WorldWideScience

Sample records for baths

  1. Bathing

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... prevent falls. You can buy shower chairs at drug stores and medical supply stores. Before Bathing Before starting a bath or shower: • Get the soap, washcloth, towels, and shampoo ready. • Make sure the bathroom is warm and well lighted. • Play soft music if it helps to relax the person. • Be ...

  2. MANSION BATHS OF KAYSERİ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celil ARSLAN

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The baths has an important place in all the settlements since ancient times. Bath architecture which constitutes an important place in the history of architecture, revealed different functions with a different typology in separate nations and regions.In Turkish culture, since bathing and cleaning always have a priority, baths are attributed a meaning in this way. Beside cleanliness, in many social events such as birth, marriage, and circumcision, Turkish baths which have an important wealth in the sense of being scene to these events appear us as the reflections of a deep-rooted culture. In some regions of Anatolia, the baths still maintain these functions in social life.In this study, four mansion baths one of which is in the central city of Kayseri, two of which are in the village of Tavlusun and one of which is in the village of Germir have been surveyed. Two of Kayseri mansion baths were built as adjacent to Güpgüpoğlu mansion bath and Osman Çetin bath, and the baths belonging to Tavlusun Bektaşoğlu and Germir Sadık Çelen mansions were built separately.The basic construction in baths is understood to be established upon the main places associated with bathing in the order of "dressing, warmness, hotness," with the installation part of "water tank and boiler room". The baths are examples of discrete plan types.In this study, the mansion baths of Kayseri will be presented in some ways such as the independent locations of these baths in the houses or in the land, their building and topography relation, architecture and structural elements, decorative elements, plumbing and heating system and with the light of information to be obtained in this context, the place of Kayseri mansion baths in the Turkish bath architecture will be attempted to be determined.

  3. MANSION BATHS OF CYPRUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enes Kavalçalan

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available From the very beginning of the human history, body cleanliness is one of the basic needs. At first, human beings have supplied the needs of cleaning from rivers and lakes. With the development of civilizations they have started to build baths. In Roman Period these baths have been combined with Gymnasiums and become a part of the social life while they were merely small places of bathing in Ancient Greek. In the course of time, bath architecture which gained new functions and typologies with the effects of different nations and geographic places has maintained its own existence in Turkish culture as a popular ingredient in it. In this paper, mansion baths that were built in Ottoman period in Cyprus are studied. Firstly all locations of baths were determinated, photographed and measured during the research. Then, the determinated baths have been tried to being described comprehensively in the light of the documents and knowledges that are achievable. Main plan in mansion baths was built on the basis of “dressing” and “hotness” sections. Also, there are installation parts like “water tank” and “boiler room”. The baths which have a peculiar schema in itself constitute the exceptional examples of bath typology. With this paper, introduction to science world of mansion baths which are generally ignored in most of the researches because of the small sizes, are aimed.

  4. What Are Bath Salts?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Blog Team Concert festivals are all about good music, good friends, and big crowds. But for some ... school, North Carolina: Are bath salts becoming more popular? Marsha Lopez Hi, Lauren. Nope! Actually quite the ...

  5. Water Evaporation in Swimming Baths

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hyldgård, Carl-Erik

    This paper is publishing measuring results from models and full-scale baths of the evaporation in swimming baths, both public baths and retraining baths. Moreover, the heat balance of the basin water is measured. In addition the full-scale measurements have given many experiences which are...... represented in instructions for carrying out and running swimming baths. If you follow the instructions you can achieve less investments, less heat consumption and a better comfort to the bathers....

  6. [Immersion in a bath despite a safety bath chair].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, H B; Lange, A

    1989-01-01

    A case of submersion is described. A mother left her child aged 8 1/2 months sitting in a "safety bath chair" in a full bath and found the child lying under the water shortly afterwards. The infant was hypotonic for a brief period but rapidly recovered without sequelae. Use of a "safety bath chair" gives a false sense of security and its use is warned against. PMID:2911907

  7. Chlorhexidine gluconate: to bathe or not to bathe?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubin, Caroline; Louthan, Rufina Bavin; Wessels, Erica; McGowan, Mary-Bridgid; Downer, Shantee; Maiden, Jeanne

    2013-01-01

    Despite infection-prevention initiatives, hospital-acquired infections (HAIs) are still a common occurrence. Chlorhexidine gluconate (CHG) is an important antibacterial agent. Research indicates that the intervention of bathing with CHG can reduce the number of HAIs. Chlorhexidine gluconate is known to reduce the bioload of several bacteria, including multiple strains of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Research regarding the intervention of bathing with CHG was assessed and found to reduce central line-related blood stream infections, ventilator-associated pneumonia, and vancomycin-resistant enterococci. The reduction in HAIs was found to be greater as compared to bathing with soap and water. The reduction of these HAIs will allow for a saving of resources, finances and staff time, which may ultimately be passed on to the patient. While further research is indicated, a strong conclusion is drawn that bathing with CHG reduces the number of HAIs. PMID:23470709

  8. 21 CFR 890.5110 - Paraffin bath.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Therapeutic Devices § 890.5110 Paraffin bath. (a) Identification. A paraffin bath is a device intended for medical purposes that consists of a tub to be filled... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Paraffin bath. 890.5110 Section 890.5110 Food...

  9. Bed bathing patients in hospital

    OpenAIRE

    L Downey; Lloyd, Hilary

    2008-01-01

    There are a number of circumstances that may affect an individual's ability to maintain personal hygiene. Hospitalised patients, and in particular those who are bedridden, may become dependent on nursing staff to carry out their hygiene needs. Assisting patients to maintain personal hygiene is a fundamental aspect of nursing care. However, it is a task often delegated to junior or newly qualified staff. This article focuses on the principles of bed bathing patients in hospital, correct proced...

  10. [Ofuji papuloerythroderma: PUVA bath treatment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michel, S; Hohenleutner, U; Landthaler, M

    1999-05-01

    Papuloerythroderma of Ofuji is a rare skin disorder described primarily in Japanese patients. It occurs primarily in elderly men. The initial lesions are diffuse red papules, sparing the face, palms and soles. Later the papules coalesce into an erythroderma, with typical sparing of the skin folds and creases (the deck chair sign). Pruritus is usually intense. Lymphadenopathy, peripheral blood eosinophilia and elevated IgE levels all are common. Both systemic corticosteroids and systemic PUVA therapy have been recommended. We describe a German male who fulfilled the diagnostic criteria for papuloerythroderma of Ofuji and responded well to PUVA bath therapy with both improvement in skin findings and reduction in pruritus. PMID:10412634

  11. Taking a Bath In Tibetan Medicinal Water

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Lighting incense in a room and planting oneself into the environment scented by the smoke is one of the ways Tibetans keep fit. And they say they are taking a bath when doing so.According to the Tibetan medical code, the Tibetans had long produced many ways for "taking baths" to cleanse themselves, build up their physique and prolong life. Most popular ones include taking baths in

  12. Pulling bubbles from a bath

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kao, Justin C. T.; Blakemore, Andrea L.; Hosoi, A. E.

    2010-06-01

    Deposition of bubbles on a wall withdrawn from a liquid bath is a phenomenon observed in many everyday situations—the foam lacing left behind in an emptied glass of beer, for instance. It is also of importance to the many industrial processes where uniformity of coating is desirable. We report work on an idealized version of this situation, the drag-out of a single bubble in Landau-Levich-Derjaguin flow. We find that a well-defined critical wall speed exists, separating the two regimes of bubble persistence at the meniscus and bubble deposition on the moving wall. Experiments show that this transition occurs at Ca∗˜Bo0.73. A similar result is obtained theoretically by balancing viscous stresses and gravity.

  13. 36 CFR 21.5 - Therapeutic bathing requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Therapeutic bathing... INTERIOR HOT SPRINGS NATIONAL PARK; BATHHOUSE REGULATIONS § 21.5 Therapeutic bathing requirements. Baths... physicians only if the bath is administered in accordance with the bath directions prescribed by...

  14. Large capacity water and air bath calorimeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    EG and G Mound Applied Technologies has developed an 11 in. x 17 in. sample size water bath and an 11 in. x 17 in. sample size air bath calorimeter which both function under servo control mode of operation. The water bath calorimeter has four air bath preconditioners to increase sample throughput and the air bath calorimeter has two air bath preconditioners. The large capacity calorimeters and preconditioners were unique to Mound design which brought about unique design challenges. Both large capacity systems calculate the optimum set temperature for each preconditioner which is available to the operator. Each system is controlled by a personal computer under DOS which allows the operator to download data to commercial software packages when the calorimeter is idle. Qualification testing yielded a one standard deviation of 0.6% for 0.2W to 3.0W Pu-238 heat standard range in the water bath calorimeter and a one standard deviation of 0.3% for the 6.0W to 20.0W Pu-238 heat standard range in the air bath calorimeter

  15. Electroplating of iron from alkaline gluconate baths

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abd El Meguid, E.A.; Abd El Rehim, S.S.; Moustafa, E.M

    2003-10-22

    Electroplating of iron onto copper substrates from non-polluting baths containing ferrous sulfate and sodium gluconate has been investigated under different bath composition, pH, temperature and current density conditions. A detailed study has been made on the influence of these parameters on potentiodynamic polarization curves, cathodic current efficiency and throwing power of the baths. The optimum plating bath has been found to be: 0.072 mol/l FeSO{sub 4}{center_dot}7H{sub 2}O, 0.23 mol/l sodium gluconate, pH 12, current density of 0.167 A dm{sup -2} and at 25 deg. C. This bath is characterized by an excellent throwing power. The surface morphology of the as-deposited iron was investigated by using scanning electron microscope (SEM) while the crystal structure was examined by using X-ray diffraction analysis.

  16. Russian bath%俄罗斯浴

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    @@ The history of Russian bath originates in old times. From descriptions of Greece Herodotus1,it is possible to find out that the Scythians that lived in Ukraine in ancient times used bath.They established three poles inclined by the top ends to each other,and covered them with felt.Then threw into the tub put in the middle of this hut the red-hot stones. They brought hempen2 seeds into this felt bath and threw them on the heated stones.

  17. Suppression of decoherence by bath ordering

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jing Jun; Ma Hong-Ru

    2007-01-01

    The dynamics of two coupled spins-1/2 coupled to a spin-bath is studied as an extended model of the TessieriWilkie Hamiltonian. The pair of spins served as an open subsystem is prepared in one of the Bell states and the bath consisting of some spins-1/2 is in a thermal equilibrium state from the very beginning. It is found that with increasing coupling strength of the bath spins, the bath forms a resonant antiferromagnetic order. The polarization correlation between the two spins of the subsystem and the concurrence of it are recovered to some extent in the isolated subsystem. This suppression of the subsystem decoherence may be used to control the quantum devices in practical applications.

  18. Finite size bath in qubit thermodynamics

    OpenAIRE

    Pekola, J. P.; Suomela, S.; Galperin, Y. M.

    2016-01-01

    We discuss a qubit weakly coupled to a finite-size heat bath (calorimeter) from the point of view of quantum thermodynamics. The energy deposited to this environment together with the state of the qubit provides a basis to analyze the heat and work statistics of this closed combined system. We present results on two representative models, where the bath is composed of two-level systems or harmonic oscillators, respectively. Finally, we derive results for an open quantum system composed of the...

  19. Electrodeposition of gold from formaldehyde-sulfite baths: bath stability and deposits characterization

    OpenAIRE

    Juliana L. Cardoso; Sebastião G. dos Santos Filho

    2011-01-01

    It was investigated Au(I)-sulfite baths containing formaldehyde. As a result, high stability was achieved for baths containing formaldehyde concentration close to 10 mL L-1 with a lifetime superior to 600 days. On the other hand, cyclic voltammograms indicated that the increase of formaldehyde concentration in the bath promotes decreasing of the maximum cathodic current, so that, if the formaldehyde concentration is high, the surface areal concentration of gold will be low. Also, the lowest s...

  20. THE IMPORTANCE OF COAGULATION BATH IN ACRYLIC FIBER PRODUCTION

    OpenAIRE

    İsmail TİYEK; BOZDOĞAN, Faruk

    2005-01-01

    In the production of acrylic fibers using wet-spinning method, fiber formation takes places in the coagulation bath. Therefore, physical properties of the fibers, produced by the wet-spinning method, is affected by coagulation bath conditions. For this reason, coagulation bath parameters have to be checked very well. In this paper, both the physical events such as diffusion and phase transition, occured in the coagulation bath, and some coagulation bath parameters that affect these physical e...

  1. Avian Assemblages at Bird Baths: A Comparison of Urban and Rural Bird Baths in Australia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gráinne P Cleary

    Full Text Available Private gardens provide habitat and resources for many birds living in human-dominated landscapes. While wild bird feeding is recognised as one of the most popular forms of human-wildlife interaction, almost nothing is known about the use of bird baths. This citizen science initiative explores avian assemblages at bird baths in private gardens in south-eastern Australia and how this differs with respect to levels of urbanisation and bioregion. Overall, 992 citizen scientists collected data over two, four-week survey periods during winter 2014 and summer 2015 (43% participated in both years. Avian assemblages at urban and rural bird baths differed between bioregions with aggressive nectar-eating species influenced the avian assemblages visiting urban bird baths in South Eastern Queensland, NSW North Coast and Sydney Basin while introduced birds contributed to differences in South Western Slopes, Southern Volcanic Plains and Victorian Midlands. Small honeyeaters and other small native birds occurred less often at urban bird baths compared to rural bird baths. Our results suggest that differences between urban versus rural areas, as well as bioregion, significantly influence the composition of avian assemblages visiting bird baths in private gardens. We also demonstrate that citizen science monitoring of fixed survey sites such as bird baths is a useful tool in understanding large-scale patterns in avian assemblages which requires a vast amount of data to be collected across broad areas.

  2. Avian Assemblages at Bird Baths: A Comparison of Urban and Rural Bird Baths in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleary, Gráinne P; Parsons, Holly; Davis, Adrian; Coleman, Bill R; Jones, Darryl N; Miller, Kelly K; Weston, Michael A

    2016-01-01

    Private gardens provide habitat and resources for many birds living in human-dominated landscapes. While wild bird feeding is recognised as one of the most popular forms of human-wildlife interaction, almost nothing is known about the use of bird baths. This citizen science initiative explores avian assemblages at bird baths in private gardens in south-eastern Australia and how this differs with respect to levels of urbanisation and bioregion. Overall, 992 citizen scientists collected data over two, four-week survey periods during winter 2014 and summer 2015 (43% participated in both years). Avian assemblages at urban and rural bird baths differed between bioregions with aggressive nectar-eating species influenced the avian assemblages visiting urban bird baths in South Eastern Queensland, NSW North Coast and Sydney Basin while introduced birds contributed to differences in South Western Slopes, Southern Volcanic Plains and Victorian Midlands. Small honeyeaters and other small native birds occurred less often at urban bird baths compared to rural bird baths. Our results suggest that differences between urban versus rural areas, as well as bioregion, significantly influence the composition of avian assemblages visiting bird baths in private gardens. We also demonstrate that citizen science monitoring of fixed survey sites such as bird baths is a useful tool in understanding large-scale patterns in avian assemblages which requires a vast amount of data to be collected across broad areas. PMID:26962857

  3. [Pseudomonas folliculitis after spa bath exposure].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uldall Pallesen, Kristine Appel; Andersen, Klaus Ejner; Mørtz, Charlotte Gotthard

    2012-06-25

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a rare cause of folliculitis. Pseudomonas folliculitis can develop after contact with contaminated water from swimming pools, hot tubs and spa baths. Systemic therapy may be indicated in patients with widespread lesions, systemic symptoms or in immunosuppressed patients. We describe a 23-year-old healthy woman who developed a pustular rash and general malaise after using a spa bath contaminated with Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Bacterial culture from a pustule confirmed Pseudomonas folliculitis and the patient was treated with ciprofloxacin with rapid good effect. PMID:22735119

  4. [Is Turkish bath water potable?: The baths of Sidi-Bel-Abbes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benouis, K; Benabderrahmane, M; Harrache-Chettouh, Djamila; Benabdeli, K

    2008-01-01

    In Algeria, large numbers of people regularly go to Turkish baths or "Hammams". The cold tap water of the baths in the town of Sidi-Bel-Abbes (Algeria) comes either from wells or from a mixture of potable waterworks water and well water. Its principal use is for personal hygiene (washing). However, the steam heat generates thirst that can cause users to drink cold water during the steam bath. In addition, the wells feeding the baths are often poorly protected and especially badly treated. To ascertain whether their water quality, particularly bacteriological, meets the requirements for drinking water, we studied the characteristics of water from ten Turkish baths in Sidi-Bel-Abbes. Bacteriological analyses of cold water showed signs of contamination of fecal origin in 50% of the samples analysed. Moreover two water points from two of the baths appeared to have permanent fecal contamination. The physicochemical analysis showed that the water was very high in calcium (up to 550 mg/L) and magnesium (up to 299 mg/L). The maximum nitrate level observed was 68 mg/L. This study thus showed the existence of a health risk due to deterioration in the quality of the bath water and demonstrated the need for protection of the wells, frequent purification, and regular microbiological testing. PMID:19188127

  5. Bubble bath burns: an unusual case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nizamoglu, Metin; Tan, Alethea; El-Muttardi, Naguib

    2016-01-01

    We present an unusual case of flash burn injury in an adolescent following accidental combination of foaming bath bubbles and tea light candle flame. There has not been any reported similar case described before. This serves as a learning point for public prevention and clinicians managing burn injuries. PMID:27583271

  6. Avian Assemblages at Bird Baths: A Comparison of Urban and Rural Bird Baths in Australia

    OpenAIRE

    Cleary, Gráinne P.; Parsons, Holly; Davis, Adrian; Coleman, Bill R.; Jones, Darryl N.; Kelly K Miller; Michael A. Weston

    2016-01-01

    Private gardens provide habitat and resources for many birds living in human-dominated landscapes. While wild bird feeding is recognised as one of the most popular forms of human-wildlife interaction, almost nothing is known about the use of bird baths. This citizen science initiative explores avian assemblages at bird baths in private gardens in south-eastern Australia and how this differs with respect to levels of urbanisation and bioregion. Overall, 992 citizen scientists collected data ov...

  7. 21 CFR 890.5125 - Nonpowered sitz bath.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Nonpowered sitz bath. 890.5125 Section 890.5125...) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Therapeutic Devices § 890.5125 Nonpowered sitz bath. (a) Identification. A nonpowered sitz bath is a device intended for medical purposes...

  8. Bath vaccination of rainbow trout against yersiniosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raida, Martin Kristian; Buchmann, Kurt

    2007-01-01

    Studies have been conducted on the temperature-dependent effect of bath vaccination of rainbow trout against Yersinia ruckeri O1. Protection of rainbow trout fry against challenge, following bath vaccination with a bacterin of Yersinia ruckeri O1, the bacterial pathogen causing enteric red mouth...... disease (ERM), was investigated at 5, 15 and 25° C. Rainbow trout fry were kept at controlled temperatures for two month before they were immersed in a commercial Yersinia ruckeri O1 bacterin for 10 minutes. Control groups were sham vaccinated using pure water. Fish were challenged with Yersinia ruckeri O......1 one and two month post vaccination at the three temperatures. Protection of vaccinated fish was seen one and two month post vaccination in rainbow trout reared at 15° C. There was no effect of vaccination in rainbow trout reared at 5 and 25° C. Spleen tissue was sampled from 5 vaccinated and 5...

  9. Oscillons in a hot heat bath

    CERN Document Server

    Gleiser, Marcello; Gleiser, Marcelo; Haas, Richard

    1996-01-01

    In models of real scalar fields with degenerate double-well potentials, spherically symmetric, large amplitude fluctuations away from the vacuum are unstable. Neglecting interactions with an external environment, the evolution of such configurations may entail the development of an oscillon; a localized, non-singular, time-dependent configuration which is {\\it extremely} long-lived. In the present study we investigate numerically how the coupling to a heat bath influences the evolution of collapsing bubbles. We show that the existence and lifetime of the oscillon stage is extremely sensitive to how strongly the field is coupled to the heat bath. By modeling the coupling through a Markovian Langevin equation with viscosity coefficient \\gamma, we find that for \\gamma \\gtrsim 5 \\times 10^{-4}m, where m is the typical mass scale in the model, oscillons are not observed.

  10. Quantum impurities in channel mixing baths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jin-Guo; Wang, Da; Wang, Qiang-Hua

    2016-01-01

    We propose a versatile strategy for numerical renormalization group (NRG) solution of general channel-mixing Kondo and Anderson impurity models beyond previous reach. We illustrate the strategy by investigating the quantum phase transitions in models of Anderson impurities coupled to s - and d -wave superconducting baths. We discuss the effects of nontrivial channel-mixing in such models. Our strategy opens the door toward broad applications of NRG as impurity solver in cluster dynamical mean field theory for strongly correlated electron systems.

  11. Leidenfrost drops on liquid baths: theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobac, Benjamin; Rednikov, Alexei; Maquet, Laurent; Darbois-Texier, Baptiste; Duchesne, Alexis; Brandenbourger, Martin; Dorbolo, Stéphane; Colinet, Pierre

    2015-11-01

    It is well known that a liquid drop released over a very hot surface generally does not contact the surface nor boils but rather levitates over a thin vapor film generated by its own evaporation (Leidenfrost effect). In particular, the case of a hot (and flat) solid substrate has been extensively studied in recent years. In contrast, we here focus on Leidenfrost drops over a superheated liquid bath, addressing the problem theoretically and comparing our predictions with experimental results, detailed in a separate talk. We predict the geometry of the drop and of the liquid bath, based on the hydrostatic Young-Laplace and lubrication equations. A good agreement is observed with the available experimental data concerning the deformation of the liquid bath. The modeling also yields a rather complete insight into the shape of the drop. As in the case of a solid substrate, the vapor layer generally appears to be composed of a vapor pocket surrounded by a circular neck. The influences of the superheat and of the drop size are parametrically investigated. A number of scaling laws are established. Unlike the case of a solid substrate, no chimney instability was found in the range of drop size studied.

  12. Protecting coherence by reservoir engineering: intense bath disturbance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Zixian; Lü, Zhiguo; Zheng, Hang

    2016-08-01

    We put forward a scheme based on reservoir engineering to protect quantum coherence from leaking to bath, in which we intensely disturb the Lorentzian bath by N harmonic oscillators. We show that the intense disturbance changes the spectrum of the bath and reduces the qubit-bath interaction. Furthermore, we give the exact time evolution with the Lorentzian spectrum by a master equation and calculate the concurrence and survival probability of the qubits to demonstrate the effect of the intense bath disturbance on the protection of coherence. Meanwhile, we reveal the dynamic effects of counter-rotating interaction on the qubits as compared to the results of the rotating-wave approximation.

  13. Improvements in packages comprising eye baths and eye lotions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new packaged assembly comprising an eye bath and eye lotion is described. The eye bath is shaped for application to the eye; it has a rim portion formed so as to provide a smooth skin-contacting surface and is sealed to a lid at a position removed from the skin-contacting area. The eye bath is formed in a sterile condition and aseptically filled to an appropriate level with eye lotion by a blow moulding process. The eye bath and its contents are sterilised after sealing by radioactive sterilsation. This packaged assembly is an improvement over previous eye bath assemblies in that it allows the eye bath to be used in a sterile form. It is also more comfortable and convenient to use than other sterile forms of eye treatment such as eye drops or jets of eye wash. Furthermore, bathing the eye provides a more prolonged treatment. (U.K.)

  14. Cavity-assisted quantum bath engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murch, Kater

    2013-03-01

    In practice, quantum systems are never completely isolated, but instead interact with degrees of freedom in the surrounding environment, eventually leading to decoherence. Precision measurement techniques such as nuclear magnetic resonance and interferometry, as well as envisioned quantum schemes for computation, simulation, and data encryption, rely on the ability to prepare and preserve delicate quantum superpositions and entanglement. The conventional route to long-lived quantum coherence involves minimizing coupling to a dissipative bath. Paradoxically, it is possible to instead engineer specific couplings to a quantum environment that allow dissipation to actually preserve coherence. I will discuss our recent demonstration of quantum bath engineering for a superconducting qubit coupled to a microwave cavity. By tailoring the spectrum of microwave photon shot noise in the cavity, we create a dissipative environment that autonomously relaxes the qubit to an arbitrarily specified coherent superposition of the ground and excited states. In the presence of background thermal excitations, this mechanism increases the state purity and effectively cools the dressed atom state to a low temperature. We envision that future multi-qubit implementations could enable the preparation of entangled many-body states suitable for quantum simulation and computation. This work was supported by the IARPA CSQ program.

  15. Thermal baths as quantum resources: more friends than foes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurizki, Gershon; Shahmoon, Ephraim; Zwick, Analia

    2015-12-01

    In this article we argue that thermal reservoirs (baths) are potentially useful resources in processes involving atoms interacting with quantized electromagnetic fields and their applications to quantum technologies. One may try to suppress the bath effects by means of dynamical control, but such control does not always yield the desired results. We wish instead to take advantage of bath effects, that do not obliterate ‘quantumness’ in the system-bath compound. To this end, three possible approaches have been pursued by us. (i) Control of a quantum system faster than the correlation time of the bath to which it couples: such control allows us to reveal quasi-reversible/coherent dynamical phenomena of quantum open systems, manifest by the quantum Zeno or anti-Zeno effects (QZE or AZE, respectively). Dynamical control methods based on the QZE are aimed not only at protecting the quantumness of the system, but also diagnosing the bath spectra or transferring quantum information via noisy media. By contrast, AZE-based control is useful for fast cooling of thermalized quantum systems. (ii) Engineering the coupling of quantum systems to selected bath modes: this approach, based on field-atom coupling control in cavities, waveguides and photonic band structures, allows one to drastically enhance the strength and range of atom-atom coupling through the mediation of the selected bath modes. More dramatically, it allows us to achieve bath-induced entanglement that may appear paradoxical if one takes the conventional view that coupling to baths destroys quantumness. (iii) Engineering baths with appropriate non-flat spectra: this approach is a prerequisite for the construction of the simplest and most efficient quantum heat machines (engines and refrigerators). We may thus conclude that often thermal baths are ‘more friends than foes’ in quantum technologies.

  16. Copper Sulfate Foot Baths on Dairies and Crop Toxicities

    Science.gov (United States)

    A rising concern with the application of dairy wastes to agricultural fields is the accumulation of copper (Cu) in the soil. Copper sulfate (CuSO4) from cattle foot baths are washed out of dairy barns and into wastewater lagoons. The addition of CuSO4 baths has been reported to increase Cu concent...

  17. 30 CFR 75.1712 - Bath houses and toilet facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Bath houses and toilet facilities. 75.1712 Section 75.1712 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Miscellaneous § 75.1712 Bath...

  18. The development of a virtual heat bath for calorimeters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pickrell, M.M.; Bracken, D.S.; Rudy, C.R.

    1998-12-31

    All existing calorimeter systems for sensitive nuclear assay employ a heat bath surrounding the sample chamber. The purpose of the heat bath is to maintain a constant temperature so that a fixed temperature difference is maintained across the thermal resistance of the calorimeter. Present calorimeter systems all employ an active, feedback-controlled system to maintain a fixed temperature. An alternative would be to allow the heat-bath temperature to change, to measure it, and to compensate the assay for this change. Two significant observations make this approach possible: (1) the effect on the measurement of a temperature change in the heat bath is differential in form and (2) temperature measurement systems are very accurate when measuring differences in temperature (either in time or between two locations). From these observations, the authors have developed a virtual heat-bath compensation system. The control theory and results will be presented.

  19. Mephedrone ("bath salt") pharmacology: insights from invertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramoz, L; Lodi, S; Bhatt, P; Reitz, A B; Tallarida, C; Tallarida, R J; Raffa, R B; Rawls, S M

    2012-04-19

    Psychoactive bath salts (also called meph, drone, meow meow, m-CAT, bounce, bubbles, mad cow, etc.) contain a substance called mephedrone (4-methylcathinone) that may share psychostimulant properties with amphetamine and cocaine. However, there are only limited studies of the neuropharmacological profile of mephedrone. The present study used an established invertebrate (planarian) assay to test the hypothesis that acute and repeated mephedrone exposure produces psychostimulant-like behavioral effects. Acute mephedrone administration (50-1000 μM) produced stereotyped movements that were attenuated by a dopamine receptor antagonist (SCH 23390) (0.3 μM). Spontaneous discontinuation of mephedrone exposure (1, 10 μM) (60 min) resulted in an abstinence-induced withdrawal response (i.e. reduced motility). In place conditioning experiments, planarians in which mephedrone (100, 500 μM) was paired with the non-preferred environment during conditioning displayed a shift in preference upon subsequent testing. These results suggest that mephedrone produces three behavioral effects associated with psychostimulant drugs, namely dopamine-sensitive stereotyped movements, abstinence-induced withdrawal, and environmental place conditioning. PMID:22300981

  20. Investigation of The Traditional Seljuks and Principalities Period Baths Within The Conservation and Restoration: The Example of Isparta Baths

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayşe Betül GÖKARSLAN

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The city Isparta is located around the Lakes Region in the Mediterranean Region of Turkey. Date of settlement in Isparta goes back to the upper Paleolithic era. Isparta went under the administration of Luvi and Arzava Phrygians, Lydia, Persia, Kingdom of Pergamon, Roman Empire, Byzantine Empire, Seljuks, Hamitoğulları Principality, Ottoman Empire and Republic of Turkey. Isparta is still a small Anatolian city along with its 12 district. Isparta represents the classical Turkish city concept with its mosques, covered bazaar, baths and churches. One of the most important historical structures of Isparta is bath. Baths came to be used less frequently with the construction of bathrooms in every apartment. The elderly people generally use the baths in Isparta. Due to a major decrease in their number, baths are not sufficiently functional and face with important protection issues. Traditional Isparta baths have been reviewed in detail in terms of their architecture and preservation within the scope of this study. Particularly the baths belonging to the era of Seljuk and Hamitoğulları Principality have major and urgent protection issues. Archive and literature review have been performed; architectural features of the structures have been examined; damages have been evaluated and reasons for deterioration have been analyzed. In the conclusion part, recommendations for protection and new functions have been stated so that these structures will be transferred to next generations by preserving their structural characteristics and individualities.

  1. Universe unveiled the cosmos in my bubble bath

    CERN Document Server

    Vishveshwara, C V

    2015-01-01

    The bubbles were swirling all around me, massaging my body. As I luxuriated in this fantastic bath, I gasped realizing that those bubbles carried with them miniature galaxies bringing the entire Cosmos into my bathtub... Alfie is back. And so are George and other characters from the author’s previous book Einstein’s Enigma or Black Holes in My Bubble Bath. While the present book, Universe Unveiled - The Cosmos in My Bubble Bath, is completely independent, its storyline can be considered a sequel to the previous one. The scientific content spanning ancient world models to the most recent mysteries of cosmology is presented in an entirely nontechnical and descriptive style through the discussions between Alfie, the enlightened learner, and George, professor of astrophysics. Fantasies, based on these discussions that cover the scientific facts, are created by the magical bubble baths taken by Alfie. Universe Unveiled blends accurate science with philosophy, drama, humour, and fantasy to create an exciting co...

  2. A stochastic reorganizational bath model for electronic energy transfer

    CERN Document Server

    Fujita, Takatoshi; Aspuru-Guzik, Alan

    2014-01-01

    The fluctuations of optical gap induced by the environment play crucial roles in electronic energy transfer dynamics. One of the simplest approaches to incorporate such fluctuations in energy transfer dynamics is the well known Haken-Strobl-Reineker model, in which the energy-gap fluctuation is approximated as a white noise. Recently, several groups have employed molecular dynamics simulations and excited-state calculations in conjunction to take the thermal fluctuation of excitation energies into account. Here, we discuss a rigorous connection between the stochastic and the atomistic bath models. If the phonon bath is treated classically, time evolution of the exciton-phonon system can be described by Ehrenfest dynamics. To establish the relationship between the stochastic and atomistic bath models, we employ a projection operator technique to derive the generalized Langevin equations for the energy-gap fluctuations. The stochastic bath model can be obtained as an approximation of the atomistic Ehrenfest equ...

  3. Heat-bath Configuration Interaction: An efficient selected CI algorithm inspired by heat-bath sampling

    CERN Document Server

    Holmes, Adam; Umrigar, Cyrus

    2016-01-01

    We introduce a new selected configuration interaction plus perturbation theory algorithm that is based on a deterministic analog of our recent efficient heat-bath sampling algorithm. This Heat-bath Configuration Interaction (HCI) algorithm makes use of two parameters that control the tradeoff between speed and accuracy, one which controls the selection of determinants to add to a variational wavefunction, and one which controls the the selection of determinants used to compute the perturbative correction to the variational energy. We show that HCI provides an accurate treatment of both static and dynamic correlation by computing the potential energy curve of the multireference carbon dimer in the cc-pVDZ basis. We then demonstrate the speed and accuracy of HCI by recovering the full configuration interaction energy of both the carbon dimer in the cc-pVTZ basis and the strongly-correlated chromium dimer in the Ahlrichs VDZ basis, correlating all electrons, to an accuracy of better than 1 mHa, in just a few min...

  4. Study and Practice of Forest-bathing Field in Japan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qunming; ZHENG; Xiaoya; YANG

    2013-01-01

    Japan has made remarkable achievements in the study and development of forest tourism for health care reason. Through the comprehensive investigation into the development of forest-bathing field in Japan, this paper studied the forest tourism for health care factor in Japan and concluded the evaluation standard and construction of forest-bathing field, as well as personnel training. In the end, some suggestions were proposed for the study and development of forest tourism for health care factor in Asia.

  5. Plasma levels of 8-methoxypsoralen following PUVA-bath photochemotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kobyletzki, G. von; Hoffmann, K.; Kerscher, M.; Altmeyer, P. [Ruhr-Univ., Dept. of Dermatology, Bochum (Germany)

    1998-08-01

    Administration of 8-methoxypsoralen (8-MOP) in a dilute bath water solution is an effective therapeutic alternative to oral PUVA therapy, avoiding systemic side effects, offering better bioavailability of the psoralen and requiring much smaller amounts of UVA for induction of therapeutic effects. To obtain exact data about the percutaneous absorption of 8-MOP during a psoralen bath, the plasma levels of the drug were determined in 26 patients with different skin diseases by a reverse high-performance liquid chromatographic method. Fifteen patients receiving oral PUVA therapy (0.8 mg 8-MOP/kg body weight) served as a positive control group. Bath solutions were prepared by diluting 15 ml of 0.5% stock solution of 8-MOP in 150 l of bath water (0.5 mg/l, 37 deg. C). Blood samples were drawn from patients 5, 30, 60, 120 and 180 min after the bath. In the oral PUVA group, blood samples were obtained 1 1/2 h after administration of the drug. In 23 og 26 patients, 8-MOP levels were undetectable in every blood sample. After 30 min, two patients showed detectable levels of 8-MOP (5 ng/ml, 7 ng/ml), while 60 min after the PUVA bath 8-MOP was detectable in only one volunteer (5 ng/ml). In patients receiving oral 8-MOP therapy, serum levels varied between 45 and 360 ng/ml 1 1/2 h after drug administration. Our data confirm extremely low 8-MOP levels resulting from 8-MOP bath water treatments and provide confirmation of the absence of systemic side effects in patients who are undergoing PUVA-bath therapy. (au) 15 refs.

  6. Troia Roman baths (Portugal) – Assessment of history of interventions

    OpenAIRE

    Monteiro, Ana Margarida; Faria, Paulina

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents a study of one of the roman architectonic complexes from Troia archaeological site: the Roman Baths. The first archaeological excavations campaigns and the different Roman monuments that constitute the whole site are presented, as well as the historical past conservation and restoration interventions and the most important decay factors. The Roman Baths are one example of a complex that has been intervened in, at least, two different periods of time. An asse...

  7. Plasma levels of 8-methoxypsoralen following PUVA-bath photochemotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Administration of 8-methoxypsoralen (8-MOP) in a dilute bath water solution is an effective therapeutic alternative to oral PUVA therapy, avoiding systemic side effects, offering better bioavailability of the psoralen and requiring much smaller amounts of UVA for induction of therapeutic effects. To obtain exact data about the percutaneous absorption of 8-MOP during a psoralen bath, the plasma levels of the drug were determined in 26 patients with different skin diseases by a reverse high-performance liquid chromatographic method. Fifteen patients receiving oral PUVA therapy (0.8 mg 8-MOP/kg body weight) served as a positive control group. Bath solutions were prepared by diluting 15 ml of 0.5% stock solution of 8-MOP in 150 l of bath water (0.5 mg/l, 37 deg. C). Blood samples were drawn from patients 5, 30, 60, 120 and 180 min after the bath. In the oral PUVA group, blood samples were obtained 1 1/2 h after administration of the drug. In 23 og 26 patients, 8-MOP levels were undetectable in every blood sample. After 30 min, two patients showed detectable levels of 8-MOP (5 ng/ml, 7 ng/ml), while 60 min after the PUVA bath 8-MOP was detectable in only one volunteer (5 ng/ml). In patients receiving oral 8-MOP therapy, serum levels varied between 45 and 360 ng/ml 1 1/2 h after drug administration. Our data confirm extremely low 8-MOP levels resulting from 8-MOP bath water treatments and provide confirmation of the absence of systemic side effects in patients who are undergoing PUVA-bath therapy. (au)

  8. The Wife of Bath:Chaucer’s Satire on Feminism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王林枫

    2012-01-01

    The Canterbury Tales is a famous work written by Geoffrey Chaucer.And all pilgrims are described vividly,especially the Wife of Bath.This paper argues that the Wife of Bath is not a typical representative of feminism.She does not present a rebellious image.All her remarks and actions are just a means by which Chaucer uses to satirize women.

  9. Environmental and behavioral conditions of bathing among elderly Japanese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takasaki, Yuji; Ohnaka, Tadakatsu; Tochihara, Yutaka; Nagai, Yumiko; Ito, Hiromitsu; Yoshitake, Shiro

    2007-03-01

    This study investigated the bathing conditions of elderly Japanese, and sought to find factors relating to regional differences in death rates from bathtub accidents. A questionnaire survey was carried out in 11 areas of Japan. Questionnaires including questions regarding the length of time since houses had been built, types of facilities, and subjects' indoor thermal sensations and behavior while bathing were distributed to detached houses in each area twice, once in summer and once in winter. Completed questionnaires were collected from approximately 160 elderly people over 65 years old. Information regarding thermal sensations of rooms in winter revealed that a prefabricated bath and insulating window glass eased the cold in the bathroom. Unexpectedly, more subjects in the southern region than in the northern region reported being cold or a little cold while bathing in winter. In the present study, thermal sensations and behaviors while bathing seemed to be more affected by facilities and the location of houses than by the sex and age of the subjects. PMID:17435371

  10. Effects of Water Temperature during Foot Bath in Young Females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishimura, Masahiro; Tatsuya Saito, Tatsuya Saito; Kato, Toshiaki; Onodera, Sho

    2013-09-01

    We examined the effects of environmental and water temperatures of foot baths on pulse rate, blood pressure, mean skin temperature, salivary amylase (SA) activity, relaxation level and thermal sensation during winter. Five females participated in the study. The subjects rested in a chair for 20 min and the above-noted physiological reactions during the last 5 min of the resting period were recorded as baseline (BASE) values. Next, the subjects received a 15-min foot bath in water at 40 °C (WT40) or 45 °C (WT45), with a 15-min recovery period. Although SA is thought to be an indicator of stress via the sympathetic nervous system, we did not find a correlation between SA activity and relaxation state. We considered the possible effect of seasonal variation on the physiological reaction to foot bathing. PMID:24174706

  11. [Assessment of a hospital bath chair: an ergonomic approach].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comélio, Maria Estevam; Alexandre, Neusa Maria Costa

    2005-01-01

    A high rate of musculoskeletal disorders in members of the nursing team is observed in the literature. The use of special devices such as the bath chair has reduced the risk of back injuries in these workers and has also provided the patient with greater safety as well as comfort. The aim of the present study was to assess the ergonomic characteristics of a bath chair utilized in a hospital Separate questionnaires were applied for the nurses and the patients. The bath chair accessories presented several ergonomic problems. The perceived physical exertion according to the Borg-CR10 Scale indicated that a high level of exertion was required to manipulate the equipment (8.33). PMID:16514945

  12. Bath parameter dependence of chemically deposited Copper Selenide thin film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this article, a low cost chemical bath deposition (CBD) technique has been used for the preparation Of Cu2-xSe thin films on to glass substrate. Different thin fms (0.2-0.6/μm) were prepared by adjusting the bath parameter like concentration of ammonia, deposition time, temperature of the solution, and the ratios of the mixing composition between copper and selenium in the reaction bath. From these studies, it reveals that at low concentration of ammonia or TEA, the terminal thicknesses of the films are less, which gradually increases with the increase of concentrations and then drop down at still higher concentrations. It has been found that completing the Cu2+ ions with EA first, and then addition of ammonia yields better results than the reverse process. The film thickness increases with the decrease of value x of Cu2-xSe. (author)

  13. Heat-Bath Cooling of Spins in Amino Acids

    CERN Document Server

    Elias, Yuval; Mor, Tal; Weinstein, Yossi

    2011-01-01

    Heat-bath cooling is a component of practicable algorithmic cooling of spins, an approach which might be useful for in vivo 13C spectroscopy, in particular for prolonged metabolic processes where substrates that are hyperpolarized ex-vivo are not effective. We applied heat-bath cooling to 1,2-13C2-amino acids, using the \\alpha\\ protons to shift entropy from selected carbons to the environment. For glutamate and glycine, the polarizations of both labeled carbons were enhanced, and in other experiments the total entropy of each spin system was shown to decrease. The effect of adding Magnevist, a gadolinium contrast agent, on heat-bath cooling of glutamate was investigated.

  14. Effects of Water Temperature during Foot Bath in Young Females

    OpenAIRE

    Nishimura, Masahiro; Saito, Tatsuya; Kato, Toshiaki; Onodera, Sho

    2013-01-01

    We examined the effects of environmental and water temperatures of foot baths on pulse rate, blood pressure, mean skin temperature, salivary amylase (SA) activity, relaxation level and thermal sensation during winter. Five females participated in the study. The subjects rested in a chair for 20 min and the above-noted physiological reactions during the last 5 min of the resting period were recorded as baseline (BASE) values. Next, the subjects received a 15-min foot bath in water at 40 °C (WT...

  15. Numerical Models of Sewage Dispersion and Statistica Bathing Water Standards

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Ole; Larsen, Torben

    1991-01-01

    As bathing water standards usually are founded in statistical methods, the numerical models used in outfall design should reflect this. A statistical approach, where stochastic variations in source strength and bacterial disappearance is incorporated into a numerical dilution model is presented. It...... is demonstrated for a specific outfall how the method can be used to estimate the bathing water quality. The ambition with the paper has been to demonstrate how stochastic variations in a simple manner can be included in the analysis of water quality....

  16. Einstein's Enigma of black holes in my bubble bath

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Einstein's Enigma or Black Holes in My Bubble Bath is a humorous and informal rendition of the story of gravitation theory from the early historic origins to the latest developments in astrophysics, focusing on Albert Einstein's theory of general relativity and black-hole physics. Through engaging conversations and napkin-scribbled diagrams come tumbling the rudiments of relativity, spacetime and much of modern physics, narrated with high didactic and literary talent, and each embedded in casual lessons given by a worldly astrophysicist to his friend. Join the intellectual fun and exalt in the frothy ideas while vicariously taking relaxing baths in this magical bathtub. (orig.)

  17. Markovian master equation for a classical particle coupled with arbitrary strength to a harmonic bath.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelin, Maxim F

    2014-12-01

    We consider a classical point particle bilinearly coupled to a harmonic bath. Assuming that the evolution of the particle is monitored on a timescale which is longer than the characteristic bath correlation time, we derive the Markovian master equation for the probability density of the particle. The relaxation operator of this master equation is evaluated analytically, without invoking the perturbation theory and the approximation of weak system-bath coupling. When the bath correlation time tends to zero, the Fokker-Planck equation is recovered. For a finite bath correlation time, the relaxation operator contains contributions of all orders in the system-bath coupling. PMID:25481131

  18. [Legionella pneumonia which occurred in a private whirlpool bath user].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishikawa, Akira; Okada, Jun; Kondo, Hirobumi; Takayama, Youko; Sunagawa, Keisuke; Enari, Tadako; Ishii, Yoshikazu

    2004-10-01

    A 88 year old female with active rheumatoid arthritis treated by low dose of prednisolone and methotrexate was admitted to our hospital because of severe bilateral pulmonary infiltration and acute respiratory distress syndrome. On admission, she had consciousness disturbance and was intubated because of severe respiratory failure. We heard from her family of her habit she had taking a private whirlpool bath 2 or 3 times everyday. So, we suspected a Legionella pneumophila infection. We started intravenous erythromycin (EM) (1,500mg/day) and methylprednisolone pulse therapy (1,000mg x 3days) and full controlled mechanical ventilation supported with PEEP. Her respiratory failure was gradually improved and she was discharged on the 44 the hospital day. Legionella pneumophila (serogroup 6) was isolated in her sputum by B-CYE alpha culture. Legionella pneumophila (serogroup 6) was isolated in her private whirlpool bath too. Both samples revealed the same by genetic analysis with pulse field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). This is the first adult case of Legionella pneumophila pneumonia infected from a private whirlpool bath confirmed by genetic analysis. We should always suspect Legionella pneumonia as one of the severe community-acquired pneumonia, because Legionella pneumophila were frequently detected among various water sources including the private whirlpool bath. PMID:15560380

  19. Electron spin decoherence in nuclear spin baths and dynamical decoupling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We introduce the quantum theory of the electron spin decoherence in a nuclear spin bath and the dynamical decoupling approach for protecting the electron spin coherence. These theories are applied to various solid-state systems, such as radical spins in molecular crystals and NV centers in diamond.

  20. Alternative irradiation system for efficiency manganese bath determination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Manganese Sulphate Bath (MSB) is the main method used in most metrological laboratories to measure the neutron sources emission rate Q(t) . The MSB technique consists, basically, in dipping a neutron source in the center of a large tank (∼500 L) containing a concentrated aqueous solution of manganese sulphate. The neutron source emission rate is determined through the activity solution measurement produced by captured neutrons in manganese nuclei. In order to obtain the value of Q(t) it must be taken into account the detection system efficiency and still determine some corrections. The MSB system efficiency is usually determined by irradiating a solution sample from MSB system in a reactor or accelerator. This paper proposes an alternative irradiation system (Irradiation Bath), which works with a radionuclide neutron source and manganese sulphate solution volume for efficiency determination of MSB system. This irradiation system was designed by simulation with MCNP code, considering a californium neutron source in several manganese sulphate volumes and different neutron reflectors. The goal of this simulation was to determine the materials and dimensions of Irradiation Bath which will derive the maximum manganese neutron capture. Although the specific activated irradiated samples are less than those in reactors, the simulation results for optimized Irradiation Bath have showed a manganese neutron capture increase up to 100 times with dimensions less than 15 cm in diameter when it compared to manganese neutron capture in a MSB System whose diameter is about 100 cm . (author)

  1. Debate on Uncertainty in Estimating Bathing Water Quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Torben

    1992-01-01

    Estimating the bathing water quality along the shore near a planned sewage discharge requires data on the source strength of bacteria, the die-off of bacteria and the actual dilution of the sewage. Together these 3 factors give the actual concentration of bacteria on the interesting spots on the...

