaglieri, Elisabetta; Perolo, Alberto; Finos, Livio; Arcangeli, Giuseppe; Bertotto, Daniela; Radaelli, Giuseppe; Chollet, Bruno; Arzul, Isabelle; Quaglio, Francesco

    2018-03-01

    confirmed by in situ hybridization. Cells morphologically similar to Perkinsus sp. trophozoites were observed in 0.7% of the mussels analysed; however, infection with Perkinsus spp. could neither be confirmed by ISH nor by PCR. Different pathological aspects, such as host defence responses and regressive/progressive changes were detected in the gills, digestive glands, gonads and mantle. Only one single case of disseminated neoplasia (0.2%) was observed. As for the biomarker evaluation, the MANOVA analysis revealed the statistically significant effect that the variable "sampling site" had on the biological parameter measured, thus suggesting that the multibiomarker approach was able to differentiate the rearing sites. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Zebra Mussel Antifouling Activity of the Marine Natural Product Aaptamine and Analogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diers, Jeffrey A.; Bowling, John J.; Duke, Stephen O.; Wahyuono, Subagus; Kelly, Michelle; Hamann, Mark T.

    2016-01-01

    Several aaptamine derivatives were selected as potential zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha) antifoulants because of the noteworthy absence of fouling observed on Aaptos sponges. Sponges of the genus Aaptos collected in Manado, Indonesia consistently produce aaptamine-type alkaloids. To date, aaptamine and its derivatives have not been carefully evaluated for their antifoulant properties. Structure–activity relationship studies were conducted using several aaptamine derivatives in a zebra mussel antifouling assay. From these data, three analogs have shown significant antifouling activity against zebra mussel attachment. Aaptamine, isoaaptamine, and the demethylated aaptamine compounds used in the zebra mussel assay produced EC50 values of 24.2, 11.6, and 18.6 μM, respectively. In addition, neither aaptamine nor isoaaptamine produced a phytotoxic response (as high as 300 μM) toward a nontarget organism, Lemna pausicostata, in a 7-day exposure. The use of these aaptamine derivatives from Aaptos sp. as potential environmentally benign antifouling alternatives to metal-based paints and preservatives is significant, not only as a possible control of fouling organisms, but also to highlight the ecological importance of these and similar biochemical defenses. PMID:16718618

  1. Environmentally Safe Control of Zebra Mussel Fouling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daniel Molloy

    2008-02-29

    The two primary objectives of this USDOE-NETL contract were successfully achieved during the project: (1) to accelerate research on the development of the bacterium Pseudomonas fluorescens strain CL145A (Pf-CL145A) as a biocontrol agent for zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha) and quagga mussels (Dreissena rostriformis bugensis)--two invasive freshwater bivalve species that are infesting water pipes in power plants; and (2) to identify a private-sector company that would move forward to commercialize Pf-CL145A as a substitute for the current polluting use of biocide chemicals for control of these dreissenid mussels in power plant pipes.

  2. Active biomonitoring of magnesium and manganese using the Perna perna mussel collected in the north shore of Sao Paulo, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seo, Daniele; Sousa, Eduinetty C.P.M. de; Pereira, Camilo D.S.

    2009-01-01

    The objective of the present work was to study the active biomonitoring of magnesium and manganese in the seashore of Sao Paulo, using the Perna perna mussel , which was transplanted from an uncontaminated region to probably contaminated sites. Mussel samples acquired in the control region, a mussel farm in Cocanha beach Caraguatatuba, were exposed for three months in the study sites, in Sao Sebastiao, Ilhabela, Ilha das Palmas and Ponta de Itaipu. The mussel samples were cleaned, grinded, homogenized, lyophilized and then analyzed by instrumental neutron activation analysis, (INAA).The INAA procedure consisted in the irradiation of the samples and synthetic standards of magnesium and manganese for 10 s, under a thermal neutron flux of 6,6 x 10 12 n cm -2 s -1 in the nuclear research reactor IEA-R1 of IPEN-CNEN/SP. The measurements of the gamma radioactivity of the samples and standards were done using an hyperpure semiconductor Ge detector, coupled to associated electronics. For analytical quality control of the results, the certified reference material (CRM) NIST SRM 1566b Oyster Tissue was analyzed and the results obtained indicated good agreement with the certified values. The results obtained in the mussel samples analysis indicated that the samples exposed in Ilhabela in the autumn season presented higher accumulation of magnesium (7051 ± 333 μg g -1 ) than the other sites. For manganese, the highest concentrations were obtained for the mussels exposed in Ilha das Palmas in springtime, with 28.5 ± 0.8 μg g -1 . It was concluded that it is possible to biomonitor magnesium and manganese by means of the analysis of Perna perna mussels. (author)

  3. Biomarkers of general stress in mussels as common indicators for marine biomonitoring programmes in Europe: The ICON experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Gómez, Concepción; Robinson, Craig David; Burgeot, Thierry; Gubbins, Matt; Halldorsson, Halldor P; Albentosa, Marina; Bignell, John P; Hylland, Ketil; Vethaak, A Dick

    2017-03-01

    This study investigated whether general stress biomarkers in mussels can be applied as common first-tier biomarkers in regional biomonitoring programmes in the North Sea (including Iceland) and western Mediterranean Sea. Stress on Stress (SoS) and lysosomal membrane stability (LMS) biomarkers were analysed in resident mussels (Mytilus sp.) from 8 coastal sites and in transplanted mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis) from two Spanish Mediterranean coastal sites. The assessment of results, as input to pollution monitoring strategies, was performed jointly for LMS and SoS data from the two regions. Contaminant body burden of the mussels was compared with biomarker results. The results demonstrated that these two general and non-expensive stress biomarkers in mussel can be applied throughout European waters, providing a cost-effective and harmonised approach to screen contaminant-related biological effects within the framework of wide-scale pollution biomonitoring programmes, such as that proposed by the European Union, i.e. the Marine Strategy Framework Directive. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. National Status and Trends: Mussel Watch Program

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Mussel Watch is the longest running continuous chemical contaminant monitoring program in U.S. coastal and Great Lakes waters and was created in response to concerns...

  5. National Status and Trends: Mussel Watch Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Mussel Watch represents the longest running continuous contaminant monitoring program in U.S. coastal and Great Lakes waters and was created in response to concerns...

  6. Native Freshwater Fish and Mussel Species Richness

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — These data represent predicted current distributions of all native freshwater fish and freshwater mussels in the Middle-Atlantic region. The data are available for...

  7. The zebra mussel; El mejillon cebra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bertran, A.; Esparza, J.L.; Munte, L.

    2010-07-01

    The aim of this article is, on the one hand, to provide information about the zebra mussel, its behavior, its effect on the ecosystem and the problems it poses for industry (especially in the CNA cooling systems) and, on the other hand, to review the strategies and technologies needed to control de mussel and to present the solution adopted by the power plant to combat the plague. (Author).

  8. Molecular interactions of mussel protective coating protein, mcfp-1, from Mytilus californianus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Qingye; Hwang, Dong Soo; Liu, Yang; Zeng, Hongbo

    2012-02-01

    Protective coating of the byssus of mussels (Mytilus sp.) has been suggested as a new paradigm of medical coating due to its high extensibility and hardness co-existence without their mutual detriment. The only known biomacromolecule in the extensible and tough coating on the byssus is mussel foot protein-1 (mfp-1), which is made up with positively charged residues (~20 mol%) and lack of negatively charged residues. Here, adhesion and molecular interaction mechanisms of Mytilus californianus foot protein-1 (mcfp-1) from California blue mussel were investigated using a surface forces apparatus (SFA) in buffer solutions of different ionic concentrations (0.2-0.7 M) and pHs (3.0-5.5). Strong and reversible cohesion between opposed positively charged mcfp-1 films was measured in 0.1 M sodium acetate buffer with 0.1 M KNO(3). Cohesion of mcfp-1 was gradually reduced with increasing the ionic strength, but was not changed with pH variations. Oxidation of 3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (DOPA) residues of mcfp-1, a key residue for adhesive and coating proteins of mussel, didn't change the cohesion strength of mcfp-1 films, but the addition of chemicals with aromatic groups (i.e., aspirin and 4-methylcatechol) increased the cohesion. These results suggest that the cohesion of mcfp-1 films is mainly mediated by cation-π interactions between the positively charged residues and benzene rings of DOPA and other aromatic amino acids (~20 mol% of total amino acids of mcfp-1), and π-π interactions between the phenyl groups in mcfp-1. The adhesion mechanism obtained for the mcfp-1 proteins provides important insight into the design and development of functional biomaterials and coatings mimicking the extensible and robust mussel cuticle coating. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Parasites of the mangrove mussel Mytella guyanensis (Bivalvia: Mytilidae in Camamu Bay, Bahia, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LO. Ceuta

    Full Text Available This contribution reports the parasites found in the mangrove mussel Mytella guyanensis in Camamu Bay, Bahia, Brazil. Samples were collected monthly from September 2006 through October 2007. A total of 460 individuals were collected, fixed in Davidson's solution, and processed by standard histological techniques, and the sections were stained with Harris hematoxylin and eosin (H&E. The water temperature ranged from 23.5 to 31.6 ºC, and the salinity from 25 to 37‰. Microscopic analysis showed Rickettsia-like organisms (RLOs, Nematopsis sp. (Apicomplexa, and Platyhelminthes, including a turbellarian, sporocysts of Bucephalus sp., metacercariae, and metacestodes of Tylocephalum sp. Parasites were observed mainly in the gills, mantle, and digestive gland. The prevalence of Nematopsis sp. was 100%, and in heavily infected mussels the tissues of the labial palps were damaged. RLOs occurred in high prevalence and intensity of infection in some periods. The digenean sporocysts showed moderate prevalence but high intensity of infection, and caused parasitic castration. In general, there was no significant spatial or temporal variation (p > 0.05 of the parasites, which is probably attributable to the small variations of temperature and salinity in the region.

  10. Parasites of the mangrove mussel Mytella guyanensis (Bivalvia: Mytilidae) in Camamu Bay, Bahia, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceuta, L O; Boehs, G

    2012-08-01

    This contribution reports the parasites found in the mangrove mussel Mytella guyanensis in Camamu Bay, Bahia, Brazil. Samples were collected monthly from September 2006 through October 2007. A total of 460 individuals were collected, fixed in Davidson's solution, and processed by standard histological techniques, and the sections were stained with Harris hematoxylin and eosin (H&E). The water temperature ranged from 23.5 to 31.6 ºC, and the salinity from 25 to 37‰. Microscopic analysis showed Rickettsia-like organisms (RLOs), Nematopsis sp. (Apicomplexa), and Platyhelminthes, including a turbellarian, sporocysts of Bucephalus sp., metacercariae, and metacestodes of Tylocephalum sp. Parasites were observed mainly in the gills, mantle, and digestive gland. The prevalence of Nematopsis sp. was 100%, and in heavily infected mussels the tissues of the labial palps were damaged. RLOs occurred in high prevalence and intensity of infection in some periods. The digenean sporocysts showed moderate prevalence but high intensity of infection, and caused parasitic castration. In general, there was no significant spatial or temporal variation (p > 0.05) of the parasites, which is probably attributable to the small variations of temperature and salinity in the region.

  11. Bacterial contamination of mussels at Mahe estuary, Malabar coast

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Gore, P.S.; Raveendran, O.; Iyer, T.S.G.; Varma, P.R.G.; Sankaranarayanan, V.N.

    Mussel samples from the mussel bed and near-by market, beach sand, sediment and water from the Mahe Estuary, Kerala, India were analysed for the bacterial quality. Indicator bacteria such as Escherichia coli and faecal streptococci were isolated...

  12. Quagga and zebra mussels: biology, impacts, and control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nalepa, Thomas F.; Schloesser, Don W.; Nalepa, Thomas F.; Schloesser, Don W.

    2013-01-01

    Quagga and Zebra Mussels: Biology, Impacts, and Control, Second Edition provides a broad view of the zebra/quagga mussel issue, offering a historic perspective and up-to-date information on mussel research. Comprising 48 chapters, this second edition includes reviews of mussel morphology, physiology, and behavior. It details mussel distribution and spread in Europe and across North America, and examines policy and regulatory responses, management strategies, and mitigation efforts. In addition, this book provides extensive coverage of the impact of invasive mussel species on freshwater ecosystems, including effects on water clarity, phytoplankton, water quality, food web changes, and consequences to other aquatic fauna. It also reviews and offers new insights on how zebra and quagga mussels respond and adapt to varying environmental conditions. This new edition includes seven video clips that complement chapter text and, through visual documentation, provide a greater understanding of mussel behavior and distribution.

  13. Cheating the Locals: Invasive Mussels Steal and Benefit from the Cooling Effect of Indigenous Mussels.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justin A Lathlean

    Full Text Available The indigenous South African mussel Perna perna gapes during periods of aerial exposure to maintain aerobic respiration. This behaviour has no effect on the body temperatures of isolated individuals, but when surrounded by conspecifics, beneficial cooling effects of gaping emerge. It is uncertain, however, whether the presence of the invasive mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis limits the ability of P. perna for collective thermoregulation. We investigated whether varying densities of P. perna and M. galloprovincialis influences the thermal properties of both natural and artificial mussel beds during periods of emersion. Using infrared thermography, body temperatures of P. perna within mixed artificial beds were shown to increase faster and reach higher temperatures than individuals in conspecific beds, indicating that the presence of M. galloprovincialis limits the group cooling effects of gaping. In contrast, body temperatures of M. galloprovincialis within mixed artificial mussel beds increased slower and exhibited lower temperatures than for individuals in beds comprised entirely of M. galloprovincialis. Interestingly, differences in bed temperatures and heating rates were largely dependent on the size of mussels, with beds comprised of larger individuals experiencing less thermal stress irrespective of species composition. The small-scale patterns of thermal stress detected within manipulated beds were not observed within naturally occurring mixed mussel beds. We propose that small-scale differences in topography, size-structure, mussel bed size and the presence of organisms encrusting the mussel shells mask the effects of gaping behaviour within natural mussel beds. Nevertheless, the results from our manipulative experiment indicate that the invasive species M. galloprovincialis steals thermal properties as well as resources from the indigenous mussel P. perna. This may have significant implications for predicting how the co-existence of

  14. Bibliography of Dreissena polymorpha (zebra mussels) and Dreissena rostriformis Bugensis (QUAGGA mussels): 1989 to 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schloesser, Don W.; Schmuckal, Christine

    2012-01-01

    Dreissenid mussels invaded and colonized waters of the Laurentian Great Lakes during the late 1980s. Their colonization and resulting impact have been characterized as one of the most important ecological changes in freshwater systems in North America. The need for information on dreissenid mussels has grown during the past 2 decades, which has prompted the compilation of this bibliography. Two previous bibliographies of dreissenid mussels indicate average publication rates were 6 publications/year between 1771 and 1964 (1,180 in 194 y) and 30 publications/year between 1964 and 1993 (885 in 30 y). In the current bibliography, the average rate of publication doubled during the past 23 y (1989 to 2011) to 66 publications/year based on a total of 1,502 publications. These rates may be biased by increased numbers of researchers and journals over time but, at a minimum, these rates indicate continued interest and concern by humans about the impact of dreissenid mussels on water availability and the expanding range of dreissenids throughout the world. The current bibliography has a 94% efficiency rate for subject and 100% efficiency for title search criteria when compared with references in published studies of dreissenid mussels in 2011. In addition to publications, we included 206 student theses and 225 chapters in 26 books including 6 books devoted solely to dreissenid mussels. A vast majority of student theses were about dreissenid mussels in North America, especially in the Laurentian Great Lakes. The 6 books devoted to dreissenid mussels contained a variety of chapters that described biology, impact, control, and ecology of dreissenid mussels in both Europe (published in 1992 and 2010) and North America (1993, 1994, 1997, and 2000). In addition, there is a 7th book devoted solely to dreissenid mussels that is near completion.

  15. Dietary carbon sources of mussels and tubeworms from Galapagos hydrothermal vents determined from tissue adC activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, P M; Smith, K L; Druffel, E M; Linick, T W

    1981-07-30

    The large quantities of reduced carbon that are required to support the filter-feeding mytilid mussels (Mytilus sp.), vesicomyid clams (Clayptogena sp.) and various other animals in the Galapagos hydrothermal vent systems are thought to be derived from either the in situ synthesis of particulate organic matter by chemoautotrophic, sulfide-oxidizing bacteria or by the advection of sedimentary organic carbon into the vent environment from surrounding areas. In contrast, the dense populations of vestimentiferan tubeworms (Riftia pachyptila), which lack mouth organs and digestive tracts, apparently utilize organic carbon synthesized by symbiotic chemoautotrophs. We present evidence here, based on adC activities and acC/abC ratios, that the principal source of dietary carbon for mussels and tubeworms is derived from the dissolved inorganic carbon (DIOC) in the vent effluent waters.

  16. Subsistence and recreational mussel ( Perna perna ) collecting in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Natal. The former collect 200–2501 of mussels annually from about 110 km of rocky shore and the latter 12–501 from 3 km of rocky shore. Recreational collectors are subject to a daily bag limit of 50 mussels and so select larger mussels than ...

  17. Length- and weight-dependent clearance rates of juvenile mussels (

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jacobs, P.; Troost, K.; Riegman, R.; van der Meer, J.

    2015-01-01

    Filtration capacity and feeding behaviour has been intensely studied for adult mussels (Mytilus edulis), but less information is available for juvenile mussels (1.5–25 mm, <1 year), especially in natural sea water. The recent introduction of mussel seed collectors in the Netherlands prompted the

  18. Zebra Mussels Pose a Threat to Virginia's Waters

    OpenAIRE

    Helfrich, Louis A. (Louis Anthony), 1942-; Weigmann, Diana L.; Speenburgh, Renee M.; Neves, Richard J.; Kitchel, Lisie; Bruenderman, Sue A., 1962-

    2005-01-01

    Provides an brief introduction to the invasion of the zebra mussel into American waters, explains the economic consequences they pose, and discusses if Virginia will inherit the problem, what the public can do to help, the general lifecycle of the zebra mussel and if they can be controlled, and who is working on the zebra mussel problem.

  19. Aggregation and attachment responses of blue mussels, Mytilus edulis—impact of substrate composition, time scale and source of mussel seed

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Helle Torp; Dolmer, Per; Hansen, Benni Winding

    2015-01-01

    to an optimization of the production. The effect of substrate composition and timing of formation of a mussel bed in relation to aggregation and attachment of mussels were investigated with mussel seeds obtained from two different sources: mussel seed dredged from a natural mussel bed and mussel seed collected from......Survival after transplantation of mussel seeds is crucial for the production output of blue mussels (Mytilus edulis L.) in bottom cultures. Hence, an understanding of the interactions between bed formation, habitat structure and performance of mussel seed of different origins can contribute...... showed that complex substrate indeed had a stabilizing effect on the mussel structure resulting in less aggregation and increased attachment strength. The 3D matrix forming a mussel bed was achieved faster on complex substrate, and led to reduced mortality of transplanted mussels. Despite significantly...

  20. Review of techniques to prevent introduction of zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha) during native mussel (Unionoidea) conservation activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cope, W.G.; Newton, T.J.; Gatenby, C.M.

    2003-01-01

    Because of the declines in diversity and abundance of native freshwater mussels (superfamily Unionoidea), and the potential decimation of populations of native mussels resulting from the rapid spread of the exotic zebra mussel Dreissena polymorpha, management options to eliminate or reduce the threat of the zebra mussel are needed. Relocating native mussels to refugia (artificial and natural) has been proposed to mitigate the threat of zebra mussels to native species. Relocation of native mussels to refugia such as fish hatchery facilities or natural habitats within their historic range. Which are unlikely to be infested by zebra mussels, necessitates that protocols be developed to prevent the inadvertent introduction of zebra mussels. Several recent studies have developed Such protocols, and have assessed their effectiveness on the health and survival of native mussels during subsequent relocation to various refugia. The purpose of this project is to synthesize and evaluate the current protocols and to develop a set of procedures that resource managers and researchers should consider before conducting conservation activities in zebra mussel infested waters. We found that the existing protocols have many common points of concern, such as facility modification and suitability, zebra mussel risk assessment and management procedures, and health and disease management procedures. These conservation protocols may have broad applicability to other situations and locations. A summary and evaluation of the information in these main areas, along with recommended guidelines, are presented in this article.

  1. EPRI's zebra mussel monitoring and control guidelines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mussalli, Y.G.; Armor, A.; Edwards, R.; Mattice, J.; Miller, M.; Nott, B.; Tsou, J.L.

    1992-01-01

    The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) Zebra Mussel Monitoring and Control Guidelines is a comprehensive compilation of US and European practices. The zebra mussel has infested all the Great Lakes and is positioned to spread to the adjoining river basins. The impact of the zebra mussel on power plants is as a biofouler clogging water systems and heat exchangers. The EPRI guidelines discuss the distribution of the zebra mussel in the US, identification of the zebra mussel, potential threats to power plants, and methods to initiate the monitoring and control program. Both preventive and corrective measures are presented. Preventive measures include various monitoring methods to initiate control techniques. The control techniques include both chemical and nonchemical together with combining techniques. Corrective methods include operational considerations, chemical cleaning, and mechanical/physical cleaning. It may also be possible to incorporate design changes, such as open to closed-loop backfit, backflushing, or pretreatment for closed systems. Table 1 shows a matrix of the monitoring methods. Table 2 presents a control matrix related to nuclear, fossil, and hydro raw water systems. Table 3 is a summary of the applicability of treatments to the various raw water systems. Appendixes are included that contain specifications to aid utilities in implementing several of the control technologies

  2. Toxic C17-Sphinganine Analogue Mycotoxin, Contaminating Tunisian Mussels, Causes Flaccid Paralysis in Rodents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riadh Marrouchi

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Severe toxicity was detected in mussels from Bizerte Lagoon (Northern Tunisia using routine mouse bioassays for detecting diarrheic and paralytic toxins not associated to classical phytoplankton blooming. The atypical toxicity was characterized by rapid mouse death. The aim of the present work was to understand the basis of such toxicity. Bioassay-guided chromatographic separation and mass spectrometry were used to detect and characterize the fraction responsible for mussels’ toxicity. Only a C17-sphinganine analog mycotoxin (C17-SAMT, with a molecular mass of 287.289 Da, was found in contaminated shellfish. The doses of C17-SAMT that were lethal to 50% of mice were 750 and 150 μg/kg following intraperitoneal and intracerebroventricular injections, respectively, and 900 μg/kg following oral administration. The macroscopic general aspect of cultures and the morphological characteristics of the strains isolated from mussels revealed that the toxicity episodes were associated to the presence of marine microfungi (Fusarium sp., Aspergillus sp. and Trichoderma sp. in contaminated samples. The major in vivo effect of C17-SAMT on the mouse neuromuscular system was a dose- and time-dependent decrease of compound muscle action potential amplitude and an increased excitability threshold. In vitro, C17-SAMT caused a dose- and time-dependent block of directly- and indirectly-elicited isometric contraction of isolated mouse hemidiaphragms.

  3. Rapid divergence of mussel populations despite incomplete barriers to dispersal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maas, Diede L; Prost, Stefan; Bi, Ke; Smith, Lydia L; Armstrong, Ellie E; Aji, Ludi P; Toha, Abdul Hamid A; Gillespie, Rosemary G; Becking, Leontine E

    2018-04-01

    Striking genetic structure among marine populations at small spatial scales is becoming evident with extensive molecular studies. Such observations suggest isolation at small scales may play an important role in forming patterns of genetic diversity within species. Isolation-by-distance, isolation-by-environment and historical priority effects are umbrella terms for a suite of processes that underlie genetic structure, but their relative importance at different spatial and temporal scales remains elusive. Here, we use marine lakes in Indonesia to assess genetic structure and assess the relative roles of the processes in shaping genetic differentiation in populations of a bivalve mussel (Brachidontes sp.). Marine lakes are landlocked waterbodies of similar age (6,000-10,000 years), but with heterogeneous environments and varying degrees of connection to the sea. Using a population genomic approach (double-digest restriction-site-associated DNA sequencing), we show strong genetic structuring across populations (range F ST : 0.07-0.24) and find limited gene flow through admixture plots. At large spatial scales (>1,400 km), a clear isolation-by-distance pattern was detected. At smaller spatial scales (connection. We hypothesize that (incomplete) dispersal barriers can cause initial isolation, allowing priority effects to give the numerical advantage necessary to initiate strong genetic structure. Priority effects may be strengthened by local adaptation, which the data may corroborate by showing a high correlation between mussel genotypes and temperature. Our study indicates an often-neglected role of (evolution-mediated) priority effects in shaping population divergence. © 2018 The Authors. Molecular Ecology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Changing perspectives on pearly mussels, North America's most imperiled animals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strayer, David L.; Downing, John A.; Haag, Wendell R.; King, Timothy L.; Layzer, James B.; Newton, Teresa J.; Nichols, S. Jerrine

    2004-01-01

    Pearly mussels (Unionacea) are widespread, abundant, and important in freshwater ecosystems around the world. Catastrophic declines in pearly mussel populations in North America and other parts of the world have led to a flurry of research on mussel biology, ecology, and conservation. Recent research on mussel feeding, life history, spatial patterning, and declines has augmented, modified, or overturned long-held ideas about the ecology of these animals. Pearly mussel research has begun to benefit from and contribute to current ideas about suspension feeding, life-history theory, metapopulations, flow refuges, spatial patterning and its effects, and management of endangered species. At the same time, significant gaps in understanding and apparent paradoxes in pearly mussel ecology have been exposed. To conserve remaining mussel populations, scientists and managers must simultaneously and aggressively pursue both rigorous research and conservation actions.

  5. Zebra mussels enter the compost pile

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-08-01

    Zebra mussels, introduced accidentally into the Great Lakes, are overpopulating at phenomenal rates, especially in Lake Erie, where they damage oyster beds, foster excessive algae growth and cling to boats. They also clog the intake pipes of city water systems and power generating plants. The expense of cleaning intake screens is considerable, since they have to be physically removed and cleaned. Then the mussels must be disposed of, costing some power plants as much as $50,000 a year to landfill, says Wayne Koser of the Michigan Department of Natural Resources.

  6. Scope of problem assessed at IVO. The zebra mussel`s campaign of world conquest

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silvonen, J; Oesch, P [ed.

    1998-07-01

    The migrating shell - or `zebra mussel` as it is called on account of its black and white stripes - was originally a fresh-water mussel, but has since also adapted to brackish waters. As a result of human activity the species has spread quickly and widely from its native habitat. Operators of power plants and water treatment plants in particular have not been very happy about this. During its larval stage the zebra mussel can enter the cooling water systems; fasten itself to the pipes and - in the worst case - clog the system. The Environmental Protection Division of IVO has been assessing the spread of the zebra mussel and the resulting problems with the aid of reference literature and the assistance of Finnish researchers

  7. Drawing up of a procedure for vanadium determination in mussels using the neutron activation analysis method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seo, Daniele; Vasconcellos, Marina B.A.; Saiki, Mitiko; Catharino, Marilia G.M.; Moreira, Edson G.; Sousa, Eduinetty C.P.M. de; Pereira, Camilo D.S.

    2009-01-01

    This work establishes an adequate procedure for obtaining reliable results for determination of vanadium in mussels, leg by leg by the neutron activation analysis (NAA), viewing the posterior application on the bio monitoring the coastal pollution, particularly near the petroleum terminals.For the evaluation of result quality concerning to the quality of those results, the work analysed the reference material certification NIST SRM 1566b Oyster Tissue. The precision of the results were also analysed using repetitions of mussel samples collected at the coastal of northern Sao Paulo state, Brazil. The NAA procedure consisted of 200 mg of sample and a synthetic standard of vanadium during a period of 8 s and under a thermal neutron flux of 6.6 x 10 12 n cm -2 s -1 at the pneumatic station 4 of the IEA-R1 nuclear reactor of IPEN-CNEN/SP. After a 3 min decay, the measurements of the gamma activities of the sample and the standard were done using a Ge hyper pure semi-conductor detector, connected to gamma ray multichannel analyser. The vanadium were determined by the measurement of the gamma activity of the 52 V through the 1434.08 keV peak, and half-life time of 3.75 min. The concentration of V were calculated by the comparative method. The obtained results indicated the viability of the NAA procedure established for the determination of vanadium in mussels

  8. Evaluation of several chemical disinfectants for removing zebra mussels from unionid mussels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waller, D.L.; Fisher, S.W.

    1998-01-01

    We evaluated the safety and effectiveness of chemical treatments for killing veliger and juvenile stages of the zebra mussel Dreissena polymorpha attached to unionid mussels. Static toxicity tests were conducted on eight unionid mussel species with common aquaculture chemicals (benzalkonium chloride, formalin, hydrogen peroxide, calcium chloride, potassium chloride, and sodium chloride). The concentration and duration of each chemical treatment tested had previously been found to kill zebra mussel veligers and juveniles. Several species (e.g., Elliptio dilatata, Lampsilis cardium, and Lasmigona complanata) incurred less than 10% mortality in chloride salt treatments, while in other species (e.g., Obliquaria reflexa and Leptodea fragilis) mortality varied greatly among treatment regimes. Treatments with benzalkonium chloride, formalin, and hydrogen peroxide were less than 90% effective on juvenile stages of zebra mussels and, therefore, were ruled out after preliminary trials. Limited application of specific chemical treatments may be feasible for more tolerant species; however, effective disinfection of unionid shells will require the use of chemical treatment followed by a quarantine period to completely remove zebra mussel larvae and juveniles.

  9. Zebra mussel control using acoustic energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tiller, G.W.; Gaucher, T.A.; Menezes, J.K.; Dolat, S.W.

    1992-01-01

    A practical and economical device or method that reduces zebra mussel colonization without detrimental side effects is highly desirable. An ideal method is one that could be installed near, on, or in existing raw water intakes and conduits. It must have a known effect that is limited to a defined area, should have maximum effects on a targeted species, and preferably have a low life cycle cost than the current alternative methods of control and maintenance. Underwater sound could be such a desirable solution, if found to be an effective control measure for zebra mussels. Although sound most often applies specifically to acoustic energy that is audible to humans, 20 Hertz (Hz) to 20 kiloHertz (kHz), in this report we will use the terms sound and acoustic to include acoustic energy between 100 Hz and 100 MegaHertz (MHz). This research on zebra mussel biofouling is designed to effect the early developmental stages in the life cycle of Dreissena polymorpha (Pallas). Vulnerable stages in the development of D. polymorpha that might yield to site-specific acoustic deterrence measures include the free-swimming larval veliger stage, the postveliger pre-attachment demersal stage, and the immediate post-attachment stage. The proposed applications include surface treatment to prevent, reduce or eliminate colonization on underwater structures, and the stream treatment to reduce or eliminate (destroy) mussel larvae entrained in a moving volume of water

  10. The zebra mussel: US utility implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McMahon, R.F.

    1990-11-01

    Dreissena polymorpha, the freshwater macrofouling zebra mussel, was introduced to Lake St. Clair, near Detroit, Michigan, in 1985. It has since spread throughout Lake Erie. Its planktonic veliger larval stage disperses on water currents and adults are transported by human and natural vectors, making it likely to spread throughout most of the United States and southern Canada except for the southwestern and southern United State, where summer water temperatures are above tolerated levels. Veligers enter raw water systems on intake currents to settle and grow to adults attached by secreted byssal threads to hard surfaces. Accumulations of adults impede flow, aggravate sedimentation and corrosion, and foul small-diameter components. Settlement occurs at flow velocities less than 1.5--2.0 m/sec. Mussels can reduce effective pipe diameters and foul intake structures, steam condensers, heat exchangers, fire protection systems, and cooling tower basins. Establishment of mussels in raw water systems should be prevented because subsequent removal is difficult and expensive. Mitigation procedures include manual removal, robotic cleaning, thermal backwashing, water jetting, application of molluscicides, and possibly line pigging and acidic chemical cleaning. Control technologies include oxidizing and non-oxidizing molluscicides, robotic cleaning, shell strainers, exposure of veligers to high voltage electrical fields, thermal backwashing and sand-filtration. The United States power industry can utilize extensive European experience with this species and domestic experience with the Asian clam in its development of effective controls for zebra mussel fouling

  11. Learning to live with zebra mussels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    Fingernail-sized mollusks from Europe pose a threat to Clean Coal Technology demonstration projects. This article describes the mussels life cycle and behavior, fouling of utility water systems, and effective methods of control, including chemical treatment, thermal treatment, mechanical treatment, and coatings

  12. Control of zebra mussels with ultraviolet radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewis, D.P.

    1998-07-01

    This paper presents the results of research on the effects of low and medium pressure ultraviolet (UV) radiation on zebra mussel mortality carried out between 1992 and 1995. An initial 1992 study, carried out by Aquatic Sciences (ASI), showed that flow-through UV systems have the ability to kill zebra mussels and prevent them from attaching to downstream surfaces. However, this work did not include expanded testing to determine the limitations of UV radiation at higher flow rates or to further define effective working parameters. The 1994 study was carried out at the Lennox Thermal Generating Station (TGS) of Ontario Hydro in Kingston, Ontario. This study involved the testing of two open channel UV systems (medium and low pressure) in an effort to determine flow rates and volumes for which UV disinfection would be effective and practical for the prevention of zebra mussel infestation. It was recommended that medium pressure (MP) and low pressure (LP) UV systems be tested for their ability to control downstream settlement of zebra mussels, in flow-through trials.

  13. Immune Response in Mussels To Environmental Pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pryor, Stephen C.; Facher, Evan

    1997-01-01

    Describes the use of mussels in measuring the extent of chemical contamination and its variation in different coastal regions. Presents an experiment to introduce students to immune response and the effects of environmental pollution on marine organisms. Contains 14 references. (JRH)

  14. Freshwater mussel response to bedform movement: experimental stream studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozarek, J. L.; MacGregor, K. R.; Hornbach, D.; Hove, M.

    2017-12-01

    Freshwater mussels are intrinsically linked to near-bed sediment dynamics, but it remains unclear how mussels respond to changing sediment loads across spatial and temporal scales. The interactions between mussels and sediment transport are complex and often involve feedback loops. Mussels are filter feeders removing suspended particles from the water column and the physical presence of mussels can have significant impacts on the structure of riverbed habitat. We investigated the feedbacks between mussels, flow, and migrating bedforms during flood experiments in the St. Anthony Falls Laboratory Outdoor StreamLab (OSL) at the University of Minnesota. The OSL is a field-scale sand-bed meandering stream channel with independent control over sediment feed (recirculated) and water flow (diverted from the Mississippi River). Mussel location, orientation to flow, and protrusion from sediment was surveyed immediately before, after, and one and two days after each flood event. Flow fields, bed shear stress, bedform migration, and bar topography were measured during each flooding event with and without mussels present (density = 4/m2 and 8/m2) to quantify the influence of mussels on channel morphology and bedform migration. Mobile bedforms (up to 14 cm high) were present for all flood events with quasi-equilibrium, aggrading, and degrading bed conditions. Mussels moved little horizontally during all flood events, but were shown to move quickly to deeper water after the flood receded. However, mussels moved vertically, burrowing or being buried under mobile bedforms, during each flood event. The research presented here will focus on feedbacks between three mussel species with different shell sculptures, flow conditions, and migrating bedforms during flooding events. These results reveal how freshwater mussels respond to and affect flow and sediment transport during flood events that are difficult to observe in the field.

  15. Crustacean fauna of a mussel cultivated raft system in the Black Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murat Sezgin

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the current study was to make a faunistic analysis of the crustaceans associated with cultivated mussels grown on ropes. Mussel samples from 30 cm ropes were collected from rope-grown mussel beds by hand. The crustacean fauna associated with mussel population were quantified. The density of crustacean fauna associated with mussels was significantly greater within rope-grown mussel assemblages than on other biotopes around.

  16. How the position of mussels at the intertidal lagoon affects their infection with the larvae of parasitic flatworms (Trematoda: Digenea): A combined laboratory and field experimental study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolaev, Kirill E.; Prokofiev, Vladimir V.; Levakin, Ivan A.; Galaktionov, Kirill V.

    2017-10-01

    In the complex trematode life cycle, cercariae transmit infection from the first to the second intermediate host. These short-lived lecithotrophic larvae possess a complex of behavioural responses for finding and infecting the host. We studied strategies used by cercariae of Himasthla elongata and Cercaria parvicaudata (Renicola sp.) infecting mussels Mytilus edulis at the White Sea intertidal. Laboratory and field experiments were conducted in parallel. Geotactic response of cercariae was tested in an experimental chamber. Their distribution in nature was studied by counting larvae infecting mussels in cages installed in pairs (a ground and a suspended cage) in an intertidal lagoon. In the chamber H. elongata cercariae concentrated at the bottom, C. parvicaudata cercariae aged 1 h mostly concentrated near the surface and those aged 6 h sank to the bottom. A few larvae of both species ("evaders") showed behavioural patterns antithetic to the prevalent ones. Infection was the highest in mussels in ground cages. In suspended cages mussel infection with H. elongata cercariae was much lower than with C. parvicaudata cercariae. Our study confirmed that results of experiments on cercarial behaviour could be extrapolated to natural conditions. Cercariae of two species using the same intermediate hosts and co-occurring in a biotope implemented dramatically different strategies. This might be associated with differences in cercarial output by parthenitae groups. The presence of "evaders" might be useful for successful transmission. Our results indicate that mussels cultivated in suspended cultures are at the least risk of infection with trematode larvae.

  17. Comparative study of predatory responses in blue mussels (Mytilus edulis L.) produced in suspended long line cultures or collected from natural bottom mussel beds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Helle Torp; Dolmer, Per; Petersen, Jens Kjerulf

    2011-01-01

    Blue mussels (Mytilus edulis L.) are a valuable resource for commercial shellfish production and may also have uses as a tool in habitat improvement, because mussel beds can increase habitat diversity and complexity. A prerequisite for both commercial mussel production and habitat improvement...... originated from suspended cultures had a higher length increment and lower mortality when compared to bottom mussels. It is concluded that suspended mussels potentially are an alternative resource to bottom culture and can be used in habitat improvement of mussel beds, but that the use of suspended mussels...

  18. Will the Displacement of Zebra Mussels by Quagga Mussels Increase Water Clarity in Shallow Lakes during Summer? Results from a Mesocosm Experiment

    OpenAIRE

    Mei, Xueying; Zhang, Xiufeng; Kassam, Sinan-Saleh; Rudstam, Lars G.

    2016-01-01

    Zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha) are known to increase water clarity and affect ecosystem processes in invaded lakes. During the last decade, the conspecific quagga mussels (D. rostriformis bugensis) have displaced zebra mussels in many ecosystems including shallow lakes such as Oneida Lake, New York. In this study, an eight-week mesocosm experiment was conducted to test the hypothesis that the displacement of zebra mussels by quagga mussels leads to further decreases in phytoplankton and...

  19. Zebra Mussel Research Technical Notes. Section 1 - Environmental Testing

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1998-01-01

    ...: Biology, Ecology, and Recommended Control Strategies, Larval Monitoring in a Chlorine Treatment Program to Prevent Zebra Mussel Settlement in Hydropower Facilities, Louisville District Initiates...

  20. Preliminary characterization of digestive enzymes in freshwater mussels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauey, Blake W.; Amberg, Jon J.; Cooper, Scott T.; Grunwald, Sandra K.; Newton, Teresa J.; Haro, Roger J.

    2015-01-01

    Resource managers lack an effective chemical tool to control the invasive zebra mussel Dreissena polymorpha. Zebra mussels clog water intakes for hydroelectric companies, harm unionid mussel species, and are believed to be a reservoir of avian botulism. Little is known about the digestive physiology of zebra mussels and unionid mussels. The enzymatic profile of the digestive glands of zebra mussels and native threeridge (Amblema plicata) and plain pocketbook mussels (Lampsilis cardium) are characterized using a commercial enzyme kit, api ZYM, and validated the kit with reagent-grade enzymes. A linear correlation was shown for only one of nineteen enzymes, tested between the api ZYM kit and a specific enzyme kit. Thus, the api ZYM kit should only be used to make general comparisons of enzyme presence and to observe trends in enzyme activities. Enzymatic trends were seen in the unionid mussel species, but not in zebra mussels sampled 32 days apart from the same location. Enzymatic classes, based on substrate, showed different trends, with proteolytic and phospholytic enzymes having the most change in relative enzyme activity.

  1. Forecasting the expansion of zebra mussels in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bossenbroek, Jonathan M; Johnson, Ladd E; Peters, Brett; Lodge, David M

    2007-06-01

    Because zebra mussels spread rapidly throughout the eastern United States in the late 1980s and early 1990s, their spread to the western United States has been expected. Overland dispersal into inland lakes and reservoirs, however, has occurred at a much slower rate than earlier spread via connected, navigable waterways. We forecasted the potential western spread of zebra mussels by predicting the overland movement of recreational boaters with a production-constrained gravity model. We also predicted the potential abundance of zebra mussels in two western reservoirs by comparing their water chemistry characteristics with those of water bodies with known abundances of zebra mussels. Most boats coming from waters infested with zebra mussels were taken to areas that already had zebra mussels, but a small proportion of such boats did travel west of the 100th meridian. If zebra mussels do establish in western U.S. water bodies, we predict that population densities could achieve similar levels to those in the Midwestern United States, where zebra mussels have caused considerable economic and ecological impacts. Our analyses suggest that the dispersal of zebra mussels to the western United States is an event of low probability but potentially high impact on native biodiversity and human infrastructure. Combining these results with economic analyses could help determine appropriate investment levels in prevention and control strategies.

  2. Factors Affecting Zebra Mussel Kill by the Bacterium Pseudomonas fluorescens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daniel P. Molloy

    2004-02-24

    The specific purpose of this research project was to identify factors that affect zebra mussel kill by the bacterium Pseudomonas fluorescens. Test results obtained during this three-year project identified the following key variables as affecting mussel kill: treatment concentration, treatment duration, mussel siphoning activity, dissolved oxygen concentration, water temperature, and naturally suspended particle load. Using this latter information, the project culminated in a series of pipe tests which achieved high mussel kill inside power plants under once-through conditions using service water in artificial pipes.

  3. Larval settlement and metamorphosis of the mussel Mytilus coruscus in response to monospecific bacterial biofilms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jin-Long; Shen, Pei-Jing; Liang, Xiao; Li, Yi-Feng; Bao, Wei-Yang; Li, Jia-Le

    2013-01-01

    The effects of bacterial biofilms (BFs) on larval settlement and metamorphosis of the mussel, Mytilus coruscus, were investigated in the laboratory. Of nine different isolates, Shewanella sp.1 BF induced the highest percentage of larval settlement and metamorphosis, whereas seven other isolates had a moderate inducing activity and one isolate, Pseudoalteromonas sp. 4, had a no inducing activity. The inducing activity of individual bacterial isolates was not correlated either with their phylogenetic relationship or with the surfaces from which they were isolated. Among the eight bacterial species that demonstrated inducing activity, bacterial density was significantly correlated with the inducing activity for each strain, with the exception of Vibrio sp. 1. The Shewanella sp. 1 BF cue that was responsible for inducing larval settlement and metamorphosis was further investigated. Treatment of the BFs with formalin, antibiotics, ultraviolet irradiation, heat, and ethanol resulted in a significant decrease in their inducing activities and cell survival. BF-conditioned water (CW) did not induce larval metamorphosis, but it triggered larval settlement behavior. A synergistic effect of CW with formalin-fixed Shewanella sp. 1 BF significantly promoted larval metamorphosis. Thus, a cocktail of chemical cues derived from bacteria may be necessary to stimulate larval settlement and metamorphosis in this species.

  4. Ocean acidification impacts mussel control on biomineralisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzer, Susan C; Phoenix, Vernon R; Cusack, Maggie; Kamenos, Nicholas A

    2014-08-28

    Ocean acidification is altering the oceanic carbonate saturation state and threatening the survival of marine calcifying organisms. Production of their calcium carbonate exoskeletons is dependent not only on the environmental seawater carbonate chemistry but also the ability to produce biominerals through proteins. We present shell growth and structural responses by the economically important marine calcifier Mytilus edulis to ocean acidification scenarios (380, 550, 750, 1000 µatm pCO2). After six months of incubation at 750 µatm pCO2, reduced carbonic anhydrase protein activity and shell growth occurs in M. edulis. Beyond that, at 1000 µatm pCO2, biomineralisation continued but with compensated metabolism of proteins and increased calcite growth. Mussel growth occurs at a cost to the structural integrity of the shell due to structural disorientation of calcite crystals. This loss of structural integrity could impact mussel shell strength and reduce protection from predators and changing environments.

  5. Obtainment of calcium carbonate from mussels shell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamester, M.R.R.; Becker, D.

    2010-01-01

    The mussels and oyster shell are discarded at environment, and this accumulation is causing negative consequences to ecosystem. Calcium carbonate is main constituent of the shell chemical composition. Aiming to reduce environmental aggression and generate income to shellfish producer, there was the possibility of using these shells as an alternative to commercial calcium carbonate. For this physics, chemicals and thermal properties were evaluated, using X-ray fluorescence, thermogravimetric analysis, size distribution, abrasiveness and scanning electronic microscopy. The results indicate that mussels shells have an initial degradation temperature higher than commercial calcium carbonate e same lost weight behavior and 95% of shell chemical composition is calcium carbonate. The sample size distribution was influenced by grinding condition and time as well as its abrasiveness. (author)

  6. Modulating effects of orally supplied Euglena gracilis on the physiological responses of the freshwater mussel Diplodon chilensis, exposed to sewage water pollution in a Patagonian river (Argentina).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianchi, Virginia A; Castro, Juan M; Rocchetta, Iara; Conforti, Visitación; Pascual, Mariano; Luquet, Carlos M

    2016-04-01

    In order to test if orally supplied Euglena sp. cells modulate the physiological status of bivalves during bioremediation procedures, we evaluated the effect of Euglena gracilis diet on the immune response, oxidative balance and metabolic condition of Diplodon chilensis exposed to sewage water pollution. Mussels were fed for 90 days with E. gracilis (EG) or Scenedesmus vacuolatus (SV, control diet), and then exposed for 10 days at three sites along the Pocahullo river basin: 1) an unpolluted site, upstream of the city (control, C); 2) upstream (UpS) and 3) downstream (DoS) from the main tertiary-treated sewage discharge, in the city of San Martín de los Andes, Northwest Patagonia, Argentina. Our results show that the total hemocyte number decreases while pollution load increases along the river course for both, EG and SV mussels. Phagocytic activity is higher in EG mussels than in SV ones under all conditions. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in hemocytes increases with the increase in the pollution load, being significantly higher for EG mussels than for SV ones at DoS; no changes are observed for total oxyradical scavenging capacity (TOSC). Hemocytes' viability is increased for E. gracilis diet at C and remains unchanged in this group of mussels when exposed at the polluted sites. Lysosomal membrane stability is higher in EG mussels than in SV ones for all conditions, although it is decreased at polluted sites compared with that at C. Antioxidant (catalase) and detoxifying (gluthatione S-transferase) defenses are generally lower in gills and digestive gland of EG mussels than in SV ones. Lipid peroxidation (TBARS) is evident in gills of EG mussels at C, and in digestive gland of the same group, at all the sites. Gill mass factor (GF) is affected by the E. gracilis diet; it is increased at C and decreased at polluted sites when compared with that of SV ones. Digestive gland mass factor (DGF) is higher in EG mussels than in SV ones. In D

  7. Prey selection of a captive Oystercatcher Haematopus ostralegus hammering Mussels Mytilus edulis from the ventral side

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ens, Bruno J.; Alting, D

    1996-01-01

    We studied prey choice of a captive Oystercatcher:hat hammered Mussels from the ventral side. The results replicate previous findings that ventral hammerers select Mussels of intermediate size, select against thick-shelled Mussels, abandon an increasing proportion of Mussels with increasing size and

  8. Sealed-Bid Auction of Dutch Mussels : Statistical Analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleijnen, J.P.C.; van Schaik, F.D.J.

    2007-01-01

    This article presents an econometric analysis of the many data on the sealed-bid auction that sells mussels in Yerseke town, the Netherlands. The goals of this analy- sis are obtaining insight into the important factors that determine the price of these mussels, and quantifying the performance of an

  9. Ingestion rates and grazing impact of the brackwater mussel ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bivalves feed on a combination of phytoplankton and zooplankton and have the potential to impact considerably the planktonic biomass, especially when they occur in high densities, such as in oyster and mussel beds. The brackwater mussel Brachidontes virgiliae is numerically dominant during wet phases within Africa's ...

  10. Sealed-bid auction of Netherlands mussels: statistical analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleijnen, J.P.C.; van Schaik, F.D.J.

    2011-01-01

    This article presents an econometric analysis of the many data on the sealed-bid auction that sells mussels in Yerseke town, the Netherlands. The goals of this analysis are obtaining insight into the important factors that determine the price of these mussels, and quantifying the performance of an

  11. Large-Scale Spatial Dynamics of Intertidal Mussel (

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Folmer, E.O.; Drent, J.; Troost, K.; Büttger, H.; Dankers, N.; Jansen, J.; van Stralen, M.; Millat, G.; Herlyn, M.; Philippart, C.J.M.

    2014-01-01

    Intertidal blue mussel beds are important for the functioning and community composition of coastal ecosystems. Modeling spatial dynamics of intertidal mussel beds is complicated because suitable habitat is spatially heterogeneously distributed and recruitment and loss are hard to predict. To get

  12. Processes limiting mussel bed restoration in the Wadden-Sea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Paoli, Helene; van de Koppel, Johan; van der Zee, Els; Kangeri, Arno; van Belzen, Jim; Holthuijsen, Sander; van den Berg, Aniek; Herman, Peter; Olff, Han; van der Heide, Tjisse

    This paper reports on experimental restoration of mussel beds in the Wadden Sea and the processes that might limit successful restoration of this foundation species (i.e. substrate, predation, hydrodynamics). The importance of substrate, predation, hydrodynamic conditions and location on mussel

  13. Fluctuating and Directional Asymmetry of the Blue Mussel (

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lajus, D.; Katolikova, M.; Strelkov, P.; Hummel, H.

    2015-01-01

    In this work we examined morphological variation at different levels to study performance and population structuring of the blue mussel Mytilus edulis. Our objectives were: (i) to develop an integrated technique for analyzing morphological variation in blue mussels and, based on this technique; (ii)

  14. Progress Toward Sustainable Mussel Aquaculture in Mar Piccolo, Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmela Caroppo

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Mar Piccolo of Taranto is an estuarine basin heavily exploited for commercial mussel (Mytilus galloprovincialis L. farming. The historical renown of the Taranto mussels has suffered over the last decade following policy decisions to expand the mussel farms and to relocate a portion of the urban sewage to an outfall outside of Mar Piccolo. The resulting decline in mussel quality and the quandary of how to restore stability to Taranto mussel production became the focal issue for our application of the systems approach framework (SAF. We simulated the ecological, economic, and social interactions that affect mussel production. Stakeholders and mussel farmers contributed by participating in meetings during the entire exercise. Our simulation analysis provided them with a means for understanding the effects of policy scenarios on the system. We present three aspects from our initial results that demonstrate the value of the SAF, as: (1 an operational model to monitor and better research the status of the ecosystem, (2 a management tool to evaluate sustainable mussel farming strategies, and (3 an opportunity for improved communication with and engagement of stakeholders, policy, and the public. The application has also raised important questions about how the food chain is controlled, what could be changed to stabilize the ecosystem to a higher level of productivity, and what role the public and policy could play in promoting sustainable development.

  15. Invasion of the Zebra Mussels: A Mock Trial Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Judy A.; Czerniak, Charlene M.

    2005-01-01

    In this activity, students learn about the important topic of invasive species, specifically Zebra Mussels. Students role-play different characters in a real-life situation: the trial of the Zebra Mussel for unlawful disruption of the Great Lakes ecosystem. Students will also learn about jurisprudential inquiry by examining the trial process. This…

  16. IMPACT OF WATER PH ON ZEBRA MUSSEL MORTALITY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molloy, Daniel P.

    2002-01-01

    The experiments conducted this past quarter have suggested that the bacterium Pseudomonas fluorescens strain CL0145A is effective at killing zebra mussels throughout the entire range of pH values tested (7.2 to 8.6). Highest mortality was achieved at pH values characteristic of preferred zebra mussel waterbodies, i.e., hard waters with a range of 7.8 to 8.6. In all water types tested, however, ranging from very soft to very hard, considerable mussel kill was achieved (83 to 99% mean mortality), suggesting that regardless of the pH or hardness of the treated water, significant mussel kill can be achieved upon treatment with P. fluorescens strain CL0145A. These results further support the concept that this bacterium has significant potential for use as a zebra mussel control agent in power plant pipes receiving waters with a wide range of physical and chemical characteristics

  17. Mussel dredging: Impact on epifauna in Limfjorden, Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dolmer, Per

    2002-01-01

    Species composition and population density of epibenthos are described in two areas in Limfjorden, Denmark. Both areas covered both a mussel fishing ground and an area that has been permanently closed for mussel dredging since 1988. Furthermore, mussels were dredged in a part of the mussel fishing...... grounds in both areas four months before the investigations. The rest of the fishing grounds had not been exploited for at least four years. This study describes the short-term impact (4 mo) and long-term impact (>4 y) of mussel dredging using the permanently closed areas as controls. The data were...... analyzed by multivariate statistics. In both short-term study areas significant effects of dredging were observed. A number of taxa (sponges, echinoderms, anthozoans, molluscs, crustaceans, and ascidians) had a reduced density or were not observed in fished areas four months after the fishing was ended...

  18. IMPACT OF WATER PH ON ZEBRA MUSSEL MORTALITY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daniel P. Molloy

    2002-10-15

    The experiments conducted this past quarter have suggested that the bacterium Pseudomonas fluorescens strain CL0145A is effective at killing zebra mussels throughout the entire range of pH values tested (7.2 to 8.6). Highest mortality was achieved at pH values characteristic of preferred zebra mussel waterbodies, i.e., hard waters with a range of 7.8 to 8.6. In all water types tested, however, ranging from very soft to very hard, considerable mussel kill was achieved (83 to 99% mean mortality), suggesting that regardless of the pH or hardness of the treated water, significant mussel kill can be achieved upon treatment with P. fluorescens strain CL0145A. These results further support the concept that this bacterium has significant potential for use as a zebra mussel control agent in power plant pipes receiving waters with a wide range of physical and chemical characteristics.

  19. Evaluation of magnesium and manganese in Perna perna mussels (Linnaeus, 1758: mollusca, bivalvia) collected in the cost of the state of Sao Paulo, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seo, Daniele; Vasconcellos, Marina B.A.; Saiki, Mitiko; Cathartino, Marilia G.M.; Moreira, Edson G.; Sousa, Eduinetty C.P.M. de

    2011-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to evaluate magnesium and manganese concentrations in Perna perna mussels by applying instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). The mussels were collected seasonally from September 2008 to July 2009 at Cocanha Beach in the city of Caraguatatuba (clean region), and at two sites in Santos Bay (Ponta de Itaipu and Palmas Island). The mussel samples were cleaned, grinded, homogenized, lyophilized and then analyzed by INAA. The INAA procedure consisted in the irradiation of the samples and synthetic elemental standards for 10 s, under a thermal neutron flux of 6.6 x 10 12 n cm -2 s -1 in the nuclear research reactor of IPEN-CNEN/SP. The measurements of the gamma radioactivity of the samples and standards were carried out using a hyperpure semiconductor Ge detector, coupled to Digital Spectral Analyzer. The elemental concentrations were calculated by the comparative method. For quality control of analytical results, certified reference materials NIST SRM 1566b oyster tissue and NRC DORM-2 Dogfish Muscle were analyzed and their results indicated good accuracy. The element concentrations in mussels on dry mass basis varied from 2734 ± 205 to 5138 ± 507 mg kg -1 for Mg and from 7.35±0.57 to 29.06±3.35 mg kg -1 for Mn. The results obtained in mussel analysis indicated that the samples collected in Itaipu in the winter season presented higher accumulation of Mg than the other sites. For Mn, the highest concentrations were obtained for the mussels collected in Palmas in summer time. (author)

  20. Evaluation of magnesium and manganese in Perna perna mussels (Linnaeus, 1758: mollusca, bivalvia) collected in the cost of the state of Sao Paulo, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seo, Daniele; Vasconcellos, Marina B.A.; Saiki, Mitiko; Cathartino, Marilia G.M.; Moreira, Edson G., E-mail: mbvascon@ipen.b, E-mail: mitiko@ipen.b, E-mail: emoreira@ipen.b [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Sousa, Eduinetty C.P.M. de, E-mail: edvinett@usp.b [Universidade de Sao Paulo (IO/USP), SP (Brazil). Inst. Oceanografico. Lab. de Ecotoxicologia Marinha e Microfitobentos

    2011-07-01

    The objective of the present study was to evaluate magnesium and manganese concentrations in Perna perna mussels by applying instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). The mussels were collected seasonally from September 2008 to July 2009 at Cocanha Beach in the city of Caraguatatuba (clean region), and at two sites in Santos Bay (Ponta de Itaipu and Palmas Island). The mussel samples were cleaned, grinded, homogenized, lyophilized and then analyzed by INAA. The INAA procedure consisted in the irradiation of the samples and synthetic elemental standards for 10 s, under a thermal neutron flux of 6.6 x 10{sup 12} n cm{sup -2} s{sup -1} in the nuclear research reactor of IPEN-CNEN/SP. The measurements of the gamma radioactivity of the samples and standards were carried out using a hyperpure semiconductor Ge detector, coupled to Digital Spectral Analyzer. The elemental concentrations were calculated by the comparative method. For quality control of analytical results, certified reference materials NIST SRM 1566b oyster tissue and NRC DORM-2 Dogfish Muscle were analyzed and their results indicated good accuracy. The element concentrations in mussels on dry mass basis varied from 2734 {+-} 205 to 5138 {+-} 507 mg kg{sup -1} for Mg and from 7.35{+-}0.57 to 29.06{+-}3.35 mg kg{sup -1} for Mn. The results obtained in mussel analysis indicated that the samples collected in Itaipu in the winter season presented higher accumulation of Mg than the other sites. For Mn, the highest concentrations were obtained for the mussels collected in Palmas in summer time. (author)

  1. Seasonal variations in the profile of main phospholipids in Mytilus galloprovincialis mussels: A study by hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization Fourier transform mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Facchini, Laura; Losito, Ilario; Cataldi, Tommaso R I; Palmisano, Francesco

    2018-01-01

    A systematic characterization of phosphatidylcholines and phosphatidylethanolamines in mussels of sp Mytilus galloprovincialis was performed by high-efficiency hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography combined with electrospray ionization and Fourier transform mass spectrometry (FTMS), based on a quadrupole-Orbitrap hybrid spectrometer. The FTMS/MS experiments under high collisional energy dissociation conditions, complemented by low-energy collisionally induced dissociation MS n (n = 2,3) experiments, performed in a linear ion trap mass spectrometer, were exploited for structural elucidation purposes. The described approach led to an unprecedented characterization of the mussel phospholipidome, with 185 phosphatidylcholines and 131 phosphatidylethanolamines species recognized, distributed among diacylic, plasmanylic, and plasmenylic forms. This was the starting point for the evaluation of the effects of season (in particular, of sea temperature) on the profile of those phospholipids. To this aim, a set of mussel samples retrieved from commercial sources in different periods of the year was considered. Principal component analysis revealed a clear separation between samples collected in periods characterized by cold, intermediate, or warm sea temperatures, respectively. In particular, an enrichment in phospholipids containing unsaturated side chains was observed in mussels collected from cold seawaters (winter-early spring), thus confirming the general model previously elaborated to explain the adaptation of marine invertebrates, including some bivalve molluscs, to low temperatures. On the other hand, relevant levels of plasma(e)nylic and acylic phospholipids bearing either saturated or non-methylene-interrupted side chains were found in mussels collected in warm seawaters (typical of summer and early autumn, at Italian latitudes). This finding opened interesting perspectives towards the development of strategies able to prevent global warming-related mussel

  2. The exhalant jet of mussels Mytilus edulis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riisgard, Hans Ulrik; Jørgensen, Bo Hoffmann; Lundgreen, Kim

    2011-01-01

    shell lengths. Here, we present results of a detailed study of fully open mussels Mytilus edulis in terms of filtration rate, exhalant siphon aperture area, jet velocity, gill area and body dry weight, all as a function of shell length (mean +/- SD) over the range 16.0 +/- 0.4 to 82.6 +/- 2.9 mm...... detailed 2-component velocity distributions near the exhalant siphon in 5 planes parallel to the axis of the jet and the major axis of the oval aperture, and hence estimates of momentum and kinetic energy flows in addition to mean velocity. Data obtained on particles inside the exhalant jet of filtered...

