WorldWideScience

Sample records for baths

  1. MANSION BATHS OF CYPRUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enes Kavalçalan

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available From the very beginning of the human history, body cleanliness is one of the basic needs. At first, human beings have supplied the needs of cleaning from rivers and lakes. With the development of civilizations they have started to build baths. In Roman Period these baths have been combined with Gymnasiums and become a part of the social life while they were merely small places of bathing in Ancient Greek. In the course of time, bath architecture which gained new functions and typologies with the effects of different nations and geographic places has maintained its own existence in Turkish culture as a popular ingredient in it. In this paper, mansion baths that were built in Ottoman period in Cyprus are studied. Firstly all locations of baths were determinated, photographed and measured during the research. Then, the determinated baths have been tried to being described comprehensively in the light of the documents and knowledges that are achievable. Main plan in mansion baths was built on the basis of “dressing” and “hotness” sections. Also, there are installation parts like “water tank” and “boiler room”. The baths which have a peculiar schema in itself constitute the exceptional examples of bath typology. With this paper, introduction to science world of mansion baths which are generally ignored in most of the researches because of the small sizes, are aimed.

  2. Synthetic Cathinones ("Bath Salts")

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Over-the-Counter Medications Stimulant ADHD Medications: Methylphenidate and Amphetamines Synthetic Cannabinoids Synthetic Cathinones ("Bath Salts") Effects of Drug Abuse Comorbidity: Addiction and Other Mental Disorders Drug Use ...

  3. Portable thermal bath

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    [EN] A bath, particularly for use in laboratory experiments and research centres, for heating a liquid (10) unifonnly all along the length thereof, with temperature variations of les s than ±0.5°C, said liquid (10) remaining under static conditions, said bath comprising a channel (2) containing a volume ofliquid (10) to be heated; a resistance heating wire (3) on the outside face of the channel (2), connected to an external power source (11) that supplies it with electricity, heating...

  4. Water Evaporation in Swimming Baths

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hyldgård, Carl-Erik

    This paper is publishing measuring results from models and full-scale baths of the evaporation in swimming baths, both public baths and retraining baths. Moreover, the heat balance of the basin water is measured. In addition the full-scale measurements have given many experiences which are repres......This paper is publishing measuring results from models and full-scale baths of the evaporation in swimming baths, both public baths and retraining baths. Moreover, the heat balance of the basin water is measured. In addition the full-scale measurements have given many experiences which...... are represented in instructions for carrying out and running swimming baths. If you follow the instructions you can achieve less investments, less heat consumption and a better comfort to the bathers....

  5. What Are Bath Salts?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in Missouri. She won the 3rd place 2013 Addiction Science Award . Read More » 0 Comments Bath Salts: An Emerging Danger February 05, 2013 / Sara Bellum ... copy Listen Drug Facts ... Nicotine, & E-Cigarettes Brain and Addiction Drug Overdoses in Youth HIV/AIDS and Drug ...

  6. Bathing a patient in bed

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000427.htm Bathing a patient in bed To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Some patients cannot safely leave their beds to bathe. For ...

  7. Baths and becks \\ud

    OpenAIRE

    Gupta, A.F.

    2005-01-01

    A report on two prominent dialectal variables in England. Using rather informally collected data, The author looks here at two well-known variables in the English of England: first, whether there is a short or long vowel in words such as grass and bath; second, what regional words people know for streams. The treatment of these variables is consistent over time, and seems to have little to do with social status or carefulness of speech.\\ud

  8. Guidelines for bath PUVA, bathing suit PUVA and soak PUVA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sathish B Pai

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of these guidelines is to encourage dermatologists to use bath psoralen plus ultraviolet A (PUVA, bathing suit PUVA and soak PUVA in the treatment of psoriasis vulgaris and other conditions. Methods: Evidence was collected using searches of the PubMed, MEDLINE and COCHRANE databases using the keywords “bath PUVA,” “soak PUVA,” “bathing suit PUVA” and “turban PUVA.” Only publications in English were reviewed. Results: One hundred and thirty-eight studies were evaluated, 57 of which fulfilled the criteria for inclusion. Conclusions: Both bath PUVA and bathing suit PUVA are very effective and safe treatments for generalized stable plaque psoriasis (strength of recommendation, A. Soak PUVA is very effective in the treatment of both palmoplantar psoriasis and chronic palmoplantar eczema (strength of recommendation, A.

  9. Microbiologists meet geologists in Bath

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onstott, T. C.

    A diverse group of microbiologists, molecular biologists, chemical engineers, and geologists met in Bath, United Kingdom, in September 1993 to reach across the barriers separating their disciplines and report new findings in the expanding field of geomicrobiology. The occasion was the second International Symposium on Subsurface Microbiology, cosponsored by the Subsurface Science Program of the U.S. Department of Energy. Historically, Bath was a resort centered around the emission of thermal waters credited with the potential to cure numerous ills. The location was appropriate given that biotechnology appears to have considerable potential to cure some challenging environmental ailments.

  10. Taking a Bath In Tibetan Medicinal Water

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Lighting incense in a room and planting oneself into the environment scented by the smoke is one of the ways Tibetans keep fit. And they say they are taking a bath when doing so.According to the Tibetan medical code, the Tibetans had long produced many ways for "taking baths" to cleanse themselves, build up their physique and prolong life. Most popular ones include taking baths in

  11. 21 CFR 890.5110 - Paraffin bath.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... with liquid paraffin (wax) and maintained at an elevated temperature in which the patient's appendages... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Paraffin bath. 890.5110 Section 890.5110 Food and... PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Therapeutic Devices § 890.5110 Paraffin bath....

  12. Russian bath%俄罗斯浴

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    @@ The history of Russian bath originates in old times. From descriptions of Greece Herodotus1,it is possible to find out that the Scythians that lived in Ukraine in ancient times used bath.They established three poles inclined by the top ends to each other,and covered them with felt.Then threw into the tub put in the middle of this hut the red-hot stones. They brought hempen2 seeds into this felt bath and threw them on the heated stones.

  13. Suppression of decoherence by bath ordering

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jing Jun; Ma Hong-Ru

    2007-01-01

    The dynamics of two coupled spins-1/2 coupled to a spin-bath is studied as an extended model of the TessieriWilkie Hamiltonian. The pair of spins served as an open subsystem is prepared in one of the Bell states and the bath consisting of some spins-1/2 is in a thermal equilibrium state from the very beginning. It is found that with increasing coupling strength of the bath spins, the bath forms a resonant antiferromagnetic order. The polarization correlation between the two spins of the subsystem and the concurrence of it are recovered to some extent in the isolated subsystem. This suppression of the subsystem decoherence may be used to control the quantum devices in practical applications.

  14. Nickel electrodeposition from novel citrate bath

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    A new type of electroplating bath suitable for nickel electrodeposition was developed. Trisodium citrate was used as a complexing agent and a buffer in the bath. The buffering capacity between trisodium citrate and boric acid were compared. The effects were investigated under different conditions of bath composition, current density, pH and temperature on the potentiodynamic cathodic polarization curves, cathodic current efficiency and throwing index, as well as the electrical conductivity of these baths. The optimum conditions for producing sound and satisfactory nickel deposits were: NiSO4·6H2O 350 g/L, NiC12·6H2O 45 g/L and Na3C6H5O7 30 g/L at pH=4 and 55 ℃. The surface morphology of the as-plated Ni deposit was examined by SEM. The results reveal that the nickel deposition obtained from the optimum conditions are composed of compact, non-porous fine grains covering the entire surface. X-ray analysis shows that nickel deposits obtained from the citrate bath have a fine crystal structure compared with deposits from the Watts bath.

  15. Avian Assemblages at Bird Baths: A Comparison of Urban and Rural Bird Baths in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleary, Gráinne P; Parsons, Holly; Davis, Adrian; Coleman, Bill R; Jones, Darryl N; Miller, Kelly K; Weston, Michael A

    2016-01-01

    Private gardens provide habitat and resources for many birds living in human-dominated landscapes. While wild bird feeding is recognised as one of the most popular forms of human-wildlife interaction, almost nothing is known about the use of bird baths. This citizen science initiative explores avian assemblages at bird baths in private gardens in south-eastern Australia and how this differs with respect to levels of urbanisation and bioregion. Overall, 992 citizen scientists collected data over two, four-week survey periods during winter 2014 and summer 2015 (43% participated in both years). Avian assemblages at urban and rural bird baths differed between bioregions with aggressive nectar-eating species influenced the avian assemblages visiting urban bird baths in South Eastern Queensland, NSW North Coast and Sydney Basin while introduced birds contributed to differences in South Western Slopes, Southern Volcanic Plains and Victorian Midlands. Small honeyeaters and other small native birds occurred less often at urban bird baths compared to rural bird baths. Our results suggest that differences between urban versus rural areas, as well as bioregion, significantly influence the composition of avian assemblages visiting bird baths in private gardens. We also demonstrate that citizen science monitoring of fixed survey sites such as bird baths is a useful tool in understanding large-scale patterns in avian assemblages which requires a vast amount of data to be collected across broad areas.

  16. Simulating Bosonic Baths with Error Bars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, M. P.; Cramer, M.; Plenio, M. B.

    2015-09-01

    We derive rigorous truncation-error bounds for the spin-boson model and its generalizations to arbitrary quantum systems interacting with bosonic baths. For the numerical simulation of such baths, the truncation of both the number of modes and the local Hilbert-space dimensions is necessary. We derive superexponential Lieb-Robinson-type bounds on the error when restricting the bath to finitely many modes and show how the error introduced by truncating the local Hilbert spaces may be efficiently monitored numerically. In this way we give error bounds for approximating the infinite system by a finite-dimensional one. As a consequence, numerical simulations such as the time-evolving density with orthogonal polynomials algorithm (TEDOPA) now allow for the fully certified treatment of the system-environment interaction.

  17. Chlorhexidine: Patient Bathing and Infection Prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbas, Salma; Sastry, Sangeeta

    2016-08-01

    Healthcare-associated infections (HAIs) are an important cause of morbidity and mortality in the USA. They are associated with a substantial increase in health care costs each year. Fortunately, many HAIs are preventable, and their eradication is a national priority. Chlorhexidine (CHG) bathing has been used as an infection prevention measure, either alone or bundled with other interventions, with mostly beneficial results. The recent surge in its use as an agent of choice for skin antisepsis has lead to concerns over emerging resistance among microorganisms. Moreover, compliance with CHG-bathing protocols is not routinely monitored. Policies developed to determine the best infection prevention practice must consider that a "one-size-fits-all" strategy may lead to the selection of CHG-tolerant microorganisms, thereby emphasizing the need for more robust guidelines and additional studies on the role of chlorhexidine bathing for the prevention of HAIs.

  18. Bath vaccination of rainbow trout against yersiniosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raida, Martin Kristian; Buchmann, Kurt

    2007-01-01

    disease (ERM), was investigated at 5, 15 and 25° C. Rainbow trout fry were kept at controlled temperatures for two month before they were immersed in a commercial Yersinia ruckeri O1 bacterin for 10 minutes. Control groups were sham vaccinated using pure water. Fish were challenged with Yersinia ruckeri O......Studies have been conducted on the temperature-dependent effect of bath vaccination of rainbow trout against Yersinia ruckeri O1. Protection of rainbow trout fry against challenge, following bath vaccination with a bacterin of Yersinia ruckeri O1, the bacterial pathogen causing enteric red mouth...

  19. Design parameter investigation of industrial size ultrasound textile treatment bath.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perincek, Seher; Uzgur, A Erman; Duran, Kerim; Dogan, Aydin; Korlu, Aysegul E; Bahtiyari, Ibrahim M

    2009-01-01

    Design requirements for industrial size ultrasound bath for textile treatments have been determined. For this purpose, effects of sound pressure level, bath temperature, bath volume, textile material type and hydrophility degree of fabric were examined extensively. Finite element analysis (FEA) was used to investigate spacing and alignment of the ultrasound source transducers to reach effective and homogenous acoustic pressure distribution in the bath. It was found that textile material type, bath temperature and volume led to significant changes at sound pressure level. These parameters should be taken into consideration in designing of industrial size ultrasound bath for textile treatments. Besides, wettability of textiles is highly dependent to the distance from the transducers.

  20. Quantum bath refrigeration towards absolute zero: challenging the unattainability principle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolář, M; Gelbwaser-Klimovsky, D; Alicki, R; Kurizki, G

    2012-08-31

    A minimal model of a quantum refrigerator, i.e., a periodically phase-flipped two-level system permanently coupled to a finite-capacity bath (cold bath) and an infinite heat dump (hot bath), is introduced and used to investigate the cooling of the cold bath towards absolute zero (T=0). Remarkably, the temperature scaling of the cold-bath cooling rate reveals that it does not vanish as T→0 for certain realistic quantized baths, e.g., phonons in strongly disordered media (fractons) or quantized spin waves in ferromagnets (magnons). This result challenges Nernst's third-law formulation known as the unattainability principle.

  1. Assessment of cyanobacteria impact on bathing water quality in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krzysztof Skotak

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Quality of bathing water is of key importance for bathers’ health, mainly due to the fact, that each year millions of people use bathing sites as places for recreation and sport activities. Most of the bathing sites are of adequate quality of water, but still there are cases of health risk because bathing water is polluted. One of the main health risk factor in bathing water are cyanobacteria and their blooms. Cyanobacteria are microorganisms of morphological features of bacteria and algae. They live in colonies, which in large quantities show up as streaks, dense foam on the water surface. The aim of this paper was to assess the impact of cyanobacteria blooms on health regarding bathing water quality in Poland. Materials and methods: Assessment covered all bathing sites in Poland supervised by Polish National Sanitary Inspection (PIS in the period from 2007 to 2009. The base was data collected during bathing water monitoring conducted by PIS and their formal decisions of bathing bans introduced in response to revealed bathing water pollution. Results and discussion: The results of assessment indicate, that about one-fourth of all bathing bans in Poland was due to cyanobacteria blooms. Conclusions: Every fifth bathing sites located on artificial lake or water reservoir and every tenth on the sea bathing sites were polluted. Average period of bathing ban due to cyanobacteria blooms in Poland varies. Relatively the shortest bathing bans were observed on the sea bathing sites (no longer than one week on average. Much longer were bathing bans on lakes and artificial lakes (one month on average.

  2. 28 CFR 551.7 - Bathing and clothing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Bathing and clothing. 551.7 Section 551.7... Grooming § 551.7 Bathing and clothing. Each inmate must observe the standards concerning bathing and clothing that exist in the institution as required by standards of § 551.1....

  3. Hot Particles Attract in a Cold Bath

    CERN Document Server

    Tanaka, Hidenori; Brenner, Michael P

    2016-01-01

    Controlling interactions out of thermodynamic equilibrium is crucial for designing addressable and functional self-organizing structures. These active interactions also underpin collective behavior in biological systems. Here we study a general setting of active particles in a bath of passive particles, and demonstrate a novel mechanism for long ranged attraction between active particles. The mechanism operates when the translational persistence length of the active particle motion is smaller than the particle diameter. In this limit, the system reduces to particles of higher diffusivity ("hot" particles) in a bath of particles with lower diffusivity ("cold" particles). This attractive interaction arises as a hot particle pushes cold particles away to create a large hole around itself, and the holes interact via a depletion-like attraction even though all particles have the same size. Although the mechanism occurs outside the parameter range of typical biological organisms, the mechanism could be realized in ...

  4. Uniformly accelerated observer in a thermal bath

    CERN Document Server

    Kolekar, Sanved

    2013-01-01

    We investigate the quantum field aspects in flat spacetime for an uniformly accelerated observer moving in a thermal bath. In particular, we obtain an exact closed expression of the reduced density matrix for an uniformly accelerated observer with acceleration $a = 2\\pi T$ when the state of the quantum field is a thermal bath at temperature $T^\\prime$. We find that the density matrix has a simple form with an effective partition function $Z$ being a product, $Z = Z_T Z_{T^\\prime}$, of two thermal partition functions corresponding to temperatures $T$ and $T^\\prime$ and hence is not thermal, even when $T = T^\\prime$. We show that, even though the partition function has a product structure, the two thermal baths are, in fact, interacting systems; although in the high frequency limit $\\omega_k \\gg T$ and $\\omega_k \\gg T^\\prime$, the interactions are found to become sub-dominant. We further demonstrate that the resulting spectrum of the Rindler particles can be interpreted in terms of spontaneous and stimulated em...

  5. General theory of many body localized systems coupled to baths

    OpenAIRE

    Nandkishore, Rahul; Gopalakrishnan, Sarang

    2016-01-01

    We consider what happens when a many body localized system is coupled to a heat bath. Unlike previous works, we do not restrict ourselves to the limit where the bath is large and effectively Markovian, nor to the limit where back action on the bath is negligible. We identify limits where the effect of the bath can be captured by classical noise, and limits where it cannot. We also identify limits in which the bath delocalizes the system, as well as limits in which the system localizes the bat...

  6. Protecting coherence by reservoir engineering: intense bath disturbance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Zixian; Lü, Zhiguo; Zheng, Hang

    2016-08-01

    We put forward a scheme based on reservoir engineering to protect quantum coherence from leaking to bath, in which we intensely disturb the Lorentzian bath by N harmonic oscillators. We show that the intense disturbance changes the spectrum of the bath and reduces the qubit-bath interaction. Furthermore, we give the exact time evolution with the Lorentzian spectrum by a master equation and calculate the concurrence and survival probability of the qubits to demonstrate the effect of the intense bath disturbance on the protection of coherence. Meanwhile, we reveal the dynamic effects of counter-rotating interaction on the qubits as compared to the results of the rotating-wave approximation.

  7. Orbiting droplets on a vibrated bath

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampara, Naresh; Burger, Loic; Gilet, Tristan; Microfluidics, university of liege Team

    2015-11-01

    A millimeter-sized oil droplet can bounce on a vertically vibrated liquid bath for unlimited time. It may couple to the surface wave it emits; leading to horizontal self-propulsion called walking. When several walkers coexist close to one another, they either repel or attract each other, in response to the superposition of the waves they generate. Attraction leads to various bound states, including droplets that orbit around each other. We have experimentally investigated the variety of quantized orbital motions exhibited by two, three and more identical walkers, as a function of forcing acceleration. Each motion is quantified in terms of droplet and wave energy.

  8. Recovery process for electroless plating baths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Roger W.; Neff, Wayne A.

    1992-01-01

    A process for removing, from spent electroless metal plating bath solutions, accumulated byproducts and counter-ions that have deleterious effects on plating. The solution, or a portion thereof, is passed through a selected cation exchange resin bed in hydrogen form, the resin selected from strong acid cation exchangers and combinations of intermediate acid cation exchangers with strong acid cation exchangers. Sodium and nickel ions are sorbed in the selected cation exchanger, with little removal of other constituents. The remaining solution is subjected to sulfate removal through precipitation of calcium sulfate hemihydrate using, sequentially, CaO and then CaCO.sub.3. Phosphite removal from the solution is accomplished by the addition of MgO to form magnesium phosphite trihydrate. The washed precipitates of these steps can be safely discarded in nontoxic land fills, or used in various chemical industries. Finally, any remaining solution can be concentrated, adjusted for pH, and be ready for reuse. The plating metal can be removed from the exchanger with sulfuric acid or with the filtrate from the magnesium phosphite precipitation forming a sulfate of the plating metal for reuse. The process is illustrated as applied to processing electroless nickel plating baths.

  9. Infant's physiological response to short heat stress during sauna bath.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rissmann, A; Al-Karawi, J; Jorch, G

    2002-01-01

    Thermoregulatory response to Finnish sauna bath was investigated in 47 infants (age 3 - 14 month). Before taking a short sauna bath lasting 3 min, the infants stayed in a swimming pool for 15 min. Under these conditions sauna bathing did not increase the rectal temperature. Unexpectedly rectal temperature even decreased by 0.2 degrees C (p sauna bathing. The blood pressure amplitude decreased significantly after the swimming period from 47 mm Hg to 38 mm Hg (p sauna bathing to 42 mm Hg. All infants tolerated short heat exposure in the sauna without side effects. The circulatory adjustment was efficient. Even young infants were able to cope with the acute circulatory changes imposed by heat stress. Adequate thermoregulatory and cardiovascular adaptive responses to sauna bathing could be shown for the first time in infants between 3 and 14 months of age.

  10. Thermal baths as quantum resources: more friends than foes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurizki, Gershon; Shahmoon, Ephraim; Zwick, Analia

    2015-12-01

    In this article we argue that thermal reservoirs (baths) are potentially useful resources in processes involving atoms interacting with quantized electromagnetic fields and their applications to quantum technologies. One may try to suppress the bath effects by means of dynamical control, but such control does not always yield the desired results. We wish instead to take advantage of bath effects, that do not obliterate ‘quantumness’ in the system-bath compound. To this end, three possible approaches have been pursued by us. (i) Control of a quantum system faster than the correlation time of the bath to which it couples: such control allows us to reveal quasi-reversible/coherent dynamical phenomena of quantum open systems, manifest by the quantum Zeno or anti-Zeno effects (QZE or AZE, respectively). Dynamical control methods based on the QZE are aimed not only at protecting the quantumness of the system, but also diagnosing the bath spectra or transferring quantum information via noisy media. By contrast, AZE-based control is useful for fast cooling of thermalized quantum systems. (ii) Engineering the coupling of quantum systems to selected bath modes: this approach, based on field-atom coupling control in cavities, waveguides and photonic band structures, allows one to drastically enhance the strength and range of atom-atom coupling through the mediation of the selected bath modes. More dramatically, it allows us to achieve bath-induced entanglement that may appear paradoxical if one takes the conventional view that coupling to baths destroys quantumness. (iii) Engineering baths with appropriate non-flat spectra: this approach is a prerequisite for the construction of the simplest and most efficient quantum heat machines (engines and refrigerators). We may thus conclude that often thermal baths are ‘more friends than foes’ in quantum technologies.

  11. Bath and colonization of the preterm newborn skin.

    OpenAIRE

    Chollopetz da Cunha, Maria Luzia; Soibelmann Procianoy, Renato

    2008-01-01

    This article aims at determining the bathing role in skin colonization of preterm newborn by reviewing the literature from MEDLINE database. Clinical researches have demonstrated that bathing with soap triggers pH increase interfering with the skin physiological protection and provoking changes in the cutaneous microflora composition. Preterm neonates in NICU tend to acquire nosocomial skin flora from the action of bathing with cleansing products on the epidermal barrier function with direct ...

  12. Ultrasonic bath depth control and regulation in single cell recordings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duong Dinh, Thien An; Jüngling, Eberhard; Strotmann, Karl-Heinz; Westhofen, Martin; Lückhoff, Andreas

    2006-09-01

    Control of the bath depth is critical in many applications of the patch-clamp technique, particularly when the capacitance of cells is determined to assess secretion or transmitter release or in studies of ion currents sensitive to small changes in the hydrostatic pressure. We describe an inexpensive technique for tight control of the bath depth with the aid of a commercially available ultrasound sensor. The sensor continuously determines changes in the distance to the bath surface with a resolution of about 10 mum. The signal from the sensor is digitized in a microcontroller card and used to send on or off signals at 100 Hz to a peristaltic pump that removes volume from the bath. The inflow into the bath can be realized in a versatile way. The capacitance of Sylgard-coated patch-clamp glass electrodes, demonstrated to be extremely sensitive to small changes in the area moistened by bath solution, is constant within the noise level of +/-3 fF when immersed into a depth-controlled bath, even during exchange of the bath medium. Thus, when small changes in the cell capacitance are measured in patch-clamp experiments, errors due to alterations in the pipette capacitance caused by bath depth fluctuations are eliminated.

  13. Generalized Toric Codes Coupled to Thermal Baths

    CERN Document Server

    Viyuela, O; Martin-Delgado, M A

    2011-01-01

    We have studied the dynamics of a generalized toric code based on qudits at finite temperature by finding the master equation coupling the code's degrees of freedom to a thermal bath. As a consequence, we find that for qutrits new types of anyons and thermal processes appear that are forbidden for qubits. These include creation, annihilation and diffusion throughout the system code. It is possible to solve the master equation in a short-time regime and find expressions for the decay rates as a function of the dimension $d$ of the qudits. Although we provide an explicit proof that the system relax to the Gibbs state for arbitrary qudits, we also prove that above a certain crossing temperature, qutrits initial decay rate is smaller than the original case for qubits. Surprisingly this behavior only happens with qutrits and not with other qudits with $d>3$.

  14. 30 CFR 75.1712 - Bath houses and toilet facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Bath houses and toilet facilities. 75.1712 Section 75.1712 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Miscellaneous § 75.1712 Bath...

  15. 21 CFR 740.17 - Foaming detergent bath products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Foaming detergent bath products. 740.17 Section 740.17 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) COSMETICS COSMETIC PRODUCT WARNING STATEMENTS Warning Statements § 740.17 Foaming detergent bath products. (a) For the purpose of this section,...

  16. Influence of bath temperature and bath composition on Co-Ag electrodeposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia-Torres, Jose; Valles, Elisa [Electrodep, Departament de Quimica Fisica and Institut de Nanociencia i Nanotecnologia (IN' ' 2UB) de la Universitat de Barcelona, Marti i Franques 1, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Gomez, Elvira, E-mail: e.gomez@ub.ed [Electrodep, Departament de Quimica Fisica and Institut de Nanociencia i Nanotecnologia (IN' ' 2UB) de la Universitat de Barcelona, Marti i Franques 1, 08028 Barcelona (Spain)

    2010-08-01

    A study of the best conditions to prepare smooth heterogeneous Co-Ag films with low amounts of S from a thiourea-based electrolytic bath has been performed. Using a 0.01 M AgClO{sub 4} + 0.1 M Co(ClO{sub 4}){sub 2} + 0.1 M thiourea + 0.1 M sodium gluconate + 0.3 M H{sub 3}BO{sub 3} + 0.1 M NaClO{sub 4} bath, low temperature (10 {sup o}C) allowed obtaining compact and smooth deposits containing 2 wt.% sulphur. Decreasing thiourea content 0.06 M and increasing gluconate concentration up to 0.3 M, better deposits (more compact with lower sulphur content (1.2 wt.%)) were obtained. A clear influence of the species present in the bath on the film quality was observed: while gluconate favoured film cohesion, boric acid hindered hydrogen adsorption. For all films, fcc-Ag, hcp-Co and hcp-CoAg{sub 3} phases were always detected by XRD, TEM and electron diffraction, their proportions varying with the electrodeposition conditions. Magnetic measurements revealed that the increase in the CoAg{sub 3} led to an increase in the film coercivity. GMR values were only measured at cryogenic temperatures, they being higher for the deposits with the lowest sulphur content revealing that sulphur exerts a negative effect on magnetoresistance.

  17. Copper Plating from Non-Cyanide Alkaline Baths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Minggang; Wei, Guoying; Wang, Jianfang; Li, Meng; Zhao, Xixi; Bai, Yuze

    2014-12-01

    Non-cyanide alkaline bath was used to prepare copper thin films. Influences of various temperatures on deposition rates, surface morphologies and microstructures of films were investigated. Copper thin films prepared from non-cyanide alkaline bath show typical nodular structures. Copper films fabricated at higher temperature possess rough surface due to hydrolysis of complexing agents. According to the XRD patterns, all deposited films were crystalline and showed Cu (111), Cu (200) and Cu (220) peaks. The intensity of peak (200) increases gradually with the rise on bath temperatures. Films with maximum thickness (7.5 μm) could be obtained at the temperature of 40°C. From the cyclic voltammetry curve, it was found that the cathodic polarization decreased slightly with increase of bath temperatures. In addition, when the bath temperature was equal to 50°C, current efficiency could reach to 96.95%.

  18. Mephedrone ("bath salt") pharmacology: insights from invertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramoz, L; Lodi, S; Bhatt, P; Reitz, A B; Tallarida, C; Tallarida, R J; Raffa, R B; Rawls, S M

    2012-04-19

    Psychoactive bath salts (also called meph, drone, meow meow, m-CAT, bounce, bubbles, mad cow, etc.) contain a substance called mephedrone (4-methylcathinone) that may share psychostimulant properties with amphetamine and cocaine. However, there are only limited studies of the neuropharmacological profile of mephedrone. The present study used an established invertebrate (planarian) assay to test the hypothesis that acute and repeated mephedrone exposure produces psychostimulant-like behavioral effects. Acute mephedrone administration (50-1000 μM) produced stereotyped movements that were attenuated by a dopamine receptor antagonist (SCH 23390) (0.3 μM). Spontaneous discontinuation of mephedrone exposure (1, 10 μM) (60 min) resulted in an abstinence-induced withdrawal response (i.e. reduced motility). In place conditioning experiments, planarians in which mephedrone (100, 500 μM) was paired with the non-preferred environment during conditioning displayed a shift in preference upon subsequent testing. These results suggest that mephedrone produces three behavioral effects associated with psychostimulant drugs, namely dopamine-sensitive stereotyped movements, abstinence-induced withdrawal, and environmental place conditioning.

  19. Bath additives for the treatment of childhood eczema (BATHE): protocol for multicentre parallel group randomised trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santer, Miriam; Rumsby, Kate; Ridd, Matthew J; Francis, Nick A; Stuart, Beth; Chorozoglou, Maria; Wood, Wendy; Roberts, Amanda; Thomas, Kim S; Williams, Hywel C; Little, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Bath emollients are widely prescribed for childhood eczema, yet evidence of their benefits over direct application of emollients is lacking. Objectives To determine the clinical and cost-effectiveness of adding bath emollient to the standard management of eczema in children Methods and analysis Design: Pragmatic open 2-armed parallel group randomised controlled trial. Setting: General practitioner (GP) practices in England and Wales. Participants: Children aged over 12 months and less than 12 years with eczema, excluding inactive or very mild eczema (5 or less on Nottingham Eczema Severity Scale). Interventions: Children will be randomised to either bath emollients plus standard eczema care or standard eczema care only. Outcome measures: Primary outcome is long-term eczema severity, measured by the Patient-Oriented Eczema Measure (POEM) repeated weekly for 16 weeks. Secondary outcomes include: number of eczema exacerbations resulting in healthcare consultations over 1 year; eczema severity over 1 year; disease-specific and generic quality of life; medication use and healthcare resource use; cost-effectiveness. Aiming to detect a mean difference between groups of 2.0 (SD 7.0) in weekly POEM scores over 16 weeks (significance 0.05, power 0.9), allowing for 20% loss to follow-up, gives a total sample size of 423 children. We will use repeated measures analysis of covariance, or a mixed model, to analyse weekly POEM scores. We will control for possible confounders, including baseline eczema severity and child's age. Cost-effectiveness analysis will be carried out from a National Health Service (NHS) perspective. Ethics and dissemination This protocol was approved by Newcastle and North Tyneside 1 NRES committee 14/NE/0098. Follow-up will be completed in 2017. Findings will be disseminated to participants and carers, the public, dermatology and primary care journals, guideline developers and decision-makers. Trial registration number ISRCTN

  20. Activated and non-activated dephasing in a spin bath

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torrontegui, E.; Kosloff, R.

    2016-09-01

    We analyze different decoherence processes in a system coupled to a bath. Apart from the well known standard dephasing mechanism which is temperature dependent an alternative mechanism is presented, the spin-swap dephasing which does not need initial bath activation and is temperature independent. We show that for dipole interaction in the weak coupling regime the separation of time scales between system and bath can not produce pure dephasing, the process being accompanied by dissipation. Activated and non-activated dephasing processes are analyzed in a diamond nitrogen-vacancy center.

  1. Universe unveiled the cosmos in my bubble bath

    CERN Document Server

    Vishveshwara, C V

    2015-01-01

    The bubbles were swirling all around me, massaging my body. As I luxuriated in this fantastic bath, I gasped realizing that those bubbles carried with them miniature galaxies bringing the entire Cosmos into my bathtub... Alfie is back. And so are George and other characters from the author’s previous book Einstein’s Enigma or Black Holes in My Bubble Bath. While the present book, Universe Unveiled - The Cosmos in My Bubble Bath, is completely independent, its storyline can be considered a sequel to the previous one. The scientific content spanning ancient world models to the most recent mysteries of cosmology is presented in an entirely nontechnical and descriptive style through the discussions between Alfie, the enlightened learner, and George, professor of astrophysics. Fantasies, based on these discussions that cover the scientific facts, are created by the magical bubble baths taken by Alfie. Universe Unveiled blends accurate science with philosophy, drama, humour, and fantasy to create an exciting co...

  2. Quantum kicked harmonic oscillator in contact with a heat bath

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prado Reynoso, M. Á.; López Vázquez, P. C.; Gorin, T.

    2017-02-01

    We consider the quantum harmonic oscillator in contact with a finite-temperature bath, modeled by the Caldeira-Leggett master equation. Applying periodic kicks to the oscillator, we study the system in different dynamical regimes between classical integrability and chaos, on the one hand, and ballistic or diffusive energy absorption, on the other. We then investigate the influence of the heat bath on the oscillator in each case. Phase-space techniques allow us to simulate the evolution of the system efficiently. In this way, we calculate high-resolution Wigner functions at long times, where the system approaches a quasistationary cyclic evolution. Thereby, we perform an accurate study of the thermodynamic properties of a nonintegrable, quantum chaotic system in contact with a heat bath at finite temperature. In particular, we find that the heat transfer between harmonic oscillator and heat bath is governed by Fourier's law.

  3. Study and Practice of Forest-bathing Field in Japan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qunming; ZHENG; Xiaoya; YANG

    2013-01-01

    Japan has made remarkable achievements in the study and development of forest tourism for health care reason. Through the comprehensive investigation into the development of forest-bathing field in Japan, this paper studied the forest tourism for health care factor in Japan and concluded the evaluation standard and construction of forest-bathing field, as well as personnel training. In the end, some suggestions were proposed for the study and development of forest tourism for health care factor in Asia.

  4. EOF cold model-study of bath behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Breno Totti Maia

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The EOF reactor was developed in Brazil in the eighties with unique features. The preheating of scrap and distribution of injection points oxidizing gases and fuels make up these features. This paper aims to reproduce the behavior of the metal bath an EOF of 45 tons comparing their top three gas injection equipment: supersonic lances, atmospheric injectors and tuyeres. The lances and tuyeres promoted greater agitation of the bath with atmospheric injectors a great opportunity for improvement.

  5. Effect of hyperthermic water bath on parameters of cellular immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blazícková, S; Rovenský, J; Koska, J; Vigas, M

    2000-01-01

    Effects of hyperthermic water bath on selected immune parameters (lymphocyte subpopulations, natural killer (NK) cell counts and their activity) were studied in a group of 10 volunteers. Application of hyperthermic water bath (both topical and whole-body) was followed by a significant reduction of relative B lymphocyte counts. Whole-body hyperthermic water bath reduced relative total T lymphocyte counts, increased relative CD8+ T lymphocyte and NK cell counts and increased NK activity. Whole-body hyperthermic bath increased somatotropic hormone (STH) activity in eight out of 10 volunteers; higher relative counts of CD8+ lymphocytes and NK cells were observed compared with the group of volunteers not responding to hyperthermic water bath by STH secretion. In five volunteers STH was released in response to local hyperthermic water bath and the NK activity of lymphocytes also increased but their relative counts did not. The results suggest that these increases in CD8+ lymphocyte and NK cell counts are probably dependent on increased STH production.

  6. ELECTRODIALYSIS AS A TECHNIQUE FOR EXTENDING ELECTROLESS NICKEL BATH LIFE-IMPROVING SELECTIVITY AND REDUCING LOSSES OF VALUABLE BATH COMPONENTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Over the last decade electrodialysis has emerged as an effective technique for removing accumulated reactant counterions (sodium and sulfate) and reaction products (orthophosphite) that interfere with the electroless nickel plating process, thus extending bath life by up to 50 me...

  7. 78 FR 53734 - Proposed Extension of Approval of Information Collection; Comment Request-Infant Bath Seats

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-30

    ... infant bath seats. 75 FR 31691. On July 31, 2012, the Commission adopted the revised ASTM standard for infant bath seats, ASTM F1967-11a. 77 FR 45242. The requirements for infant bath seats are set forth... COMMISSION Proposed Extension of Approval of Information Collection; Comment Request--Infant Bath...

  8. Displacement of an Electrically Charged Drop on a Vibrating Bath

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandenbourger, M.; Vandewalle, N.; Dorbolo, S.

    2016-01-01

    In this work, the manipulation of an electrically charged droplet bouncing on a vertically vibrated bath is investigated. When a horizontal, uniform, and static electric field is applied to it, a motion is induced. The droplet is accelerated when the droplet is small. On the other hand, large droplets appear to move with a constant speed that depends linearly on the applied electrical field. In the latter regime, high-speed imaging of one bounce reveals that the droplet experiences an acceleration due to the electrical force during the flight and decelerates to 0 when interacting with the surface of the bath. Thus, the droplet moves with a constant average speed on a large time scale. We propose a criterion based on the force necessary to move a charged droplet at the surface of the bath to discriminate between constant speed and accelerated droplet regimes.

  9. Heat-Bath Cooling of Spins in Amino Acids

    CERN Document Server

    Elias, Yuval; Mor, Tal; Weinstein, Yossi

    2011-01-01

    Heat-bath cooling is a component of practicable algorithmic cooling of spins, an approach which might be useful for in vivo 13C spectroscopy, in particular for prolonged metabolic processes where substrates that are hyperpolarized ex-vivo are not effective. We applied heat-bath cooling to 1,2-13C2-amino acids, using the \\alpha\\ protons to shift entropy from selected carbons to the environment. For glutamate and glycine, the polarizations of both labeled carbons were enhanced, and in other experiments the total entropy of each spin system was shown to decrease. The effect of adding Magnevist, a gadolinium contrast agent, on heat-bath cooling of glutamate was investigated.

  10. REGENABATH -- novel regeneration methods for strongly acidic metal treatment baths

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collins, J. [Capenhurst Tech Limited, Capenhurst, Chester (United Kingdom); Hendou, M. [Lacaze S.A., Leyme (France)

    2001-07-01

    This European Union-sponsored project is designed to investigate the potential of integrating existing and novel technologies for use in regenerating strong acids used in the treatment of metal surfaces. At present, the acid bath must be bled off to remove the metal content, or the whole bath may be periodically discarded, a process which is hazardous, costly and injurious to the environment. This paper provides a full description of the project objectives, expected results, challenges, proposed applications and technology transfer potential. It is expected that the techniques developed can be extended to other highly acidic waste streams generated by metallurgical facilities.

  11. Detailed model of bouncing drops on a bounded, vibrated bath

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanchette, Francois; Gilet, Tristan

    2014-11-01

    We present a detailed model of drops bouncing on a bounded vibrated bath. These drops are known to bounce indefinitely and to exhibit complex and varied vertical dynamics depending on the acceleration of the bath. In addition, in a narrow parameter regime, these drops travel horizontally while being guided by the waves they generate. Our model tracks the drop's vertical radius and position, as well as the eigenmodes of the waves generated via ordinary differential equations only. We accurately capture the vertical dynamics, as well as some of the horizontal dynamics. Our model may be extended to account for interactions with other drops or obstacles, such as slits and corrals.

  12. Finite Systems in a Heat Bath: Spectrum Perturbations and Thermodynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Miguel, Rodrigo; Rubi, J Miguel

    2016-09-01

    When a finite system is at equilibrium with a heat bath, the equilibrium temperature is dictated by the heat bath and not by the intrinsic thermostatistics of the finite system. If not sufficiently large, it may be necessary for the finite system to change its thermostatistics in order to be at equilibrium with the heat bath. We account for this process by invoking Landsberg's notion of temperature-dependent energy levels. We establish that the mismatch between the intrinsic temperature of the excited finite system and that of the heat bath drives a spectrum perturbation which enables thermal equilibrium. We show that the temperature-induced spectrum perturbation is equivalent to Hill's purely thermodynamic subdivision potential. The difference between intrinsic and equilibrium temperature provides us with a measure for how large a system can be before it no longer needs to be regarded as small. The theoretical framework proposed in this paper identifies the role of temperature in a bottom-up thermostatistical description of finite systems.

  13. Debate on Uncertainty in Estimating Bathing Water Quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Torben

    1992-01-01

    Estimating the bathing water quality along the shore near a planned sewage discharge requires data on the source strength of bacteria, the die-off of bacteria and the actual dilution of the sewage. Together these 3 factors give the actual concentration of bacteria on the interesting spots...

  14. 75 FR 51177 - Safety Standard for Infant Bath Seats; Correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-19

    ..., 2010 (75 FR 31691). The document established a standard for infant bath seats by incorporating by... published in the Federal Register of June 4, 2010 (75 FR 31691) a final rule establishing a standard for... final rule, this phrase is redundant, and the final rule, therefore eliminates it.'' 75 FR...

  15. Bath Stone - a Possible Global Heritage Stone from England

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marker, Brian

    2014-05-01

    The Middle Jurassic strata of England have several horizons of oolitic and bioclastic limestones that provide high quality dimension stone. One of the most important is found in and near the City of Bath. The Great Oolite Group (Upper Bathonian) contains the Combe Down and Bath Oolites, consisting of current bedded oolites and shelly oolites, that have been used extensively as freestones for construction nearby, for prestigious buildings through much of southern England and more widely. The stone has been used to some extent since Roman times when the city, then known as Aquae Sulis, was an important hot spa. The stone was used to a limited extent through medieval times but from the early 18th century onwards was exploited on a large scale through surface quarrying and underground mining. The City was extensively redeveloped in the 18th to early 19th century, mostly using Bath Stone, when the spas made it a fashionable resort. Buildings from that period include architectural "gems" such as the Royal Crescent and Pulteney Bridge, as well as the renovated Roman Baths. Many buildings were designed by some of the foremost British architects of the time. The consistent use of this stone gives the City an architectural integrity throughout. These features led to the designation of the City as a World Heritage Site. It is a requirement in current City planning policy documents that Bath Stone should be used for new building to preserve the appearance of the City. More widely the stone was used in major houses (e.g. Buckingham Palace and Apsley House in London; King's Pavilion in Brighton); civic buildings (e.g. Bristol Guildhall; Dartmouth Naval College in Devon); churches and cathedrals (e.g. Truro Cathedral in Cornwall); and engineered structures (e.g. the large Dundas Aqueduct on the Kennet and Avon Canal). More widely, Bath Stone has been used in Union Station in Washington DC; Toronto Bible College and the Town Hall at Cape Town, South Africa. Extraction declined in

  16. Physiological functions of the effects of the different bathing method on recovery from local muscle fatigue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Soomin

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recently, mist saunas have been used in the home as a new bathing style in Japan. However, there are still few reports on the effects of bathing methods on recovery from muscle fatigue. Furthermore, the effect of mist sauna bathing on human physiological function has not yet been revealed. Therefore, we measured the physiological effects of bathing methods including the mist sauna on recovery from muscle fatigue. Methods The bathing methods studied included four conditions: full immersion bath, shower, mist sauna, and no bathing as a control. Ten men participated in this study. The participants completed four consecutive sessions: a 30-min rest period, a 10-min all out elbow flexion task period, a 10-min bathing period, and a 10-min recovery period. We evaluated the mean power frequency (MNF of the electromyogram (EMG, rectal temperature (Tre, skin temperature (Tsk, skin blood flow (SBF, concentration of oxygenated hemoglobin (O2Hb, and subjective evaluation. Results We found that the MNF under the full immersion bath condition was significantly higher than those under the other conditions. Furthermore, Tre, SBF, and O2Hb under the full immersion bath condition were significantly higher than under the other conditions. Conclusions Following the results for the full immersion bath condition, the SBF and O2Hb of the mist sauna condition were significantly higher than those for the shower and no bathing conditions. These results suggest that full immersion bath and mist sauna are effective in facilitating recovery from muscle fatigue.

  17. Bath of my home (50 yeras report No.1); Wagaya no ofuro (50 nenshi No.1)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-01-10

    Looking back at the history of bath after the war, the fuel, water heating method, hot water method, bathtub, shape of bathroom, bathing tools and bathing method have undergone surprising changes, from the period just after the war for which the number of households having their baths was small and public baths were at the height of their prosperity, to the present period for which households are generally equipped with a shower and bathtub. This paper describes the history of bath after the war in Japan, including the bathing methods and goods which came to stay in each period, placing the focus on the bathing acts and equipment. For 10 years since 1945, the housing shortage had been serious, and public baths had prospered. For this period, the bath heating fuel was mainly coal and firewood, and soap was still valuable. Since 1955, the housing situation had changed better, and the time had entered the age of bath-at-home. Since this period, aluminum bath furnaces had been mass-produced. Neutral shampoo appeared on the market and were sold like hot cakes.

  18. The Medical Risks and Benefits of Sauna, Steam Bath, and Whirlpool Use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duda, Marty

    1987-01-01

    Saunas, steam baths, and whirlpools--popular fixtures at health clubs--are safe means of relaxation if used properly. Ignoring the recommendations for moderate, commonsense enjoyment of these baths may expose users to health risks, including sudden death, arrhythmias, and skin infections. A guide to safe use of such baths is presented. (Author/CB)

  19. INVESTIGATION INTO THE REJUVENATION OF SPENT ELECTROLESS NICKEL BATHS BY ELECTRODIALYSIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Electroless nickel plating generates substantially more waste than other metal-finishing processes due to the inherent limited bath life and the need for regular bath disposal. Electrodialysis can be used to generate electroless nickel baths, but poor membrane permselectivity, l...

  20. Nonequlibrium dynamics of scalar fields in a thermal bath

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anisimov, A.; Buchmueller, W.; Drewes, M.; Mendizabal, S.

    2008-12-15

    We study the approach to equilibrium for a scalar field which is coupled to a large thermal bath. Our analysis of the initial value problem is based on Kadanoff-Baym equations which are shown to be equivalent to a stochastic Langevin equation. The interaction with the thermal bath generates a temperature-dependent spectral density, either through decay and inverse decay processes or via Landau damping. In equilibrium, energy density and pressure are determined by the Bose-Einstein distribution function evaluated at a complex quasi-particle pole. The time evolution of the statistical propagator is compared with solutions of the Boltzmann equations for particles as well as quasi-particles. The dependence on initial conditions and the range of validity of the Boltzmann approximation are determined. (orig.)

  1. Shallow bath chemical deposition of CdS thin film

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lo, Y.S. [Department of Molecule Science and Engineering, National Taipei University of Science and Technology, Taipei, 10617, Taiwan (China); Choubey, R.K. [Department of Applied Physics, Birla Institute of Technology, Mesra, Ranchi, 835 215 (India); Department of Chemical Engineering, National Taiwan University, Taipei, 10617, Taiwan (China); Yu, W.C. [Department of Molecule Science and Engineering, National Taipei University of Science and Technology, Taipei, 10617, Taiwan (China); Hsu, W.T. [Green Energy and Environmental Research Laboratory, Industrial Technology Research Institute, Hsin-Chu, Taiwan (China); Lan, C.W., E-mail: cwlan@ntu.edu.tw [Department of Chemical Engineering, National Taiwan University, Taipei, 10617, Taiwan (China)

    2011-10-31

    Cadmium sulfide thin film was grown by shallow chemical bath deposition technique. This technique used a highly conducted hot plate to heat the substrate, while using a shallow bath for higher thermal gradients. As a result, large area uniformity could be achieved and the homogeneous nucleation was suppressed. More importantly, the solution used was greatly reduced, which is crucial for cost reduction in practice. The effects of temperature and shaking on the growth kinetics and film properties were investigated. The reaction activation energy was obtained to be 0.84 eV, and was not affected much by shaking indicating that the deposition is essentially reaction controlled. Furthermore, the films deposited at low or high temperature conditions had better photoconductivity.

  2. Activities of binary baths with 1% solute as standard states

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The relationships of activities with 1% solute as standard state and mass fraction of solute, and hot-dip temperature, were given on the base of Miedema's model, Tanaka expression, some basic thermodynamic relationships; and discussion was carried out on Zn-Mn and Zn-Ti binary alloys by calculation, in which varied colors can be achieved on the hot-dip steel sheets. The results indicate that the activity of solute shows positive deviation relative to Henry's law for both Zn-Mn and Zn-Ti binary dilute solution. The degree of deviation increases with increasing solute and decreases with increasing bath temperature. As the solution is very dilute solution (w(Mn)≤40% for Zn-Mn alloy,w(Ti)≤8% for Zn-Ti alloy), the two binary baths can all be treated as ideal dilute solutions.

  3. Effective run-and-tumble dynamics of bacteria baths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paoluzzi, M; Di Leonardo, R; Angelani, L

    2013-10-16

    E. coli bacteria swim in straight runs interrupted by sudden reorientation events called tumbles. The resulting random walks give rise to density fluctuations that can be derived analytically in the limit of non-interacting particles or equivalently of very low concentrations. However, in situations of practical interest, the concentration of bacteria is always large enough to make interactions an important factor. Using molecular dynamics simulations, we study the dynamic structure factor of a model bacterial bath for increasing values of densities. We show that it is possible to reproduce the dynamics of density fluctuations in the system using a free run-and-tumble model with effective fitting parameters. We discuss the dependence of these parameters, e.g., the tumbling rate, tumbling time and self-propulsion velocity, on the density of the bath.

  4. Temperature Modeling of the Molten Glass in Tin Bath

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WEI Zhihua; CHEN Jinshu; NIE Yingsong

    2009-01-01

    Based on the experimental investigation by quantitative analysis, temperature fields of the molten glass in tin bath were numerically simulated by the finite elememt method. The ex-perimental results show that the cooling rate of glass is directly proportional to the draught speed, but inversely proportional to the thickness of the glass. This model lays the foundation for computer simulation system about float glass.

  5. Integrated hydro-bacterial modelling for predicting bathing water quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Guoxian; Falconer, Roger A.; Lin, Binliang

    2017-03-01

    In recent years health risks associated with the non-compliance of bathing water quality have received increasing worldwide attention. However, it is particularly challenging to establish the source of any non-compliance, due to the complex nature of the source of faecal indicator organisms, and the fate and delivery processes and scarcity of field measured data in many catchments and estuaries. In the current study an integrated hydro-bacterial model, linking a catchment, 1-D model and 2-D model were integrated to simulate the adsorption-desorption processes of faecal bacteria to and from sediment particles in river, estuarine and coastal waters, respectively. The model was then validated using hydrodynamic, sediment and faecal bacteria concentration data, measured in 2012, in the Ribble river and estuary, and along the Fylde coast, UK. Particular emphasis has been placed on the mechanism of faecal bacteria transport and decay through the deposition and resuspension of suspended sediments. The results showed that by coupling the E.coli concentration with the sediment transport processes, the accuracy of the predicted E.coli levels was improved. A series of scenario runs were then carried out to investigate the impacts of different management scenarios on the E.coli concentration levels in the coastal bathing water sites around Liverpool Bay, UK. The model results show that the level of compliance with the new EU bathing water standards can be improved significantly by extending outfalls and/or reducing urban sources by typically 50%.

  6. Blackbody radiation: rosetta stone of heat bath models

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connell, R. F.

    2007-06-01

    The radiation field can be regarded as a collection of independent harmonic oscillators and, as such, constitutes a heat bath. Moreover, the known form of its interaction with charged particles provides a "rosetta stone" for deciding on and interpreting the correct interaction for the more general case of a quantum particle in an external potential and coupled to an arbitrary heat bath. In particular, combining QED with the machinery of stochastic physics, enables the usual scope of applications to be widened. We discuss blackbody radiation effects on: the equation of motion of a radiating electron (obtaining an equation of motion which is free from runaway solutions), anomalous diffusion, the spreading of a Gaussian wave packet, and decoherence effects due to zero-point oscillations. In addition, utilizing a formula we obtained for the free energy of an oscillator in a heat bath, enables us to determine all the quantum thermodynamic functions of interest (particularly in the areas of quantum information and nanophysics where small systems are involved) and from which we obtain temperature dependent Lamb shifts, quantum effects on the entropy at low temperature and implications for Nernst's law.

  7. Rayleigh wave inversion using heat-bath simulated annealing algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yongxu; Peng, Suping; Du, Wenfeng; Zhang, Xiaoyang; Ma, Zhenyuan; Lin, Peng

    2016-11-01

    The dispersion of Rayleigh waves can be used to obtain near-surface shear (S)-wave velocity profiles. This is performed mainly by inversion of the phase velocity dispersion curves, which has been proven to be a highly nonlinear and multimodal problem, and it is unsuitable to use local search methods (LSMs) as the inversion algorithm. In this study, a new strategy is proposed based on a variant of simulated annealing (SA) algorithm. SA, which simulates the annealing procedure of crystalline solids in nature, is one of the global search methods (GSMs). There are many variants of SA, most of which contain two steps: the perturbation of model and the Metropolis-criterion-based acceptance of the new model. In this paper we propose a one-step SA variant known as heat-bath SA. To test the performance of the heat-bath SA, two models are created. Both noise-free and noisy synthetic data are generated. Levenberg-Marquardt (LM) algorithm and a variant of SA, known as the fast simulated annealing (FSA) algorithm, are also adopted for comparison. The inverted results of the synthetic data show that the heat-bath SA algorithm is a reasonable choice for Rayleigh wave dispersion curve inversion. Finally, a real-world inversion example from a coal mine in northwestern China is shown, which proves that the scheme we propose is applicable.

  8. Quantum energy decays and decoherence in discrete baths

    CERN Document Server

    Galiceanu, M D; Strunz, W

    2011-01-01

    The quantum average energy decay and the purity decay are studied for a system particle as a function of the number of constituents of a discrete bath model. The system particle is subjected to two distinct physical situations: the harmonic oscillator (HO) and the Morse potential. The environment (bath) is composed by a {\\it finite} number N of uncoupled HOs, characterizing the structured bath, which in the limit $N\\to\\infty$ is assumed to have an ohmic, sub-ohmic or super-ohmic spectral density. For very low values of N the mean energy and purity remain constant in time but starts to decay for intermediate values (10

  9. CdS films deposited by chemical bath under rotation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliva-Aviles, A.I., E-mail: aoliva@mda.cinvestav.mx [Centro de Investigacion y de Estudios Avanzados Unidad Merida, Departamento de Fisica Aplicada. A.P. 73-Cordemex, 97310 Merida, Yucatan (Mexico); Patino, R.; Oliva, A.I. [Centro de Investigacion y de Estudios Avanzados Unidad Merida, Departamento de Fisica Aplicada. A.P. 73-Cordemex, 97310 Merida, Yucatan (Mexico)

    2010-08-01

    Cadmium sulfide (CdS) films were deposited on rotating substrates by the chemical bath technique. The effects of the rotation speed on the morphological, optical, and structural properties of the films were discussed. A rotating substrate-holder was fabricated such that substrates can be taken out from the bath during the deposition. CdS films were deposited at different deposition times (10, 20, 30, 40 and 50 min) onto Corning glass substrates at different rotation velocities (150, 300, 450, and 600 rpm) during chemical deposition. The chemical bath was composed by CdCl{sub 2}, KOH, NH{sub 4}NO{sub 3} and CS(NH{sub 2}){sub 2} as chemical reagents and heated at 75 deg. C. The results show no critical effects on the band gap energy and the surface roughness of the CdS films when the rotation speed changes. However, a linear increase on the deposition rate with the rotation energy was observed, meanwhile the stoichiometry was strongly affected by the rotation speed, resulting a better 1:1 Cd/S ratio as speed increases. Rotation effects may be of interest in industrial production of CdTe/CdS solar cells.

  10. Linear-algebraic bath transformation for simulating complex open quantum systems

    CERN Document Server

    Huh, Joonsuk; Fujita, Takatoshi; Yung, Man-Hong; Aspuru-Guzik, Alán

    2014-01-01

    In studying open quantum systems, the environment is often approximated as a collection of non-interacting harmonic oscillators, a configuration also known as the star-bath model. It is also well known that the star-bath can be transformed into a nearest-neighbor interacting chain of oscillators. The chain-bath model has been widely used in renormalization group approaches. The transformation can be obtained by recursion relations or orthogonal polynomials. Based on a simple linear algebraic approach, we propose a bath partition strategy to reduce the system-bath coupling strength. As a result, the non-interacting star-bath is transformed into a set of weakly-coupled multiple parallel chains. The transformed bath model allows complex problems to be practically implemented on quantum simulators, and it can also be employed in various numerical simulations of open quantum dynamics.

  11. Copper selenide thin films by chemical bath deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, V. M.; Nair, P. K.; Nair, M. T. S.

    1999-05-01

    We report the structural, optical, and electrical properties of thin films (0.05 to 0.25 μm) of copper selenide obtained from chemical baths using sodium selenosulfate or N,N-dimethylselenourea as a source of selenide ions. X-ray diffraction (XRD) studies on the films obtained from baths using sodium selenosulfate suggest a cubic structure as in berzelianite, Cu 2- xSe with x=0.15. Annealing the films at 400°C in nitrogen leads to a partial conversion of the film to Cu 2Se. In the case of films obtained from the baths containing dimethylselenourea, the XRD patterns match that of klockmannite, CuSe. Annealing these films in nitrogen at 400°C results in loss of selenium, and consequently a composition rich in copper, similar to Cu 2- xSe, is reached. Optical absorption in the films result from free carrier absorption in the near infrared region with absorption coefficient of ˜10 5 cm -1. Band-to-band transitions which gives rise to the optical absorption in the visible-ultraviolet region may be interpreted in terms of direct allowed transitions with band gap in the 2.1-2.3 eV range and indirect allowed transitions with band gap 1.2-1.4 eV. All the films, as prepared and annealed, show p-type conductivity, in the range of (1-5)×10 3 Ω -1 cm -1. This results in high near infrared reflectance, of 30-80%.

  12. Transport of thermal water from well to thermal baths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montegrossi, Giordano; Vaselli, Orlando; Tassi, Franco; Nocentini, Matteo; Liccioli, Caterina; Nisi, Barbara

    2013-04-01

    The main problem in building a thermal bath is having a hot spring or a thermal well located in an appropriate position for customer access; since Roman age, thermal baths were distributed in the whole empire and often road and cities were built all around afterwards. Nowadays, the perspectives are changed and occasionally the thermal resource is required to be transported with a pipeline system from the main source to the spa. Nevertheless, the geothermal fluid may show problems of corrosion and scaling during transport. In the Ambra valley, central Italy, a geothermal well has recently been drilled and it discharges a Ca(Mg)-SO4, CO2-rich water at the temperature of 41 °C, that could be used for supplying a new spa in the surrounding areas of the well itself. The main problem is that the producing well is located in a forest tree ca. 4 km far away from the nearest structure suitable to host the thermal bath. In this study, we illustrate the pipeline design from the producing well to the spa, constraining the physical and geochemical parameters to reduce scaling and corrosion phenomena. The starting point is the thermal well that has a flow rate ranging from 22 up to 25 L/sec. The thermal fluid is heavily precipitating calcite (50-100 ton/month) due to the calcite-CO2 equilibrium in the reservoir, where a partial pressure of 11 bar of CO2 is present. One of the most vexing problems in investigating scaling processed during the fluid transport in the pipeline is that there is not a proper software package for multiphase fluid flow in pipes characterized by such a complex chemistry. As a consequence, we used a modified TOUGHREACT with Pitzer database, arranged to use Darcy-Weisbach equation, and applying "fictitious" material properties in order to give the proper y- z- velocity profile in comparison to the analytical solution for laminar fluid flow in pipes. This investigation gave as a result the lowest CO2 partial pressure to be kept in the pipeline (nearly 2

  13. Entanglement Dynamics of Two Qubits in a Common Bath

    CERN Document Server

    Ma, Jian; Wang, Xiaoguang; Nori, Franco

    2012-01-01

    We derive a set of hierarchical equations for qubits interacting with a Lorentz-broadened cavity mode at zero temperature, without using the rotating-wave, Born, and Markovian approximations. We use this exact method to reexamine the entanglement dynamics of two qubits interacting with a common bath, which was previously solved only under the rotating-wave and single-excitation approximations. With the exact hierarchy equation method used here, we observe significant differences in the resulting physics, compared to the previous results with various approximations. Double excitations due to counter-rotating-wave terms are also found to have remarkable effects on the dynamics of entanglement.

  14. A new cobalt oxide electrodeposit bath for solar absorbers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barrera, Enrique [Departmento de IPH, Area de Ingenieria en Recursos Energeticos, Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana - Iztapalapa, Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Gonzalez, Ignacio [Departmento de Quimica, Area de Electroquimica, Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana - Iztapalapa, Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Viveros, Tomas [Departmento de IPH, Area de Ingenieria Quimica, Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana - Iztapalapa, Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    1997-12-19

    A study was carried out in a Hull cell in order to optimize the deposition conditions of cobalt oxide (black cobalt) in an electrolytic bath, which uses cobalt nitrate for direct obtention of black cobalt. Thermal stability of the material was surveyed on several samples of black cobalt prepared on stainless-steel with a thickness of approximately of 2.5 {mu}m. It was found that the optical properties change, in respect to the initial values, with time of treatment until an equilibrium is reached. This equilibrium depends on the substrate and the temperature of the treatment used

  15. Verification of impact of morning showering and mist sauna bathing on human physiological functions and work efficiency during the day

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Soomin; Fujimura, Hiroko; Shimomura, Yoshihiro; Katsuura, Tetsuo

    2015-09-01

    Recently, a growing number in Japan are switching to taking baths in the morning (morning bathing). However, the effects of the morning bathing on human physiological functions and work efficiency have not yet been revealed. Then, we hypothesized that the effect of morning bathing on physiological functions would be different from those of night bathing. In this study, we measured the physiological functions and work efficiency during the day following the morning bathing (7:10-7:20) including showering, mist sauna bathing, and no bathing as a control. Ten male healthy young adults participated in this study as the subjects. We evaluated the rectal temperature (Tre), skin temperature (Tsk), heart rate (HR), heart rate variability (HRV), blood pressure (BP), the relative power density of the alpha wave (α-wave ratio) of electroencephalogram, alpha attenuation coefficient (AAC), and the error rate of the task performance. As a result, we found that the HR after the mist sauna bathing was significantly lower than those after no bathing rest 3 (11:00). Furthermore, we verified that the α-wave ratio of the Pz after the mist sauna bathing was significantly lower than those after no bathing during the task 6 (15:00). On the other hand, the α-wave ratio of the Pz after the mist sauna bathing was significantly higher than those after showering during the rest 3 (11:00). Tsk after the mist sauna bathing was higher than those after the showering at 9:00 and 15:00. In addition, the error rate of the task performance after the mist sauna bathing was lower than those after no bathing and showering at 14:00. This study concludes that a morning mist sauna is safe and maintains both skin temperature compared to other bathing methods. Moreover, it is presumed that the morning mist sauna bathing improves work efficiency comparing other bathing methods during the task period of the day following the morning bathing.

  16. Electrolytic Recovery of Nickel from Spent Electroless Nickel Bath Solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Idhayachander

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Plating industry is one of the largest polluting small scale industries and nickel plating is among the important surface finishing process in this industry. The waste generated during this operation contains toxic nickel. Nickel removal and recovery is of great interest from spent bath for environmental and economic reasons. Spent electroless nickel solution from a reed relay switch manufacturing industry situated in Chennai was taken for electrolytic recovery of nickel. Electrolytic experiment was carried out with mild steel and gold coated mild steel as cathode and the different parameters such as current density, time, mixing and pH of the solution were varied and recovery and current efficiency was studied. It was noticed that there was an increase in current efficiency up to 5 A/dm2 and after that it declines. There is no significant improvement with mixing but with modified cathode there was some improvement. Removal of nickel from the spent electroless nickel bath was 81.81% at 5 A/dm2 and pH 4.23. Under this condition, the content of nickel was reduced to 0.94 g/L from 5.16 g/L. with 62.97% current efficiency.

  17. Equilibrium states of a test particle coupled to finite-size heat baths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Qun; Smith, S Taylor; Onofrio, Roberto

    2009-03-01

    We report on numerical simulations of the dynamics of a test particle coupled to competing Boltzmann heat baths of finite size. After discussing some features of the single bath case, we show that the presence of two heat baths further constrains the conditions necessary for the test particle to thermalize with the heat baths. We find that thermalization is a spectral property in which the oscillators of the bath with frequencies in the range of the test particle characteristic frequency determine its degree of thermalization. We also find an unexpected frequency shift of the test particle response with respect to the spectra of the two heat baths. Finally, we discuss implications of our results for the study of high-frequency nanomechanical resonators through cold damping cooling techniques and for engineering reservoirs capable of mitigating the back action on a mechanical system.

  18. Daily Bathing with Chlorhexidine and Its Effects on Nosocomial Infection Rates in Pediatric Oncology Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raulji, Chittalsinh M; Clay, Kristin; Velasco, Cruz; Yu, Lolie C

    2015-01-01

    Infections remain a serious complication in pediatric oncology patients. To determine if daily bathing with Chlorhexidine gluconate can decrease the rate of nosocomial infection in pediatric oncology patients, we reviewed rates of infections in pediatric oncology patients over a 14-month span. Intervention group received daily bath with Chlorhexidine, while the control group did not receive daily bath. The results showed that daily bath with antiseptic chlorhexidine as daily prophylactic antiseptic topical wash leads to decreased infection density amongst the pediatric oncology patients, especially in patients older than 12 years of age. Furthermore, daily chlorhexidine bathing significantly reduced the rate of hospital acquired infection in patients older than 12 years of age. The findings of this study suggest that daily bathing with chlorhexidine may be an effective measure of reducing nosocomial infection in pediatric oncology patients.

  19. Effects of system-bath coupling on Photosynthetic heat engine: A polaron master equation approach

    CERN Document Server

    Qin, M; Zhao, X L; Yi, X X

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we apply the polaron master equation, which offers the possibilities to interpolate between weak and strong system-bath coupling, to study how system-bath couplings affect charge transfer processes in Photosystem II reaction center (PSII RC) inspired quantum heat engine (QHE) model in a wide parameter range. The effects of bath correlation and temperature, together with the combined effects of these factors are also discussed in details. The results show a variety of dynamical behaviours. We interpret these results in terms of noise-assisted transport effect and dynamical localization which correspond to two mechanisms underpinning the transfer process in photosynthetic complexes: One is resonance energy transfer and the other is dynamical localization effect captured by the polaron master equation. The effects of system-bath coupling and bath correlation are incorporated in the effective system-bath coupling strength determining whether noise-assisted transport effect or dynamical localization...

  20. Bath water contamination with Legionella and nontuberculous mycobacteria in 24-hour home baths, hot springs, and public bathhouses of Nagano Prefecture, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Michiko; Oana, Kozue; Kawakami, Yoshiyuki

    2014-01-01

    Bath water samples were collected from 116 hot springs, 197 public bathhouses, and 38 24-hour home baths in Nagano Prefecture, Japan, during the period of April 2009 to November 2011, for determining the presence and extent of contamination with Legionella and nontuberculous mycobacteria. Cultures positive for Legionella were observed in 123 of the 3,314 bath water samples examined. The distribution and abundance of Legionella and/or combined contamination with Legionella and nontuberculous mycobacteria were investigated to clarify the contamination levels. The abundance of Legionella was demonstrated to correlate considerably with the levels of combined contamination with Legionella and nontuberculous mycobacteria. Legionella spp. were obtained from 61% of the water samples from 24-hour home baths, but only from 3% of the samples from public bathhouses and hot springs. This is despite the fact that a few outbreaks of Legionnaires' disease in Nagano Prefecture as well as other regions of Japan have been traced to bath water contamination. The comparatively higher rate of contamination of the 24-hour home baths is a matter of concern. It is therefore advisable to routinely implement good maintenance of the water basins, particularly of the 24-hour home baths.