  2. Bath Stone - a Possible Global Heritage Stone from England

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marker, Brian

    2014-05-01

    The Middle Jurassic strata of England have several horizons of oolitic and bioclastic limestones that provide high quality dimension stone. One of the most important is found in and near the City of Bath. The Great Oolite Group (Upper Bathonian) contains the Combe Down and Bath Oolites, consisting of current bedded oolites and shelly oolites, that have been used extensively as freestones for construction nearby, for prestigious buildings through much of southern England and more widely. The stone has been used to some extent since Roman times when the city, then known as Aquae Sulis, was an important hot spa. The stone was used to a limited extent through medieval times but from the early 18th century onwards was exploited on a large scale through surface quarrying and underground mining. The City was extensively redeveloped in the 18th to early 19th century, mostly using Bath Stone, when the spas made it a fashionable resort. Buildings from that period include architectural "gems" such as the Royal Crescent and Pulteney Bridge, as well as the renovated Roman Baths. Many buildings were designed by some of the foremost British architects of the time. The consistent use of this stone gives the City an architectural integrity throughout. These features led to the designation of the City as a World Heritage Site. It is a requirement in current City planning policy documents that Bath Stone should be used for new building to preserve the appearance of the City. More widely the stone was used in major houses (e.g. Buckingham Palace and Apsley House in London; King's Pavilion in Brighton); civic buildings (e.g. Bristol Guildhall; Dartmouth Naval College in Devon); churches and cathedrals (e.g. Truro Cathedral in Cornwall); and engineered structures (e.g. the large Dundas Aqueduct on the Kennet and Avon Canal). More widely, Bath Stone has been used in Union Station in Washington DC; Toronto Bible College and the Town Hall at Cape Town, South Africa. Extraction declined in

  3. Physiological functions of the effects of the different bathing method on recovery from local muscle fatigue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Soomin

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recently, mist saunas have been used in the home as a new bathing style in Japan. However, there are still few reports on the effects of bathing methods on recovery from muscle fatigue. Furthermore, the effect of mist sauna bathing on human physiological function has not yet been revealed. Therefore, we measured the physiological effects of bathing methods including the mist sauna on recovery from muscle fatigue. Methods The bathing methods studied included four conditions: full immersion bath, shower, mist sauna, and no bathing as a control. Ten men participated in this study. The participants completed four consecutive sessions: a 30-min rest period, a 10-min all out elbow flexion task period, a 10-min bathing period, and a 10-min recovery period. We evaluated the mean power frequency (MNF of the electromyogram (EMG, rectal temperature (Tre, skin temperature (Tsk, skin blood flow (SBF, concentration of oxygenated hemoglobin (O2Hb, and subjective evaluation. Results We found that the MNF under the full immersion bath condition was significantly higher than those under the other conditions. Furthermore, Tre, SBF, and O2Hb under the full immersion bath condition were significantly higher than under the other conditions. Conclusions Following the results for the full immersion bath condition, the SBF and O2Hb of the mist sauna condition were significantly higher than those for the shower and no bathing conditions. These results suggest that full immersion bath and mist sauna are effective in facilitating recovery from muscle fatigue.

  4. Dust-bathing behavior of laying hens in enriched colony housing systems and an aviary system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louton, H; Bergmann, S; Reese, S; Erhard, M H; Rauch, E

    2016-07-01

    The dust-bathing behavior of Lohmann Selected Leghorn hens was compared in 4 enriched colony housing systems and in an aviary system. The enriched colony housing systems differed especially in the alignment and division of the functional areas dust bath, nest, and perches. Forty-eight-hour video recordings were performed at 3 time-points during the laying period, and focal animal sampling and behavior sampling methods were used to analyze the dust-bathing behavior. Focal animal data included the relative fractions of dust-bathing hens overall, of hens bathing in the dust-bath area, and of those bathing on the wire floor throughout the day. Behavior data included the number of dust-bathing bouts within a predefined time range, the duration of 1 bout, the number of and reasons for interruptions, and the number of and reasons for the termination of dust-bathing bouts. Results showed that the average duration of dust bathing varied between the 4 enriched colony housing systems compared with the aviary system. The duration of dust-bathing bouts was shorter than reported under natural conditions. A positive correlation between dust-bathing activity and size of the dust-bath area was observed. Frequently, dust baths were interrupted and terminated by disturbing influences such as pecking by other hens. This was especially observed in the enriched colony housing systems. In none of the observed systems, neither in the enriched colony housing nor in the aviary system, were all of the observed dust baths terminated "normally." Dust bathing behavior on the wire mesh rather than in the provided dust-bath area generally was observed at different frequencies in all enriched colony housing systems during all observation periods, but never in the aviary system. The size and design of the dust-bath area influenced the prevalence of dust-bathing behavior in that small and subdivided dust-bath areas reduced the number of dust-bathing bouts but increased the incidence of sham dust

  5. A case–control study of maternal bathing habits and risk for birth defects in offspring

    OpenAIRE

    Agopian, AJ; Waller, D. Kim; Philip J. Lupo; Canfield, Mark A.; Mitchell, Laura E

    2013-01-01

    Background Nearly all women shower or take baths during early pregnancy; however, bathing habits (i.e., shower and bath length and frequency) may be related to the risk of maternal hyperthermia and exposure to water disinfection byproducts, both of which are suspected to increase risk for multiple types of birth defects. Thus, we assessed the relationships between bathing habits during pregnancy and the risk for several nonsyndromic birth defects in offspring. Methods Data for cases with one ...

  6. Bath of my home (50 yeras report No.1); Wagaya no ofuro (50 nenshi No.1)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-01-10

    Looking back at the history of bath after the war, the fuel, water heating method, hot water method, bathtub, shape of bathroom, bathing tools and bathing method have undergone surprising changes, from the period just after the war for which the number of households having their baths was small and public baths were at the height of their prosperity, to the present period for which households are generally equipped with a shower and bathtub. This paper describes the history of bath after the war in Japan, including the bathing methods and goods which came to stay in each period, placing the focus on the bathing acts and equipment. For 10 years since 1945, the housing shortage had been serious, and public baths had prospered. For this period, the bath heating fuel was mainly coal and firewood, and soap was still valuable. Since 1955, the housing situation had changed better, and the time had entered the age of bath-at-home. Since this period, aluminum bath furnaces had been mass-produced. Neutral shampoo appeared on the market and were sold like hot cakes.

  7. Nonequlibrium dynamics of scalar fields in a thermal bath

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anisimov, A.; Buchmueller, W.; Drewes, M.; Mendizabal, S.

    2008-12-15

    We study the approach to equilibrium for a scalar field which is coupled to a large thermal bath. Our analysis of the initial value problem is based on Kadanoff-Baym equations which are shown to be equivalent to a stochastic Langevin equation. The interaction with the thermal bath generates a temperature-dependent spectral density, either through decay and inverse decay processes or via Landau damping. In equilibrium, energy density and pressure are determined by the Bose-Einstein distribution function evaluated at a complex quasi-particle pole. The time evolution of the statistical propagator is compared with solutions of the Boltzmann equations for particles as well as quasi-particles. The dependence on initial conditions and the range of validity of the Boltzmann approximation are determined. (orig.)

  8. ZnSe thin films by chemical bath deposition method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lokhande, C.D.; Patil, P.S.; Tributsch, H. [Hahn-Meitner-Institute, Bereich Physikalische Chemie, Abt. CS, Glienicker Strasse-100, D-14109 Berlin (Germany); Ennaoui, A. [Hahn-Meitner-Institute, Bereich Physikalische Chemie, Abt. CG, Glienicker Strasse-100, D-14109 Berlin (Germany)

    1998-09-04

    The ZnSe thin films have been deposited onto glass substrates by the simple chemical bath deposition method using selenourea as a selenide ion source from an aqueous alkaline medium. The effect of Zn ion concentration, bath temperature and deposition time period on the quality and thickness of ZnSe films has been studied. The ZnSe films have been characterized by XRD, TEM, EDAX, TRMC (time-resolved microwave conductivity), optical absorbance and RBS techniques for their structural, compositional, electronic and optical properties. The as-deposited ZnSe films are found to be amorphous, Zn rich with optical band gap, Eg, equal to 2.9 eV

  9. Experimental bath engineering for quantitative studies of quantum control

    CERN Document Server

    Soare, A; Hayes, D; Zhen, X; Jarratt, M C; Uys, H; Biercuk, M J

    2014-01-01

    We develop and demonstrate a technique to engineer universal unitary baths in quantum systems. Using the correspondence between unitary decoherence due to ambient environmental noise and errors in a control system for quantum bits, we show how a wide variety of relevant classical error models may be realized through In-Phase/Quadrature modulation on a vector signal generator producing a resonant carrier signal. We demonstrate our approach through high-bandwidth modulation of the 12.6 GHz carrier appropriate for trapped $^{171}$Yb$^{+}$ ions. Experiments demonstrate the reduction of coherent lifetime in the system in the presence of an engineered bath, with the observed $T_{2}$ scaling as predicted by a quantitative model described herein. These techniques form the basis of a toolkit for quantitative tests of quantum control protocols, helping experimentalists characterize the performance of their quantum coherent systems.

  10. Molecular dynamics with coupling to an external bath

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berendsen, H. J. C.; Postma, J. P. M.; van Gunsteren, W. F.; DiNola, A.; Haak, J. R.

    1984-10-01

    In molecular dynamics (MD) simulations the need often arises to maintain such parameters as temperature or pressure rather than energy and volume, or to impose gradients for studying transport properties in nonequilibrium MD. A method is described to realize coupling to an external bath with constant temperature or pressure with adjustable time constants for the coupling. The method is easily extendable to other variables and to gradients, and can be applied also to polyatomic molecules involving internal constraints. The influence of coupling time constants on dynamical variables is evaluated. A leap-frog algorithm is presented for the general case involving constraints with coupling to both a constant temperature and a constant pressure bath.

  11. Appendix B: Inventory of coniferous forests near Bath, New York

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanturf, J. A.

    1980-01-01

    A zoom stereoscope was used to interpret aerial color photographs of the Finger Lakes region near Bath, New York, and areas of conifers were delineated on acetate sheets. Scale was determined for each photograph and units were converted to acres. Photographically enlarged positive transparencies of imagery from LANDSAT bands 5,6, and 7 for the southern portion of the study area were placed in a cold additive viewer and registered with each other to provide a composite image. A green filter was used on band 5, blue on band 6, and red on band 7. Conifers appeared at dark, reddish purple. Average was determined using a grid. Results show that the total confer stands within 50 miles of Bath is approximately 176,000 acres of which 60,000 acres are in Pennsylvania. The study was conducted to determine the feasibility of locating a particleboard manufacturing firm in the Southern Tier.

  12. Nonequilibrium Dynamics of Scalar Fields in a Thermal Bath

    CERN Document Server

    Anisimov, A; Drewes, M; Mendizabal, S

    2008-01-01

    We study the approach to equilibrium for a scalar field which is coupled to a large thermal bath. Our analysis of the initial value problem is based on Kadanoff-Baym equations which are shown to be equivalent to a stochastic Langevin equation. The interaction with the thermal bath generates a temperature-dependent spectral density, either through decay and inverse decay processes or via Landau damping. In equilibrium, energy density and pressure are determined by the Bose-Einstein distribution function evaluated at a complex quasi-particle pole. The time evolution of the statistical propagator is compared with solutions of the Boltzmann equations for particles as well as quasi-particles. The dependence on initial conditions and the range of validity of the Boltzmann approximation are determined.

  13. Water Condensation on Zinc Surfaces Treated by Chemical Bath Deposition

    OpenAIRE

    Narhe, R.D. (Ramchandra D.); González-Viñas, W.; Beysens, D.A. (Daniel A.)

    2010-01-01

    Water condensation, a complex and challenging process, is investigated on a metallic (Zn) surface, regularly used as anticorrosive surface. The Zn surface is coated with hydroxide zinc carbonate by chemical bath deposition, a very simple, low-cost and easily applicable process. As the deposition time increases, the surface roughness augments and the contact angle with water can be varied from 75º to 150º , corresponding to changing the surface properties from hydrophobic to ultrahydrophobic a...

  14. Towards irreversibility with a finite bath of oscillators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We investigate the routes by which a bath composed of a finite number of oscillators at zero temperature approaches the induction of dissipation when it nears the usual limit of dense spectrum spread in an infinite interval. It is shown that, when this limit is taken, different distributions of environment frequencies can lead to the same irreversible evolution. However, when we move away from it, the dynamics departs from irreversibility in qualitatively different manners.

  15. Giving a Newborn a Bath in her Parents' Presence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Didry, Pascale; Didry, Emmanuelle

    2015-11-01

    Today, Sophie is working on the maternity ward. She is going to give Manon, David and Laura's first born, a bath. Manon was born on the day before. She weighs 3.350kg and is 49cm long. She has already got a lot of fuzzy brown hair. Both parents are looking forward to watching and learning how to care for their new baby. PMID:26548395

  16. Extracting work from a single heat bath through feedback

    OpenAIRE

    Abreu, D.; Seifert, U.

    2011-01-01

    Work can be extracted from a single heat bath if additional information is available. For the paradigmatic case of a Brownian particle in a harmonic potential, whose position has been measured with finite precision, we determine the optimal protocol for manipulating the center and stiffness of the potential in order to maximize this work in a finite-time process. The bound on this work imposed by a generalized second law inequality involving information can be reached only if both position an...

  17. CdS films deposited by chemical bath under rotation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliva-Aviles, A.I., E-mail: aoliva@mda.cinvestav.mx [Centro de Investigacion y de Estudios Avanzados Unidad Merida, Departamento de Fisica Aplicada. A.P. 73-Cordemex, 97310 Merida, Yucatan (Mexico); Patino, R.; Oliva, A.I. [Centro de Investigacion y de Estudios Avanzados Unidad Merida, Departamento de Fisica Aplicada. A.P. 73-Cordemex, 97310 Merida, Yucatan (Mexico)

    2010-08-01

    Cadmium sulfide (CdS) films were deposited on rotating substrates by the chemical bath technique. The effects of the rotation speed on the morphological, optical, and structural properties of the films were discussed. A rotating substrate-holder was fabricated such that substrates can be taken out from the bath during the deposition. CdS films were deposited at different deposition times (10, 20, 30, 40 and 50 min) onto Corning glass substrates at different rotation velocities (150, 300, 450, and 600 rpm) during chemical deposition. The chemical bath was composed by CdCl{sub 2}, KOH, NH{sub 4}NO{sub 3} and CS(NH{sub 2}){sub 2} as chemical reagents and heated at 75 deg. C. The results show no critical effects on the band gap energy and the surface roughness of the CdS films when the rotation speed changes. However, a linear increase on the deposition rate with the rotation energy was observed, meanwhile the stoichiometry was strongly affected by the rotation speed, resulting a better 1:1 Cd/S ratio as speed increases. Rotation effects may be of interest in industrial production of CdTe/CdS solar cells.

  18. CdS films deposited by chemical bath under rotation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cadmium sulfide (CdS) films were deposited on rotating substrates by the chemical bath technique. The effects of the rotation speed on the morphological, optical, and structural properties of the films were discussed. A rotating substrate-holder was fabricated such that substrates can be taken out from the bath during the deposition. CdS films were deposited at different deposition times (10, 20, 30, 40 and 50 min) onto Corning glass substrates at different rotation velocities (150, 300, 450, and 600 rpm) during chemical deposition. The chemical bath was composed by CdCl2, KOH, NH4NO3 and CS(NH2)2 as chemical reagents and heated at 75 deg. C. The results show no critical effects on the band gap energy and the surface roughness of the CdS films when the rotation speed changes. However, a linear increase on the deposition rate with the rotation energy was observed, meanwhile the stoichiometry was strongly affected by the rotation speed, resulting a better 1:1 Cd/S ratio as speed increases. Rotation effects may be of interest in industrial production of CdTe/CdS solar cells.

  19. Bath salt intoxication causing acute kidney injury requiring hemodialysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regunath, Hariharan; Ariyamuthu, Venkatesh Kumar; Dalal, Pranavkumar; Misra, Madhukar

    2012-10-01

    Traditional bath salts contain a combination of inorganic salts like Epsom salts, table salt, baking soda, sodium metaphosphate, and borax that have cleansing properties. Since 2010, there have been rising concerns about a new type of substance abuse in the name of "bath salts." They are beta-ketone amphetamine analogs and are derivates of cathinone, a naturally occurring amphetamine analog found in the "khat" plant (Catha edulis). Effects reported with intake included increased energy, empathy, openness, and increased libido. Serious adverse effects reported with intoxication included cardiac, psychiatric, and neurological signs and symptoms. Not much is known about the toxicology and metabolism of these compounds. They inhibit monoamine reuptake (dopamine, nor epinephrine, etc.) and act as central nervous system stimulants with high additive and abuse potential because of their clinical and biochemical similarities to effects from use of cocaine, amphetamine, and 3,4-methylenedioxy-N-methylamphetamine. Deaths associated with use of these compounds have also been reported. We report a case of acute kidney injury associated with the use of "bath salt" pills that improved with hemodialysis. PMID:23036036

  20. Controlling the quantum dynamics of a mesoscopic spin bath in diamond

    CERN Document Server

    de Lange, G; Blok, M S; Wang, Z H; Dobrovitski, V V; Hanson, R

    2011-01-01

    Understanding and mitigating decoherence is a key challenge for quantum science and technology. The main source of decoherence for solid-state spin systems such as quantum dots, donors in silicon and defects in diamond is the uncontrolled spin bath environment. Here, we demonstrate quantum control of a mesoscopic electron spin bath in diamond at room temperature. The resulting spin bath dynamics are probed using a single nitrogen-vacancy (NV) centre electron spin as a magnetic field sensor. We exploit the spin bath control to dynamically suppress dephasing of the NV spin by the spin bath. Furthermore, using ideas from dynamical decoupling, we directly measure the coherence and temporal correlations of different groups of bath spins. These results uncover a new arena for decoherence studies and may provide novel avenues for protecting the coherence of solid-state spin qubits. Moreover, spin bath control is a crucial ingredient of recent proposals for environment-assisted magnetometry, room-temperature quantum ...

  1. Linear-algebraic bath transformation for simulating complex open quantum systems

    CERN Document Server

    Huh, Joonsuk; Fujita, Takatoshi; Yung, Man-Hong; Aspuru-Guzik, Alán

    2014-01-01

    In studying open quantum systems, the environment is often approximated as a collection of non-interacting harmonic oscillators, a configuration also known as the star-bath model. It is also well known that the star-bath can be transformed into a nearest-neighbor interacting chain of oscillators. The chain-bath model has been widely used in renormalization group approaches. The transformation can be obtained by recursion relations or orthogonal polynomials. Based on a simple linear algebraic approach, we propose a bath partition strategy to reduce the system-bath coupling strength. As a result, the non-interacting star-bath is transformed into a set of weakly-coupled multiple parallel chains. The transformed bath model allows complex problems to be practically implemented on quantum simulators, and it can also be employed in various numerical simulations of open quantum dynamics.

  2. Decoherence of a single spin coupled to an interacting spin bath

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ning; Fröhling, Nina; Xing, Xi; Hackmann, Johannes; Nanduri, Arun; Anders, Frithjof B.; Rabitz, Herschel

    2016-01-01

    Decoherence of a central spin coupled to an interacting spin bath via inhomogeneous Heisenberg coupling is studied by two different approaches, namely an exact equations of motion (EOMs) method and a Chebyshev expansion technique (CET). By assuming a wheel topology of the bath spins with uniform nearest-neighbor X X -type intrabath coupling, we examine the central spin dynamics with the bath prepared in two different types of bath initial conditions. For fully polarized baths in strong magnetic fields, the polarization dynamics of the central spin exhibits a collapse-revival behavior in the intermediate-time regime. Under an antiferromagnetic bath initial condition, the two methods give excellently consistent central spin decoherence dynamics for finite-size baths of N ≤14 bath spins. The decoherence factor is found to drop off abruptly on a short time scale and approach a finite plateau value which depends on the intrabath coupling strength nonmonotonically. In the ultrastrong intrabath coupling regime, the plateau values show an oscillatory behavior depending on whether N /2 is even or odd. The observed results are interpreted qualitatively within the framework of the EOM and perturbation analysis. The effects of anisotropic spin-bath coupling and inhomogeneous intrabath bath couplings are briefly discussed. Possible experimental realization of the model in a modified quantum corral setup is suggested.

  3. Resummed memory kernels in generalized system-bath master equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Generalized master equations provide a concise formalism for studying reduced population dynamics. Usually, these master equations require a perturbative expansion of the memory kernels governing the dynamics; in order to prevent divergences, these expansions must be resummed. Resummation techniques of perturbation series are ubiquitous in physics, but they have not been readily studied for the time-dependent memory kernels used in generalized master equations. In this paper, we present a comparison of different resummation techniques for such memory kernels up to fourth order. We study specifically the spin-boson Hamiltonian as a model system bath Hamiltonian, treating the diabatic coupling between the two states as a perturbation. A novel derivation of the fourth-order memory kernel for the spin-boson problem is presented; then, the second- and fourth-order kernels are evaluated numerically for a variety of spin-boson parameter regimes. We find that resumming the kernels through fourth order using a Padé approximant results in divergent populations in the strong electronic coupling regime due to a singularity introduced by the nature of the resummation, and thus recommend a non-divergent exponential resummation (the “Landau-Zener resummation” of previous work). The inclusion of fourth-order effects in a Landau-Zener-resummed kernel is shown to improve both the dephasing rate and the obedience of detailed balance over simpler prescriptions like the non-interacting blip approximation, showing a relatively quick convergence on the exact answer. The results suggest that including higher-order contributions to the memory kernel of a generalized master equation and performing an appropriate resummation can provide a numerically-exact solution to system-bath dynamics for a general spectral density, opening the way to a new class of methods for treating system-bath dynamics

  4. [History of hot spring bath treatment in China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Wanpeng; Wang, Xiaojun; Xiang, Yinghong; Gu Li, A Man; Li, Ming; Zhang, Xin

    2011-07-01

    As early as the 7th century B.C. (Western Zhou Dynasty), there is a recording as 'spring which contains sulfur could treat disease' on the Wentang Stele written by WANG Bao. Wenquan Fu written by ZHANG Heng in the Easten Han Dynasty also mentioned hot spring bath treatment. The distribution of hot springs in China has been summarized by LI Daoyuan in the Northern Wei Dynasty in his Shuijingzhu which recorded hot springs in 41 places and interpreted the definition of hot spring. Bencao Shiyi (by CHEN Cangqi, Tang Dynasty) discussed the formation of and indications for hot springs. HU Zai in the Song Dynasty pointed out distinguishing hot springs according to water quality in his book Yuyin Conghua. TANG Shenwei in the Song Dynasty noted in Jingshi Zhenglei Beiji Bencao that hot spring bath treatment should be combined with diet. Shiwu Bencao (Ming Dynasty) classified hot springs into sulfur springs, arsenicum springs, cinnabar springs, aluminite springs, etc. and pointed out their individual indications. Geologists did not start the work on distribution and water quality analysis of hot springs until the first half of the 20th century. There are 972 hot springs in Wenquan Jiyao (written by geologist ZHANG Hongzhao and published in 1956). In July 1982, the First National Geothermal Conference was held and it reported that there were more than 2600 hot springs in China. Since the second half of the 20th century, hot spring sanatoriums and rehabilitation centers have been established, which promoted the development of hot spring bath treatment. PMID:22169492

  5. Electrodeposition of Sr-Ti alloy films from DMSO bath

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Electrodeposition of Sr-Ti alloy films from non aqueous dimethyl sulphoxide (DMSO) bath has been carried out onto stainless steel and fluorine doped tin oxide (FTO) coated glass substrate. The preparative parameters were studied and optimised. Alloy films with thickness 2 to 3 microns were obtained for 30 minutes of deposition. The films were uniform, dense and adhesive to the substrate. The electrodeposited Sr-Ti alloy films were oxidised at higher temperature in order to obtain SrTiO3 films. Electrical and microstructural properties were carried out. (author). 6 refs., 6 figs

  6. Quantum speed limit in a qubit-spin-bath system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We investigate the behavior of quantum speed limit (QSL) time for a typical non-Markovian system, a central spin coupled to a spin star configuration. We connect the QSL time with an external control and show that the effectiveness of the external magnetic field, as well as the coupling strength, is related to the fundamental bounds that affect the maximum speed at which a quantum system can evolve in its state space. We also demonstrate that a spin bath with larger size may shorten the QSL time, while the upper state population plays an important role for the acceleration of quantum evolution in the memory surrounding. (paper)

  7. Transport of thermal water from well to thermal baths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montegrossi, Giordano; Vaselli, Orlando; Tassi, Franco; Nocentini, Matteo; Liccioli, Caterina; Nisi, Barbara

    2013-04-01

    The main problem in building a thermal bath is having a hot spring or a thermal well located in an appropriate position for customer access; since Roman age, thermal baths were distributed in the whole empire and often road and cities were built all around afterwards. Nowadays, the perspectives are changed and occasionally the thermal resource is required to be transported with a pipeline system from the main source to the spa. Nevertheless, the geothermal fluid may show problems of corrosion and scaling during transport. In the Ambra valley, central Italy, a geothermal well has recently been drilled and it discharges a Ca(Mg)-SO4, CO2-rich water at the temperature of 41 °C, that could be used for supplying a new spa in the surrounding areas of the well itself. The main problem is that the producing well is located in a forest tree ca. 4 km far away from the nearest structure suitable to host the thermal bath. In this study, we illustrate the pipeline design from the producing well to the spa, constraining the physical and geochemical parameters to reduce scaling and corrosion phenomena. The starting point is the thermal well that has a flow rate ranging from 22 up to 25 L/sec. The thermal fluid is heavily precipitating calcite (50-100 ton/month) due to the calcite-CO2 equilibrium in the reservoir, where a partial pressure of 11 bar of CO2 is present. One of the most vexing problems in investigating scaling processed during the fluid transport in the pipeline is that there is not a proper software package for multiphase fluid flow in pipes characterized by such a complex chemistry. As a consequence, we used a modified TOUGHREACT with Pitzer database, arranged to use Darcy-Weisbach equation, and applying "fictitious" material properties in order to give the proper y- z- velocity profile in comparison to the analytical solution for laminar fluid flow in pipes. This investigation gave as a result the lowest CO2 partial pressure to be kept in the pipeline (nearly 2

  8. Langevin description of gauged scalar fields in a thermal bath

    CERN Document Server

    Miyamoto, Yuhei; Suyama, Teruaki; Yokoyama, Jun'ichi

    2013-01-01

    We study the dynamics of the oscillating gauged scalar field in a thermal bath. A Langevin type equation of motion of the scalar field, which contains both dissipation and fluctuation terms, is derived by using the real-time finite temperature effective action approach. The existence of the quantum fluctuation-dissipation relation between the non-local dissipation term and the Gaussian stochastic noise terms is verified. We find the noise variables are anti-correlated at equal-time. The dissipation rate for the each mode is also studied, which turns out to depend on the wavenumber.

  9. The Toxicology of Bath Salts: A Review of Synthetic Cathinones

    OpenAIRE

    Prosser, Jane M.; Nelson, Lewis S.

    2011-01-01

    Synthetic cathinones have recently emerged and grown to be popular drugs of abuse. Their dramatic increase has resulted in part from sensationalized media attention as well as widespread availability on the Internet. They are often considered “legal highs” and sold as “bath salts” or “plant food” and labeled “not for human consumption” to circumvent drug abuse legislation. Cathinone is a naturally occurring beta-ketone amphetamine analogue found in the leaves of the Catha edulis plant. Synthe...

  10. Verification of impact of morning showering and mist sauna bathing on human physiological functions and work efficiency during the day

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Soomin; Fujimura, Hiroko; Shimomura, Yoshihiro; Katsuura, Tetsuo

    2015-09-01

    Recently, a growing number in Japan are switching to taking baths in the morning (morning bathing). However, the effects of the morning bathing on human physiological functions and work efficiency have not yet been revealed. Then, we hypothesized that the effect of morning bathing on physiological functions would be different from those of night bathing. In this study, we measured the physiological functions and work efficiency during the day following the morning bathing (7:10-7:20) including showering, mist sauna bathing, and no bathing as a control. Ten male healthy young adults participated in this study as the subjects. We evaluated the rectal temperature (Tre), skin temperature (Tsk), heart rate (HR), heart rate variability (HRV), blood pressure (BP), the relative power density of the alpha wave (α-wave ratio) of electroencephalogram, alpha attenuation coefficient (AAC), and the error rate of the task performance. As a result, we found that the HR after the mist sauna bathing was significantly lower than those after no bathing rest 3 (11:00). Furthermore, we verified that the α-wave ratio of the Pz after the mist sauna bathing was significantly lower than those after no bathing during the task 6 (15:00). On the other hand, the α-wave ratio of the Pz after the mist sauna bathing was significantly higher than those after showering during the rest 3 (11:00). Tsk after the mist sauna bathing was higher than those after the showering at 9:00 and 15:00. In addition, the error rate of the task performance after the mist sauna bathing was lower than those after no bathing and showering at 14:00. This study concludes that a morning mist sauna is safe and maintains both skin temperature compared to other bathing methods. Moreover, it is presumed that the morning mist sauna bathing improves work efficiency comparing other bathing methods during the task period of the day following the morning bathing.

  11. Improving Welfare of Layers by Ash Bath Possibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ján Orság

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this work was to study effect of access restriction to dusting substrate on hens behaviour. Forty laying hens from furnished cages (FC and nonfurnished cages (NC at the age of 28 weeks were used. The observations were performed in an experimental aviary equipped with dust bath of ash. The water obstructed the access to the ash bath. The first level of difficulty was without water; the others included water for an increased difficulty. Times of eating were higher in FC group. Locomotion and standing were longer in NC group during all difficulties. The length of vacuum dustbathing was shorter in FC group than NC group (1.2 min vs. 4.2 min per one hour of observation. The average length of normal dustbathing represented 6.6 min (FC or 5.4 min per hour (NC. Results suggested that dustbathing is under the control of external factors, especially of former housing. Deprivation of the normal dustbathing was not a sufficient cause for suffering in hens.

  12. Chemical bath deposition of II-VI compound thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oladeji, Isaiah Olatunde

    II-VI compounds are direct bandgap semiconductors with great potentials in optoelectronic applications. Solar cells, where these materials are in greater demand, require a low cost production technology that will make the final product more affordable. Chemical bath deposition (CBD) a low cost growth technique capable of producing good quality thin film semiconductors over large area and at low temperature then becomes a suitable technology of choice. Heterogeneous reaction in a basic aqueous solution that is responsible for the II-VI compound film growth in CBD requires a metal complex. We have identified the stability constant (k) of the metal complex compatible with CBD growth mechanism to be about 106.9. This value is low enough to ensure that the substrate adsorbed complex relax for subsequent reaction with the chalcogen precursor to take place. It is also high enough to minimize the metal ion concentration in the bath participating in the precipitation of the bulk compounds. Homogeneous reaction that leads to precipitation in the reaction bath takes place because the solubility products of bulk II-VI compounds are very low. This reaction quickly depletes the bath of reactants, limit the film thickness, and degrade the film quality. While ZnS thin films are still hard to grow by CBD because of lack of suitable complexing agent, the homogeneous reaction still limits quality and thickness of both US and ZnS thin films. In this study, the zinc tetraammine complex ([Zn(NH3) 4]2+) with k = 108.9 has been forced to acquire its unsaturated form [Zn(NH3)3]2+ with a moderate k = 106.6 using hydrazine and nitrilotriacetate ion as complementary complexing agents and we have successfully grown ZnS thin films. We have also, minimized or eliminated the homogeneous reaction by using ammonium salt as a buffer and chemical bath with low reactant concentrations. These have allowed us to increase the saturation thickness of ZnS thin film by about 400% and raise that of US film

  13. Total Quantum Zeno effect and Intelligent States for a two level system in a squeezed bath

    CERN Document Server

    Mundarain, D; Stephany, J

    2006-01-01

    In this work we show that by frequent measurements of adequately chosen observables, a complete suppression of the decay in an exponentially decaying two level system interacting with a squeezed bath is obtained. The observables for which the effect is observed depend on the the squeezing parameters of the bath. The initial states which display Total Zeno Effect are intelligent states of two conjugate observables associated to the electromagnetic fluctuations of the bath.

  14. Studying bath exhaustion as a method to apply microcapsules on fabrics

    OpenAIRE

    Bonet Aracil, María Angeles; Capablanca Francés, Lucía; MONLLOR PÉREZ Pablo; DÍAZ GARCÍA Pablo; Montava Seguí, Ignacio José

    2012-01-01

    [EN] Textile industry is one of the fields that have increased their consumption of microcapsules. They can be applied to textiles using different methods, such as, padding, bath exhaustion, spraying and foaming. Although the most extended industrial application is by padding, commercial brands also suggest bath exhaustion as a possible procedure. In the research reported herein, bath exhaustion treatments are compared to padding. X-ray photoelectronic spectroscopy (XPS) technique showe...

  15. A microscopic model for noise induced transport: Heat-bath nonlinearly driven by external white noise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Pradipta; Shit, Anindita; Chattopadhyay, Sudip; Chaudhuri, Jyotipratim Ray

    2011-03-01

    This work explores the observation that, even in the absence of a net externally applied bias, a symmetric homogeneous system coupled linearly to two heat baths is capable of producing unidirectional motion simply by nonlinearly driving one of the heat baths by an external Gaussian white noise. This is quite contrary to the traditional observation that, in order to obtain a net drift current, a state-dependent dissipation, which is a consequence of nonlinear system-bath coupling, is ubiquitous. PMID:21456831

  16. A microscopic model for noise induced transport: Heat-bath nonlinearly driven by external white noise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work explores the observation that, even in the absence of a net externally applied bias, a symmetric homogeneous system coupled linearly to two heat baths is capable of producing unidirectional motion simply by nonlinearly driving one of the heat baths by an external Gaussian white noise. This is quite contrary to the traditional observation that, in order to obtain a net drift current, a state-dependent dissipation, which is a consequence of nonlinear system-bath coupling, is ubiquitous.

  17. Effect of protic solvents on CdS thin films prepared by chemical bath deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study, cadmium sulfide (CdS) thin films are grown on glass substrates by chemical bath deposition (CBD) in an aqueous bath containing 10–20 vol.% alcohol. The roles of ethanol as a protic solvent that substantially improves the quality of films are explored extensively. The deposited films in an alcohol bath are found to be more compact and smoother with smaller CdS grains. The X-ray diffractograms of the samples confirm that all films were polycrystalline with mixed wurtzite (hexagonal) and zinkblende (cubic) phases. Raman spectra indicate that, for a film deposited in an alcohol bath, the position of 1LO is closer to the value for single crystal CdS, indicating that these films have a high degree of crystallinity. The as-deposited CdS thin films in a 10 vol.% alcohol bath were found to have the highest visible transmittance of 81.9%. XPS analysis reveals a stronger signal of C1s for samples deposited in the alcohol baths, indicating that there are more carbonaceous residues on the films with protic solvent than on the films with water. A higher XPS S/Cd atomic ratio for films deposited in an alcohol bath indicates that undesirable surface reactions (leading to sulfur containing compounds other than CdS) occur less frequently over the substrates. - Highlights: • Study of CBD-CdS films grown in an alcohol-containing aqueous bath is reported. • The deposited films in an alcohol bath are more compact with smaller CdS grains. • Raman spectra show that in an alcohol bath, the CdS film has a better crystallinity. • XPS reveals more carbon residues remain on the films deposited using alcohol bath. • In an alcohol bath, the undesirable surface reactions with Cd ions were hindered

  18. Preparation and Characterization of Nanocrystalline Hard Chromium Coatings Using Eco-Friendly Trivalent Chromium Bath

    OpenAIRE

    V. S. Protsenko; V. O Gordiienko; Danilov, F. I.; Kwon, S.C.

    2011-01-01

    A new aqueous sulfate trivalent chromium bath is described. The chromium bath contains formic acid and carbamide as complexing agents. Chromium was deposited at a temperature of 30÷40 oC and a cathode current density of 10÷25 A dm-2. The bath allows obtaining thick (up to several hundred micrometers) hard chromium coatings with nanocrystalline structure. The electrodeposition rate reaches 0.8÷0.9 µm min-1.

  19. Collaboration between physician Emerich Lindenmayer and architect Jan Nevole in restoring the Sokobanja Turkish bath

    OpenAIRE

    Mitrović Gordana; Nešković Marina

    2015-01-01

    The Sokobanja Turkish bath is an exceptional example of twosection baths and quite particular in its style, structure type and technology used. It is one of the two of the same type that remained in Serbia and the only one that has retained its original function. About its construction we learn from the Vidin sanjak defter from the second half of the 16th century. In the lavish built heritage inventory, Turkish baths are quite unique secular public structur...

  20. Culture and long-term care: the bath as social service in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traphagan, John W

    2004-01-01

    A central feature of Japan's approach to community-based care of the elderly, including long-term home health care, is the emphasis on providing bath facilities. For mobile elders, senior centers typically provide a public bathing facility in which people can enjoy a relaxing soak along with friends who also visit the centers. In terms of in-home long-term care, visiting bath services are provided to assist family care providers with the difflcult task of bathing a frail or disabled elder--a task made more problematic as a result of the Japanese style of bathing. I argue that the bath, as social service, is a culturally shaped solution to a specific problem of elder care that arises in the Japanese context as a result of the importance of the bath in everyday life for Japanese. While the services may be considered specific to Japan, some aspects of bathing services, particularly the mobile bath service, may also have applicability in the United States. PMID:15792331

  1. Electron transfer in a two-level system within a Cole-Davidson vitreous bath

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zarea, Mehdi, E-mail: m-zarea@northwestern.edu; Ratner, Mark A.; Wasielewski, Michael R. [Argonne-Northwestern Solar Energy Research (ANSER) Center, Department of Chemistry, Northwestern University, 2145 Sheridan Road, Evanston, Illinois 60208-3113 (United States)

    2014-01-14

    We study electron transfer (ET) in a two level quantum system coupled to a glassy viscous bath. The bath is modeled by the Cole-Davidson (CD) spectral density. The ET in this model is compared to the ET in a normal Drude-Debye (DD) model. It is shown that at low temperatures and when the coupling to the bath is weak, the viscous bath preserves the quantum coherence for a longer time. However in the strong coupling regime, the tunneling rate is higher in the CD. In the classical high temperature limit the difference between the CD and DD models is negligible.

  2. Dissipative quantum dynamics with the Surrogate Hamiltonian approach. A comparison between spin and harmonic baths

    CERN Document Server

    Gelman, D; Kosloff, R

    2004-01-01

    The dissipative quantum dynamics of an anharmonic oscillator coupled to a bath is studied with the purpose of elucidating the differences between the relaxation to a spin bath and to a harmonic bath. Converged results are obtained for the spin bath by the Surrogate Hamiltonian approach. This method is based on constructing a system-bath Hamiltonian, with a finite but large number of spin bath modes, that mimics exactly a bath with an infinite number of modes for a finite time interval. Convergence with respect to the number of simultaneous excitations of bath modes can be checked. The results are compared to calculations that include a finite number of harmonic modes carried out by using the multi-configuration time-dependent Hartree method of Nest and Meyer, [J. Chem. Phys. 119, 24 (2003)]. In the weak coupling regime, at zero temperature and for small excitations of the primary system, both methods converge to the Markovian limit. When initially the primary system is significantly excited, the spin bath can...

  3. Hydrometallurgical treatment of plutonium. Bearing salt baths waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The salt flux issuing from the electrorefining of plutonium metal alloy in salt baths (KCI + NaCI) poses a difficult problem of the back-end alpha waste management. An alternative to the salt process promoted by Los Alamos Laboratory is to develop a hydrometallurgical treatment. A new process based on the electrochemistry technique in aqueous solution has been defined and tested successfully in the CEA. The diagram of the process exhibits two principal steps: in the head-end, a dissolution in HNO3 medium accompanied with an electrolytic dechlorination leading to a quantitative elimination of chloride as CI2 gas followed by its trapping one soda lime cartridge, a complete oxidative dissolution of the refractory Pu residues by electrogenerated Ag(II), in the back-end: the Pu and Am recoveries by chromatographic extractions. (authors). 10 figs., 9 refs

  4. Experimental bath engineering for quantitative studies of quantum control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soare, A.; Ball, H.; Hayes, D.; Zhen, X.; Jarratt, M. C.; Sastrawan, J.; Uys, H.; Biercuk, M. J.

    2014-04-01

    We develop and demonstrate a technique to engineer universal unitary baths in quantum systems. Using the correspondence between unitary decoherence due to ambient environmental noise and errors in a control system for quantum bits, we show how a wide variety of relevant classical error models may be realized through in-phase or in-quadrature modulation on a vector signal generator producing a resonant carrier signal. We demonstrate our approach through high-bandwidth modulation of the 12.6-GHz carrier appropriate for trapped Yb171+ ions. Experiments demonstrate the reduction of coherent lifetime in the system in the presence of both engineered dephasing noise during free evolution and engineered amplitude noise during driven operations. In both cases, the observed reduction of coherent lifetimes matches well with quantitative models described herein. These techniques form the basis of a toolkit for quantitative tests of quantum control protocols, helping experimentalists characterize the performance of their quantum coherent systems.

  5. Quantum phase transition of a magnet in a spin bath

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rønnow, H.M.; Parthasarathy, R.; Jensen, J.; Aeppli, G.; Rosenbaum, T.F.; McMorrow, D.F.

    2005-01-01

    The excitation spectrum of a model magnetic system, LiHoF(4), was studied with the use of neutron spectroscopy as the system was tuned to its quantum critical point by an applied magnetic field. The electronic mode softening expected for a quantum phase transition was forestalled by hyperfine cou...... coupling to the nuclear spins. We found that interactions with the nuclear spin bath controlled the length scale over which the excitations could be entangled. This generic result places a limit on our ability to observe intrinsic electronic quantum criticality.......The excitation spectrum of a model magnetic system, LiHoF(4), was studied with the use of neutron spectroscopy as the system was tuned to its quantum critical point by an applied magnetic field. The electronic mode softening expected for a quantum phase transition was forestalled by hyperfine...

  6. Thermoluminescence of Zn O thin films deposited by chemical bath

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Zn O films on Si were synthesized using a deposition method by chemical bath and thermally treated at 900 degrees C for 12 h in air. The morphological characterization by scanning electron microscopy reveals that uniform films were obtained. To investigate the thermoluminescent properties of the films were exposed to irradiation with beta particles with doses in the range from 0.5 to 128 Gy. The brightness curves obtained using a heating rate of 5 degrees C have two peaks, one at 124 and another at 270 degrees C, and a linear dependence of the integrated thermoluminescence as a function of dose. The second maximum reveals the existence of localized trapping states of potential utility in thermoluminescent dosimetry. (Author)

  7. Harbour bathing and the urban transition of water in Copenhagen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jens Stissing; Lauridsen, Erik Hagelskjær; Farné Fratini, Chiara;

    2015-01-01

    . In order to conceptualise what provoked these navigational actions and how they translated into transformative urban change, we develop the notions of junctions and transition mediators. We introduce the notion of junctions to understand how navigations are provoked. Junctions are signified by...... might translate into coordinated urban transformations, we introduce the notion of transition mediators. A transition mediator is an artefact—such as the harbour baths—that succeeds in generating transformative change by displacing the boundaries and interdependencies within and among the established......n 2002 the first public harbour swimming bath in the inner harbour of Copenhagen opened. By translating the old industrial harbour into a site of urban living and recreation, the practice of swimming in the harbour has been instrumental in aligning and catalysing a series of broader urban...

  8. The Entropy Production Distribution in Non-Markovian Thermal Baths

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Inés Jiménez-Aquino

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In this work we study the distribution function for the total entropy production of a Brownian particle embedded in a non-Markovian thermal bath. The problem is studied in the overdamped approximation of the generalized Langevin equation, which accounts for a friction memory kernel characteristic of a Gaussian colored noise. The problem is studied in two physical situations: (i when the particle in the harmonic trap is subjected to an arbitrary time-dependent driving force; and (ii when the minimum of the harmonic trap is arbitrarily dragged out of equilibrium by an external force. By assuming a natural non Markovian canonical distribution for the initial conditions, the distribution function for the total entropy production becomes a non Gaussian one. Its characterization is then given through the first three cumulants.

  9. Maximum Power Output of Quantum Heat Engine with Energy Bath

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Shengnan

    2016-01-01

    The difference between quantum isoenergetic process and quantum isothermal process comes from the violation of the law of equipartition of energy in the quantum regime. To reveal an important physical meaning of this fact, here we study a special type of quantum heat engine consisting of three processes: isoenergetic, isothermal and adiabatic processes. Therefore, this engine works between the energy and heat baths. Combining two engines of this kind, it is possible to realize the quantum Carnot engine. Furthermore, considering finite velocity of change of the potential shape, here an infinite square well with moving walls, the power output of the engine is discussed. It is found that the efficiency and power output are both closely dependent on the initial and final states of the quantum isothermal process. The performance of the engine cycle is shown to be optimized by control of the occupation probability of the ground state, which is determined by the temperature and the potential width. The relation betw...

  10. Skin hydration in nursing home residents using disposable bed baths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillis, Katrin; Tency, Inge; Roelant, Ella; Laureys, Sarina; Devriendt, Hendrik; Lips, Dirk

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate a new way for applying bed baths and reducing the risk for dry skin by comparing the effect of two washing methods on skin hydration. A cluster randomized trial was conducted. Skin hydration was measured before and after implementation of disposable wash gloves, using a MoistureMeter SC at three skin sites. Total skin hydration did not differ between residents at the start of the study in both groups. After implementation, the post minus pre hydration scores were higher for the intervention group than the control group at all skin sites. However, the difference was only significant at cheek site. The use of disposable wash gloves does not increase the risk for dry skin in comparison with traditional washing methods. These results may encourage the introduction of disposable wash gloves as an innovation in daily skin care practice. PMID:26724816

  11. Copper Sulfate Foot Baths on Dairies and Crop Toxicities – What are the Risks?

    Science.gov (United States)

    A rising concern with the application of dairy wastes to agricultural fields is the accumulation of copper (Cu) in the soil. Copper sulfate (CuSO4) from cattle foot baths are washed out of dairy barns and into wastewater lagoons. The addition of CuSO4 baths has been reported to increase Cu concent...

  12. [Interference therapy and radon baths in the combined treatment of patients with reflex cervicobrachial syndromes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorbunov, F E; Semenistaia, S V

    1998-01-01

    Patients with cervicobrachialgic syndromes on interference therapy, exercise treatment, massage of the cervical collar region received balneotherapy. 42 of them took water baths, 39 took dry air radon baths. These complexes proved effective in cervicobrachialgic syndromes, the effect being slightly dependent on the clinical symptoms of the disease. PMID:9987978

  13. Sun protection factor persistence during a day with physical activity and bathing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bodekaer, Mette; Faurschou, Annesofie; Philipsen, Peter Alshede;

    2008-01-01

    The persistence of sunscreens during a day with physical activity and bathing is often debated. We wished to examine the durability of the protection achieved by one sunscreen application.......The persistence of sunscreens during a day with physical activity and bathing is often debated. We wished to examine the durability of the protection achieved by one sunscreen application....