  3. Mortality of zebra mussel, Dreissena polymorpha, veligers during downstream transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horvath, T.G.; Lamberti, G.A.

    1999-01-01

    1. Streams flowing from lakes which contain zebra mussels, Dreissena polymorpha, provide apparently suitable habitats for mussel colonization and downstream range expansion, yet most such streams contain few adult mussels. We postulated that mussel veligers experience high mortality during dispersal via downstream transport. They tested this hypothesis in Christiana Creek, a lake-outlet stream in south-western Michigan, U.S.A., in which adult mussel density declined exponentially with distance downstream. 2. A staining technique using neutral red was developed and tested to distinguish quickly live and dead veligers. Live and dead veligers were distinguishable after an exposure of fresh samples to 13.3 mg L-1 of neutral red for 3 h. 3. Neutral red was used to determine the proportion of live veligers in samples taken longitudinally along Christiana Creek. The proportion of live veligers (mean ?? SE) declined from 90 ?? 3% at the lake outlet to 40 ?? 8% 18 km downstream. 4. Veligers appear to be highly susceptible to damage by physical forces (e.g. shear), and therefore, mortality in turbulent streams could be an important mechanism limiting zebra mussel dispersal to downstream reaches. Predictions of zebra mussel spread and population growth should consider lake-stream linkages and high mortality in running waters.

  4. Copper and copper-nickel alloys as zebra mussel antifoulants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dormon, J.M.; Cottrell, C.M.; Allen, D.G.; Ackerman, J.D.; Spelt, J.K. [Univ. of Toronto, Ontario (Canada)

    1996-04-01

    Copper has been used in the marine environment for decades as cladding on ships and pipes to prevent biofouling by marine mussels (Mytilus edulis L.). This motivated the present investigation into the possibility of using copper to prevent biofouling in freshwater by both zebra mussels and quagga mussels (Dreissena polymorpha and D. bugensis collectively referred to as zebra mussels). Copper and copper alloy sheet proved to be highly effective in preventing biofouling by zebra mussels over a three-year period. Further studies were conducted with copper and copper-nickel mesh (lattice of expanded metal) and screen (woven wire with a smaller hole size), which reduced the amount of copper used. Copper screen was also found to be strongly biofouling-resistant with respect to zebra mussels, while copper mesh reduced zebra mussel biofouling in comparison to controls, but did not prevent it entirely. Preliminary investigations into the mechanism of copper antifouling, using galvanic couples, indicated that the release of copper ions from the surface of the exposed metal into the surrounding water is directly or indirectly responsible for the biofouling resistance of copper.

  5. Dreissenid mussels from the Great Lakes contain elevated thiaminase activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tillitt, D.E.; Riley, S.C.; Evans, A.N.; Nichols, S.J.; Zajicek, J.L.; Rinchard, J.; Richter, C.A.; Krueger, C.C.

    2009-01-01

    We examined thiaminase activity in dreissenid mussels collected at different depths and seasons, and from various locations in Lakes Michigan, Ontario, and Huron. Here we present evidence that two dreissenid mussel species (Dreissena bugensis and D. polymorpha) contain thiaminase activity that is 5-100 fold greater than observed in Great Lakes fishes. Thiaminase activity in zebra mussels ranged from 10,600 to 47,900??pmol g- 1??min- 1 and activities in quagga mussels ranged from 19,500 to 223,800??pmol g- 1??min- 1. Activity in the mussels was greatest in spring, less in summer, and least in fall. Additionally, we observed greater thiaminase activity in dreissenid mussels collected at shallow depths compared to mussels collected at deeper depths. Dreissenids constitute a significant and previously unknown pool of thiaminase in the Great Lakes food web compared to other known sources of this thiamine (vitamin B1)-degrading enzyme. Thiaminase in forage fish of the Great Lakes has been causally linked to thiamine deficiency in salmonines. We currently do not know whether linkages exist between thiaminase activities observed in dreissenids and the thiaminase activities in higher trophic levels of the Great Lakes food web. However, the extreme thiaminase activities observed in dreissenids from the Great Lakes may represent a serious unanticipated negative effect of these exotic species on Great Lakes ecosystems.

  6. Fatty acidomics: Evaluation of the effects of thermal treatments on commercial mussels through an extended characterization of their free fatty acids by liquid chromatography - Fourier transform mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Losito, Ilario; Facchini, Laura; Valentini, Alessandra; Cataldi, Tommaso R I; Palmisano, Francesco

    2018-07-30

    An unprecedented characterization of free fatty acids (FFA) in the lipid extracts of fresh or thermally treated mussels of sp. Mytilus galloprovincialis, including up to 128 saturated, mono- or poly-unsaturated and 63 oxidized (i.e., modified by hydroxylic, carbonylic and/or epoxylic groups) compounds, was achieved using reverse phase chromatography coupled to electrospray ionization-Fourier transform single and tandem mass spectrometry (RPC-ESI-FTMS,MS/MS). Subsequent Principal Components Analysis (PCA) evidenced several effects of thermal treatments on the mussel FFA profiles. In particular, death-inducing low temperature treatments (freezing at -16 °C or refrigeration at 4 °C for several days) induced a peculiar increase in the incidence of FFA, whereas the effect was absent in mussels undergoing death upon prolonged storage at room temperature (25 °C, 6 h) or fast cooking (100 °C, 5 min). Alive mussels, either fresh or resulting from short term (up to 48 h) refrigeration were actually indistinguishable by PCA, although subtle seasonal effects were observed. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  7. Evaluation of relocation of unionid mussels into artificial ponds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newton, T.J.; Monroe, E.M.; Kenyon, R.; Gutreuter, S.; Welke, K.I.; Thiel, P.A.

    2001-01-01

    Relocation of unionid mussels into refuges (e.g., hatchery ponds) has been suggested as a management tool to protect these animals from the threat of zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha) invasion. To evaluate the efficacy of relocation, we experimentally relocated 768 mussels, representing 5 species (Leptodea fragilis, Obliquaria reflexa, Fusconaia flava, Amblema plicata, and Quadrula quadrula) into an earthen pond at a National Fish Hatchery or back into the river. In both locations, mussels were placed into 1 of 4 treatments (mesh bags, corrals, and buried or suspended substrate-filled trays). Mussels were examined annually for survival, growth (shell length and wet mass), and physiological condition (glycogen concentration in foot and mantle and tissue condition index) for 36 mo in the pond or 40 mo in the river. We observed significant differences in mortality rates between locations (mortality was 4 times greater in the pond than in the river), among treatments (lowest mortality in the suspended trays), and among species (lower mortality in the amblemines than lamp-silines). Overall survival in both locations averaged 80% the 1st year; survival in the pond decreased dramatically after that. Although length and weight varied between locations and over time, these changes were small, suggesting that their utility as short-term measures of well being in long-lived unionids is questionable. Mussels relocated to the pond were in poor physiological condition relative to those in the river, but the magnitude of these differences was small compared to the inherent variability in physiological condition of reference mussels. These data suggest that relocation of unionids into artificial ponds is a high-risk conservation strategy; alternatives such as introduction of infected host fish, identification of mussel beds at greatest risk from zebra mussels, and a critical, large-scale assessment of the factors contributing to their decline should be explored.

  8. Trace Metals in Mussels from the N.W. Mediterranean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fowler, S.W.; Oregioni, B.

    1976-01-01

    A coastal survey in the northwestern Mediterranean region was initiated to measure existing levels of selected trace metals in mussels. For most metals the highest values were found in samples from port cities and areas in the vicinity of river discharge. Marked seasonal variation for many metals was evident; an overall increase in metal concentration in mussels from most stations during March 1974 was attributed to high precipitation and attendant run-off rather than to local pollution. Data comparison indicates that average metal levels in northwestern Mediterranean mussels do not differ markedly from those measured in similar species from different localities throughout the world. (author)

  9. Public Policy and Environment : The Golden Mussel Case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luíz Ricardo Santana de Araújo Júnior

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The papper carries out an analysis of the National Task Force Control of Golden Mussel and Emergency Action Plan, which are considered environmental policies. The bibliographical research, using primary and secondary sources, make a conceptual approach to bioinvasion the Golden Mussel. Then it perfomes analysis of the general characteristics of the National Task Force and the Emergency Plan, pointing to inconsistencies that were found, either in the planning or implementation of policy, as a basis for an analysis of the environmental policy effectiveness. Finally, they analyse possible ways to avoid the appearance of inconsistencies that were found in the case of Golden Mussel.

  10. IMPACT OF WATER TEMPERATURE ON ZEBRA MUSSEL MORTALITY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daniel P. Molloy

    2002-08-07

    These tests conducted this past quarter have indicated that the bacterium Pseudomonas fluorescens strain CL0145A is effective at killing zebra mussels at water temperatures ranging from 7 to 23 C. Percent kill will likely be somewhat lower at very low temperatures, e.g., 7 C, but even at such low temperatures high mussel kill can still be achieved (>70% kill). This is significant because the development of a zebra mussel control method that is efficacious in such a wide range of temperatures broadens its usefulness as a potential commercial product.

  11. Ruinous resident: the hydroid Ectopleura crocea negatively affects suspended culture of the mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitridge, Isla; Keough, Michael J

    2013-01-01

    Hydroids are major biofouling organisms in global aquaculture. Colonies of the hydroid Ectopleura crocea have recently established in Australian commercial mussel leases culturing Mytilus galloprovincialis. This study examined the impacts of E. crocea on mussel culture at two stages of the production cycle: spatfall and grow-out. Hydroids most commonly fouled the body, edge and dorsal regions of the mussel shell and cause a reduction in the length (4%) and weight (23%) of juvenile mussels. They also consumed mussel larvae in the field and in the laboratory. Prey numbers of many taxa, including mussel larvae, were consistent in natural hydroid diets regardless of the temporal variation in prey availability, implying some selectivity in hydroid feeding. In the laboratory, E. crocea consumed settling plantigrade mussel larvae more readily than trochophore or veliger larvae. Fouling by E. crocea is detrimental to mussel condition, and may affect the availability of wild mussel larvae in the commercial culture of M. galloprovincialis.

  12. Mussel as biomonitor of environmental contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souza, Vivianne L.B.; Nascimento, Rizia Keila do; Melo, Jessica V. de

    2013-01-01

    The presence of agricultural input, domestic and industrial discharges, can result in a contaminant impact in aquatic ecosystems and in elevated concentrations of trace metals that may exert direct toxic effects and maybe accumulated in organisms consumed by man. The objective of the present study was to investigate some metal concentrations in Mytilidae falcate collected from Channel of Santa Cruz, Brazil. There are some industries located along the Channel of Santa Cruz that manufacture aluminum, paper and cellulose, pesticides, and caustic soda. Mussels collected at this area were carefully opened, dried and 0.5g of samples were heating with a mixture of acids; the final solution was filtered and made up to 50 mL. Metals concentrations were measured at aICP-MS (FINNIGAN) and AAS (VARIAN). The results demonstrated that there is more Fe and Mn in the mussels than any other studied metals (Fe >Mn >Cd >Pb >Cu >Th >U).The results for Fe and Mn concentrations are similar to those reported in the literature for invertebrates and fishes collected in regions contaminated by domestic and industrial sewage. Lead and Cd values, on the other hand, are beyond the limiting values for human consumption. Only the levels of copper are within to the Brazilian legislation. Uranium concentration was lower than results showed in literature. (author)

  13. Production of hydroxyapatite from waste mussel shells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, Mark I; Barakat, Haneen; Patterson, Darrell Alec, E-mail: mark.jones@auckland.ac.nz [Department Chemical and Materials Engineering, University of Auckland, New Zealand Private Bag 92019, Auckland Mail Centre, Auckland, 1142 (New Zealand)

    2011-10-29

    This work describes the formation of Hydroxyaptite, Ca{sub 10}(PO{sub 4}){sub 6}(OH){sub 2}, from waste mussel shells from the New Zealand aquaculture industry. The raw shells are first calcined to produce lime (CaO) and then reacted in a purpose built reactor to form the Hydroxyapatite (HA) in a low temperature batch process. The calcination was studied in terms of the effects of temperature, heating rate, holding time, nitrogen flow rate and particle size. The crystals formed in the batch reactor were characterized by X-Ray Diffraction (XRD), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDS) and X-Ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS). Optimised conditions in the calcination stage resulted in powder with around 95% conversion to lime. The as-produced HA showed poor crystallinity and the presence of impurities, although both of these features were improved by a suitable post heat treatment process. The post treated material showed good crystallinity and was comparable to commercially produced material. Preliminary biocompatibility experiments showed that the HA stimulated cell growth and promoted mineralization. The production of HA from mussel shells in a room temperature, ambient pressure process is not only a sustainable use of waste material, but also from an industrial point of view the process has considerable potential for reducing costs associated with both starting materials and energy.

  14. Mussel as biomonitor of environmental contamination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza, Vivianne L.B.; Nascimento, Rizia Keila do, E-mail: vlsouza@cnen.gov.br, E-mail: riziakelia@hotmail.com [Centro Regional de Ciencias Nucleares do Nordeste (CRCN-NE/CNEN-PE), Recife, PE (Brazil); Melo, Jessica V. de, E-mail: jessica_clorofila@hotmail [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    The presence of agricultural input, domestic and industrial discharges, can result in a contaminant impact in aquatic ecosystems and in elevated concentrations of trace metals that may exert direct toxic effects and maybe accumulated in organisms consumed by man. The objective of the present study was to investigate some metal concentrations in Mytilidae falcate collected from Channel of Santa Cruz, Brazil. There are some industries located along the Channel of Santa Cruz that manufacture aluminum, paper and cellulose, pesticides, and caustic soda. Mussels collected at this area were carefully opened, dried and 0.5g of samples were heating with a mixture of acids; the final solution was filtered and made up to 50 mL. Metals concentrations were measured at aICP-MS (FINNIGAN) and AAS (VARIAN). The results demonstrated that there is more Fe and Mn in the mussels than any other studied metals (Fe >Mn >Cd >Pb >Cu >Th >U).The results for Fe and Mn concentrations are similar to those reported in the literature for invertebrates and fishes collected in regions contaminated by domestic and industrial sewage. Lead and Cd values, on the other hand, are beyond the limiting values for human consumption. Only the levels of copper are within to the Brazilian legislation. Uranium concentration was lower than results showed in literature. (author)

  15. Development of a molecular diagnostic system to discriminate Dreissena polymorpha (zebra mussel) and Dreissena bugensis (quagga mussel)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoy, M.S.; Kelly, K.; Rodriguez, R.J.

    2010-01-01

    A 3-primer PCR system was developed to discriminate invasive zebra (Dreissena polymorpha) and quagga (Dreissena bugensis) mussel. The system is based on: 1) universal primers that amplifies a region of the nuclear 28s rDNA gene from both species and 2) a species-specific primer complementary to either zebra or quagga mussel. The species-specific primers bind to sequences between the binding sites for the universal primers resulting in the amplification of two products from the target species and one product from the nontarget species. Therefore, nontarget products are positive amplification controls. The 3-primer system accurately discriminated zebra and quagga mussels from seven geographically distinct populations.

  16. Area-intensive bottom culture production of blue mussels, Mytilus edulis (L.)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Helle Torp

    column have the potential to become an alternative seed source for mussel production in bottom cultures. When compared to mussels collected from natural benthic mussel beds, suspended mussels had an active predator response by developing a significantly stronger attach-ment to the substrate and having...... a more pronounced aggregation behaviour. Bottom mussels exhibited a passive strategy by developing a thicker shell and larger relative size of the posterior adductor muscle. When comparing the performance of suspended and bottom seed mussels on complex and smooth sub-strate, respectively, originally...

  17. Will the Displacement of Zebra Mussels by Quagga Mussels Increase Water Clarity in Shallow Lakes during Summer? Results from a Mesocosm Experiment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xueying Mei

    Full Text Available Zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha are known to increase water clarity and affect ecosystem processes in invaded lakes. During the last decade, the conspecific quagga mussels (D. rostriformis bugensis have displaced zebra mussels in many ecosystems including shallow lakes such as Oneida Lake, New York. In this study, an eight-week mesocosm experiment was conducted to test the hypothesis that the displacement of zebra mussels by quagga mussels leads to further decreases in phytoplankton and increases in water clarity resulting in increases in benthic algae. We found that the presence of zebra mussels alone (ZM, quagga mussels alone (QM, or an equal number of both species (ZQ reduced total phosphorus (TP and phytoplankton Chl a. Total suspended solids (TSS was reduced in ZM and ZQ treatments. Light intensity at the sediment surface was higher in all three mussel treatments than in the no-mussel controls but there was no difference among the mussel treatments. There was no increase in benthic algae biomass in the mussel treatments compared with the no-mussel controls. Importantly, there was no significant difference in nutrient (TP, soluble reactive phosphorus and NO3- levels, TSS, phytoplankton Chl a, benthic algal Chl a, or light intensity on the sediment surface between ZM, QM and ZQ treatments. These results confirm the strong effect of both mussel species on water clarity and indicate that the displacement of zebra mussel by an equivalent biomass of quagga mussel is not likely to lead to further increases in water clarity, at least for the limnological conditions, including summer temperature, tested in this experiment.

  18. Will the Displacement of Zebra Mussels by Quagga Mussels Increase Water Clarity in Shallow Lakes during Summer? Results from a Mesocosm Experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mei, Xueying; Zhang, Xiufeng; Kassam, Sinan-Saleh; Rudstam, Lars G

    2016-01-01

    Zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha) are known to increase water clarity and affect ecosystem processes in invaded lakes. During the last decade, the conspecific quagga mussels (D. rostriformis bugensis) have displaced zebra mussels in many ecosystems including shallow lakes such as Oneida Lake, New York. In this study, an eight-week mesocosm experiment was conducted to test the hypothesis that the displacement of zebra mussels by quagga mussels leads to further decreases in phytoplankton and increases in water clarity resulting in increases in benthic algae. We found that the presence of zebra mussels alone (ZM), quagga mussels alone (QM), or an equal number of both species (ZQ) reduced total phosphorus (TP) and phytoplankton Chl a. Total suspended solids (TSS) was reduced in ZM and ZQ treatments. Light intensity at the sediment surface was higher in all three mussel treatments than in the no-mussel controls but there was no difference among the mussel treatments. There was no increase in benthic algae biomass in the mussel treatments compared with the no-mussel controls. Importantly, there was no significant difference in nutrient (TP, soluble reactive phosphorus and NO3-) levels, TSS, phytoplankton Chl a, benthic algal Chl a, or light intensity on the sediment surface between ZM, QM and ZQ treatments. These results confirm the strong effect of both mussel species on water clarity and indicate that the displacement of zebra mussel by an equivalent biomass of quagga mussel is not likely to lead to further increases in water clarity, at least for the limnological conditions, including summer temperature, tested in this experiment.

  19. Threatened and Endangered Freshwater Fish and Mussel Species Richness

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — These data represent predicted current distributions of all US listed Threatened and Endangered freshwater fish and freshwater mussels in the Middle-Atlantic region....

  20. Mussels as bioindicators of diclofenac contamination in coastal environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunha, S C; Pena, A; Fernandes, J O

    2017-06-01

    Diclofenac a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) has been confirmed as an emerging contaminant in the aquatic environment. Toxicology studies have revealed that harmful effects may emerge from diclofenac presence not only for human health, but also for marine organisms, which implies its monitoring. To overcome the demanding challenges of diclofenac quantification in biotic aquatic species, a novel method for the determination of diclofenac in mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis and Mytilus edulis) and macroalgae (Laminaria digitata) using high performance liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry was developed and validated according to the EC Decision 2002/657/EC. Additionally, a study was done about diclofenac contamination in mussels collected from 8 sites along the 1115 miles of coastline in Portugal in 2015. The results suggested that levels in mussels are closely related to the environmental contamination. Therefore, mussels can be a potential bioindicator of diclofenac contamination in the coastal environment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. USGS Zebra Mussel Monitoring Program for north Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Churchill, Christopher J.; Baldys, Stanley

    2012-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Zebra Mussel Monitoring Program for north Texas provides early detection and monitoring of zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha) by using a holistic suite of detection methods. The program is designed to assess zebra mussel occurrence, distribution, and densities in north Texas waters by using four approaches: (1) SCUBA diving, (2) water-sample collection with plankton tow nets (followed by laboratory analyses), (3) artificial substrates, and (4) water-quality sampling. Data collected during this type of monitoring can assist rapid response efforts and can be used to quantify the economic and ecological effects of zebra mussels in the north Texas area. Monitoring under this program began in April 2010. The presence of large zebra mussel populations often causes undesirable economic and ecological effects, including damage to water-processing infrastructure and hydroelectric powerplants (with an estimated 10-year cost of $3.1 billion), displacement of native mussels, increases in concentrations of certain species of cyanobacteria, and increases in concentrations of geosmin (an organic compound that results in taste and odor issues in water). Since no large-scale, environmentally safe eradication method has been developed for zebra mussels, it is difficult to remove established populations. Broad physicochemical adaptability, prolific reproductive capacity, and rapid dispersal methods have enabled zebra mussels, within a period of about 20 years, to establish populations under differing environmental conditions across much of the eastern part of the United States. In Texas, the presence of zebra mussels was first confirmed in April 2009 in Lake Texoma in the Red River Basin along the Texas-Oklahoma border. They were most likely introduced into Lake Texoma through overland transport from an infested water body. Since then, the presence of zebra mussels has been reported in both the Red River and Washita River arms of Lake Texoma, in

  2. Reseeding of mussels on denuded rocky shores: preliminary studies ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A method is developed to establish clumps of mussels Perna perna in denuded areas on high-energy rocky shores on the south-east coast of South Africa. A total of 20 small (20–30 mm total length) mussels is placed under a 30 cm half-section of perforated PVC drainage pipe bolted to the rock surface. The pipe is left in ...

  3. Prevention of zebra mussel infestation and dispersal during aquaculture operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waller, D.L.; Fisher, S.W.; Dabrowska, H.

    1996-01-01

    The zebra mussel Dreissena polymorpha, an exotic invasive species, poses a major threat to North American fish management programs and the aquaculture industry. Fish hatcheries may become infected with zebra mussels from a variety of sources, including the water supply, fish shipments, boats, and equipment. The hatcheries could then serve as agents for the overland dispersal of zebra mussels into stocked waters and to other fish hatcheries. We evaluated the effectiveness and safety of aquaculture chemicals for use in controlling zebra mussels in fish hatcheries and preventing dispersal of veligers during fish transport. Chemicals were evaluated for use in fish transport and as disinfectants for ponds and equipment. Standardized static toxicity tests were conducted with representative species of warmwater, coolwater, and coldwater fishes and with larval (3-d-old veligers), early juvenile (settling larvae), and adult zebra mussels. Chemical concentrations and exposure durations were based on recommended treatment levels for fish, eggs, and ponds. Recommended treatment levels were also exceeded, if necessary, to establish lethal levels for zebra mussels of different developmental stages. Our results indicate that some chemicals currently in use in hatcheries may be effective for controlling zebra mussels in various operations. Chloride salts were the safest and most effective therapeutants tested for use in fish transport. The toxicity of chloride salts to fish varied among species and with temperature; only one treatment regime (sodium chloride at 10,000 mg/L) was safe to all fish species that we tested, but it was only effective on veliger and settler stages of the zebra mussel. Effective disinfectants were benzalkonium chloride for use on equipment and rotenone for use in ponds after fish are harvested. The regulatory status of the identified chemicals is discussed as well as several nonchemical control alternatives.

  4. Implicit price of mussel characteristics in the auction market

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nguyen, Thong Tien

    2012-01-01

    This study explores desired and undesired characteristics of mussels in wholesale market by applying hedonic price analysis. Transaction data in auction market in Yerseke, the Netherlands, was used to estimate linear and semi-log price models. Meat content and size count, which are measured...... of raw mussels are significant discounting factors on the price. The study also investigates the impact of farming locations and seasons on the price and the price trend during the period of 2002–2009....

  5. Hydrocarbon uptake and loss by the mussel Mytilus edulis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fossato, V U; Canzonier, W J

    1976-01-01

    The dynamics of accumulation and elimination of hydrocarbons by the blue mussel Mytilus edulis were studied in a continuous-flow system. Mussels were exposed for as long as 41 days to 200 to 400 ..mu..g/l of diesel fuel adsorbed on kaolin particles. Hydrocarbons were accumulated in the tissues in excess of 1000 times the exposure levels. Upon termination of dosing, the mussels exhibited a rather rapid loss of hydrocarbons for the first 15 to 20 days (biological half-life = 2.7 to 3.5 days). Subsequently, however, elimination was reduced to a minimum and a considerable fraction of the hydrocarbons could be recovered from the tissues after as long as 32 days of depuration. The mussels exhibited definite signs of physiological stress due to chronic exposure to diesel fuel, although recovery was rapid upon termination of dosing. It is concluded that mussels could be utilized as a test organism for monitoring long-term hydrocarbon pollution in marine waters. The implications for the mussel culture industry are discussed.

  6. Influence of Thermal Preparation Method on Mineral Composition of Mussels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gheorghe Valentin GORAN

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available This study focuses on evaluation of the effects of 3 different thermal preparation methods (boiling, roasting, microwaving on mineral concentrations of mussels from Bucharest market. The mineral content in raw and cooked mussel samples was evaluated by ICP-OES and relative humidity of raw and cooked mussels by thermogravimetry. Se level in microwaved samples was significantly decreased compared to raw and the other 2 cooked mussel samples. Zn concentration in raw samples was not significantly different compared to those in roasted samples. Fe level was insignificantly different between boiled and roasted samples and significantly lowers in microwaved samples. Ni, Pb, and Se levels were significantly higher in boiled samples, and Cd levels were insignificantly different reported to cooking method. The percentage of water loss during roasting was lower than the other 2 thermal preparation methods. Potassium concentrations in cooked mussels were higher compared to raw ones. Mineral concentrations were highest in roasted samples and heavy metal concentrations in boiled mussels.

  7. When and how? Freshwater mussel recolonization in Lake Orta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicoletta Riccardi

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Thanks to a video posted on a social network, live mussels of Unio elongatulus, have been recorded from Lake Orta (Italy over one century after the last (and only report. With its long and well documented history of pollution, Lake Orta offers the opportunity to document the post-extirpation recovery of freshwater unionid mussels. This case evidences that recovery/recolonization is possible despite a high devastation in the past, and permits to evaluate how fast recolonization may occur, in which way, and in what conditions.  The answer to the 'how fast' was sought by estimating the age of the larger and seemingly older individuals of the population. To address the 'in which way' we compared the haplotypes of Lake Orta specimens of Unio elongatulus (the only species present with those of surrounding populations. We concluded that, since Lake Orta lacks a direct connection with the putative source populations, colonizing mussels were almost certainly transported by fish carrying glochidia that were used for lake restocking after liming. Data from the long-term monitoring of water chemistry and sediments have allowed defining what conditions proved to be suitable for survival making possible the start of mussels recovery. But not only water and sediment quality matters for mussels recovery, which was delayed by nearly ten years after the reappearance of fish. This delay reflects the need of the whole trophic chain to be reestablished to allow the survival of the suitable and healthy host-fish populations necessary for mussels reproduction.

  8. Occurence of the Quagga Mussel Dreissena bugensis and the Zebra Mussel Dreissena polymorha in the Upper Mississippi River System

    Science.gov (United States)

    This manuscript reports on a range expansion of the invasive quagga mussel in the Great Rivers of the Upper Missippi River Basin. This research will be of interest to great river ecologists and to invasive species specialists.

  9. Zebra Mussel Research Technical Notes. Impacts of Zebra Mussel Infestations on Water Quality. Section 1 - Environmental Testing

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ashby, Steven

    1998-01-01

    ..., and sediment quality. The purpose of this technical note describes potential changes in water quality as a result of zebra mussel infestations in aquatic systems, based on a review of the literature...

  10. Efficacy of Pseudomonas fluorescens strain CL145A spray dried powder for controlling zebra mussels adhering to native unionid mussels within field enclosures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luoma, James A.; Weber, Kerry L.; Severson, Todd J.; Mayer, Denise A.

    2015-01-01

    The efficacy of a commercially prepared spray dried powder (SDP) formulation of Pseudomonas fluorescens (strain CL145A) was evaluated for removing zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha) adhering to a population of unionid mussels in Lake Darling (Alexandria, Minnesota). Two groups of unionid mussels were used in the study. Unionid mussels were collected near the test area, weighed, photographed, individually tagged, and randomly allocated to one of nine test enclosures in equal proportions and then divided into two groups. The first group of unionid mussels (Group 1, n = 5 per test enclosure) were indiscriminately selected from each test enclosure and used to estimate the number of zebra mussels adhering to unionid mussels prior to exposure. The second group of unionid mussels (Group 2, n = 22 per test enclosure) were used to evaluate the efficacy of SDP for removal of adhering zebra mussels. Both Group 1 and Group 2 mussels were used to evaluate the effects of SDP exposure on unionid mussel survival.

  11. Assessment of blue mussel Mytilus edulis fisheries and waterbird shellfish-predator management in the Danish Wadden Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Karsten; Kristensen, Per Sand; Clausen, Preben

    2010-01-01

    biomass and mussel bed areas in zones closed to fishery, (ii) decrease in eiders Somateria mollissima numbers and increase or stable numbers for oystercatcher Haematopus ostralegus and herring gull Larus argentatus and (iii) that energy estimations based on ecological food requirements for the mussel-eating......We assessed the blue mussel Mytilus edulis fishery management scheme introduced in 1994 in the Danish Wadden Sea that regulate fishing vessels, fishery quota, set-aside for mussel-eating birds and established zones closed to mussel fishery. The results showed (i) a reduction in the blue mussel......, it is recommended to revise the present blue mussel management scheme in the Danish Wadden Sea, to continue and improve mussel stock and bird surveys, and to consider novel studies of the mussel-eating birds’ energetics for improved set-aside estimates and future assessments....

  12. Aggregations of brittle stars can perform similar ecological roles as mussel reefs

    KAUST Repository

    Geraldi, NR; Bertolini, C; Emmerson, MC; Roberts, D; Sigwart, JD; O’ Connor, NE

    2016-01-01

    considered. We quantified the abundance of sessile horse mussels Modiolus modiolus and aggregating brittle stars Ophiothrix fragilis and tested for correlations between the density of mussels (live and dead) and brittle stars each with (1) abundance, biomass

  13. A Survey of Freshwater Mussels in the West Pearl River, Mississippi and Louisiana, 1995

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Miller, Andrew

    1997-01-01

    .... The nonindigenous zebra mussel, Dreissena polymorpha, introduced into the Great Lakes in the late 1980s, and the threatened mussel, Potamilus inflatus, listed as endangered, were not found although...

  14. The existence of microplastic in Asian green mussels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khoironi, A.; Anggoro, S.; Sudarno

    2018-03-01

    Due to resistance of polymer as basic properties of plastic, several studies have been conducted to understand the fate of plastic debris in the marine environment. Degradation is the most important process to control distribution of plastic debris a long the marine environment until the existence of plastic in the food chain. The physical and chemical changes of plastic because of degradation process will lead to the release of polluted substances which eventually more toxic for the environment. Furthermore, when plastic degraded become a microplastic will lead to easy ingested by biotic such as mussell which commonly consumed by humans. The aim of this research was to investigate the concentration of microplastic adsorbed and ingested by mussels considering characteristic of sea water. About 30 samples have been collected from 3 different locations that is brackish water (31 ppb), high salinity (36 ppb) and low salinity (33 ppb) for measuring a number of microplastic in mussels on three different salinity. The result of microstructure analysis by microscope showed that mussel evaluated from the marine environment contaminated by microplastic with average size of 211.163 μm. In high salinity sea water, microplastic found in mussel was greater than low salinity and brackish water. The SEM/EDX analysis showed the presence of SIO2 0.14 % (w/w), Na2O 24.27 %(w/w) and Al2O3 0.27 % (w/w) in the microplastic obtained in the mussel indicating the components which are mostly found in the plastic industries. The amount of microplastic in mussell could be used as pollution indicator in the marine environmental by plastic waste.

  15. Pervasive hydrologic effects on freshwater mussels and riparian trees in southeastern floodplain ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrew L. Rypel; Wendell R. Haag; Robert H. Findlay

    2009-01-01

    We present long-term growth trends for 13 freshwater mussel species from two unregulated rivers and one regulated river in the southeastern U.S. Coastal Plain. We also collected baldcypress (Taxodium distichum (L.) Rich.) tree cores adjacent to mussel collection sites in one river and directly compared tree and mussel chronologies in this river. To extend our analysis...

  16. Assimilation and depuration of microcystin–LR by the zebra mussel, Dreissena polymorpha

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pires, L.M.D.; Karlsson, K.M.; Meriluoto, J.A.O.; Kardinaal, E.A.; Visser, P.M.; Siewertsen, K.; Van Donk, E.; Ibelings, B.W.

    2004-01-01

    Zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha) are an important component of the foodweb of shallow lakes in the Netherlands, amongst others in Lake IJsselmeer, an international important wetland. Large numbers of ducks feed on these mussels in autumn and winter. The mussels are filter feeders and are exposed

  17. Evaluation of the Danish mussel fishery: suggestions for an ecosystem management approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dolmer, Per; Frandsen, Rikke

    2002-01-01

    fishery are suggested. The suggested modifications include: a fishery practice where the mussel beds are thinned out when the mussels have attained good quality, and a transplantation practice of mussels from areas with a high mortality to areas with a high growth rate. Both practices intensify...

  18. Modeling mussel bed influence on fine sediment dynamics on a Wadden Sea intertidal flat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Leeuwen, Bas; Augustijn, Dionysius C.M.; van Wesenbeeck, Bregje K.; Hulscher, Suzanne J.M.H.; de Vries, Mindert

    2008-01-01

    Mussel beds are coherent colonies of mussels and are widespread in the Dutch Wadden Sea and the Eastern Scheldt estuary. Mussel beds are known to be an important factor in biogeomorphological processes, primarily because of the influence on fine sediment dynamics. Ongoing research to explore the use

  19. Do invasive mussels restrict offshore phosphorus transport in Lake Huron?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cha, Yoonkyung; Stow, Craig A; Nalepa, Thomas F; Reckhow, Kenneth H

    2011-09-01

    Dreissenid mussels were first documented in the Laurentian Great Lakes in the late 1980s. Zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha) spread quickly into shallow, hard-substrate areas; quagga mussels (Dreissena rostriformis bugensis) spread more slowly and are currently colonizing deep, offshore areas. These mussels occur at high densities, filter large water volumes while feeding on suspended materials, and deposit particulate waste on the lake bottom. This filtering activity has been hypothesized to sequester tributary phosphorus in nearshore regions reducing offshore primary productivity. We used a mass balance model to estimate the phosphorus sedimentation rate in Saginaw Bay, a shallow embayment of Lake Huron, before and after the mussel invasion. Our results indicate that the proportion of tributary phosphorus retained in Saginaw Bay increased from approximately 46-70% when dreissenids appeared, reducing phosphorus export to the main body of Lake Huron. The combined effects of increased phosphorus retention and decreased phosphorus loading have caused an approximate 60% decrease in phosphorus export from Saginaw Bay to Lake Huron. Our results support the hypothesis that the ongoing decline of preyfish and secondary producers including diporeia (Diporeia spp.) in Lake Huron is a bottom-up phenomenon associated with decreased phosphorus availability in the offshore to support primary production.

  20. 210Po activity concentrations in mussels at Aegean Turkish Coast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sekkin, F.; Tanbay, A.; Vener, V.

    2000-01-01

    In Turkey mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis) are consumed in relatively large quantities. Therefore, analyses of mussel samples from different sampling sites in Aegean Sea were performed in order to evaluate the ingestion of 210 Po and 210 Pb by the Turkey population. Polonium analyses were performed with a complete dissolution of the sample in mineral acids. Polonium isotopes were plated onto a copper discs in 0.5 M HCl solution in the presence of ascorbic acid using a technique modified from Flynn (1968). The alpha activity measurements of polonium isotopes plated on copper discs were performed with ZnS(Ag) detector. The highest concentrations was found in Karaburun mussels as 254 Bq.kg -1 and the lowest one was at Inciralti as 18 Bq.kg -1 . Based on these 210 Po activity concentrations, annual dose equivalent rates delivered to biological tissues in mussels would vary widely, from 136 to 10 mSv.y -1 . It is concluded that in mussels living in the Aegean Sea a wide range of internal radiation dose exists and it is essentially sustained by 210 Po food-chain transfer. (author)

  1. Magnetic resonance imaging of live freshwater mussels (Unionidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael, Holliman F.; Davis, Denise; Bogan, Arthur E.; Kwak, Thomas J.; Cope, W. Gregory; Levine, Jay F.

    2008-01-01

    We examined the soft tissues of live freshwater mussels, Eastern elliptio Elliptio complanata, via magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), acquiring data with a widely available human whole-body MRI system. Anatomical features depicted in the profile images included the foot, stomach, intestine, anterior and posterior adductor muscles, and pericardial cavity. Noteworthy observations on soft tissue morphology included a concentration of lipids at the most posterior aspect of the foot, the presence of hemolymph-filled fissures in the posterior adductor muscle, the presence of a relatively large hemolymph-filled sinus adjacent to the posterior adductor muscle (at the ventral-anterior aspect), and segmentation of the intestine (a diagnostic description not reported previously in Unionidae). Relatively little is known about the basic biology and ecological physiology of freshwater mussels. Traditional approaches for studying anatomy and tissue processes, and for measuring sub-lethal physiological stress, are destructive or invasive. Our study, the first to evaluate freshwater mussel soft tissues by MRI, clarifies the body plan of unionid mussels and demonstrates the efficacy of this technology for in vivoevaluation of the structure, function, and integrity of mussel soft tissues.

  2. Mussels as a tool for mitigation of nutrients in the marine environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Jens Kjerulf; Hasler, Berit; Timmermann, Karen

    2014-01-01

    Long-line mussel farming has been proposed as a mitigation tool for removal of excess nutrients in eutrophic coastal waters. A full-scale mussel farm optimized for cost efficient nutrient removal was established in the eutrophic Skive Fjord, Denmark where biological and economic parameters related...... to establishment, maintenance and harvest revealed that mussel production optimized for mitigation can be carried out at a lower cost compared to mussel production for (human) consumption. The costs for nutrient removal was 14.8€kg−1N making mitigation mussel production a cost-efficient measure compared...

  3. Epibiosis Reduction on Productivity in a Mussel Culture of Perna perna (Linné, 1758

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Metri

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available Cultivated mussels (Perna perna were studied to test for the effects of cleaning on their growth. These effects were examined by experimentally cleaning mussels and by changing mussel density. Treatment was performed twice, at two and four months after immerging the ropes. Two months after the first treatment and three months after the second treatment, mussels were harvested and measured (weight, length, width and thickness. Analysis of variance showed that none of the treatments resulted in increased growth of the mussels, nor did increased density result in decreased growth when compared with the control. It was concluded that it was not necessary to clean the shells to increase harvest.

  4. Epibiosis Reduction on Productivity in a Mussel Culture of Perna perna (Linné, 1758

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Metri Rafael

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Cultivated mussels (Perna perna were studied to test for the effects of cleaning on their growth. These effects were examined by experimentally cleaning mussels and by changing mussel density. Treatment was performed twice, at two and four months after immerging the ropes. Two months after the first treatment and three months after the second treatment, mussels were harvested and measured (weight, length, width and thickness. Analysis of variance showed that none of the treatments resulted in increased growth of the mussels, nor did increased density result in decreased growth when compared with the control. It was concluded that it was not necessary to clean the shells to increase harvest.

  5. Are Predators Limiting Zebra Mussel Colonization of Unionid Mussels in Great Lake Coastal Wetlands?

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Szalay, F. A.; Bowers, R.

    2005-05-01

    Although many native mollusc populations have been eliminated in the Laurentian Great Lakes by the exotic zebra mussel, recent surveys have found abundant unionid (Bivalvia: Unionidae) populations in some coastal wetlands. Unionid burrowing in soft sediments and predation by fish have been shown to reduce numbers of attached zebra mussels, and we tested these factors in a Lake Erie coastal wetland. In 2002, we held live unionids (Leptodea fragilis, Quadrula quadrula) and Pyganodon grandis shells in exclosures with wire mesh bottoms that were buried to sediment depths of either 5, 10, or 20 cm. After 2 months, numbers of attached dreissenids on unionids were significantly higher inside all exclosure treatments than outside exclosures. This indicated that either unionid burrowing was prevented in all sediment depth treatments or molluscivores were excluded by exclosures. In 2004, we measured dreissenid colonization on Q. quadrula and PVC plates in bottomless exclosures with different mesh sizes. After 6 months, dreissenid numbers on PVC plates and on Q. quadrula in 2.5 cm X 2.5 cm and 5 cm X 10 cm mesh exclosures were significantly higher than in open exclosures. These data suggest that molluscivores are important in limiting dreissenids in Great Lake coastal wetlands.

  6. Mussel dynamics model: A hydroinformatics tool for analyzing the effects of different stressors on the dynamics of freshwater mussel communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales, Y.; Weber, L.J.; Mynett, A.E.; Newton, T.J.

    2006-01-01

    A model for simulating freshwater mussel population dynamics is presented. The model is a hydroinformatics tool that integrates principles from ecology, river hydraulics, fluid mechanics and sediment transport, and applies the individual-based modelling approach for simulating population dynamics. The general model layout, data requirements, and steps of the simulation process are discussed. As an illustration, simulation results from an application in a 10 km reach of the Upper Mississippi River are presented. The model was used to investigate the spatial distribution of mussels and the effects of food competition in native unionid mussel communities, and communities infested by Dreissena polymorpha, the zebra mussel. Simulation results were found to be realistic and coincided with data obtained from the literature. These results indicate that the model can be a useful tool for assessing the potential effects of different stressors on long-term population dynamics, and consequently, may improve the current understanding of cause and effect relationships in freshwater mussel communities. ?? 2006 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Optimization of thermal processing of canned mussels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansorena, M R; Salvadori, V O

    2011-10-01

    The design and optimization of thermal processing of solid-liquid food mixtures, such as canned mussels, requires the knowledge of the thermal history at the slowest heating point. In general, this point does not coincide with the geometrical center of the can, and the results show that it is located along the axial axis at a height that depends on the brine content. In this study, a mathematical model for the prediction of the temperature at this point was developed using the discrete transfer function approach. Transfer function coefficients were experimentally obtained, and prediction equations fitted to consider other can dimensions and sampling interval. This model was coupled with an optimization routine in order to search for different retort temperature profiles to maximize a quality index. Both constant retort temperature (CRT) and variable retort temperature (VRT; discrete step-wise and exponential) were considered. In the CRT process, the optimal retort temperature was always between 134 °C and 137 °C, and high values of thiamine retention were achieved. A significant improvement in surface quality index was obtained for optimal VRT profiles compared to optimal CRT. The optimization procedure shown in this study produces results that justify its utilization in the industry.

  8. Mussel glue protein has an open conformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, T; Marumo, K; Waite, J H; Henkens, R W

    1989-03-01

    Both native glue protein from marine mussels and a synthetic nonhydroxylated analog were analyzed by far-uv CD under a variety of conditions. Analysis of the CD spectra using various models strongly suggest a primarily random coil structure for both forms of the protein, a fact also supported by the absence of spectral change for the glue protein upon dilution into 6 M guanidine hydrochloride. The nonhydroxylated analog, which consists of 20 repeats of the peptide sequence Ala-Lys-Pro-Ser-Tyr-Pro-Pro-Thr-Tyr-Lys, was further characterized by enzyme modification using mushroom tyrosinase. Enzymatic hydroxylation of tyrosines was found to be best fit by a model containing two rate constants, 5.6 (+/- 0.6) X 10(-3) and 7.2 (+/- 0.3) X 10(-2) min-1. At equilibrium, HPLC analysis of digests showed nearly 100% conversion of Tyr-9 and only 15 to 35% conversion of Tyr-5. The Chou and Fasman rules for predicting structure were applied to the repeat sequence listed above. The rules predict the absence of alpha helix and beta pleated sheets in the structure of this peptide. On the other hand, beta turns are predicted to be present with Tyr-5 being in the region of highest probability. These data suggest that the protein in solution has only a small amount of secondary structure.

  9. Mussel remains from prehistoric salt works, clarke county, Alabama

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGregor, S.W.; Dumas, A.A.

    2010-01-01

    Archaeological research at salt springs in Clarke County, AL (Tombigbee River drainage), documented bivalve mollusk exploitation by late prehistoric American Indians. A total of 582 valves representing 19 species of freshwater mussels (Unionidae) and an estuarine clam (Mactridae) from the Lower Salt Works Site (ca. A.D. 900-1550) and 41 valve fragments representing 6 mussel species from the Stimpson Site (ca. A.D. 1200-1550) were documented. The Lower Salt Works fauna was dominated numerically by Fusconaia ebena and Quadrula asperata, the dominant species reported during recent local surveys. The mussel species represented are known from medium to large streams in sand and gravel habitats and include four federally protected species and other species of conservation concern in Alabama. Results offer comparative data for other archaeological and ecological studies in the region.

  10. IMPACT OF OXYGEN CONCENTRATION ON ZEBRA MUSSEL MORTALITY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daniel P. Molloy

    2003-01-27

    These tests have indicated that the bacterium Pseudomonas fluorescens strain CL0145A is effective at killing zebra mussels in environments having dissolved oxygen (DO) concentrations ranging from very low to very high. The results suggest that the highest mussel kill can be achieved in moderately to highly aerated environments, while kill may be 0-20% lower under conditions of very low oxygen. For example, under highly oxygenated conditions 97% kill was achieved while conditions having low DO produced 79% mussel kill. Service water measured in a local power plant indicated that DO concentrations were in the range of 8-9 ppm (e.g., highly aerated) within their pipes. Therefore, we will not expect to see decreases in the efficacy of CL0145A treatments due to oxygen levels within such power plant pipes.

  11. IMPACT OF FIVE TREATMENT FACTORS ON MUSSEL MORTALITY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daniel P. Molloy

    2003-12-08

    Under this USDOE-NETL contract, the bacterium Pseudomonas fluorescens is being developed as a biocontrol agent for zebra mussels. The specific purpose of the contract is to identify factors that affect mussel kill. Test results reported herein indicate that mussel kill should not be affected by: (1) air bubbles being carried by currents through power plant pipes; (2) pipe orientation (e.g., vertical or horizontal); (3) whether the bacterial cell concentration during a treatment is constant or slightly varying; (4) whether a treatment is between 3 hr and 12 hr in duration, given that the total quantity of bacteria being applied to the pipe is a constant; and (5) whether the water temperature is between 13 C and 23 C.

  12. IMPACT OF OXYGEN CONCENTRATION ON ZEBRA MUSSEL MORTALITY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molloy, Daniel P.

    2003-01-01

    These tests have indicated that the bacterium Pseudomonas fluorescens strain CL0145A is effective at killing zebra mussels in environments having dissolved oxygen (DO) concentrations ranging from very low to very high. The results suggest that the highest mussel kill can be achieved in moderately to highly aerated environments, while kill may be 0-20% lower under conditions of very low oxygen. For example, under highly oxygenated conditions 97% kill was achieved while conditions having low DO produced 79% mussel kill. Service water measured in a local power plant indicated that DO concentrations were in the range of 8-9 ppm (e.g., highly aerated) within their pipes. Therefore, we will not expect to see decreases in the efficacy of CL0145A treatments due to oxygen levels within such power plant pipes

  13. SP. Pescado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato Gendre

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Nell'occhiello di un articolo dal titolo Il Peru dei de[Jini rosa e de/la grande pioggia si legge: "da una partenza  in aereo al «pescado»  che ti  sfamera."1 Questa parola spagnola, giustamente chiusa tra caporali, a noi pare molto interes­ sante, perche, nonostante l'apparenza, non ha nulla da spartire sotto i1 profilo se­ mantico con l'it. pescato. lnfatti, tutti i piu importanti dizionari della lingua italiana, di ieri e di oggi, etimologici e non 2, registrano  accanto a pescata,  ii lemma pescato, 3 ma lo spiegano come "quantita di pesce catturato nel corso di una battuta o di una stagione di pesca",4 mentre lo sp. pescado  indica i1 "pesce (solo nel senso di: pesGe pescato da mangiare [...]".s

  14. Seasonal variations of arsenic in mussels Mytilus galloprovincialis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klarić, Sanja; Pavičić-Hamer, Dijana; Lucu, Čedomil

    2004-10-01

    Total arsenic concentration in the edible part of mussels Mytilus galloprovincialis was evaluated seasonally in the coastal area of Rijeka Bay (North Adriatic Sea, Croatia). Sampling stations were located close to the City of Bakar with no industrial facilities (site 1), in the vicinity of the oil refinery and oil thermoelectric power plant (Urinj, site 2), and 4 miles away from the Plomin coal thermoelectric power plant (Brseč village, site 3). Additionally, the concentration of arsenic in the tail muscle of the lobster Nephrops norvegicus, collected in Rijeka Bay, was studied. During winter at sites 2 and 3, the total arsenic in the edible part of the mussels was 16.4 mg As/kg FW (FW=fresh weight) and 4.38 mg As/kg FW, respectively, and increased during springtime at site 2 (6.5 mg As/kg FW) compared to the rest of the year, when individual total arsenic concentration at all sites ranged from 1.7 to 3.7 mg As/kg FW. In the winter (sites 2 and 3) and springtime (site 2) there was no correlation between the length of the mussel shell and the arsenic concentration in the edible part of the mussels. In the other seasons, at sites 1, 2 and 3, there was a correlation between arsenic in the edible part of mussels and shell length in most cases (correlation coefficients r varied from 0.64 to 0.85; P edible part of the mussels shows linearity with a high regression coefficient (r =0.914; P edible part during winter. In addition, a linear relationship was found between body length and arsenic concentration in the tail muscle (mean 17.11±4.48 mg As/kg FW) of the Norway lobster.

  15. Differential metabolic responses in three life stages of mussels Mytilus galloprovincialis exposed to cadmium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Huifeng; Xu, Lanlan; Yu, Deliang; Ji, Chenglong

    2017-01-01

    Cadmium (Cd) is one of the most important metal contaminants in the Bohai Sea. In this work, NMR-based metabolomics was used to investigate the toxicological effects of Cd at an environmentally relevant concentration (50 µg L -1 ) in three different life stages (D-shape larval, juvenile and adult) of mussels Mytilus galloprovincialis. Results indicated that the D-shape larval mussel was the most sensitive life stage to Cd. The significantly different metabolic profiles meant that Cd induced differential toxicological effects in three life stages of mussels. Basically, Cd caused osmotic stress in all the three life stages via different metabolic pathways. Cd exposure reduced the anaerobiosis in D-shape larval mussels and disturbed lipid metabolism in juvenile mussels, respectively. Compared with the D-shape larval and juvenile mussels, the adult mussels reduced energy consumption to deal with Cd stress.

  16. Review of toxic episodes and management strategies in the Danish mussel production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Kevin; Andersen, Per; Thorbjørnsen, Bjarne Ring

    Denmark has in many years been one of the world’s main producers of blue mussels caught from natural banks. The Danish mussel aquaculture sector is now growing. The Danish production areas have been regarded as “low risk” areas with respect to toxic algae and occurrence of marine biotoxins....... The change to more production of cultured mussel results in higher risk for occurrence of marine biotoxins because of the closer interaction between toxic algae and mussels. Results showing the difference between content of marine biotoxins in bottom mussel and cultured mussel from the same production areas...... cell toxicity of potential toxic algae in combination with algae cell number and mussel toxicity for opening or closing of production areas....

  17. Accumulation of a low pathogenic avian influenza virus in zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stumpf, Petra; Failing, Klaus; Papp, Tibor; Nazir, Jawad; Böhm, Reinhard; Marschang, Rachel E

    2010-12-01

    In order to investigate the potential role of mussels as a vector of influenza A viruses, we exposed zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha) to natural lake water containing a low pathogenic H5N1 avian influenza virus. Mussels were kept in water containing virus for 48 hr, then transferred into fresh water for another 14 days. Virus detection in mussels and water samples was performed by quantitative real-time reverse transcriptase-PCR (qRRT-PCR) and egg culture methods. Virus uptake was detected in all of the mussel groups that were exposed to virus. Even after 14 days in fresh water, virus could still be detected in shellfish material by both qRRT-PCR and egg culture methods. The present study demonstrates that zebra mussels are capable of accumulating influenza A viruses from the surrounding water and that these viruses remain in the mussels over an extended period of time.

  18. Processing of chopped mussel meat in retort pouch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giustino TRIBUZI

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Chopped mussel meat packaged in retort pouches was processed in a laboratory-scale water immersion retort, adapted for processing under overpressure conditions. Retort temperature effects on product yield and on cook value were evaluated by setting the F0 at 7 min. The effects of different pre-treatments (salting and marination on the characteristics of mussels were evaluated after processing at retort temperature of 118 °C and during a whole year of storage at 25 °C. The salted samples showed better yield during storage, while no differences were found for the other physicochemical parameters.

  19. Payment for ecosystem services - paying mussel producers for nitrogen mitigation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasler, Berit; Petersen, Jens Kjerulf; Zandersen, Marianne

    2015-01-01

    to the marine environment, and the costs of implementing these abatement measures for nutrient load reductions are increasing at the margin. The nutrient uptake by the mussels can be regarded an ecosystem service, that might be utilized, but which need motivation and incentives for the mussel producers...... as a transferable development right where farmers buy the right to continue current fertilizer practices by paying for N retention in another location (here in the water bodies). It is also possible to learn from the GHG policy where it is possible to pay for abatement elsewhere, where it’s more cost...