  1. Incidence of Symptoms and Accidents During Baths and Showers Among the Japanese General Public

    OpenAIRE

    Hayasaka, Shinya; Shibata, Yosuke; Noda, Tatsuya; Goto, Yasuaki; Ojima, Toshiyuki

    2011-01-01

    Background Bathing is a deeply ingrained custom among Japanese; however, data on the incidence rate of symptoms and accidents during bathing have not yet been reported for the Japanese general public. Methods We conducted a population-based cross-sectional study of 617 Japanese adults who attended a specialized health checkup. Participants completed a self-administered questionnaire to assess weekly frequencies of bathtub bathing and showering and the frequency of symptoms/accidents (falling,...

  2. The Finnish sauna bath and its use in patients with cardiovascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keast, M L; Adamo, K B

    2000-01-01

    The Finnish tradition of sauna bathing is meant to be an experience in relaxation, and the length of time spent in the sauna and the preferred temperature vary considerably among individuals. The pleasures of sauna bathing can be considered safe and without undue risk of cardiac complications even for CVD patients, providing bathing is conducted sensibly for an appropriate period of time, and extremes in temperature are voided.

  3. Control of Decoherence and Relaxation by Frequency Modulation of Heat Bath

    CERN Document Server

    Agarwal, G S

    2000-01-01

    We demonstrate in a very general fashion, considerable slowing down of decoherence and relaxation by fast frequency modulation of the system heat bath coupling. The slowing occurs as the decoherence rates are now determined by the spectral components of bath correlations which are shifted due to fast modulation. We present several examples including the slowing down of the heating of a trapped ion, where the system - bath interaction is not necessarily Markovian.

  4. Quantum Otto engine using a single ion and a single thermal bath

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswas, Asoka; Chand, Suman

    2016-05-01

    Quantum heat engines employ a quantum system as the working fluid, that gives rise to large work efficiency, beyond the limit for classical heat engines. Existing proposals for implementing quantum heat engines require that the system interacts with the hot bath and the cold bath (both modelled as a classical system) in an alternative fashion and therefore assumes ability to switch off the interaction with the bath during a certain stage of the heat-cycle. However, it is not possible to decouple a quantum system from its always-on interaction with the bath without use of complex pulse sequences. It is also hard to identify two different baths at two different temperatures in quantum domain, that sequentially interact with the system. Here, we show how to implement a quantum Otto engine without requiring to decouple the bath in a sequential manner. This is done by considering a single thermal bath, coupled to a single trapped ion. The electronic degree of freedom of the ion is chosen as a two-level working fluid while the vibrational degree of freedom plays the role of the cold bath. Measuring the electronic state mimics the release of heat into the cold bath. Thus, our model is fully quantum and exhibits very large work efficiency, asymptotically close to unity.

  5. Culture and long-term care: the bath as social service in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traphagan, John W

    2004-01-01

    A central feature of Japan's approach to community-based care of the elderly, including long-term home health care, is the emphasis on providing bath facilities. For mobile elders, senior centers typically provide a public bathing facility in which people can enjoy a relaxing soak along with friends who also visit the centers. In terms of in-home long-term care, visiting bath services are provided to assist family care providers with the difflcult task of bathing a frail or disabled elder--a task made more problematic as a result of the Japanese style of bathing. I argue that the bath, as social service, is a culturally shaped solution to a specific problem of elder care that arises in the Japanese context as a result of the importance of the bath in everyday life for Japanese. While the services may be considered specific to Japan, some aspects of bathing services, particularly the mobile bath service, may also have applicability in the United States.

  6. Health risk assessment standards of cyanobacteria bloom occurrence in bathing sites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Stankiewicz

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Threat for human health appears during a massive cyanobacteria bloom in potable water used for human consumption or in basins used for recreational purposes. General health risk assessment standards and preventive measures to be taken by sanitation service were presented in scope of: – evaluation of cyanobacteria bloom occurrence in bathing sites / water bodies, – procedures in case of cyanobacteria bloom, including health risk assessment and decision making process to protect users’ health at bathing sites, – preventive measures, to be taken in case of cyanobacteria bloom occurrence in bathing sites and basins, where bathing sites are located.

  7. Harmonic bath averaged Hamiltonian: an efficient tool to capture quantum effects of large systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yonggang; Liu, Xiaomeng; Meuwly, Markus; Xiao, Liantuan; Jia, Suotang

    2012-11-26

    Starting from a reaction path Hamiltonian, a suitably reduced harmonic bath averaged Hamiltonian is derived by averaging over all the normal mode coordinates. Generalization of the harmonic bath averaged Hamiltonian to any dimensions are performed and the feasibility to use a linear reaction path/surface are investigated and discussed. By use of a harmonic bath averaged Hamiltonian, the tunneling splitting and proton transfer dynamics of malonaldehyde is briefly discussed and shows that the harmonic bath averaged Hamiltonian is an efficient tool to capture quantum effects in larger systems.

  8. The Entropy Production Distribution in Non-Markovian Thermal Baths

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Inés Jiménez-Aquino

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In this work we study the distribution function for the total entropy production of a Brownian particle embedded in a non-Markovian thermal bath. The problem is studied in the overdamped approximation of the generalized Langevin equation, which accounts for a friction memory kernel characteristic of a Gaussian colored noise. The problem is studied in two physical situations: (i when the particle in the harmonic trap is subjected to an arbitrary time-dependent driving force; and (ii when the minimum of the harmonic trap is arbitrarily dragged out of equilibrium by an external force. By assuming a natural non Markovian canonical distribution for the initial conditions, the distribution function for the total entropy production becomes a non Gaussian one. Its characterization is then given through the first three cumulants.

  9. Resonator-assisted quantum bath engineering of a flux qubit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xian-Peng; Shen, Li-Tuo; Yin, Zhang-Qi; Wu, Huai-Zhi; Yang, Zhen-Biao

    2015-01-01

    We demonstrate quantum bath engineering for preparation of any orbital state with the controllable phase factor of a superconducting flux qubit assisted by a microwave coplanar waveguide resonator. We investigate the polarization efficiency of the arbitrary direction rotating on the Bloch sphere, and obtain an effective Rabi frequency by using the convergence condition of the Markovian master equation. The processes of polarization can be implemented effectively in a dissipative environment created by resonator photon loss when the spectrum of the microwave resonator matches with the specially tailored Rabi and resonant frequencies of the drive. Our calculations indicate that state-preparation fidelities in excess of 99% and the required time on the order of magnitude of a microsecond are in principle possible for experimentally reasonable sample parameters. Furthermore, our proposal could be applied to other systems with spin-based qubits.

  10. Chemical bath ZnSe thin films: deposition and characterisation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lokhande, C. D.; Patil, P. S.; Ennaoui, A.; Tributsch, H.

    1998-01-01

    The zinc selenide (ZnSe) thin films have been deposited by a simple and inexpensive chemical bath deposition (CBD) method. The selenourea was used as a selenide ion source. The ZnSe films have been characterised by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDAX), Rutherford back scattering (RBS), and optical absorption. The as-deposited ZnSe films on various substrates are found to be amorphous and contain O2 and N2 in addition to Zn and Se. The optical band gap of the film is estimated to be 2.9 eV. The films are photoactive as evidenced by time resolved microwave conductivity (TRMC).

  11. Maximum Power Output of Quantum Heat Engine with Energy Bath

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Shengnan

    2016-01-01

    The difference between quantum isoenergetic process and quantum isothermal process comes from the violation of the law of equipartition of energy in the quantum regime. To reveal an important physical meaning of this fact, here we study a special type of quantum heat engine consisting of three processes: isoenergetic, isothermal and adiabatic processes. Therefore, this engine works between the energy and heat baths. Combining two engines of this kind, it is possible to realize the quantum Carnot engine. Furthermore, considering finite velocity of change of the potential shape, here an infinite square well with moving walls, the power output of the engine is discussed. It is found that the efficiency and power output are both closely dependent on the initial and final states of the quantum isothermal process. The performance of the engine cycle is shown to be optimized by control of the occupation probability of the ground state, which is determined by the temperature and the potential width. The relation betw...

  12. Sequential injection methodology for carbon speciation in bathing waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Inês C; Mesquita, Raquel B R; Machado, Ana; Bordalo, Adriano A; Rangel, António O S S

    2013-05-17

    A sequential injection method (SIA) for carbon speciation in inland bathing waters was developed comprising, in a single manifold, the determination of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC), free dissolved carbon dioxide (CO2), total carbon (TC), dissolved organic carbon and alkalinity. The determination of DIC, CO2 and TC was based on colour change of bromothymol blue (660 nm) after CO2 diffusion through a hydrophobic membrane placed in a gas diffusion unit (GDU). For the DIC determination, an in-line acidification prior to the GDU was performed and, for the TC determination, an in-line UV photo-oxidation of the sample prior to GDU ensured the conversion of all carbon forms into CO2. Dissolved organic carbon (DOC) was determined by subtracting the obtained DIC value from the TC obtained value. The determination of alkalinity was based on the spectrophotometric measurement of bromocresol green colour change (611 nm) after reaction with acetic acid. The developed SIA method enabled the determination of DIC (0.24-3.5 mg C L(-1)), CO2 (1.0-10 mg C L(-1)), TC (0.50-4.0 mg C L(-1)) and alkalinity (1.2-4.7 mg C L(-1) and 4.7-19 mg C L(-1)) with limits of detection of: 9.5 μg C L(-1), 20 μg C L(-1), 0.21 mg C L(-1), 0.32 mg C L(-1), respectively. The SIA system was effectively applied to inland bathing waters and the results showed good agreement with reference procedures.

  13. Experimental simulation of a stellar photon bath by bremsstrahlung the astrophysical $\\gamma$-process

    CERN Document Server

    Mohr, P J; Babilon, M; Enders, J; Hartmann, T; Hutter, C; Rauscher, T; Volz, S; Zilges, A

    2000-01-01

    The nucleosynthesis of heavy proton-rich nuclei in a stellar photon bath at temperatures of the astrophysical $\\gamma$-process was investigated where the photon bath was simulated by the superposition of bremsstrahlung spectra with different endpoint energies. The method was applied to derive ($\\gamma$,n) cross sections and reaction rates for several platinum isotopes.

  14. 75 FR 31691 - Safety Standard for Infant Bath Seats: Final Rule

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-04

    ... use is not known. Data from a 2005 survey by the American Baby Group (2006 Baby Products Tracking... entail use with wet, naked babies. The data associated with these two incidents suggest that the unique... for bath seats, leaving the designer ample freedom to design a bath seat that allows easy entry...

  15. The Role of Persian Historical Bath in City and Urban Life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fariba Kermani

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The importance and necessity of bath and its status in city, the role of bath in social relations, its strong tie with religious and indigenous traditions and costumes, its significant relationship with medicine and medical approaches and its presence in most of important stages of life are examples of features that place the bathes in special position. Traditional requirements and health related approaches positioned washing and bathing as one of the Iranian customs accompanying the man from birth, to even after death. Obviously such a widespread and subtle phenomenon has been manifested in all different aspects of Iranian people’s social life. Accordingly, the location of baths in the city was determined based on social relations and environmental requirements and location of the water supplying system. This study answers these questions: What has been the role and status of the Iranian historical bathes in cities and people’s life? And based on that how have been the distribution and substitution of baths?  The results suggest that bath had an important role more than other public buildings and even in many cases it had been an assistant to them.

  16. Drop Fragmentation at Impact onto a Bath of an Immiscible Liquid

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lhuissier, H.E.; Sun, C.; Prosperetti, A.; Lohse, D.

    2013-01-01

    The impact of a drop onto a deep bath of an immiscible liquid is studied with emphasis on the drop fragmentation into a collection of noncoalescing daughter drops. At impact the drop flattens and spreads at the surface of the crater it transiently opens in the bath and reaches a maximum deformation,

  17. Effective spectral density functions from finite cut-off frequencies of baths

    CERN Document Server

    Liang, Xian-Ting

    2009-01-01

    Firstly, we obtain the effective spectral density functions of baths for two basic open quantum systems by setting cut-off frequencies of the baths finite. By using the spectral density functions and the conventional ones from infinite cut-off frequency of the baths we investigate the dynamics of open qubits. When the cut-off frequencies of the baths are smaller than about 5 times of the Rabi frequency of the qubits, the two kinds of spectral density functions result in different qubits' dynamics. Secondly, we obtain the effective spectral density functions of the baths for another two complex models from finite cut-off frequencies of the baths and through which we investigate the dynamics of open qubits in these models. One of these models is a quantum system couple to an intermediate harmonic oscillator and both of them couple to their independent baths respectively, and the other is both of them couple to a common bath. The qubit in the later model has longer decoherence and relaxation times. In the invest...

  18. Two-level system in spin baths: non-adiabatic dynamics and heat transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segal, Dvira

    2014-04-28

    We study the non-adiabatic dynamics of a two-state subsystem in a bath of independent spins using the non-interacting blip approximation, and derive an exact analytic expression for the relevant memory kernel. We show that in the thermodynamic limit, when the subsystem-bath coupling is diluted (uniformly) over many (infinite) degrees of freedom, our expression reduces to known results, corresponding to the harmonic bath with an effective, temperature-dependent, spectral density function. We then proceed and study the heat current characteristics in the out-of-equilibrium spin-spin-bath model, with a two-state subsystem bridging two thermal spin-baths of different temperatures. We compare the behavior of this model to the case of a spin connecting boson baths, and demonstrate pronounced qualitative differences between the two models. Specifically, we focus on the development of the thermal diode effect, and show that the spin-spin-bath model cannot support it at weak (subsystem-bath) coupling, while in the intermediate-strong coupling regime its rectifying performance outplays the spin-boson model.

  19. 78 FR 73506 - Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request: Infant Bath Seats

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-06

    ... modifications to reduce further the risk of injury associated with infant bath seats. 75 FR 31691. On July 31, 2012, the Commission adopted the revised ASTM standard for infant bath seats, ASTM F1967-11a. 77 FR....gov . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: In the Federal Register of August 30, 2013 (78 FR 53734),...

  20. [DNA metabolism in lymphocytes of experimental subjects during thermotherapy (sauna, Turkish bath)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Günther, R; Egg, D; Klein, D; Kocsis, F; Altmann, H

    1983-01-01

    The unprogrammed DNA synthesis (UDS) in the lymphocytes of the peripheral blood was significantly higher in regular sauna-users than in those who had not had a sauna for some time. Sedimentation velocity of the supercoiled DNA in the lymphocytes was decreased 1 h and 24 h after Turkish bath, but the difference from values before the bath was not statistically significant.

  1. CURRENT AND EMERGING TECHNOLOGIES FOR EXTENDING THE LIFETIME OF ELECTROLESS NICKEL PLATING BATHS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The waste treatment and rejuvenation of spent electroless nickel baths has attracted a considerable amount of interest from electroplating shops, electroless nickel suppliers, universities and regulatory agencies due to the finite life of the baths and the associated waste that t...

  2. Preparation of Hemodialyzer Made from Polyethersulfone Membrane by Dual-bath Coagulation Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    The dual-bath coagulation method was used for the preparation of PES membrane in this experiment . The main intent of this study was to assess the efforts of gelation conditions on the structures and properties .The dense top layer as well as porous supporting layer can be made by dnel-bath coagulation method simultaneously. Different internal quench medium obtained different membrane with different structures. With the increase in time in the first coagulation bath, pure water flux decreased and the clearance rates of urea and creatirine both first increased then decreased and increased slightly in the end. With the temperature of the second coagulation bath increasing, pure water flux increases and the clearance rates of urea and creatinine first increases then decreases and increases a little at last. Higher DMSO concentration ( wt/ wt ) in the second coagulation bath results in the increase of pure water flux and the decrease of urea & creatinine clearance rates.

  3. More accurate and efficient bath spectral densities from super-resolution

    CERN Document Server

    Markovich, Thomas; Parkhill, John; Kreisbeck, Christoph; Sanders, Jacob N; Andrade, Xavier; Aspuru-Guzik, Alán

    2013-01-01

    Quantum transport and other phenomena are typically modeled by coupling the system of interest to an environment, or bath, held at thermal equilibrium. Realistic bath models are at least as challenging to construct as models for the quantum systems themselves, since they must incorporate many degrees of freedom that interact with the system on a wide range of timescales. Owing to computational limitations, the environment is often modeled with simple functional forms, with a few parameters fit to experiment to yield semi-quantitative results. Growing computational resources have enabled the construction of more realistic bath models from molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. In this paper, we develop a numerical technique to construct these atomistic bath models with better accuracy and decreased cost. We apply a novel signal processing technique, known as super-resolution, combined with a dictionary of physically-motivated bath modes to derive spectral densities from MD simulations. Our approach reduces the r...

  4. New Brightener for Zn-Fe Alloy Plating from Sulphate Bath

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. M. Praveen

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Zn-Fe alloy electrodeposition was carried out in the presence of condensation product 2-{[(1E-(3,4-dimethoxyphenylmethylidene]amino}-3-hydroxypropanoic acid formed between veratraldehyde and serine in acid sulphate bath. Hull cell was used for optimizing the operating parameters and bath constituents. During deposition, the potential was shifted towards cathodic direction in the presence of addition agents and brightener. The polarization studies show that deposition taking place in basic bath and optimum bath was 1.08 and 1.15 V, respectively. Current efficiency and throwing power were reached around 85% and 26%, respectively. The SEM images of bright deposit indicated its fine-grained nature and appreciable reduction in the grain size. XRD studies have showed that the grain size of the deposit generated from optimum bath was 16 nm. UV-visible spectroscopic studies confirm the formation of complex between metal ion and brightener.

  5. [An outbreak of legionellosis in a new facility of hot spring bath in Hiuga City].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yabuuchi, Eiko; Agata, Kunio

    2004-02-01

    Following cerebrating ceremony in 20 June 2002, for the completion of Hiuga Sun-Park Hot Spring Bath "Ofunade-no-Yu" facilities, Miyazaki Prefecture, Kyushu Island, 200 neighbors were invited each day to experience bathing on 20 and 21 June. The Bath "Ofunade-no-Yu" officially opened on 1 July 2002. On 18 July, Hiuga Health Center was informed that 3 suspected Legionella pneumonia patients in a hospital and all of them have bathing history of "Ofunade-no-Yu". Health Center officers notified Hiuga City, the main proprietor of the Bath business, that on-site inspection on sanitary managements will be done next day and requested the City to keep the bath facilities as they are. On 19 July, Health Center officers collected bath water from seven places and recommended voluntary-closing of "Ofunade-no-Yu" business. Because of various reasons, Hiuga City did not accept the recommendation and continued business up to 23 July. Because Legionella pneumophila serogroup 1 strains from 4 patients' sputa and several bath water specimens were determined genetically similar by Pulsed Field Gel Electrophoresis of Sfi I-cut DNA. "Ofunede-no-Yu" was regarded as the source of infection of this outbreak. On 24 July, "Ofunade-no-Yu" accepted the Command to prohibit the business. Among 19,773 persons who took the bath during the period from 20 June to 23 July, 295 became ill, and 7 died. Among them, 34 were definitely diagnosed as Legionella pneumonia due to L. pneumophila SG 1, by either one or two tests of positive sputum culture, Legionella-specific urinary antigen, and significant rise of serum antibody titer against L. pneumophila SG 1. In addition to the 8 items shown by Miyazaki-Prefecture Investigation Committee as the cause of infection. Hiuga City Investigation Committee pointed out following 3 items: 1) Insufficient knowledge and understanding of stuffs on Legionella and legionellosis; 2) Residual water in tubing system after trial runs might lead multiplication of legionellae

  6. Effect of bath and luminal potassium concentration on ammonia production and secretion by mouse proximal tubules perfused in vitro.

    OpenAIRE

    Nagami, G T

    1990-01-01

    To determine the effects of acute changes in K+ concentration in vitro on ammonia production and secretion by the proximal tubule, we studied mouse S2 segments perfused with and bathed in Krebs-Ringer bicarbonate buffers containing various K+ concentrations. All bath solutions contained L-glutamine as the ammoniagenic substrate. High bath and luminal K+ concentrations (8 mM), but not high luminal K+ concentration alone, inhibited total ammonia production rates by 26%, while low bath and lumin...

  7. Effect of chlorhexidine bathing in preventing infections and reducing skin burden and environmental contamination: A review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donskey, Curtis J; Deshpande, Abhishek

    2016-05-01

    Chlorhexidine bathing is effective in reducing levels of pathogens on skin. In this review, we examine the evidence that chlorhexidine bathing can prevent colonization and infection with health care-associated pathogens and reduce dissemination to the environment and the hands of personnel. The importance of education and monitoring of compliance with bathing procedures is emphasized in order to optimize chlorhexidine bathing in clinical practice.

  8. Maximum Power Output of Quantum Heat Engine with Energy Bath

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shengnan Liu

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The difference between quantum isoenergetic process and quantum isothermal process comes from the violation of the law of equipartition of energy in the quantum regime. To reveal an important physical meaning of this fact, here we study a special type of quantum heat engine consisting of three processes: isoenergetic, isothermal and adiabatic processes. Therefore, this engine works between the energy and heat baths. Combining two engines of this kind, it is possible to realize the quantum Carnot engine. Furthermore, considering finite velocity of change of the potential shape, here an infinite square well with moving walls, the power output of the engine is discussed. It is found that the efficiency and power output are both closely dependent on the initial and final states of the quantum isothermal process. The performance of the engine cycle is shown to be optimized by control of the occupation probability of the ground state, which is determined by the temperature and the potential width. The relation between the efficiency and power output is also discussed.

  9. Cobalt Xanthate Thin Film with Chemical Bath Deposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İ. A. Kariper

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Cobalt xanthate thin films (CXTFs were successfully deposited by chemical bath deposition, onto amorphous glass substrates, as well as on p- and n-silicon, indium tin oxide, and poly(methyl methacrylate. The structure of the films was analyzed by far-infrared spectrum (FIR, mid-infrared (MIR spectrum, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM. These films were investigated from their structural, optical, and electrical properties point of view. Electrical properties were measured using four-point method, whereas optical properties were investigated via UV-VIS spectroscopic technique. Uniform distribution of grains was clearly observed from the photographs taken by scanning electron microscope (SEM. The transmittance was about 70–80% (4 hours, 50°C. The optical band gap of the CXTF was graphically estimated to be 3.99–4.02 eV. The resistivity of the films was calculated as 22.47–75.91 Ω·cm on commercial glass depending on film thickness and 44.90–73.10 Ω ·cm on the other substrates. It has been observed that the relative resistivity changed with film thickness. The MIR and FIR spectra of the films were in agreement with the literature analogues. The expected peaks of cobalt xanthate were observed in NMR analysis on glass. The films were dipped in chloroform as organic solvent and were analyzed by NMR.

  10. Analysis of tellurium thin films electrodeposition from acidic citric bath

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowalik, Remigiusz; Kutyła, Dawid; Mech, Krzysztof; Żabiński, Piotr

    2016-12-01

    This work presents the description of the electrochemical process of formation thin tellurium layers from citrate acidic solution. The suggested methodology consists in the preparation of stable acidic baths with high content of tellurium, and with the addition of citrate acid. In order to analyse the mechanism of the process of tellurium deposition, the electroanalytical tests were conducted. The tests of cyclic voltammetry and hydrodynamic ones were performed with the use of polycrystalline gold disk electrode. The range of potentials in which deposition of tellurium in direct four-electron process is possible was determined as well as the reduction of deposited Te° to Te2- and its re-deposition as a result of the comproportionation reaction. On the basis of the obtained results, the deposition of tellurium was conducted by the potentiostatic method. The influence of a deposition potential and a concentration of TeO2 in the solution on the rate of tellurium coatings deposition was examined. The presence of tellurium was confirmed by X-ray spectrofluorometry and electron probe microanalysis. In order to determine the phase composition and the morphology, the obtained coatings were analysed with the use of x-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy.

  11. Mechanisms of Carrier Transport Induced by a Microswimmer Bath

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaiser, Andreas; Sokolov, Andrey; Aranson, Igor S.; Lowen, Hartmut

    2015-04-01

    Recently, it was found that a wedgelike microparticle (referred to as ”carrier”) which is only allowed to translate but not to rotate exhibits a directed translational motion along the wedge cusp if it is exposed to a bath of microswimmers. Here we model this effect in detail by resolving the microswimmers explicitly using interaction models with different degrees of mutual alignment. Using computer simulations we study the impact of these interactions on the transport efficiency of V-shaped carrier. We show that the transport mechanisms itself strongly depends on the degree of alignment embodied in the modelling of the individual swimmer dynamics. For weak alignment, optimal carrier transport occurs in the turbulent microswimmer state and is induced by swirl depletion inside the carrier. For strong aligning interactions, optimal transport occurs already in the dilute regime and is mediated by a polar cloud of swimmers in the carrier wake pushing the wedge-particle forward. We also demonstrate that the optimal shape of the carrier leading to maximal transport speed depends on the kind of interaction model used.

  12. Mephedrone (‘bath salt’) pharmacology: insights from invertebrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramoz, Leda; Lodi, Sabah; Bhatt, Parth; Reitz, Allen B.; Tallarida, Chris; Tallarida, Ronald J.; Raffa, Robert B.; Rawls, Scott M.

    2014-01-01

    Psychoactive bath salts (also called meph, drone, meow meow, m-CAT, bounce, bubbles, mad cow, etc.) contain a substance called mephedrone (4-methylcathinone) that may share psychostimulant properties with amphetamine and cocaine. However, there are only limited studies of the neuropharmacological profile of mephedrone. The present study used an established invertebrate (planarian) assay to test the hypothesis that acute and repeated mephedrone exposure produces psychostimulant-like behavioral effects. Acute mephedrone administration (50 – 1000 µM) produced stereotyped movements that were attenuated by a dopamine receptor antagonist (SCH 23390) (0.3 µM). Spontaneous discontinuation of mephedrone exposure (1, 10 µM) (60 min) resulted in an abstinence-induced withdrawal response (i.e., reduced motility). In place conditioning experiments, planarians in which mephedrone (100, 500 µM) was paired with the non-preferred environment during conditioning displayed a shift in preference upon subsequent testing. These results suggest that mephedrone produces three behavioral effects associated with psychostimulant drugs, namely dopamine-sensitive stereotyped movements, abstinence-induced withdrawal, and environmental place conditioning. PMID:22300981

  13. Microwave Induced Ethanol Bath Bonding for PMMA Microfluidic Device

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cuicui Zhuang

    2016-01-01

    High bonding strength, low deformation and convenient procedure are all very important aspects in the microfluidic device fabrication process. In this paper, an improved microwave induced bonding technology is proposed to fabricate microfluidic device based on methyl methacrylate (PMMA). This method employs pure ethanol as the bonding assisted solvent. The ethanol not only acts as the microwave absorbing material, but also works as the organic solvent in bath. The presented research work has shown that the bonding process can be completed in less than 45 s. Furthermore, the convenient bonding only applies microwave oven, beakers and binder clips. Then, we discuss effects of microwave power, bonding time on bonding strength and deformation of microstructures on PMMA microfluidic device. Finally, a 4 layers micro⁃mixer has been fabricated using the proposed bonding technique which includes 15 trapezoid micro⁃channels, 9 T⁃type mix units and an X⁃type mix unit. Experimental results show that the proposed bonding method have some advantages compared with several traditional bonding technologies, such as hot pressing bonding, ultrasonic bonding and solvent assisted bonding methods in respect of bonding strength, deformation and bonding process. The presented work would be helpful for low coat mass production of multilayer polymer microfluidic devices in lab.

  14. The Thermal Bath of de Sitter from Holography

    CERN Document Server

    Chu, Chong-Sun

    2016-01-01

    We consider the AdS/dS CFT correspondence and study the nature of the thermal bath of the de Sitter field theory using holography. Unlike the temperature of a thermal field theory in flat spacetime, the temperature of a superconformal field theory on de Sitter space is an integral part of the theory and leaves intact the conformal symmetry and supersymmetry. In the dual AdS side, there is no black hole. Instead we have cosmological expansion of the de Sitter factor. We consider a number of different observables, such as the entanglement entropy, two point correlation function, Wilson loops corresponding to static and spinning mesons in the field theory, and study their thermal properties using holography. The former two quantities have trivial temperature dependence due to conformal symmetry. We compute the energy of the quark anti-quark bound state for a static meson, as well as the energy and the angular momentum for a spinning meson. We find that there is a maximum distance, as well as a maximum spin for t...

  15. Mapping of an ultrasonic bath for ultrasound assisted extraction of mangiferin from Mangifera indica leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulkarni, Vrushali M; Rathod, Virendra K

    2014-03-01

    The present work deals with the mapping of an ultrasonic bath for the maximum extraction of mangiferin from Mangifera indica leaves. I3(-) liberation experiments (chemical transformations) and extraction (physical transformations) were carried out at different locations in an ultrasonic bath and compared. The experimental findings indicated a similar trend in variation in an ultrasonic bath by both these methods. Various parameters such as position and depth of vessel in an ultrasonic bath, diameter and shape of a vessel, frequency and input power which affect the extraction yield have been studied in detail. Maximum yield of mangiferin obtained was approximately 31 mg/g at optimized parameters: distance of 2.54 cm above the bottom of the bath, 7 cm diameter of vessel, flat bottom vessel, 6.35 cm liquid height, 122 W input power and 25 kHz frequency. The present work indicates that the position and depth of vessel in an ultrasonic bath, diameter and shape of a vessel, frequency and input power have significant effect on the extraction yield. This work can be used as a base for all ultrasonic baths to obtain maximum efficiency for ultrasound assisted extraction.

  16. Transient state work fluctuation theorem for a classical harmonic oscillator linearly coupled to a harmonic bath

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Rajarshi Chakrabarti

    2009-04-01

    Based on a Hamiltonian description we present a rigorous derivation of the transient state work fluctuation theorem and the Jarzynski equality for a classical harmonic oscillator linearly coupled to a harmonic heat bath, which is dragged by an external agent. Coupling with the bath makes the dynamics dissipative. Since we do not assume anything about the spectral nature of the harmonic bath the derivation is not restricted only to the Ohmic bath, rather it is more general, for a non-Ohmic bath. We also derive expressions of the average work done and the variance of the work done in terms of the two-time correlation function of the fluctuations of the position of the harmonic oscillator. In the case of an Ohmic bath, we use these relations to evaluate the average work done and the variance of the work done analytically and verify the transient state work fluctuation theorem quantitatively. Actually these relations have far-reaching consequences. They can be used to numerically evaluate the average work done and the variance of the work done in the case of a non-Ohmic bath when analytical evaluation is not possible.

  17. Pharmacokinetics of ivermectin applied topically by whole-body bathing method in healthy volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyajima, Atsushi; Hirota, Takashi; Tashiro, Mari; Noguchi, Wataru; Kawano, Yayoi; Hanawa, Takehisa; Kigure, Akira; Anata, Taichi; Yamamoto, Yosuke; Yuasa, Nae; Koshino, Machi; Shiraishi, Yumi; Yuzawa, Kaoru; Akagi, Keita; Yoshimasu, Takashi; Makigami, Kuniko; Komoda, Masayo

    2016-10-15

    As a novel administration method of ivermectin (IVM) for scabies treatment, we proposed a "whole-body bathing method (WBBM)". In this method, the patients would bathe themselves in a bathing fluid containing IVM at an effective concentration. Previously, we demonstrated that WBBM could deliver IVM to the skin but not to the plasma in rats. In the present study, to assess the clinical validity of the method an arm bathing examination (first trial) and a whole-body bathing examination (second trial) were conducted in healthy volunteers. In both the first and second trials, after bathing in fluid containing IVM, the exposure in the stratum corneum was higher compared with that after taking IVM p.o. as reported previously. IVM was not detected in plasma at any sampling point after the whole-body bathing in the second trial. Furthermore no serious adverse events were found. These results in both trials suggest that WBBM can deliver IVM to the human stratum corneum without systemic exposure or serious adverse effects in healthy volunteers, and at concentrations that would be adequate for scabies treatment.

  18. Initial system-bath state via the maximum-entropy principle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Jibo; Len, Yink Loong; Ng, Hui Khoon

    2016-11-01

    The initial state of a system-bath composite is needed as the input for prediction from any quantum evolution equation to describe subsequent system-only reduced dynamics or the noise on the system from joint evolution of the system and the bath. The conventional wisdom is to write down an uncorrelated state as if the system and the bath were prepared in the absence of each other; yet, such a factorized state cannot be the exact description in the presence of system-bath interactions. Here, we show how to go beyond the simplistic factorized-state prescription using ideas from quantum tomography: We employ the maximum-entropy principle to deduce an initial system-bath state consistent with the available information. For the generic case of weak interactions, we obtain an explicit formula for the correction to the factorized state. Such a state turns out to have little correlation between the system and the bath, which we can quantify using our formula. This has implications, in particular, on the subject of subsequent non-completely positive dynamics of the system. Deviation from predictions based on such an almost uncorrelated state is indicative of accidental control of hidden degrees of freedom in the bath.

  19. Two-dimensional spectroscopy for harmonic vibrational modes with nonlinear system-bath interactions. I. Gaussian-white case

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steffen, T; Tanimura, Y

    2000-01-01

    The quantum Fokker-Planck equation is derived for a system nonlinearly coupled to a harmonic oscillator bath. The system-bath interaction is assumed to be linear in the bath coordinates but quadratic in the system coordinate. The relaxation induced dynamics of a harmonic system are investigated by s

  20. INFLUENCE OF TURKISH BATH CULTURE ON THE DESIGN OF SPA & WELLNESS VENUES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Banu APAYDIN BAŞA

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Throughout the history, water has been one of the main determinants of the human lifestyle in every culture. Turkish baths, which are among the most important extant water structures, are the products of a building type that appeared with the merger of Turkish bathing culture with the Anatolian bathing culture. At present, Turkish baths are defined in a different way as the venues for socializing in addition to bathing. In continuous change, modern man desires to reach global health services in the globalizing world in order to both protect his wellness and obtain the most effective treatment. In addition to its physical implications, the concept of wellness also refers to emotional and socio-cultural well-being. This changing paradigm of wellness has created the concept of Spa & wellness. Spa & wellness center is the name given to water therapies that have been applied since the Romans. The main reason of this development and change is the prominence of sauna-vapor-water systems as supporting and complementary elements to medicine and the demands of the users in this regard. The man of the present time desires to reach the scientific and technological developments in modern science not only for health and treatment services, but also for beauty and to “stay young”. This desire has turned health tourism into an important tourism trend in the world. Therefore, spatial formations must be dwelled on for Spa & wellness centers to function properly. This study outlines the influences of traditional Turkish baths on the design of the present time Spa & wellness venues. In order to identify these influences, initially the Turkish bath culture and the interior characteristics of Turkish bath are examined. Then, Spa & wellness concept and design criteria are searched. Finally, in accordance with these examinations, the spatial interactions of the traditional Turkish baths with Spa & wellness centers are evaluated.

  1. Microbiological Analysis in Three Diverse Natural Geothermal Bathing Pools in Iceland

    OpenAIRE

    Thorolfsdottir, Berglind Osk Th.; Marteinsson, Viggo Thor

    2013-01-01

    Natural thermal bathing pools contain geothermal water that is very popular to bathe in but the water is not sterilized, irradiated or treated in any way. Increasing tourism in Iceland will lead to increasing numbers of bath guests, which can in turn affect the microbial flora in the pools and therefore user safety. Today, there is no legislation that applies to natural geothermal pools in Iceland, as the water is not used for consumption and the pools are not defined as public swimming pools...

  2. Fluid Flow Modeling of Arc Plasma and Bath Circulation in DC Electric Arc Furnace

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Feng-hua; JIN Zhi-jian; ZHU Zi-shu

    2006-01-01

    A mathematical model describing the flow field, heat transfer and the electromagnetic phenomenon in a DC electric arc furnace has been developed. First the governing equations in the arc plasma region are solved and the calculated results of heat transfer, current density and shear stresses on the anode surface are used as boundary conditions in a model of molten bath. Then a two-dimensional time-dependent model is used to describe the flow field and electromagnetic phenomenon in the molten bath. Moreover, the effect of bottom electrode diameter on the circulation of molten bath is studied.

  3. Controlling the partial coalescence of a droplet onto a vertically vibrated bath

    CERN Document Server

    Gilet, T; Vandewalle, N

    2007-01-01

    A new method is proposed to stop a cascade of partial coalescences of a droplet laid onto a liquid bath. This technique consists in vertically vibrating the bath in order to keep small droplets bouncing. Since large droplets are not able to bounce, they partially coalesce until they reach a critical size. The system behaves as a low pass filter : droplets smaller than the critical size are selected. This size has been investigated as a function of the bath acceleration. The method could be used in order to create droplets with a defined size.

  4. Controlling the partial coalescence of a droplet on a vertically vibrated bath.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilet, T; Vandewalle, N; Dorbolo, S

    2007-09-01

    A method is proposed to stop the cascade of partial coalescences of a droplet laid on a liquid bath. The strategy consists of vibrating the bath in the vertical direction in order to keep small droplets bouncing. Since large droplets are not able to bounce, they partially coalesce until they reach a critical size. The system behaves as a low pass filter: droplets smaller than the critical size are selected. This size has been investigated as a function of the acceleration and the frequency of the bath vibration. Results suggest that the limit size for bouncing is related to the first mode of the droplet deformation.

  5. On the operation of machines powered by quantum non-thermal baths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niedenzu, Wolfgang; Gelbwaser-Klimovsky, David; Kofman, Abraham G.; Kurizki, Gershon

    2016-08-01

    Diverse models of engines energised by quantum-coherent, hence non-thermal, baths allow the engine efficiency to transgress the standard thermodynamic Carnot bound. These transgressions call for an elucidation of the underlying mechanisms. Here we show that non-thermal baths may impart not only heat, but also mechanical work to a machine. The Carnot bound is inapplicable to such a hybrid machine. Intriguingly, it may exhibit dual action, concurrently as engine and refrigerator, with up to 100% efficiency. We conclude that even though a machine powered by a quantum bath may exhibit an unconventional performance, it still abides by the traditional principles of thermodynamics.

  6. Coherence and control of quantum registers based on electronic spin in a nuclear spin bath.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cappellaro, P; Jiang, L; Hodges, J S; Lukin, M D

    2009-05-29

    We consider a protocol for the control of few-qubit registers comprising one electronic spin embedded in a nuclear spin bath. We show how to isolate a few proximal nuclear spins from the rest of the bath and use them as building blocks for a potentially scalable quantum information processor. We describe how coherent control techniques based on magnetic resonance methods can be adapted to these solid-state spin systems, to provide not only efficient, high fidelity manipulation but also decoupling from the spin bath. As an example, we analyze feasible performances and practical limitations in the realistic setting of nitrogen-vacancy centers in diamond.

  7. Bath's law Derived from the Gutenberg-Richter law and from Aftershock Properties

    CERN Document Server

    Helmsttetter, A; Helmsttetter, Agnes; Sornette, Didier

    2003-01-01

    The empirical Bath's law states that the average magnitude difference between a mainshock and its largest aftershock is 1.2, regardless of the mainshock magnitude. We first point out that the standard interpretation of Bath's law in terms of the two largest events of a self-similar set of independent events is incorrect, because it neglects the selection procedure entering the definition of aftershocks. We reconcile Bath's law with (i) the existence of a universal Gutenberg-Richter law for all earthquakes and (ii) with the empirical observation (productivity law) that each earthquake of magnitude m triggers other earthquakes at a rate ~10^(alpha m) with alpha~0.8.

  8. Effects of Sodium Citrate Concentration on Electroless Ni-Fe Bath Stability and Deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Myung-Won; Kang, Sung K.; Lee, Jae-Ho

    2014-01-01

    In this research, electroless Ni-Fe bath stability and deposition characteristics were investigated for various sodium citrate concentrations. Complexing agents such as sodium citrate are one of the main components of such electroless plating baths. Since they could play various roles such as maintaining pH stability, preventing precipitation of metal salts, and reducing the concentrations of free metal ions, the concentration of complexing agents in the plating bath is an important parameter for electroless deposition processes. In this research, unstable baths were obtained for insufficient sodium citrate concentrations, and these phenomena were analyzed with ChemEQL. Moreover, the deposition characteristics of electroless Ni-Fe for under bump metallurgy diffusion barriers were also investigated using energy-dispersive spectroscopy and field-emission scanning electron microscopy.

  9. Health Effect of Forest Bathing Trip on Elderly Patients with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Bing Bing; Yang, Zhou Xin; Mao, Gen Xiang; Lyu, Yuan Dong; Wen, Xiao Lin; Xu, Wei Hong; Lyu, Xiao Ling; Cao, Yong Bao; Wang, Guo Fu

    2016-03-01

    Forest bathing trip is a short, leisurely visit to forest. In this study we determined the health effects of forest bathing trip on elderly patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The patients were randomly divided into two groups. One group was sent to forest, and the other was sent to an urban area as control. Flow cytometry, ELISA, and profile of mood states (POMS) evaluation were performed. In the forest group, we found a significant decrease of perforin and granzyme B expressions, accompanied by decreased levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines and stress hormones. Meanwhile, the scores in the negative subscales of POMS decreased after forest bathing trip. These results indicate that forest bathing trip has health effect on elderly COPD patients by reducing inflammation and stress level.

  10. Antimony sulfide thin films prepared by laser assisted chemical bath deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaji, S.; Garcia, L. V.; Loredo, S. L.; Krishnan, B.; Aguilar Martinez, J. A.; Das Roy, T. K.; Avellaneda, D. A.

    2017-01-01

    Antimony sulfide (Sb2S3) thin films were prepared by laser assisted chemical bath deposition (LACBD) technique. These thin films were deposited on glass substrates from a chemical bath containing antimony chloride, acetone and sodium thiosulfate under various conditions of normal chemical bath deposition (CBD) as well as in-situ irradiation of the chemical bath using a continuous laser of 532 nm wavelength. Structure, composition, morphology, optical and electrical properties of the Sb2S3 thin films produced by normal CBD and LACBD were analyzed by X-Ray diffraction (XRD), Raman Spectroscopy, Atomic force microscopy (AFM), X-Ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), UV-vis spectroscopy and Photoconductivity. The results showed that LACBD is an effective synthesis technique to obtain Sb2S3 thin films for optoelectronic applications.

  11. 2-Mercaptobenzimidazole, 2-Mercaptobenzothiazole, and Thioglycolic Acid in an Electroless Nickel-Plating Bath

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet Ozan Gezerman

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of three different materials, 2-mercaptobenzimidazole, 2-mercaptobenzothiazole, and thioglycolic acid, was investigated to improve the performance of electroless nickel-plating baths. By changing the concentrations of these materials, sample plates were coated. Optical microscope images were obtained by selecting representative coated plates. From the results of the investigations, the effects of these materials on electroless nickel plating were observed, and the most appropriate amounts of these materials for nickel plating were determined. Moreover, the nickel plating speed observed with the bath solution containing 2-mercaptobenzimidazole, 2-mercaptobenzothiazole, and thioglycolic acid is higher than that in the case of traditional electroless plating baths, but the nickel consumption amount in the former case is lower. In order to minimize the waste water generated from electroless nickel-plating baths, we determined the lowest amounts of the chemicals that can be used for the concentrations reported in the literature.

  12. Directed motion generated by heat bath nonlinearly driven by external noise

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chaudhuri, J Ray [Department of Physics, Katwa College, Katwa, Burdwan 713 130, West Bengal (India); Barik, D [Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science, Jadavpur, Kolkata 700 032 (India); Banik, S K [Department of Physics, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, VA 24061-0435 (United States)

    2007-12-07

    Based on the heat bath system approach where the bath is nonlinearly modulated by an external Gaussian random force, we propose a new microscopic model to study directed motion in the overdamped limit for a nonequilibrium open system. Making use of the coupling between the heat bath and the external modulation as a small perturbation, we construct a Langevin equation with multiplicative noise- and space-dependent dissipation and the corresponding Fokker-Planck-Smoluchowski equation in the overdamped limit. We examine the thermodynamic consistency condition and explore the possibility of observing a phase-induced current as a consequence of state-dependent diffusion and, necessarily, nonlinear driving of the heat bath by the external noise.

  13. Dual Bath Electrodeposition of Alternate Multilayer Coatings of Zinc and Nickel Deposits

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XINWen-li; FEIJing-yin; LIANGGuo-zheng

    2004-01-01

    The synthesis of zinc and nickel alternate multilayer coatings produced by successive deposition from dual baths containing a revised zinc sulphate electrolyte and a new developed nickel bath has been investigated. Smooth and uniform zinc-nickel compositionally modulated multilayered (CMM) coatings with different multilayer configurations were obtained. The surface and cross-sectional morphologies of samples were examined using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Cross-sectional morphology showed the layered structure of the coatings clearly.

  14. Effects of Forest Bathing on Cardiovascular and Metabolic Parameters in Middle-Aged Males

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qing Li

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, we investigated the effects of a forest bathing on cardiovascular and metabolic parameters. Nineteen middle-aged male subjects were selected after they provided informed consent. These subjects took day trips to a forest park in Agematsu, Nagano Prefecture, and to an urban area of Nagano Prefecture as control in August 2015. On both trips, they walked 2.6 km for 80 min each in the morning and afternoon on Saturdays. Blood and urine were sampled before and after each trip. Cardiovascular and metabolic parameters were measured. Blood pressure and pulse rate were measured during the trips. The Japanese version of the profile of mood states (POMS test was conducted before, during, and after the trips. Ambient temperature and humidity were monitored during the trips. The forest bathing program significantly reduced pulse rate and significantly increased the score for vigor and decreased the scores for depression, fatigue, anxiety, and confusion. Urinary adrenaline after forest bathing showed a tendency toward decrease. Urinary dopamine after forest bathing was significantly lower than that after urban area walking, suggesting the relaxing effect of the forest bathing. Serum adiponectin after the forest bathing was significantly greater than that after urban area walking.

  15. Hydro-galvanic and rising - temperature bath therapy for chronic elbow epicondylitis: a comparative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Mucha

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available The efficacy of two different regimens of physiotherapy for epicondylitis was compared. A combination treatment with hydrogalvanic four-cell bath and arm bath with rising temperature, which had showed good effects in treatment of tennis elbow in an earlier observational study (Mucha 1987, was compared with the analgesic interference current treatment often recommended in the literature (Sadil and Sadil 1994, Noteboom et al 1994, Becker and Reuter 1982. For this study, 60 patients with epicondylitis that was resistant to conservative treatment were randomized into two groups for comparison. In group 1, interference currents were administered twice a day for six weeks and group 2 received combination treatment with the hydrogalvanic four-cell bath and rising- temperature arm bath once a day for six weeks. Criteria for inclusion, control and appraisal were laid down prospectively. Several parameters were used, recorded and statistically evaluated as outcome measures.  These were active joint range of movement of the elbow, grip strength, pain provocation with muscle contraction, palpation pain and pain with functional activities.  The results showed a significant superiority of combination treatment over therapy with interference current. It is therefore recommended that hydrogalvanic four-cell bath and arm bath with rising temperature should be carried out before considering surgical treatment for chronic epicondylitis.

  16. The Effect of Tub Bathing on Body Temperature in Preterm Infants: Randomized Clinical Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahnaz Jabraeili

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Bathing of a premature newborn is important in care giving, but due to inadequate evidences, infant caregivers are not sure about bathing being safe in terms of not causing hypothermia and are not systematically considered in the infants’ care giving programs. Aim: To determine the effect of tub bathing on body temperature of preterm infants”. Methods: This study is a randomized controlled clinical trial which was conducted in 1392 in neonatal unit of Al-zahra hospital. 118 preterm infants were randomly divided into intervention and control groups. The infants in the control group received routine skin care only. The intervention group was bathed three times every other day inside the bathtub. In both group, the infants’ body temperature was measured at the same times by the researcher. Data were analyzed with SPSS software version 14 using independent T-test, Chi-square and repeated measurements tests. Results: In both groups, boys outnumbered girls. At the time of inclusion, the infants' age was 5.8 ± 8.6 days and their weight was 320.6 ± 1660.0 grams. In both groups, the mean temperature of premature infants after bath was dropped in all three times. Which was statistically significant in the first and second baths (P

  17. IMMERSION AND BATH VACCINATION AGAINST ENTERIC REDMOUTH DISEASE (ERM) PROVIDES INSUFFICIENT PROTECTION AGAINST BATH CHALLENGE WITH YERSINIA RUCKERI O1 BIOTYPE 2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kragelund Strøm, Helene; Otani, Maki; Neumann, Lukas;

    ” commercial nor the experimental immersion ERM vaccine provided significant protective immunity against the virulent Y.r. bt2 infections. IP. injection of the experimental vaccine without adjuvant induced full protection. Significant mortality were seen in all immersion and bath vaccinated groups...

  18. Effect and efficacy of thermal environment provided by a new bathing style, “mist sauna bathing”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IWASE Satoshi

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Mist sauna is a style of bathing in which hot water vapor is sprayed into a bathroom, establishing an air temperature of 40°C with saturated humidity. Bath heater and dryer equipment with mist sauna function was released onto the Japanese market in 2004. After their introduction, various studies investigated the effects of mist sauna bathing, and it has been demonstrated that mist sauna bathing has various effects and efficacies, not only hyperthermic effects but also other effects including on physical appearance. Mist sauna bathing occurs in a bathroom, usually without a toilet, in which the room temperature is approximately 40°C with 100% relative humidity. It has been shown that the mist sauna causes little hemodynamic change, which ensures its safety during bathing. Therefore, we can enjoy safer physiological bathing in a mist sauna than in traditional hot water immersion bathing. In addition, the mist sauna elicits benefits such as improved skin condition, heat acclimation, and autonomic balance. Since mist sauna bathing does not involve immersion of the body in bathtub water, it is less likely to result in an accident during bathing because of the low impact of hemodynamic changes. Recently, mist sauna bathing has drawn attention in the field of nursing care as a bathing style for the hospitalized elderly that can reduce the burden on care-giving personnel during bathing. It is expected that mist sauna will be adopted by homes and various facilities as a useful approach for various purposes, regardless of the user’s age or gender.

  19. [Collaboration between Physician Emerich Lindenmayer and Architect Jan Nevole in Restoring the Sokobanja Turkish Bath].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitrović, Gordana; Nešković, Marina

    2015-01-01

    The Sokobanja Turkish bath is an exceptional example of two-section baths and quite particular in its style, structure type and technology used. It is one of the two of the same type that remained in Serbia and the only one that has retained its original function. About its construction we learn from the Vidin sanjak defter from the second half of the 16th century. In the lavish built heritage inventory, Turkish baths are quite unique secular public structures, playing a prominent role in the development of health culture. Based upon their specific function, these baths possess a special architectural expression, are often monumental, decorative and imaginative in their forms and ornamentation. Prince Miloš initiated repair works of the Soko Banja baths and spa springs immediately after the settlement became a part of the Serbian Principality in 1834. When work on restoring the men's baths started, a separate room with a tub was built for Prince Miloš, while the women's bath remained in ruins. In 1847, the Ministry of Interior sent Dr Emerich Lindenmayer and architect Jan Nevole, as an expert team, to assess the state of the hammam so that it could be included in the undertakings funded from the state budget. After the assessment and review of the existing issues and upon a detailed report submitted to the Ministry of Interior, complex repairs were conducted in 1850, according to Nevole's architectural design and his constant supervision. The approach implemented in the architectural renovation process was based on highly regarded principles of the time, thus preserving both the hammam's original function and its valuable architecture.

  20. Decolorization and removal of cod and bodfrom raw and biotreated textile dye bath effluent through advanced oxidation processes (AOPS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Muhammad

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a comparative study of the treatment of raw and biotreated (upflow anaerobic sludge blanket, UASB textile dye bath effluent using advanced oxidation processes (AOPs is presented. The AOPs applied on raw and biotreated textile dye bath effluent, after characterization in terms of COD, colour, BOD and pH, were ozone, UV, UV/H2O2 and photo-Fenton. The decolorization of raw dye bath effluent was 58% in the case of ozonation. However it was 98% in the case of biotreated dye bath effluent when exposed to UV/H2O2. It is, therefore, suggested that a combination of biotreatment and AOPs be adopted to decolorize dye bath effluent in order to make the process more viable and effective. Biodegradability was also improved by applying AOPs after biotreatment of dye bath effluent.

  1. Electroless Ni-B deposition from an emulsified supercritical carbon dioxide bath

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Hung-Yu; Chung, Sung-Ting; Chuang, Yan-Chi [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Chung Kung University, Tainan 70101, Taiwan (China); Tsai, Wen-Ta, E-mail: wttsai@mail.ncku.edu.t [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Chung Kung University, Tainan 70101, Taiwan (China)

    2010-10-01

    The electroless deposition of boron-containing Ni (EN-B) film from a supercritical carbon dioxide (sc-CO{sub 2}) bath was introduced. The deposition rate in sc-CO{sub 2} bath was one order of magnitude lower than that at ambient pressure without the presence of sc-CO{sub 2}. A more uniform chemical composition of the EN-B film could be obtained if it was deposited in the sc-CO{sub 2} bath. X-ray diffraction analyses revealed that the as-deposited film was amorphous in nature, despite of the deposition condition. Deposition defects such as cracks and voids could be avoided if the deposition was conducted in the sc-CO{sub 2} bath. Crystallization and boride precipitation were found after heat treatment at 400 {sup o}C for 1 h. The EN-B film deposited from the sc-CO{sub 2} bath had a higher hardness as compared with that of the normal EN-B coating. A substantial increase in hardness was obtained due to boride precipitation.

  2. Numerical modeling of transferred arc melting bath heating; Modelisation numerique du chauffage de bains par arc transfere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bouvier, A. [Electricite de France, 77 - Moret sur Loing (France). Direction des Etudes et Recherches; Trenty, L.; Guillot, J.B. [Ecole Centrale de Paris, Laboratoire EM2C. CNRS, 92 - Chatenay-Malabry (France); Delalondre, C. [Electricite de France (EDF), 78 - Chatou (France). Direction des Etudes et Recherches

    1997-12-31

    This paper presents the modeling of a transferred electric arc inside a bath of melted metal. After a recall of the context of the study, the problem of the modeling, which involves magnetohydrodynamic coupling inside the arc and the bath, is described. The equations that govern the phenomena inside the arc and the bath are recalled and the approach used for the modeling of the anode region of the arc is explained using a 1-D sub-model. The conditions of connection between arc and bath calculations are explained and calculation results obtained with a 200 kW laboratory furnace geometry are presented. (J.S.) 8 refs.

  3. Bath Parameter Dependence of Chemically-Deposited Copper Selenide Thin Film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Mamun; Islam, A. B. M. O.

    In this article, a low cost chemical bath deposition (CBD) technique has been used for the preparation of Cu2-xSe thin films on to glass substrate. Different thin films (0.2-0.6 μm) were prepared by adjusting the bath parameter like concentration of ammonia, deposition time, temperature of the solution, and the ratios of the mixing composition between copper and selenium in the reaction bath. From these studies, it reveals that at low concentration of ammonia or TEA, the terminal thicknesses of the films are less, which gradually increases with the increase of concentrations and then drop down at still higher concentrations. It has been found that complexing the Cu2+ ions with TEA first, and then addition of ammonia yields better results than the reverse process. The film thickness increases with the decrease of value x of Cu2-xSe.

  4. Response of Cryolite-Based Bath to a Shift in Heat Input/output Balance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jingjing; Taylor, Mark; Dorreen, Mark

    2016-12-01

    A technology for low amperage potline operation is now recognized as a competitive advantage for the aluminum smelting industry in order to align smelter operations with the power and aluminum price markets. This study investigates the cryolite-based bath response to heat balance shifts when the heat extraction from the bath is adjusted to different levels in a laboratory analogue. In the analogue experiments, the heat balance shift is driven by a graphite `cold finger' heat exchanger, which can control the heat extraction from the analogue, and a corresponding change in heat input from the furnace which maintains the control temperature of the lab "cell." This paper reports the first experimental results from shifting the steady state of the lab cell heat balance, and investigates the effects on the frozen ledge and bath superheat. The lab cell energy balances are compared with energy balances in a published industrial cell model.

  5. Modification of optical and electrical properties of chemical bath deposited CdS using plasma treatments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez, G. [Facultad de Ingenieria Mecanica y Electrica, Universidad Autonoma de Nuevo Leon, San Nicolas de los Garza, Nuevo Leon, C.P 66450 (Mexico); Krishnan, B. [Facultad de Ingenieria Mecanica y Electrica, Universidad Autonoma de Nuevo Leon, San Nicolas de los Garza, Nuevo Leon, C.P 66450 (Mexico); CIIDIT, Universidad Autonoma de Nuevo Leon, Apodaca, Nuevo Leon (Mexico); Avellaneda, D.; Castillo, G. Alan; Das Roy, T.K. [Facultad de Ingenieria Mecanica y Electrica, Universidad Autonoma de Nuevo Leon, San Nicolas de los Garza, Nuevo Leon, C.P 66450 (Mexico); Shaji, S., E-mail: sshajis@yahoo.com [Facultad de Ingenieria Mecanica y Electrica, Universidad Autonoma de Nuevo Leon, San Nicolas de los Garza, Nuevo Leon, C.P 66450 (Mexico); CIIDIT, Universidad Autonoma de Nuevo Leon, Apodaca, Nuevo Leon (Mexico)

    2011-08-31

    Cadmium sulphide (CdS) is a well known n-type semiconductor that is widely used in solar cells. Here we report preparation and characterization of chemical bath deposited CdS thin films and modification of their optical and electrical properties using plasma treatments. CdS thin films were prepared from a chemical bath containing Cadmium chloride, Triethanolamine and Thiourea under various deposition conditions. Good quality thin films were obtained during deposition times of 5, 10 and 15 min. CdS thin films prepared for 10 min. were treated using a glow discharge plasma having nitrogen and argon carrier gases. The changes in morphology, optical and electrical properties of these plasma treated CdS thin films were analyzed in detail. The results obtained show that plasma treatment is an effective technique in modification of the optical and electrical properties of chemical bath deposited CdS thin films.

  6. Einstein’s enigma or black holes in my bubble bath

    CERN Document Server

    Vishveshwara, C V

    2006-01-01

    "The bubbles were swirling all around me massaging my body ... As I luxuriated in this fantastic bubble bath, my eyes grew heavy and I drifted into a supremely blissful slumber." So begins Alfie's encounter with a remarkable and revelatory bathtub purchased from a mysterious neighbour named Al. Einstein's Enigma or Black Holes in My Bubble Bath tells the story of gravitation theory from the early historic origins to the latest developments in astrophysics, focusing on Albert Einstein's theory of general relativity and black-hole physics. Through engaging conversations and napkin-scribbled diagrams come tumbling the rudiments of relativity, spacetime and much of modern physics, narrated with high didactic and literary talent, and each embedded in casual lessons given by a worldly astrophysicist to his friend Alfie, a freelance organiser of proposals. Join the intellectual fun and exalt in the frothy ideas while vicariously taking relaxing baths in this magical bathtub. Prof. C.V. Vishveshwara is a renowned the...

  7. Electrodeposition of chromium from trivalent chromium urea bath containing sulfate and chloride

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    The reduction of Cr( Ⅲ) to Cr( Ⅱ ) on copper electrode in trivalent chromium urea bath containing chromium sulfate and chromium chloride as chromium source has been investigated by potentiodynamic sweep. The transfer coefficient α for reduction of Cr( Ⅲ ) to Cr( Ⅱ ) on copper electrode was calculated as 0.46. The reduction is a quasi-reversible process. J-t responses at different potential steps showed that the generation and adsorption characteristics of carboxylate bridged oligomer are relevant to cathode potential. The interface behavior between electrode and solution for Cr( Ⅲ ) complex is a critical factor influencing sustained electrode position of chromium. The hypotheses of the electro-inducing polymerization of Cr( Ⅲ ) was proposed. The potential scope in which sustained chromium deposits can be prepared is from- 1.3 V to- 1.7 V (vs SCE) in the urea bath. Bright chromium deposits with thickness of 30 μm can be prepared in the bath.

  8. Thermal rectification and negative differential thermal conductance in harmonic chains with nonlinear system-bath coupling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ming, Yi; Li, Hui-Min; Ding, Ze-Jun

    2016-03-01

    Thermal rectification and negative differential thermal conductance were realized in harmonic chains in this work. We used the generalized Caldeira-Leggett model to study the heat flow. In contrast to most previous studies considering only the linear system-bath coupling, we considered the nonlinear system-bath coupling based on recent experiment [Eichler et al., Nat. Nanotech. 6, 339 (2011), 10.1038/nnano.2011.71]. When the linear coupling constant is weak, the multiphonon processes induced by the nonlinear coupling allow more phonons transport across the system-bath interface and hence the heat current is enhanced. Consequently, thermal rectification and negative differential thermal conductance are achieved when the nonlinear couplings are asymmetric. However, when the linear coupling constant is strong, the umklapp processes dominate the multiphonon processes. Nonlinear coupling suppresses the heat current. Thermal rectification is also achieved. But the direction of rectification is reversed compared to the results of weak linear coupling constant.

  9. Characterization of CdTe Films Deposited at Various Bath Temperatures and Concentrations Using Electrophoretic Deposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zulkarnain Zainal

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available CdTe film was deposited using the electrophoretic deposition technique onto an ITO glass at various bath temperatures. Four batch film compositions were used by mixing 1 to 4 wt% concentration of CdTe powder with 10 mL of a solution of methanol and toluene. X-ray Diffraction analysis showed that the films exhibited polycrystalline nature of zinc-blende structure with the (111 orientation as the most prominent peak. From the Atomic Force Microscopy, the thickness and surface roughness of the CdTe film increased with the increase of CdTe concentration. The optical energy band gap of film decreased with the increase of CdTe concentration, and with the increase of isothermal bath temperature. The film thickness increased with respect to the increase of CdTe concentration and bath temperature, and following, the numerical expression for the film thickness with respect to these two variables has been established.

  10. Characterization of CdTe films deposited at various bath temperatures and concentrations using electrophoretic deposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daud, Mohd Norizam Md; Zakaria, Azmi; Jafari, Atefeh; Ghazali, Mohd Sabri Mohd; Abdullah, Wan Rafizah Wan; Zainal, Zulkarnain

    2012-01-01

    CdTe film was deposited using the electrophoretic deposition technique onto an ITO glass at various bath temperatures. Four batch film compositions were used by mixing 1 to 4 wt% concentration of CdTe powder with 10 mL of a solution of methanol and toluene. X-ray Diffraction analysis showed that the films exhibited polycrystalline nature of zinc-blende structure with the (111) orientation as the most prominent peak. From the Atomic Force Microscopy, the thickness and surface roughness of the CdTe film increased with the increase of CdTe concentration. The optical energy band gap of film decreased with the increase of CdTe concentration, and with the increase of isothermal bath temperature. The film thickness increased with respect to the increase of CdTe concentration and bath temperature, and following, the numerical expression for the film thickness with respect to these two variables has been established.

  11. Novel medical bathing with traditional Chinese herb formula alleviates paraplegia spasticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xin; Meng, Qingxi; Yu, Dapeng; Zhao, Xiwu; Zhao, Tingbao

    2014-06-01

    Paraplegia spasm is a kind of chronic disease which lacks effective treatment; the patients have to endure long-term pain, which is a tough problem for nursing practice. Lots of potential candidate medicines are under investigation, and a new Chinese herb formula is introduced in the current study. In the present study, we chose six different well-known Chinese herbs to form a formula, and boiled them into the water with an optimized ratio to make bath water; 80 paraplegic patients received this medicinal bath, and 80 patients received perfume water bath as placebo group. Compared with placebo control patients, the herb-treated patients have significant reduction in paraplegia spasm, visual analogue scale score, clinician global impression and sleep disorder. This novel six-combined formula traditional medicine could be beneficial for alleviating paraplegia spasm, but the underlying action mechanism deserves further study.

  12. Chemical Bath Deposition of Nickel Sulphide (Ni4S3 Thin Films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darren TEO

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Thin films of nickel sulphide were deposited from aqueous baths on indium tin oxide glass substrate. The chemical bath contained nickel sulphate, sodium thiosulfate and triethanolamine solutions. The aim of the present study was to analyze the different experimental conditions to prepare Ni4S3 thin films using chemical bath deposition technique. The structural, morphological and optical properties of nickel sulphide thin films were obtained by X-ray diffraction, atomic force microscopy and UV-Vis Spectrophotometer will be presented. The properties of the films varied with the variation in the deposition parameters. The films deposited at longer deposition time using lower concentration in more acidic medium showed improved crystallinity, good uniformity and better adhesion to the substrate. Films showed band gap of 0.35 eV and exhibited p-type semiconductor behaviour.

  13. Physical Properties of Nanostructured CdO Films from Alkaline Baths Containing Saccharin as Additive

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bünyamin Şahin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Nanostructured cadmium oxide (CdO films were fabricated on glass substrates from alkaline baths containing saccharin as an additive by a successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR method. The effects of saccharin concentration in the bath on the structural, morphological, and optical properties were studied by means of scanning electron microscopy (SEM, X-ray diffraction (XRD, photoluminescence, and Raman spectroscopy. The analyses showed that the surface morphologies, XRD peak intensities, Raman spectroscopy, and photoluminescence properties of CdO films changed with saccharin concentration. From the results, it can be said that morphological characteristic and optical properties of the films could be calibrated by adding various saccharin percentages in the growth bath.

  14. Polynitroaniline as brightener for zinc–nickel alloy plating from non-cyanide sulphate bath

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    H P Sachin; Ganesha Achary; Y Arthoba Naik; T V Venkatesha

    2007-02-01

    Electro-polymerization of orthonitroaniline was carried out on graphite electrode in hydrochloric acid medium. Zinc–nickel alloy deposition was carried out in the presence of polynitroaniline in acid sulphate bath. The bath constituent and bath variables were optimized through Hull cell experiments. The current efficiency and throwing power were measured. High shift of potential towards more cathodic direction was observed in presence of addition agent. Corrosion resistance test revealed good protection of base metal by zinc–nickel coating obtained from the developed electrolyte. SEM photomicrograph shows fine-grained deposit in the presence of addition agent. The consumption of brightener in the lab-scale was 0.01 gL-1 for 1000 amp-h.