  14. 75 FR 31691 - Safety Standard for Infant Bath Seats: Final Rule

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-04

    ... various water levels and possible head positions of occupants vs. angles of bath seats to determine what... risk of injury associated with the product. We are issuing a safety standard for infant bath seats in... requirements would further reduce the risk of injury associated with the product. Section 104(b)(2) of...

  15. Effects of water temperature on photosensitization in bath-PUVA therapy with 8-methoxypsoralen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The pharmacokinetic aspects of bath-PUVA are not completely clarified. Therefore, we determined the phototoxic response of human skin following psoralen baths at temperatures ranging from 32 deg. C to 42 deg. C (71.6-107.6 deg. F) and UVA doses ranging from 0.5 to 5.5 J/cm2. The highest therapeutical photosensitization (i.e. lowest minimal phototoxic dose) was assessed at temperatures of 37 deg. C (98.6 deg. F) and above. Photosensitization was significantly decreased at lower temperatures. These data indicate that a bath temperature of 37 deg. C (98.6 deg. F) should be used to gain optimal therapeutic efficiency in a clinical setting. Furthermore, in order to minimize the risk of adverse phototoxic effects in bath-PUVA, it is important to use a constant temperature during the psoralen bath. (au)

  16. [An outbreak of legionellosis in a new facility of hot spring bath in Hiuga City].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yabuuchi, Eiko; Agata, Kunio

    2004-02-01

    Following cerebrating ceremony in 20 June 2002, for the completion of Hiuga Sun-Park Hot Spring Bath "Ofunade-no-Yu" facilities, Miyazaki Prefecture, Kyushu Island, 200 neighbors were invited each day to experience bathing on 20 and 21 June. The Bath "Ofunade-no-Yu" officially opened on 1 July 2002. On 18 July, Hiuga Health Center was informed that 3 suspected Legionella pneumonia patients in a hospital and all of them have bathing history of "Ofunade-no-Yu". Health Center officers notified Hiuga City, the main proprietor of the Bath business, that on-site inspection on sanitary managements will be done next day and requested the City to keep the bath facilities as they are. On 19 July, Health Center officers collected bath water from seven places and recommended voluntary-closing of "Ofunade-no-Yu" business. Because of various reasons, Hiuga City did not accept the recommendation and continued business up to 23 July. Because Legionella pneumophila serogroup 1 strains from 4 patients' sputa and several bath water specimens were determined genetically similar by Pulsed Field Gel Electrophoresis of Sfi I-cut DNA. "Ofunede-no-Yu" was regarded as the source of infection of this outbreak. On 24 July, "Ofunade-no-Yu" accepted the Command to prohibit the business. Among 19,773 persons who took the bath during the period from 20 June to 23 July, 295 became ill, and 7 died. Among them, 34 were definitely diagnosed as Legionella pneumonia due to L. pneumophila SG 1, by either one or two tests of positive sputum culture, Legionella-specific urinary antigen, and significant rise of serum antibody titer against L. pneumophila SG 1. In addition to the 8 items shown by Miyazaki-Prefecture Investigation Committee as the cause of infection. Hiuga City Investigation Committee pointed out following 3 items: 1) Insufficient knowledge and understanding of stuffs on Legionella and legionellosis; 2) Residual water in tubing system after trial runs might lead multiplication of legionellae

  17. Effect of chlorhexidine bathing in preventing infections and reducing skin burden and environmental contamination: A review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donskey, Curtis J; Deshpande, Abhishek

    2016-05-01

    Chlorhexidine bathing is effective in reducing levels of pathogens on skin. In this review, we examine the evidence that chlorhexidine bathing can prevent colonization and infection with health care-associated pathogens and reduce dissemination to the environment and the hands of personnel. The importance of education and monitoring of compliance with bathing procedures is emphasized in order to optimize chlorhexidine bathing in clinical practice. PMID:27131130

  18. Transient state work fluctuation theorem for a classical harmonic oscillator linearly coupled to a harmonic bath

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Rajarshi Chakrabarti

    2009-04-01

    Based on a Hamiltonian description we present a rigorous derivation of the transient state work fluctuation theorem and the Jarzynski equality for a classical harmonic oscillator linearly coupled to a harmonic heat bath, which is dragged by an external agent. Coupling with the bath makes the dynamics dissipative. Since we do not assume anything about the spectral nature of the harmonic bath the derivation is not restricted only to the Ohmic bath, rather it is more general, for a non-Ohmic bath. We also derive expressions of the average work done and the variance of the work done in terms of the two-time correlation function of the fluctuations of the position of the harmonic oscillator. In the case of an Ohmic bath, we use these relations to evaluate the average work done and the variance of the work done analytically and verify the transient state work fluctuation theorem quantitatively. Actually these relations have far-reaching consequences. They can be used to numerically evaluate the average work done and the variance of the work done in the case of a non-Ohmic bath when analytical evaluation is not possible.

  19. Two-dimensional spectroscopy for harmonic vibrational modes with nonlinear system-bath interactions. I. Gaussian-white case

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steffen, T; Tanimura, Y

    2000-01-01

    The quantum Fokker-Planck equation is derived for a system nonlinearly coupled to a harmonic oscillator bath. The system-bath interaction is assumed to be linear in the bath coordinates but quadratic in the system coordinate. The relaxation induced dynamics of a harmonic system are investigated by s

  20. Quantum Thermal Bath for Path Integral Molecular Dynamics Simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brieuc, Fabien; Dammak, Hichem; Hayoun, Marc

    2016-03-01

    The quantum thermal bath (QTB) method has been recently developed to account for the quantum nature of the nuclei by using standard molecular dynamics (MD) simulation. QTB-MD is an efficient but approximate method when dealing with strongly anharmonic systems, while path integral molecular dynamics (PIMD) gives exact results but in a huge amount of computation time. The QTB and PIMD methods have been combined in order to improve the PIMD convergence or correct the failures of the QTB-MD technique. Therefore, a new power spectral density of the random force within the QTB has been developed. A modified centroid-virial estimator of the kinetic energy, especially adapted to QTB-PIMD, has also been proposed. The method is applied to selected systems: a one-dimensional double-well system, a ferroelectric phase transition, and the position distribution of an hydrogen atom in a fuel cell material. The advantage of the QTB-PIMD method is its ability to give exact results with a more reasonable computation time for strongly anharmonic systems. PMID:26799437

  1. Study of an alternative system for manganese bath efficiency determination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An alternative irradiation system, using radioisotope neutron sources and a small MnSO4 solution volume, was proposed m this work to determine the Manganese Bath System (MBS) efficiency. The irradiation system was characterized through simulations with the MCNP radiation transport code from the modeling of 252Cf(f,n) and 238PuBe(alpha,n) neutron sources in several MnSO4 solution volumes and different neutron reflector medium for this solution. The parameter calculated in the simulations was the manganese neutron specific capture (MNSC), which is related to the MnSO4 solution specific activity. From the proposed systems for 252Cf (f, n) and 238PuBe (alpha,n) the NSCM was increased hundred times, in relation with that achieved in the LN/LNMRI/IRD MBS system simulation when irradiated by each these neutron sources. During study for irradiation system characterization its concept was verified using a assemble of test irradiation (ATI), which were spherical glass cavities, with few centimeter in radius, filled with MnSO4 solution, with and without presence of a neutron reflector medium. These TIA were used in four efficiency measurements and the average value was obtained. (author)

  2. Maximum Power Output of Quantum Heat Engine with Energy Bath

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shengnan Liu

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The difference between quantum isoenergetic process and quantum isothermal process comes from the violation of the law of equipartition of energy in the quantum regime. To reveal an important physical meaning of this fact, here we study a special type of quantum heat engine consisting of three processes: isoenergetic, isothermal and adiabatic processes. Therefore, this engine works between the energy and heat baths. Combining two engines of this kind, it is possible to realize the quantum Carnot engine. Furthermore, considering finite velocity of change of the potential shape, here an infinite square well with moving walls, the power output of the engine is discussed. It is found that the efficiency and power output are both closely dependent on the initial and final states of the quantum isothermal process. The performance of the engine cycle is shown to be optimized by control of the occupation probability of the ground state, which is determined by the temperature and the potential width. The relation between the efficiency and power output is also discussed.

  3. The Thermal Bath of de Sitter from Holography

    CERN Document Server

    Chu, Chong-Sun

    2016-01-01

    We consider the AdS/dS CFT correspondence and study the nature of the thermal bath of the de Sitter field theory using holography. Unlike the temperature of a thermal field theory in flat spacetime, the temperature of a superconformal field theory on de Sitter space is an integral part of the theory and leaves intact the conformal symmetry and supersymmetry. In the dual AdS side, there is no black hole. Instead we have cosmological expansion of the de Sitter factor. We consider a number of different observables, such as the entanglement entropy, two point correlation function, Wilson loops corresponding to static and spinning mesons in the field theory, and study their thermal properties using holography. The former two quantities have trivial temperature dependence due to conformal symmetry. We compute the energy of the quark anti-quark bound state for a static meson, as well as the energy and the angular momentum for a spinning meson. We find that there is a maximum distance, as well as a maximum spin for t...

  4. Anodization of hafnium in phosphate baths: radio tracer studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The kinetics of anodic oxidation of hafnium in different phosphate baths: phosphoric acid and its three sodium salts of 0.1 M concentration have been carried out using galvanostatic technique at 8 mA.cm-2 current density and at room temperature (300 K). The conventional plots V-t, I/C-t, I/C-V are drawn. Thickness estimates are made from capacitance data. The above plots are found to be linear up to 140 ± 20 V. The breakdown voltage remained almost same. The parameters formation rate, current efficiency and differential field are calculated and are found to be decreasing regularly with the increase in the pH of the electrolyte. In order to establish the mechanism of oxide film formation on hafnium in Na3PO4 electrolyte, the uptake and distribution of phosphate ions during formation and thinning of the oxide film are studied using 32PO---4 as radio tracer and a specially designed radio active cell. For thinning experiments 0.7 μ diamond paste is used. The total mechanism is found to be via vacancy diffusion plus some exchange interstitial capture. The active-inactive transformation study clearly shows the migration of phosphate ions from one layer to another. Finally the effect of temperature and current density on the amount of incorporation of ions is also studied and linear relationships are established. (author)

  5. Microwave Induced Ethanol Bath Bonding for PMMA Microfluidic Device

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cuicui Zhuang

    2016-01-01

    High bonding strength, low deformation and convenient procedure are all very important aspects in the microfluidic device fabrication process. In this paper, an improved microwave induced bonding technology is proposed to fabricate microfluidic device based on methyl methacrylate (PMMA). This method employs pure ethanol as the bonding assisted solvent. The ethanol not only acts as the microwave absorbing material, but also works as the organic solvent in bath. The presented research work has shown that the bonding process can be completed in less than 45 s. Furthermore, the convenient bonding only applies microwave oven, beakers and binder clips. Then, we discuss effects of microwave power, bonding time on bonding strength and deformation of microstructures on PMMA microfluidic device. Finally, a 4 layers micro⁃mixer has been fabricated using the proposed bonding technique which includes 15 trapezoid micro⁃channels, 9 T⁃type mix units and an X⁃type mix unit. Experimental results show that the proposed bonding method have some advantages compared with several traditional bonding technologies, such as hot pressing bonding, ultrasonic bonding and solvent assisted bonding methods in respect of bonding strength, deformation and bonding process. The presented work would be helpful for low coat mass production of multilayer polymer microfluidic devices in lab.

  6. INFLUENCE OF TURKISH BATH CULTURE ON THE DESIGN OF SPA & WELLNESS VENUES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Banu APAYDIN BAŞA

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Throughout the history, water has been one of the main determinants of the human lifestyle in every culture. Turkish baths, which are among the most important extant water structures, are the products of a building type that appeared with the merger of Turkish bathing culture with the Anatolian bathing culture. At present, Turkish baths are defined in a different way as the venues for socializing in addition to bathing. In continuous change, modern man desires to reach global health services in the globalizing world in order to both protect his wellness and obtain the most effective treatment. In addition to its physical implications, the concept of wellness also refers to emotional and socio-cultural well-being. This changing paradigm of wellness has created the concept of Spa & wellness. Spa & wellness center is the name given to water therapies that have been applied since the Romans. The main reason of this development and change is the prominence of sauna-vapor-water systems as supporting and complementary elements to medicine and the demands of the users in this regard. The man of the present time desires to reach the scientific and technological developments in modern science not only for health and treatment services, but also for beauty and to “stay young”. This desire has turned health tourism into an important tourism trend in the world. Therefore, spatial formations must be dwelled on for Spa & wellness centers to function properly. This study outlines the influences of traditional Turkish baths on the design of the present time Spa & wellness venues. In order to identify these influences, initially the Turkish bath culture and the interior characteristics of Turkish bath are examined. Then, Spa & wellness concept and design criteria are searched. Finally, in accordance with these examinations, the spatial interactions of the traditional Turkish baths with Spa & wellness centers are evaluated.

  7. Fluid Flow Modeling of Arc Plasma and Bath Circulation in DC Electric Arc Furnace

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Feng-hua; JIN Zhi-jian; ZHU Zi-shu

    2006-01-01

    A mathematical model describing the flow field, heat transfer and the electromagnetic phenomenon in a DC electric arc furnace has been developed. First the governing equations in the arc plasma region are solved and the calculated results of heat transfer, current density and shear stresses on the anode surface are used as boundary conditions in a model of molten bath. Then a two-dimensional time-dependent model is used to describe the flow field and electromagnetic phenomenon in the molten bath. Moreover, the effect of bottom electrode diameter on the circulation of molten bath is studied.

  8. Electroplated Fe-Pt thick films prepared in plating baths with various pH values

    OpenAIRE

    Yanai, T; Furutani, K.; Masaki, T; T. Ohgai; Nakano, M; Fukunaga, H

    2016-01-01

    Fe-Pt thick-films were electroplated on a Ta substrate using a direct current, and the effect of the pH value of the plating bath on the magnetic properties of the films was evaluated. For the films prepared from the baths with the same bath composition, the Fe composition and the thickness increased with increasing the pH value. In order to remove the effect of the change in the film composition on the magnetic properties, we controlled the film composition at approximately Fe50Pt50 or Fe60P...

  9. On the operation of machines powered by quantum non-thermal baths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niedenzu, Wolfgang; Gelbwaser-Klimovsky, David; Kofman, Abraham G.; Kurizki, Gershon

    2016-08-01

    Diverse models of engines energised by quantum-coherent, hence non-thermal, baths allow the engine efficiency to transgress the standard thermodynamic Carnot bound. These transgressions call for an elucidation of the underlying mechanisms. Here we show that non-thermal baths may impart not only heat, but also mechanical work to a machine. The Carnot bound is inapplicable to such a hybrid machine. Intriguingly, it may exhibit dual action, concurrently as engine and refrigerator, with up to 100% efficiency. We conclude that even though a machine powered by a quantum bath may exhibit an unconventional performance, it still abides by the traditional principles of thermodynamics.

  10. Ground state cooling is not possible given initial system-thermal bath factorization

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, Lian-Ao; Segal, Dvira; Brumer, Paul

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we prove that a fundamental constraint on the cooling dynamic implies that it is impossible to cool, via a unitary system-bath quantum evolution, a system that is embedded in a thermal environment down to its ground state, if the initial state is a factorized product of system and bath states. The latter is a crucial but artificial assumption often included in many descriptions of system-bath dynamics. The analogous conclusion holds for 'cooling' to any pure state of the system.

  11. IMMERSION AND BATH VACCINATION AGAINST ENTERIC REDMOUTH DISEASE (ERM) PROVIDES INSUFFICIENT PROTECTION AGAINST BATH CHALLENGE WITH YERSINIA RUCKERI O1 BIOTYPE 2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kragelund Strøm, Helene; Otani, Maki; Neumann, Lukas;

    opportunity to test and evaluate the effect of both commercial and experimental vaccines against Y.r. bt2 in a waterborne infection experiment, mimicking a natural infection. We have developed an experimental immersion and bath vaccine containing equal amounts of the most immunogenic Y.r. bt 1 and 2 strains...... among the isolates obtained from ERM outbreaks in Denmark as well as other countries. The effect of the experimental vaccine is compared with a “state of the art” commercial vaccine which also contains Y.r. bt 1 and 2 in equal amounts. Groups of rainbow trout were immersion vaccinated in a 1:10 dilution...... of the vaccine for 30 seconds as recommended by the manufacturer. As a positive control groups of trout were bath vaccinated for 5 minutes. Two months later was all groups bath challenged with Y.r. bt 2 in duplicate. The challenge data obtained in the present study have indicated that neither a...

  12. The toxicology of bath salts: a review of synthetic cathinones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prosser, Jane M; Nelson, Lewis S

    2012-03-01

    Synthetic cathinones have recently emerged and grown to be popular drugs of abuse. Their dramatic increase has resulted in part from sensationalized media attention as well as widespread availability on the Internet. They are often considered "legal highs" and sold as "bath salts" or "plant food" and labeled "not for human consumption" to circumvent drug abuse legislation. Cathinone is a naturally occurring beta-ketone amphetamine analogue found in the leaves of the Catha edulis plant. Synthetic cathinones are derivatives of this compound. Those that are being used as drugs of abuse include butylone, dimethylcathinone, ethcathinone, ethylone, 3- and 4-fluoromethcathinone, mephedrone, methedrone, methylenedioxypyrovalerone (MDPV), methylone, and pyrovalerone. Synthetic cathinones are phenylalkylamines derivatives, and are often termed "bk-amphetamines" for the beta-ketone moiety. They may possess both amphetamine-like properties and the ability to modulate serotonin, causing distinct psychoactive effects. Desired effects reported by users of synthetic cathinones include increased energy, empathy, openness, and increased libido. Cardiac, psychiatric, and neurological signs and symptoms are the most common adverse effects reported in synthetic cathinone users who require medical care. Deaths associated with use of these compounds have been reported. Exposure to and use of synthetic cathinones are becoming increasingly popular despite a lack of scientific research and understanding of the potential harms of these substances. The clinical similarities to amphetamines and MDMA specifically are predictable based on the chemical structure of this class of agents. More work is necessary to understand the mechanisms of action, toxicokinetics, toxicodynamics, metabolism, clinical and psychological effects as well as the potential for addiction and withdrawal of these agents. PMID:22108839

  13. Dynamics and protection of tripartite quantum correlations in a thermal bath

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We study the dynamics and protection of tripartite quantum correlations in terms of genuinely tripartite concurrence, lower bound of concurrence and tripartite geometric quantum discord in a three-qubit system interacting with independent thermal bath. By comparing the dynamics of entanglement with that of quantum discord for initial GHZ state and W state, we find that W state is more robust than GHZ state, and quantum discord performs better than entanglement against the decoherence induced by the thermal bath. When the bath temperature is low, for the initial GHZ state, combining weak measurement and measurement reversal is necessary for a successful protection of quantum correlations. But for the initial W state, the protection depends solely upon the measurement reversal. In addition, the protection cannot usually be realized irrespective of the initial states as the bath temperature increases

  14. New features of entanglement dynamics with initial system–bath correlations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Lin [School of Physics, Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing 100081 (China); Zou, Jian, E-mail: zoujian@bit.edu.cn [School of Physics, Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing 100081 (China); He, Zhi; Li, Jun-Gang; Shao, Bin [School of Physics, Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing 100081 (China); Wu, Lian-Ao [Department of Theoretical Physics and History of Science, The Basque Country University (EHU/UPV), PO Box 644, 48080 Bilbao (Spain)

    2012-02-06

    We investigate the influence of initial correlations between two qubits and a family of baths on the entanglement dynamics of these two qubits. We show that initial system–bath correlations can effectively avoid the occurrence of entanglement sudden death, and for the initial states with quantum correlations the entanglement between two qubits can be larger than its initial value. Significantly, we find that there exist initial states which we called entanglement preserving states, such that, although the state of the qubit subsystem evolves the entanglement of two qubits does not evolves at all. -- Highlights: ► We obtain analytically solutions of two qubits interacting with a family of baths. ► Having initial quantum correlation with the bath, the system can gain entanglement. ► For some initial states though the system evolves, the entanglement remain the same.

  15. Dynamics and protection of tripartite quantum correlations in a thermal bath

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, Jin-Liang, E-mail: guojinliang80@163.com; Wei, Jin-Long

    2015-03-15

    We study the dynamics and protection of tripartite quantum correlations in terms of genuinely tripartite concurrence, lower bound of concurrence and tripartite geometric quantum discord in a three-qubit system interacting with independent thermal bath. By comparing the dynamics of entanglement with that of quantum discord for initial GHZ state and W state, we find that W state is more robust than GHZ state, and quantum discord performs better than entanglement against the decoherence induced by the thermal bath. When the bath temperature is low, for the initial GHZ state, combining weak measurement and measurement reversal is necessary for a successful protection of quantum correlations. But for the initial W state, the protection depends solely upon the measurement reversal. In addition, the protection cannot usually be realized irrespective of the initial states as the bath temperature increases.

  16. Absolute measurement of neutron source emission rate with manganese bath method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The manganese bath method is one of the most widespread and exact method to measure neutron source emission rate (neutron source intensity) absolutely at present. Pouring some 56Mn solution with known activity into the bath, the system efficiency can be obtained from γ counts of 56Mn, which is measured by two NaI(Tl) detectors. From saturated counts of a 241Am-Be(α, n) neutron source in the bath, the source emission rate can be obtained. An standard 241Am-Be(α, n) source which is the transfer source of the CCRI(Ⅲ)-K9. AmBe international key comparison organized by the Comite Consultatif des Rayonnements Ionisants, was measured absolutely with the neutron source emission rate standard equipment (manganese bath method). The result is coincident with the average value of the comparison within the uncertainties, therefore the reliability of the standard equipment is verified. (authors)

  17. Bath dynamics in an exactly solvable qubit model with initial qubit-environment correlations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.V. Ignatyuk

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We study the bath dynamics in the dephasing model of a two-state quantum system (qubit coupled to an environment of harmonic oscillators. This model was shown [Morozov et al., Phys. Rev. A, 2012 85, 022101] to admit the analytic solution for the qubit and environment dynamics. Using this solution, we derive the exact expression for the bath reduced density matrix in the presence of initial qubit-environment correlations. We obtain the non-equilibrium phonon distribution function and discuss in detail the time behavior of the bath energy. It is shown that only the inclusion of dynamic correlations between the qubit and the bath ensures the proper time behavior of the quantity which may be interpreted as the "environment energy".

  18. [Use of aluminum foil baths for embedding biological materials in epoxide resins].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agaev, Iu M; Merkulov, V A

    1975-11-01

    The baths intended for embedding the biological material into epoxide resins are made of aluminium foil, 0.1 mm thick, cut in the form of rectangles (13 X 18 mm). The rectangular foil plates are placed on a soft microporous rubber separator 30--40 mm thick and by means of a form with the base equal to 5 X 10 mm the baths are pressed down by 4 mm deep. The baths are stuck to the paper stripes by rubber cement to ensure easy handling and numeration. In the process of embedding and polymerization the paper stripes having the baths are placed in the exsiccator with P2O5 and thermostate on special aluminium stands. PMID:775710

  19. Hydro-galvanic and rising - temperature bath therapy for chronic elbow epicondylitis: a comparative study

    OpenAIRE

    C. Mucha

    2004-01-01

    The efficacy of two different regimens of physiotherapy for epicondylitis was compared. A combination treatment with hydrogalvanic four-cell bath and arm bath with rising temperature, which had showed good effects in treatment of tennis elbow in an earlier observational study (Mucha 1987), was compared with the analgesic interference current treatment often recommended in the literature (Sadil and Sadil 1994, Noteboom et al 1994, Becker and Reuter 1982). For this study, 60 patients with epico...

  20. Optimization of operational parameters and bath control for electrodeposion of Ni-Mo-B amorphous alloys

    OpenAIRE

    Marinho Fabiano A.; Santana François S. M.; Vasconcelos André L. S.; Santana Renato A. C.; Prasad Shiva

    2002-01-01

    Optimization of operational parameters of an electrodeposition process for deposition of boron-containing amorphous metallic layer of nickel-molybdenum alloy onto a cathode from an electrolytic bath having nickel sulfate, sodium molybdate, boron phosphate, sodium citrate, sodium-1-dodecylsulfate and ammonia for pH adjustments to 9.5 has been studied. Detailed studies of the efects on bath temperature, mechanical agitation, cathode current density and anode format have led to optimum operation...

  1. Measurement of Smooth Muscle Function in the Isolated Tissue Bath-applications to Pharmacology Research

    OpenAIRE

    Jespersen, Brian; Tykocki, Nathan R.; Watts, Stephanie W.; Cobbett, Peter J.

    2015-01-01

    Isolated tissue bath assays are a classical pharmacological tool for evaluating concentration-response relationships in a myriad of contractile tissues. While this technique has been implemented for over 100 years, the versatility, simplicity and reproducibility of this assay helps it to remain an indispensable tool for pharmacologists and physiologists alike. Tissue bath systems are available in a wide array of shapes and sizes, allowing a scientist to evaluate samples as small as murine mes...

  2. Nanopigmented Acrylic Resin Cured Indistinctively by Water Bath or Microwave Energy for Dentures

    OpenAIRE

    L. S. Acosta-Torres; Arenas, M. C.; R. E. Nuñez­-Anita; F. H. Barceló-Santana; C. A. Álvarez-Gayosso; Palacios-Alquisira, J.; J. de la Fuente-Hernández; Marcos Cajero-Juárez; V. M. Castaño

    2014-01-01

    The highlight of this study was the synthesis of nanopigmented poly(methyl methacrylate) nanoparticles that were further processed using a water bath and/or microwave energy for dentures. The experimental acrylic resins were physicochemically characterized, and the adherence of Candida albicans and biocompatibility were assessed. A nanopigmented acrylic resin cured by a water bath or by microwave energy was obtained. The acrylic specimens possess similar properties to commercial acrylic resin...

  3. Quantum Dynamics of a Harmonic Oscillator in a Defomed Bath in the Presence of Lamb Shift

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daeimohamad, M.; Mohammadi, M.

    2012-10-01

    In this paper, we investigate the dissipative quantum dynamics of a harmonic oscillator in the presence a deformed bath by considering the Lamb shift term. The deformed bath is modelled by a collection of deformed quantum harmonic oscillators as a generalization of Hopfield model. The Langevin equation for both the photon number and the fluctuation spectrum under the Weisskopf-Winger approximation are obtained and discussed.

  4. Dual Bath Electrodeposition of Alternate Multilayer Coatings of Zinc and Nickel Deposits

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XINWen-li; FEIJing-yin; LIANGGuo-zheng

    2004-01-01

    The synthesis of zinc and nickel alternate multilayer coatings produced by successive deposition from dual baths containing a revised zinc sulphate electrolyte and a new developed nickel bath has been investigated. Smooth and uniform zinc-nickel compositionally modulated multilayered (CMM) coatings with different multilayer configurations were obtained. The surface and cross-sectional morphologies of samples were examined using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Cross-sectional morphology showed the layered structure of the coatings clearly.

  5. Data review leading to a conceptual model of the hydrogeology of the Combe Down area, Bath

    OpenAIRE

    Macdonald, D. M. J.; Whitehead, E J; Butcher, A.S.

    2000-01-01

    Bath and North East Somerset Council (B&NES) has obtained funds from the Department of Environment, Transport and the Regions to carry-out stabilisation of stone mines located in the Combe Down area to the south-east of the city of Bath. There are potentially significant engineering geology and hydrogeology implications associated with the project. The British Geological Survey (BGS) has been appointed by B&NES to provide independent geological advice. In this role, BGS has undert...

  6. Progress towards an effective non-Markovian description of a system interacting with a bath

    OpenAIRE

    Ferialdi, L.; Dürr, D.

    2015-01-01

    We analyze a system coupled to a bath of independent harmonic oscillators. We transform the bath in chain structure by solving an inverse eigenvalue problem. We solve the equations of motion for the collective variables defined by this transformation, and we derive the exact dynamics for an harmonic oscillator in terms of the microscopic motion of the environmental modes. We compare this approach to the well-known Generalized Langevin Equation and we show that our dynamics satisfies this equa...

  7. Efficacy of chlorhexidine bathing for reducing healthcare associated bloodstream infections: a meta-analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Choi, Eun Young; Park, Dong-Ah; Kim, Hyun Jung; Park, Jinkyeong

    2015-01-01

    Background We performed a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) to determine if daily bathing with chlorhexidine decreased hospital-acquired BSIs in critically ill patients. Methods We searched the MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials databases to identify randomized controlled trials that compared daily bathing with chlorhexidine and a control in critically ill patients. Results This meta-analysis included five RCTs. The overall incidence of meas...

  8. Puva therapy for psoriasis comparison of oral and bath water delivery of 8-MOP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sridhar K

    1992-01-01

    Full Text Available Exposure to UVA following oral psoralens for the treatment of psoriasis is associated with systemic side effects which are absent if bath water delivery of psoralens is practiced. We have compared the relative therapeutic effectiveness of these 2 modes of drug delivery in skin types IV and V. To date all such studies have been done only in skin types I, II and III. Bath PUVA although relatively expensive is an effective and acceptable mode of drug delivery.

  9. Progress towards an effective non-Markovian description of a system interacting with a bath

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferialdi, L.; Dürr, D.

    2015-04-01

    We analyze a system coupled to a bath of independent harmonic oscillators. We transform the bath in chain structure by solving an inverse eigenvalue problem. We solve the equations of motion for the collective variables defined by this transformation, and we derive the exact dynamics for a harmonic oscillator in terms of the microscopic motion of the environmental modes. We compare this approach to the well-known generalized Langevin equation and we show that our dynamics satisfies this equation.

  10. Effects of Forest Bathing on Cardiovascular and Metabolic Parameters in Middle-Aged Males

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qing Li

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, we investigated the effects of a forest bathing on cardiovascular and metabolic parameters. Nineteen middle-aged male subjects were selected after they provided informed consent. These subjects took day trips to a forest park in Agematsu, Nagano Prefecture, and to an urban area of Nagano Prefecture as control in August 2015. On both trips, they walked 2.6 km for 80 min each in the morning and afternoon on Saturdays. Blood and urine were sampled before and after each trip. Cardiovascular and metabolic parameters were measured. Blood pressure and pulse rate were measured during the trips. The Japanese version of the profile of mood states (POMS test was conducted before, during, and after the trips. Ambient temperature and humidity were monitored during the trips. The forest bathing program significantly reduced pulse rate and significantly increased the score for vigor and decreased the scores for depression, fatigue, anxiety, and confusion. Urinary adrenaline after forest bathing showed a tendency toward decrease. Urinary dopamine after forest bathing was significantly lower than that after urban area walking, suggesting the relaxing effect of the forest bathing. Serum adiponectin after the forest bathing was significantly greater than that after urban area walking.

  11. Resolving conflicts in public health protection and ecosystem service provision at designated bathing waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quilliam, Richard S; Kinzelman, Julie; Brunner, Joel; Oliver, David M

    2015-09-15

    Understanding and quantifying the trade-off between the requirement for clean safe bathing water and beaches and their wider ecosystem services is central to the aims of the European Union (EU) Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD), and vital for the sustainability and economic viability of designated bathing waters. Uncertainty surrounding the impacts of ensuing bathing water policy transitions, e.g. the EU revised Bathing Waters Directive (rBWD), puts new urgency on our need to understand the importance of natural beach assets for human recreation, wildlife habitat and for protection from flooding and erosion. However, managing coastal zones solely in terms of public health could have potentially negative consequences on a range of other social and cultural ecosystem services, e.g. recreation. Improving our knowledge of how bathing waters, surrounding beach environments and local economies might respond to shifts in management decisions is critical in order to inform reliable decision-making, and to evaluate future implications for human health. In this paper we explore the conflicts and trade-offs that emerge at public beach environments, and propose the development of an evaluative framework of viable alternatives in environmental management whereby bathing waters are managed for their greatest utility, driven by identifying the optimal ecosystem service provision at any particular site. PMID:26188988

  12. Hydro-galvanic and rising - temperature bath therapy for chronic elbow epicondylitis: a comparative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Mucha

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available The efficacy of two different regimens of physiotherapy for epicondylitis was compared. A combination treatment with hydrogalvanic four-cell bath and arm bath with rising temperature, which had showed good effects in treatment of tennis elbow in an earlier observational study (Mucha 1987, was compared with the analgesic interference current treatment often recommended in the literature (Sadil and Sadil 1994, Noteboom et al 1994, Becker and Reuter 1982. For this study, 60 patients with epicondylitis that was resistant to conservative treatment were randomized into two groups for comparison. In group 1, interference currents were administered twice a day for six weeks and group 2 received combination treatment with the hydrogalvanic four-cell bath and rising- temperature arm bath once a day for six weeks. Criteria for inclusion, control and appraisal were laid down prospectively. Several parameters were used, recorded and statistically evaluated as outcome measures.  These were active joint range of movement of the elbow, grip strength, pain provocation with muscle contraction, palpation pain and pain with functional activities.  The results showed a significant superiority of combination treatment over therapy with interference current. It is therefore recommended that hydrogalvanic four-cell bath and arm bath with rising temperature should be carried out before considering surgical treatment for chronic epicondylitis.

  13. Water bath and air bath calorimeter qualification for measuring 3013 containers of plutonium oxide at the Hanford Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this paper is to present qualification data generated from water and air-bath calorimeters measuring radioactive decay heat from plutonium oxide in DOE STD-3013-2000 (3013) containers at the Hanford Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP). Published data concerning air and water bath calorimeters and especially 3013-qualified calorimeters is minimal at best. This paper will address the data from the measurement/qualification test plan, the heat standards used, and the calorimeter precision and accuracy results. The 3013 package is physically larger than earlier plutonium oxide storage containers, thereby necessitating a larger measurement chamber. To accommodate the measurements of the 3013 containers at PFP, Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) supplied a water bath dual-chambered unit and the Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC) provided two air-bath calorimeters. Both types of Calorimeters were installed in the analytical laboratory at PFP. The larger 3013 containers presented a new set of potential measurement problems: longer counting times, heat conductivity through a much larger container mass and wall thickness, and larger amounts of copper shot to assist sample thermal conductivity. These potential problems were addressed and included in the measurement/qualification test plan

  14. Black hole evaporation in a heat bath as a nonequilibrium process and its final fate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We consider a black hole in a heat bath, and the whole system which consists of the black hole and the heat bath is isolated from outside environments. When the black hole evaporates, the Hawking radiation causes an energy flow from the black hole to the heat bath. Therefore, since no energy flow arises in an equilibrium state, the thermodynamic state of the whole system is not in equilibrium. That is, in a region around the black hole, the matter field of Hawking radiation and that of heat bath should be in a nonequilibrium state due to the energy flow. Using a simple model which reflects the nonequilibrium nature of energy flow, we find the nonequilibrium effect on a black hole evaporation as follows: if the nonequilibrium region around a black hole is not so large, the evaporation time scale of a black hole in a heat bath becomes longer than that in an empty space (a situation without heat bath), because of the incoming energy flow from the heat bath to the black hole. However, if the nonequilibrium region around a black hole is sufficiently large, the evaporation time scale in a heat bath becomes shorter than that in an empty space, because a nonequilibrium effect of the temperature difference between the black hole and heat bath appears as a strong energy extraction from the black hole by the heat bath. Further, a specific nonequilibrium phenomenon is found: a quasi-equilibrium evaporation stage under the nonequilibrium effect proceeds abruptly to a quantum evaporation stage at a semi-classical level (at black hole radius Rg > Planck length) within a very short time scale with a strong burst of energy. (Contrarily, when the nonequilibrium effect is not taken into account, a quasi-equilibrium stage proceeds smoothly to a quantum stage at Rg < Planck length without so strong an energy burst.) That is, the nonequilibrium effect of energy flow tends to make a black hole evaporation process more dynamical and to accelerate that process. Finally, on the final fate

  15. Relief of Chronic Posterior Neck Pain Depending on the Type of Forest Therapy: Comparison of the Therapeutic Effect of Forest Bathing Alone Versus Forest Bathing With Exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Boram; Kim, Taikon; Kim, Mi Jung; Lee, Kyu Hoon; Choi, Seungyoung; Lee, Dong Hun; Kim, Hyo Ryoung; Jun, Byol; Park, Seen Young; Lee, Sung Jae

    2015-01-01

    Objective To compare the pain-reducing effect of forest bathing alone versus forest bathing in combination with stretching and strengthening exercises in patients with chronic posterior neck pain. Methods Sixty-four subjects with posterior neck pain that had lasted more than 3 months were enrolled. They were randomly divided into a forest bathing alone (FBA) group and a forest bathing with exercise (FBE) group; each group included 32 subjects. All subjects from both groups walked every morning in the forest for about 2 hours for 5 days. In the afternoon, the FBE group did a stretching and strengthening exercise for about 4 hours; the FBA group had free time in the woods. Visual analog scale (VAS) on one day, VAS over the previous week, neck disability index (NDI), EuroQol 5D-3L VAS (EQ VAS) and index (EQ index), McGill pain questionnaire (MPQ), the number of trigger points in the posterior neck region (TRPs), and the range of motion of the cervical spine were evaluated on the first and last day of the program and compared between the two groups. Results The number of TRPs were significantly reduced in the FBE group compared with the FBA group (p=0.013). However, the other scales showed no significant difference between the two groups. Conclusion When patients with chronic posterior neck pain underwent a short-term forest bathing (less than 7 days) program, FBE was more effective in the reduction of the number of TRPs than FBA. However, all other pain measurement scales we evaluated showed no statistically significant difference between the two protocols. PMID:26798610

  16. Effect and efficacy of thermal environment provided by a new bathing style, “mist sauna bathing”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IWASE Satoshi

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Mist sauna is a style of bathing in which hot water vapor is sprayed into a bathroom, establishing an air temperature of 40°C with saturated humidity. Bath heater and dryer equipment with mist sauna function was released onto the Japanese market in 2004. After their introduction, various studies investigated the effects of mist sauna bathing, and it has been demonstrated that mist sauna bathing has various effects and efficacies, not only hyperthermic effects but also other effects including on physical appearance. Mist sauna bathing occurs in a bathroom, usually without a toilet, in which the room temperature is approximately 40°C with 100% relative humidity. It has been shown that the mist sauna causes little hemodynamic change, which ensures its safety during bathing. Therefore, we can enjoy safer physiological bathing in a mist sauna than in traditional hot water immersion bathing. In addition, the mist sauna elicits benefits such as improved skin condition, heat acclimation, and autonomic balance. Since mist sauna bathing does not involve immersion of the body in bathtub water, it is less likely to result in an accident during bathing because of the low impact of hemodynamic changes. Recently, mist sauna bathing has drawn attention in the field of nursing care as a bathing style for the hospitalized elderly that can reduce the burden on care-giving personnel during bathing. It is expected that mist sauna will be adopted by homes and various facilities as a useful approach for various purposes, regardless of the user’s age or gender.

  17. Pengaruh Kadar AlF3 dan CaF2 pada Komposisi Bath Terhadap Efisiensi Arus di PT Inalum Kuala Tanjung

    OpenAIRE

    Febriana, Wahida

    2016-01-01

    In the production of aluminum electrolysis process requires medium is an electrolyte solution bath (cryolite). Bath has a composition such as AlF3 and CaF2 which can affect the acidity of the bath (Sa). AlF3 is an important component in the bath to lower the melting point bath and also as a catalyst. Acidity of the bath on the reduction furnace operation ranged between 8.5% - 11.5%. High acidity of the bath which will cause a decrease in liquid temperature and the ability to di...

  18. Thermal balance and quantum heat transport in nanostructures thermalized by local Langevin heat baths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sääskilahti, K.; Oksanen, J.; Tulkki, J.

    2013-07-01

    Modeling of thermal transport in practical nanostructures requires making tradeoffs between the size of the system and the completeness of the model. We study quantum heat transfer in a self-consistent thermal bath setup consisting of two lead regions connected by a center region. Atoms both in the leads and in the center region are coupled to quantum Langevin heat baths that mimic the damping and dephasing of phonon waves by anharmonic scattering. This approach treats the leads and the center region on the same footing and thereby allows for a simple and physically transparent thermalization of the system, enabling also perfect acoustic matching between the leads and the center region. Increasing the strength of the coupling reduces the mean-free path of phonons and gradually shifts phonon transport from ballistic regime to diffusive regime. In the center region, the bath temperatures are determined self-consistently from the requirement of zero net energy exchange between the local heat bath and each atom. By solving the stochastic equations of motion in frequency space and averaging over noise using the general fluctuation-dissipation relation derived by Dhar and Roy [J. Stat. Phys.JSTPBS0022-471510.1007/s10955-006-9235-3 125, 801 (2006)], we derive the formula for thermal current, which contains the Caroli formula for phonon transmission function and reduces to the Landauer-Büttiker formula in the limit of vanishing coupling to local heat baths. We prove that the bath temperatures measure local kinetic energy and can, therefore, be interpreted as true atomic temperatures. In a setup where phonon reflections are eliminated, the Boltzmann transport equation under gray approximation with full phonon dispersion is shown to be equivalent to the self-consistent heat bath model. We also study thermal transport through two-dimensional constrictions in square lattice and graphene and discuss the differences between the exact solution and linear approximations.

  19. [Collaboration between Physician Emerich Lindenmayer and Architect Jan Nevole in Restoring the Sokobanja Turkish Bath].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitrović, Gordana; Nešković, Marina

    2015-01-01

    The Sokobanja Turkish bath is an exceptional example of two-section baths and quite particular in its style, structure type and technology used. It is one of the two of the same type that remained in Serbia and the only one that has retained its original function. About its construction we learn from the Vidin sanjak defter from the second half of the 16th century. In the lavish built heritage inventory, Turkish baths are quite unique secular public structures, playing a prominent role in the development of health culture. Based upon their specific function, these baths possess a special architectural expression, are often monumental, decorative and imaginative in their forms and ornamentation. Prince Miloš initiated repair works of the Soko Banja baths and spa springs immediately after the settlement became a part of the Serbian Principality in 1834. When work on restoring the men's baths started, a separate room with a tub was built for Prince Miloš, while the women's bath remained in ruins. In 1847, the Ministry of Interior sent Dr Emerich Lindenmayer and architect Jan Nevole, as an expert team, to assess the state of the hammam so that it could be included in the undertakings funded from the state budget. After the assessment and review of the existing issues and upon a detailed report submitted to the Ministry of Interior, complex repairs were conducted in 1850, according to Nevole's architectural design and his constant supervision. The approach implemented in the architectural renovation process was based on highly regarded principles of the time, thus preserving both the hammam's original function and its valuable architecture. PMID:26946778

  20. Collaboration between physician Emerich Lindenmayer and architect Jan Nevole in restoring the Sokobanja Turkish bath

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitrović Gordana

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The Sokobanja Turkish bath is an exceptional example of twosection baths and quite particular in its style, structure type and technology used. It is one of the two of the same type that remained in Serbia and the only one that has retained its original function. About its construction we learn from the Vidin sanjak defter from the second half of the 16th century. In the lavish built heritage inventory, Turkish baths are quite unique secular public structures, playing a prominent role in the development of health culture. Based upon their specific function, these baths possess a special architectural expression, are often monumental, decorative and imaginative in their forms and ornamentation. Prince Miloš initiated repair works of the Soko Banja baths and spa springs immediately after the settlement became a part of the Serbian Principality in 1834. When work on restoring the men’s baths started, a separate room with a tub was built for Prince Miloš, while the women’s bath remained in ruins. In 1847, the Ministry of Interior sent Dr Emerich Lindenmayer and architect Jan Nevole, as an expert team, to assess the state of the hammam so that it could be included in the undertakings funded from the state budget. After the assessment and review of the existing issues and upon a detailed report submitted to the Ministry of Interior, complex repairs were conducted in 1850, according to Nevole’s architectural design and his constant supervision. The approach implemented in the architectural renovation process was based on highly regarded principles of the time, thus preserving both the hammam’s original function and its valuable architecture.

  1. Effect of Bath ph on Electroless Ni-P Coating Deposited on Open-Cell Aluminum Foams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jiaan; Si, Fujian; Li, Dong; Liu, Yan; Cao, Zheng; Wang, Guoyong

    2015-09-01

    Different electroless Ni-P coatings were deposited on open-cell aluminum foams at various bath pH. The effect of bath pH on the morphology, structure, components, phases and corrosion resistance of the Ni-P coating was studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), confocal laser scanning microscope (CLSM), energy-dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), X-ray diffraction (XRD), immersion test and electrochemical polarization measurement, respectively. The experimental results show that the bath pH not only changed the reactivity of the bath, but also had a influence on the microstructure and anticorrosive property of electroless Ni-P coating. The high pH bath raises the thickness of Ni-P coating but decreases the content of phosphorus element in the Ni-P coating. The corrosion resistance of the coated aluminum foams increases when the bath pH rises.

  2. Decolorization and removal of cod and bodfrom raw and biotreated textile dye bath effluent through advanced oxidation processes (AOPS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Muhammad

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a comparative study of the treatment of raw and biotreated (upflow anaerobic sludge blanket, UASB textile dye bath effluent using advanced oxidation processes (AOPs is presented. The AOPs applied on raw and biotreated textile dye bath effluent, after characterization in terms of COD, colour, BOD and pH, were ozone, UV, UV/H2O2 and photo-Fenton. The decolorization of raw dye bath effluent was 58% in the case of ozonation. However it was 98% in the case of biotreated dye bath effluent when exposed to UV/H2O2. It is, therefore, suggested that a combination of biotreatment and AOPs be adopted to decolorize dye bath effluent in order to make the process more viable and effective. Biodegradability was also improved by applying AOPs after biotreatment of dye bath effluent.