  20. Evaluating high pH for control of dreissenid mussels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dave Evans

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Two field experiments were carried out using a custom built flow-through laboratory to test the effect of elevated pH on dreissenid musselsas a potential control method. Both experiments tested the ability of dreissenid pediveligers to settle under conditions of elevated pH and thelong-term survival of adult dreissenids under the same conditions. The two experimental sites had different water quality and differentspecies of dreissenids present. The settlement of quagga mussel pediveligers at the lower Colorado River was inhibited with increasing pH.At the maximum achieved pH of 9.1, there was approximately 90% reduction compared to the maximum settlement observed in the controls.Since the settlement was almost as low in pH 8.9 as at pH 9.1, the inhibition in settlement may have been due to the presence of a precipitateformed under high pH conditions rather than the increase in background pH. No mortality of quagga mussel adults was observed in theexperimental pH levels at the lower Colorado River. At San Justo Reservoir, zebra mussel settlement decreased with increasing pH. Newsettlement was almost entirely absent at the highest pH tested (pH 9.6. The observed mortality of adult zebra mussels was low, but did tendto increase with increasing pH. We also tested the response of adult zebra mussels to short-term exposure to very high pH levels (i.e. pH 10,11, and 12. Adult mussels in poor physical condition experienced 90% mortality after 12 hours at pH 12. For unstressed adult zebra mussels,90% mortality was reached after 120 hours at pH 12. Significant mortalities were also observed both at pH 10 and pH 11. From this study,we conclude that pH elevation could be used both as a preventative treatment to eliminate settlement by dreissenid mussels and as an end ofseason treatment to eliminate adults. The high pH treatment would have to be tailored to the site water quality to prevent formation ofprecipitate during treatment and to minimize corrosive

  1. Development of a molecular diagnostic system to discriminate Dreissena polymorpha (zebra mussel) and Dreissena bugensis (quagga mussel).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoy, Marshal S; Kelly, Kevin; Rodriguez, Rusty J

    2010-01-01

    A 3-primer PCR system was developed to discriminate invasive zebra (Dreissena polymorpha) and quagga (Dreissena bugensis) mussel. The system is based on: 1) universal primers that amplifies a region of the nuclear 28s rDNA gene from both species and 2) a species-specific primer complementary to either zebra or quagga mussel. The species-specific primers bind to sequences between the binding sites for the universal primers resulting in the amplification of two products from the target species and one product from the nontarget species. Therefore, nontarget products are positive amplification controls. The 3-primer system accurately discriminated zebra and quagga mussels from seven geographically distinct populations. Published 2009. This article is a US Government work and is the public domain in the USA.

  2. Safely Intake Number of Macridiscus sp. (Kerang Ceplos) from Tambak Lorok Waters, Semarang, Central Java, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meirenno Tielman, Eduard; Suprijanto, Jusup; Widowati, Ita

    2018-02-01

    The dynamics pollution that supposed to be derived from industrial activities around Tambak Lorok waters will affect the quality of waters, and also biota such as Macridiscus sp. mussels (Kerang Ceplos) that live and accumulate pollutants such as heavy metals (Pb, Cu, Al, Mn and Fe). However, Macridiscus sp. mussels which have been contaminated by heavy metals is usually sold for consumption by the people and if they consume it in excess, it will be toxic in the people’s body. So that, this study was to analyze Safely Intake Number of Macridiscus sp. from Tambak Lorok waters. This study used AAS (Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry) method to analyze the accumulation number of the pollutant (Pb, Cu, Al, Mn and Fe). Safely Intake Number calculation is used MWI (Maximal Weekly Intake) and MTI (Maximal Tolerable Intake) calculation method. The results of AAS showed that the highest numbers of pollutant was Al (reached 534,51 mg/kg in the body of Macridiscus sp. that taken in February, 2016) and has exceeded the safely intake number (MWI Al = 1 mg/kg, based on WHO/FAO) so that it’s MTI values was low (0,08 kg/week/person). It means that Macridiscus sp. was not safe to be consumed excessively at that time.

  3. Deja vu? A second mytilid mussel, Semimytilus algosus , invades ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A second marine mussel is shown to have invaded South Africa's west coast. Molecular techniques, based on intraspecific gene sequence divergences, prove its identity as Semimytilus algosus, a member of the family Mytilidae, native to Chile. The identity of an older introduced population found in Namibia is also ...

  4. Regulation of the branchial ciliary activity in the mussel

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dral, A.D.G.

    1977-01-01

    In mussels the movement of the cilia on the gill are basically autonomous and influenced by environmental factors. The branchial nerve has an inhibitory as well as a stimulating effect on the activity of the lateral cilia. The reactions of these cilia to changing temperature and chlorinity in

  5. Biochemical population genetics of the black mussel Choromytilus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Gene products of nine loci were examined by horizontal starch-gel electrophoresis in five samples of black mussels, Choromytilus meridionalis, from the south-western Cape coast. Allelic frequency variation for four polymorphic proteins suggests no racial differences between west and south coast populations.

  6. Spatial and temporal variability in recruitment of intertidal mussels ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Intensity of intertidal mussel recruitment was compared across a range of different spatial and temporal scales around the coast of southern Africa between June 1995 and October 1996. Comparison of the east and west coasts revealed significantly higher recruit densities on the west coast, corresponding to larger adult ...

  7. Effects of salinity on the survival of the Brackwater mussel ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    During drought periods, the razor clam Solen cylindraceus is the dominant bivalve in the St Lucia estuarine system, although restricted to its South Lake region. However, with the recent onset of a wet phase, the mussel Brachidontes virgiliae has become widespread and overwhelmingly dominant throughout the system.

  8. Differential cold-shock resistance among acclimated European mussel populations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, J.M.; Wendelaar Bonga, S.E.; Hummel, H.

    2007-01-01

    To study differential cold-shock resistance of marine mussel populations (Mytilus spp.) from different climatic regions in Europe, we sampled 12 populations, ranging from 43 to 58°N. Minimum critical temperatures for aerobic metabolism (CTmin) were determined before and after 3 months of common

  9. Effects of turbidity, sediment, and polyacrylamide on native freshwater mussels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buczek, Sean B.; Cope, W. Gregory; McLaughlin, Richard A.; Kwak, Thomas J.

    2018-01-01

    Turbidity is a ubiquitous pollutant adversely affecting water quality and aquatic life in waterways globally. Anionic polyacrylamide (PAM) is widely used as an effective chemical flocculent to reduce suspended sediment (SS) and turbidity. However, no information exists on the toxicity of PAM‐flocculated sediments to imperiled, but ecologically important, freshwater mussels (Unionidae). Thus, we conducted acute (96 h) and chronic (24 day) laboratory tests with juvenile fatmucket (Lampsilis siliquoidea) and three exposure conditions (nonflocculated settled sediment, SS, and PAM‐flocculated settled sediment) over a range of turbidity levels (50, 250, 1,250, and 3,500 nephelometric turbidity units). Survival and sublethal endpoints of protein oxidation, adenosine triphosphate (ATP) production, and protein concentration were used as measures of toxicity. We found no effect of turbidity levels or exposure condition on mussel survival in acute or chronic tests. However, we found significant reductions in protein concentration, ATP production, and oxidized proteins in mussels acutely exposed to the SS condition, which required water movement to maintain sediment in suspension, indicating responses that are symptoms of physiological stress. Our results suggest anionic PAM applied to reduce SS may minimize adverse effects of short‐term turbidity exposure on juvenile freshwater mussels without eliciting additional lethal or sublethal toxicity.

  10. The Quagga mussel invades the Lake Superior basin - journal article

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prior studies recognized the presence of a single dreissenid species in Lake Superior--the zebra mussel Dreissena polymorpha. However, taxonomic keys based on traditional shell morphology are not always able to differentiate dreissenid species with confidence. We thus employed ge...

  11. Subsistence and recreational mussel (Perna perna) collecting in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    tional collectors are subject to a daily bag limit of 50 mussels and so select ... in subsistence collecting at Kosi Bay is required, but the limited access policy should ... in India (P. viridis and P. indica), Indonesia (P. viridis) and ...... by women in Palau, Micronesia. ... Inshore marine resources and associated opportunities for.

  12. A hierarchical classification of freshwater mussel diversity in North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wendell R. Haag

    2010-01-01

    Aim North America harbours the most diverse freshwater mussel fauna on Earth. This fauna has high endemism at the continental scale and within individual river systems. Previous faunal classifications for North America were based on intuitive, subjective assessments of species distributions, primarily the occurrence of endemic species, and do not portray continent-wide...

  13. Intercalibration of mussel Mytilus edulis clearance rate measurements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kjerulf Petersen, J.; Bougrier, S.; Smaal, A.C.; Garen, P.; Robert, S.; Larsen, J.E.N.; Brummelhuis, E.B.M.

    2004-01-01

    Clearance rate (CR) was measured in blue mussels Mytilus edulis L. from Aiguillon Bay and the Oosterschelde using 3 different methods: the flow-through method, the bio-deposition method and the indirect or clearance method. CR differed significantly as a function of the method used and of the origin

  14. 78 FR 5481 - Quagga Mussel Strategic Planning Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-25

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Fish and Wildlife Service [FWS-HQ-FHC-2013-N008; 94140-1341-0000-N5] Quagga Mussel Strategic Planning Meeting AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: This notice announces a meeting to gather information for planning an FY13 strategy to...

  15. Zebra mussels mitigation at Ontario Hydro's hydroelectric generating facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dorneanu, A.M.

    1992-01-01

    The Great Lakes and their connecting channels have recently been invaded by a tiny freshwater mollusc that has already cost Ontario Hydro millions of dollars. Dreissena polymorpha, commonly known as the zebra mussel, entered the great lakes in ballast water carried by a ship from Europe in 1985. These mussels threaten to reduce or totally block the flow of water in auxiliary systems of any generating station, water treatment plant or municipal water facility that uses raw lake water and to cause accelerated corrosion of the metallic substrate to which they attach themselves. To satisfy the immediate need for control, chlorination was identified as the most effective interim measure to prevent the biofouling of the raw water systems. Detection and monitoring of mussels and the installation, operation, environmental constraints, benefits and deficiencies of the chemical treatment system are presented. Long term objectives for control of the mussels are to develop alternatives to chlorination (ozone, hydrogen peroxide, protective coatings, thermal shock, mechanical filtration, etc.) for application at existing facilities and for incorporation into the design of new facilities and rehabilitation programs. 3 refs., 5 figs

  16. Review on methods of golden mussel control in pires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edemir Luiz Kowalski

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available At the beginning of the 90’s, they were detected in Rio da Prata in Argentina the first samples of the exotic specie named limnoperna fortunei, from Asia, maybe introduced through ballast water of ships came from Asia. In Brazil the first samples were detected in Lagoa dos Patos in Rio Grande do Sul in the 90’s, possibly by the same reason. A second axis was verified in Campo Grande in Mato Grosso do Sul derived probably from Argentina because of the navigation through the Paraguay river going down to Lagoa de Itaipú causing its contamination. The invader specie has the capacity of fouling pipings where the contaminated water circulates, causing considerable financial damage to the infected industries. In Brazil the indrustries located in Rio Grande do Sul as well as hydroelectric plants as Itaipu, they manage these problems stopping the equipments for their maintenance and cleaning more times than the habitual. The United States of America and Canada already have the same kind of problem with the similar specie found here in Brazil. The target of this work is to introduce a review about the main methods to control the golden mussel mollusk without using any kind of chemical products, based on The USA and Canada’s experiences, where there are similar problems but with the specie zebra mussel. Key-words: Non Chemicals Methods, Golden Mussel, Zebra Mussel

  17. Mussel beds are biological power stations on intertidal flats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engel, Friederike G.; Alegria, Javier; Andriana, Rosyta; Donadi, Serena; Gusmao, Joao B.; van Leeuwe, Maria A.; Matthiessen, Birte; Eriksson, Britas Klemens

    2017-05-01

    Intertidal flats are highly productive areas that support large numbers of invertebrates, fish, and birds. Benthic diatoms are essential for the function of tidal flats. They fuel the benthic food web by forming a thin photosynthesizing compartment in the top-layer of the sediment that stretches over the vast sediment flats during low tide. However, the abundance and function of the diatom film is not homogenously distributed. Recently, we have realized the importance of bivalve reefs for structuring intertidal ecosystems; by creating structures on the intertidal flats they provide habitat, reduce hydrodynamic stress and modify the surrounding sediment conditions, which promote the abundance of associated organisms. Accordingly, field studies show that high chlorophyll a concentration in the sediment co-vary with the presence of mussel beds. Here we present conclusive evidence by a manipulative experiment that mussels increase the local biomass of benthic microalgae; and relate this to increasing biomass of microalgae as well as productivity of the biofilm across a nearby mussel bed. Our results show that the ecosystem engineering properties of mussel beds transform them into hot spots for primary production on tidal flats, highlighting the importance of biological control of sedimentary systems.

  18. The effects of natural biofilms on the reattachment of young adult zebra mussels to artificial substrata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavouras, Jerry H; Maki, James S

    2003-08-01

    This laboratory study examined the effects of natural biofilms on the reattachment of young adult zebra mussels, Dreissena polymorpha, in Petri dishes. Natural biofilms were developed in glass and polystyrene Petri dishes using water samples collected at various times of the year. Biofilms were developed over 1, 3, 8, and 14 d. Controls were clean glass and polystyrene Petri dishes. Zebra mussels collected from the field (Zebra mussels reattached to the dish surface or the shells of other mussels in the dish, or remained unattached. The data indicate that reattachment to clean glass was greater than to clean polystyrene (p Zebra mussels in control and filmed glass dishes reattached in higher percentages to the dish surface compared to the shells of other mussels (p mussel of reattachment between the dish surface and the shells of other mussels in most control polystyrene dishes (p > 0.05, ANOVA), whereas in filmed polystyrene the percentage of reattachment to the dish surface was greater than to the shells of other mussels (p zebra mussels.

  19. Zebra mussel filtration and its potential uses in industrial water treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, Paul; Aldridge, David C; Moggridge, Geoff D

    2008-03-01

    The zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha) is a notorious freshwater biofouling pest, and populations of the species can alter aquatic environments through their substantial filtration capabilities. Despite the ecological importance of zebra mussel filtration, many predictions of their large-scale effects on ecosystems rely on extrapolations from filtration rates obtained in static laboratory experiments, not accounting for natural mussel densities, boundary layer effects, flow rates or elevated algal concentrations. This study used large-scale industrial flume trials to investigate the influence of these factors on zebra mussel filtration and proposes some novel industrial applications of these findings. The flume trials revealed some of the highest zebra mussel clearance rates found to date, up to 574+/-20mlh(-1)g(-1) of wet tissue mass. Under low algal concentrations, chlorophyll a removal by zebra mussels was not proportional to mussel density, indicating that field rates of zebra mussel grazing may be much lower than previous studies have predicted. Increasing ambient velocities up to 100mls(-1) ( approximately 4cms(-1)) led to increased clearance rates by zebra mussels, possibly due to the replenishment of locally depleted resources, but higher velocities of 300mls(-1) (12cms(-1)) did not lead to further significant increases in clearance rate. When additional algal cultures were dosed into the flumes, chlorophyll a removal increased approximately logarithmically with zebra mussel density and there were no differences in the clearance of three different species of alga: Ankyra judayi, Pandorina morum and Cyclotella meneghinia. Some novel industrial uses of these zebra mussel filtration studies are proposed, such as: (1) helping to inform models that predict the large-scale grazing effects of the mussels, (2) allowing estimates of zebra mussel densities in industrial pipelines, and (3) constructing large-scale biofilters for use in water clarification.

  20. Comparison of accumulation of micropollutants between igenous and transplanted zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bervoets, Lieven; Voets, Judith; Chu, Shaogang; Covaci, Adrian; Schepens, Paul; Blust, Ronny

    2004-08-01

    Zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha) were exposed at 12 canals and lakes situated in Flanders (Belgium), in cages for six weeks during the summer of 2002. Accumulation of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), hexachlorobenzene, and trace metals were measured in the transplanted mussels and levels compared to levels in indigenous mussels. Additionally, zebra mussels were exposed at a small lake in the vicinity of Antwerp (Belgium), and accumulation of contaminants was followed for an extended period from December 2001 to April 2002. Analysis of the pollutants in the indigenous mussels showed that the selected sites displayed a wide range of pollution from near to background to very high levels of metals and/or organic contaminants when compared to the literature. For organic contaminants and for most metals, comparison of levels between caged and resident mussels revealed no significant differences. Only for cadmium and nickel, significant differences were observed, with levels being either higher (cadmium) or lower (nickel) in caged mussels. For organic contaminants, significant correlations between levels in caged and resident mussels were found with r2 values up to 0.98. For some metals, no or poor correlations were found. At most sites, concentrations of those metals were of the same order of magnitude and comparable to levels in mussels from unpolluted sites. This might explain the absence of significant correlations. When mussels were exposed for an extended period, the concentration of some pollutants increased, whereas others decreased with time. Only in the case of certain metals did levels differ significantly because of the slow depuration of metals already present in the transplanted mussels. This is an additional indication that measured concentrations in transplanted mussels indeed reflected the local situation. With this study, we were able to prove the applicability of transplanted mussels as a biomonitoring tool

  1. Microplastics in mussels along the coastal waters of China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Jiana; Qu, Xiaoyun; Su, Lei; Zhang, Weiwei; Yang, Dongqi; Kolandhasamy, Prabhu; Li, Daoji; Shi, Huahong

    2016-01-01

    Microplastic has been confirmed as an emerging pollutant in marine environments. One of the primary environmental risks of microplastics is their bioavailability for aquatic organisms. Bivalves are of particular interest because their extensive filter-feeding activity exposes them directly to microplastics present in the water column. In the present study, we investigated microplastic pollution in mussels (Mytilus edulis) from 22 sites along 12,400 mile coastlines of China in 2015. The number of total microplastics varied from 0.9 to 4.6 items/g and from 1.5 to 7.6 items/individual. M. edulis contained more microplastics (2.7 items/g) in wild groups than that (1.6 items/g) in farmed groups. The abundance of microplastics was 3.3 items/g in mussels from the areas with intensive human activities and significantly higher than that (1.6 items/g) with less human activities. The most common microplastics were fibers, followed by fragments. The proportion of microplastics less than 250 μm in size arranged from 17% to 79% of the total microplastics. Diatom was distinguished from microplastics in mussels for the first time using Scanning Electron Microscope. Our results suggested that the numbers of microplastic kept within a relatively narrow range in mussels and were closely related to the contamination of the environments. We proposed that mussels could be used as a potential bioindicator of microplastic pollution of the coastal environment. - Highlights: • Microplastics varied from 0.9 to 4.6 items/g in Mytilus edulis. • M. edulis contained more microplastics in wild groups than farmed groups. • The most common microplastics were fibers. • Diatom was distinguished from microplastics in mussels. • Mussels could be used as a potential bioindicator of microplastic. - Microplastics varied from 0.9 to 4.6 items/g in wild and farmed Mytilus edulis from 22 sites along the coastal waters of China.

  2. Microplastics in mussels along the coastal waters of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jiana; Qu, Xiaoyun; Su, Lei; Zhang, Weiwei; Yang, Dongqi; Kolandhasamy, Prabhu; Li, Daoji; Shi, Huahong

    2016-07-01

    Microplastic has been confirmed as an emerging pollutant in marine environments. One of the primary environmental risks of microplastics is their bioavailability for aquatic organisms. Bivalves are of particular interest because their extensive filter-feeding activity exposes them directly to microplastics present in the water column. In the present study, we investigated microplastic pollution in mussels (Mytilus edulis) from 22 sites along 12,400 mile coastlines of China in 2015. The number of total microplastics varied from 0.9 to 4.6 items/g and from 1.5 to 7.6 items/individual. M. edulis contained more microplastics (2.7 items/g) in wild groups than that (1.6 items/g) in farmed groups. The abundance of microplastics was 3.3 items/g in mussels from the areas with intensive human activities and significantly higher than that (1.6 items/g) with less human activities. The most common microplastics were fibers, followed by fragments. The proportion of microplastics less than 250 μm in size arranged from 17% to 79% of the total microplastics. Diatom was distinguished from microplastics in mussels for the first time using Scanning Electron Microscope. Our results suggested that the numbers of microplastic kept within a relatively narrow range in mussels and were closely related to the contamination of the environments. We proposed that mussels could be used as a potential bioindicator of microplastic pollution of the coastal environment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. New environmentally friendly MSPD solid support based on golden mussel shell: characterization and application for extraction of organic contaminants from mussel tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rombaldi, Caroline; de Oliveira Arias, Jean Lucas; Hertzog, Gabriel Ianzer; Caldas, Sergiane Souza; Vieira, João P; Primel, Ednei Gilberto

    2015-06-01

    The use of golden mussel shells as a solid support in vortex-assisted matrix solid-phase dispersion (MSPD) was evaluated for the first time for extraction of residues of 11 pesticides and nine pharmaceutical and personal care products from mussel tissue samples. After they had been washed, dried, and milled, the mussel shells were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, infrared spectroscopy, and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller analysis. The MSPD procedure with analysis by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry allowed the determination of target analytes at trace concentrations (nanograms per gram), with mean recoveries ranging from 61 to 107 % and relative standard deviations lower than 18 %. The optimized method consisted of dispersion of 0.5 g of mussel tissue, 0.5 g of NaSO4, and 0.5 g of golden mussel shell for 5 min, and subsequent extraction with 5 mL of ethyl acetate. The matrix effect was evaluated, and a low effect was found for all compounds. The results showed that mussel shell is an effective material and a less expensive material than materials that have traditionally been used, i.e., it may be used in the MSPD dispersion step during the extraction of pesticides and pharmaceutical and personal care products from golden mussel tissues. Graphical Abstract Vortex-assited matrix solid-phase dispersion for extraction of 11 pesticides and 9 PPCPs care products from mussel tissue samples.

  4. Draft genome sequences of six neonatal meningitis-causing escherichia coli isolates (SP-4, SP-5, SP-13, SP-16, SP-46, and SP-65)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neonatal meningitis Escherichia coli isolates (SP-4, SP-5, SP-13, SP-16, SP-46, and SP-65) were recovered from infants in the Netherlands from 1989 to 1997. Here, we report the draft genome sequences for these six E. coli isolates, which are currently being used to validate food safety processing te...

  5. Identification of larvae: The zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha), quagga mussel (Dreissena rosteriformis bugensis), and Asian clam (Corbicula fluminea)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichols, S. Jerrine; Black, M.G.

    1994-01-01

    There are presently four freshwater bivalves in the United States that produce larvae or veligers commonly found in the water column: two forms of Asian clams and two species of dreissenids. Portions of the geographic range of three of these bivalves, one species of Asian clam (Corbicula fluminea), zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha), and quagga mussels (Dreissena rosteriformis bugensis), overlap, causing problems with larval identification. To determine which characteristics can be used to separate larval forms, adult Asian clams, quaggas, and zebra mussels were brought into the laboratory and induced to spawn, and the resulting larvae were reared. Hybrids between quaggas and zebra mussels were also produced, but not reared to maturity. Characteristics allowing for the most rapid and accurate separation of larvae were hinge length, shell length/height, shell shape, shell size, and the presence or absence of a foot and velum. These characteristics were observed in laboratory-reared larvae of known parentage and field-caught larvae of unknown parentage. In most cases, larvae of the Asian clam can be readily separated from those produced by either type of dreissenid on the basis of shell size and presence of a foot. Separating the gametes and embryos of the two types of dreissenids is not possible, but after shell formation, most of the larval stages can be distinguished. Hinge length, shell length/height, and the similarity in size of the shell valves can be used to separate straight-hinged, umbonal, pediveliger, and plantigrade larvae. Quagga × zebra mussel hybrids show characteristics of both parents and are difficult to identify.

  6. Development of a toxicity model for paralytic shellfish toxins in mussel: uptake and release of toxins in Green Bay mussel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tabbada, Rhett Simon DC.; Ranada, Ma. Llorina O.; De Leon, Aileen L.; Bulos, Adelina M.; Sta, Maria; Efren, J.; De Vera, Azucena; Balagtas, Angelina; Sombrito, Elvira Z.

    2009-01-01

    In view of the expressed need to study shellfish toxicity and elucidate the kinetics of saxitoxin in green mussels Perna viridis), uptake/depuration rates of saxitoxin were studied in Juag Lagoon, Sorsogon and Sorsogon Bay. Both areas experience recurring blooms of Pyrodinium bahamanse var compressum (PbC) making them excellent study sites. Two sampling stations were selected, to which, mussels were introduced. Algal cell density and mussel toxicity were measured by receptor binding assay (RBA) and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) from May to December 2007. During this period, two bloom events occurred, wherein, a decrease in cell density by two orders of magnitude (30,000 to 600 cells·1 +1 ) caused an order of magnitude decrease in toxicity (600 to 30 μg STX eq./100 g shellfish meat). A time lag between peaks of cell density and the corresponding toxicity was revealed. Vegetative cells were present throughout the sampling period, and a uniform horizontal and vertical distribution of cells was observed between the stations. Cell densities were significantly correlated with both RBA and HPLC estimates of STX content in mussels (Pearson r values of 0.7486 and 0.4325 for RBA and HPLC, respectively). In Sorsogon Bay, six sampling stations were also chosen, from which, water and mussels were being collected. Preliminary data showed that the cellular toxin content was primarily STX, making up to 90-100% of total toxin quantified. The average toxicity was estimated at 52.81fmol/cell. The effect of physiological factors to overall shellfish toxicity, though not directly characterized, may be deduced from these studies. (author)

  7. Bioaccumulation of pathogenic bacteria and amoeba by zebra mussels and their presence in watercourses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosteo, R; Goñi, P; Miguel, N; Abadías, J; Valero, P; Ormad, M P

    2016-01-01

    Dreissena polymorpha (the zebra mussel) has been invading freshwater bodies in Europe since the beginning of the nineteenth century. Filter-feeding organisms can accumulate and concentrate both chemical and biological contaminants in their tissues. Therefore, zebra mussels are recognized as indicators of freshwater quality. In this work, the capacity of the zebra mussel to accumulate human pathogenic bacteria and protozoa has been evaluated and the sanitary risk associated with their presence in surface water has also been assessed. The results show a good correlation between the pathogenic bacteria concentration in zebra mussels and in watercourses. Zebra mussels could therefore be used as an indicator of biological contamination. The bacteria (Escherichia coli, Enterococcus spp., Pseudomonas spp., and Salmonella spp.) and parasites (Cryptosporidium oocysts and free-living amoebae) detected in these mussels reflect a potential sanitary risk in water.

  8. The production of relaid blue mussels ( Mytilus edulis L.) in a Danish fjord

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Per Sand; Lassen, H.

    1997-01-01

    Mussels (Mytilus edulis L.) smaller than the commercial size caught in Limfjorden, as in other areas, are typically discarded. However, during the period 1990 to 1993 these small mussels were returned, after sorting to mussel beds for later harvest; a process defined as ''relay''. This paper...... presents data from two commercial culture beds and from two smaller experimental beds established to study growth and mortality of these small mussel discards. The data were analysed by a yield- per-recruit model to calculate yields from such relays. This model was also used to predict the optimal time...... of harvest. The parameters utilized in the model were: (1) initial mortality due to harvesting, unshipping and sorting; (2) growth and mortality between relay and harvest; and, (3) the drained wet weight of a mussel of a given shell length. The initial mortality was estimated from observations of mussels...

  9. Temperature- and Turbidity-Dependent Competitive Interactions Between Invasive Freshwater Mussels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Qihua; Wang, Hao; Ricciardi, Anthony; Lewis, Mark A

    2016-03-01

    We develop a staged-structured population model that describes the competitive dynamics of two functionally similar, congeneric invasive species: zebra mussels and quagga mussels. The model assumes that the population survival rates are functions of temperature and turbidity, and that the two species compete for food. The stability analysis of the model yields conditions on net reproductive rates and intrinsic growth rates that lead to competitive exclusion. The model predicts quagga mussel dominance leading to potential exclusion of zebra mussels at mean water temperatures below [Formula: see text] and over a broad range of turbidities, and a much narrower set of conditions that favor zebra mussel dominance and potential exclusion of quagga mussels at temperatures above [Formula: see text] and turbidities below 35 NTU. We then construct a two-patch dispersal model to examine how the dispersal rates and the environmental factors affect competitive exclusion and coexistence.

  10. Optically and biologically active mussel protein-coated double-walled carbon nanotubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Yong Chae; Muramatsu, Hiroyuki; Fujisawa, Kazunori; Kim, Jin Hee; Hayashi, Takuya; Kim, Yoong Ahm; Endo, Morinobu; Terrones, Mauricio; Dresselhaus, Mildred S

    2011-12-02

    A method of dispersing strongly bundled double-walled carbon nanotubes (DWNTs) via a homogeneous coating of mussel protein in an aqueous solution is presented. Optical activity, mechanical strength, as well as electrical conductivity coming from the nanotubes and the versatile biological activity from the mussel protein make mussel-coated DWNTs promising as a multifunctional scaffold and for anti-fouling materials. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. IMPACT OF SIPHONING ACTIVITY AND NATURALLY SUSPENDED PARTICLE LOAD ON MUSSEL KILL by PSEUDOMONAS FLUORESCENS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daniel Molloy

    2003-01-01

    Under this USDOE-NETL contract, the bacterium Pseudomonas fluorescens is being developed as a biocontrol agent for zebra mussels. The specific purpose of the contract is to identify biotic and abiotic factors that affect mussel kill. Ingestion of these bacteria by zebra mussels is required to achieve kill, and tests evaluating factors that relate to mussel feeding are contained in this report. Specifically the impact of the following two factors were investigated: (1) Mussel siphoning behavior--In nature, zebra mussels typically have their two shells spread apart and their inhalant siphon tube extended from between their shells for taking food particles into their mantle cavities (Fig. 1). Our tests indicated that there is a direct correlation between mussel siphoning activity and mussel mortality achieved by a bacterial treatment. Therefore, to encourage mussel feeding on bacteria, future pipe treatments within power plants should be carried out using procedures which minimize disturbance to mussel siphoning. 2. Naturally suspended particle loads--Since bacterial cells are lethal only if ingested by mussels, waters containing very high levels of naturally suspended particles might reduce the mortality that can be achieved by a bacterial treatment. If true, this inhibition might occur as a result of particle exclusion, i.e., there could be reduced ingestion of bacterial cells since they represent a reduced percentage of all particles ingested. Our tests indicated that a range of particle concentrations that might naturally exist in a turbid river did not inhibit mussel kill by the bacterial cells, but that an artificially high load of natural particles was capable of causing a reduction in kill. To be conservative, therefore, future pipe treatments should be timed to occur when intake waters have relatively low quantities of naturally suspended particulate matter

  12. Sea otters homogenize mussel beds and reduce habitat provisioning in a rocky intertidal ecosystem.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerald G Singh

    Full Text Available Sea otters (Enhydra lutris are keystone predators that consume a variety of benthic invertebrates, including the intertidal mussel, Mytilus californianus. By virtue of their competitive dominance, large size, and longevity, M. californianus are ecosystem engineers that form structurally complex beds that provide habitat for diverse invertebrate communities. We investigated whether otters affect mussel bed characteristics (i.e. mussel length distributions, mussel bed depth, and biomass and associated community structure (i.e. biomass, alpha and beta diversity by comparing four regions that varied in their histories of sea otter occupancy on the west coast of British Columbia and northern Washington. Mussel bed depth and average mussel lengths were 1.5 times lower in regions occupied by otters for >20 years than those occupied for <5 yrs. Diversity of mussel bed associated communities did not differ between regions; however, the total biomass of species associated with mussel beds was more than three-times higher where sea otters were absent. We examined alternative explanations for differences in mussel bed community structure, including among-region variation in oceanographic conditions and abundance of the predatory sea star Pisaster ochraceus. We cannot discount multiple drivers shaping mussel beds, but our findings indicate the sea otters are an important one. We conclude that, similar to their effects on subtidal benthic invertebrates, sea otters reduce the size distributions of intertidal mussels and, thereby, habitat available to support associated communities. Our study indicates that by reducing populations of habitat-providing intertidal mussels, sea otters may have substantial indirect effects on associated communities.

  13. Local monitoring program for invasion of zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha) in the Dam lake Zhrebchevo, Bulgaria

    OpenAIRE

    Stoyanova, Stefka; Nikolov, Galin; Velichkova, Katya; Atanasoff, Alexander; Mumun, Sevdegul

    2015-01-01

    Zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha) are bivalve mollusks approximately 1 to 5 cm long that live in freshwater lakes. They have invaded many Bulgarian freshwater ecosystems in recent decades. Because of their ability to settle on almost any substrate, zebra mussels cause severe damage to closed water systems, RAS and intensive fish farming systems. In order to assess the status of the mussel population in the lake in the area of the Forest group fish farm, the distribution, extent of coloniza...

  14. Sympatric Dreissena species in the Meuse River : towards a dominance shift from zebra to quagga mussels

    OpenAIRE

    Marescaux, Jonathan; Boets, Pieter; Lorquet, Julien; Sablon, Rose; Van Doninck, Karine; Beisel, Jean-Nicolas

    2015-01-01

    The rapid spread of the quagga mussel, Dreissena rostriformis, in Western Europe is of particular concern since the species is known to have serious ecological and economic impacts, similar to those of the well-established zebra mussel, Dreissena polymorpha. This study aimed (1) to provide an update on the quagga mussel distribution in several Belgian inland waterways, and (2) to check if a shift in dominance between Dreissena species is occurring. Using density measurements and artificial su...

  15. Quagga mussels Dreissena rostriformis burgensis (Andrusov, 1897) in the Main River (Germany)

    OpenAIRE

    Velde, G. van der; Platvoet, D.

    2007-01-01

    The first record of the quagga mussel Dreissena rostriformis bugensis (Andrusov, 1897) in Germany is described. This species has expanded its distribution area in Europe at a slower rate than the zebra mussel Dreissena polymorpha (Pallas, 1771). Recent records from the Danube in Romania and from an enclosed Rhine-Meuse estuary in The Netherlands, suggest that the Main-Danube canal and River Rhine have functioned as the dispersal pathway of the quagga mussel to The Netherlands. The record of t...

  16. Estimation of mussel population response to hydrologic alteration in a southeastern U.S. stream

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, J.T.; Wisniewski, J.M.; Shea, C.P.; Rhett, Jackson C.

    2011-01-01

    The southeastern United States has experienced severe, recurrent drought, rapid human population growth, and increasing agricultural irrigation during recent decades, resulting in greater demand for the water resources. During the same time period, freshwater mussels (Unioniformes) in the region have experienced substantial population declines. Consequently, there is growing interest in determining how mussel population declines are related to activities associated with water resource development. Determining the causes of mussel population declines requires, in part, an understanding of the factors influencing mussel population dynamics. We developed Pradel reverse-time, tag-recapture models to estimate survival, recruitment, and population growth rates for three federally endangered mussel species in the Apalachicola- Chattahoochee-Flint River Basin, Georgia. The models were parameterized using mussel tag-recapture data collected over five consecutive years from Sawhatchee Creek, located in southwestern Georgia. Model estimates indicated that mussel survival was strongly and negatively related to high flows during the summer, whereas recruitment was strongly and positively related to flows during the spring and summer. Using these models, we simulated mussel population dynamics under historic (1940-1969) and current (1980-2008) flow regimes and under increasing levels of water use to evaluate the relative effectiveness of alternative minimum flow regulations. The simulations indicated that the probability of simulated mussel population extinction was at least 8 times greater under current hydrologic regimes. In addition, simulations of mussel extinction under varying levels of water use indicated that the relative risk of extinction increased with increased water use across a range of minimum flow regulations. The simulation results also indicated that our estimates of the effects of water use on mussel extinction were influenced by the assumptions about the

  17. Predation on exotic zebra mussels by native fishes: Effects on predator and prey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magoulick, D.D.; Lewis, L.C.

    2002-01-01

    1. Exotic zebra mussels, Dreissena polymorpha, occur in southern U.S. waterways in high densities, but little is known about the interaction between native fish predators and zebra mussels. Previous studies have suggested that exotic zebra mussels are low profitability prey items and native vertebrate predators are unlikely to reduce zebra mussel densities. We tested these hypotheses by observing prey use of fishes, determining energy content of primary prey species of fishes, and conducting predator exclusion experiments in Lake Dardanelle, Arkansas. 2. Zebra mussels were the primary prey eaten by 52.9% of blue catfish, Ictalurus furcatus; 48.2% of freshwater drum, Aplodinotus grunniens; and 100% of adult redear sunfish, Lepomis microlophus. Blue catfish showed distinct seasonal prey shifts, feeding on zebra mussels in summer and shad, Dorosoma spp., during winter. Energy content (joules g-1) of blue catfish prey (threadfin shad, Dorosoma petenense; gizzard shad, D. cepedianum; zebra mussels; and asiatic clams, Corbicula fluminea) showed a significant species by season interaction, but shad were always significantly greater in energy content than bivalves examined as either ash-free dry mass or whole organism dry mass. Fish predators significantly reduced densities of large zebra mussels (>5 mm length) colonising clay tiles in the summers of 1997 and 1998, but predation effects on small zebra mussels (???5 mm length) were less clear. 3. Freshwater drum and redear sunfish process bivalve prey by crushing shells and obtain low amounts of higher-energy food (only the flesh), whereas blue catfish lack a shell-crushing apparatus and ingest large amounts of low-energy food per unit time (bivalves with their shells). Blue catfish appeared to select the abundant zebra mussel over the more energetically rich shad during summer, then shifted to shad during winter when shad experienced temperature-dependent stress and mortality. Native fish predators can suppress adult zebra

  18. Hydraulic modeling of mussel habitat at a bridge-replacement site, Allegheny River, Pennsylvania, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulton, John W.; Wagner, Chad R.; Rogers, Megan E.; Zimmerman, Gregory F.

    2010-01-01

    The Allegheny River in Pennsylvania supports a large and diverse freshwater-mussel community, including two federally listed endangered species, Pleurobema clava(Clubshell) and Epioblasma torulosa rangiana (Northern Riffleshell). It is recognized that river hydraulics and morphology play important roles in mussel distribution. To assess the hydraulic influences of bridge replacement on mussel habitat, metrics such as depth, velocity, and their derivatives (shear stress, Froude number) were collected or computed.

  19. IMPACT OF SIPHONING ACTIVITY AND NATURALLY SUSPENDED PARTICLE LOAD ON MUSSEL KILL by PSEUDOMONAS FLUORESCENS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daniel Molloy

    2003-08-04

    Under this USDOE-NETL contract, the bacterium Pseudomonas fluorescens is being developed as a biocontrol agent for zebra mussels. The specific purpose of the contract is to identify biotic and abiotic factors that affect mussel kill. Ingestion of these bacteria by zebra mussels is required to achieve kill, and tests evaluating factors that relate to mussel feeding are contained in this report. Specifically the impact of the following two factors were investigated: (1) Mussel siphoning behavior--In nature, zebra mussels typically have their two shells spread apart and their inhalant siphon tube extended from between their shells for taking food particles into their mantle cavities (Fig. 1). Our tests indicated that there is a direct correlation between mussel siphoning activity and mussel mortality achieved by a bacterial treatment. Therefore, to encourage mussel feeding on bacteria, future pipe treatments within power plants should be carried out using procedures which minimize disturbance to mussel siphoning. 2. Naturally suspended particle loads--Since bacterial cells are lethal only if ingested by mussels, waters containing very high levels of naturally suspended particles might reduce the mortality that can be achieved by a bacterial treatment. If true, this inhibition might occur as a result of particle exclusion, i.e., there could be reduced ingestion of bacterial cells since they represent a reduced percentage of all particles ingested. Our tests indicated that a range of particle concentrations that might naturally exist in a turbid river did not inhibit mussel kill by the bacterial cells, but that an artificially high load of natural particles was capable of causing a reduction in kill. To be conservative, therefore, future pipe treatments should be timed to occur when intake waters have relatively low quantities of naturally suspended particulate matter.

  20. Predation and physical environment structure the density and population size structure of zebra mussels

    OpenAIRE

    Naddafi, Rahmat; Pettersson, Kurt; Eklöv, Peter

    2010-01-01

    The zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha) provides one example of successful invaders in novel environments. However, little attention has been devoted to exploring the factors regulating zebra mussel density and population size structure at the local scale. We tested effects of physicochemical factors and fish predation on the density of zebra mussels at several sites and between years in a natural lake. Water depth and roach (Rutilus rutilus) density were the most important variables affectin...

  1. DNA adduct measurements in zebra mussels, Dreissena polymorpha, Pallas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Goff, J.; Gallois, J.; Pelhuet, L.; Devier, M.H.; Budzinski, H.; Pottier, D.; Andre, V.; Cachot, J.

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine PAH accumulation and bulky DNA adduct formation in the digestive gland of zebra mussels exposed in their habitat or in controlled laboratory conditions to complex mixture of PAH. DNA adducts were measured using a 32 P-postlabelling protocol with nuclease P1 enrichment adapted from Reddy and Randerath [Reddy, M.V., Randerath, K., 1986. Nuclease P1-mediated enhancement of sensitivity of 32 P-postlabelling test for structurally diverse DNA adducts. Carcinogenesis 7, 1543-1551]. Specimens collected in the upper part of the Seine estuary were shown to accumulate higher levels of PAH (up to 1.6 μg g -1 dry weight) in comparison to individuals from the reference site (0.053 μg g -1 dry weight). The former exhibited elevated levels of DNA adducts (up to 4.0/10 8 nucleotides) and higher diversity of individual adducts with five distinct spots being specifically detected in individuals originating from the Seine estuary. Zebra mussels exposed for 5 days to 0.01% (v/v) of organic extract of sediment from the Seine estuary were shown to accumulate high amounts of PAH (up to 138 μg g -1 dry weight) but exhibited relatively low levels of DNA adducts. Exposure to benzo[a]pyrene led to a dose-dependent accumulation of B[a]P (up to 7063 μg g -1 dry weight) and a clear induction of DNA adduct formation in the digestive gland of mussels (up to 1.13/10 8 nucleotides). Comparisons with other bivalves exposed to the same model PAH, revealed similar levels of adducts and comparable adduct profiles with a main adduct spot and a second faint one. This study clearly demonstrated that zebra mussels are able to biotransform B[a]P and probably other PAH into reactive metabolites with DNA-binding activity. This work also demonstrated the applicability of the nuclease P1 enhanced 32 P-postlabelling method for bulky adduct detection in the digestive gland of zebra mussels. DNA adduct measurement in zebra mussels could be a suitable biomarker to monitor

  2. DNA adduct measurements in zebra mussels, Dreissena polymorpha, Pallas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Le Goff, J. [GRECAN, UPRES EA-1772, University of Caen, Caen (France); Gallois, J. [Laboratory F. Duncombe, Conseil General du Calvados, Caen (France); Pelhuet, L. [LPTC, UMR-5472 CNRS, University Bordeaux I, Bordeaux (France); Devier, M.H. [LPTC, UMR-5472 CNRS, University Bordeaux I, Bordeaux (France); Budzinski, H. [LPTC, UMR-5472 CNRS, University Bordeaux I, Bordeaux (France); Pottier, D. [GRECAN, UPRES EA-1772, University of Caen, Caen (France); Andre, V. [GRECAN, UPRES EA-1772, University of Caen, Caen (France); Cachot, J. [LEMA, UPRES EA-3222, IFRMP 23, University of Le Havre, 25 rue Philippe Lebon, B.P. 540, 76058 Le Havre Cedex (France)]. E-mail: jerome.cachot@univ-lehavre.fr

    2006-08-12

    The purpose of this study was to examine PAH accumulation and bulky DNA adduct formation in the digestive gland of zebra mussels exposed in their habitat or in controlled laboratory conditions to complex mixture of PAH. DNA adducts were measured using a {sup 32}P-postlabelling protocol with nuclease P1 enrichment adapted from Reddy and Randerath [Reddy, M.V., Randerath, K., 1986. Nuclease P1-mediated enhancement of sensitivity of {sup 32}P-postlabelling test for structurally diverse DNA adducts. Carcinogenesis 7, 1543-1551]. Specimens collected in the upper part of the Seine estuary were shown to accumulate higher levels of PAH (up to 1.6 {mu}g g{sup -1} dry weight) in comparison to individuals from the reference site (0.053 {mu}g g{sup -1} dry weight). The former exhibited elevated levels of DNA adducts (up to 4.0/10{sup 8} nucleotides) and higher diversity of individual adducts with five distinct spots being specifically detected in individuals originating from the Seine estuary. Zebra mussels exposed for 5 days to 0.01% (v/v) of organic extract of sediment from the Seine estuary were shown to accumulate high amounts of PAH (up to 138 {mu}g g{sup -1} dry weight) but exhibited relatively low levels of DNA adducts. Exposure to benzo[a]pyrene led to a dose-dependent accumulation of B[a]P (up to 7063 {mu}g g{sup -1} dry weight) and a clear induction of DNA adduct formation in the digestive gland of mussels (up to 1.13/10{sup 8} nucleotides). Comparisons with other bivalves exposed to the same model PAH, revealed similar levels of adducts and comparable adduct profiles with a main adduct spot and a second faint one. This study clearly demonstrated that zebra mussels are able to biotransform B[a]P and probably other PAH into reactive metabolites with DNA-binding activity. This work also demonstrated the applicability of the nuclease P1 enhanced {sup 32}P-postlabelling method for bulky adduct detection in the digestive gland of zebra mussels. DNA adduct measurement in

  3. Canning process that diminishes paralytic shellfish poison in naturally contaminated mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieites, J M; Botana, L M; Vieytes, M R; Leira, F J

    1999-05-01

    Changes in toxin profile and total toxicity levels of paralytic shellfish poison (PSP)-containing mussels were monitored during the standard canning process of pickled mussels and mussels in brine using mouse bioassays and high-performance liquid chromatography. Detoxification percentages for canned mussel meat exceeded 50% of initial toxicity. Total toxicity reduction did not fully correspond to toxin destruction, which was due to the loss of PSP to cooking water and packing media of the canned product. Significant differences in detoxification percentages were due to changes in toxin profile during heat treatment in packing media. Toxin conversion phenomena should be determined to validate detoxification procedures in the canning industry.

  4. Evaluation of caged freshwater mussels as an alternative method for environmental effects monitoring (EEM) studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martel, Pierre; Kovacs, Tibor; Voss, Ron; Megraw, Stan

    2003-01-01

    Results from caged mussel experiments agreed with benthic invertebrate surveys, but not with trends observed for fish. - On three occasions between 1998 and 2000, freshwater mussels were collected by divers in Lake Memphremagog during the spring and transplanted to various locations in the St-Francois River (Quebec, Canada). Mussel growth was monitored by comparing total weight and length at the beginning and end of the exposure period. In 1998, mussels were caged for 60 days at 10 stations, including locations receiving treated effluents from three pulp and paper mills. Overall, there was an apparent trend of increased mussel growth from upstream to downstream along the river. However, mussels caged downstream from the effluent discharge of a bleached kraft pulp and paper mill grew more slowly than those caged immediately upstream in the river. In 1999 and 2000, we further investigated the situation in the vicinity of this bleached kraft mill. The measurements again indicated that growth of mussels in the effluent plume from this mill was reduced in comparison to sites upstream. Overall, in terms of growth, the caged mussels responded both positively and negatively to different environmental conditions. Compared with other monitoring approaches used at these sites during the same period, the caged mussel experiment results were consistent with the trends observed with the benthic invertebrate survey but not with the trends observed for fish

  5. Allometric relationships of 210Po and 210Pb in mussels and their application to environmental monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carvalho, Fernando P.; Oliveira, Joao M.; Alberto, Georgeta; Vives i Batlle, J.

    2010-01-01

    Mussels from the Portuguese coast collected during several seasons of the year have shown 210 Po and 210 Pb body burdens (Bq mussel -1 ) that increased with mussels' body size but displayed significant decrease in radionuclide concentrations (Bq kg -1 ). For example, the increase of mussel size from 2.5 cm to 5.0 cm maximum shell length corresponded in average to a 50% decrease of 210 Po activity concentration in soft tissues from 1065 Bq kg -1 (dw) to 540 Bq kg -1 (dw). A similar reduction in concentration was observed for 210 Pb. The physiological condition of mussels, relating to fat and glycogen storage, had an effect on radionuclide concentrations, although the total body burden of radionuclide in mussels remained nearly constant throughout the year. These factors may play an important role in data interpretation for environmental monitoring programmes. Besides the mussel size and condition index, due to the inter-individual variation even inside narrow mussel size classes, the sample size, i.e., the number of specimens in one mussel sample is another key factor to be considered when obtaining environmentally representative radionuclide concentrations.

  6. Evaluation of freshwater mussel relocation as a conservation and management strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cope, W. Gregory; Waller, Diane L.

    1995-01-01

    The relocation of unionacean mussels is commonly used as a conservation and management tool in large rivers and streams. Relocation has been used to recolonize areas where mussel populations have been eliminated by prior pollution events, to remove mussels from construction zones and to re-establish populations of endangered species. More recently, relocation has been used to protect native freshwater mussels from colonization by the exotic zebra mussel Dreissena polymorpha. We conducted a literature review of mussel relocations and evaluated their relative success as a conservation and management strategy. We found that 43% of all relocations were conducted because of construction projects that were forced to comply with the Endangered Species Act 1973 and that only 16% were monitored for five or more consecutive years. Most (43%) relocation projects were conducted from July to September, presumably a period when reproductive stress is relatively low for most species and the metabolic rate is sufficient for reburrowing in the substrate. The mortality of relocated mussels was unreported in 27% of projects; reported mortality varied widely among projects and species and was difficult to assess. The mean mortality of relocated mussels was 49% based on an average recovery rate of 43%. There is little guidance on the methods for relocation or for monitoring the subsequent long-term status of relocated mussels. Based on this evaluation, research is needed to develop criteria for selecting a suitable relocation site and to establish appropriate methods and guidelines for conducting relocation projects.

  7. Mitigation of unionid mortality caused by zebra mussel infestation: cleaning of unionids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schloesser, Don W.

    1996-01-01

    Exotic zebra mussels Dreissena polymorpha have infested and caused mortality of native unionids in the Great Lakes since 1986; no other such parasitism of native unionids occurs in North America. Survival of unionids threatened by zebra mussel infestation was tested by suspending uncleaned and cleaned unionids in nearshore waters of western Lake Erie. Survival was determined, and newly settled zebra mussels were removed from clean unionids at eight intervals that ranged from 21 d to 77 d between 5 July 1990 and 3 July 1991. After 1 year, survival rates of uncleaned and cleaned unionids were 0% and 42%, respectively. Of the 10 species examined, only indivduals from 3 species (Amblema plicata plicata, Fusconaia flava, and Quadrula quadrula) survived 1 year. These species have relatively thick shells, which may have contributed to their survival. Removal of newly settled zebra mussels may be important to unionid survival because 98% of the zebra mussels removed after the initial cleaning were small mussels (zebra mussels cause mortality of unionids, but the removal of zebra mussels from unionids is the only method known that successfully reduces unionid mortality in waters colonized by zebra mussels.

  8. California mussels (Mytilus californianus) as sentinels for marine contamination with Sarcocystis neurona.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michaels, Lauren; Rejmanek, Daniel; Aguilar, Beatriz; Conrad, Patricia; Shapiro, Karen

    2016-05-01

    Sarcocystis neurona is a terrestrial parasite that can cause fatal encephalitis in the endangered Southern sea otter (Enhydra lutris nereis). To date, neither risk factors associated with marine contamination nor the route of S. neurona infection to marine mammals has been described. This study evaluated coastal S. neurona contamination using California mussels (Mytilus californianus) as sentinels for pathogen pollution. A field investigation was designed to test the hypotheses that (1) mussels can serve as sentinels for S. neurona contamination, and (2) S. neurona contamination in mussels would be highest during the rainy season and in mussels collected near freshwater. Initial validation of molecular assays through sporocyst spiking experiments revealed the ITS-1500 assay to be most sensitive for detection of S. neurona, consistently yielding parasite amplification at concentrations ⩾5 sporocysts/1 mL mussel haemolymph. Assays were then applied on 959 wild-caught mussels, with detection of S. neurona confirmed using sequence analysis in three mussels. Validated molecular assays for S. neurona detection in mussels provide a novel toolset for investigating marine contamination with this parasite, while confirmation of S. neurona in wild mussels suggests that uptake by invertebrates may serve as a route of transmission to susceptible marine animals.

  9. Water and sediment temperatures at mussel beds in the upper Mississippi River basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newton, Teresa J.; Sauer, Jennifer; Karns, Byron

    2013-01-01

    Native freshwater mussels are in global decline and urgently need protection and conservation. Declines in the abundance and diversity of North American mussels have been attributed to human activities that cause pollution, waterquality degradation, and habitat destruction. Recent studies suggest that effects of climate change may also endanger native mussel assemblages, as many mussel species are living close to their upper thermal tolerances. Adult and juvenile mussels spend a large fraction of their lives burrowed into sediments of rivers and lakes. Our objective was to measure surface water and sediment temperatures at known mussel beds in the Upper Mississippi (UMR) and St. Croix (SCR) rivers to estimate the potential for sediments to serve as thermal refugia. Across four mussel beds in the UMR and SCR, surface waters were generally warmer than sediments in summer, and were cooler than sediments in winter. This suggests that sediments may act as a thermal buffer for mussels in these large rivers. Although the magnitude of this effect was usually cause mortality in laboratory studies. These data suggest that elevated water temperatures resulting from global warming, thermal discharges, water extraction, and/or droughts have the potential to adversely affect native mussel assemblages.

  10. Flexibility of Physiological Traits Underlying Inter-Individual Growth Differences in Intertidal and Subtidal Mussels Mytilusgalloprovincialis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María José Fernández-Reiriz

    Full Text Available Mussel seed (Mytilusgalloprovincialis gathered from the intertidal and subtidal environments of a Galician embayment (NW, Spain were maintained in the laboratory during five months to select fast (F and slow (S growing mussels. The physiological basis underlying inter-individual growth variations were compared for F and S mussels from both origins. Fast growing seemed to be a consequence of greater energy intake (20% higher clearance and ingestion rate and higher food absorption rate coupled with low metabolic costs. The enhanced energy absorption (around 65% higher resulted in 3 times higher Scope for Growth in F mussels (20.5±4.9 J h(-1 than S individuals (7.3±1.1 J h(-1. The higher clearance rate of F mussels appears to be linked with larger gill filtration surface compared to S mussels. Intertidal mussels showed higher food acquisition and absorption per mg of organic weight (i.e. mass-specific standardization than subtidal mussels under the optimal feeding conditions of the laboratory. However, the enhanced feeding and digestive rates were not enough to compensate for the initial differences in tissue weight between mussels of similar shell length collected from the intertidal and subtidal environments. At the end of the experiment, subtidal individuals had higher gill efficiency, which probably lead to higher total feeding and absorption rates relative to intertidal individuals.

  11. Farmers risk perception and risk management strategies in an emerging mussel aquaculture industry in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahsan, Dewan; Roth, Eva

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this exploratory study is to provide empirical insight into how the mussel farmers perceive and manage risks. The results show that future price and demand of mussel are the high ranked perceived risk. Bad weather, oxygen depletion, harmful algal blooms, E-coli, change in governmental...... regulation and public view towards mussel culture are also considered important risk factors in mussel farming. On the other hand, produced at lowest possible cost, cooperative marketing, good relation with government, prioritize liquidity, adopt new technology and experience sharing are perceived most...

  12. The Effect of Zebra Mussels on Algal Community Structure in an Impounded River System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trumble, A. F.; Luttenton, M.

    2005-05-01

    The zebra mussel, Dreissena polymorpha, invaded the Great Lakes Region in the mid 1980's, and subsequently colonized inland lakes and coastal river systems through secondary invasions. The Muskegon River below Croton Dam was colonized by zebra mussels in 2000 following their introduction into Croton impoundment in the late 1990's. No zebra mussels were found below Croton Dam in 1999 but had increased to 25,000 m-2 by 2001. We examined the affect of zebra mussels on epilithic periphyton communities by comparing plots that were and were not colonized by zebra mussels. Chlorophyll a increased in both treatments over time but was significantly higher in control plots than in zebra mussel plots. The concentration of chlorophyll a in the control plots increased from 14 µgcm-2 to 26 µgcm-2 and the concentration in the zebra mussel plots started at 12 µgcm-2, peaked at 19 µgcm-2, and then decreased to 15 µgcm-2 over a 6 week period. In a related experiment using artificial streams, chlorophyll a increased with increasing zebra mussel density, but differences were not significant. The different trends observed between the two experiments may be explained in part by arthropod invertebrates associated with zebra mussel populations.

  13. Evaluation of zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha) as biomonitors of mercury contamination in aquatic ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackwell, Bradley D; Driscoll, Charles T; Spada, Michael E; Todorova, Svetoslava G; Montesdeoca, Mario R

    2013-03-01

    Zebra mussels have invaded many lakes in the United States and could be a useful tool for monitoring responses of aquatic biota to changes in mercury loading. The goal of the present study was to evaluate zebra mussels for use as a biomonitor of mercury contamination by comparing zebra mussel mercury concentrations between a lake with only indirect atmospheric mercury contamination (Otisco Lake, NY, USA) and a lake that was directly contaminated by mercury discharges (Onondaga Lake, NY, USA). Zebra mussels were sampled in both the spring and fall of 2004 and 2005. Total mercury (THg) concentrations in zebra mussels were approximately seven times greater in Onondaga Lake than in Otisco Lake, and water column mercury concentrations differed by an order of magnitude between the two lakes. Seasonal differences resulted in significantly higher zebra mussel THg concentrations during the fall for both lakes. There was also significant variation among different sampling sites in Onondaga Lake. Mussel methylmercury concentrations averaged 53% of THg concentrations but were highly variable. Strong relationships between water column THg and zebra mussel THg suggest that zebra mussels are a good indicator of aquatic mercury concentrations and could be used as an effective biomonitor of mercury contamination in aquatic ecosystems. Copyright © 2013 SETAC.

  14. Trade-off between increased survival and reduced growth for blue mussels living on Pacific oyster reefs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eschweiler, Nina; Christensen, Helle Torp

    2011-01-01

    Pacific oysters Crassostrea gigas (Thunberg 1793) have been introduced into the Wadden Sea (North Sea, Germany) in the mid of the 1980s and have invaded native blue mussel Mytilus edulis (L.) beds. The latter turned into oyster reefs where mussels seem to be relegated to the bottom in between...... the much larger oysters. By combining field and laboratory experiments, we reveal how mussels react to cohabitation with the invasive oysters. Mussels subjected to direct contact with crabs Carcinus maenas migrate from top to bottom positions between oysters in both field and laboratory experiments within...... 22days. Shell growth was significantly reduced for mussels placed on the bottom compared to mussels at the top of an oyster reef. Condition index was lower for mussels on the bottom of the reef irrespective of whether placed between dead or living oysters. We conclude that mussels experience a trade...