  15. Artificial quantum thermal bath: Engineering temperature for a many-body quantum system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shabani, Alireza; Neven, Hartmut

    2016-11-01

    Temperature determines the relative probability of observing a physical system in an energy state when that system is energetically in equilibrium with its environment. In this paper we present a theory for engineering the temperature of a quantum system different from its ambient temperature. We define criteria for an engineered quantum bath that, when coupled to a quantum system with Hamiltonian H , drives the system to the equilibrium state e/-H/TTr (e-H /T) with a tunable parameter T . This is basically an analog counterpart of the digital quantum metropolis algorithm. For a system of superconducting qubits, we propose a circuit-QED approximate realization of such an engineered thermal bath consisting of driven lossy resonators. Our proposal opens the path to simulate thermodynamical properties of many-body quantum systems of size not accessible to classical simulations. Also we discuss how an artificial thermal bath can serve as a temperature knob for a hybrid quantum-thermal annealer.

  16. Response of Cryolite-Based Bath to a Shift in Heat Input/output Balance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jingjing; Taylor, Mark; Dorreen, Mark

    2017-04-01

    A technology for low amperage potline operation is now recognized as a competitive advantage for the aluminum smelting industry in order to align smelter operations with the power and aluminum price markets. This study investigates the cryolite-based bath response to heat balance shifts when the heat extraction from the bath is adjusted to different levels in a laboratory analogue. In the analogue experiments, the heat balance shift is driven by a graphite `cold finger' heat exchanger, which can control the heat extraction from the analogue, and a corresponding change in heat input from the furnace which maintains the control temperature of the lab "cell." This paper reports the first experimental results from shifting the steady state of the lab cell heat balance, and investigates the effects on the frozen ledge and bath superheat. The lab cell energy balances are compared with energy balances in a published industrial cell model.

  17. Efficacy of copper sulfate hoof baths against digital dermatitis- Where is the evidence?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Peter T.

    2015-01-01

    . For decades, copper sulfate hoof baths have been used to treat and prevent digital dermatitis. Copper sulfate has been referred to as the industry gold standard when it comes to hoof-bath chemicals. In several scientific studies testing the efficacy of other hoof-care products, copper sulfate has been used...... of this effect. The objective of this study was to evaluate the existing scientific literature to determine whether the efficacy of copper sulfate used in hoof baths against digital dermatitis has in fact been demonstrated scientifically. A systematic literature search identified 7 peer-reviewed journal articles...... as a positive control, thereby indicating that copper sulfate has a known positive effect. However, this may not be the case. A dilemma may exist between (1) copper sulfate generally being perceived as being effective against digital dermatitis and (2) a possible lack of well-documented scientific evidence...

  18. Thermal rectification and negative differential thermal conductance in harmonic chains with nonlinear system-bath coupling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ming, Yi; Li, Hui-Min; Ding, Ze-Jun

    2016-03-01

    Thermal rectification and negative differential thermal conductance were realized in harmonic chains in this work. We used the generalized Caldeira-Leggett model to study the heat flow. In contrast to most previous studies considering only the linear system-bath coupling, we considered the nonlinear system-bath coupling based on recent experiment [Eichler et al., Nat. Nanotech. 6, 339 (2011)]. When the linear coupling constant is weak, the multiphonon processes induced by the nonlinear coupling allow more phonons transport across the system-bath interface and hence the heat current is enhanced. Consequently, thermal rectification and negative differential thermal conductance are achieved when the nonlinear couplings are asymmetric. However, when the linear coupling constant is strong, the umklapp processes dominate the multiphonon processes. Nonlinear coupling suppresses the heat current. Thermal rectification is also achieved. But the direction of rectification is reversed compared to the results of weak linear coupling constant.

  19. Short communication: Efficacy of copper sulfate hoof baths against digital dermatitis--Where is the evidence?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomsen, Peter T

    2015-04-01

    Digital dermatitis is a major problem in modern dairy production because of decreased animal welfare and financial losses. Individual cow treatments are often seen as too time consuming by farmers, and walk-through hoof baths have therefore been used extensively to control digital dermatitis. For decades, copper sulfate hoof baths have been used to treat and prevent digital dermatitis. Copper sulfate has been referred to as the industry gold standard when it comes to hoof-bath chemicals. In several scientific studies testing the efficacy of other hoof-care products, copper sulfate has been used as a positive control, thereby indicating that copper sulfate has a known positive effect. However, this may not be the case. A dilemma may exist between (1) copper sulfate generally being perceived as being effective against digital dermatitis and (2) a possible lack of well-documented scientific evidence of this effect. The objective of this study was to evaluate the existing scientific literature to determine whether the efficacy of copper sulfate used in hoof baths against digital dermatitis has in fact been demonstrated scientifically. A systematic literature search identified 7 peer-reviewed journal articles describing the efficacy of copper sulfate in hoof baths as treatment or prevention of bovine digital dermatitis. Only 2 of the 7 studies compared copper sulfate to a negative control; most studies were relatively small, and often no clear positive effect of copper sulfate was demonstrated. In conclusion, the frequent claim that copper sulfate is widely reported to be effective is supported by little scientific evidence. Well-designed clinical trials evaluating the effect of copper sulfate against digital dermatitis compared with a negative control are needed. Until such studies have been made, the efficacy of copper sulfate in hoof baths against digital dermatitis remains largely unproven.

  20. Litter use by laying hens in a commercial aviary: dust bathing and piling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, D L M; Makagon, M M; Swanson, J C; Siegford, J M

    2016-01-01

    The laying hen industry, including in the United States, is responding to social concerns about hen welfare by implementing alternative housing systems such as the aviary, to provide more space and resources to large groups of hens. Data detailing the behavior of hens in commercial aviaries is needed to determine hens' use of the resources in order to understand their impact on hen welfare. The open litter area of aviaries provides additional space for hens during the day. Litter is also a substrate for dust bathing which is a strongly motivated natural behavior. Hens are often synchronous in their performance of dust bathing, which may lead to overcrowding in the litter area. Additionally, the open litter area can facilitate expression of unusual behavior such as flock piling (defined as the occurrence of densely grouped clusters of hens, resulting from no obvious cause and occurring randomly throughout the day and flock cycle) which may be a welfare concern. Therefore, we conducted observations of hen occupancy of the open litter area and the performance of dust bathing and flock piling across 3 production points (peak lay, mid lay and end of lay) for two flocks of Lohmann White laying hens housed in a commercial aviary. All areas of the open litter area were occupied to the same degree. Hens performed dust bathing throughout the day but showed peak dust bathing activity in the afternoon for Flock 1 (all P litter area sometimes occurred during peak periods of synchronous dust bathing and when hens piled. Further research is needed to understand the welfare implications of individual hen use of the open litter area and the causes and welfare implications of hen piling.

  1. The oil-dispersion bath in anthroposophic medicine – an integrative review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bornhöft Gudrun

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Anthroposophic medicine offers a variety of treatments, among others the oil-dispersion bath, developed in the 1930s by Werner Junge. Based on the phenomenon that oil and water do not mix and on recommendations of Rudolf Steiner, Junge developed a vortex mechanism which churns water and essential oils into a fine mist. The oil-covered droplets empty into a tub, where the patient immerses for 15–30 minutes. We review the current literature on oil-dispersion baths. Methods The following databases were searched: Medline, Pubmed, Embase, AMED and CAMbase. The search terms were 'oil-dispersion bath' and 'oil bath', and their translations in German and French. An Internet search was also performed using Google Scholar, adding the search terms 'study' and 'case report' to the search terms above. Finally, we asked several experts for gray literature not listed in the above-mentioned databases. We included only articles which met the criterion of a clinical study or case report, and excluded theoretical contributions. Results Among several articles found in books, journals and other publications, we identified 1 prospective clinical study, 3 experimental studies (enrolling healthy individuals, 5 case reports, and 3 field-reports. In almost all cases, the studies described beneficial effects – although the methodological quality of most studies was weak. Main indications were internal/metabolic diseases and psychiatric/neurological disorders. Conclusion Beyond the obvious beneficial effects of warm bathes on the subjective well-being, it remains to be clarified what the unique contribution of the distinct essential oils dispersed in the water can be. There is a lack of clinical studies exploring the efficacy of oil-dispersion baths. Such studies are recommended for the future.

  2. A comparison of head-out mist bathing, with or without facial fanning, with head-out half-body low-water level bathing in humans—a pilot study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwase, Satoshi; Kawahara, Yuko; Nishimura, Naoki; Nishimura, Rumiko; Miwa, Chihiro; Kataoka, Yumiko; Kobayashi, Chihiro; Suzuki, Takahiro; Shigaraki, Masayuki; Maeda, Yoichi; Takada, Hiroki; Watanabe, Yoriko

    2014-07-01

    To reduce the risks of Japanese-style bathing, half-body bathing (HBLB) has been recommended in Japan, but discomfort due to the cold environment in winter prevents its widespread adoption. The development of the mist sauna, which causes a gradual core temperature rise with sufficient thermal comfort, has reduced the demerits of HBLB. We examined head-out 42 °C mist bathing with 38 °C HBLB up to the navel to see if it could improve thermal comfort without detracting from the merits of HBLB, with and without the effects of facial fanning (FF). The subjects were seven healthy males aged 22-25 years. The following bathing styles were provided: (1) HBLB—head-out half-body low bathing of 38 °C up to the navel (20 min); (2) HOMB—head-out mist bathing of 42 °C and HBLB of 38 °C (20 min); and (3) HOMBFF—HOMB with FF (20 min). HOMB raised the core temperature gradually. HOMBFF suppressed the core temperature rise in a similar fashion to HOMB. Increases in blood pressure and heart rate usually observed in Japanese traditional-style bathing were less marked in HOMBs with no significant difference with and without FF. The greatest body weight loss was observed after Japanese traditional-style bathing, with only one-third of this amount lost after mist bathing, and one-sixth after HBLB. HOMB increased thermal sensation, and FF also enhanced post-bathing invigoration. We conclude that HOMB reduces the risks of Japanese traditional style bathing by mitigating marked changes in the core temperature and hemodynamics, and FF provides thermal comfort and invigoration.

  3. A comparison of head-out mist bathing, with or without facial fanning, with head-out half-body low-water level bathing in humans--a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwase, Satoshi; Kawahara, Yuko; Nishimura, Naoki; Nishimura, Rumiko; Miwa, Chihiro; Kataoka, Yumiko; Kobayashi, Chihiro; Suzuki, Takahiro; Shigaraki, Masayuki; Maeda, Yoichi; Takada, Hiroki; Watanabe, Yoriko

    2014-07-01

    To reduce the risks of Japanese-style bathing, half-body bathing (HBLB) has been recommended in Japan, but discomfort due to the cold environment in winter prevents its widespread adoption. The development of the mist sauna, which causes a gradual core temperature rise with sufficient thermal comfort, has reduced the demerits of HBLB. We examined head-out 42 °C mist bathing with 38 °C HBLB up to the navel to see if it could improve thermal comfort without detracting from the merits of HBLB, with and without the effects of facial fanning (FF). The subjects were seven healthy males aged 22-25 years. The following bathing styles were provided: (1) HBLB-head-out half-body low bathing of 38 °C up to the navel (20 min); (2) HOMB-head-out mist bathing of 42 °C and HBLB of 38 °C (20 min); and (3) HOMBFF-HOMB with FF (20 min). HOMB raised the core temperature gradually. HOMBFF suppressed the core temperature rise in a similar fashion to HOMB. Increases in blood pressure and heart rate usually observed in Japanese traditional-style bathing were less marked in HOMBs with no significant difference with and without FF. The greatest body weight loss was observed after Japanese traditional-style bathing, with only one-third of this amount lost after mist bathing, and one-sixth after HBLB. HOMB increased thermal sensation, and FF also enhanced post-bathing invigoration. We conclude that HOMB reduces the risks of Japanese traditional style bathing by mitigating marked changes in the core temperature and hemodynamics, and FF provides thermal comfort and invigoration.

  4. Physical properties of chemical bath deposited CdS thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ximello-Quiebras, J.N.; Contreras-Puente, G.; Aguilar-Hernandez, J. [Escuela Superior de Fisica y Matematicas-Instituto Politecnico Nacional, Edificio 9, U.P.A.L.M. 07738 DF (Mexico); Santana-Rodriguez, G.; Arias-Carbajal Readigos, A. [Facultad de Fisica IMRE, Universidad de la Habana, 10400 La Habana (Cuba)

    2004-05-01

    Cadmium sulfide films of different thicknesses were deposited by chemical bath deposition (CBD) from a bath containing cadmium chloride, ammonium chloride, ammonium hydroxide and thiourea. The XRD patterns show that the films have a hexagonal phase with a preferential (002) orientation. The photoluminescence spectra show a defect structure, characteristics of the CdS films obtained by CBD. The electrical behavior in dark and under illumination, the optical properties and the band gap value reported in this work is in agreement with that reported in the literature.

  5. Monte-Carlo simulations of the new LNHB manganese bath facility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogheard, F; Chartier, J L; Cassette, P

    2012-04-01

    The new manganese bath facility of the Laboratoire National Henri Becquerel has been modeled by using three Monte-Carlo codes: MCNPX, GEANT4, and FLUKA, in order to determine the correction factors needed in the neutron source calibration process. The most realistic source geometry has been determined, and the most reliable cross sections library has been chosen. The models were compared, and discrepancies between the codes have been pointed out. Potential causes of deviations between results were assessed and discussed using additional models. Finally, an experimental process is proposed to validate the accuracy of the different codes and their abilities in simulating the neutron capture by the manganese bath.

  6. Nanopigmented Acrylic Resin Cured Indistinctively by Water Bath or Microwave Energy for Dentures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. S. Acosta-Torres

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The highlight of this study was the synthesis of nanopigmented poly(methyl methacrylate nanoparticles that were further processed using a water bath and/or microwave energy for dentures. The experimental acrylic resins were physicochemically characterized, and the adherence of Candida albicans and biocompatibility were assessed. A nanopigmented acrylic resin cured by a water bath or by microwave energy was obtained. The acrylic specimens possess similar properties to commercial acrylic resins, but the transverse strength and porosity were slightly improved. The acrylic resins cured with microwave energy exhibited reduced C. albicans adherence. These results demonstrate an improved noncytotoxic material for the manufacturing of denture bases in dentistry.

  7. Einstein's Enigma of black holes in my bubble bath

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vishveshwara, C.

    2006-07-01

    Einstein's Enigma or Black Holes in My Bubble Bath is a humorous and informal rendition of the story of gravitation theory from the early historic origins to the latest developments in astrophysics, focusing on Albert Einstein's theory of general relativity and black-hole physics. Through engaging conversations and napkin-scribbled diagrams come tumbling the rudiments of relativity, spacetime and much of modern physics, narrated with high didactic and literary talent, and each embedded in casual lessons given by a worldly astrophysicist to his friend. Join the intellectual fun and exalt in the frothy ideas while vicariously taking relaxing baths in this magical bathtub. (orig.)

  8. PbS Thin Films for Photovoltaic Applications Obtained by Non-Traditional Chemical Bath Deposition

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    To optimize cost-efficiency relation for thin film solar cells, we explore the recently developed versions of chemical deposition of semiconductor films, together with classic CBD (Chemical Bath Deposition): SILAR (Successive Ionic Layer Adsorption and Reaction) and PCBD (Photo Chemical Bath Deposition), all of them ammonia-free and ecologically friendly. The films of CdS and PbS were made, and experimental solar cells with CdS window layer and PbS absorber elaborated. We found that band gap ...

  9. Dual Bath Electrodeposition of Alternate Multilayer Coatings of Zinc and Nickel Deposits

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIN Wen-li; FEI Jing-yin; LIANG Guo-zheng

    2004-01-01

    The synthesis of zinc and nickel alternate multilayer coatings produced by successive deposition from dual baths containing a revised zinc sulphate electrolyte and a new developed nickel bath has been investigated. Smooth and uniform zinc-nickel compositionally modulated multilayered (CMM) coatings with different multilayer configurations were obtained. The surface and cross-sectional morphologies of samples were examined using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Cross-sectional morphology showed the layered structure of the coatings clearly.Key Words: multilayer coating, electrodeposited zinc and nickel, electrodeposition

  10. Decoherence of a Quantum Nonlinear Oscillator Under a Non-zero Temperature Thermal Bath

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    The characteristic time τD for decoherence process of a quantum nonlinear oscillator system under a nonzero temperature thermal bath is studied by expanding the linear entropy. By numerical analysis, it is shown that at a non-zero temperature, the quantum coherence decays much faster than at zero temperature. Moreover, the non-zero temperature thermal bath will bring a crucialsuppression to the quantum effects of the observables, which causes these quantum effects to become unable to persist up to the Ehrenfest time but is insufficient to destroy the quantum-classical transition.

  11. [Current evaluation of efficacy of radon baths of various concentrations during rehabilitation of patients with seronegative spondylarthritis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnatskiĭ, V V; Grigor'eva, V D; Kaliushina, E N

    2005-01-01

    141 patients with seronegative spondylarthritis including ankylosing spondylarthritis (n = 90), reactive arthritis and Reiter's disease (n = 51) took water radon baths (concentration 1.5, 3.0 and 4.5 kB/l). The baths proved similarly effective in patients with seronegative spondylarthritis. They produced analgetic, anti-inflammatory actions, raised quality of life for such patients.

  12. CdS thin films prepared by laser assisted chemical bath deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia, L.V.; Mendivil, M.I.; Garcia Guillen, G.; Aguilar Martinez, J.A. [Facultad de Ingenieria Mecanica y Electrica, Universidad Autonoma de Nuevo Leon, Av. Pedro de Alba s/n, Ciudad Universitaria, San Nicolas de los Garza, Nuevo Leon 66450 (Mexico); Krishnan, B. [Facultad de Ingenieria Mecanica y Electrica, Universidad Autonoma de Nuevo Leon, Av. Pedro de Alba s/n, Ciudad Universitaria, San Nicolas de los Garza, Nuevo Leon 66450 (Mexico); CIIDIT – Universidad Autonoma de Nuevo Leon, Apodaca, Nuevo Leon (Mexico); Avellaneda, D.; Castillo, G.A.; Das Roy, T.K. [Facultad de Ingenieria Mecanica y Electrica, Universidad Autonoma de Nuevo Leon, Av. Pedro de Alba s/n, Ciudad Universitaria, San Nicolas de los Garza, Nuevo Leon 66450 (Mexico); Shaji, S., E-mail: sshajis@yahoo.com [Facultad de Ingenieria Mecanica y Electrica, Universidad Autonoma de Nuevo Leon, Av. Pedro de Alba s/n, Ciudad Universitaria, San Nicolas de los Garza, Nuevo Leon 66450 (Mexico); CIIDIT – Universidad Autonoma de Nuevo Leon, Apodaca, Nuevo Leon (Mexico)

    2015-05-01

    Highlights: • CdS thin films by conventional CBD and laser assisted CBD. • Characterized these films using XRD, XPS, AFM, optical and electrical measurements. • Accelerated growth was observed in the laser assisted CBD process. • Improved dark conductivity and good photocurrent response for the LACBD CdS. - Abstract: In this work, we report the preparation and characterization of CdS thin films by laser assisted chemical bath deposition (LACBD). CdS thin films were prepared from a chemical bath containing cadmium chloride, triethanolamine, ammonium hydroxide and thiourea under various deposition conditions. The thin films were deposited by in situ irradiation of the bath using a continuous laser of wavelength 532 nm, varying the power density. The thin films obtained during deposition of 10, 20 and 30 min were analyzed. The changes in morphology, structure, composition, optical and electrical properties of the CdS thin films due to in situ irradiation of the bath were analyzed by atomic force microscopy (AFM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and UV–vis spectroscopy. The thin films obtained by LACBD were nanocrystalline, photoconductive and presented interesting morphologies. The results showed that LACBD is an effective synthesis technique to obtain nanocrystalline CdS thin films having good optoelectronic properties.

  13. Effect of bath water temperature and immersion time on bend angle during cartilage thermoforming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Ryan; Protsenko, Dmitry E.; Diaz, Sergio H.; Ho, K.-H. K.; Wong, Brian J. F.

    2003-06-01

    Much interest has been placed on the permanent reshaping of cartilage for facial reconstructive surgery using lasers. An alternate way to reshape cartilage is to heat the tissue in a water bath while maintaining the specimen in mechanical deformation. The objective of this study was to measure the circular bend angle of a cartilage specimen produced by varying the temperature and immersion time in a water bath. Rectangular cartilage specimens (18 x 4 x 1.5 mm) were bent in a semicircular jig (diameter 11 mm) and then immersed in a saline bath at temperatures between 50 - 80°C. The immersion times were 5, 20, 80, 160 and 320 seconds at each temperature. The distance between the ends of each specimen was measured before reshaping and at 15 minutes and 24 hours after immersion in order to calculate the resulting bend angle. The largest bend angle occurred in the specimen immersed in saline at 74°C for 320 seconds, illustrating a definite thermal influence on the physical shape of the cartilage sample. The critical immersion times and bath temperatures where definite shape change occurred were determined.

  14. Monte-Carlo simulations of the new LNHB manganese bath facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ogheard, F., E-mail: florestan.ogheard@cea.fr [CEA, LIST, Laboratoire National Henri Becquerel (LNE-LNHB), F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Chartier, J.L., E-mail: chartierjeanlouis@gmail.com [EURADOS, 18 rue de l' Yvette, 78690 les Essarts-le-Roi (France); Cassette, P., E-mail: philippe.cassette@cea.fr [CEA, LIST, Laboratoire National Henri Becquerel (LNE-LNHB), F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France)

    2012-04-15

    The new manganese bath facility of the Laboratoire National Henri Becquerel has been modeled by using three Monte-Carlo codes: MCNPX, GEANT4, and FLUKA, in order to determine the correction factors needed in the neutron source calibration process. The most realistic source geometry has been determined, and the most reliable cross sections library has been chosen. The models were compared, and discrepancies between the codes have been pointed out. Potential causes of deviations between results were assessed and discussed using additional models. Finally, an experimental process is proposed to validate the accuracy of the different codes and their abilities in simulating the neutron capture by the manganese bath. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We modeled the new LNHB manganese bath using MCNPX, GEANT4 and FLUKA. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer ENDFBVII.0 cross sections library with thermal scattering choice is discussed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Discrepancies between codes are studied and causes are pointed out. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer New experimental process for accuracy assessment of the codes is described. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer New inputs to the uncertainty budget of the manganese bath method.

  15. Optimisation of the formulation of a bubble bath by a chemometric approach market segmentation and optimisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marengo, Emilio; Robotti, Elisa; Gennaro, Maria Carla; Bertetto, Mariella

    2003-03-01

    The optimisation of the formulation of a commercial bubble bath was performed by chemometric analysis of Panel Tests results. A first Panel Test was performed to choose the best essence, among four proposed to the consumers; the best essence chosen was used in the revised commercial bubble bath. Afterwards, the effect of changing the amount of four components (the amount of primary surfactant, the essence, the hydratant and the colouring agent) of the bubble bath was studied by a fractional factorial design. The segmentation of the bubble bath market was performed by a second Panel Test, in which the consumers were requested to evaluate the samples coming from the experimental design. The results were then treated by Principal Component Analysis. The market had two segments: people preferring a product with a rich formulation and people preferring a poor product. The final target, i.e. the optimisation of the formulation for each segment, was obtained by the calculation of regression models relating the subjective evaluations given by the Panel and the compositions of the samples. The regression models allowed to identify the best formulations for the two segments ofthe market.

  16. Microbiological investigations on the water of a thermal bath at Budapest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szuróczki, Sára; Kéki, Zsuzsa; Káli, Szandra; Lippai, Anett; Márialigeti, Károly; Tóth, Erika

    2016-06-01

    Thermal baths are unique aquatic environments combining a wide variety of natural and anthropogenic ecological factors, which also appear in their microbiological state. There is limited information on the microbiology of thermal baths in their complexity, tracking community shifts from the thermal wells to the pools. In the present study, the natural microbial community of well and pool waters in Gellért bath was studied in detail by cultivation-based techniques. To isolate bacteria, 10% R2A and minimal synthetic media (with "bath water") with agar-agar and gellan gum were used after prolonged incubation time; moreover, polyurethane blocks covered with media were also applied. Strains were identified by sequencing their 16S rRNA gene after grouping them by amplified rDNA restriction analysis. From each sample, the dominance of Alphaproteobacteria was characteristic though their diversity differed among samples. Members of Actinobacteria, Firmicutes, Beta- and Gamma-proteobacteria, Deinococcus-Thermus, and Bacteroidetes were also identified. Representatives of Deinococcus-Thermus phylum appeared only in the pool water. The largest groups in the pool water belonged to the Tistrella and Chelatococcus genera. The most dominant member in the well water was a new taxon, its similarity to Hartmannibacter diazotrophicus as closest relative was 93.93%.

  17. Simplified modelling of a thermal bath, with application to a fluid vortex system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dubinkina, S.; Frank, J.; Leimkuhler, B.

    2010-01-01

    Based on the thermodynamic concept of a reservoir, we investigate a computational model for interaction with unresolved degrees of freedom (a thermal bath). We assume that a finite restricted system can be modelled by a generalized canonical ensemble, described by a density which is a smooth functio

  18. Comprehensive optical studies on SnS layers synthesized by chemical bath deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gedi, Sreedevi; Minnam Reddy, Vasudeva Reddy; Park, Chinho; Chan-Wook, Jeon; Ramakrishna Reddy, K. T.

    2015-04-01

    A simple non-vacuum and cost effective wet chemical technique, chemical bath deposition was used to prepare tin sulphide (SnS) layers on glass substrates. The layers were formed by varying bath temperature in the range, 40-80 °C, keeping other deposition parameters as constant. An exhaustive investigation on their optical properties with bath temperature was made using the transmittance and reflectance measurements. The absorption coefficient was evaluated from the optical transmittance data utilizing Lambert's principle and is >104 cm-1 for all the as-prepared layers. The energy band gap of the layers was determined from the differential reflectance spectra that varied from 1.41 eV to 1.30 eV. Consequently, refractive index and extinction coefficient were obtained from Pankov relations and dispersion constants were calculated using Wemple-Didomenico method. In addition, other optical parameters such as the optical conductivity, dielectric constants, dissipation factor, high frequency dielectric constant and relaxation time were also calculated. Finally electrical parameters such as resistivity, carrier mobility and carrier density of as-prepared layers were estimated using optical data. A detailed analysis of the dependence of all above mentioned parameters on bath temperature is reported and discussed for a clean understanding of electronic characteristics of SnS layers.

  19. Direct electroless Ni-P deposition on AM50 magnesium alloy from sulfate bath

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Guang-yu; NIU Li-yuan; JIANG Zhong-hao; GU Chang-dong; LIAN Jian-she

    2006-01-01

    A bright electroless Ni-P deposition on AM50 magnesium alloy in a sulfate plating bath was proposed by using direct plating process with non-chromate pretreatment. The electroless Ni-P plating on AM50 magnesium alloy has an admirable appearance and good adhesion. The results indicate that the electroless Ni-P deposition with non-chromate pretreatment has better adhesion than that of zinc immersion coating. Anodic polarization curves indicate that the electroless Ni-P deposition obtained from the sulfate bath has similar corrosion-resistance to that obtained from basic nickel carbonate bath. The deposition process generates less pollutant by a non-chromate plating bath and is suitable for the magnesium alloys manufacture because of its low cost. The hardness of the electroless Ni-P plated AM50 is about HV 720.6 and HV 969.7 after heat treatments at 180 ℃ for 2 h. The wear resistance of Ni-P plated magnesium alloy specimens is about 5 to 9 times as high as that of bare magnesium alloys.

  20. Reclaim nickel and remove organics from the spent electroless nickel-plating bath by electrolysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Xiu-juan; SHEN Jin; MENG Xian-lin; LI Shu-qin; YAN Lei; ZHOU Ding

    2006-01-01

    Typical wastes from nickel plating operations include excess drag-out solution. An electrochemical approach was made to recover the nickel and remove the organic pollutants from the spent electroless nickelplating bath. An electrolyte cell which was constructed by the cathode of porous nickel foam and the anode of Ti/RuO2 was used. During electrolysis, the nickel ion was electrodeposited at the cathode and the oxidation of the organics in the bath was conducted at the anode. The current ( i), time ( t), temperature (T) and pH of the solution affected the recovery efficiency of nickel with constant potential electrolysis. With the optimum experimental conditions of pH = 7. 6, i = 0.45 A, T = 65℃ and t = 2 h, the concentration of nickel ion was reduced from 2. 09 g/L to 0. 053 g/L and the recovery rate of nickel, the current efficiency and the consumed energy were 97.5%, 17.1%, 12.2 kWh/kg Ni, respectively. Meanwhile, total organic carbon (TOC) of the bath was reduced from 5 800 mg/L to 152. 5 mg/L and the removal efficiency of TOC was 97.3%. The recovery rate of nickel could keep to about 97% when electrodeposit was used to recover nickel for 40 hours in a laboratory batch reactor containing the spent bath. Dull nickel containing phosphorus was obtained on the cathode.

  1. Energy shift of H-atom electrons due to Gibbons-Hawking thermal bath

    CERN Document Server

    Pardy, Miroslav

    2016-01-01

    The electromagnetic shift of energy levels of H-atom electrons is determined by calculating an electron coupling to the Gibbons-Hawking electromagnetic field thermal bath. Energy shift of electrons in H-atom is determined in the framework of the non-relativistic quantum mechanics.

  2. 75 FR 33683 - Third Party Testing for Certain Children's Products; Infant Bath Seats: Requirements for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-15

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION 16 CFR Part 1215 Third Party Testing for Certain Children's Products; Infant Bath Seats: Requirements for Accreditation of Third Party Conformity Correction In rule document 2010-13080 beginning...

  3. Analysis of body water compartments after a short sauna bath using bioelectric impedance analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Servidio, M-F; Mohamed, E I; Maiolo, C; Hereba, A T; Perrone, F; Garofano, P; Iacopino, L

    2003-10-01

    Studies have suggested that long-term sauna bathing may lower blood pressure in persons with hypertension by causing a direct loss of extracellular water and plasma minerals. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effect of short-term sauna bathing on body water compartments as estimated by bioelectric impedance analysis (BIA). We recruited 15 men [mean age (+/-SD) of 23.93+/-5.12 years and mean body mass index (BMI) of 23.25+/-2.84 kg/m(2)] and 10 women matched for age and BMI. Total body resistance, reactance, and impedance were measured for all participants using BIA, at baseline, after a short sauna bath, and after a rest period. Total, extracellular, and intracellular water compartments were calculated using BIA formulae. There were no significant differences for any of the body water compartments when comparing the measurements taken before and after the sauna bath and after the rest period. However, it remains to be determined whether or not BIA is sensitive to rapid changes in water volume.

  4. Electroplated Fe-Co-Ni films prepared from deep-eutectic-solvent-based plating baths

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takeshi Yanai

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available We fabricated soft magnetic films from DES-based plating baths, and investigated magnetic properties of the plated films. The plating baths were obtained by stirring the mixture of choline chloride, ethylene glycol, FeCl2 ⋅ 4H2O, NiCl2 ⋅ 6H2O and CoCl2 ⋅ 6H2O. The composition of the electroplated film depended on the amount of the reagent in the plating bath, and we consequently obtained the films with various composition. The current efficiency of the plating process shows high values (> 88 % in the wide composition range. The soft magnetic films with low coercivity were obtained at the Fe compositions of ≈ 30 at.% and > 80 at.%, and we found that low coercivity could be realized by the control of the film composition. We also found that the Fe-rich films prepared from DES-based plating bath have some advantages as a soft magnetic phase for a nanocomposite magnet due to their high saturation magnetization and very fine crystal structure.

  5. Synthetic legal intoxicating drugs: the emerging 'incense' and 'bath salt' phenomenon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jerry, Jason; Collins, Gregory; Streem, David

    2012-04-01

    Synthetic legal intoxicating drugs (SLIDs), such as those commonly contained in products sold over the counter as "bath salts" and "incense," have risen tremendously in popularity in the past few years. These drugs can have powerful adverse effects, including acute psychosis with delusions, hallucinations, and potentially dangerous, bizarre behavior.

  6. Increase in outbreaks of gastroenteritis linked to bathing water in Finland in summer 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kauppinen, Ari; Al-Hello, Haider; Zacheus, Outi; Kilponen, Jaana; Maunula, Leena; Huusko, Sari; Lappalainen, Maija; Miettinen, Ilkka; Blomqvist, Soile; Rimhanen-Finne, Ruska

    2017-01-01

    An increased number of suspected outbreaks of gastroenteritis linked to bathing water were reported to the Finnish food- and waterborne outbreak (FWO) registry in July and August 2014. The investigation reports were assessed by a national outbreak investigation panel. Eight confirmed outbreaks were identified among the 15 suspected outbreaks linked to bathing water that had been reported to the FWO registry. According to the outbreak investigation reports, 1,453 persons fell ill during these outbreaks. Epidemiological and microbiological data revealed noroviruses as the main causative agents. During the outbreaks, exceptionally warm weather had boosted the use of beaches. Six of eight outbreaks occurred at small lakes; for those, the investigation strongly suggested that the beach users were the source of contamination. In one of those eight outbreaks, an external source of contamination was identified and elevated levels of faecal indicator bacteria (FIB) were noted in water. In the remaining outbreaks, FIB analyses were insufficient to describe the hygienic quality of the water. Restrictions against bathing proved effective in controlling the outbreaks. In spring 2015, the National Institute for Health and Welfare (THL) and the National Supervisory Authority for Welfare and Health (Valvira) published guidelines for outbreak control to prevent bathing water outbreaks. PMID:28251888

  7. Chemical bath deposition and characterization of Cu2O-CuxS thin films

    OpenAIRE

    EYA, D. D. O.

    2010-01-01

    Cu2O-CuxS thin films have been deposited on glass substrate by chemical bath deposition technique. The films were obtained by depositing Copper Sulphide (CuxS) on Copper (I) Oxide (Cu2O) and then Cu2O on CuxS. The peak solar transmittance across the thin films were found to be

  8. Computational and experimental analysis of the secretome of Methylococcus capsulatus (Bath.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stine Indrelid

    Full Text Available The Gram-negative methanotroph Methylococcus capsulatus (Bath was recently demonstrated to abrogate inflammation in a murine model of inflammatory bowel disease, suggesting interactions with cells involved in maintaining mucosal homeostasis and emphasizing the importance of understanding the many properties of M. capsulatus. Secreted proteins determine how bacteria may interact with their environment, and a comprehensive knowledge of such proteins is therefore vital to understand bacterial physiology and behavior. The aim of this study was to systematically analyze protein secretion in M. capsulatus (Bath by identifying the secretion systems present and the respective secreted substrates. Computational analysis revealed that in addition to previously recognized type II secretion systems and a type VII secretion system, a type Vb (two-partner secretion system and putative type I secretion systems are present in M. capsulatus (Bath. In silico analysis suggests that the diverse secretion systems in M.capsulatus transport proteins likely to be involved in adhesion, colonization, nutrient acquisition and homeostasis maintenance. Results of the computational analysis was verified and extended by an experimental approach showing that in addition an uncharacterized protein and putative moonlighting proteins are released to the medium during exponential growth of M. capsulatus (Bath.

  9. Morphology control of zinc oxide films via polysaccharide-mediated, low temperature, chemical bath deposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florian Waltz

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study we present a three-step process for the low-temperature chemical bath deposition of crystalline ZnO films on glass substrates. The process consists of a seeding step followed by two chemical bath deposition steps. In the second step (the first of the two bath deposition steps, a natural polysaccharide, namely hyaluronic acid, is used to manipulate the morphology of the films. Previous experiments revealed a strong influence of this polysaccharide on the formation of zinc oxide crystallites. The present work aims to transfer this gained knowledge to the formation of zinc oxide films. The influence of hyaluronic acid and the time of its addition on the morphology of the resulting ZnO film were investigated. By meticulous adjustment of the parameters in this step, the film morphology can be tailored to provide an optimal growth platform for the third step (a subsequent chemical bath deposition step. In this step, the film is covered by a dense layer of ZnO. This optimized procedure leads to ZnO films with a very high electrical conductivity, opening up interesting possibilities for applications of such films. The films were characterized by means of electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction and measurements of the electrical conductivity.

  10. The application of the modified form of Bath's law to the North Anatolian Fault Zone

    CERN Document Server

    Yalcin, S E

    2006-01-01

    Earthquakes and aftershock sequences follow several empirical scaling laws: One of these laws is Bath's law for the magnitude of the largest aftershock. In this work, Modified Form of Bath's Law and its application to KOERI data have been studied. Bath's law states that the differences in magnitudes between mainshocks and their largest detected aftershocks are approximately constant, independent of the magnitudes of mainshocks and it is about 1.2. In the modified form of Bath's law for a given mainshock we get the inferred largest aftershock of this mainshock by using an extrapolation of the Gutenberg-Richter frequency-magnitude statistics of the aftershock sequence. To test the applicability of this modified law, 6 large earthquakes that occurred in Turkey between 1950 and 2004 with magnitudes equal to or greater than 6.9 have been considered. These earthquakes take place on the North Anatolian Fault Zone. Additionally, in this study the partitioning of energy during a mainshock-aftershock sequence was also ...

  11. Correlates of unsupervised bathing of infants: A cross-sectional study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.E.J. van Scholing-van Beelen (Mirjam); E.F. van Beeck (Ed); P. den Hertog (Paul); T.M.J. Beirens (Tinneke); H. Raat (Hein)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractDrowning represents the third leading cause of fatal unintentional injury in infants (0-1 years). The aim of this study is to investigate correlates of unsupervised bathing. This cross-sectional study included 1,410 parents with an infant. Parents completed a questionnaire regarding supe

  12. Performance of Flow and Heat Transfer in a Hot-Dip Round Coreless Galvanizing Bath

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, Qiang; Zhang, Chengbo; Xu, Yong; Zhou, Li; Kong, Hui; Wang, Jia

    2017-04-01

    Flow field in a coreless hot-dip galvanizing pot was investigated through a water modeling experiment. The corresponding velocity vector was measured using an acoustic Doppler velocimeter. The flow field of molten zinc in the bath was also analyzed. Steel strip velocities from 1.7 to 2.7 m/s were adopted to determine the effect of steel strip velocity on the molten zinc flow in the bath. A large vortex filled the space at the right side of the sink roll, under linear speed from 1.0 to 2.7 m/s and width from 1.0 to 1.3 m of the steel strip, because of the effects of wall and shear stress. The results of the water modeling experiment were compared with those of numerical simulations. In the simulation, Maxwell equations were solved using finite element method to obtain magnetic flux density, electromagnetic force, and Joule heating. The Joule heating rate reached the maximum and minimum values near the side wall and at the core of the bath, respectively, because of the effect of skin and proximity. In an industrial-sized model, the molten zinc flow and temperature fields driven by electromagnetic force and Joule heating in the inductor of a coreless galvanizing bath were numerically simulated. The results indicated that the direction of electromagnetic force concentrated at the center of the galvanizing pot horizontal planes and exerted a pinch effect on molten zinc. Consequently, molten zinc in the pot was stirred by electromagnetic force. Under molten zinc flow and electromagnetic force stirring, the temperature of the molten zinc became homogeneous throughout the bath. This study provides a basis for optimizing electromagnetic fields in coreless induction pot and fine-tuning the design of steel strip parameters.

  13. Microscopic theory of heat transfer between two fermionic thermal baths mediated by a spin system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Somrita; Bag, Bidhan Chandra

    2015-11-01

    In this paper we have presented the heat exchange between the two fermionic thermal reservoirs which are connected by a fermionic system. We have calculated the heat flux using solution of the c-number Langevin equation for the system. Assuming small temperature difference between the baths we have defined the thermal conductivity for the process. It first increases as a nonlinear function of average temperature of the baths to a critical value then decreases to a very low value such that the heat flux almost becomes zero. There is a critical temperature for the fermionic case at which the thermal conductivity is maximum for the given coupling strength and the width of the frequency distribution of bath modes. The critical temperature grows if these quantities become larger. It is a sharp contrast to the Bosonic case where the thermal conductivity monotonically increases to the limiting value. The change of the conductivity with increase in width of the frequency distribution of the bath modes is significant at the low temperature regime for the fermionic case. It is highly contrasting to the Bosonic case where the signature of the enhancement is very prominent at high temperature limit. We have also observed that thermal conductivity monotonically increases as a function of damping strength to the limiting value at the asymptotic limit. There is a crossover between the high and the low temperature results in the variation of the thermal conductivity as a function of the damping strength for the fermionic case. Thus it is apparent here that even at relatively high temperature, the fermionic bath may be an effective one for the strong coupling between system and reservoir. Another interesting observation is that at the low temperature limit, the temperature dependence of the heat flux is the same as the Stefan-Boltzmann law. This is similar to the bosonic case.

  14. Performance of Flow and Heat Transfer in a Hot-Dip Round Coreless Galvanizing Bath

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, Qiang; Zhang, Chengbo; Xu, Yong; Zhou, Li; Kong, Hui; Wang, Jia

    2016-12-01

    Flow field in a coreless hot-dip galvanizing pot was investigated through a water modeling experiment. The corresponding velocity vector was measured using an acoustic Doppler velocimeter. The flow field of molten zinc in the bath was also analyzed. Steel strip velocities from 1.7 to 2.7 m/s were adopted to determine the effect of steel strip velocity on the molten zinc flow in the bath. A large vortex filled the space at the right side of the sink roll, under linear speed from 1.0 to 2.7 m/s and width from 1.0 to 1.3 m of the steel strip, because of the effects of wall and shear stress. The results of the water modeling experiment were compared with those of numerical simulations. In the simulation, Maxwell equations were solved using finite element method to obtain magnetic flux density, electromagnetic force, and Joule heating. The Joule heating rate reached the maximum and minimum values near the side wall and at the core of the bath, respectively, because of the effect of skin and proximity. In an industrial-sized model, the molten zinc flow and temperature fields driven by electromagnetic force and Joule heating in the inductor of a coreless galvanizing bath were numerically simulated. The results indicated that the direction of electromagnetic force concentrated at the center of the galvanizing pot horizontal planes and exerted a pinch effect on molten zinc. Consequently, molten zinc in the pot was stirred by electromagnetic force. Under molten zinc flow and electromagnetic force stirring, the temperature of the molten zinc became homogeneous throughout the bath. This study provides a basis for optimizing electromagnetic fields in coreless induction pot and fine-tuning the design of steel strip parameters.

  15. Effect of radon baths having a radon concentration of 100 mach units (36. 4 nanocuries/liter) on patients having a deforming osteoarthrosis with myocardial damage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsarfis, P.G.; Kostrova, V.D.; Gerasimenko, V.N.; Fiveiskaya, A.A.

    1974-01-01

    The patients took the radon baths at a temperature of 36/sup 0/C for a period of 15 minutes. The treatment consisted of 14 to 16 baths with a break of one day between baths. After completing the baths, pain in the limbs subsided significantly and disappeared in three-fourths of the patients. Locomotor function improved. Muscle tone increased. Improvement in physical function was noted in 75 out of 80 patients. 3 references. (SJR)

  16. An Efficient Algorithm for Simulating the Real-Time Quantum Dynamics of a Single Spin-1/2 Coupled to Specific Spin-1/2 Baths

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Novotny, M.A.; Guerra, M.; Raedt, H. De; Michielsen, K.; Jin, F.

    2012-01-01

    An efficient algorithm for the computation of the real-time dependence of a single quantum spin-1/2 coupled to a specific set of quantum spin-1/2 baths is presented. The specific spin baths have couplings only with the spin operators Sx between bath spins and the central spin. We calculate spin expe

  17. High-temperature conductivity in chemical bath deposited copper selenide thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhanam, M.; Manoj, P. K.; Prabhu, Rajeev. R.

    2005-07-01

    This paper reports high-temperature (305-523 K) electrical studies of chemical bath deposited copper (I) selenide (Cu 2-xSe) and copper (II) selenide (Cu 3Se 2) thin films. Cu 2-xSe and Cu 3Se 2 have been prepared on glass substrates from the same chemical bath at room temperature by controlling the pH. From X-ray diffraction (XRD) profiles, it has been found that Cu 2-xSe and Cu 3Se 2 have cubic and tetragonal structures, respectively. The composition of the chemical constituent in the films has been confirmed from XRD data and energy-dispersive X-ray analysis (EDAX). It has been found that both phases of copper selenide thin films have thermally activated conduction in the high-temperature range. In this paper we also report the variation of electrical parameters with film thickness and the applied voltage.

  18. Development and Application of Mullite—Composite Brick for Baths Pool of Blast Furnace

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOULei; LIXian-ming; 等

    1994-01-01

    The paper deals with the development and production of mullite-composite bricks for baths pool of balst furnace,Fused corundum,synthetic mullite ,special grade bauxite and a certain amount of additives were used as raw materials to produce corundum-mullite brick and yellow-corundum brick,All of their physical and chemical properties surpass the designed values.Good results have been obtained from the applic-cation in the baths pool of No.7 blast furnace of Anshan I & S Co.(Angang).The silicon content in pig iron decreases by 0.1%-0.2% while the temperature of the hot metal increases by 20℃,The mineral composition and structure have been studied by means of XRD and SEM.

  19. Numerical simulation on submerged gas jet scouring pit morphology in impingement water bath dust removers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAO Huijie; WU Xuan; ZHAO Yuxiang; WU Wenfei; LI Baowei

    2014-01-01

    The VOF interface tracking method was adopted to simulate the two-dimensional submerged gas jet scouring pit morphology in an impingement water bath dust remover.The interaction of gas/liquid two-phase was obtained by force balance and momentum exchange.On the self-designed impingement water bath dust remover test bench,the submerged gas jet flushing with different gas velocities was simulated. The results show that,the gas inlet velocity is one of the main factors affecting the submerged gas jet scou-ring pit characteristics.The unique nature of gas/liquid two-phase determines their unique way of move-ment,thus affects the morphological character of the scouring pit in the expansion lag phase.Within the study range,the characteristic radius and impact depth of the scouring pit increases with the gas velocity, and so are their growth rates.

  20. Angular self-localization of impurities rotating in a bosonic bath

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Xiang; Lemeshko, Mikhail

    2016-01-01

    The existence of a self-localization transition in the polaron problem has been under an active debate ever since Landau suggested it 83 years ago. Here we reveal the self-localization transition for the rotational analogue of the polaron -- the angulon quasiparticle. We show that, unlike for the polarons, self-localization of angulons occurs at finite impurity-bath coupling already at the mean-field level. The transition is accompanied by the spherical-symmetry breaking of the angulon ground state and a discontinuity in the first derivative of the ground-state energy. Moreover, the type of the symmetry breaking is dictated by the symmetry of the microscopic impurity-bath interaction, which leads to a number of distinct self-localized states. The predicted effects can potentially be addressed in experiments on cold molecules trapped in superfluid helium droplets and ultracold quantum gases, as well as on electronic excitations in solids and Bose-Einstein condensates.

  1. PREPARATION AND ANALYSIS OF Ni-P-Zn ELECTROLESS DEPOSITION FROM ALKALT BATH

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Y.S. Huang; F.Z. Cui

    2005-01-01

    Electroless Ni-P-Zn alloys deposited from alkali bath were investigated in this paper. The deposition bath contained nickel sulfate, zinc chloride and hypophosphate. The process parameters, such as temperature, pH and zinc salt concentration were presented and discussed.The microstructure of the coatings was studied by XRD and SEM. The cathode glowing discharge characters of Ni-P-Zn depositions were studied with luminous Neon lamps. Electrodes deposited by electroless Ni-P alloys were apt to sputter during luminous working hours. Electroless Ni-P-Zn depositions improved the discharge characters of the electrodes.With the concentration of zinc in the deposition rising to 4wt%, electrode sputter was largely restrained. The thickness of the deposition also influenced the discharge characters of the electrode. To avoid electrode sputter, the concentration of zinc has to rise with the thickness of the depositions.

  2. Quantum Brownian motion in a bath of parametric oscillators a model for system-field interactions

    CERN Document Server

    Hu, B L; Andrew Matacz

    1993-01-01

    The quantum Brownian motion paradigm provides a unified framework where one can see the interconnection of some basic quantum statistical processes like decoherence, dissipation, particle creation, noise and fluctuation. We treat the case where the Brownian particle is coupled linearly to a bath of time dependent quadratic oscillators. While the bath mimics a scalar field, the motion of the Brownian particle modeled by a single oscillator could be used to depict the behavior of a particle detector, a quantum field mode or the scale factor of the universe. An important result of this paper is the derivation of the influence functional encompassing the noise and dissipation kernels in terms of the Bogolubov coefficients. This method enables one to trace the source of statistical processes like decoherence and dissipation to vacuum fluctuations and particle creation, and in turn impart a statistical mechanical interpretation of quantum field processes. With this result we discuss the statistical mechanical origi...

  3. Structural analysis of CdS thin films obtained by multiple dips of oscillating chemical bath

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gutierrez Lazos, C.D. [Seccion de Electronica del Estado Solido, Centro de Investigacion y de Estudios Avanzados, Av. Instituto Politecnico Nacional 2508, Col. San Pedro Zacatenco, 07360 Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Rosendo, E., E-mail: erosendo@siu.buap.m [Centro de Investigacion en Dispositivos Semiconductores, Universidad Autonoma de Puebla, 14 Sur y San Claudio, Col. San Manuel, C.P. 72570, Puebla (Mexico); Ortega, M. [Seccion de Electronica del Estado Solido, Centro de Investigacion y de Estudios Avanzados, Av. Instituto Politecnico Nacional 2508, Col. San Pedro Zacatenco, 07360 Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Oliva, A.I. [Departamento de Fisica Aplicada, Centro de Investigacion y de Estudios Avanzados, Unidad Merida, A.P. 73 Cordemex, 97310 Merida, Yucatan (Mexico); Tapia, O.; Diaz, T.; Juarez, H.; Garcia, G. [Centro de Investigacion en Dispositivos Semiconductores, Universidad Autonoma de Puebla, 14 Sur y San Claudio, Col. San Manuel, C.P. 72570, Puebla (Mexico); Rubin, M. [Facultad de Ciencias de la Computacion, 14 Sur y San Claudio, Col. San Manuel, C.P. 72570, Puebla (Mexico)

    2009-11-25

    Highly oriented CdS thin films with thicknesses greater than 1 mum were deposited by multiple dips, using oscillating chemical bath deposition (OCBD) at the bath temperature of 75 deg. C, and deposition time ranging from 15 to 75 min for a single dip. Samples with different thickness were prepared by repeating the deposition process for two and three times. The films deposited by a single dip have the alpha-greenockite structure showing the (0 0 2) as preferred orientation, as indicated by the X-ray diffraction measurements. This notable characteristic is preserved in the samples obtained from two or three dips. The crystallite size for the samples deposited by a single dip depends on the deposition time, because it varied from 23 to 37 nm as the deposition time increased. Nevertheless for samples deposited by two and three dips, the grain size shows no noticeable change, being about 22 nm.

  4. Shallow chemical bath deposition of ZnS buffer layer for environmentally benign solar cell devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choubey, R. K.; Kumar, Sunil; Lan, C. W.

    2014-06-01

    Zinc sulfide (ZnS) thin film was grown by a shallow chemical bath deposition (SCBD) technique. In this technique a highly conducting hot plate was used to heat the substrate, while higher thermal gradient was achieved by a shallow bath of the ZnS solution. Consequently, homogeneous nucleation is reduced and quality of ZnS thin films can be improved by shaking. The main advantage of this technique over a traditional one is that the use of solution can be reduced greatly, which is crucial for cost reduction in practice. The effects of shaking on growth kinetics and film properties were investigated by characterizing the as-grown ZnS thin films by x-ray diffraction, transmittance and scanning electron microscopy (SEM).

  5. Work distribution for a particle moving in an optical trap and non-Markovian bath

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Alok Samanta; K Srinivasu; Swapan K Ghosh

    2009-09-01

    We propose a simple approach to derive an exact analytical expression of work distribution for a system consisting of a colloidal particle trapped in an optical harmonic potential well, which is being pulled at a constant velocity through a solution represented by a non-Markovian bath. The thermal environment is represented by a bath composed of an infinite set of harmonic oscillators, and a model Hamiltonian for the trapped colloidal particle is constructed by representing the interaction with the bathvia linear dissipative mechanism. We have studied the effects of pulling time, pulling speed, and the adiabatic limit. It is also observed that only at long time the total work is completely converted into dissipative work.

  6. Study of planar heterojunction perovskite photovoltaic cells using compact titanium oxide by chemical bath deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Kouhei; Kuwabara, Takayuki; Takahashi, Kohshin; Taima, Tetsuya

    2015-08-01

    Spin-coated perovskite solar cells from sol-gels result in high processing costs because of the need for high temperatures. Here, we report a low-temperature spin-coating route to fabricate planar heterojunction perovskite solar cells using chemical bath deposition of compact-TiOx layers. Comparison of the solar cell properties of compact-TiOx and compact-TiO2 layers show that the power conversion efficiency of the planar heterojunction perovskite solar cell fabricated by the low-temperature, compact-TiOx route is comparable to that of conventional TiO2. The chemical bath deposition method requires heating to 150 °C only to form amorphous compact-TiOx films compared with the 450 °C required for crystalline anatase compact-TiO2 films.

  7. Genuine three-qubit entanglement from coupling to a heat bath

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eltschka, Christopher [Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, Regensburg Univ. (Germany); Braun, Daniel [Universite de Toulouse, Laboratoire de Physique Theorique (IRSAMC), Toulouse (France); CNRS, LPT (IRSAMC), Toulouse (France); Siewert, Jens [Departamento de Quimica Fisica, Universidad del Pais Vasco UPV/EHU, Bilbao (Spain); Ikerbasque, Basque Foundation for Science, Bilbao (Spain)

    2013-07-01

    Initially unentangled qubits which do not interact which each other can become entangled by interacting with a common heat bath. But with more than two qubits, there exist several inequivalent types of entanglement. Therefore it is an important question which types of entanglement can be generated. While exactly determining and quantifying the entanglement for mixed states of more than two qubits is an unsolved problem, recent advancements based on the Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger symmetry allow to determine a good lower bound for the entanglement. By using those methods we show that for three qubits coupled to the same heat bath indeed all types of entanglement can be generated for almost all separable initial states.

  8. Effect of a new condensation product on electrodeposition of zinc from a non-cyanide bath

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Ganesha Achary; H P Sachin; Y Arthoba Naik; T V Venkatesha

    2007-06-01

    Zinc electrodeposition from sulphate chloride bath was carried out in presence of condensation product formed between chitosan and veratraldehyde. The bath constituents and operating parameters such as pH, temperature and current density were optimized through Hull cell experiments. Current efficiency and throwing power were measured. Polarization study revealed high shift of potential towards negative direction in the presence of addition agents. Corrosion resistance test revealed good protection of base metal by zinc coating obtained from developed electrolyte. SEM photomicrographs showed fine-grained deposit in the presence of condensation product. The IR spectrum of the deposit showed inclusion of the condensation product during electroplating. The consumption of brightener in the lab scale was 5 mLL-1 for 1000 amp-h.

  9. A new condensation product for zinc plating from non-cyanide alkaline bath

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Y Arthoba Naik; T V Venkatesha

    2005-08-01

    Zinc electroplating from non-cyanide alkaline solution is carried out in the presence of condensation product formed between DL-alanine (DLA) and glutaraldehyde. The bath constituents and bath variables are optimized through standard Hull cell experiments. The current efficiency and the throwing power are measured. High shift of potential towards more cathodic direction was observed in presence of addition agents. Corrosion resistance test reveals good protection of base metal by zinc coating obtained from the developed electrolyte. SEM photomicrographs show fine-grained deposit in the presence of condensation product. IR spectrum of the scraped deposit shows the inclusion of the condensation product in the deposit during plating. The consumption of brightener in the lab-scale is 6 mLL-1 for 1000 amp-hour.

  10. Understanding Characteristic of Abrasion of Refractory Lining Caused by Bath Oscillation in BOF Steelmaking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qiang; Li, Mingming; Kuang, S. B.; Zou, Zongshu

    2016-12-01

    This paper presents a numerical study of the refractory abrasion occurring widely inside basic oxygen furnace (BOF) steelmaking. The mechanism of refractory abrasion is examined numerically referring to the bath oscillation with regard to flows, turbulence and wall shear stress inside a BOF. The simulation results reveal that the refractory abrasion tends to occur on the wall region between the slag/atmosphere and slag/metal interfaces due to the oscillation of the bath in the blowing process, which generally promotes slag-line erosion. The decreased nozzle angle, and either increased lance height or operation pressure can lead to more serious refractory erosion that occurs more likely during the slag-making period in the operation of BOF.

  11. Control and optimization of baths for electrodeposition of Co-Mo-B amorphous alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Prasad

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available Optimization and control of an electrodeposition process for depositing boron-containing amorphous metallic layer of cobalt-molybdenum alloy onto a cathode from an electrolytic bath having cobalt sulfate, sodium molybdate, boron phosphate, sodium citrate, 1-dodecylsulfate-Na, ammonium sulfate and ammonia or sulfuric acid for pH adjustments has been studied. Detailed studies on bath composition, pH, temperature, mechanical agitation and cathode current density have led to optimum conditions for obtaining satisfactory alloy deposits. These alloys were found to have interesting properties such as high hardness, corrosion resistance, wear resistance and also sufficient ductility. A voltammetric method for automatic monitoring and control of the process has been proposed.

  12. Mathematical modeling of a gas jet impinging on a two phase bath

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado-Álvárez, J.; Ramírez-Argáez, Marco A.; González-Rivera, C.

    2012-09-01

    In this work a three phase 3D mathematical model was developed using the Volume Of Fluid (VOF) algorithm, which is able to accurately describe the cavity geometry and size as well as the liquid flow patterns created when a gas jet impinges on a two phase liquid free surface. These phenomena are commonly found in steelmaking operations such as in the Electric Arc Furnace (EAF) and the Basic Oxygen Furnace (BOF) where oxygen jets impinge on a steel bath and they control heat, momentum and mass transfer. The cavity formed in the liquids by the impinging jet depends on a force balance at the free surface where the inertial force of the jet governs these phenomena. The inertial force of the jet and its angle play important roles, being the lowest angle the best choice to shear the bath and promote stronger circulation and better mixing in the liquids.

  13. PbS Thin Films for Photovoltaic Applications Obtained by Non-Traditional Chemical Bath Deposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pérez-García Claudia Elena

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available To optimize cost-efficiency relation for thin film solar cells, we explore the recently developed versions of chemical deposition of semiconductor films, together with classic CBD (Chemical Bath Deposition: SILAR (Successive Ionic Layer Adsorption and Reaction and PCBD (Photo Chemical Bath Deposition, all of them ammonia-free and ecologically friendly. The films of CdS and PbS were made, and experimental solar cells with CdS window layer and PbS absorber elaborated. We found that band gap of PbS films can be monitored by deposition process due to porosity-induced quantum confinement which depends on the parameters of the process. We expect that the techniques employed can be successfully used for production of optoelectronic devices.

  14. Microbiological analysis in three diverse natural geothermal bathing pools in Iceland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorolfsdottir, Berglind Osk Th; Marteinsson, Viggo Thor

    2013-03-14

    Natural thermal bathing pools contain geothermal water that is very popular to bathe in but the water is not sterilized, irradiated or treated in any way. Increasing tourism in Iceland will lead to increasing numbers of bath guests, which can in turn affect the microbial flora in the pools and therefore user safety. Today, there is no legislation that applies to natural geothermal pools in Iceland, as the water is not used for consumption and the pools are not defined as public swimming pools. In this study, we conducted a microbiological analysis on three popular but different natural pools in Iceland, located at Lýsuhóll, Hveravellir and Landmannalaugar. Total bacterial counts were performed by flow cytometry, and with plate count at 22 °C, 37 °C and 50 °C. The presence of viable coliforms, Enterococcus spp. and pseudomonads were investigated by growth experiments on selective media. All samples were screened for noroviruses by real time PCR. The results indicate higher fecal contamination in the geothermal pools where the geothermal water flow was low and bathing guest count was high during the day. The number of cultivated Pseudomonas spp. was high (13,000-40,000 cfu/100 mL) in the natural pools, and several strains were isolated and classified as opportunistic pathogens. Norovirus was not detected in the three pools. DNA was extracted from one-liter samples in each pool and analyzed by partial 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Microbial diversity analysis revealed different microbial communities between the pools and they were primarily composed of alpha-, beta- and gammaproteobacteria.

  15. Microbiological Analysis in Three Diverse Natural Geothermal Bathing Pools in Iceland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berglind Osk Th. Thorolfsdottir

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Natural thermal bathing pools contain geothermal water that is very popular to bathe in but the water is not sterilized, irradiated or treated in any way. Increasing tourism in Iceland will lead to increasing numbers of bath guests, which can in turn affect the microbial flora in the pools and therefore user safety. Today, there is no legislation that applies to natural geothermal pools in Iceland, as the water is not used for consumption and the pools are not defined as public swimming pools. In this study, we conducted a microbiological analysis on three popular but different natural pools in Iceland, located at Lýsuhóll, Hveravellir and Landmannalaugar. Total bacterial counts were performed by flow cytometry, and with plate count at 22 °C, 37 °C and 50 °C. The presence of viable coliforms, Enterococcus spp. and pseudomonads were investigated by growth experiments on selective media. All samples were screened for noroviruses by real time PCR. The results indicate higher fecal contamination in the geothermal pools where the geothermal water flow was low and bathing guest count was high during the day. The number of cultivated Pseudomonas spp. was high (13,000–40,000 cfu/100 mL in the natural pools, and several strains were isolated and classified as opportunistic pathogens. Norovirus was not detected in the three pools. DNA was extracted from one-liter samples in each pool and analyzed by partial 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Microbial diversity analysis revealed different microbial communities between the pools and they were primarily composed of alpha-, beta- and gammaproteobacteria.

  16. Energy Absorption and Storage in a Hamiltonian System in Partial Contact with a Heat Bath

    CERN Document Server

    Nakagawa, N; Nakagawa, Naoko; Kaneko, Kunihiko

    1999-01-01

    To understand the mechanism allowing for long-term storage of excess energy in proteins, we study a Hamiltonian system consisting of several coupled pendula in partial contact with a heat bath. It is found that energy absorption and storage are possible when the motion of each pendulum switches between oscillatory (vibrational) and rotational modes. The relevance of our mechanism to protein motors is discussed.

  17. Measurement System of Reducing Temperature Fluctuation of Thermostat Bath for Calibrating Thermocouple

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Min; Liang, Feixia; Xie, Yue; Huang, Ruguo; Yuan, Haitao; Lu, Jiahua

    2014-01-01

    International audience; Based on the periodic unsteady state heat conduction theory, a new measurement system of reducing temperature fluctuation of thermostat bath was developed in order to obtain a liquid environment with uniform and constant temperature controlled for the measurement requirements of calibrating thermocouple. The experimental results show that the temperature stability in this measurement system is superior to that in traditional system. The measurement system had the advan...

  18. The use of an absorption heat pump by a thermal bathing establishment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lazzarin, R.M.; Longo, G. (Padua Univ. (Italy)); Piccininni, F. (Bari Univ. (Italy). Ist. di Fisica Tecnica)

    1992-07-01

    An energy saving plant was realized by a thermal bathing establishment. The plant is composed of a three fluid plate heat exchanger and an absorption heat pump between the source preheated water and the discharged one. During the cold winter the establishment is maintained at a temperature of 5[sup o]C. The absorption heat pump uses the thermal water as the cold source. (Author).

  19. The effect of sauna bathing on lipid profile in young, physically active, male subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorota Gryka

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The aim of the study was to evaluate effects of Finnish sauna bathing on lipid profile in healthy, young men. Material and Methods: Sixteen male subjects (20–23 years were subjected to 10 sauna bathing sessions in a Finnish sauna every 1 or 2 days. The mean sauna temperature was 90±2°C, while humidity was 5–16%. Each session consisted of three 15-minute parts and a 2-minute cool-down between them. The following measurements were taken before and after the sauna sessions: body mass, heart rate, body skinfold thickness. The percentage fat content and then, the lean body mass were calculated. Total cholesterol, triacylglycerols, lipoprotein cholesterol LDL and HDL were measured in blood samples. Results: A statistically significant decrease of total cholesterol and LDL cholesterol was observed during 3 weeks of sauna treatment and in the week afterwards. A significant decline in triacylglycerols was found directly after the 1st and 24 h directly after the 10th sauna session. After the 10th sauna session the level of HDL cholesterol remained slightly increased, but this change was not statistically significant. A decrease in blood plasma volume was found directly after the 1st and the last sauna bathing session due to perspiration. An adaptive increase in blood plasma volume was also found after the series of 10 sauna sessions. Conclusions: Ten complete sauna bathing sessions in a Finnish sauna caused a reduction in total cholesterol and LDL cholesterol fraction levels during the sessions and a gradual return of these levels to the initial level during the 1st and the 2nd week after the experiment. A small, statistically insignificant increase in HDL-C level and a transient decline in triacylglycerols were observed after those sauna sessions. The positive effect of sauna on lipid profile is similar to the effect that can be obtained through a moderate-intensity physical exercise.

  20. Cavitation Enhancing Nanodroplets Mediate Efficient DNA Fragmentation in a Bench Top Ultrasonic Water Bath.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandeep K Kasoji

    Full Text Available A perfluorocarbon nanodroplet formulation is shown to be an effective cavitation enhancement agent, enabling rapid and consistent fragmentation of genomic DNA in a standard ultrasonic water bath. This nanodroplet-enhanced method produces genomic DNA libraries and next-generation sequencing results indistinguishable from DNA samples fragmented in dedicated commercial acoustic sonication equipment, and with higher throughput. This technique thus enables widespread access to fast bench-top genomic DNA fragmentation.

  1. Entanglement Evolution of a 2-Qutrit System Interacting with a Fermionic Bath

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MA Xiao-San; WANG An-Min; YANG Xiao-Dong; XU Feng

    2005-01-01

    Based on the algebraic entanglement measure proposed [G. Vidal et al., Phys. Rev. A 65 (2002) 032314],we study the entanglement evolution of both pure quantum states and mixed ones of 2-qutrit system in a symmetrybroken environment consisting of a fermionic bath. Entanglement of states will decrease or remain constant under the influence of environment, and the class of states which remain unchanged has been found out.

  2. Two-frequency forcing of droplet rebounds on a liquid bath

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampara, Naresh; Gilet, Tristan

    2016-11-01

    Droplets can bounce indefinitely on a liquid bath vertically vibrated in a sinusoidal fashion. We here present experimental results that extend this observation to forcing signals composed of a combination of two commensurable frequencies. The Faraday and Goodridge thresholds are characterized. Then a number of vertical bouncing modes are reported, including walkers. The vertical motion can become chaotic, in which case the horizontal motion is an alternation of walk and stop.

  3. Kinetics of Ni-Mo electrodeposition from Ni-rich citrate baths

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beltowska-Lehman, E., E-mail: nmbeltow@imim-pan.krakow.pl; Indyka, P.