  3. [Case of hot tub lung with confirmation of exacerbation following jet bath use].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuchiya, Noriko; Takayanagi, Noboru; Yoneda, Kouichiro; Miyahara, Yousuke; Morokawa, Nasa; Yamaguchi, Shozaburo; Tokunaga, Daidou; Saito, Hiroo; Ubukata, Mikio; Kurashima, Kazuyoshi; Yanagisawa, Tsutomu; Sugita, Yutaka; Kawabata, Yoshinori

    2008-09-01

    A 49-year-old woman presented with exertional dyspnea. Chest CT revealed patchy areas of ground-glass attenuation and ill-defined centrilobular nodules scattered in both lungs. Bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid showed lymphocytosis. Transbronchial lung biopsy revealed bronchiolocentric alveolitis and well-formed non-necrotizing granulomas were present. She had used a jet bath before the onset of symptoms and mycobacterial culture revealed the presence of Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) in sputum sample, BAL samples and jet bath water. Restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis revealed that the isolated MAC were essentially clonal. She had used the jet bath for the inhalation provocation study, and after the challenge she complained of dyspnea and have body temperature increased. We diagnosed hot tub lung due to Mycobacterium avium complex. Because avoidance of the jet bath caused improvement of her symptoms and reduced her fever and PaO2 increased by 10 Torr but did not improve the CT findings, antimycobacterial drugs were prescribed. The patient recovered fully. This case proves that the cause of hot tub lung is the use of jet bath through the inhalation provocation study. PMID:18939416

  4. The use of small MnSO4-baths for calibration of neutron sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The uncertainty of neutron source strength determination by means of the Mn55-activation in aqueous MnSO4-baths is principally determined by two kinds or errors: the uncertainties of the correction factors to be applied for all kind of fast, intermediate and thermal neutron losses by nuclear reactions and by leakage, and the experimental errors in determining the Mn55-concentration and finally the Mn56-saturation activation. With decreasing source strength the experimental error increases and determines often the uncertainty of the result. The situation can be improved by decreasing the bath size, which increases the specific activation. However, at the same time the neutron-loss correction and its uncertainty increases. Systematic experimental studies have been performed on the Mn55-activation in different sized spherical and a large size cylindrical bath, with varying Mn55-concentration, using AmBe-neutron sources with varying source strengths. The Mn56-activity is measured by a NaJ(TL) crystal dipped into the bath. The experimental results of bath activation were compared with computer data based on calculations with the one dimensional multigroup code ANISN. A quantitative error analysis was applied to determine the crucial uncertainties of the technique as a function of neutron source strength

  5. 222Rn determination in some thermal baths of a central eastern Italian area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Some recent Italian laws, based on the Euratom Directive 26/96, introduce the obligation of monitoring the exposition to natural radioactivity in particular worksites (thermal baths, mines, basements, etc.). Results of 222Rn measurements in some thermal baths of Rimini and Pesaro-Urbino provinces (Central Eastern Italy), by Radosys-2000, a complete set suitable to radon concentration measurements with CR-39 plastic alpha-track detectors are reported. Some areas where radon could accumulate (bathing, reaction, muddy, inhalation, insufflation rooms and swimming pools) were selected for the investigation. The dosimeters have been exposed for 98 days. The results show that 222Rn concentrations are very low in the considered thermal baths (7-71 Bq x m-3). Moreover, no difference was observed between the concentrations measured in the therapy rooms (bathing, muddy, inhalation and insufflation rooms, swimming pools) and in the normal areas (passages, reaction rooms, dressing rooms, etc.). The calculated dose contribution to workers was about one tenth of the legally suggested value. (author)

  6. Comparing the Effects of Swaddled and Conventional Bathing Methods on Body Temperature and Crying Duration in Premature Infants: A Randomized Clinical Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitra Edraki

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Maintaining body temperature and reducing stress are important challenges in bathing preterm infants. Swaddle bathing, which includes in itself the principles of developmental care, can be used as a low-stress and appropriate bathing method for premature infants. Given the limitations of the researches carried out on this bathing method, the present study was conducted with the aim of comparing the effects of swaddled and conventional bathing methods on body temperature and crying duration in premature infants. Methods: In this randomized clinical trial study, 50 premature infants hospitalized in Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU who were eligible for the study were divided by random allocation into two experimental and control groups. The infants in the experimental group were bathed using the swaddle bathing method and the infants in the control group were bathed using the conventional bathing method. Body temperature was measured 10 minutes before and 10 minutes after the bath. To record the crying, the infants' faces were filmed during the bath. The data were analyzed using chi-squared test, independent t-test, paired t-test and Mann-Whitney U test. Results: The mean temperature loss was significantly less in the swaddle-bathed newborns compared to the conventionally-bathed newborns. Furthermore, crying time was significantly less in the experimental group than in the control group. Conclusion: Given the positive effect of swaddled bathing in maintaining body temperature and reducing stress, it can be used as an appropriate bathing method in NICU.

  7. Quantitative percutaneous CO2 measurement following CO2 mineral water baths by means of the isotope ratio

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A method for the quantitative determination of the carbon dioxide penetration through the human skin during a medical carbon dioxide mineral water bath is described. The natural isotope variation of carbon in the carbon dioxide of bath water, blood, and exspiratory gas are used for the calculation of the penetrated carbon dioxide amount. The method permits to optimize the effectiveness of medical carbon dioxide baths. (author)

  8. Decolorization and removal of cod and bodfrom raw and biotreated textile dye bath effluent through advanced oxidation processes (AOPS)

    OpenAIRE

    Muhammad, A.; A. Shafeeq; Butt, M.A.; Z. H. Rizvi; M. A. Chughtai; Rehman, S.

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, a comparative study of the treatment of raw and biotreated (upflow anaerobic sludge blanket, UASB) textile dye bath effluent using advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) is presented. The AOPs applied on raw and biotreated textile dye bath effluent, after characterization in terms of COD, colour, BOD and pH, were ozone, UV, UV/H2O2 and photo-Fenton. The decolorization of raw dye bath effluent was 58% in the case of ozonation. However it was 98% in the case of biotreated dye bath e...

  9. Effect of Physiochemical Properties and Bath Chemistry on Alumina Dissolution Rate in Cryolite Electrolyte

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Youjian; Gao, Bingliang; Wang, Zhaowen; Shi, Zhongning; Hu, Xianwei

    2015-05-01

    The relationships of dissolution rate to alumina specifications and bath chemistry including electrolyte composition, operating temperature and superheat were investigated. The key physiochemical properties of industrial alumina samples were tested including moisture content, loss on ignition, surface area and phase composition. The dissolution of these samples in several bath compositions was observed through a quartz crucible equipped with a visual recording system. The dissolution rate increased with increasing loss on ignition and surface area. The operating temperatures and existing alumina concentration in the electrolyte had a greater impact on the alumina dissolution rate than the minor change of the bath compositions and superheat. Same trends were also obtained for the lab-calcined alumina samples.

  10. Thermal rectification and negative differential thermal conductance in harmonic chains with nonlinear system-bath coupling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ming, Yi; Li, Hui-Min; Ding, Ze-Jun

    2016-03-01

    Thermal rectification and negative differential thermal conductance were realized in harmonic chains in this work. We used the generalized Caldeira-Leggett model to study the heat flow. In contrast to most previous studies considering only the linear system-bath coupling, we considered the nonlinear system-bath coupling based on recent experiment [Eichler et al., Nat. Nanotech. 6, 339 (2011), 10.1038/nnano.2011.71]. When the linear coupling constant is weak, the multiphonon processes induced by the nonlinear coupling allow more phonons transport across the system-bath interface and hence the heat current is enhanced. Consequently, thermal rectification and negative differential thermal conductance are achieved when the nonlinear couplings are asymmetric. However, when the linear coupling constant is strong, the umklapp processes dominate the multiphonon processes. Nonlinear coupling suppresses the heat current. Thermal rectification is also achieved. But the direction of rectification is reversed compared to the results of weak linear coupling constant.

  11. Modification of optical and electrical properties of chemical bath deposited CdS using plasma treatments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez, G. [Facultad de Ingenieria Mecanica y Electrica, Universidad Autonoma de Nuevo Leon, San Nicolas de los Garza, Nuevo Leon, C.P 66450 (Mexico); Krishnan, B. [Facultad de Ingenieria Mecanica y Electrica, Universidad Autonoma de Nuevo Leon, San Nicolas de los Garza, Nuevo Leon, C.P 66450 (Mexico); CIIDIT, Universidad Autonoma de Nuevo Leon, Apodaca, Nuevo Leon (Mexico); Avellaneda, D.; Castillo, G. Alan; Das Roy, T.K. [Facultad de Ingenieria Mecanica y Electrica, Universidad Autonoma de Nuevo Leon, San Nicolas de los Garza, Nuevo Leon, C.P 66450 (Mexico); Shaji, S., E-mail: sshajis@yahoo.com [Facultad de Ingenieria Mecanica y Electrica, Universidad Autonoma de Nuevo Leon, San Nicolas de los Garza, Nuevo Leon, C.P 66450 (Mexico); CIIDIT, Universidad Autonoma de Nuevo Leon, Apodaca, Nuevo Leon (Mexico)

    2011-08-31

    Cadmium sulphide (CdS) is a well known n-type semiconductor that is widely used in solar cells. Here we report preparation and characterization of chemical bath deposited CdS thin films and modification of their optical and electrical properties using plasma treatments. CdS thin films were prepared from a chemical bath containing Cadmium chloride, Triethanolamine and Thiourea under various deposition conditions. Good quality thin films were obtained during deposition times of 5, 10 and 15 min. CdS thin films prepared for 10 min. were treated using a glow discharge plasma having nitrogen and argon carrier gases. The changes in morphology, optical and electrical properties of these plasma treated CdS thin films were analyzed in detail. The results obtained show that plasma treatment is an effective technique in modification of the optical and electrical properties of chemical bath deposited CdS thin films.

  12. Einstein’s enigma or black holes in my bubble bath

    CERN Document Server

    Vishveshwara, C V

    2006-01-01

    "The bubbles were swirling all around me massaging my body ... As I luxuriated in this fantastic bubble bath, my eyes grew heavy and I drifted into a supremely blissful slumber." So begins Alfie's encounter with a remarkable and revelatory bathtub purchased from a mysterious neighbour named Al. Einstein's Enigma or Black Holes in My Bubble Bath tells the story of gravitation theory from the early historic origins to the latest developments in astrophysics, focusing on Albert Einstein's theory of general relativity and black-hole physics. Through engaging conversations and napkin-scribbled diagrams come tumbling the rudiments of relativity, spacetime and much of modern physics, narrated with high didactic and literary talent, and each embedded in casual lessons given by a worldly astrophysicist to his friend Alfie, a freelance organiser of proposals. Join the intellectual fun and exalt in the frothy ideas while vicariously taking relaxing baths in this magical bathtub. Prof. C.V. Vishveshwara is a renowned the...

  13. Polynitroaniline as brightener for zinc–nickel alloy plating from non-cyanide sulphate bath

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    H P Sachin; Ganesha Achary; Y Arthoba Naik; T V Venkatesha

    2007-02-01

    Electro-polymerization of orthonitroaniline was carried out on graphite electrode in hydrochloric acid medium. Zinc–nickel alloy deposition was carried out in the presence of polynitroaniline in acid sulphate bath. The bath constituent and bath variables were optimized through Hull cell experiments. The current efficiency and throwing power were measured. High shift of potential towards more cathodic direction was observed in presence of addition agent. Corrosion resistance test revealed good protection of base metal by zinc–nickel coating obtained from the developed electrolyte. SEM photomicrograph shows fine-grained deposit in the presence of addition agent. The consumption of brightener in the lab-scale was 0.01 gL-1 for 1000 amp-h.

  14. Characterization of CdTe Films Deposited at Various Bath Temperatures and Concentrations Using Electrophoretic Deposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zulkarnain Zainal

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available CdTe film was deposited using the electrophoretic deposition technique onto an ITO glass at various bath temperatures. Four batch film compositions were used by mixing 1 to 4 wt% concentration of CdTe powder with 10 mL of a solution of methanol and toluene. X-ray Diffraction analysis showed that the films exhibited polycrystalline nature of zinc-blende structure with the (111 orientation as the most prominent peak. From the Atomic Force Microscopy, the thickness and surface roughness of the CdTe film increased with the increase of CdTe concentration. The optical energy band gap of film decreased with the increase of CdTe concentration, and with the increase of isothermal bath temperature. The film thickness increased with respect to the increase of CdTe concentration and bath temperature, and following, the numerical expression for the film thickness with respect to these two variables has been established.

  15. Calorimetric observation of single He2* excimers in a 100 mK He bath

    CERN Document Server

    Carter, F W; Rooks, M J; McClintock, P V E; McKinsey, D N; Prober, D E

    2016-01-01

    We report the first calorimetric detection of individual He2* excimers within a bath of superfluid 4He. The detector used in this work is a single superconducting titanium transition edge sensor (TES) with an energy resolution of ~1 eV, immersed directly in the helium bath. He2* excimers are produced in the surrounding bath using an external gamma-ray source. These excimers exist either as short-lived singlet or long-lived triplet states. We demonstrate detection of both states: in the singlet case the calorimeter records the absorption of a prompt 15 eV photon, and in the triplet case the calorimeter records a direct interaction of the molecule with the TES surface, which deposits a distinct fraction of the 15 eV, released upon decay, into the surface. We also briefly discuss the detector fabrication and characterization.

  16. Modification of optical and electrical properties of chemical bath deposited CdS using plasma treatments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cadmium sulphide (CdS) is a well known n-type semiconductor that is widely used in solar cells. Here we report preparation and characterization of chemical bath deposited CdS thin films and modification of their optical and electrical properties using plasma treatments. CdS thin films were prepared from a chemical bath containing Cadmium chloride, Triethanolamine and Thiourea under various deposition conditions. Good quality thin films were obtained during deposition times of 5, 10 and 15 min. CdS thin films prepared for 10 min. were treated using a glow discharge plasma having nitrogen and argon carrier gases. The changes in morphology, optical and electrical properties of these plasma treated CdS thin films were analyzed in detail. The results obtained show that plasma treatment is an effective technique in modification of the optical and electrical properties of chemical bath deposited CdS thin films.

  17. Comparison of urinary excretion of radon from the human body before and after radon bath therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Theoretically, the human body absorbs radon through the lungs and the skin and excretes it through the lungs and the excretory organs during radon bath therapy. To check this theory, the radon concentrations in urine samples were compared before and after radon bath therapy. During the therapy, the geometric mean (GM) and the geometric standard deviation of the radon concentration in air and in the bath water were 979 Bq m-3, 1.58 and 73.6 Bq dm-3, 1.1, respectively. Since radon was detected in each urine sample (GM around 3.0 Bq dm-3), urinary excretion of radon was confirmed. The results of this study can neither reject nor confirm the hypothesis of radon absorption through the skin. A 15 times higher increment of inhaled radon level did not cause significant changes in radon of urine samples. (authors)

  18. Nonequilibrium processes from generalized Langevin equations: Realistic nanoscale systems connected to two thermal baths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ness, H.; Genina, A.; Stella, L.; Lorenz, C. D.; Kantorovich, L.

    2016-05-01

    We extend the generalized Langevin equation (GLE) method [L. Stella, C. D. Lorenz, and L. Kantorovich, Phys. Rev. B 89, 134303 (2014), 10.1103/PhysRevB.89.134303] to model a central classical region connected to two realistic thermal baths at two different temperatures. In such nonequilibrium conditions a heat flow is established, via the central system, in between the two baths. The GLE-2B (GLE two baths) scheme permits us to have a realistic description of both the dissipative central system and its surrounding baths. Following the original GLE approach, the extended Langevin dynamics scheme is modified to take into account two sets of auxiliary degrees of freedom corresponding to the mapping of the vibrational properties of each bath. These auxiliary variables are then used to solve the non-Markovian dissipative dynamics of the central region. The resulting algorithm is used to study a model of a short Al nanowire connected to two baths. The results of the simulations using the GLE-2B approach are compared to the results of other simulations that were carried out using standard thermostatting approaches (based on Markovian Langevin and Nosé-Hoover thermostats). We concentrate on the steady-state regime and study the establishment of a local temperature profile within the system. The conditions for obtaining a flat profile or a temperature gradient are examined in detail, in agreement with earlier studies. The results show that the GLE-2B approach is able to treat, within a single scheme, two widely different thermal transport regimes, i.e., ballistic systems, with no temperature gradient, and diffusive systems with a temperature gradient.

  19. Measurement of smooth muscle function in the isolated tissue bath-applications to pharmacology research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jespersen, Brian; Tykocki, Nathan R; Watts, Stephanie W; Cobbett, Peter J

    2015-01-01

    Isolated tissue bath assays are a classical pharmacological tool for evaluating concentration-response relationships in a myriad of contractile tissues. While this technique has been implemented for over 100 years, the versatility, simplicity and reproducibility of this assay helps it to remain an indispensable tool for pharmacologists and physiologists alike. Tissue bath systems are available in a wide array of shapes and sizes, allowing a scientist to evaluate samples as small as murine mesenteric arteries and as large as porcine ileum - if not larger. Central to the isolated tissue bath assay is the ability to measure concentration-dependent changes to isometric contraction, and how the efficacy and potency of contractile agonists can be manipulated by increasing concentrations of antagonists or inhibitors. Even though the general principles remain relatively similar, recent technological advances allow even more versatility to the tissue bath assay by incorporating computer-based data recording and analysis software. This video will demonstrate the function of the isolated tissue bath to measure the isometric contraction of an isolated smooth muscle (in this case rat thoracic aorta rings), and share the types of knowledge that can be created with this technique. Included are detailed descriptions of aortic tissue dissection and preparation, placement of aortic rings in the tissue bath and proper tissue equilibration prior to experimentation, tests of tissue viability, experimental design and implementation, and data quantitation. Aorta will be connected to isometric force transducers, the data from which will be captured using a commercially available analog-to-digital converter and bridge amplifier specifically designed for use in these experiments. The accompanying software to this system will be used to visualize the experiment and analyze captured data. PMID:25650585

  20. Sympathomimetic syndrome, choreoathetosis, and acute kidney injury following "bath salts" injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutamtewagul, Grerk; Sood, Vineeta; Nugent, Kenneth

    2014-01-01

    "Bath salts" is a well known street drug which can cause several cardiovascular and neuropsychiatric symptoms. However, only one case of acute kidney injury has been reported in the literature. We present a case with sympathomimetic syndrome, choreoathetosis, gustatory and olfactory hallucinations, and acute kidney injury following the use of bath salts. A 37-year-old man with past medical history of hypertension and depression was brought to the emergency center with body shaking. Three days before admission he injected 3 doses of bath salts intravenously and felt eye pain with blurry vision followed by a metallic taste, strange smells, profuse sweating, and body shaking. At presentation he had a sympathomimetic syndrome including high blood pressure, tachycardia, tachypnea, and hyperhydrosis with choreoathetotic movements. Laboratory testing revealed leukocytosis and acute kidney injury with a BUN of 95 mg/ dL and a creatinine of 15.2 mg/dL. Creatine kinase was 4,457 IU/dL. Urine drug screen is negative for amphetamine, cannabinoids, and cocaine; blood alcohol level was zero. During his ICU stay he became disoriented and agitated. Supportive treatment with 7.2 liters of intravenous fluid over 3 days, haloperidol, and lorazepam gradually improved his symptoms and his renal failure. Bath salts contain 3,4-methylenedioxypyrovalerone, a psychoactive norepinephrine and dopamine reuptake inhibitor. Choreoathetosis in this patient could be explained through dopaminergic effect of bath salts or uremic encephalopathy. The mechanism for acute kidney injury from bath salts may involve direct drug effects though norepinephrine and dopamine-induced vasoconstriction (renal ischemia), rhabdomyolysis, hyperthermia, and/or volume contraction. PMID:24356039

  1. The oil-dispersion bath in anthroposophic medicine – an integrative review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bornhöft Gudrun

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Anthroposophic medicine offers a variety of treatments, among others the oil-dispersion bath, developed in the 1930s by Werner Junge. Based on the phenomenon that oil and water do not mix and on recommendations of Rudolf Steiner, Junge developed a vortex mechanism which churns water and essential oils into a fine mist. The oil-covered droplets empty into a tub, where the patient immerses for 15–30 minutes. We review the current literature on oil-dispersion baths. Methods The following databases were searched: Medline, Pubmed, Embase, AMED and CAMbase. The search terms were 'oil-dispersion bath' and 'oil bath', and their translations in German and French. An Internet search was also performed using Google Scholar, adding the search terms 'study' and 'case report' to the search terms above. Finally, we asked several experts for gray literature not listed in the above-mentioned databases. We included only articles which met the criterion of a clinical study or case report, and excluded theoretical contributions. Results Among several articles found in books, journals and other publications, we identified 1 prospective clinical study, 3 experimental studies (enrolling healthy individuals, 5 case reports, and 3 field-reports. In almost all cases, the studies described beneficial effects – although the methodological quality of most studies was weak. Main indications were internal/metabolic diseases and psychiatric/neurological disorders. Conclusion Beyond the obvious beneficial effects of warm bathes on the subjective well-being, it remains to be clarified what the unique contribution of the distinct essential oils dispersed in the water can be. There is a lack of clinical studies exploring the efficacy of oil-dispersion baths. Such studies are recommended for the future.

  2. Zeno and Anti Zeno effect for a two level system in a squeezed bath

    CERN Document Server

    Mundarain, D F

    2005-01-01

    We discuss the appearance of Zeno (QZE) or anti-Zeno (QAE) effect in an exponentially decaying system. We consider the quantum dynamics of a continuously monitored two level system interacting with a squeezed bath. We find that the behavior of the system depends critically on the way in which the squeezed bath is prepared. For specific choices of the squeezing phase the system shows Zeno or anti-Zeno effect in conditions for which it would decay exponentially if no measurements were done. This result allows for a clear interpretation in terms of the equivalent spin system interacting with a fictitious magnetic field.

  3. Chemical bath deposited CdS films using magnetic treated solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    CdS thin films were obtained by chemical bath deposition onto corning glass slides using precursor solutions previously treated in a steady magnetic field. The kinetic growth was affected in dependence of the magnetic field intensity used in the solution treatments. The growth rate is slower when magnetized solutions are used; however, the reaction exhaustion is more delayed. The magnetic treatments improve the conversion of starting materials in thin films. Thus, the bath is more efficient and thicker films can be obtained. (copyright 2005 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  4. Efficacy of copper sulfate hoof baths against digital dermatitis- Where is the evidence?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Peter T.

    2015-01-01

    evidence of this effect. The objective of this study was to evaluate the existing scientific literature to determine whether the efficacy of copper sulfate used in hoof baths against digital dermatitis has in fact been demonstrated scientifically. A systematic literature search identified 7 peer-reviewed...... journal articles describing the efficacy of copper sulfate in hoof baths as treatment or prevention of bovine digital dermatitis. Only 2 of the 7 studies compared copper sulfate to a negative control; most studies were relatively small, and often no clear positive effect of copper sulfate was demonstrated...

  5. XRD and UV-vis results of Tungstein oxide thin films prepared by chemical bath deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the experiment, using a simple, economical, chemical bath method for depositing tungstein oxide films, electrochromic tungstein oxide thin films were prepared from an aqueous solution of Na2WO4H2O and diethyl sulfate at boiling temperature on ITO coated glass substrate. The techniques such as X-ray and UV-VIS-spectroscopy diffraction were used for the characterization of the films. According to the results of X-ray and UV-VIS, WOx thin film is very promising material for electrochromic applications and this is simply and economically produced by chemical bath method

  6. Einstein's Enigma of black holes in my bubble bath

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vishveshwara, C.

    2006-07-01

    Einstein's Enigma or Black Holes in My Bubble Bath is a humorous and informal rendition of the story of gravitation theory from the early historic origins to the latest developments in astrophysics, focusing on Albert Einstein's theory of general relativity and black-hole physics. Through engaging conversations and napkin-scribbled diagrams come tumbling the rudiments of relativity, spacetime and much of modern physics, narrated with high didactic and literary talent, and each embedded in casual lessons given by a worldly astrophysicist to his friend. Join the intellectual fun and exalt in the frothy ideas while vicariously taking relaxing baths in this magical bathtub. (orig.)

  7. Mathematical simulation of gas induced bath flow in drained aluminum reduction cell

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李相鹏; 李劼; 赖延清; 赵恒勤; 刘业翔

    2004-01-01

    A mathematical model describing the bubble driven bath flow in a drained cell with a center sump was presented, which spanned the fluid around half an anode and was developed to simulate the flow fields. The calculated results show reasonable agreement with the experiment. Then the model was developed to a full cell model, and bath flow pattern in the whole cell was predicted and analyzed. The flow pattern variation with the changes of the ACD, anode slope, anode immersion depth and current density, especially the fluid secondary recirculation, was modeled. According to the results, side channel or slots feeding technique was recommended in such a drained cell.

  8. Decoherence of a Quantum Nonlinear Oscillator Under a Non-zero Temperature Thermal Bath

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    The characteristic time τD for decoherence process of a quantum nonlinear oscillator system under a nonzero temperature thermal bath is studied by expanding the linear entropy. By numerical analysis, it is shown that at a non-zero temperature, the quantum coherence decays much faster than at zero temperature. Moreover, the non-zero temperature thermal bath will bring a crucialsuppression to the quantum effects of the observables, which causes these quantum effects to become unable to persist up to the Ehrenfest time but is insufficient to destroy the quantum-classical transition.

  9. Prediction of hot water usage in a solar heated community bathing centre in Nepal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuller, R.J.; Schwede, D. [School of Architecture and Building, Deakin Univ., Geelong, Victoria (Australia); Malla, A.; Zahnd, A. [Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Kathmandu Univ., Nepal (Nepal); RIDS-Nepal (Nepal)

    2008-07-01

    A natural thermosyphon solar water heating system (SWHS) has been constructed at a high altitude research station in a remote northwestern region of Nepal. This SWHS is the prototype for a larger community bathing system proposed for a nearby village. This paper describes the community bathing centre and presents the results of a validated TRNSYS model that has been used to predict its performance and to test various operational strategies. Predictions from the model indicate that the design target of 550 showers can be provided each week if these showers are limited to 10 litres at 35 C and the centre is operated between 9am and 3pm. (orig.)

  10. Dual Bath Electrodeposition of Alternate Multilayer Coatings of Zinc and Nickel Deposits

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIN Wen-li; FEI Jing-yin; LIANG Guo-zheng

    2004-01-01

    The synthesis of zinc and nickel alternate multilayer coatings produced by successive deposition from dual baths containing a revised zinc sulphate electrolyte and a new developed nickel bath has been investigated. Smooth and uniform zinc-nickel compositionally modulated multilayered (CMM) coatings with different multilayer configurations were obtained. The surface and cross-sectional morphologies of samples were examined using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Cross-sectional morphology showed the layered structure of the coatings clearly.Key Words: multilayer coating, electrodeposited zinc and nickel, electrodeposition

  11. Thin film dynamics on a vertically rotating disk partially immersed in a liquid bath

    OpenAIRE

    Afanasiev, K.; Münch, A.; Wagner, B.

    2006-01-01

    The axisymmetric flow of a thin liquid film is considered for the problem of a vertically rotating disk that is partially immersed in a liquid bath. A model for the fully three-dimensional free-boundary problem of the rotating disk, that drags a thin film out of the bath is set up. From this, a dimension-reduced extended lubrication approximation that includes the meniscus region is derived. This problem constitutes a generalization of the classic drag-out and drag-in problem to the case of a...

  12. Treatment of renal stones in Bulgaria in ancient times ('Hissarya' baths).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nenov, D; Nenov, V; Lazarov, G; Tchepilev, A

    1999-01-01

    Well-known mineral baths in Bulgaria, 'Hissarya', are described. Their existence dates back more than 25 centuries. 'Hissarya' is an Arabic word meaning 'siege of a castle'. Remains of castle walls are the symbol of 'Hissarya' today. Every year more than 100,000 patients from Bulgaria and other countries visit 'Hissarya'. From the time of the Thracians and the Roman Empire until now renal stones have been successfully treated by drinking the mineral water and by taking baths. The Roman Emperor Septimius Severus (193-211) visited 'Hissarya' every spring to treat his renal disease. PMID:10213812

  13. Recreation in coastal waters: health risks associated with bathing in sea water

    OpenAIRE

    Prieto, M.; Lopez, B.; Juanes, J; Revilla, J; LLorca, J.; Delgado-Rodriguez, M. (Miguel)

    2001-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVE—To find out whether bathing in sewage polluted waters implies a danger to bathers' health and to determine the best microbiological indicator to predict the relation between bathing and the appearance of some symptoms.
DESIGN—Cohort study.
SETTING—City of Santander (north of Spain).
PARTICIPANTS—From the people going to four Santander beaches in the period from 1 July to 16 September 1998, a cohort of 2774 persons was recruited who agreed to participate in this study. Of those...

  14. A Case of Multiple Organ Failure due to Heat Stoke Following a Warm Bath

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Seung Young; Sung, Su Ah; Ko, Gang Jee; Boo, Chang Su; Jo, Sang Kyung; Cho, Won Yong; Kim, Hyoung Kyu

    2006-01-01

    Heat stroke is a potentially fatal disorder that's caused by an extreme elevation in body temperature. We report here an unusual case of multiple organ failure that was caused by classical, nonexertional heat stroke due to taking a warm bath at home. A 68 year old diabetic man was hospitalized for loss of consciousness. He was presumed to have been in a warm bath for 3 hrs and his body temperature was 41℃. Despite cooling and supportive care, he developed acute renal failure, disseminated int...

  15. Bath-symmetries and hybridization sum-rules for CDMFT and DCA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the Hamiltonian formulation of CDMFT and DCA, the point symmetries of the cluster imply symmetries of the hybridization, which can substantially reduce the number of independent parameters to fit the bath Green function. We review these symmetries and derive general sum-rules for the hybridizations, which allow to check the quality of a fit using a finite set of bath sites and imply what hybridizations vanish. As examples we discuss calculations for the Hubbard model in one-dimension and for 2 x 2 clusters

  16. Physical constraints of bath treatments of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) with a sea lice burden (Copepoda: Caligidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Treasurer, James W.; Grant, Andrew; Davis, Paul J.

    2000-01-01

    Licensed medicines available in the U.K. for treating Atlantic salmon infested with sea lice, dichlorvos, azamethiphos, and hydrogen peroxide, can only be administered by bath application. Adverse reactions have been reported to bath treatments including mortalities, inappetance, reduction in growth

  17. Electrodes from carbon nanotubes/NiO nanocomposites synthesized in modified Watts bath for supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakamada, Masataka; Abe, Tatsuhiko; Mabuchi, Mamoru

    2016-09-01

    A modified Watts bath coupled with pulsed current electroplating is used to uniformly deposit ultrafine nickel oxide particles (diameter carbon nanotubes. The capacitance of the multiwalled carbon nanotubes/nickel oxide electrodes was as high as 2480 F g-1 (per mass of nickel oxide), which is close to the theoretical capacitance of NiO.

  18. Expression of Individual Copies of Methylococcus capsulatus Bath Particulate Methane Monooxygenase Genes

    OpenAIRE

    Stolyar, Sergei; Franke, Marion; Lidstrom, Mary E.

    2001-01-01

    The expression of the two gene clusters encoding the particulate methane monooxygenase (pMMO) in Methylococcus capsulatus Bath was assessed by analysis of transcripts and by use of chromosomal gene fusions. The results suggest that the two clusters are functionally redundant but that relative expression alters depending on the copper levels available for growth.

  19. Dynamics of a two-level system coupled to a bath of spins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Haobin; Shao, Jiushu

    2012-12-01

    The dynamics of a two-level system coupled to a spin bath is investigated via the numerically exact multilayer multiconfiguration time-dependent Hartree (ML-MCTDH) theory. Consistent with the previous work on linear response approximation [N. Makri, J. Phys. Chem. B 103, 2823 (1999)], 10.1021/jp9847540, it is demonstrated numerically that this spin-spin-bath model can be mapped onto the well-known spin-boson model if the system-bath coupling strength obeys an appropriate scaling behavior. This linear response mapping, however, may require many bath spin degrees of freedom to represent the practical continuum limit. To clarify the discrepancies resulted from different approximate treatments of this model, the population dynamics of the central two-level system has been investigated near the transition boundary between the coherent and incoherent motions via the ML-MCTDH method. It is found that increasing temperature favors quantum coherence in the nonadiabatic limit of this model, which corroborates the prediction in the previous work [J. Shao and P. Hanggi, Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 5710 (1998)], 10.1103/PhysRevLett.81.5710 based on the non-interacting blip approximation (NIBA). However, the coherent-incoherent boundary obtained by the exact ML-MCTDH simulation is slightly different from the approximate NIBA results. Quantum dynamics in other physical regimes are also discussed.

  20. Cold-induced vasodilatation response at different water bath temperatures in monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathew, L; Purkayastha, S S; Malhotra, M S

    1978-08-01

    The response of cold-induced vasodilatation (CIVD) at different water bath temperatures was studied in 20 monkeys (3.5 kg) in a conscious state in a thermoneutral room. The animals were controlled by seating in a monkey chair, and the right hind limb up to 7.5 cm from the heel was immersed in a water bath for 60 min. Four series of experiments were conducted at water bath temperatures of 0 degrees, 4 degrees, 8 degrees, and 12 degrees C, respectively, at weekly intervals and the skin temperatures were measured from three sites in the foot. Marked CIVD response was noted from the dorsum and, to a lesser extent, from the sole of the foot, but no response was seen from the tip of the middle toe at 0 degrees, 4 degrees, and 8 degrees C water bath temperatures. The pattern of CIVD response at 4 degrees C was identical to that of 0 degrees C, but the response at 8 degrees C was poor and was absent at 12 degrees C. Three patterns of CIVD--such as hunting, proportional control, and slow, steady, and continuous rewarming--was observed. However, 15% of the animals did not exhibit any CIVD. The observations show that the CIVD response of monkeys is remarkably similar to that of man. PMID:98160

  1. The Encoding of Subjectivity in Chaucer's "The Wife of Bath's Tale" and "The Pardoner's Tale"

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klitgård, Ebbe

    2011-01-01

    This chapter discusses Chaucer's narrative technique in two of The Canterbury Tales and argues that the narrative voice is Chaucer's, and that the subjectivity of the Wife of Bath and the Pardoner should be approached in different ways than through theories of the novel....

  2. Electroplated Fe-Co-Ni films prepared from deep-eutectic-solvent-based plating baths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanai, Takeshi; Shiraishi, Kotaro; Akiyoshi, Toshiki; Azuma, Keita; Watanabe, Yoshimasa; Ohgai, Takeshi; Morimura, Takao; Nakano, Masaki; Fukunaga, Hirotoshi

    2016-05-01

    We fabricated soft magnetic films from DES-based plating baths, and investigated magnetic properties of the plated films. The plating baths were obtained by stirring the mixture of choline chloride, ethylene glycol, FeCl2 ṡ 4H2O, NiCl2 ṡ 6H2O and CoCl2 ṡ 6H2O. The composition of the electroplated film depended on the amount of the reagent in the plating bath, and we consequently obtained the films with various composition. The current efficiency of the plating process shows high values (> 88 %) in the wide composition range. The soft magnetic films with low coercivity were obtained at the Fe compositions of ≈ 30 at.% and > 80 at.%, and we found that low coercivity could be realized by the control of the film composition. We also found that the Fe-rich films prepared from DES-based plating bath have some advantages as a soft magnetic phase for a nanocomposite magnet due to their high saturation magnetization and very fine crystal structure.

  3. Reclaim nickel and remove organics from the spent electroless nickel-plating bath by electrolysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Xiu-juan; SHEN Jin; MENG Xian-lin; LI Shu-qin; YAN Lei; ZHOU Ding

    2006-01-01

    Typical wastes from nickel plating operations include excess drag-out solution. An electrochemical approach was made to recover the nickel and remove the organic pollutants from the spent electroless nickelplating bath. An electrolyte cell which was constructed by the cathode of porous nickel foam and the anode of Ti/RuO2 was used. During electrolysis, the nickel ion was electrodeposited at the cathode and the oxidation of the organics in the bath was conducted at the anode. The current ( i), time ( t), temperature (T) and pH of the solution affected the recovery efficiency of nickel with constant potential electrolysis. With the optimum experimental conditions of pH = 7. 6, i = 0.45 A, T = 65℃ and t = 2 h, the concentration of nickel ion was reduced from 2. 09 g/L to 0. 053 g/L and the recovery rate of nickel, the current efficiency and the consumed energy were 97.5%, 17.1%, 12.2 kWh/kg Ni, respectively. Meanwhile, total organic carbon (TOC) of the bath was reduced from 5 800 mg/L to 152. 5 mg/L and the removal efficiency of TOC was 97.3%. The recovery rate of nickel could keep to about 97% when electrodeposit was used to recover nickel for 40 hours in a laboratory batch reactor containing the spent bath. Dull nickel containing phosphorus was obtained on the cathode.

  4. System-bath correlation function probed by conventional and time-gated stimulated photon echo

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boeij, Wim P. de; Pshenichnikov, Maxim S.; Wiersma, Douwe A.

    1996-01-01

    We show how in the framework of the multimode Brownian oscillator model the system-bath correlation function can be derived from conventional and time-gated stimulated photon echo experiments and consideration of the linear optical spectra. Experiments are performed on the infrared dye DTTCI in room

  5. Dynamics of passive tracers in a bath of self-propelling granular particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamoy, E.; Confesor, M. N.

    2015-06-01

    We report on our experimental investigation of the dynamics of a passive tracer in a bath of active self-propelling granular particles. We found a caging like dynamics of the passive tracer such that for low active particle concentrations the passive tracer exhibits longer periods of inactivity. For increasing active particle concentration the occurrence of short period inactivity increases.

  6. CdS thin films prepared by laser assisted chemical bath deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia, L.V.; Mendivil, M.I.; Garcia Guillen, G.; Aguilar Martinez, J.A. [Facultad de Ingenieria Mecanica y Electrica, Universidad Autonoma de Nuevo Leon, Av. Pedro de Alba s/n, Ciudad Universitaria, San Nicolas de los Garza, Nuevo Leon 66450 (Mexico); Krishnan, B. [Facultad de Ingenieria Mecanica y Electrica, Universidad Autonoma de Nuevo Leon, Av. Pedro de Alba s/n, Ciudad Universitaria, San Nicolas de los Garza, Nuevo Leon 66450 (Mexico); CIIDIT – Universidad Autonoma de Nuevo Leon, Apodaca, Nuevo Leon (Mexico); Avellaneda, D.; Castillo, G.A.; Das Roy, T.K. [Facultad de Ingenieria Mecanica y Electrica, Universidad Autonoma de Nuevo Leon, Av. Pedro de Alba s/n, Ciudad Universitaria, San Nicolas de los Garza, Nuevo Leon 66450 (Mexico); Shaji, S., E-mail: sshajis@yahoo.com [Facultad de Ingenieria Mecanica y Electrica, Universidad Autonoma de Nuevo Leon, Av. Pedro de Alba s/n, Ciudad Universitaria, San Nicolas de los Garza, Nuevo Leon 66450 (Mexico); CIIDIT – Universidad Autonoma de Nuevo Leon, Apodaca, Nuevo Leon (Mexico)

    2015-05-01

    Highlights: • CdS thin films by conventional CBD and laser assisted CBD. • Characterized these films using XRD, XPS, AFM, optical and electrical measurements. • Accelerated growth was observed in the laser assisted CBD process. • Improved dark conductivity and good photocurrent response for the LACBD CdS. - Abstract: In this work, we report the preparation and characterization of CdS thin films by laser assisted chemical bath deposition (LACBD). CdS thin films were prepared from a chemical bath containing cadmium chloride, triethanolamine, ammonium hydroxide and thiourea under various deposition conditions. The thin films were deposited by in situ irradiation of the bath using a continuous laser of wavelength 532 nm, varying the power density. The thin films obtained during deposition of 10, 20 and 30 min were analyzed. The changes in morphology, structure, composition, optical and electrical properties of the CdS thin films due to in situ irradiation of the bath were analyzed by atomic force microscopy (AFM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and UV–vis spectroscopy. The thin films obtained by LACBD were nanocrystalline, photoconductive and presented interesting morphologies. The results showed that LACBD is an effective synthesis technique to obtain nanocrystalline CdS thin films having good optoelectronic properties.

  7. Fabrication and magnetic properties of electrodeposited Ni/Cu nanowires using the double bath method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ordered Ni/Cu multilayered nanowires (NW's) were fabricated using the two bath method in which the AAO template was switched back and forth between the two baths each containing solutions of dissolved Ni and Cu sulfates repeatedly. Different combinations of periods in which templates spent in each bath were used. The SEM and TEM images of the NW's showed that the NW's were smooth and uniform. The VSM results showed that in the presence of a field applied parallel to the NW, the coercivity and squareness increased when the deposition times of the Ni and Cu increased. To account for the behavior when both the thicknesses of the Ni and Cu layers were increasing, the effects of the increase in the Cu layer partially offset the effects of the increase in the Ni layer. The highest coercivity and squareness achieved was 822 Oe and 0.949, respectively, when the deposition times were 8 min for the Ni deposition and 2.5 min for the Cu deposition. - Highlights: • The double bath method produced nanowires having alternating layers of Ni and Cu. • The coercivities and squareness were higher for magnetic fields applied parallel to the wire's axis. • Coercivities of the nanowires increased from 365 Oe to 822 Oe as the Ni deposition time increased. • Squareness increased from 0.800 to 0.949 as the Ni deposition times increased

  8. CdS thin films prepared by laser assisted chemical bath deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • CdS thin films by conventional CBD and laser assisted CBD. • Characterized these films using XRD, XPS, AFM, optical and electrical measurements. • Accelerated growth was observed in the laser assisted CBD process. • Improved dark conductivity and good photocurrent response for the LACBD CdS. - Abstract: In this work, we report the preparation and characterization of CdS thin films by laser assisted chemical bath deposition (LACBD). CdS thin films were prepared from a chemical bath containing cadmium chloride, triethanolamine, ammonium hydroxide and thiourea under various deposition conditions. The thin films were deposited by in situ irradiation of the bath using a continuous laser of wavelength 532 nm, varying the power density. The thin films obtained during deposition of 10, 20 and 30 min were analyzed. The changes in morphology, structure, composition, optical and electrical properties of the CdS thin films due to in situ irradiation of the bath were analyzed by atomic force microscopy (AFM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and UV–vis spectroscopy. The thin films obtained by LACBD were nanocrystalline, photoconductive and presented interesting morphologies. The results showed that LACBD is an effective synthesis technique to obtain nanocrystalline CdS thin films having good optoelectronic properties

  9. Focal epilepsy presenting as a bath-induced paroxysmal event/breath-holding attack

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.J. Stutchfield

    2014-01-01

    Conclusion: Water reflex epilepsy can mimic a range of other conditions, and a high index of suspicion is required to establish the diagnosis. Children with water reflex epilepsy can achieve a good quality of life with modified bathing and appropriate antiepileptic medication.

  10. The application of the modified form of Bath's law to the North Anatolian Fault Zone

    CERN Document Server

    Yalcin, S E

    2006-01-01

    Earthquakes and aftershock sequences follow several empirical scaling laws: One of these laws is Bath's law for the magnitude of the largest aftershock. In this work, Modified Form of Bath's Law and its application to KOERI data have been studied. Bath's law states that the differences in magnitudes between mainshocks and their largest detected aftershocks are approximately constant, independent of the magnitudes of mainshocks and it is about 1.2. In the modified form of Bath's law for a given mainshock we get the inferred largest aftershock of this mainshock by using an extrapolation of the Gutenberg-Richter frequency-magnitude statistics of the aftershock sequence. To test the applicability of this modified law, 6 large earthquakes that occurred in Turkey between 1950 and 2004 with magnitudes equal to or greater than 6.9 have been considered. These earthquakes take place on the North Anatolian Fault Zone. Additionally, in this study the partitioning of energy during a mainshock-aftershock sequence was also ...

  11. Direct electroless Ni-P deposition on AM50 magnesium alloy from sulfate bath

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Guang-yu; NIU Li-yuan; JIANG Zhong-hao; GU Chang-dong; LIAN Jian-she

    2006-01-01

    A bright electroless Ni-P deposition on AM50 magnesium alloy in a sulfate plating bath was proposed by using direct plating process with non-chromate pretreatment. The electroless Ni-P plating on AM50 magnesium alloy has an admirable appearance and good adhesion. The results indicate that the electroless Ni-P deposition with non-chromate pretreatment has better adhesion than that of zinc immersion coating. Anodic polarization curves indicate that the electroless Ni-P deposition obtained from the sulfate bath has similar corrosion-resistance to that obtained from basic nickel carbonate bath. The deposition process generates less pollutant by a non-chromate plating bath and is suitable for the magnesium alloys manufacture because of its low cost. The hardness of the electroless Ni-P plated AM50 is about HV 720.6 and HV 969.7 after heat treatments at 180 ℃ for 2 h. The wear resistance of Ni-P plated magnesium alloy specimens is about 5 to 9 times as high as that of bare magnesium alloys.

  12. Generation of macroscopic quantum-superposition states by linear coupling to a bath

    OpenAIRE

    Rao, D. D. Bhaktavatsala; Bar-Gill, Nir; Kurizki, Gershon

    2010-01-01

    We demonstrate through an exactly solvable model that collective coupling to any thermal bath induces effectively nonlinear couplings in a quantum many-body (multi-spin) system. The resulting evolution can drive an uncorrelated large-spin system with high probability into a macroscopic quantum-superposition state. We discuss possible experimental realizations.

  13. Electroplated Fe-Co-Ni films prepared from deep-eutectic-solvent-based plating baths

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takeshi Yanai

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available We fabricated soft magnetic films from DES-based plating baths, and investigated magnetic properties of the plated films. The plating baths were obtained by stirring the mixture of choline chloride, ethylene glycol, FeCl2 ⋅ 4H2O, NiCl2 ⋅ 6H2O and CoCl2 ⋅ 6H2O. The composition of the electroplated film depended on the amount of the reagent in the plating bath, and we consequently obtained the films with various composition. The current efficiency of the plating process shows high values (> 88 % in the wide composition range. The soft magnetic films with low coercivity were obtained at the Fe compositions of ≈ 30 at.% and > 80 at.%, and we found that low coercivity could be realized by the control of the film composition. We also found that the Fe-rich films prepared from DES-based plating bath have some advantages as a soft magnetic phase for a nanocomposite magnet due to their high saturation magnetization and very fine crystal structure.

  14. Experimental implementation of heat-bath algorithmic cooling using solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance

    OpenAIRE

    Baugh, Jonathan; Moussa, Osama; Ryan, Colm A.; Nayak, Ashwin; Laflamme, Raymond

    2005-01-01

    We report here the experimental realization of multi-step cooling of a quantum system via heat-bath algorithmic cooling. The experiment was carried out using nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) of a solid-state ensemble three-qubit system.