  15. On the dynamics of the stocks of blue mussels ( Mytilus edulis L.) in the Danish Wadden Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munch-Petersen, Sten; Kristensen, Per Sand

    2001-01-01

    As biological basis for the monitoring programme for the commercially exploited stock(s) of mussels (Mytilus edulis L.) in the Danish Wadden Sea, samples of mussels have been collected regularly since 1986, both from sub-tidal and inter- tidal mussel beds. These samples are the basis for the esti...... with figures from other investigations. These analyses have been the basis for annual assessments of the mussel stocks, which again are used in the current management of mussel fishery in the Danish Wadden Sea.......As biological basis for the monitoring programme for the commercially exploited stock(s) of mussels (Mytilus edulis L.) in the Danish Wadden Sea, samples of mussels have been collected regularly since 1986, both from sub-tidal and inter- tidal mussel beds. These samples are the basis...

  16. Habitat engineering by the invasive zebra mussel Dreissena polymorpha (Pallas) in a boreal coastal lagoon: impact on biodiversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaiko, Anastasija; Daunys, Darius; Olenin, Sergej

    2009-03-01

    Habitat engineering role of the invasive zebra mussel Dreissena polymorpha (Pallas) was studied in the Curonian lagoon, a shallow water body in the SE Baltic. Impacts of live zebra mussel clumps and its shell deposits on benthic biodiversity were differentiated and referred to unmodified (bare) sediments. Zebra mussel bed was distinguished from other habitat types by higher benthic invertebrate biomass, abundance, and species richness. The impact of live mussels on biodiversity was more pronounced than the effect of shell deposits. The structure of macrofaunal community in the habitats with >103 g/m2 of shell deposits devoid of live mussels was similar to that found within the zebra mussel bed. There was a continuous shift in species composition and abundance along the gradient ‘bare sediments—shell deposits—zebra mussel bed’. The engineering impact of zebra mussel on the benthic community became apparent both in individual patches and landscape-level analyses.

  17. Biokinetics of 237Np in mussels and shrimp

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guary, J.C.; Fowler, S.W.

    1977-01-01

    Neptunium-237 kinetics were studied in marine shrimp and mussels using a thick source alpha counting technique. Bioaccumulation of 237 Np from water was relatively slow in both species, reaching whole body concentration factors of only 15 to 20 after three months. Surface adsorption was implicated in the initial uptake. Both uptake and loss of the radioisotope were not significantly affected by temperature; this may be a reflection of the physical nature of the uptake. By virtue of the large amounts of accumulated 237 Np associated with the exoskeleton of shrimp, molting will play an important role in the biogeochemical cycling of this transuranic in the marine environment. Rapid growth of organisms like mussels acts to reduce the 237 Np concentration in tissues during a period of decontamination

  18. Evaluating high pH for control of dreissenid mussels

    OpenAIRE

    Dave Evans; Sergey E. Mastitsky; Katherine L. Prescott; Thomas H. Prescott; Renata Claudi; Anna Carolina Taraborelli

    2013-01-01

    Two field experiments were carried out using a custom built flow-through laboratory to test the effect of elevated pH on dreissenid musselsas a potential control method. Both experiments tested the ability of dreissenid pediveligers to settle under conditions of elevated pH and thelong-term survival of adult dreissenids under the same conditions. The two experimental sites had different water quality and differentspecies of dreissenids present. The settlement of quagga mussel pediveligers at ...

  19. Quagga and Zebra Mussel Eradication and Control Tactics

    OpenAIRE

    Culver, Carolynn; Lahr, Heather; Johnson, Leigh; Cassell, Jodi

    2013-01-01

    Aquatic invasive species (AIS)continue to threaten coastal and marine habitats in California. The goal of this project is to conduct research and develop outreach materials that help agencies, groups and individuals prevent, eradication and control AIS. Current objectives include: 1) investigate recruitment dynamics of quagga mussels in southern California to provide baseline informaiton on infestations in various locations, inform monitoring efforts and to identify factors influencing the su...

  20. Mechanical design of mussel byssus: material yield enhances attachment strength

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell; Gosline

    1996-01-01

    The competitive dominance of mussels in the wave-swept rocky intertidal zone is in part due to their ability to maintain a secure attachment. Mussels are tethered to the substratum by a byssus composed of numerous extracellular, collagenous threads secreted by the foot. Each byssal thread has three serially arranged parts: a corrugated proximal region, a smooth distal region and an adhesive plaque. This study examines the material and structural properties of the byssal threads of three mussel species: Mytilus californianus, M. trossulus, and M. galloprovincialis. Tensile tests in general reveal similar material properties among species: the proximal region has a lower initial modulus, a lower ultimate stress and a higher ultimate strain than the distal region. The distal region also yields at a stress well below its ultimate value. In whole thread tests, the proximal region and adhesive plaque are common sites of structural failure and are closely matched in strength, while the distal region appears to be excessively strong. We propose that the high strength of the distal region is the byproduct of a material designed to yield and extend before structural failure occurs. Experimental and theoretical evidence is presented suggesting that thread yield and extensibility provide two important mechanisms for increasing the overall attachment strength of the mussel: (1) the reorientation of threads towards the direction of applied load, and (2) the 'recruitment' of more threads into tension and the consequent distribution of applied load over a larger cross-sectional area, thereby reducing the stress on each thread. This distal region yield behavior is most striking for M. californianus and may be a key to its success in extreme wave-swept environments.

  1. The use of waste mussel shells for the adsorption of dyes and heavy metals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadimitriou, Chrysi A.; Krey, Grigorios; Stamatis, Nikolaos; Kallaniotis, Argyris

    2016-04-01

    Mussel culture is very important sector of the Greek agricultural economy. The majority of mussel culture activities take place in the area of Central Macedonia, Greece, 60% of total mussel production in Greece producing almost 12 tons of waste mussels shells on a daily basis. Currently there is no legislation concerning the disposal of mussel shells. In the present study the waste shells were used for the removal of dyes and heavy metals from aqueous solutions while powdered mussel shells were added in activated sludge processes for the removal of hexavalent chromium. Mussel shells were cleaned, dried and then crushed in order to form a powder. Powdered mussels shells were used in standard adsorption experiments for the removal of methylene blue and methyl red as well as for the removal of Cr (VI), Cd and Cu. Moreover the powdered mussel shells were added in laboratory scale activated sludge reactors treating synthetic wastewater with hexavalent chromium, in order investigate the effects in activated sludge processes and their potential attribution to the removal of hexavalent chromium. Adsorption experiments indicated almost 100% color removal, while adsorption was directly proportional to the amount of powdered mussel shells added in each case. The isotherms calculated for the case of methylene blue indicated similar adsorption capacity and properties to those of the commercially available activated carbon SAE 2, Norit. High removal efficiencies were observed for the metals, especially in the case of chromium and copper. The addition of powdered mussel shells in the activated sludge processes enhanced the removal of chromium and phosphorus, while enabled the formation of heavier activated sludge flocs and thus enhanced the settling properties of the activated sludge.

  2. Stoichiometric constraints do not limit successful invaders: zebra mussels in Swedish lakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naddafi, Rahmat; Eklöv, Peter; Pettersson, Kurt

    2009-01-01

    Elemental imbalances of carbon (C): nitrogen (N): phosphorus (P) ratios in food resources can constrain the growth of grazers owning to tight coupling between growth rate, RNA allocation and biomass P content in animals. Testing for stoichiometric constraints among invasive species is a novel challenge in invasion ecology to unravel how a successful invader tackles ecological barriers in novel ecosystems. We examined the C:P and N:P ratios and the condition factor of a successful invader in lakes, the zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha), collected from two Swedish lakes. Concurrently, we analyzed the elemental composition of the food (seston) and tissue of the mussels in which nutrient composition of food and mussels varied over time. Zebra mussel condition factor was weakly related to the their own tissue N:P and C:P ratios, although the relation with the later ratio was not significant. Smaller mussels had relatively lower tissue N:P ratio and higher condition factor. There was no difference in C:P and N:P ratios between seston and mussels' tissues. Our results indicated that the variation in nutrient stoichiometry of zebra mussels can be explained by food quality and quantity. Our study suggests that fitness of invasive zebra mussels is not constrained by nutrient stoichiometry which is likely to be important for their proliferation in novel ecosystems. The lack of imbalance in C:P and N:P ratios between seston and mussels along with high tissue C:P ratio of the mussel allow them to tolerate potential P limitation and maintain high growth rate. Moreover, zebra mussels are able to change their tissue C:P and N:P ratios in response to the variation in elemental composition of their food. This can also help them to bypass potential nutrient stoichiometric constraints. Our finding is an important step towards understanding the mechanisms contributing to the success of exotic species from stoichiometric principles.

  3. Stoichiometric constraints do not limit successful invaders: zebra mussels in Swedish lakes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahmat Naddafi

    Full Text Available Elemental imbalances of carbon (C: nitrogen (N: phosphorus (P ratios in food resources can constrain the growth of grazers owning to tight coupling between growth rate, RNA allocation and biomass P content in animals. Testing for stoichiometric constraints among invasive species is a novel challenge in invasion ecology to unravel how a successful invader tackles ecological barriers in novel ecosystems.We examined the C:P and N:P ratios and the condition factor of a successful invader in lakes, the zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha, collected from two Swedish lakes. Concurrently, we analyzed the elemental composition of the food (seston and tissue of the mussels in which nutrient composition of food and mussels varied over time. Zebra mussel condition factor was weakly related to the their own tissue N:P and C:P ratios, although the relation with the later ratio was not significant. Smaller mussels had relatively lower tissue N:P ratio and higher condition factor. There was no difference in C:P and N:P ratios between seston and mussels' tissues. Our results indicated that the variation in nutrient stoichiometry of zebra mussels can be explained by food quality and quantity.Our study suggests that fitness of invasive zebra mussels is not constrained by nutrient stoichiometry which is likely to be important for their proliferation in novel ecosystems. The lack of imbalance in C:P and N:P ratios between seston and mussels along with high tissue C:P ratio of the mussel allow them to tolerate potential P limitation and maintain high growth rate. Moreover, zebra mussels are able to change their tissue C:P and N:P ratios in response to the variation in elemental composition of their food. This can also help them to bypass potential nutrient stoichiometric constraints. Our finding is an important step towards understanding the mechanisms contributing to the success of exotic species from stoichiometric principles.

  4. Biomarker responses of mussels exposed to earthquake disturbances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandurvelan, Rathishri; Marsden, Islay D.; Glover, Chris N.; Gaw, Sally

    2016-12-01

    The green-lipped mussel, Perna canaliculus is recognised as a bioindicator of coastal contamination in New Zealand (NZ). Mussels (shell length 60-80 mm) were collected from three intertidal areas of Canterbury in the South Island of NZ prior to extreme earthquake disturbances on 22nd February 2011, and 9 months later in October 2011. Trace elements, including arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu), lead (Pb), nickel (Ni), and zinc (Zn), were measured in the gills, digestive gland, foot and mantle. Metal levels in tissues were site specific, and mostly unaffected by earthquake disturbances. Physiological biomarkers were negatively affected by earthquake disturbances and mussels from the Port of Lyttelton had higher negative scope for growth post-earthquake. Metallothionein-like protein in the digestive gland correlated with metal content of tissues, as did catalase activity in the gill and lipid peroxidation values for the digestive gland. This research demonstrates that physiological and other biomarkers are effective at detecting the effects of multiple stressors following seismic disturbances.

  5. Pollutants bioavailability and toxicological risk from microplastics to marine mussels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avio, Carlo Giacomo; Gorbi, Stefania; Milan, Massimo; Benedetti, Maura; Fattorini, Daniele; D'Errico, Giuseppe; Pauletto, Marianna; Bargelloni, Luca; Regoli, Francesco

    2015-01-01

    Microplastics represent a growing environmental concern for the oceans due to their potential of adsorbing chemical pollutants, thus representing a still unexplored source of exposure for aquatic organisms. In this study polyethylene (PE) and polystyrene (PS) microplastics were shown to adsorb pyrene with a time and dose-dependent relationship. Results also indicated a marked capability of contaminated microplastics to transfer this model PAH to exposed mussels Mytilus galloprovincialis; tissue localization of microplastics occurred in haemolymph, gills and especially digestive tissues where a marked accumulation of pyrene was also observed. Cellular effects included alterations of immunological responses, lysosomal compartment, peroxisomal proliferation, antioxidant system, neurotoxic effects, onset of genotoxicity; changes in gene expression profile was also demonstrated through a new DNA microarray platform. The study provided the evidence that microplastics adsorb PAHs, emphasizing an elevated bioavailability of these chemicals after the ingestion, and the toxicological implications due to responsiveness of several molecular and cellular pathways to microplastics. - Highlights: • Polyethylene and polystyrene microplastics efficiently adsorbed pyrene. • Pyrene adsorbed on microplastics was readily bioavailable for mussels. • Microplastics affected several molecular and cellular pathways. • Potential toxicological risk can arise from virgin and contaminated microplastics. - Pyrene adsorbed on microplastics is accumulated in tissues of marine mussels. Transcriptional and cellular responses highlight the potential risk of virgin and contaminated polymers

  6. Mercury in mussels of Bellingham Bay, Washington, (USA)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roesijadi, G.; Drum, A.S.; Bridge, J.R.

    1978-11-01

    Laboratory experiments demonstrated the existence of metallothionein-like, low molecular weight, mercury-binding proteins in the marine mussel Mytilus edulis. Relatively large quantities of mercury were associated with such proteins in gills and digestive gland, the organs of interest in the present study. /sup 14/C-incorporation indicated induction of the protein in gills, but not in digestive gland. Mercury in digestive gland may have bound to existing metal-binding proteins. Short-term incorporation of mercury occurred primarily in gills. The induction of mercury-binding proteins in gills may have facilitated detoxification of mercury at the site of uptake. Mercury in mussels of Bellingham Bay were shown to have decreased from 1970 to 1978, the collection date for the present study. Mercury levels were low but approximately three times higher than those from uncontaminated areas. Mercury associated with the mercury-binding protein of gills and digestive glands of Bellingham Bay mussels were low and reflected the concentrations measured in the whole tissues. However, the highest concentration of mercury was associated with the low molecular pool components, the identity of which is not presently known.

  7. Pseudodiarrhoea in zebra mussels Dreissena polymorpha (Pallas) exposed to microcystins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juhel, Guillaume; Davenport, John; O'Halloran, John; Culloty, Sarah; Ramsay, Ruth; James, Kevin; Furey, Ambrose; Allis, Orla

    2006-03-01

    Microcystins are produced by bloom-forming cyanobacteria and pose significant health and ecological problems. In this study we show that zebra mussels respond differently to different strains of Microcystis aeruginosa, and that a highly toxic strain causes zebra mussels to produce large quantities of mucous pseudofaeces, 'pseudodiarrhoea', that are periodically expelled hydraulically through the pedal gape by shell valve adductions rather than by the normal ciliary tracts. Analysis of the pseudofaecal ejecta showed that the proportion of Microcystis aeruginosa relative to Asterionella formosa was high in the pseudofaeces and even higher in the 'pseudodiarrhoea' when a mixed diet was given to the mussels. This confirms that very toxic Microcystis aeruginosa were preferentially being rejected by comparison with the non-toxic diatom in the pseudofaeces and even more so in the 'pseudodiarrhoea'. Such selective rejection was not observed with low or non-toxic strains and would therefore tend to enhance the presence of toxic Microcystis aeruginosa in mixed Microcystis aeruginosa cyanobacterial blooms, as well as transferring toxins from the water column to the benthos. The observed acute irritant response to the toxin represents the first demonstration of an adverse sublethal effect of microcystins on invertebrate ecophysiology. Our results also suggest that it could be a specific response to microcystin-LF, a little studied toxin variant.

  8. Impact of the blue mussel Mytilus edulis on the microbial food web in the western Wadden Sea, The Netherlands.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jacobs, P.; Riegman, R.; van der Meer, J.

    2015-01-01

    To study the impact of juvenile blue mussels Mytilus edulis on the microbial food web in the Dutch Wadden Sea, natural sea water was first exposed to mussel filtration. Subsequently, filtered plankton communities were used in a dilution experiment to establish mussel-induced changes in bacterial,

  9. Impact of the blue mussel Mytilus edulis on the microbial food web in the western Wadden Sea, the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jacobs, P.; Riegman, R.; Meer, van der J.

    2015-01-01

    To study the impact of juvenile blue mussels Mytilus edulis on the microbial food web in the Dutch Wadden Sea, natural sea water was first exposed to mussel filtration. Subsequently, filtered plankton communities were used in a dilution experiment to establish mussel-induced changes in bacterial,

  10. Interactions between the introduced Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas and the indigenous blue mussel Mytilus edulis. Local-scale food competition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hans, I.W.

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine if food competition between mussels and oysters occurs, and how mussel and oyster growth is affected by this interaction. This was done by relating mussel growth to oyster density relating oyster growth to oyster biomass and perform a field control, by

  11. Dredging of blue mussels ( Mytilus edulis L.) in a Danish sound: stock sizes and fishery-effects on mussel population dynamic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dolmer, Per; Kristensen, Per Sand; Hoffmann, Erik

    1999-01-01

    In April 1993, 1994 and 1995 the abundance of blue mussels, Mytilus edulis L., was estimated in Limfjorden, Denmark. The stocks were assessed by using a down-scaled model of a commercial mussel dredge which efficiency was analysed by comparing its samples with others collected by diver. The mean...... dredge efficiency was 17%. The fishing area in Limfjorden (700 km(2)) is divided into 22 fishery zones and mussel stock size was calculated for each zone. From April 1993 to April 1994 the total stock size declined from 771 000 to 616 000 t. In the same period, the exploitation rate in the fishery was 14...

  12. Predation of the zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha) by freshwater drum in western Lake Erie

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, John R. P.; Bur, Michael T.; Nalepa, Thomas F.; Schloesser, Donald W.

    1992-01-01

    Environmental and economic problems associated with the colonization of zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha) in western Lake Erie created a need to investigate control mechanisms. Predation by fishes is one potential means of control, but predation on zebra mussels by native fishes in Lake Erie is unknown. The freshwater drum (Aplodinotus grunniens) is the most likely fish predator since it is the only fish with pharyngeal teeth capable of crushing mollusk shells. In 1990, freshwater drum were collected in western Lake Erie from 9 sites near rocky reefs and 13 sites with silt or sand bottoms, and gut contents were examined. Predation on zebra mussels increased as drum size increased. Small drum (200-249 mm in length) fed mainly on dipterans, amphipods, and small fish; small zebra mussels (375 mm in length) fed almost exclusively on zebra mussels (seasons and locations combined). The smallest drum capable of crushing zebra mussel shells was 265 mm. Since freshwater drum over 375 mm feed heavily on zebra mussels, they may become a possible biological control mechanism for mussels in portions of North America.

  13. Modelling the effects of diving ducks on zebra mussels Dreissena polymorpha in lakes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nes, van E.H.; Noordhuis, R.; Lammens, E.H.R.R.; Portielje, R.; Reeze, B.; Peeters, E.T.H.M.

    2008-01-01

    An individual-based model describing the growth of zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha) is presented. The model is spatially explicit and predicts length¿frequency distributions of zebra mussels. The parameters and model inputs with the strongest effect on the model outcomes were identified using a

  14. Freshwater mussel assemblage structure in a regulated river in the Lower Mississippi river Alluvial Basin, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wendell R. Haag; Melvin L. Warren

    2007-01-01

    1. This paper documents a diverse, reproducing freshwater mussel community (20 species) in Lower Lake } an impounded, regulated portion of the Little Tallahatchie River below Sardis Dam in Panola Co., Mississippi, USA. 2. Despite being regulated and impounded, the lake has a heterogeneous array of habitats that differ markedly in mussel community attributes...

  15. Current Distributional Information on Freshwater Mussels (family Unionidae) in Mississippi National Forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wendell R. Haag; Melvin L. Warren

    1995-01-01

    Little is known about the distribution of freshwater mussels in Mississippi national forests. Review of the scant available information revealed that the national forests harbor a diverse mussel fauna of possibly 46 or more species (including confirmed, probable, and potential occurrences). Occurrence of 33 species is confirmed. Because of the geographic, physiographic...

  16. Baseline levels of benzo(a)pyrene in southern California mussels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunn, B P [Univ. of British Columbia, Vancouver; Young, D R

    1976-12-01

    Marine mussels accumulate the carcinogen benzo(a)-pyrene from contaminated environments. Baseline studies in California indicate that levels of the carcinogen in mussels are at or near zero, except in areas of human activity. This finding runs counter to previous suggestions that benzo(a)pyrene is widely distributed in marine organisms.

  17. Recovery and recruitment of the brown mussel, Perna perna (L.), in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The brown mussel Perna perna, has been an important food resource for indigenous inhabitants of the Transkei coast for centuries. The impoverished state of mussel stocks in this region and major differences in lowshore community structure between exploited and protected areas, have been ascribed to the ...

  18. Reducing the Effects of Maintenance Dredging on Freshwater Mussels in the Alabama River, Alabama

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Miller, Andrew

    2000-01-01

    In September 1998, detailed studies of freshwater mussels (Family: Unionidae) were conducted at four mussel beds in the Alabama River, located at River Miles (RM) 20.2-20.4,30.1-30.4, 121.8-122.6, and 124.4-124.9...

  19. Reducing the Effects of Maintenance Dredging on Freshwater Mussels in the Alabama River, Alabama

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Miller, Andrew

    2000-01-01

    In September 1998, detailed studies of freshwater mussels (Family: Unionidae) were conducted at four mussel beds in the Alabama River, located at River Miles (RM) 20.2-20.4, 30.1-30.4,121.8-122.6, and 124.4-124.9...

  20. The invasive Asian green mussel Perna viridis in South Africa: all ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Asian green mussel Perna viridis is an invasive Indo-Pacific species recently reported from South African harbours. To verify the invasion, a phylogenetic (and morphological) analysis of green-shelled mussels (n = 39), found in six South African harbours, was conducted using the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase ...

  1. An analysis of mussel bed habitats in the Dutch Wadden Sea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brinkman, A.G.; Dankers, N.M.J.A.; Stralen, van M.

    2002-01-01

    A habitat suitability analysis for littoral mussel beds in the Dutch Wadden Sea was carried out. The analysis was based on the presence of mussel beds in the years 1960-1970, and a number of environmental characteristics: wave action, flow velocity, median grain size, emersion times and distance to

  2. Seasonal variability in nutrient regeneration by mussel Mytilus edulis rope culture in oligotrophic systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, H.M.; Strand, O.; Strohmeier, T.; Krogness, C.; Verdegem, M.C.J.; Smaal, A.C.

    2011-01-01

    Blue mussel Mytilus edulis cultures contribute to nutrient cycling in coastal ecosystems. Mussel populations filter particulate nutrients from the water column and inorganic nutrients are regenerated by excretion of metabolic wastes and decomposition of (pseudo-)faeces. The objective of this study

  3. Integrated coastal monitoring of a gas processing plant using native and caged mussels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brooks, Steven, E-mail: sbr@niva.no [Norwegian Institute for Water Research (NIVA), Gaustadalleen 21, NO-0349 Oslo (Norway); Harman, Christopher [Norwegian Institute for Water Research (NIVA), Gaustadalleen 21, NO-0349 Oslo (Norway); Soto, Manu; Cancio, Ibon [CBET Res Grp, R and D Centre for Experimental Marine Biology and Biotechnology (PIE), Univ Basque Country, Areatza Z/G, Plentzia-Bizkaia, E-48620 Basque Country (Spain); Glette, Tormod [Det Norske Veritas (DNV), Veritasveien 1, 1363 Hovik (Norway); Marigomez, Ionan [CBET Res Grp, R and D Centre for Experimental Marine Biology and Biotechnology (PIE), Univ Basque Country, Areatza Z/G, Plentzia-Bizkaia, E-48620 Basque Country (Spain)

    2012-06-01

    The biological effects of a coastal process water (PW) discharge on native and caged mussels (Mytilus edulis) were assessed. Chemical analyses of mussel tissues and semi permeable membrane devices, along with a suite of biomarkers of different levels of biological complexity were measured. These were lysosomal membrane stability in haemocytes and digestive cells; micronuclei formation in haemocytes; changes in cell-type composition in the digestive gland epithelium; integrity of digestive gland tissue; peroxisome proliferation; and oxidative stress. Additionally the Integrative Biological Response (IBR/n) index was calculated. This integrative biomarker approach distinguished mussels, both native and caged, exhibiting different stress conditions not identified from the contaminant exposure. Mussels exhibiting higher stress responses were found with increased proximity to the PW discharge outlet. However, the biological effects reported could not be entirely attributed to the PW discharge based on the chemicals measured, but were likely due to either other chemicals in the discharge that were not measured, the general impact of the processing plant and or other activities in the local vicinity. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Good agreement between biomarkers for the different mussel groups. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer IBR/n was able to differentiate between exposed and reference mussels. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Mussels closest to the PW outlet were in poorest health. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Chemical concentrations were low or undetected in all SPMD and mussel samples. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Biomarker responses could not be entirely attributed to the PW discharge.

  4. Area-intensive bottom culture of blue mussels Mytilus edulis in a micro-tidal estuary

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dolmer, Per; Christensen, Helle Torp; Hansen, Benni Winding

    2012-01-01

    Dredge fishery for blue mussels Mytilus edulis (L.) impacts the benthic ecosystem, and substitution by area-intensive bottom culture production may reduce adverse effects on the ecosystem. Two different field studies in 2007 and 2009 tested the productivity of bottom culture of blue mussels, and ...

  5. Mussels and sediment as monitoring tools for contaminants: which to use when?

    Science.gov (United States)

    For decades, sediments and mussels have been used to assess the ecological and human health risks associated with concentrations of bioavailable organic and metal contaminants in a variety of coastal-wide and localized monitoring programs. Mussels (Mytilus edulis) bioaccumulate o...

  6. Detection of Cryptosporidium oocysts in green mussels (Perna viridis) from shell-fish markets of Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srisuphanunt, M; Wiwanitkit, Viroj; Saksirisampant, W; Karanis, P

    2009-09-01

    Mussels filter large volumes of water and can concentrate pathogenic organisms, which may act as potential vehicles of transmission to the consumer. A survey study was carried out to investigate the presence of Cryptosporidium protozoan parasites in green mussels (Perna viridis), the smussles pecies most destined for consumption in Thailand. In total, 56 samples were examined from Bangkok (n = 24) and Samut Prakan (n = 32) a wholesale shell-fish markets located at the mouth of the Chao Phraya River. The market for green mussels was closed to the mussel culture placed along the coastal line and this localization may have significant economical impact if the mussels' cultures are found contaminated. Cryptosporidium spp. oocysts were detected by the immunofluorescence antibody method (IFA) in 12.5% of the samples examined. The detection of Cryptosporidium oocysts in green mussels' population of Samut Prakan was higher (15.6%) than in Bangkok market (8.3%). These differences in positive samples from the two locations may be caused by physical, ecological and anthropogenic conditions. This could relay to different contamination levels of marine water by Cryptosporidium oocysts and consequently to contamination of harvested shellfish populations. The results demonstrate that the Cryptosporidium spp. oocysts were found indigenous in mussels from the coastal line of Thailand, indicating that mussels may act as a reservoir of Cryptosporidium foodborne infections for humans.

  7. Quagga mussels Dreissena rostriformis burgensis (Andrusov, 1897) in the Main River (Germany)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Velde, G. van der; Platvoet, D.

    2007-01-01

    The first record of the quagga mussel Dreissena rostriformis bugensis (Andrusov, 1897) in Germany is described. This species has expanded its distribution area in Europe at a slower rate than the zebra mussel Dreissena polymorpha (Pallas, 1771). Recent records from the Danube in Romania and from an

  8. Data on the changes of the mussels' metabolic profile under different cold storage conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aru, Violetta; Pisano, Maria Barbara; Savorani, Francesco

    2016-01-01

    galloprovincialis. This data article provides information on the average distribution of the microbial loads in mussels' specimens and on the acquisition, processing, and multivariate analysis of the 1H NMR spectra from the hydrosoluble phase of stored mussels. This data article is referred to the research article...

  9. Biofouling leads to reduced shell growth and flesh weight in the cultured mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sievers, Michael; Fitridge, Isla; Dempster, Tim; Keough, Michael J

    2013-01-01

    Competitive interactions between cultured mussels and fouling organisms may result in growth and weight reductions in mussels, and compromised aquaculture productivity. Mussel ropes were inoculated with Ciona intestinalis, Ectopleura crocea or Styela clava, and growth parameters of fouled and unfouled Mytilus galloprovincialis were compared after two months. Small mussels (≈ 50 mm) fouled by C. intestinalis and E. crocea were 4.0 and 3.2% shorter in shell length and had 21 and 13% reduced flesh weight, respectively, compared to the controls. Large mussels (≈ 68 mm) fouled by S. clava, C. intestinalis and E. crocea were 4.4, 3.9 and 2.1% shorter than control mussels, respectively, but flesh weights were not significantly reduced. A series of competitive feeding experiments indicated that S. clava and C. intestinalis did not reduce mussels' food consumption, but that E. crocea, through interference competition, did. Fouling by these species at the densities used here reduced mussel growth and flesh weight, likely resulting in economic losses for the industry, and requires consideration when developing biofouling mitigation strategies.

  10. Effects of elevated water temperature on physiological responses in adult freshwater mussels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganser, Alissa M.; Newton, Teresa J.; Haro, Roger J.

    2015-01-01

    Freshwater mussels (order Unionoida) face multiple environmental stressors, which pose serious conservation challenges to this diverse assemblage of aquatic invertebrates. Of these stressors, elevated water temperature from global climate change and other anthropogenic sources may be the most ubiquitous and could be placing many mussel populations dangerously close to their thermal maxima.

  11. The impact of the adult blue mussel (Mytilus edulis) population on settling of conspecific larvae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dolmer, Per; Stenalt, Ea

    2010-01-01

    The choice of a mussel bed as a settling locality by conspecific mussel larvae is a trade-off between reduced fitness due to an increased risk of larval predation and post-settling food competition with the filtering adults and the benefit from a reduced post-settling mortality. This reduced post...

  12. Host fishes and infection strategies of freshwater mussels in large Mobile Basin streams, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wendell R. Haag; Melvin L. Warren

    2003-01-01

    We investigated host fishes, timing and modes of glochidial release, and host-attraction strategies for 7 species of freshwater mussels from the Buttahatchee and Sipsey rivers (Mobile Basin), Alabama and Mississippi, USA. We determined hosts as fish species that produced juvenile mussels from laboratory-induced glochidial infections. We established the following...

  13. Effects of suspended sediments on food uptake for zebra mussels in Lake Markermeer, The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Penning, W.E.; Pozzato, L.; Vijverberg, T.; Noordhuis, R.; bij de Vaate, A.; Van Donk, E.; Dionisio Pires, L.M.

    2013-01-01

    Until 1992, zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha) were an important food source for diving ducks in Lake Markermeer (The Netherlands). After 1993, the mussel biomass sharply declined, and the current population is in poor condition (maximum shell length <15 mm) compared to populations from adjacent

  14. ANALYSIS OF MATERIALS IN AN EXPERIMENTAL TESTING PIPE SYSTEM FOR AN INHIBITOR OF MUSSEL KILL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daniel P. Molloy

    2003-06-04

    A comprehensive series of 16 laboratory experiments demonstrated that the presence of vinyl tubing within a recirculating pipe system was responsible for lowering zebra mussel kill following treatment with the bacterium Pseudomonas fluorescens. All vinyl tubing was replaced in all testing units with silicone tubing, and high mussel kill (>95%) was then obtained.

  15. ZEBRA MUSSEL COLONIZATION OF RUSTY CRAYFISH IN GREEN BAY, LAKE MICHIGAN

    Science.gov (United States)

    In August, 1995 six rusty crayfish colonized with zebra mussels were captured in small-meshed fyke-nets sets set apart as of a fish sampling effort at Peter's Marsh and Long-Tail Point Wetland in lower Green Bay. Mussels colonized virtually all areas of the crayfish bodies, but ...

  16. Newspaper Coverage of Zebra Mussels in North America : A Case of "Afghanistanism"?

    OpenAIRE

    Roush, Donny; Fortner, Rosanne

    1996-01-01

    Few environmental issues have arisen so abruptly, spread so rapidly, and been so clearly linked to human activity as has the introduction of nonindigenous zebra mussels to the surface freshwater of North America. This research examines communication patterns in information about zebra mussels as an example of how the mass media deal with threats to the environment.

  17. Assessment of metal element concentrations in mussel (M. Galloprovincialis) in Eastern Black Sea, Turkey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cevik, U. [Karadeniz Technical University, Department of Physics, 61080 Trabzon (Turkey)], E-mail: berrenazli@yahoo.com; Damla, N.; Kobya, A.I. [Karadeniz Technical University, Department of Physics, 61080 Trabzon (Turkey); Bulut, V.N. [Giresun University, Department of Chemistry, 28049 Giresun (Turkey); Duran, C. [Karadeniz Technical University, Department of Chemistry, 61080 Trabzon (Turkey); Dalgic, G. [Rize University, Faculty of Fisheries, 53100 Rize (Turkey); Bozaci, R. [Karadeniz Technical University, Department of Physics, 61080 Trabzon (Turkey)

    2008-12-30

    The main goal of this work is to determine the effects of pollution of copper, lead and zinc mines on the Eastern Black Sea. Metal and heavy metal concentrations in the Eastern Black Sea mussels were measured using Energy Dispersive X-ray Fluorescence (EDXRF) and Flame Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy (FAAS). The analytical results showed that the tissue of mussel in Eastern Black Sea contains K, Ca, Fe, Cu, Zn, and Sr elements, and the shell of mussel contains Ca, Cu, Sr, and Ba elements. Due to the detection limit of EDXRF, the mussels were analyzed with FAAS for Cr, Mn, Ni, Cd and Pb elements. An ANOVA and Pearson correlation analyses were performed. The results showed although that the mean concentrations of Cu and Zn for the tissue of the mussels were markedly above the permissible levels of the Turkish regulations, Zn concentration is in the limits of the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO)

  18. Relations of Environmental Factors with Mussel-Species Richness in the Neversink River, New York

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldigo, Barry P.; Ernst, Anne G.; Schuler, George E.; Apse, Colin D.

    2007-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Declines in the distribution, abundance, and diversity of freshwater-mussel species (family Unionidae1) have been reported worldwide (Bogan, 1993; Strayer and Jirka, 1997). The principal causes of the observed declines are difficult to confirm, however, because only a few of the many factors that affect mussel-species populations have been identified (Strayer and Ralley, 1993; Strayer, 1999; Baldigo and others, 2003; Strayer and others, 2006). The Neversink River, which drains the Catskill Mountains in southeastern New York (fig. 1), contains seven species of mussels (Strayer and Ralley, 1991; Strayer and Jirka, 1997). Populations of the endangered dwarf wedgemussel (Alasmidonta heterodon) and the threatened swollen wedgemussel (Alasmidonta varicosa) coexist with other unionid mussels in the Neversink River (Strayer and Ralley, 1991, 1993; Baldigo and others, 2003). Dwarf wedgemussel populations had previously been found only downstream from the site of an abandoned dam in the lower part of the river at Cuddebackville (fig. 1), and swollen wedgemussels were only found in the lower and middle reaches of the river. The limited distribution of these two species suggests that they may be susceptible to local extinctions. The distribution of mussel populations can be limited by impoundments. Mussel larvae develop in species-specific host fish; thus, impoundments that restrict passage of these host fish also restrict the extent of mussels. The Neversink River is impounded by the Neversink Reservoir [241 square kilometers (km2)], a major source of drinking water for the City of New York, and was also impounded 50 km downstream by the Cuddebackville Dam until 2004, when the latter was removed by The Nature Conservancy (TNC) and the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers to improve fish passage. The removal of this dam has provided previously unavailable habitat for diadromous and other fish species that act as hosts for rare mussel species. In addition, releases from

  19. Preference of redear sunfish on zebra mussels and rams-horn snails

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, John R. P.; Morgan, Michael N.

    1995-01-01

    We tested prey preferences of adult (200- to 222-mm long) redear sunfish (Lepomis microlophus) on two size classes of zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha) and two-ridge rams-horns (Helisoma anceps) in experimental aquaria. We also tested physical limitations on consuming these mollusks and determined prey bioenergetic profitability. Redear sunfish strongly preferred rams-horns over zebra mussels, but they displayed no size preference for either prey. Ingestion was not physically limited since both prey species up to 15-mm long fit within the pharyngeal gapes of redear sunfish. Rams-horns were more bioenergetically profitable than zebra mussels and ingestion of rams-horn shell fragments was about three times less than zebra mussels. Rams-horns were somewhat more resistant to shell-crushing, but all size ranges of both prey species tested were crushable by redear sunfish. These studies suggested that the redear sunfish should not be considered a panacea for biological control of zebra mussels.

  20. The mussel filter–pump – present understanding, with a re-examination of gill preparations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riisgård, Hans Ulrik; Funch, Peter; Larsen, Poul Scheel

    2015-01-01

    Filter feeding in mussels is a secondary adaptation where the gills have become W-shaped and greatly enlarged, acting as the mussel filter–pump. Water pumping and particle capture in the blue mussel, Mytilus edulis, have been studied over many years. Here, we give a short status of the present...... understanding of ciliary structure and function of the mussel filter–pump, supplemented with new photo-microscope and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) pictures of gill preparations. Pumping rate (filtration) and pressure to maintain flow have been extensively studied so the power delivered by the mussel pump......-pumping cilia so that continuous feeding with a ‘minimal scaled’ pump is cheaper than discontinuous feeding with a correspondingly larger pump. According to the present view, the pump proper is the beating lateral cilia (lc) on the gill filaments and particle capture is accomplished by the action...

  1. Variation in abundance of Pacific Blue Mussel (Mytilus trossulus) in the Northern Gulf of Alaska, 2006-2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodkin, James L.; Coletti, Heather A.; Ballachey, Brenda E.; Monson, Daniel H.; Esler, Daniel; Dean, Thomas A.

    2018-01-01

    Mussels are conspicuous and ecologically important components of nearshore marine communities around the globe. Pacific blue mussels (Mytilus trossulus) are common residents of intertidal habitats in protected waters of the North Pacific, serving as a conduit of primary production to a wide range of nearshore consumers including predatory invertebrates, sea ducks, shorebirds, sea otters, humans, and other terrestrial mammals. We monitored seven metrics of intertidal Pacific blue mussel abundance at five sites in each of three regions across the northern Gulf of Alaska: Katmai National Park and Preserve (Katmai) (2006-2015), Kenai Fjords National Park (Kenai Fjords) (2008-2015) and western Prince William Sound (WPWS) (2007-2015). Metrics included estimates of: % cover at two tide heights in randomly selected rocky intertidal habitat; and in selected mussel beds estimates of: the density of large mussels (≥ 20 mm); density of all mussels > 2 mm estimated from cores extracted from those mussel beds; bed size; and total abundance of large and all mussels, i.e. the product of density and bed size. We evaluated whether these measures of mussel abundance differed among sites or regions, whether mussel abundance varied over time, and whether temporal patterns in abundance were site specific, or synchronous at regional or Gulf-wide spatial scales. We found that, for all metrics, mussel abundance varied on a site-by-site basis. After accounting for site differences, we found similar temporal patterns in several measures of abundance (both % cover metrics, large mussel density, large mussel abundance, and mussel abundance estimated from cores), in which abundance was initially high, declined significantly over several years, and subsequently recovered. Averaged across all sites, we documented declines of 84% in large mussel abundance through 2013 with recovery to 41% of initial abundance by 2015. These findings suggest that factors operating across the northern Gulf of

  2. Body size-dependent Cd accumulation in the zebra mussel Dreissena polymorpha from different routes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Wen-Li; Evans, Douglas; Kraemer, Lisa; Zhong, Huan

    2017-02-01

    Understanding body size-dependent metal accumulation in aquatic organisms (i.e., metal allometry) is critical in interpreting biomonitoring data. While growth has received the most attention, little is known about controls of metal exposure routes on metal allometry. Here, size-dependent Cd accumulation in zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha) from different routes were investigated by exposing mussels to A.( 111 Cd spiked algae+ 113 Cd spiked river water) or B.( 111 Cd spiked sediments+ 113 Cd spiked river water). After exposure, 111 Cd or 113 Cd levels in mussel tissue were found to be negatively correlated with tissue weight, while Cd allometry coefficients (b values) were dependent on Cd exposure routes: -0.664 for algae, -0.241 for sediments and -0.379 for river water, compared to -0.582 in un-exposed mussels. By comparing different Cd exposure routes, we found that size-dependent Cd bioaccumulation from algae or river water could be more responsible for the overall size-dependent Cd accumulation in mussels, and the relative importance of the two sources was dependent on mussel size ranges: Cadmium obtained from algae (algae-Cd) was more important in size-dependent Cd accumulation in smaller mussels (tissue dry weight  5 mg). In contrast, sediment-Cd contributed only a small amount to Cd accumulation in zebra mussels and may have little effect on size-dependent Cd bioaccumulation. Our results suggest that size-dependent Cd accumulation in mussels could be largely affected by exposure routes, which should be considered when trying to interpret Cd biomonitoring data of zebra mussels. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Accumulation and Toxicity of Copper Oxide Engineered Nanoparticles in a Marine Mussel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shannon K. Hanna

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Cu is an essential trace element but can be highly toxic to aquatic organisms at elevated concentrations. Greater use of CuO engineered nanoparticles (ENPs may lead to increased concentrations of CuO ENPs in aquatic environments causing potential ecological injury. We examined the toxicity of CuO ENPs to marine mussels and the influence of mussels on the fate and transport of CuO ENPs. We exposed marine mussels to 1, 2, or 3 mg L−1 CuO ENPs for four weeks, and measured clearance rate, rejection, excretion and accumulation of Cu, and mussel shell growth. Mussel clearance rate was 48% less, and growth was 68% less, in mussels exposed to 3 mg L−1 than in control animals. Previous studies show 100% mortality at 1 mg Cu L−1, suggesting that CuO ENPs are much less toxic than ionic Cu, probably due to the slow dissolution rate of the ENPs. Mussels rejected and excreted CuO ENPs in biodeposits containing as much as 110 mg Cu g−1, suggesting the potential for magnification in sediments. Mussels exposed to 3 mg L−1 CuO ENPs accumulated 79.14 ± 12.46 µg Cu g−1 dry weight, which was 60 times more Cu than in control animals. Our results suggest that mussels have the potential to influence the fate and transport of CuO ENPs and potentially cause magnification of CuO ENPs in mussel bed communities, creating a significant source of Cu to marine benthos.

  4. Changes in freshwater mussel communities linked to legacy pollution in the Lower Delaware River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blakeslee, Carrie J.; Silldorff, Erik L.; Galbraith, Heather S.

    2018-01-01

    Freshwater mussels are among the most-imperiled organisms worldwide, although they provide a variety of important functions in the streams and rivers they inhabit. Among Atlantic-slope rivers, the Delaware River is known for its freshwater mussel diversity and biomass; however, limited data are available on the freshwater mussel fauna in the lower, non-tidal portion of the river. This section of the Delaware River has experienced decades of water-quality degradation from both industrial and municipal sources, primarily as a function of one of its major tributaries, the Lehigh River. We completed semi-quantitative snorkel surveys in 53.5 of the 121 km of the river to document mussel community composition and the continued impacts from pollution (particularly inputs from the Lehigh River) on mussel fauna. We detected changes in mussel catch per unit effort (CPUE) below the confluence of the Lehigh River, with significant declines in the dominant species Elliptio complanata (Eastern Elliptio) as we moved downstream from its confluence—CPUE dropped from 179 to 21 mussels/h. Patterns in mussel distribution around the Lehigh confluence matched chemical signatures of Lehigh water input. Specifically, Eastern Elliptio CPUE declined more quickly moving downstream on the Pennsylvania bank, where Lehigh River water input was more concentrated compared to the New Jersey bank. A definitive causal link remains to be established between the Lehigh River and the dramatic shifts in mussel community composition, warranting continued investigation as it relates to mussel conservation and restoration in the basin.

  5. Effects of shell morphology on mechanics of zebra and quagga mussel locomotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peyer, Suzanne M; Hermanson, John C; Lee, Carol Eunmi

    2011-07-01

    Although zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha) initially colonized shallow habitats within the North American Great Lakes, quagga mussels (Dreissena bugensis) are becoming dominant in both shallow- and deep-water habitats. Shell morphology differs among zebra, shallow quagga and deep quagga mussels but functional consequences of such differences are unknown. We examined effects of shell morphology on locomotion for the three morphotypes on hard (typical of shallow habitats) and soft (characteristic of deep habitats) sedimentary substrates. We quantified morphology using the polar moment of inertia, a parameter used in calculating kinetic energy that describes shell area distribution and resistance to rotation. We quantified mussel locomotion by determining the ratio of rotational (K(rot)) to translational kinetic energy (K(trans)). On hard substrate, K(rot):K(trans) of deep quagga mussels was fourfold greater than for the other morphotypes, indicating greater energy expenditure in rotation relative to translation. On soft substrate, K(rot):K(trans) of deep quagga mussels was approximately one-third of that on hard substrate, indicating lower energy expenditure in rotation on soft substrate. Overall, our study demonstrates that shell morphology correlates with differences in locomotion (i.e. K(rot):K(trans)) among morphotypes. Although deep quagga mussels were similar to zebra and shallow quagga mussels in terms of energy expenditure on sedimentary substrate, their morphology was energetically maladaptive for linear movement on hard substrate. As quagga mussels can possess two distinct morphotypes (i.e. shallow and deep morphs), they might more effectively utilize a broader range of substrates than zebra mussels, potentially enhancing their ability to colonize a wider range of habitats.

  6. Economic impacts of zebra mussels on drinking water treatment and electric power generation facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connelly, Nancy A; O'Neill, Charles R; Knuth, Barbara A; Brown, Tommy L

    2007-07-01

    Invasions of nonnative species such as zebra mussels can have both ecological and economic consequences. The economic impacts of zebra mussels have not been examined in detail since the mid-1990s. The purpose of this study was to quantify the annual and cumulative economic impact of zebra mussels on surface water-dependent drinking water treatment and electric power generation facilities (where previous research indicated the greatest impacts). The study time frame was from the first full year after discovery in North America (Lake St. Clair, 1989) to the present (2004); the study area was throughout the mussels' North American range. A mail survey resulted in a response rate of 31% for electric power companies and 41% for drinking water treatment plants. Telephone interviews with a sample of nonrespondents assessed nonresponse bias; only one difference was found and adjusted for. Over one-third (37%) of surveyed facilities reported finding zebra mussels in the facility and almost half (45%) have initiated preventive measures to prevent zebra mussels from entering the facility operations. Almost all surveyed facilities (91%) with zebra mussels have used control or mitigation alternatives to remove or control zebra mussels. We estimated that 36% of surveyed facilities experienced an economic impact. Expanding the sample to the population of the study area, we estimated 267 million dollars (BCa 95% CI = 161 million dollars - 467 million dollars) in total economic costs for electric generation and water treatment facilities through late 2004, since 1989. Annual costs were greater (44,000 dollars/facility) during the early years of zebra mussel infestation than in recent years (30,000 dollars). As a result of this and other factors, early predictions of the ultimate costs of the zebra mussel invasion may have been excessive.

  7. Biomonitoring of Mercury Contamination at Petroleum Production Platforms in the Gulf of Thailand using Transplanted Green Mussel, Perna viridis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chatree Ritthong

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Assessment of mercury contamination was conducted using transplanted green mussels (Perna viridis. Mussels were first exposed to HgCl2 at 0.5, 1.0, 2.5, and 5.0 nmol/L for 8 weeks at laboratory conditions. The result showed that Hg level in the water decreased rapidly, while Hg in mussels increased coincidentally with the applied doses. After 8 weeks the Hg, levels in tissue were a thousand-fold higher than that in the water. Mussels were then transplanted to 3 petroleum production platforms for field study. The result revealed that survival and growth rates of transplanted mussels at all 3 stations were in close to each other but significantly lower than that from the reference site. Hg concentrations in the tissues of transplanted mussels ranged from less than 0.010 to 0.173 µg/g, and Hg concentrations in mussel tissues from all stations were significantly increased within 2 months, while Hg levels in mussel tissues from reference site were not changed. Hg levels of transplanted mussels increased with increasing depths of the water. The transplanted mussels showed no signs of any physical anomalies, indicating that transplanted mussels could be maintained for up to 3 months in an un-natural habitat, such as petroleum production platforms, where food is much less abundant.

  8. Organochlorine and trace element contamination in wintering and migrating diving ducks in the southern Great Lakes, USA, since the zebra mussel invasion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Custer, Christine M.; Custer, T.W.

    2000-01-01

    Because of the potential for increased trophic transfer of contaminants by zebra mussels (Dreissena sp.) to higher trophic levels, we collected four species of waterfowl (n = 65 ducks) from four locations in Lake Erie, Lake St. Clair, and Lake Michigan, USA, between 1991 and 1993 for organochlorine contaminant and trace element analyses. Geometric mean concentrations of total polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and p,pa??-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE) were 1.35 and 0.15 I?g/g wet weight in lesser scaup (Aythya affinis) carcasses and were below known effect levels. Total PCBs in 80% of carcasses, however, were above the U.S. Food and Drug Administration's threshold of 3.0 I?g/g lipid weight for consumption of poultry. With the exception of selenium, trace elements were also at background or no-effect levels. Selenium concentrations in livers of 95% of lesser scaup, 90% of bufflehead (Bucephala albeola), and 72% of common goldeneye (Bucephala clangula) were in the elevated (>10 I?g/g dry wt) or potentially harmful range (>33 I?g/g dry wt). The effects of these high selenium concentrations are unknown but should be investigated further based on reproductive effects observed in field and laboratory studies of dabbling ducks and because lesser scaup populations are declining. Concentrations of total PCBs in dreissenid mussels in western Lake Erie were 10 times higher than in the upper Mississippi River but were similar to concentrations in other industrialized rivers in Europe and the United States. Metal concentrations were similar to other industrialized sites where zebra mussels have been sampled.

  9. Health risk assessments of heavy metal exposure via consumption of marine mussels collected from anthropogenic sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yap, Chee Kong; Cheng, Wan Hee; Karami, Ali; Ismail, Ahmad

    2016-01-01

    A total of 40 marine mussel Perna viridis populations collected (2002–2009) from 20 geographical sites located in two busy shipping lanes namely the Straits of Malacca (10 sites; 16 populations) and the Straits of Johore (8 sites; 21 populations) and three populations (2 sites) on the east coast of Peninsular Malaysia, was determined for Cd, Cu, Fe, Ni, Pb and Zn concentrations. In comparison with the maximum permissible limits (MPLs) set by existing food safety guidelines, all metal concentrations found in all the mussel populations were lower than the prescribed MPLs. In terms of the provisional tolerable weekly intake prescribed by the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA) and oral reference doses (ORDs) by the USEPA, all the studied metals (except for Pb) were unlikely to become the limiting factors or unlikely to pose a risk for the consumption of the mussel populations. The estimated daily intake (EDI) for average level mussel (ALM) and high level mussel (HLM) consumers of mussels was found to be lower than the ORD guidelines for Cd, Cu, Fe, Ni and Zn. Furthermore, the target hazard quotient (THQ) was found to be less than 1 for ALM consumers but higher than 1 for HLM consumers in some sites. Therefore, there were no potential human health risks to the ALM consumers of the mussels. However, for Pb THQ values, the Pb levels in some mussel populations could create a health risk problem. Present results indicate that the consumption amounts of mussels should be limited for minimizing potential health risks of heavy metals to the HLM consumers. - Highlights: • Human health risk assessments of heavy metals in Perna viridis were investigated. • All metals in the mussels were below the established seafood safety guidelines. • Pb in mussels could easily reach the percentage of prescribed PTWI value of Pb. • Potential health risk with Pb exposure was found for the mussel consumers. • Consumption rate of mussels should be limited to

  10. Health risk assessments of heavy metal exposure via consumption of marine mussels collected from anthropogenic sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yap, Chee Kong, E-mail: yapckong@hotmail.com [Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, Universiti Putra Malaysia (UPM), 43400 Serdang, Selangor (Malaysia); Cheng, Wan Hee [Inti International University, Persiaran Perdana BBN, 71800 Nilai, Negeri Sembilan (Malaysia); Karami, Ali [Laboratory of Aquatic Toxicology, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Universiti Putra Malaysia (UPM), 43400 Serdang, Selangor (Malaysia); Ismail, Ahmad [Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, Universiti Putra Malaysia (UPM), 43400 Serdang, Selangor (Malaysia)

    2016-05-15

    A total of 40 marine mussel Perna viridis populations collected (2002–2009) from 20 geographical sites located in two busy shipping lanes namely the Straits of Malacca (10 sites; 16 populations) and the Straits of Johore (8 sites; 21 populations) and three populations (2 sites) on the east coast of Peninsular Malaysia, was determined for Cd, Cu, Fe, Ni, Pb and Zn concentrations. In comparison with the maximum permissible limits (MPLs) set by existing food safety guidelines, all metal concentrations found in all the mussel populations were lower than the prescribed MPLs. In terms of the provisional tolerable weekly intake prescribed by the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA) and oral reference doses (ORDs) by the USEPA, all the studied metals (except for Pb) were unlikely to become the limiting factors or unlikely to pose a risk for the consumption of the mussel populations. The estimated daily intake (EDI) for average level mussel (ALM) and high level mussel (HLM) consumers of mussels was found to be lower than the ORD guidelines for Cd, Cu, Fe, Ni and Zn. Furthermore, the target hazard quotient (THQ) was found to be less than 1 for ALM consumers but higher than 1 for HLM consumers in some sites. Therefore, there were no potential human health risks to the ALM consumers of the mussels. However, for Pb THQ values, the Pb levels in some mussel populations could create a health risk problem. Present results indicate that the consumption amounts of mussels should be limited for minimizing potential health risks of heavy metals to the HLM consumers. - Highlights: • Human health risk assessments of heavy metals in Perna viridis were investigated. • All metals in the mussels were below the established seafood safety guidelines. • Pb in mussels could easily reach the percentage of prescribed PTWI value of Pb. • Potential health risk with Pb exposure was found for the mussel consumers. • Consumption rate of mussels should be limited to

  11. Factors affecting 210Po and 210Pb activity concentrations in mussels and implications for environmental bio-monitoring programmes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carvalho, Fernando P.; Oliveira, Joao M.; Alberto, G.

    2011-01-01

    The activity of 210 Po and 210 Pb was determined in mussels of the same size (3.5-4.0 cm shell length) sampled monthly over a 17-month period at the Atlantic coast of Portugal. Average radionuclide concentration values in mussels were 759 ± 277 Bq kg -1 for 210 Po (range 460-1470 Bq kg -1 dry weight), and 45 ± 19 Bq kg -1 for 210 Pb (range 23-96 Bq kg -1 dry weight). Environmental parameters and mussel biometric parameters were monitored during the same period. Although there was no seasonal variation of radionuclide concentrations in sea water during the study period, the concentration of radionuclide activity in mussels varied seasonally displaying peaks of high concentrations in winter and low concentrations in summer. Analysis of radionuclide data in relation to the physiological Condition Index of mussels revealed that 210 Po and 210 Pb activities in the mussel (average activity per individual) remained nearly constant during the investigation period, while mussel body weight fluctuated due to fat storage/expenditure in the soft tissues. Similar variation of radionuclide concentrations was observed in mussels transplanted from the sea coast into the Tejo Estuary. However, under estuarine environmental conditions and with higher food availability throughout the year, transplanted mussel Condition Index was higher than in coastal mussels and average radionuclide concentrations were 210 ± 75 Bq kg -1 (dry weight) for 210 Po and 10 ± 4 Bq kg -1 (dry weight) for 210 Pb, therefore lower than in coastal mussels with similar shell length. It is concluded that the apparent seasonal fluctuation and inter-site difference of radionuclide concentrations were mostly caused by mussel body weight fluctuation and not by radionuclide body burden fluctuation. This interpretation can be extended to the apparent seasonal fluctuation in concentrations of lipophilic and lipophobic contaminants in mussels, and provides an explanation for occasional high concentrations of 210 Po

  12. Ocean acidification reduces the crystallographic control in juvenile mussel shells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzer, Susan C; Cusack, Maggie; Phoenix, Vernon R; Kamenos, Nicholas A

    2014-10-01

    Global climate change threatens the oceans as anthropogenic carbon dioxide causes ocean acidification and reduced carbonate saturation. Future projections indicate under saturation of aragonite, and potentially calcite, in the oceans by 2100. Calcifying organisms are those most at risk from such ocean acidification, as carbonate is vital in the biomineralisation of their calcium carbonate protective shells. This study highlights the importance of multi-generational studies to investigate how marine organisms can potentially adapt to future projected global climate change. Mytilus edulis is an economically important marine calcifier vulnerable to decreasing carbonate saturation as their shells comprise two calcium carbonate polymorphs: aragonite and calcite. M. edulis specimens were cultured under current and projected pCO2 (380, 550, 750 and 1000μatm), following 6months of experimental culture, adults produced second generation juvenile mussels. Juvenile mussel shells were examined for structural and crystallographic orientation of aragonite and calcite. At 1000μatm pCO2, juvenile mussels spawned and grown under this high pCO2 do not produce aragonite which is more vulnerable to carbonate under-saturation than calcite. Calcite and aragonite were produced at 380, 550 and 750μatm pCO2. Electron back scatter diffraction analyses reveal less constraint in crystallographic orientation with increased pCO2. Shell formation is maintained, although the nacre crystals appear corroded and crystals are not so closely layered together. The differences in ultrastructure and crystallography in shells formed by juveniles spawned from adults in high pCO2 conditions may prove instrumental in their ability to survive ocean acidification. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Trace element concentrations in wild mussels from the coastal area of the southeastern Adriatic, Montenegro

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    Markovic Jelena

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present investigation was to quantify the levels of trace elements (Zn, Cu, As, Pb, Cd and total Hg in the Mediterranean mussel, Mytilus galloprovincialis (L.. Based on their levels, the quality of Montenegro seawater for future mussel farming was estimated. The mussel M. galloprovincialis (L. was collected from four sites in the Montenegrin costal area in the period of two years to determine trace element concentrations and to classify the quality of the coastal water and possible health risks from its consumption. The mean metal concentrations in the mussels ranged from 133.5-205.9 for Zn, 7.50-14.5 for Cu, 4.42-13.3 for As, 4.70-12.9 for Pb, 1.73-2.41 for Cd and 0.07-0.59 for total Hg in mg/kg dry weight. The levels of toxic metals (except for Pb in the mussels were within the maximum residual levels prescribed by the laws of Montenegro, the EU and the USFDA. In addition, the trace metal concentrations found in the mussels in this study were similar to regional data using this mussel as a biomonitoring agent of seawater quality.