    2012-01-01

    The kinetics of Ni-Mo alloy electrodeposition on steel substrates from an aqueous citrate-ammonia complex baths has been investigated by means of steady-state polarisation measurements in a system with a rotating disc electrode (RDE). Partial current densities for discharge of Ni(II) and Mo(VI) ions and hydrogen evolution as a function of molybdate concentration in the bath, cathode potentials and the rate of mass transport were determined. It has been shown that - under all investigated conditions - Ni-Mo alloy deposition is more favourable than pure nickel and the cathodic process is strongly influenced by the Mo(VI) content in the solution. The Ni(II) electroreduction rate initially increases, as the cathode potential shifts towards more negative values and the concentration of molybdate grows in the solution. However, for the highest examined MoO{sub 4}{sup 2-} content, a considerable decrease in the rate of the process is subsequently observed at certain limit potentials, the values of which depend on molybdate concentration and hydrodynamic conditions. This effect, related to the formation of intermediate molybdenum oxides (characterised by very low overvoltage for hydrogen evolution), becomes less pronounced when the RDE rotation speed is increased. Hydrogen evolution is strongly associated with molybdenum deposition. An increase of the molybdate ions concentration in the bath, as well as an increase in the rate of mass transport, leads to an increase in Mo content in deposits and to the reduction of current efficiency. The Ni-Mo coatings electrodeposited from the designed bath (with the current efficiency of about 70%) containing about 30 wt.% Mo, are characterised by a shiny-grey appearance and good adhesion to the steel substrate. They are characterised by column growth and amorphous microstructure with randomly distributed nanocrystallites of the MoNi{sub 4} intermetallic phase.

  4. Colonization of Legionella species in Turkish baths in hotels in Alanya, Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdogan, Haluk; Arslan, Hande

    2015-05-01

    This study evaluated the prevalence of Legionella species in water samples collected from Turkish baths in hotels in Alanya, Turkey, from August 2003 to September 2013. Water samples were collected in 100-mL sterile containers and then concentrated by filtration. Heat treatment was used to eliminate other microorganisms from the samples, which were then spread on Legionella-selective-buffered charcoal yeast extract alpha (BCYE-α) agar and on BCYE-α agar supplemented with glycine, vancomycin, polymyxin, and cycloheximide. Cysteine-dependent colonies were identified by latex agglutination. In total, 135 samples from 52 hotels with Turkish baths were evaluated. Legionella species were identified in 11/52 (21.2%) hotels and 18/135 (13.3%) samples. The most frequently isolated species was Legionella pneumophila, with most isolates belonging to serogroups 6 (55.6%) and 1 (22.2%). The colony count was 1000 CFU mL(-1) in three samples. These findings suggest that the hot water systems of Turkish baths in hotels must be viewed as a possible source of travel-associated Legionnaires' disease, and preventative measures should be put in place.

  5. Quantum dynamics of hydrogen atoms on graphene. I. System-bath modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonfanti, Matteo, E-mail: matteo.bonfanti@unimi.it [Dipartimento di Chimica, Università degli Studi di Milano, v. Golgi 19, 20133 Milano (Italy); Jackson, Bret [Department of Chemistry, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, Massachusetts 01003 (United States); Hughes, Keith H. [School of Chemistry, Bangor University, Bangor, Gwynedd LL57 2UW (United Kingdom); Burghardt, Irene [Institute of Physical and Theoretical Chemistry, Goethe University Frankfurt, Max-von-Laue-Str. 7, 60438 Frankfurt/Main (Germany); Martinazzo, Rocco, E-mail: rocco.martinazzo@unimi.it [Dipartimento di Chimica, Università degli Studi di Milano, v. Golgi 19, 20133 Milano (Italy); Istituto di Scienze e Tecnologie Molecolari, Consiglio Nazionale delle Richerche, v. Golgi 19, 20133 Milano (Italy)

    2015-09-28

    An accurate system-bath model to investigate the quantum dynamics of hydrogen atoms chemisorbed on graphene is presented. The system comprises a hydrogen atom and the carbon atom from graphene that forms the covalent bond, and it is described by a previously developed 4D potential energy surface based on density functional theory ab initio data. The bath describes the rest of the carbon lattice and is obtained from an empirical force field through inversion of a classical equilibrium correlation function describing the hydrogen motion. By construction, model building easily accommodates improvements coming from the use of higher level electronic structure theory for the system. Further, it is well suited to a determination of the system-environment coupling by means of ab initio molecular dynamics. This paper details the system-bath modeling and shows its application to the quantum dynamics of vibrational relaxation of a chemisorbed hydrogen atom, which is here investigated at T = 0 K with the help of the multi-configuration time-dependent Hartree method. Paper II deals with the sticking dynamics.

  6. Influence of coagulation bath on morphology of cellulose membranes prepared by NMMO method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    To control the morphology of cellulose membranes used for separation,they were prepared by the NMMO method using water,methanol,ethanol and their binary solution as coagulation baths.Morphologies of the surface and cross section of dry membranes were observed.The pore structure parameters of wet membranes were determined.By comparison,the process and mechanism of pore formation in dry membranes were suggested,and the relativity of cellulose crystal size to average pore diameter in wet membranes and their influences were discussed.The results show that the morphology of dry membranes is clearly varied with coagulation baths,while the porosity of wet membranes is almost constant.Porous structures can appear in the compact region of dry membranes due to swelling from water.These pores have a virtual effect on the average pore diameter of wet membranes.By changing the composition of coagulation baths,the microstructure of cellulose membranes in a dry or wet environment can be adjusted separately.

  7. Beyond heat baths: Generalized resource theories for small-scale thermodynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yunger Halpern, Nicole; Renes, Joseph M

    2016-02-01

    Thermodynamics has recently been extended to small scales with resource theories that model heat exchanges. Real physical systems exchange diverse quantities: heat, particles, angular momentum, etc. We generalize thermodynamic resource theories to exchanges of observables other than heat, to baths other than heat baths, and to free energies other than the Helmholtz free energy. These generalizations are illustrated with "grand-potential" theories that model movements of heat and particles. Free operations include unitaries that conserve energy and particle number. From this conservation law and from resource-theory principles, the grand-canonical form of the free states is derived. States are shown to form a quasiorder characterized by free operations, d majorization, the hypothesis-testing entropy, and rescaled Lorenz curves. We calculate the work distillable from-and we bound the work cost of creating-a state. These work quantities can differ but converge to the grand potential in the thermodynamic limit. Extending thermodynamic resource theories beyond heat baths, we open diverse realistic systems to modeling with one-shot statistical mechanics. Prospective applications such as electrochemical batteries are hoped to bridge one-shot theory to experiments.

  8. Safety of tomatillos and products containing tomatillos canned by the water-bath canning method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKee, L H; Remmenga, M D; Bock, M A

    1998-01-01

    Three studies were conducted to evaluate the safety of tomatillos and products containing tomatillos canned by the water-bath processing method. In the first study, plain tomatillos were processed for 25, 37.5, 50 and 62.5 min. In the second study, five tomatillo/onion combinations were prepared while five tomatillo/green chile combinations were prepared in the third study. pH evaluations were conducted to determine safety in all studies using pH 4.2 as the cut-off value. No differences in the pH of plain tomatillos were detected due to processing time. All jars of plain tomatillos had pH values below 4.1. All combinations of tomatillos/onions and tomatillos/green chile containing more than 50% tomatillo had pH values below the 4.2 cut-off value. Results of the three studies indicate (1) acidification of plain tomatillos is probably unnecessary for canning by the water-bath processing method and (2) combinations of acidic tomatillos and low-acid onions or green chile must contain more than 50% tomatillos to have a pH low enough for safe water-bath processing.

  9. Water-bathing synthesis of high-surface-area zeolite P from diatomite

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yucheng Du; Shuli Shi; Hongxing Dai

    2011-01-01

    Zeolite P was synthesized for the first time via a novel water-bathing route at 90℃ using scrubbed diatomite, sodium hydroxide, and aluminum hydroxide as precursor, with SiO2/Al2O3, SiO2/Na2O, and H2O/Na2O molar ratios of 7.43, 3.81, and 80.00, respectively. The as-fabricated samples were characterized by means of scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and nitrogen adsorption measurements. This study showed that (i) treating the diatomite raw material with sodium hexametaphosphate could open the pores in the diatomite via removal of the clay clogged in its pores; (ii) tetragonal mesoporous zeolite P samples with a surface area of 56-60 m2/g could be generated after 6-24 h of water-bathing reaction at 90 C; (iii) extension of water-bathing reaction time could improve the mesoporous structure of zeolite P;and (iv) Ca2+ adsorption capacity of the zeolite P sample was about 300 cmol/kg. Such high-surface-area porous zeolite P could be used as an effective adsorbent for the treatment of water containing calcium and magnesium ions.

  10. New open source medical imaging tools released by CERN and University of Bath collaboration

    CERN Multimedia

    Anaïs Rassat, KT group

    2016-01-01

    New toolbox has applications in medical imaging and cancer diagnosis.   3D X-ray imaging of a patient’s lungs and thorax. The TIGRE toolbox provides a high resolution image with only 1/30th of the radiation for the patient. (Image: Ander Biguri) CERN and the University of Bath have released a new toolbox for fast, accurate 3D X-ray image reconstruction with applications in medical imaging and cancer diagnosis. The software offers a very simple and affordable way to improve imaging and potentially reduce radiation doses for patients. The toolbox is based on Cone Beam Computed Tomography (CBCT), a type of scanning process that takes a series of 2D X-ray pictures and that then processes them into a 3D image. As part of the collaborative project between CERN and the University of Bath, Ander Biguri, a PhD student at Bath, has reviewed a broad range of published CBCT algorithms and adapted them to be faster. Ander Biguri modified the algorithms to run on a laptop fitted with a GPU &ndash...

  11. Comparison Between Electrolysis and Reduction for Treatment of Spent Electroless Nickel Plating Bath

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAN Lei; LI Shuqin; YU Xiujuan

    2009-01-01

    There are lots of residual nickel and organic compounds in the spent electroless nickel plating bath. It not only wastes resource but also causes environmental pollution if the wastewater is discharged without treatment. In this paper, electrolytic method and reduction method for treating spent electroless nickel plating bath were compared. The factors studied included reaction time, pH, temperature, effectiveness and cost. It was found that the recovery rate of nickel by reduction was 99.9% under the condition ofpH 6, 50℃ for 10 min. The purity of reclaimed nickel was 66.1%. This treatment needed about 16 g NaBH4 for a liter spent solution, which cost RMB 64 Yuan. For electrolysis method, with pH 7.6, 80℃, 0.45 A (current intensity) for 2 h, the recovery rate reached 97.3%. The purity was 88.5% for the reclaimed nickel. Moreover, it was found that through electrolysis, the value of TOC (Total Organic Carbon) decreased from 114 to 3.08 g·L-1 with removal rate of 97.3%. The main cost of electrolysis came from electric energy. It cost about 0.09 kWh (less than RMB 0.1 Yuan) per liter wastewater. Compared with reduction, electrolysis had more advantages, so the priority of selection should be given to the electrolysis method for the treatment of spent electroless nickel plating bath.

  12. RODBAV BATHS RESORT (BRAŞOV COUNTY – THERAPEUTIC POTENTIAL AND ITS EXPLOITATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RODICA MEREŢ

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Rodbav Baths, former seasonal spa resort of local interest, due of its geographical position and therapeutic factors still available, may become again in the future, an important location for treatment but also for relaxation, rest as well as physical and psychological rehabilitation. On the other hand, its specific therapeutic natural potential may represent an alternative to drug treatment as the use of mineral water and therapeutic mud in spa treatment has had obvious results in improving or remedying certain illnesses throughout time.This paper aims to highlight the therapeutic potential of Rodbav Baths, which consists in natural and anthropogenic resources, as well as the need to harness the best of it, through appropriate infrastructure and sustained promotion, so that the touristic product offer should be of good quality. The paper is based on information and data obtained from specialized sources or documents from the national archives of Braşov as well as from field investigations and measurements performed in the period 2010 - 2012. They were then processed and systematized to achieve the graphic and cartographic material. Last, but not least, images, illustrating the observed phenomena were used. The final results are highlighted in this paper. Thus, it presents the types of mineral waters of Rodbav Baths and their therapeutic importance, their spreading around the studied site, the spa features of the area, and current and future means of developing spa and healthcare tourism.

  13. Enzymatic decolorization of spent textile dyeing baths composed by mixtures of synthetic dyes and additives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciullini, Ilaria; Gullotto, Antonella; Tilli, Silvia; Sannia, Giovanni; Basosi, Riccardo; Scozzafava, Andrea; Briganti, Fabrizio

    2012-10-01

    The effects of different components of real dyeing bath formulations, such as the equalizing and fixing additives-acids, salts, and surfactants-on the decolorization catalyzed by Funalia trogii enzymatic extracts, were investigated to understand their influence on the recalcitrance to biodegradation of this type of wastewater. The decolorization of selected dyes and dye mixtures after tissue dyeing was performed in the presence/absence of auxiliary compounds. All spent dyeing baths were enzymatically decolorized to different extents, by the addition of extracts containing laccase only or laccase plus cellobiose dehydrogenase. Whereas surfactant auxiliaries, in some instances, inhibit the decolorization of spent dyeing baths, in several occurrences the acid/salt additives favor the enzymatic process. In general, the complete spent dyeing formulations are better degraded than those containing the dyes only. The comparison of extracellular extracts obtained from spent straws from the commercial growth of Pleurotus sp. mushrooms with those from F. trogii reveals similar decolorization extents thus allowing to further reduce the costs of bioremediation.

  14. Microbiological Guideline Values for Recreational Bathing in Canada: Time for Change?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benoit Lévesque

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Recreational bathing is an activity practiced by thousands of Canadians every year. While its health benefits are numerous, bathing in polluted water can also be a source of health problems. These problems are generally nonspecific and are difficult to detect through usual health monitoring systems. Most involve ear and eye ailments, febrile respiratory illness and, particularly, gastroenteritis. In 1992, Health Canada recommended microbiological guideline values for recreational water quality. The values are based on the presence of fecal indicator bacteria, namely, enterococci for marine water, and Escherichia coli or fecal coliforms for fresh water. In marine water, the guideline value is set at 35 enterococci/100 mL, while in fresh water, the standard is 200 E coli/100 mL or 200 fecal coliforms/100 mL when experience demonstrates that over 90% of the fecal coliforms are E coli. Notwithstanding certain variances, many Canadian provinces apply these guidelines. However, in Ontario, the guideline is 100 E coli/100 mL. Over the past several years, many epidemiological studies, including randomized clinical trials, have examined the relationship between bathing in polluted water and ensuing health problems. On review of this literature, the Canadian guideline values for marine water seems appropriate, but scientific evidence argues toward lowering the Canadian guideline values for fresh water to 100 E coli/100 mL, in line with the standard currently in effect in Ontario.

  15. Measurement of boiling heat transfer coefficient in liquid nitrogen bath by inverse heat conduction method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tao JIN; Jian-ping HONG; Hao ZHENG; Ke TANG; Zhi-hua GAN

    2009-01-01

    Inverse heat conduction method (IHCM)is one of the most effective approaches to obtaining the boiling heat transfer coefficient from measured results.This paper focuses on its application in cryogenic boiling heat transfer.Experiments were conducted on the heattransfer of a stainless steel block in a liquid nitrogen bath.with the assumption of a ID conduction condition to realize fast acquisition of the temperature of the test points inside the block.With the inverse-heat conduction theory and the explicit finite difference model,a solving program was developed to calculate the heat flux and the boiling heat transfer coefficient of a stainless steel block in liquid nitrogen bath based on the temperature acquisition data.Considering the oscillating data and some unsmooth transition points in the inverse-heat-conduction calculation result of the heat-transfer coefficient,a two-step data-fitting procedure was proposed to obtain the expression for the boiling heat transfer coefficients.The coefficient was then verified for accuracy by a comparison between the simulation results using this expression and the verifying experimental results of a stainless steel block.The maximum error with a revised segment fitting iS around 6%.which verifies the feasibility of using IHCM to measure the boiling heat transfer coefficient in liquid nitrogen bath.

  16. Chinese Herbal Foot Bath plus Acupoint Massage Beneficial to the Improvement of Grade 0 Diabetic Foot

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lin Xiao-xia; Xu Xu-yuan; Shangguan Bin-bin

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To observe the clinical effect of foot bath with Tao Hong Si Wu Tang plus massage on acupoints at the sole for grade 0 diabetic foot. Methods: One hundred and sixty eligible cases were randomly divided into an observation group and a control group, 80 cases in each group. The two groups were treated with routine basic medications to control blood sugar. The patients in the observation group were given foot bath withTao Hong Si Wu Tangplus massage on acupoints at the sole, once every day. At the same time, the patients were instructed to understand the knowledge of diabetes, accept the education on foot care and to know the self-management for diabetes. The patients in the control group only accepted the education on foot care and studied the self-management for diabetes. The patients in the two groups were followed up once every week by phone. The local examination was intensified for the patients in their clinical visit every month. The therapeutic effects were assessed after three months of continuous treatment. Results: The total effective rate was 92.5% in the observation group, remarkably higher than 65.0% in the control group. The difference in comparison of the general therapeutic effect was statistically significant (P Conclusion: Foot bath withTao Hong Si Wu Tang plus massage on acupoints at the sole was beneficial to the improvement of clinical symptoms of grade 0 diabetic foot.

  17. Effects of choline chloride on electrodeposited Ni coating from a Watts-type bath

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yurong; Yang, Caihong; He, Jiawei; Wang, Wenchang; Mitsuzak, Naotoshi; Chen, Zhidong

    2016-05-01

    Electrodeposition of bright nickel (Ni) was carried out in a Watts-type bath. Choline chloride (ChCl) was applied as a multifunctional additive and substitute for nickel chloride (NiCl2) in a Watts-type bath. The function of ChCl was investigated through conductivity tests, anodic polarization, and cathodic polarization experiments. The studies revealed that ChCl performed well as a conducting salt, anodic activator, and cathodic inhibitor. The effects of ChCl on deposition rate, preferred orientation, grain size, surface morphology, and microhardness of Ni coatings were also studied. The deposition rate reached a maximum value of greater than 27 μm h-1 when 20 g L-1 ChCl was introduced to the bath. Using X-ray diffraction, it was confirmed that progressive addition of ChCl promoted the preferred crystal orientation modification from (2 0 0) and (2 2 0) to (1 1 1), refined grain size, and enhanced microhardness. The presence of ChCl lowered the roughness of the coating.

  18. Alcaligenes xylosoxidans cholecystitis and meningitis acquired during bathing procedures in a burn unit: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujioka, Masaki; Oka, Kiyoshi; Kitamura, Riko; Yakabe, Aka; Chikaaki, Nakamichi

    2008-12-01

    The information in this article was presented at the 37th Annual Meeting of the Japan Society of Burn, Nagoya, Japan, June 7-8, 2008. Alcaligenes xylosoxidans, a nonfermentative, Gram-negative rod often found in aqueous environments, has been isolated from respirators, incubators, and disinfectant solutions in the hospital environment. It is known to cause disease in immunocompromised (eg, burn) patients and represents a cross-contamination risk related to wound care. In the authors' burn unit, two patients, admitted with deep dermal burns during a 1-month time period, acquired serious A. xylosoxidans infections. The first involved A. xylosoxidans-associated cholecystitis in an adult with 32% total body surface area (TBSA) burns and the second involved A. xylosoxidans meningitis in an adult with 30% TBSA burns. Both patients received hydrotherapy (bathing) in the same bathing tub, one patient after the other. Culture from environmental sources isolated A. xylosoxidans from the bathing mattress. Bacterial analysis of the isolates, including antimicrobial susceptibility testing and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, suggested the patients had been infected by the same strain - ie, cross-contaminated - probably during treatment of their burns. The isolated strains were resistant not only to broad-spectrum penicillins and cephalosporins, but also to imipenem, to which past A. xylosoxidans strains have been susceptible. These findings underscore the need for strict infection control to prevent cross-contamination and disease outbreak.

  19. Quantum Kramers model: Corrections to the linear response theory for continuous bath spectrum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rips, Ilya

    2017-01-01

    Decay of the metastable state is analyzed within the quantum Kramers model in the weak-to-intermediate dissipation regime. The decay kinetics in this regime is determined by energy exchange between the unstable mode and the stable modes of thermal bath. In our previous paper [Phys. Rev. A 42, 4427 (1990), 10.1103/PhysRevA.42.4427], Grabert's perturbative approach to well dynamics in the case of the discrete bath [Phys. Rev. Lett. 61, 1683 (1988), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.61.1683] has been extended to account for the second order terms in the classical equations of motion (EOM) for the stable modes. Account of the secular terms reduces EOM for the stable modes to those of the forced oscillator with the time-dependent frequency (TDF oscillator). Analytic expression for the characteristic function of energy loss of the unstable mode has been derived in terms of the generating function of the transition probabilities for the quantum forced TDF oscillator. In this paper, the approach is further developed and applied to the case of the continuous frequency spectrum of the bath. The spectral density functions of the bath of stable modes are expressed in terms of the dissipative properties (the friction function) of the original bath. They simplify considerably for the one-dimensional systems, when the density of phonon states is constant. Explicit expressions for the fourth order corrections to the linear response theory result for the characteristic function of the energy loss and its cumulants are obtained for the particular case of the cubic potential with Ohmic (Markovian) dissipation. The range of validity of the perturbative approach in this case is determined (γ /ωb<0.26 ), which includes the turnover region. The dominant correction to the linear response theory result is associated with the "work function" and leads to reduction of the average energy loss and its dispersion. This reduction increases with the increasing dissipation strength (up to ˜10 % ) within the

  20. Quasiclassical trajectory study of collisional energy transfer in toluene systems. I. Argon bath gas: Energy dependence and isotope effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Kieran F.

    1994-05-01

    Experimental studies of collisional energy transfer from highly vibrationally excited toluene to various bath gases have recently been reported [Toselli and Barker, J. Chem. Phys. 97, 1809 (1992), and references therein]. A quasiclassical trajectory investigation for toluene in argon bath gas at 300 K for initial internal energies E'=41 000, 30 000, and 15 000 cm-1 is reported here. Collisional energy transfer is almost linearly dependent on E'. Predictions of energy transfer quantities are very sensitive to the average well depth of the assumed individual pairwise potentials, but is less sensitive to the detailed shape. Qualitative and quantitative agreement with experiment is obtained where the overall well depth is physically realistic. Isotope studies using 40Ar and pseudohelium (4Ar) bath gases indicate that energy transfer is independent of the mass of the bath-gas collider, but perdeuteration increases 1/2 by 13% over the undeuterated values.

  1. The effects of bathing in hot springs on the absorption of green tea catechin: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayasaka, Shinya; Goto, Yasuaki; Maeda-Yamamoto, Mari

    2013-11-01

    Japan is a major tea producing country, and green tea is known for its health benefits which are believed to be due to catechins. However, difficulties in maintaining an adequate amount of catechins in the blood have been reported. Another important health-promoting activity among the Japanese is bathing in hot springs. This pilot study examined whether the combined effects of green tea consumption and hot spring bathing improved absorption of green tea catechins. The study, with a comparative within-subject design involving two different intervention trials--green tea consumption with hot spring bathing and only green tea consumption--was conducted on 2 separate days. Plasma levels of catechin; (-)-epigallocatechin-3-O-gallate (EGCG) were analyzed from four volunteers. Plasma EGCG concentration was found to be higher for the combined trial of green tea consumption and hot spring bathing.

  2. Surface modification of 2205 duplex stainless steel by low temperature salt bath nitrocarburizing at 430 °C

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Runbo; Wang, Jun; Zhong, Si; Li, Mingxing; Xiong, Ji; Fan, Hongyuan

    2013-04-01

    2205 stainless steel was modified by salt bath nitrocarburizing at 430 °C in this study. The microstructure, surface hardness and erosion-corrosion resistance were systematically evaluated. Salt bath nitrocarburizing at 430 °C can form a nitrocarburized layer, and with the treated time prolong, the thickness of the layer increased. By nitrocarburizing within 8 h, only expanded austenite (S phase) formed. With treated time increased, CrN gradually diffused from the places where there were ferrite grains in the layer before nitrocarburizing. Besides, the depth increased with the nitrocarburized time and the layer grew approximately conforms to the parabolic rate law. Salt bath nitrocarburizing can effectively improve the surface hardness of 2205 DSS. The erosion-corrosion resistance was improved by salt bath nitrocarburizing and the 16 h treated sample had the best erosion-corrosion behavior.

  3. Detection of Bronchial Function of NHBD Lung Following One-h Warm Ischemia by Organ Bath Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang YANG; Song ZHAO; Qiuming LIAO; Jianjun WANG

    2009-01-01

    laxant abilities of bronchial smooth muscles, and the epithe-lium-dependent adjustment both kept intact. Organ bath model could be a liable and scientific way to evaluate the bronchial function of NHBD lung.

  4. Treatment of 31 Cases of Infant Respiratory Tract Infection by Health-care Tuina plus Medicated Bath

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Jie; WU Xue-fei

    2003-01-01

    Thirty-one cases of infant respiratory tract infection were treated by no-pain health-care Tuina plus medicated bath. Since the therapeutic effects were satisfactory, so parents and infants are willing to accept.

  5. Distribution of Legionella pneumophila bacteria and Naegleria and Hartmannella amoebae in thermal saline baths used in balneotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zbikowska, Elżbieta; Walczak, Maciej; Krawiec, Arkadiusz

    2013-01-01

    The present study was aimed at investigating the coexistence and interactions between free living amoebae of Naegleria and Hartmannella genera and pathogenic Legionella pneumophila bacteria in thermal saline baths used in balneotherapy in central Poland. Water samples were collected from November 2010 to May 2011 at intervals longer than 1 month. The microorganisms were detected with the use of a very sensitive fluorescence in situ hybridisation method. In addition, the morphology of the amoebae was studied. Despite relatively high salinity level, ranging from 1.5 to 5.0 %, L. pneumophila were found in all investigated baths, although their number never exceeded 10(6) cells dm(-3). Hartmannella were not detected, while Naegleria fowleri were found in one bath. The observation that N. fowleri and L. pneumophila may coexist in thermal saline baths is the first observation emphasising potential threat from these microorganisms in balneotherapy.

  6. Change of Dye Bath for Sensitisation of Nanocrystalline TiO Films: Enhances Performance of Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malapaka Chandrasekharam

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The photovoltaic performance of the heteroleptic H102 and HRD2 sensitizers was measured in DSSC and compared with that of reference N719 under similar fabrication and evaluation conditions. The Dye-Sensitised TiO2 electrodes were prepared by staining the electrodes in ethanol bath and 1/1 v/v acetonitrile/tert-butanol (binary liquid mixture bath separately and the DSSCs based on these sensitizers show that the change of dye bath from ethanol to the binary liquid mixture enhances the photocurrent action spectrum and solar-to-electricity conversion efficiencies, (η. Using ethanol for sensitisation of TiO2 electrodes, the efficiencies obtained for H102, HRD2 and N719 are 4.31%, 4.62%, and 5.46%, respectively, while in binary liquid mixture bath, the corresponding values are enhanced to 5.89%, 4.87%, and 7.23%, respectively, under comparable conditions.

  7. ANOMALOUS ELECTRODEPOSITION OF Fe-Ni ALLOY COATING FROM SIMPLE AND COMPLEX BATHS AND ITS MAGNETIC PROPERTY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M A Islam

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Electrodeposition of Fe-Ni thin films has been carried on copper substrate under various electrodeposition conditions from two simple and six complex baths. Sulfate baths composing of NiSO4. 7H2O, FeSO4.7H2O, H3BO3 and Na2SO4KEYWORDS: Anomalous Electrodeposition, Fe-Ni Coating, Complexing agent, Current Density, Magnetic Property. 1. INTRODUCTION Alloy electrodeposition technologies can extend tremendously the potential of electrochemical deposition processes to provide coatings that require unique mechanical, chemical and physical properties [1]. There has been a great research interest in the development and characterization of iron-nickel (Fe-Ni thin films due to their operational capacity, economic interest, magnetic and other properties [2]. Due to their unique low coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE and soft magnetic properties, Fe-Ni alloys have been used in industrial applications for over 100 years [3]. Typical examples of applications that are based on the low CTE of Fe-Ni alloys include: thermostatic bimetals, glass sealing, integrated circuit packaging, cathode ray tube, shadow masks, membranes for liquid natural gas tankers; applications based on the soft magnetic properties include: read-write heads for magnetic storage, magnetic actuators, magnetic shielding, high performance transformer cores. comprise the simple baths whereas complex baths were prepared by adding ascorbic acid, saccharin and citric acid in simple baths. The effect of bath composition, pH and applied current density on coating appearance, composition, morphology and magnetic property were studied. Wet chemical analysis technique was used to analyze the coating composition whereas SEM and VSM were used to study the deposit morphology and magnetic property respectively. Addition of complexing agents in plating baths suppressed the anomalous nature of Fe-Ni alloy electrodeposition. Coatings obtained from simple baths were characterized by coarse grained non

  8. A new approach to calculating the memory kernel of the generalized quantum master equation for an arbitrary system-bath coupling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Qiang; Geva, Eitan

    2003-12-01

    The Nakajima-Zwanzig generalized quantum master equation provides a general, and formally exact, prescription for simulating the reduced dynamics of a quantum system coupled to a quantum bath. In this equation, the memory kernel accounts for the influence of the bath on the system's dynamics. The standard approach is based on using a perturbative treatment of the system-bath coupling for calculating this kernel, and is therefore restricted to systems weakly coupled to the bath. In this paper, we propose a new approach for calculating the memory kernel for an arbitrary system-bath coupling. The memory kernel is obtained by solving a set of two coupled integral equations that relate it to a new type of two-time system-dependent bath correlation functions. The feasibility of the method is demonstrated in the case of an asymetrical two-level system linearly coupled to a harmonic bath.

  9. Application of chemometric methods for assessment and modelling of microbiological quality data concerning coastal bathing water in Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agelos Papaioannou

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background. Worldwide, the aim of managing water is to safeguard human health whilst maintaining sustainable aquatic and associated terrestrial, ecosystems. Because human enteric viruses are the most likely pathogens responsible for waterborne diseases from recreational water use, but detection methods are complex and costly for routine monitoring, it is of great interest to determine the quality of coastal bathing water with a minimum cost and maximum safety. Design and methods. This study handles the assessment and modelling of the microbiological quality data of 2149 seawater bathing areas in Greece over 10-year period (1997-2006 by chemometric methods. Results. Cluster analysis results indicated that the studied bathing beaches are classified in accordance with the seasonality in three groups. Factor analysis was applied to investigate possible determining factors in the groups resulted from the cluster analysis, and also two new parameters were created in each group; VF1 includes E. coli, faecal coliforms and total coliforms and VF2 includes faecal streptococci/enterococci. By applying the cluster analysis in each seasonal group, three new groups of coasts were generated, group A (ultraclean, group B (clean and group C (contaminated. Conclusions. The above analysis is confirmed by the application of discriminant analysis, and proves that chemometric methods are useful tools for assessment and modeling microbiological quality data of coastal bathing water on a large scale, and thus could attribute to effective and economical monitoring of the quality of coastal bathing water in a country with a big number of bathing coasts, like Greece.

  10. [Effects of hot water bath or sauna on patients with congestive heart failure: acute hemodynamic improvement by thermal vasodilation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tei, C; Horikiri, Y; Park, J C; Jeong, J W; Chang, K S; Tanaka, N; Toyama, Y

    1994-01-01

    The acute hemodynamic effects of thermal vasodilation caused by exposure to hot water bath or sauna in chronic congestive heart failure were investigated in 32 patients (mean age 57 +/- 15 years old) with dilated cardiomyopathy (25 idiopathic and 7 ischemic). The clinical symptoms were New York Heart Association Class II in 2 patients, III in 17 and IV in 13, and the mean ejection fraction was 25 +/- 9% (9-44%). Exposure to hot water bath was for 10 minutes at 41 degrees C in a semi-sitting position, and to sauna for 15 minutes at 60 degrees C in a supine position using a special far infrared ray sauna chamber. Blood pressure, electrocardiogram, two-dimensional and Doppler echocardiograms, expiration gas, and intracardiac pressure tracings were recorded before (control), during, and 30 minutes after hot water bath or sauna. 1. The increase in oxygen consumption was only 0.3 Mets during hot water bath or sauna, and returned to the control level 30 minutes later. 2. The deep temperature in the main pulmonary artery increased by 1.0-1.2 degrees C on average at the end of hot water bath or sauna. 3. Heart rate increased significantly (p sauna, while, diastolic blood pressure decreased significantly during (p sauna (p < 0.01), and after hot water bath (p < 0.01).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  11. Bath temperature impact on morphological evolution of Ni(OH)2 thin films and their supercapacitive behaviour

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    U M Patil; K V Gurav; J H Kim; C D Lokhande; S C Jun

    2014-02-01

    Nanostructured Ni(OH)2 thin films were deposited over stainless steel (SS) and glass substrate via simple chemical bath deposition (CBD) method. NiCl2 :6H2O were used as source of nickel and aqueous ammonia as a complexing agent. The coating process of Ni(OH)2 material over substrate is based on the decomposition of ammonia complexed nickel ions at two different bath temperatures. The changes in structural, morphological and electro-chemical properties are examined as an impact of bath temperature. XRD studies reveal formation of mixed phase of and at lower bath temperature (313 K) while, pure phase of Ni(OH)2 thin films deposited was observed at higher bath temperature (353 K). The morphological evolution from honeycomb structure to vertically aligned flakes over the substrate is observed as the influence of bath temperature. The supercapacitive performance based on the morphology examined by using cyclic voltammetric measurements in 1 M KOH. The maximum specific capacitances of 610 and 460 F/g were observed for the vertical flake and honeycomb structured Ni(OH)2 thin films, respectively.

  12. Evaluating a microbial water quality prediction model for beach management under the revised EU Bathing Water Directive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedri, Zeinab; Corkery, Aisling; O'Sullivan, John J; Deering, Louise A; Demeter, Katalin; Meijer, Wim G; O'Hare, Gregory; Masterson, Bartholomew

    2016-02-01

    The revised Bathing Water Directive (2006/7/EC) requires EU member states to minimise the risk to public health from faecal pollution at bathing waters through improved monitoring and management approaches. While increasingly sophisticated measurement methods (such as microbial source tracking) assist in the management of bathing water resources, the use of deterministic predictive models for this purpose, while having the potential to provide decision making support, remains less common. This study explores an integrated, deterministic catchment-coastal hydro-environmental model as a decision-making tool for beach management which, based on advance predictions of bathing water quality, can inform beach managers on appropriate management actions (to prohibit bathing or advise the public not to bathe) in the event of a poor water quality forecast. The model provides a 'moving window' five-day forecast of Escherichia coli levels at a bathing water compliance point off the Irish coast and the accuracy of bathing water management decisions were investigated for model predictions under two scenarios over the period from the 11th August to the 5th September, 2012. Decisions for Scenario 1 were based on model predictions where rainfall forecasts from a meteorological source (www.yr.no) were used to drive the rainfall-runoff processes in the catchment component of the model, and for Scenario 2, were based on predictions that were improved by incorporating real-time rainfall data from a sensor network within the catchment into the forecasted meteorological input data. The accuracy of the model in the decision-making process was assessed using the contingency table and its metrics. The predictive model gave reasonable outputs to support appropriate decision making for public health protection. Scenario 1 provided real-time predictions that, on 77% of instances during the study period where both predicted and E. coli concentrations were available, would correctly inform a

  13. Correlates of Unsupervised Bathing of Infants: A Cross-Sectional Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tinneke M. J. Beirens

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Drowning represents the third leading cause of fatal unintentional injury in infants (0–1 years. The aim of this study is to investigate correlates of unsupervised bathing. This cross-sectional study included 1,410 parents with an infant. Parents completed a questionnaire regarding supervision during bathing, socio-demographic factors, and Protection Motivation Theory-constructs. To determine correlates of parents who leave their infant unsupervised, logistic regression analyses were performed. Of the parents, 6.2% left their child unsupervised in the bathtub. Parents with older children (OR 1.24; 95%CI 1.00–1.54 were more likely to leave their child unsupervised in the bathtub. First-time parents (OR 0.59; 95%CI 0.36–0.97 and non-Western migrant fathers (OR 0.18; 95%CI 0.05–0.63 were less likely to leave their child unsupervised in the bathtub. Furthermore, parents who perceived higher self-efficacy (OR 0.57; 95%CI 0.47–0.69, higher response efficacy (OR 0.34; 95%CI 0.24–0.48, and higher severity (OR 0.74; 95%CI 0.58–0.93 were less likely to leave their child unsupervised. Since young children are at great risk of drowning if supervision is absent, effective strategies for drowning prevention should be developed and evaluated. In the meantime, health care professionals should inform parents with regard to the importance of supervision during bathing.

  14. High quality antireflective ZnS thin films prepared by chemical bath deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tec-Yam, S.; Rojas, J.; Rejon, V. [Centro de Investigacion y de Estudios Avanzados del IPN, Unidad Merida, Departamento de Fisica Aplicada, Km. 6 Antigua Carretera a Progreso, AP 73-Cordemex, 97310 Merida Yucatan (Mexico); Oliva, A.I., E-mail: oliva@mda.cinvestav.mx [Centro de Investigacion y de Estudios Avanzados del IPN, Unidad Merida, Departamento de Fisica Aplicada, Km. 6 Antigua Carretera a Progreso, AP 73-Cordemex, 97310 Merida Yucatan (Mexico)

    2012-10-15

    Zinc sulfide (ZnS) thin films for antireflective applications were deposited on glass substrates by chemical bath deposition (CBD). Chemical analysis of the soluble species permits to predict the optimal pH conditions to obtain high quality ZnS films. For the CBD, the ZnCl{sub 2}, NH{sub 4}NO{sub 3}, and CS(NH{sub 2}){sub 2} were fixed components, whereas the KOH concentration was varied from 0.8 to 1.4 M. Groups of samples with deposition times from 60 to 120 min were prepared in a bath with magnetic agitation and heated at 90 Degree-Sign C. ZnS films obtained from optimal KOH concentrations of 0.9 M and 1.0 M exhibited high transparency, homogeneity, adherence, and crystalline. The ZnS films presented a band gap energy of 3.84 eV, an atomic Zn:S stoichiometry ratio of 49:51, a transmittance above 85% in the 300-800 nm wavelength range, and a reflectance below 25% in the UV-Vis range. X-ray diffraction analysis revealed a cubic structure in the (111) orientation for the films. The thickness of the films was tuned between 60 nm and 135 nm by controlling the deposition time and KOH concentration. The incorporation of the CBD-ZnS films into ITO/ZnS/CdS/CdTe and glass/Mo/ZnS heterostructures as antireflective layer confirms their high optical quality. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer High quality ZnS thin films were prepared by chemical bath deposition (CBD). Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Better CBD-ZnS films were achieved by using 0.9 M-KOH concentration. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Reduction in the reflectance was obtained for ZnS films used as buffer layers.

  15. Ion beam analysis of copper selenide thin films prepared by chemical bath deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, E.; García, V. M.; Nair, P. K.; Nair, M. T. S.; Zavala, E. P.; Huerta, L.; Rocha, M. F.

    2000-03-01

    Analyses of Rutherford back scattered (RBS) 4He+-particle spectra of copper selenide thin films deposited on glass slides by chemical bath were carried out to determine the changes brought about in the thin film by annealing processes. The atomic density per unit area and composition of the films were obtained from these measurements. This analysis shows that annealing in a nitrogen atmosphere at 400°C leads to the conversion of Cu xSe thin film to Cu 2Se. Results of X-ray diffraction, optical, and electrical characteristics on the films are presented to supplement the RBS results.

  16. Characterization of copper selenide thin films deposited by chemical bath deposition technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Mamun; Islam, A. B. M. O.

    2004-11-01

    A low-cost chemical bath deposition (CBD) technique has been used for the preparation of Cu2-xSe thin films onto glass substrates and deposited films were characterized by X-ray diffractometry (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), atomic force microscopy (AFM) and UV-vis spectrophotometry. Good quality thin films of smooth surface of copper selenide thin films were deposited using sodium selenosulfate as a source of selenide ions. The structural and optical behaviour of the films are discussed in the light of the observed data.

  17. Stabilizing Entanglement via Symmetry-Selective Bath Engineering in Superconducting Qubits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimchi-Schwartz, M. E.; Martin, L.; Flurin, E.; Aron, C.; Kulkarni, M.; Tureci, H. E.; Siddiqi, I.

    2016-06-01

    Bath engineering, which utilizes coupling to lossy modes in a quantum system to generate nontrivial steady states, is a tantalizing alternative to gate- and measurement-based quantum science. Here, we demonstrate dissipative stabilization of entanglement between two superconducting transmon qubits in a symmetry-selective manner. We utilize the engineered symmetries of the dissipative environment to stabilize a target Bell state; we further demonstrate suppression of the Bell state of opposite symmetry due to parity selection rules. This implementation is resource efficient, achieves a steady-state fidelity F =0.70 , and is scalable to multiple qubits.

  18. The Transformations of the Central Area of Nora: the 3D Reconstruction of the Central Baths

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele Capuzzo

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The 3D reconstruction of the Central Baths of Nora has required a long and reasoned analysis. On the basis of precise comparisons, a planimetric study of the complex has been first carried out, followed by the more difficult one of the elevations and the roofs, in order to create a model that allows to appreciate the building not only in its structural complexity, but also in the relationship with the spatial context in which it stood. This work represents only a part of a larger project that lead to the creation of a 3D model of the whole central district of Nora.

  19. Characterization of CdTe Films Deposited at Various Bath Temperatures and Concentrations Using Electrophoretic Deposition

    OpenAIRE

    Zulkarnain Zainal; Mohd Norizam Md Daud; Azmi Zakaria; Mohd Sabri Mohd Ghazali; Atefeh Jafari; Wan Rafizah Wan Abdullah

    2012-01-01

    CdTe film was deposited using the electrophoretic deposition technique onto an ITO glass at various bath temperatures. Four batch film compositions were used by mixing 1 to 4 wt% concentration of CdTe powder with 10 mL of a solution of methanol and toluene. X-ray Diffraction analysis showed that the films exhibited polycrystalline nature of zinc-blende structure with the (111) orientation as the most prominent peak. From the Atomic Force Microscopy, the thickness and surface roughness of the ...

  20. Atomic Force Microscopy Studies on The Surface Morphologies of Chemical Bath Deposited Cus Thin Films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ho Soonmin

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In this work, copper sulphide thin films were deposited onto microscope glass slide by chemical bath deposition technique. The tartaric acid was served as complexing agent to chelate with Cu2+ to obtain complex solution. The influence of pH value on the surface morphologies of the films has been particularly investigated using the atomic force microscopy technique. The atomic force microscopy results indicate that the CuS films deposited at pH 1 were uniform, compact and pinhole free. However, the incomplete surface coverage observed for the films prepared at high pH (pH 2 and 2.5 values.

  1. On the Alternatives for Bath Correlators and Spectral Densities from Mixed Quantum-Classical Simulations

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    We investigate on the procedure of extracting a "spectral density" from mixed QM/MM calculations and employing it in open quantum systems models. In particular, we study the connection between the energy gap correlation function extracted from ground state QM/MM and the bath spectral density used as input in open quantum system approaches. We introduce a simple model which can give intuition on when the ground state QM/MM propagation will give the correct energy gap. We also discuss the role ...

  2. Role of quantum heat bath and confinement in the low-temperature thermodynamics of cyclotron motion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandyopadhyay, Malay; Dattagupta, Sushanta

    2010-04-01

    In this Brief Report we show how the low-temperature thermodynamics of the dissipative motion of an electron in a magnetic field is sensitive to the nature of the spectral density function, J(omega), of the quantum heat bath. In all cases of couplings considered here the free energy and the entropy of the cyclotron motion of the electron fall off to zero as power law in conformity with the third law of thermodynamics. The power of the power law however depends on the nature of J(omega). We also separately discuss the influence of confinement.

  3. The Open-System Dicke-Model Quantum Phase Transition with a Sub-Ohmic Bath

    CERN Document Server

    Nagy, D

    2015-01-01

    We show that the critical exponent of a quantum phase transition in a damped-driven open system is determined by the spectral density function of the reservoir. We consider the open-system variant of the Dicke model, where the driven boson mode and also the large N-spin couple to independent reservoirs at zero temperature. The critical exponent, which is $1$ if there is no spin-bath coupling, decreases below 1 when the spin couples to a sub-Ohmic reservoir.

  4. SnS thin films deposited by chemical bath deposition, dip coating and SILAR techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaki, Sunil H.; Chaudhary, Mahesh D.; Deshpande, M. P.

    2016-05-01

    The SnS thin films were synthesized by chemical bath deposition (CBD), dip coating and successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR) techniques. In them, the CBD thin films were deposited at two temperatures: ambient and 70 °C. The energy dispersive analysis of X-rays (EDAX), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and optical spectroscopy techniques were used to characterize the thin films. The electrical transport properties studies on the as-deposited thin films were done by measuring the I-V characteristics, DC electrical resistivity variation with temperature and the room temperature Hall effect. The obtained results are deliberated in this paper.

  5. Evaluation of pH of Bathing Soaps and Shampoos for Skin and Hair Care

    OpenAIRE

    Jose Tarun; Jose Susan; Jacob Suria; Veronica John Susan; Sebastian Criton

    2014-01-01

    Background: Normal healthy skin has potential of hydrogen (pH) range of 5.4-5.9 and a normal bacterial flora. Use of soap with high pH causes an increase in skin pH, which in turn causes an increase in dehydrative effect, irritability and alteration in bacterial flora. The majority of soaps and shampoos available in the market do not disclose their pH. Aims and Objectives: The aim of this study was to assess the pH of different brands of bathing soaps and shampoos available in the market. Mat...

  6. Studies on chemical bath deposited zinc sulphide thin films with special optical properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ladar, Maria [Faculty of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, ' Babes-Bolyai' University, 400028 Cluj-Napoca (Romania); ' Raluca Ripan' Institute for Research in Chemistry, 30 Fantanele, 400294 Cluj-Napoca (Romania); Popovici, Elisabeth-Jeanne [' Raluca Ripan' Institute for Research in Chemistry, 30 Fantanele, 400294 Cluj-Napoca (Romania)]. E-mail: jennypopovici@yahoo.com; Baldea, Ioan [Faculty of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, ' Babes-Bolyai' University, 400028 Cluj-Napoca (Romania); Grecu, Rodica [' Raluca Ripan' Institute for Research in Chemistry, 30 Fantanele, 400294 Cluj-Napoca (Romania); Indrea, Emil [National Institute for R and D of Isotopic and Molecular Technology, Donath 71-103, 400293 Cluj-Napoca (Romania)

    2007-05-31

    Adherent and uniform zinc sulphide thin films were deposited on optical glass platelets from chemical bath containing thiourea, zinc acetate, ammonia and sodium citrate. The samples, as they were prepared were investigated by UV-vis absorption/reflection spectroscopy, fluorescence spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction. The effects of growth conditions such as reagent concentration and deposition technique (mono- and multi-layer) on optical and structural properties of the ZnS thin films have been studied. The ability of ZnS films to exhibit luminescent properties has also been investigated.

  7. Thin Films with Low Zn Content Prepared by Chemical Bath Deposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caijuan Tian

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Chemical bath deposition (CBD was used for the growth of thin films with low Zn content. The influence of preparation conditions, such as pH, temperature, and concentration, on film properties was investigated. The chemical growth mechanism of thin films was analyzed, and optimized growth conditions for the thin films were established. The fill factor and short-circuit current were improved while was used to replace CdS as the window layer in CdTe solar cells.

  8. Measurement of Neutron and Muon Fluxes 100~m Underground with the SciBath Detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garrison, Lance [Indiana Univ., Bloomington, IN (United States)

    2014-01-01

    The SciBath detector is an 80 liter liquid scintillator detector read out by a three dimensional grid of 768 wavelength-shifting fibers. Initially conceived as a fine-grained charged particle detector for neutrino studies that could image charged particle tracks in all directions, it is also sensitive to fast neutrons (15-200 MeV). In fall of 2011 the apparatus performed a three month run to measure cosmic-induced muons and neutrons 100~meters underground in the FNAL MINOS near-detector area. Data from this run has been analyzed and resulted in measurements of the cosmic muon flux as \

  9. Water bath synthesis of tin oxide nanostructure coating for a molecular sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masuda, Yoshitake; Ohji, Tatsuki; Kato, Kazumi

    2014-03-01

    Tin oxide nanostructures were fabricated using a water bath technique. The structures were modified with dye-labeled DNAs for a molecular sensor. Sensing mechanism of the sensor was based on a photoelectric conversion effect. Photoluminescence intensities from the tin oxide nanostructures reached to 16 times larger than that from SnO2:F films. High photocurrent of 5.5 x 10(-6) A and high signal-to-noise ratio of 29 were achieved in this system. Photoelectric conversion on a combination of the dye-labeled DNA and the tin oxide was an essence of the sensing system. Surface nanospaces were effectively utilized to increase photoluminescence and photocurrent.

  10. CHARACTERIZATION AND HARDNESS OF Co–P COATINGS OBTAINED FROM DIRECT CURRENT ELECTRODEPOSITION USING GLUCONATE BATH

    OpenAIRE

    H. SEENIVASAN; PARTHASARATHI BERA; K. S. Rajam; SANJIT KUMAR PARIDA

    2013-01-01

    Direct current electrodeposition of Co–P alloy coatings were carried out using gluconate bath and they were characterized by employing techniques like XRD, FESEM, DSC and XPS. Broad XRD lines demonstrate the amorphous nature of Co–P coatings. Spherical and rough nodules are observed on the surface of coatings as seen from FESEM images. Three exothermic peaks around 290, 342 and 390°C in DSC profiles of Co–P coatings could be attributed to the crystallization and formation of Co2P phase in the...

  11. NiS/ZnS multilayer thinfilm prepared by chemical bath deposition method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuvaloshini, J.; Ravi, G.; Shanmugavadivu, Ra.

    2013-06-01

    NiS/ZnS multilayer thin films were prepared by Chemical Bath Deposition (CBD) technique by successive coatings of nickel, zinc and sulphur. The X-ray diffraction was used to obtain structural characterization for the multilayer thinfilms, the crystalline size of 50 nm. The Scanning Electron Microscope techniques were employed to study the internal structure and indentified as of hexagonal structure. An EDAX spectrum confirms the compositional analysis of nickel, zinc and sulphur in nominal composition. The photoluminescence behaviour of NiS/ZnS multilayered system consists in the superposition independent photoluminescence emission in blue shift.

  12. Quantum heat transport of a two-qubit system: Interplay between system-bath coherence and qubit-qubit coherence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kato, Akihito, E-mail: kato@kuchem.kyoto-u.ac.jp; Tanimura, Yoshitaka, E-mail: tanimura@kuchem.kyoto-u.ac.jp [Department of Chemistry, Graduate School of Science, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan)

    2015-08-14

    We consider a system consisting of two interacting qubits that are individually coupled to separate heat baths at different temperatures. The quantum effects in heat transport are investigated in a numerically rigorous manner with a hierarchial equations of motion (HEOM) approach for non-perturbative and non-Markovian system-bath coupling cases under non-equilibrium steady-state conditions. For a weak interqubit interaction, the total system is regarded as two individually thermostatted systems, whereas for a strong interqubit interaction, the two-qubit system is regarded as a single system coupled to two baths. The roles of quantum coherence (or entanglement) between the two qubits (q-q coherence) and between the qubit and bath (q-b coherence) are studied through the heat current calculated for various strengths of the system-bath coupling and interqubit coupling for high and low temperatures. The same current is also studied using the time convolutionless (TCL) Redfield equation and using an expression derived from the Fermi golden rule (FGR). We find that the HEOM results exhibit turnover behavior of the heat current as a function of the system-bath coupling strength for all values of the interqubit coupling strength, while the results obtained with the TCL and FGR approaches do not exhibit such behavior, because they do not possess the capability of treating the q-b and q-q coherences. The maximum current is obtained in the case that the q-q coherence and q-b coherence are balanced in such a manner that coherence of the entire heat transport process is realized. We also find that the heat current does not follow Fourier’s law when the temperature difference is very large, due to the non-perturbative system-bath interactions.

  13. Flatbed scanners as a source of imaging. Brightness assessment and additives determination in a nickel electroplating bath.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidal, M; Amigo, J M; Bro, R; Ostra, M; Ubide, C; Zuriarrain, J

    2011-05-23

    Desktop flatbed scanners are very well-known devices that can provide digitized information of flat surfaces. They are practically present in most laboratories as a part of the computer support. Several quality levels can be found in the market, but all of them can be considered as tools with a high performance and low cost. The present paper shows how the information obtained with a scanner, from a flat surface, can be used with fine results for exploratory and quantitative purposes through image analysis. It provides cheap analytical measurements for assessment of quality parameters of coated metallic surfaces and monitoring of electrochemical coating bath lives. The samples used were steel sheets nickel-plated in an electrodeposition bath. The quality of the final deposit depends on the bath conditions and, especially, on the concentration of the additives in the bath. Some additives become degraded with the bath life and so is the quality of the plate finish. Analysis of the scanner images can be used to follow the evolution of the metal deposit and the concentration of additives in the bath. Principal component analysis (PCA) is applied to find significant differences in the coating of sheets, to find directions of maximum variability and to identify odd samples. The results found are favorably compared with those obtained by means of specular reflectance (SR), which is here used as a reference technique. Also the concentration of additives SPB and SA-1 along a nickel bath life can be followed using image data handled with algorithms such as partial least squares (PLS) regression and support vector regression (SVR). The quantitative results obtained with these and other algorithms are compared. All this opens new qualitative and quantitative possibilities to flatbed scanners.

  14. Quantum many-body theory for electron spin decoherence in nanoscale nuclear spin baths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Wen; Ma, Wen-Long; Liu, Ren-Bao

    2017-01-01

    Decoherence of electron spins in nanoscale systems is important to quantum technologies such as quantum information processing and magnetometry. It is also an ideal model problem for studying the crossover between quantum and classical phenomena. At low temperatures or in light-element materials where the spin-orbit coupling is weak, the phonon scattering in nanostructures is less important and the fluctuations of nuclear spins become the dominant decoherence mechanism for electron spins. Since the 1950s, semi-classical noise theories have been developed for understanding electron spin decoherence. In spin-based solid-state quantum technologies, the relevant systems are in the nanometer scale and nuclear spin baths are quantum objects which require a quantum description. Recently, quantum pictures have been established to understand the decoherence and quantum many-body theories have been developed to quantitatively describe this phenomenon. Anomalous quantum effects have been predicted and some have been experimentally confirmed. A systematically truncated cluster-correlation expansion theory has been developed to account for the many-body correlations in nanoscale nuclear spin baths that are built up during electron spin decoherence. The theory has successfully predicted and explained a number of experimental results in a wide range of physical systems. In this review, we will cover this recent progress. The limitations of the present quantum many-body theories and possible directions for future development will also be discussed.

  15. Spontaneous excitation of a static atom in a thermal bath in cosmic string spacetime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Huabing; Yu, Hongwei; Zhou, Wenting

    2015-10-01

    We study the average rate of change of energy for a static atom immersed in a thermal bath of electromagnetic radiation in the cosmic string spacetime and separately calculate the contributions of thermal fluctuations and radiation reaction. We find that the transition rates are crucially dependent on the atom-string distance and polarization of the atom and they in general oscillate as the atom-string distance varies. Moreover, the atomic transition rates in the cosmic string spacetime can be larger or smaller than those in Minkowski spacetime contingent upon the atomic polarization and position. In particular, when located on the string, ground-state atoms can make a transition to excited states only if they are polarizable parallel to the string, whereas ground-state atoms polarizable only perpendicular to the string are stable as if they were in a vacuum, even if they are immersed in a thermal bath. Our results suggest that the influence of a cosmic string is very similar to that of a reflecting boundary in Minkowski spacetime.

  16. Quantum many-body theory for electron spin decoherence in nanoscale nuclear spin baths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Wen; Ma, Wen-Long; Liu, Ren-Bao

    2017-01-01

    Decoherence of electron spins in nanoscale systems is important to quantum technologies such as quantum information processing and magnetometry. It is also an ideal model problem for studying the crossover between quantum and classical phenomena. At low temperatures or in light-element materials where the spin-orbit coupling is weak, the phonon scattering in nanostructures is less important and the fluctuations of nuclear spins become the dominant decoherence mechanism for electron spins. Since the 1950s, semi-classical noise theories have been developed for understanding electron spin decoherence. In spin-based solid-state quantum technologies, the relevant systems are in the nanometer scale and nuclear spin baths are quantum objects which require a quantum description. Recently, quantum pictures have been established to understand the decoherence and quantum many-body theories have been developed to quantitatively describe this phenomenon. Anomalous quantum effects have been predicted and some have been experimentally confirmed. A systematically truncated cluster-correlation expansion theory has been developed to account for the many-body correlations in nanoscale nuclear spin baths that are built up during electron spin decoherence. The theory has successfully predicted and explained a number of experimental results in a wide range of physical systems. In this review, we will cover this recent progress. The limitations of the present quantum many-body theories and possible directions for future development will also be discussed.

  17. Determination of chromium and nickel in commercial foam bath products by ETA-AAS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciaralli, L; Giordano, R; Cassina, S; Sepe, A; Costantini, S

    1996-01-01

    The presence of some inorganic elements, such as Ni and Cr in cosmetic products could be responsible for some skin diseases, such as allergic dermatitis. This paper deals with the determination of these two elements in commercial samples of foam bath products by means of the ETA-AAS technique. Four different analytical procedures for sample digestion are evaluated and discussed. Results indicated that the high-pressure microwave digestion is the best procedure for treatment of the complex matrices considered in the study. Chromium values were in the range of 22-199 micrograms/kg, whereas those of nickel fell within the range 26-287 micrograms/kg. The detection limit (3 sigma) of the whole procedure was 3 micrograms/kg for Cr and 15 micrograms/kg for Ni. The analytical data demonstrated that both Ni and Cr were present in all the samples at very low concentrations, and that foam bath products are a relatively minor source of exposure to these elements.

  18. Randomized controlled observer-blinded treatment of chronic foot eczema with iontophoresis and bath-PUVA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tupker, Ron A; Coenraads, Pieter J; Zanen, Pieter; Schuttelaar, Marie Louise A

    2013-07-06

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of iontophoresis combined with local psoralen plus ultraviolet A (PUVA) therapy in chronic foot eczema. A randomized, observer-blinded, multi-centre study was conducted in 48 patients with chronic moderate-to-severe foot eczema randomized to one of 3 groups: In the iontophoresis group local bath-PUVA was preceded by iontophoresis. In the PUVA group only local PUVA was given. The corticosteroid group was treated with fluticasone. All treatments were given for 8 weeks, with an 8-week follow-up period. The primary efficacy parameter was eczema score described by Rosén et al. Secondary efficacy parameters were a global impression by the patient, and the Dermatology Life Quality Index (DLQI). The eczema score and the DLQI decreased significantly over time. There were no significant differences in the decrease in eczema score (p=0.053) and DLQI values (p=0.563) between the 3 treatments. The DLQI values in our chronic foot eczema patients were high. There was no obvious advantage of local bath-PUVA with or with-out iontophoresis over local steroid therapy.

  19. Fabrication of ZnO nanorod using spray-pyrolysis and chemical bath deposition method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramadhani, Muhammad F., E-mail: brian@tf.itb.ac.id; Pasaribu, Maruli A. H., E-mail: brian@tf.itb.ac.id; Yuliarto, Brian, E-mail: brian@tf.itb.ac.id; Nugraha, E-mail: brian@tf.itb.ac.id [Advanced Functional Materials Laboratory, Engineering Physics Department Faculty of Industrial Technology, Institut Teknologi Bandung (Indonesia)

    2014-02-24

    ZnO thin films with nanorod structure were deposited using Ultrasonic Spray Pyrolysis method for seed growth, and Chemical Bath Deposition (CBD) for nanorod growth. High purity Zn-hydrate and Urea are used to control Ph were dissolved in ethanol and aqua bidest in Ultrasonic Spray Pyrolysis process. Glass substrate was placed above the heater plate of reaction chamber, and subsequently sprayed with the range duration of 5, 10 and 20 minutes at the temperatures of 3500 C. As for the Chemical Bath Deposition, the glass substrate with ZnO seed on the surface was immerse to Zn-hydrate, HMTA (Hexa Methylene Tetra Amine) and deionized water solution for duration of 3, 5 and 7 hour and temperatures of 600 C, washed in distilled water, dried, and annealed at 3500 C for an hour. The characterization of samples was carried out to reveal the surface morphology using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). From the data, the combination of 5 minutes of Ultrasonic Spray Pyrolysis process and 3 hour of CBD has showed the best structure of nanorod. Meanwhile the longer Spraying process and CBD yield the bigger nanorod structure that have been made, and it makes the films more dense which make the nanorod collide each other and as a result produce unsymetric nanorod structure.

  20. Femtosecond Transient Absorption Studies in Cadmium Selenide Nanocrystal Thin Films Prepared by Chemical Bath Deposition Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. C. Rath

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Dynamics of photo-excited carrier relaxation processes in cadmium selenide nanocrystal thin films prepared by chemical bath deposition method have been studied by nondegenerate femtosecond transient pump-probe spectroscopy. The carriers were generated by exciting at 400 nm laser light and monitored by several other wavelengths. The induced absorption followed by a fast bleach recovery observed near and above the bandgap indicates that the photo-excited carriers (electrons are first trapped by the available traps and then the trapped electrons absorb the probe light to show a delayed absorption process. The transient decay kinetics was found to be multiexponential in nature. The short time constant, <1 picosecond, was attributed to the trapping of electrons by the surface and/or deep traps and the long time constant, ≥20 picoseconds, was due to the recombination of the trapped carriers. A very little difference in the relaxation processes was observed in the samples prepared at bath temperatures from 25∘C to 60∘C.

  1. System-environment correlations for dephasing two-qubit states coupled to thermal baths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, A. C. S.; Beims, M. W.; Strunz, W. T.

    2016-05-01

    Based on the exact dynamics of a two-qubit system and environment, we investigate system-environment (SE) quantum and classical correlations. The coupling is chosen to represent a dephasing channel for one of the qubits and the environment is a proper thermal bath. First we discuss the general issue of dilation for qubit phase damping. Based on the usual thermal bath of harmonic oscillators, we derive criteria of separability and entanglement between an initial X state and the environment. Applying these criteria to initial Werner states, we find that entanglement between the system and environment is built up in time for temperatures below a certain critical temperature Tcrit. On the other hand, the total state remains separable during those short times that are relevant for decoherence and loss of entanglement in the two-qubit state. Close to Tcrit the SE correlations oscillate between separable and entangled. Even though these oscillations are also observed in the entanglement between the two qubits, no simple relation between the loss of entanglement in the two-qubit system and the build-up of entanglement between the system and environment is found.

  2. Effects of single low-temperature sauna bathing in patients with severe motor and intellectual disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iiyama, Junichi; Matsushita, Kensuke; Tanaka, Nobuyuki; Kawahira, Kazumi

    2008-07-01

    We have previously reported that thermal vasodilation following warm-water bathing and low-temperature sauna bathing (LTSB) at 60 °C for 15 min improves the cardiac function in patients with congestive heart failure. Through a comparative before-and-after study, we studied the hemodynamic and clinical effects of single exposure to LTSB in cerebral palsy (CP) patients who usually suffer from chilled extremities and low cardiac output. The study population comprised 16 patients ranging between 19 and 53 years with severe motor and intellectual disabilities. Noninvasive methods were used to estimate the systemic and peripheral circulatory changes before and after LTSB. Using blood flow velocity analysis, the pulsatile and resistive indexes of the peripheral arteries of the patients’ lower limbs were calculated. Following LTSB, the patients’ deep body temperature increased significantly by 1°C. Their heart rates increased and blood pressure decreased slightly. The total peripheral resistance decreased by 11%, and the cardiac output increased by 14%. There was significant improvement in the parameters that are indicative of the peripheral circulatory status, including the skin blood flow, blood flow velocity, pulsatile index, and resistive index. Numbness and chronic myalgia of the extremities decreased. There were no adverse side effects. Thus, it can be concluded that LTSB improves the peripheral circulation in CP patients.

  3. Chemical bath deposition of CdS thin films doped with Zn and Cu

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A I Oliva; J E Corona; R Patiño; A I Oliva-Avilés

    2014-04-01

    Zn- and Cu-doped CdS thin films were deposited onto glass substrates by the chemical bath technique. ZnCl2 and CuCl2 were incorporated as dopant agents into the conventional CdS chemical bath in order to promote the CdS doping process. The effect of the deposition time and the doping concentration on the physical properties of CdS films were investigated. The morphology, thickness, bandgap energy, crystalline structure and elemental composition of Zn- and Cu-doped CdS films were investigated and compared to the undoped CdS films properties. Both Zn- and Cu-doped CdS films presented a cubic crystalline structure with (1 1 1) as the preferential orientation. Lower values of the bandgap energy were observed for the doped CdS films as compared to those of the undoped CdS films. Zn-doped CdS films presented higher thickness and roughness values than those of Cu-doped CdS films. From the photoluminescence results, it is suggested that the inclusion of Zn and Cu into CdS crystalline structure promotes the formation of acceptor levels above the CdS valence band, resulting in lower bandgap energy values for the doped CdS films.

  4. Combinatorial Chemical Bath Deposition of CdS Contacts for Chalcogenide Photovoltaics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mokurala, Krishnaiah; Baranowski, Lauryn L; de Souza Lucas, Francisco W; Siol, Sebastian; van Hest, Maikel F A M; Mallick, Sudhanshu; Bhargava, Parag; Zakutayev, Andriy

    2016-09-12

    Contact layers play an important role in thin film solar cells, but new material development and optimization of its thickness is usually a long and tedious process. A high-throughput experimental approach has been used to accelerate the rate of research in photovoltaic (PV) light absorbers and transparent conductive electrodes, however the combinatorial research on contact layers is less common. Here, we report on the chemical bath deposition (CBD) of CdS thin films by combinatorial dip coating technique and apply these contact layers to Cu(In,Ga)Se2 (CIGSe) and Cu2ZnSnSe4 (CZTSe) light absorbers in PV devices. Combinatorial thickness steps of CdS thin films were achieved by removal of the substrate from the chemical bath, at regular intervals of time, and in equal distance increments. The trends in the photoconversion efficiency and in the spectral response of the PV devices as a function of thickness of CdS contacts were explained with the help of optical and morphological characterization of the CdS thin films. The maximum PV efficiency achieved for the combinatorial dip-coating CBD was similar to that for the PV devices processed using conventional CBD. The results of this study lead to the conclusion that combinatorial dip-coating can be used to accelerate the optimization of PV device performance of CdS and other candidate contact layers for a wide range of emerging absorbers.