  15. Effects of the non-commensal Methylococcus capsulatus Bath on mammalian immune cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christoffersen, Trine Eker; Olsen Hult, Lene Therese; Solberg, Henriette; Bakke, Anne; Kuczkowska, Katarzyna; Huseby, Eirin; Jacobsen, Morten; Lea, Tor; Kleiveland, Charlotte Ramstad

    2015-08-01

    Dietary inclusions of a bacterial meal consisting mainly of the non-commensal, methanotrophic bacteria Methylococcus capsulatus Bath have been shown to ameliorate symptoms of intestinal inflammation in different animal models. In order to investigate the molecular mechanisms causing these effects, we have studied the influence of this strain on different immune cells central for the regulation of inflammatory responses. Effects were compared to those induced by the closely related strain M. capsulatus Texas and the well-described probiotic strain Escherichia coli Nissle 1917. M. capsulatus Bath induced macrophage polarization toward a pro-inflammatory phenotype, but not to the extent observed after exposure to E. coli Nissle 1917. Likewise, dose-dependent abilities to activate NF-κB transcription in U937 cells were observed, with E. coli Nissle 1917 being most potent. High levels of CD141 on human primary monocyte-derived dendritic cells (moDCs) were only detected after exposure to E. coli Nissle 1917, which collectively indicate a superior capacity to induce Th1 cell responses for this strain. On the other hand, the M. capsulatus strains were more potent in increasing the expression of the maturation markers CD80, CD83 and CD86 than E. coli Nissle 1917. M. capsulatus Bath induced the highest levels of IL-6, IL-10 and IL-12 secretion from dendritic cells, suggesting that this strain generally the post potent inducer of cytokine secretion. These results show that M. capsulatus Bath exhibit immunogenic properties in mammalian in vitro systems which diverge from that of E. coli Nissle 1917. This may provide clues to how M. capsulatus Bath influence the adaptive immune system in vivo. However, further in vivo experiments are required for a complete understanding of how this strain ameliorates intestinal inflammation in animal models. PMID:25771177

  16. Litter use by laying hens in a commercial aviary: dust bathing and piling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, D L M; Makagon, M M; Swanson, J C; Siegford, J M

    2016-01-01

    The laying hen industry, including in the United States, is responding to social concerns about hen welfare by implementing alternative housing systems such as the aviary, to provide more space and resources to large groups of hens. Data detailing the behavior of hens in commercial aviaries is needed to determine hens' use of the resources in order to understand their impact on hen welfare. The open litter area of aviaries provides additional space for hens during the day. Litter is also a substrate for dust bathing which is a strongly motivated natural behavior. Hens are often synchronous in their performance of dust bathing, which may lead to overcrowding in the litter area. Additionally, the open litter area can facilitate expression of unusual behavior such as flock piling (defined as the occurrence of densely grouped clusters of hens, resulting from no obvious cause and occurring randomly throughout the day and flock cycle) which may be a welfare concern. Therefore, we conducted observations of hen occupancy of the open litter area and the performance of dust bathing and flock piling across 3 production points (peak lay, mid lay and end of lay) for two flocks of Lohmann White laying hens housed in a commercial aviary. All areas of the open litter area were occupied to the same degree. Hens performed dust bathing throughout the day but showed peak dust bathing activity in the afternoon for Flock 1 (all P hens piled. Further research is needed to understand the welfare implications of individual hen use of the open litter area and the causes and welfare implications of hen piling. PMID:26354762

  17. Microscopic theory of heat transfer between two fermionic thermal baths mediated by a spin system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Somrita; Bag, Bidhan Chandra

    2015-11-01

    In this paper we have presented the heat exchange between the two fermionic thermal reservoirs which are connected by a fermionic system. We have calculated the heat flux using solution of the c-number Langevin equation for the system. Assuming small temperature difference between the baths we have defined the thermal conductivity for the process. It first increases as a nonlinear function of average temperature of the baths to a critical value then decreases to a very low value such that the heat flux almost becomes zero. There is a critical temperature for the fermionic case at which the thermal conductivity is maximum for the given coupling strength and the width of the frequency distribution of bath modes. The critical temperature grows if these quantities become larger. It is a sharp contrast to the Bosonic case where the thermal conductivity monotonically increases to the limiting value. The change of the conductivity with increase in width of the frequency distribution of the bath modes is significant at the low temperature regime for the fermionic case. It is highly contrasting to the Bosonic case where the signature of the enhancement is very prominent at high temperature limit. We have also observed that thermal conductivity monotonically increases as a function of damping strength to the limiting value at the asymptotic limit. There is a crossover between the high and the low temperature results in the variation of the thermal conductivity as a function of the damping strength for the fermionic case. Thus it is apparent here that even at relatively high temperature, the fermionic bath may be an effective one for the strong coupling between system and reservoir. Another interesting observation is that at the low temperature limit, the temperature dependence of the heat flux is the same as the Stefan-Boltzmann law. This is similar to the bosonic case. PMID:26651661

  18. A Multicenter Pragmatic Interrupted Time Series Analysis of Chlorhexidine Gluconate Bathing in Community Hospital Intensive Care Units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dicks, Kristen V; Lofgren, Eric; Lewis, Sarah S; Moehring, Rebekah W; Sexton, Daniel J; Anderson, Deverick J

    2016-07-01

    OBJECTIVE To determine whether daily chlorhexidine gluconate (CHG) bathing of intensive care unit (ICU) patients leads to a decrease in hospital-acquired infections (HAIs), particularly infections caused by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus (VRE). DESIGN Interrupted time series analysis. SETTING The study included 33 community hospitals participating in the Duke Infection Control Outreach Network from January 2008 through December 2013. PARTICIPANTS All ICU patients at study hospitals during the study period. METHODS Of the 33 hospitals, 17 hospitals implemented CHG bathing during the study period, and 16 hospitals that did not perform CHG bathing served as controls. Primary pre-specified outcomes included ICU central-line-associated bloodstream infections (CLABSIs), primary bloodstream infections (BSI), ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP), and catheter-associated urinary tract infections (CAUTIs). MRSA and VRE HAIs were also evaluated. RESULTS Chlorhexidine gluconate (CHG) bathing was associated with a significant downward trend in incidence rates of ICU CLABSI (incidence rate ratio [IRR], 0.96; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.93-0.99), ICU primary BSI (IRR, 0.96; 95% CI, 0.94-0.99), VRE CLABSIs (IRR, 0.97; 95% CI, 0.97-0.98), and all combined VRE infections (IRR, 0.96; 95% CI, 0.93-1.00). No significant trend in MRSA infection incidence rates was identified prior to or following the implementation of CHG bathing. CONCLUSIONS In this multicenter, real-world analysis of the impact of CHG bathing, hospitals that implemented CHG bathing attained a decrease in ICU CLABSIs, ICU primary BSIs, and VRE CLABSIs. CHG bathing did not affect rates of specific or overall infections due to MRSA. Our findings support daily CHG bathing of ICU patients. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2016;37:791-797. PMID:26861417

  19. Quantum Brownian motion in a bath of parametric oscillators a model for system-field interactions

    CERN Document Server

    Hu, B L; Andrew Matacz

    1993-01-01

    The quantum Brownian motion paradigm provides a unified framework where one can see the interconnection of some basic quantum statistical processes like decoherence, dissipation, particle creation, noise and fluctuation. We treat the case where the Brownian particle is coupled linearly to a bath of time dependent quadratic oscillators. While the bath mimics a scalar field, the motion of the Brownian particle modeled by a single oscillator could be used to depict the behavior of a particle detector, a quantum field mode or the scale factor of the universe. An important result of this paper is the derivation of the influence functional encompassing the noise and dissipation kernels in terms of the Bogolubov coefficients. This method enables one to trace the source of statistical processes like decoherence and dissipation to vacuum fluctuations and particle creation, and in turn impart a statistical mechanical interpretation of quantum field processes. With this result we discuss the statistical mechanical origi...

  20. Inhibiting decoherence of two-level atom in thermal bath by presence of boundaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaobao; Tian, Zehua; Wang, Jieci; Jing, Jiliang

    2016-06-01

    We study, in the paradigm of open quantum systems, the dynamics of quantum coherence of a static polarizable two-level atom which is coupled with a thermal bath of fluctuating electromagnetic field in the absence and presence of boundaries. The purpose was to find the conditions under which the decoherence can be inhibited effectively. We find that without boundaries, quantum coherence of the two-level atom inevitably decreases due to the effect of thermal bath. However, the quantum decoherence, in the presence of a boundary, could be effectively inhibited when the atom is transversely polarizable and near this boundary. In particular, we find that in the case of two parallel reflecting boundaries, the atom with a parallel dipole polarization at arbitrary location between these two boundaries will be never subjected to decoherence provided we take some special distances for the two boundaries.

  1. Optical and Structural Properties of Nanocrystalline CdS Thin Films Grown by Chemical Bath Deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nanocrystalline cadmium sulfide thin films are prepared using chemical bath deposition (CBD) technique in aqueous alkaline bath at 60 degree Celsius and their subsequent condensation on glass substrates. Effects of annealing on structural, morphological and optical properties are presented and discussed. The best annealing temperature for CBD grown CdS films is found to be 350 degree Celsius from optical properties. The optical and structural properties of CdS films are found to be sensitive to annealing temperature and are described in terms of XRD, SEM, transmission spectra and optical studies. The structural parameters such as crystallite size have been evaluated through XRD while SEM micrographs exhibit ordering of grains after annealing. The transmission spectra shift towards higher wavelength upon annealing indicating increase in crystallinity. Annealing over 350 degree Celsius is found to degrade the external structure and optical properties of the film. (author)

  2. Microbial hitchhikers on marine plastic debris: Human exposure risks at bathing waters and beach environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keswani, Anisha; Oliver, David M; Gutierrez, Tony; Quilliam, Richard S

    2016-07-01

    Marine plastic debris is well characterized in terms of its ability to negatively impact terrestrial and marine environments, endanger coastal wildlife, and interfere with navigation, tourism and commercial fisheries. However, the impacts of potentially harmful microorganisms and pathogens colonising plastic litter are not well understood. The hard surface of plastics provides an ideal environment for opportunistic microbial colonisers to form biofilms and might offer a protective niche capable of supporting a diversity of different microorganisms, known as the "Plastisphere". This biotope could act as an important vector for the persistence and spread of pathogens, faecal indicator organisms (FIOs) and harmful algal bloom species (HABs) across beach and bathing environments. This review will focus on the existent knowledge and research gaps, and identify the possible consequences of plastic-associated microbes on human health, the spread of infectious diseases and bathing water quality. PMID:27128352

  3. Simulation study on distribution of void fraction in copper converter bath

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈春林; 张家芸; 杜宾; 周土平

    2001-01-01

    A water model was constructed with an inner diameter and depth 1/6.5 of those of the copper converter bath in Guixi Smelter. The length of the model was cut shorter containing 5 tuyeres. Modified Froud numbers for model and prototype were equal to fulfill the dynamic similarity. The void fraction in the bath was measured using the electroresistivity probe method in cases of using a single tuyere as four tuyeres. In the lower region near tuyeres, the void fraction showed a distribution similar with Gaussian function in horizontal direction, above this region, it became uniform. Near the two ends, the void fraction decreased linearly with decreasing distance to two vertical walls.

  4. Brush in the bath of active particles: Anomalous stretching of chains and distribution of particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hui-shu; Zhang, Bo-kai; Li, Jian; Tian, Wen-de; Chen, Kang

    2015-12-01

    The interaction between polymer brush and colloidal particles has been intensively studied in the last two decades. Here, we consider a flat chain-grafted substrate immersed in a bath of active particles. Simulations show that an increase in the self-propelling force causes an increase in the number of particles that penetrate into the brush. Anomalously, the particle density inside the main body of the brush eventually becomes higher than that outside the brush at very large self-propelling force. The grafted chains are further stretched due to the steric repulsion from the intruded particles. Upon the increase of the self-propelling force, distinct stretching behaviors of the chains were observed for low and high grafting densities. Surprisingly, we find a weak descent of the average end-to-end distance of chains at high grafting density and very large force which is reminiscent of the compression effect of a chain in the active bath.

  5. Numerical simulation on submerged gas jet scouring pit morphology in impingement water bath dust removers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAO Huijie; WU Xuan; ZHAO Yuxiang; WU Wenfei; LI Baowei

    2014-01-01

    The VOF interface tracking method was adopted to simulate the two-dimensional submerged gas jet scouring pit morphology in an impingement water bath dust remover.The interaction of gas/liquid two-phase was obtained by force balance and momentum exchange.On the self-designed impingement water bath dust remover test bench,the submerged gas jet flushing with different gas velocities was simulated. The results show that,the gas inlet velocity is one of the main factors affecting the submerged gas jet scou-ring pit characteristics.The unique nature of gas/liquid two-phase determines their unique way of move-ment,thus affects the morphological character of the scouring pit in the expansion lag phase.Within the study range,the characteristic radius and impact depth of the scouring pit increases with the gas velocity, and so are their growth rates.

  6. External-noise-driven bath and the generalized semiclassical Kramers theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Pradipta; Shit, Anindita; Chattopadhyay, Sudip; Chaudhuri, Jyotipratim Ray

    2010-10-01

    We address the issue of a system that has been tacitly made thermodynamically open by externally driving the associated heat bath in an attempt to gain better insight regarding many physical situations that are akin to this problem. This work embodies the study of the quantum effects in the rate of decay from a metastable state of a Brownian particle which is in contact with a correlated noise-driven bath. We do this by initiating from a suitable system-reservoir model to derive the operator-valued Langevin equation. This further leads us to the corresponding c-number analog that includes quantum effects in leading order. Suitable mathematical treatment culminates in the quantum Fokker-Planck equation, the solution to which yields the rate expression. Finally, we put this to thorough numerical analysis. PMID:21230244

  7. A new condensation product for zinc plating from non-cyanide alkaline bath

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Y Arthoba Naik; T V Venkatesha

    2005-08-01

    Zinc electroplating from non-cyanide alkaline solution is carried out in the presence of condensation product formed between DL-alanine (DLA) and glutaraldehyde. The bath constituents and bath variables are optimized through standard Hull cell experiments. The current efficiency and the throwing power are measured. High shift of potential towards more cathodic direction was observed in presence of addition agents. Corrosion resistance test reveals good protection of base metal by zinc coating obtained from the developed electrolyte. SEM photomicrographs show fine-grained deposit in the presence of condensation product. IR spectrum of the scraped deposit shows the inclusion of the condensation product in the deposit during plating. The consumption of brightener in the lab-scale is 6 mLL-1 for 1000 amp-hour.

  8. Effect of a new condensation product on electrodeposition of zinc from a non-cyanide bath

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Ganesha Achary; H P Sachin; Y Arthoba Naik; T V Venkatesha

    2007-06-01

    Zinc electrodeposition from sulphate chloride bath was carried out in presence of condensation product formed between chitosan and veratraldehyde. The bath constituents and operating parameters such as pH, temperature and current density were optimized through Hull cell experiments. Current efficiency and throwing power were measured. Polarization study revealed high shift of potential towards negative direction in the presence of addition agents. Corrosion resistance test revealed good protection of base metal by zinc coating obtained from developed electrolyte. SEM photomicrographs showed fine-grained deposit in the presence of condensation product. The IR spectrum of the deposit showed inclusion of the condensation product during electroplating. The consumption of brightener in the lab scale was 5 mLL-1 for 1000 amp-h.

  9. PREPARATION AND ANALYSIS OF Ni-P-Zn ELECTROLESS DEPOSITION FROM ALKALT BATH

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Y.S. Huang; F.Z. Cui

    2005-01-01

    Electroless Ni-P-Zn alloys deposited from alkali bath were investigated in this paper. The deposition bath contained nickel sulfate, zinc chloride and hypophosphate. The process parameters, such as temperature, pH and zinc salt concentration were presented and discussed.The microstructure of the coatings was studied by XRD and SEM. The cathode glowing discharge characters of Ni-P-Zn depositions were studied with luminous Neon lamps. Electrodes deposited by electroless Ni-P alloys were apt to sputter during luminous working hours. Electroless Ni-P-Zn depositions improved the discharge characters of the electrodes.With the concentration of zinc in the deposition rising to 4wt%, electrode sputter was largely restrained. The thickness of the deposition also influenced the discharge characters of the electrode. To avoid electrode sputter, the concentration of zinc has to rise with the thickness of the depositions.

  10. Development and Application of Mullite—Composite Brick for Baths Pool of Blast Furnace

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOULei; LIXian-ming; 等

    1994-01-01

    The paper deals with the development and production of mullite-composite bricks for baths pool of balst furnace,Fused corundum,synthetic mullite ,special grade bauxite and a certain amount of additives were used as raw materials to produce corundum-mullite brick and yellow-corundum brick,All of their physical and chemical properties surpass the designed values.Good results have been obtained from the applic-cation in the baths pool of No.7 blast furnace of Anshan I & S Co.(Angang).The silicon content in pig iron decreases by 0.1%-0.2% while the temperature of the hot metal increases by 20℃,The mineral composition and structure have been studied by means of XRD and SEM.

  11. Extracting work from a single heat bath via vanishing quantum coherence II: Microscopic model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In a recent paper a quantum heat engine operating on radiation pressure from a single mode radiation field which drives a piston engine was presented. A thermally excited atomic beam serves as the high temperature energy source and a lower temperature heat bath acts as the entropy sink. We here extend the previous macroscopic (quantum thermodynamical) analysis by developing a microscopic (quantum statistical) analysis. This provides insight into engine operation and questions related to the second law. The same quantum phase effects that yield lasing without inversion and ultraslow light, also make possible extensions of Carnot cycle operation; e.g., extraction of energy from a single heat bath, and efficiency beyond the Carnot limit

  12. Determination of fluoride in electroplating baths; Determinacion potenciometrica de fluoruro en banos electroliticos de cromado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez Olmos, R.; Etxebarria, M.B. [Dpto. Quimica Analitica E.U.I.T.I. Bilbao (Spain); Echevarria, J. [Dpto. Ingenieria Quimica y Medio Ambiente, E.U.I.T.I. Bilbao (Spain); Lima, J.L.F.C.; Montenegro, M.C.B.S.M. [CEQUP, Dpto. Quimica-Fisica, Facultad de Farmacia de Oporto, Oporto (P)

    1997-12-31

    In this work, a simple, rapid and unexpensive analytical method, based on the use of a fluoride selective electrode, for the determination of fluoride in electroplating baths has been developed. Several studies about the composition of the TISAB solutions, the dilution ratios of the samples with those solutions and the use of different potentiometric techniques of measurement, have been carried out. The precision and accuracy of the developed potentiometric method obtained when applied on eight samples of electroplating baths prepared in the laboratory and two actual samples, were better than those suministred by application of the EDTA titration method adopted as reference technique. These results expressed in terms of average variation coefficient and average percentage of spike recovery were 1,10% and 99,6% respectively. (Author) 8 refs.

  13. Structural analysis of CdS thin films obtained by multiple dips of oscillating chemical bath

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gutierrez Lazos, C.D. [Seccion de Electronica del Estado Solido, Centro de Investigacion y de Estudios Avanzados, Av. Instituto Politecnico Nacional 2508, Col. San Pedro Zacatenco, 07360 Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Rosendo, E., E-mail: erosendo@siu.buap.m [Centro de Investigacion en Dispositivos Semiconductores, Universidad Autonoma de Puebla, 14 Sur y San Claudio, Col. San Manuel, C.P. 72570, Puebla (Mexico); Ortega, M. [Seccion de Electronica del Estado Solido, Centro de Investigacion y de Estudios Avanzados, Av. Instituto Politecnico Nacional 2508, Col. San Pedro Zacatenco, 07360 Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Oliva, A.I. [Departamento de Fisica Aplicada, Centro de Investigacion y de Estudios Avanzados, Unidad Merida, A.P. 73 Cordemex, 97310 Merida, Yucatan (Mexico); Tapia, O.; Diaz, T.; Juarez, H.; Garcia, G. [Centro de Investigacion en Dispositivos Semiconductores, Universidad Autonoma de Puebla, 14 Sur y San Claudio, Col. San Manuel, C.P. 72570, Puebla (Mexico); Rubin, M. [Facultad de Ciencias de la Computacion, 14 Sur y San Claudio, Col. San Manuel, C.P. 72570, Puebla (Mexico)

    2009-11-25

    Highly oriented CdS thin films with thicknesses greater than 1 mum were deposited by multiple dips, using oscillating chemical bath deposition (OCBD) at the bath temperature of 75 deg. C, and deposition time ranging from 15 to 75 min for a single dip. Samples with different thickness were prepared by repeating the deposition process for two and three times. The films deposited by a single dip have the alpha-greenockite structure showing the (0 0 2) as preferred orientation, as indicated by the X-ray diffraction measurements. This notable characteristic is preserved in the samples obtained from two or three dips. The crystallite size for the samples deposited by a single dip depends on the deposition time, because it varied from 23 to 37 nm as the deposition time increased. Nevertheless for samples deposited by two and three dips, the grain size shows no noticeable change, being about 22 nm.

  14. Control and optimization of baths for electrodeposition of Co-Mo-B amorphous alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Prasad

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available Optimization and control of an electrodeposition process for depositing boron-containing amorphous metallic layer of cobalt-molybdenum alloy onto a cathode from an electrolytic bath having cobalt sulfate, sodium molybdate, boron phosphate, sodium citrate, 1-dodecylsulfate-Na, ammonium sulfate and ammonia or sulfuric acid for pH adjustments has been studied. Detailed studies on bath composition, pH, temperature, mechanical agitation and cathode current density have led to optimum conditions for obtaining satisfactory alloy deposits. These alloys were found to have interesting properties such as high hardness, corrosion resistance, wear resistance and also sufficient ductility. A voltammetric method for automatic monitoring and control of the process has been proposed.

  15. Critical and strong-coupling phases in one- and two-bath spin-boson models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Cheng; Weichselbaum, Andreas; von Delft, Jan; Vojta, Matthias

    2012-04-20

    For phase transitions in dissipative quantum impurity models, the existence of a quantum-to-classical correspondence has been discussed extensively. We introduce a variational matrix product state approach involving an optimized boson basis, rendering possible high-accuracy numerical studies across the entire phase diagram. For the sub-Ohmic spin-boson model with a power-law bath spectrum ∝ω(s), we confirm classical mean-field behavior for s<1/2, correcting earlier numerical renormalization-group results. We also provide the first results for an XY-symmetric model of a spin coupled to two competing bosonic baths, where we find a rich phase diagram, including both critical and strong-coupling phases for s<1, different from that of classical spin chains. This illustrates that symmetries are decisive for whether or not a quantum-to-classical correspondence exists. PMID:22680701

  16. Reduced dynamics in spin-boson models: A method for both slow and fast bath

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golosov, Andrei A.; Friesner, Richard A.; Pechukas, Philip

    2000-02-01

    We study a model for treating dissipative systems, a one dimensional quantum system coupled to a harmonic bath. The dynamics of such a system can be described by Feynman's path integral expression for the reduced density matrix. In this formulation the interaction of the system with the environment is stored in the influence functional. Recently we showed that fast environmental modes that give rise to correlations in the influence functional which are short range in time can be treated efficiently by a memory equation algorithm, which is a discretized version of a master equation. In this work we extend this approach to treat slow environmental modes as well, thereby efficiently linking adiabatic and nonadiabatic regimes. In this extended method the long range correlations in the influence functional arising from slow bath modes are taken into account through Stock's semiclassical self-consistent-field approach.

  17. Work distribution for a particle moving in an optical trap and non-Markovian bath

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Alok Samanta; K Srinivasu; Swapan K Ghosh

    2009-09-01

    We propose a simple approach to derive an exact analytical expression of work distribution for a system consisting of a colloidal particle trapped in an optical harmonic potential well, which is being pulled at a constant velocity through a solution represented by a non-Markovian bath. The thermal environment is represented by a bath composed of an infinite set of harmonic oscillators, and a model Hamiltonian for the trapped colloidal particle is constructed by representing the interaction with the bathvia linear dissipative mechanism. We have studied the effects of pulling time, pulling speed, and the adiabatic limit. It is also observed that only at long time the total work is completely converted into dissipative work.

  18. Research on the Effect of the Foot Bath and Foot Massage on Residual Schizophrenia Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kito, Kazuko; Suzuki, Keiko

    2016-06-01

    Researchers performed foot baths and massages for residual schizophrenia patients to gauge the effects on psychiatric symptoms. Subjects were six residual schizophrenia patients hospitalized in a psychiatric hospital. Three times a week for 4weeks, they received an 8-minute effleurage massage to their legs after a 10-minute foot bath. The effect of physiological relaxation was identified by a significant decline in heart rate in all cases. The results of the Positive and Negative Symptom Scale are as follows: a mean score of 29.0 was measured before treatment, which lowered to 21.5 after treatment, indicating that foot care improved their negative symptoms (pmassages were effective in improving psychiatric symptoms. PMID:27256944

  19. A Compton-suppression detection system for use in manganese bath measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghal-Eh, N.; Doostizadeh, H.; Hazami, Z.; Doust-Mohammadi, V.

    2015-07-01

    The manganese sulfate bath technique is a standard tool for neutron source strength measurement (Park et al., 2005). However, the dominate Compton continuum of most sodium iodide scintillators used in manganese bath systems (MBSs) does not allow the precise identification of induced gamma rays required for such measurements. In this research, to resolve this problem, a Compton-suppression system has been proposed which consists of a 2 in. by 2 in. NaI(Tl) right cylindrical scintillator as the main and a set of eight rectangular NE102 plastic scintillators of 12×12×15 cm3 dimensions as suppression detectors. Both detectors operate in anti-coincidence circuit to suppress the Compton continuum. The proposed system has been simulated with the MCNPX code with two different approaches and the corresponding measurements with 137Cs gamma-ray source and neutron-activated MnSO4 solution have been undertaken that give rise to a promising agreement.

  20. The Generalized Uncertainty Principle, entropy bounds and black hole (non-)evaporation in a thermal bath

    OpenAIRE

    Custodio, P. S.; Horvath, J E

    2003-01-01

    We apply the Generalized Uncertainty Principle (GUP) to the problem of maximum entropy and evaporation/absorption of energy of black holes near the Planck scale. We find within this general approach corrections to the maximum entropy, and indications for quenching of the evaporation because not only the evaporation term goes to a finite limit, but also because absorption of quanta seems to help the balance for black holes in a thermal bath. Then, residual masses around the Planck scale may be...

  1. Absolute measurements of anti ν (252Cf) using the manganese bath method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    By the manganese bath method and defined solid angle counting the fission rate anti ν (Cf-252) was measured. The corrections for neutrons losses due to leakage and absorption in the source itself and its surroundings were measured experimentally. The corrections for absorption fast neutrons on S and O was calculated by Monte-Carlo method. The obtained value of anti ν (Cf- 252) is 3.758+-0.015

  2. Angular velocity distribution of a granular planar rotator in a thermalized bath

    OpenAIRE

    Piasecki, J.; Talbot, J.; Viot, P.

    2006-01-01

    The kinetics of a granular planar rotator with a fixed center undergoing inelastic collisions with bath particles is analyzed both numerically and analytically by means of the Boltzmann equation. The angular velocity distribution evolves from quasi-gaussian in the Brownian limit to an algebraic decay in the limit of an infinitely light particle. In addition, we compare this model with a planar rotator with a free center. We propose experimental tests that might confirm the predicted behaviors.

  3. Angular velocity distribution of a granular planar rotator in a thermalized bath.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piasecki, J; Talbot, J; Viot, P

    2007-05-01

    The kinetics of a granular planar rotator with a fixed center undergoing inelastic collisions with bath particles is analyzed both numerically and analytically by means of the Boltzmann equation. The angular velocity distribution evolves from quasi-Gaussian in the Brownian limit to an algebraic decay in the limit of an infinitely light particle. In addition, we compare this model to that of a planar rotator with a free center and discuss the prospects for experimental confirmation of these results. PMID:17677054

  4. The effect of sauna bathing on lipid profile in young, physically active, male subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorota Gryka

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The aim of the study was to evaluate effects of Finnish sauna bathing on lipid profile in healthy, young men. Material and Methods: Sixteen male subjects (20–23 years were subjected to 10 sauna bathing sessions in a Finnish sauna every 1 or 2 days. The mean sauna temperature was 90±2°C, while humidity was 5–16%. Each session consisted of three 15-minute parts and a 2-minute cool-down between them. The following measurements were taken before and after the sauna sessions: body mass, heart rate, body skinfold thickness. The percentage fat content and then, the lean body mass were calculated. Total cholesterol, triacylglycerols, lipoprotein cholesterol LDL and HDL were measured in blood samples. Results: A statistically significant decrease of total cholesterol and LDL cholesterol was observed during 3 weeks of sauna treatment and in the week afterwards. A significant decline in triacylglycerols was found directly after the 1st and 24 h directly after the 10th sauna session. After the 10th sauna session the level of HDL cholesterol remained slightly increased, but this change was not statistically significant. A decrease in blood plasma volume was found directly after the 1st and the last sauna bathing session due to perspiration. An adaptive increase in blood plasma volume was also found after the series of 10 sauna sessions. Conclusions: Ten complete sauna bathing sessions in a Finnish sauna caused a reduction in total cholesterol and LDL cholesterol fraction levels during the sessions and a gradual return of these levels to the initial level during the 1st and the 2nd week after the experiment. A small, statistically insignificant increase in HDL-C level and a transient decline in triacylglycerols were observed after those sauna sessions. The positive effect of sauna on lipid profile is similar to the effect that can be obtained through a moderate-intensity physical exercise.

  5. Suppression of nuclear spin bath fluctuations in self-assembled quantum dots induced by inhomogeneous strain

    OpenAIRE

    Chekhovich, E. A.; Hopkinson, M.; Skolnick, M. S.; Tartakovskii, A. I.

    2015-01-01

    Interaction with nuclear spins leads to decoherence and information loss in solid-state electron-spin qubits. One particular, ineradicable source of electron decoherence arises from decoherence of the nuclear spin bath, driven by nuclear–nuclear dipolar interactions. Owing to its many-body nature nuclear decoherence is difficult to predict, especially for an important class of strained nanostructures where nuclear quadrupolar effects have a significant but largely unknown impact. Here, we rep...

  6. Suppression of nuclear spin bath fluctuations in self-assembled quantum dots induced by inhomogeneous strain.

    OpenAIRE

    Chekhovich, E. A.; Hopkinson, M.; Skolnick, M. S.; Tartakovskii, A. I.

    2015-01-01

    Interaction with nuclear spins leads to decoherence and information loss in solid-state electron-spin qubits. One particular, ineradicable source of electron decoherence arises from decoherence of the nuclear spin bath, driven by nuclear-nuclear dipolar interactions. Owing to its many-body nature nuclear decoherence is difficult to predict, especially for an important class of strained nanostructures where nuclear quadrupolar effects have a significant but largely unknown impact. Here, we rep...

  7. Pengaruh viskositas kitosan dari berbagai berat molekul terhadap pembuatan kitosan nanopartikel dengan menggunakan Ultrasonic Bath

    OpenAIRE

    Nasution, Zuhairiah

    2015-01-01

    The effect of chitosan viscosity from various molecular weight to the making of nano particle chitosan by using ultrasonic bath has been studied. Chitosan is one of the natural polysaccharide obtained from the deacetylation of chitin. Today the applications of chitosan have been very numerous and widespread. The development of chitosan research has also highly developed, one of them by modifying chitosan into the nano-sized one. Many ways to modify chitosan into nanoparticles chitosan. In thi...

  8. Harbour bathing and the urban transition of water in Copenhagen: junctions, mediators, and urban navigations

    OpenAIRE

    Jens Stissing Jensen; Erik Hagelskjær Lauridsen; Chiara Farné Fratini; Birgitte Hoffmann

    2015-01-01

    In 2002 the first public harbour swimming bath in the inner harbour of Copenhagen opened. By translating the old industrial harbour into a site of urban living and recreation, the practice of swimming in the harbour has been instrumental in aligning and catalysing a series of broader urban transformations pertaining to the wastewater infrastructure, industrial activities, urban development, and international marketing of the city. Through a study of the processes by which swimming in the harb...

  9. CdS thin films growth by ammonia free chemical bath deposition technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaber, A.Y.; Alamri, S.N.; Aida, M.S., E-mail: aida_salah2@yahoo.fr

    2012-02-29

    Cadmium Sulfide CdS thin films were deposited by chemical bath deposition technique using ethanolamine as complexing agent instead of commonly used ammonia to avoid its toxicity and volatility during film preparation. In order to investigate the film growth mechanism samples were prepared with different deposition times. A set of substrates were dropped in the same bath and each 30 minutes a sample is withdrawn from the bath, by this way all the obtained films were grown in the same condition. The films structure was analyzed by X rays diffraction. In early stage of growth the obtained films are amorphous, with increasing the deposition time, the films exhibits a pure hexagonal structure with (101) preferential orientation. The film surface morphology was studied by atomic force microscopy. From these observations we concluded that the early growth stage starts in the 3D Volmer-Weber mode, followed by a transition to the Stransky-Krastanov mode with increasing deposition time. The critical thickness of this transition is 120 nm. CdS quantum dots were formed at end of the film growth. The optical transmittance characterization in the UV-Visible range shows that the prepared films have a high transparency ranging from 60 to 80% for photons having wavelength greater than 600 nm. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer CdS thin films are deposited by ammonia-free chemical bath deposition. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Films have hexagonal structure with (101) preferential orientation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Growth begins in the Volmer-Weber mode and changes to the Stransky-Krastanov mode. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer CdS quantum dots are formed in the late stage of growth.

  10. Microbiological analysis in three diverse natural geothermal bathing pools in Iceland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorolfsdottir, Berglind Osk Th; Marteinsson, Viggo Thor

    2013-03-01

    Natural thermal bathing pools contain geothermal water that is very popular to bathe in but the water is not sterilized, irradiated or treated in any way. Increasing tourism in Iceland will lead to increasing numbers of bath guests, which can in turn affect the microbial flora in the pools and therefore user safety. Today, there is no legislation that applies to natural geothermal pools in Iceland, as the water is not used for consumption and the pools are not defined as public swimming pools. In this study, we conducted a microbiological analysis on three popular but different natural pools in Iceland, located at Lýsuhóll, Hveravellir and Landmannalaugar. Total bacterial counts were performed by flow cytometry, and with plate count at 22 °C, 37 °C and 50 °C. The presence of viable coliforms, Enterococcus spp. and pseudomonads were investigated by growth experiments on selective media. All samples were screened for noroviruses by real time PCR. The results indicate higher fecal contamination in the geothermal pools where the geothermal water flow was low and bathing guest count was high during the day. The number of cultivated Pseudomonas spp. was high (13,000-40,000 cfu/100 mL) in the natural pools, and several strains were isolated and classified as opportunistic pathogens. Norovirus was not detected in the three pools. DNA was extracted from one-liter samples in each pool and analyzed by partial 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Microbial diversity analysis revealed different microbial communities between the pools and they were primarily composed of alpha-, beta- and gammaproteobacteria. PMID:23493033

  11. Nanocomposite coatings produced by electrodeposition from additive-free bath: the potential of the ultrasonic vibrations

    OpenAIRE

    Zanella, Caterina

    2010-01-01

    The main objectives of this Ph.D. research work are the development of enhanced nickel matrix nanocomposite coatings and the optimization of the codeposition parameters. Two different nanopowder, i.e. silicon carbide and alumina, were added to a Watts type galvanic bath in order to produce the nanocomposites coatings and ultrasonic vibrations have been considered as an alternative to pitting control agents in order to produce pore-free layers. The powders and the stability of their suspension...

  12. Universality in short-time critical gluodynamics with heat-bath-inspired algorithms

    OpenAIRE

    Frigori, Rafael B.

    2010-01-01

    Short-time dynamics technique is used to study the relaxation process for the (2+1)-dimensional critical gluodynamics of the SU(2) lattice gauge theory. A generalized class of heat-bath-inspired updating algorithms was employed during the short-time regime of the dynamic evolution for performance comparison. The static and dynamic critical exponents of the theory were measured, serving as a dynamic benchmark for algorithmic efficiency. Our results are in agreement with predictions from univer...

  13. A semiclassical generalized quantum master equation for an arbitrary system-bath coupling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Qiang; Geva, Eitan

    2004-06-01

    The Nakajima-Zwanzig generalized quantum master equation (GQME) provides a general, and formally exact, prescription for simulating the reduced dynamics of a quantum system coupled to a, possibly anharmonic, quantum bath. In this equation, a memory kernel superoperator accounts for the influence of the bath on the dynamics of the system. In a previous paper [Q. Shi and E. Geva, J. Chem. Phys. 119, 12045 (2003)] we proposed a new approach to calculating the memory kernel, in the case of arbitrary system-bath coupling. Within this approach, the memory kernel is obtained by solving a set of two integral equations, which requires a new type of two-time system-dependent bath correlation functions as input. In the present paper, we consider the application of the linearized semiclassical (LSC) approximation for calculating those correlation functions, and subsequently the memory kernel. The new approach is tested on a benchmark spin-boson model. Application of the LSC approximation for calculating the relatively short-lived memory kernel, followed by a numerically exact solution of the GQME, is found to provide an accurate description of the relaxation dynamics. The success of the proposed LSC-GQME methodology is contrasted with the failure of both the direct application of the LSC approximation and the weak coupling treatment to provide an accurate description of the dynamics, for the same model, except at very short times. The feasibility of the new methodology to anharmonic systems is also demonstrated in the case of a two level system coupled to a chain of Lennard-Jones atoms.

  14. Influence of Triethanolamine on the Chemical Bath Deposited NiS Thin Films

    OpenAIRE

    Anuar Kassim; Ho S. Min; Tan W. Tee; Ngai C. Fei

    2011-01-01

    Problem statement: Recently, many scientists looking for new chalcogenide materials for the solar cell applications. Nowadays, silicon-based solar cell became dominant products in the market. Because of expensive silicon-based solar cells, scientists hope replaces it with cheaper chalcogenide materials. Approach: The binary chalcogenide materials were deposited onto microscope glass slide using simple chemical bath deposition method. Here, we study the influence of complex...

  15. Evaluation of recreational health risk in coastal waters based on enterococcus densities and bathing patterns

    OpenAIRE

    Turbow, D J; Osgood, N D; Jiang, Sunny C.

    2003-01-01

    We constructed a simulation model to compute the incidences of highly credible gastrointestinal illness (HCGI) in recreational bathers at two intermittently contaminated beaches of Orange County, California. Assumptions regarding spatial and temporal bathing patterns were used to determine exposure levels over a 31-month study period. Illness rates were calculated by applying previously reported relationships between enterococcus density and HCGI risk to the exposure data. Peak enterococcus c...

  16. Microbiological Analysis in Three Diverse Natural Geothermal Bathing Pools in Iceland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berglind Osk Th. Thorolfsdottir

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Natural thermal bathing pools contain geothermal water that is very popular to bathe in but the water is not sterilized, irradiated or treated in any way. Increasing tourism in Iceland will lead to increasing numbers of bath guests, which can in turn affect the microbial flora in the pools and therefore user safety. Today, there is no legislation that applies to natural geothermal pools in Iceland, as the water is not used for consumption and the pools are not defined as public swimming pools. In this study, we conducted a microbiological analysis on three popular but different natural pools in Iceland, located at Lýsuhóll, Hveravellir and Landmannalaugar. Total bacterial counts were performed by flow cytometry, and with plate count at 22 °C, 37 °C and 50 °C. The presence of viable coliforms, Enterococcus spp. and pseudomonads were investigated by growth experiments on selective media. All samples were screened for noroviruses by real time PCR. The results indicate higher fecal contamination in the geothermal pools where the geothermal water flow was low and bathing guest count was high during the day. The number of cultivated Pseudomonas spp. was high (13,000–40,000 cfu/100 mL in the natural pools, and several strains were isolated and classified as opportunistic pathogens. Norovirus was not detected in the three pools. DNA was extracted from one-liter samples in each pool and analyzed by partial 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Microbial diversity analysis revealed different microbial communities between the pools and they were primarily composed of alpha-, beta- and gammaproteobacteria.

  17. Design project of floodproofing the baths structure in Škofja Loka

    OpenAIRE

    Jeriha, Žiga

    2007-01-01

    Grad. thesis deals with the problem of the flood resilience of Puštal baths structure in Škofja Loka. At the beginning, there is an analysis of the present condition of the structure, aftewards there are all the hydroligic and hydraulic caracteristics defined. It determines authoritative flooding loads, forces and impacts. Considering this parameters, the project suggests series of engineering steps to retrofit the hardly damaged present structure. Retrofitting is based on three basic floodpr...

  18. DOCUMENTATION OF HISTORICAL BUILDING VIA VIRTUAL TOUR: THE COMPLEX BUILDING OF BATHS IN STRASBOURG

    OpenAIRE

    Koehl, M.; Schneider, A.; Fritsch, E.; Fritsch, F.; Rachedi, A.; S. Guillemin

    2013-01-01

    The virtual visits exist for several years and rest on open source or professional software packages allowing to realize complete animations. The historic buildings are often fragile, sometimes difficultly and only partially accessible. It is the complex case of the building of the municipal baths of Strasbourg, France, object of this study. It is thus interesting to use the technologies of the virtual visits to document a historic building. If we content ourselves only of panoramic ...

  19. Remission of Walking Parameters in Peripheral Arterial Disease through Association of Galvanic Baths and Kinesytherapy

    OpenAIRE

    PĂTRU, SIMONA; BIGHEA, A.C.; POPESCU, ROXANA

    2013-01-01

    Chronic peripheral obstructive arteriopathies (CPOA), together with their determinations, play an important role in the elderly pathology and represent one of the most frequent causes of disability, thus having a negative impact on the patient’s quality of life. Therefore, in this clinical randomized trial we proposed to study the efficiency of several treatment methods based on physical exercise together with other therapeutical approaches specific to physical medicine such as galvanic baths...

  20. EXPOSURE TO CARBONIC GAS ENRICHED ATMOSPHERE OR ELECTRICAL WATER BATH TO STUN OR KILL CHICKENS

    OpenAIRE

    JP Nicolau; MF Pinto; EHG Ponsano; SHV Perri; M Garcia Neto

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACTThe objective of this study was to compare the effects of two methods (electrical water bath or carbonic gas atmosphere) for stunning or killing broiler chickens prior to bleeding on weight loss due to bleeding and meat traits. A completely randomized design with 2 x 2 factorial arrangement (electrical or gas system x stunning or killing) was applied. The time required for stunning and killing and the birds' behavior were evaluated for the gas exposure method. The birds killed by the ...

  1. Animal welfare concerns during the use of the water bath for stunning broilers, hens, and ducks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hindle, V A; Lambooij, E; Reimert, H G M; Workel, L D; Gerritzen, M A

    2010-03-01

    European legislation demands that slaughter animals, including poultry, be rendered immediately unconscious and insensible until death occurs through blood loss at slaughter. This study addressed requirements for stunner settings (i.e., voltage, wave oscillation frequency) and response parameters (i.e., applied current, behavior) affecting effective water bath stunning. An inventory of current electrical stunning practice was performed in 10 slaughterhouses in the Netherlands. Thereafter, measurements were performed using a single-bird water bath to examine the effects of stunner settings based on the average technical settings observed in the slaughterhouses. Responses were recorded at 50, 400, and 1,000 Hz on broilers and hens and at 50 and 400 Hz on ducks under controlled laboratory conditions. Effects of voltage settings (broilers: 100 to 400 V; hens: 150 to 300 V; ducks: 150 to 400 V) on current levels (broilers: 45 to 444 mA; hens: 40 to 219 mA; ducks: 64 to 362 mA) and consciousness (response to pain stimulus) were recorded immediately after stunning. Brain and heart activity was monitored using electroencephalogram and electrocardiogram technology. Results show that effective stunning using the conventional water bath almost exclusively produces blood splashing in broilers. Effective stunning current levels did not differ significantly between broilers, hens, and ducks effectively stunned hens tended to require lower currents. Effective stuns at higher frequencies resulted in higher currents. Similar input voltage (V) levels (within and between bird type) resulted in significant variation (P < 0.001) in current levels (mA) required for an effective stun, indicating variability in electrical impedance between individual birds. Body weight and bird type did not affect the probability of an effective stun. Multi-bird water bath usage does not ensure effective stunning and technical adjustments can result in detrimental effects on meat quality. Future

  2. Structure and Protein–Protein Interactions of Methanol Dehydrogenase from Methylococcus capsulatus (Bath)

    OpenAIRE

    Culpepper, Megen A.; Rosenzweig, Amy C.

    2014-01-01

    In the initial steps of their metabolic pathway, methanotrophic bacteria oxidize methane to methanol with methane monooxygenases (MMOs) and methanol to formaldehyde with methanol dehydrogenases (MDHs). Several lines of evidence suggest that the membrane-bound or particulate MMO (pMMO) and MDH interact to form a metabolic supercomplex. To further investigate the possible existence of such a supercomplex, native MDH from Methylococcus capsulatus (Bath) has been purified and characterized by siz...

  3. A Compton-suppression detection system for use in manganese bath measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The manganese sulfate bath technique is a standard tool for neutron source strength measurement (Park et al., 2005). However, the dominate Compton continuum of most sodium iodide scintillators used in manganese bath systems (MBSs) does not allow the precise identification of induced gamma rays required for such measurements. In this research, to resolve this problem, a Compton-suppression system has been proposed which consists of a 2 in. by 2 in. NaI(Tl) right cylindrical scintillator as the main and a set of eight rectangular NE102 plastic scintillators of 12×12×15 cm3 dimensions as suppression detectors. Both detectors operate in anti-coincidence circuit to suppress the Compton continuum. The proposed system has been simulated with the MCNPX code with two different approaches and the corresponding measurements with 137Cs gamma-ray source and neutron-activated MnSO4 solution have been undertaken that give rise to a promising agreement. - Highlights: • A Compton-suppression system (CSS) consists of eight NE102 plastic and one NaI scintillators is proposed. • The motivation for the proposed CSS is to improve the minimum detectable activity in a manganese bath system (MBS). • Both MCNPX and experimental studies have been undertaken to obtain the optimum source-to-detector distance in CSS

  4. Quantum dynamics of hydrogen atoms on graphene. I. System-bath modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An accurate system-bath model to investigate the quantum dynamics of hydrogen atoms chemisorbed on graphene is presented. The system comprises a hydrogen atom and the carbon atom from graphene that forms the covalent bond, and it is described by a previously developed 4D potential energy surface based on density functional theory ab initio data. The bath describes the rest of the carbon lattice and is obtained from an empirical force field through inversion of a classical equilibrium correlation function describing the hydrogen motion. By construction, model building easily accommodates improvements coming from the use of higher level electronic structure theory for the system. Further, it is well suited to a determination of the system-environment coupling by means of ab initio molecular dynamics. This paper details the system-bath modeling and shows its application to the quantum dynamics of vibrational relaxation of a chemisorbed hydrogen atom, which is here investigated at T = 0 K with the help of the multi-configuration time-dependent Hartree method. Paper II deals with the sticking dynamics

  5. Quantum dynamics of hydrogen atoms on graphene. I. System-bath modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonfanti, Matteo, E-mail: matteo.bonfanti@unimi.it [Dipartimento di Chimica, Università degli Studi di Milano, v. Golgi 19, 20133 Milano (Italy); Jackson, Bret [Department of Chemistry, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, Massachusetts 01003 (United States); Hughes, Keith H. [School of Chemistry, Bangor University, Bangor, Gwynedd LL57 2UW (United Kingdom); Burghardt, Irene [Institute of Physical and Theoretical Chemistry, Goethe University Frankfurt, Max-von-Laue-Str. 7, 60438 Frankfurt/Main (Germany); Martinazzo, Rocco, E-mail: rocco.martinazzo@unimi.it [Dipartimento di Chimica, Università degli Studi di Milano, v. Golgi 19, 20133 Milano (Italy); Istituto di Scienze e Tecnologie Molecolari, Consiglio Nazionale delle Richerche, v. Golgi 19, 20133 Milano (Italy)

    2015-09-28

    An accurate system-bath model to investigate the quantum dynamics of hydrogen atoms chemisorbed on graphene is presented. The system comprises a hydrogen atom and the carbon atom from graphene that forms the covalent bond, and it is described by a previously developed 4D potential energy surface based on density functional theory ab initio data. The bath describes the rest of the carbon lattice and is obtained from an empirical force field through inversion of a classical equilibrium correlation function describing the hydrogen motion. By construction, model building easily accommodates improvements coming from the use of higher level electronic structure theory for the system. Further, it is well suited to a determination of the system-environment coupling by means of ab initio molecular dynamics. This paper details the system-bath modeling and shows its application to the quantum dynamics of vibrational relaxation of a chemisorbed hydrogen atom, which is here investigated at T = 0 K with the help of the multi-configuration time-dependent Hartree method. Paper II deals with the sticking dynamics.