  14. Specificity of the peroxisome proliferation response in mussels exposed to environmental pollutants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cajaraville, Miren P.; Ortiz-Zarragoitia, Maren

    2006-01-01

    Peroxisome proliferation has been proposed as novel biomarker of exposure to organic pollutants in aquatic organisms. Peroxisome proliferator compounds comprise a heterogeneous group of substances known for their ability to cause massive proliferation of peroxisomes and liver carcinogenesis in sensitive species such as rodents. Recently, several marine organisms (mussels and fish) have been shown as target species of peroxisome proliferators. In the present work, we aimed to investigate the specificity of the peroxisome proliferation response in mussels. For this purpose, mussels (Mytilus edulis) were exposed for three weeks to North Sea crude oil (NSO), a mixture of NSO, alkylphenols and extra PAHs (MIX), diallylphthalate (DAP), bisphenol-A (BPA) and tetrabromodiphenylether (TBDE), or transplanted for three weeks to four stations showing different copper concentrations in a copper mine. Peroxisome proliferation was assessed by measuring the activity of the peroxisomal β-oxidation enzyme acyl-CoA oxidase (AOX) and the volume density occupied by peroxisomes (V VP ) in the digestive gland. Mussels exposed to NSO and MIX showed significantly increased AOX activities and V VP compared to control animals. Significantly higher V VP was also found in DAP and TBDE exposed mussels. V VP did not vary in mussels transplanted into a copper concentration gradient. Our results confirm the usefulness and specificity of peroxisome proliferation as a suitable biomarker of exposure to organic contaminants such as oil derived hydrocarbons, phthalate plasticizers and polybrominated flame retardants in mussels

  15. Food habits of diving ducks in the Great Lakes after the zebra mussel invasion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Custer, Christine M.; Custer, T.W.

    1996-01-01

    Zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha) invaded the Great Lakes in the mid-1980s and quickly reached high densities. The objective of this study was to determine current consumption of zebra mussels by waterfowl in the Great Lakes region. Feeding Lesser Scaups (Aythya affinis), Greater Scaups (A. marila), Canvasbacks (A. valisineria), Redheads (A. americana), Buffleheads (Bucephala albeola) and Common Goldeneyes (B. clangula) were collected in western Lake Erie and in Lake St. Clair between fall and spring, 1992-1993 to determine food habits. All 10 Redheads, 97% of Lesser Scaups, 83% of Goldeneyes, 60% of Buffleheads and 9% of Canvasbacks contained one or more zebra mussels in their upper gastrointestinal tracts. The aggregate percent of zebra mussels in the diet of Lesser Scaups was higher in Lake Erie (98.6%) than in Lake St. Clair (54.4%). Zebra mussels (aggregate percent) dominated the diet of Common Goldeneyes (79.2%) but not in Buffleheads (23.5%), Redheads (21%) or Canvasbacks (9%). Lesser Scaups from Lake Erie fed on larger zebra mussels ( = 10.7 i?? 0.66 mm SE) than did Lesser Scaups from Lake St. Clair ( = 4.4 i?? 0.22 mm). Lesser Scaups, Buffleheads and Common Goldeneyes from Lake Erie consumed zebra mussels of similar size.

  16. Effects of the exotic zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha) on metal cycling in Lake Erie

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klerks, P.L.; Fraleigh, P.C.; Lawniczak, J.E.

    1997-01-01

    This research demonstrated the impact of high densities of the zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha) on the cycling of copper, nickel, and zinc in a lake environment. Experiments with mussels on sedimentation traps in western Lake Erie and with mussels in flow-through tanks receiving Lake Erie water showed that zebra mussels remove metals from the water column, incorporate metals in their tissues, and deposit metals on the lake bottom. Removal of metals from the water column was estimated at 10-17%·day -1 of the amounts present. This material was largely deposited on the lake bottom; zebra mussels more than doubled the rate at which metals were being added to the lake bottom. Metal biodeposition rates were extremely high (e.g., 50 mg Zn·m -2 ·day -1 ) in high-turbidity areas with elevated metal levels. Two factors contributed to metal biodeposition by zebra mussels. First, their production of feces and pseudofeces increased the rate at which suspended matter was being added to the sediment (accounting for 92% of the increased metal biodeposition). Second, the material coming out of suspension had higher metal concentrations when zebra mussels were present (constituting 8% of the increased biodeposition). (author)

  17. Phytoplankton Communities in Green Bay, Lake Michigan after Invasion by Dreissenid Mussels: Increased Dominance by Cyanobacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bart T. De Stasio

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Biological invasions of aquatic systems disrupt ecological communities, and cause major changes in diversity and ecosystem function. The Laurentian Great Lakes of North America have been dramatically altered by such invasions, especially zebra (Dreissena polymorpha and quagga (D. rostriformis bugensis mussels. Responses to mussel invasions have included increased water clarity, and decreased chlorophyll and phytoplankton abundance. Although not all systems have responded similarly, in general, mussels have changed nutrient dynamics and physical habitat conditions. Therefore examination of different impacts can help us further understand mechanisms that underlie ecosystem responses to biological invasions. To aid our understanding of ecosystem impacts, we sampled established locations along a well-studied trophic gradient in Green Bay, Lake Michigan, after the 1993 zebra mussel invasion. A strong trophic gradient remained during the period sampled after the mussel invasion (2000–2012. However, mean summer chlorophyll increased and other measures of phytoplankton biomass (microscope and electronic cell counting did not change significantly. Multivariate analyses of phytoplankton community structure demonstrate a significant community shift after the invasion. Cyanobacteria increased in dominance, with Microcystis becoming the major summer taxon in lower Green Bay. Diatom diversity and abundance also increased and Chlorophyta became rare. Phytoplankton responses along the trophic gradient of Green Bay to zebra mussel invasion highlight the importance of mussel effects on nutrient dynamics and phytoplankton diversity and function.

  18. Effects of the exotic zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha) on metal cycling in Lake Erie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klerks, P.L. [Univ. of Southwestern Louisiana, Dept. of Biology, Lafayette, Louisiana (United States)]. E-mail: klerks@usl.edu; Fraleigh, P.C.; Lawniczak, J.E. [Univ. of Toledo, Dept. of Biology, Toledo, Ohio (United States)

    1997-07-15

    This research demonstrated the impact of high densities of the zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha) on the cycling of copper, nickel, and zinc in a lake environment. Experiments with mussels on sedimentation traps in western Lake Erie and with mussels in flow-through tanks receiving Lake Erie water showed that zebra mussels remove metals from the water column, incorporate metals in their tissues, and deposit metals on the lake bottom. Removal of metals from the water column was estimated at 10-17%{center_dot}day{sup -1} of the amounts present. This material was largely deposited on the lake bottom; zebra mussels more than doubled the rate at which metals were being added to the lake bottom. Metal biodeposition rates were extremely high (e.g., 50 mg Zn{center_dot}m{sup -2}{center_dot}day{sup -1}) in high-turbidity areas with elevated metal levels. Two factors contributed to metal biodeposition by zebra mussels. First, their production of feces and pseudofeces increased the rate at which suspended matter was being added to the sediment (accounting for 92% of the increased metal biodeposition). Second, the material coming out of suspension had higher metal concentrations when zebra mussels were present (constituting 8% of the increased biodeposition). (author)

  19. Occurrence of zebra mussels in near-shore areas of western Lake Erie

    Science.gov (United States)

    Custer, Christine M.; Custer, T.W.

    1997-01-01

    Zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha) invaded the Great Lakes in the mid-1980s and quickly reached high densities. The objective of this study was to determine current consumption of zebra mussels by waterfowl in the Great Lakes region. Feeding Lesser Scaups (Aythya affinis), Greater Scaups (A. marila), Canvasbacks (A. valisineria), Redheads (A. americana), Buffleheads (Bucephala albeola) and Common Goldeneyes (B. clangula) were collected in western Lake Erie and in Lake St. Clair between fall and spring, 1992-1993 to determine food habits. All 10 Redheads, 97% of Lesser Scaups, 83% of Goldeneyes, 60% of Buffleheads and 9% of Canvasbacks contained one or more zebra mussels in their upper gastrointestinal tracts. The aggregate percent of zebra mussels in the diet of Lesser Scaups was higher in Lake Erie (98.6%) than in Lake St. Clair (54.4%). Zebra mussels, (aggregate percent) dominated the diet of Common Goldeneyes (79.2%) but not in Buffleheads (23.5%), Redheads (21%) or Canvasbacks (9%). Lesser Scaups from Lake Erie fed on larger zebra mussels ( = 10.7 i?? 0.66 mm SE) than did Lesser Scaups from Lake St. Clair ( = 4.4 i?? 0.22 mm). Lesser Scaups, Buffleheads and Common Goldeneyes from Lake Erie consumed zebra mussels of similar size.

  20. Metal contamination in zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha) along the St. Lawrence River.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwan, K H Michael; Chan, Hing Man; de Lafontaine, Yves

    2003-01-01

    In order to evaluate the use of zebra mussels as biomonitors for metal bioavailability in the St. Lawrence River, we tested the hypothesis that the concentrations of 11 metals in zebra mussels vary significantly between sites along the river and that the season of collection and body size affect metal bioaccumulation. Mussels were collected at 14 sites during June 1996 and at monthly intervals at one site. Specimens were grouped in three size classes and their soft tissue was analyzed for As, Ca, Cd, Cr, Hg, Mn, Ni, Pb, Se, and Zn. Significant size effects were found for Ca, Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni and Zn. Spatial and seasonal variations in bioconcentration were significant for all metals. Spatial patterns in contamination that corresponded to known point sources of pollution or hydrology of the river were identified by principal component analysis. Seasonal variations can be attributed to the reproductive cycle of mussels and hydrological variability of the river. In comparison with values reported for zebra mussels in other contaminated sites in North America and Europe, levels of metal in the St. Lawrence River are low or intermediate. Our results show that when controlled for size and seasonal effects, zebra mussels represent a useful biomonitor for metal availability in the river and may offer an interesting alternative to native mussels and fish for such a role. Local contamination by some toxic metals is still a cause for concern in the St. Lawrence River.

  1. Warm season chloride concentrations in stream habitats of freshwater mussel species at risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Todd, Aaron K.; Kaltenecker, M. Georgina

    2012-01-01

    Warm season (May–October) chloride concentrations were assessed in stream habitats of freshwater mussel species at risk in southern Ontario, Canada. Significant increases in concentrations were observed at 96% of 24 long-term (1975–2009) monitoring sites. Concentrations were described as a function of road density indicating an anthropogenic source of chloride. Linear regression showed that 36% of the variation of concentrations was explained by road salt use by the provincial transportation ministry. Results suggest that long-term road salt use and retention is contributing to a gradual increase in baseline chloride concentrations in at risk mussel habitats. Exposure of sensitive mussel larvae (glochidia) to increasing chloride concentrations may affect recruitment to at risk mussel populations. - Highlights: ► Warm season chloride concentrations were assessed in habitats of mussel species at risk. ► Concentrations increased significantly at 96% of 24 long-term monitoring sites. ► Concentrations increased with increases in road density and road salt use. ► Retention of road salt likely contributed to elevated warm season concentrations. ► Glochidia exposure to increasing concentrations may affect mussel reproduction. - Warm season chloride concentrations increased in southern Ontario streams with road salt use, such that reproduction of freshwater mussel species at risk may be affected.

  2. Pathogens and diseases of freshwater mussels in the United States: Studies on bacterial transmission and depuration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starliper, Clifford E.; Cipriano, R.C.; Bruckner, A.W.; Shchelkunov, I.S.

    2011-01-01

    Unionid mussels are recognized as important contributors to healthy aquatic ecosystems, as well as bioindicators of environmental perturbations. Because they are sedentary, filter feeding animals and require hosts (i.e., fishes) to transform embryonic glochidia, mussels are susceptible to direct adverse environmental parameters, and indirect parameters that restrict the timely presence of the host(s). Their numbers have declined in recent decades to a point that this fauna is regarded as one of the most imperiled in North America. The most significant threat to populations of native unionids in recent years has been the introduction and spread of zebra mussels Dreissena polymorpha. Many federal and state agencies, and private interests are now engaged in mussel conservation efforts, including collecting selected imperiled species from impacted rivers and lakes and propagating them at refuges for future population augmentations. One essential consideration with mussel propagation and their intensive culture at refugia is the prevention of pathogen introductions and control of diseases. Currently, there are few reports of etiological agents causing diseases among freshwater mussels; however, because of increased observations of mussel die-offs in conjunction with transfers of live animals between natural waters and refugia, disease problems can be anticipated to emerge. This review summarizes research to develop bacterial isolation techniques, study pathogen transmission between fish and mussels, identify causes of seasonal mussel die-offs, and develop non-destructive methods for pathogen detection. These efforts were done to develop disease preventative techniques for use by resource managers to avoid potential large-scale disease problems in restoration and population augmentation efforts among imperiled populations.

  3. Cumulative effects of ibuprofen and air emersion in zebra mussels Dreissena polymorpha.

    Science.gov (United States)

    André, C; Gagné, F

    2017-10-01

    Municipal effluents are major source of pharmaceutical products in the environment. The purpose of this study was to examine the toxicity of a largely used drug, ibuprofen (Ibu), in Dresseina polymorpha mussels and its impact on air survival time. The mussels were exposed to increasing concentration of Ibu (0, 1, 10 and 100μg/L) for 96 at 15°C and a sub-group of mussels was maintain in air for another 96h. Post-exposure mussels (Ibu and Ibu+Air) were analyzed for weight loss, total triglycerides, neutral lipids, lipid peroxidation (LPO), arachidonate-dependent cyclooxygenase (COX) and glutathione S-transferase activity. Lipid extracts of mussel tissues were also analyzed by 1 H-nuclear resonance spectroscopy. The data revealed that mussels exposed to Ibu had increased signs of lipid oxidation, neutral lipids and decreased triglycerides, LPO and GST activity. COX activity was significantly reduced by Ibu in keeping with mode of action of the drug. Following exposure to air, increased weight loss, neutral lipids (lipid degradation), were observed in mussels exposed to Ibu but no changes in COX activity were observed. Air stress limited the decrease in triglycerides and the increase in GST in mussels exposed to 100μg/L Ibu indicating decreased anti-oxidant response/phase II biotransformation and limited lipid metabolism. In conclusion, exposure to Ibu has some anti-inflammatory effects to mussels based on COX activity but resulted in increased oxidative damage and lipid catabolism. Exposure to air stress could enhance some of these responses and contribute to decreased resistance to air exposures. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. ExaSP2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2017-09-08

    ExaSP2 is a reference implementation of typical linear algebra algorithms and workloads for a quantum molecular dynamics (QMD) electronic structure code. The algorithm is based on a recursive second-order Fermi-Operator expansion method (SP2) and is tailored for density functional based tight-binding calculations of material systems.

  5. Experimental research on fresh mussel meat irradiated by high-dose electron beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiao Lin; Lu Ruifeng; Hu Huachao; Wang Chaoqi; Liu Yanna

    2011-01-01

    The sterilization storage of fresh mussel irradiated high-dose electron beam was studied. From the subjective assessment by the weighted average of the test and other determined parameters, it can be concluded that the flavor of fresh mussel meat sealed canned food irradiated by high-dose electron beam has not been significant affected, and various micro-organisms can be killed effectively, which means that the irradiated fresh mussel meat can be preserved for long-term at room temperature. Therefore the method might resolve the problems induced by traditional frozen preservation methods. (authors)

  6. Protection against suspended sand: the function of the branchial membrane in the blue mussel Mytilus edulis

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vooys, C. G. N.

    2006-09-01

    Blue mussels ( Mytilus edulis) living in estuaries have to cope with varying concentrations of suspended sand. Sand flowing through the inhalant siphons comes into the infrabranchial chamber. The inhalant siphon can be partially closed by the branchial membrane. As a result the inward flow decreases, and suspended sand sinks and can be eliminated. Experiments with mussels from three ecologically different locations showed about the same response of the branchial membrane on contact with suspended sand. The presence and function of the branchial membrane appears to be an adaptation of mussels to their estuarine environment.

  7. HEAVY METALS (Ni, Cu, Zn AND Cd CONTENT IN SERUM OF RAT FED GREEN MUSSELS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Yudhistira Azis

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Green mussel (Perna viridis can playing role as bio-indicator or biomonitoring agent for heavy-metalcontaminations in the sea. In this research, the concentrations of four elements Ni, Cu, Zn and Cd in P. viridis and in the serum of rat which orally feed by P. viridis were determined by Atomic Absorption Spectrometry (AAS following dry acid digestion. Parameter analysis was evaluated by determining confidence limit for the obtained results. The result showed that there was a sequence of heavy-metal content in green mussels sample and laboratory rats serum, such as Ni < Cd < Cu < Zn. Keywords: heavy metals, green mussels, laboratory rats serum, AAS

  8. GROWTH OF MUSSELS (Mytilus galloprovincialis ON THE EAST COAST OF ISTRIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nives Marušić

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Growth rate of mussels depends on ecological factors but largely on the amount of food. Food must be of adequate composition and amount. Other responsible factors are temperature and salinity. Growth of mussels is increased if there is inflow of fresh water. Very low values of salinity have negative influence on growth. The growth of mussels in Budava and Raša Bay is increase with an increase in sea temperature. The slowest growth was at the very lowest salinity values.

  9. The first record of the Chinese pond mussel Sinanodonta woodiana (Lea, 1834 in Montenegro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomović Jelena

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Sinanodonta woodiana (Lea, 1834, Chinese pond mussel (Bivalvia: Unionoida: Unionidae is one of the most invasive aquatic macroinvertebrate species found in Europe. We report the Chinese pond mussel for the first time in Montenegro, in August 2012, in Lake Šasko (Adriatic part of the Central Mediterranean subarea. One specimen of the Chinese pond mussel was observed in a habitat with a predominantly silt-clay substrate. The main pathway of species introduction was evaluated to be via fish stocking. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. III 43002 i br. ON 173025

  10. Divergent induced responses to an invasive predator in marine mussel populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Aaren S; Byers, James E

    2006-08-11

    Invasive species may precipitate evolutionary change in invaded communities. In southern New England (USA) the invasive Asian shore crab, Hemigrapsus sanguineus, preys on mussels (Mytlius edulis), but the crab has not yet invaded northern New England. We show that southern New England mussels express inducible shell thickening when exposed to waterborne cues from Hemigrapsus, whereas naïve northern mussel populations do not respond. Yet, both populations thicken their shells in response to a long-established crab, Carcinus maenas. Our findings are consistent with the rapid evolution of an inducible morphological response to Hemigrapsus within 15 years of its introduction.

  11. Freshwater Mussels as Biological Sensors and Cyclers of Aquatic Nitrogen Constituents: An Experimental Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruger, A.; Just, C. L.; Mudumbai, R.; Dasgupta, S.; Newton, T. J.; Durst, J.; Boddicker, M. D.; Diken, M. B.; Bril, J.; Baidoo-Williams, H. E.

    2011-12-01

    One of the most extensive manifestations of anthropogenic mismanagement of nitrogen is eutrophication of the Gulf of Mexico. Leaching and runoff transport nitrate compounds-excess agricultural fertilizer and animal waste-via the Mississippi River to the Gulf of Mexico. Phytoplankton then multiplies exponentially, and consumes most of the dissolved oxygen. This hypoxia kills fish and other organisms, leading to so-called dead zones in the Gulf that can cover 6,000-7,000 square miles. Dead zone mitigation plans call for coupling management actions with enhanced monitoring, modeling, and research on nitrogen delivery to, as well as processing within, the Mississippi River. Our vision is to create a biosensor network of native freshwater mussels in a major river to monitor, comprehend, and ultimately model key components of the nitrogen cycle. Native freshwater mussels are a guild of long-lived, suspension feeding bivalves that perform important ecological functions in aquatic systems. Mussels can influence nutrient cycling by transferring nutrients from the water column to the riverbed. A major problem for environmental scientists is that relatively little is known about the diurnal behaviors of freshwater mussels or the impacts these behaviors may have on the aquatic nitrogen cycle. Our multidisciplinary team is performing a series of laboratory experiments exploring the feasibility of using freshwater mussels as sensors of and capacitors for nitrates. For sensing, we place Hall-effect sensors on mussels to monitor the rhythmic opening and closing of their valves (gape). One shortcoming of previous work is that mussels were monitored in artificial conditions: glued fast in laboratory flumes, or tethered in constrained settings. To overcome this shortcoming, our team has built a mussel microhabitat with a constant river water feed stock, solar simulator, and a variety of water chemistry sensor. A main thrust of our work is to develop the technology to monitor mussel

  12. Biomixing in stagnant wate above population of blue mussels (Mytilus edulis)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Poul Scheel; Andrup, P.; Tang, B.

    2016-01-01

    Dense beds of filter-feeding mussels can exert a considerable grazing impact on phytoplankton in many marine areas depending on downmixing promoted by current, wave- and wind action. But downmixing may also be promoted by biomixing caused by the action of the strong exhalent jets of water from...... a population of 48 ind.m-2 of mussels of shell length 69.5 ± 2.3 mm. Due to the intense agitation (biomixing) generated by exhalant jets of the actively feeding mussels the profiles remained nearly uniform over the full water column while decreasing exponentially with time, reaching a level of about 40...

  13. Uptake of Iodine-131 in mussel (Mytilus smaragdinns) and algae (caulerpa racemosa)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sombrito, E.Z.; Banzon, R.B.; de la Mines, A.S.; Bautista, E.Rb.

    1982-01-01

    The behavior of radionuclides in the environment has been the subject of research. Iodine-131, a beta emitter as one of the radionuclides has been studied. This study describes Iodine-131 uptake in mussel and algae. The bioaccumulation factor C was determined which gave the relationship between the concentration of radioactivity in biota relative to the water environment. Results of the experiments showed that the mussels steadily accumulated I-131 from radioactive medium. Much higher bioaccumulation factor was obtained in algae than in mussel. No attempt was made to measure activity in the soft parts. (ELC)

  14. Considerations of food hygiene in the case of mussels accidentally contaminated by iodine 131

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Battani, N.; Chambost, Marie-Daniel; Leandri, Marcel

    1969-09-01

    As the transfer to mankind of radioactive pollution by food chains is a matter of concern, the authors report the study of the use of mussels contaminated by iodine 131 in a food preparation in order to follow the evolution of this radionuclide. After their contamination in seawater, mussels are prepared either with or without their shell. Counting is performed after cooking. Results are discussed in terms of presence of the radionuclide in the different parts of the crude or cooked mussels (shell, body, liquid) [fr

  15. Element content and particle size characterization of a mussel candidate reference material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moreira, Edson G.; Vasconcellos, Marina B.A.; Santos, Rafaela G. dos; Martinelli, Jose R.

    2011-01-01

    The use of certified reference materials is an important tool in the quality assurance of analytical measurements. To assure reliability on recently prepared powder reference materials, not only the characterization of the property values of interest and their corresponding uncertainties, but also physical properties such as the particle size distribution must be well evaluated. Narrow particle size distributions are preferable than larger ones; as different size particles may have different analyte content. Due to this fact, the segregation of the coarse and the fine particles in a bottle may lead to inhomogeneity of the reference material, which should be avoided. In this study the element content as well as the particle size distribution of a mussel candidate reference material produced at IPEN-CNEN/SP was investigated. Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis was applied to the determination of 15 elements in seven fractions of the material with different particle size distributions. Subsamples of the materials were irradiated simultaneously with elemental standards at the IEA-R1 research nuclear reactor and the induced gamma ray energies were measured in a hyperpure germanium detector. Three vials of the candidate reference material and three coarser fractions, collected during the preparation, were analyzed by Laser Diffraction Particle Analysis to determine the particle size distribution. Differences on element content were detected for fractions with different particle size distribution, indicating the importance of particle size control for biological reference materials. From the particle size analysis, Gaussian particle size distribution was observed for the candidate reference material with mean particle size μ = 94.6 ± 0.8 μm. (author)

  16. PBDEs in freshwater mussels and fish from Flanders, Belgium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Covaci, A.; Voorspoels, S.; Schepens, P. [Antwerp Univ. (Belgium). Toxicological Center; Bervoets, L.; Hoff, P.; Voets, J.; Campenhout, K. van; Blust, R. [Antwerp Univ. (Belgium). Dept. of Ecophysiology, Biochemistry and Toxicology

    2004-09-15

    Polybrominated diphenylethers (PBDEs), a class of brominated flame retardants (BFRs), are widely used in textiles, plastics, electronic equipment and other materials for more than 30 years. Due to their massive use, PBDEs have become ubiquitously present in aquatic organisms and it was recently evidenced that their levels seem to increase rapidly. Higher PBDE concentrations were found in biota from freshwater compared to similar marine species. This is probably due to a higher pollution load found near point pollution sources that are almost exclusively inland located. Zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha) fulfil the requirements of a good biomonitoring organism for freshwater ecosystems: they are easy to collect and to handle, are available in sufficient numbers, have a relative long lifespan, are sedentary and resistant to various types of pollution without suffering a too high mortality and have a high filtration rate which favours the bioaccumulation of organic contaminants. Fish species are another suitable tool for the biomonitoring of organic contaminants. The occurrence of PBDEs in fish species from Europe has already received some attention, but the amount of data is still limited. The aim of this study was to evaluate the occurence of PBDEs in zebra mussels and several representative freshwater fish species (eel, carp and gibel carp) at different sites in Flanders, Belgium. In parallel, other organohalogenated contaminants, such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), p,p'-DDE and hexachlorobenzene (HCB) were also measured and their relationship with PBDEs was investigated.

  17. An 'artificial mussel' for monitoring heavy metals in marine environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Rudolf S.S.; Lau, T.C.; Fung, Wendy K.M.; Ko, P.H.; Leung, Kenneth M.Y.

    2007-01-01

    A new chemical sampling device, artificial mussel (AM), has been developed for monitoring metals in marine environments. This device consists of a polymer ligand suspended in artificial seawater within a Perspex tubing, and enclosed with semi-permeable gel at both ends. Laboratory and field experiments were carried out to examine the uptake of five metals (Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb and Zn) by the AM. Uptake of metals by AM was proportional to the exposure metal concentrations, and the AM was able to accumulate the ASV labile fractions of metals. Uptake and release of the metals of AM are similar to those of the mussel Perna viridis, but less affected by salinity and temperature. Field studies demonstrated that the AM can not only provide a time-integrated estimate of metals concentrations, but also allows comparisons of metal levels in different environments and geographical areas beyond the natural distribution limits of biomonitors. - A new monitoring device to provide a time-integrated estimate for monitoring metals in marine environments

  18. Phylogeography and systematics of zebra mussels and related species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelembiuk, Gregory W; May, Gemma E; Lee, Carol Eunmi

    2006-04-01

    The genus Dreissena includes two widespread and aggressive aquatic invaders, the zebra mussel, Dreissena polymorpha, and the quagga mussel, Dreissena bugensis. This genus evolved in the Ponto-Caspian Sea basin, characterized by dynamic instability over multiple timescales and a unique evolutionary environment that may predispose to invasiveness. The objectives of this study were to gain insights into the demographic history of Dreissena species in their endemic range, to reconstruct intraspecific phylogeographic relationships among populations, and to clarify systematics of the genus, using DNA sequences from the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase I (COI) gene. We found four deeply diverged clades within this genus, with a basal split that approximately coincided with the Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary. Divergence events within the four base clades were much more recent, corresponding to geographically disjunct sets of populations, which might represent species complexes. Across all taxa, populations of Dreissena shared a common pattern of genetic signatures indicating historical population bottlenecks and expansions. Haplotype diversity was relatively low in Ponto-Caspian drainages relative to more stable tectonic lakes in Greece, Macedonia, and Turkey. The phylogeographic and demographic patterns in the endemic range of Dreissena might have resulted from vicariance events, habitat instability, and the high fecundity and passive dispersal of these organisms.

  19. Identification of Listeria monocytogenes on Green Mussels and Cockle Shell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Winiati Puji Rahayu

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available AbstractGreen mussel (Perna viridis and cockle shell (Anadara granosa are one of many sources of animal protein which is many cultivated in Indonesia because their price is relatively affordable. This study was conducted to identify the presence of Listeria monocytogenes in 27 samples of green mussels and 3 samples of cockle shells using real-time Polymerase Chain Reaction (real-time PCR and biochemical methods. The target gene for amplification in real-time PCR was an hlyA gene because this gene was a determinant of virulence genes that produce listeriolysin O. Primers used in this study were forward primer DG69 (GTG CCG GGT AAA AGA CCA TA and reverse primer DG74 (CGC CAC TGA GAT ACT AT and fluorescence signals indicator using SYBR Green I. The results of analysis using real-time PCR were negative Listeria monocytogenes in all samples, while using biochemical methods there was one of 30 samples contaminated by Listeria welshimeri.

  20. Developmental plasticity of shell morphology of quagga mussels from shallow and deep-water habitats of the Great Lakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peyer, Suzanne M; Hermanson, John C; Lee, Carol Eunmi

    2010-08-01

    The invasive zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha) has quickly colonized shallow-water habitats in the North American Great Lakes since the 1980s but the quagga mussel (Dreissena bugensis) is becoming dominant in both shallow and deep-water habitats. While quagga mussel shell morphology differs between shallow and deep habitats, functional causes and consequences of such difference are unknown. We examined whether quagga mussel shell morphology could be induced by three environmental variables through developmental plasticity. We predicted that shallow-water conditions (high temperature, food quantity, water motion) would yield a morphotype typical of wild quagga mussels from shallow habitats, while deep-water conditions (low temperature, food quantity, water motion) would yield a morphotype present in deep habitats. We tested this prediction by examining shell morphology and growth rate of quagga mussels collected from shallow and deep habitats and reared under common-garden treatments that manipulated the three variables. Shell morphology was quantified using the polar moment of inertia. Of the variables tested, temperature had the greatest effect on shell morphology. Higher temperature (approximately 18-20 degrees C) yielded a morphotype typical of wild shallow mussels regardless of the levels of food quantity or water motion. In contrast, lower temperature (approximately 6-8 degrees C) yielded a morphotype approaching that of wild deep mussels. If shell morphology has functional consequences in particular habitats, a plastic response might confer quagga mussels with a greater ability than zebra mussels to colonize a wider range of habitats within the Great Lakes.

  1. Co-existence of zebra mussels and freshwater unionids: Population dynamics of Leptodea fragilis in a coastal wetland infested with zebra mussels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichols, S. Jerrine; Amberg, Jon

    1999-01-01

    In 1996, thousands of live Leptodea fragilis were collected from a marsh located in the western basin of Lake Erie that was infested with zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha). Despite the presence of zebra mussels at this site for a number of years, this L. fragilis population showed no signs of competition-induced changes in population dynamics. Biofouling was limited: fewer than 1% of the L. fragilis showed evidence of recent or past zebra mussel colonization. Successful recruitment occurred yearly, with multiple year classes collected that ranged in age from 1 to 12 years. However, age and shell length were not well correlated. Seventy-one percent of the individuals collected were 51-80 mm long, but ranged in age from 2 to 4.5 years. Three different patterns of growth or shell deposition were found. Some individuals grew rapidly, reaching 105 mm in 3.5 years, while others grew only 4.5 mm over the same time period. A few grew poorly during some years but very rapidly in others. Individuals with a shell length of 41 mm or more were sexually mature and females were more common than males. The strong recruitment and steady growth of this population showed no change between the years before and after the zebra mussel invasion, indicating that this marsh is functioning as a natural refugium from potential problems caused by zebra mussels.

  2. Residual concentrations of micropollutants in benthic mussels in the coastal areas of Bohai Sea, North China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Wenxin; Chen Jianglin; Lin Xiumei; Fan Yongsheng; Tao Shu

    2007-01-01

    Studies of heavy metals and organic pollutants in different benthic mussel species from Bohai Sea show that concentrations of Cd in mussels commonly exceed national biological quality standards. In addition, a site located in Laizhou Bay exhibits higher average concentrations of As, Hg and Pb with respect to the other sites. Residual levels of petroleum hydrocarbons at several sites in Liaodong Bay also exceed quality guidelines. Contents and compositional characteristics of DDT and its metabolites in mussels suggest the probability of recent inputs and potential ecological risks to the local benthic environment. - Residual Cd contents of mussels at many sites in Bohai Sea exceed national marine biological quality standard and compositions of DDT metabolites indicate recent inputs and potential risk

  3. Growth of juvenile shrimp Metapenaeus monoceros fed with squid and mussel

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Achuthankutty, C.T.; Nair, S.R.S.; Krishnakumari, L.

    Small juveniles of both sexes and females of large juveniles of Metapenaeus monoceros attained faster growth with squid diet. Males of large juveniles registered better growth with mussel diet. No significant difference was observed in moult weights...

  4. Culinary preparation as a tool to decrease the radioactive contamination in mussels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arapis, G.; Gasco, C.; Romero, L.; Martinez, A.

    1992-01-01

    The radiation dose to man from the ingestion of contaminated foodstuffs may be lower after culinary preparation than one calculated from raw food. In this study, cesium and cobalt loss from blue mussels contaminated under laboratory conditions was investigated after culinary preparation processes with and without application of corrective measures. A reduction in Cs-137 was observed into drinkable cooking liquids when mussels were previously washed. Part of the Co-60 was eliminated when boiling was introduced. This elimination was greater when the first boiling water was replaced by the final cooking liquid. Culinary preparation could reduce the Cs-137 content in the eatable part of mussels by a factor of 3 to 6. Maximum reduction was obtained when corrective actions were applied. The reduction of Co-60 content in the body of mussels was lower and the corrective actions applied through the cooking processes did not have any significant influence. (author)

  5. Validated methodology for quantifying infestation levels of dreissenid mussels in environmental DNA (eDNA) samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peñarrubia, Luis; Alcaraz, Carles; Vaate, Abraham Bij de; Sanz, Nuria; Pla, Carles; Vidal, Oriol; Viñas, Jordi

    2016-12-14

    The zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha Pallas, 1771) and the quagga mussel (D. rostriformis Deshayes, 1838) are successful invasive bivalves with substantial ecological and economic impacts in freshwater systems once they become established. Since their eradication is extremely difficult, their detection at an early stage is crucial to prevent spread. In this study, we optimized and validated a qPCR detection method based on the histone H2B gene to quantify combined infestation levels of zebra and quagga mussels in environmental DNA samples. Our results show specific dreissenid DNA present in filtered water samples for which microscopic diagnostic identification for larvae failed. Monitoring a large number of locations for invasive dreissenid species based on a highly specific environmental DNA qPCR assay may prove to be an essential tool for management and control plans focused on prevention of establishment of dreissenid mussels in new locations.

  6. Substratum type and conspecific density as drivers of mussel patch formation

    KAUST Repository

    Bertolini, Camilla; Geraldi, Nathan R.; Montgomery, W.I.; O'Connor, Nessa E.

    2017-01-01

    , their aggregation rate appeared to be greater when mussel density was higher, suggesting that the encounter rate of individuals is an important factor for aggregation. M. modiolus also formed aggregations with a higher fractal dimension in the high and medium

  7. DNA damage in male gonad cells of Green mussel (Perna viridis) upon exposure to tobacco products

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Nagarajappa; Ganguly, A.; Goswami, U.

    DNA damage (determined by the Comet Assay) and the occurrence of deformed nuclei were measured as endpoints of genotoxicity in male gonad cells of the marine mussel (Perna viridis). Upon exposure of the organism to varying concentrations...

  8. A serine protease inhibitor from hemolymph of green mussel, Perna viridis

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Khan, M.S.; Goswami, U.; Rojatkar, S.R.; Khan, M.I.

    Bioactivity guided fractions of cell-free hemolymph of bacterially challenged marine mussel, Perna viridis led to the isolation of a novel quaternary alkaloid 1, which was identified by its spectral data. The isolated molecule 1 has been found...

  9. A Survey of the Freshwater Mussel Fauna of the Little Kanawha River Basin,

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mussels, * Aquatic biology, Surveys, Rivers, Basins(Geographic), Natural resources, Population, Distribution, Sampling, Environmental impact...Chemical analysis, Pesticides, Metals, Water quality, Waste water , Waste management, Decision making, West Virginia, Fresh water , Workshops

  10. Methallothionein expression on the gills and stomach of Chinese pond mussels exposed to lead (Pb)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kartikaningsih, H.; Suryanto, A. M.; Arfiati, D.

    2018-04-01

    In freshwaters area, Pb originates from rocks (naturally), industries, and pesticides. The ability of Chinese pond mussels as biofilters to absorb heavy metal (Pb) was demonstrated in water circulation system using ten 8 cm mussels. PbNO3 (0, 10, 20, and 30 ppm) was administered into water containing mussels. Carp culture was done for 30 days, and Pb accumulation in carps was measured every week (week 0, 1, 2, and 3). The results showed that the highest Pb ion accumulation was found in the gills of mussels. The examination using hematoxylin-eosin showed that tissues were damage due to haemorrhage, cell ruptures, and cell deaths. The results of the measurement of metallothionein (MT) showed that MT molecular weight was 12.84 kDa.

  11. The effect of UV-C exposure on larval survival of the dreissenid quagga mussel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart-Malone, Alecia; Misamore, Michael; Wilmoth, Siri K.; Reyes, Alejandro; Wong, Wai Hing; Gross, Jackson

    2015-01-01

    The rapid spread of quagga mussels (Dreissena rostriformis bugensis) has lead to their invasion of Lake Mead, Nevada, the largest reservoir in North America and partially responsible for providing water to millions of people in the southwest. Current strategies for mitigating the growth and spread of quagga mussels primarily include physical and chemical means of removing adults within water treatment, delivery, and hydropower facilities. In the present study, germicidal ultraviolet light (UV-C) was used to target the larval stage of wild-caught quagga mussel. The lethal effect of UV-C was evaluated at four different doses, 0.0, 13.1, 26.2, and 79.6 mJ/cm2. Tested doses were determined based on results from preliminary trials. The results demonstrate that germicidal UV-C is effective in controlling the free-swimming life history stages of larval quagga mussels.

  12. The Effect of UV-C Exposure on Larval Survival of the Dreissenid Quagga Mussel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart-Malone, Alecia; Misamore, Michael; Wilmoth, Siri; Reyes, Alejandro; Wong, Wai Hing; Gross, Jackson

    2015-01-01

    The rapid spread of quagga mussels (Dreissena rostriformis bugensis) has lead to their invasion of Lake Mead, Nevada, the largest reservoir in North America and partially responsible for providing water to millions of people in the southwest. Current strategies for mitigating the growth and spread of quagga mussels primarily include physical and chemical means of removing adults within water treatment, delivery, and hydropower facilities. In the present study, germicidal ultraviolet light (UV-C) was used to target the larval stage of wild-caught quagga mussel. The lethal effect of UV-C was evaluated at four different doses, 0.0, 13.1, 26.2, and 79.6 mJ/cm2. Tested doses were determined based on results from preliminary trials. The results demonstrate that germicidal UV-C is effective in controlling the free-swimming life history stages of larval quagga mussels.

  13. The Effect of UV-C Exposure on Larval Survival of the Dreissenid Quagga Mussel.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alecia Stewart-Malone

    Full Text Available The rapid spread of quagga mussels (Dreissena rostriformis bugensis has lead to their invasion of Lake Mead, Nevada, the largest reservoir in North America and partially responsible for providing water to millions of people in the southwest. Current strategies for mitigating the growth and spread of quagga mussels primarily include physical and chemical means of removing adults within water treatment, delivery, and hydropower facilities. In the present study, germicidal ultraviolet light (UV-C was used to target the larval stage of wild-caught quagga mussel. The lethal effect of UV-C was evaluated at four different doses, 0.0, 13.1, 26.2, and 79.6 mJ/cm2. Tested doses were determined based on results from preliminary trials. The results demonstrate that germicidal UV-C is effective in controlling the free-swimming life history stages of larval quagga mussels.

  14. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in sediments and mussels of Corral Bay, south central Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palma-Fleming, Hernan; P, Adalberto J Asencio; Gutierrez, Elena

    2004-03-01

    PAHs were measured in sediments and mussels (Mytilus chilensis) from Carboneros and Puerto Claro, located in Corral Bay, Valdivia. According to the ratio of phenanthrene/anthracene and fluoranthene/pyrene concentrations, these sites are medium polluted with PAHs originating mainly from pyrolytic sources. Fluoranthene was the major component measured in mussels (3.1-390 ng g(-1) dry weight) and sediments (6.9-74.1 ng g(-1) dry weight). In general, mussels were mainly exposed to the dissolved fraction of the lower molecular weight PAHs (tri- and tetra-aromatics) while the higher molecular ring systems (penta- and hexa-aromatics) were more bioavailable to sediments. Mussel PAHs content was relatively constant, with the exception of the 1999 summer season (March), when higher concentration values were found in both sites; however, PAHs residues in sediments showed a temporal variation.

  15. Growth of the green mussel, Perna viridis L., in a sea water circulating system

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Chatterji, A.; Ansari, Z.A.; Ingole, B.S.; Parulekar, A.H.

    Growth of the green mussel, P. viridis L., was studied in a sea water circulating system for 12 months. The maximum growth rate was recorded during March - May, coinciding with the maximum abundance of phytoplankton. The other hydrological...

  16. Control of modiolid mussels in cooling water systems by continuous chlorination.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rajagopal, S.; Venugopalan, V.P.; Velde, G. van der; Jenner, H.A.

    2006-01-01

    Abstract. Modiolid mussels such as Modiolus philippinarum and Modiolus metcalfei constitute a numerically significant group in fouling communities, especially in tropical and subtropical industrial cooling water systems. Nevertheless, there are hardly any published reports on the tolerance of these

  17. Human waterborne parasites in zebra mussels ( Dreissena polymorpha) from the Shannon River drainage area, Ireland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graczyk, Thaddeus K; Conn, David Bruce; Lucy, Frances; Minchin, Dan; Tamang, Leena; Moura, Lacy N S; DaSilva, Alexandre J

    2004-08-01

    Zebra mussels ( Dreissena polymorpha) from throughout the Shannon River drainage area in Ireland were tested for the anthropozoonotic waterborne parasites Cryptosporidium parvum, Giardia lamblia, Encephalitozoon intestinalis, E. hellem, and Enterocytozoon bieneusi, by the multiplexed combined direct immunofluorescent antibody and fluorescent in situ hybridization method, and PCR. Parasite transmission stages were found at 75% of sites, with the highest mean concentration of 16, nine, and eight C. parvum oocysts, G. lamblia cysts, and Encephalitozoon intestinalis spores/mussel, respectively. On average eight Enterocytozoon bieneusi spores/mussel were recovered at any selected site. Approximately 80% of all parasites were viable and thus capable of initiating human infection. The Shannon River is polluted with serious emerging human waterborne pathogens including C. parvum, against which no therapy exists. Zebra mussels can recover and concentrate environmentally derived pathogens and can be used for the sanitary assessment of water quality.

  18. Lessons learned in over 100 zebra mussel control applications at industrial facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McGough, C.M.; Gilland, P.H.; Muia, R.A. [Calgon Corp., Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    1998-12-31

    Since their introduction into US waterways, Zebra Mussels (Dreissena polymorphae) have spread rapidly throughout the Great Lakes and Mississippi regions. These mussels have continued to colonize the intake pipes of industrial water supplies and water distribution systems throughout the affected areas. Their colonization has compromised plant safety and production efficiency, and steadily increased costs to water users. The design of each industrial plant water distribution system is unique. A comprehensive zebra mussel control strategy using the best available options must be considered in each specific situation. This paper discusses the successful use of one strategy (a quaternary ammonia-based molluscicide) in the battle against zebra mussels. The commercial life cycle of an industrial molluscicide began with initial toxicity screening in the laboratory. The evaluation continued at plant sites through field trials and applications. Lessons learned from these experiences helped direct the efforts toward the development of a second generation program.

  19. Substratum type and conspecific density as drivers of mussel patch formation

    KAUST Repository

    Bertolini, Camilla

    2017-01-19

    Biogenic reefs are an important component of aquatic ecosystems where they enhance biodiversity. These reefs are often established by dense aggregations of a single taxa and understanding the fundamental principles of biogenic reef formation is needed for their conservation and restoration. We tested whether substratum type and density affected the aggregation behaviour of two important biogenic-reef forming species, the horse mussel, Modiolus modiolus (Linnaeus, 1758), and the blue mussel, Mytilus edulis (Linnaeus, 1758). First, we tested for effects of substratum type on mussel movement and aggregation behaviour by manipulating substrata available to mussels in mesocosms (three treatments: no sediment added, sediment added, sediment and shells added). Both mussel species moved less in treatments with sediment and with both sediment and shells present than when no sediment or shells were added and the percentage of these mussels that aggregated (clumps of two or more individuals) was lower when shells were present compared to treatments without shells, however, fewer M. modiolus attached to shells than M. edulis. There was no effect of different substratum type on patch complexity of either mussel species. In addition, motivated by our interest in the restoration of M. modiolus, we also tested experimentally whether the aggregation behaviour of M. modiolus was density-dependent. M. modiolus moved a similar distance in three density treatments (100, 200 and 300 mussels m), however, their aggregation rate appeared to be greater when mussel density was higher, suggesting that the encounter rate of individuals is an important factor for aggregation. M. modiolus also formed aggregations with a higher fractal dimension in the high and medium density treatments compared to lower density, suggesting that at higher density this increased patch complexity could further facilitate increased recruitment with the enhanced habitat available for settlement. These findings add

  20. Magnitude, spatial scale and optimization of ecosystem services from a nutrient extraction mussel farm in the eutrophic Skive Fjord, Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Pernille; Cranford, P. J.; Maar, M.

    2016-01-01

    Suspended mussel aquaculture has been proposed as a possible mechanism by which to remove excess nutrients from eutrophic marine areas. In this study, seasonal mussel growth and water clarification (through seston and phytoplankton depletion) were studied at a commercial-scale nutrient extractive...... mussel farm in a highly eu - trophic Danish fjord. Spatial variations in mussel biomass were examined throughout the year and no significant differences were detected within the farm. Food depletion by mussels was examined at spatial scales ranging from individuals to the entire farm and surrounding area....... Phytoplankton depletion on the scale of individual mussel loops, determined using the siphon mimic approach, indicated between 27 and 44% depletion of chlorophyll a (chl a). Farm-scale depletion was detected and visualized based on intensive 3D spatial surveys of the distribution of chl a and total suspended...

  1. Toxicity of potassium chloride to veliger and byssal stage dreissenid mussels related to water quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moffitt, Christine M.; Stockton-Fiti, Kelly A.; Claudi, Renata

    2016-01-01

    Natural resource managers are seeking appropriate chemical eradication and control protocols for infestations of zebra mussels, Dreissena polymorpha (Pallas, 1769), and quagga mussels. D. rostiformis bugensis (Andrusov, 1897) that have limited effect on non-target species. Applications of low concentrations of potassium salt (as potash) have shown promise for use where the infestation and treatment can be contained or isolated. To further our understanding of such applications and obtain data that could support a pesticide registration, we conducted studies of the acute and chronic toxicity of potassium chloride to dreissenid mussels in four different water sources from infested and non-infested locations (ground water from northern Idaho, surface water from the Snake River, Idaho, USA, surface water from Lake Ontario, Ontario, Canada, and surface water from the Colorado River, Arizona, USA). We found short term exposure of veligers (29 d) at concentrations of 100 and 200 mg/L KCl. Rapid mortality occurred within 10 d of exposure to concentrations of 200 mg/L KCl, regardless of water source. Kaplan-Meier estimates of mean survival of byssal mussels in 100 mg/L KCl prepared in surface water from Idaho and Lake Ontario were 4.9 or 6.9 d, respectively; however, mean survival of mussels tested in the Colorado River water was > 23 d. The sodium content of the Colorado River water was nearly three times that measured in waters from the other locations, and we hypothesized sodium concentrations may affect mussel survival. To test our hypothesis, we supplemented Snake River and Lake Ontario water with NaCl to equivalent conductivity as the Colorado River, and found mussel survival increased to levels observed in tests of veliger and byssal mussels in Colorado River water. We recommend KCl disinfection and eradication protocols must be developed to carefully consider the water quality characteristics of treatment locations.

  2. A multibiomarker approach to explore interactive effects of propranolol and fluoxetine in marine mussels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franzellitti, Silvia; Buratti, Sara; Du, Bowen; Haddad, Samuel P.; Chambliss, C. Kevin; Brooks, Bryan W.; Fabbri, Elena

    2015-01-01

    A multi-biomarker approach, including several lysosomal parameters, activity and mRNA expression of antioxidant enzymes, and DNA damage, was employed to investigate the nominal effects of 0.3 ng/L fluoxetine (FX) and 0.3 ng/L propranolol (PROP) alone or in combination (0.3 ng/L FX + 0.3 ng/L PROP) on Mediterranean mussels after a 7 day treatment. FX co-exposure appears to facilitate PROP bioaccumulation because PROP only accumulated in digestive gland of FX + PROP treated mussels. Lysosomal parameters were significantly impaired by FX + PROP treatment, while no clear antioxidant responses at the catalytic and transcriptional levels were observed. Biomarker responses led to a “medium stress level” diagnosis in FX + PROP treated mussels, according to the Expert System, whereas 0.3 ng/L PROP or FX alone did not induce consistent stress conditions. These findings suggest vulnerability of coastal marine mussels to FX and PROP contamination at environmentally relevant levels. - Highlights: • FX and PROP combined effects were assessed in marine mussels using biomarkers. • PROP bioaccumulation was observed in digestive gland of FX + PROP treated mussels. • Lysosomal parameters were significantly impaired by FX + PROP treatment. • No clear antioxidant responses at the catalytic and mRNA levels were observed. • FX + PROP treatment increased stress levels of mussels compared with the single chemicals. - Fluoxetine and propranolol induce interactive effects on marine mussels biomarker responses and pharmaceutical bioaccumulation

  3. Occurrence of chlorinated pesticides in mussels of Guanabara Bay, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xavier de Brito, A.P.; De Andrade Bruening, I.M.R.; Moreira, I.; Loureiro, I.

    1999-01-01

    Present work investigates the contamination of some chlorinated pesticides in common mussels (Perna perna) from the Guanabara Bay. These mussels can be found in several points near the entrance of the Bay, where they either grow naturally or are cultivated by fishermen which make their living of this activity. Five collecting areas were studied and the concentrations of eight pesticides, namely HCB, γ-HCH, total DDT, DDD and DDE, Aldrin, Dieldrin and Endrin were determined

  4. Nutritional evaluation of aquaculture mussels (M. galloprovincialis from the Black Sea, Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Merdzhanova Albena

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In recent years black mussels are one of the most commercially important species from the Bulgarian Black Sea. The marine mollusks are valuable healthy food, low in calories and fats and high in proteins. They are a major dietary source of fat soluble pigments - astaxanthin, carotenoids and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA. To our knowledge the information about the nutritional quality of mussels from the Bulgarian Black Sea waters, based on chemical composition, fat soluble pigments, cholesterol and PUFA content is very limited. The aim of the present study is to determine and compare protein, lipid, carbohydrate and energy values, fat soluble pigments, cholesterol and fatty acid composition in farmed mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis from the Bulgarian northern and southern parts of the Black Sea coast. The mussel samples were analyzed for lipids (Bligh & Dyer method, crude proteins (Kjeldahl method, carbohydrates and moistures according to the AOAC (1990 methods. Fatty acids were analyzed by the GC-MS system. Fat soluble pigments and cholesterol were analyzed simultaneously by the RP-HPLC system. Lipid and protein content were found to be higher in mussels from the northern region. In accordance with the Commission Regulation (EC No. 116/2010 all analyzed mussel samples can be classified as high in protein and low in fats and carbohydrates. The amount of cholesterol, contained in all mussel populations is significantly low, while the omega-3 (n-3 is significantly higher than the omega-6 PUFA. A portion of 100 g edible tissue provides 0.500 g more of the required amount of eicosapentaenoic acid (20:5 and docosahexaenoic acid (22:6 n-3 PUFA according to EFSA (2012. It can be concluded that the studied mussel aquaculture in the Black Sea is beneficial food for the human health and it is advisable to be part of a proper or a preventive diet of Bulgarian consumers.

  5. Mussels as Bioindicators: A Case Study of Tributyltin Effects in San Diego Bay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    As part of a Navy research program to evaluate the environmental effects of tributyltin ( TBT ) antifouling coatings and develop in-situ field...documented temporal and spatial variability in TBT and the effects of TBT on growth, bioaccumulation and survival that have not been previously...the mussel bioidicator for assessing TBT effects in San Diego Bay and establishes a significant refinement in the use of mussels as biological

  6. Investigation about the presence of organochlorine pollutants in mussels from the Black Sea, Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgieva Stanislava

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the presence of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs, organochlorine pesticides (HCB, DDT and its metabolites and HCBD in mussels from Bulgarian Black Sea coast. Mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis are aquatic organisms which are immobile so that the concentration of pollutants should primarily be considered as an indication of local levels of organochlorine compounds. Samples were collected from three areas of Black Sea coast of Bulgaria in summer 2015.

  7. The Influence of the Zebra Mussel (Dreisena Polymorhpa) on Magnesium and Calcium Concentration in Water

    OpenAIRE

    Wojtal-Frankiewicz Adrianna; Frankiewicz Piotr

    2011-01-01

    In this study we examined changes in magnesium and calcium ion concentrations depending on Zebra Mussel biomass, pH values and temperature. We performed field experiments in years with different weather conditions using twelve 200 litre polycarbonate containers filled with 150 litres of non-filtered water from lowland, eutrophic reservoirs. Three treatments of the experiment were represented by: Phyto control with non-filtered water, Phyto+Dreis A with Zebra Mussel biomass of 500 g/m2, and Ph...

  8. Validated methodology for quantifying infestation levels of dreissenid mussels in environmental DNA (eDNA) samples

    OpenAIRE

    Peñarrubia Lozano, Luis; Alcaraz Cazorla, Carles; Vaate, Abraham bij de; Sanz Ball-llosera, Núria; Pla Zanuy, Carles; Vidal Fàbrega, Oriol; Viñas de Puig, Jordi

    2016-01-01

    The zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha Pallas, 1771) and the quagga mussel (D. rostriformis Deshayes, 1838) are successful invasive bivalves with substantial ecological and economic impacts in freshwater systems once they become established. Since their eradication is extremely difficult, their detection at an early stage is crucial to prevent spread. In this study, we optimized and validated a qPCR detection method based on the histone H2B gene to quantify combined infestation levels of zebr...

  9. The Effect of UV-C Exposure on Larval Survival of the Dreissenid Quagga Mussel

    OpenAIRE

    Stewart-Malone, Alecia; Misamore, Michael; Wilmoth, Siri; Reyes, Alejandro; Wong, Wai Hing; Gross, Jackson

    2015-01-01

    The rapid spread of quagga mussels (Dreissena rostriformis bugensis) has lead to their invasion of Lake Mead, Nevada, the largest reservoir in North America and partially responsible for providing water to millions of people in the southwest. Current strategies for mitigating the growth and spread of quagga mussels primarily include physical and chemical means of removing adults within water treatment, delivery, and hydropower facilities. In the present study, germicidal ultraviolet light (UV...

  10. Reconstruction of the early invasion history of the quagga mussel (Dreissena rostriformis bugensis) in Western Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Heiler, Katharina; Vaate, Abraham bij de; Ekschmitt, Klemens; Oheimb, Parm von; Albrecht, Christian; Wilke, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    The recent introduction of the quagga mussel into Western European freshwaters marked the beginning of one of the most successful biological invasions during the past years in this region. However, the spatial and temporal origin of the first invasive population(s) in Western Europe as well as subsequent spreading routes still remain under discussion. In this study, we therefore aim at reconstructing the early invasion history of the quagga mussel in Western Europe based on an age-corrected t...

  11. Mussel Spat Ropes Assist Redfin Bully Gobiomorphus huttoni Passage through Experimental Culverts with Velocity Barriers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan D. Tonkin

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The application of mussel spat rope for enabling the passage of redfin bully Gobiomorphus huttoni through culverts, which create velocity barriers, was trialled in the laboratory. No fish were able to access the un-roped control pipes whereas 52% successfully negotiated the pipes in the rope treatments. The success of fish ascending treatment pipes suggests mussel spat rope may be effective for enabling the passage of this and other similar fish species through otherwise impassable culverts with velocity barriers.

  12. Optimal Management of a Potential Invader: The Case of Zebra Mussels in Florida

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Donna J.; Adams, Damian C.; Rossi, Frederick J.

    2007-01-01

    Dominant users of Lake Okeechobee water resources are agricultural producers and recreational anglers. These uses will be directly affected, should the lake become infested with zebra mussels. We employ a probabilistic bioeconomic simulation model to estimate the potential impact of zebra mussels on consumptive water uses, recreational angling, and wetland ecosystem services under alternative public management scenarios. Without public management, the expected net economic impact from zebra m...