  5. Combinatorial Chemical Bath Deposition of CdS Contacts for Chalcogenide Photovoltaics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mokurala, Krishnaiah; Baranowski, Lauryn L.; de Souza Lucas, Francisco W.; Siol, Sebastian; van Hest, Maikel F. A. M.; Mallick, Sudhanshu; Bhargava, Parag; Zakutayev, Andriy

    2016-09-12

    Contact layers play an important role in thin film solar cells, but new material development and optimization of its thickness is usually a long and tedious process. A high-throughput experimental approach has been used to accelerate the rate of research in photovoltaic (PV) light absorbers and transparent conductive electrodes, however the combinatorial research on contact layers is less common. Here, we report on the chemical bath deposition (CBD) of CdS thin films by combinatorial dip coating technique and apply these contact layers to Cu(In,Ga)Se2 (CIGSe) and Cu2ZnSnSe4 (CZTSe) light absorbers in PV devices. Combinatorial thickness steps of CdS thin films were achieved by removal of the substrate from the chemical bath, at regular intervals of time, and in equal distance increments. The trends in the photoconversion efficiency and in the spectral response of the PV devices as a function of thickness of CdS contacts were explained with the help of optical and morphological characterization of the CdS thin films. The maximum PV efficiency achieved for the combinatorial dip-coating CBD was similar to that for the PV devices processed using conventional CBD. The results of this study lead to the conclusion that combinatorial dip-coating can be used to accelerate the optimization of PV device performance of CdS and other candidate contact layers for a wide range of emerging absorbers.

  6. The Effect of Adding Corrosion Inhibitors into an Electroless Nickel Plating Bath for Magnesium Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Rong; Su, Yongyao; Liu, Hongdong; Cheng, Jiang; Yang, Xin; Shao, Zhongcai

    2016-10-01

    In this work, corrosion inhibitors were added into an electroless nickel plating bath to realize nickel-phosphorus (Ni-P) coating deposition on magnesium alloy directly. The performance of five corrosion inhibitors was evaluated by inhibition efficiency. The results showed that only ammonium hydrogen fluoride (NH4HF2) and ammonium molybdate ((NH4)2MoO4) could be used as corrosion inhibitors for magnesium alloy in the bath. Moreover, compounding NH4HF2 and (NH4)2MoO4, the optimal concentrations were both at 1.5 ~ 2%. The deposition process of Ni-P coating was observed by using a scanning electron microscope (SEM). It showed corrosion inhibitors inhibited undesired dissolution of magnesium substrate during the electroless plating process. In addition, SEM observation indicated that the corrosion inhibition reaction and the Ni2+ replacement reaction were competitive at the initial deposition time. Both electrochemical analysis and thermal shock test revealed that the Ni-P coating exhibited excellent corrosion resistance and adhesion properties in protecting the magnesium alloy.

  7. Reactions of Ni-B on printed Ag pattern by using nearly neutral electroless bath.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rha, Sa-Kyun; Kim, Hyung Chul; Lee, Youn-Seoung

    2014-11-01

    In this study, we investigated the characteristics of a nearly neutral Ni source solution including dimethylamine borane (DMAB) used to develop the metal PCB (printed circuit board) of high power LED (light-emitting diode) package. In accordance with the bath temperature ranging from 50 degrees C to 75 degrees C, an electroless Ni-B plating on a screen-printed Ag pattern with an anodized Al substrate was carried out. The depositon rate of the electroless plated Ni-B film at bath temperature ranging from 50 degrees C to 75 degrees C was estimated by measurements of the thickness and the mass. The deposition rates by change of thickness and mass of the electroless plated Ni-B film at 50 degrees C were - 58 nm/min and 0.113 mg/min respectively. The activation energy obtained from slope of Arrhenius plot using these deposition rates was - 59 kJ/mol. Finally, selectively the film growth was achieved at all plating temperatures, without a damage of anodized Al substrate.

  8. On the Generalized Langevin Equation for a Rouse Bead in a Nonequilibrium Bath

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandebroek, Hans; Vanderzande, Carlo

    2017-04-01

    We present the reduced dynamics of a bead in a Rouse chain which is submerged in a bath containing a driving agent that renders it out-of-equilibrium. We first review the generalized Langevin equation of the middle bead in an equilibrated bath. Thereafter, we introduce two driving forces. Firstly, we add a constant force that is applied to the first bead of the chain. We investigate how the generalized Langevin equation changes due to this perturbation for which the system evolves towards a steady state after some time. Secondly, we consider the case of stochastic active forces which will drive the system to a nonequilibrium state. Including these active forces results in an extra contribution to the second fluctuation-dissipation relation. The form of this active contribution is analysed for the specific case of Gaussian, exponentially correlated active forces. We also discuss the resulting rich dynamics of the middle bead in which various regimes of normal diffusion, subdiffusion and superdiffusion can be present.

  9. Effect of bath temperature and annealing on the formation of CuInSe{sub 2}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benaicha, M. [Laboratoire d' Energetique et Electrochimie du Solide, Departement de Genie des procedes, Faculte des Sciences de l' ingenieur, Universite Ferhat Abbas, 19000-Setif (Algeria); Benouattas, N. [Laboratoire d' Etude des Surfaces et Interfaces des Materiaux Solides (LESIMS), Departement de Physique, Faculte des Sciences, Universite Ferhat Abbas, Setif (Algeria); Benazzouz, C. [CRNA, 2 Bd Frantz Fanon, 16000-Alger (Algeria); Ouahab, L. [Laboratoire de Chimie du Solide et Inorganique Moleculaire de Rennes (LCSIM), Universite de Rennes1 (France)

    2009-02-15

    CuInSe{sub 2} films of 2 {mu}m thickness were electrodeposited potentiostatically, from aqueous solution containing thiocyanate as a complexing agent, on Mo substrates. For all the experiments, the potential of the potentiostatic deposition of the materials was chosen to be -1 V, whereas the bath temperature of electrolyte was varied from 20 to 80 C. It was found that the electrodeposited CuInSe{sub 2} was characterized by an amorphous layer and densely-packed nanometric grains with a good homogeneity. After vacuum annealing at 200 C, glancing angle X-ray diffraction revealed the presence of the CuInSe{sub 2} phase whereas annealing under selenium atmosphere lead to the growth of molybdenum selenide compound MoSe{sub 2}, in addition to a better crystallization of the copper indium diselenide compound. Scanning electron microscopic revealed that despite an increase in the grains dimensions, there was no significant change in the films surface morphology when the bath temperature was varied from 20 to 80 C. At the same time, the composition of the electrodeposited Cu-In-Se layers becomes richer in copper. This increase in copper concentration is mainly compensated by a deficit in selenium atoms. (author)

  10. Influence of Bath Composition on Magnetic Properties of Electrodeposited Co-Pt-W Thin Films

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GE Hong-liang; WEI Guo-ying; WU Qiong; ZHOU Qiao-ying; WANG Xin-yan

    2007-01-01

    Effect of bath composition ([Co2+]/[PtⅣ] and [WO2-4], [cit-]) and pH on the magnetic properties of electrodeposited Co-Pt-W thin films has been investigated. Electrodeposited Co-Pt-W thin films exhibited strong perpendicular magnetic anisotropy when the ratio of [Co2+] to [PtⅣ] was 10; cathode current efficiency and perpendicular magnetic anisotropy showed little variations when [WO2-4] was lower than 0.1 mol/L, but perpendicular magnetic anisotropy had strengthened when [WO2-4] was over 0.1 mol/L, which could be explained by the fact that the hydrogen evolution could produce pores as magnetic domain pinnings; citrate as complexing reagent can promote the polarization of [Co2+] and [PtⅣ]. As a result, the equilibrium electrode potentials of cobalt and platinum moved to negative direction, which led to the co-deposition of Co, Pt, and W. It was also found out that the as-deposited Co-Pt-W hard magnetic thin films were very homogeneous, smooth, and had the maximum coercivity for the bath pH 8.5 and the concentration of citrate 0.26 mol/L.

  11. Spontaneous excitation of a static atom in a thermal bath in cosmic string spacetime

    CERN Document Server

    Cai, Huabing; Zhou, Wenting

    2015-01-01

    We study the average rate of change of energy for a static atom immersed in a thermal bath of electromagnetic radiation in the cosmic string spacetime and separately calculate the contributions of thermal fluctuations and radiation reaction. We find that the transition rates are crucially dependent on the atom-string distance and polarization of the atom and they in general oscillate as the atom-string distance varies. Moreover, the atomic transition rates in the cosmic string spacetime can be larger or smaller than those in Minkowski spacetime contingent upon the atomic polarization and position. In particular, when located on the string, ground-state atoms can make a transition to excited states only if they are polarizable parallel to the string, whereas ground state atoms polarizable only perpendicular to the string are stable as if they were in a vacuum, even if they are immersed in a thermal bath. Our results suggest that the influence of a cosmic string is very similar to that of a reflecting boundary ...

  12. Synchronization enhancement via an oscillatory bath in a network of self-excited cells

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    B R Nana Nbendjo; H G Enjieu Kadji; Hilda A Cerdeira

    2015-02-01

    The possibility of using a dynamic environment to achieve and optimize phase synchronization in a network of self-excited cells with free-end boundary conditions is addressed in this paper. The dynamic environment is an oscillatory bath coupled linearly to a network of four cells. The boundaries of the stable solutions of the dynamical states as well as the ranges of coupling parameters leading to stability and instability of synchronization are determined. Numerical simulations are used to check the accuracy and to complement the result obtained from analytical treatment. The robustness of synchronization strategy is tested using a local and global injection of Gaussian white noise in the network. The control gain parameter of the bath coupling can modulate the occurrence of synchronization in the network without prior requirement of direct coupling among all the cells. The process of synchronization obtained through local injection is independent of the node at which noise is injected into the system. As compared to local injection, the global injection scheme increases the range of noise amplitude for which synchronization occurs in the network.

  13. Effects of temperature on the morphology and optical properties of ZnS thin films deposited by chemical bath

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín-Várguez, P. E.; Ceh, O.; González-Panzo, I. J.; Tec-Yam, S.; Patiño, R.; Oliva, A. I.

    2013-06-01

    Zinc sulphide thin films were deposited on Corning glass substrates by the chemical bath deposition technique at different temperatures. The influence of the bath temperature and deposition time on the morphological and optical properties of the ZnS films are herein investigated. ZnS films were deposited by changing the bath-temperature from 50 °C to 90 °C, and deposition times from 60 to 160 min. Thin and transparent films were obtained with thicknesses from 10 to 90 nm with the increment of the bath temperature, meanwhile the band gap energy Eg values diminishes from 4.15 to 3.4 eV. The quality of the ZnS film surfaces was also influenced by increasing the bath temperature, as showed by the reduced grain size and the increase of roughness, obtained from atomic force microscopy images. ZnS films of good optical quality were obtained at 90 °C with a mean value of Eg = 3.56 ± 0.03 eV.

  14. On the association between loneliness and bathing habits: nine replications of Bargh and Shalev (2012) Study 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donnellan, M Brent; Lucas, Richard E; Cesario, Joseph

    2015-02-01

    Bargh and Shalev (2012) hypothesized that people use warm showers and baths to compensate for a lack of social warmth. As support for this idea, they reported results from two studies that found an association between trait loneliness and bathing habits. Given the potential practical and theoretical importance of this association, we conducted nine additional studies on this topic. Using our own bathing or showering measures and the most current version of the UCLA Loneliness Scale (Russell, 1996), we found no evidence for an association between trait loneliness and a composite index of showering or bathing habits in a combined sample of 1,153 participants from four studies. Likewise, the aggregated effect size estimate was not statistically significant using the same measures as the original studies in a combined sample of 1,920 participants from five studies. A local meta-analysis including the original studies yielded an effect size estimate for the composite that included zero in the 95% confidence interval. The current results therefore cast doubt on the idea of a strong connection between trait loneliness and personal bathing habits related to warmth.

  15. [The application of the emulsified turpentine baths for the correction of the functional state of the cross-country skiers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garnov, I O; Kuchin, A V; Loginova, T P; Varlamova, N G; Boiko, E R

    2016-01-01

    The baths with emulsified turpentine find the wide application in balneotherapy. They produce especially pronounced beneficial prophylactic effects in the patients presenting with microtrombosis and microvascular stasis. Moreover, these baths may be prescribed to improve microcirculation, increase the functional reserves and physical capacity in the athletes. At the same time, the current literature appears to contain no scientific publications on the application of emulsified turpentine baths for the restoration of the physical capacity of the professional ski runners. The lack of relevant information motivated the study reported in the present article. The main objective of the study involving 10 subjects was to evaluate the effectiveness of the modified emulsified turpentine baths as a method by which to restore and enhance the physical capacity of the professional cross-country skiers. The physical capacity of the athletes was evaluated from the results of the bicycle ergometer exercise test with the use of the «Oxycon Pro» system. The data obtained suggest that a course of the emulsified turpentine baths increases the activity of the cardiorespiratory system, improves the physical capacity, and enhances the functional reserves of the body in the anaerobic zone.

  16. Research and Analysis on the Physical and Chemical Properties of Molten Bath with Bottom-Blowing in EAF Steelmaking Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Guangsheng; Zhu, Rong; Dong, Kai; Ma, Guohong; Cheng, Ting

    2016-10-01

    Bottom-blowing technology is widely adopted in electric arc furnace (EAF) steelmaking to promote the molten bath fluid flow, accelerate the metallurgical reaction, and improve the quality of molten steel. In this study, a water model experiment and a computational fluid dynamics model were established to investigate the effects of bottom-blowing gas flow rate on the fluid flow characteristics in the EAF molten bath. The results show that the interaction among the bottom-blowing gas streams influences the molten bath flow field, and increasing the bottom-blowing gas flow rate can accelerate the fluid flow and decrease the volume of the dead zone. Based on industrial application research, the physical and chemical properties of the molten bath with bottom-blowing were analyzed. Compared with traditional melting conditions without bottom-blowing, bottom-blowing technology demonstrates obvious advantages in promoting the heat transfer and metallurgical reactions in the molten bath. With the bottom-blowing arrangement, the dephosphorization and decarburization rates are accelerated, the contents of FeO and T. Fe in endpoint slag are decreased, and the endpoint carbon-oxygen equilibrium of molten steel is improved.

  17. Distribution of the Largest Aftershocks in Branching Models of Triggered Seismicity: Theory of the Universal Bath's law

    CERN Document Server

    Saichev, A

    2005-01-01

    Using the ETAS branching model of triggered seismicity, we apply the formalism of generating probability functions to calculate exactly the average difference between the magnitude of a mainshock and the magnitude of its largest aftershock over all generations. This average magnitude difference is found empirically to be independent of the mainshock magnitude and equal to 1.2, a universal behavior known as Bath's law. Our theory shows that Bath's law holds only sufficiently close to the critical regime of the ETAS branching process. Allowing for error bars +- 0.1 for Bath's constant value around 1.2, our exact analytical treatment of Bath's law provides new constraints on the productivity exponent alpha and the branching ratio n: $0.9 <= alpha <= 1$ and 0.8 <= n <= 1. We propose a novel method for measuring alpha based on the predicted renormalization of the Gutenberg-Richter distribution of the magnitudes of the largest aftershock. We also introduce the ``second Bath's law for foreshocks: the pro...

  18. The Optimization of the Oiling Bath Cosmetic Composition Containing Rapeseed Phospholipids and Grapeseed Oil by the Full Factorial Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michał Górecki

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The proper condition of hydrolipid mantle and the stratum corneum intercellular matrix determines effective protection against transepidermal water loss (TEWL. Some chemicals, improper use of cosmetics, poor hygiene, old age and some diseases causes disorder in the mentioned structures and leads to TEWL increase. The aim of this study was to obtain the optimal formulation composition of an oiling bath cosmetic based on rapeseed phospholipids and vegetable oil with high content of polyunsaturated fatty acids. In this work, the composition of oiling bath form was calculated and the degree of oil dispersion after mixing the bath preparation with water was selected as the objective function in the optimizing procedure. The full factorial design 23 in the study was used. The concentrations of rapeseed lecithin ethanol soluble fraction (LESF, alcohol (E and non-ionic emulsifier (P were optimized. Based on the calculations from our results, the optimal composition of oiling bath cosmetic was: L (LESF 5.0 g, E (anhydrous ethanol 20.0 g and P (Polysorbate 85 1.5 g. The optimization procedure used in the study allowed to obtain the oiling bath cosmetic which gives above 60% higher emulsion dispersion degree 5.001 × 10−5 cm−1 compared to the initial formulation composition with the 3.096 × 10−5 cm−1.

  19. Semiclassical study of quantum coherence and isotope effects in ultrafast electron transfer reactions coupled to a proton and a phonon bath.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkataraman, Charulatha

    2011-11-28

    The linearized semiclassical initial value representation is employed to describe ultrafast electron transfer processes coupled to a phonon bath and weakly coupled to a proton mode. The goal of our theoretical investigation is to understand the influence of the proton on the electronic dynamics in various bath relaxation regimes. More specifically, we study the impact of the proton on coherences and analyze if the coupling to the proton is revealed in the form of an isotope effect. This will be important in distinguishing reactions in which the proton does not undergo significant rearrangement from those in which the electron transfer is accompanied by proton transfer. Unlike other methodologies widely employed to describe nonadiabatic electron transfer, this approach treats the electronic and nuclear degrees of freedom consistently. However, due to the linearized approximation, quantum interference effects are not captured accurately. Our study shows that at small phonon bath reorganization energies, coherent oscillations and isotope effect are observed in both slow and fast bath regimes. The coherences are more substantially damped by deuterium in comparison to the proton. Further, in contrast to the dynamics of the spin-boson model, the coherences are not long-lived. At large bath reorganization energies, the decay is incoherent in the slow and fast bath regimes. In this case, the extent of the isotope effect depends on the relative relaxation timescales of the proton mode and the phonon bath. The isotope effect is magnified for baths that relax on picosecond timescales in contrast to baths that relax in femtoseconds.

  20. Influence of additives on electrodeposition of bright Zn–Ni alloy on mild steel from acid sulphate bath

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S Shivakumara; U Manohar; Y Arthoba Naik; T V Venkatesha

    2007-10-01

    The influence of a condensation product (CP) of veratraldehyde (VRTD) and -amino benzoic acid (PABA) on Zn–Ni alloy electrodeposited onto mild steel was studied in acidic sulphate solutions. Ethylenediaminetetraaceticacid (EDTA) and cetyltrimethylammoniumbromide (CTAB) were used as complexing and wetting agents, respectively. The effect of bath constituents, pH, current density and temperature on nature of deposit were studied through Hull cell experiments. The bath constituents and operating parameters were optimized. Deposit properties and corrosion resistance were discussed. Throwing power, current efficiency and polarization studies were carried out. SEM photomicrographs of the deposit obtained from optimum bath revealed fine-grained deposit of the alloy in the presence of condensation product and hence modified the morphology of zinc–nickel alloy deposit. IR spectrum of the scrapped deposit showed inclusion of addition agent.

  1. Reducing fluxes of faecal indicator compliance parameters to bathing waters from diffuse agricultural sources: the Brighouse Bay study, Scotland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kay, D; Aitken, M; Crowther, J; Dickson, I; Edwards, A C; Francis, C; Hopkins, M; Jeffrey, W; Kay, C; McDonald, A T; McDonald, D; Stapleton, C M; Watkins, J; Wilkinson, J; Wyer, M D

    2007-05-01

    The European Water Framework Directive requires the integrated management of point and diffuse pollution to achieve 'good' water quality in 'protected areas'. These include bathing waters, which are regulated using faecal indicator organisms as compliance parameters. Thus, for the first time, European regulators are faced with the control of faecal indicator fluxes from agricultural sources where these impact on bathing water compliance locations. Concurrently, reforms to the European Union (EU) Common Agricultural Policy offer scope for supporting on-farm measures producing environmental benefits through the new 'single farm payments' and the concept of 'cross-compliance'. This paper reports the first UK study involving remedial measures, principally stream bank fencing, designed to reduce faecal indicator fluxes at the catchment scale. Considerable reduction in faecal indicator flux was observed, but this was insufficient to ensure bathing water compliance with either Directive 76/160/EEC standards or new health-evidence-based criteria proposed by WHO and the European Commission.

  2. An 11-year follow-up study of neonatal-onset, bath-induced alternating hemiplegia of childhood in twins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Incorpora, Gemma; Pavone, Piero; Polizzi, Agata; Cocuzza, Mariadonatella; Privitera, Michael; Pavone, Lorenzo; Ruggieri, Martino

    2012-05-01

    The authors previously reported on the initial manifestations in a set of female twins, who presented soon after birth with bath-induced paroxysmal events each time they were immersed in a warm water bath. These episodes progressively ceased by the age of 36 months, replaced by paroxysmal episodes of alternating hemiplegia unrelated to water immersion. By age 4 years, the twins developed the classic features of alternating hemiplegia of childhood. Clinical outcomes at the age of 11 years are now reported. Standard and video-electroencephalograms showed a large, slow background activity followed by lower amplitude waves without focal abnormalities or other abnormal findings. This represents the first report on (a) alternating hemiplegia of childhood started with bath-induced paroxysmal episodes; (b) this condition in monozygotic twins; and (c) an 11-year follow-up study in which the twins continue to experience episodes of alternating hemiplegia in the setting of baseline cognitive impairment without epileptic episodes.

  3. Hybrid system-environment dynamics with a non-Gaussian bath coupling: Exact dissipaton theory versus extended Zusman equation

    CERN Document Server

    Xu, Rui-Xue; Zhang, Hou-Dao; Yan, YiJing

    2016-01-01

    The quest of an exact and nonperturbative treatment of quantum dissipation in non-Gaussian coupling environments remains in general an untractable task. In this work we address the key issues on the solutions to a class of non-Gaussian coupling environments. As an illustration we consider explicitly a harmonic bath coupled quadratically with an arbitrary system, at finite temperature, and construct a novel dissipaton-equation-of-motion (DEOM) formalism. To validate the underlying dissipaton algebra, we derive in parallel also the extended Zusman equation via a totally different approach, and further prove that DEOM constitutes the resolutions to the latter formalism. Thus, we verify by de facto the novel dissipaton algebraic construction, by which not only the quadratic but also higher-order nonlinear bath couplings can be easily treated. We report the benchmark results on a two-level system dynamics as the interplay between linear and quadratic bath couplings.

  4. Surveillance of the Sensitivity towards Antiparasitic Bath-Treatments in the Salmon Louse (Lepeophtheirus salmonis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peder A Jansen

    Full Text Available The evolution of drug resistant parasitic sea lice is of major concern to the salmon farming industry worldwide and challenges sustainable growth of this enterprise. To assess current status and development of L. salmonis sensitivity towards different pesticides used for parasite control in Norwegian salmon farming, a national surveillance programme was implemented in 2013. The programme aims to summarize data on the use of different pesticides applied to control L. salmonis and to test L. salmonis sensitivity to different pesticides in farms along the Norwegian coast. Here we analyse two years of test-data from biological assays designed to detect sensitivity-levels towards the pesticides azamethiphos and deltamethrin, both among the most common pesticides used in bath-treatments of farmed salmon in Norway in later years. The focus of the analysis is on how different variables predict the binomial outcome of the bioassay tests, being whether L. salmonis are immobilized/die or survive pesticide exposure. We found that local kernel densities of bath treatments, along with a spatial geographic index of test-farm locations, were significant predictors of the binomial outcome of the tests. Furthermore, the probability of L. salmonis being immobilized/dead after test-exposure was reduced by odds-ratios of 0.60 (95% CI: 0.42-0.86 for 2014 compared to 2013 and 0.39 (95% CI: 0.36-0.42 for low concentration compared to high concentration exposure. There were also significant but more marginal effects of parasite gender and developmental stage, and a relatively large random effect of test-farm. We conclude that the present data support an association between local intensities of bath treatments along the coast and the outcome of bioassay tests where salmon lice are exposed to azamethiphos or deltamethrin. Furthermore, there is a predictable structure of L. salmonis phenotypes along the coast in the data, characterized by high susceptibility to pesticides

  5. Effect of micro mist sauna bathing on thermoregulatory and circulatory functions and thermal sensation in humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwase, Satoshi; Kawahara, Yuko; Nishimura, Naoki; Sugenoya, Junichi

    2016-05-01

    To examine the effects of micro mist sauna bathing, produced by water crushing method, we exposed ten male subjects to five cases of micro mist sauna, namely (1) room temperature (RT) 38 °C with 100 % (actually 91 %) relative humidity (RH), (2) RT 41.5 °C with 80 % (actually 81 %) RH, (3) RT 41.5 °C with 100 % (actually 96 %) RH, (4) RT 45.0 °C with 64 % (actually 61 %) RH, and (5) RT 45.0 °C with 100 % (actually 86 %) RH, and measured tympanic temperature, mean skin temperature, heart rate (HR), and cheek moisture content, as well as ratings of thermal and sweating sensation tympanic temperatures at RT 45 °C were significantly higher at 86 % RH than those at 61 % RH; however, those at RT 45 °C with 61 % RH were higher than those with 86 % RH during recovery. There were no significant differences at RT 41.5 °C between with 81 % RH and with 96 % RH. Mean skin temperature was the highest at RT 45 °C 86 % RH case, followed by at RT 41.5 °C 96 % RH, RT 45 °C 61 % RH, RT 41.5 °C 81 % RH, and finally at RT 38 °C 91 % RH. HR change showed the same order as for mean skin temperature. A significant difference in cheek moisture content was observed between RT 41.5 °C with 81 % RH and RT 45 °C with 86 % RH 10 min after the micro mist bathing. There were no significant differences between ratings of thermal sensation at RT 41.5 °C with 81 % RH and at RT 45 °C with 61 % RH and RT 45 °C with 61 % RH and RT 45 °C with 86 % RH. Between RT 45 °C with 86 % RH and RT 41.5 °C with 81 % RH, there was a tendency for interaction (0.05 bathtub bathing as well as more moderate thermal and sweating sensations.

  6. DEGRADATION AND CONSERVATION OF MARBLE IN THE GREEK ROMAN HADRIANIC BATHS IN LEPTIS MAGNA, LIBYA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nabil.A. ABD EL-TAWAB

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The Hadrianic Baths is one of the most important archaeological sites in Leptis Magna- Libya. It was built at the command of Emperor Hadrian in the early 2nd century CE; they represent some of the most lavish structures of Leptis Magna. It is unique in design and building technique. It was built of limestone, marble and brick. This paper mainly describes the deterioration of marble. The marble in the monuments can be classified into several types, based on its color, texture, chemical composition and the constituent mineral. The Hadrianic Baths is subjected to severe degradation, due to the climate, which is typically marine. This site suffered from different weathering forms, for example, disintegration of grains, pitting, chipping, frequent flaking, multiple-flaking, fissures and biodeterioration. These weathering forms were produced by many deterioration factors, such as moisture, salt weathering, biological and micro-biological factors, changes in temperature and wind erosion. The aim of this study is to characterize the building materials at the Hadrianic Baths, especially marble, and to evaluate the role of groundwater and sea weathering on the strength of the marble exposed to the coastline of the Mediterranean. Many samples were collected from limestone, marble, mortar, plaster and salts, for analysis and investigation. Several scientific techniques were used in the study of the morphology and texture. Those methods include microscopy, such as scanning electron microscopy (SEM, polarized light microscopy (PLM and stereo microscopy. A qualitative identification of organic and inorganic chemical species was performed by using techniques such as energy-dispersive spectroscopy (EDS, X-ray diffraction (XRD and microbial investigation were also done. Our results indicated that the deterioration of marble was caused by the aggressive action of environmental agents. SEM observations indicated the occurrence of microcracks and particle aggregates

  7. 瑶族药浴防治风湿病%Preventing and Treating Rheumatism by Yao Nationality Medicated Bath

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李拥军; 郭玉荣; 尹智功

    2014-01-01

    本研究从瑶族药浴的形成、分类、作用、注意事项及防治风湿病方面进行系统阐述,指出运用瑶族药浴防治风湿病是瑶医治未病思想的具体体现。%The formation, classification, function, notes of Yao nationality medicated bath and preventive treatment of rheumatism are illustrated systematically, preventing and treating rheumatism by Yao nationality medi-cated bath are the embodiment of the thinking of preventive treatment of disease in Yao medicine.

  8. EXPERIENCE VERSUS AUTHORITY: THE SEARCH FOR GENDER EQUALITY IN CHAUCER'S "THE WIFE OF BATH'S PROLOGUE AND TALE"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Setefanus Suprayitno

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Over the past few years much interest has been put on gender equality. There has been a changing perception of the attitudes which emerges and shapes women's role in society and relationships. Formerly, social ideas and customs dictated women to be subservient. But now the changing social structure gives women space to pursue gender equality. Geoffrey Chaucer (ca. 1343-1400 had addressed this issue in his work, "The Wife of Bath's Prologue and Tale." This paper discusses how Alisoun, the wife Bath, through her prologue and tale, shows the contradiction of the oppressive traditions and customs imposed on women and attempts to present the idea of gender equality.

  9. Iconographic analysis of the theme of "Bathsheba Bathing" in Books of Hours of 15th and 16th Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elsa Guyot

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available In the light of biblical exegesis and medieval literature, this paper proposes an iconographic analysis of the theme of "Bathsheba Bathing" as it appears in Books of Hours. From the fifteenth to the sixteenth century, pictorial representations of this Old Testament scene experienced a boom justified by the underlying eroticism of this episode in which David surprises Bathsheba as she is performing a ritual purification bath. The illuminations that we study reflect the encounter between the Christian tradition and humanistic culture.

  10. Electrodeposition of copper selenide films from acidic bath and their properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mane, Rajaram S.; Shaikh, Arif V.; Joo, Oh-Shim; Han, Sung-Hwan; Pathan, Habib M.

    2012-06-01

    Copper selenide thin films are successfully deposited using electrodeposition method by combining copper sulfate and sodiumseleno sulfate precursors at room temperature in acidic bath. The chemical composition was a key factor in preparing high-quality uniform and smooth thin films of the copper selenide. We present indium-tin-oxide as a substrate for depositing copper selenide films which usually exists as copper (I) selenide or copper (II) selenide. Obtained brownish films of copper selenide are examined for their structural, morphological, compositional and optical properties by means of X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray analysis and optical absorption measurement techniques, respectively for the structural, morphological and optical analysis.

  11. Structural and Optical Properties of Chemical Bath Deposited Silver Oxide Thin Films: Role of Deposition Time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. C. Nwanya

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Silver oxide thin films were deposited on glass substrates at a temperature of 50°C by chemical bath deposition technique under different deposition times using pure AgNO3 precursor and triethanolamine as the complexing agent. The chemical analysis based on EDX technique shows the presence of Ag and O at the appropriate energy levels. The morphological features obtained from SEM showed that the AgxO structures varied as the deposition time changes. The X-ray diffraction showed the peaks of Ag2O and AgO in the structure. The direct band gap and the refractive index increased as the deposition time increased and was in the range of 1.64–1.95 eV and 1.02–2.07, respectively. The values of the band gap and refractive index obtained indicate possible applications in photovoltaic and photothermal systems.

  12. Novel process to recover by-products from the pickling baths of stainless steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frias, C.; Negro, C.; Formoso, A.; Van Erkel, J.; Maas, W.; Kemppainen, J.; Mancia, F. [Tecnicas Reunidas, S.A., Madrid (Spain)

    2001-07-01

    Development of an integrated process (the PIBARE process) which is able to recover and recycle free and complex acids back to the pickling tank is described. The recovery of these by-products proceeds while the metals are recovered in the form of electrodeposited metal alloy and are internally recycled to the stainless steel manufacturing process. Virtually no solid residue or liquid is produced in the process. Results after three years of investigation are very promising, having achieved all stated objectives at least on the laboratory scale. The new technology promises significant economic and environmental benefits over other existing technologies for the treatment of spent baths. However, since the benefits have not been confirmed at the pilot scale, commercial application would require additional research, including finding more efficient and more selective anionic membranes. 3 tabs., 6 figs.

  13. Comparing Haar-Hilbert and Log-Gabor Based Iris Encoders on Bath Iris Image Database

    CERN Document Server

    Popescu-Bodorin, Nicolaie; 10.1109/SOFA.2010.5565599

    2011-01-01

    This papers introduces a new family of iris encoders which use 2-dimensional Haar Wavelet Transform for noise attenuation, and Hilbert Transform to encode the iris texture. In order to prove the usefulness of the newly proposed iris encoding approach, the recognition results obtained by using these new encoders are compared to those obtained using the classical Log- Gabor iris encoder. Twelve tests involving single/multienrollment and conducted on Bath Iris Image Database are presented here. One of these tests achieves an Equal Error Rate comparable to the lowest value reported so far for this database. New Matlab tools for iris image processing are also released together with this paper: a second version of the Circular Fuzzy Iris Segmentator (CFIS2), a fast Log-Gabor encoder and two Haar-Hilbert based encoders.

  14. Structural and Optical Study of Chemical Bath Deposited Nano-Structured CdS Thin Films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Suresh; Sharma, Dheeraj; Sharma, Pankaj; Sharma, Vineet; Barman, P. B.; Katyal, S. C.

    2011-12-01

    CdS is commonly used as window layer in polycrystalline solar cells. The paper presents a structural and optical study of CdS nano-structured thin films. High quality CdS thin films are grown on commercial glass by means of chemical bath deposition. It involves an alkaline solution of cadmium salt, a complexant, a chalcogen source and a non-ionic surfactant. The films have been prepared under various process parameters. The chemically deposited films are annealed to estimate its effect on the structural and optical properties of films. These films (as -deposited and annealed) have been characterized by means of XRD, SEM and UV-Visible spectrophotometer. XRD of films show the nano-crystalline nature. The energy gap of films is found to be of direct in nature.

  15. Entanglement dynamics of a two-qubit system coupled individually to Ohmic baths

    CERN Document Server

    Duan, Liwei; Chen, Qinghu; Zhao, Yang

    2013-01-01

    The Davydov D1 ansatz, which assigns an individual bosonic trajectory to each spin state, is an efficient, yet accurate trial state for time-dependent variation of the the spin-boson model [J. Chem. Phys. 138, 084111 (2013)]. In this work, the Dirac-Frenkel time-dependent variational procedure utilizing the Davydov D1 ansatz is implemented to study entanglement dynamics of two qubits under the influence of two independent baths. The Ohmic spectral density is used without the Born-Markov approximation or the rotating-wave approximation. In the strong coupling regime the entanglement sudden death is always found to exist, while at the intermediate coupling regime, the entanglement dynamics calculated by Davydov D1 ansatz displays oscillatory behavior in addition to entanglement sudden death and revival.

  16. Continuous determination of bath carbon content on 150 t BOF by off-gas analyzer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhigang Hu; Ping He; Mingxiang Tan; Liu Liu

    2003-01-01

    The first imported off-gas analysis system on 150 t BOF at Benxi Plates Co. Ltd. is presented and the continuous determination of bath carbon content has been studied. The comparison between the whole-course carbon integral model and the end-point carbon prediction model has been made. The results show that the regular change of CO, CO2 and N2 content in the off-gas during blowing plays an important role in judging the smelting end-point of converter; the cubic curve fitting model has a higher hit rate over 95% for the heats whose end-point carbon content is lower than 0.10% with a precision of ±0.02% and has a large error for the heats whose end-point carbon content is more than 0.15%.

  17. Heat transfer between the superconducting cables of the LHC accelerator magnets and the superfluid helium bath

    CERN Document Server

    Granieri, Pier Paolo; Tommasini, D

    In this thesis work we investigate the heat transfer through the electrical insulation of superconducting cables cooled by superfluid helium. The cable insulation constitutes the most severe barrier for heat extraction from the superconducting magnets of the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC). We performed an experimental analysis, a theoretical modeling and a fundamental research to characterize the present LHC insulation and to develop new ideas of thermally enhanced insulations. The outcome of these studies allowed to determine the thermal stability of the magnets for the LHC and its future upgrades. An innovative measurement technique was developed to experimentally analyze the heat transfer between the cables and the superfluid helium bath. It allowed to describe the LHC coil behavior using the real cable structure, an appropriate thermometry and controlling the applied pressure. We developed a new thermally enhanced insulation scheme based on an increased porosity to superfluid helium. It aims at withstan...

  18. Characterization of zinc–nickel alloy electrodeposits obtained from sulphamate bath containing substituted aldehydes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Visalakshi Ravindran; V S Muralidharan

    2006-06-01

    Zinc alloy offers superior sacrificial protection to steel as the alloy dissolves more slowly than pure zinc. The degree of protection and the rate of dissolution depend on the alloying metal and its composition. Zinc-nickel alloy may also serve as at less toxic substitute for cadmium. In this paper the physico-chemical characterization of zinc-nickel electrodeposits obtained from sulphamate bath containing substituted aldehydes was carried out using hardness testing, X-ray diffraction, and corrosion resistance measurements. The corrosion behaviour of these samples in a 3.5% NaCl solution was examined. The decrease in corr and high charge transfer resistance indicated the improved corrosion resistance of these deposits.

  19. Characterization of chemical bath deposited buffer layers for thin film solar cell applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dwyer, D.; Efstathiadis, H.; Haldar, P. [College of Nanoscale Science and Engineering, University at Albany - State University of New York, 257 Fuller Rd., Albany, NY 12203 (United States); Sun, R. [Angstrom Sun Technologies Inc., 33 Nagog Park, Acton, MA 01720 (United States)

    2010-10-15

    Cadmium sulfide (CdS), indium sulfide (In{sub 2}S{sub 3}) and zinc sulfide (ZnS) thin films have been deposited by chemical bath deposition (CBD) for buffer layer applications in Cu-chalcopyrite-based thin film solar cells. Films were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), UV-Vis transmission, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), grazing-incidence X-ray diffraction (GIXRD), and spectroscopic ellipsometry. Results indicate CdS can be deposited with low oxygen content and high light transmission over 245-1700 nm. CBD-ZnS and CBD-InS both exhibit 5-10% less light transmission than CdS in the same thickness range. In terms of light transmission and degree of impurities CdS appears to be a better buffer material than CBD-ZnS or CBD-InS. (Abstract Copyright [2010], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  20. Hot-Dip Aluminizing of Low Carbon Steel Using Al-7Si-2Cu Alloy Baths

    OpenAIRE

    Prashanth Huilgol; Suma Bhat; K. Udaya Bhat

    2013-01-01

    Hot-dip aluminizing of low carbon steel was done in molten Al-7Si-2Cu bath at 690°C for dipping time ranging from 300 to 2400 seconds. Characterization of the intermetallics layer was done by using scanning electron microscope with energy dispersive spectroscopy. Four intermetallic phases, τ5-Al7Fe2Si, θ-FeAl3, η-Fe2Al5, and τ1-Al2Fe3Si3, were identified in the reaction layer. τ5- Al7Fe2Si phase was observed adjacent to aluminum-silicon topcoat, θ-FeAl3 between τ5 and η-Fe2Al5, η-Fe2Al5 adjac...

  1. Effect of Ultrasonic on Copper Electroplating from the Non-Cyanide Alkaline Baths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Minggang; Hu, Shuangshuang; Yang, Yejiong; Xu, Shuhan; Zhao, Xixi; Wei, Guoying

    2014-06-01

    Effects of the different ultrasonic powers on copper electrodeposition from non-cyanide alkaline baths by using pyrophosphate as complexing agent were investigated by different electrochemical methods. Cyclic voltammetry and current transient measurements were used to characterize the nucleation and growth mechanism. It is very obvious that the reduction potential moves to more positive one as the ultrasonic power increases. The quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) and chronoamperometric method were used to study the relationship between the mass change and the deposition time. It was found that the current efficiency of electrolyte under 0, 60, 80 and 100 W is 91.95%, 92.14%, 89.25% and 96.11%, respectively measured by QCM measurements. The surface morphology of the electrodeposited Cu films is analyzed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The morphology of copper films electrodeposited under the power of 60 W and 80 W presents a compact surface and the grains are fine and uniform.

  2. Effect of non-solvents used in the coagulation bath on morphology of PVDF membranes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mônica Beatriz Thürmer

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper was to prepare a poly (vinylidene fluoride (PVDF membrane using different non-solvents in the coagulation bath for the phase inversion method. In order to increase the mechanical strength of membranes, facing the pressure of work, was used a macro-porous polyester support. The morphology and structure of the resulting membranes were evaluated by scanning electron microscopy, porosity measurements, water and 1-octanol uptake, contact angle, pure water flux, hydraulic permeability and hydraulic resistance. The morphology and pure water flux changed significantly using ethanol (symmetric membrane and/or water (asymmetric membrane as the non-solvent. The symmetric membrane presented a high hydrophobic surface (water contact angle ~136º and a higher pure water flux and porosity than the asymmetric membrane, which presented a lower hydrophobicity surface (water contact angle ~90º. The morphologies obtained suggest different applications.

  3. Syndrom-Pathogen Effect of Ozone Therapy and Nauheim Baths on Patients with Cardiovascular Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena I. Sycheva

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Despite different theories of atherogenesis, pathogenesis of this disease is, foremost, associated with the lipid storage disease, blood rheological properties, lipid peroxidation. Microcirculation disorders have significant role for pathogenesis of many illnesses, primarily, cardiovascular. Among possible reasons of increased risk of their pathway are the increase in the activity of sympathetic neurovegetative system, psychoemotional tension emergion. Application of ‘gas’ therapy methods, such as ozone therapy and carbon dioxide in the form of Nauheim baths is one of the prospect trends in preventive treatment. The obtained results of these methods application in the course of resort treatment showed positive dynamics for homeostasis indicants. They can serve as an indication for the use of carbon dioxide and, especially, ozone therapy for multifactor preventive treatment of patients with cardiovascular diseases.

  4. Chemical Bath Deposition of PbS:Hg2+ Nanocrystalline Thin Films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Palomino-Merino

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Nanocrystalline PbS thin films were prepared by Chemical Bath Deposition (CBD at 40 ± 2°C onto glass substrates and their structural and optical properties modified by in-situ doping with Hg. The morphological changes of the layers were analyzed using SEM and the X-rays spectra showing growth on the zinc blende (ZB face. The grain size determined by using X-rays spectra for undoped samples was found to be ~36 nm, whereas with the doped sample was 32–20 nm. Optical absorption spectra were used to calculate the Eg, showing a shift in the range 1.4–2.4 eV. Raman spectroscopy exhibited an absorption band ~135 cm−1 displaying only a PbS ZB structure.

  5. Synthesis and Characterization of SnO2 Thin Films by Chemical Bath Deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rifai, Aditia; Iqbal, Muhammad; Nugraha; Nuruddin, Ahmad; Suyatman; Yuliarto, Brian

    2011-12-01

    SnO2 thin films were deposited on glass substrate by chemical bath deposition (CBD) with stannous chloride (SnCl2..2H2O) as a precursor and urea (CO(NH2)2) as a buffer. X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) are used to characterize the structure of the films; the surface morphology of the films were observed by Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM). Using this techniques, we specify the effect of stannous chloride concentration and weight ratio of urea/H2O on the crystallinity and morphology of these films. The rutile structure corresponding (110), (101) and (211) planes of SnO2 is obtained. The increasing of stannous chloride concentration and the decreasing weight ratio of urea/H2O is found to improve the crystallinity of the film. The average diameter of grain size is about 96 nm.

  6. Ethanol Sensing Properties of Nanosheets ZnO Thin Films Prepared by Chemical Bath Deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Julia, Sri; Nururddin, Ahmad; Nugraha, Suyatman; Yuliarto, Brian

    2011-12-01

    Nanosheets ZnO thin films were successfully fabricated on alumina substrate by chemical bath deposition method using Zinc Nitrate Tetra hydrate as precursor. Films were annealed at 300 °C for 30 minutes and observed by X-Ray Diffraction (XRD), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), and Energy Dispersive X-Ray Spectroscopy (EDS) to know crystal phase and structure, surface morphology, and elemental composition respectively. The gas sensing performance of ZnO thin films was studied on exposure to ethanol gas sensing in various concentration (300 and 600 ppm). The films showed higher response towards ethanol gas sensing at optimized temperature of 250 °C and exhibited excellent sensitivity of 62.45% upon exposure 300 ppm and 69% upon exposure of 600 ppm ethanol gas sensing. Further, the response and recovery times of ZnO thin films to ethanol become shorter at higher operating temperatures. A possible mechanism of ethanol sensing has been explained.

  7. Evaporation dynamics of a liquid drop on a non-miscible liquid bath

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirat, Christophe; Ramos-Canut, Stella; Caupin, Frederic; wetting Team

    2016-11-01

    When a liquid drop sits on a solid surface, it is well known that the wetting and evaporation properties strongly depend on the environmental and wetting conditions. In this experimental study, we investigate the coupled spreading-evaporation dynamics of a liquid drop, made of a mixture of water and ethanol, gently deposited on a non-miscible oil bath. After a fast spreading stage due to a positive spreading parameter, the drop starts to recede while the evaporation is going on. Subsequently, a Marangoni instability develops as alcohol evaporates faster than water. In particular, depending on the initial alcohol-water ratio, a set of rim instabilities takes place. Radial droplet ejections can be observed, with various droplet speeds, sizes and frequencies.

  8. Effect of thermal annealing on the properties of cadmium sulfide deposited via chemical bath deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmad, Faisal R., E-mail: ahmad@ge.com; Yakimov, Aharon; Davis, Robert J.; Her, Jae-Hyuk; Cournoyer, James R.; Ayensu, Nana Menya

    2013-05-01

    This study elucidates how post-deposition annealing in air of CdS thin films deposited via chemical bath deposition, influences the defects and impurities in the films, which in turn affect the electrical conductivity and optical transparency of the films. The electrical properties of the annealed CdS films were characterized using a van der Pauw Hall effect measurement method. Using low-temperature photoluminescence measurements, a variety of sub-bandgap energy levels were observed and identified that are believed to play a critical role in impacting the concentration of carriers in the films. In addition, we studied the optical transmission and crystalline quality of the films as a function of the different annealing conditions. - Highlights: ► Annealing CdS affects its bandgap, structure and electrical conductivity. ► Low temperature photoluminescence spectra show how annealing affects CdS. ► Carrier concentration affected sulfur vacancies and cadmium interstitials.

  9. A New Method for Descaling Wool Fibres by Nano Abrasive Calcium Carbonate Particles in Ultrasonic Bath

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali rezaghasemi

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Up to now, the most conventional methods for descaling of wool fibre are based on chemical degradation and resin covering of scales or a combination of them. These methods are producing wastewater and can cover physical properties of the fibres beside scales orderly. In this study, a new and clean method is developed on the basis of abrasion effect of calcium carbonate Nano particles (CCNP in an ultrasonic bath. Woolen Samples (fibre and yarn were sonicated with different levels of CCNP. Tensile properties of the yarns, directional friction effect of the fibres and scanning electron microscope images of the fibres were studied. Test results showed that sonicated Nano treatment of woolyarn reduced its tenacity, extension and work of rupture and increased its coefficient of friction. Scanning electron microscope images of fibres and measurement of fibres directional displacement confirmed descaling of Nano abrasive treated wool samples in comparison to the raw wool.

  10. Float processing of high-temperature complex silicate glasses and float baths used for same

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Reid Franklin (Inventor); Cook, Glen Bennett (Inventor)

    2000-01-01

    A float glass process for production of high melting temperature glasses utilizes a binary metal alloy bath having the combined properties of a low melting point, low reactivity with oxygen, low vapor pressure, and minimal reactivity with the silicate glasses being formed. The metal alloy of the float medium is exothermic with a solvent metal that does not readily form an oxide. The vapor pressure of both components in the alloy is low enough to prevent deleterious vapor deposition, and there is minimal chemical and interdiffusive interaction of either component with silicate glasses under the float processing conditions. Alloys having the desired combination of properties include compositions in which gold, silver or copper is the solvent metal and silicon, germanium or tin is the solute, preferably in eutectic or near-eutectic compositions.

  11. Non-adiabatic holonomic quantum computation in linear system-bath coupling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Chunfang; Wang, Gangcheng; Wu, Chunfeng; Liu, Haodi; Feng, Xun-Li; Chen, Jing-Ling; Xue, Kang

    2016-02-05

    Non-adiabatic holonomic quantum computation in decoherence-free subspaces protects quantum information from control imprecisions and decoherence. For the non-collective decoherence that each qubit has its own bath, we show the implementations of two non-commutable holonomic single-qubit gates and one holonomic nontrivial two-qubit gate that compose a universal set of non-adiabatic holonomic quantum gates in decoherence-free-subspaces of the decoupling group, with an encoding rate of (N - 2)/N. The proposed scheme is robust against control imprecisions and the non-collective decoherence, and its non-adiabatic property ensures less operation time. We demonstrate that our proposed scheme can be realized by utilizing only two-qubit interactions rather than many-qubit interactions. Our results reduce the complexity of practical implementation of holonomic quantum computation in experiments. We also discuss the physical implementation of our scheme in coupled microcavities.

  12. Quantum Zeno effect in a nitrogen-vacancy center embedded in a spin bath

    CERN Document Server

    Yang, Zhi-Sheng; Zhang, Mei; Ai, Qing; Deng, Fu-Guo

    2016-01-01

    We study the longitudinal relaxation of a nitrogen-vacancy (NV) center surrounded by a $^{13}$C nuclear spin bath in diamond. By means of cluster-correlation expansion (CCE), we numerically demonstrate the decay process of electronic state induced by cross relaxation at low temperature. It is shown that the CCE method is not only capable of describing pure-dephasing effect at large-detuning regime, but it can also simulate the quantum dynamics of populations in the nearly resonant regime. We present a proposal to slow down the decay of NV center via implementing quantum Zeno effect (QZE). The numerical result shows that QZE can effectively inhibit the decay of NV center.

  13. One-bath synthesis of hydrophilic molecularly imprinted quantum dots for selective recognition of chlorophenol

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tai Ye; Shi Yan Lu; Qin Qin Hu; Xin Jiang; Guo Fen Wei; Jing Jing Wang; Jian Quan Lu

    2011-01-01

    A simple one-bath strategy has been developed to synthesize a novel CdTe@SiO2@MIP (molecularly imprinted and silica-functionalized CdTe quantum dots, MISFQDs), in which a silica shell was coated on the surface of CdTe quantum dots (CdTe@SiO2 QDs) and then a polymer for selective recognition of 4-chlorophenol (4-CP) was constructed on the surface of CdTe@SiO2 QDs using mercaptoacetic acid as stabilizer, 3-aminopropyl-trimethoxysilane (APTES) as functional monomers and tetraethoxysilane (TEOS) as crosslink agent. The structures of CdTe@SiO2@MIP were analyzed by ultraviolet-visible absorption, Fluorescence, FT-IR spectrum and powder X-ray diffraction. The application and characterization of the CdTe@SiO2@MIP were investigated by experiments. All results indicated that the CdTe@SiO2@MIP can selectively recognize 4-chlorophenol.

  14. Structural and Optical Properties of CdS Thin Film Grown by Chemical Bath Deposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Rajpal

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available In this work we report synthesis and optical characterization of CdS thin films coated on glass substrate. The films were deposited using chemical bath deposition method. Scanning Electron microscopy shows a uniform film of CdS film at particular concentration and dipping time. The Energy Dispersive spectroscopy reveals the presence of Cd and S in the CdS film. X-Ray diffraction confirms the cubic structure of CdS deposited on glass and amorphous nature of glass. Optical and photoluminescence studies were done using UV-Visible spectroscopy and Photoluminescence spectroscopy respectively. We have determined bandgap by analyzing UV-Visible spectra results. Wettability studies were done using Optical Contact Angle, which confirms the hydrophobic nature of the CdS films.

  15. Analytic representations of bath correlation functions for ohmic and superohmic spectral densities using simple poles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritschel, Gerhard; Eisfeld, Alexander

    2014-09-01

    We present a scheme to express a bath correlation function (BCF) corresponding to a given spectral density (SD) as a sum of damped harmonic oscillations. Such a representation is needed, for example, in many open quantum system approaches. To this end we introduce a class of fit functions that enables us to model ohmic as well as superohmic behavior. We show that these functions allow for an analytic calculation of the BCF using pole expansions of the temperature dependent hyperbolic cotangent. We demonstrate how to use these functions to fit spectral densities exemplarily for cases encountered in the description of photosynthetic light harvesting complexes. Finally, we compare absorption spectra obtained for different fits with exact spectra and show that it is crucial to take properly into account the behavior at small frequencies when fitting a given SD.

  16. Effects of isotonic and isometric exercises with mist sauna bathing on cardiovascular, thermoregulatory, and metabolic functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwase, Satoshi; Kawahara, Yuko; Nishimura, Naoki; Nishimura, Rumiko; Sugenoya, Junichi; Miwa, Chihiro; Takada, Masumi

    2014-08-01

    To clarify the effects of isometric and isotonic exercise during mist sauna bathing on the cardiovascular function, thermoregulatory function, and metabolism, six healthy young men (22 ± 1 years old, height 173 ± 4 cm, weight 65.0 ± 5.0 kg) were exposed to a mist sauna for 10 min at a temperature of 40 °C, and relative humidity of 100 % while performing or not performing ˜30 W of isometric or isotonic exercise. The effect of the exercise was assessed by measuring tympanic temperature, heart rate, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, chest sweat rate, chest skin blood flow, and plasma catecholamine and cortisol, glucose, lactate, and free fatty acid levels. Repeated measures ANOVA showed no significant differences in blood pressure, skin blood flow, sweat rate, and total amount of sweating. Tympanic temperature increased more during isotonic exercise, and heart rate increase was more marked during isotonic exercise. The changes in lactate indicated that fatigue was not very great during isometric exercise. The glucose level indicated greater energy expenditure during isometric exercise. The free fatty acid and catecholamine levels indicated that isometric exercise did not result in very great energy expenditure and stress, respectively. The results for isotonic exercise of a decrease in lactate level and an increase in plasma free fatty acid level indicated that fatigue and energy expenditure were rather large while the perceived stress was comparatively low. We concluded that isotonic exercise may be a more desirable form of exercise during mist sauna bathing given the changes in glucose and free fatty acid levels.

  17. Genomic insights into methanotrophy: the complete genome sequence of Methylococcus capsulatus (Bath.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naomi Ward

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Methanotrophs are ubiquitous bacteria that can use the greenhouse gas methane as a sole carbon and energy source for growth, thus playing major roles in global carbon cycles, and in particular, substantially reducing emissions of biologically generated methane to the atmosphere. Despite their importance, and in contrast to organisms that play roles in other major parts of the carbon cycle such as photosynthesis, no genome-level studies have been published on the biology of methanotrophs. We report the first complete genome sequence to our knowledge from an obligate methanotroph, Methylococcus capsulatus (Bath, obtained by the shotgun sequencing approach. Analysis revealed a 3.3-Mb genome highly specialized for a methanotrophic lifestyle, including redundant pathways predicted to be involved in methanotrophy and duplicated genes for essential enzymes such as the methane monooxygenases. We used phylogenomic analysis, gene order information, and comparative analysis with the partially sequenced methylotroph Methylobacterium extorquens to detect genes of unknown function likely to be involved in methanotrophy and methylotrophy. Genome analysis suggests the ability of M. capsulatus to scavenge copper (including a previously unreported nonribosomal peptide synthetase and to use copper in regulation of methanotrophy, but the exact regulatory mechanisms remain unclear. One of the most surprising outcomes of the project is evidence suggesting the existence of previously unsuspected metabolic flexibility in M. capsulatus, including an ability to grow on sugars, oxidize chemolithotrophic hydrogen and sulfur, and live under reduced oxygen tension, all of which have implications for methanotroph ecology. The availability of the complete genome of M. capsulatus (Bath deepens our understanding of methanotroph biology and its relationship to global carbon cycles. We have gained evidence for greater metabolic flexibility than was previously known, and for

  18. Dual-bath electrodeposition of n-type Bi–Te/Bi–Se multilayer thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsuoka, Ken; Okuhata, Mitsuaki; Takashiri, Masayuki, E-mail: takashiri@tokai-u.jp

    2015-11-15

    N-type Bi–Te/Bi–Se multilayer thin films were prepared by dual-bath electrodeposition. We varied the number of layers from 2 to 10 while the total film thickness was maintained at approximately 1 μm. All the multilayer films displayed the X-ray diffraction peaks normally observed from individual Bi{sub 2}Te{sub 3} and Bi{sub 2}Se{sub 3} crystal structures, indicating that both phases coexist in the multilayer. The cross-section of the 10-layer Bi–Te/Bi–Se film was composed of stacked layers with nano-sized grains but the boundaries between the layers were not planar. The Seebeck coefficient was almost constant throughout the entire range of our experiment, but the electrical conductivity of the multilayer thin films increased significantly as the number of layers was increased. This may be because the electron mobility increases as the thickness of each layer is decreased. As a result of the increased electrical conductivity, the power factor also increased with the number of layers. The maximum power factor was 1.44 μW/(cm K{sup 2}) for the 10-layer Bi–Te/Bi–Se film, this was approximately 3 times higher than that of the 2-layer sample. - Highlights: • N-type Bi–Te/Bi–Se multilayer thin films were deposited by electrodeposition. • We employed a dual-bath electrodeposition process for preparing the multilayers. • The Bi–Te/Bi–Se film was composed of stacked layers with nano-sized grains. • The electrical conductivity increased as the number of layers was increased. • The power factor improved by 3 times as the number of layers was increased.

  19. Effect of temperature on the pharmacokinetics of benzocaine in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) after bath exposures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stehly, G.R.; Meinertz, J.R.; Gingerich, W.H.

    1998-01-01

    The pharmacokinetics of benzocaine during bath exposures at 1 mg/L were determined in rainbow trout acclimated at 6 °C, 12 °C or 18 °C for at least 1 month. Individual fish were exposed to benzocaine in a recirculating system for 4 h and pharmacokinetic parameters were estimated in a unique manner from the concentration of benzocaine in the bath water vs. time curve. Elimination from plasma was also determined after the 4 h exposure. The uptake clearance and metabolic clearance increased with increased acclimatization temperatures (uptake clearance 581 ± 179 mL/min/kg at 6 °C and 1154 ± 447 mL/ min/kg at 18 °C; metabolic clearance 15.2 ± 4.1 mL/min/kg at 6 °C and 22.3 ± 4.2 mL/min/kg at 18 °C). The apparent volume of distribution had a trend for increasing with temperature that was not significant at the 5% level (2369 ± 678 mL/kg at 6 °C to 3260 ± 1182 mL/kg at 18 °C). The elimination half-life of benzocaine in plasma was variable and did not differ significantly with temperature (60.8 ± 30.3 min at 6 °C to 35.9 ± 13.0 min at 12 °C). Elimination of benzocaine from rainbow trout is relatively rapid and even more rapid at higher acclimatization temperatures based on calculated metabolic clearances and measured plasma concentrations, but was not evident by measurement of terminal plasma half-lifes.

  20. Microstructural and compositional evolution of iron carbonitride compound layers during salt bath nitrocarburizing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Somers, M.A.J.; Colijn, P.F.; Sloof, W.G.; Mittemeijer, E.J. (Technische Hogeschool Delft (Netherlands). Lab. of Metallurgy)

    1990-01-01

    An analysis was made of iron carbonitride compound layer development during nitrocarburizing of pure iron and two iron-carbon specimens, containing 0.3 wt.-% C and 0.6 wt.-% C, respectively, in an aerated cyanate-based salt bath at 853 K. The microstructural evolution was followed by means of light- and scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction analysis. Composition-depth profiles were determined as a function of nitrocarburizing time applying electron-probe microanalysis and X-ray diffraction analysis. Compound layer formation on pure iron starts with the nucleation of cementite at the surface, which is immediately followed by nucleation of {epsilon} carbonitride containing a relatively high carbon content and a relatively low nitrogen content. Thereafter, {gamma}' (carbo)nitride and finally {epsilon} nitride develop at the outer surface. In general, on continued nitrocarburizing the nitrogen content at the outer surface increases and the carbon content decreases. Accordingly, the constitution of the compound layer is determined to a large extent by the (difference between the) absorption kinetics of carbon and of nitrogen rather than by equilibrium thermodynamics. In the surface-adjacent region, the layers are highly porous, predominantly as a consequence of corrosive attack by agents of the salt bath. As compared with nitrocarburizing of pure iron, the major effect of carbon present as cementite in pearlite regions in the iron-carbon specimens appears to be promotion of the formation of {epsilon} carbonitride in the compound layer at the cost of {gamma}' (carbo)nitride. (orig.).

  1. Dual-bath Plating of Composition Modulated Alloys (CMA) based on a newly developed Computer Controlled Plating System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tang, Peter Torben; Leisner, Peter; Møller, Per;

    1994-01-01

    of a computer controlled plating system for producing large scale CMA-coatings. Employing a dual-bath technique, multilayered materials with more than 1000 alternating layers have been manufactured and investigated. The thickness of each layer ranges from 25 nm to several microns. The characterisation results...

  2. Theoretical heating coefficient of a heat pump water heater with heat recovery applied in household bathing room

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    KOUGuangxiao; WANGHanqing; GUWeili; KOUJianguo

    2003-01-01

    Presents the components and flow diagram of a heat pump water heater with heat reclaim applied In household bathing room, analyzes its characteristics from thermodynamical principle, calculates its theoretical heating coefficient under different operating conditions. The result shows that the maximum value of its heating coefficient is 12.9 under a typical operating condition.

  3. The influence of long term use of inhibitors in hydrochloric acid pickling baths on hydrogen induced stress corrosion cracking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feser, R.; Friedrich, A.; Scheide, F. [Fachhochschule Suedwestfalen, University of Applied Science, Frauenstuhlweg 31, D-58644 Iserlohn (Germany)

    2002-09-01

    The influence of commercially available inhibitors on the absorption of hydrogen by steel (St 52, StE 460, StE 690, 42CrMo4) in 15% hydrochloric acid was studied. The pickling bath aged continuously due to the chemical reaction with oxidized steel sheets. The H{sup +}- and inhibitor concentration decreased with time. The influence of this ageing process on hydrogen-induced stress corrosion cracking was tested by in-situ tensile tests in the bath solution. With increasing ageing of the bath, the reduction in fracture area was reduced and approached the values measured for non-inhibited acid baths. Furthermore hydrogen permeation was investigated. Permeation current densities rose with increasing ageing of the pickling solution. (Abstract Copyright[2002], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.) [German] Der Einfluss von kommerziell erhaeltlichen Inhibitoren auf die Wasserstoffabsorption von Stahl (St 52, StE 460, StE 690, 42CrMo4) wurde in Salzsaeure untersucht. Die Beizbaeder wurden kontinuierlich durch die chemische Reaktion mit oxidierten Stahlblechen gealtert. Die H{sup +}- und Inhibitorkonzentration nahm mit der Zeit ab. Der Einfluss dieses Alterungsprozesses auf die wasserstoffinduzierte Spannungsrisskorrosion wurde durch in-situ Zugversuche mit Badloesung untersucht. Mit zunehmender Alterung des Bades nahm die Brucheinschnuerung ab und erreichte Werte wie sie auch in der nicht inhibierten Saeure erreicht werden. Weiterhin wurde die Wasserstoff-Permeation untersucht. Die Permeationsstromdichte steigt mit zunehmender Alterung der Beizloesung. (Abstract Copyright[2002], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  4. Measurement of Uncertainty for Aqueous Ethanol Wet-Bath Simulator Solutions Used with Evidential Breath Testing Instruments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Rong-Jen; Beltran, Jada; Rogers, Craig; Barlow, Jeremy; Razatos, Gerasimos

    2016-09-01

    Aqueous ethanol wet-bath simulator solutions are used to perform calibration adjustments, calibration checks, proficiency testing, and inspection of breath alcohol instruments. The Toxicology Bureau of the New Mexico Department of Health has conducted a study to estimate a measurement of uncertainty for the preparation and testing of these wet-bath simulator solutions. The measurand is identified as the mass concentration of ethanol (g/100 mL) determined through dual capillary column headspace gas chromatography with flame ionization detector analysis. Three groups were used in the estimation of the aqueous ethanol wet-bath simulator solutions uncertainty: GC calibration adjustment, GC analytical, and certified reference material. The standard uncertainties for these uncertainty sources were combined using the method of root-sum-squares to give uc = 0.8598%. The combined standard uncertainty was expanded to U = 1.7% to reflect a confidence level of 95% using a coverage factor of 2. This estimation applies to all aqueous ethanol wet-bath simulator solution concentrations produced by this laboratory.

  5. A new capillary electrophoresis buffer for determining organic and inorganic anions in electroplating bath with surfactant additives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, H; Lau, K M; Fung, Y S

    2010-05-07

    Monitoring of trace impurities in electroplating bath is needed to meet EU requirements for WEEE and RoHS and for quality control of electrodeposits. Methods using IC and 100% aqueous CE buffer were found producing non-repeatable results attributed to interference of surfactants and major methanesulphonate anion. A new CE buffer containing 1.5mM tetraethylenepentaamine, 3mM 1,3,5-benzenetricarboxylic acid and 15 mM Tris in 20% (v/v) methanol at pH=8.4 was shown to enhance the separation window, reduce interaction between buffer and bath constituents, and give satisfactory repeatability with baseline separation for 14 organic and inorganic anions within 14 min, good repeatability for migration time (0.32-0.57% RSD), satisfactory peak area and peak height (2.9-4.5 and 3-4.7% respectively), low detection limit (S/N=2, 20-150 ppb), and wide working ranges (0.1-100 ppm). The CE buffer with 20% (v/v) methanol has demonstrated its capability for identifying anion impurities causing problem in aged tin bath and the use of only 10-fold dilution to produce reliable results for quality assessment in plating bath containing high surfactant additives.

  6. Thermal inactivation of Bacillus anthracis Sterne in irradiated ground beef heated in a water bath or cooked on commercial grills

    Science.gov (United States)

    The thermal stability of heat-shocked and non heat-shocked spores of the virulence-attenuated Sterne strain of Bacillus anthracis was evaluated at select temperatures in irradiated, raw ground beef (25% fat) heated in a water bath or cooked using two different commercial grills. For the former, 3-g ...

  7. Immunomodulation of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) fry by bath exposure to a β-glucan from Euglena gracilis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chettri, Jiwan Kumar; Kania, Per Walter; Buchmann, Kurt

    2013-01-01

    Early developmental stages of fish mostly depend on innate immune factors for their protection. Augmenting these factors by application of different immunostimulatory substances may be beneficial for rearing and survival of the early life stages of fish. Bath administration of stimulants leads to...

  8. DYNAMICAL SIMULATION OF A QUANTUM HARMONIC-OSCILLATOR IN A NOBLE-GAS BATH BY DENSITY-MATRIX EVOLUTION

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    MAVRI, J; BERENDSEN, HJC

    1994-01-01

    A density-matrix evolution method [Berendsen and Mavri, J. Phys. Chem. 97, 13464 (1993)] coupled to a classical molecular dynamics simulation was applied to study a quantum harmonic oscillator immersed in a bath of Lennard-Jones particles. Eigenfunctions of the three, lowest levels of the unperturbe

  9. β-glucan enriched bath directly stimulates the wound healing process in common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Przybylska, Dominika Alicja; Schmidt, Jacob; Jiménez, Natalia Ivonne Vera;

    2013-01-01

    day 14. The results for the β-glucan treated wounds were more complex. The images showed significantly faster wound contraction in both treated groups compared to the control. The obtained results clearly demonstrated that a β glucan enriched bath promotes the closure of wounds in common carp...