  6. Reducing the content of alloying elements in high-speed steel during heating in salt baths

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barium chloride salt baths are primarily used for the high-temperature quench heating of a tool formed from high-speed steels. If the barium chloride melt should have a decarbonizing effect on the surface components that are heated in it, the authors maintain that it may also affect the content of alloying elements in the surface layers of high-speed-steel components that are heated in it. Commercial salt baths with a rectifier -- chemically pure magnesium fluoride -was used for the investigation. Cooling was accomplished in a caustic melt. Analysis of the results of investigation of the molybdenum, tungsten, and cobalt distributions in steel R9M4K8 as well as the tungsten and cobalt distributions in steel R9K5 indicated that the cobalt content does not diminish on heating to 12300C. A decrease in molybdenum content occurs in the surface layers during the quench heating of a tool formed from high-speed tungsten-molybdenum steel in a barium chloride salt bath after the required heating time, while a decrease in the tungsten content takes place with more prolonged hold times. It is shown to be possible to reduce or completely eliminate loss of alloying elements in the surface layers of a high-speedsteel tool during heat treatment when magnesium fluoride in combination with silicon carbide additives is used as a rectifier

  7. Measurement of boiling heat transfer coefficient in liquid nitrogen bath by inverse heat conduction method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tao JIN; Jian-ping HONG; Hao ZHENG; Ke TANG; Zhi-hua GAN

    2009-01-01

    Inverse heat conduction method (IHCM)is one of the most effective approaches to obtaining the boiling heat transfer coefficient from measured results.This paper focuses on its application in cryogenic boiling heat transfer.Experiments were conducted on the heattransfer of a stainless steel block in a liquid nitrogen bath.with the assumption of a ID conduction condition to realize fast acquisition of the temperature of the test points inside the block.With the inverse-heat conduction theory and the explicit finite difference model,a solving program was developed to calculate the heat flux and the boiling heat transfer coefficient of a stainless steel block in liquid nitrogen bath based on the temperature acquisition data.Considering the oscillating data and some unsmooth transition points in the inverse-heat-conduction calculation result of the heat-transfer coefficient,a two-step data-fitting procedure was proposed to obtain the expression for the boiling heat transfer coefficients.The coefficient was then verified for accuracy by a comparison between the simulation results using this expression and the verifying experimental results of a stainless steel block.The maximum error with a revised segment fitting iS around 6%.which verifies the feasibility of using IHCM to measure the boiling heat transfer coefficient in liquid nitrogen bath.

  8. Sliding bubbles on a hot horizontal wire in a subcooled bath

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duchesne, Alexis; Dubois, Charles; Caps, Hervé

    2015-11-01

    When a wire is heated up to the boiling point in a liquid bath some bubbles will nucleate on the wire surface. Traditional nucleate boiling theory predicts that bubbles generate from active nucleate site, grow up and depart from the heating surface due to buoyancy and inertia. However, an alternative scenario is presented in the literature for a subcooled bath: bubbles slide along the horizontal wire before departing. New experiments were performed by using a constantan wire and different liquids, varying the injected power. Silicone oil, water and even liquid nitrogen were tested in order to vary wetting conditions, liquid viscosities and surface tensions. We explored the influence of the wire diameter and of the subcooled bath temperature. We observed, of course, sliding motion, but also a wide range of behaviors from bubbles clustering to film boiling. We noticed that bubbles could change moving sense, especially when encountering with another bubble. The bubble speed is carefully measured and can reach more than 100 mm/s for a millimetric bubble. We investigated the dependence of the speed on the different parameters and found that this speed is, for a given configuration, quite independent of the injected power. We understand these phenomena in terms of Marangoni effects. This project has been financially supported by ARC SuperCool contract of the University of Liège.

  9. Performance comparison of dynamical decoupling sequences for a qubit in a rapidly fluctuating spin bath

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avoiding the loss of coherence of quantum mechanical states is an important prerequisite for quantum information processing. Dynamical decoupling (DD) is one of the most effective experimental methods for maintaining coherence, especially when one can access only the qubit system and not its environment (bath). It involves the application of pulses to the system whose net effect is a reversal of the system-environment interaction. In any real system, however, the environment is not static, and therefore the reversal of the system-environment interaction becomes imperfect if the spacing between refocusing pulses becomes comparable to or longer than the correlation time of the environment. The efficiency of the refocusing improves therefore if the spacing between the pulses is reduced. Here, we quantify the efficiency of different DD sequences in preserving different quantum states. We use 13C nuclear spins as qubits and an environment of 1H nuclear spins as the environment, which couples to the qubit via magnetic dipole-dipole couplings. Strong dipole-dipole couplings between the proton spins result in a rapidly fluctuating environment with a correlation time of the order of 100 μs. Our experimental results show that short delays between the pulses yield better performance if they are compared with the bath correlation time. However, as the pulse spacing becomes shorter than the bath correlation time, an optimum is reached. For even shorter delays, the pulse imperfections dominate over the decoherence losses and cause the quantum state to decay.

  10. Chinese Herbal Foot Bath plus Acupoint Massage Beneficial to the Improvement of Grade 0 Diabetic Foot

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lin Xiao-xia; Xu Xu-yuan; Shangguan Bin-bin

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To observe the clinical effect of foot bath with Tao Hong Si Wu Tang plus massage on acupoints at the sole for grade 0 diabetic foot. Methods: One hundred and sixty eligible cases were randomly divided into an observation group and a control group, 80 cases in each group. The two groups were treated with routine basic medications to control blood sugar. The patients in the observation group were given foot bath withTao Hong Si Wu Tangplus massage on acupoints at the sole, once every day. At the same time, the patients were instructed to understand the knowledge of diabetes, accept the education on foot care and to know the self-management for diabetes. The patients in the control group only accepted the education on foot care and studied the self-management for diabetes. The patients in the two groups were followed up once every week by phone. The local examination was intensified for the patients in their clinical visit every month. The therapeutic effects were assessed after three months of continuous treatment. Results: The total effective rate was 92.5% in the observation group, remarkably higher than 65.0% in the control group. The difference in comparison of the general therapeutic effect was statistically significant (P Conclusion: Foot bath withTao Hong Si Wu Tang plus massage on acupoints at the sole was beneficial to the improvement of clinical symptoms of grade 0 diabetic foot.

  11. Beyond heat baths: Generalized resource theories for small-scale thermodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yunger Halpern, Nicole; Renes, Joseph M.

    2016-02-01

    Thermodynamics has recently been extended to small scales with resource theories that model heat exchanges. Real physical systems exchange diverse quantities: heat, particles, angular momentum, etc. We generalize thermodynamic resource theories to exchanges of observables other than heat, to baths other than heat baths, and to free energies other than the Helmholtz free energy. These generalizations are illustrated with "grand-potential" theories that model movements of heat and particles. Free operations include unitaries that conserve energy and particle number. From this conservation law and from resource-theory principles, the grand-canonical form of the free states is derived. States are shown to form a quasiorder characterized by free operations, d majorization, the hypothesis-testing entropy, and rescaled Lorenz curves. We calculate the work distillable from—and we bound the work cost of creating—a state. These work quantities can differ but converge to the grand potential in the thermodynamic limit. Extending thermodynamic resource theories beyond heat baths, we open diverse realistic systems to modeling with one-shot statistical mechanics. Prospective applications such as electrochemical batteries are hoped to bridge one-shot theory to experiments.

  12. Influence of coagulation bath on morphology of cellulose membranes prepared by NMMO method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    To control the morphology of cellulose membranes used for separation,they were prepared by the NMMO method using water,methanol,ethanol and their binary solution as coagulation baths.Morphologies of the surface and cross section of dry membranes were observed.The pore structure parameters of wet membranes were determined.By comparison,the process and mechanism of pore formation in dry membranes were suggested,and the relativity of cellulose crystal size to average pore diameter in wet membranes and their influences were discussed.The results show that the morphology of dry membranes is clearly varied with coagulation baths,while the porosity of wet membranes is almost constant.Porous structures can appear in the compact region of dry membranes due to swelling from water.These pores have a virtual effect on the average pore diameter of wet membranes.By changing the composition of coagulation baths,the microstructure of cellulose membranes in a dry or wet environment can be adjusted separately.

  13. Electroplated Fe-Pt thick films prepared in plating baths with various pH values

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanai, T.; Furutani, K.; Masaki, T.; Ohgai, T.; Nakano, M.; Fukunaga, H.

    2016-05-01

    Fe-Pt thick-films were electroplated on a Ta substrate using a direct current, and the effect of the pH value of the plating bath on the magnetic properties of the films was evaluated. For the films prepared from the baths with the same bath composition, the Fe composition and the thickness increased with increasing the pH value. In order to remove the effect of the change in the film composition on the magnetic properties, we controlled the film composition at approximately Fe50Pt50 or Fe60Pt40 by the change in the amount of the iron sulfate. The remanence of the annealed Fe60Pt40 films did not depend on the pH value clearly, and showed almost constant value of 0.75 T. We obtained the large coercivity of approximately 460 kA/m in the pH value from 4 to 7. Since the Fe52Pt48 film prepared at pH ≈ 4 shows much higher (BH)max value of 70 kJ/m3 than that of 57 kJ/m3 for our previously-reported Fe50Pt50 film (pH ≈ 2), we concluded that slight higher pH value than not-adjusted one (pH ≈ 2) is effective to increase the coercivity.

  14. Effects of choline chloride on electrodeposited Ni coating from a Watts-type bath

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yurong; Yang, Caihong; He, Jiawei; Wang, Wenchang; Mitsuzak, Naotoshi; Chen, Zhidong

    2016-05-01

    Electrodeposition of bright nickel (Ni) was carried out in a Watts-type bath. Choline chloride (ChCl) was applied as a multifunctional additive and substitute for nickel chloride (NiCl2) in a Watts-type bath. The function of ChCl was investigated through conductivity tests, anodic polarization, and cathodic polarization experiments. The studies revealed that ChCl performed well as a conducting salt, anodic activator, and cathodic inhibitor. The effects of ChCl on deposition rate, preferred orientation, grain size, surface morphology, and microhardness of Ni coatings were also studied. The deposition rate reached a maximum value of greater than 27 μm h-1 when 20 g L-1 ChCl was introduced to the bath. Using X-ray diffraction, it was confirmed that progressive addition of ChCl promoted the preferred crystal orientation modification from (2 0 0) and (2 2 0) to (1 1 1), refined grain size, and enhanced microhardness. The presence of ChCl lowered the roughness of the coating.

  15. New open source medical imaging tools released by CERN and University of Bath collaboration

    CERN Document Server

    Anaïs Rassat, KT group

    2016-01-01

    New toolbox has applications in medical imaging and cancer diagnosis.   3D X-ray imaging of a patient’s lungs and thorax. The TIGRE toolbox provides a high resolution image with only 1/30th of the radiation for the patient. (Image: Ander Biguri) CERN and the University of Bath have released a new toolbox for fast, accurate 3D X-ray image reconstruction with applications in medical imaging and cancer diagnosis. The software offers a very simple and affordable way to improve imaging and potentially reduce radiation doses for patients. The toolbox is based on Cone Beam Computed Tomography (CBCT), a type of scanning process that takes a series of 2D X-ray pictures and that then processes them into a 3D image. As part of the collaborative project between CERN and the University of Bath, Ander Biguri, a PhD student at Bath, has reviewed a broad range of published CBCT algorithms and adapted them to be faster. Ander Biguri modified the algorithms to run on a laptop fitted with a GPU &ndash...

  16. Comparison Between Electrolysis and Reduction for Treatment of Spent Electroless Nickel Plating Bath

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAN Lei; LI Shuqin; YU Xiujuan

    2009-01-01

    There are lots of residual nickel and organic compounds in the spent electroless nickel plating bath. It not only wastes resource but also causes environmental pollution if the wastewater is discharged without treatment. In this paper, electrolytic method and reduction method for treating spent electroless nickel plating bath were compared. The factors studied included reaction time, pH, temperature, effectiveness and cost. It was found that the recovery rate of nickel by reduction was 99.9% under the condition ofpH 6, 50℃ for 10 min. The purity of reclaimed nickel was 66.1%. This treatment needed about 16 g NaBH4 for a liter spent solution, which cost RMB 64 Yuan. For electrolysis method, with pH 7.6, 80℃, 0.45 A (current intensity) for 2 h, the recovery rate reached 97.3%. The purity was 88.5% for the reclaimed nickel. Moreover, it was found that through electrolysis, the value of TOC (Total Organic Carbon) decreased from 114 to 3.08 g·L-1 with removal rate of 97.3%. The main cost of electrolysis came from electric energy. It cost about 0.09 kWh (less than RMB 0.1 Yuan) per liter wastewater. Compared with reduction, electrolysis had more advantages, so the priority of selection should be given to the electrolysis method for the treatment of spent electroless nickel plating bath.

  17. Chromium recovery from exhausted baths generated in plating processes and its reuse in the tanning industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torras, Josep; Buj, Irene; Rovira, Miquel; de Pablo, Joan

    2012-03-30

    Chromium plating used for functional purposes provides an extremely hard, wear and corrosion resistant layer by means of electrolytic deposition. Typical layer thicknesses range between 2.5 and 500 μm. Chromium electroplating baths contain high concentrations of Cr(VI) with chromium trioxide (CrO(3)) as the chromium source. When because of technical or economic reasons a bath gets exhausted, a waste containing mainly chromium as dichromate as well as other heavy metals is generated. Chromium may then be purified for use in other industrial processes with different requirements. In this work, a sustainable system for using galvanic wastes as reagents in the leather tanning industry, thus reducing quantity of wastes to be treated, is presented. Metal cations present in the chromium exhausted bath were precipitated with NaOH. Then, the solution containing mainly soluble Cr(VI) was separated. By means of sodium sulphite in acidic conditions, Cr(VI) was reduced to Cr(III) as chromium (III) sulphate. From chromium (III) sulphate a basic Cr(III) sulphate may be obtained, which is one of most used compounds in the tanning industry. Cr(III) concentration in the final solution allows its reuse without concentration, but with a slight dilution. PMID:22326242

  18. Microbiological Guideline Values for Recreational Bathing in Canada: Time for Change?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benoit Lévesque

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Recreational bathing is an activity practiced by thousands of Canadians every year. While its health benefits are numerous, bathing in polluted water can also be a source of health problems. These problems are generally nonspecific and are difficult to detect through usual health monitoring systems. Most involve ear and eye ailments, febrile respiratory illness and, particularly, gastroenteritis. In 1992, Health Canada recommended microbiological guideline values for recreational water quality. The values are based on the presence of fecal indicator bacteria, namely, enterococci for marine water, and Escherichia coli or fecal coliforms for fresh water. In marine water, the guideline value is set at 35 enterococci/100 mL, while in fresh water, the standard is 200 E coli/100 mL or 200 fecal coliforms/100 mL when experience demonstrates that over 90% of the fecal coliforms are E coli. Notwithstanding certain variances, many Canadian provinces apply these guidelines. However, in Ontario, the guideline is 100 E coli/100 mL. Over the past several years, many epidemiological studies, including randomized clinical trials, have examined the relationship between bathing in polluted water and ensuing health problems. On review of this literature, the Canadian guideline values for marine water seems appropriate, but scientific evidence argues toward lowering the Canadian guideline values for fresh water to 100 E coli/100 mL, in line with the standard currently in effect in Ontario.

  19. Tunable optoelectronic properties of CBD-CdS thin films via bath temperature alterations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumarage, W. G. C.; Wijesundera, R. P.; Seneviratne, V. A.; Jayalath, C. P.; Dassanayake, B. S.

    2016-03-01

    The tunability of the band-gap value and electron affinity of the n-CdS by adjusting the growth parameters is very important as it paves the way to improve the efficiency of CdS-based solar cells by adjusting the band lineup with other p-type semiconductors. In this respect, polycrystalline n-CdS thin films were grown on FTO glass substrates at different bath temperatures (40-80 °C) by the chemical bath deposition technique. The structural, morphological and optoelectronic properties of CdS thin films were studied using x-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, UV-Vis spectrometry, profilometry, atomic force microscopy, photoelectrochemical and Mott-Schottky measurements. Absorption measurements reveal that an energy-gap value of n-CdS can be adjusted from 2.27 to 2.57 eV and Mott-Schottky measurements indicate that the flat-band potential is increased from  -699 to  -835 V with respect to a Ag/AgCl electrode by decreasing the deposition bath temperature from 60 to 40 °C. This tunability of optoelectronic properties of n-CdS is very useful for applications in thin film solar cells and other devices.

  20. Kinetics of electroless Ni-Cu-P deposits on silicon in a basic hypophosphite-type bath

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei-Long Liu; Shu-Huei Hsieh; Wen-Jauh Chen

    2009-01-01

    Eleetroless Ni-Cu-P deposits were deposited on the Si substrate in a basic hypophosphite-type plating bath.The effects ofpH value and the metal source composition, Ni and Cu, in the plating bath on the kinetics of the Ni-Cu-P deposition were studied.The electroless Ni-Cu-P deposits were characterized by a scanning electron microscope, a transmission electron microscope, an en-ergy dispersive X-ray spectroscope, and an X-ray diffractometer.The results showed that the pH value of the plating bath had no ob- vious effect on the morphology and composition of electroless Ni-Cu-P deposits.However, the composition of the metal source, Ni and Cu, in the plating bath had great effect on the kinetics of electroless Ni-Cu-P deposition.

  1. Surface modification of 2205 duplex stainless steel by low temperature salt bath nitrocarburizing at 430 °C

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Runbo; Wang, Jun; Zhong, Si; Li, Mingxing; Xiong, Ji; Fan, Hongyuan

    2013-04-01

    2205 stainless steel was modified by salt bath nitrocarburizing at 430 °C in this study. The microstructure, surface hardness and erosion-corrosion resistance were systematically evaluated. Salt bath nitrocarburizing at 430 °C can form a nitrocarburized layer, and with the treated time prolong, the thickness of the layer increased. By nitrocarburizing within 8 h, only expanded austenite (S phase) formed. With treated time increased, CrN gradually diffused from the places where there were ferrite grains in the layer before nitrocarburizing. Besides, the depth increased with the nitrocarburized time and the layer grew approximately conforms to the parabolic rate law. Salt bath nitrocarburizing can effectively improve the surface hardness of 2205 DSS. The erosion-corrosion resistance was improved by salt bath nitrocarburizing and the 16 h treated sample had the best erosion-corrosion behavior.

  2. Change of Dye Bath for Sensitisation of Nanocrystalline TiO Films: Enhances Performance of Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malapaka Chandrasekharam

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The photovoltaic performance of the heteroleptic H102 and HRD2 sensitizers was measured in DSSC and compared with that of reference N719 under similar fabrication and evaluation conditions. The Dye-Sensitised TiO2 electrodes were prepared by staining the electrodes in ethanol bath and 1/1 v/v acetonitrile/tert-butanol (binary liquid mixture bath separately and the DSSCs based on these sensitizers show that the change of dye bath from ethanol to the binary liquid mixture enhances the photocurrent action spectrum and solar-to-electricity conversion efficiencies, (η. Using ethanol for sensitisation of TiO2 electrodes, the efficiencies obtained for H102, HRD2 and N719 are 4.31%, 4.62%, and 5.46%, respectively, while in binary liquid mixture bath, the corresponding values are enhanced to 5.89%, 4.87%, and 7.23%, respectively, under comparable conditions.

  3. Treatment of 31 Cases of Infant Respiratory Tract Infection by Health-care Tuina plus Medicated Bath

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Jie; WU Xue-fei

    2003-01-01

    Thirty-one cases of infant respiratory tract infection were treated by no-pain health-care Tuina plus medicated bath. Since the therapeutic effects were satisfactory, so parents and infants are willing to accept.

  4. Effect of micro mist sauna bathing on thermoregulatory and circulatory functions and thermal sensation in humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwase, Satoshi; Kawahara, Yuko; Nishimura, Naoki; Sugenoya, Junichi

    2016-05-01

    To examine the effects of micro mist sauna bathing, produced by water crushing method, we exposed ten male subjects to five cases of micro mist sauna, namely (1) room temperature (RT) 38 °C with 100 % (actually 91 %) relative humidity (RH), (2) RT 41.5 °C with 80 % (actually 81 %) RH, (3) RT 41.5 °C with 100 % (actually 96 %) RH, (4) RT 45.0 °C with 64 % (actually 61 %) RH, and (5) RT 45.0 °C with 100 % (actually 86 %) RH, and measured tympanic temperature, mean skin temperature, heart rate (HR), and cheek moisture content, as well as ratings of thermal and sweating sensation tympanic temperatures at RT 45 °C were significantly higher at 86 % RH than those at 61 % RH; however, those at RT 45 °C with 61 % RH were higher than those with 86 % RH during recovery. There were no significant differences at RT 41.5 °C between with 81 % RH and with 96 % RH. Mean skin temperature was the highest at RT 45 °C 86 % RH case, followed by at RT 41.5 °C 96 % RH, RT 45 °C 61 % RH, RT 41.5 °C 81 % RH, and finally at RT 38 °C 91 % RH. HR change showed the same order as for mean skin temperature. A significant difference in cheek moisture content was observed between RT 41.5 °C with 81 % RH and RT 45 °C with 86 % RH 10 min after the micro mist bathing. There were no significant differences between ratings of thermal sensation at RT 41.5 °C with 81 % RH and at RT 45 °C with 61 % RH and RT 45 °C with 61 % RH and RT 45 °C with 86 % RH. Between RT 45 °C with 86 % RH and RT 41.5 °C with 81 % RH, there was a tendency for interaction (0.05 crushing method induced more moderate and effective thermal effect during micro mist sauna bathing than the conventional mist sauna bathing. In addition, micro mist sauna is as effective for heating the human subjects as bathtub bathing as well as more moderate thermal and sweating sensations.

  5. ANOMALOUS ELECTRODEPOSITION OF Fe-Ni ALLOY COATING FROM SIMPLE AND COMPLEX BATHS AND ITS MAGNETIC PROPERTY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M A Islam

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Electrodeposition of Fe-Ni thin films has been carried on copper substrate under various electrodeposition conditions from two simple and six complex baths. Sulfate baths composing of NiSO4. 7H2O, FeSO4.7H2O, H3BO3 and Na2SO4KEYWORDS: Anomalous Electrodeposition, Fe-Ni Coating, Complexing agent, Current Density, Magnetic Property. 1. INTRODUCTION Alloy electrodeposition technologies can extend tremendously the potential of electrochemical deposition processes to provide coatings that require unique mechanical, chemical and physical properties [1]. There has been a great research interest in the development and characterization of iron-nickel (Fe-Ni thin films due to their operational capacity, economic interest, magnetic and other properties [2]. Due to their unique low coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE and soft magnetic properties, Fe-Ni alloys have been used in industrial applications for over 100 years [3]. Typical examples of applications that are based on the low CTE of Fe-Ni alloys include: thermostatic bimetals, glass sealing, integrated circuit packaging, cathode ray tube, shadow masks, membranes for liquid natural gas tankers; applications based on the soft magnetic properties include: read-write heads for magnetic storage, magnetic actuators, magnetic shielding, high performance transformer cores. comprise the simple baths whereas complex baths were prepared by adding ascorbic acid, saccharin and citric acid in simple baths. The effect of bath composition, pH and applied current density on coating appearance, composition, morphology and magnetic property were studied. Wet chemical analysis technique was used to analyze the coating composition whereas SEM and VSM were used to study the deposit morphology and magnetic property respectively. Addition of complexing agents in plating baths suppressed the anomalous nature of Fe-Ni alloy electrodeposition. Coatings obtained from simple baths were characterized by coarse grained non

  6. A new approach to calculating the memory kernel of the generalized quantum master equation for an arbitrary system-bath coupling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Qiang; Geva, Eitan

    2003-12-01

    The Nakajima-Zwanzig generalized quantum master equation provides a general, and formally exact, prescription for simulating the reduced dynamics of a quantum system coupled to a quantum bath. In this equation, the memory kernel accounts for the influence of the bath on the system's dynamics. The standard approach is based on using a perturbative treatment of the system-bath coupling for calculating this kernel, and is therefore restricted to systems weakly coupled to the bath. In this paper, we propose a new approach for calculating the memory kernel for an arbitrary system-bath coupling. The memory kernel is obtained by solving a set of two coupled integral equations that relate it to a new type of two-time system-dependent bath correlation functions. The feasibility of the method is demonstrated in the case of an asymetrical two-level system linearly coupled to a harmonic bath.

  7. Ochre Bathing of the Bearded Vulture: A Bio-Mimetic Model for Early Humans towards Smell Prevention and Health

    OpenAIRE

    Helmut Tributsch

    2016-01-01

    Simple Summary The once widespread bearded vulture (Gypaetus barbatus) has the habit of bathing its polluted feathers and skin in red iron oxide-ochre-tainted water puddles. Primitive man may have tried to find out why: ochre is active in sunlight producing aggressive chemical species. They can kill viruses and bacteria and convert smelly organic substances into volatile neutral carbon dioxide gas. There is consequently a sanitary reason for the vulture’s habit of bathing in red ochre mud and...

  8. Determinants of individuals' willingness to pay for perceived reductions in environmental health risks: a case study of bathing water quality

    OpenAIRE

    Georgiou, S.; I H Langford; I J Bateman; Turner, R.K.

    1998-01-01

    A contingent valuation (CV) study was undertaken to investigate individuals' stated willingness to pay (WTP) to reduce perceived risks of illness from the quality of bathing water at two beaches in East Anglia, United Kingdom. One beach, Great Yarmouth, failed to meet the EC (European Community) Bathing Water Quality Directive standard, whereas the other at Lowestoft passed. The analysis focuses on determinants of individuals' WTP, including measures of risk perception and attitudes to health...

  9. Effect of Heat Assisted Bath Sonication on the Mechanical and Thermal Deformation Behaviours of Graphene Nanoplatelets Filled Epoxy Polymer Composites

    OpenAIRE

    Jin-Luen Phua; Pei-Leng Teh; Supri Abdul Ghani; Cheow-Keat Yeoh

    2016-01-01

    Graphene nanoplatelets (GNP) filled epoxy composites ranged from 0.2 to 5 vol.% were prepared in this study using simple heat assisted bath sonication for better GNP dispersion and exfoliation. The effects of GNP filler loading via heat assisted bath sonication on the mechanical properties and thermal deformation behaviour were investigated. Improvements on flexural strength and fracture toughness up to 0.4 vol.% filler loading were recorded. Further addition of GNP filler loading shows a det...

  10. Bath Salts

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... schizophrenia. Other long-term effects include: physical exhaustion insomnia and restlessness dizziness and blurred vision headaches reduced appetite and health problems from not eating properly higher chances of ...

  11. Bath temperature impact on morphological evolution of Ni(OH)2 thin films and their supercapacitive behaviour

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    U M Patil; K V Gurav; J H Kim; C D Lokhande; S C Jun

    2014-02-01

    Nanostructured Ni(OH)2 thin films were deposited over stainless steel (SS) and glass substrate via simple chemical bath deposition (CBD) method. NiCl2 :6H2O were used as source of nickel and aqueous ammonia as a complexing agent. The coating process of Ni(OH)2 material over substrate is based on the decomposition of ammonia complexed nickel ions at two different bath temperatures. The changes in structural, morphological and electro-chemical properties are examined as an impact of bath temperature. XRD studies reveal formation of mixed phase of and at lower bath temperature (313 K) while, pure phase of Ni(OH)2 thin films deposited was observed at higher bath temperature (353 K). The morphological evolution from honeycomb structure to vertically aligned flakes over the substrate is observed as the influence of bath temperature. The supercapacitive performance based on the morphology examined by using cyclic voltammetric measurements in 1 M KOH. The maximum specific capacitances of 610 and 460 F/g were observed for the vertical flake and honeycomb structured Ni(OH)2 thin films, respectively.

  12. Application of chemometric methods for assessment and modelling of microbiological quality data concerning coastal bathing water in Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agelos Papaioannou

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background. Worldwide, the aim of managing water is to safeguard human health whilst maintaining sustainable aquatic and associated terrestrial, ecosystems. Because human enteric viruses are the most likely pathogens responsible for waterborne diseases from recreational water use, but detection methods are complex and costly for routine monitoring, it is of great interest to determine the quality of coastal bathing water with a minimum cost and maximum safety. Design and methods. This study handles the assessment and modelling of the microbiological quality data of 2149 seawater bathing areas in Greece over 10-year period (1997-2006 by chemometric methods. Results. Cluster analysis results indicated that the studied bathing beaches are classified in accordance with the seasonality in three groups. Factor analysis was applied to investigate possible determining factors in the groups resulted from the cluster analysis, and also two new parameters were created in each group; VF1 includes E. coli, faecal coliforms and total coliforms and VF2 includes faecal streptococci/enterococci. By applying the cluster analysis in each seasonal group, three new groups of coasts were generated, group A (ultraclean, group B (clean and group C (contaminated. Conclusions. The above analysis is confirmed by the application of discriminant analysis, and proves that chemometric methods are useful tools for assessment and modeling microbiological quality data of coastal bathing water on a large scale, and thus could attribute to effective and economical monitoring of the quality of coastal bathing water in a country with a big number of bathing coasts, like Greece.

  13. Evaluating a microbial water quality prediction model for beach management under the revised EU Bathing Water Directive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedri, Zeinab; Corkery, Aisling; O'Sullivan, John J; Deering, Louise A; Demeter, Katalin; Meijer, Wim G; O'Hare, Gregory; Masterson, Bartholomew

    2016-02-01

    The revised Bathing Water Directive (2006/7/EC) requires EU member states to minimise the risk to public health from faecal pollution at bathing waters through improved monitoring and management approaches. While increasingly sophisticated measurement methods (such as microbial source tracking) assist in the management of bathing water resources, the use of deterministic predictive models for this purpose, while having the potential to provide decision making support, remains less common. This study explores an integrated, deterministic catchment-coastal hydro-environmental model as a decision-making tool for beach management which, based on advance predictions of bathing water quality, can inform beach managers on appropriate management actions (to prohibit bathing or advise the public not to bathe) in the event of a poor water quality forecast. The model provides a 'moving window' five-day forecast of Escherichia coli levels at a bathing water compliance point off the Irish coast and the accuracy of bathing water management decisions were investigated for model predictions under two scenarios over the period from the 11th August to the 5th September, 2012. Decisions for Scenario 1 were based on model predictions where rainfall forecasts from a meteorological source (www.yr.no) were used to drive the rainfall-runoff processes in the catchment component of the model, and for Scenario 2, were based on predictions that were improved by incorporating real-time rainfall data from a sensor network within the catchment into the forecasted meteorological input data. The accuracy of the model in the decision-making process was assessed using the contingency table and its metrics. The predictive model gave reasonable outputs to support appropriate decision making for public health protection. Scenario 1 provided real-time predictions that, on 77% of instances during the study period where both predicted and E. coli concentrations were available, would correctly inform a

  14. High quality antireflective ZnS thin films prepared by chemical bath deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tec-Yam, S.; Rojas, J.; Rejon, V. [Centro de Investigacion y de Estudios Avanzados del IPN, Unidad Merida, Departamento de Fisica Aplicada, Km. 6 Antigua Carretera a Progreso, AP 73-Cordemex, 97310 Merida Yucatan (Mexico); Oliva, A.I., E-mail: oliva@mda.cinvestav.mx [Centro de Investigacion y de Estudios Avanzados del IPN, Unidad Merida, Departamento de Fisica Aplicada, Km. 6 Antigua Carretera a Progreso, AP 73-Cordemex, 97310 Merida Yucatan (Mexico)

    2012-10-15

    Zinc sulfide (ZnS) thin films for antireflective applications were deposited on glass substrates by chemical bath deposition (CBD). Chemical analysis of the soluble species permits to predict the optimal pH conditions to obtain high quality ZnS films. For the CBD, the ZnCl{sub 2}, NH{sub 4}NO{sub 3}, and CS(NH{sub 2}){sub 2} were fixed components, whereas the KOH concentration was varied from 0.8 to 1.4 M. Groups of samples with deposition times from 60 to 120 min were prepared in a bath with magnetic agitation and heated at 90 Degree-Sign C. ZnS films obtained from optimal KOH concentrations of 0.9 M and 1.0 M exhibited high transparency, homogeneity, adherence, and crystalline. The ZnS films presented a band gap energy of 3.84 eV, an atomic Zn:S stoichiometry ratio of 49:51, a transmittance above 85% in the 300-800 nm wavelength range, and a reflectance below 25% in the UV-Vis range. X-ray diffraction analysis revealed a cubic structure in the (111) orientation for the films. The thickness of the films was tuned between 60 nm and 135 nm by controlling the deposition time and KOH concentration. The incorporation of the CBD-ZnS films into ITO/ZnS/CdS/CdTe and glass/Mo/ZnS heterostructures as antireflective layer confirms their high optical quality. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer High quality ZnS thin films were prepared by chemical bath deposition (CBD). Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Better CBD-ZnS films were achieved by using 0.9 M-KOH concentration. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Reduction in the reflectance was obtained for ZnS films used as buffer layers.

  15. Characterization of ZnS thin films synthesized through a non-toxic precursors chemical bath

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodríguez, C.A. [Department of Materials Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University of Concepción, Edmundo Larenas 270, Concepción 4070409 (Chile); Sandoval-Paz, M.G. [Department of Physics, Faculty of Physics and Mathematics, University of Concepción, Concepción (Chile); Cabello, G. [Department of Basic Sciences, Faculty of Sciences, University of Bío-Bío, Campus Fernando May, Chillán (Chile); Flores, M.; Fernández, H. [Department of Physics, Faculty of Physics and Mathematics, University of Chile, Beauchef 850, Santiago (Chile); Carrasco, C., E-mail: ccarrascoc@udec.cl [Department of Materials Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University of Concepción, Edmundo Larenas 270, Concepción 4070409 (Chile)

    2014-12-15

    Highlights: • High quality ZnS thin films have been deposited by chemical bath deposition technique from a non-toxic precursor’s solution. • Nanocrystalline ZnS thin films with large band gap energy were synthesized without using ammonia. • Evidence that the growing of the thin films is carried out by means of hydroxide mechanism was found. • The properties of these ZnS thin films are similar and in some cases better than the corresponding ones produced using toxic precursors such as ammonia. - Abstract: In solar cells, ZnS window layer deposited by chemical bath technique can reach the highest conversion efficiency; however, precursors used in the process normally are materials highly volatile, toxic and harmful to the environment and health (typically ammonia and hydrazine). In this work the characterization of ZnS thin films deposited by chemical bath in a non-toxic alkaline solution is reported. The effect of deposition technique (growth in several times) on the properties of the ZnS thin film was studied. The films exhibited a high percentage of optical transmission (greater than 80%); as the deposition time increased a decreasing in the band gap values from 3.83 eV to 3.71 eV was observed. From chemical analysis, the presence of ZnS and Zn(OH){sub 2} was identified and X-ray diffraction patterns exhibited a clear peak corresponding to ZnS hexagonal phase (1 0 3) plane, which was confirmed by electron diffraction patterns. From morphological studies, compact samples with well-defined particles, low roughness, homogeneous and pinhole-free in the surface were observed. From obtained results, it is evident that deposits of ZnS–CBD using a non-toxic solution are suitable as window layer for TFSC.

  16. Insights into bacterial colonization of intensive care patients' skin: the effect of chlorhexidine daily bathing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassir, N; Papazian, L; Fournier, P-E; Raoult, D; La Scola, B

    2015-05-01

    Skin is a major reservoir of bacterial pathogens in intensive care unit (ICU) patients. The aim of this study was to assess the skin bacterial richness and diversity in ICU patients and the effect of CHG daily bathing on skin microbiota. Twenty ICU patients were included during an interventional period with CHG daily bathing (n = 10) and a control period (n = 10). At day seven of hospitalization, eight skin swab samples (nares, axillary vaults, inguinal creases, manubrium and back) were taken from each patient. The bacterial identification was performed by microbial culturomics. We used the Shannon index to compare the diversity. We obtained 5,000 colonies that yielded 61 bacterial species (9.15 ± 3.7 per patient), including 15 (24.5 %) that had never been cultured from non-pathological human skin before, and three (4.9 %) that had never been cultured from human samples before. Notably, Gram-negative bacteria were isolated from all sites. In the water-and-soap group, there was a higher risk of colonization with Gram-negative bacteria (OR = 6.05, 95 % CI [1.67-21.90]; P = 0.006). In the CHG group, we observed more patients colonized by sporulating bacteria (9/10 vs. 3/10; P = 0.019) with a reduced skin bacterial richness (P = 0.004) and lower diversity (0.37, 95 % CI [0.33; 0.42] vs. 0.50, 95 % CI [0.48; 0.52]). Gram-negative bacteria are frequent and disseminated components of the transient skin flora in ICU patients. CHG daily bathing is associated with a reduction in Gram-negative bacteria colonization together with substantial skin microbiota shifts. PMID:25604707

  17. Quantum Brownian motion in a bath of parametric oscillators: A model for system-field interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The quantum Brownian motion paradigm provides a unified framework where one can see the interconnection of some basic quantum statistical processes such as decoherence, dissipation, particle creation, noise, and fluctuation. The present paper continues the investigation begun in earlier papers on the quantum Brownian motion in a general environment via the influence functional formalism. Here, the Brownian particle is coupled linearly to a bath of the most general time-dependent quadratic oscillators. This bath of parametric oscillators minics a scalar field, while the motion of the Brownian particle modeled by a single oscillator could be used to depict the behavior of a particle detector, a quantum field mode, or the scale factor of the Universe. An important result of this paper is the derivation of the influence functional encompassing the noise and dissipation kernels in terms of the Bogolubov coefficients, thus setting the stage for the influence functional formalism treatment of problems in quantum field theory in curved spacetime. This method enables one to trace the source of statistical processes such as decoherence and dissipation to vacuum fluctuations and particle creation, and in turn impart a statistical mechanical interpretation of quantum field processes. With this result we discuss the statistical mechanical origin of quantum noise and thermal radiance from black holes and from uniformly accelerated observers in Minkowski space as well as from the de Sitter universe discovered by Hawking, Unruh, and Gibbons and Hawking. We also derive the exact evolution operator and master equation for the reduced density matrix of the system interacting with a parametric oscillator bath in an initial squeezed thermal state. These results are useful for decoherence and back reaction studies for systems and processes of interest in semiclassical cosmology and gravity. Our model and results are also expected to be useful for related problems in quantum optics

  18. Characterization of ZnS thin films synthesized through a non-toxic precursors chemical bath

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • High quality ZnS thin films have been deposited by chemical bath deposition technique from a non-toxic precursor’s solution. • Nanocrystalline ZnS thin films with large band gap energy were synthesized without using ammonia. • Evidence that the growing of the thin films is carried out by means of hydroxide mechanism was found. • The properties of these ZnS thin films are similar and in some cases better than the corresponding ones produced using toxic precursors such as ammonia. - Abstract: In solar cells, ZnS window layer deposited by chemical bath technique can reach the highest conversion efficiency; however, precursors used in the process normally are materials highly volatile, toxic and harmful to the environment and health (typically ammonia and hydrazine). In this work the characterization of ZnS thin films deposited by chemical bath in a non-toxic alkaline solution is reported. The effect of deposition technique (growth in several times) on the properties of the ZnS thin film was studied. The films exhibited a high percentage of optical transmission (greater than 80%); as the deposition time increased a decreasing in the band gap values from 3.83 eV to 3.71 eV was observed. From chemical analysis, the presence of ZnS and Zn(OH)2 was identified and X-ray diffraction patterns exhibited a clear peak corresponding to ZnS hexagonal phase (1 0 3) plane, which was confirmed by electron diffraction patterns. From morphological studies, compact samples with well-defined particles, low roughness, homogeneous and pinhole-free in the surface were observed. From obtained results, it is evident that deposits of ZnS–CBD using a non-toxic solution are suitable as window layer for TFSC

  19. T-1025 IU SciBath-768 detector tests in MI-12

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tayloe, Rex; Cooper, R.; Garrison, L.; Thornton, T.; Rebenitsch, L.; /Indiana U.; DeJongh, Fritz; Loer, Benjamin; Ramberg, Erik; Yoo, Jonghee; /Fermilab

    2012-02-11

    This is a memorandum of understanding between the Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (Fermilab) and the experimenters of Department of Physics and Center for Exploration of Energy and Matter, Indiana University, who have committed to participate in detector tests to be carried out during the 2012 Fermilab Neutrino program. The memorandum is intended solely for the purpose of recording expectations for budget estimates and work allocations for Fermilab, the funding agencies and the participating institutions. it reflects an arrangement that currently is satisfactory to the parties; however, it is recognized and anticipated that changing circumstances of the evolving research program will necessitate revisions. The parties agree to modify this memorandum to reflect such required adjustments. Actual contractual obligations will be set forth in separate documents. The experimenters propsoe to test their prototype 'SciBat-768' detector in the MI-12 building for 3 months (February-April) in Spring 2012. The major goal of this effort is to measure or limit the flux of beam-induced neutrons in a far-off-axis (> 45{sup o}) location of the Booster Neutrino Beamline (BNB). This flux is of interest for a proposed coherent neutral-current neutrino-argon elastic scattering experiment. A second goal is to collect more test data for the SciBath-768 to enable better understanding and calibration of the device. The SciBath-768 detector successfully ran for 3 months in the MINOS Underground Area in Fall 2011 as testbeam experiment T-1014 and is currently running above ground in the MINOS service building. For the run proposed here, the experiments are requesting: space in MI-12 in which to run the SciBath detector during February-April 2012 while the BNB is operating; technical support to help with moving the equipment on site; access to power, internet, and accelerator signals; and a small office space from which to run and monitor the experiment.

  20. Single-ion quantum Otto engine with always-on bath interaction

    OpenAIRE

    Chand, Suman; Biswas, Asoka

    2016-01-01

    We demonstrate how a quantum Otto engine (QOE) can be implemented using a single ion and an always-on thermal environment. The internal degree of freedom of the ion is chosen as the working fluid, while the motional degree of freedom can be used as the cold bath. We show, that by adiabatically changing the local magnetic field, the work efficiency can be asymptotically made unity. We propose a projective measurement of the internal state of the ion that mimics the release of heat into the col...

  1. Highly oriented CdS films deposited by an ammonia-free chemical bath method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this work we report an ammonia-free chemical bath method to deposit highly oriented CdS films on glass substrates. The method is based in the substitution of ammonia by sodium citrate as the complexing agent of cadmium ions in the reaction solution. We compared the physical properties of the CdS films obtained by this method to those of CdS films obtained by a traditional method which uses the thiourea-ammonia system. We found that [0 0 2] crystalline orientation is higher in the films obtained by the ammonia-free method than in the ones obtained by the traditional method

  2. Highly oriented CdS films deposited by an ammonia-free chemical bath method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ortuno Lopez, M.B.; Valenzuela-Jauregui, J.J.; Sotelo-Lerma, M.; Mendoza-Galvan, A.; Ramirez-Bon, R

    2003-04-01

    In this work we report an ammonia-free chemical bath method to deposit highly oriented CdS films on glass substrates. The method is based in the substitution of ammonia by sodium citrate as the complexing agent of cadmium ions in the reaction solution. We compared the physical properties of the CdS films obtained by this method to those of CdS films obtained by a traditional method which uses the thiourea-ammonia system. We found that [0 0 2] crystalline orientation is higher in the films obtained by the ammonia-free method than in the ones obtained by the traditional method.

  3. Granular rotor as a probe for a non-equilibrium bath

    OpenAIRE

    Sano, Tomohiko G.; Kanazawa, Kiyoshi; Hayakawa, Hisao

    2015-01-01

    The dynamics of a rotor under viscous or dry friction is investigated as a non-equilibrium probe of a granular gas numerically and analytically. To demonstrate a role of the rotor as a probe for a non-equilibrium bath, we perform the molecular dynamics (MD) simulation of the rotor under viscous or dry friction surrounded by a steady granular gas under gravity. We theoretically derive a one-to-one map between the velocity distribution function (VDF) for the granular gas and the angular one for...

  4. Coherent-incoherent transition in the spin-boson model with a super-ohmic bath

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xie You-Lan; Chen Zhi-De

    2009-01-01

    The temperature effect on tunnelling splitting in the spin-boson model with a super-ohmic bath is studied by the small polaron theory. The coherent-incoherent transition temperature is calculated and its dependence on dissipation strength and bare tunnelling splitting is analysed. In additional to the traditional transition point described in textbooks, a new kind of transition is found in the low dissipation region, showing different temperature dependence in the transition. The relation to the corresponding transition in the polaron-phonon system is also discussed.

  5. Characterization of CdTe Films Deposited at Various Bath Temperatures and Concentrations Using Electrophoretic Deposition

    OpenAIRE

    Zulkarnain Zainal; Mohd Norizam Md Daud; Azmi Zakaria; Mohd Sabri Mohd Ghazali; Atefeh Jafari; Wan Rafizah Wan Abdullah

    2012-01-01

    CdTe film was deposited using the electrophoretic deposition technique onto an ITO glass at various bath temperatures. Four batch film compositions were used by mixing 1 to 4 wt% concentration of CdTe powder with 10 mL of a solution of methanol and toluene. X-ray Diffraction analysis showed that the films exhibited polycrystalline nature of zinc-blende structure with the (111) orientation as the most prominent peak. From the Atomic Force Microscopy, the thickness and surface roughness of the ...

  6. CHARACTERIZATION AND HARDNESS OF Co–P COATINGS OBTAINED FROM DIRECT CURRENT ELECTRODEPOSITION USING GLUCONATE BATH

    OpenAIRE

    H. SEENIVASAN; PARTHASARATHI BERA; Rajam, K. S.; SANJIT KUMAR PARIDA

    2013-01-01

    Direct current electrodeposition of Co–P alloy coatings were carried out using gluconate bath and they were characterized by employing techniques like XRD, FESEM, DSC and XPS. Broad XRD lines demonstrate the amorphous nature of Co–P coatings. Spherical and rough nodules are observed on the surface of coatings as seen from FESEM images. Three exothermic peaks around 290, 342 and 390°C in DSC profiles of Co–P coatings could be attributed to the crystallization and formation of Co2P phase in the...

  7. Dynamics of two qubits in a spin-bath of Quantum anisotropic Heisenberg XY coupling type

    OpenAIRE

    Jing, Jun; Lü, Zhi-guo

    2006-01-01

    The dynamics of two 1/2-spin qubits under the influence of a quantum Heisenberg XY type spin-bath is studied. After the Holstein-Primakoff transformation, a novel numerical polynomial scheme is used to give the time-evolution calculation of the center qubits initially prepared in a product state or a Bell state. Then the concurrence of the two qubits, the $z$-component moment of either of the subsystem spins and the fidelity of the subsystem are shown, which exhibit sensitive dependence on th...

  8. Measurement of Neutron and Muon Fluxes 100~m Underground with the SciBath Detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garrison, Lance [Indiana Univ., Bloomington, IN (United States)

    2014-01-01

    The SciBath detector is an 80 liter liquid scintillator detector read out by a three dimensional grid of 768 wavelength-shifting fibers. Initially conceived as a fine-grained charged particle detector for neutrino studies that could image charged particle tracks in all directions, it is also sensitive to fast neutrons (15-200 MeV). In fall of 2011 the apparatus performed a three month run to measure cosmic-induced muons and neutrons 100~meters underground in the FNAL MINOS near-detector area. Data from this run has been analyzed and resulted in measurements of the cosmic muon flux as \

  9. Chemical Bath Deposition of PbS:Hg2+ Nanocrystalline Thin Films

    OpenAIRE

    R. Palomino-Merino; O. Portillo-Moreno; L. A. Chaltel-Lima; Gutiérrez Pérez, R.; de Icaza-Herrera, M.; V. M. Castaño

    2013-01-01

    Nanocrystalline PbS thin films were prepared by Chemical Bath Deposition (CBD) at 40 ± 2°C onto glass substrates and their structural and optical properties modified by in-situ doping with Hg. The morphological changes of the layers were analyzed using SEM and the X-rays spectra showing growth on the zinc blende (ZB) face. The grain size determined by using X-rays spectra for undoped samples was found to be ~36 nm, whereas with the doped sample was 32–20 nm. Optical absorption spectra were us...