  13. Monitoring of zebra mussels in the Shannon-Boyle navigation, other

    OpenAIRE

    Minchin, D.; Lucy, F.; Sullivan, M.

    2002-01-01

    The zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha) population has been closely monitored in Ireland following its discovery in 1997. The species has spread from lower Lough Derg, where it was first introduced, to most of the navigable areas of the Shannon and other interconnected navigable waters. This study took place in the summers of 2000 and 2001 and investigated the relative abundance and biomass of zebra mussels found in the main navigations of the Shannon and elsewhere in rivers, canals and lakes...

  14. Interactions among zebra mussel shells, invertebrate prey, and Eurasian ruffe or yellow perch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolar, C.S.; Fullerton, A.H.; Martin, K.M.; Lamberti, G.A.

    2002-01-01

    The exotic zebra mussel, Dreissena polymorpha, is established in all of the Laurentian Great Lakes and may affect benthivorous fishes by increasing the complexity of benthic substrates and changing energy flow patterns within the food web. Native yellow perch, Perca flavescens, and the nonindigenous Eurasian ruffe, Gymnocephalus cernuus, are benthivores that may compete for limited food resources. As ruffe spread to areas with more dense zebra mussel populations, the zone of interaction among zebra mussels, yellow perch, and ruffe will increase and intensify. In the laboratory, the effect of zebra mussel shells on the ability of these fishes to forage on amphipods (Gammarus pseudolimnaeus) and chironomids (Chironomus plumosus) was examined in light and darkness. In 12 h, ruffe consumed more amphipods than did similar-sized yellow perch, particularly in darkness on bare cobble, and in light within zebra mussels. Amphipods decreased activity more in the presence of ruffe than yellow perch. More amphipods were found in zebra mussel shells than in bare cobble, whether or not fish were present. In darkness, when ruffe consumed more amphipods on bare cobble, amphipods became more associated with zebra mussel shells. Although ruffe consumed more amphipods than yellow perch, perch consumed more chironomids than ruffe on bare cobble. The presence of zebra mussel shells altered the relative consumption of invertebrates in some substrate-light combinations. Experiments such as these help to improve understanding of the direct and indirect effects of predation between and among native and nonindigenous species that may exert structuring forces on the nearshore communities of the Great Lakes currently or in the future.

  15. Predicting the spread of aquatic invaders: insight from 200 years of invasion by zebra mussels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karatayev, Alexander Y; Burlakova, Lyubov E; Mastitsky, Sergey E; Padilla, Dianna K

    2015-03-01

    Understanding factors controlling the introduction and spread of species is crucial to improving the management of both natural populations and introduced species. The zebra mussel, Dreissena polymorpha, is considered the most aggressive freshwater invader in the Northern Hemisphere, and is a convenient model system for invasion biology, offering one of the best aquatic examples for examining the invasion process. We used data on 553 of the 1040 glacial lakes in the Republic of Belarus that were examined for the presence of zebra mussels. We used these data to build, test, and construct modified models to predict the spread of this invader, including selection of important parameters that could limit the spread of this invader. In spite of 200 years of continuous invasion, by 1996, zebra mussels were found in only 16.8% of all lakes studied. Of those lakes without zebra mussels in 1996, 66% were predicted to be susceptible to invasion by zebra mussels in the future, and 33% were predicted to be immune to successful invasion due to their water chemistry. Eighty lakes free of zebra mussels in 1996 were reexamined from 1997 to 2008. Of these, zebra mussels successfully invaded an additional 31 lakes, all of which were classified initially as suitable for zebra mussels; none of the lakes previously classified as unsuitable were invaded. We used the Random Forests classification algorithm with 16 environmental variables to determine the most important factors that differed between invaded lakes and those lakes suitable for invasion that have not yet been invaded. Distance to the nearest infested lakes was found to be the most important variable, followed by the lake area, color, average depth, and concentration of chloride, magnesium, and bicarbonate. This study provides a useful approach for predicting the spread of an invader across a landscape with variable habitat suitability that can be applied to a variety of species and systems.

  16. Environmental Impact Research Program. Gravel Bar Mussel Communities: A Community Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-10-01

    mussels) and the Corbiculacea (the small fingernail and pea clams). Throughout the world, the unionacean mussels are generally associated with larger... proteins , and forms the ligament of the bivalve shell. This elasticity is very important to the mechanical functioning of the bivalve. 27. In all...Wildlife Service, Bureau of Sport Fisheries and Wildlife, pp 38-41. Washington, DC, March 1q70. Jorgensen, C. B. 1975. Comparative physiology of

  17. Spatial and temporal trends of freshwater mussel assemblages in the Meramec River Basin, Missouri, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinck, Jo Ellen; McMurray, Stephen E.; Roberts, Andrew D.; Barnhart, M. Christopher; Ingersoll, Christopher G.; Wang, Ning; Augspurger, Tom

    2012-01-01

    The Meramec River basin in east-central Missouri has one of the most diverse unionoid mussel faunas in the central United States with >40 species identified. Data were analyzed from historical surveys to test whether diversity and abundance of mussels in the Meramec River basin (Big, Bourbeuse, and Meramec rivers, representing >400 river miles) decreased between 1978 and 1997. We found that over 20y, species richness and diversity decreased significantly in the Bourbeuse and Meramec rivers but not in the Big River. Most species were found at fewer sites and in lower numbers in 1997 than in 1978. Federally endangered species and Missouri Species of Conservation Concern with the most severe temporal declines were Alasmidonta viridis, Arcidens confragosus, Elliptio crassidens, Epioblasma triquetra, Fusconaia ebena, Lampsilis abrupta, Lampsilis brittsi, and Simpsonaias ambigua. Averaged across all species, mussels were generally being extirpated from historical sampling sites more rapidly than colonization was occurring. An exception was one reach of the Meramec River between river miles 28.4 and 59.5, where mussel abundance and diversity were greater than in other reaches and where colonization of Margaritiferidae, Lampsilini, and Quadrulini exceeded extirpation. The exact reasons mussel diversity and abundance have remained robust in this 30- mile reach is uncertain, but the reach is associated with increased gradients, few long pools, and vertical rock faces, all of which are preferable for mussels. Complete loss of mussel communities at eight sites (16%) with relatively diverse historical assemblages was attributed to physical habitat changes including bank erosion, unstable substrate, and sedimentation. Mussel conservation efforts, including restoring and protecting riparian habitats, limiting the effects of in-stream sand and gravel mining, monitoring and controlling invasive species, and protecting water quality, may be warranted in the Meramec River basin.

  18. Removal of Selected Heavy Metals from Green Mussel via Catalytic Oxidation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faizuan Abdullah; Abdull Rahim Mohd Yusoff; Wan Azelee Wan Abu Bakar; Razali Ismail; Dwi Priya Hadiyanto

    2014-01-01

    Perna viridis or green mussel is a potentially an important aquaculture product along the South Coast of Peninsular Malaysia especially Johor Straits. As the coastal population increases at tremendous rate, there was significant effect of land use changes on marine communities especially green mussel, as the heavy metals input to the coastal area also increase because of anthropogenic activities. Heavy metals content in the green mussel exceeded the Malaysian Food Regulations (1985) and EU Food Regulations (EC No: 1881/ 2006). Sampling was done at Johor Straits from Danga to Pendas coastal area for green mussel samples. This research introduces a catalytic oxidative technique for demetallisation in green mussel using edible oxidants such as peracetic acid (PAA) enhanced with alumina beads supported CuO, Fe 2 O 3 , and ZnO catalysts. The lethal dose of LD 50 to rats of PAA is 1540 mg kg -1 was verified by National Institute of Safety and Health, United State of America. The best calcination temperature for the catalysts was at 1000 degree Celsius as shown in the X-Ray Diffraction (XRD), Nitrogen Adsorption (BET surface area) and Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (FESEM) analyses. The demetallisation process in green mussel was done successfully using only 100 mgL -1 PAA and catalyzed with Fe 2 O 3 / Al 2 O 3 for up to 90 % mercury (Hg) removal. Using PAA with only 1 hour of reaction time, at room temperature (30-35 degree Celsius), pH 5-6 and salinity of 25-28 ppt, 90 % lead (Pb) was removed from life mussel without catalyst. These findings have a great prospect for developing an efficient and practical method for post-harvesting heavy metals removal in green mussel. (author)

  19. Clearance rate of Mytilus edulis (L.) as a function of current velocity and mussel aggregation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Pernille; Vismann, Bent

    2014-01-01

    by current velocities up to 1.4 m/sec, whereas experiments with 3 mussels showed that clearance of the mussels decreased progressively at current velocities greater than 0.2 m/sec, and reached 0 L/h per individual at current velocities greater than 0.6 m/sec. The constant feeding at all current velocities......The aim of the current study was to investigate the effect of water current velocities on the clearance rate of Mytilus edulis when different numbers of mussels were used in the experiments. An automatic setup, which controlled and monitored the algal concentration continually, was used to measure...... the effect of increasing current velocity (0.05-1.4 m/sec) on the M. edulis clearance rate. Clearance rate measurements were performed under constant food concentrations of 3,000 cells/mL of Rhodomonas salina on either 3 mussels or 20 mussels. We found that the clearance rate of 20 mussels was unaffected...

  20. Relationship between oxygen concentration, respiration and filtration rate in blue mussel Mytilus edulis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Baojun; Riisgård, Hans Ulrik

    2018-03-01

    The large water-pumping and particle-capturing gills of the filter-feeding blue mussel Mytilus edulis are oversized for respiratory purposes. Consequently, the oxygen uptake rate of the mussel has been suggested to be rather insensitive to decreasing oxygen concentrations in the ambient water, since the diffusion rate of oxygen from water flowing through the mussel determines oxygen uptake. We tested this hypothesis by measuring the oxygen uptake in mussels exposed to various oxygen concentrations. These concentrations were established via N2-bubbling of the water in a respiration chamber with mussels fed algal cells to stimulate fully opening of the valves. It was found that mussels exposed to oxygen concentrations decreasing from 9 to 2 mg O2/L resulted in a slow but significant reduction in the respiration rate, while the filtration rate remained high and constant. Thus, a decrease of oxygen concentration by 78% only resulted in a 25% decrease in respiration rate. However, at oxygen concentrations below 2 mg O2/L M. edulis responded by gradually closing its valves, resulting in a rapid decrease of filtration rate, concurrent with a rapid reduction of respiration rate. These observations indicated that M. edulis is no longer able to maintain its normal aerobic metabolism at oxygen concentration below 2 mg O2/L, and there seems to be an energy-saving mechanism in bivalve molluscs to strongly reduce their activity when exposed to low oxygen conditions.

  1. Chronic environmental stress enhances tolerance to seasonal gradual warming in marine mussels.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ionan Marigómez

    Full Text Available In global climate change scenarios, seawater warming acts in concert with multiple stress sources, which may enhance the susceptibility of marine biota to thermal stress. Here, the responsiveness to seasonal gradual warming was investigated in temperate mussels from a chronically stressed population in comparison with a healthy one. Stressed and healthy mussels were subjected to gradual temperature elevation for 8 days (1°C per day; fall: 16-24°C, winter: 12-20°C, summer: 20-28°C and kept at elevated temperature for 3 weeks. Healthy mussels experienced thermal stress and entered the time-limited survival period in the fall, became acclimated in winter and exhibited sublethal damage in summer. In stressed mussels, thermal stress and subsequent health deterioration were elicited in the fall but no transition into the critical period of time-limited survival was observed. Stressed mussels did not become acclimated to 20°C in winter, when they experienced low-to-moderate thermal stress, and did not experience sublethal damage at 28°C in summer, showing instead signs of metabolic rate depression. Overall, although the thermal threshold was lowered in chronically stressed mussels, they exhibited enhanced tolerance to seasonal gradual warming, especially in summer. These results challenge current assumptions on the susceptibility of marine biota to the interactive effects of seawater warming and pollution.

  2. Ocean acidification and host-pathogen interactions: blue mussels, Mytilus edulis, encountering Vibrio tubiashii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asplund, Maria E; Baden, Susanne P; Russ, Sarah; Ellis, Robert P; Gong, Ningping; Hernroth, Bodil E

    2014-04-01

    Ocean acidification (OA) can shift the ecological balance between interacting organisms. In this study, we have used a model system to illustrate the interaction between a calcifying host organism, the blue mussel Mytilus edulis and a common bivalve bacterial pathogen, Vibrio tubiashii, with organisms being exposed to a level of acidification projected to occur by the end of the 21st century. OA exposures of the mussels were carried out in relative long-term (4 months) and short-term (4 days) experiments. We found no effect of OA on the culturability of V. tubiashii, in broth or in seawater. OA inhibited mussel shell growth and impaired crystalline shell structures but did not appear to affect mussel immune parameters (i.e haemocyte counts and phagocytotic capacity). Despite no evident impact on host immunity or growth and virulence of the pathogen, V. tubiashii was clearly more successful in infecting mussels exposed to long-term OA compared to those maintained under ambient conditions. Moreover, OA exposed V. tubiashii increased their viability when exposed to haemocytes of OA-treated mussel. Our findings suggest that even though host organisms may have the capacity to cope with periods of OA, these conditions may alter the outcome of host-pathogen interactions, favouring the success of the latter. © 2013 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. EVALUATION OF BIOTIC AND TREATMENT FACTORS RELATING TO BACTERIAL CONTROL OF ZEBRA MUSSELS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molloy, Daniel P.

    2002-01-01

    Testing over the last quarter has indicated the following regarding control of zebra mussels with bacterium Pseudomonas fluorescens strain CL0145A: (1) the concentration of bacteria suspended in water is directly correlated with mussel kill; (2) the ratio of bacterial mass per mussel, if too low, could limit mussel kill; a treatment must be done at a high enough ratio so that mussels do not deplete all the suspended bacteria before the end of the desired exposure period; (3) bacteria appear to lose almost all their toxicity after suspension for 24 hr in highly oxygenated water; (4) in a recirculating pipe system, the same percentage mussel kill will be achieved irrespective of whether all the bacteria are applied at once or divided up and applied intermittently in smaller quantities over a 10-hr period. Since this is the fourth quarterly report, a summation of all test results over the last twelve months is provided as a table in this report. The table includes the above-mentioned fourth-quarter results

  4. Radioactivity levels in mussels and sediments of the Golden Horn by the Bosphorus Strait, Marmara Sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kılıç, Önder; Belivermiş, Murat; Gözel, Furkan; Carvalho, Fernando P.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • The first comprehensive study related to radioactivity concentrations in the study area. • Assessment of several radionuclides such as Cs-137, K-40, Ra-226, Ra-228, Po-210 and Pb-210 in mussel and sediment. • Investigation of relationship amongst radionuclides, organic matter percent, pH value and particle size of sediment. - Abstract: The Golden Horn is an estuary located in the center of İstanbul receiving freshwater discharges from two creeks and connecting to the Bosphorus Strait. Activity concentrations of natural and artificial radionuclides were determined in mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis) and sediments from the Golden Horn sampled in February 2012. Mean activity concentrations of 137 Cs, 40 K, 226 Ra, 228 Ra, 210 Po and 210 Pb in the mussels were determined at 1.03 ± 0.23, 389 ± 41.6, 2.61 ± 1.23, not detected (ND), 91.96 ± 37.88 and 11.48 ± 4.85 Bq kg −1 , respectively. In sediments, it was observed that 137 Cs, 40 K, 226 Ra, 228 Ra, 210 Po and 210 Pb activity concentrations in <63 μm particle fraction of sediment were generally higher than those determined in mussels. Po-210 and 210 Po/ 210 Pb ratios in mussels from the Golden Horn were much lower than in mussels from other coastal regions and this was related to low plankton productivity and eutrophication of the Golden Horn

  5. Feasibility of green mussel, Perna viridis farming in Marudu Bay, Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tan Kar Soon

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Bivalve aquaculture is an important source of affordable animal protein for coastal community. The success and sustainability of this industry is highly influenced by the suitability of the environment in which it is carried out. Present study was carried out to evaluate the feasibility of green mussel (Perna viridis farming in Marudu Bay. The site suitability for green mussel farming was evaluated based on biophysical parameters and food availability. The in situ environmental parameters, phytoplankton abundance and composition were collected from 10 sampling stations on monthly interval from May 2014 to April 2015. The results showed that the environmental parameters and food availability in most of the sampling stations were suitable for green mussel. However, the presence of phytoplankton taxa (Chaetoceraceae which are unfavorable by green mussel in most of the stations located at the bay pocket make those areas less recommended for green mussel farming. In contrast, stations located on the mouth of the bay exhibited high site suitability rating points and hence are highly recommended for cultivation of green mussel.

  6. Feeding activity of mussels Mytilus edulis related to near-bed currents and phytoplankton biomass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dolmer, Per

    2000-01-01

    The feeding activity of blue mussels Mytilus edulis was investigated in the field and related to near-bottom current velocities and the phytoplankton biomass in the near-bottom water layers for four days. The body content of Chl-a in mussels and their shell gap size were used as indices of filtra......The feeding activity of blue mussels Mytilus edulis was investigated in the field and related to near-bottom current velocities and the phytoplankton biomass in the near-bottom water layers for four days. The body content of Chl-a in mussels and their shell gap size were used as indices...... of filtration activity. During days 1 and 2 the near-bed current velocities were low (1.2-2.1 cm s(-1)), and the near-bed phytoplankton biomass was at the same time lower than near the water surface. Between 44 and 69% of the mussels had closed shells and accumulated only small amounts of Chl-a in the body....... During day 3 and day 4 the near-bed current velocities increased to 6.5 and 3.9 cm s(-1). respectively, and the Chl-a was homogeneously distributed in the water column. Now only 17 and 25% of the mussels had closed valves and they accumulated a larger amount of Chl-a. The actual population filtration...

  7. Detection of Cryptosporidium oocysts in green mussels (Perna viridis from shell-fish markets of Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srisuphanunt M.

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Mussels filter large volumes of water and can concentrate pathogenic organisms, which may act as potential vehicles of transmission to the consumer. A survey study was carried out to investigate the presence of Cryptosporidium protozoan parasites in green mussels (Perna viridis, the smussles pecies most destined for consumption in Thailand. In total, 56 samples were examined from Bangkok (n = 24 and Samut Prakan (n = 32 a wholesale shell-fish markets located at the mouth of the Chao Phraya River. The market for green mussels was closed to the mussel culture placed along the coastal line and this localization may have significant economical impact if the mussels’ cultures are found contaminated. Cryptosporidium spp. oocysts were detected by the immunofluorescence antibody method (IFA in 12.5% of the samples examined. The detection of Cryptosporidium oocysts in green mussels’ population of Samut Prakan was higher (15.6% than in Bangkok market (8.3%. These differences in positive samples from the two locations may be caused by physical, ecological and anthropogenic conditions. This could relay to different contamination levels of marine water by Cryptosporidium oocysts and consequently to contamination of harvested shellfish populations. The results demonstrate that the Cryptosporidium spp. oocysts were found indigenous in mussels from the coastal line of Thailand, indicating that mussels may act as a reservoir of Cryptosporidium foodborne infections for humans.

  8. Modeled sensitivity of Lake Michigan productivity and zooplankton to changing nutrient concentrations and quagga mussels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilcher, Darren J.; McKinley, Galen A.; Kralj, James; Bootsma, Harvey A.; Reavie, Euan D.

    2017-08-01

    The recent decline in Lake Michigan productivity is often attributed to filter feeding by invasive quagga mussels, but some studies also implicate reductions in lakewide nutrient concentrations. We use a 3-D coupled hydrodynamic-biogeochemical model to evaluate the effect of changing nutrient concentrations and quagga mussel filtering on phytoplankton production and phytoplankton and zooplankton biomass. Sensitivity experiments are used to assess the net effect of each change separately and in unison. Quagga mussels are found to have the greatest impact during periods of isothermal mixing, while nutrients have the greatest impact during thermal stratification. Quagga mussels also act to enhance spatial heterogeneity, particularly between nearshore-offshore regions. This effect produces a reversal in the gradient of nearshore-offshore productivity: from relatively greater nearshore productivity in the prequagga lake to relatively lesser nearshore productivity after quaggas. The combined impact of both processes drives substantial reductions in phytoplankton and zooplankton biomass, as well as significant modifications to the seasonality of surface water pCO2, particularly in nearshore regions where mussel grazing continues year-round. These results support growing concern that considerable losses of phytoplankton and zooplankton will yield concurrent losses at higher trophic levels. Comparisons to observed productivity suggest that both quagga mussel filtration and lower lakewide total phosphorus are necessary to accurately simulate recent changes in primary productivity in Lake Michigan.

  9. Habitat shift in invading species: Zebra and quagga mussel population characteristics on shallow soft substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berkman, P.A.; Garton, D.W.; Haltuch, M.A.; Kennedy, G.W.; Febo, L.R.

    2000-01-01

    Unexpected habitat innovations among invading species are illustrated by the expansion of dreissenid mussels across sedimentary environments in shallow water unlike the hard substrates where they are conventionally known. In this note, records of population characteristics of invading zebra (Dreissena polymorpha) and quagga (Dreissena bugensis) mussels from 1994 through 1998 are reported from shallow (less than 20 m) sedimentary habitats in western Lake Erie. Haphazard SCUBA collections of these invading species indicated that combined densities of zebra and quagga mussels ranged from 0 to 32,500 individuals per square meter between 1994 and 1998, with D. polymorpha comprising 75-100% of the assemblages. These mixed mussel populations, which were attached by byssal threads to each other and underlying sand-grain sediments, had size-frequency distributions that were typical of colonizing populations on hard substrates. Moreover, the presence of two mussel cohorts within the 1994 samples indicated that these species began expanding onto soft substrates not later than 1992, within 4 years of their initial invasion in western Lake Erie. Such historical data provide baselines for interpreting adaptive innovations, ecological interactions and habitat shifts among the two invading dreissenid mussel species in North America.

  10. Evidence of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor in chemosynthetic mussels from the Gulf of Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Willett, K.; Thomsen, J.; Wilson, C.; McDonald, S.; Safe, S.

    1995-01-01

    The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) is a ligand-activated transcription factor that controls expression of various genes including cytochrome P450. Polynuclear aromatic and halogenated aromatic hydrocarbons are agonists for the AhR in fish and mammalian species. Previously, a homologous AhR has not been identified in marine invertebrate species. Chemosynthetic mussels were collected from gas and petroleum seeps in the Gulf of Mexico to investigate the presence of the AhR and the induction of the cytochrome P450 system. Aryl hydrocarbon hydroxylase and glutathione S-transferase activities in the gill and hepatopancreas were elevated in the petroleum seep mussels relative to those from the gas seep. A nuclear AhR in the hepatopancreas was detected in both mussel populations after treatment with [ 3 H]-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (tcdd) followed by sucrose density gradient analysis. Gel mobility shift assays using a labeled dioxin responsive element (DRE) oligonucleotide and tcdd-transformed mussel cytosol showed a retarded band which could be competed with excess unlabeled DRE. Results from gel shifts indicated specific binding of the tcdd-mussel AhR complex to its responsible element. Finally, PCR primers designed to amplify a 700 base pair region of the human AhR detected AhR mRNA in both mussel populations. The sequence of this PCR product is being determined. The presence of the AhR in marine invertebrates has important implications in the evolutionary age of the AhR

  11. Book review: Biology and management of invasive quagga and zebra mussels in the western United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, Amy J.

    2017-01-01

    Water is a precious and limited commodity in the western United States and its conveyance is extremely important. Therefore, it is critical to do as much as possible to prevent the spread of two species of dreissenid mussels, both non-native and highly invasive aquatic species already well-established in the eastern half of the United States. This book addresses the occurrences of the two dreissenid mussels in the West, the quagga mussel and the zebra mussel, that are both known to negatively impact water delivery systems and natural ecosystems. It is edited by two researchers whom have extensive experience working with the mussels in the West and is composed of 34 chapters, or articles, written by a variety of experts.Book information: Biology and Management of Invasive Quagga and Zebra Mussels in the Western United States. Edited by Wai Hing Wong and Shawn L. Gerstenberger. Boca Raton (Florida): CRC Press (Taylor & Francis Group). $149.95. xx + 545 p.; ill.; index. ISBN: 978-1-4665-9561-3. [Compact Disc included.] 2015.

  12. Uptake of dissolved organic carbon and trace elements by zebra mussels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roditi, Hudson A.; Fisher, Nicholas S.; Sañudo-Wilhelmy, Sergio A.

    2000-09-01

    Zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha) are widespread and abundant in major freshwater ecosystems in North America, even though the phytoplankton food resources in some of these systems seem to be too low to sustain them. Because phytoplankton biomass is greatly depleted in ecosystems with large D. polymorpha populations and bacteria do not seem to be an important food source for this species, exploitation of alternative carbon sources may explain the unexpected success of D. polymorpha in such environments. Here we examine the possibility that absorption of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) from water could provide a nutritional supplement to zebra mussels. We find that mussels absorb 14C-labelled DOC produced by cultured diatoms with an efficiency of 0.23%; this indicates that DOC in natural waters could contribute up to 50% of the carbon demand of zebra mussels. We also find that zebra mussels absorb some dissolved metals that have been complexed by the DOM; although absorption of dissolved selenium was unaffected by DOC, absorption of dissolved cadmium, silver and mercury by the mussels increased 32-, 8.7- and 3.6-fold, respectively, in the presence of high-molecular-weight DOC.

  13. Bioaccumulation of human waterborne protozoa by zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha): interest for water biomonitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palos Ladeiro, M; Aubert, D; Villena, I; Geffard, A; Bigot, A

    2014-01-01

    Cryptosporidium parvum, Giardia duodenalis and Toxoplasma gondii are ubiquitous pathogens, which waterborne transmission has been largely demonstrated. Since they can be found in various watercourses, interactions with aquatic organisms are possible. Protozoan detection for watercourses biomonitoring is currently based on large water filtration. The zebra mussel, Dreissena polymorpha, is a choice biological model in ecotoxicological studies which are already in use to detect chemical contaminations in watercourses. In the present study, the zebra mussel was tested as a new tool for detecting water contamination by protozoa. In vivo exposures were conducted in laboratory experiments. Zebra mussel was exposed to various protozoan concentrations for one week. Detection of protozoa was realized by Taqman real time qPCR. Our experiments evidenced C. parvum, G. duodenalis and T. gondii oocyst bioaccumulation by mussels proportionally to ambient contamination, and significant T. gondii prevalence was observed in muscle tissue. To our knowledge, this is the first study that demonstrates T. gondii oocyst accumulation by zebra mussel. The results from this study highlight the capacity of zebra mussels to reveal ambient biological contamination, and thus to be used as a new effective tool in sanitary biomonitoring of water bodies. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Chronological history of zebra and quagga mussels (Dreissenidae) in North America, 1988-2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, Amy J.

    2013-01-01

    An unprecedented invasion began in North America in the mid-/late-1980s when two Eurasian mussel species, Dreissena polymorpha (zebra mussel) and Dreissena rostriformis bugensis (quagga mussel), became established in Laurentian Great Lakes. It is believed that Lake Erie was the initial location of establishment for both species, and within 3 years, zebra mussels had been found in all the Great Lakes. Since 1986, the combined distribution of two dreissenids has expanded throughout the Great Lakes region and the St. Lawrence River in Canada and also in the United States from the Great Lakes to the Mississippi Basin including Arkansas, Cumberland, Illinois, Missouri, Ohio, and Tennessee river basins. The distribution of dreissenid mussels in the Atlantic drainage has been limited to the Hudson and Susquehanna rivers. In the western United States, the quagga mussel established a large population in the lower Colorado River and spread to reservoirs in Arizona, California, Colorado, Nevada, and Utah. Overall, dreissenid species have been documented in 131 river systems and 772 inland lakes, reservoirs, and impoundments in the United States.

  15. Transplanted zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha) as active biomonitors in an effluent-dominated river.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smolders, Roel; Bervoets, Lieven; Blust, Ronny

    2002-09-01

    For over 20 years, mussels have been recommended as one of the most suitable biomonitoring organisms for aquatic ecosystems. Though the common mussel (Mytilus edulis) is frequently used for biomonitoring estuarine and marine ecosystems, no freshwater species is promoted for similar monitoring networks. Recently, however, the zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha) has been proposed as a suitable monitoring organism in freshwater ecosystems. The aim of this study was to explore the usefulness of transplanted zebra mussels as active biomonitors in an effluent-dominated stream. Results showed that for these purposes, an exposure period of at least a few weeks is required to detect any significant changes in condition status or scope for growth. Wet-tissue-weight:dry-tissue-weight ratio was the most sensitive measure to quantify effects of field exposure on physiological fitness. In case of scope for growth (SfG), energy intake was the factor determining the overall energy budget of the mussels. Based on the dilution rates of the two different effluents present, effluent 2 had the most important effect on the condition status of the exposed organisms. Overall, we conclude that the use of transplanted mussels is a sensitive and easily applicable active biomonitor that can be used to assess water quality, pollution, and subsequent recovery through self-purification in field situations.

  16. Effects of Room-Temperature Ionic Liquids on Zebra Mussels (Dreissena polymorpha)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costello, D. M.; Bernot, R. J.; Lamberti, G. A.

    2005-05-01

    Zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha) are exotic bivalves that are widely distributed in eastern North America. We propose that this nuisance organism could serve as a model species for studies of aquatic toxicology. We tested zebra mussels response to room-temperature ionic liquids (ILs), which are being synthesized as environmentally friendly alternatives to volatile organic solvents. Volatile organic solvents contribute to atmospheric pollution and ozone depletion, whereas ILs are non-volatile and less harmful to the atmosphere. Although ILs would contribute significantly less to air pollution, little is known about their potential effects on aquatic ecosystems. In 72-hour toxicity tests, we determined the acute effects of three imidazolium-based ILs (1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium bromide (bmimBr), 1-hexyl-3-methylimidazolium bromide (hmimBr), and 1-octyl-3-methylimidazolium bromide (omimBr)) on the survival of zebra mussels. As alkyl chain length decreased, median lethal concentration (LC50) decreased from 1291 mg L-1 for bmimBr, to 105 mg L-1 for hmimBr, and 21.2 mg L-1 for omimBr. For bivalve mussels, the toxicities of these ILs are comparable to the toxicities of commonly used industrial solvents (e.g., toluene, benzene). This study presents a foundation for using zebra mussels in toxicity studies as well as possible models for less common Unionid mussels.

  17. Efficacy of candidate chemicals for preventing attachment of zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cope, W.G.; Bartsch, M.R.; Marking, L.L.

    1997-01-01

    Forty-seven chemicals having potential for preventing the attachment of zebra mussels Dreissena polymorpha were identified and tested. For each chemical, 15 zebra mussels (5-8-mm shell length) in each of two replicates and six treatments were exposed for 48 h followed by a 48-h postexposure period in untreated water. Eleven of the chemicals inhibited the reattachment of zebra mussels after the 48-h exposure; eight had EC50 values ranging from 0.4 to 5.4 mg /L, and three had EC50 values ranging from 19.4 to 29.0 mg/L. Based on an analysis of chemical cost, solubility in water, anticipated treatment concentrations, and potential hazards to humans or the environment, three of the most promising chemicals, all antioxidants (butylated hydroxyanisole [BHA], tert-butylhydroquinone, and tannic acid) were tested on nontarget fish (bluegill, Lepomis macrochirus; channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus; and rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss). These chemicals were not selectively toxic to zebra mussels; only the tests with bluegill and BHA and with channel catfish and tannic acid had 48-h LC50 values greater than the concentrations effective for preventing the reattachment of zebra mussels. Although the attachment of zebra mussels can be prevented with selected antioxidants, an alternative formulation should be investigated to minimize effects on nontarget organisms, such as fish.

  18. EVALUATION OF BIOTIC AND TREATMENT FACTORS RELATING TO BACTERIAL CONTROL OF ZEBRA MUSSELS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daniel P. Molloy

    2002-04-30

    Testing over the last quarter has indicated the following regarding control of zebra mussels with bacterium Pseudomonas fluorescens strain CL0145A: (1) the concentration of bacteria suspended in water is directly correlated with mussel kill; (2) the ratio of bacterial mass per mussel, if too low, could limit mussel kill; a treatment must be done at a high enough ratio so that mussels do not deplete all the suspended bacteria before the end of the desired exposure period; (3) bacteria appear to lose almost all their toxicity after suspension for 24 hr in highly oxygenated water; (4) in a recirculating pipe system, the same percentage mussel kill will be achieved irrespective of whether all the bacteria are applied at once or divided up and applied intermittently in smaller quantities over a 10-hr period. Since this is the fourth quarterly report, a summation of all test results over the last twelve months is provided as a table in this report. The table includes the above-mentioned fourth-quarter results.

  19. Zebra mussel beds: an effective feeding ground for Ponto-Caspian gobies or suitable shelter for their prey?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobak, Jarosław; Poznańska, Małgorzata; Jermacz, Łukasz; Kakareko, Tomasz; Prądzynski, Daniel; Łodygowska, Małgorzata; Montowska, Karolina; Bącela-Spychalska, Karolina

    2016-01-01

    Aggregations of the Ponto-Caspian invasive zebra mussel ( Dreissena polymorpha ) constitute a suitable habitat for macroinvertebrates, considerably increasing their abundance and providing effective antipredator protection. Thus, the overall effect of a mussel bed on particular predator species may vary from positive to negative, depending on both prey density increase and predator ability to prey in a structurally complex habitat. Alien Ponto-Caspian goby fish are likely to be facilitated when introduced into new areas by zebra mussels, provided that they are capable of utilizing mussel beds as habitat and feeding grounds. We ran laboratory experiments to find which prey (chironomid larvae) densities (from ca. 500 to 2,000 individuals m -2 ) in a mussel bed make it a more beneficial feeding ground for the racer goby Babka gymnotrachelus (RG) and western tubenose goby Proterorhinus semilunaris (WTG) compared to sandy and stone substrata (containing the basic prey density of 500 ind. m -2 ). Moreover, we checked how food availability affects habitat selection by fish. Mussel beds became more suitable for fish than alternative mineral substrata when food abundance was at least two times higher (1,000 vs. 500 ind. m -2 ), regardless of fish size and species. WTG was associated with mussel beds regardless of its size and prey density, whereas RG switched to this habitat when it became a better feeding ground than alternative substrata. Larger RG exhibited a stronger affinity for mussels than small individuals. WTG fed more efficiently from a mussel bed at high food abundances than RG. A literature review has shown that increasing chironomid density, which in our study was sufficient to make a mussel habitat an attractive feeding ground for the gobies, is commonly observed in mussel beds in the field. Therefore, we conclude that zebra mussels may positively affect the alien goby species and are likely to facilitate their establishment in novel areas, contributing to an

  20. Zebra mussel beds: an effective feeding ground for Ponto-Caspian gobies or suitable shelter for their prey?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jarosław Kobak

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Aggregations of the Ponto-Caspian invasive zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha constitute a suitable habitat for macroinvertebrates, considerably increasing their abundance and providing effective antipredator protection. Thus, the overall effect of a mussel bed on particular predator species may vary from positive to negative, depending on both prey density increase and predator ability to prey in a structurally complex habitat. Alien Ponto-Caspian goby fish are likely to be facilitated when introduced into new areas by zebra mussels, provided that they are capable of utilizing mussel beds as habitat and feeding grounds. We ran laboratory experiments to find which prey (chironomid larvae densities (from ca. 500 to 2,000 individuals m−2 in a mussel bed make it a more beneficial feeding ground for the racer goby Babka gymnotrachelus (RG and western tubenose goby Proterorhinus semilunaris (WTG compared to sandy and stone substrata (containing the basic prey density of 500 ind. m−2. Moreover, we checked how food availability affects habitat selection by fish. Mussel beds became more suitable for fish than alternative mineral substrata when food abundance was at least two times higher (1,000 vs. 500 ind. m−2, regardless of fish size and species. WTG was associated with mussel beds regardless of its size and prey density, whereas RG switched to this habitat when it became a better feeding ground than alternative substrata. Larger RG exhibited a stronger affinity for mussels than small individuals. WTG fed more efficiently from a mussel bed at high food abundances than RG. A literature review has shown that increasing chironomid density, which in our study was sufficient to make a mussel habitat an attractive feeding ground for the gobies, is commonly observed in mussel beds in the field. Therefore, we conclude that zebra mussels may positively affect the alien goby species and are likely to facilitate their establishment in novel areas

  1. Occurrence and distribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in mussels from the gulf of Naples, Tyrrhenian Sea, Italy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mercogliano, Raffaelina; Santonicola, Serena; De Felice, Alessandra; Anastasio, Aniello; Murru, Nicoletta; Ferrante, Maria Carmela; Cortesi, Maria Luisa

    2016-01-01

    To assess the potential impact of the industrial activity on food safety and risk for consumers, the aim of the study was to evaluate the levels of 14 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) in 69 samples of wild and farm Mytilus galloprovincialis, collected in sites of coast of Gulf of Naples, Tyrrhenian Sea. All hydrocarbons were found in samples. Higher levels of pyrolytic PAHs were in wild than in farm mussels. Benzo(a)pyrene exceeded the Regulation (EC) n.835/11 levels of 1 μg/kg in 15 samples (71.42%) of wild and 25 samples (65.79%) of farm mussels. System of sum of 4 hydrocarbons exceeded the law level in 15 samples (71.42%) of wild and 21 samples (55.26%) of farm mussels. Wild mussel levels showed a potential impact of pyrolytic sources of PAH on food safety. Occurrence of carcinogenic PAHs should be a cause for concern, in areas where the mussels are being farmed for human consumption. - Highlights: •Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons are genotoxic and carcinogenic organic compounds. •Mussels were used as bio-indicators of the marine pollution and human exposure. •14 PAH were evaluated in wild and farm mussels collected in the Gulf of Naples. •The impact of industrial activity on mussel safety is related to pyrolytic sources. •Carcinogenic PAHs in farm mussels may represent a potential risk for human health.

  2. High-performance mussel-inspired adhesives of reduced complexity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, B Kollbe; Das, Saurabh; Linstadt, Roscoe; Kaufman, Yair; Martinez-Rodriguez, Nadine R; Mirshafian, Razieh; Kesselman, Ellina; Talmon, Yeshayahu; Lipshutz, Bruce H; Israelachvili, Jacob N; Waite, J Herbert

    2015-10-19

    Despite the recent progress in and demand for wet adhesives, practical underwater adhesion remains limited or non-existent for diverse applications. Translation of mussel-inspired wet adhesion typically entails catechol functionalization of polymers and/or polyelectrolytes, and solution processing of many complex components and steps that require optimization and stabilization. Here we reduced the complexity of a wet adhesive primer to synthetic low-molecular-weight catecholic zwitterionic surfactants that show very strong adhesion (∼50 mJ m(-2)) and retain the ability to coacervate. This catecholic zwitterion adheres to diverse surfaces and self-assembles into a molecularly smooth, thin (adhesive for nanofabrication. This study significantly simplifies bio-inspired themes for wet adhesion by combining catechol with hydrophobic and electrostatic functional groups in a small molecule.

  3. Metallothionein as biomarker of mussel exposure to heavy metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raspor, B.; Erk, M.; Pavicic, J.; Juric, D.; Kwokal, Z.; Odzak, N.

    1999-01-01

    The biological effect of marine pollution with heavy metals is followed in bivalves by means of the induced amount of metallothioneins (MTs), determined in different tissue types. The biological effect of the available toxic metals, cadmium and mercury, are related to the amount of MTs in the whole edible part, gills and the digestive gland of Mytilus galloprovincialis. For that purpose highly sensitive chemical and biochemical methods for metal and metallothionein content determination were developed and applied. The study was conducted in the Kastela Bay, which is the urban and industrial center of Dalmatia, Croatia, with two groups of mussels, indigenous and the transplanted. In accordance with the objective of the Symposium the results on monitoring the marine pollution by means of MTs as a biomarker, isolated from the edible, sessile and filter-feeding bivalves are discussed. (author)

  4. Ultrastructural and Histochemical Characterization of the Zebra Mussel Adhesive Apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farsad, Nikrooz

    Since their accidental introduction into the Great Lakes in mid- to late-1980s, the freshwater zebra mussels, Dreissena polymorpha, have colonized most lakes and waterways across eastern North America. Their rapid spread is partly attributed to their ability to tenaciously attach to hard substrates via an adhesive apparatus called the byssus, resulting in serious environmental and economic impacts. A detailed ultrastructural study of the byssus revealed a 10 nm adhesive layer at the attachment interface. Distributions of the main adhesive amino acid, 3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (DOPA), and its oxidizing (cross-linking) enzyme, catechol oxidase, were determined histochemically. It was found that, upon aging, DOPA levels remained high in the portion of the byssus closest to the interface, consistent with an adhesive role. In contrast, reduced levels of DOPA corresponded well with high levels of catechol oxidase in the load-bearing component of the byssus, presumably forming cross-links and increasing the cohesive strength.

  5. Naturally acidified habitat selects for ocean acidification-tolerant mussels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomsen, Jörn; Stapp, Laura S; Haynert, Kristin; Schade, Hanna; Danelli, Maria; Lannig, Gisela; Wegner, K Mathias; Melzner, Frank

    2017-04-01

    Ocean acidification severely affects bivalves, especially their larval stages. Consequently, the fate of this ecologically and economically important group depends on the capacity and rate of evolutionary adaptation to altered ocean carbonate chemistry. We document successful settlement of wild mussel larvae ( Mytilus edulis ) in a periodically CO 2 -enriched habitat. The larval fitness of the population originating from the CO 2 -enriched habitat was compared to the response of a population from a nonenriched habitat in a common garden experiment. The high CO 2 -adapted population showed higher fitness under elevated P co 2 (partial pressure of CO 2 ) than the non-adapted cohort, demonstrating, for the first time, an evolutionary response of a natural mussel population to ocean acidification. To assess the rate of adaptation, we performed a selection experiment over three generations. CO 2 tolerance differed substantially between the families within the F 1 generation, and survival was drastically decreased in the highest, yet realistic, P co 2 treatment. Selection of CO 2 -tolerant F 1 animals resulted in higher calcification performance of F 2 larvae during early shell formation but did not improve overall survival. Our results thus reveal significant short-term selective responses of traits directly affected by ocean acidification and long-term adaptation potential in a key bivalve species. Because immediate response to selection did not directly translate into increased fitness, multigenerational studies need to take into consideration the multivariate nature of selection acting in natural habitats. Combinations of short-term selection with long-term adaptation in populations from CO 2 -enriched versus nonenriched natural habitats represent promising approaches for estimating adaptive potential of organisms facing global change.

  6. Cultivation of zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha) within their invaded range to improve water quality in reservoirs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLaughlan, C; Aldridge, D C

    2013-09-01

    Algal and cyanobacterial blooms in reservoirs are driven by nutrient enrichment and may present economic and conservation challenges for water managers. Current approaches such as suppression of algal growth with barley straw, ferric dosing or manipulation of fish stocks have not yielded long term successes. A possibility that has sparked growing interest is the encouragement and cultivation of natural filter feeders, such as mussels, which remove suspended matter from the water and reduce nutrient levels through biodeposition and assimilation. This review focusses on the zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha) as a tool for enhancement of water quality in reservoirs. Native to the Ponto-Caspian region, this species has invaded many lakes and reservoirs across North America and Western Europe, where it occurs in very high densities. While purposeful introduction of a non-native species into new sites is socially unacceptable, we investigate the possible benefits of encouraging increased abundance of zebra mussels in sites where the species is already established. We estimate that the annual nitrogen and phosphorus input into a large UK reservoir (Grafham Water) could be assimilated into zebra mussel biomass by encouraging settlement onto 3075 m and 1400 m of commercial mussel ropes, respectively. While zebra mussel cultivation has an incredible capacity to push eutrophic systems towards a clear water state, there are many risks associated with encouraging an invasive species, even within sites where it has already established. The zebra mussel is a prominent biofouler of native unionid mussels and raw water pipes, it changes the physical characteristics of the places it inhabits, in sites low in phosphorus it can be responsible for toxic cyanobacterial blooms, it alters nutrient cycling and community structure and it can have negative impacts on amenity value. Increased propagule pressure from elevated numbers of veliger larvae in the water column may increase the risk

  7. Survival and behaviour of juvenile unionid mussels exposed to thermal stress and dewatering in the presence of a sediment temperature gradient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archambault, L.; Cope, W. Gregory; Kwak, Thomas J.

    2014-01-01

    Freshwater mussels (Unionidae) are a highly imperilled faunal group. One critical threat is thermal sensitivity, because global climate change and other anthropogenic activities contribute to increasing stream temperature and altered hydrologic flow that may be detrimental to freshwater mussels.

  8. The U.S. mussel watch : nationwide geographic and long-term trends of PAHs in coastal mussels and oysters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mearns, A.J.; Lauenstein, G.C.; O'Connor, T.P.

    1998-01-01

    The issue of fishery evaluation criteria following oil spills in lakes, rivers and seas was discussed. This paper focused on the problem of developing criteria for closing and opening fisheries during responses to oil spills. Closures are implemented to prevent the public from consuming toxic chemicals such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and to prevent tainted sea food products from entering the marketplace. A U.S. nationwide program, called Mussel Watch Project of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) National Status and Trends (NS and T) Program, was established to monitor spatial distribution and temporal trends of contaminant concentrations at over 200 coastal and estuarian sites around the U.S. The program has analyzed concentrations of 44 PAHs. The trends of PAHs was compared with other pollutants. An assessment of the extent to which PAHs in mollusks reflect population density was discussed. 16 refs., 4 tabs

  9. Variationas of 210Po Activity in Mussels (Perna viridis) of Samut Sakhon and Its Contribution to Dose Assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Porntepkasemsan, B; Srisuksawad, K.; Permnamtip, V.

    2014-01-01

    Levels of 210 Po and its effective dose in green mussel (Perna viridis) collected from mussel farming area at the Samut Sakhon province during the period of 2012-2013 are presented. Several parameters including maximum shell length and the physiological performance of mussels using condition index and physical properties of seawater (pH, salinity, conductivity, TDS, DO and cation-anion elements) were measured. Each individual mussel was measured on its maximum shell length which was adopted as size class. The activity concentration of 210Po was determined spectroscopically through its 5.30 MeV alpha particle emission, using 209 Po as an internal tracer. The 210 Po activity concentration in mussels was found to vary between 1.044 and 6.951 Bq.kg-1 wet weight. The 210 Po concentration was higher in smaller sized classes (>35 mm) and lowest in larger ones (40-70 mm). This confirms that larger mussels have lower 210Po levels on a weight basis. The 210 Po body burden (activity per mussel) ranged from 1.035 to 17.183 mBq. Contrary to the 210 Po concentrations, results of the body burden revealed the lower activities in smaller sized mussels (>35 mm) and the higher in larger sized ones (40-70 mm). The type of fluctuations observed with 210 Po concentrations are interpreted as a seasonal effect. Total annual effective 210 Po dose due to mussel consumption was calculated to be in the range of 3.081 to 16.401 μSv. Based on the international guideline, the average dose calculated due to 210 Po in mussels of Samut Sakhon would not pose any significant radiological impact on human health and the mussels are considered to be safe for intake.

  10. How well can fishes prey on zebra mussels in eastern North America?

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, John R. P.

    1993-01-01

    Literature on mollusk-eating fishes was reviewed to determine the potential for different species of fish to control zebra mussels in eastern North America. At least six species are potential predators of zebra mussels because they possess (1) both upper and lower pharyngeal teeth or (2) lower pharyngeal teeth and chewing pads located on the dorsal roof for crushing mollusk shells. Freshwater drum (Aplodinotus grunniens) and two centrarchids, redear sunfish (Lepomis microlophus) and pumpkinseed (L. gibbosus), possess both upper and lower pharyngeal teeth and are likely to consume more zebra mussels than fishes with only lower pharyngeal teeth. Only two catostomid species, copper and river redhorses (Moxostoma hubbsi and M. carinatum), have chewing pads that enable them to crush mollusks. The exotic omnivorous common carp (Cyprinus carpio), possessing lower teeth and a chewing pad, may prey on zebra mussels when aquatic insect larvae, its preferred food, become rare. Managing populations of drum, sunfishes and redhorses to reduce exploitation of large individuals and improve their habitats are suggested as means to intensify biological control of zebra mussels in eastern North America. Other Eurasian molluscivores, the roach (Rutilus rutilus) and the black carp (Mylopharyngodon piceus) should not be introduced into North America because research has shown repeatedly that an introduced biological controller usually does not forage for unwanted pests or reside only in preferred habitats of pests. Drum, sunfishes and redhorses should be preferred over these exotics as biological controllers of zebra mussels in North America because these native fishes will likely occupy newly established habitats of zebra mussels.

  11. Molecular characterisation of noroviruses detected in mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis) from harvesting areas in Slovenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henigman, Urška; Biasizzo, Majda; Vadnjal, Stanka; Toplak, Ivan; Gombač, Mitja; Steyer, Andrej; Poljšak Prijatelj, Mateja; Ambrožič, Mateja; Fonda, Irena; Kirbiš, Andrej; Barlič-Maganja, Darja

    2015-04-01

    Noroviruses are a leading cause of viral gastroenteritis in humans and are responsible for many outbreaks worldwide. Mussels are one of the most important foodstuffs connected with norovirus outbreaks, also resulting in multinational dimensions. Two hundred and thirty-eight (238) samples of mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis) were collected in periods between the years 2006-2008 and 2010-2012 to study the prevalence of noroviruses (NoVs) from harvesting areas along the Adriatic coast of Slovenia. Between 2006 and 2008, 9.1% to 24.6% of mussel samples tested by specific GI and/or GII real-time RT-PCR methods were found to be positive for NoVs while between 2010 and 2012 the percentage of NoV positive samples varied from 12.5% to 22.2%. At the nucleotide level within the RdRp gene fragment the genetic diversity of NoVs detected in mussels ranged between 78.8-81.0% nucleotide identity among GII strains (92.1-99.6% within the GII.P4 genotype), 100% nucleotide identity among GI and 58.4-60.2% among GI and GII strains. Nine of the NoV strains detected from mussels were genotyped as GII.4, while two samples were within GI.P2 and one was a positive sample within genotype GII.P21. This study confirmed that mussels are a potential source of the NoV infection. The detected NoVs share the same topology on the phylogenetic tree within the NoV strains detected in water samples and human patients, not only from Slovenia but also from many different countries worldwide. We can assume that mussels in harvesting areas are not only contaminated from the surrounding area but also by contaminated water and sewage from large transport ships, which are regularly present in the area.

  12. Bioaccumulation and effects of perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) in zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Sanjuan, María; Faria, Melissa; Lacorte, Silvia; Barata, Carlos

    2013-04-01

    Perfluorinated chemicals (PFCs) have been used for many years in numerous industrial products and are known to accumulate in organisms. A recent survey showed that tissue levels of PFCs in aquatic organisms varied among compounds and species being undetected in freshwater zebra mussels Dreissena polymorpha. Here we studied the bioaccumulation kinetics and effects of two major PFCs, perfluorooctane sulfonic acid compound (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), in multixenobiotic transporter activity (MXR) and filtration and oxygen consumption rates in zebra mussel exposed to a range of concentrations of a PCF mixture (1-1,000 μg/L) during 10 days. Results indicate a low potential of the studied PFCs to bioaccumulate in zebra mussel tissues. PFCs altered mussel MXR transporter activity being inhibited at day 1 but not at day 10. Bioaccumulation kinetics of PFCs were inversely related with MXR transporter activity above 9 ng/g wet weight and unrelated at tissue concentration lower than 2 ng/g wet weight suggesting that at high tissue concentrations, these type of compounds may be effluxed out by MXR transporters and as a result have a low potential to be bioaccumulated in zebra mussels. Oxygen consumption rates but not filtering rates were increased in all exposure levels and periods indicating that at environmental relevant concentrations of 1 μg/L, the studied PFCs enhanced oxidative metabolism of mussels. Overall, the results obtained in this study confirm previous findings in the field indicating that an important fraction of PFC accumulated in mussel tissues is eliminated actively by MXR transporters or other processes that are metabolically costly.

  13. Metallothionein (MT) response after chronic palladium exposure in the zebra mussel, Dreissena polymorpha

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frank, Sabrina N.; Singer, Christoph; Sures, Bernd

    2008-01-01

    The effects of different exposure concentrations of palladium (Pd) on relative metallothionein (MT) response and bioaccumulation were investigated in zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha). The mussels were exposed to 0.05, 5, 50, and 500 μg/L Pd 2+ for 10 weeks under controlled temperature and fasting conditions. Relative MT contents were assessed by a modified Ag-saturation method, which allows to discriminate between MT bound to Pd (Pd-MT) and MT bound to unidentified metals (Ag-MT). Determination of metal contents resulted from atomic absorption spectrometry following a microwave digestion. For unexposed mussels and mussels exposed to 0.05 μg/L Pd no metal accumulation could be detected. All other exposure concentrations resulted in detectable Pd accumulation in mussels with final tissue concentrations of 96 μg/g (500 μg/L), 45 μg/g (50 μg/L), and 9 μg/g (5 μg/L). Compared with initial levels Pd-MT concentrations at the end of the exposure period were 600 (500 μg/L), 160 (50 μg/L), and 27 (5 μg/L) times higher. These results show that an increase in MTs in D. polymorpha already occurs at relatively low aqueous Pd concentrations indicating that there is the need for detoxification of Pd in the mussel. Furthermore, correlations between Ag-MT and Pd accumulation indicate that higher exposure concentrations are associated with adverse effects on the mussels. Thus, harmful effects of chronic Pd exposure of organisms even in lowest concentrations cannot be excluded in the environment

  14. SIZE SELECTION IN DIVING TUFTED DUCKS AYTHYA-FULIGULA EXPLAINED BY DIFFERENTIAL HANDLING OF SMALL AND LARGE MUSSELS DREISSENA-POLYMORPHA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    DELEEUW, JJ; VANEERDEN, MR

    1992-01-01

    We studied prey size selection of Tufted Ducks feeding on fresh-water mussels under semi-natural conditions. In experiments with non-diving birds, we found that Tufted Ducks use two techniques to handle mussels. Mussels less than 16 mm in length are strained from a waterflow generated in the bill

  15. Near-bed gradients in particles and nutrients above a mussel bed in the Limfjorden: influence of physical mixing and mussel filtration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Petersen, J.K.; Maar, M.; Ysebaert, T.; Herman, P.M.J.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this field study was to investigate the role of mussels on near-bed layer characteristics at different hydrodynamic regimes in a micro-tidal system. At Løgstør Broad, the Limfjorden, Denmark, we deployed ‘siphon mimics’ to sample chlorophyll a (chl a), particulate organic carbon (POC) and

  16. Carbon footprint of canned mussels from a business-to-consumer approach. A starting point for mussel processors and policy makers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iribarren, Diego; Hospido, Almudena; Moreira, Maria Teresa; Feijoo, Gumersindo

    2010-01-01

    The increasing demand for environmental information on the global warming impact of products requires a solid methodological framework which guarantees comparability and communicability. The publicly available specification PAS 2050 combines approaches to a variety of greenhouse gas specific assessment issues to deliver a globally applicable product Carbon Footprinting (CF) method, which is expected to be widely accepted. Specifically, this paper aims to demonstrate the implementation of a CF scheme for a common canned mussel product according to PAS 2050 guidelines. A final value of 4.35 kg CO 2 e per triple pack of round cans of mussels was calculated. Furthermore, this CF study led to identify primary packaging (can production) and mussel shell management as the main activities where efforts should focus for climate change mitigation. Throughout this case study, CF opportunities and drawbacks are discussed. The whole text tries to provide a starting point for both mussel processors and policy makers to benefit from the potential advantages of a responsible use of this increasingly popular tool.

  17. Shell Biofilm Nitrification and Gut Denitrification Contribute to Emission of Nitrous Oxide by the Invasive Freshwater Mussel Dreissena polymorpha (Zebra Mussel)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svenningsen, Nanna B.; Heisterkamp, Ines M.; Sigby-Clausen, Maria; Larsen, Lone H.; Nielsen, Lars Peter; Stief, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Nitrification in shell biofilms and denitrification in the gut of the animal accounted for N2O emission by Dreissena polymorpha (Bivalvia), as shown by gas chromatography and gene expression analysis. The mussel's ammonium excretion was sufficient to sustain N2O production and thus potentially uncouples invertebrate N2O production from environmental N concentrations. PMID:22492461

  18. SP-100 Program overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Truscello, V.C.

    1984-01-01

    The SP-100 Program is expected to go through three phases: technology assessment and advancement, ground testing, and flight qualification. Currently the program is in the two- to three-year technology assessment and advancement stage. Goals are to identify the space nuclear power system concept that best meets anticipated requirements of future space missions, assess the technical feasibility of that concept, and establish a cost and schedule for developing the concept. The SP-100 Project Office has begun the implementation activities needed to meet these goals. With regard to refractory alloys, a better data base will be required before we move ahead in the program from technology assessment to ground demonstration

  19. Chronic toxicity of copper and ammonia to juvenile freshwater mussels (Unionidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, N.; Ingersoll, C.G.; Greer, I.E.; Hardesty, D.K.; Ivey, C.D.; Kunz, J.L.; Brumbaugh, W.G.; Dwyer, F.J.; Roberts, A.D.; Augspurger, T.; Kane, C.M.; Neves, R.J.; Barnhart, M.C.