  10. The social construction of bath in two communities temazcal of the mixteca region: Santiago Yolomecatl and San Andres Chicahuaxtla

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Valdés Cobos

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The bathroom of temazcal is a knowledge of pre-Hispanic roots still practiced in rural and indigenous communities in our country. Studies on the temazcal have focused on its forms of construction and operation, however, the many therapeutic benefits temazcal bath attached to the human body, and women in particular, not have been sufficiently documented. In this case, two communities of the Oaxacan mixteca were studied: Santiago Yolomecatl and San Andrés Chicahuaxtla. In this study, a questionnaire was applied to 20 per cent of families in each of the communities, a questionnaire to allopathic doctors and six stories of life at temazcaleras. The results indicate a coincidence between patients and doctors in the study populations on the medicinal uses of the temazcal bath: after childbirth and for muscle aches, however, interviewed temazcaleras indicate diseases that cures this bath are: angina, flu, rheumatism,scars, muscle aches after childbirth and cramping. For its part, doctors support the idea of preserving the temazcal bath because it is a healing means to treat diseases through steam and faster recovery of the body. The constructivist analysis of the responses gathered in questionnaires and life stories shows that the medicinal uses of the temazcal, before being recognised as such go through a process of evaluation, filtration and social construction. This process of acceptance, perception and recognition occurs through rules of knowledge, ideological connotations, rules and socialsymbols.

  11. THE SOCIAL CONSTRUCTION OF BATH IN TWO COMMUNITIES TEMAZCAL OF THE MIXTECA REGION: SANTIAGO YOLOMECATL AND SAN ANDRES CHICAHUAXTLA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Valdés-Cobos

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The bathroom of temazcal is a knowledge of pre-Hispanic roots still practiced in rural and indigenous communities in our country. Studies on the temazcal have focused on its forms of construction and operation, however, the many therapeutic benefits temazcal bath attached to the human body, and women in particular, not have been sufficiently documented. In this case, two communities of the Oaxacan mixteca were studied: Santiago Yolomecatl and San Andrés Chicahuaxtla. In this study, a questionnaire was applied to 20 per cent of families in each of the communities, a questionnaire to allopathic doctors and six stories of life at temazcaleras. The results indicate a coincidence between patients and doctors in the study populations on the medicinal uses of the temazcal bath: after childbirth and for muscle aches, however, interviewed temazcaleras indicate diseases that cures this bath are: angina, flu, rheumatism, scars, muscle aches after childbirth and cramping. For its part, doctors support the idea of preserving the temazcal bath because it is a healing means to treat diseases through steam and faster recovery of the body. The constructivist analysis of the responses gathered in questionnaires and life stories shows that the medicinal uses of the temazcal, before being recognised as such go through a process of evaluation, filtration and social construction. This process of acceptance, perception and recognition occurs through rules of knowledge, ideological connotations, rules and social symbols.

  12. Effects of Temperature on Microstructure and Wear of Salt Bath Nitrided 17-4PH Stainless Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jun; Lin, Yuanhua; Fan, Hongyuan; Zeng, Dezhi; Peng, Qian; Shen, Baoluo

    2012-08-01

    Salt bath nitriding of 17-4 PH martensitic precipitation hardening stainless steels was conducted at 610, 630, and 650 °C for 2 h using a complex salt bath heat-treatment, and the properties of the nitrided surface were systematically evaluated. Experimental results revealed that the microstructure and phase constituents of the nitrided surface alloy are highly process condition dependent. When 17-4PH stainless steel was subjected to complex salt bathing nitriding, the main phase of the nitrided layer was expanded martensite (α'), expanded austenite (γN), CrN, Fe4N, and (Fe,Cr) x O y . In the sample nitrided above 610 °C, the expanded martensite transformed into expanded austenite. But in the sample nitrided at 650 °C, the expanded austenite decomposed into αN and CrN. The decomposed αN then disassembled into CrN and alpha again. The nitrided layer depth thickened intensively with the increasing nitriding temperature. The activation energy of nitriding in this salt bath was 125 ± 5 kJ/mol.

  13. Topology of a dissipative spin: Dynamical Chern number, bath-induced nonadiabaticity, and a quantum dynamo effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henriet, Loïc; Sclocchi, Antonio; Orth, Peter P.; Le Hur, Karyn

    2017-02-01

    We analyze the topological deformations of the ground state manifold of a quantum spin-1/2 in a magnetic field H =H (sinθ cosϕ ,sinθ sinϕ ,cosθ ) induced by a coupling to an ohmic quantum dissipative environment at zero temperature. From Bethe ansatz results and a variational approach, we confirm that the Chern number associated with the geometry of the reduced spin ground state manifold is preserved in the delocalized phase for α <1 . We report a divergence of the Berry curvature at αc=1 for magnetic fields aligned along the equator θ =π /2 . This divergence is caused by the complete quenching of the transverse magnetic field by the bath associated with a gap closing that occurs at the localization Kosterlitz-Thouless quantum phase transition in this model. Recent experiments in quantum circuits have engineered nonequilibrium protocols to access topological properties from a measurement of a dynamical Chern number defined via the out-of-equilibrium spin expectation values. Applying a numerically exact stochastic Schrödinger approach we find that, for a fixed field sweep velocity θ (t )=v t , the bath induces a crossover from (quasi)adiabatic to nonadiabatic dynamical behavior when the spin bath coupling α increases. We also investigate the particular regime H /ωc≪v /H ≪1 with large bath cutoff frequency ωc, where the dynamical Chern number vanishes already at α =1 /2 . In this regime, the mapping to an interacting resonance level model enables us to analytically describe the behavior of the dynamical Chern number in the vicinity of α =1 /2 . We further provide an intuitive physical explanation of the bath-induced breakdown of adiabaticity in analogy to the Faraday effect in electromagnetism. We demonstrate that the driving of the spin leads to the production of a large number of bosonic excitations in the bath, which strongly affect the spin dynamics. Finally, we quantify the spin-bath entanglement and formulate an analogy with an effective

  14. Microbiological quality for bathing water in the "Conde del Guadalhorce" reservoir of Málaga City, Spain, 2000-2005

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joaquín Jesús Gámez de la Hoz

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Background. Determine the presence and evolution of indicators microorganisms of water pollution in “Conde del Guadalhorce” reservoir, Málaga city, Spain. A second objective was to analyze pollution degree and evaluate the sanitary quality of bathing water and compliance with European Directive 76/160/CE. Method. A total of 120 water samples were collected in two bathing freshwater sites during May to September sampling period between 2000 to 2005, and the numbers of total coliforms (CT, faecal coliforms (CF and faecal streptococci (EF were enumerated using the membrane filtration method. We used the log-normal distribution method and calculate the logarithmic means, percentile points, ratios CF:EF, ANOVA and Pearson correlations. Results. Only two samples overcome CF limit values at Camping sampling station during 2000 year. Ratios CF:EF values were higher (> 4 during 2000 to 2002, and lower (< 0,7 during 2003 to 2005. Significant differences (ANOVA F = 3,41, ∝ < 0,01 was only observed with EF during evaluated period. There was no significant difference between concentration means at bathing water sites (ANOVA, F = 3,395, ∝ < 0,01. The counts of CT and CF were significantly correlated in Kiosko water samples, while in Camping water, significant correlation (t = 0,632, p < 0,05 was only observed with EF at the Cam- ping station during 2000, 2003 and 2005 years.Conclusions. “Conde del Guadalhorce” reservoir showed hygienic conditions for safety bathing. Globally, water bathing quality is good. CT, CF y EF indicators were agreed with UE Directive during 2000-2005, with exception CF at Camping station in 2000 year. CT y CF concentrations at Camping were frecuently higher than Kiosko, it could be caused to swimmers abundance and recreational activities. There was a trend towards rising EF, it could be caused to faecal pollution source of animal origin, needed to research it.

  15. Factors affecting Escherichia coli concentrations at Lake Erie public bathing beaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francy, Donna S.; Darner, Robert A.

    1998-01-01

    The environmental and water-quality factors that affect concentrations of Escherichia coli (E. coli) in water and sediment were investigated at three public bathing beachesEdgewater Park, Villa Angela, and Sims Parkin the Cleveland, Ohio metropolitan area. This study was done to aid in the determination of safe recreational use and to help water- resource managers assess more quickly and accurately the degradation of recreational water quality. Water and lake-bottom sediments were collected and ancillary environmental data were compiled for 41 days from May through September 1997. Water samples were analyzed for E. coli concentrations, suspended sediment concentrations, and turbidity. Lake- bottom sediment samples from the beach area were analyzed for E. coli concentrations and percent dry weight. Concentrations of E. coli were higher and more variable at Sims Park than at Villa Angela or Edgewater Park; concentrations were lowest at Edgewater Park. Time-series plots showed that short-term storage (less than one week) of E. coli in lake-bottom sediments may have occurred, although no evidence for long-term storage was found during the sampling period. E. coli concentrations in water were found to increase with increasing wave height, but the resuspension of E. coli from lake-bottom sediments by wave action could not be adequately assessed; higherwave heights were often associated with the discharge of sewage containing E. coli during or after a rainfall and wastewater-treatment plant overflow. Multiple linear regression (MLR) was used to develop models to predict recreational water quality at the in water. The related variables included turbidity, antecedent rainfall, antecedent weighted rainfall, volumes of wastewater-treatment plant overflows and metered outfalls (composed of storm-water runoff and combined-sewer overflows), a resuspension index, and wave heights. For the beaches in this study, wind speed, wind direction, water temperature, and the prswimmers

  16. Optical Characteristics of La-Doped ZnS Thin Films Prepared by Chemical Bath Deposition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIE Hai-Qing; CHEN Yuan; HUANG Wei-Qing; HUANG Gui-Fang; PENG Ping; PENG Li; WANG Tai-Hang; ZENG Yun

    2011-01-01

    Undoped and La-doped ZnS thin films are prepared by chemical bath deposition (CBD) process through the co-precipitation reaction of inorganic precursors zinc sulfate, thiosulfate ammonia and La2O3. Composition of the films is analyzed using an energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDS). Absorption spectra and spectral transmittances of the films are measured using a double beam UV-VIS spectrophotometer (TU-1901). It is found that significant red shifts in absorption spectra and decrease in absorptivity are obtained with increasing lanthanum. Moreover, optical transmittance is increased as La is doped, with a transmittance of more than 80% for wavelength above 360 nm in La-doped ZnS thin films. Compared to pure ZnS, the band gap decreases and flat-band potential positively shifts to quasi-metal for the La-doped ZnS. These results indicate that La-doped ZnS thin films could be valuably adopted as transparent electrodes.%@@ Undoped and La-doped ZnS thin films are prepared by chemical bath deposition (CBD) process through the co-precipitation reaction of inorganic precursors zinc sulfate, thiosulfate ammonia and La2O2.Composition of the 61ms is analyzed using an energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDS).Absorption spectra and spectral tra.nsmitta.nces of the 61ms are measured using a double beam UV-VIS spectrophotometer (TU-1901).It is found that significant red shifts in absorption spectra and decrease in absorptivity are obtained with increasing lanthanum.Moreover, optical transmittance is increased as La is doped, with a transmittance of more than 80% for wavelength above 360 nm in La-doped ZnS thin 61ms.Compared to pure ZnS, the band gap decreases and flat-band potential positively shifts to quasi-metal for the La-doped ZnS.These results indicate that La-doped ZnS thin 6hns could be valuably adopted as transparent electrodes.

  17. Synthesis of manganese oxide nanocrystal by ultrasonic bath: effect of external magnetic field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastami, Tahereh Rohani; Entezari, Mohammad H

    2012-07-01

    A novel technique was used for the synthesis of manganese oxide nanocrystal by applying an external magnetic field (EMF) on the precursor solution before sonication with ultrasonic bath. The results were compared in the presence and absence of EMF. Manganese acetate solution as precursor was circulated by a pump at constant speed (7 rpm, equal to flow rate of 51.5 mL/min) in an EMF with intensity of 0.38 T in two exposure times (t(MF), 2h and 24h). Then, the magnetized solution was irradiated indirectly by ultrasonic bath in basic and neutral media. One experiment was designed for the effect of oxygen atmosphere in the case of magnetic treated solution in neutral medium. The as prepared samples were characterized with X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM, TEM), energy-dispersive spectrum (EDS), and superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) analysis. In neutral medium, the sonication of magnetized solution (t(MF), 24h) led mainly to a mixture of Mn(3)O(4) (hausmannite) and γ-MnOOH (manganite) and sonication of unmagnetized solution led to a pure Mn(3)O(4). In point of particle size, the larger and smaller size of nanoparticles was obtained with and without magnetic treatment, respectively. In addition, the EMF was retarded the nucleation process, accelerated the growth of the crystal, and increased the amount of rod-like structure especially in oxygen atmosphere. In basic medium, a difference was observed on the composition of the products between magnetic treated and untreated solution. For these samples, the magnetic measurements as a function of temperature were exhibited a reduction in ferrimagnetic temperature to T(c)=39K, and 40K with and without magnetic treatment, respectively. The ferrimagnetic temperature was reported for the bulk at T(c)=43K. A superparamagnetic behavior was observed at room temperature without any saturation magnetization and hysteresis in the measured

  18. A novel approach for the synthesis of superparamagnetic Mn3O4 nanocrystals by ultrasonic bath.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohani Bastami, T; Entezari, M H

    2012-05-01

    In this study, the synthesis of Mn(3)O(4) (husmannite) nanoparticles was carried out in two different alkali media under sonication by ultrasonic bath and conventional method. Manganese acetate was used as precursor, sodium hydroxide and hexamethylenetetramine (HMT) as basic reagents in this synthesis. An ultrasonic bath with low intensity was used for the preparation of nanomaterials. The as prepared samples were characterized with X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM, TEM), energy-dispersive spectrum (EDS), and superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) analysis. The XRD patterns exhibit the nanocrystals are in pure tetragonal phase. The chemical composition was obtained by EDS analysis and confirmed the presence of Mn and O in the sample. According to the TEM and HRTEM results, both nanorods and nanoparticles of Mn(3)O(4) were obtained in the presence of ultrasonic irradiation. The average size of nanoparticles was 10nm, and the size of nanorods was 12 nm in diameter and 100-900 nm in length for the samples prepared in basic medium with sodium hydroxide. In the conventional method with the same basic medium, the nanorod was not observed and the nearly cubic nanoparticles was appeared with an average size of 2.5 nm. The selected area electron diffraction (SAED) patterns revealed that the nanocrystals are polycrystalline in nature. When HMT was used as a basic reagent in the presence of ultrasonic irradiation, it was led to a higher size of nanoparticles and nanorods than when sodium hydroxide was used as a basic reagent. The average size of nanoparticles was about 15 nm and its shape was nearly cubic. The diameter for nanorods was 50 nm and the length was about a few micrometers. The magnetic measurements were carried out on the sample prepared in sodium hydroxide under ultrasonic irradiation. These measurements as a function of temperature and field strength showed a reduction

  19. Microstructural characterization of chemical bath deposited and sputtered Zn(O,S) buffer layers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gautron, E., E-mail: eric.gautron@cnrs-imn.fr [Institut des Matériaux Jean Rouxel (IMN)-UMR 6502, Université de Nantes, CNRS, 2 rue de la Houssinière, BP 32229, 44322 Nantes Cedex 3 (France); Buffière, M. [Institut des Matériaux Jean Rouxel (IMN)-UMR 6502, Université de Nantes, CNRS, 2 rue de la Houssinière, BP 32229, 44322 Nantes Cedex 3 (France); 44solar, 14 rue Kepler, 44240 La Chapelle sur Erdre (France); Harel, S.; Assmann, L.; Arzel, L.; Brohan, L. [Institut des Matériaux Jean Rouxel (IMN)-UMR 6502, Université de Nantes, CNRS, 2 rue de la Houssinière, BP 32229, 44322 Nantes Cedex 3 (France); Kessler, J. [Institut des Matériaux Jean Rouxel (IMN)-UMR 6502, Université de Nantes, CNRS, 2 rue de la Houssinière, BP 32229, 44322 Nantes Cedex 3 (France); 44solar, 14 rue Kepler, 44240 La Chapelle sur Erdre (France); Barreau, N. [Institut des Matériaux Jean Rouxel (IMN)-UMR 6502, Université de Nantes, CNRS, 2 rue de la Houssinière, BP 32229, 44322 Nantes Cedex 3 (France)

    2013-05-01

    The present work aims at investigating the microstructure of Zn(O,S) buffer layers relative to their deposition route, namely either chemical bath deposition (CBD) or RF co-sputtering process (PVD) under pure Ar. The core of the study consists of cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy (TEM) characterization of the differently grown Zn(O,S) thin films on co-evaporated Cu(In,Ga)Se{sub 2} (CIGSe) absorbers. It shows that the morphology of Zn(O,S) layer deposited on CIGSe using CBD process is made of a thin layer of well oriented ZnS sphalerite-(111) and/or ZnS wurtzite-(0002) planes parallel to CIGSe chalcopyrite-(112) planes at the interface with CIGSe followed by misoriented nanometer-sized ZnS crystallites in an amorphous phase. As far as (PVD)Zn(O,S) is concerned, the TEM analyses reveal two different microstructures depending on the S-content in the films: for [S] / ([O] + [S]) = 0.6, the buffer layer is made of ZnO zincite and ZnS wurtzite crystallites grown nearly coherently to each other, with (0002) planes nearly parallel with CIGSe-(112) planes, while for [S] / ([O] + [S]) = 0.3, it is made of ZnO zincite type crystals with O atoms substituted by S atoms, with (0002) planes perfectly aligned with CIGSe-(112) planes. Such microstructural differences can explain why photovoltaic performances are dependent on the Zn(O,S) buffer layer deposition route. - Highlights: ► Zn(O,S) layers were grown by chemical bath (CBD) or physical vapor (PVD) deposition. ► For CBD, a 3 nm ZnS layer is followed by ZnS nano-crystallites in an amorphous phase. ► For PVD with [S] / ([O] + [S]) = 0.3, the layer has a Zn(O,S) zincite structure. ► For PVD with [S] / ([O] + [S]) = 0.6, ZnS wurtzite and ZnO zincite phases are mixed.

  20. Clinical Observation on Combined Tuina and Medicated Bath for Early Intervention of Neonatal Brain Injuries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘振寰; 丁建英; 韩丑萍

    2010-01-01

    目的:观察推拿、药浴等中医疗法早期干预对婴儿脑损伤的临床疗效.方法:对60例中重度脑损伤婴儿进行小儿健脑推拿及中药浴式水疗,同时配合中医传统五行音乐聆听及运动疗法等治疗.分别于治疗前、治疗3个月后采用Gesell测查法进行发育商(Development Quotient,DQ)评估,并在治疗1年半后进行远期随访.结果:治疗前、治疗3个月及一年半后发育商分别为(34.98±28.94),(66.17±14.91)和(75.40±14.69),与治疗前比较,治疗3个月及一年半后发育商各指标均有显著提高(P=0.000).结论:对脑损伤婴儿进行推拿中医早期干预可促进大脑发育,修复神经损伤,促进运动、认知的发育,有效预防神经系统后遗症的发生.%Objective: To observe the clinical effect of early intervention of combined tuina with medicated bath for neonatal brain injuries.Methods: Brain-benefiting tuina manipulations,medicated bath and music plus exercise therapies were employed in 60 infants with medium or severe brain injuries.The Gesell measurement methods were adopted prior to and 3 months after treatment to evaluate the development quotient(DQ).In addition,the long-term follow-up was made after one and a half years.Result: The scores of DQ prior to treatment,3 month after treatment and 1.5 years after treatment were(34.98±28.94),(66.17±14.91)and(75.40±14.69)respectively,showing a marked improvement after 3months and 1.5 years of treatment(P=0.000).Conclusion: Early intervention using tuina manipulations could enhance the brain development,repair the nerve injury,improve the motion and cognitive ability and prevent the sequela of the nervous system.

  1. Shape controllability and photoluminescence properties of ZnO nanorods grown by chemical bath deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Terasako, Tomoaki, E-mail: terasako.tomoaki.mz@ehime-u.ac.jp [Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Ehime University, 3 Bunkyo-cho, Matsuyama-shi, Ehime 790-8577 (Japan); Murakami, Toshihiro [Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Ehime University, 3 Bunkyo-cho, Matsuyama-shi, Ehime 790-8577 (Japan); Yagi, Masakazu [Kagawa National College of Technology, 551 Koda, Takuma-cho, Mitoyo-shi, Kagawa 769-1192 (Japan); Shirakata, Sho [Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Ehime University, 3 Bunkyo-cho, Matsuyama-shi, Ehime 790-8577 (Japan)

    2013-12-31

    Zinc oxide (ZnO) nanorods (NRs) were synthesized on glass substrates and Au seed layers by chemical bath deposition from the aqueous solution of ZnCl{sub 2} and the mixed aqueous solution of zinc acetate dihydrate (ZnAc) and hexamethylenetetramine (HMT) at a low temperature of ∼ 90 °C. Vertically aligned NRs were successfully grown on the Au seed layers. For the NRs synthesized from the ZnCl{sub 2} solution of 0.17 M, when the growth time increased from 15 to 180 min, the average diameter and length increase from ∼ 350 to ∼ 1020 nm and from ∼ 1000 to ∼ 5600 nm, respectively. The increase in average diameter with the concentration of solution was observed on the NRs synthesized from the mixed solution of ZnAc and HMT. The influence of additional HMT was found on the shapes and density of the NRs. Photoluminescence (PL) spectra of the NRs synthesized from the solutions of ZnCl{sub 2} exhibited a dominant orange band (OB) emission at ∼ 640 nm associated with the excess-oxygen atoms. On the other hand, the NRs synthesized from the mixed solution of ZnAc and HMT exhibited a strong near-band-edge (NBE) emission at ∼ 380 nm, suggesting their high crystalline quality. For the NRs synthesized from the mixed solution of ZnAc and HMT, the OB emission is effectively excited at the photon energy corresponding to the A free exciton emission. For the NRs synthesized from the solution of ZnCl{sub 2}, however, the secondary phase Zn(OH){sub 2} formed at the surface regions of the NRs contributes to the excitation process for the OB emission. Photoacoustic (PA) measurements revealed that the intra-band-gap absorption band extending from 400 to 660 nm responsible for nonradiative transitions were suppressed in the NRs synthesized from the mixed solutions of ZnAc and HMT in comparison with those from the ZnCl{sub 2} solutions. - Highlights: • ZnO nanorods (NRs) were grown by Chemical bath deposition. • ZnCl{sub 2} and Zinc acetate dihydrate were used as Zn

  2. Langevin equation for the extended Rayleigh model with an asymmetric bath.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plyukhin, Alexander V; Schofield, Jeremy

    2004-02-01

    In this paper a one-dimensional model of two infinite gases separated by a movable heavy piston is considered. The nonlinear Langevin equation for the motion of the piston is derived from first principles for the case when the thermodynamic parameters and/or the molecular masses of gas particles on the left and right sides of the piston are different. Microscopic expressions involving time correlation functions of the force between bath particles and the piston are obtained for all parameters appearing in the nonlinear Langevin equation. It is demonstrated that the equation has stationary solutions corresponding to directional fluctuation-induced drift in the absence of systematic forces. In the case of ideal gases interacting with the piston via a quadratic repulsive potential, the model is exactly solvable and explicit expressions for the kinetic coefficients in the nonlinear Langevin equation are derived. The transient solution of the nonlinear Langevin equation is analyzed perturbatively and it is demonstrated that previously obtained results for systems with the hard-wall interaction are recovered.

  3. Market dynamics immediately before and after financial shocks: Quantifying the Omori, productivity, and Bath laws.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Alexander M; Wang, Fengzhong; Havlin, Shlomo; Stanley, H Eugene

    2010-09-01

    We study the cascading dynamics immediately before and immediately after 219 market shocks. We define the time of a market shock T{c} to be the time for which the market volatility V(T{c}) has a peak that exceeds a predetermined threshold. The cascade of high volatility "aftershocks" triggered by the "main shock" is quantitatively similar to earthquakes and solar flares, which have been described by three empirical laws-the Omori law, the productivity law, and the Bath law. We analyze the most traded 531 stocks in U.S. markets during the 2 yr period of 2001-2002 at the 1 min time resolution. We find quantitative relations between the main shock magnitude M≡log{10} V(T{c}) and the parameters quantifying the decay of volatility aftershocks as well as the volatility preshocks. We also find that stocks with larger trading activity react more strongly and more quickly to market shocks than stocks with smaller trading activity. Our findings characterize the typical volatility response conditional on M , both at the market and the individual stock scale. We argue that there is potential utility in these three statistical quantitative relations with applications in option pricing and volatility trading.

  4. A one bath chemo-enzymatic process for preparation of absorbent cotton

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.S.M. Raja

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Cotton is the raw material for preparation of absorbent cotton. Raw cotton has to be subjected to scouring and bleaching processes for making it absorbent by removing the naturally present wax, protein and minerals in the fibre. The scouring is done at 115 °C using alkali followed by bleaching at boiling condition using alkaline hydrogen peroxide solution. The effluent coming out of such processes contains high COD and BOD values. Due to the stringent environmental regulation and great awareness among the public about environment, worldwide attempts have been made to develop green and sustainable chemical processing of materials. Based on the above, in the present study efforts have been made to develop an eco-friendly one bath preparatory process for the production of absorbent cotton using chemo-enzymatic formulation. The result indicated that absorbent cotton produced using the developed process fulfilled the required performance properties as per pharmacopoeia in comparable with the conventional process made one.

  5. Cadmium Sulfide Thin Films Deposited onto MWCNT/Polysulfone Substrates by Chemical Bath Deposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Moreno

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Cadmium sulfide (CdS thin films were deposited by chemical bath deposition (CBD onto polymeric composites with electric field-aligned multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs. MWCNT/polysulfone composites were prepared by dispersing low concentrations of MWCNTs within dissolved polysulfone (PSF. An alternating current electric field was “in situ” applied to align the MWCNTs within the dissolved polymer along the field direction until the solvent was evaporated. 80 μm thick solid MWCNT/PSF composites with an electrical conductivity 13 orders of magnitude higher than the conductivity of the neat PSF were obtained. The MWCNT/PSF composites were subsequently used as flexible substrates for the deposition of CdS thin films by CBD. Transparent and adherent CdS thin films with an average thickness of 475 nm were obtained. The values of the energy band gap, average grain size, rms roughness, crystalline structure, and preferential orientation of the CdS films deposited onto the polymeric substrate were very similar to the corresponding values of the CdS deposited onto glass (conventional substrate. These results show that the MWCNT/PSF composites with electric field-tailored MWCNTs represent a suitable option to be used as flexible conducting substrate for CdS thin films, which represents an important step towards the developing of flexible systems for photovoltaic applications.

  6. Growth of doped Pb S:Co{sup 2+} nano crystals by chemical bath

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Portillo M, O.; Gutierrez P, R.; Chavez P, M.; Marquez S, M. N.; Hernandez T, G.; Lazcano H, M.; Moreno R, A. [Universidad Autonoma de Puebla, Facultad de Ciencias Quimicas, Laboratorio de Ciencia de Materiales, Apdo. Postal 1067, 72001 Puebla, Pue. (Mexico); Palomino M, R. [Universidad Autonoma de Puebla, Facultad de Ciencias Fisico-Matematicas, Posgrado en Fisica Aplicada, 72001 Puebla, Pue. (Mexico); Rubio R, E., E-mail: osporti@yahoo.com.mx [Universidad Autonoma de Puebla, Centro Universitario de Vinculacion y Transferencia de Tecnologia, 72001 Puebla, Pue. (Mexico)

    2016-11-01

    Nanocrystalline Pb S films grown by chemical bath at T = 40 ± 2 degrees Celsius onto glass slides were modified by in situ Co{sup 2+} -doping and their structural and optical properties were examined. By Ft-IR spectra, a sharp stretching mode can be seen at ∼1384 cm{sup -1} due to the vibration mode of CO{sup 2/3} ions. X-ray diffraction patterns shown the growth on the zinc blende crystalline face. The grain size was determined by using X-rays diffractograms and was found at ∼28 nm and ∼13 - 25 nm for undoped and doped samples, respectively. Optical absorption spectra was used for calculating the energy band gap, and displayed a shift in the ∼1.21 - 2.21 eV range, associated with quantum confinement effect. Raman peaks at ∼210, 271 and 451 cm{sup -1}, corresponding to a 1LO phonon mode, a two-phonon process, and a 2LO phonon mode respectively were also recorded. The surface and grain size of the films were measured by atomic force microscopy studies. (Author)

  7. Effect of Reaction Temperature of CdS Buffer Layers by Chemical Bath Deposition Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hye Jin; Kim, Chae-Woong; Jung, Duk Young; Jeong, Chaehwan

    2016-05-01

    This study investigated CdS deposition on a Cu(In,Ga)Se2 (CIGS) film via chemical bath deposition (CBD) in order to obtain a high-quality optimized buffer layer. The thickness and reaction temperature (from 50 degrees C to 65 degrees C) were investigated, and we found that an increase in the reaction temperature during CBD, resulted in a thicker CdS layer. We obtained a thin film with a thickness of 50 nm at a reaction temperature of 60 degrees C, which also exhibited the highest photoelectric conversion efficiency for use in solar cells. Room temperature time-resolved photoluminescence (TR-PL) measurements were performed on the Cu(In,Ga)Se2 (CIGS) thin film and CdS/CIGS samples to determine the recombination process of the photo-generated minority carrier. The device performance was found to be dependent on the thickness of the CdS layer. As the thickness of the CdS increases, the fill factor and the series resistance increased to 61.66% and decreased to 8.35 Ω, respectively. The best condition was observed at a reaction temperature of 60 degrees C, and its conversion efficiency was 12.20%.

  8. Magnus Expansion Approach to Parametric Oscillator Systems in a Thermal Bath

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Beilei; Rexin, Tobias; Mathey, Ludwig

    2016-10-01

    We develop a Magnus formalism for periodically driven systems which provides an expansion both in the driving term and in the inverse driving frequency, applicable to isolated and dissipative systems. We derive explicit formulas for a driving term with a cosine dependence on time, up to fourth order. We apply these to the steady state of a classical parametric oscillator coupled to a thermal bath, which we solve numerically for comparison. Beyond dynamical stabilisation at second order, we find that the higher orders further renormalise the oscillator frequency, and additionally create a weakly renormalised effective temperature. The renormalised oscillator frequency is quantitatively accurate almost up to the parametric instability, as we confirm numerically. Additionally, a cut-off dependent term is generated, which indicates the break down of the hierarchy of time scales of the system, as a precursor to the instability. Finally, we apply this formalism to a parametrically driven chain, as an example for the control of the dispersion of a many-body system.

  9. Hot-Dip Aluminizing of Low Carbon Steel Using Al-7Si-2Cu Alloy Baths

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prashanth Huilgol

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Hot-dip aluminizing of low carbon steel was done in molten Al-7Si-2Cu bath at 690°C for dipping time ranging from 300 to 2400 seconds. Characterization of the intermetallics layer was done by using scanning electron microscope with energy dispersive spectroscopy. Four intermetallic phases, τ5-Al7Fe2Si, θ-FeAl3, η-Fe2Al5, and τ1-Al2Fe3Si3, were identified in the reaction layer. τ5- Al7Fe2Si phase was observed adjacent to aluminum-silicon topcoat, θ-FeAl3 between τ5 and η-Fe2Al5, η-Fe2Al5 adjacent to base material, and τ1-Al2Fe3Si3 precipitates within Fe2Al5 layer. The average thickness of Fe2Al5 layer increased linearly with square root of dipping time, while for the rest of the layers such relationship was not observed. The tongue-like morphology of Fe2Al5 layer was more pronounced at higher dipping time. Overall intermetallic layer thickness was following parabolic relationship with dipping time.

  10. Temperature and bath gas composition dependence of effective fluorescence lifetimes of toluene excited at 266 nm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faust, S.; Dreier, T.; Schulz, C.

    2011-05-01

    Time-resolved fluorescence spectra of gas-phase toluene upon picosecond excitation at 266 nm were investigated as a function of temperature (296-1074 K) and bath gas composition (varying amounts of N 2, O 2, and CO 2) at 1 bar total pressure with a temporal resolution of 50 ps. In the investigated temperature range the effective fluorescence lifetime drops with increasing temperature from 46 ± 3 ns to 0.05 ± 0.01 ns in N 2 and CO 2. In the presence of O 2 at constant temperature the lifetimes also decrease significantly (e.g., from 46 ± 3 ns without O 2 to 0.63 ± 0.05 ns in air at room temperature), whereas lifetimes are independent on the CO 2 concentration. The implications of the results for the existing phenomenological model of predicting temporally integrated fluorescence intensities in toluene [W. Koban, J.D. Koch, R.K. Hanson, C. Schulz, Appl. Phys. B 80 (2005) 777] are discussed.

  11. Electroless Ni-P Deposition on Magnesium Alloy from a Sulfate Bath

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Guangyu; NIU Liyuan; JIANG Qing; JIANG Zhonghao; LIAN Jianshe

    2008-01-01

    A technology for electroless Ni-P deposition on AZ91D from a low cost plating bath containing sulfate nickel was proposed.The seal pretreatment was employed before the electroless Ni-P deposition for the sake of occluding the micro holes of the cast magnesium alloy and interdicting the bubble formation in the Ni-P coating during plating process.And pickling pretreatment can provide a better adhesion between the Ni-P deposition and AZ91D substrate.The deposition speed of the Ni-P coating is 29 um/h.The technology is employed to AZ91D magnesium alloy automobile parts and can provide high hardness and high wear-resistant.The weight losses of Ni-P plated and heat-treated Ni-P plated magnesium alloy specimen are only about I/6 and 1/10 that of bare magnesium alloy specimen after l0 min abrasion wear,respectively.The hardness of the electroless Ni-P plated brake pedal support brackets is 674.1 VHN and 935.7 VHN after 2 hours heat treatments at 180 C.The adhesion of Ni-P coatings on magnesium alloy substrates meets the demands of ISO Standards 2819.The technology is environment friendly and cannot cause hazard to environment because of absence of chromate in the whole process.

  12. Removal of nickel from spent electroless nickel-plating bath with nickel foam cathode

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于秀娟; 郑彤; 魏杰; 周定

    2002-01-01

    The electrochemical method was used to remove nickel ion from spent electroless nickel plating bath(pH = 5.3). An electrolytic cell was composed of a porous nickel foam cathode and an inert RuO2/Ti anode.Nickel ions were reduced and deposited on the surface of the nickel foam cathode. The effect of current density(i), linear velocity of wastewater (v), gap between cathode and anode (dc/A) and reaction time (t) on nickelremoval rate and current efficiency were studied. As reaction time prolonged, nickel removal rate increasedwhile current efficiency decreased. And larger v and smaller dc/A can enhance nickel removal rate and increasecurrent efficiency by promoting mass transfer and dropping concentration polarization. The effect of current den-sity on nickel removal by electrochemistry was related to other parameters. After three hours' electrolysis withi = 1.0 A/dm2, v = 18.5 cm/min and dc/A = 0. 5 cm, nickel removal rate and current efficiency reached85.6% and 29. 1%, respectively.

  13. Coupled Nosé-Hoover equations of motion to implement a fluctuating heat-bath temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukuda, Ikuo; Moritsugu, Kei

    2016-03-01

    The Nosé-Hoover (NH) equation provides a universal and powerful computer simulation protocol to realize an equilibrium canonical temperature for a target physical system. Here we demonstrate a general formalism to couple such NH equations. We provide a coupled NH equation that is constructed by coupling the NH equation of a target physical system and the NH equation of a temperature system. Thus, in contrast to the conventional single NH equation, the heat-bath temperature is a dynamical variable. The temperature fluctuations are not ad hoc, but instead are generated by the newly defined temperature system, and the statistical distribution of the temperature is completely described with an arbitrarily given probability function. The current equations of motion thus describe the physical system that develops with a predistributed fluctuating temperature, which allows enhanced sampling of the physical system. Since the total system is governed by a prescribed distribution, the equilibrium of the physical system is also reconstructed by reweighting. We have formulated a scheme for specifically setting the distribution of the dynamical inverse temperature and demonstrate the statistical relationship between the dynamical and physical temperatures. The statistical features, dynamical properties, and sampling abilities of the current method are demonstrated via the distributions, trajectories, dynamical correlations, and free energy landscapes for both a model system and a biomolecular system. These results indicated that the current coupled NH scheme works well.

  14. Characterization of Bricks Used in the External Casing of Roman Bath Walls "Gadara Jordan".

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Gohary, A. M.; Al Naddaf, M. M.

    The use of sub-soil materials have been used in buildings long time ago, for more than 10,000 years. This study investigates the different characteristics of brick units used in one of the Roman baths in Gadara archaeological site. This is achieved by studying the raw materials and the different technological measurements of brick units: shapes,dimensions and visual description. Moreover, it studies the construction techniques and deterioration problems, by using some scientific techniques and analytical procedures such as EDX for defining the elemental and chemical characteristics of brick samples,Polarizing microscope and XRD for studying the mineralogical components, in addition to the use of SEM that was used for studying the morphological characteristics of the samples. Furthermore, this study determines the different physical, mechanical and thermal properties of the collected samples according to different scientific techniques and standard tools such as digital camera, magnifying glass and mechanical sieves. The results of the study prove that the brick units are divided into two types cubit square and rectangular shapes which are used as external casing layers. They are characterized by homogeneous chemical characteristics and different visual appearances according to the firing degrees and firing conditions (oxidizing or reduction). On the other hand the differences of these physical properties play specific roles in the deterioration cycles,and their mechanisms affect the brick units. Finally, the study provides a definition of the effective methods, materials and preservation measurements for restoring and maintaining the investigated monument.

  15. Zero-Point Energy Leakage in Quantum Thermal Bath Molecular Dynamics Simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brieuc, Fabien; Bronstein, Yael; Dammak, Hichem; Depondt, Philippe; Finocchi, Fabio; Hayoun, Marc

    2016-12-13

    The quantum thermal bath (QTB) has been presented as an alternative to path-integral-based methods to introduce nuclear quantum effects in molecular dynamics simulations. The method has proved to be efficient, yielding accurate results for various systems. However, the QTB method is prone to zero-point energy leakage (ZPEL) in highly anharmonic systems. This is a well-known problem in methods based on classical trajectories where part of the energy of the high-frequency modes is transferred to the low-frequency modes leading to a wrong energy distribution. In some cases, the ZPEL can have dramatic consequences on the properties of the system. Thus, we investigate the ZPEL by testing the QTB method on selected systems with increasing complexity in order to study the conditions and the parameters that influence the leakage. We also analyze the consequences of the ZPEL on the structural and vibrational properties of the system. We find that the leakage is particularly dependent on the damping coefficient and that increasing its value can reduce and, in some cases, completely remove the ZPEL. When using sufficiently high values for the damping coefficient, the expected energy distribution among the vibrational modes is ensured. In this case, the QTB method gives very encouraging results. In particular, the structural properties are well-reproduced. The dynamical properties should be regarded with caution although valuable information can still be extracted from the vibrational spectrum, even for large values of the damping term.

  16. Investigation of chemical bath deposition of CdO thin films using three different complexing agents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khallaf, Hani [Department of Physics, University of Central Florida, Orlando, FL 32816 (United States); Chen, Chia-Ta; Chang, Liann-Be [Graduate Institute of Electro-Optical Engineering, Chang Gung University, Kweishan, Taoyuan 333, Taiwan (China); Green Technology Research Center, Chang Gung University, Kweishan, Taoyuan 333, Taiwan (China); Lupan, Oleg [Department of Physics, University of Central Florida, Orlando, FL 32816 (United States); Department of Microelectronics and Semiconductor Devices, Technical University of Moldova, 168 Stefan cel Mare Boulevard, MD-2004 Chisinau, Republic of Moldova (Moldova, Republic of); Dutta, Aniruddha; Heinrich, Helge [Department of Physics, University of Central Florida, Orlando, FL 32816 (United States); Advanced Materials Processing and Analysis Centre, Department of Mechanical, Materials, and Aerospace Engineering, University of Central Florida, Orlando, FL 32816 (United States); Shenouda, A. [Central Metallurgical R and D Institute (CMRDI), Tebbin, P.O. Box 87, Helwan (Egypt); Chow, Lee, E-mail: Lee.Chow@ucf.edu [Department of Physics, University of Central Florida, Orlando, FL 32816 (United States); Advanced Materials Processing and Analysis Centre, Department of Mechanical, Materials, and Aerospace Engineering, University of Central Florida, Orlando, FL 32816 (United States)

    2011-09-01

    Chemical bath deposition of CdO thin films using three different complexing agents, namely ammonia, ethanolamine, and methylamine is investigated. CdSO{sub 4} is used as Cd precursor, while H{sub 2}O{sub 2} is used as an oxidation agent. As-grown films are mainly cubic CdO{sub 2}, with some Cd(OH){sub 2} as well as CdO phases being detected. Annealing at 400 deg. C in air for 1 h transforms films into cubic CdO. The calculated optical band gap of as-grown films is in the range of 3.37-4.64 eV. Annealed films have a band gap of about 2.53 eV. Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy of as-grown films reveals cadmium to oxygen ratio of 1.00:1.74 {+-} 0.01 while much better stoichiometry is obtained after annealing, in accordance with the X-ray diffraction results. A carrier density as high as 1.89 x 10{sup 20} cm{sup -3} and a resistivity as low as 1.04 x 10{sup -2} {Omega}-cm are obtained.

  17. Presence of methyl sterol and bacteriohopanepolyol in an outer-membrane preparation from Methylococcus capsulatus (Bath)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahnke, Linda L.; Stan-Lotter, Helga; Kato, Katharine; Hochstein, Lawrence I.

    1992-01-01

    Cytoplasmic/intracytoplasmic and outer membrane preparations of Methylococcus capsulatus (Bath) were isolated by sucrose density gradient centrifugation of a total membrane fraction prepared by disruption using a French pressure cell. The cytoplasmic and/or intracytoplasmic membrane fraction consisted of two distinct bands, Ia and Ib (buoyant densities 1.16 and 1.18 g ml (exp -1), respectively) that together contained 57% of the protein, 68% of the phospholipid, 73% of the ubiquinone and 89% of the CN-sensitive NADH oxidase activity. The only apparent difference between these two cytoplasmic bands was a much higher phospholipid content for Ia. The outer membrane fraction (buoyant density 1.23-1.24 g ml (exp -1)) contained 60% of the lipopolysaccharide-associated, beta-hydroxypalmitic acid, 74% of the methylsterol, and 66% of the bacteriohopanepolyol (BHP); phospholipid to methyl sterol or BHP ratios were 6:1. Methanol dehydrogenase activity and a c-type cytochrome were also present in this outer membrane fraction. Phospholipase A activity was present in borh the cytoplasmic membrane and outer membrane fractions. The unique distribution of cyclic triterpenes may reflect a specific role in conferring outer membrane stability in this methanotrophic bacterium.

  18. Unexplained neurological events during bathing in young people: Possible association with the use of gas geysers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh Prabhjeet

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Here, we report sudden, unexplained neurological collapse in 14 young people while bathing with hot water associated with the use of liquefied petroleum gas (LPG-based water heaters (gas geysers in ill-ventilated bathrooms. None of the patients reported any circumstantial evidence of seizures or prior epilepsy. One patient developed cortical blindness and demonstrated posterior leucoencephalopathy on imaging studies. The remaining patients made rapid and excellent recovery without any residual neurological sequelae. In these cases, the results of all routine investigations, i.e., serum chemistry, brain imaging (computed tomography in 2 and magnetic resonance imaging in 10 and electroencephalography were normal. The clinical clustering of these cases in winter months with similar presentations of reversible encephalopathy probably indicates an inhalational toxin exposure. Therefore, we postulate a hypothesis that harmful emissions consisting of carbon monoxide (CO, hydrocarbon gases (HC and nitrogen oxides (NOx, produced by incomplete combustion of LPG might be responsible for the cellular injury and subsequent transient neurological deficits. Physicians should be aware of this entity in order to avoid misdiagnosis of this condition as seizures, and a public awareness should also be created regarding the proper use of these devices.

  19. The use of trivalent chromium bath to obtain a solar selective black chromium coating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Survilienė, S.; Češūnienė, A.; Juškėnas, R.; Selskienė, A.; Bučinskienė, D.; Kalinauskas, P.; Juškevičius, K.; Jurevičiūtė, I.

    2014-06-01

    Black chromium coatings were electrodeposited from a trivalent chromium bath using a ZnO additive as a second main component. Black chromium was electrodeposited on steel and copper plates and substrates plated with bright nickel prior to black chromium electrodeposition. The black chromium coatings were characterized by XRD and SEM. The XRD data suggest that the phase structure of black chromium may be defined as a zinc solid solution in chromium or a chromium solid solution in zinc depending on the chromium/zinc ratio in the deposit. The role of substrate finish was evaluated through the corrosion resistance and reflectance of black chromium. According to corrosion tests the samples plated with bright nickel prior to black chromium deposition have shown the highest corrosion resistance. The electrodeposited black chromium possesses good optical properties for the absorption of solar energy. The absorption coefficient of black chromium was found to be over 0.99 for the samples obtained without the Ni undercoat and below 0.99 for those obtained with the use of Ni undercoat. However, the use of nickel undercoat before black chromium plating is recommended because it remarkably improves the corrosion resistance of samples.

  20. Study of the crystallographic phase change on copper (I) selenide thin films prepared through chemical bath deposition by varying the pH of the solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandoval-Paz, M. G.; Rodríguez, C. A.; Porcile-Saavedra, P. F.; Trejo-Cruz, C.

    2016-07-01

    Copper (I) selenide thin films with orthorhombic and cubic structure were deposited on glass substrates by using the chemical bath deposition technique. The effects of the solution pH on the films growth and subsequently the structural, optical and electrical properties of the films were studied. Films with orthorhombic structure were obtained from baths wherein both metal complex and hydroxide coexist; while films with cubic structure were obtained from baths where the metal hydroxide there is no present. The structural modifications are accompanied by changes in bandgap energy, morphology and electrical resistivity of the films.

  1. Recovery of real dye bath wastewater using integrated membrane process: considering water recovery, membrane fouling and reuse potential of membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balcik-Canbolat, Cigdem; Sengezer, Cisel; Sakar, Hacer; Karagunduz, Ahmet; Keskinler, Bulent

    2016-12-30

    It has been recognized by the whole world that textile industry which produce large amounts of wastewater with strong color and toxic organic compounds is a major problematical industry requiring effective treatment solutions. In this study, reverse osmosis (RO) membranes were tested on biologically treated real dye bath wastewater with and without pretreatment by nanofiltration (NF) membrane to recovery. Also membrane fouling and reuse potential of membranes were investigated by multiple filtrations. Obtained results showed that only NF is not suitable to produce enough quality to reuse the wastewater in a textile industry as process water while RO provide successfully enough permeate quality. The results recommend that integrated NF/RO membrane process is able to reduce membrane fouling and allow long-term operation for real dye bath wastewater.

  2. [Water fungi occurence in the River Supraśl-bath Jurowce near Białystok].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiziewicz, Bozena; Kozłowska, Mariola; Godlewska, Anna; Muszyńvska, Elzbieta; Mazalska, Bozenna

    2004-01-01

    Studies on the occurrence of aquatic fungi in the bathing sites of the Supraśl River in Jurowce village were collected in years 2000-2003. Hydrochemical analysis was performed using standard methods. Bait method was used to isolate the fungi. In the Supraśl River at Jurowce village 36 fungi species were identified, among them fish pathogens Achlya orion, Aphanomyces laevis, Dictyuchus monosporus, Saprolegnia ferax, Saprolegnia monoica, S. parasitica, human pathogens Aspergillus flavus, Candida albicans, Lagenidium humanum, Penicillium mycetomagenum, Rhizophydium keratinophilum and Trichosporon cutaneum, phytopathogens Achlya racemosa, Phytophthora gonapodoides, Pythium butleri, P. myriotylum and P. debaryanum. Physicochemical parameters of waters in Supraśl River-bathing sites had no important effect on the occurrence of fungi.

  3. Entanglement generation in atoms immersed in a thermal bath of external quantum scalar fields with a boundary

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, J; Yu, Hongwei; Zhang, Jialin

    2007-01-01

    We examine the entanglement creation between two mutually independent two-level atoms immersed in a thermal bath of quantum scalar fields in the presence of a perfectly reflecting plane boundary. With the help of the master equation that describes the evolution in time of the atom subsystem obtained, in the weak-coupling limit, by tracing over environment (scalar fields) degrees of freedom, we find that the presence of the boundary may play a significant role in the entanglement creation in some circumstances and the new parameter, the distance of the atoms from the boundary, besides the bath temperature and the separation between the atoms, gives us more freedom in manipulating entanglement generation. Remarkably, the final remaining entanglement in the equilibrium state is independent of the presence of the boundary.

  4. Effect of condensation product of glycyl–glycine and furfural on electrodeposition of zinc from sulphate bath

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    H B Muralidhara; Y Arthoba Naik; T V Venkatesha

    2006-10-01

    Zinc electrodeposition from sulphate bath was carried out in presence of condensation product formed between glycyl–glycine (GGL) and furfural (FFL). The bath constituents were optimized through Hull cell experiments. Operating parameters such as pH, temperature and current density were also optimized. Current efficiency and throwing power were measured. Polarization study revealed shift of potential towards negative direction in the presence of addition agents. Corrosion resistance test revealed good protection of base metal by zinc coating obtained from developed electrolyte. SEM photomicrographs showed fine-grained deposit in the presence of condensation product. IR spectrum of the deposit showed inclusion of condensation product in the deposit during plating. The consumption of brightener in the lab scale was 7 mLL-1 for 1000 amp-h.

  5. [Site of discovery in the bath tub. Evaluation of a fatality after four years using postmortem roentgen diagnosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lasczkowski, G; Riepert, T; Rittner, C

    1992-01-01

    On the one hand the following case demonstrates the problems of finding a dead body in the bathroom and on the other hand the importance of postmortem x-ray examinations. The corpse of an 65-year-old woman was discovered in her bath tub. At the body's feet there was a hair dryer. Investigations concerning murder were negative, circumstances appeared to be unsuspicious. That was why a postmortem examination was not performed. -4 years later murder had to be considered. After manual strangling the deceased and the hair dryer were layed into the bath tub. The corpse was exhumed and taken to a forensic autopsy. It was found that the hyoid bone and the superior horn of the thyroid cartilage were both fractured on the right. Damages caused by the preparation itself were excluded by using serial roentgenographs. These observations in combination with histological findings and the results of further investigations convincingly supported the suspicion of strangling by hand.

  6. The effects of porosity on optical properties of semiconductor chalcogenide films obtained by the chemical bath deposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vorobiev, Yuri V; Horley, Paul P; Hernández-Borja, Jorge; Esparza-Ponce, Hilda E; Ramírez-Bon, Rafael; Vorobiev, Pavel; Pérez, Claudia; González-Hernández, Jesús

    2012-08-29

    This paper is dedicated to study the thin polycrystalline films of semiconductor chalcogenide materials (CdS, CdSe, and PbS) obtained by ammonia-free chemical bath deposition. The obtained material is of polycrystalline nature with crystallite of a size that, from a general point of view, should not result in any noticeable quantum confinement. Nevertheless, we were able to observe blueshift of the fundamental absorption edge and reduced refractive index in comparison with the corresponding bulk materials. Both effects are attributed to the material porosity which is a typical feature of chemical bath deposition technique. The blueshift is caused by quantum confinement in pores, whereas the refractive index variation is the evident result of the density reduction. Quantum mechanical description of the nanopores in semiconductor is given based on the application of even mirror boundary conditions for the solution of the Schrödinger equation; the results of calculations give a reasonable explanation of the experimental data.

  7. Complementarity in the development of rural tourism with the development of thermal baths, spa and wellness tourism

    OpenAIRE

    Vuković, Predrag; Čavlin, Gordana; Čavlin, Miroslav

    2015-01-01

    Serbia has a long tradition in thermal baths tourism development. In the second half of the twentieth century, this branch of tourism attracted a significant segment of tourist demand, both domestic and foreign. However, due to difficult business conditions in the nineties, its infrastructure became outdated. This resulted in negative trends in tourism development and a negative image appeared in the tourism market. On the other hand, rural tourism is a relatively new form of tourism. In Serb...

  8. Structure and protein–protein interactions of methanol dehydrogenase from Methylococcus capsulatus (Bath)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Culpepper, Megen A. [Northwestern Univ., Evanston, IL (United States); Rosenzweig, Amy C. [Northwestern Univ., Evanston, IL (United States)

    2014-10-07

    In the initial steps of their metabolic pathway, methanotrophic bacteria oxidize methane to methanol with methane monooxygenases (MMOs) and methanol to formaldehyde with methanol dehydrogenases (MDHs). Several lines of evidence suggest that the membrane-bound or particulate MMO (pMMO) and MDH interact to form a metabolic supercomplex. To further investigate the possible existence of such a supercomplex, native MDH from Methylococcus capsulatus (Bath) has been purified and characterized by size exclusion chromatography with multi-angle light scattering and X-ray crystallography. M. capsulatus (Bath) MDH is primarily a dimer in solution, although an oligomeric species with a molecular mass of ~450–560 kDa forms at higher protein concentrations. The 2.57 Å resolution crystal structure reveals an overall fold and α₂β₂ dimeric architecture similar to those of other MDH structures. In addition, biolayer interferometry studies demonstrate specific protein–protein interactions between MDH and M. capsulatus (Bath) pMMO as well as between MDH and the truncated recombinant periplasmic domains of M. capsulatus (Bath) pMMO (spmoB). These interactions exhibit KD values of 833 ± 409 nM and 9.0 ± 7.7 μM, respectively. The biochemical data combined with analysis of the crystal lattice interactions observed in the MDH structure suggest a model in which MDH and pMMO associate not as a discrete, stoichiometric complex but as a larger assembly scaffolded by the intracytoplasmic membranes.

  9. Water quality assessment of an unusual ritual well in Bangladesh and impact of mass bathing on this quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zabed, H; Suely, A; Faruq, G; Sahu, J N

    2014-02-15

    A sacred ritual well with continuously discharging of methane gas through its water body was studied for physicochemical and microbiological quality in three seasons and during ritual mass bathing. Most of the physicochemical parameters showed significant seasonal variations (P<0.05) and a sharp fluctuation during mass bathing. Dissolved oxygen (DO) was found negatively correlated with temperature (r=-0.384, P<0.05), biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) (r=-0.58, P<0.001) and ammonia (r=-0.738, P<0.001), while BOD showed positive correlation with chemical oxygen demand (COD) (r=0.762, P<0.001) and ammonia (r=0.83, P<0.001). Simple regression analysis also yielded significant linear relationship in DO vs. temperature (r(2)=0.147, P<0.05), DO vs. ammonia (r(2)=0.544, P<0.001) and BOD vs. DO (r(2)=0.336, P<0.001). A total of eight microbial indicators were studied and found that all of them increased unusually during mass bathing comparing with their respective seasonal values. Total coliforms (TC) were found positively correlated with fecal coliforms (FC) (r=0.971), FC with Escherichia coli (EC) (r=0.952), EC with intestinal enterococci (IE) (r=0.921), fecal streptococci (FS) with IE (r=0.953) and Staphylococcus aureus (SA) with Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PA) (r=0.946), which were significant at P<0.001. Some regression models showed significant linear relationship at P<0.001 with r(2) value of 0.943 for FC vs. TC, 0.907 for EC vs. FC, 0.869 for FS vs. FC, 0.848 for IE vs. EC and 0.909 for IE vs. FS. The overall results found in this study revealed that well water is suitable for bathing purpose but the religious activity considerably worsen its quality.

  10. On-site production of a dialysis bath from dry salts. Results of solute concentration control by routine clinical chemistry

    OpenAIRE

    Beige, Joachim; Lutter, Steffen; Martus, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Background. Dialysis bath production, at least in Europe, is currently based on pre-produced aqueous solutions of dialysis salts (concentrate), which are re-handled by dialysis machines to deliver the final dialysate concentrations. Because of the logistics of aqueous solution creation, a large amount of transportation capacity is needed. Therefore, we changed this process to use pre-produced dry salt containers and to undertake in-clinic dissolution of salts and concentration production. Bec...

  11. Bathing in carbon dioxide-enriched water alters protein expression in keratinocytes of skin tissue in rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kälsch, Julia; Pott, Leona L.; Takeda, Atsushi; Kumamoto, Hideo; Möllmann, Dorothe; Canbay, Ali; Sitek, Barbara; Baba, Hideo A.

    2016-10-01

    Beneficial effects of balneotherapy using naturally occurring carbonated water (CO2 enriched) have been known since the Middle Ages. Although this therapy is clinically applied for peripheral artery disease and skin disorder, the underlying mechanisms are not fully elucidated. Under controlled conditions, rats were bathed in either CO2-enriched water (CO2 content 1200 mg/L) or tap water, both at 37 °C, for 10 min daily over 4 weeks. Proliferation activity was assessed by Ki67 immunohistochemistry of the epidermis of the abdomen. The capillary density was assessed by immunodetection of isolectin-positive cells. Using cryo-fixed abdominal skin epidermis, follicle cells and stroma tissue containing capillaries were separately isolated by means of laser microdissection and subjected to proteomic analysis using label-free technique. Differentially expressed proteins were validated by immunohistochemistry. Proliferation activity of keratinocytes was not significantly different in the epidermis after bathing in CO2-enriched water, and also, capillary density did not change. Proteomic analysis revealed up to 36 significantly regulated proteins in the analyzed tissue. Based on the best expression profiles, ten proteins were selected for immunohistochemical validation. Only one protein, far upstream element binding protein 2 (FUBP2), was similarly downregulated in the epidermis after bathing in CO2-enriched water with both techniques. Low FUBP2 expression was associated with low c-Myc immune-expression in keratinocytes. Long-term bathing in CO2-enriched water showed a cellular protein response of epithelial cells in the epidermis which was detectable by two different methods. However, differences in proliferation activity or capillary density were not detected in the normal skin.

  12. Adherent and Conformal Zn(S,O,OH) Thin Films by Rapid Chemical Bath Deposition with Hexamethylenetetramine Additive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opasanont, Borirak; Van, Khoa T; Kuba, Austin G; Choudhury, Kaushik Roy; Baxter, Jason B

    2015-06-03

    ZnS is a wide band gap semiconductor whose many applications, such as photovoltaic buffer layers, require uniform and continuous films down to several nanometers thick. Chemical bath deposition (CBD) is a simple, low-cost, and scalable technique to deposit such inorganic films. However, previous attempts at CBD of ZnS have often resulted in nodular noncontinuous films, slow growth rates at low pH, and high ratio of oxygen impurities at high pH. In this work, ZnS thin films were grown by adding hexamethylenetetramine (HMTA) to a conventional recipe that uses zinc sulfate, nitrilotriacetic acid trisodium salt, and thioacetamide. Dynamic bath characterization showed that HMTA helps the bath to maintain near-neutral pH and also acts as a catalyst, which leads to fast nucleation and deposition rates, continuous films, and less oxygen impurities in the films. Films deposited on glass from HMTA-containing bath were uniform, continuous, and 90 nm thick after 1 h, as opposed to films grown without HMTA that were ∼3 times thinner and more nodular. On Cu2(Zn,Sn)Se4, films grown with HMTA were continuous within 10 min. The films have comparatively few oxygen impurities, with S/(S+O) atomic ratio of 88%, and high optical transmission of 98% at 360 nm. The Zn(S,O,OH) films exhibit excellent adhesion to glass and high resistivity, which make them ideal nucleation layers for other metal sulfides. Their promise as a nucleation layer was demonstrated with the deposition of thin, continuous Sb2S3 overlayers. This novel HMTA chemistry enables rapid deposition of Zn(S,O,OH) thin films to serve as a nucleation layer, a photovoltaic buffer layer, or an extremely thin continuous coating for thin film applications. HMTA may also be applied in a similar manner for solution deposition of other metal chalcogenide and oxide thin films with superior properties.

  13. Quantum Langevin equation of a charged oscillator in a magnetic field and coupled to a heat bath through momentum variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Shamik; Bandyopadhyay, Malay

    2011-10-01

    We obtain the quantum Langevin equation (QLE) of a charged quantum particle moving in a harmonic potential in the presence of a uniform external magnetic field and linearly coupled to a quantum heat bath through momentum variables. The bath is modeled as a collection of independent quantum harmonic oscillators. The QLE involves a random force which does not depend on the magnetic field, and a quantum-generalized classical Lorentz force. These features are also present in the QLE for the case of particle-bath coupling through coordinate variables. However, significant differences are also observed. For example, the mean force in the QLE is characterized by a memory function that depends explicitly on the magnetic field. The random force has a modified form with correlation and commutator different from those in the case of coordinate-coordinate coupling. Moreover, the coupling constants, in addition to appearing in the random force and in the mean force, also renormalize the inertial term and the harmonic potential term in the QLE.

  14. Effect of plating time on growth of nanocrystalline Ni–P from sulphate/glycine bath by electroless deposition method

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    N Latha; V Raj; M Selvam

    2013-08-01

    Nanocrystalline nickel phosphorus (NC-Ni–P) deposits from sulphate/glycine bath using a simple electroless deposition process is demonstrated. In the present investigation, nanoporous alumina films are formed on the aluminium surface by anodization process followed by deposition of nickel onto the pores by electroless plating method. Anodic aluminium oxide surface was first sensitized and activated by using palladium chloride solution before immersing into the electroless nickel bath. Electroless nickel plating was carried out from the optimized bath by changing the deposition time from 20 to 1800 s at a constant temperature of 80 °C and a pH of 4.0. Surface morphology, elemental composition, structure and reflectance of the deposits have been analysed by using scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray analysis, X-ray diffractometry and UV-visible spectroscopic studies, respectively. Electroless nickel deposits formed at an early stage produces dense uniform nanocrystals containing higher percentage of atomic phosphorus with cubic Ni (111) structure. As the deposition time increased, nanocrystalline sharp peak became amorphous and dimension of the crystal size varied from 54 to 72 nm.

  15. Modeling the transport of organic chemicals between polyethylene passive samplers and water in finite and infinite bath conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tcaciuc, A Patricia; Apell, Jennifer N; Gschwend, Philip M

    2015-12-01

    Understanding the transfer of chemicals between passive samplers and water is essential for their use as monitoring devices of organic contaminants in surface waters. By applying Fick's second law to diffusion through the polymer and an aqueous boundary layer, the authors derived a mathematical model for the uptake of chemicals into a passive sampler from water, in finite and infinite bath conditions. The finite bath model performed well when applied to laboratory observations of sorption into polyethylene (PE) sheets for various chemicals (polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, polychlorinated biphenyls [PCBs], and dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane [DDT]) and at varying turbulence levels. The authors used the infinite bath model to infer fractional equilibration of PCB and DDT analytes in field-deployed PE, and the results were nearly identical to those obtained using the sampling rate model. However, further comparison of the model and the sampling rate model revealed that the exchange of chemicals was inconsistent with the sampling rate model for partially or fully membrane-controlled transfer, which would be expected in turbulent conditions or when targeting compounds with small polymer diffusivities and small partition coefficients (e.g., phenols, some pesticides, and others). The model can be applied to other polymers besides PE as well as other chemicals and in any transfer regime (membrane, mixed, or water boundary layer-controlled). Lastly, the authors illustrate practical applications of this model such as improving passive sampler design and understanding the kinetics of passive dosing experiments.

  16. Effects of system-bath entanglement on the performance of light-harvesting systems: A quantum heat engine perspective

    CERN Document Server

    Xu, Dazhi; Zhao, Yang; Cao, Jianshu

    2015-01-01

    We explore energy transfer in a generic three-level system, which is coupled to three non-equilibrium baths. Built on the concept of quantum heat engine, our three-level model describes non-equilibrium quantum processes including light-harvesting energy transfer, nano-scale heat transfer, photo-induced isomerization, and photovoltaics in double quantum-dots. In the context of light-harvesting, the excitation energy is first pumped up by sunlight, then is transferred via two excited states which are coupled to a phonon bath, and finally decays to the ground state. The efficiency of this process is evaluated by steady state analysis via a polaron-transformed master equation; thus a wide range of the system-phonon coupling strength can be covered. We show that the coupling with the phonon bath not only modifies the steady state, resulting in population inversion, but also introduces a finite steady state coherence which optimizes the energy transfer flux and efficiency. In the strong coupling limit, the steady s...

  17. The structural properties of CdS deposited by chemical bath deposition and pulsed direct current magnetron sputtering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lisco, F., E-mail: F.Lisco@lboro.ac.uk [Centre for Renewable Energy Systems Technology (CREST), School of Electronic, Electrical and Systems Engineering, Loughborough University, Leicestershire, LE11 3TU (United Kingdom); Kaminski, P.M.; Abbas, A.; Bass, K.; Bowers, J.W.; Claudio, G. [Centre for Renewable Energy Systems Technology (CREST), School of Electronic, Electrical and Systems Engineering, Loughborough University, Leicestershire, LE11 3TU (United Kingdom); Losurdo, M. [Institute of Inorganic Methodologies and of Plasmas, IMIP-CNR, via Orabona 4, 70126 Bari (Italy); Walls, J.M. [Centre for Renewable Energy Systems Technology (CREST), School of Electronic, Electrical and Systems Engineering, Loughborough University, Leicestershire, LE11 3TU (United Kingdom)

    2015-05-01

    Cadmium sulphide (CdS) thin films were deposited by two different processes, chemical bath deposition (CBD), and pulsed DC magnetron sputtering (PDCMS) on fluorine doped-tin oxide coated glass to assess the potential advantages of the pulsed DC magnetron sputtering process. The structural, optical and morphological properties of films obtained by CBD and PDCMS were investigated using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, scanning and transmission electron microscopy, spectroscopic ellipsometry and UV-Vis spectrophotometry. The as-grown films were studied and comparisons were drawn between their morphology, uniformity, crystallinity, and the deposition rate of the process. The highest crystallinity is observed for sputtered CdS thin films. The absorption in the visible wavelength increased for PDCMS CdS thin films, due to the higher density of the films. The band gap measured for the as-grown CBD-CdS is 2.38 eV compared to 2.34 eV for PDCMS-CdS, confirming the higher density of the sputtered thin film. The higher deposition rate for PDCMS is a significant advantage of this technique which has potential use for high rate and low cost manufacturing. - Highlights: • Pulsed DC magnetron sputtering (PDCMS) of CdS films • Chemical bath deposition of CdS films • Comparison between CdS thin films deposited by chemical bath and PDCMS techniques • High deposition rate deposition for PDCMS deposition • Uniform, pinhole free CdS thin films.