  10. Quantum heat transport of a two-qubit system: Interplay between system-bath coherence and qubit-qubit coherence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We consider a system consisting of two interacting qubits that are individually coupled to separate heat baths at different temperatures. The quantum effects in heat transport are investigated in a numerically rigorous manner with a hierarchial equations of motion (HEOM) approach for non-perturbative and non-Markovian system-bath coupling cases under non-equilibrium steady-state conditions. For a weak interqubit interaction, the total system is regarded as two individually thermostatted systems, whereas for a strong interqubit interaction, the two-qubit system is regarded as a single system coupled to two baths. The roles of quantum coherence (or entanglement) between the two qubits (q-q coherence) and between the qubit and bath (q-b coherence) are studied through the heat current calculated for various strengths of the system-bath coupling and interqubit coupling for high and low temperatures. The same current is also studied using the time convolutionless (TCL) Redfield equation and using an expression derived from the Fermi golden rule (FGR). We find that the HEOM results exhibit turnover behavior of the heat current as a function of the system-bath coupling strength for all values of the interqubit coupling strength, while the results obtained with the TCL and FGR approaches do not exhibit such behavior, because they do not possess the capability of treating the q-b and q-q coherences. The maximum current is obtained in the case that the q-q coherence and q-b coherence are balanced in such a manner that coherence of the entire heat transport process is realized. We also find that the heat current does not follow Fourier’s law when the temperature difference is very large, due to the non-perturbative system-bath interactions

  11. Oil Bath for Precision Calibration of Thermometers in the Range 90 °C to 200 °C

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivarsson, Jan; Falk, Roland

    2003-09-01

    The calibration of thermometers requires a stable environment. In the range 90 °C to 200 °C normally comparison calibrations are performed in liquid baths with silicone oil as the fluid medium. This range is difficult to cover with sufficient temperature stability using commercially available baths. Therefore a calibration bath was constructed in our laboratory and presented at the 21st Nordic conference on Measurements and Calibration in 1999 [1]. The experience from this has led to this further improved version. The principle of the bath is based on a closed end aluminum tube, with an inner open concentric tube placed near the bottom and allowing free circulation of the oil around it. The circulation is achieved by a stirring propeller in the lower end, and the calibration zone is located inside the inner tube. The heating power is supplied by two different heaters, one main heater wrapped on the outside of the outer tube and one placed in the space between the cylinders. The main heater acts as a guard heater and is supplied with constant power to give the outer wall a stable temperature, just below the set point. The second smaller heater performs the regulation with the aid of a commercial controller. The bath is housed in a floor cabinet and has a working space of diameter 100 mm and a depth of 500 mm. Temperature stability and uniformity achieved in the bath is around ±1 mK in the whole range up to 200 °C, and this is without the use of any kind of equalising block. This is an improvement from the earlier version in the upper temperature range. For example temperature instability and nonuniformity has decreased from ±3 mK to ±1 mK at 200 °C. The performance is now comparable with the best water baths used at lower temperatures. Data and diagrams are presented in this paper.

  12. Theory of open quantum systems with bath of electrons and phonons and spins: Many-dissipaton density matrixes approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work establishes a strongly correlated system-and-bath dynamics theory, the many-dissipaton density operators formalism. It puts forward a quasi-particle picture for environmental influences. This picture unifies the physical descriptions and algebraic treatments on three distinct classes of quantum environments, electron bath, phonon bath, and two-level spin or exciton bath, as their participating in quantum dissipation processes. Dynamical variables for theoretical description are no longer just the reduced density matrix for system, but remarkably also those for quasi-particles of bath. The present theoretical formalism offers efficient and accurate means for the study of steady-state (nonequilibrium and equilibrium) and real-time dynamical properties of both systems and hybridizing environments. It further provides universal evaluations, exact in principle, on various correlation functions, including even those of environmental degrees of freedom in coupling with systems. Induced environmental dynamics could be reflected directly in experimentally measurable quantities, such as Fano resonances and quantum transport current shot noise statistics

  13. Research and Analysis on the Physical and Chemical Properties of Molten Bath with Bottom-Blowing in EAF Steelmaking Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Guangsheng; Zhu, Rong; Dong, Kai; Ma, Guohong; Cheng, Ting

    2016-06-01

    Bottom-blowing technology is widely adopted in electric arc furnace (EAF) steelmaking to promote the molten bath fluid flow, accelerate the metallurgical reaction, and improve the quality of molten steel. In this study, a water model experiment and a computational fluid dynamics model were established to investigate the effects of bottom-blowing gas flow rate on the fluid flow characteristics in the EAF molten bath. The results show that the interaction among the bottom-blowing gas streams influences the molten bath flow field, and increasing the bottom-blowing gas flow rate can accelerate the fluid flow and decrease the volume of the dead zone. Based on industrial application research, the physical and chemical properties of the molten bath with bottom-blowing were analyzed. Compared with traditional melting conditions without bottom-blowing, bottom-blowing technology demonstrates obvious advantages in promoting the heat transfer and metallurgical reactions in the molten bath. With the bottom-blowing arrangement, the dephosphorization and decarburization rates are accelerated, the contents of FeO and T. Fe in endpoint slag are decreased, and the endpoint carbon-oxygen equilibrium of molten steel is improved.

  14. The Optimization of the Oiling Bath Cosmetic Composition Containing Rapeseed Phospholipids and Grapeseed Oil by the Full Factorial Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michał Górecki

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The proper condition of hydrolipid mantle and the stratum corneum intercellular matrix determines effective protection against transepidermal water loss (TEWL. Some chemicals, improper use of cosmetics, poor hygiene, old age and some diseases causes disorder in the mentioned structures and leads to TEWL increase. The aim of this study was to obtain the optimal formulation composition of an oiling bath cosmetic based on rapeseed phospholipids and vegetable oil with high content of polyunsaturated fatty acids. In this work, the composition of oiling bath form was calculated and the degree of oil dispersion after mixing the bath preparation with water was selected as the objective function in the optimizing procedure. The full factorial design 23 in the study was used. The concentrations of rapeseed lecithin ethanol soluble fraction (LESF, alcohol (E and non-ionic emulsifier (P were optimized. Based on the calculations from our results, the optimal composition of oiling bath cosmetic was: L (LESF 5.0 g, E (anhydrous ethanol 20.0 g and P (Polysorbate 85 1.5 g. The optimization procedure used in the study allowed to obtain the oiling bath cosmetic which gives above 60% higher emulsion dispersion degree 5.001 × 10−5 cm−1 compared to the initial formulation composition with the 3.096 × 10−5 cm−1.

  15. On the association between loneliness and bathing habits: nine replications of Bargh and Shalev (2012) Study 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donnellan, M Brent; Lucas, Richard E; Cesario, Joseph

    2015-02-01

    Bargh and Shalev (2012) hypothesized that people use warm showers and baths to compensate for a lack of social warmth. As support for this idea, they reported results from two studies that found an association between trait loneliness and bathing habits. Given the potential practical and theoretical importance of this association, we conducted nine additional studies on this topic. Using our own bathing or showering measures and the most current version of the UCLA Loneliness Scale (Russell, 1996), we found no evidence for an association between trait loneliness and a composite index of showering or bathing habits in a combined sample of 1,153 participants from four studies. Likewise, the aggregated effect size estimate was not statistically significant using the same measures as the original studies in a combined sample of 1,920 participants from five studies. A local meta-analysis including the original studies yielded an effect size estimate for the composite that included zero in the 95% confidence interval. The current results therefore cast doubt on the idea of a strong connection between trait loneliness and personal bathing habits related to warmth. PMID:24821396

  16. Low-temperature chemical bath deposition of crystalline ZnO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Klaus; Balitsky, Denis; Armand, Pascale; Papet, Philippe

    2010-03-01

    ZnO crystals can be grown from alkaline aqueous solution not only by the standard hydrothermal technique at temperatures between 350 °C and 400 °C, but also by chemical bath deposition (CBD) at temperatures below 100 °C. In the presence of ZnO and ScAlMgO 4 (SCAM) substrates almost all ZnO deposits on the substrate, with different habits, however. Under optimized conditions even homoepitaxial layers can be obtained, while rod-like structures are obtained on SCAM substrates. The chemistry and the driving forces behind the two processes are considered in detail and the temperature dependence of the solution composition has been calculated. The driving force for the ZnO crystal growth in the standard hydrothermal technique is the difference in the ZnO solubility in alkaline solutions at different temperatures. In contrast, the driving force for the chemical bath deposition of ZnO at low temperatures is the decay of zinc ion complex molecules with increasing temperature.

  17. Wash Solution Bath Life Extension for the Space Shuttle Rocket Motor Aqueous Cleaning System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saunders, Chad; Evans, Kurt; Sagers, Neil

    1999-01-01

    A spray-in-air aqueous cleaning system, which replaced 1,1,1 trichloroethane (TCA) vapor degreasing, is used for critical cleaning of Space Shuttle Redesigned Solid Rocket Motor (RSRM) metal parts. Small-scale testing demonstrated that the alkaline-based wash solution possesses adequate soil loading and cleaning properties. However, full-scale testing exhibited unexpected depletion of some primary components of the wash solution. Specifically, there was a significant decrease in the concentration of sodium metasilicate which forced change-out of the wash solution after eight days. Extension of wash solution bath life was necessary to ease the burden of frequent change-out on manufacturing. A laboratory study supports a depletion mechanism that is initiated by the hydrolysis of sodium tripolyphosphate (STPP) lowering the pH of the solution. The decrease in pH causes polymerization and subsequent precipitation of sodium metasilicate (SM). Further investigation showed that maintaining the pH was the key to preventing the precipitation of the sodium metasilicate. Implementation to the full scale operation demonstrated that periodic additions of potassium hydroxide (KOH) extended the useful bath life to more than four months.

  18. Effect of Temperature on Microstructure, Corrosion Resistance, and Toughness of Salt Bath Nitrided Tool Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Hangtao; Zhang, Jin; Huang, Jinfeng; Lian, Yong; Zhang, Cheng

    2016-01-01

    In this study, a type of hot work tool steel was modified through salt bath nitriding for 4 h at 540 and 560 °C, and post-oxidation was subsequently performed. Surface and cross-sectional hardness test results revealed that the surface hardness increased after the treatment because of the formation of compound layers and diffusion zones. Microstructures and phase analyses showed that more homogeneous compound layers and Fe3O4-phase could be generated after treatment at 560 than at 540 °C. As a result, the corrosion potential was elevated, and the corrosion current density was clearly reduced. The thickness and porosity of the compound layer were also increased with the elevated nitriding temperature. Because of the nitrogen atom solution, XRD diffraction peaks broadened, and the position of the peaks shifted to a lower angle in different degrees at different depths, thus showing the same tendency as the hardness curves. Salt bath nitriding significantly deteriorated the impact toughness from 32.3 to 5.2 J.

  19. Fabrication of ZnO nanorod using spray-pyrolysis and chemical bath deposition method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramadhani, Muhammad F., E-mail: brian@tf.itb.ac.id; Pasaribu, Maruli A. H., E-mail: brian@tf.itb.ac.id; Yuliarto, Brian, E-mail: brian@tf.itb.ac.id; Nugraha, E-mail: brian@tf.itb.ac.id [Advanced Functional Materials Laboratory, Engineering Physics Department Faculty of Industrial Technology, Institut Teknologi Bandung (Indonesia)

    2014-02-24

    ZnO thin films with nanorod structure were deposited using Ultrasonic Spray Pyrolysis method for seed growth, and Chemical Bath Deposition (CBD) for nanorod growth. High purity Zn-hydrate and Urea are used to control Ph were dissolved in ethanol and aqua bidest in Ultrasonic Spray Pyrolysis process. Glass substrate was placed above the heater plate of reaction chamber, and subsequently sprayed with the range duration of 5, 10 and 20 minutes at the temperatures of 3500 C. As for the Chemical Bath Deposition, the glass substrate with ZnO seed on the surface was immerse to Zn-hydrate, HMTA (Hexa Methylene Tetra Amine) and deionized water solution for duration of 3, 5 and 7 hour and temperatures of 600 C, washed in distilled water, dried, and annealed at 3500 C for an hour. The characterization of samples was carried out to reveal the surface morphology using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). From the data, the combination of 5 minutes of Ultrasonic Spray Pyrolysis process and 3 hour of CBD has showed the best structure of nanorod. Meanwhile the longer Spraying process and CBD yield the bigger nanorod structure that have been made, and it makes the films more dense which make the nanorod collide each other and as a result produce unsymetric nanorod structure.

  20. Synchronization enhancement via an oscillatory bath in a network of self-excited cells

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    B R Nana Nbendjo; H G Enjieu Kadji; Hilda A Cerdeira

    2015-02-01

    The possibility of using a dynamic environment to achieve and optimize phase synchronization in a network of self-excited cells with free-end boundary conditions is addressed in this paper. The dynamic environment is an oscillatory bath coupled linearly to a network of four cells. The boundaries of the stable solutions of the dynamical states as well as the ranges of coupling parameters leading to stability and instability of synchronization are determined. Numerical simulations are used to check the accuracy and to complement the result obtained from analytical treatment. The robustness of synchronization strategy is tested using a local and global injection of Gaussian white noise in the network. The control gain parameter of the bath coupling can modulate the occurrence of synchronization in the network without prior requirement of direct coupling among all the cells. The process of synchronization obtained through local injection is independent of the node at which noise is injected into the system. As compared to local injection, the global injection scheme increases the range of noise amplitude for which synchronization occurs in the network.

  1. Chemical bath deposition of CdS thin films doped with Zn and Cu

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A I Oliva; J E Corona; R Patiño; A I Oliva-Avilés

    2014-04-01

    Zn- and Cu-doped CdS thin films were deposited onto glass substrates by the chemical bath technique. ZnCl2 and CuCl2 were incorporated as dopant agents into the conventional CdS chemical bath in order to promote the CdS doping process. The effect of the deposition time and the doping concentration on the physical properties of CdS films were investigated. The morphology, thickness, bandgap energy, crystalline structure and elemental composition of Zn- and Cu-doped CdS films were investigated and compared to the undoped CdS films properties. Both Zn- and Cu-doped CdS films presented a cubic crystalline structure with (1 1 1) as the preferential orientation. Lower values of the bandgap energy were observed for the doped CdS films as compared to those of the undoped CdS films. Zn-doped CdS films presented higher thickness and roughness values than those of Cu-doped CdS films. From the photoluminescence results, it is suggested that the inclusion of Zn and Cu into CdS crystalline structure promotes the formation of acceptor levels above the CdS valence band, resulting in lower bandgap energy values for the doped CdS films.

  2. Chemical Bath Deposition of Aluminum Oxide Buffer on Curved Surfaces for Growing Aligned Carbon Nanotube Arrays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Haitao; Na, Chongzheng

    2015-07-01

    Direct growth of vertically aligned carbon nanotube (CNT) arrays on substrates requires the deposition of an aluminum oxide buffer (AOB) layer to prevent the diffusion and coalescence of catalyst nanoparticles. Although AOB layers can be readily created on flat substrates using a variety of physical and chemical methods, the preparation of AOB layers on substrates with highly curved surfaces remains challenging. Here, we report a new solution-based method for preparing uniform layers of AOB on highly curved surfaces by the chemical bath deposition of basic aluminum sulfate and annealing. We show that the thickness of AOB layer can be increased by extending the immersion time of a substrate in the chemical bath, following the classical Johnson-Mehl-Avrami-Kolmogorov crystallization kinetics. The increase of AOB thickness in turn leads to the increase of CNT length and the reduction of CNT curviness. Using this method, we have successfully synthesized dense aligned CNT arrays of micrometers in length on substrates with highly curved surfaces including glass fibers, stainless steel mesh, and porous ceramic foam. PMID:26053766

  3. Combinatorial Chemical Bath Deposition of CdS Contacts for Chalcogenide Photovoltaics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mokurala, Krishnaiah; Baranowski, Lauryn L; de Souza Lucas, Francisco W; Siol, Sebastian; van Hest, Maikel F A M; Mallick, Sudhanshu; Bhargava, Parag; Zakutayev, Andriy

    2016-09-12

    Contact layers play an important role in thin film solar cells, but new material development and optimization of its thickness is usually a long and tedious process. A high-throughput experimental approach has been used to accelerate the rate of research in photovoltaic (PV) light absorbers and transparent conductive electrodes, however the combinatorial research on contact layers is less common. Here, we report on the chemical bath deposition (CBD) of CdS thin films by combinatorial dip coating technique and apply these contact layers to Cu(In,Ga)Se2 (CIGSe) and Cu2ZnSnSe4 (CZTSe) light absorbers in PV devices. Combinatorial thickness steps of CdS thin films were achieved by removal of the substrate from the chemical bath, at regular intervals of time, and in equal distance increments. The trends in the photoconversion efficiency and in the spectral response of the PV devices as a function of thickness of CdS contacts were explained with the help of optical and morphological characterization of the CdS thin films. The maximum PV efficiency achieved for the combinatorial dip-coating CBD was similar to that for the PV devices processed using conventional CBD. The results of this study lead to the conclusion that combinatorial dip-coating can be used to accelerate the optimization of PV device performance of CdS and other candidate contact layers for a wide range of emerging absorbers. PMID:27479495

  4. Chemical bath deposition of Cu3BiS3 thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deshmukh S., G.; Panchal A., K.; Vipul, Kheraj

    2016-05-01

    First time, copper bismuth sulfide (Cu3BiS3) thin films were synthesized on the glass substrate using simple, low-cost chemical bath deposition (CBD) technique. The synthesized parameters such as temperature of bath, pH and concentration of precursors were optimized for the deposition of uniform, well adherent Cu3BiS3 thin films. The optical, surface morphology and structural properties of the Cu3BiS3 thin films were studied using UV-VIS-NIR spectra, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The as- synthesized Cu3BiS3 film exhibits a direct band gap 1.56 to 1.58 eV having absorption coefficient of the order of 105 cm-1. The XRD declares the amorphous nature of the films. SEM images shows films were composed of close-packed fine spherical nanoparticles of 70-80 nm in diameter. The chemical composition of the film was almost stoichiometric. The optical study indicates that the Cu3BiS3 films can be applied as an absorber layer for thin film solar cells.

  5. Haematological toxicity in adult patients receiving craniospinal irradiation – Indication of a dose-bath effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background and purpose: The purpose of this study was to investigate the correlation between the haematological toxicity observed in patients treated with craniospinal irradiation, and the dose distribution in normal tissue, specifically the occurrence of large volumes exposed to low dose. Materials and methods: Twenty adult male patients were included in this study; eight treated with helical tomotherapy (HT), and twelve with three-dimensional conformal radiation therapy. The relative volume of red bone marrow and body that was exposed to low dose (i.e. the so-called dose bath) was evaluated and correlated with nadir blood values during treatment, i.e. the severity of anaemia, leukopaenia, and thrombocytopaenia. The correlation was tested for different dose levels representing the dose bath using the Pearson product-moment correlation method. Results: We found a significant correlation between the volume of red bone marrow exposed to low dose and the severity of thrombocytopaenia during treatment. Furthermore, for the HT patients, a significant correlation was found between the relative volume of the body exposed to low dose and the severity of anaemia and leukopenia. Conclusions: The severity of haematological toxicity correlated with the fraction of red bone marrow or body that was exposed to low dose

  6. Landau-Zener population control and dipole measurement of a two-level-system bath

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalil, M. S.; Gladchenko, S.; Stoutimore, M. J. A.; Wellstood, F. C.; Burin, A. L.; Osborn, K. D.

    2014-09-01

    Tunneling two-level systems (TLSs), present in dielectrics at low temperatures, have been recently studied for fundamental understanding and superconducting device development. According to a recent theory by Burin et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 157002 (2013), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.110.157002], the TLS bath of any amorphous dielectric experiences a distribution of Landau-Zener transitions if exposed to simultaneous fields. In this experiment we measure amorphous insulating films at millikelvin temperatures with a microwave field and a swept electric field bias using a superconducting resonator. We find that the maximum dielectric loss per microwave photon with the simultaneous fields is approximately the same as that in the equilibrium state, in agreement with the generic material theory. In addition, we find that the loss depends on the fields in a way which allows for the separate extraction of the TLS bath dipole moment and density of states. This method allows for the study of the TLS dipole moment in a diverse set of disordered films, and provides a technique for continuously inverting their population.

  7. Determination of Cavity Dimensions Induced by Impingement of Gas Jets onto a Liquid Bath

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Mingming; Li, Qiang; Kuang, Shibo; Zou, Zongshu

    2016-02-01

    This paper presents an experimental and theoretical study on the cavity profile induced by the impingement of top-blown multiple gas jets onto a water or oil/water bath. The depth and diameter of the cavity were measured with respect to the lance height, gas flow rate, jets inclination angle, and oil volume. The experimental results show that the cavity depth increases with the increase of gas flow rate or oil thickness but the decrease of lance height or jets inclination angle. The cavity diameter is much less affected by gas flow rate compared to other variables. Then, the importance of the surface tension in the modeling of the cavity was theoretically identified. It was found that in the cratering process, the effect of the liquid surface tension on the cavity depth could be remarkably significant for a basic oxygen furnace (BOF) cold model but negligible for a real BOF steelmaking system. An improved theoretical model was hence proposed and validated using the experimental data obtained from both the single- or two-layer liquid baths. The new model includes not only the explicit consideration of the liquid surface tension but also that of the energy utilization efficiency of the jets impinging kinetic energy contributed to the cratering process.

  8. Safety of milbemycin as an oral or bath treatment for the tropical freshwater angelfish Pterophyllum scalare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Killino, T J; Bodri, M S

    1997-03-01

    Technical grade milbemycin (A3-A4 oxime) was formulated in propylene glycol to produce a stock concentration of 5.0 mg/ml. Groups of six pond-reared freshwater angelfish (Pterophyllum scalare) randomly housed in 32-L aquaria were exposed to milbemycin by prolonged bath at 63, 125, and 188 PPB or by its incorporation into their gelatinized food at 2.5 mg or 5.0 mg/100 g food, which they were fed ad lib. for 1 day. Control fish were exposed to a prolonged bath (24 hr without charcoal filtration) of 0.8 ml propylene glycol/32 L water, were given gelatinized food incorporating 1 ml propylene glycol/100 g food ad lib. for 1 day, or were untreated (no propylene glycol exposure). All fish treated at 188 PPB and the smallest individuals from the 63- and 125-PPB aquaria died. Other fish at 125 PPB exhibited transient lethargy and increased opercular movement but recovered within 24 hr. No deleterious effects were noted in the fish given milbemycin orally. Pretreatment parasitic nematode infection rate, evaluated by gut dissection of 16 randomly selected fish, was 68.75%. Identification of nematodes to species was not performed. No significant differences in infection rates between treated and untreated groups were detected. PMID:9226622

  9. Removal of heavy metals from Water Rinsing of Plating Baths by Electrodialysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delimi R.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available During the chromic plating of parts, the baths become more and more poor in chromic acid and rich in metallic impurities such as Cu2+, Zn2+, Fe3+ and Cr3+ which makes the bath useless. Also, the water used to rinse parts contains chromic acid and metallic impurities. As it is known that chromic acid is relatively expensive and very toxic, so its recovery has double interest: economic and environmental. Its reuse is possible after removal of metallic impurities. In this work, we studied the possibility of metallic impurities elimination from the chromic acid. The influence of the current density and the circulating solution flow rate on the process efficiency has been studied. The elimination rates obtained in the presence of ion exchange textile are superior to those obtained in the absence of textile. The analysis of the results showed that for the three metallic impurities studied (Cu2+, Fe3+ and Zn2+, the purification rate increases versus the applied current density and solution flow rate. The importance of the elimination of the three metal cations is as the following order: Cu2+ >Zn2+ >Fe3+.

  10. Cu2ZnSn(S,Se)4 solar cells based on chemical bath deposited precursors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A low-cost method has been developed to fabricate Cu2ZnSn(S,Se)4 solar cells. By this method, firstly SnS, CuS, and ZnS layers are successively deposited on a molybdenum/soda lime glass (Mo/SLG) substrate by chemical bath deposition. The Cu2ZnSn(S,Se)4 thin films are obtained by annealing the precursor in a selenium atmosphere utilizing a graphite box in the furnace. The obtained Cu2ZnSn(S,Se)4 thin films show large crystalline grains. By optimizing the preparation process, Cu2ZnSn(S,Se)4 solar cells with efficiencies up to 4.5% are obtained. The results imply that the Cu2ZnSn(S,Se)4/CdS interface and the back contact may be limiting factors for solar cell efficiency. - Highlights: • A chemical bath deposition method is developed to prepare Cu2ZnSn(S,Se)4 thin films. • The Cu2ZnSn(S,Se)4 thin films show good crystallization. • Solar cells with efficiencies up to 4.5% can be prepared based on the Cu2ZnSn(S,Se)4 layer. • The limiting factors for the solar cell efficiency are analyzed

  11. Femtosecond Transient Absorption Studies in Cadmium Selenide Nanocrystal Thin Films Prepared by Chemical Bath Deposition Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. C. Rath

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Dynamics of photo-excited carrier relaxation processes in cadmium selenide nanocrystal thin films prepared by chemical bath deposition method have been studied by nondegenerate femtosecond transient pump-probe spectroscopy. The carriers were generated by exciting at 400 nm laser light and monitored by several other wavelengths. The induced absorption followed by a fast bleach recovery observed near and above the bandgap indicates that the photo-excited carriers (electrons are first trapped by the available traps and then the trapped electrons absorb the probe light to show a delayed absorption process. The transient decay kinetics was found to be multiexponential in nature. The short time constant, <1 picosecond, was attributed to the trapping of electrons by the surface and/or deep traps and the long time constant, ≥20 picoseconds, was due to the recombination of the trapped carriers. A very little difference in the relaxation processes was observed in the samples prepared at bath temperatures from 25∘C to 60∘C.

  12. Thermoporometry study of coagulation bath temperature effect on polyacrylonitrile fibers morphology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Research highlights: → Meso-porosity of wet-spun polyacrylonitrile fibers was characterized by thermoporometry. → The shape of fibers cross-section altered from bean to circular with coagulation temperature. → The average pore size and pore volume of the fibers increased with coagulation temperature. - Abstract: The effect of coagulation bath temperature on the morphology of wet-spun polyacrylonitrile fibers was investigated by scanning electron microscopy and thermoporometry, a calorimetric technique based on lowering liquid triple point temperature inside the pores. Fibers were fabricated at two coagulation bath temperatures of 5 oC and 60 oC. The shape of nascent fibers cross-section transforms from bean to circular and pore size increases with coagulation temperature. Porosity parameters including average pore size and pore size distribution, pore volume and internal surface area were determined by thermoporometry. The average pore size and pore volume of the fibers increase with coagulation temperature. Low heating rate of 0.1 oC/min during thermoporometry measurements is the key parameter to ensure that test conditions are close to equilibrium. This study shows that thermoporometry can be employed to characterize closed meso-porosity of wet-spun fibers inaccessible by other standard porosimetry methods.

  13. Plasma power source based on a catalytic reaction of atomic hydrogen measured by water bath calorimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Extreme ultraviolet (EUV) spectroscopy was recorded on microwave discharges of helium with 2% hydrogen. Novel emission lines were observed with energies of q x 13.6 eV, where q=1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 7, 8, 9, 11 or these discrete energies less 21.2 eV corresponding to inelastic scattering of these photons by helium atoms due to excitation of He (1s2) to He (1s12p1). The average hydrogen atom temperature was measured to be 180-210 eV versus ∼3 eV for pure hydrogen. The electron temperature Te for helium-hydrogen was 30,500±5% K compared to 7400±5% K for pure helium. Dominant He+ emission and an intensification of the plasma emission observed when He+ was present with atomic hydrogen demonstrated the role of He+ as a catalyst. Using water bath calorimetry, excess power was observed from the helium-hydrogen plasma compared to control krypton plasma. For example, for an input of 8.1 W, the total plasma power of the helium-hydrogen plasma measured by water bath calorimetry was 30.0 W corresponding to 21.9 W of excess power in 3 cm3. The excess power density and energy balance were high, 7.3 W/cm3 and -2.9x104 kJ/mole H2, respectively

  14. System-environment correlations for dephasing two-qubit states coupled to thermal baths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, A. C. S.; Beims, M. W.; Strunz, W. T.

    2016-05-01

    Based on the exact dynamics of a two-qubit system and environment, we investigate system-environment (SE) quantum and classical correlations. The coupling is chosen to represent a dephasing channel for one of the qubits and the environment is a proper thermal bath. First we discuss the general issue of dilation for qubit phase damping. Based on the usual thermal bath of harmonic oscillators, we derive criteria of separability and entanglement between an initial X state and the environment. Applying these criteria to initial Werner states, we find that entanglement between the system and environment is built up in time for temperatures below a certain critical temperature Tcrit. On the other hand, the total state remains separable during those short times that are relevant for decoherence and loss of entanglement in the two-qubit state. Close to Tcrit the SE correlations oscillate between separable and entangled. Even though these oscillations are also observed in the entanglement between the two qubits, no simple relation between the loss of entanglement in the two-qubit system and the build-up of entanglement between the system and environment is found.

  15. The Effect of Adding Corrosion Inhibitors into an Electroless Nickel Plating Bath for Magnesium Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Rong; Su, Yongyao; Liu, Hongdong; Cheng, Jiang; Yang, Xin; Shao, Zhongcai

    2016-08-01

    In this work, corrosion inhibitors were added into an electroless nickel plating bath to realize nickel-phosphorus (Ni-P) coating deposition on magnesium alloy directly. The performance of five corrosion inhibitors was evaluated by inhibition efficiency. The results showed that only ammonium hydrogen fluoride (NH4HF2) and ammonium molybdate ((NH4)2MoO4) could be used as corrosion inhibitors for magnesium alloy in the bath. Moreover, compounding NH4HF2 and (NH4)2MoO4, the optimal concentrations were both at 1.5 ~ 2%. The deposition process of Ni-P coating was observed by using a scanning electron microscope (SEM). It showed corrosion inhibitors inhibited undesired dissolution of magnesium substrate during the electroless plating process. In addition, SEM observation indicated that the corrosion inhibition reaction and the Ni2+ replacement reaction were competitive at the initial deposition time. Both electrochemical analysis and thermal shock test revealed that the Ni-P coating exhibited excellent corrosion resistance and adhesion properties in protecting the magnesium alloy.

  16. Weakly coupled heat bath models for Gibbs-like invariant states in nonlinear wave equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thermal bath coupling mechanisms as utilized in molecular dynamics are applied to partial differential equation models. Working from a semi-discrete (Fourier mode) formulation for the Burgers–Hopf or Korteweg–de Vries equation, we introduce auxiliary variables and stochastic perturbations in order to drive the system to sample a target ensemble which may be a Gibbs state or, more generally, any smooth distribution defined on a constraint manifold. We examine the ergodicity of approaches based on coupling of the heat bath to the high wave numbers, with the goal of controlling the ensemble through the fast modes. We also examine different thermostat methods in the extent to which dynamical properties are corrupted in order to accurately compute the average of a desired observable with respect to the invariant distribution. The principal observation of this paper is that convergence to the invariant distribution can be achieved by thermostatting just the highest wave number, while the evolution of the slowest modes is little affected by such a thermostat. (paper)

  17. A novel polymeric leveller for the electrodeposition of copper from acidic sulphate bath: A spectroelectrochemical investigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The electrodeposition of copper has recently become a 'hot topic' due to its extensive application to the fabrication of interconnects in the integrated circuits (IC) manufacturing process. However, the proper composition of the electrochemical deposition (ECD) bath, and in particular the selection of the levelling agent, represents one of the crucial factors for an effective transition of Cu ECD towards the most advanced technology nodes. In this paper we report on the electrodeposition of Cu from acidic sulphate baths containing a potential innovative polymeric leveller: a benzyl-phenyl modified polyethyleneimine (BPPEI). This investigation was carried out by: (i) cyclic voltammetry (CV) at a rotating-disk electrode, (ii) in situ surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) during electrodeposition and (iii) scanning electron microscopy (SEM). CV results show that BPPEI acts as an inhibitor of the electrodeposition process, since it reduces the exchange current density and increases the cathodic Tafel slope. Mass transport limitations to the Cu(II) reduction process are essentially unaffected by the presence of BPPEI. SERS spectra show that BPPEI is adsorbed at the growing Cu cathode at all potentials of interest for electroplating. SEM micrographs prove that BPPEI acts as an efficient grain-refiner and suppressor of unstable 3D growth. Cathodic reactivity of BPPEI was proved by the analysis of CV features and potential-dependent SERS spectral changes

  18. Morphological and stoichiometric study of chemical bath deposited CdS films by varying ammonia concentration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The influence of ammonia concentration on stoichiometric, surface morphological, and optical properties of chemical bath deposited cadmium sulphide thin films has been studied systemically. Chemical bath deposition (CBD) of CdS thin films was carried out via using cadmium acetate as the cadmium ion source, thiourea as the sulphur source and ammonia as the complexing agent. Ammonia concentration was changed from 0 to 2.5 M. At ammonia concentration greater than or equal to 0.1 M and lower than 0.6 M, nanowires or flake-like structures were obtained. At ammonia concentration ranging from 0.8 to 2.0 M, uniform, dense, and continuously coated films were obtained. The energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDXS) analysis revealed that as the ammonia concentration changed from 0.1 to 2.0 M, the Cd/S ratio in the obtained film increased from 0.24 to 2.61. Not only typical cadmium-poor but also unusual sulphur deficiency phenomena were observed for CBD CdS thin films. The films deposited with ammonia concentration of 1.0 M show the highest degree of crystallinity and closest stoichiometry Cd/S≅1, and have a preferred orientation. The direct band energy gaps of as-grown films were found to be 2.23-2.77 eV. The formation mechanism of the films with various morphologies and cadmium and sulphur deficiencies are discussed.

  19. Fabrication of ZnO nanorod using spray-pyrolysis and chemical bath deposition method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ZnO thin films with nanorod structure were deposited using Ultrasonic Spray Pyrolysis method for seed growth, and Chemical Bath Deposition (CBD) for nanorod growth. High purity Zn-hydrate and Urea are used to control Ph were dissolved in ethanol and aqua bidest in Ultrasonic Spray Pyrolysis process. Glass substrate was placed above the heater plate of reaction chamber, and subsequently sprayed with the range duration of 5, 10 and 20 minutes at the temperatures of 3500 C. As for the Chemical Bath Deposition, the glass substrate with ZnO seed on the surface was immerse to Zn-hydrate, HMTA (Hexa Methylene Tetra Amine) and deionized water solution for duration of 3, 5 and 7 hour and temperatures of 600 C, washed in distilled water, dried, and annealed at 3500 C for an hour. The characterization of samples was carried out to reveal the surface morphology using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). From the data, the combination of 5 minutes of Ultrasonic Spray Pyrolysis process and 3 hour of CBD has showed the best structure of nanorod. Meanwhile the longer Spraying process and CBD yield the bigger nanorod structure that have been made, and it makes the films more dense which make the nanorod collide each other and as a result produce unsymetric nanorod structure

  20. Spontaneous excitation of a static atom in a thermal bath in cosmic string spacetime

    CERN Document Server

    Cai, Huabing; Zhou, Wenting

    2015-01-01

    We study the average rate of change of energy for a static atom immersed in a thermal bath of electromagnetic radiation in the cosmic string spacetime and separately calculate the contributions of thermal fluctuations and radiation reaction. We find that the transition rates are crucially dependent on the atom-string distance and polarization of the atom and they in general oscillate as the atom-string distance varies. Moreover, the atomic transition rates in the cosmic string spacetime can be larger or smaller than those in Minkowski spacetime contingent upon the atomic polarization and position. In particular, when located on the string, ground-state atoms can make a transition to excited states only if they are polarizable parallel to the string, whereas ground state atoms polarizable only perpendicular to the string are stable as if they were in a vacuum, even if they are immersed in a thermal bath. Our results suggest that the influence of a cosmic string is very similar to that of a reflecting boundary ...

  1. Friction and noise in quantum mechanics. A model for the interactions between a system and a thermal bath

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The time evolution equation of the reduced density matrix of a quantum system composed of one or many particles subjected to a conservative force field and interacting with a thermal bath ha been derived. This result is achieved by analogy with classical models based upon the Langevin and Fokker-Planck equations. According to the Langevin approach. the interaction is modelled by means of a random force field and a viscous friction term. This classical approach introducing suitable operators that describe the quantum evolution of a system weakly coupled to a thermal bath is generalised. In particular, it is defined a kind of friction operator that can be thought as the quantal counterpart of the classical Langevin term corresponding to the viscous force. The proposed approach has the invaluable advantage of yielding a handy differential equation to model the quantum interaction between a system and a thermal bath

  2. An effective Hamiltonian approach for Donor-Bridge-Acceptor electronic transitions: Exploring the role of bath memory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.R. Bittner

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available We present here a formally exact model for electronic transitions between an initial (donor and final (acceptor states linked by an intermediate (bridge state. Our model incorporates a common set of vibrational modes that are coupled to the donor, bridge, and acceptor states and serves as a dissipative bath that destroys quantum coherence between the donor and acceptor. Taking the memory time of the bath as a free parameter, we calculate transition rates for a heuristic 3-state/2 mode Hamiltonian system parameterized to represent the energetics and couplings in a typical organic photovoltaic system. Our results indicate that if the memory time of the bath is of the order of 10-100 fs, a two-state kinetic (i.e., incoherent hopping model will grossly underestimate overall transition rate.

  3. Influence of additives on electrodeposition of bright Zn–Ni alloy on mild steel from acid sulphate bath

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S Shivakumara; U Manohar; Y Arthoba Naik; T V Venkatesha

    2007-10-01

    The influence of a condensation product (CP) of veratraldehyde (VRTD) and -amino benzoic acid (PABA) on Zn–Ni alloy electrodeposited onto mild steel was studied in acidic sulphate solutions. Ethylenediaminetetraaceticacid (EDTA) and cetyltrimethylammoniumbromide (CTAB) were used as complexing and wetting agents, respectively. The effect of bath constituents, pH, current density and temperature on nature of deposit were studied through Hull cell experiments. The bath constituents and operating parameters were optimized. Deposit properties and corrosion resistance were discussed. Throwing power, current efficiency and polarization studies were carried out. SEM photomicrographs of the deposit obtained from optimum bath revealed fine-grained deposit of the alloy in the presence of condensation product and hence modified the morphology of zinc–nickel alloy deposit. IR spectrum of the scrapped deposit showed inclusion of addition agent.

  4. Hybrid system-environment dynamics with a non-Gaussian bath coupling: Exact dissipaton theory versus extended Zusman equation

    CERN Document Server

    Xu, Rui-Xue; Zhang, Hou-Dao; Yan, YiJing

    2016-01-01

    The quest of an exact and nonperturbative treatment of quantum dissipation in non-Gaussian coupling environments remains in general an untractable task. In this work we address the key issues on the solutions to a class of non-Gaussian coupling environments. As an illustration we consider explicitly a harmonic bath coupled quadratically with an arbitrary system, at finite temperature, and construct a novel dissipaton-equation-of-motion (DEOM) formalism. To validate the underlying dissipaton algebra, we derive in parallel also the extended Zusman equation via a totally different approach, and further prove that DEOM constitutes the resolutions to the latter formalism. Thus, we verify by de facto the novel dissipaton algebraic construction, by which not only the quadratic but also higher-order nonlinear bath couplings can be easily treated. We report the benchmark results on a two-level system dynamics as the interplay between linear and quadratic bath couplings.

  5. Numerical Simulation of the Interaction Between Supersonic Oxygen Jets and Molten Slag-Metal Bath in Steelmaking BOF Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qiang; Li, Mingming; Kuang, Shibo; Zou, Zongshu

    2015-02-01

    The impinging of multiple jets onto the molten bath in the BOF steelmaking process plays a crucial role in reactor performance but is not clearly understood. This paper presents a numerical study of the interaction between the multiple jets and slag-metal bath in a BOF by means of the three-phase volume of fluid model. The validity of the model is first examined by comparing the numerical results with experimental measurement of time-averaged cavity dimensions through a scaled-down water model. The calculated results are in reasonably good agreement with the experimental data. The mathematical model is then used to investigate the primary transport phenomena of the jets-bath interaction inside a 150-ton commercial BOF under steelmaking conditions. The numerical results show that the cavity profile and interface of slag/metal/gas remain unstable as a result of the propagation of surface waves, which, likely as a major factor, governs the generation of metal droplets and their initial spatiotemporal distribution. The total momentum transferred from the jets into the bath is consumed about a half to drive the movement of slag, rather than fully converted as the stirring power for the metal bath. Finally, the effects of operational conditions and fluid properties are quantified. It is shown that compared to viscosity and surface tension of the melts, operating pressure and lance height have a much more significant impact on the slag-metal interface behavior and cavity shape as well as the fluid dynamics in the molten bath.

  6. EXPERIENCE VERSUS AUTHORITY: THE SEARCH FOR GENDER EQUALITY IN CHAUCER'S "THE WIFE OF BATH'S PROLOGUE AND TALE"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Setefanus Suprayitno

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Over the past few years much interest has been put on gender equality. There has been a changing perception of the attitudes which emerges and shapes women's role in society and relationships. Formerly, social ideas and customs dictated women to be subservient. But now the changing social structure gives women space to pursue gender equality. Geoffrey Chaucer (ca. 1343-1400 had addressed this issue in his work, "The Wife of Bath's Prologue and Tale." This paper discusses how Alisoun, the wife Bath, through her prologue and tale, shows the contradiction of the oppressive traditions and customs imposed on women and attempts to present the idea of gender equality.

  7. ANOMALOUS ELECTRODEPOSITION OF Fe-Ni ALLOY COATING FROM SIMPLE AND COMPLEX BATHS AND ITS MAGNETIC PROPERTY

    OpenAIRE

    M A Islam

    2010-01-01

    Electrodeposition of Fe-Ni thin films has been carried on copper substrate under various electrodeposition conditions from two simple and six complex baths. Sulfate baths composing of NiSO4. 7H2O, FeSO4.7H2O, H3BO3 and Na2SO4KEYWORDS: Anomalous Electrodeposition, Fe-Ni Coating, Complexing agent, Current Density, Magnetic Property. 1. INTRODUCTION Alloy electrodeposition technologies can extend tremendously the potential of electrochemical deposition processes to provide coatings that require ...

  8. A hygiene and health study of public swimming baths; Estudio higienico-sanitario de las piscinas de uso publico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pastor, M. C.

    2007-07-01

    An interdisciplinary study, which may be regarded as the first of its kind internationally, was made of the design and management of ten indoor public swimming baths taking into consideration 17 Spanish laws and regulations. This article, which is based on this study, deals with the aspects related to the water in the baths. It looks at the hydraulics of the installations, the design and use of the equipment, the storage of chemical, the quality of the water and the air (including their microbiological content), chlorine and chlorine derivatives, heating and ventilation, staff, training and information, and the facilities own control system. The results obtained reveal the real situation of these facilities. (Author)

  9. Iconographic analysis of the theme of "Bathsheba Bathing" in Books of Hours of 15th and 16th Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elsa Guyot

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available In the light of biblical exegesis and medieval literature, this paper proposes an iconographic analysis of the theme of "Bathsheba Bathing" as it appears in Books of Hours. From the fifteenth to the sixteenth century, pictorial representations of this Old Testament scene experienced a boom justified by the underlying eroticism of this episode in which David surprises Bathsheba as she is performing a ritual purification bath. The illuminations that we study reflect the encounter between the Christian tradition and humanistic culture.

  10. New bathing therapy in Japanese hot springs using radiation from radon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Japanese-style bathing is an important part of the traditional culture of Japan, and most Japanese people love hot springs. Many kinds of hot springs exist all over Japan and are often a major factor when considering where to go for travel, relaxation and rest. However, other countries, especially in Europe, also use hot springs for medical treatments such as balneo therapy, hydrokinetic therapy, fango therapy and inhalation therapy. Some hot springs in Japan are located on radioactive springs. Five typical radioactive spring areas can be found in Tamagawa (Akita Pref.), Murasugi (Niigata Pref.), Masutomi (Yamanashi Pref.), Misasa (Tottori Pref.), and Sekigane (Tottori Pref.). While hot springs in Japan are mainly used for bathing, these radioactive springs are also used for bedrock bathing and/or inhalation therapy. In Italy, Fango therapy is a medical treatment conducted under a medical doctor's super vision with peloids maturated with hot spring water called 'Fango'. Japanese style Fango, named BiofangoR, has already been made by using natural hot springs that have been modified with Italian Fango. Medical evaluation of test subjects has shown good results after treatment with Fango therapy. An important point in Fango therapy is how to make satisfactory maturated peloids. For this purpose, an experiment was conducted at Masutomi hot spring to confirm the possibility of using radioactive spring water to make maturated peloids. The basement material for the peloids used for this experiment was made from bentonite mixed with original rock from the Masutomi hot spring area consisting of crushed basalt and granite that have a fine amount of radioactivity. These peloids were circulated through hot spring water for two weeks to a month and then used for treatment. The medical data showed that therapy using this method resulted in greater improvement in 'test subjects' body functions compared with the data from previous observations. This seems

  11. Surveillance of the Sensitivity towards Antiparasitic Bath-Treatments in the Salmon Louse (Lepeophtheirus salmonis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peder A Jansen

    Full Text Available The evolution of drug resistant parasitic sea lice is of major concern to the salmon farming industry worldwide and challenges sustainable growth of this enterprise. To assess current status and development of L. salmonis sensitivity towards different pesticides used for parasite control in Norwegian salmon farming, a national surveillance programme was implemented in 2013. The programme aims to summarize data on the use of different pesticides applied to control L. salmonis and to test L. salmonis sensitivity to different pesticides in farms along the Norwegian coast. Here we analyse two years of test-data from biological assays designed to detect sensitivity-levels towards the pesticides azamethiphos and deltamethrin, both among the most common pesticides used in bath-treatments of farmed salmon in Norway in later years. The focus of the analysis is on how different variables predict the binomial outcome of the bioassay tests, being whether L. salmonis are immobilized/die or survive pesticide exposure. We found that local kernel densities of bath treatments, along with a spatial geographic index of test-farm locations, were significant predictors of the binomial outcome of the tests. Furthermore, the probability of L. salmonis being immobilized/dead after test-exposure was reduced by odds-ratios of 0.60 (95% CI: 0.42-0.86 for 2014 compared to 2013 and 0.39 (95% CI: 0.36-0.42 for low concentration compared to high concentration exposure. There were also significant but more marginal effects of parasite gender and developmental stage, and a relatively large random effect of test-farm. We conclude that the present data support an association between local intensities of bath treatments along the coast and the outcome of bioassay tests where salmon lice are exposed to azamethiphos or deltamethrin. Furthermore, there is a predictable structure of L. salmonis phenotypes along the coast in the data, characterized by high susceptibility to pesticides

  12. Surveillance of the Sensitivity towards Antiparasitic Bath-Treatments in the Salmon Louse (Lepeophtheirus salmonis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansen, Peder A; Grøntvedt, Randi N; Tarpai, Attila; Helgesen, Kari O; Horsberg, Tor Einar

    2016-01-01

    The evolution of drug resistant parasitic sea lice is of major concern to the salmon farming industry worldwide and challenges sustainable growth of this enterprise. To assess current status and development of L. salmonis sensitivity towards different pesticides used for parasite control in Norwegian salmon farming, a national surveillance programme was implemented in 2013. The programme aims to summarize data on the use of different pesticides applied to control L. salmonis and to test L. salmonis sensitivity to different pesticides in farms along the Norwegian coast. Here we analyse two years of test-data from biological assays designed to detect sensitivity-levels towards the pesticides azamethiphos and deltamethrin, both among the most common pesticides used in bath-treatments of farmed salmon in Norway in later years. The focus of the analysis is on how different variables predict the binomial outcome of the bioassay tests, being whether L. salmonis are immobilized/die or survive pesticide exposure. We found that local kernel densities of bath treatments, along with a spatial geographic index of test-farm locations, were significant predictors of the binomial outcome of the tests. Furthermore, the probability of L. salmonis being immobilized/dead after test-exposure was reduced by odds-ratios of 0.60 (95% CI: 0.42-0.86) for 2014 compared to 2013 and 0.39 (95% CI: 0.36-0.42) for low concentration compared to high concentration exposure. There were also significant but more marginal effects of parasite gender and developmental stage, and a relatively large random effect of test-farm. We conclude that the present data support an association between local intensities of bath treatments along the coast and the outcome of bioassay tests where salmon lice are exposed to azamethiphos or deltamethrin. Furthermore, there is a predictable structure of L. salmonis phenotypes along the coast in the data, characterized by high susceptibility to pesticides in the far north

  13. Calibration of a Manganese Bath Relative to 252Cf Nu-Bar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilliam, David M.; Yue, Andrew T.; Scott Dewey, M.