    2007-01-01

    The objectives of the present study were to develop methods for conducting chronic toxicity tests with juvenile mussels under flow-through conditions and to determine the chronic toxicity of copper and ammonia to juvenile mussels using these methods. In two feeding tests, two-month-old fatmucket (Lampsilis siliquoidea) and rainbow mussel (Villosa iris) were fed various live algae or nonviable algal mixture for 28 d. The algal mixture was the best food resulting in high survival (???90%) and growth. Multiple copper and ammonia toxicity tests were conducted for 28 d starting with two-month-old mussels. Six toxicity tests using the algal mixture were successfully completed with a control survival of 88 to 100%. Among copper tests with rainbow mussel, fatmucket, and oyster mussel (Epioblasma capsaeformis), chronic value ([ChV], geometric mean of the no-observed-effect concentration and the lowest-observed-effect concentration) ranged from 8.5 to 9.8 ??g Cu/L for survival and from 4.6 to 8.5 ??g Cu/L for growth. Among ammonia tests with rainbow mussel, fatmucket, and wavy-rayed lampmussel (L. fasciola), the ChV ranged from 0.37 to 1.2 mg total ammonia N/L for survival and from 0.37 to 0.67 mg N/L for growth. These ChVs were below the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency 1996 chronic water quality criterion (WQC) for copper (15 ??g/L; hardness 170 mg/L) and 1999 WQC for total ammonia (1.26 mg N/L; pH 8.2 and 20??C). Results indicate that toxicity tests with two-month-old mussels can be conducted for 28 d with >80% control survival; growth was frequently a more sensitive endpoint compared to survival; and the 1996 chronic WQC for copper and the 1999 chronic WQC for total ammonia might not be adequately protective of the mussel species tested. However, a recently revised 2007 chronic WQC for copper based on the biotic ligand model may be more protective in the water tested. ?? 2007 SETAC.

  20. LETHALITY OF PSEUDOMONAS FLUORESCENS STRAIN CLO145A TO THE 2 ZEBRA MUSSEL SPECIES PRESENT IN NORTH AMERICA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molloy, Daniel P.

    2001-01-01

    These experiments indicated that bacterial strain CL0145A of Pseudomonas fluorescens is equally lethal to the 2 zebra mussel species present in North America, Dreissena polymorpha and Dreissena bugensis. Thus, this bacterial strain should be equally effective at killing zebra mussels in power plant pipes, irrespective of which species is present

  1. Measurements on the influence of the length of the daily submergence time on the condition and appearence of mussels (

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Basal, M.

    1972-01-01

    Mussels (Mytilus edulis) living at different intertidal levels (viz. about 40, 10 and 0% of time exposed to the air) were compared as to length distribution, meat and shell weight, and linear dimensions. The long-exposed mussels were found to be on average smaller, to contain less meat, to

  2. Laboratory Measures of Filtration by Freshwater Mussels: An Activity to Introduce Biology Students to an Increasingly Threatened Group of Organisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Michael J.; Shaffer, Julie J.; Koupal, Keith D.; Hoback, W. Wyatt

    2012-01-01

    Many aquatic organisms survive by filter feeding from the surrounding water and capturing food particles. We developed a laboratory exercise that allows students to measure the effects of filtering by fresh water mussels on water turbidity. Mussels were acquired from Wards Scientific and exposed to a solution of baker's yeast. Over a period of one…

  3. Selective grazing by adults and larvae of the zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha): application of flow cytometry to natural seston

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pires, L.M.D.; Jonker, R.M.; Van Donk, E.; Laanbroek, H.J.

    2004-01-01

    1. Selective grazing of adults and larvae of the zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha) on phytoplankton and detritus from both laboratory cultures and natural seston was quantified using flow cytometry. 2. Mean clearance rate of adult zebra mussels was higher on a mixture of the green alga Scenedesmus

  4. LETHALITY OF PSEUDOMONAS FLUORESCENS STRAIN CLO145A TO THE 2 ZEBRA MUSSEL SPECIES PRESENT IN NORTH AMERICA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daniel P. Molloy

    2001-10-28

    These experiments indicated that bacterial strain CL0145A of Pseudomonas fluorescens is equally lethal to the 2 zebra mussel species present in North America, Dreissena polymorpha and Dreissena bugensis. Thus, this bacterial strain should be equally effective at killing zebra mussels in power plant pipes, irrespective of which species is present.

  5. Zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha) in Ireland, AFLP-fingerprinting and boat traffic both indicate an origin from Britain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pollux, B.J.A.; Minchin, D.; Van der Velde, G.; Van Alen, T.; Moon-Van der Staay, S.Y.; Hackstein, J.

    2003-01-01

    The zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha) is an aquatic nuisance species that invaded Ireland around 1994. We studied the invasion of the zebra mussel combining field surveys and genetic studies, to determine the origin of invasion and the vector of introduction. Field surveys showed that live zebra

  6. CRAYFISH PREDATION EXPERIMENTS ON THE INTRODUCED ZEBRA MUSSEL, DREISSENA POLYMORPHA, IN IRELAND, AND THEIR POTENTIAL FOR BIOCONTROL.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    REYNOLDS J. D.

    2001-04-01

    Full Text Available The zebra mussel Dreissena polymorpha, native to the Aralo-Caspian region, has spread across Europe in the last 180 years. Although it reached England in 1820, it only arrived in Ireland in around 1995, probably attached to the hull of pleasure boats, and since then has spread through the lowland Shannon and Erne systems, which are linked by canal. While White-clawed crayfish Austropotamobius pallipes (Lereboullet occur in these systems, Dreissena has not yet colonized sites with large crayfish populations. In laboratory experiments crayfish of both sexes ranging in size from 32-48 mm carapace length (CL were offered zebra mussels in 7 size classes spanning a range from 3-17 mm total length. Crayfish fed most on small mussels, although there was some correlation between size of crayfish and largest mussels attacked. When eaten mussels were not replaced, crayfish shifted to larger sizes. In the presence of alternative prey, experienced crayfish ate mussels and alternative foods in similar amounts while those who had never encountered zebra mussels nearly always chose the alternative foods first. The possibility of crayfish exerting significant controlling impacts on expanding mussel populations is discussed.

  7. Selective grazing by adults and larvae of the zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha): application of flow cytometry to natural seston

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dionisio Pires, L.M.; Jonker, R.R.; Donk, E.van; Laanbroek, H.J.

    2004-01-01

    1. Selective grazing of adults and larvae of the zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha) on phytoplankton and detritus from both laboratory cultures and natural seston was quantified using flow cytometry. 2. Mean clearance rate of adult zebra mussels was higher on a mixture of the green

  8. Modeling the Role of Zebra Mussels in the Proliferation of Blue-green Algae in Saginaw Bay, Lake Huron

    Science.gov (United States)

    Under model assumptions from Saginaw Bay 1991, selective rejection of blue-green algae by zebra mussels appears to be a necessary factor in the enhancement of blue-green algae production in the presence of zebra mussels. Enhancement also appears to depend on the increased sedime...

  9. Seasonal effects of the zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha) on sediment denitrification rates in Pool 8 of the Upper Mississippi River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruesewitz, Denise A.; Tank, Jennifer L.; Bernot, Melody J.; Richardson, William B.; Strauss, Eric A.

    2006-01-01

    Zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha) have altered the structure of invaded ecosystems and exhibit characteristics that suggest they may influence ecosystem processes such as nitrogen (N) cycling. We measured denitrification rates seasonally on sediments underlying zebra mussel beds collected from the impounded zone of Navigation Pool 8 of the Upper Mississippi River. Denitrification assays were amended with nutrients to characterize variation in nutrient limitation of denitrification in the presence or absence of zebra mussels. Denitrification rates at zebra mussel sites were high relative to sites without zebra mussels in February 2004 (repeated measures analysis of variance (RM ANOVA), p = 0.005), potentially because of high NO3-N variability from nitrification of high NH4+ zebra mussel waste. Denitrification rates were highest in June 2003 (RM ANOVA, p 3-N concentrations during the study (linear regression, R2 = 0.72, p p ≤ 0.01). Examining how zebra mussels influence denitrification rates will aid in developing a more complete understanding of the impact of zebra mussels and more effective management strategies of eutrophic waters.

  10. Detection of DNA damage in mussels and sea urchins exposed to crude oil using comet assay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taban, I.C.; Bechmann, R.K.; Torgrimsen, S.; Baussant, T.; Sanni, S.

    2004-01-01

    The single-cell microgel electrophoresis assay or the comet assay was used to evaluate DNA damage of dispersed crude oil on sea urchins (Strongylocentrotus droebachiensis) and mussels (Mytilus edulis L.). Sea urchins were exposed to 0.06 and 0.25 mg/L dispersed crude oil in a continuous flow system, while the mussels were exposed to 0.015, 0.06 and 0.25 mg/L dispersed crude oil. Sea urchin coelomocytes and mussel haemocytes were sampled after 4 and 5 weeks exposure, respectively. In the sea urchin coelomocytes, there was a significant concentration-related increase in the percentage of DNA in comet tail. In mussel haemocytes, there was a significantly higher percentage of DNA in comet tail for all treatments compared to the control. The responses were concentration-related up to 0.06 mg/L oil. The two highest exposure concentrations of mussels were not significantly different from each other. These results indicate that the comet assay can be used for biomonitoring of DNA damage in marine invertebrates following oil contamination. (author)

  11. Freshwater mussel salvage and relocation at the Pond Eddy Bridge, Delaware River, New York and Pennsylvania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galbraith, Heather S.; Blakeslee, Carrie J.; Cole, Jeffrey C.

    2018-03-01

    In a study conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Pennsylvania Department of Transportation, freshwater mussels were salvaged and relocated from the anticipated zone of impact for the Pond Eddy Bridge construction project in New York and Pennsylvania. Five 25-meter (m) by 25-m cells along the Pennsylvania bank of the Delaware River were sampled in three generally straight-line passes by four surveyors wearing snorkel gear for a total of 180 survey minutes per cell. All mussels encountered were collected and identified to species. A subset of individuals was marked with shellfish tags, weighed, and measured prior to relocation upstream from the zone of impact. A total of 3,434 mussels, including 3,393 Elliptio complanata (eastern elliptio mussels), 39 Anodonta implicata (alewife floaters), 1 Strophitus undulatus (creeper), and 1 Pyganodon cataracta (eastern floater), were salvaged and relocated. All non-eastern elliptio species were georeferenced using a high-resolution global positioning system unit; a subset of tagged eastern elliptio was placed in transects between georeferenced points. These mussels will be monitored to assess the effects of translocation on mortality and body condition at 1 month, 1 year, and 2 years.

  12. Accumulation, distribution and excretion of 134Cs and 65Zn by the green mussels (Perna Viridis)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Shunhua; Zhong Chuangguang; Yan Yuanyi; Zhao Xiaokui; Peng Yefang; Shi Qiong

    1997-10-01

    Two important radionuclides 134 Cs and 65 Zn were applied to study the accumulation, distribution and excretion of radioactive nuclides in organs and tissues of green mussel Perna Viridis. the results showed that the uptake rate of 134 Cs by green mussels was very low and the concentration factor (CF) for 134 Cs in the byssus approximated to 1. This CF value was lower than that of other tissues and organs of mussels, but its excretion rate was much higher than that of soft tissues. It was also found that the byssus of mussels had a special ability to accumulate 65 Zn. Concentration factor (CF) for 65 Zn in the byssus could reach as high as 900, which was much higher than that of any other tissues. However, its excretion rate was lower than that of other tissues and organs. The uptake rate of 65 Zn by soft tissues was markedly higher than that of 134 Cs. The mussels could also highly concentrate the low level 65 Zn even if specific activity of 65 Zn was very low in the environmental seawater. Results of radioactive trace experiments showed that the absorption of 134 Cs and 65 Zn by Perna Viridis was selective

  13. Transcriptome response to copper heavy metal stress in hard-shelled mussel (Mytilus coruscus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meiying Xu

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The hard-shelled mussel (Mytilus coruscus has considerably one of the most economically important marine shellfish worldwide and considered as a good invertebrate model for ecotoxicity study for a long time. In the present study, we used Illumina sequencing technology (HiSeq2000 to sequence, assemble and annotate the transcriptome of the hard-shelled mussel which challenged with copper pollution. A total of 21,723,913 paired-end clean reads (NCBI SRA database SRX1411195 were generated from HiSeq2000 sequencer and 96,403 contigs (with N50 = 1118 bp were obtained after de novo assembling with Trinity software. Digital gene expression analysis reveals 1156 unigenes are upregulated and 1681 unigenes are downregulated when challenged with copper. By KEGG pathway enrichment analysis, we found that unigenes in four KEGG pathways (aminoacyl-tRNA biosynthesis, apoptosis, DNA replication and mismatch repair show significant differential expressed between control and copper treated groups. We hope that the gill transcriptome in copper treated hard-shelled mussel can give useful information to understand how mussel handles with heavy metal stress at molecular level. Keywords: Hard-shelled mussel, Heavy metal, Transcriptome, Ecotoxicity

  14. Molecular markers for genetic diversity, gene flow and genetic population structure of freshwater mussel species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AB Choupina

    Full Text Available Freshwater mussel species are in global decline. Anthropogenic changes of river channels and the decrease of autochthonous fish population, the natural hosts of mussels larval stages (glochidia, are the main causes. Therefore, the conservation of mussel species depends not only on habitat conservation, but also on the availability of the fish host. In Portugal, information concerning most of the mussel species is remarkably scarce. One of the most known species, Unio pictorum is also in decline however, in the basins of the rivers Tua and Sabor (Northeast of Portugal, there is some indication of relatively large populations. The aforementioned rivers can be extremely important for this species conservation not only in Portugal, but also in the remaining Iberian Peninsula. Thus, it is important to obtain data concerning Unio pictorum bioecology (distribution, habitat requirements, population structure, genetic variability, reproductive cycle and recruitment rates, as well as the genetic variability and structure of the population. Concomitantly, information concerning fish population structure, the importance of the different fish species as “glochidia” hosts and their appropriate density to allow effective mussel recruitment, will also be assessed. The achieved data is crucial to obtain information to develop effective management measures in order to promote the conservation of this bivalve species, the conservation of autochthonous fish populations, and consequently the integrity of the river habitats.

  15. Use of on-site refugia to protect unionid populations from zebra mussel-induced mortality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichols, S. Jerrine; Black, M. Glen; Allen, Jeffrey D.

    2000-01-01

    Protecting unionid populations as zebra mussels spread into inland waterways has relied mainly on relocating at-risk animals into aquaculture facilities. While such relocations are the only viable management technique for some populations, facility availability is limited, leaving many unionids facing extirpation. Another management strategy is in-situ protection either by enhancing natural refugia or by creating managed refugia. We have reviewed all reports of natural refugia and found that refugia for unionids can be found in many areas. There are many habitats where zebra mussel colonization has been limited, or of a temporary nature. Within zebra mussel infested areas, unionid communities continue to survive in some shallow water sites such as estuaries, deltas, and lake-connected wetlands. Managed refugia can be created in areas where natural refugia do not exist. We present a case study on recent efforts to create refugia in an area with rapidly expanding zebra mussel populations. Preliminary analysis of unionid body condition indicates that removal of encrusted zebra mussels only once a year can improve unionid condition factors and decrease mortality. Natural and managed refugia can provide an additional conservation management option in some areas.

  16. Parasitism can be a confounding factor in assessing the response of zebra mussels to water contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minguez, Laëtitia; Buronfosse, Thierry; Beisel, Jean-Nicolas; Giambérini, Laure

    2012-01-01

    Biological responses measured in aquatic organisms to monitor environmental pollution could be also affected by different biotic and abiotic factors. Among these environmental factors, parasitism has often been neglected even if infection by parasites is very frequent. In the present field investigation, the parasite infra-communities and zebra mussel biological responses were studied up- and downstream a waste water treatment plant in northeast France. In both sites, mussels were infected by ciliates and/or intracellular bacteria, but prevalence rates and infection intensities were different according to the habitat. Concerning the biological responses differences were observed related to the site quality and the infection status. Parasitism affects both systems but seemed to depend mainly on environmental conditions. The influence of parasites is not constant, but remains important to consider it as a potential confounding factor in ecotoxicological studies. This study also emphasizes the interesting use of integrative indexes to synthesize data set. Highlights: ► Study of potential bias associated with the use of infected zebra mussels in ecotoxicological studies. ► Presence of infected mussels on banks and channels, up- and downstream a waste water treatment plant. ► Parasitism influence on biological responses dependent of mussel population history. ► Integrative index, an interesting tool to synthesize the set of biological data. - Parasitism influence on the host physiology would be strongly dependent on environmental conditions but remains a potential confounding factor in ecotoxicological studies.

  17. Comparative biology of zebra mussels in Europe and North America: an overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackie, Gerald L.; Schloesser, Don W.

    1996-01-01

    SYNOPSIS. Since the discovery of the zebra mussel, Dreissena polymorpha, in the Great Lakes in 1988 comparisons have been made with mussel populations in Europe and the former Soviet Union. These comparisons include: Population dynamics, growth and mortality rates, ecological tolerances and requirements, dispersal rates and patterns, and ecological impacts. North American studies, mostly on the zebra mussel and a few on a second introduced species, the quagga mussel, Dreissena bugensis, have revealed some similarities and some differences. To date it appears that North American populations of zebra mussels are similar to European populations in their basic biological characteristics, population growth and mortality rates, and dispersal mechanisms and rates. Relative to European populations differences have been demonstrated for: (1) individual growth rates; (2) life spans; (3) calcium and pH tolerances and requirements; (4) potential distribution limits; and (5) population densities of veligers and adults. In addition, studies on the occurrence of the two dreissenid species in the Great Lakes are showing differences in their modes of life, depth distributions, and growth rates. As both species spread throughout North America, comparisons between species and waterbodies will enhance our ability to more effectively control these troublesome species.

  18. The current situation and environmental conditions of green mussel farming in the gulf of Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keawtawee, T.; Songsangjinda, P.; Sangnoi, Y.; Uppabullung, A.

    2018-04-01

    This study investigated the current situation and environmental conditions of green mussel Perna viridis farming in Surat Thani, Phetchaburi and Samut Prakan provinces where were located in the gulf of Thailand. Samples were collected during April, August and November in 2014. Based on the results of this study, there were three major types of mussel culture patterns in Thailand: bouchot culture, longline culture (rope culture), and raft culture. Mussel farmers encountered problems on decreasing of larvae mussel in the water column, water quality degradation, high production cost and farmer’s lack of negotiation power to control the price. The water quality of the mussel farms, such as dissolved oxygen (DO), pH, salinity, electrical conductivity (EC), fecal coliforms bacteria and the total coliforms bacteria met the standard for aquaculture. However, the nutrient, such as ammonium (NH4-N), nitri-nitrogen (NO2-N), nitrate-nitrogen (NO3-N) and soluble reactive phosphorus (PO4-P) were higher than the value of marine aquaculture standard. The results of the contamination of Salmonella spp. bacteria were not found in the mussel’s tissue, however Escherichia coli was found at very low level.

  19. A cohort of new adhesive proteins identified from transcriptomic analysis of mussel foot glands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeMartini, Daniel G; Errico, John M; Sjoestroem, Sebastian; Fenster, April; Waite, J Herbert

    2017-06-01

    The adaptive attachment of marine mussels to a wide range of substrates in a high-energy, saline environment has been explored for decades and is a significant driver of bioinspired wet adhesion research. Mussel attachment relies on a fibrous holdfast known as the byssus, which is made by a specialized appendage called the foot. Multiple adhesive and structural proteins are rapidly synthesized, secreted and moulded by the foot into holdfast threads. About 10 well-characterized proteins, namely the mussel foot proteins (Mfps), the preCols and the thread matrix proteins, are reported as representing the bulk of these structures. To explore how robust this proposition is, we sequenced the transcriptome of the glandular tissues that produce and secrete the various holdfast components using next-generation sequencing methods. Surprisingly, we found around 15 highly expressed genes that have not previously been characterized, but bear key similarities to the previously defined mussel foot proteins, suggesting additional contribution to byssal function. We verified the validity of these transcripts by polymerase chain reaction, cloning and Sanger sequencing as well as confirming their presence as proteins in the byssus. These newly identified proteins greatly expand the palette of mussel holdfast biochemistry and provide new targets for investigation into bioinspired wet adhesion. © 2017 The Author(s).

  20. Mussel transplantation and biomarkers as useful tools for assessing water quality in the NW Mediterranean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romeo, Michele; Hoarau, Pascal; Garello, Ginette; Gnassia-Barelli, Mauricette; Girard, J.P.

    2003-01-01

    Mussels transplanted from an aquaculture farm were effective detecting aquatic contaminants. - Mussels, coming from an aquaculture farm located in a clean open bay, were transplanted to several stations of the bays of Nice and Cannes (NW Mediterranean) including a reference site for one month at three periods. Several biomarkers: activities of glutathione S-transferase (GST; exposure to organics), of catalase (exposure to oxidative stress) and of acetylcholinesterase (inhibited by some pesticides) and the lipid peroxidation (thiobarbituric acid reactive substances: TBARS) were measured in transplanted mussels. Cd, Cu and Zn concentrations were also measured as well as their condition index. The results demonstrated some seasonal variations in GST and catalase activities with higher levels in June compared to October. The condition index was also higher in June than in October. Principal component analyses performed with the whole set of data allowed to separate stations or groups of stations according to their responses. The mussels from the harbour of Nice were characterized by high TBARS levels and catalase activity in October 1999 whereas in the harbour of Cannes, animals presented very high copper concentrations and GST activities in June 2000. At the reference site, mussels generally presented low enzymatic activities (except AChE activity) and peroxidation levels and low heavy metal concentrations

  1. Development and evaluation of a boat-mounted RFID antenna for monitoring freshwater mussels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Jesse R.; Neebling, Travis E.; Quist, Michael C.

    2012-01-01

    Development of radio frequency identification (RFID) technology and passive integrated transponder (PIT) tags has substantially increased the ability of researchers and managers to monitor populations of aquatic organisms. However, use of transportable RFID antenna systems (i.e., backpack-mounted) is currently limited to wadeable aquatic environments (RFID antenna to detect individually PIT-tagged benthic aquatic organisms (mussels). We evaluated the effects of tag orientation on detection distances in water with a 32-mm half-duplex PIT tag. Detection distances up to 50 cm from the antenna coils were obtained, but detection distance was dependent on tag orientation. We also evaluated detection distance of PIT tags beneath the sediment to simulate detection of burrowing mussels with 23- and 32-mm tags. In sand substrate, the maximum detection distance varied from 3.5 cm and 4.5 cm (vertical tag orientation) to 24.7 cm and 39.4 cm (45° tag orientation) for the 23- and 32-mm PIT tags, respectively. Our results suggest a 1.4-m total detection width for tagged mussels on the substrate surface by the boat-mounted antenna system regardless of tag orientation. However, burrowed mussels may require multiple passes to increase detection that would be influenced by depth, tag orientation, and tag size. Construction of the boat-mounted antenna was relatively low in cost (<500 USD) and had several advantages (less labor and time intensive, increased safety) over traditional mussel sampling techniques (diving, snorkeling) in nonwadeable habitats.

  2. Differences in metal sequestration between zebra mussels from clean and polluted field locations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voets, Judith; Redeker, Erik Steen; Blust, Ronny; Bervoets, Lieven

    2009-06-04

    Organisms are able to detoxify accumulated metals by, e.g. binding them to metallothionein (MT) and/or sequestering them in metal-rich granules (MRG). The different factors involved in determining the capacity or efficiency with which metals are detoxified are not yet known. In this work we studied how the sub-cellular distribution pattern of cadmium, copper and zinc in whole tissue of zebra mussels from clean and polluted surface waters is influenced by the total accumulated metal concentration and by its physiological condition. Additionally we measured the metallothionein concentration in the mussel tissue. Metal concentration increased gradually in the metal-sensitive and detoxified sub-cellular fractions with increasing whole tissue concentrations. However, metal concentrations in the sensitive fractions did not increase to the same extent as metal concentrations in whole tissues. In more polluted mussels the contribution of MRG and MT became more important. Nevertheless, metal detoxification was not sufficient to prevent metal binding to heat-sensitive low molecular weight proteins (HDP fraction). Finally we found an indication that metal detoxification was influenced by the condition of the zebra mussels. MT content could be explained for up to 83% by variations in Zn concentration and physiological condition of the mussels.

  3. Differences in metal sequestration between zebra mussels from clean and polluted field locations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voets, Judith; Redeker, Erik Steen; Blust, Ronny; Bervoets, Lieven

    2009-01-01

    Organisms are able to detoxify accumulated metals by, e.g. binding them to metallothionein (MT) and/or sequestering them in metal-rich granules (MRG). The different factors involved in determining the capacity or efficiency with which metals are detoxified are not yet known. In this work we studied how the sub-cellular distribution pattern of cadmium, copper and zinc in whole tissue of zebra mussels from clean and polluted surface waters is influenced by the total accumulated metal concentration and by its physiological condition. Additionally we measured the metallothionein concentration in the mussel tissue. Metal concentration increased gradually in the metal-sensitive and detoxified sub-cellular fractions with increasing whole tissue concentrations. However, metal concentrations in the sensitive fractions did not increase to the same extent as metal concentrations in whole tissues. In more polluted mussels the contribution of MRG and MT became more important. Nevertheless, metal detoxification was not sufficient to prevent metal binding to heat-sensitive low molecular weight proteins (HDP fraction). Finally we found an indication that metal detoxification was influenced by the condition of the zebra mussels. MT content could be explained for up to 83% by variations in Zn concentration and physiological condition of the mussels.

  4. Differences in metal sequestration between zebra mussels from clean and polluted field locations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Voets, Judith [Laboratory for Ecophysiology, Biochemistry and Toxicology, Department of Biology, University of Antwerp, Groenenborgerlaan 171, 2020 Antwerp (Belgium); Redeker, Erik Steen [Laboratory for Ecophysiology, Biochemistry and Toxicology, Department of Biology, University of Antwerp, Groenenborgerlaan 171, 2020 Antwerp (Belgium); Institute for Materials Research, Chemistry Division, Hasselt University, Agoralaan Building D G1-36, B 3590 Diepenbeek (Belgium); Blust, Ronny [Laboratory for Ecophysiology, Biochemistry and Toxicology, Department of Biology, University of Antwerp, Groenenborgerlaan 171, 2020 Antwerp (Belgium); Bervoets, Lieven, E-mail: Lieven.bervoets@ua.ac.be [Laboratory for Ecophysiology, Biochemistry and Toxicology, Department of Biology, University of Antwerp, Groenenborgerlaan 171, 2020 Antwerp (Belgium)

    2009-06-04

    Organisms are able to detoxify accumulated metals by, e.g. binding them to metallothionein (MT) and/or sequestering them in metal-rich granules (MRG). The different factors involved in determining the capacity or efficiency with which metals are detoxified are not yet known. In this work we studied how the sub-cellular distribution pattern of cadmium, copper and zinc in whole tissue of zebra mussels from clean and polluted surface waters is influenced by the total accumulated metal concentration and by its physiological condition. Additionally we measured the metallothionein concentration in the mussel tissue. Metal concentration increased gradually in the metal-sensitive and detoxified sub-cellular fractions with increasing whole tissue concentrations. However, metal concentrations in the sensitive fractions did not increase to the same extent as metal concentrations in whole tissues. In more polluted mussels the contribution of MRG and MT became more important. Nevertheless, metal detoxification was not sufficient to prevent metal binding to heat-sensitive low molecular weight proteins (HDP fraction). Finally we found an indication that metal detoxification was influenced by the condition of the zebra mussels. MT content could be explained for up to 83% by variations in Zn concentration and physiological condition of the mussels.

  5. Biogeochemical alteration of the benthic environment by the zebra mussel Dreissena polymorpha (Pallas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alina Krevš

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to verify whether the biogeochemicalfeatures (e.g. concentration of nutrients, oxygen consumption,mineralization rate, Eh of sediments changed by the zebra musselor its shell deposits differ from those in the ambient soft bottom,and how these differences are related to the structure of benthicmacroinvertebrates. In 2006 three sampling sessions were carriedout in the Curonian Lagoon, SE Baltic Sea, at three pre-definedsites, corresponding to different bottom types: zebra musselbed, zebra mussel shell deposits and bare soft sediments. Similarityanalysis of biogeochemical parameters indicated that bottom sedimentscovered with zebra mussel shell deposits were rather distinctfrom the other bottom types because of the lowest total organicmatter mineralization rate and highest organic carbon, totalphosphorus and total nitrogen content. The parameters measuredin the zebra mussel bed did not deviate conspicuously from thevalues observed in bare bottoms, except for the higher rate ofoxygen consumption in the upper sediment layer. Unsuitable anoxicconditions on the one hand and the "attractive" shelters providedby zebra mussels on the other hand may promote the epifaunallife style in the habitats formed by dense zebra mussel clumps.

  6. Seasonal and PAH impact on DNA strand-break levels in gills of transplanted zebra mussels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michel, Cécile; Bourgeault, Adeline; Gourlay-Francé, Catherine; Palais, Frédéric; Geffard, Alain; Vincent-Hubert, Françoise

    2013-06-01

    Genotoxicity endpoints are useful tools to biomonitor the physicochemical and biological quality of aquatic ecosystems. A caging study on the freshwater bivalve Dreissena polymorpha was planned to run over four seasons in the Seine River basin in order to assess whether DNA damage measured in transplanted mussels to polluted area vary according to seasonal changes. Three sites were chosen along the Seine River, one upstream from Paris and two downstream, corresponding to a chemical gradient of water contamination. The DNA strand break (comet assay) and chromosomal damage (micronucleus test) were measured in caged mussels at each site and in winter, spring and summer, along with PAH water contamination, PAH bioaccumulation, the mussel condition index (CI), the gonado-somatic index (GSI) and the filtration rate (FR). The level of DNA strand break measured in winter was low and increased in spring, concomitantly with FR and GSI. Over the same period, micronucleus (MN) frequency and PAH bioaccumulation decreased significantly in caged mussels, with both parameters positively correlated to each other. DNA strand-break levels and MN frequencies showed inter-site variations corresponding to the chemical contamination gradient. These two genotoxicity endpoints usefully complement each other in field studies. These results show that the MN test and comet assay, when applied to gill cells of caged zebra mussels, are sensitive tools for freshwater genotoxicity monitoring. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  7. Aggregations of brittle stars can perform similar ecological roles as mussel reefs

    KAUST Repository

    Geraldi, NR

    2016-11-29

    Biogenic habitats, such as coral reefs, facilitate diverse communities. In aquatic systems, aggregations of mobile benthic species may play a similar ecological role to that of typically sessile biogenic habitats; however, this has rarely been considered. We quantified the abundance of sessile horse mussels Modiolus modiolus and aggregating brittle stars Ophiothrix fragilis and tested for correlations between the density of mussels (live and dead) and brittle stars each with (1) abundance, biomass, diversity, and assemblage structure of associated benthic macrofauna; and (2) percent organic matter of the sediment. We found that the abundance of live M. modiolus was positively associated with the abundance and biomass of macrofauna. The positive association between M. modiolus and macrofaunal abundance was further amplified with an increase in brittle stars and a decrease in dead mussel shells. Macrofaunal biomass was lower with a higher percentage of dead mussel shells, and macrofaunal diversity increased with greater abundances of live M. modiolus and brittle stars. Sediment organic matter was positively related to brittle star density, but not to the abundance of live or dead mussels. The positive relationship between brittle stars and sediment organic matter suggests that brittle stars could enhance rates of benthic- pelagic coupling. Given the importance of understanding the functional role of threatened habitats, it is essential that the underlying community patterns be understood through robust observational studies to then derive testable hypotheses to determine drivers. These findings provide novel insight into the ecological role of aggregations of mobile species, which is essential to prioritize conservation and restoration strategies.

  8. Immunological responses, histopathological finding and disease resistance of blue mussel (Mytilus edulis) exposed to treated and untreated municipal wastewater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akaishi, Fabiola M.; St-Jean, Sylvie D.; Bishay, Farida; Clarke, John; Rabitto, Ines da S.; Oliveira Ribeiro, Ciro A. de

    2007-01-01

    This study provides new information on the response of the immune system of Mytilus edulis exposed to untreated and treated sewage, linking immune response to ecologically relevant endpoints, such as disease resistance. Our goal was to assess the potential effects of sewage on the immune system (phagocytic activity and production of cytotoxic metabolites, disease resistance) and gills (light microscope) of mussels through a bioassay and field study in an estuarine receiving environment (RE). A semi-static experiment was developed in a wastewater treatment plant in New Glasgow, NS Canada. Mussels were exposed for 21 days to 12.5%, 25%, 50% and 100% of untreated sewage influent and artificial seawater control. Sampling occurred after 7, 14 and 21 days of exposure. In the field study, eight sites were selected in East River and Pictou Harbour, NS, positioned upstream and downstream of sewage effluents outfalls. Caged mussels were exposed to the RE for 90 days (May-July 2005). Mussels were challenged to test their efficiency at eliminating the bacteria, Listonella anguillarium in the bioassay and field studies. The bioassay results showed that higher concentrations of untreated sewage could modulate the immune system of mussels through increased of phagocytic activity (PA), nitric oxide (NO) and hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ) production during 14 days of exposure, and decreased activity and production at 21 days, with the exception of H 2 O 2 production which was high even at 21 days. Mussels exposed to untreated sewage RE also presented a high PA, NO and H 2 O 2 production and lower number of haemocytes compared to mussels from reference sites. In the bacterial challenge, mussels pre-exposed to 100% sewage died 24 h after being infected with L. anguillarium, while mussels pre-exposed to 50% eliminated bacteria had a mortality rate of 30%. Mussels from the control, 12.5% and 25% groups eliminated bacteria and no mortality was observed. No significant difference was

  9. Trace metals in Mediterranean mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis (L.1758) and in surficial sediments from Urla-Iskele/ Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sunlu, U.; Egemen, O.; Kaymakci, A.

    1999-01-01

    Accumulation of Pb, Cd, Cu, Zn by the Mediterranean Mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis and bottom sediment samples were studied monthly at Aquaculture site of Urla-Iskele (Izmir Bay-Turkey). All metals showed a significant seasonal variations. The observed pattern was primarily related to the biological cycle of the mussel and only secondarily to environmental parameters. The order of enhanced metal concentrations found in mussels was Zn>Cu>Pb>Cd whereas in the sediment the order was different, i.e. Zn>Pb>Cu>Cd. In this work, the all over the metal concentrations in mussels and sediment samples from Urla-Iskele are similar to those reported for other Mediterranean regions. The soft tissues of the mussels which still contain concentrations lie just within the range given by WHO

  10. Growth potential of blue mussels (M. edulis) exposed to different salinities evaluated by a Dynamic Energy Budget model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maar, Marie; Saurel, Camille; Landes, Anja

    2015-01-01

    ) metabolic costs due to osmoregulation in different salinity environments. Themodified DEBmodel was validated with experimental data fromdifferent locations in the Western Baltic Sea (including the Limfjorden) with salinities varying from 8.5 to 29.9 psu. The identified areas suitable for mussel production......For bluemussels,Mytilus edulis, onemajor constrain in the Baltic Sea is the low salinities that reduce the efficiency of mussel production. However, the effects of living in low and variable salinity regimes are rarely considered in models describing mussel growth. The aim of the present study...... was to incorporate the effects of low salinity into an eco-physiological model of blue mussels and to identify areas suitable for mussel production. A Dynamic Energy Budget (DEB) model was modified with respect to i) the morphological parameters (DW/WW-ratio, shape factor), ii) change in ingestion rate and iii...

  11. Exposure-related effects of formulated Pseudomonas fluorescens strain CL145A to glochidia from seven unionid mussel species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luoma, James A.; Weber, Kerry L.; Severson, Todd J.; Schreier, Theresa M.; Mayer, Denise A.; Aloisi, Douglas B.; Eckert, Nathan L.

    2015-01-01

    The study was completed to evaluate the exposure-related effects of a biopesticide for dreissenid mussel (Dreissena polymorpha, zebra mussel and Dreissena rostriformis bugensis, quagga mussel) control on glochidia from unionid mussels endemic to the Great Lakes and Upper Mississippi River Basins. The commercially prepared biopesticide was either a spray-dried powder (SDP) or freeze-dried powder (FDP) formulation of Pseudomonas fluorescens, strain CL145A. Glochidia of the unionid mussel species Lampsilis cardium, Lampsilis siliquoidea,Lampsilis higginsii, Ligumia recta, Obovaria olivaria, and Actinonaias ligamentina were exposed to SDP-formulated P. fluorescens andLampsilis cardium and Megalonaias nervosa were exposed to FDP-formulated P. fluorescens.

  12. Increase deposition of organic matter, polychlorinated biphenyls, and cadmium by zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha) in western Lake Erie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dobson, E. P; Mackie, G. L. [Guelph Univ., Dept. of Zoology, ON (Canada)

    1998-05-01

    Biodeposition of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs)and cadmium by zebra mussels in the western basin of Lake Erie was investigated using sediment traps, and compared to natural rates of sedimentation. On a per unit area of organic matter, deposition rates by zebra mussels up to eight to ten times higher than natural rates of sedimentation were found. These results suggest that zebra mussels are altering contaminant movement in western Lake Erie. At the same time, it was also suggested that the net effect of biodeposition may not be as great as shown in this study since only the effects of zebra mussels on the flux of the contaminants was examined and the re-suspension factor was not considered. It was recommended that to better understand the overall effects of zebra mussels on contaminant dynamics in aquatic environments, future studies should incorporate the re-suspension factors. 27 refs., 8 tabs., 3 figs.

  13. Filtration effects of zebra mussels on pathogens and total bacterial burden in the Odra Lagoon (South Baltic).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daeschlein, G; Fenske, C; Scholz, S; Dahlke, S; Jünger, M; Kramer, A

    2015-01-01

    As a result of their mode of filter feeding, zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha Pall.) have been observed to purify natural water bodies and in vitro. Therefore, the possibility of using zebra mussels for water purification was investigated in a slightly brackish water body of a large lagoon. In this study, water samples were taken above, near and at distance from zebra mussel beds (MB) in the Odra Lagoon in North East Germany. Near typical bacterial species like Aeromonas spp. pathogenic bacteria with potential relation to hospital wastewater pollution (Burkholderia cepacia, Staphylococcus aureus, Weeksella spp.) were detected. There were no correlations found between either total bacteria or pathogens and distance to MB and no antimicrobial effect of the mussels could be deduced. For bioremediation in larger water bodies like lagoons, natural zebra MB do not seem to play a major antimicrobial role and the effect of artificial mussel grids especially against hospital pathogens should be investigated.

  14. Cryptosporidium sp. in lizards

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Koudela, Břetislav; Modrý, D.

    1998-01-01

    Roč. 45, č. 1 (1998), s. 8 ISSN 1066-5234. [Cryptosporidium sp. in lazards. 01.01.1998-02.01.1998, Praha] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA508/95/0273; GA AV ČR IPP2020702 Subject RIV: fp - Other Medical Disciplines

  15. Deeply hidden inside introduced biogenic structures - Pacific oyster reefs reduce detrimental barnacle overgrowth on native blue mussels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buschbaum, Christian; Cornelius, Annika; Goedknegt, M. Anouk

    2016-11-01

    In sedimentary coastal ecosystems shells of epibenthic organisms such as blue mussels (Mytilus edulis) provide the only major attachment surface for barnacle epibionts, which may cause detrimental effects on their mussel basibionts by e.g. reducing growth rate. In the European Wadden Sea, beds of native blue mussels have been invaded by Pacific oysters Crassostrea gigas, which transformed these beds into mixed reefs of oysters with mussels. In this study, we determined the spatial distribution of M. edulis and their barnacle epibionts (Semibalanus balanoides) within the reef matrix. Mean mussel density near the bottom was about twice as high compared to the mussel density near the top of an oyster reef, whereas barnacles on mussels showed a reversed pattern. Barnacle dry weight per mussel was on average 14 times higher near the top than at the bottom. This pattern was confirmed by experimentally placing clean M. edulis at the top and on the bottom of oyster reefs at two sites in the Wadden Sea (island of Texel, The Netherlands; island of Sylt, Germany). After an experimental period of five weeks (April and May 2015, the main settlement period of S. balanoides), the number of barnacles per mussel was at both sites significantly higher on mussels near the top compared to near the bottom. We conclude that the oyster reef matrix offers a refuge for M. edulis: inside reefs they are not only better protected against predators but also against detrimental barnacle overgrowth. This study shows that alien species can cause beneficial effects for native organisms and should not be generally considered as a risk for the recipient marine ecosystems.

  16. Experimental Transmission of Infectious Pancreatic Necrosis Virus from the Blue Mussel, Mytilus edulis, to Cohabitating Atlantic Salmon (Salmo salar) Smolts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pietrak, Michael R.; Bricknell, Ian

    2013-01-01

    Integrated multitrophic aquaculture (IMTA) reduces the environmental impacts of commercial aquaculture systems by combining the cultivation of fed species with extractive species. Shellfish play a critical role in IMTA systems by filter-feeding particulate-bound organic nutrients. As bioaccumulating organisms, shellfish may also increase disease risk on farms by serving as reservoirs for important finfish pathogens such as infectious pancreatic necrosis virus (IPNV). The ability of the blue mussel (Mytilus edulis) to bioaccumulate and transmit IPNV to naive Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) smolts was investigated. To determine the ability of mussels to filter and accumulate viable IPNV, mussels were held in water containing log 4.6 50% tissue culture infective dose(s) (TCID50) of the West Buxton strain of IPNV ml−1. Viable IPNV was detected in the digestive glands (DGs) of IPNV-exposed mussels as early as 2 h postexposure. The viral load in mussel DG tissue significantly increased with time and reached log 5.35 ± 0.25 TCID50 g of DG tissue−1 after 120 h of exposure. IPNV titers never reached levels that were significantly greater than that in the water. Viable IPNV was detected in mussel feces out to 7 days postdepuration, and the virus persisted in DG tissues for at least 18 days of depuration. To determine whether IPNV can be transmitted from mussels to Atlantic salmon, IPNV-exposed mussels were cohabitated with naive Atlantic salmon smolts. Transmission of IPNV did occur from mussels to smolts at a low frequency. The results demonstrate that a nonenveloped virus, such as IPNV, can accumulate in mussels and be transferred to naive fish. PMID:23872575

  17. Detailed Distribution of Lipids in Greenshell™ Mussel (Perna canaliculus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew R. Miller

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Greenshell™ mussels (GSM–Perna canaliculus are a source of omega-3 (n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA. Farmed GSM are considered to be a sustainable source of LC-PUFA as they require no dietary inputs, gaining all of their oil by filter-feeding microorganisms from sea water. GSM oil is a high-value product, with a value as much as 1000 times that of fish oils. GSM oil has important health benefits, for example, anti-inflammatory activity. It also contains several minor lipid components that are not present in most fish oil products, and that have their own beneficial effects on human health. We have shown the lipid content of the female GSM (1.9 g/100 g ww was significantly greater than that of the male (1.4 g/100 g ww. Compared with male GSM, female GSM contained more n-3 LC-PUFA, and stored a greater proportion of total lipid in the gonad and mantle. The higher lipid content in the female than the male GSM is most likely related to gamete production. This information will be useful to optimize extraction of oils from GSM, a local and sustainable source of n-3 LC-PUFA.

  18. Spatial distribution of proteins in the quagga mussel adhesive apparatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rees, David J; Hanifi, Arash; Manion, Joseph; Gantayet, Arpita; Sone, Eli D

    2016-01-01

    The invasive freshwater mollusc Dreissena bugensis (quagga mussel) sticks to underwater surfaces via a proteinacious 'anchor' (byssus), consisting of a series of threads linked to adhesive plaques. This adhesion results in the biofouling of crucial underwater industry infrastructure, yet little is known about the proteins responsible for the adhesion. Here the identification of byssal proteins extracted from freshly secreted byssal material is described. Several new byssal proteins were observed by gel electrophoresis. Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry was used to characterize proteins in different regions of the byssus, particularly those localized to the adhesive interface. Byssal plaques and threads contain in common a range of low molecular weight proteins, while several proteins with higher mass were observed only in the plaque. At the adhesive interface, a plaque-specific ~8.1 kDa protein had a relative increase in signal intensity compared to the bulk of the plaque, suggesting it may play a direct role in adhesion.

  19. Prevention and control of zebra mussels: proactive and reactive strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Claudi, R.

    1998-01-01

    Most plant people would agree that having zebra mussels in any raw water system is not desirable. System blockage, loss of heat transfer and other associated safety hazards are not pleasant to deal with. Therefore most industries strive to minimise the effect of infestation. Opinions differ as to how to do this most efficiently and economically. Some facilities are committed to preventing the settlement of veligers in their piping systems and on some of the external structures they consider critical. This is the proactive approach. Others allow settlement and only treat the system or surface after fouling has occurred. This is the reactive approach. Which is the best and most economical treatment will depend on the individual facility and sometimes on the individual system. The paper examines the different proactive and reactive strategies available to-date and how they are being used. It will also discuss some of the criteria for choosing a proactive vs. reactive approach and why the decision has to be made individually by each facility. (author)

  20. Prevention and control of zebra mussels: proactive and reactive strategies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Claudi, R. [Ontario Hydro Nuclear, Toronto, ON (Canada)

    1998-07-01

    Most plant people would agree that having zebra mussels in any raw water system is not desirable. System blockage, loss of heat transfer and other associated safety hazards are not pleasant to deal with. Therefore most industries strive to minimise the effect of infestation. Opinions differ as to how to do this most efficiently and economically. Some facilities are committed to preventing the settlement of veligers in their piping systems and on some of the externalstructures they consider critical. This is the proactive approach. Others allow settlement and only treat the system or surface after fouling has occurred. This is the reactive approach. Which is the best and most economical treatment will depend on the individual facility and sometimes on the individual system. The paper examines the different proactive and reactive strategies available to-date and how they are being used. It will also discuss some of the criteria for choosing a proactive vs. reactive approach and why the decision has to be made individually by each facility. (author)

  1. Determination of vanadium in mussels by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry without chemical modifiers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saavedra, Y.; Fernandez, P. [Centro de Control do Medio Marino, Peirao de Vilaxoan s/n, Vilagarcia de Arousa, 36611 Pontevedra (Spain); Gonzalez, A. [Departamento de Quimica Analitica, Nutricion y Bromatologia, Facultad de Quimica, 15706, Santiago de Compostela (Spain)

    2004-05-01

    A method was developed for the quantitative determination of total vanadium concentration in mussels via electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry (ETAAS). After the microwave digestion of the samples, a program using temperatures of 1600 C and 2600 C for ashing and atomization respectively, without any matrix modifiers, allowed us to obtain results that were satisfactory since they agreed closely with certified reference material values. The detection limit was 0.03 mg kg{sup -1} (dry weight), indicating that the method is suitable for the analysis of mussel samples. This determination was compared with matrix modifiers that have been reported previously. The method was applied to various cultivated and wild mussels from the Galician coast, yielding levels below 1 mg kg{sup -1} (wet weight). (orig.)

  2. Testing the potential for improving quality of sediments impacted by mussel farms using bioturbating polychaete worms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergström, Per; Carlsson, Marita S; Lindegarth, Mats

    2017-01-01

    Biodeposits from farmed mussels severely influence the biogeochemistry of sediments by increasing the levels of organic matter (OM). Mitigation of such negative impacts is important for the development of sustainable aquaculture operations. As a step towards developing methods for remediation...... of coastal sediments affected by mussel farming, the effects of the polychaete, Hediste diversicolor was evaluated experimentally. In a series of field- and laboratory experiments we tested hypotheses about the effects of polychaetes on sediment oxygen consumption, nutrient fluxes and sulphide pools under...... different polychaete densities and sedimentation regimes. The experimental results support the idea that polychaetes can mitigate negative effects on the benthic environment beneath mussel farms. H. diversicolor oxidized the sediment and generally enhanced the oxygen consumption, and thus the decomposition...

  3. Aspects of growth, recruitment and conservation of the Brown Mussel Perna perna along the Tsitsikamma Coast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. J. M Crawford

    1983-12-01

    Full Text Available Beds of brown mussels Perna perna are a dominant feature of the lower tidal range of rocky shores in the Tsitsikamma Coastal National Park. Mussels in this region attain a length of 30-40 mm by the end of their first year, and the majority probably exceed 50 mm at two years of age. Secondary settlement of plantigrades occurs from midspring through early winter, especially in summer and early autumn, and growth of adult forms is slowest prior to this settlement. Settlement occurs serially and powerful cohorts may be formed. At Nature's Valley density and biomass of mussels inside the park's boundary are significantly higher than in non-protected areas. Older age groups are also more abundant within the park.

  4. OXIDATIVE STRESS BIOMARKERS IN MUSSELS SAMPLED FROM FOUR SITES ALONG THE MOROCCAN ATLANTIC COAST (BIG CASABLANCA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LAILA EL JOURMI

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Catalase (CAT activity and malondialdehyde (MDA level in whole bodies of the mussel perna perna, collected from four stations along the Moroccan Atlantic coast (Big Casablanca area, were monitored to evaluate stress effects on mussels collected from the selected sites. The oxidative stress biomarkers showed statistically significant differences at the polluted sites when compared to the control ones. In general, our data indicated that CAT activity and MDA concentration are a higher and significant (p < 0.05 in mussels collected at polluted site when compared to specimen sampled from control ones. In conclusion, the oxidative stress biomarkers response obtained for October 2010 and 2011, clearly demonstrate the potential presence of different contaminants in Site 4 and Site 3 reflecting the intensity of pollution in these areas.

  5. Bioaccumulation and partitioning of cadmium within the freshwater mussel Dreissena polymorpha Pallas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bias, R.; Karbe, L.

    1985-01-01

    Kinetics of uptake, partitioning and elimination of cadmium were investigated in experimental studies with the freshwater mussel, Dreissena polymorpha. 109 Cd and 115 Cd were used as tracers. Shells, soft parts and body fluid of the mussel exhibited considerable differences in accumulation and elimination. Accumulation factors up to more than 70,000 were calculated for the periostracum, whereas accumulation factors for the whole mussels ranging up to 3,000 were calculated. The shells bound a great deal of cadmium, but only loosely, and the metal could be readily eliminated after transfer to uncontaminated water. In contrast, no significant amounts of the cadmium incorporated in the soft parts were eliminated. The results indicate that the major portion of cadmium in the soft parts is strongly bound and cannot be eliminated by exchange processes. (author)

  6. Stable isotopes and metal contamination in caged marine mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deudero, S.; Box, A.; Tejada, S.; Tintore, J.

    2009-01-01

    Metal concentrations and isotopic composition were measured in different tissues of the mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis in waters of the Balearic Islands (Western Mediterranean) in order to assess pollution levels. The isotopic composition was correlated with lead, cadmium, selenium and nickel obtained from the digestive gland and foot of the mussels. Significant negative correlations were found between cadmium, selenium and zinc and the mussel foot, mainly for 13 C. Significant correlations were also found between lead and cadmium and the digestive gland. Pearson correlations indicated that the 13 C isotopic signal in foot is a good proxy for the concentration of metals such as lead, cadmium, selenium and zinc. Similarly, 15 N isotopic signatures in the digestive gland reflected the lead and cadmium concentration.

  7. Comparative morphology of zebra (Dreissena polymorpha) and quagga (Dreissena bugensis) mussel sperm: Light and electron microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, G.K.; Black, M.G.; Edwards, C.A.

    1996-01-01

    Adult zebra (Dreissena polymorpha) and quagga (Dreissena bugensis) mussels were induced to release large quantities of live spermatozoa by the administration of 5-hydroxytryptamine (serotonin). Sperm were photographed alive using phase-contrast microscopy and were fixed subsequently with glutaraldehyde followed by osmium tetroxide for eventual examination by transmission or scanning electron microscopy. The sperm of both genera are of the ect-aquasperm type. Their overall dimensions and shape allow for easy discrimination at the light and scanning electron microscopy level. Transmission electron microscopy of the cells reveals a barrel-shaped nucleus in zebra mussel sperm and an elongated nucleus in quagga mussel sperm. In both species, an acrosome is cradled in a nuclear fossa. The ultrastructure of the acrosome and axial body, however, is distinctive for each species. The structures of the midpiece are shown, including a unique mitochondrial "skirt" that includes densely packed parallel cristae and extends in a narrow sheet from the mitochondria.

  8. Mercury concentrations in Quagga Mussels, Dreissena bugensis, from Lakes Mead, Mohave and Havasu.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueting, Sara A; Gerstenberger, Shawn L

    2010-04-01

    The recent invasion of the Dressenid species, the quagga mussel, Dreissena bugensis, into Lakes Mead, Mohave and Havasu has raised questions about their ability to alter contaminant cycling. Mussels were collected from 25 locations in the three lakes. The overall average was 0.036 +/- 0.016 microg g(-1) Hg dry wt. The range of the three lakes was from 0.014-0.093 microg g(-1) Hg dry wt. There were no significant differences in mercury concentrations among the three lakes (F = 0.07; p = 0.794). From this baseline data of contaminants in quagga mussels from the lower Colorado River, this species may be used to biomonitor lake health.

  9. Cost-effective IMTA: a comparison of the production efficiencies of mussels and seaweed

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holdt, Susan Løvstad; Edwards, Maeve D.

    2014-01-01

    seaweed with regard to the amount of nitrogen assimilated. Furthermore, in optimized systems, areal requirement for mussels is similar to the cultivation of the same tonnage (1,000 t) of seaweed (approximately 8 ha). The cost-effectiveness of a mussel biofilter is €11–30 kg−1 nitrogen (N) removed based...... on various examples compared to production costs of €209–672 removed and €1,013 kg−1 N removed, respectively, for Laminaria digitata and Alaria esculenta from extrapolated laboratory and field trials. However, commercial seaweed (Saccharina latissima) producers claim that production costs are less than €10......–38 kg−1 N removed. These up-scaled and commercial figures make the seaweed cost competitive to mussels for removal of nitrogen. Disadvantages such as predators (e.g. eider ducks) and biofouling should also be taken into account before choice of biofilter is made. These drawbacks can reduce overall...

  10. Byssus attachment strength of two mytilids in mono-specific and mixed-species mussel beds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babarro, Jose M F; Comeau, Luc A

    2014-09-01

    The mussel Xenostrobus securis is endemic to the brackish waters of New Zealand and Australia, but has successfully invaded the inner Galician Rías of NW Spain, where it coexists with the indigenous mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis. In this laboratory study, the plasticity of the byssus attachment strength of two mytilids was compared by manipulating substratum, salinity, and bed assembly. M. galloprovincialis showed stronger byssus detachment strength than X. securis, despite lower byssus coverage. Both species responded similarly to the substratum, with substantially lower byssus strength on methacrylate, which offered the lowest surface free energy. Byssus detachment values for M. galloprovincialis were lower at lower salinity. In mixed beds, a number of mussels moved upwards, eventually colonising the upper layers of the assemblage. This behaviour increased byssus strength but only for X. securis. X. securis is adapted to a wide spectrum of abiotic conditions, a trait that may promote its dissemination within estuarine environments.

  11. Freshwater mussels (Unionidae) in the headwaters of Chipola River, Houston County, Alabama

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garner, J.T.; McGregor, S.W.; Tarpley, T.A.; Buntin, M.L.

    2009-01-01

    Big and Cowarts creeks lie in extreme southeastern Alabama and form the headwaters of Chipola River. Qualitative and quantitative sampling for freshwater mussels in these reaches during 2006 and 2007 revealed an intact fauna, relative to historical reports. A cumulative total of 17 species, including federally protected Elliptio chipolaensis (Chipola Slabshell), Lampsilis subangulata (Shinyrayed Pocketbook), Medionidus penicillatus (Gulf Moccasinshell), and Pleurobema pyriforme (Oval Pigtoe), was encountered. A total of 3382 mussels (density 5.84 per m2) was estimated for one 65-m reach of Big Creek and 9627 mussels (density 8.09 per m2) were estimated to occur in one 170-m reach of Cowarts Creek. Tributaries had depauperate faunas, apparently due to substrate instability.

  12. Short-term impact of blue mussel dredging ( Mytilus edulis L.) on a benthic community

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dolmer, Per; Kristensen, T.; Christiansen, M.L.

    2001-01-01

    The short-term effect of mussel dredging in a brackish Danish sound was studied. A commercial dredging track was identified and an analysis of the species composition inside the track and at an adjacent control area showed that dredging changed the community structure by reducing the density...... of polychaetes. In order to investigate the extent and the duration of the dredging impact experimental dredging was conducted. The experimental dredging removed 50% of the mussels in two dredged areas. Immediately after dredging, a significantly lower number of species was measured inside the mussel beds...... in dredged areas compared to control and boundary areas. This effect lasted for at least 40 days. The analysis of the species composition showed that the dredged area had a significantly lower density, particularly of polychaetes compared to the boundary area. An increased number of species was recorded...

  13. Data on the changes of the mussels׳ metabolic profile under different cold storage conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Violetta Aru

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available One of the main problems of seafood marketing is the ease with which fish and shellfish undergo deterioration after death. 1H NMR spectroscopy and microbiological analysis were applied to get in depth insight into the effects of cold storage (4 °C and 0 °C on the spoilage of the mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis. This data article provides information on the average distribution of the microbial loads in mussels׳ specimens and on the acquisition, processing, and multivariate analysis of the 1H NMR spectra from the hydrosoluble phase of stored mussels. This data article is referred to the research article entitled “Metabolomics analysis of shucked mussels’ freshness” (Aru et al., 2016 [1].

  14. Characterization of the mechanical properties of tough biopolymer fibres from the mussel byssus of Aulacomya ater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troncoso, O P; Torres, F G; Grande, C J

    2008-07-01

    Byssus fibres are tough biopolymer fibres produced by mussels to attach themselves to rocks. In this communication, we present the mechanical properties of the byssus from the South American mussel Aulacomya ater which have not been previously reported in the literature. The mechanical properties of the whole threads were assessed by uniaxial tensile tests of dry and hydrated specimens. Elastoplastic and elastomeric stress-strain curves were found for byssal threads from A. ater in the dry and hydrated state, respectively. The results obtained from mechanical tests were modelled using linear, power-law-type and Mooney-Rivlin relationships. These methods for dealing with tensile measurements of mussel byssus have the potential to be used with other stretchy biomaterials.