  18. A comparison of ultrasonically activated water stream and ultrasonic bath immersion cleaning of railhead leaf-film contaminant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodes, L. R.; Harvey, T. J.; Symonds, N.; Leighton, T. G.

    2016-09-01

    Leaf-film adhered to the railway track is a major issue during the autumn/fall season, as leaves fall onto the track and are entrained into the wheel-rail interface. This results in the development of a smooth, black layer. Presently, pressure washers must be used to clean the residue to prevent loss of traction, which can cause crashes or delays by forcing a reduced speed. These pressure washers consume large amounts of water and energy. In this study, use of an ultrasonic cleaning apparatus equipped with a 100 W transducer is investigated, using a low volume of water in the order of 1 l min-1. This was applied to leaf-film samples generated in the laboratory, whose surface properties and thickness were confirmed with optical and stylus profilometry methods. Cleaning achieved by an ultrasonically activated water stream was compared to (a) non-activated water and (b) an ultrasonic bath with comparable power consumption. Cleaning efficacy was found to be much greater than that afforded by the ultrasonic bath; a rate of 14.3 mm2 s-1 compared to 0.37 mm2 s-1, and the ultrasonic bath only cleaned off around 20% of the leaf-film coverage even after 3 min of exposure.

  19. Modeling and evaluation of compliance to water quality regulations in bathing areas on the Daoulas catchment and estuary (France).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bougeard, M; Le Saux, J C; Jouan, M; Durand, G; Pommepuy, M

    2010-01-01

    The microbiological quality of waters in estuaries determines their acceptability for recreational uses. Microbiological contamination often results from urban wastewater discharges or non-point source pollution (manure spreading), and can cause bathing zones to be closed. European regulations (EC/7/2006) have proposed standards (500 E. coli/100 ml) for the acceptability areas for bathing. In this study, two models were associated to simulate contamination: SWAT on a catchment and MARS 2D in the downstream estuary. After river flow calibration and validation, two scenarios were simulated in SWAT, and E. coli fluxes obtained at the main outlet of the catchment were then introduced into MARS 2D to follow E. coli concentrations in the estuary. An annual evaluation of compliance to bathing area water quality standards was then calculated, linked with daily rainfall classes. Water quality in the estuary was below the standard on 13 days, including 5 days with rainfall superior to 10 mm, due to faecal contamination from soil leaching by rain, and 5 days with rainfall ranging from 0.1 to 5 mm/day, due to the high frequency of this level of rainfall. To conclude, this study allowed us to demonstrate the efficiency of models to gain a better understanding on water quality degradation factors.

  20. Structure and composition of Zn(x)Cd(1-xS) films synthesized through chemical bath deposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tosun, B Selin; Pettit, Chelsea; Campbell, Stephen A; Aydil, Eray S

    2012-07-25

    Zinc cadmium sulfide (ZnxCd1-xS) thin films grown through chemical bath deposition are used in chalcopyrite solar cells as the buffer layer between the n-type zinc oxide and the p-type light absorbing chalcopyrite film. To optimize energetic band alignment and optical absorption, advanced solar cell architectures require the ability to manipulate x as a function of distance from the absorber-ZnCdS interface. Herein, we investigate the fundamental factors that govern the evolution of the composition as a function of depth in the film. By changing the initial concentrations of Zn and Cd salts in the bath, the entire range of overall compositions ranging from primarily cubic ZnS to primarily hexagonal CdS could be deposited. However, films are inhomogeneous and x varies significantly as function of distance from the film-substrate interface. Films with high overall Zn concentration (x > 0.5) exhibit a Cd-rich layer near the film-substrate interface because Cd is more reactive than Zn. This layer is typically beneath a nearly pure ZnS film that forms after the Cd-rich layers are deposited and Cd is depleted in the bath. In films with high overall Cd concentration (x < 0.5) the Zn concentration rises towards the film's surface. Fortunately, these gradients are favorable for solar cells based on low band gap chalcopyrite films.

  1. Aloe vera bathing improved physical and humoral protection in breeding stock after induced spawning in matrinxã (Brycon amazonicus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanuzzo, Fábio S; Zaiden, Sérgio F; Senhorini, José A; Marzocchi-Machado, Cleni M; Urbinati, Elisabeth C

    2015-07-01

    In this study, we show that induced spawning causes stress, an intense loss of epithelia and immunosuppression, decreasing physical and humoral protection in fish, effects that were prevented or improved in fish bathed with Aloe vera. A. vera has several medicinal properties, including wound healing and immunostimulatory effects, which we observed in this study. Fish bathed with A. vera had a higher number of epidermal goblet cells and, in general, an improved wound healing rate compared with the control after induced spawning. These effects might be related to (1) the stimulation of leukocyte activity, represented here by the increased leukocyte respiratory activity triggered by A. vera (leukocytes are recognized as playing an important role in wound repair); (2) the antimicrobial properties of A. vera, which decrease wound infection and accelerate the healing process; and (3) several mechanisms that explain the healing effect of A. vera (increased collagen synthesis, rate of epithelialization, and anti-inflammatory and moisturizing effects). Our results also suggest that caution is necessary during the induced spawning process, especially during stripping, and A. vera bathing is recommended after intensive aquaculture operations.

  2. Component interactions in the soluble methane monooxygenase system from Methylococcus capsulatus (Bath).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gassner, G T; Lippard, S J

    1999-09-28

    The soluble methane monooxygenase system of Methylococcus capsulatus (Bath) includes three protein components: a 251-kDa non-heme dinuclear iron hydroxylase (MMOH), a 39-kDa iron-sulfur- and FAD-containing reductase (MMOR), and a 16-kDa regulatory protein (MMOB). The thermodynamic stability and kinetics of formation of complexes between oxidized MMOH and MMOB or MMOR were measured by isothermal titration calorimetry and stopped-flow fluorescence spectroscopy at temperatures ranging from 3.3 to 45 degrees C. The results, in conjunction with data from equilibrium analytical ultracentrifugation studies of MMOR and MMOB, indicate that free MMOR and MMOB exist as monomers in solution and bind MMOH with 2:1 stoichiometry. The role of component interactions in the catalytic mechanism of sMMO was investigated through simultaneous measurement of oxidase and hydroxylase activities as a function of varied protein component concentrations during steady-state turnover. The partitioning of oxidase and hydroxylase activities of sMMO is highly dependent on both the MMOR concentration and the nature of the organic substrate. In particular, NADH oxidation is significantly uncoupled from methane hydroxylation at MMOR concentrations exceeding 20% of the hydroxylase concentration but remains tightly coupled to propylene epoxidation at MMOR concentrations ranging up to the MMOH concentration. The steady-state kinetic data were fit to numerical simulations of models that include both the oxidase activities of free MMOR and of MMOH/MMOR complexes and the hydroxylase activity of MMOH/MMOB complexes. The data were well described by a model in which MMOR and MMOB bind noncompetitively at distinct interacting sites on the hydroxylase. MMOB manifests its regulatory effects by differentially accelerating intermolecular electron transfer from MMOR to MMOH containing bound substrate and product in a manner consistent with its activating and inhibitory effects on the hydroxylase.

  3. THE BALNEARY RESOURCE, A GENERATOR OF BUILT HERITAGE. THE STRATIGRAPHIC FEATURES OF HERCULANE BATHS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. SPÂNU

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The balneary resource, a generator of built heritage. The stratigraphic features of Herculane Baths. The exploitation of natural resources, regardless of type, usually consists of two phases: firstly, the development of exploitation processes and secondly the development of exploitation structures – elements or built structures intended for the processing of the concerned natural resources. Many such structures have been declared architectural heritage monuments due to their historical, documentary, representative and aesthetical value, examples being numerous and varied. Water is the main resource that dictates the occurrence and development of human settlements and creates various typologies that derive from the accessibility, exploitation methods, and adaptation to the conditions and characteristics of the resource. With a peculiar evolution in terms of the dynamics of the binomial composed of natural resource and architectural heritage resource, mineral resources (especially balneal waters fall in a distinct category: although mainly utilitarian in function, they have also cultural, aesthetic and even religious purposes. Besides their curative properties, spa mineral waters can be used as is, in many cases directly from the source, this being the explanation why they have generated such great and continuous interest - forming today a highly stratified built heritage background. Keeping in mind the sustainable development for a medium or a long period of time, an analysis of the interrelations between the balneal natural resource and the deriving architectural heritage is necessary. The purpose of such analysis is determining the limitations of exploitation and identifying the optimal means of safeguarding both elements, the natural water resource and the anthropogenic one, for a more rational territory management.

  4. Evaluation of pH of bathing soaps and shampoos for skin and hair care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose Tarun

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Normal healthy skin has potential of hydrogen (pH range of 5.4-5.9 and a normal bacterial flora. Use of soap with high pH causes an increase in skin pH, which in turn causes an increase in dehydrative effect, irritability and alteration in bacterial flora. The majority of soaps and shampoos available in the market do not disclose their pH. Aims and Objectives: The aim of this study was to assess the pH of different brands of bathing soaps and shampoos available in the market. Materials and Methods: The samples of soaps and shampoos were collected from shops in the locality. The samples of different brands are coded before the analysis of the pH. Solution of each sample was made and pH was measured using pH meter. Results: Majority of the soaps have a pH within the range of 9-10. Majority of the shampoos have a pH within the range of 6-7. Conclusions: The soaps and shampoos commonly used by the population at large have a pH outside the range of normal skin and hair pH values. Therefore, it is hoped that before recommending soap to patient especially those who have sensitive and acne prone skin, due consideration is given to the pH factor and also that manufacturers will give a thought to pH of soaps and shampoos manufactured by them, so that their products will be more skin and hair friendly.

  5. Crystallization behavior of tetragonal ZrO{sub 2} prepared in a silica bath

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Moo-Chin, E-mail: mcwang@kmu.edu.tw [Department of Fragrance and Cosmetic Science, Kaohsiung Medical University, 100 Shih-Chuan 1st Road, Kaohsiung 80708, Taiwan (China); Huang, Hung-Jui [Department of Fragrance and Cosmetic Science, Kaohsiung Medical University, 100 Shih-Chuan 1st Road, Kaohsiung 80708, Taiwan (China)

    2013-09-10

    Highlights: ► The activation energy of t-ZrO{sub 2} crystallization calculated by the JMA equation is 643.0 ± 13.9 kJ·mol{sup −1}. ► The growth morphology parameter (n) and crystallization mechanism index (m) are approximated as 3.0. ► Bulk nucleation is dominant in the t-ZrO{sub 2} crystallization process, and has a spherical-like morphology. ► The TEM microstructure reveals that the t-ZrO{sub 2} crystallites have a spherical-like morphology. - Abstract: The synthesis of zirconia (ZrO{sub 2}) precursor powders by a co-precipitation process is studied in this work, using a silica bath prepared at 348 K and pH = 7, with 10 min mixing using zirconium (IV) nitrate and tetraethylorthosilicate (TEOS, Si(OC{sub 2}H{sub 5}){sub 4}) as the starting materials. The XRD result show that only a single phase of tetragonal ZrO{sub 2} (t-ZrO{sub 2}) appears when the freeze dried precursor powders are calcined between 1173 and 1473 K for 120 min. The activation energy of t-ZrO{sub 2} crystallization, as calculated by the Johnson–Mehl–Avrami (JMA) equation, is 643.0 ± 13.9 kJ/mol. The growth morphology parameter (n) and crystallization mechanism index (m) are approximated as 3.0, which indicates that bulk nucleation is dominant in the t-ZrO{sub 2} crystallization process, and that the material has a plate-like morphology.

  6. Inactivation of the particulate methane monooxygenase (pMMO) in Methylococcus capsulatus (Bath) by acetylene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, Minh D; Lin, Ya-Ping; Van Vuong, Quan; Nagababu, Penumaka; Chang, Brian T-A; Ng, Kok Yaoh; Chen, Chein-Hung; Han, Chau-Chung; Chen, Chung-Hsuan; Li, Mai Suan; Yu, Steve S-F; Chan, Sunney I

    2015-12-01

    Acetylene (HCCH) has a long history as a mechanism-based enzyme inhibitor and is considered an active-site probe of the particulate methane monooxygenase (pMMO). Here, we report how HCCH inactivates pMMO in Methylococcus capsulatus (Bath) by using high-resolution mass spectrometry and computational simulation. High-resolution MALDI-TOF MS of intact pMMO complexes has allowed us to confirm that the enzyme oxidizes HCCH to the ketene (C2H2O) intermediate, which then forms an acetylation adduct with the transmembrane PmoC subunit. LC-MS/MS analysis of the peptides derived from in-gel proteolytic digestion of the protein subunit identifies K196 of PmoC as the site of acetylation. No evidence is obtained for chemical modification of the PmoA or PmoB subunit. The inactivation of pMMO by a single adduct in the transmembrane PmoC domain is intriguing given the complexity of the structural fold of this large membrane-protein complex as well as the complicated roles played by the various metal cofactors in the enzyme catalysis. Computational studies suggest that the entry of hydrophobic substrates to, and migration of products from, the catalytic site of pMMO are controlled tightly within the transmembrane domain. Support of these conclusions is provided by parallel experiments with two related alkynes: propyne (CH3CCH) and trifluoropropyne (CF3CCH). Finally, we discuss the implication of these findings to the location of the catalytic site in pMMO.

  7. Oxidative stress, hemoglobin content, superoxide dismutase and catalase activity influenced by sulphur baths and mud packs in patients with osteoarthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jokić Aleksandar

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. It is weel-known that sulphur baths and mud paks demonstrate beneficial effects on patients suffering from degenerative knee and hip osteoarthritis (OA through the increased activity of protective antioxidant enzymes. The aim of this study was to assess lipid peroxidation level, i.e. malondialdehyde concetration, in individuals with knee and/or hip osteoarthritis (OA, as well as to determine the influence of sulphur baths and mud packs application on the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD and catalase (CAT in order to minimize or eliminate excessive free radical species production (oxidative stress. Methods. Thirty one patiens with knee and/or hip OA of both sexes were included in the study. All OA patients received mud pack and sulphur bath for 20 minutes a day, for 6 consecutive days a week, over 3 weeks. Blood lipid peroxidation, ie malondialdehyde concentration, superoxide dismutase and catalase activity were measured spectrophotometrically, before, on day 5 during the treatment and at the end of spa cure. Healthy volunteers (n = 31 were the controls. Results. The sulphur baths and mud packs treatment of OA patients caused a significant decrease in plasma malondialdehyde concentration compared to the controls ( p < 0.001. The mean SOD activity before the terapy was 1 836.24 U/gHb, on day 5 it rose to 1 942.15 U/gHb and after the spa cure dropped to 1 745.98 U/gHb. Catalase activity before the therapy was 20.56 kU/gHb and at the end of the terapy decreased to 16.16 kU/gHb. The difference in catalase activity before and after the therapy was significant (p < 0.001, and also significant as compared to control (p < 0.001. At the end of the treatment significant increase of hemoglobin level and significant decrease of pain intensity were noticed. Conclusion. A combined 3-week treatment by sulphur bath and mud packs led to a significant decrease of lipid peroxidation in plasma, as well as pain intensity in the patients with OA

  8. 转炉熔池中废钢的运动%Movement of Scrap in the Bath of Converter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨文远; 张先贵; 王明林; 高卫涛; 崔怀周; 白宇

    2013-01-01

    根据相似原理计算了水模喷吹参数,第一次模拟并拍照了在不同熔池搅拌能量条件下,转炉熔池中废钢运动的实际情况,使炼钢工作者对废钢在熔池中的运动有了清楚的了解.测量了废钢对熔池混匀时间和喷溅的影响,大型转炉炼钢熔池中有10%废钢,熔池混匀时间较无废钢时平均延长35.3%,铁水脱磷预处理转炉有10%废钢,熔池混匀时间平均延长62.8%.定量地研究了熔池中不同质量废钢块与悬浮能量之间的关系,为使废钢熔化有良好的动力学条件,应使熔池的搅拌能量不低于大块废钢的悬浮能量.丰富了废钢熔化的基础知识,为转炉合理地利用废钢和优化转炉吹炼工艺提供依据.%The injection parameter of water mold was calculated based on similarity principle. The actual situation of the movement of scrap in molten bath of the converter was simulated for the first time. The impact of scrap on mixing time and splashing was measured. If there are 10% scrap in large converter, the molten bath mixing time is longer 35. 3% than no scrap in converter. In hot metal dephosphorization pretreatment converter, 10% scrap will prolong bath mixing time 62. 8%. The relationship between the weight of scrap and suspended energy in bath was quantitatively studied. In order to be in good dynamics condition for scrap melting, the stirring energy of the bath should not be less than a large piece of scrap suspension energy. These could supplement the basic knowledge of scrap melting and provide the guidance for the use of scrap in the converter and the optimization of the converter blowing process.

  9. Constant Temperature Bath Water Mechanism Research%恒温浴缸加水机制研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王强

    2016-01-01

    In order to determine hot water adding strategy in bathtub without auxiliary heating system,this paper carries out ther-modynamic analysis on the bathtub system,establishes the bath crock of the dual factors of temperature field model of time and space, according to heat transfer characteristic at each space point inside the tub,bath crock injection of hot water heating process is simpli-fied to point heat source heating medium.Using the principle of conservation of energy,according to Fourier transform vector method to reach the bath temperature field distribution of the highest water injection point temperature,temperature minimum edges.Then based on the bath temperature,under the condition of ignoring human factors affecting the primary single objective optimization mod-el is established,determine the bath water to maintain within the scope of the 39℃to 40℃water injection flow minimum value, the result shows that when the water injection pipe flow is 0.0028 m2/s can achieve expected purpose.%为了确定在没有辅助加热系统浴缸中加热水策略,文章通过对浴缸系统进行热力学分析,建立了浴缸关于时空双因素温度场模型;根据浴缸内部各空间点传热特点,将浴缸注入热水加热过程简化为点热源加热介质问题。利用能量守恒原理,根据傅立叶变换矢量法得出浴缸温度场的分布情况,求得注水点温度最高,边缘温度最低。然后基于浴缸温度场,在忽略人为影响因素条件下建立初级单目标优化模型,确定浴缸水体维持在39~40℃范围内注水流量最小值,结果表明当注水管流量为0.0028m2/s时可以达到预期目的。

  10. VASOMOTOR ENDOTHELIAL FUNCTION AND MICROCIRCULATION IN ELDERLY PATIENTS WITH ISOLATED SYSTOLIC ARTERIAL HYPERTENSION: INFLUENCE OF "DRY" CARBONIC BATHS AND GENERAL LOW-FREQUENCY MAGNETOTHERAPY

    OpenAIRE

    Alypova, Elena

    2013-01-01

    Abstract. The comparative estimation of influence of the general low-frequency magnetotherapy (GLMT) and "dry" carbonic baths (DCB) on indicators of vasomotor endothelial function and microcirculation in elderly patients with isolated systolic (ISAH) arterial hypertension has been studied. The efficiency of application the combined use of the GLMT and "dry" carbonic baths DCB for correction of revealed disorders in comparing to the monovariant use of thees medical physical factors is establis...

  11. A Binder Viscosity Effect on the Wet-Wounded Composite Porosity in the Impregnating Bath

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Komkov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is to define experimentally an impregnation rate of VM-1 glass fibers and CBM aramid bundles with the epoxy binder EDB-10 using wet method of winding. During the impregnation process of the fibrous fillers by the liquid binder, air is displaced from the interfiber space of fiber and bundle. With the composite product winding a fiber impregnation process is short. That is why gas inclusions or pores are formed in the polymer-fiber compositeThe impregnation rate or porosity of wound material will depend directly on the binder viscosity. To reduce an epoxy binder viscosity temporarily is possible by two ways. The first is to heat a liquid epoxy composition EDB-10 to the maximum possible temperature during the winding process of the product. The second method is to dilute the binder by a solvent, such as acetone or alcohol. However, the solvent reduces its strength.The paper presents experimental data to show the volumetric content of pores in the wound composite affected only by the viscosity of the epoxy binder. Heating a binder allowed us to regulate a changing conditional viscosity of the binder in the impregnating bath for the normal conditions of impregnation. Other impacts on the impregnation and filament-winding processes, such as filler kinks, squeeze, vacuuming binder, highly tensioned winding, and others were not used.Experimentally obtained dependences of the porosity value of wound composite on the conditional viscosity of binder are nonlinear and can be used to design heaters for impregnating devices of winders. The research technique and results can be used in development of technological processes to manufacture composite structures by winding from the other reinforcing fibrous fillers and thermo-active binders.The results show that the volumetric content of pores can significantly vary within 8 - 14 % of material volume. Therefore, to reduce the number of pores in the wound composite to 1-2 %, auxiliary

  12. THE MICROBIOLOGICAL AND SANITARY STATE OF SAND IN THE MUNICIPAL BATHING BEACH IN SZCZECIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kinga Zatoń

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Artificial beaches, i.e. places in the public sphere, are usually intended for recreation, located at water reservoirs, rivers, and their surface is naturally occurring or applied sand. The urban bathing beach located in Szczecin by the Deep lake has sand purchased and distributed on the beach by the Municipal Services Office in Szczecin (a few hundred ton. The beach is divided into sectors, a volleyball court is in one part, in the next section catering and sanitary facilities are located, and the remaining area is a place intended for sunbathing and playing games. The aim of the experiment was to assess the effects of different ways of using the beach on changes of microbiological properties of the sand. The tests were taken from the beach sand in May 2013 (first term examinations, and in September, after several months of use (the second term of examinations. The sand was collected near catering and sanitary sector (the first object and from the area of the volleyball court (the second object, as well as the playground for children (the third object. The facilities were distanced from the shoreline of the lake by approx. 8 metres. The comparison included the number of heterotrophic bacteria, fungi and the detected presence of coliform bacteria, including Escherichia coli, bacteria of the genus Salmonella and eggs of intestinal parasites. In any of the objects, or the periods of time, eggs of intestinal parasites and bacteria of the genus Salmonella were detected. The presence of coliform bacteria including E. coli was found in the sand collected from a catering-sanitary zone, there was also the biggest number of bacteria and fungi. The number of heterotrophic bacteria and fungi was similar in samples of sand taken from the volleyball court and from the playground, in this sand there was no bacteria belonging to the E. coli species, although in several samples from the playground other bacteria belonging to the coliform genus were detected. To

  13. Facile fabrication of iron-based superhydrophobic surfaces via electric corrosion without bath

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Qinghe [College of Materials Science and Engineering, China University of Mining and Technology, Xuzhou, Jiangsu 221116 (China); Liu, Hongtao, E-mail: liuht100@126.com [College of Materials Science and Engineering, China University of Mining and Technology, Xuzhou, Jiangsu 221116 (China); Chen, Tianchi [College of Mechanical & Electrical Engineering, China University of Mining and Technology, Xuzhou, Jiangsu 221116 (China); Wei, Yan; Wei, Zhu [College of Materials Science and Engineering, China University of Mining and Technology, Xuzhou, Jiangsu 221116 (China)

    2016-04-30

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • This paper investigates the fabrication techniques towards superhydrophobic surface on carbon steel substrate via electric corrosion without a bath. • It has a vital significance to the industrialization of the fabrication of superhydrophobic surface on hard metal due to the advantages such as low cost, high efficiency, can be prepared in a large area, easy to construct in the field. • The preparation approach is so facile and time-saving that it delivers an opportunity to construct a superhydrophobic surface on carbon steel substrate and provides the feasibility for industrial application of superhydrophobic surface. • The as-prepared surface has many excellent properties, like low adhesive property, anti-corrosion ability, mechanical durability and anti-icing performance. - Abstract: Superhydrophobic surface is of wide application in the field of catalysis, lubrication, waterproof, biomedical materials, etc. The superhydrophobic surface based on hard metal is worth further study due to its advantages of high strength and wear resistance. This paper investigates the fabrication techniques towards superhydrophobic surface on carbon steel substrate via electric corrosion and studies the properties of as-prepared superhydrophobic surface. The hydrophobic properties were characterized by a water sliding angle (SA) and a water contact angle (CA) measured by the Surface tension instrument. A Scanning electron microscope was used to analyze the structure of the corrosion surface. The surface compositions were characterized by an Energy Dispersive Spectrum. The Electrochemical workstation was used to measure its anti-corrosion property. The anti-icing performance was characterized by a steam-freezing test in Environmental testing chamber. The SiC sandpaper and 500 g weight were used to test the friction property. The research result shows that the superhydrophobic surface can be successfully fabricated by electrocorrosion on

  14. Evaluation of the Iranian versions of the Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Disease Activity Index (BASDAI), the Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Functional Index (BASFI) and the Patient Acceptable Symptom State (PASS) in patients with ankylosing spondylitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bidad, Katayoon; Fallahi, Sasan; Mahmoudi, Mahdi; Jamshidi, Ahmadreza; Farhadi, Elham; Meysamie, Alipasha; Nicknam, Mohammad Hossein

    2012-11-01

    The Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Disease Activity Index (BASDAI) and the Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Functional Index (BASFI) are widely used instruments in assessment of patients suffering from ankylosing spondylitis (AS). The Patient Acceptable Symptom State (PASS) is regarded as a target for patients' well-being. The aim of this study was to translate and adapt BASDAI, BASFI and PASS into the Iranian official language, Farsi, and evaluate their reliability and validity. Ninety patients with AS were included in this study. The questionnaires were translated into Farsi and back translated into English, modified until the final versions were approved with minor adaptations and the VAS was changed to numerical rating scales from 0 to 10. Forty-eight-hour test-retest agreement showed good reliability: interclass correlation coefficient (ICC) for BASDAI was 0.93 (CI at 95%, 0.90-0.95), for BASFI was 0.96 (CI at 95%, 0.94-0.97) and for PASS was 0.87 (CI at 95%, 0.79-0.92). Chronbach's alpha was 0.95, 0.96 and 0.87 for BASDAI, BASFI and PASS, respectively. BASDAI showed a significant correlation with patient global disease activity index, nocturnal back pain, total back pain, number of swollen joints, number of enthesites, morning stiffness, Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Global Score (BAS-G), BASFI and BASMI. A significant correlation was also found between BASFI and occiput-to-wall distance, mentum-to-sternum distance, chest expansion, finger-to-floor distance, number of swollen joints, number of enthesites, nocturnal back pain, total back pain, BAS-G, BASDAI and BASMI. Patients who answered "no" to PASS (found their condition unsatisfactory) reported significantly increased pain scores, patient global disease activity scores, BAS-G, BASDAI and BASFI scores. The results showed that the Iranian versions of BASDAI, BASFI and PASS are adequately reliable and valid in patients with AS.

  15. Designing the Color of Hot-Dip Galvanized Steel Sheet Through Destructive Light Interference Using a Zn-Ti Liquid Metallic Bath

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levai, Gabor; Godzsák, Melinda; Török, Tamas I.; Hakl, Jozsef; Takáts, Viktor; Csik, Attila; Vad, Kalman; Kaptay, George

    2016-07-01

    The color of hot-dip galvanized steel sheet was adjusted in a reproducible way using a liquid Zn-Ti metallic bath, air atmosphere, and controlling the bath temperature as the only experimental parameter. Coloring was found only for samples cooled in air and dipped into Ti-containing liquid Zn. For samples dipped into a 0.15 wt pct Ti-containing Zn bath, the color remained metallic (gray) below a 792 K (519 °C) bath temperature; it was yellow at 814 K ± 22 K (541 °C ± 22 °C), violet at 847 K ± 10 K (574 °C ± 10 °C), and blue at 873 K ± 15 K (600 °C ± 15 °C). With the increasing bath temperature, the thickness of the adhered Zn-Ti layer gradually decreased from 52 to 32 micrometers, while the thickness of the outer TiO2 layer gradually increased from 24 to 69 nm. Due to small Al contamination of the Zn bath, a thin (around 2 nm) alumina-rich layer is found between the outer TiO2 layer and the inner macroscopic Zn layer. It is proven that the color change was governed by the formation of thin outer TiO2 layer; different colors appear depending on the thickness of this layer, mostly due to the destructive interference of visible light on this transparent nano-layer. A complex model was built to explain the results using known relationships of chemical thermodynamics, adhesion, heat flow, kinetics of chemical reactions, diffusion, and optics. The complex model was able to reproduce the observations and allowed making predictions on the color of the hot-dip galvanized steel sample, as a function of the following experimental parameters: temperature and Ti content of the Zn bath, oxygen content, pressure, temperature and flow rate of the cooling gas, dimensions of the steel sheet, velocity of dipping the steel sheet into the Zn-Ti bath, residence time of the steel sheet within the bath, and the velocity of its removal from the bath. These relationships will be valuable for planning further experiments and technologies on color hot-dip galvanization of steel

  16. Microstructure and Properties of SAE 2205 Stainless Steel After Salt Bath Nitrocarburizing at 450 °C

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Jing; Wang, Jun; Lin, Yuanhua; Gu, Tan; Zeng, Dezhi; Huang, Runbo; Ji, Xiong; Fan, Hongyuan

    2014-04-01

    Nitrocarburizing of the type SAE 2205 duplex stainless steel was conducted at 450 °C, using a type of salt bath chemical surface treatment, and the microstructure and properties of the nitrided surface were systematically researched. Experimental results revealed that a modified layer transformed on the surface of samples with the thickness ranging from 3 to 28 μm changed with the treatment time. After 2205 duplex stainless steel was subjected to salt bath nitriding at 450 °C for time less than 8 h, the preexisting ferrite zone in the surface transformed into austenite by active nitrogen diffusion. The main phase of the nitrided layer was the expanded austenite. When the treatment time was extended to 16 h, the preexisting ferrite zone in the expanded austenite was decomposed and transformed partially into ɛ-nitride precipitate. When the treatment time extended to 40 h, the preexisting ferrite zone in the expanded austenite was transformed into ɛ-nitride and CrN precipitate. Further, a large amount of nitride precipitated from preexisting austenite zone. The nitrided layer depth thickness changed intensively with the increasing nitriding time. The growth of the nitride layer takes place mainly by nitrogen diffusion according to the expected parabolic rate law. The salt bath nitriding can effectively improve the surface hardness. The maximum values measured from the treated surface are observed to be approximately 1400 HV0.1 after 8 h, which is about 3.5 times as hard as the untreated material (396 HV0.1). Low-temperature nitriding can improve the erosion/corrosion resistance. After nitriding for 4 h, the sample has the best corrosion resistance.

  17. The study of neutron spectra in water bath from Pb target irradiated by 250MeV/u protons

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Yanyan; Ju, Yongqin; Ma, Fei; Zhang, Hongbin; Chen, Liang; Ge, Honglin; Luo, Peng; Zhou, Bin; Zhang, Yanbin; Li, Jianyang; Xu, Junkui; Wang, Songlin; Yang, Yongwei; Yang, Lei

    2014-01-01

    The spallation neutrons were produced by the irradiation of Pb with 250 MeV protons. The Pb target was surrounded by water which was used to slow down the emitted neutrons. The moderated neutrons in the water bath were measured by using the resonance detectors of Au, Mn and In with Cd cover. According to the measured activities of the foils, the neutron flux at different resonance energy were deduced and the epithermal neutron spectra were proposed. Corresponding results calculated with the Monte Carlo code MCNPX were compared with the experimental data to check the validity of the code.

  18. Preparation of Cu-Sn Layers on Polymer Substrate by Reduction-Diffusion Method Using Ionic Liquid Baths

    OpenAIRE

    Murase, Kuniaki; Ito, Akira; Ichii, Takashi; Sugimura, Hiroyuki

    2011-01-01

    A novel metallization of non-conductive epoxy substrate with Cu-Sn “speculum alloy, ” or “white bronze, ” was performed through successive electrochemical processes: (i) conventional electroless deposition of pure Cu layer and (ii) subsequent electrochemical alloying of the resulting pure Cu layer with Sn using an ionic liquid bath at 150°C, a medium-low temperature. Availability of the Sn quasi-reference electrode for the alloying was verified, and the resulting compact and adhesive Cu-Sn la...

  19. Union Dyeing Behavior on the Blends of Tencel and Shrinkproofing Wool with the Same Reactive Dyestuffs in One Bath

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU Quan; WU Chan-juan; XU Bin

    2002-01-01

    In order to obtain union colour on the blends of Tencel and shrink-proofing wool and improve the efficiency of dyeing process, the dyeing behavior on the blends of Tencel and shrink-proofing wool in the same bath was studied. The Argazol TW reactive dyestuffs were involved in the dyeing process. The parameters under different conditions such as exhaustion, fixation,compatibility as well as soaping fastness were investigated in detail. It is shown that the Argazol TW reactive dyestuffs are suitable for dyeing of blends of Tencel and shrink-proofing wool and good dyeing behavior can be expected.

  20. Harmonic oscillator in heat bath: Exact simulation of time-lapse-recorded data and exact analytical benchmark statistics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørrelykke, Simon F; Flyvbjerg, Henrik

    2011-01-01

    The stochastic dynamics of the damped harmonic oscillator in a heat bath is simulated with an algorithm that is exact for time steps of arbitrary size. Exact analytical results are given for correlation functions and power spectra in the form they acquire when computed from experimental time...... to the extent that it is interpreted as a damped harmonic oscillator at finite temperature-such as an AFM cantilever. (iii) Three other models of fundamental interest are limiting cases of the damped harmonic oscillator at finite temperature; it consequently bridges their differences and describes the effects...

  1. Non-destructive method for the analysis of gold(I) cyanide plating baths Complexometric determination of nickel and indium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pribil, R; Veselý, V

    1972-12-01

    A method is described for rapid determination of nickel and indium in gold(I) cyanide baths containing large amounts of citric acid and/or sodium citrate, without previous destruction of organic matter. Gold is removed by extraction with ethyl acetate. In one aliquot of the solution indium is masked with thioglycollic acid and nickel is precipitated with sodium diethyldithiocarbamate, extracted into chloroform, stripped into water and determined complexometrically. In a second aliquot indium and nickel are precipitated together with the same reagent and stripped into water, then nickel is masked with 1,10-phenanthroline, and indium is determined by direct titration with EDTA.

  2. Observation of bathing posture in neonates%新生儿沐浴体位的临床研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钱小芳; 肖健莲; 徐玉英

    2001-01-01

    目的:探讨新生儿最佳沐浴体位。方法:将664例足月分娩正常新生儿在沐浴中随机分为两组,对照组采用传统的先仰后俯的沐浴体位,观察组采用先俯后仰的沐浴体位,观察新 生儿沐浴中是否安静、舒适,或哭闹不安,有无伴“拥抱反射”等症状。结果:观察组上述症 状明显少于对照组,χ2=45.78,P值0.05。结论:取先俯后仰体位进行沐浴,新生儿更安全舒适,并有利于在沐浴中进行皮肤抚触;先俯后仰体位亦有利于父母在家自如地给新生儿沐浴。%Objective:To explore the best bathing posture in neo nates.Methods:Normal mature neonates 664 total were randomly seperated into two groups .The bathing posture was the traditional upwards from face to back in the control group,but upwards from back to face in the experimental group .The noise and comfort levels of the neonates were observed.Results:Uncomfortableness in the experimental gr oup was markedly lowerthan in the control group(χ2=45.78,P 0.05).Conc lusion:The bathing posture of upwards from back to face is better than upwards from face to back.In this position,the neonates feel safer and more comfortable,and can be stroked while being bathed by the neonates' parents.

  3. Modeling of an Impinging Oxygen Jet on Molten Bath Surface in 150 t EAF%Modeling of an Impinging Oxygen Jet on Molten Bath Surface in 150 t EAF

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HE Chun-lai; ZHU Rong; DONG Kai; QIU Yong-quan; SUN Kai-ming

    2011-01-01

    A transient three-dimensional mathematical model has been developed to analyze the three-phase flow in a 150 t EAF (electric arc furnace) using oxygen. VOF (multiphase volume of fluid) method is used to simulate the behaviors of molten steel and slag. Numerical simulation was conducted to clarify the transient phenomena of oxygen impingement on molten bath. When oxygen jet impinges on the surface of molten bath, the slag layer is broken and the penetrated cavity in molten steel is created. Simultaneously, the wave is formed at the surface of uncovered steel on which the slag layer is pushed away by jet. The result of numerical simulations shows that the area and velocity of uncovered steel created by impingement, jet penetration depth change from 0. 10 m2 , 0. 012 5 m/s, 3.58 cm to 0.72 m2 , 0. 1445 m/s, 11.21 cm, when the flow rate of an oxygen lance varies from 500 to 2000 m3/h. The results have been validated against water model experiments. More specially, the relation between the penetration depth and oxygen flow rate predicted by numerical simulation has been found to agree well with that concluded by water model.

  4. Effect of different complexing agents on the properties of chemical-bath-deposited ZnS thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Jun; Wei, Aixiang, E-mail: weiax@gdut.edu.cn; Zhao, Yu

    2014-03-05

    Highlights: • To fabricate high quality ZnS films need to promote the ion-by-ion process and restrain cluster-by-cluster process. • The complexation ability of tri-sodium citrate is stronger than that of hydrazine hydrate. • The nucleation density of nuclei determine the performance of ZnS thin films. -- Abstract: Zinc sulfide (ZnS) thin films were deposited on glass substrates using the chemical bath deposition (CBD) technique. The effects of different complexing agents (tri-sodium citrate, hydrazine hydrate) and their concentrations on the structure, composition, morphology, optical properties and growth mechanism of ZnS thin films were investigated. The results indicated that the chemical-bath-deposited ZnS thin films exhibit poor crystallinity and a high Zn/S atomic ratio with an average transmittance of 75% in the range of visible light. The ZnS thin films prepared using hydrazine hydrate as the complexing agent present a more compact surface, a smaller average particle size, and a sharper absorption edge at 300–340 nm compared with those prepared using tri-sodium citrate. Based on our experimental observations and analysis, we conclude that the predominant growth mechanism of ZnS thin films is an ion-by-ion process. The nucleation density of Zn(OH){sub 2} nuclei on the substrate in the initial stage produces the different morphologies and properties of the ZnS thin films prepared using the two complexing agents.

  5. Cu{sub 2}ZnSn(S,Se){sub 4} solar cells based on chemical bath deposited precursors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao, Chao, E-mail: chao.gao@kit.edu [Institute of Applied Physics, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), 76131 Karlsruhe (Germany); Schnabel, Thomas; Abzieher, Tobias [Zentrum für Sonnenenergie-und Wasserstoff-Forschung Baden-Württemberg (ZSW), 70565 Stuttgart (Germany); Krämmer, Christoph [Institute of Applied Physics, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), 76131 Karlsruhe (Germany); Powalla, Michael [Zentrum für Sonnenenergie-und Wasserstoff-Forschung Baden-Württemberg (ZSW), 70565 Stuttgart (Germany); Light Technology Institute (LTI), Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), 76131 Karlsruhe (Germany); Kalt, Heinz; Hetterich, Michael [Institute of Applied Physics, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), 76131 Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2014-07-01

    A low-cost method has been developed to fabricate Cu{sub 2}ZnSn(S,Se){sub 4} solar cells. By this method, firstly SnS, CuS, and ZnS layers are successively deposited on a molybdenum/soda lime glass (Mo/SLG) substrate by chemical bath deposition. The Cu{sub 2}ZnSn(S,Se){sub 4} thin films are obtained by annealing the precursor in a selenium atmosphere utilizing a graphite box in the furnace. The obtained Cu{sub 2}ZnSn(S,Se){sub 4} thin films show large crystalline grains. By optimizing the preparation process, Cu{sub 2}ZnSn(S,Se){sub 4} solar cells with efficiencies up to 4.5% are obtained. The results imply that the Cu{sub 2}ZnSn(S,Se){sub 4}/CdS interface and the back contact may be limiting factors for solar cell efficiency. - Highlights: • A chemical bath deposition method is developed to prepare Cu{sub 2}ZnSn(S,Se){sub 4} thin films. • The Cu{sub 2}ZnSn(S,Se){sub 4} thin films show good crystallization. • Solar cells with efficiencies up to 4.5% can be prepared based on the Cu{sub 2}ZnSn(S,Se){sub 4} layer. • The limiting factors for the solar cell efficiency are analyzed.

  6. Computing Wigner distributions and time correlation functions using the quantum thermal bath method: application to proton transfer spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basire, Marie; Borgis, Daniel; Vuilleumier, Rodolphe

    2013-08-14

    Langevin dynamics coupled to a quantum thermal bath (QTB) allows for the inclusion of vibrational quantum effects in molecular dynamics simulations at virtually no additional computer cost. We investigate here the ability of the QTB method to reproduce the quantum Wigner distribution of a variety of model potentials, designed to assess the performances and limits of the method. We further compute the infrared spectrum of a multidimensional model of proton transfer in the gas phase and in solution, using classical trajectories sampled initially from the Wigner distribution. It is shown that for this type of system involving large anharmonicities and strong nonlinear coupling to the environment, the quantum thermal bath is able to sample the Wigner distribution satisfactorily and to account for both zero point energy and tunneling effects. It leads to quantum time correlation functions having the correct short-time behavior, and the correct associated spectral frequencies, but that are slightly too overdamped. This is attributed to the classical propagation approximation rather than the generation of the quantized initial conditions themselves.

  7. Optimal control of a Cope rearrangement by coupling the reaction path to a dissipative bath or a second active mode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chenel, A. [Laboratoire de Chimie Physique, UMR 8000 and CNRS, Université Paris-Sud, F-91405 Orsay (France); Meier, C. [Laboratoire Collisions, Agrégats, Réactivité, UMR 5589, IRSAMC, Université Paul Sabatier, F-31062 Toulouse (France); Dive, G. [Centre d’Ingéniérie des Protéines, Université de Liège, Sart Tilman, B6, B-4000 Liège (Belgium); Desouter-Lecomte, M. [Laboratoire de Chimie Physique, UMR 8000 and CNRS, Université Paris-Sud, F-91405 Orsay (France); Département de Chimie, Université de Liège, Bât B6c, Sart Tilman, B4000 Liège (Belgium)

    2015-01-14

    We compare the strategy found by the optimal control theory in a complex molecular system according to the active subspace coupled to the field. The model is the isomerization during a Cope rearrangement of Thiele’s ester that is the most stable dimer obtained by the dimerization of methyl-cyclopentadienenylcarboxylate. The crudest partitioning consists in retaining in the active space only the reaction coordinate, coupled to a dissipative bath of harmonic oscillators which are not coupled to the field. The control then fights against dissipation by accelerating the passage across the transition region which is very wide and flat in a Cope reaction. This mechanism has been observed in our previous simulations [Chenel et al., J. Phys. Chem. A 116, 11273 (2012)]. We compare here, the response of the control field when the reaction path is coupled to a second active mode. Constraints on the integrated intensity and on the maximum amplitude of the fields are imposed limiting the control landscape. Then, optimum field from one-dimensional simulation cannot provide a very high yield. Better guess fields based on the two-dimensional model allow the control to exploit different mechanisms providing a high control yield. By coupling the reaction surface to a bath, we confirm the link between the robustness of the field against dissipation and the time spent in the delocalized states above the transition barrier.

  8. Mineralogical and microstructural studies of mortars from the bath complex of the Roman villa rustica near Mosnje (Slovenia)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kramar, Sabina, E-mail: sabina.kramar@rescen.si [Institute for the Protection of the Cultural Heritage of Slovenia, Conservation Centre, Restoration Centre, Poljanska 40, 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Zalar, Vesna [University of Ljubljana, Faculty of Natural Sciences and Engineering, Department of Geology, Ljubljana (Slovenia); Urosevic, Maja [University of Granada, Faculty of Science, Department of Mineralogy and Petrology, Avda. Fuentenueva s/n, 18071 Granada (Spain); Koerner, Wilfried [University of Vienna, Department of Environmental Geosciences, Althanstrasse 14, 1090 Vienna (Austria); Mauko, Alenka [Slovenian National Building and Civil Engineering Institute, Dimiceva 12, 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Mirtic, Breda [University of Ljubljana, Faculty of Natural Sciences and Engineering, Department of Geology, Ljubljana (Slovenia); Lux, Judita [Institute for the Protection of the Cultural Heritage of Slovenia, Conservation Centre, Preventive Archaeology Department, Tomsiceva 7, 4000 Kranj (Slovenia); Mladenovic, Ana [Slovenian National Building and Civil Engineering Institute, Dimiceva 12, 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia)

    2011-11-15

    This study deals with the characterization of mortars collected from bath complex of the Roman villa rustica from an archeological site near Mosnje (Slovenia). The mortar layers of the mosaics, wall paintings and mortar floors were investigated. A special aggregate consisting of brick fragments was present in the mortars studied. The mineralogical and petrographic compositions of the mortars were determined by means of optical microscopy, X-ray powder diffraction and FTIR spectroscopy. Analysis of aggregate-binder interfaces using SEM-EDS revealed various types of reactivity rims. In order to assess the hydraulic characteristics of the mortars, the acid-soluble fractions were determined by ICP-OES. Furthermore, the results of Hg-porosimetry and gas sorption isotherms showed that mortars with a higher content of brick fragments particles exhibited a higher porosity and a greater BET surface area but a lower average pore diameter compared to mortars lacking this special aggregate. - Highlights: {yields} Mineral and microstructural characterizations of brick-lime mortars. {yields} Hydraulic character of mortars in Roman baths complex. {yields} Reaction rims were observed around brick fragments and dolomitic grains. {yields} Higher content of brick particles yielded a higher BET surface area. {yields} Addition of brick particles increased porosity and diminished pore size diameter.

  9. Effect of timing of count events on estimates of sea lice abundance and interpretation of effectiveness following bath treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gautam, R; Vanderstichel, R; Boerlage, A S; Revie, C W; Hammell, K L

    2017-03-01

    Effectiveness of sea lice bath treatment is often assessed by comparing pre- and post-treatment counts. However, in practice, the post-treatment counting window varies from the day of treatment to several days after treatment. In this study, we assess the effect of post-treatment lag time on sea lice abundance estimates after chemical bath treatment using data from the sea lice data management program (Fish-iTrends) between 2010 and 2014. Data on two life stages, (i) adult female (AF) and (ii) pre-adult and adult male (PAAM), were aggregated at the cage level and log-transformed. Average sea lice counts by post-treatment lag time were computed for AF and PAAM and compared relative to treatment day, using linear mixed models. There were 720 observations (treatment events) that uniquely matched pre- and post-treatment counts from 53 farms. Lag time had a significant effect on the estimated sea lice abundance, which was influenced by season and pre-treatment sea lice levels. During summer, sea lice were at a minimum when counted 1 day post-treatment irrespective of pre-treatment sea lice levels, whereas in the spring and autumn, low levels were observed for PAAM over a longer interval of time, provided the pre-treatment sea lice levels were >5-10.

  10. Single step synthesis of rutile TiO2 nanoflower array film by chemical bath deposition method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhandayuthapani, T.; Sivakumar, R.; Ilangovan, R.

    2016-05-01

    Titanium oxide (TiO2) nanostructures such as nanorod arrays, nanotube arrays and nanoflower arrays have been extensively investigated by the researchers. Among them nanoflower arrays has shown superior performance than other nanostructures in Dye sensitized solar cell, photocatalysis and energy storage applications. Herein, a single step synthesis for rutile TiO2 nanoflower array films suitable for device applications has been reported. Rutile TiO2 nanoflower thin film was synthesized by chemical bath deposition method using NaCl as an additive. Bath temperature induced evolution of nanoflower thin film arrays was observed from the morphological study. X-ray diffraction study confirmed the presence of rutile phase polycrystalline TiO2. Micro-Raman study revealed the presence of surface phonon mode at 105 cm-1 due to the phonon confinement effect (finite size effect), in addition with the rutile Raman active modes of B1g (143 cm-1), Eg (442 cm-1) and A1g (607 cm-1). Further, the FTIR spectrum confirmed the presence of Ti-O-Ti bonding vibration. The Tauc plot showed the direct energy band gap nature of the film with the value of 2.9 eV.

  11. Effect of specialized bathing systems on resident cleanliness and water quality in nursing homes: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sloane, Philip D; Cohen, Lauren W; Williams, Christianna S; Munn, Jean; Preisser, John S; Sobsey, Mark D; Wait, Douglas A; Zimmerman, Sheryl

    2007-06-01

    A randomized controlled trial evaluated the impact of different methods of water agitation on clinical and microbiological outcomes in 31 nursing home residents. Four conditions were tested: a) whirlpool tub, jets on, using standard soap products; b) ultrasound tub, ultrasound on, using the standard soap products; c) ultrasound tub, ultrasound on, using specialized soap and skin conditioner; and d) either tub (randomized), water circulation off, using standard soap products (the control condition). Outcomes of interest included skin microbial flora, water microbial flora, skin condition, time spent bathing, and staff satisfaction. Resident skin condition and skin microbial flora did not differ between the four treatments. The tubs also did not differ in terms of bacterial colonization; however, there was a non-statistically significant trend for the highest counts to occur in whirlpool tubs after being idle overnight. The ultrasound and whirlpool tubs were preferred by staff over the control treatment (still water) in terms of sound and overall suitability. In addition, staff reported that the ultrasound tub using enhanced skin cleansers made bathing residents easier and faster than the same tub using standard cleansers.

  12. Optimal representation of the bath response function & fast calculation of influence functional coefficients in open quantum systems with BATHFIT 1

    CERN Document Server

    Dattani, Nikesh S; Pollock, Felix A

    2012-01-01

    Today's most popular techniques for accurately calculating the dynamics of the reduced density operator in an open quantum system, either require, or gain great computational benefits, from representing the bath response function a(t) in the form a(t)={\\Sigma}_k^K p_k e^{O_k t} . For some of these techniques, the number of terms in the series K plays the lead role in the computational cost of the calculation, and is therefore often a limiting factor in simulating open quantum system dynamics. We present an open source MATLAB program called BATHFIT 1, whose input is any spectral distribution functions J(w) or bath response function, and whose output attempts to be the set of parameters {p_k,w_k}_k=1^K such that for a given value of K, the series {\\Sigma}_k^k p_k e^{O_k t} is as close as possible to a(t). This should allow the user to represent a(t) as accurately as possible with as few parameters as possible. The program executes non-linear least squares fitting, and for a very wide variety of spectral distrib...

  13. Spinal cord transection inhibits HR reduction in anesthetized rats immersed in an artificial CO2-hot spring bath

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Noriyuki; Hashimoto, Masaaki

    2007-01-01

    Like humans, the heart rate (HR) of anesthetized rats immersed in CO2-water is lower than that when immersed in tap water at the same temperature. To investigate the afferent signal pathway in the mechanism of HR reduction, Wistar rats were anesthetized with urethane and then the spinal cord was transected between T4 and T5. The animals were immersed up to the axilla in a bathtub of tap-water (CO2 contents: 10 20 mg·l-1) or of CO2-water (965 1,400 mg·l-1) at 35°C while recording HR, arterial blood pressure, and arterial blood gas parameters ( PaCO2, PaO2, pH). Arterial blood gas parameters did not change during immersion, irrespective of CO2 concentration of the bath water, whereas the HR was reduced in the CO2-water bath. The inhalation of CO2-mixed gas (5 % CO2, 20 % O2, 75 % N2) resulted in increased levels of blood gases and an increased HR during immersion in all types of water tested. The HR reduction observed in sham transected control animals immersed in CO2-water disappeared after subsequent spinal cord transection. These results show that the dominant afferent signal pathway to the brain, which is involved in inducing the reduced HR during immersion in CO2-water, is located in the neuronal route and not in the bloodstream.

  14. Ochre Bathing of the Bearded Vulture: A Bio-Mimetic Model for Early Humans towards Smell Prevention and Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helmut Tributsch

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Since primordial times, vultures have been competing with man for animal carcasses. One of these vultures, the once widespread bearded vulture ( Gypaetus barbatus , has the habit of bathing its polluted feathers and skin in red iron oxide - ochre - tainted water puddles. Why? Primitive man may have tried to find out and may have discovered its advantages. Red ochre, which has accompanied human rituals and everyday life for more than 100,000 years, is not just a simple red paint for decoration or a symbol for blood. As modern experiments demonstrate, it is active in sunlight producing aggressive chemical species. They can kill viruses and bacteria and convert smelly organic substances into volatile neutral carbon dioxide gas. In this way, ochre can in sunlight sterilize and clean the skin to provide health and comfort and make it scentless, a definitive advantage for nomadic meat hunters. This research thus also demonstrates a sanitary reason for the vulture’s habit of bathing in red ochre mud. Prehistoric people have therefore included ochre use into their rituals, especially into those in relation to birth and death. Significant ritual impulses during evolution of man may thus have developed bio-mimetically, inspired from the habits of a vulture. It is discussed how this health strategy could be developed to a modern standard helping to fight antibiotics-resistant bacteria in hospitals.

  15. Dependence of electro-optical properties on the deposition conditions of chemical bath deposited CdS thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dona, J.M.; Herrero, J. [CIEMAT, Madrid (Spain). Inst. de Energias Renovables

    1997-11-01

    Lately, there has been a sharp increase in the publication of papers on chemical bath deposition of CdS thin films and related materials due to successful results obtained using this method to fabricate CdS thin-film buffer layers for CuInSe{sub 2}- and CdTe-based polycrystalline thin-film solar cells. Generally, these papers focus on previously proposed methods of studying film characteristics without a systematic study of the influence of deposition conditions on film characteristics. In this paper the authors present an exhaustive study of the chemical bath-deposited CdS thin films electro-optical properties dependence on deposition variables. The authors propose not only a set of conditions for obtaining CdS thin films by this method but additionally, suitable deposition process conditions for certain application requirements, such as buffer layers for thin-film solar cells. The observed electro-optical characteristics dependence on the deposition variables corroborates the chemical mechanism that they proposed previously for this process.

  16. Experimental study on the formation and growth of electroless nickel-boron coatings from borohydride-reduced bath on mild steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vitry, Veronique, E-mail: veronique.vitry@umons.ac.be [Service de Metallurgie, Universite de Mons, Rue de l' Epargne 56, 7000 Mons (Belgium); Sens, Adeline [Service de Metallurgie, Universite de Mons, Rue de l' Epargne 56, 7000 Mons (Belgium); Kanta, Abdoul-Fatah [Service de Sciences des Materiaux, Universite de Mons, Rue de l' Epargne 56, 7000 Mons (Belgium); Delaunois, Fabienne [Service de Metallurgie, Universite de Mons, Rue de l' Epargne 56, 7000 Mons (Belgium)

    2012-12-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Initiation mechanism of electroless Ni-B on St-37 steel has been identified. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Different phases of the plating process were observed and identified. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Influence of chemical heterogeneity on coating morphology was revealed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Batch replenishment of the plating bath induces new germination phase. - Abstract: Quality and homogeneity of electroless nickel-boron coatings are very important for applications in corrosion and electronics and are completely dependent on the formation of the deposit. The growth and formation process of electroless nickel-boron was investigated by immersing mild steel (St-37) samples in an un-replenished bath for various periods of time (from 5 s to 1 h). The coatings obtained at the different stages of the process were then characterized: thickness was measured by SEM, morphology was observed, weight gain was recorded and top composition of the coatings was obtained from XPS. Three main phases were identified during the coating formation and links between plating time, instantaneous deposition rate, chemistry of last formed deposit and morphology were established. The mechanism for initial deposition on steel substrate for borohydride-reduced electroless nickel bath was also observed. Those results were confronted with chemistry evolution in the unreplenished plating bath during the process. This allowed getting insight about phenomena occurring in the plating bath and their influence on coating formation.

  17. Influence of bath PH value on microstructure and corrosion resistance of phosphate chemical conversion coating on sintered Nd-Fe-B permanent magnets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Xia; Xue, Long-fei; Wang, Xiu-chun; Ding, Kai-hong; Cui, Sheng-li; Sun, Yong-cong; Li, Mu-sen

    2016-10-01

    The effect of bath PH value on formation, microstructure and corrosion resistance of the phosphate chemical conversion (PCC) coatings as well as the effect on the magnetic property of the magnets is investigated in this paper. The results show that the coating mass and thickness increase with the decrease of the bath PH value. Scanning electron microscopy observation demonstrates that the PCC coatings are in a blocky structure with different grain size. Transmission electron microscope and X-ray diffractometer tests reveal the coatings are polycomponent and are mainly composed of neodymium phosphate hydrate and praseodymium phosphate hydrate. The electrochemical analysis and static immersion corrosion test show the corrosion resistance of the PCC coatings prepared at bath PH value of 0.52 is worst. Afterwards the corrosion resistance increases first and then decreases with the increasing of the bath PH values. The magnetic properties of all the samples with PCC treatment are decreased. The biggest loss is occurred when the bath PH value is 0.52. Taken together, the optimum PH range of 1.00-1.50 for the phosphate solution has been determined.

  18. Efficacy of reducing agent and surfactant contacting pattern on the performance characteristics of nickel electroless plating baths coupled with and without ultrasound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, Amrita; Pujari, Murali; Uppaluri, Ramgopal; Verma, Anil

    2014-07-01

    This article addresses furthering the role of sonication for the optimal fabrication of nickel ceramic composite membranes using electroless plating. Deliberating upon process modifications for surfactant induced electroless plating (SIEP) and combined surfactant and sonication induced electroless plating (SSOEP), this article highlights a novel method of contacting of the reducing agent and surfactant to the conventional electroless nickel plating baths. Rigorous experimental investigations indicated that the combination of ultrasound (in degas mode), surfactant and reducing agent pattern had a profound influence in altering the combinatorial plating characteristics. For comparison purpose, purely surfactant induced nickel ELP baths have also been investigated. These novel insights consolidate newer research horizons for the role of ultrasound to achieve dense metal ceramic composite membranes in a shorter span of total plating time. Surface and physical characterizations were carried out using BET, FTIR, XRD, FESEM and nitrogen permeation experiments. It has been analyzed that the SSOEP baths provided maximum ratio of percent pore densification per unit metal film thickness (PPDδ) and hold the key for further fine tuning of the associated degrees of freedom. On the other hand SIEP baths provided lower (PPDδ) ratio but higher PPD. For SSOEP baths with dropwise reducing agent and bulk surfactant, the PPD and metal film thickness values were 73.4% and 8.4 μm which varied to 66.9% and 13.3 μm for dropwise reducing agent and drop surfactant case.

  19. 中草药浸浴烧伤病人康复期微循环变化%Alteration of microcirculation in burn rehabilitation stage by herbal bathing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯玉柱; 徐刚; 姜海; 纪文军; 刘君; 周建红

    2002-01-01

    Objective To observe the change of microcirculation of burn patient in convalescent stage through treatment with herbal bathing. Method 40 burnpatients were bathed by Chinese herbal medicine in convalescent stage. Before and after bathing, the microcirculation of foot nail fold was observed by WX 753B microcirculation microscope and system and system of figure management. And the results were compared with normal person. Result The foot nail fold microcirculation changes of burn rehabilitation were remarkable higher than the control group (P< 0.01) on the malformation rate of capillary loop, and at the same time the patients were accompanied with increase of hidro duct (P< 0.01) and effusion of capillary loop (P< 0.01). The malformation rate of capillary loop of the foot nail fold was positive improved, the effusion and dripping of capillary loop was significant decreased after treatment with bathing. Conclusion Though the wound surface is healed, the microcirculation disturbance of burn patients exists in rehabilitation stage. And herbal bathing could effectively improve microcirculation.

  20. Um banho termostático de baixo custo (temperatura ambiente até 0ºC A low cost thermal bath (room temperature to 0 ºC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina M. Quintella

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Thermal baths to decrease ambient temperature are an indispensable tool for most research and teaching laboratories, especially those in tropical or equatorial regions. A simple and inexpensive thermal bath has been developed based on a scratched compressor. It has three possible setups for cooling: sample immersed into the bath, sample flowing through the bath, and cooling liquid flowing in a jacket around the sample. It has been tested for 40 months. The temperature ranges from room temperature to 0 °C, when using water. The repeatability is better than 3% and the precision varies from 0.5% to 2%.

  1. 温泉沐浴水质与水处理利用探索%Explore the Hot Spring Bath Water Quality and Water Treatment Utilization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李洪静

    2014-01-01

    Due to the hot spring has certain health care fu-nction, which makes the development of hot spring bath ind-ustry. This article carries on the analysis and exploration of the situation of hot spring bath water quality and the water treat-ment work, and carries on the exploration of further improving the hot spring bathing water quality and water treatment work.%由于温泉具有一定的医疗作用,因此使得温泉沐浴业的发展十分火热。本文着重对温泉的沐浴水质及温泉的水处理工作的现状进行了分析与研究,对进一步提高温泉的沐浴水质和水处理工作进行了探索。

  2. No-rinse, one-step bed bath: the effects on the occurrence of skin tears in a long-term care setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birch, Sharon; Coggins, Terry

    2003-01-01

    As the population ages, the occurrence of skin tears becomes a common concern for those providing care. Skin tears are painful and increase the cost of caring for residents in long-term care facilities. Records of 29 bed-bound residents at a 72-bed, long-term care facility were reviewed to ascertain the effects of changing from using soap and water to a no-rinse formula for bathing on the occurrence of skin tears. The effect of the bathing change on nursing practice, patient care outcomes, and cost of patient care also were examined. When the new bath procedure was used, the number of skin tears decreased from 13 in the first month to one in the fourth month, affecting both caregiver time and cost. The observed reduction in the occurrence of skin tears was estimated to result in an annual decrease in cost $2,446.

  3. NMR spin relaxation in proteins: The patterns of motion that dissipate power to the bath

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shapiro, Yury E., E-mail: eva.meirovitch@biu.ac.il, E-mail: yuryeshapiro@gmail.com; Meirovitch, Eva, E-mail: eva.meirovitch@biu.ac.il, E-mail: yuryeshapiro@gmail.com [The Mina and Everard Goodman Faculty of Life Sciences, Bar-Ilan University, Ramat-Gan 52900-02 (Israel)

    2014-04-21

    -local-diffusion eigenmode. For D{sub 1}/D{sub 2} > 0.1, most eigenmodes are of a mixed type. The analysis is affected substantially by reducing the potential strength from 15 to 5 k{sub B}T, and/or allowing for axial D{sub 2} with D{sub 2,∥}/D{sub 2,⊥} = 10. The scheme developed is applied to {sup 15}N−{sup 1}H relaxation from the β-sheet residue K19 and the α-helix residue A34 of the third immunoglobulin-binding domain of streptococcal protein G. Previous studies revealed rhombic local potentials with different rhombicity around C{sub i−1}{sup α}−C{sub i}{sup α}, and different timescale separation (0.047 for K19 and 0.102 for A34). Here, we find that K19 and A34 dissipate power to the bath through global diffusion, mixed cone-diffusion-related and mixed renormalized-local-diffusion-related motions. At small ω-values, A34 is more effective than K19 in dissipating power. In general, it executes faster cone-diffusion-type, and slower renormalized-local-diffusion-type and local-probe-fluctuation-type motions. K19 experiences faster N−H fluctuations than A34. Eigenmode clustering, experienced by K19 to a larger extent, is observed in the fast-probe-fluctuation regime. New information on the effect of the structural context on N−H bond dynamics has been obtained. The patterns of motion that dissipate NMR-relaxation-related power illuminate protein dynamics from a new perspective. They constitute yet another qualifier of N−H bond dynamics. This study sets the stage for developing ways for enhancing the contribution of desired pathways for power dissipation at selected angular velocities.

  4. Effect of triethanolamine and heliotropin on cathodic polarization of weakly acidic baths and properties of Sn-Ag-Cu alloy electrodeposits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang Jinqiu [Department of Applied Chemistry, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin (China); An Maozhong [Department of Applied Chemistry, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin (China)], E-mail: mzan@hit.edu.cn; Chang Limin; Liu Guiyuan [Department of Applied Chemistry, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin (China)

    2008-01-01

    The effect of triethanolamine (TEA) and heliotropin (HT) on the cathodic polarization of weakly acidic baths and the properties of Sn-Ag-Cu alloy electrodeposits were investigated. Lead-free Sn-Ag-Cu solder alloy were electrodeposited in weakly acidic baths (pH 5.5) containing Sn(CH{sub 3}SO{sub 3}){sub 2}, AgI, Cu(CH{sub 3}SO{sub 3}){sub 2}, K{sub 4}P{sub 2}O{sub 7}, KI, hydroquinone, TEA, HT and methylsulfonic acid (MSA). The cathodic polarization of baths and the properties of electrodeposits were evaluated by Liner sweep voltammetry (LSV), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray fluorescence (XRF), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectrometer (FT-IR) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The results indicate that HT is a main brightening agent that increases the cathodic polarization of baths and refines the grains of electrodeposits; TEA is a complexing agent for copper ions and a brightening promoter that decreases the cathodic polarization of baths and densifies the electrodeposits. The bright, compact, and smooth Sn-Ag-Cu alloy electrodeposits contain 88-95 wt% tin, 5-10 wt% silver and 0.5-2 wt% copper. Organic compounds used in the baths neither adsorb on the electrodeposits surfaces nor are included in the electrodeposits. It can be therefore concluded that the use of both TEA and HT is better than that of them either in the process of electroplating bright Sn-Ag-Cu alloy.

  5. Effect of Initial Iron Content in a Zinc Bath on the Dissolution Rate of Iron During a Hot Dip Galvanizing Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sang Myung; Lee, Suk Kyu; Paik, Doo-Jin; Park, Joo Hyun

    2017-01-01

    The mechanism of iron dissolution and the effect of initial Fe content in a Zn bath on the dissolution rate of iron were investigated using a finger rotating method (FRM). When the initial iron content, [Fe]°, in the zinc bath was less than the solubility limit, the iron content in the zinc bath showed a rapid increase, whereas a moderate increase was observed when [Fe]° was close to the solubility limit. Based on Eisenberg's kinetic model, the mass transfer coefficient of iron in the present experimental condition was calculated to be k M = 1.2 × 10-5 m/s, which was similar to the results derived by Giorgi et al. under industrial practice conditions. A dissolution of iron occurred even when the initial iron content in the zinc bath was greater than the solubility limit, which was explained by the interfacial thermodynamics in conjunction with the morphology of the surface coating layer. By analyzing the diffraction patterns using TEM, the outermost dendritic-structured coating layer was confirmed as FeZn13 (ζ). In order to satisfy the local equilibrium based on the Gibbs-Thomson equation, iron in the dendrite-structured phase spontaneously dissolved into the zinc bath, resulting in the enrichment of iron in front of the dendrite tip. Through the diffusion boundary layer in front of the dendritic-structured layer, dissolved Fe atoms diffused out and reacted with Zn and small amounts of Al, resulting in the formation of dross particles such as FeZn10Al x (δ). It was experimentally confirmed that the smaller the difference between the initial iron content in the zinc bath and the iron solubility limit at a given temperature, the lower the number of formed dross particles.

  6. Bathing in a magnesium-rich Dead Sea salt solution improves skin barrier function, enhances skin hydration, and reduces inflammation in atopic dry skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proksch, Ehrhardt; Nissen, Hans-Peter; Bremgartner, Markus; Urquhart, Colin

    2005-02-01

    Magnesium salts, the prevalent minerals in Dead Sea water, are known to exhibit favorable effects in inflammatory diseases. We examined the efficacy of bathing atopic subjects in a salt rich in magnesium chloride from deep layers of the Dead Sea (Mavena(R) Dermaline Mg(46) Dead Sea salt, Mavena AG, Belp, Switzerland). Volunteers with atopic dry skin submerged one forearm for 15 min in a bath solution containing 5% Dead Sea salt. The second arm was submerged in tap water as control. Before the study and at weeks 1-6, transepidermal water loss (TEWL), skin hydration, skin roughness, and skin redness were determined. We found one subgroup with a normal and one subgroup with an elevated TEWL before the study. Bathing in the Dead Sea salt solution significantly improved skin barrier function compared with the tap water-treated control forearm in the subgroup with elevated basal TEWL. Skin hydration was enhanced on the forearm treated with the Dead Sea salt in each group, which means the treatment moisturized the skin. Skin roughness and redness of the skin as a marker for inflammation were significantly reduced after bathing in the salt solution. This demonstrates that bathing in the salt solution was well tolerated, improved skin barrier function, enhanced stratum corneum hydration, and reduced skin roughness and inflammation. We suggest that the favorable effects of bathing in the Dead Sea salt solution are most likely related to the high magnesium content. Magnesium salts are known to bind water, influence epidermal proliferation and differentiation, and enhance permeability barrier repair.

  7. Translation, cultural adaptation, and validation of the Bath questionnaires and HAQ-S in Hindi for Indian patients with ankylosing spondylitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhir, Varun; Kulkarni, Sujay; Adgaonkar, Ashish; Dhobe, Poornima; Aggarwal, Amita

    2012-10-01

    The disease activity and functional impact of ankylosing spondylitis (AS) is currently measured through various questionnaire instruments, the most popular of which are the Bath indices. However, Hindi versions for use in Indian patients are not available. This study aimed to fill this lacuna. Translation and cross-cultural adaptation of the instruments--Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Disease Activity Index (BASDAI), Bath Ankylosing Spondylitits Metrology Index (BASMI), Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Patient Global Score (BAS-G), and Health Assessment Questionnaire-Spondyloarthropathy (HAQ-S)--were done using standard guidelines. These were then self-administered to patients. The BASMI measurements, occiput-to-wall distance, chest expansion (in centimeters), total enthesis count, ESR, and C reactive protein (CRP) were measured. To assess reliability, the patient was called back on day 14, and the questionnaires were again self-administered, and the intra-class correlation coefficient was calculated to assess reliability. Correlation of questionnaire scores with acute phase reactants, measurements, and enthesitis index were used to assess for construct validity. Some modifications were done in the Bath indices and HAQ-S for cross-cultural adaptation. For validation, 41 patients of ankylosing spondylitis with a mean age of 34 years (±10.2) and disease duration of 5.8 years (±6.2) were included. The Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Functional Index (BASFI), BASDAI, and HAQ-S showed good correlation among themselves (r = 0.69 to 0.84, p Hindi versions of the BASDAI, BASFI, BAS-G, and HAQ-S were found to be valid and reliable for use in Hindi-speaking Indian patients with ankylosing spondylitis.

  8. Ultrasonic-assisted synthesis of aqueous CdTe/CdS QDs in salt water bath heating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, Yinglian [College of Food Science and Engineering, Ocean University of China, Qingdao 266003, Shandong Province (China); College of Food Science and Engineering, Qingdao Agricultural University of China, Qingdao 266109, Shandong Province (China); Li, Chunsheng; Xu, Ying [College of Food Science and Engineering, Ocean University of China, Qingdao 266003, Shandong Province (China); Wang, Dongfeng, E-mail: wangdf@ouc.edu.cn [College of Food Science and Engineering, Ocean University of China, Qingdao 266003, Shandong Province (China)

    2014-09-01

    Highlights: • Ultrasonic promotes formation of crystal nucleus and QDs were synthesized in 0.5 h. • The new heating method provides a PLQY of up to 97.13%. • The synthesis mechanism of the core shell structure of the CdTe/CdS QDs was inferred. • The preparation method was efficient, simple and clean. - Abstract: A novel simple method for fast and efficient synthesis of aqueous CdTe/CdS quantum dots (QDs) with core–shell structure was developed by using salt water bath heating with the ultrasonic-assisted technique in this paper. The formation of crystal nucleus was promoted by ultrasonic and CdTe/CdS QDs with blue fluorescence were synthesized only in 0.5 h. The heat source was bath heating in salt water solution at 60% NaCl and the heating temperature could reach 105 °C. The heating method solved the biggest drawback of low photoluminescence quantum yield (PLQY) of ordinal bath heating in water. The preparation was cheap, simple and had less pollution to the environment. The properties of the CdTe/CdS QDs were thoroughly investigated by ultraviolet–visible (UV–vis), photoluminescence (PL), transmission electron microscope (TEM), laser size analysis, fourier transform infrared spectra (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS). Different CdTe/CdS QDs with core shell structure were efficiently synthesized and the maximum PLQY could reach 97.13% when refluxing at 105 °C for 2 h. These QDs exhibited uniform dispersity, high fluorescence intensity, good optical property and long life of fluorescent. The synthesis mechanism of the core shell structure of the QDs was inferred that the Cd{sup 2+} might coordinate with sulfur (S) as well as thiol propionate (–SCH{sub 2}CH{sub 2}COO{sup −1}) to constitute two relatively thick compound layers on the QDs surface as passive shells.

  9. Circulating levels of adiponectin, resistin, and visfatin after mud-bath therapy in patients with bilateral knee osteoarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fioravanti, Antonella; Giannitti, Chiara; Cheleschi, Sara; Simpatico, Antonella; Pascarelli, Nicola Antonio; Galeazzi, Mauro

    2015-11-01

    Adipocytokines, including adiponectin, resistin, and visfatin may play an important role in the pathophysiology of osteoarthritis (OA). Spa therapy is one of the most commonly used non-pharmacological approaches for OA, but its mechanisms of action are not completely known. The aim of the present study was to assess whether a cycle of mud-bath therapy (MBT) influences the serum levels of adiponectin, resistin, and visfatin in patients with knee OA. As part of a prospective randomized, single blind-controlled trial evaluating the efficacy of MBT in knee OA, we included in this study 95 outpatients. One group (n = 49) received a cycle of MBT at the spa center of Chianciano Terme (Italy) in addition to the usual treatment, and one group (control group; n = 46) continued their regular care routine alone. Patients were assessed at basal time and at the end of the study (15 days) for clinical and biochemical parameters. Clinical assessments included spontaneous pain on a visual analog scale (VAS) score and the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities index (WOMAC) subscores for knee OA evaluated as total pain score (W-TPS), total stiffness score (W-TSS), and total physical function score (W-TPFS). Adiponectin, resistin and visfatin serum levels were assessed by enzyme immunoassay methods. At the end of the mud-bath therapy, serum adiponectin levels showed a significant decrease (p < 0.001), while no significant modifications were found in the control group at day 15. Serum resistin showed a significant decrease (p < 0.0001) in the MBT group at the end of the study and a significant increase in the control patients (p < 0.001). No significant modifications of visfatin were found in MBT. Furthermore, we tested the relationships between demographic and clinical parameters and adipocytokine concentrations measured in the MBT group at basal and at the end of the study. In conclusion, the present study shows that a cycle of MBT can modify serum levels of

  10. Circulating levels of adiponectin, resistin, and visfatin after mud-bath therapy in patients with bilateral knee osteoarthritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fioravanti, Antonella; Giannitti, Chiara; Cheleschi, Sara; Simpatico, Antonella; Pascarelli, Nicola Antonio; Galeazzi, Mauro

    2015-11-01

    Adipocytokines, including adiponectin, resistin, and visfatin may play an important role in the pathophysiology of osteoarthritis (OA). Spa therapy is one of the most commonly used non-pharmacological approaches for OA, but its mechanisms of action are not completely known. The aim of the present study was to assess whether a cycle of mud-bath therapy (MBT) influences the serum levels of adiponectin, resistin, and visfatin in patients with knee OA. As part of a prospective randomized, single blind-controlled trial evaluating the efficacy of MBT in knee OA, we included in this study 95 outpatients. One group ( n = 49) received a cycle of MBT at the spa center of Chianciano Terme (Italy) in addition to the usual treatment, and one group (control group; n = 46) continued their regular care routine alone. Patients were assessed at basal time and at the end of the study (15 days) for clinical and biochemical parameters. Clinical assessments included spontaneous pain on a visual analog scale (VAS) score and the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities index (WOMAC) subscores for knee OA evaluated as total pain score (W-TPS), total stiffness score (W-TSS), and total physical function score (W-TPFS). Adiponectin, resistin and visfatin serum levels were assessed by enzyme immunoassay methods. At the end of the mud-bath therapy, serum adiponectin levels showed a significant decrease ( p group at day 15. Serum resistin showed a significant decrease ( p group at the end of the study and a significant increase in the control patients ( p group at basal and at the end of the study. In conclusion, the present study shows that a cycle of MBT can modify serum levels of adiponectin and resistin but not the circulating levels of visfatin. In view of the recent evidences about the involvement of adiponectin and resistin in the pathogenesis and progression of OA, the decrease of these adipokines after mud-bath therapy may play a protective role in the course of the disease. However

  11. Spectral response of CdS/CdTe solar cells obtained with different S/Cd ratios for the CdS chemical bath

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vigil-Galan, O.; Sastre-Hernandez, J.; Contreras-Puente, G.; Tufino-Velazquez, M. [Escuela Superior de Fisica y Matematicas, Instituto Politecnico Nacional, 07738 Mexico D. F. (Mexico); Arias-Carbajal, A. [Facultad de Quimica, IMRE, Universidad de La Habana, 10400 La Habana (Cuba); Mendoza-Perez, R. [Universidad Autonoma de la Ciudad de Mexico, 09970 Mexico, D. F. (Mexico); Santana, G. [Instituto de Investigacion en Materiales, UNAM, 04510 Mexico, D. F. (Mexico); Morales-Acevedo, A. [Departamento de Ingenieria Electrica, CINVESTAV-IPN, 07360 Mexico, D. F. (Mexico)

    2006-09-22

    In this work, the influence of the variation of chemical bath thiourea concentration in the solution for depositing CdS layers upon the spectral response of chemical bath deposition (CBD)-CdS/CdTe solar cells is studied. Although changes in the short and long wavelength range for the spectral response of the cells were observed in dependence of the thiourea concentration, no significant changes were observed in the diffusion length of minority carriers in the CdTe layer, as determined from the constant photocurrent method, when the thiourea concentration is increased in the CdS deposition solution. (author)

  12. ZnO/CdS/CuInSe{sub 2} photovoltaic cells fabricated using chemical bath deposited CdS buffer layer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qiu, S.N.; Lam, W.W.; Qiu, C.X.; Shih, I. [Department of Electrical Engineering, McGill University, Montreal, PQ (Canada)

    1997-04-14

    CdS thin films have been prepared by using chemical bath deposition. The effects of bath temperature and concentration of NH{sub 4}OH were studied. Optimum deposition conditions were established. The resulted CdS thin films exhibit optical transmissions in excess of 90 over the majority of the solar spectrum. ZnO/CdS/CuInSe{sub 2} solar cells were fabricated on electrodeposited CuInSe{sub 2} thin films. A conversion efficiency of 6.3 was obtained with an active area of 7.8 mm{sup 2} (no AR coating)

  13. Characterization of CuInS{sub 2} thin films prepared by chemical bath deposition and their implementation in a solar cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lugo, S.; López, I. [Universidad Autónoma de Nuevo León, UANL, Facultad de Ciencias Químicas, Laboratorio de Materiales I, Av. Universidad, Cd. Universitaria 66451, San Nicolás de los Garza, Nuevo León, México (Mexico); Peña, Y., E-mail: yolapm@gmail.com [Universidad Autónoma de Nuevo León, UANL, Facultad de Ciencias Químicas, Laboratorio de Materiales I, Av. Universidad, Cd. Universitaria 66451, San Nicolás de los Garza, Nuevo León, México (Mexico); Calixto, M. [Instituto de Energías Renovables, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, C.P. 62580, Temixco, Morelos, México (Mexico); Hernández, T. [Universidad Autónoma de Nuevo León, UANL, Facultad de Ciencias Químicas, Laboratorio de Materiales I, Av. Universidad, Cd. Universitaria 66451, San Nicolás de los Garza, Nuevo León, México (Mexico); Messina, S. [Universidad Autónoma de Nayarit, Ciudad de la Cultura “Amado Nervo”, S/N C.P. 63155, Tepic, Nayarit, México (Mexico); and others

    2014-10-31

    CuInS{sub 2} thin films were formed by the sequential deposition of In{sub 2}S{sub 3}–CuS layers on glass substrates, by chemical bath deposition technique, and heating these multilayer 1 h at 350 °C and 400 mPa. The morphology and thickness of the CuInS{sub 2} thin films were analysed by scanning electron microscopy, showing particles with elongated shape and length about 40 nm, and thickness of 267 and 348 nm for samples from 15 and 24 h of deposition time in the chemical bath of In{sub 2}S{sub 3}, respectively. The energy band gap values of the films were around 1.4 eV, whereas the electrical conductivity showed values from 64.91 to 4.11 × 10{sup −3} Ω{sup −1} cm{sup −1} for the samples of 15 and 24 h of In{sub 2}S{sub 3} deposition bath, respectively. The obtained CuInS{sub 2} films showed appropriate values for their application as an absorbing layer in photovoltaic structures of the type: glass/SnO{sub 2}:F/CdS/Sb{sub 2}S{sub 3}/CuInS{sub 2}/PbS/C/Ag. The whole structure was obtained through chemical bath deposition technique. The solar cell corresponding to 15 h of In{sub 2}S{sub 3} deposition duration bath showed energy-conversion efficiency (η) of 0.53% with open circuit voltage (V{sub oc}) of 530 mV, short circuit current density (J{sub sc}) of 2.43 mA cm{sup −2}, and fill factor (FF) of 0.41. In the case of the structure with 24 h of deposition of In{sub 2}S{sub 3} bath, η = 0.43% was measured with the following parameters: V{sub oc} = 330 mV, J{sub sc} = 4.78 mA cm{sup −2} and FF = 0.27. - Highlights: • CuInS{sub 2} films were formed by chemical bath deposition followed by a heat treatment. • Prepared CuInS{sub 2} thin films can work as an effective absorbing layer in a solar cell. • A complete solar cell structure was made by a chemical bath deposition method.

  14. The effect of seawater bath on 30 patients with hyperlipemia%高脂血症30例海水浴疗效观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈淑花

    2003-01-01

    @@ BACKGROUND:The therapy of seawater bath can make the speed of fat oxidation by body tissue and liver faster and has a better curative effect on the patients with hyperlipemia and hypertension.Hyperlipemia do harm to severely the health of middle aged and elders and can cause hypertension and coronary heart disease.The treatment of sea bath can make 80% cholesterol become cholic acid in liver and at last bile salt,which is drained with bile to intestines.HDL C is demomposed with the consumption of TC and TG,which showes the trendency of gradually in creasing in content and helps cleaning fat rubbish.

  15. ["Hot-water epilepsy ", "warm-water epilepsy", or bathing epilepsy? Report of three cases and considerations regarding an old theme].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowacs, Pedro A; Marchioro, Ivo J M; Silva Jr, Erasmo B da; Rocha, Samanta F Blattes da; Simão, Cristiane A; Meneses, Murilo S

    2005-06-01

    Partial and generalized tonic-clonic reflex seizures related to hot water bathing have been described as temperature-related. We describe three cases of bathing epilepsy: a 28 year-old white male and a 30 year-old white female with spells triggered either by warm or hot water, and a 32 year-old female with spells triggered by hot water. The later two of the three cases presented localized epilepsy and a familial history of epilepsy. A complex tactile stimuli might play the most relevant role on seizure triggering, as well as water temperature with an additive effect over cutaneous stimulation.

  16. Compact-immersed-tube bath heating for anodizing aluminum sections; Le chauffage de bains par tubes immerges compacts pour l`anodisation de profiles aluminium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bouillet, B. [Societe Alusuisse (France); Lhomme, P.J. [Gaz de France (GDF), 75 - Paris (France)

    1996-12-31

    The compact-immersed-tube system is composed of a burner, a combustor (where natural gas is burned) and a heat exchanger tube (where combustion heat is released to the surrounding bath); its compact configuration is designed for a direct implementation in an industrial process vessel. Natural gas is thus directly used at the utilization location, without any vapour stage and distribution heat losses. Temperature regulation, efficiency, corrosion issues and power requirements are discussed. An application example with the bath heating for aluminum anodization, is presented: energy savings and payback periods are discussed

  17. Non-Markovian Entanglement Sudden Death and Rebirth of a Two-Qubit System in the Presence of System-Bath Coherence

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Hao-Tian; Zou, Yang; Ge, Rong-Chun; Guo, Guang-Can

    2010-01-01

    We present a detailed study of the entanglement dynamics of a two-qubit system coupled to independent non-Markovian environments, employing hierarchy equations. This recently developed theoretical treatment can conveniently solve non-Markovian problems and take into consideration the correlation between the system and bath in an initial state. We concentrate on calculating the death and rebirth time points of the entanglement to obtain a general view of the concurrence curve and explore the behavior of entanglement dynamics with respect to the coupling strength, the characteristic frequency of the noise bath and the environment temperature.

  18. Girl,Human Nature and Bath in Heaven---On Bath in Heaven Written by Yan Geling%少女·人性·天浴--严歌苓《天浴》解读

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李岩

    2014-01-01

    《天浴》是严歌苓文革叙事中直接以知青生活作为表现对象的短篇小说。作品紧紧围绕“天浴”这个核心意象,在两次“天浴”的叙事中贯穿了少女文秀的文革经历,将基于少女视角的“祛欲望”化的“天浴”以及政治与“性”交织下人性恶的裸露相互辉映,籍由个人的文革经历与命运浮沉呈现了极富象征与寓言性的人性与历史内涵。%Bath in Heaven is a short novel which focuses on the life of Chinese educated urban youth working in the rural areas.This novel concentrates on the image of “Bath in Heaven”and tells the story of a girl named Wenxiu which happened in the period of the Chinese Cultural Revolution by using two different ways of narrative.By comparing two different images,one being based on the girl’s perspective of desexualizing and the other being based on the perspective of politics and sex,the novel displays us symbolic and fable meanings of human nature and history by telling a story of personal experience and fate in the Chinese Cultural Revolution.

  19. Photoelectrochemical (PEC) studies on CdSe thin films electrodeposited from non-aqueous bath on different substrates

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Y G Gudage; N G Deshpande; A A Sagade; R P Sharma; S M Pawar; C H Bhosale

    2007-08-01

    Thin films of CdSe were deposited by potentiostatic mode on different substrates such as stainless steel, titanium and fluorine tin–oxide (FTO) coated glass using non-aqueous bath. The preparative parameters were optimized to get good quality CdSe thin films. These films were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), optical absorption and photoelectrochemical (PEC) techniques. XRD study revealed that the films were polycrystalline in nature with hexagonal phase. Optical absorption study showed that CdSe films were of direct band gap type semiconductor with a band gap energy of 1.8 eV. PEC study revealed that CdSe film deposited on FTO coated glass exhibited maximum values of fill factor (FF) and efficiency () as compared to the films deposited on stainless steel and titanium substrate.

  20. Dynamic scaling and optical properties of Zn(S, O,OH) thin film grown by chemical bath deposition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Yi; Li Bo-Yan; Dang Xiang-Yu; Wu Li; Jin Jing; Li Feng-Yan; Ao Jian-Ping; Sun Yun

    2011-01-01

    The scaling behavior and optical properties of Zn(S,O and OH) thin films deposited on soda-lime glass substrates by chemical bath deposition method were studied by combined roughness measurements,scanning electron microscopy and optical properties measurement.From the scaling behaviour,the value of growth scaling exponent β,0.38±0.06,was determined.This value indicated that the Zn(S,O,OH) film growth in the heterogeneous process was influenced by the surface diffusion and shadowing effect.Results of the optical properties measurements disclosed that the transmittance of the film was in the region of 70%-88% and the optical properties of the film grown for 40 min were better than those grown under other conditions.The energy band gap of the film deposited with 40 min was around 3.63 eV.

  1. Isolation of Legionella pneumophila from cooling towers, public baths, hospitals, and fountains in Seoul, Korea, from 2010 to 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Changkyu; Jeon, Sujin; Jung, Jihun; Oh, Younghee; Kim, Yeonsun; Lee, Jaein; Choi, Sungmin; Chae, Youngzoo; Lee, Young-Ki

    2015-01-01

    Legionnaire's disease is associated with a high mortality rate. The authors collected 3,495 water samples in Seoul, Korea, between 2010 and 2012 from public facilities (cooling towers, public baths, hospitals, and decorative fountains), which are considered the major habitats of Legionella pneumophila. In all, 527 (15.1%) isolates of L. pneumophila were obtained by microbial culture and polymerase chain reaction. Serological diagnosis and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) analysis were performed for the samples. The authors categorized the samples into four groups (A-D) on the basis of PFGE results. The analysis revealed that cooling towers containing the most samples with L. pneumophila serogroup 1 constituted the highest proportion of isolate. Samples from public facilities and serogroups could be distinctively classified by PFGE patterns. Thus, it is expected that source-specific features revealed through PFGE and serological analyses could serve as the basis for effectively coping with future outbreaks of L. pneumophila.

  2. Structural and optical properties of Ni-doped CdS thin films prepared by chemical bath deposition method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Premarani, R. [Arumugam Pillai SeethaiAmmal College, Thiruppattur-630211 (India); Saravanakumar, S., E-mail: sarophy84@gmail.com; Chandramohan, R. [SreeSevuganAnnamalai College, Devakottai-630303 (India); Mahalingam, T. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Ajou University, Suwon 443-749 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-06-24

    The structural and optical behavior of undoped Cadmiun Sulphide (CdS) and Ni-doped CdS thinfilms prepared by Chemical Bath Deposition (CBD) technique is reported. The crystallite sizes of the thinfilms have been characterized by X-ray diffraction pattern (XRD). The particle sizes increase with the increase of Ni content in the CdS thinfilms. Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) results indicated that CdS thinfilms is made up of aggregate of spherical-like particles. The composition was estimated by Energy Dispersive Analysis of X-ray (EDX) and reported. Spectroscopic studies revealed considerable improvement in transmission and the band gap of the films changes with addition of Ni dopant that is associated with variation in crystallite sizes in the nano regime.

  3. The effects of growth temperature on the methyl sterol and phospholipid fatty acid composition of Methylococcus capsulatus (Bath)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahnke, Linda L.

    1992-01-01

    Growth of Methylococcus capsulatus (Bath) at temperatures ranging from 30 to 50 C resulted in changes to the whole cell lipid constituents. As temperature was lowered, the overall proportion of hexadecenoic acid (C16:1) increased, and the relative proportions of the Delta9, Delta10, and Delta11 C16:1 double bond positional isomers changed. Methyl sterol content also increased as the growth temperature was lowered. The highest amounts of methyl sterol were found in 30 C cells and the lowest in 50 C cells (sterol-phospholipid ratios of 0.077 and 0.013, respectively). The data are consistent with a membrane modulating role for the sterol produced by this prokaryotic organism.

  4. Optimal pulse spacing for dynamical decoupling in the presence of a purely-dephasing spin-bath

    CERN Document Server

    Ajoy, Ashok; Suter, Dieter

    2010-01-01

    Maintaining quantum coherence is a crucial requirement for quantum computation; hence protecting quantum systems against their irreversible corruption due to environmental noise is an important open problem. Dynamical decoupling (DD) is an effective method for reducing decoherence with a low control overhead. While a sequence of equidistant control pulses (CPMG) has been ubiquitously used for this purpose, Uhrig recently proposed that a non-equidistant pulse sequence (UDD) may enhance DD performance, especially for systems where the spectral density of the environment has a sharp frequency cutoff. On the other hand, equidistant sequences outperform UDD for soft cutoffs. The relative advantage provided by UDD for intermediate regimes is not clear. In this paper, we analyze the relative DD performance in this regime experimentally, using solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance. Our system-qubits are 13C nuclear spins and the environment consists of a 1H nuclear spin-bath whose spectral density is close to a norm...

  5. Synthesis and Characterization of In2S3 Thin Films Deposited by Chemical Bath Deposition on Polyethylene Naphthalate Substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castelo-González, O. A.; Santacruz-Ortega, H. C.; Quevedo-López, M. A.; Sotelo-Lerma, M.

    2012-04-01

    Indium sulfide (In2S3) thin films were deposited on polyethylene naphthalate (PEN) by chemical bath deposition (CBD). The materials were characterized by ultraviolet (UV)-visible spectroscopy, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDX), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and x-ray diffraction (XRD) to investigate the influence of the polymeric substrate on the resulting thin In2S3. The films showed polycrystalline (cubic and tetragonal) structure. A reduction of the ordering of the polymeric chains at the surface of the PEN was also observed, demonstrated by the appearance of two infrared bands at 1094 cm-1 and 1266 cm-1. Presence of oxygen during the early stages of In2S3 growth was also identified. We propose a reaction mechanism for both the equilibrium and nucleation stages. These results demonstrate that In2S3 can be deposited at room temperature on a flexible substrate.

  6. Harmonic Oscillator in Heat Bath: Exact simulation of time-lapse-recorded data, exact analytical benchmark statistics

    CERN Document Server

    Norrelykke, Simon F

    2011-01-01

    The stochastic dynamics of the damped harmonic oscillator in a heat bath is simulated with an algorithm that is exact for time steps of arbitrary size. Exact analytical results are given for correlation functions and power spectra in the form they acquire when computed from experimental time-lapse recordings. Three applications are discussed: (i) Effects of finite sampling-rate and -time, described exactly here, are similar for other stochastic dynamical systems-e.g. motile micro-organisms and their time-lapse recorded trajectories. (ii) The same statistics is satisfied by any experimental system to the extent it is interpreted as a damped harmonic oscillator at finite temperature-such as an AFM cantilever. (iii) Three other models of fundamental interest are limiting cases of the damped harmonic oscillator at finite temperature; it consequently bridges their differences and describes effects of finite sampling rate and sampling time for these models as well. Finally, we give a brief discussion of nondimensio...

  7. Effects of indium doping on the structural and optical properties of CdSe thin films deposited by chemical bath

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez G, A. M.; Arreola, I. V. [Universidad Popular Autonoma del Estado de Puebla, 21 Sur No. 1103, Col Santiago, 72160 Puebla, Pue. (Mexico); Tepantlan, C. S. [Universidad Politecnica de Tulancingo, Calle Ingenierias 100 Huapalcalco, 43629 Tulancingo, Hidalgo (Mexico)]. e-mail: arllenemariana.perez@upaep.mx

    2009-07-01

    Thin films of n-type CdSe have been grown on Corning glass substrate by chemical bath deposition, prepared with Sodium Seleno-Sulphate (Na{sub 2}SSeO{sub 3}), Cadmium Chloride (CdCl{sub 2}) and Indium Tri-Chloride (InCl{sub 3}), mixed in an aqueous environment. The effects of different In doping concentrations have been investigated. X-ray diffraction spectra show that at low In concentration only the CdSe lattice is present in the deposited film, whereas CdIn{sub 2}Se{sub 4} and InSe compounds are obtained at higher In concentrations. Optical properties have been calculated from transmission spectra and photoluminescence measurements. From transmission spectra, the absorption coefficient and optical gap were obtained; photoluminescence spectra show band-band recombination from 10 K to room temperature. (Author)

  8. The effects of growth temperature on the methyl sterol and phospholipid fatty acid composition of Methylococcus capsulatus (Bath)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahnke, L. L.

    1992-01-01

    Growth of Methylococcus capsulatus (Bath) at temperatures ranging from 30 to 50 degrees C resulted in changes to the whole cell lipid constituents. As temperature was lowered, the overall proportion of hexadecenoic acid (C16:1) increased, and the relative proportions of the delta 9, delta 10 and delta 11 C16:1 double bond positional isomers changed. Methyl sterol content also increased as the growth temperature was lowered. The highest amounts of methyl sterol were found in 30 degrees C cells and the lowest in 50 degrees C cells (sterol-phospholipid ratios of 0.077 and 0.013, respectively). The data are consistent with a membrane modulating role for the sterol produced by this prokaryotic organism.

  9. Chiral and Parity Symmetry Breaking for Planar Fermions: Effects of a Heat Bath and Uniform External Magnetic Field

    CERN Document Server

    Ayala, Alejandro; Gutierrez, Enif; Raya, Alfredo; Sanchez, Angel

    2010-01-01

    We study chiral symmetry breaking for relativistic fermions, described by a parity violating Lagrangian in 2+1-dimensions, in the presence of a heat bath and a uniform external magnetic field. Working within their four-component formalism allows for the inclusion of both parity-even and -odd mass terms. Therefore, we can define two types of fermion anti-fermion condensates. For a given value of the magnetic field, there exist two different critical temperatures which would render one of these condensates identically zero, while the other would survive. Our analysis is completely general: it requires no particular simplifying hierarchy among the energy scales involved, namely, bare masses, field strength and temperature. However, we do reproduce some earlier results, obtained or anticipated in literature, corresponding to special kinematical regimes for the parity conserving case. Relating the chiral condensate to the one-loop effective Lagrangian, we also obtain the magnetization and the pair production rate ...

  10. Investigation of the Corrosion Behaviors of HVOF-Sprayed Carbide Cernet Coatings in Molten Al-Zn-Si Alloy Bath

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIANG Zhen-hua; TAN Xing-hai; ZHANG Yue-gang; SUN Jia-shu

    2004-01-01

    In continuous hot-dip galvanization process the corrosion and chemical stability of the sink roll in the galvanizing bath are important problem which effects on the quality and productivity. In order to protect the sink roll the carbide cermet and/or ceramic coatings were deposited on the surface of the sink roll. The WC-, Cr3 C2-cermet coatings were deposited by high velocity oxygen fuel (HVOF) spray, respectively. The coating samples were immersed in molten Zn-alloy containing 50 wt % aluminum at 833 K for 24 hr and 144 hr, respectively. The inter-diffusion and inter-reaction of Zn, Al and elements in coating and corrosion behaviors of these coatings were investigated by XRD, SEM and EPMA etc. The corrosion mechanisms of the carbide cermet coatings and ceramic coatings in molten High Al-Zn-alloy were approached.

  11. Unusual Blueshifting of Optical Band Gap of CdS Nanocrystals through a Chemical Bath Deposition Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu Qing Yuan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available CdS nanocrystals are synthesized through a chemical bath deposition method. After annealing, these nanocrystals are enlarged according to Scherrer’s formula. Small nanocrystals display wide band gaps as a result of the quantum effect experienced by nanocrystals of a certain size. However, the absorption edge and green and red emissions of annealed CdS nanocrystals show obvious blueshift compared with the as-grown ones. After annealing, the intensity ratio of these green and red emissions increases, which indicated that the defect states are reduced. Therefore, the improvement in crystalline quality and the reduced strain contribute to the unusual blueshifting of the optical band gap and of the green and red emissions.

  12. Top gate ZnO-Al2O3 thin film transistors fabricated using a chemical bath deposition technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gogoi, Paragjyoti; Saikia, Rajib; Changmai, Sanjib

    2015-04-01

    ZnO thin films were prepared by a simple chemical bath deposition technique using an inorganic solution mixture of ZnCl2 and NH3 on glass substrates and then were used as the active material in thin film transistors (TFTs). The TFTs were fabricated in a top gate coplanar electrode structure with high-k Al2O3 as the gate insulator and Al as the source, drain and gate electrodes. The TFTs were annealed in air at 500 °C for 1 h. The TFTs with a 50 μm channel length exhibited a high field-effect mobility of 0.45 cm2/(V·s) and a low threshold voltage of 1.8 V. The sub-threshold swing and drain current ON-OFF ratio were found to be 0.6 V/dec and 106, respectively.

  13. Non-canonical distribution and non-equilibrium transport beyond weak system-bath coupling regime: A polaron transformation approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Dazhi; Cao, Jianshu

    2016-08-01

    The concept of polaron, emerged from condense matter physics, describes the dynamical interaction of moving particle with its surrounding bosonic modes. This concept has been developed into a useful method to treat open quantum systems with a complete range of system-bath coupling strength. Especially, the polaron transformation approach shows its validity in the intermediate coupling regime, in which the Redfield equation or Fermi's golden rule will fail. In the polaron frame, the equilibrium distribution carried out by perturbative expansion presents a deviation from the canonical distribution, which is beyond the usual weak coupling assumption in thermodynamics. A polaron transformed Redfield equation (PTRE) not only reproduces the dissipative quantum dynamics but also provides an accurate and efficient way to calculate the non-equilibrium steady states. Applications of the PTRE approach to problems such as exciton diffusion, heat transport and light-harvesting energy transfer are presented.

  14. Effects of compound carboxylate-urea system on nano Ni-Cr/SiC composite coatings from trivalent chromium baths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Xinkuai; Hou, Bailong; Cai, Youxing; Wu, Luye

    2013-03-01

    The effects of compound carboxylate-urea system on the nano Ni-Cr/SiC composite coatings from trivalent chromium baths have been investigated in ultrasonic field. These results indicated that the SiC and Cr contents and the thickness of the Ni-Cr/SiC composite coatings could be obviously improved by the compound carboxylate-urea system. The steady-state polarization curves showed that the hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) could be significantly inhibited by the compound carboxylate-urea system, which was benefit to increase the SiC and Cr contents and the thickness of the composite coatings. The cyclic voltammetry (CV) curves showed that both of the Cr(III) and Ni(II) cathodic polarization could be increased in the bath containing the compound carboxylate-urea system. Thus, a compact Ni-Cr/SiC composite coating could be obtained using this technique. The surface morphology of the Ni-Cr/SiC composite coatings checked with the scanning electron micrographs (SEM) showed that the surface smoothness could be also improved and the microcracks and pinholes could be decreased due to the presence of the compound carboxylate-urea system. The phase composition of the as-posited coating was measured by the X-ray diffraction. XRD data showed that the as-posited coating was Ni-Cr/SiC composite coating. The chemical composition of the coating was investigated by energy dispersive spectrum (EDS) analysis. The result showed the Ni-Cr/SiC composite coatings with 3.8 wt.% SiC and 24.68 wt.% Cr were obtained in this study, which had best corrosion resistance according to the results of the typical potentiodynamic polarization curves of the Ni-Cr/SiC composite coatings.

  15. Influence of Aluminum on the Formation Behavior of Zn-Al-Fe Intermetallic Particles in a Zinc Bath

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Joo Hyun; Park, Geun-Ho; Paik, Doo-Jin; Huh, Yoon; Hong, Moon-Hi

    2012-01-01

    The shape, size, and composition of dross particles as a function of aluminum content at a fixed temperature were investigated for aluminum added to the premelted Zn-Fe melt simulating the hot-dip galvanizing bath by a sampling methodology. In the early stage, less than 30 minutes after Al addition, local supersaturation and depletion of the aluminum concentration occurred simultaneously in the bath, resulting in the nucleation and growth of both Fe2Al5Zn x and FeZn13. However, the aluminum was homogenized continuously as the reaction proceeded, and fine and stable FeZn10Al x formed after 30 minutes. An Al-depleted zone (ADZ) mechanism was newly proposed for the "η→η+ζ→δ" phase transformations. The ζ phase bottom dross partly survived for a relatively long period, i.e., 2 hours in this work, whereas the η phase disappeared after 30 minutes. In the early stage of dross formation, both Al-free large particles as well as high-Al tiny particles were formed. The dross particle size decreased slightly with increased reaction time before reaching a plateau. The opposite tendency was observed when the Al content was 0.130 mass pct; with a relatively high Al content, the nucleation of tiny η phase dross was significantly enhanced because of the high degree of supersaturation. This unstable η phase dissolved continuously and underwent simple transformation to the stable δ phase. The relationship between nucleation potential and supersaturation ratio of species is discussed based on the thermodynamics of classical nucleation theory.

  16. Analysis of continuous solvent extraction of nickel from spent electroless nickel plating baths by a mixer-settler.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Ying; Tanaka, Mikiya

    2009-05-30

    It is urgent to develop an effective technique to treat the large amount of spent electroless nickel plating bath and recycle the high concentration nickel. In our previous study, high recycling efficiency of nickel from the model spent bath was obtained by continuous solvent extraction with 2-hydroxy-5-nonylacetophenone oxime (LIX84I) as the extractant and 2-ethylhexylphosphonic acid mono-2-ethylhexyl ester (PC88A) as the accelerator using a mixer-settler extractor. It was observed that the extraction efficiency was affected by the operation parameters such as the flow rates of the aqueous and organic phases and the total stage number. In the present study, the effects of the operation parameters on the extraction efficiency were quantitatively studied on the basis of the pseudo-first-order interfacial extraction rate equation together with the hydrodynamic properties in the mixer. The organic phase holdup, measured under varying conditions of the flow rates of both phases, was analyzed by the Takahashi-Takeuchi holdup model in order to estimate the specific interfacial area. The overall extraction rate coefficients defined by the product of the interfacial extraction rate constant and the specific interfacial area were evaluated using the experimental data and ranged from 3.5 x 10(-3) to 6.7 x 10(-3)s(-1), which was close to the value of 3.4 x 10(-3)s(-1) obtained by batch extraction. Finally, an engineering simulation method was established for assessing the extraction efficiency of nickel during a multistage operation.

  17. Toxin production and antibiotic resistances in Escherichia coli isolated from bathing areas along the coastline of the Oslo fjord.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charnock, Colin; Nordlie, Anne-Lise; Hjeltnes, Bjarne

    2014-09-01

    The presence of enterovirulent and/or antibiotic resistant strains of Escherichia coli in recreational bathing waters would represent a clear health issue. In total, 144 E. coli isolated from 26 beaches along the inner Oslo fjord were examined for virulence determinants and resistance to clinically important antibiotics. No isolates possessed the genetic determinants associated with enterotoxigenic strains and none showed the prototypic sorbitol negative, O157:H7 phenotype. A small number (∼1 %) produced alpha-hemolysin. Occurrences and patterns of antibiotic resistances were similar to those of E. coli isolated previously from environmental samples. In total, 6 % of the strains showed one or more clinically relevant resistances and 1.4 % were multi-drug resistant. Microarray analyses suggested that the resistance determinants were generally associated with mobile genetic elements. Resistant strains were not clonally related, and were, furthermore not concentrated at one or a few beach sites. This suggests that these strains are entering the waters at a low rate but in a widespread manner. The study demonstrates that resistant E. coli are present in coastal bathing waters where they can come into contact with bathers, and that the resistance determinants are potentially transferable. Some of the resistances registered in the study are to important antibiotics used in human medicine such as fluoroquinolones. The spread of antibiotic resistant genes, from the clinical setting to the environment, has clear implications with respect to the current management of bacterial infections and the long term value of antimicrobial therapy. The present study is the first of its kind in Norway.

  18. The Bath metrology index as assessed by a trained and an untrained rater in patients with spondylarthropathy: a study of intra- and inter-rater agreements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, O R; Hansen, L B; Rytter, A

    2008-01-01

    The Bath ankylosing spondylitis metrology index (BASMI; range 0-10) has gained widespread use in daily clinical practice as an objective measure of spinal stiffness not only in patients with ankylosing spondylitis (AS) but also in patients with other spondylarthropathies (SpA). We examined intra...

  19. Comparing the Effect of Foot Reflexology Massage, Foot Bath and Their Combination on Quality of Sleep in Patients with Acute Coronary Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahmani, Ali; Naseri, Mahdi; Salaree, Mohammad Mahdi; Nehrir, Batool

    2016-12-01

    Introduction: Many patients in coronary care unit (CCU) suffer from decreased sleep quality caused by environmental and mental factors. This study compared the efficacy of foot reflexology massage, foot bath, and a combination of them on the quality of sleep of patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS). Methods: This quasi-experimental study was implemented on ACS patients in Iran. Random sampling was used to divide the patients into four groups of 35 subjects. The groups were foot reflexology massage, foot bath, a combination of the two and the control group. Sleep quality was measured using the Veran Snyder-Halpern questionnaire. Data were analyzed by SPSS version 13. Results: The mean age of the four groups was 61.22 (11.67) years. The mean sleep disturbance in intervention groups (foot reflexology massage and foot bath groups) during the second and third nights was significantly less than before intervention. The results also showed a greater reduction in sleep disturbance in the combined group than in the other groups when compared to the control group. Conclusion: It can be concluded that the intervention of foot bath and massage are effective in reducing sleep disorders and there was a synergistic effect when used in combination. This complementary care method can be recommended to be implemented by CCU nurses.

  20. The effect of zinc bath temperature on the morphology, texture and corrosion behaviour of industrially produced hot-dip galvanized coatings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Bakhtiari

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this work is to identify the influence of zinc bath temperature on the morphology, texture and corrosion behavior of hot-dip galvanized coatings. Hot-dip galvanized samples were prepared at temperature in the range of 450-480 °C in steps of 10 °C, which is the conventional galvanizing temperature range in the galvanizing industries. The morphology of coatings was examined with optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM. The composition of the coating layers was determined using energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS analysis. The texture of the coatings was evaluated using X-ray diffraction. Corrosion behavior was performed using salt spray cabinet test and Tafel extrapolation test. From the experimental results, it was found that increasing the zinc bath temperature affects the morphology of the galvanized coatings provoking the appearance of cracks in the coating structure. These cracks prevent formation of a compact structure. In addition, it was concluded that (00.2 basal plane texture component was weakened by increasing the zinc bath temperature and, conversely, appearance of (10.1 prism component, (20.1 high angle pyramidal component and low angle component prevailed. Besides, coatings with strong (00.2 texture component and weaker (20.1 components have better corrosion resistance than the coatings with weak (00.2 and strong (20.1 texture components. Furthermore, corrosion resistance of the galvanized coatings was decreased by increasing the zinc bath temperature.

  1. Comparing the Effect of Foot Reflexology Massage, Foot Bath and Their Combination on Quality of Sleep in Patients with Acute Coronary Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Rahmani

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Many patients in coronary care unit (CCU suffer from decreased sleep quality caused by environmental and mental factors. This study compared the efficacy of foot reflexology massage, foot bath, and a combination of them on the quality of sleep of patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS. Methods: This quasi-experimental study was implemented on ACS patients in Iran. Random sampling was used to divide the patients into four groups of 35 subjects. The groups were foot reflexology massage, foot bath, a combination of the two and the control group. Sleep quality was measured using the Veran Snyder-Halpern questionnaire. Data were analyzed by SPSS version 13. Results: The mean age of the four groups was 61.22 (11.67 years. The mean sleep disturbance in intervention groups (foot reflexology massage and foot bath groups during the second and third nights was significantly less than before intervention. The results also showed a greater reduction in sleep disturbance in the combined group than in the other groups when compared to the control group. Conclusion: It can be concluded that the intervention of foot bath and massage are effective in reducing sleep disorders and there was a synergistic effect when used in combination. This complementary care method can be recommended to be implemented by CCU nurses.

  2. In situ evaluation of water and energy consumptions at the end use level: The influence of flow reducers and temperature in baths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matos, C; Briga-Sá, A; Bentes, I; Faria, D; Pereira, S

    2017-05-15

    Nowadays, water and energy consumption is intensifying every year in most of the countries. This perpetual increase will not be supportable in the long run, making urgently to manage these resources on a sustainable way. Domestic consumptions of water and electric energy usually are related and it's important to study that relation, identifying opportunities for use efficient improvement. In fact, without an understanding of water-energy relations, there are water efficiency measures that may lead to unintentional costs in the energy efficiency field. In order to take full advantage of combined effect between water and energy water management methodologies, it is necessary to collect data to ensure that the efforts are directed through the most effective paths. This paper presents a study based in the characterization, measurement and analysis of water and electricity consumption in a single family house (2months period) in order to find an interdependent relationship between consumptions at the end user level. The study was carried out on about 200 baths, divided in four different scenarios where the influence of two variables was tested: the flow reducer valve and the bath temperature. Data showed that the presence of flow reducer valve decreased electric energy consumption and water consumption, but increased the bath duration. Setting a lower temperature in water-heater, decreased electric consumption, water consumption and bath duration. Analysing the influence of the flow reducer valve and 60°C temperature simultaneously, it was concluded that it had a significant influence on electric energy consumption and on the baths duration but had no influence on water consumption.

  3. 中药腿足浴疗法临床应用探要%Clinical Application of Chinese Herbs Bathing on Leg and Foot

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘赵丽; 张昶; 徐耀; 焦卫光; 廖奕歆

    2014-01-01

    Traditional Chinese medicine foot bath,based on the theory of traditional Chinese medicine,uses corresponding Chinese me-dicinal broth by stimulating the leg foot acupuncture point according to the different diseases. Through system analysis of leg foot bath of Chinese traditional medicine scientific definition,and the difference between ordinary foot bath,theoretical basis,operating essentials,in-dications,contraindications,medical records,arrange equipment types,operating methods,indications,soak temperature,time,and tradi-tional Chinese medicine of leg foot bath,in order to have a whole understanding of clinical application of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM),legs for traditional Chinese medicine foot bath so as to provide ideas and methods in clinical application.%中药腿足浴疗法是根据传统中医理论,按照中医辨证施治的原则,根据不同疾病将相应中药汤剂放入腿足浴治疗器内浸泡双小腿和足部,通过刺激腿足部腧穴治疗疾病。通过系统介绍中药腿足浴的科学定义、与普通足浴的区别、理论依据、操作要领、适应证、禁忌症,旨在整理腿足浴疗法所用仪器种类、操作方法、适应症、泡洗温度、时间、泡洗中药,以期对中药泡洗组合疗法的临床应用状况有个整体认识,为中药腿足浴疗法更有效地在临床运用提供思路和方法。

  4. Preparation and characteristics of chemical bath deposited ZnS thin films: Effects of different complexing agents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Seung Wook [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, KAIST, Daejeon 305-701 (Korea, Republic of); Agawane, G.L.; Gang, Myeng Gil [Photonics Technology Research Institute, Department of Materials Science Engineering, Chonnam National University, Gwangju 500-757 (Korea, Republic of); Moholkar, A.V. [Department of Physics, Shivaji University, Kolhapur 416-004 (India); Moon, Jong-Ha [Photonics Technology Research Institute, Department of Materials Science Engineering, Chonnam National University, Gwangju 500-757 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jin Hyeok, E-mail: jinhyeok@chonnam.ac.kr [Photonics Technology Research Institute, Department of Materials Science Engineering, Chonnam National University, Gwangju 500-757 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jeong Yong, E-mail: j.y.lee@kaist.ac.kr [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, KAIST, Daejeon 305-701 (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-06-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Thick ZnS thin films were successfully prepared by chemical bath deposition in a basic medium using less toxic complexing agents. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Effect of different complexing agents such as no complexing agent, Na{sub 3}-citrate and a mixture of Na{sub 3}-citrate and EDTA on the properties of ZnS thin films was investigated. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer ZnS thin film deposited using two complexing agent showed the outstanding characteristics as compared to those using no and one complexing agent. - Abstract: Zinc sulfide (ZnS) thin films were prepared on glass substrates by a chemical bath deposition technique using aqueous zinc acetate and thiourea solutions in a basic medium (pH {approx} 10) at 80 Degree-Sign C. The effects of different complexing agents, such as a non-complexing agent, Na{sub 3}-citrate, and a mixture of Na{sub 3}-citrate and ethylenediamine tetra-acetate (EDTA), on the structural, chemical, morphological, optical, and electrical properties of ZnS thin films were investigated. X-ray diffraction pattern showed that the ZnS thin film deposited without any complexing agent was grown on an amorphous phase. However, the ZnS thin films deposited with one or two complexing agents showed a polycrystalline hexagonal structure. No secondary phase (ZnO) was observed. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy showed that all ZnS thin films exhibited both Zn-S and Zn-OH bindings. Field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) images showed that ZnS thin films deposited with complexing agents had thicker thicknesses than that deposited without a complexing agent. The electrical resistivity of ZnS thin films was over 10{sup 5} {Omega} cm regardless of complexing agents. The average transmittance of the ZnS thin films deposited without a complexing agent, those with Na{sub 3}-citrate, and those with a mixture of Na{sub 3}-citrate and EDTA was approximately 85%, 65%, and 70%, respectively, while the band gap

  5. Randomised controlled trial of thermostatic mixer valves in reducing bath hot tap water temperature in families with young children in social housing: A protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phillips Ceri

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Each year in the UK 2000 children attend emergency departments and 500 are admitted to hospital following a bath water scald. The long term effects can include disability, disfigurement or psychological harm and repeated skin grafts may be required as the child grows. The costs of treating a severe scald are estimated at 250,000 GBP. Children living in the most deprived wards are at greatest risk of thermal injuries; hospital admission rates are three times that for children living in the least deprived wards. Domestic hot water, which is usually stored at around 60 degrees Celsius, can result in a second-degree burn after 3 seconds and a third-degree burn after 5 seconds. Educational strategies to encourage testing of tap water temperature and reduction of hot water thermostat settings have largely proved unsuccessful. Legislation in the USA mandating pre-setting hot water heater thermostats at 49 degrees Celsius was effective in reducing scald injuries, suggesting passive measures may have a greater impact. Thermostatic mixer valves (TMVs, recently developed for the domestic market, fitted across the hot and cold water supply pipes of the bath, allow delivery of water set at a fixed temperature from the hot bath tap. These valves therefore offer the potential to reduce scald injuries. Design/Methods A pragmatic, randomised controlled trial to assess the effectiveness of TMVs in reducing bath hot tap water temperatures in the homes of families with young children in rented social housing. Two parallel arms include an intervention group and a control group where the intervention will be deferred. The intervention will consist of fitting a TMV (set at 44 degrees Celsius by a qualified plumber and provision of educational materials. The control arm will not receive a TMV or the educational materials for the study duration but will be offered the intervention after collection of follow-up data 12 months post randomisation. The

  6. 纳雍钼镍矿的熔池熔炼%Bath Smelting of Nayong Molybdenum Nickel Ore

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周方栋; 伍耀明

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, analysis and concrete terms of the nature and composition of a detailed theoretical of nickel-molybdenum mineral of Nayong, to clarify the various elements in the mineral bath smelting process behavior. Analysis to achieve separation of molybdenum pyrometallurgical nickel smelting favorable conditions and mature furnace. That as long as the measures taken to collecting reliable smelting slag and enhanced leaching method, to obtain a high yield of Mo-Ni, high-quality products and to provide arsenic-free sulfuric acid and sulfur dioxide gas is possible.%文章对纳雍钼镍矿的矿物性质和成分进行了详细的理论分析和具体计算,阐明了矿物中各元素在熔池熔炼过程中的行为。分析了实现火法冶炼分离钼镍的有利条件和成熟的冶炼炉型。指出只要采取可靠的收尘措施和强化浸出熔炼渣的方法,获得钼镍的高收率、高品质的产品以及提供无砷的二氧化硫烟气制硫酸是可能的。

  7. A full 3D model of fluid flow and heat transfer in an E.B. heated liquid metal bath

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matveichev, A.; Jardy, A.; Bellot, J. P.

    2016-07-01

    In order to study the dissolution of exogeneous inclusions in the liquid metal during processing of titanium alloys, a series of dipping experiments has been performed in an Electron Beam Melting laboratory furnace. Precise determination of the dissolution kinetics requires knowing and mastering the exact thermohydrodynamic behavior of the melt pool, which implies full 3D modeling of the process. To achieve this goal, one needs to describe momentum and heat transfer, phase change, as well as the development of flow turbulence in the liquid. EB power input, thermal radiation, heat loss through the cooling circuit, surface tension effects (i.e. Marangoni-induced flow) must also be addressed in the model. Therefore a new solver dealing with all these phenomena was implemented within OpenFOAM platform. Numerical results were compared with experimental data from actual Ti melting, showing a pretty good agreement. In the second stage, the immersion of a refractory sample rod in the liquid pool was simulated. Results of the simulations showed that the introduction of the sample slightly disturbs the flow field inside the bath. The amount of such disturbance depends on the exact location of the dipping.

  8. Path integral approach to the Wigner representation of canonical density operators for discrete systems coupled to harmonic baths

    CERN Document Server

    Montoya-Castillo, Andrés

    2016-01-01

    We derive a semi-analytical form for the Wigner transform for the canonical density operator of a discrete system coupled to a harmonic bath based on the path integral expansion of the Boltzmann factor. The introduction of this simple and controllable approach allows for the exact rendering of the canonical distribution and permits systematic convergence of static properties with respect to the number of path integral steps. In additions, the expressions derived here provide an exact and facile interface with quasi- and semi-classical dynamical methods, which enables the direct calculation of equilibrium time correlation functions within a wide array of approaches. We demonstrate that the present method represents a practical path for the calculation of thermodynamic data for the spin-boson and related systems. We illustrate the power of the present approach by detailing the improvement of the quality of Ehrenfest theory for the correlation function $\\mathcal{C}_{zz}(t) = \\mathrm{Re}\\langle \\sigma_z(0)\\sigma_...

  9. Studies on Hall Effect and DC Conductivity Measurements of Semiconductor Thin films Prepared by Chemical Bath Deposition (CBD method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Thirumavalavana

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Semiconductors have various useful properties that can be exploited for the realization of a large number of high performance devices in fields such as electronics and optoelectronics. Many novel semiconductors, especially in the form of thin films, are continually being developed. Thin films have drawn the attention of many researchers because of their numerous applications. As the film becomes thinner, the properties acquire greater importance in the miniaturization of elements such as resistors, transistors, capacitors, and solar cells. In the present work, copper selenide (CuSe, cadmium selenide (CdSe, zinc selenide (ZnSe, lead sulphide (PbS, zinc sulphide (ZnS, and cadmium sulphide (CdS thin films were prepared by chemical bath deposition (CBD method. The prepared thin films were analyzed by using Hall measurements in Van Der Pauw configuration (ECOPIA HMS-3000 at room temperature. The Hall parameters such as Hall mobility of the material, resistivity, carrier concentration, Hall coefficient and conductivity were determined. The DC electrical conductivity measurements were also carried out for the thin films using the conventional two – probe technique. The activation energies were also calculated from DC conductivity studies.

  10. Synthesis, Structural and Optoelectronic Properties of Nanocrystalline CdSe Thin Films Prepared By Chemical Bath Deposition Route

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. P. Nikam

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Cadmium Selenide (CdSe thin films were deposited onto glass substrates by simple and low cost chemical bath deposition (CBD technique. Aqueous ammonia was used as a complexing agent for the synthesis of these films. Deposition parameters were optimised and the crystal structure and morphology of the films were characterized by x-ray diffraction (XRD and field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM, respectively. XRD pattern revealed that the as-prepared CdSe thin films are polycrystalline with hexagonal structure. The average crystallite size of CdSe thin film was found to be in the range of 12-16 nm. FE-SEM image revealed that deposited thin films were consisting of nanocrystalline grains, which were coalesced to form bigger grains that are in cluster form distributed over the substrate surface. Transmission spectra showed high transmittance in the visible region and direct optical band gap energy was found to be a function of deposition time.

  11. Study of neutron spectra in a water bath from a Pb target irradiated by 250 MeV protons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yan-Yan; Zhang, Xue-Ying; Ju, Yong-Qin; Ma, Fei; Zhang, Hong-Bin; Chen, Liang; Ge, Hong-Lin; Wan, Bo; Luo, Peng; Zhou, Bin; Zhang, Yan-Bin; Li, Jian-Yang; Xu, Jun-Kui; Wang, Song-Lin; Yang, Yong-Wei; Yang, Lei

    2015-04-01

    Spallation neutrons were produced by the irradiation of Pb with 250 MeV protons. The Pb target was surrounded by water which was used to slow down the emitted neutrons. The moderated neutrons in the water bath were measured by using the resonance detectors of Au, Mn and In with a cadmium (Cd) cover. According to the measured activities of the foils, the neutron flux at different resonance energies were deduced and the epithermal neutron spectra were proposed. Corresponding results calculated with the Monte Carlo code MCNPX were compared with the experimental data to check the validity of the code. The comparison showed that the simulation could give a good prediction for the neutron spectra above 50 eV, while the finite thickness of the foils greatly effected the experimental data in low energy. It was also found that the resonance detectors themselves had great impact on the simulated energy spectra. Supported by National Natural Science Foundation and Strategic Priority Research Program of the Chinese Academy of Sciences (11305229, 11105186, 91226107, 91026009, XDA03030300)

  12. Efficacy of oxytetracycline hydrochloride bath immersion to control external columnaris disease on walleye and channel catfish fingerlings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rach, J.J.; Johnson, Aaron H.; Rudacille, J.B.; Schleis, S.M.

    2008-01-01

    The efficacy of oxytetracycline hydrochloride (OTC-HCl) in controlling external columnaris disease caused by Flavobacterium columnare on fingerling walleyes Sander vitreus and channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus was evaluated in two on-site hatchery trials. Microscopic examination of skin scrapings before treatment confirmed the presence of bacteria with characteristics indicative of F. columnare.in separate trials, walleyes (4.4 g) and channel catfish (1.5 g) were exposed to 60-min static bath treatments of OTC-HCl at 0, 10, and 20 mg/L (walleyes) or 0, 10, 20, and 40 mg/L (channel catfish) on three consecutive days. Each treatment regimen was tested in triplicate, and each replicate contained either 30 walleyes or 55 channel catfish. Posttreatment presumptive disease diagnosis indicated that F. columnare was the disease agent causing the mortality in both species of fish. Walleye survival at 10 d posttreatment was greater in the 10- and 20-mg/L treatment groups than in the control group; however, only the 10-mg/L treatment significantly (P catfish trial, survival at 10 d posttreatment was significantly (P catfish infected with F. columnare. ?? Copyright by the American Fisheries Society 2008.

  13. Effects of Thermal Annealing on the Optical Properties of Titanium Oxide Thin Films Prepared by Chemical Bath Deposition Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.U. Igwe

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available A titanium oxide thin film was prepared by chemical bath deposition technique, deposited on glass substrates using TiO2 and NaOH solution with triethanolamine (TEA as the complexing agent. The films w ere subjected to post deposition annealing under various temperatures, 100, 150, 200, 300 and 399ºC. The thermal treatment streamlined the properties of the oxide films. The films are transparent in the entire regions of the electromagnetic spectrum, firmly adhered to the substrate and resistant to chemicals. The transmittance is between 20 and 95% while the reflectance is between 0.95 and 1%. The band gaps obtained under various thermal treatments are between 2.50 and 3.0 ev. The refractive index is between 1.52 and 2.55. The thickness achieved is in the range of 0.12-0.14 :m.These properties of the oxide film make it suitable for application in solar cells: Liquid and solid dye-sensitized photoelectrochemical solar cells, photo induced water splitting, dye synthesized solar cells, environmental purifications, gas sensors, display devices, batteries, as well as, solar cells with an organic or inorganic extremely thin absorber. These thin films are also of interest for the photooxidation of water, photocatalysis, electro chromic devices and other uses.

  14. Characterization of annealed Eu3+-doped ZnO flower-like morphology synthesized by chemical bath deposition method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koao, L. F.; Dejene, B. F.; Swart, H. C.; Motloung, S. V.; Motaung, T. E.

    2016-10-01

    Undoped and europium ion (Eu3+) doped ZnO nanostructures were synthesized via the chemical bath deposition method and annealed afterwards in air at 700 °C. The X-ray diffraction measurements confirmed the hexagonal wurtzite structure for all samples. The scanning electron microscopy (SEM) revealed that the nanopowder samples were assembled in flower-like shapes for undoped and hexagonal-shaped for Eu3+-doped ZnO. Elemental energy dispersive (EDS) analysis mapping conducted on the samples revealed homogeneous distribution of Zn, O, and Eu ions. The Ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis) diffusion reflectance spectroscopy showed a decrease in the band gap with an increasing Eu3+ concentration. The photoluminescence (PL) results showed that by exciting Eu3+ (4 mol%) doped ZnO with different excitation wavelength the highest luminescence intensity was observed at an excitation wavelength of 395 nm but no emissions were observed from Eu3+. By exciting further with 465 nm the Eu3+ emissions were observed and emission from undoped ZnO was found for the first time.

  15. Effect of growth time on Ti-doped ZnO nanorods prepared by low-temperature chemical bath deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bidier, Shaker A.; Hashim, M. R.; Al-Diabat, Ahmad M.; Bououdina, M.

    2017-04-01

    Ti-doped ZnO nanorod arrays were grown onto Si substrate using chemical bath deposition (CBD) method at 93 °C. To investigate the effect of time deposition on the morphological, and structural properties, four Ti-doped ZnO samples were prepared at various deposition periods of time (2, 3.5, 5, and 6.5 h). FESEM images displayed high-quality and uniform nanorods with a mean length strongly dependent upon deposition time; i.e. it increases for prolonged growth time. Additionally, EFTEM images reveal a strong erosion on the lateral side for the sample prepared for 6.5 h as compared to 5 h. This might be attributed to the dissolution reaction of ZnO with for prolonged growth time. XRD analysis confirms the formation of a hexagonal wurtzite-type structure for all samples with a preferred growth orientation along the c-axis direction. The (100) peak intensity was enhanced and then quenched, which might be the result of an erosion on the lateral side of nanorods as seen in EFTEM. This study confirms the important role of growth time on the morphological features of Ti-doped ZnO nanorods prepared using CBD.

  16. Simulated tempering based on global balance or detailed balance conditions: Suwa-Todo, heat bath, and Metropolis algorithms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, Yoshiharu; Okumura, Hisashi

    2015-12-01

    Simulated tempering (ST) is a useful method to enhance sampling of molecular simulations. When ST is used, the Metropolis algorithm, which satisfies the detailed balance condition, is usually applied to calculate the transition probability. Recently, an alternative method that satisfies the global balance condition instead of the detailed balance condition has been proposed by Suwa and Todo. In this study, ST method with the Suwa-Todo algorithm is proposed. Molecular dynamics simulations with ST are performed with three algorithms (the Metropolis, heat bath, and Suwa-Todo algorithms) to calculate the transition probability. Among the three algorithms, the Suwa-Todo algorithm yields the highest acceptance ratio and the shortest autocorrelation time. These suggest that sampling by a ST simulation with the Suwa-Todo algorithm is most efficient. In addition, because the acceptance ratio of the Suwa-Todo algorithm is higher than that of the Metropolis algorithm, the number of temperature states can be reduced by 25% for the Suwa-Todo algorithm when compared with the Metropolis algorithm.

  17. RETRACTED: Ammonia-free method for synthesis of CdS nanocrystalline thin films through chemical bath deposition technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimi, M.; Rabiee, M.; Moztarzadeh, F.; Bodaghi, M.; Tahriri, M.

    2009-11-01

    This article has been retracted: please see Elsevier Policy on Article Withdrawal ( http://www.elsevier.com/locate/withdrawalpolicy). This article has been retracted at the request of the Editor-in-Chief of Solid State Communications as the authors have plagiarized part of a paper that has also appeared in Current Applied Physics: Controlled synthesis, characterization and optical properties of CdS nanocrystalline thin films via chemical bath deposition (CBD) route Meysam Karimi, Mohammad Rabiee, Fathollah Moztarzadeh, Mohammadreza Tahriri and Masoud Bodaghi; Curr. Appl. Phys., 9 (2009) 1263-1268, doi: 10.1016/j.cap.2009.02.006. One of the conditions of submission of a paper for publication is that authors declare explicitly that their work is original and has not appeared in a publication elsewhere. Re-use of any data should be appropriately cited. As such this article represents a severe abuse of the scientific publishing system. The scientific community takes a very strong view on this matter and apologies are offered to readers of the journal that this was not detected during the submission process.

  18. Evaluating bath treatment effectiveness in the control of sea lice burdens on Atlantic salmon in New Brunswick, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gautam, R; Vanderstichel, R; Boerlage, A S; Revie, C W; Hammell, K L

    2016-11-18

    The use of medicinal bath treatment for sea lice is becoming more common, due to increasing resistance to in-feed treatments with emamectin benzoate. Common treatment modalities in New Brunswick, Canada, include Salmosan administered by tarpaulin or wellboat, and Paramove administered by wellboat. In this study, we assessed the effectiveness of these treatment modalities in the field between 2010 and 2015 using a web-based sea lice data management system (Fish-iTrends(©) ). Effectiveness was evaluated for adult female (AF) and for pre-adult and adult male (PAAM) life stages separately. We also investigated the impact of variability in pretreatment lead and post-treatment lag time on effectiveness measures. There were 1185 treatment events at 57 farms that uniquely matched our pre- and post-treatment count criteria. The effectiveness of treatment modality was significantly influenced by season, pretreatment level of sea lice and by lead and lag times. In summer, Salmosan administered by tarpaulin had the greatest effectiveness on both AF and PAAM, when pretreatment levels were above 10 sea lice; whereas in autumn, the performance of treatment modalities varied significantly, depending on the pretreatment levels for the life stages. Ignoring the lead or lag time effect generally resulted in an underestimation of treatment effectiveness.

  19. Symmetry and the critical phase of the two-bath spin-boson model: Ground-state properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Nengji; Chen, Lipeng; Xu, Dazhi; Chernyak, Vladimir; Zhao, Yang

    2015-05-01

    A generalized trial wave function termed as the "multi-D1 ansatz" has been developed to study the ground state of the spin-boson model with simultaneous diagonal and off-diagonal coupling in the sub-Ohmic regime. Ground-state properties including energy and spin polarization are investigated, and the results are consistent with those from exact diagonalization and density matrix renormalization group approaches for the cases involving two oscillators and two baths described by a continuous spectral density function. Breakdown of the rotational and parity symmetries along the continuous quantum phase transition separating the localized phase from the critical phase has been uncovered. Moreover, the phase boundary is determined accurately with the corresponding rotational- and parity-symmetry parameters. A critical value of the spectral exponent s*=0.49 (1 ) is predicted in the weak coupling limit, which is in agreement with the mean-field prediction of 1 /2 , but much smaller than the earlier literature estimate of 0.75 (1 ) .

  20. Chemical bath deposited rutile TiO2 compact layer toward efficient planar heterojunction perovskite solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Chao; Wu, Zhenhua; Li, Pengwei; Fan, Jiajie; Zhang, Yiqiang; Shao, Guosheng

    2017-01-01

    TiO2 is a best choice of electron transport layers in perovskite solar cells, due to its high electron mobility and stability. However, traditional TiO2 processing method requires rather high annealing temperature (>500 °C), preventing it from application to flexible devices. Here, we show that TiO2 thin films can be synthesized via chemical bath deposition below 100 °C. Typically, a compact layer of rutile TiO2 is deposited onto fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) coated substrates, in an aqueous TiCl4 solution at 70 °C. Through the optimization of precursor concentration and ultraviolet-ozone surface modification, over 12% power conversion efficiency can be achieved for CH3NH3PbI3 based perovskite solar cells. These findings offer a potential low-temperature technical solution in using TiO2 thin film as an effective transport layer for flexible perovskite solar cells.