  15. Assessment of inorganic contaminants in golden mussel (Limnoperna fortunei) in Southern Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pereira, Ederson R.; Soares, Bruno M.; Duarte, Fabio A., E-mail: fabioand@gmail.com [Escola de Quimica e Alimentos, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande, Rio Grande-RS (Brazil); Vieira, Joao P.; Mai, Ana C.G. [Instituto de Oceanografia, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande, Rio Grande-RS (Brazil); Picoloto, Rochele S.; Muller, Edson I.; Flores, Erico M.M. [Departamento de Quimica, Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, Santa Maria-RS (Brazil)

    2012-05-15

    Major and trace element content was determined in golden mussel (Limnoperna fortunei) collected in the Sao Goncalo Channel (Rio Grande City, Brazil). A microwave-assisted digestion procedure in closed vessels was applied to mussel decomposition and subsequent determination of elements by spectrometric techniques. Results showed that the mussel tissue contains Ag, Al, As, B, Ba, Ca, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, Li, Mg, Mn, Mo, P, Pb, S, Sn, Sr, Ti, V and Zn, while the same elements (except Ag and Hg) were quantified in its shell, demonstrating its potential as a biomarker. In this sense, these results can be used to establish an initial view and to contribute to further studies related to element contamination in the area under study (author)

  16. Differentiation of sympatric zebra and quagga mussels in ecotoxicological studies: A comparison of morphometric data, gene expression, and body metal concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerambrun, E; Delahaut, L; Geffard, A; David, E

    2018-06-15

    The zebra mussel is among the best studied freshwater molluscs in ecotoxicology, but information on the quagga mussel is lacking. Considering its potential spread, we selected a river in France in which zebra and quagga mussels coexisted, and then we used genetic markers to differentiate the two species and compared morphological parameters. cDNA sequencing assays of ten genes already used in zebra mussels were performed on quagga mussels to obtain functional specific primers. Then we analyzed the expression of genes involved in cellular metabolic activities (Cytochrome-c-oxidase - cox, and ATP synthase - atp), detoxification processes (Glutathione-S-Transferase - gst), oxidative stress (Catalase - cat), and digestive functions (Amylase - amy) on the two species. Whereas morphometric analysis underlined similarities in shape between the two species, relative gene expression profiles and metal concentrations evidenced strong differences. Quagga mussels notably presented half as high concentrations in Cd and Pb, two particularly toxic elements, as zebra mussels. These results imply that i) particular attention should be paid to properly distinguish the two species considering their similar external appearance, and ii) zebra mussels cannot be replaced by quagga mussels in ecotoxicological studies without preliminary investigations on biomarker response patterns. To our knowledge, this study is the first to have undertaken such an approach in gene expression analysis in quagga mussels, and more generally to have compared such biomarker responses of zebra and quagga mussels in the field. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Transcriptional response of the mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis (Lam. following exposure to heat stress and copper.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Negri

    Full Text Available Global warming is a major factor that may affect biological organization, especially in marine ecosystems and in coastal areas that are particularly subject to anthropogenic pollution. We evaluated the effects of simultaneous changes in temperature and copper concentrations on lysosomal membrane stability (N-acetyl-hexosaminidase activity and malondialdehyde accumulation (MDA in the gill of the blue mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis (Lam.. Temperature and copper exerted additive effects on lysosomal membrane stability, exacerbating the toxic effects of metal cations present in non-physiological concentrations. Mussel lysosomal membrane stability is known to be positively related to scope for growth, indicating possible effects of increasing temperature on mussel populations in metal-polluted areas. To clarify the molecular response to environmental stressors, we used a cDNA microarray with 1,673 sequences to measure the relative transcript abundances in the gills of mussels exposed to copper (40 µg/L and a temperature gradient (16°C, 20°C, and 24°C. In animals exposed only to heat stress, hierarchical clustering of the microarray data revealed three main clusters, which were largely dominated by down-regulation of translation-related differentially expressed genes, drastic up-regulation of protein folding related genes, and genes involved in chitin metabolism. The response of mussels exposed to copper at 24°C was characterized by an opposite pattern of the genes involved in translation, most of which were up-regulated, as well as the down-regulation of genes encoding heat shock proteins and "microtubule-based movement" proteins. Our data provide novel information on the transcriptomic modulations in mussels facing temperature increases and high copper concentrations; these data highlight the risk of marine life exposed to toxic chemicals in the presence of temperature increases due to climate change.

  18. Stable isotope ratios in freshwater mussel shells as high resolution recorders of riverine environmental variation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kukolich, S.; Kendall, C.; Dettman, D. L.

    2017-12-01

    The geochemical record stored in growth increments of freshwater mussel shells reveals annual to sub-annual changes in environmental conditions during the lifetime of the organism. The carbon, nitrogen, and oxygen stable isotope composition of aragonite shells responds to changes in water chemistry, temperature, streamflow, turbidity, growth rate, size, age, and reproduction. The goals of this study are to determine how stable isotopes can be used to reconstruct the conditions in which the mussels lived and to illuminate any vital effects that might obscure the isotopic record of those conditions. Previous research has suggested that annual δ13C values decrease in older freshwater mussel shells due to lower growth rates and greater incorporation of dietary carbon into the shell with increasing age. However, a high-resolution, seasonal investigation of δ13C, δ15N, and δ18O as they relate to organism age has not yet been attempted in freshwater mussels. A total of 28 Unionid mussels of three different species were collected live in 2011 in the Tennessee River near Paducah, Kentucky, USA. In this study, we analyzed the shell nacre and external organic layers for stable carbon, nitrogen, and oxygen isotope ratios, focusing on growth bands formed between 2006 and 2011. We present a time series of shell δ13C, δ18O, and δ15N values with monthly resolution. We also compare the shell-derived geochemical time series to a time series of the δ13C and δ15N of particulate organic matter, δ13C of DIC, δ18OWater, and water temperature in which the mussels lived. Results show that environmental factors such as water temperature and primary productivity dominate shell chemistry while animal age has little or no effect.

  19. Factors driving changes in freshwater mussel (Bivalvia, Unionida) diversity and distribution in Peninsular Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zieritz, Alexandra; Lopes-Lima, Manuel; Bogan, Arthur E; Sousa, Ronaldo; Walton, Samuel; Rahim, Khairul Adha A; Wilson, John-James; Ng, Pei-Yin; Froufe, Elsa; McGowan, Suzanne

    2016-11-15

    Freshwater mussels (Bivalvia, Unionida) fulfil important ecosystem functions and are one of the most threatened freshwater taxa globally. Knowledge of freshwater mussel diversity, distribution and ecology in Peninsular Malaysia is extremely poor, and the conservation status of half of the species presumed to occur in the region has yet to be assessed. We conducted the first comprehensive assessment of Peninsular Malaysia's freshwater mussels based on species presence/absence and environmental data collected from 155 sites spanning all major river catchments and diverse habitat types. Through an integrative morphological-molecular approach we recognised nine native and one widespread non-native species, i.e. Sinanodonta woodiana. Two species, i.e. Pilsbryoconcha compressa and Pseudodon cambodjensis, had not been previously recorded from Malaysia, which is likely a result of morphological misidentifications of historical records. Due to their restriction to single river catchments and declining distributions, Hyriopsis bialata, possibly endemic to Peninsular Malaysia, Ensidens ingallsianus, possibly already extinct in the peninsula, and Rectidens sumatrensis, particularly require conservation attention. Equally, the Pahang, the Perak and the north-western river catchments are of particular conservation value due to the presence of a globally unique freshwater mussel fauna. Statistical relationships of 15 water quality parameters and mussel presence/absence identified acidification and nutrient pollution (eutrophication) as the most important anthropogenic factors threatening freshwater mussel diversity in Peninsular Malaysia. These factors can be linked to atmospheric pollution, deforestation, oil-palm plantations and a lack of functioning waste water treatment, and could be mitigated by establishing riparian buffers and improving waste water treatment for rivers running through agricultural and residential land. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Identifying the optimal depth for mussel suspended culture in shallow and turbid environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filgueira, Ramón; Grant, Jon; Petersen, Jens Kjerulf

    2018-02-01

    Bivalve aquaculture is commonly carried out in shallow water systems, which are susceptible to resuspension of benthic particulate matter by natural processes such as tidal currents, winds and wave action, as well as human activity. The resuspended material can alter the availability of food particles for cultured bivalves. The effect of resuspended material on bivalve bioenergetics and growth is a function of the quality and concentration of resuspended particles and background diet in the water column. Given the potential for positive or negative impacts on bivalve growth and consequently on farm productivity, farmers must position the cultured biomass at the appropriate depth to benefit from or mitigate the impact of this resuspended material. A combination of field measurements, a 1-D vertical resuspension model and a bioenergetic model for mussels based on Dynamic Energy Budget (DEB) theory has been carried out for a mussel farm in Skive Fjord, a shallow Danish fjord, with the aim of identifying the optimal depth for culture. Observations at the farm location revealed that horizontal advection is more important than vertical resuspension during periods with predominant Eastern winds. In addition, high background seston in the water column reduces the impact of resuspension on the available food for mussels. The simulation of different scenarios in terms of food availability suggested minimal effects of resuspension on mussel growth. Based on this finding and the fact that phytoplankton concentration, the main food source for mussels, is usually higher in the upper part of the water column, suspended culture in the top 3 m of the water column seems to be the optimal practice to produce mussels in Skive Fjord.

  1. Strategies to control zebra mussel fouling at Kewaunee Nuclear Power Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwartz, D.; Kasper, J.R.; Pisani, W.

    1992-01-01

    The zebra mussel, Dreissena polymorpha, is currently infesting the Great Lakes. First discovered in Lake St. Clair, it is now widespread in Lakes Erie and Ontario. The initial efforts relating to zebra mussel control at Wisconsin Public Service Corporation's (WPSC) Kewaunee Nuclear Power Plant (KNPP) precipitated from the Nuclear Regulatory Commission's (NRC) Generic Letter 89-13 regarding fouling of service water (SW) systems at nuclear power plants. In the summer of 1990, Stone and Webster Engineering Corporation (Stone and Webster) was contracted to perform an evaluation of known problems within the SW system. The purposes of the study were to evaluate the actual and potential magnitude of these problems, to evaluate corrective actions to resolve the problems, and to prepare recommendations which would adequately address the issues. Two of the recommendations of this study were to continue a zebra mussel monitoring program which WPSC had already implemented and to evaluate various biocide injection programs should one be required for zebra mussel control. The concern of utilities operating power stations which use waters infested with zebra mussels as their source of cooling and/or makeup water is that mussels (both adults and veligers) will enter plant water systems and foul piping and heat exchangers. This type of fouling can restrict flow through piping, process equipment, and heat exchangers. This type of fouling can restrict flow through piping, process equipment, and heat exchangers, thereby increasing head losses and reducing heat transfer capabilities. The greatest concern in that fouling of this type is within safety-related piping and equipment that are components of service water systems at nuclear power plants

  2. Zebra Mussel Farming in the Szczecin (Oder Lagoon: Water-Quality Objectives and Cost-Effectiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerald Schernewski

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The Oder (Szczecin Lagoon in the southern Baltic Sea is a heavily eutrophicated and degraded coastal ecosystem. We applied a systems approach framework to critically evaluate whether existing water-management measures achieve water-quality objectives for the river and lagoon systems. Our simulations reveal that the existing water-quality objectives for the river and the coastal waters are not sufficiently complementary. We suggest new water-quality threshold concentrations, which are in agreement with the European Water Framework Directive, and we calculate acceptable maximum nutrient loads for the Oder River. These calculations suggest that external nutrient-load reductions in the river basin alone seem insufficient to achieve good water quality in the lagoon. A comprehensive eutrophication management approach should also include internal nutrient-retention and nutrient-removal measures in the lagoon. We focus on mussel farming, i.e., that of zebra mussels, Dreissena polymorpha, because they are efficient in removing nutrients and improving water transparency in the Oder Lagoon. For this purpose, the ecosystem model ERGOM is extended by a mussel module and an economic model. The economic model describes costs and benefits of mussel cultivation depending on the the farm size. We included additional potential sources of income such as water-quality tax or emission certificates. The simulations show that mussel farming in the lagoon is a suitable supportive measure and, at a load-reduction target of 50% or more, it is a cost-efficient measure for removing nutrients and for implementing the Baltic Sea Action Plan. In the Oder Lagoon, mussel farming could potentially remove nearly 1000 t of N (70 t of P/year, or about 2% of the present N and P loads, and it would have the additional benefit of improving water transparency.

  3. Effect of infection with Metacercariae of Himasthla elongata (Trematoda: Echinostomatidae) on cardiac activity and growth rate in blue mussels (Mytilus edulis) in situ

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakhmet, Igor; Nikolaev, Kirill; Levakin, Ivan

    2017-05-01

    Trematode parasites can affect their molluscan hosts, which serve as the first intermediate hosts in their life cycles, in manifold ways, but little is known about trematode-induced effects on their second intermediate hosts. Experimental infection of blue mussels Mytilus edulis serving as second intermediate hosts for larval stages (metacercariae) of the trematodes Himasthla elongata was studied in field experiments during one year. The heart rates and growth rates of noninfected mussels were significantly higher than those of infected mussels. During the summer, the heart rates of noninfected mussels showed rhythmic oscillations, whereas the parasitized animals displayed no any rhythmicity. There was a significant difference between the infected and uninfected mussels in relation to heart rates and temperature. The results indicate that mussels infected with H. elongata metacercariae may be at an energetic disadvantage relative to noninfected mussels. Furthermore, trematode infection may disrupt neuronal control of cardiac function.

  4. The quagga mussel (Dreissena rostriformis bugensis Andrusov, 1897 – another Ponto-Caspian dreissenid bivalve in the southern Baltic catchment: the first record from the Szczecin Lagoon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Woźniczka

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In 2014, a non-indigenous dreissenid bivalve, the quagga mussel (Dreissena rostriformis bugensis Andrusov, 1897 was for the first time recorded in the Szczecin Lagoon. This was also the first record of the species in the Baltic Sea catchment. The quagga mussel was found to accompany the zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha, a non-indigenous bivalve already firmly established in the Lagoon. As indicated by the new immigrant's estimated abundance (4000.0 ± 355.44 ind. m−2 and the zebra mussel to quagga mussel abundance ratio (about 60:40, the immigration of D. rostriformis bugensis to the Lagoon can be regarded as successful. The quagga mussel has already formed a strong and reproducing population which co-occurs with that of the zebra mussel in the area.

  5. An exploratory investigation of various modes of action and potential adverse outcomes of fluoxetine in marine mussels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franzellitti, Silvia; Buratti, Sara; Capolupo, Marco; Du, Bowen; Haddad, Samuel P.; Chambliss, C. Kevin; Brooks, Bryan W.; Fabbri, Elena

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Mode of action (MOA) related endpoints and biomarkers of toxicity were assessed in mussels exposed to fluoxetine (FX). • Significant FX bioaccumulation was observed in tissues of mussels exposed to 30 and 300 ng/L FX. • Alterations of cAMP-related cell signaling were observed in exposed mussels as part of the MOA of FX. • FX reduced the health status of mussels inducing lysosomal effects in digestive gland and antioxidant responses in gills. • The importance of considering additional MOAs and adverse outcome pathways for FX impacts on mussels is highlighted. - Abstract: The present study investigated possible adverse outcome pathways (AOPs) of the antidepressant fluoxetine (FX) in the marine mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis. An evaluation of molecular endpoints involved in modes of action (MOAs) of FX and biomarkers for sub-lethal toxicity were explored in mussels after a 7-day administration of nominal FX concentrations encompassing a range of environmentally relevant values (0.03–300 ng/L). FX bioaccumulated in mussel tissues after treatment with 30 and 300 ng/L FX, resulting in bioconcentration factor (BCF) values ranging from 200 to 800, which were higher than expected based solely on hydrophobic partitioning models. Because FX acts as a selective serotonin (5-HT) re-uptake inhibitor increasing serotonergic neurotransmission at mammalian synapses, cell signaling alterations triggered by 5-HT receptor occupations were assessed. cAMP levels and PKA activities were decreased in digestive gland and mantle/gonads of FX-treated mussels, consistent with an increased occupation of 5-HT1 receptors negatively coupled to the cAMP/PKA pathway. mRNA levels of a ABCB gene encoding the P-glycoprotein were also significantly down-regulated. This membrane transporter acts in detoxification towards xenobiotics and in altering pharmacokinetics of antidepressants; moreover, it is under a cAMP/PKA transcriptional regulation in mussels. Potential stress

  6. An exploratory investigation of various modes of action and potential adverse outcomes of fluoxetine in marine mussels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Franzellitti, Silvia, E-mail: silvia.franzellitti@unibo.it [University of Bologna, Interdepartment Centre for Environmental Science Research, via S. Alberto 163, 48123 Ravenna (Italy); University of Bologna, Department of Biological, Geological, and Environmental Sciences, via Selmi 3, 40100 Bologna (Italy); Buratti, Sara; Capolupo, Marco [University of Bologna, Interdepartment Centre for Environmental Science Research, via S. Alberto 163, 48123 Ravenna (Italy); Du, Bowen; Haddad, Samuel P. [Department of Environmental Science, Baylor University, Waco, TX 76798 (United States); Chambliss, C. Kevin [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Baylor University, Waco, TX 76798 (United States); Brooks, Bryan W. [Department of Environmental Science, Baylor University, Waco, TX 76798 (United States); Fabbri, Elena [University of Bologna, Interdepartment Centre for Environmental Science Research, via S. Alberto 163, 48123 Ravenna (Italy); University of Bologna, Department of Biological, Geological, and Environmental Sciences, via Selmi 3, 40100 Bologna (Italy)

    2014-06-01

    Highlights: • Mode of action (MOA) related endpoints and biomarkers of toxicity were assessed in mussels exposed to fluoxetine (FX). • Significant FX bioaccumulation was observed in tissues of mussels exposed to 30 and 300 ng/L FX. • Alterations of cAMP-related cell signaling were observed in exposed mussels as part of the MOA of FX. • FX reduced the health status of mussels inducing lysosomal effects in digestive gland and antioxidant responses in gills. • The importance of considering additional MOAs and adverse outcome pathways for FX impacts on mussels is highlighted. - Abstract: The present study investigated possible adverse outcome pathways (AOPs) of the antidepressant fluoxetine (FX) in the marine mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis. An evaluation of molecular endpoints involved in modes of action (MOAs) of FX and biomarkers for sub-lethal toxicity were explored in mussels after a 7-day administration of nominal FX concentrations encompassing a range of environmentally relevant values (0.03–300 ng/L). FX bioaccumulated in mussel tissues after treatment with 30 and 300 ng/L FX, resulting in bioconcentration factor (BCF) values ranging from 200 to 800, which were higher than expected based solely on hydrophobic partitioning models. Because FX acts as a selective serotonin (5-HT) re-uptake inhibitor increasing serotonergic neurotransmission at mammalian synapses, cell signaling alterations triggered by 5-HT receptor occupations were assessed. cAMP levels and PKA activities were decreased in digestive gland and mantle/gonads of FX-treated mussels, consistent with an increased occupation of 5-HT1 receptors negatively coupled to the cAMP/PKA pathway. mRNA levels of a ABCB gene encoding the P-glycoprotein were also significantly down-regulated. This membrane transporter acts in detoxification towards xenobiotics and in altering pharmacokinetics of antidepressants; moreover, it is under a cAMP/PKA transcriptional regulation in mussels. Potential stress

  7. Biomonitoring of environmental pollution on the Algerian west coast using caged mussels Mytilus galloprovincialis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Claude Amiard

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available An active biomonitoring study was carried out on the Algerian west coast using wild reference mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis sampled from the Kristel (K site and transplanted in net cages during one month (between May and June 2007 to Oran Harbour (OH and Mostaganem Harbour (MH, areas characterised by high levels of urban and industrial pollution. The biological response of the mussels was evaluated by their condition index and the use of a general stress biomarker (evaluation of lysosomal membrane stability: the neutral red retention time (NRRT method, a genotoxic effects biomarker (determination of micronuclei (MN frequency and a neurotoxic effects biomarker (determination of the acetylcholinesterase (AChE concentration.       Compared to the K reference specimens, OH and MH caged mussels presented a significant decrease of NRRT in lysosomal haemocytes (56.45 ± 26.48 min and 67.25 ± 22.77 min, respectively (78 ± 16.97 min for K mussels, an MN frequency respectively 7.3 and 9 times higher in the haemocytes and the gill cells of the OH caged mussels, and 7.2 and 6.4 times higher in the two tissues of the MH caged mussels. Significant inhibition of AChE activity was noted in the gills (16.93 ± 3.1 nmol min-1 mg prot-1 and the digestive gland (7.69 ± 1.79 nmol min-1 mg prot-1 of the OH mussels, but only in the gills (23.21 ± 5.94 nmol min-1 mg prot-1 of the MH mussels, compared to the organs of the K control specimens (35.9 ± 6.4 nmol min-1 mg prot-1 in the gills and 11.17 ± 0.49 nmol min-1 mg prot-1 in the digestive gland.       This study reflects the interest in such in situ biomonitoring assays and the utility of these biomarkers for assessing the effects of pollution in the Algerian coastal marine environment.

  8. Evaluation of the immune responses of the brown mussel Perna perna as indicators of fecal pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva Dos Santos, Fernanda; Neves, Raquel Almeida Ferrando; Carvalho, Wanderson Fernandes de; Krepsky, Natascha; Crapez, Mirian Araújo Carlos

    2018-06-01

    The mussel Perna perna is an intertidal bivalve that is widely distributed, cultivated and consumed in South Africa, Brazil and Venezuela. Among marine resources, bivalve mollusks are one of the most impacted by anthropogenic pollution, as they can accumulate pathogenic bacteria and water pollutants. Hemocytes are molluscan defense cells, and their abundance and functions can be affected in response to contaminants, such as bacterial load. However, no previous study has investigated the immune response of P. perna hemocytes. The aim of this study was to evaluate several immune parameters in P. perna as indicators of fecal pollution in mussel hemolymph and in seawater. We collected mussels and adjacent seawater from beaches with different levels of fecal contamination in Rio de Janeiro state (Brazil): Vermelha Beach (VB); Icaraí Beach (IB); Urca Beach (UB); and Jurujuba Beach (JB). Hemocyte parameters (density, morphology, phagocytic activity and production of Reactive Oxygen Species - ROS) were evaluated using flow cytometry. We quantified Fecal Indicator Bacteria (FIB) in seawater by the multiple tubes technique for each beach and for hemolymph by the spread-plate technique. In agreement with historical evaluation of fecal contamination levels, UB presented the highest FIB abundance in seawater (thermotolerant coliforms, TEC = 1600 NMP 100 mL -1 ), whereas VB exhibited the lowest (TEC = 17 NMP 100 mL -1 ). UB mussels had six and eight times higher hemocyte density and phagocytic activity, respectively, than mussels from VB. Mussels from VB and IB presented a significantly lower number of total coliforms in hemolymph and a significantly higher relative internal complexity of hemocytes than those from UB and JB (p ≤ 0.01, PERMANOVA). ROS production by hemocytes was significantly lower in mussels from VB compared to those from JB (p = 0.04, ANOVA). Our results indicate a significant relationship between the level of fecal contamination in

  9. Exposure-related effects of Pseudomonas fluorescens (Pf-CL145A) on juvenile unionid mussels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Kerry L.; Luoma, James A.; Mayer, Denise A.; Aloisi, Douglas B.; Eckert, Nathan L.

    2015-01-01

    The exposure-related effects of a commercially prepared spray-dried powder (SDP) or freeze-dried powder (FDP) formulation of Pseudomonas fluorescens (strain CL145A) on the survival of seven species of newly metamorphosed (<72 hours old) freshwater unionid mussels was evaluated. Forty unionid mussels of each species were randomly distributed to test chambers and each species independently exposed for 24 hours to a static dose of either SDP (four species: Lampsilis cardium, Lampsilis siliquoidea, Lampsilis higginsii, andLigumia recta) or FDP (three species: Obovaria olivaria, Actinonaias ligamentina, andMegalonaias nervosa).

  10. Development and evaluation of a boat-mounted RFID antenna for monitoring freshwater mussels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Jesse R.; Neebling, Travis E.; Quist, Michael C.

    2012-01-01

    Development of radio frequency identification (RFID) technology and passive integrated transponder (PIT) tags has substantially increased the ability of researchers and managers to monitor populations of aquatic organisms. However, use of transportable RFID antenna systems (i.e., backpack-mounted) is currently limited to wadeable aquatic environments (system regardless of tag orientation. However, burrowed mussels may require multiple passes to increase detection that would be influenced by depth, tag orientation, and tag size. Construction of the boat-mounted antenna was relatively low in cost (traditional mussel sampling techniques (diving, snorkeling) in nonwadeable habitats.

  11. Microplastic contamination in natural mussel beds from a Brazilian urbanized coastal region: Rapid evaluation through bioassessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santana, M F M; Ascer, L G; Custódio, M R; Moreira, F T; Turra, A

    2016-05-15

    Microplastic pollution (particles urbanized area of the coast of São Paulo State, Brazil. A simple and rapid assessment showed that 75% of sampled mussels had ingested microplastics, an issue of human and environmental concern. All sampling points had contaminated mussels and this contamination had no clear pattern of distribution along the estuary. This was the first time that microplastic bioavailability was assessed in nature for the southern hemisphere and that wild P. perna was found contaminated with this pollutant. This is an important issue that should be better assessed due to an increase in seafood consumption and culture in Brazil and worldwide. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Assessment of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis) of Prince Islands, Marmara Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balcıoğlu, Esra Billur

    2016-08-15

    In this study, PAH analyses have been conducted on indigenous mussels. Mussel samples (Mytilus galloprovincialis) have been collected from seven stations of Prince Islands during September 2015. Concentrations of total determined PAHs (sum of 16 compounds) ranged between 664 and 9083ngg(-1). The origin of PAHs has been found to be pyrolytic according to the PHE/ANT and FA/PYR ratios in Büyükada. For other islands, PAH origins have been observed as pyrolytic and petrogenic together according to the PHE/ANT, FA/PYR and BaA/CHR ratios. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. IMPACT OF THE DURATION OF BACTERIAL EXPOSURE ON ZEBRA MUSSEL MORTALITY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molloy, Daniel P.

    2002-01-01

    These tests indicated that: (1) duration of exposure to bacterial strain CL0145A of Pseudomonas fluorescens is a key variable in obtaining zebra mussel mortality; (2) that given a choice of exposure periods up to 96 hr, the longer the exposure period, the higher the mean mortality that will be achieved; (3) that the first few hours that the mussels are exposed to the bacteria are the most important in achieving kill; (4) that the mortality achieved by exposure periods ≥72 hr may be somewhat amplified by the degraded water quality conditions which can develop in recirculating water systems over such extended time periods

  14. IMPACT OF THE DURATION OF BACTERIAL EXPOSURE ON ZEBRA MUSSEL MORTALITY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daniel P. Molloy

    2002-01-21

    These tests indicated that: (1) duration of exposure to bacterial strain CL0145A of Pseudomonas fluorescens is a key variable in obtaining zebra mussel mortality; (2) that given a choice of exposure periods up to 96 hr, the longer the exposure period, the higher the mean mortality that will be achieved; (3) that the first few hours that the mussels are exposed to the bacteria are the most important in achieving kill; (4) that the mortality achieved by exposure periods {>=}72 hr may be somewhat amplified by the degraded water quality conditions which can develop in recirculating water systems over such extended time periods.

  15. Proteomic responses reveal the differential effects induced by cadmium in mussels Mytilus galloprovincialis at early life stages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Lanlan; Peng, Xiao; Yu, Deliang; Ji, Chenglong; Zhao, Jianmin; Wu, Huifeng

    2016-08-01

    Cadmium (Cd) has become an important metal contaminant and posed severe risk on the organisms in the coastal environments of the Bohai Sea. Marine mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis is widely distributed along the Bohai coast and consumed as seafood by local residents. Evidences indicate that the early stages of marine organisms are more sensitive to metal contaminants. In this study, we applied two-dimensional electrophoresis-based proteomics to characterize the biological effects of Cd (50 μg L(-1)) in the early life stages (D-shape larval and juvenile) of mussels. The different proteomic responses demonstrated the differential responsive mechanisms to Cd exposure in these two early life stages of mussels. In details, results indicated that Cd mainly induced immune and oxidative stresses in both D-shape larval and juvenile mussels via different pathways. In addition, the significant up-regulation of triosephosphate isomerase and metallothionein confirmed the enhanced energy demand and mobilized detoxification mechanism in D-shape larval mussels exposed to Cd. In juvenile mussels, Cd exposure also induced clear apoptosis. Overall, this work suggests that Cd is a potential immune toxicant to mussel M. galloprovincialis at early life stages. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Effect of the industrial canning on the toxicity of mussels contaminated with diarrhetic shellfish poisoning (DSP) toxins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco, Juan; Arévalo, Fabiola; Correa, Jorge; Porro, M Corina; Cabado, Ana G; Vieites, Juan M; Moroño, Angeles

    2016-03-15

    The effect of canning in pickled sauce and autoclaving on weight, toxin content, toxin concentration and toxicity of steamed mussels was studied. Weight decreased by 25.5%. Okadaic acid (OA) and DTX2 content of mussel meat decreased by 24.1 and 42.5%, respectively. The estimated toxicity of the mussel remained nearly unchanged (increased by 2.9%). A part of the toxins lost by the mussels was leached to the sauce but the remaining part should have been thermally degraded. DTX2 underwent more degradation than OA and, in both toxins, free forms more than conjugated ones. This process, therefore, cannot be responsible for the large increments of toxicity of processed mussels -relative to the raw ones-sometimes detected by food processing companies. The final product could be monitored in several ways, but analysing the whole can content or the mussel meat once rehydrated seems to be the most equivalents to the raw mussel controls. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Condition and biochemical profile of blue mussels (Mytilus edulis L.) cultured at different depths in a cold water coastal environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallardi, Daria; Mills, Terry; Donnet, Sebastien; Parrish, Christopher C.; Murray, Harry M.

    2017-08-01

    The growth and health of cultured blue mussels (Mytilus edulis) are affected by environmental conditions. Typically, culture sites are situated in sheltered areas near shore (i.e., 20 m depth) mussel culture has been growing. This study evaluated the effect of culture depth on blue mussels in a cold water coastal environment (Newfoundland, Canada). Culture depth was examined over two years from September 2012 to September 2014; mussels from three shallow water (5 m) and three deep water (15 m) sites were compared for growth and biochemical composition; culture depths were compared for temperature and chlorophyll a. Differences between the two years examined were noted, possibly due to harsh winter conditions in the second year of the experiment. In both years shallow and deep water mussels presented similar condition; in year 2 deep water mussels had a significantly better biochemical profile. Lipid and glycogen analyses showed seasonal variations, but no significant differences between shallow and deep water were noted. Fatty acid profiles showed a significantly higher content of omega-3 s (20:5ω3; EPA) and lower content of bacterial fatty acids in deep water sites in year 2. Everything considered, deep water appeared to provide a more favorable environment for mussel growth than shallow water under harsher weather conditions.

  18. Organotins in zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha) and sediments of the Quebec City Harbour area of the St. Lawrence River.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regoli, L; Chan, H M; de Lafontaine, Y; Mikaelian, I

    2001-07-01

    Toxic antifouling agents such as tributyltin (TBT) and triphenyltin (TPT) have been released in aquatic ecosystems through the use of antifouling paint applied to ship hulls, pleasure crafts and fish nets and these compounds can bioaccumulate in aquatic organisms. The purpose of this study was 1) to assess the extent of the distribution of organotins from a contaminated marina to the St. Lawrence River system by measuring organotin concentrations in zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha) and in sediments collected from 9 sites along the St. Lawrence River near Quebec City in July 1998, and 2) to examine the histopathological condition of zebra mussel tissues from these sites. TBT concentrations in zebra mussels were between 37 and 1078 ng Sn g(-1) wet weight, with the highest value found in the Bassin Louise marina. Elevated concentrations were also found in two other marinas. The concentrations decreased sharply to background levels just outside the marinas. All butyltins were detected in all sediments analysed, with highest values found in the Bassin Louise marina. Phenyltins were detected in three of the nine sites in low concentrations (zebra mussels. There was a significant correlation between TBT in sediments and mussels. Gonadal development of zebra mussels varied largely between sites, and was negatively associated to TBT levels in mussel tissue. This study shows that TBT contamination remains a problem in localised freshwater sectors of the St. Lawrence River.

  19. One-year monitoring of core biomarker and digestive enzyme responses in transplanted zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palais, F; Dedourge-Geffard, O; Beaudon, A; Pain-Devin, S; Trapp, J; Geffard, O; Noury, P; Gourlay-Francé, C; Uher, E; Mouneyrac, C; Biagianti-Risbourg, S; Geffard, A

    2012-04-01

    A 12-month active biomonitoring study was performed in 2008-2009 on the Vesle river basin (Champagne-Ardenne, France) using the freshwater mussel Dreissena polymorpha as a sentinel species; allochthonous mussels originating from a reference site (Commercy) were exposed at four sites (Bouy, Sept-Saulx, Fismes, Ardre) within the Vesle river basin. Selected core biomarkers (acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity, glutathione-S transferase (GST) activity, metallothionein concentration), along with digestive enzyme activities (amylase, endocellulase) and energy reserve concentrations (glycogen, lipids), were monitored throughout the study in exposed mussels. At the Fismes and Ardre sites (downstream basin), metallic and organic contamination levels were low but still high enough to elicit AChE and GST activity induction in exposed mussels (chemical stress); besides, chemical pollutants had no apparent deleterious effects on mussel condition. At the Bouy and Sept-Saulx sites (upstream basin), mussels obviously suffered from adverse food conditions which seriously impaired individual physiological state and survival (nutritional stress); food scarcity had however no apparent effects on core biomarker responses. Digestive enzyme activities responded to both chemical and nutritional stresses, the increase in energy outputs (general adaptation syndrome-downstream sites) or the decrease in energy inputs (food scarcity-upstream sites) leading to mid- or long-term induction of digestive carbohydrase activities in exposed mussels (energy optimizing strategy). Complex regulation patterns of these activities require nevertheless the use of a multi-marker approach to allow data interpretation. Besides, their sensitivity to natural confounding environmental factors remains to be precised.

  20. The use of food grade oil in the prevention of vase tunicate fouling on mussel aquaculture gear

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiselle A. BAKKER

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Current mitigation strategies against invasive tunicates on mussel aquaculture gear in Prince Edward Island concentrate on labour-intensive and costly fouling removal. Instead of removal, this study focused on preventing the settlement of the vase tunicate Ciona intestinalis and other fouling organisms by applying a layer of food grade oil to gear prior to recruitment. Laboratory tests established the adherence and persistence of shortening, a food grade oil with a melting point exceeding ambient water temperatures, to rope and mussels. In situ tests showed that shortening decreased C. intestinalis weight and abundance on buoys, spat collector ropes and collector plates but not on mussel socks. Fouling by algae and other tunicates was significantly reduced on most substrates. There were no detrimental effects of shortening treatment on mussel length and abundance on mussel socks, but total mussel weight was significantly lower on shortening-treated socks. Shortening treatment did not significantly affect mussel spat settlement on spat collector ropes, but further evaluation is required. Overall, shortening application has considerable potential for reducing tunicate and other fouling, particularly on buoys.

  1. Chaetogaster limnaei (annelida: oligochaeta) as a parasite of the zebra mussel Dreissena polymorpha, and the quagga mussel Dreissena bugensis (mollusca: bivalvia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conn, D B; Ricciardi, A; Babapulle, M N; Klein, K A; Rosen, D A

    1996-01-01

    Dreissenid mussels, Dreissena polymorpha and D. bugensis, were found to be infected by the naidid oligochaete Chaetogaster limnaei at four sites in the St. Lawrence River. This is the first report of this species infecting dreissenids anywhere in the world. Most worms inhabited the mantle cavity, where they caused erosion of the mantle and gill epithelia as determined by histopathological examination. Others penetrated various tissues; one had invaded the ovary and was feeding on oocytes and ovarian tissues. Of 606 mussels examined, 166 (27.4%) harbored at least 1 C. limnaei. The prevalence varied between 1% and 80%, depending on the collection site and date. The worms were slightly but significantly more prevalent in D. bugensis than in D. polymorpha. The intensity ranged from 1 to 18 worms per infected host. Variations in prevalence and intensity were not related to the size or sex of the host, but the data did suggest some seasonality.

  2. Bioaccumulation of metals (Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn) in suspended cultures of blue mussels exposed to different environmental conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maar, Marie; Larsen, Martin Mørk; Tørring, Ditte; Petersen, Jens Kjerulf

    2018-02-01

    Farming of suspended mussels is important for generating high protein food and animal feed or for removing nutrients in eutrophic systems. However, the harvested mussels must not be severely contaminated by pollutants posing a potential health risk for the consumers. The present study estimated the bioaccumulation of cadmium, copper, nickel, lead and zinc in suspended blue mussels (Mytilus edulis L.) in the Limfjorden, Denmark, based on observations and modelling. Modelling was used to assess the suitability of suspended blue mussels as animal feed and food products at sea water metal concentrations corresponding to Good Ecological Status (GES) in the European Union Water Framework Directive (WFD) and in future climate change scenarios (higher metal concentrations and higher temperatures). For this purpose, GES is interpreted as good chemical status for the metals using the Environmental Quality Standards (EQS) defined in the WFD priority substance daughter directives. Observations showed that suspended mussels were healthy with respect to metal pollution and generally less polluted than benthic mussels due to the smaller contact with the contaminated sediment. The model results showed that the WFD targets for Cd, Ni and Pb are not protective with respect to marine mussel production and probably should be reduced for marine waters. Climate changes may increase the metal contamination of mussels, but not to any critical level at the relatively unpolluted study sites. In conclusion, WFD targets should be revised to assure that the corresponding body burdens of metals in mussels are below the safety limits according to the EU Directives and the Norwegian classification for animal feed and food production.

  3. Successful survival, growth, and reproductive potential of quagga mussels in low calcium lake water: is there uncertainty of establishment risk?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clinton J. Davis

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The risk of quagga mussel (Dreissena rostriformis bugensis Andrusov 1897 establishment into water-bodies of the western US has expanded the geographic concern regarding the ecological and economic impacts this species will have in aquatic ecosystems. Thresholds based on calcium concentrations, an element critical for mussel growth and physiology, have been used as a primary predictor of quagga mussel establishment success to aid management decisions. We evaluated the invasion potential of quagga mussels in low calcium waters using laboratory experiments to compare the survival, growth and reproductive potential of adult mussels held for 90 days at low (9 and 12 ppm, moderate (15 to 32 ppm and high (72 ppm calcium water concentrations. In conjunction with adult experiments, veliger stage survival, growth and settlement were evaluated under similar low, moderate, and high calcium water treatments. Adult mussels survived, grew and showed reproductive potential in low calcium water (12 ppm. Veligers were also able to survive, grow and settle in low calcium water. Higher levels of natural seston biomass appeared to improve adult mussel life history performance in low calcium water. Survival curve analysis predicted that 99% adult mortality could occur in 15 ppm could have adults surviving more than a year. The results from these bioassays provide further evidence that quagga mussels have higher risk of establishment in low calcium lakes if habitats exist that have slightly elevated calcium. These results should help emphasize the vulnerability of water-body in the 12 to 15 ppm calcium range that could potentially be at risk of establishing sustainable quagga mussel populations. Furthermore, these results provide insights into the uncertainty of using a single parameter in assigning establishment risk given the complexity of variables in specific water-bodies that influence life history performance of introduced species.

  4. Successful survival, growth, and reproductive potential of quagga mussels in low calcium lake water: is there uncertainty of establishment risk?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Clinton J; Ruhmann, Emma K; Acharya, Kumud; Chandra, Sudeep; Jerde, Christopher L

    2015-01-01

    The risk of quagga mussel (Dreissena rostriformis bugensis Andrusov 1897) establishment into water-bodies of the western US has expanded the geographic concern regarding the ecological and economic impacts this species will have in aquatic ecosystems. Thresholds based on calcium concentrations, an element critical for mussel growth and physiology, have been used as a primary predictor of quagga mussel establishment success to aid management decisions. We evaluated the invasion potential of quagga mussels in low calcium waters using laboratory experiments to compare the survival, growth and reproductive potential of adult mussels held for 90 days at low (9 and 12 ppm), moderate (15 to 32 ppm) and high (72 ppm) calcium water concentrations. In conjunction with adult experiments, veliger stage survival, growth and settlement were evaluated under similar low, moderate, and high calcium water treatments. Adult mussels survived, grew and showed reproductive potential in low calcium water (12 ppm). Veligers were also able to survive, grow and settle in low calcium water. Higher levels of natural seston biomass appeared to improve adult mussel life history performance in low calcium water. Survival curve analysis predicted that 99% adult mortality could occur in 15 ppm could have adults surviving more than a year. The results from these bioassays provide further evidence that quagga mussels have higher risk of establishment in low calcium lakes if habitats exist that have slightly elevated calcium. These results should help emphasize the vulnerability of water-body in the 12 to 15 ppm calcium range that could potentially be at risk of establishing sustainable quagga mussel populations. Furthermore, these results provide insights into the uncertainty of using a single parameter in assigning establishment risk given the complexity of variables in specific water-bodies that influence life history performance of introduced species.

  5. Zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha) limit food for larval fish (Pimephales promelas) in turbulent systems: A bioenergetics analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartsch, L.A.; Richardson, W.B.; Sandheinrich, M.B.

    2003-01-01

    We conducted a factorial experiment, in outdoor mesocosms, on the effects of zebra mussels and water column mixing (i.e., turbulence) on the diet, growth, and survival of larval fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas). Significant (P zebra mussels, whereas mortality was 37% in treatment with turbulence and 17% and 18% in the zebra mussels treatment, and the control, respectively. The size of individual fish was significantly different among treatments at the end of the experiment and was inversely related to survival. Levels of trophic resources (i.e., phyto and zooplankton) varied among treatments and were treatment specific. Turbulent mixing facilitated removal of phytoplankton by zebra mussels by making the entire water column of the tanks available to these benthic filter feeders. Early in the experiment (Day = 0 to 14) the physical process of turbulent mixing likely caused a reduction in standing stocks of zooplankton. The interactive effect of turbulence and mussels reduced copepod and rotifer stocks, through physical processes and through filtration by zebra mussels, relative to the turbulence treatment. The reductions in the number of total zooplankton in the turbulent mixing mesocosms and the further reduction of rotifer and copepod in the turbulence and mussels treatment coincided with a period of increased reliance of larval fathead minnows on these prey. Estimates of consumption from bioenergetics modeling and measured prey standing stocks indicated caloric resources of suitable prey in turbulence treatments during the early weeks of the experiment were insufficient to prevent starvation. Early mortality in the turbulence and mussels treatment likely released surviving fish from intense intraspecific competition and resulted in higher individual growth rates. A combination of high abundance of zebra mussels in an environment with a well-mixed water column can have significant effects on larval fish survival and growth.

  6. A model of clearance rate regulation in mussels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fréchette, Marcel

    2012-10-01

    Clearance rate regulation has been modelled as an instantaneous response to food availability, independent of the internal state of the animals. This view is incompatible with latent effects during ontogeny and phenotypic flexibility in clearance rate. Internal-state regulation of clearance rate is required to account for these patterns. Here I develop a model of internal-state based regulation of clearance rate. External factors such as suspended sediments are included in the model. To assess the relative merits of instantaneous regulation and internal-state regulation, I modelled blue mussel clearance rate and growth using a DEB model. In the usual standard feeding module, feeding is governed by a Holling's Type II response to food concentration. In the internal-state feeding module, gill ciliary activity and thus clearance rate are driven by internal reserve level. Factors such as suspended sediments were not included in the simulations. The two feeding modules were compared on the basis of their ability to capture the impact of latent effects, of environmental heterogeneity in food abundance and of physiological flexibility on clearance rate and individual growth. The Holling feeding module was unable to capture the effect of any of these sources of variability. In contrast, the internal-state feeding module did so without any modification or ad hoc calibration. Latent effects, however, appeared transient. With simple annual variability in temperature and food concentration, the relationship between clearance rate and food availability predicted by the internal-state feeding module was quite similar to that observed in Norwegian fjords. I conclude that in contrast with the usual Holling feeding module, internal-state regulation of clearance rate is consistent with well-documented growth and clearance rate patterns.

  7. The ecology and impact of the invasion of Lake Ontario by the zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha) and quagga mussel (D. bugensis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negley, T.L.; Mills, E.L.; Baldwin, B.; O'Gorman, R.; Owens, R.W.; Munawar, M.

    2003-01-01

    In this chapter we present a detailed description of the zebra and quagga mussel invasion in Lake Ontario, with specific emphasis on: (1) the development of the Dreissena populations in Lake Ontario, (2) previously unreported data from 1997 and 1998 for Dreissena populations at Nine-Mile Point in Lake Ontario, (3) factors influencing dreissenid development in Lake Ontario, and (4) the effects of dreissenid colonization on the biota of the Lake Ontario ecosystem.

  8. The relationship of heavy metals and condition indices of green-lipped mussel perna viridis from contaminated and uncontaminated environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad Ismail; Yap Chee Kong

    1999-01-01

    Heavy metal concentrations and condition indices of green-fipped mussel Perna viridis were detemiined at two different sites of Peninsular Malaysia. Significant negative correlations (p< 0.001) between condition indices and heavy metals were observed. Samples from Kuala Perlis which relatively showed high heavy metals concentrations in mussels exhibited lower condition index while Kg. Tg. Batu with lower heavy metal levels, showed higher condition index. The environmental stress is believed to be responsible for the different physiological index in green-fipped mussel P. viridis. (author)

  9. Dwarfism of blue mussels in the low saline Baltic Sea — growth to the lower salinity limit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riisgård, Hans Ulrik; Larsen, Poul Scheel; Turja, Raisa

    2014-01-01

    Mussels within the Baltic Mytilus edulis × M. trossulus hybrid zone have adapted to the low salinities in the Baltic Sea which, however, results in slow-growing dwarfed mussels. To get a better understanding of the nature of dwarfism, we studied the ability of M. trossulus to feed and grow at low...... to become negative below 4.5 psu. We suggest that reduced ability to produce shell material at extremely low salinity may explain dwarfism of mussels in the Baltic Sea. Reduced bio-calcification at low salinity, however, may impede shell growth, but not somatic growth, and this may at first result...

  10. Pelagic and benthic nutrient regeneration processes in mussel cultures (Mytilus edulis) in a eutrophic coastal area (Skive Fjord, Denmark)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holmer, Marianne; Thorsen, Sandra Walløe; Carlsson, Marita Sundstein

    2015-01-01

    Long-line mussel farming has been proposed as a mitigation tool in eutrophic coastal areas as nutrients are removed from the ecosystem upon harvest of the crops and transferred back to land. Further mussels filter the water and thereby increase water transparency and promote benthic plant growth...... of this study was to explore the environmental interactions of a long-line mussel farm located in a eutrophic coastal area (Skive Fjord, Denmark) by studying the nutrient cycling in the water column and sediments and assessing their contribution to the nutrient dynamics and oxygen conditions in the fjord...

  11. Field biomonitoring using the zebra mussel Dreissena polymorpha and the quagga mussel Dreissena bugensis following immunotoxic reponses. Is there a need to separate the two species?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evariste, Lauris; David, Elise; Cloutier, Pierre-Luc; Brousseau, Pauline; Auffret, Michel; Desrosiers, Mélanie; Groleau, Paule Emilie; Fournier, Michel; Betoulle, Stéphane

    2018-04-02

    The zebra mussel, Dreissena polymorpha constitutes an extensively used sentinel species for biomonitoring in European and North American freshwater systems. However, this invasive species is gradually replaced in freshwater ecosystem by Dreissena bugensis, a closely related dreissenid species that shares common morphological characteristics but possess some physiological differences. However, few are known about differences on more integrated physiological processes that are generally used as biomarkers in biological monitoring studies. Declining of zebra mussel populations raises the question of the sustainability of using one or both species indifferently to maintain the quality of environmental pollution monitoring data. In our study, we performed a field comparative study measuring immune-related markers and bioaccumulation of PCBs, PAHs and PBDEs in sympatrically occurring mussel populations from three sites of the St. Lawrence River. For tested organisms, species were identified using RFLP analysis. Measurement of bioaccumulated organic compounds indicated a higher accumulation of PCBs and PBDEs in D. bugensis soft tissues compared to D. polymorpha while no differences were noticed for PAHs. Results of hemocytic parameters highlighted that differences of hemocyte distributions were associated to modulations of phagocytic activities. Moreover, marked differences occurred in measurement of hemocytic oxidative activity, indicating divergences between the two species for ROS regulation strategies. This physiological characteristic may deeply influence species responses facing environmental or pollution related stress and induce bias if the two species are not differentiated in further biomarker or bioaccumulation measurement-based studies. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Linking Species Traits to the Abiotic Template of Flowing Waters: Contrasting Eco physiologies Underlie Displacement of Zebra Mussels by Quagga Mussels in a Large River-Estuary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casper, A. F.

    2005-05-01

    The St. Lawrence River-Estuary was the gateway of entry for dreissenids to North America and holds some of the oldest populations. The St. Lawrence also has four distinct physical-chemical water masses (a regional scale abiotic template) that both species inhabit. Despite their ecological similarities, quagga mussels are supplanting zebra mussels in much of their shared range. In order to try to better understand the changing distributions of these two species we compared glycogen, shell mass and tissue biomass in each of the water masses. This comparative physiological combined with experimental approaches (estuarine salinity experiments and reciprocal transplants) showed that while quagga mussels should dominate in most habitats, that abiotic/bioenergetic constraints in two regions (the Ottawa River plume and the freshwater-marine transition zone) might prevent them from dominating these locations. These findings are an example of how the interaction of landscape scale abiotic heterogeneity and a species-specific physiology can have strong impacts of distribution of biota large rivers.

  13. Proximate biochemical composition and caloric potential in the raft-grown green mussel Perna viridis

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Rivonker, C.U.; Parulekar, A.H.

    The biochemical components of the mussel tissue, cultured on the raft were estimated. The range of variation in the content of moisture, protein, carbohydrates, lipid, organic carbon and ash were 66.8-90.1; 46.2-67.4; 11.7-18.6; 2.9-7.4; 19...

  14. Data on the uptake and metabolism of testosterone by the common mussel, Mytilus spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamar I. Schwarz

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This article provides data in support of the research article entitled “Rapid uptake, biotransformation, esterification and lack of depuration of testosterone and its metabolites by the common mussel, Mytilus spp.” (T.I. Schwarz, I. Katsiadaki, B.H. Maskrey, A.P. Scott, 2017 [1]. The uptake of tritiated testosterone (T from water by mussels is presented. The two main radioactive peaks formed from T and present in the fatty acid ester fraction of mussel tissues were shown to have the same elution positions on a thin layer chromatography plate as 17β-hydroxy-5α-androstan-3-one (DHT and 5α-androstan-3β,17β-diol (3β,17β-A5α. Reverse phase high performance liquid chromatography of the non-esterified (80% ethanol fraction of the mussel tissue extracts also presented radioactive peaks at the elution positions of DHT and 3β,17β-A5α. There was no evidence for sulfated T in this fraction. It was shown that aeration led to significant losses of radiolabeled testosterone from the water column.

  15. Does selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) fluoxetine affects mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez-Rey, Maria; Bebianno, Maria João

    2013-01-01

    Fluoxetine (FLX) the active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) in Prozac ® is a widely prescribed psychoactive drug which ubiquitous occurrence in the aquatic environment is associated to a poor removal rate in waste-water treatment plant (WWTP) systems. This API acts as a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) frequently reported to cause disrupting effects in non-target species. The objective of this study includes a multibiomarker response evaluation on mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis during two weeks exposure to 75 ng L −1 FLX assessing antioxidant enzymes activities – superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione-S-transferase (GST); lipid peroxidation (LPO), acetylcholinesterase (AChE) neurotoxic response and endocrine disruption through alkali-labile phosphates (ALP) indirect measurement of vitellogenin-like proteins. Results show transient tissue-specific enzymatic responses and damage affecting mostly mussel gills. However, the clear ALP levels inhibition throughout time in both sex-differentiated gonads gives evidence to FLX reinforced action as an endocrine disruptor rather than an oxidative or neurotoxic inducer. - Highlights: ► Short-time exposure of Mytilus galloprovincialis to antidepressant fluoxetine. ► Tissue-specific transient antioxidant enzymes activities alteration. ► Lipid peroxidation (LPO) induction in exposed-tissues. ► Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity upregulation in exposed gills. ► ALP levels downregulation in exposed sex-differentiated mussels. - Exposure to 75 ng L −1 antidepressant fluoxetine (FLX) induces tissue-specific multibiomarker responses alteration in mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis.

  16. Clearance of bacteria and differential involvement of mussel hyalinocytes, small and large granulocytes in antibacterial immunity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jouvet, Lionel

    2008-01-01

    injected into the circulation of the mussel, the number of living intra-hemocyte bacteria dramatically increased in less than an hour, suggesting intense phagocytosis, then gradually decreased, with no viable bacteria remaining 12h post-injection for Micrococcus lysodeikticus, 24h for Vibrio splendidus...

  17. Determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in mussels and sediments from the Northern Adriatic Sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Notar, M.; Leskovsek, H.; Faganeli, J.

    1999-01-01

    Fifteen individual PAHs were measured using GC-MS in the samples of surface sediments, sediment core and mussels collected in the Gulf of Trieste. Observing the PAHs profiles in the samples the most abundant compounds are napthalene and phenanthrene what suggests that the origin of these contaminants are maritime activities associated with the ports of Koper (Slovenia) and Trieste (Italy)

  18. Assessing the potential for fish predation to impact zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha): Insight from bioenergetics models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eggleton, M.A.; Miranda, L.E.; Kirk, J.P.

    2004-01-01

    Rates of annual food consumption and biomass were modeled for several fish species across representative rivers and lakes in eastern North America. Results were combined to assess the relative potential of fish predation to impact zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha). Predicted annual food consumption by fishes in southern waters was over 100% greater than that in northern systems because of warmer annual water temperatures and presumed increases in metabolic demand. Although generally increasing with latitude, biomasses of several key zebra mussel fish predators did not change significantly across latitudes. Biomasses of some less abundant fish predators did increase significantly with latitude, but increases were not of the magnitude to offset predicted decreases in food consumption. Our results generally support the premise that fishes in rivers and lakes of the southern United States (U.S.) have inherently greater potential to impact zebra mussels by predation. Our simulations may provide a partial explanation of why zebra mussel invasions have not been as rapid and widespread in southern U.S. waters compared to the Great Lakes region. ?? Blackwell Munksgaard, 2004.

  19. Adherence of microplastics to soft tissue of mussels: A novel way to uptake microplastics beyond ingestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolandhasamy, Prabhu; Su, Lei; Li, Jiana; Qu, Xiaoyun; Jabeen, Khalida; Shi, Huahong

    2018-01-01

    Microplastic pollution is recognized as an emerging threat to aquatic ecosystems. One of the main environmental risks associated with microplastics is their bioavailability to marine organisms. Up to date, ingestion has been widely accepted as the sole way for the animals to uptake microplastics. Nevertheless, microplastics have also been found in some organs which are not involved in the process of ingestion. We hypothesize that the animal might uptake microplastics through adherence in addition to ingestion. To test this hypothesis, we collected mussels from the fishery farms, conducted exposure/clearance experiments and analyzed the accumulation of microplastics in specific organ of mussels. Our studies clearly showed the uptake of microplastic in multiple organs of mussels. In the field investigations, we found that the abundance of microplastic by weight but not by individual showed significant difference among organs, and the intestine contained the highest level of microplastics (9.2items/g). In the uptake and clearance experiment, the accumulation and retention of microfibers could also be observed in all tested organs of mussels including foot and mantle. Our results strongly suggest that adherence rather than ingestion led to the accumulation of microplastics in those organs which are not involved in ingestion process. To our best knowledge, it is the first time to propose that adherence is a novel way for animals to uptake microplastics beyond ingestion. This new finding makes us rethink about the bioavailability, accumulation and toxicity of microplastics to aquatic animals. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Differential depuration of poliovirus, Escherichia coli, and a coliphage by the common mussel, Mytilus edulis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Power, U.F.; Collins, J.K.

    1989-01-01

    The elimination of sewage effluent-associated poliovirus, Escherichia coli, and a 22-nm icosahedral coliphage by the common mussel, Mytilus edulis, was studied. Both laboratory-and commercial-scale recirculating, UV depuration systems were used in this study. In the laboratory system, the logarithms of the poliovirus, E. coli, and coliphage levels were reduced by 1.86, 2.9, and 2.16, respectively, within 52 h of depuration. The relative patterns and rates of elimination of the three organisms suggest that they are eliminated from mussels by different mechanisms during depuration under suitable conditions. Poliovirus was not included in experiments undertaken in the commercial-scale depuration system. The differences in the relative rates and patterns of elimination were maintained for E. coli and coliphage in this system, with the logarithm of the E. coli levels being reduced by 3.18 and the logarithm of the coliphage levels being reduced by 0.87. The results from both depuration systems suggest that E. coli is an inappropriate indicator of the efficiency of virus elimination during depuration. The coliphage used appears to be a more representative indicator. Depuration under stressful conditions appeared to have a negligible affect on poliovirus and coliphage elimination rates from mussels. However, the rate and pattern of E. coli elimination were dramatically affected by these conditions. Therefore, monitoring E. coli counts might prove useful in ensuring that mussels are functioning well during depuration