    2009-08-01

    A large manganese sulfate bath is employed at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) to calibrate isotopic neutron sources relative to the national standard neutron source NBS-I. In the past few years many low-emission Cf-252 neutron sources have been calibrated for testing of neutron detectors for the U.S. Department of Homeland Security (DHS). The low-emission DHS sources are about a factor of 100 lower in emission rate than NBS-I, so that background fluctuations become more significant in making accurate calibrations. To verify and improve the calibrations relative to NBS-I, a new calibration for sealed Cf-252 neutron sources has been made by measuring the fission rate of a bare Cf-252 deposit and inferring its neutron emission rate from Cf-252 nu-bar, the well-established neutron multiplicity of spontaneous fission in Cf-252. The fission rate of the bare deposit was measured by counting fission fragments in vacuum with a surface barrier detector behind an aperture and spacer, which provided a well-defined solid angle for detection. A thin polyimide film was placed just above the Cf deposit to prevent contamination of the detector by self-sputtering of the Cf material in vacuum. Tests with additional layers of polyimide were performed to observe any perturbation in the detection efficiency due to scattering or absorption of alpha particles or fission fragments in the polyimide film. The increase in the background count rate due to accumulation of Cf on the polyimide film was less than 0.02% of the fission fragment count rate from the sample, at the end of all runs. It is estimated that this increase in background would have been about 150 times higher without the polyimide film. The sealed Cf source NIST-DHSA was compared to the bare source by relative neutron counting in an assembly of polyethylene moderator and He-3 detectors. The calibration via Cf-252 nu-bar gave a result that was 1.7% higher than the previous calibration relative to NBS

  14. Applicability of Quantum Thermal Baths to Complex Many-Body Systems with Various Degrees of Anharmonicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Rojas, Javier; Calvo, Florent; Noya, Eva Gonzalez

    2015-03-10

    The semiclassical method of quantum thermal baths by colored noise thermostats has been used to simulate various atomic systems in the molecular and bulk limits, at finite temperature and in moderately to strongly anharmonic regimes. In all cases, the method performs relatively well against alternative approaches in predicting correct energetic properties, including in the presence of phase changes, provided that vibrational delocalization is not too strong-neon appearing already as an upper limiting case. In contrast, the dynamical behavior inferred from global indicators such as the root-mean-square bond length fluctuation index or the vibrational spectrum reveals more marked differences caused by zero-point energy leakage, except in the case of isolated molecules with well separated vibrational modes. To correct for such deficiencies and reduce the undesired transfer among modes, empirical modifications of the noise power spectral density were attempted to better describe thermal equilibrium but still failed when used as semiclassical preparation for microcanonical trajectories. PMID:26579740

  15. Electrodeposition of nanocrystalline Zn-Ni alloy from alkaline glycinate bath containing saccharin as additive

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mosavat, S.H., E-mail: sh.mosavat@gmail.com [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, School of Engineering, Shiraz University, Shiraz 71348-15939 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Bahrololoom, M.E., E-mail: bahrolom@shirazu.ac.ir [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, School of Engineering, Shiraz University, Shiraz 71348-15939 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Shariat, M.H. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, School of Engineering, Shiraz University, Shiraz 71348-15939 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2011-08-01

    Nanocrystalline Zn-Ni (crystallite sizes 13-68 nm) alloy coatings were produced from an alkaline glycinate bath containing saccharin as additive. X-ray diffraction (XRD) was used to determine the phase composition and average crystallite size of nanocrystalline Zn-Ni alloy coatings. The average grain size of a deposit was also studied by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The effects of saccharin concentration and current density on the crystallite size and surface roughness of the coatings were studied. Crystallite size and average surface roughness were diminished as a result of increasing saccharin concentration. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) examination showed that coatings had a colony-like morphology and the colony size was increased with increasing current density. Microhardness testing was carried out in order to determine the degree of dependence of this mechanical property on the crystallite size. It was found that microhardness did not depend on crystallite size (Hall-Petch)

  16. One-bath synthesis of hydrophilic molecularly imprinted quantum dots for selective recognition of chlorophenol

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tai Ye; Shi Yan Lu; Qin Qin Hu; Xin Jiang; Guo Fen Wei; Jing Jing Wang; Jian Quan Lu

    2011-01-01

    A simple one-bath strategy has been developed to synthesize a novel CdTe@SiO2@MIP (molecularly imprinted and silica-functionalized CdTe quantum dots, MISFQDs), in which a silica shell was coated on the surface of CdTe quantum dots (CdTe@SiO2 QDs) and then a polymer for selective recognition of 4-chlorophenol (4-CP) was constructed on the surface of CdTe@SiO2 QDs using mercaptoacetic acid as stabilizer, 3-aminopropyl-trimethoxysilane (APTES) as functional monomers and tetraethoxysilane (TEOS) as crosslink agent. The structures of CdTe@SiO2@MIP were analyzed by ultraviolet-visible absorption, Fluorescence, FT-IR spectrum and powder X-ray diffraction. The application and characterization of the CdTe@SiO2@MIP were investigated by experiments. All results indicated that the CdTe@SiO2@MIP can selectively recognize 4-chlorophenol.

  17. Syndrom-Pathogen Effect of Ozone Therapy and Nauheim Baths on Patients with Cardiovascular Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena I. Sycheva

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Despite different theories of atherogenesis, pathogenesis of this disease is, foremost, associated with the lipid storage disease, blood rheological properties, lipid peroxidation. Microcirculation disorders have significant role for pathogenesis of many illnesses, primarily, cardiovascular. Among possible reasons of increased risk of their pathway are the increase in the activity of sympathetic neurovegetative system, psychoemotional tension emergion. Application of ‘gas’ therapy methods, such as ozone therapy and carbon dioxide in the form of Nauheim baths is one of the prospect trends in preventive treatment. The obtained results of these methods application in the course of resort treatment showed positive dynamics for homeostasis indicants. They can serve as an indication for the use of carbon dioxide and, especially, ozone therapy for multifactor preventive treatment of patients with cardiovascular diseases.

  18. Effects of bath temperature on electroplated SnSe thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahalingam, T.; Dhanasekaran, V.; Thanikaikarasan, S.; Kathalingam, A.; Rhee, Jin-Koo

    2012-06-01

    Tin selenide (SnSe) thin films were deposited onto indium doped tin oxide coated (ITO) glass substrates by electro deposition technique. The deposition bath contains a solution mixture consisting SnCl2 and Na2SeO3. X-ray diffraction studies revealed orthorhombic structure of SnSe films and various micro structural parameters such as crystallite size, dislocation density and strain were calculated. Optical properties were determined by UV-vis-NIR double beam spectrophotometer and direct transition energy band gap was estimated as 1.1 eV. Morphological studies reveal nano rod shaped grains covering the surface of the film and the results are discussed.

  19. Synthesis and Characterization of SnO2 Thin Films by Chemical Bath Deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rifai, Aditia; Iqbal, Muhammad; Nugraha; Nuruddin, Ahmad; Suyatman; Yuliarto, Brian

    2011-12-01

    SnO2 thin films were deposited on glass substrate by chemical bath deposition (CBD) with stannous chloride (SnCl2..2H2O) as a precursor and urea (CO(NH2)2) as a buffer. X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) are used to characterize the structure of the films; the surface morphology of the films were observed by Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM). Using this techniques, we specify the effect of stannous chloride concentration and weight ratio of urea/H2O on the crystallinity and morphology of these films. The rutile structure corresponding (110), (101) and (211) planes of SnO2 is obtained. The increasing of stannous chloride concentration and the decreasing weight ratio of urea/H2O is found to improve the crystallinity of the film. The average diameter of grain size is about 96 nm.

  20. Non-adiabatic holonomic quantum computation in linear system-bath coupling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Chunfang; Wang, Gangcheng; Wu, Chunfeng; Liu, Haodi; Feng, Xun-Li; Chen, Jing-Ling; Xue, Kang

    2016-02-01

    Non-adiabatic holonomic quantum computation in decoherence-free subspaces protects quantum information from control imprecisions and decoherence. For the non-collective decoherence that each qubit has its own bath, we show the implementations of two non-commutable holonomic single-qubit gates and one holonomic nontrivial two-qubit gate that compose a universal set of non-adiabatic holonomic quantum gates in decoherence-free-subspaces of the decoupling group, with an encoding rate of . The proposed scheme is robust against control imprecisions and the non-collective decoherence, and its non-adiabatic property ensures less operation time. We demonstrate that our proposed scheme can be realized by utilizing only two-qubit interactions rather than many-qubit interactions. Our results reduce the complexity of practical implementation of holonomic quantum computation in experiments. We also discuss the physical implementation of our scheme in coupled microcavities.

  1. Superhydrophobic poly(vinylidene fluoride) film fabricated by alkali treatment enhancing chemical bath deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Based on the lotus effect principle, the superhydrophobic poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) film was successfully prepared by the method of alkali treatment enhancing chemical bath deposition. The surface of PVDF film prepared in this work was constructed by many smooth and regular microreliefs. Oxygen-containing functional groups were introduced in PVDF film by treatment with aqueous NaOH solution. The nano-scale peaks on the top of the microreliefs were implemented by the reaction between dimethyldichlorosilane/methyltrichlorosilane solution and the oxygen-containing functional groups of PVDF film. The micro- and nano-scale structures, similar to the lotus leaf, was clearly observed on PVDF film surface by scanning electronic microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscope (AFM). The water contact angle and sliding angle on the fabricated lotus-leaf-like PVDF film surface were 157 deg. and 1 deg., respectively, exhibiting superhydrophobic property and self-cleaning property.

  2. Superhydrophobic poly(vinylidene fluoride) film fabricated by alkali treatment enhancing chemical bath deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Zhenrong; Gu, Zhenya; Huo, Ruiting; Luo, Zhishan

    2010-01-01

    Based on the lotus effect principle, the superhydrophobic poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) film was successfully prepared by the method of alkali treatment enhancing chemical bath deposition. The surface of PVDF film prepared in this work was constructed by many smooth and regular microreliefs. Oxygen-containing functional groups were introduced in PVDF film by treatment with aqueous NaOH solution. The nano-scale peaks on the top of the microreliefs were implemented by the reaction between dimethyldichlorosilane/methyltrichlorosilane solution and the oxygen-containing functional groups of PVDF film. The micro- and nano-scale structures, similar to the lotus leaf, was clearly observed on PVDF film surface by scanning electronic microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscope (AFM). The water contact angle and sliding angle on the fabricated lotus-leaf-like PVDF film surface were 157° and 1°, respectively, exhibiting superhydrophobic property and self-cleaning property.

  3. Quantum Zeno effect in a nitrogen-vacancy center embedded in a spin bath

    CERN Document Server

    Yang, Zhi-Sheng; Zhang, Mei; Ai, Qing; Deng, Fu-Guo

    2016-01-01

    We study the longitudinal relaxation of a nitrogen-vacancy (NV) center surrounded by a $^{13}$C nuclear spin bath in diamond. By means of cluster-correlation expansion (CCE), we numerically demonstrate the decay process of electronic state induced by cross relaxation at low temperature. It is shown that the CCE method is not only capable of describing pure-dephasing effect at large-detuning regime, but it can also simulate the quantum dynamics of populations in the nearly resonant regime. We present a proposal to slow down the decay of NV center via implementing quantum Zeno effect (QZE). The numerical result shows that QZE can effectively inhibit the decay of NV center.

  4. Processing of combined domestic bath and laundry waste waters for reuse as commode flushing water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hypes, W. D.; Batten, C. E.; Wilkins, J. R.

    1975-01-01

    An experimental investigation of processes and system configurations for reclaiming combined bath and laundry waste waters for reuse as commode flush water was conducted. A 90-min recycle flow was effective in removing particulates and in improving other physical characteristics to the extent that the filtered water was subjectively acceptable for reuse. The addition of a charcoal filter resulted in noticeable improvements in color, turbidity, and suds elimination. Heating and chlorination of the waste waters were investigated for reducing total organism counts and eliminating coliform organisms. A temperature of 335.9 K (145 F) for 30 min and chlorine concentrations of 20 mg/l in the collection tank followed by 10 mg/l in the storage tank were determined to be adequate for this purpose. Water volume relationships and energy-use rates for the waste water reuse systems are also discussed.

  5. Curvature-induced activation of a passive tracer in an active bath

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallory, S. A.; Valeriani, C.; Cacciuto, A.

    2014-09-01

    We use numerical simulations to study the motion of a large asymmetric tracer immersed in a low-density suspension of self-propelled particles in two dimensions. Specifically, we analyze how the curvature of the tracer affects its translational and rotational motion in an active environment. We find that even very small amounts of curvature are sufficient for the active bath to impart directed motion to the tracer, which results in its effective activation. We propose simple scaling arguments to characterize this induced activity in terms of the curvature of the tracer and the strength of the self-propelling force. Our results suggest new ways of controlling the transport properties of passive tracers in an active medium by carefully tailoring their geometry.

  6. Heat transfer between the superconducting cables of the LHC accelerator magnets and the superfluid helium bath

    CERN Document Server

    Granieri, Pier Paolo; Tommasini, D

    In this thesis work we investigate the heat transfer through the electrical insulation of superconducting cables cooled by superfluid helium. The cable insulation constitutes the most severe barrier for heat extraction from the superconducting magnets of the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC). We performed an experimental analysis, a theoretical modeling and a fundamental research to characterize the present LHC insulation and to develop new ideas of thermally enhanced insulations. The outcome of these studies allowed to determine the thermal stability of the magnets for the LHC and its future upgrades. An innovative measurement technique was developed to experimentally analyze the heat transfer between the cables and the superfluid helium bath. It allowed to describe the LHC coil behavior using the real cable structure, an appropriate thermometry and controlling the applied pressure. We developed a new thermally enhanced insulation scheme based on an increased porosity to superfluid helium. It aims at withstan...

  7. Photoluminescence study of aligned ZnO nanorods grown using chemical bath deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Urgessa, Z.N. [Department of Physics, P.O. Box 77000, Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University, Port Elizabeth 6031 (South Africa); Oluwafemi, O.S. [Department of Chemistry and Chemical Technology, Walter Sisulu University, Mthatha Campus, Private Bag XI, 5117 (South Africa); Dangbegnon, J.K. [Department of Physics, P.O. Box 77000, Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University, Port Elizabeth 6031 (South Africa); Botha, J.R., E-mail: Reinhardt.Botha@nmmu.ac.za [Department of Physics, P.O. Box 77000, Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University, Port Elizabeth 6031 (South Africa)

    2012-05-15

    The photoluminescence study of self-assembled ZnO nanorods grown on a pre-treated Si substrate by a simple chemical bath deposition method at a temperature of 80 Degree-Sign C is hereby reported. By annealing in O{sub 2} environment the UV emission is enhanced with diminishing deep level emission suggesting that most of the deep level emission is due to oxygen vacancies. The photoluminescence was investigated from 10 K to room temperature. The low temperature photoluminescence spectrum is dominated by donor-bound exciton. The activation energy and binding energy of shallow donors giving rise to bound exciton emission were calculated to be around 13.2 meV, 46 meV, respectively. Depending on these energy values and nature of growth environment, hydrogen is suggested to be the possible contaminating element acting as a donor.

  8. Dynamics of a Many-Body-Localized System Coupled to a Bath

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Mark H.; Maksymenko, Mykola; Altman, Ehud

    2016-04-01

    Coupling a many-body-localized system to a dissipative bath necessarily leads to delocalization. Here, we investigate the nature of the ensuing relaxation dynamics and the information it holds on the many-body-localized state. We formulate the relevant Lindblad equation in terms of the local integrals of motion of the underlying localized Hamiltonian. This allows us to map the quantum evolution deep in the localized state to tractable classical rate equations. We consider two different types of dissipation relevant to systems of ultracold atoms: dephasing due to inelastic scattering on the lattice lasers and particle loss. Our approach allows us to characterize their different effects in the limiting cases of weak and strong interactions.

  9. A simple method for chemical bath deposition of electrochromic tungsten oxide films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A simple, economical, chemical bath method for depositing tungsten oxide films has been developed. The films have been prepared from aqueous solution containing Na2WO4.2H2O and diethyl sulfate in slightly acidic media at 90-95 deg. C on fluoride doped tin oxide substrates (FTO). The X-ray analysis clearly showed that the films do not correspond to any known tungsten oxide with its experimental d-values and in the text the composition is denoted as WO x. The thin films durability was tested in aqueous solution of LiClO4 (0.1 mol dm-3) for about 7000 cycles followed by cyclic voltammetry which confirmed that the coated material is highly stable. The optical transmittance spectra of colored and bleached states showed significant change in the transmittance, which make these films favorable for electrochromic devices

  10. A simple method for chemical bath deposition of electrochromic tungsten oxide films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Najdoski, Metodija Z. [Institute of Chemistry, Faculty of Natural Sciences and Mathematics, Sts. Cyril and Methodius University, P.O. Box 162, Arhimedova 5, 1000 Skopje (Macedonia, The Former Yugoslav Republic of)], E-mail: metonajd@iunona.pmf.ukim.edu.mk; Todorovski, Toni [Institute of Chemistry, Faculty of Natural Sciences and Mathematics, Sts. Cyril and Methodius University, P.O. Box 162, Arhimedova 5, 1000 Skopje (Macedonia, The Former Yugoslav Republic of)

    2007-08-15

    A simple, economical, chemical bath method for depositing tungsten oxide films has been developed. The films have been prepared from aqueous solution containing Na{sub 2}WO{sub 4}.2H{sub 2}O and diethyl sulfate in slightly acidic media at 90-95 deg. C on fluoride doped tin oxide substrates (FTO). The X-ray analysis clearly showed that the films do not correspond to any known tungsten oxide with its experimental d-values and in the text the composition is denoted as WO {sub x}. The thin films durability was tested in aqueous solution of LiClO{sub 4} (0.1 mol dm{sup -3}) for about 7000 cycles followed by cyclic voltammetry which confirmed that the coated material is highly stable. The optical transmittance spectra of colored and bleached states showed significant change in the transmittance, which make these films favorable for electrochromic devices.

  11. Photoluminescence study of aligned ZnO nanorods grown using chemical bath deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The photoluminescence study of self-assembled ZnO nanorods grown on a pre-treated Si substrate by a simple chemical bath deposition method at a temperature of 80 °C is hereby reported. By annealing in O2 environment the UV emission is enhanced with diminishing deep level emission suggesting that most of the deep level emission is due to oxygen vacancies. The photoluminescence was investigated from 10 K to room temperature. The low temperature photoluminescence spectrum is dominated by donor-bound exciton. The activation energy and binding energy of shallow donors giving rise to bound exciton emission were calculated to be around 13.2 meV, 46 meV, respectively. Depending on these energy values and nature of growth environment, hydrogen is suggested to be the possible contaminating element acting as a donor.

  12. Annealing effect on structural and optical properties of chemical bath deposited MnS thin film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulutas, Cemal; Gumus, Cebrail

    2016-03-01

    MnS thin film was prepared by the chemical bath deposition (CBD) method on commercial microscope glass substrate deposited at 30 °C. The as-deposited film was given thermal annealing treatment in air atmosphere at various temperatures (150, 300 and 450 °C) for 1 h. The MnS thin film was characterized by using X-ray diffraction (XRD), UV-vis spectrophotometer and Hall effect measurement system. The effect of annealing temperature on the structural, electrical and optical properties such as optical constants of refractive index (n) and energy band gap (Eg) of the film was determined. XRD measurements reveal that the film is crystallized in the wurtzite phase and changed to tetragonal Mn3O4 phase after being annealed at 300 °C. The energy band gap of film decreased from 3.69 eV to 3.21 eV based on the annealing temperature.

  13. Study of adsorption of zinc in clay smectite type Bofe in system of finite bath

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clays are demonstrably excellent adsorbents, both for their physical and chemical characteristics and the wide coverage and low cost. Among the various groups of clay minerals, the smectite are noted for having large surface areas. The initial objective of this study was to characterize the clay Bofe through the techniques of X-Ray Diffraction (XRD), X-Ray Spectrometry by Energy Dispersive (EDX) and nitrogen adsorption (BET). To evaluate the adsorption of metal ions zinc (synthetic sewage), we used a system in finite bath, following a factorial design 22, taking as input variables: pH and initial concentrations of zinc (Zn2 +) and output variables: percentage removal and removal capacity. The characterization results showed that Bofe clay belongs to the family of smectite and therefore has great potential for adsorption. (author)

  14. Fate of oscillating scalar fields in the thermal bath and their cosmological implications

    CERN Document Server

    Yokoyama, J

    2004-01-01

    Relaxation process of a coherent scalar field oscillation in the thermal bath is investigated using nonequilibrium quantum field theory. The Langevin-type equation of motion is obtained which has a memory term and both additive and multiplicative noise terms. The dissipation rate of the oscillating scalar field is calculated for various interactions such as Yukawa coupling, three-body scalar interaction, and biquadratic interaction. When the background temperature is larger than the oscillation frequency, the dissipation rate arising from the interactions with fermions is suppressed due to the Pauli blocking, while it is enhanced for interactions with bosons due to the induced effect. In both cases, we find that the microphysical detailed balance relation drives the oscillating field to a thermal equilibrium state. That is, for low-momentum modes, the classical fluctuation-dissipation theorem holds and they relax to a state the equipartition law is satisfied, while higher-momentum modes reach the state the nu...

  15. Characterization of zinc–nickel alloy electrodeposits obtained from sulphamate bath containing substituted aldehydes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Visalakshi Ravindran; V S Muralidharan

    2006-06-01

    Zinc alloy offers superior sacrificial protection to steel as the alloy dissolves more slowly than pure zinc. The degree of protection and the rate of dissolution depend on the alloying metal and its composition. Zinc-nickel alloy may also serve as at less toxic substitute for cadmium. In this paper the physico-chemical characterization of zinc-nickel electrodeposits obtained from sulphamate bath containing substituted aldehydes was carried out using hardness testing, X-ray diffraction, and corrosion resistance measurements. The corrosion behaviour of these samples in a 3.5% NaCl solution was examined. The decrease in corr and high charge transfer resistance indicated the improved corrosion resistance of these deposits.

  16. Generation of homogeneous granular packings: Contact dynamics method with coupling to an external pressure bath

    CERN Document Server

    Shaebani, M Reza; Kertesz, Janos

    2008-01-01

    The contact dynamics method (CD) is an efficient simulation technique of dense granular media where unilateral and frictional contact problems for a large number of rigid bodies have to be solved. In this paper we present a modified version of the contact dynamics to generate homogeneous random packings of rigid grains. CD is coupled to an external pressure bath, which allows the variation of the size of a periodically repeated cell. We follow the concept of the Andersen dynamics and show how it can be applied within the framework of the contact dynamics method. The main challenge here is to handle the interparticle interactions properly, which are based on constraint forces in CD. We implement the proposed algorithm, perform test simulations and investigate the properties of the final packings.

  17. Comparing Haar-Hilbert and Log-Gabor Based Iris Encoders on Bath Iris Image Database

    CERN Document Server

    Popescu-Bodorin, Nicolaie; 10.1109/SOFA.2010.5565599

    2011-01-01

    This papers introduces a new family of iris encoders which use 2-dimensional Haar Wavelet Transform for noise attenuation, and Hilbert Transform to encode the iris texture. In order to prove the usefulness of the newly proposed iris encoding approach, the recognition results obtained by using these new encoders are compared to those obtained using the classical Log- Gabor iris encoder. Twelve tests involving single/multienrollment and conducted on Bath Iris Image Database are presented here. One of these tests achieves an Equal Error Rate comparable to the lowest value reported so far for this database. New Matlab tools for iris image processing are also released together with this paper: a second version of the Circular Fuzzy Iris Segmentator (CFIS2), a fast Log-Gabor encoder and two Haar-Hilbert based encoders.

  18. Approximation to the quantum planar rotor coupled to a finite temperature bath

    Science.gov (United States)

    López Vázquez, P. C.; García, A.

    2016-05-01

    An approximation to the description of the dynamics of a quantum planar rotor coupled to a finite temperature bath is derived by considering a microscopic model of interaction based on an angular momentum exchange with two different environments coupled independently to the positive and negative angular momentum spectrum. A non-Lindblad master equation is derived for this microscopic model by using the Born–Markov approximation in the weak coupling limit. We show that under this approximation the rotor dynamics presents the correct damping behavior of the motion and the thermal state reached by the rotor is in the form of Boltzmann distribution. The case of the quantum rotor in an external uniform field and the quantum kicked rotor are briefly discussed as exemplification.

  19. Preparation and Optimization of Pyrophosphate Bath for Copper Electroplating of Microwave Components

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. G. Bhatgadde

    1988-04-01

    Full Text Available The principles of copper deposition from pyrophosphate electrolytes have been explained. Based on these principles, a method  of preparation of plating bath from basic constituents has been described. It was found that copper pyrophosphate is precipitated from solutions of copper sulphatc and potassium pyrophosphate at a pH of 5.0. For maximum efficiency, copper pyrophosphate has to be disolved in potassium pyrophosphate in a weight ratio of 1 : 4 or a total P2o7,: Cu ratio of 7.5 : 1. By using optimum values of anode : cathode area,2.5, pH, 5.0, temperature, 55°C and a cathode curfent density of 0.8 A/dm2, bright, adherent copper electroplates were deposited on electroless copper plated Al2o3, substrates employed in microwave components.

  20. Chemical Bath Deposition of PbS:Hg2+ Nanocrystalline Thin Films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Palomino-Merino

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Nanocrystalline PbS thin films were prepared by Chemical Bath Deposition (CBD at 40 ± 2°C onto glass substrates and their structural and optical properties modified by in-situ doping with Hg. The morphological changes of the layers were analyzed using SEM and the X-rays spectra showing growth on the zinc blende (ZB face. The grain size determined by using X-rays spectra for undoped samples was found to be ~36 nm, whereas with the doped sample was 32–20 nm. Optical absorption spectra were used to calculate the Eg, showing a shift in the range 1.4–2.4 eV. Raman spectroscopy exhibited an absorption band ~135 cm−1 displaying only a PbS ZB structure.

  1. Kraus operator solutions to a fermionic master equation describing a thermal bath and their matrix representation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang-Guo, Meng; Ji-Suo, Wang; Hong-Yi, Fan; Cheng-Wei, Xia

    2016-04-01

    We solve the fermionic master equation for a thermal bath to obtain its explicit Kraus operator solutions via the fermionic state approach. The normalization condition of the Kraus operators is proved. The matrix representation for these solutions is obtained, which is incongruous with the result in the book completed by Nielsen and Chuang [Quantum Computation and Quantum Information, Cambridge University Press, 2000]. As especial cases, we also present the Kraus operator solutions to master equations for describing the amplitude-decay model and the diffusion process at finite temperature. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 11347026), the Natural Science Foundation of Shandong Province, China (Grant Nos. ZR2013AM012 and ZR2012AM004), and the Research Fund for the Doctoral Program and Scientific Research Project of Liaocheng University, Shandong Province, China.

  2. Effect of non-solvents used in the coagulation bath on morphology of PVDF membranes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mônica Beatriz Thürmer

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper was to prepare a poly (vinylidene fluoride (PVDF membrane using different non-solvents in the coagulation bath for the phase inversion method. In order to increase the mechanical strength of membranes, facing the pressure of work, was used a macro-porous polyester support. The morphology and structure of the resulting membranes were evaluated by scanning electron microscopy, porosity measurements, water and 1-octanol uptake, contact angle, pure water flux, hydraulic permeability and hydraulic resistance. The morphology and pure water flux changed significantly using ethanol (symmetric membrane and/or water (asymmetric membrane as the non-solvent. The symmetric membrane presented a high hydrophobic surface (water contact angle ~136º and a higher pure water flux and porosity than the asymmetric membrane, which presented a lower hydrophobicity surface (water contact angle ~90º. The morphologies obtained suggest different applications.

  3. Dual-bath electrodeposition of n-type Bi–Te/Bi–Se multilayer thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsuoka, Ken; Okuhata, Mitsuaki; Takashiri, Masayuki, E-mail: takashiri@tokai-u.jp

    2015-11-15

    N-type Bi–Te/Bi–Se multilayer thin films were prepared by dual-bath electrodeposition. We varied the number of layers from 2 to 10 while the total film thickness was maintained at approximately 1 μm. All the multilayer films displayed the X-ray diffraction peaks normally observed from individual Bi{sub 2}Te{sub 3} and Bi{sub 2}Se{sub 3} crystal structures, indicating that both phases coexist in the multilayer. The cross-section of the 10-layer Bi–Te/Bi–Se film was composed of stacked layers with nano-sized grains but the boundaries between the layers were not planar. The Seebeck coefficient was almost constant throughout the entire range of our experiment, but the electrical conductivity of the multilayer thin films increased significantly as the number of layers was increased. This may be because the electron mobility increases as the thickness of each layer is decreased. As a result of the increased electrical conductivity, the power factor also increased with the number of layers. The maximum power factor was 1.44 μW/(cm K{sup 2}) for the 10-layer Bi–Te/Bi–Se film, this was approximately 3 times higher than that of the 2-layer sample. - Highlights: • N-type Bi–Te/Bi–Se multilayer thin films were deposited by electrodeposition. • We employed a dual-bath electrodeposition process for preparing the multilayers. • The Bi–Te/Bi–Se film was composed of stacked layers with nano-sized grains. • The electrical conductivity increased as the number of layers was increased. • The power factor improved by 3 times as the number of layers was increased.

  4. Dynamics of a qubit in a high-impedance transmission line from a bath perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bera, Soumya; Baranger, Harold U.; Florens, Serge

    2016-03-01

    We investigate the quantum dynamics of a generic model of light-matter interaction in the context of high-impedance waveguides, focusing on the behavior of the photonic states generated in the waveguide. The model treated consists simply of a two-level system coupled to a bosonic bath (the Ohmic spin-boson model). Quantum quenches as well as scattering of an incident coherent pulse are studied using two complementary methods. First, we develop an approximate ansatz for the electromagnetic waves based on a single multimode coherent state wave function; formally, this approach combines in a single framework ideas from adiabatic renormalization, the Born-Markov approximation, and input-output theory. Second, we present numerically exact results for scattering of a weak intensity pulse by using numerical renormalization group (NRG) calculations. NRG provides a benchmark for any linear response property throughout the ultrastrong-coupling regime. We find that in a sudden quantum quench, the coherent state approach produces physical artifacts, such as improper relaxation to the steady state. These previously unnoticed problems are related to the simplified form of the ansatz that generates spurious correlations within the bath. In the scattering problem, NRG is used to find the transmission and reflection of a single photon, as well as the inelastic scattering of that single photon. Simple analytical formulas are established and tested against the NRG data that predict quantitatively the transport coefficients for up to moderate environmental impedance. These formulas resolve pending issues regarding the presence of inelastic losses in the spin-boson model near absorption resonances, and could be used for comparison to experiments in Josephson waveguide quantum electrodynamics. Finally, the scattering results using the coherent state wave-function approach are compared favorably to the NRG results for very weak incident intensity. We end our study by presenting results

  5. The Psychoactive Designer Drug and Bath Salt Constituent MDPV Causes Widespread Disruption of Brain Functional Connectivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colon-Perez, Luis M; Tran, Kelvin; Thompson, Khalil; Pace, Michael C; Blum, Kenneth; Goldberger, Bruce A; Gold, Mark S; Bruijnzeel, Adriaan W; Setlow, Barry; Febo, Marcelo

    2016-08-01

    The abuse of 'bath salts' has raised concerns because of their adverse effects, which include delirium, violent behavior, and suicide ideation in severe cases. The bath salt constituent 3,4-methylenedioxypyrovalerone (MDPV) has been closely linked to these and other adverse effects. The abnormal behavioral pattern produced by acute high-dose MDPV intake suggests possible disruptions of neural communication between brain regions. Therefore, we determined if MDPV exerts disruptive effects on brain functional connectivity, particularly in areas of the prefrontal cortex. Male rats were imaged following administration of a single dose of MDPV (0.3, 1.0, or 3.0 mg/kg) or saline. Resting state brain blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) images were acquired at 4.7 T. To determine the role of dopamine transmission in MDPV-induced changes in functional connectivity, a group of rats received the dopamine D1/D2 receptor antagonist cis-flupenthixol (0.5 mg/kg) 30 min before MDPV. MDPV dose-dependently reduced functional connectivity. Detailed analysis of its effects revealed that connectivity between frontal cortical and striatal areas was reduced. This included connectivity between the prelimbic prefrontal cortex and other areas of the frontal cortex and the insular cortex with hypothalamic, ventral, and dorsal striatal areas. Although the reduced connectivity appeared widespread, connectivity between these regions and somatosensory cortex was not as severely affected. Dopamine receptor blockade did not prevent the MDPV-induced decrease in functional connectivity. The results provide a novel signature of MDPV's in vivo mechanism of action. Reduced brain functional connectivity has been reported in patients suffering from psychosis and has been linked to cognitive dysfunction, audiovisual hallucinations, and negative affective states akin to those reported for MDPV-induced intoxication. The present results suggest that disruption of functional connectivity networks

  6. Effects of isotonic and isometric exercises with mist sauna bathing on cardiovascular, thermoregulatory, and metabolic functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwase, Satoshi; Kawahara, Yuko; Nishimura, Naoki; Nishimura, Rumiko; Sugenoya, Junichi; Miwa, Chihiro; Takada, Masumi

    2014-08-01

    To clarify the effects of isometric and isotonic exercise during mist sauna bathing on the cardiovascular function, thermoregulatory function, and metabolism, six healthy young men (22 ± 1 years old, height 173 ± 4 cm, weight 65.0 ± 5.0 kg) were exposed to a mist sauna for 10 min at a temperature of 40 °C, and relative humidity of 100 % while performing or not performing ˜30 W of isometric or isotonic exercise. The effect of the exercise was assessed by measuring tympanic temperature, heart rate, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, chest sweat rate, chest skin blood flow, and plasma catecholamine and cortisol, glucose, lactate, and free fatty acid levels. Repeated measures ANOVA showed no significant differences in blood pressure, skin blood flow, sweat rate, and total amount of sweating. Tympanic temperature increased more during isotonic exercise, and heart rate increase was more marked during isotonic exercise. The changes in lactate indicated that fatigue was not very great during isometric exercise. The glucose level indicated greater energy expenditure during isometric exercise. The free fatty acid and catecholamine levels indicated that isometric exercise did not result in very great energy expenditure and stress, respectively. The results for isotonic exercise of a decrease in lactate level and an increase in plasma free fatty acid level indicated that fatigue and energy expenditure were rather large while the perceived stress was comparatively low. We concluded that isotonic exercise may be a more desirable form of exercise during mist sauna bathing given the changes in glucose and free fatty acid levels.

  7. Elevated Bathing-Associated Disease Risks Despite Certified Water Quality: A Cohort Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christos Hadjichristodoulou

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Bacteriological water quality criteria have been recommended to ensure bathers’ health. However, this risk-assessment approach is based mainly on routine measurements of fecal pollution indicator bacteria in seawater, and may not be adequate to protect bathers effectively. The aim of this study was to assess the risks of symptoms related to infectious diseases among bathers after exposure to seawater which was of excellent quality according to EU guidelines. This study is a cohort study recruiting bathers and non-bathers. Water samples were collected for estimating bacterial indicators. Univariable and multivariable analysis was performed to compare the risks of developing symptoms/diseases between bathers and non-bathers. A total of 3805 bathers and 572 non-bathers were included in the study. Water analysis results demonstrated excellent quality of bathing water. Significantly increased risks of symptoms related to gastrointestinal infections (OR = 3.60, 95% CI 1.28–10.13, respiratory infections (OR = 1.92, 95% CI 1.00–3.67, eye infections (OR = 2.43, 95% CI 1.27–4.63 and ear infections (OR = 17.21, 95% CI 2.42–122.34 were observed among bathers compared with non-bathers. Increased rates of medical consultation and medication use were also observed among bathers. There was evidence that bathers experienced increased morbidity compared with non-bathers though the bathing waters met bacteriological water quality criteria. These results suggest that risk assessments of recreational seawaters should not only focus on bacteriological water quality criteria.

  8. Metal-doped ZnS(O) thin films on glass substrates using chemical bath deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Inamdar, Akbar I.; Lee, Seulgi; Kim, Duhwan [Department of Semiconductor Science, Dongguk University, Seoul 100-715 (Korea, Republic of); Gurav, K.V.; Kim, J.H. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Chonnam National University, Gwangju 500-757 (Korea, Republic of); Im, Hyunsik, E-mail: hyunsik7@dongguk.edu [Department of Semiconductor Science, Dongguk University, Seoul 100-715 (Korea, Republic of); Jung, Woong [Department of Semiconductor Science, Dongguk University, Seoul 100-715 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Hyungsang [Department of Physics, Dongguk University, Seoul 100-715 (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-06-30

    Zinc sulfide (ZnS(O)) thin films doped with Mn, Ni, and Co ions are synthesized by chemical bath deposition technique onto glass substrates. X-ray diffraction study reveals that the undoped and metal-doped ZnS(O) films possess a hexagonal wurtzite crystal structure. The morphological change, upon metal-ions doping, from nanorod structures to cluster (Mn doping), compact (Ni doping), and granular shapes (Co doping) is observed. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy reveals the presence and incorporation of metal ions into ZnS(O) lattice sites and the formation of a metal–ZnS combined structure. The band gap energy of the undoped ZnS(O) film is found to be larger than 4.0 eV, while it is 3.8, 3.7, and 3.6 eV for the Mn–ZnS(O), Ni–ZnS(O), and Co–ZnS(O) films, respectively. All the undoped and metal-doped ZnS(O) samples exhibit blue luminescence, which originates from the surface defects and trap centers. Thus, the photoluminescence (PL) (blue light emission) is due to the radiative recombination from various trap levels (shallow donor levels) to the valence band. The decrease in the PL peak intensity for the doped samples indicates the reduction of surface defects suggesting the incorporation of metal ions into the host lattice of ZnS(O). Based on the PL results, the PL energy-level diagram for the undoped and metal-doped ZnS(O) samples is proposed. - Highlights: • We report on synthesis of metal-doped ZnS (O) using a chemical bath deposition. • Structural properties of metal-doped ZnS films are investigated. • Optical properties of metal-doped ZnS (O) films are studied. • Optical band-gap energies are extracted. • Photoluminescence model for different metal–dopants is presented.

  9. Dual-bath electrodeposition of n-type Bi–Te/Bi–Se multilayer thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    N-type Bi–Te/Bi–Se multilayer thin films were prepared by dual-bath electrodeposition. We varied the number of layers from 2 to 10 while the total film thickness was maintained at approximately 1 μm. All the multilayer films displayed the X-ray diffraction peaks normally observed from individual Bi2Te3 and Bi2Se3 crystal structures, indicating that both phases coexist in the multilayer. The cross-section of the 10-layer Bi–Te/Bi–Se film was composed of stacked layers with nano-sized grains but the boundaries between the layers were not planar. The Seebeck coefficient was almost constant throughout the entire range of our experiment, but the electrical conductivity of the multilayer thin films increased significantly as the number of layers was increased. This may be because the electron mobility increases as the thickness of each layer is decreased. As a result of the increased electrical conductivity, the power factor also increased with the number of layers. The maximum power factor was 1.44 μW/(cm K2) for the 10-layer Bi–Te/Bi–Se film, this was approximately 3 times higher than that of the 2-layer sample. - Highlights: • N-type Bi–Te/Bi–Se multilayer thin films were deposited by electrodeposition. • We employed a dual-bath electrodeposition process for preparing the multilayers. • The Bi–Te/Bi–Se film was composed of stacked layers with nano-sized grains. • The electrical conductivity increased as the number of layers was increased. • The power factor improved by 3 times as the number of layers was increased

  10. Genomic insights into methanotrophy: the complete genome sequence of Methylococcus capsulatus (Bath.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naomi Ward

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Methanotrophs are ubiquitous bacteria that can use the greenhouse gas methane as a sole carbon and energy source for growth, thus playing major roles in global carbon cycles, and in particular, substantially reducing emissions of biologically generated methane to the atmosphere. Despite their importance, and in contrast to organisms that play roles in other major parts of the carbon cycle such as photosynthesis, no genome-level studies have been published on the biology of methanotrophs. We report the first complete genome sequence to our knowledge from an obligate methanotroph, Methylococcus capsulatus (Bath, obtained by the shotgun sequencing approach. Analysis revealed a 3.3-Mb genome highly specialized for a methanotrophic lifestyle, including redundant pathways predicted to be involved in methanotrophy and duplicated genes for essential enzymes such as the methane monooxygenases. We used phylogenomic analysis, gene order information, and comparative analysis with the partially sequenced methylotroph Methylobacterium extorquens to detect genes of unknown function likely to be involved in methanotrophy and methylotrophy. Genome analysis suggests the ability of M. capsulatus to scavenge copper (including a previously unreported nonribosomal peptide synthetase and to use copper in regulation of methanotrophy, but the exact regulatory mechanisms remain unclear. One of the most surprising outcomes of the project is evidence suggesting the existence of previously unsuspected metabolic flexibility in M. capsulatus, including an ability to grow on sugars, oxidize chemolithotrophic hydrogen and sulfur, and live under reduced oxygen tension, all of which have implications for methanotroph ecology. The availability of the complete genome of M. capsulatus (Bath deepens our understanding of methanotroph biology and its relationship to global carbon cycles. We have gained evidence for greater metabolic flexibility than was previously known, and for

  11. Effect of temperature on the pharmacokinetics of benzocaine in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) after bath exposures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stehly, G.R.; Meinertz, J.R.; Gingerich, W.H.

    1998-01-01

    The pharmacokinetics of benzocaine during bath exposures at 1 mg/L were determined in rainbow trout acclimated at 6 °C, 12 °C or 18 °C for at least 1 month. Individual fish were exposed to benzocaine in a recirculating system for 4 h and pharmacokinetic parameters were estimated in a unique manner from the concentration of benzocaine in the bath water vs. time curve. Elimination from plasma was also determined after the 4 h exposure. The uptake clearance and metabolic clearance increased with increased acclimatization temperatures (uptake clearance 581 ± 179 mL/min/kg at 6 °C and 1154 ± 447 mL/ min/kg at 18 °C; metabolic clearance 15.2 ± 4.1 mL/min/kg at 6 °C and 22.3 ± 4.2 mL/min/kg at 18 °C). The apparent volume of distribution had a trend for increasing with temperature that was not significant at the 5% level (2369 ± 678 mL/kg at 6 °C to 3260 ± 1182 mL/kg at 18 °C). The elimination half-life of benzocaine in plasma was variable and did not differ significantly with temperature (60.8 ± 30.3 min at 6 °C to 35.9 ± 13.0 min at 12 °C). Elimination of benzocaine from rainbow trout is relatively rapid and even more rapid at higher acclimatization temperatures based on calculated metabolic clearances and measured plasma concentrations, but was not evident by measurement of terminal plasma half-lifes.

  12. Preparation and characterization of ZnS thin films by the chemical bath deposition method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iwashita, Taisuke [Department of Electrical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Tokyo University of Science 1-14-6 Kudankita, Chiyoda, Tokyo 102-0073 (Japan); Ando, Shizutoshi, E-mail: ando_shi@rs.kagu.tus.ac.jp [Department of Electrical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Tokyo University of Science 1-14-6 Kudankita, Chiyoda, Tokyo 102-0073 (Japan); Research Institute for Science and Technology, Advanced Device Laboratories (ADL), Tokyo University of Science, 1-3 Kagurazaka, Shinjuku, Tokyo 162-8601 (Japan); Research Institute for Science and Technology, Photovoltaic Science and Technology Research Division, Tokyo University of Science, 1-3 Kagurazaka, Shinjuku, Tokyo 162-8601 (Japan)

    2012-10-01

    ZnS thin films prepared on quartz substrates by the chemical bath deposition (CBD) method with three type temperature profile processes have been investigated by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscope, energy dispersive X-ray analysis and light transmission. One is a 1-step growth process, and the other is 2-steps growth and self-catalyst growth processes. The surface morphology of CBD-ZnS thin films prepared by the CBD method with the self-catalyst growth process is flat and smooth compared with that prepared by the 1-step and 2-steps growth processes. The self-catalyst growth process in order to prepare the particles of ZnS as initial nucleus layer was useful for improvement in crystallinity of ZnS thin films prepared by CBD. ZnS thin films prepared by CBD method with self-catalyst growth process can be expected for improvement in the conversion efficiency of Cu(InGa)Se{sub 2}-based thin film solar cells by using it for the buffer layer. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer ZnS thin films were prepared by chemical bath deposition (CBD) method. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The crystallization of CBD-ZnS films was further improved. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The crystallinity of CBD-ZnS thin films is dependent on the zinc source material. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Self-catalyst growth process is useful for the growth of thin films by CBD method. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer It is expected to improve the conversion efficiency of CuIn{sub 1-x}Ga{sub x}Se{sub 2} solar cells.

  13. Dual-bath Plating of Composition Modulated Alloys (CMA) based on a newly developed Computer Controlled Plating System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tang, Peter Torben; Leisner, Peter; Møller, Per; Nielsen, C. Bergenstof; NabiRahni, D.M.A.

    1994-01-01

    computer controlled plating system for producing large scale CMA-coatings. Employing a dual-bath technique, multilayered materials with more than 1000 alternating layers have been manufactured and investigated. The thickness of each layer ranges from 25 nm to several microns. The characterisation results...

  14. The social construction of bath in two communities temazcal of the mixteca region: Santiago Yolomecatl and San Andres Chicahuaxtla

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Valdés Cobos

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The bathroom of temazcal is a knowledge of pre-Hispanic roots still practiced in rural and indigenous communities in our country. Studies on the temazcal have focused on its forms of construction and operation, however, the many therapeutic benefits temazcal bath attached to the human body, and women in particular, not have been sufficiently documented. In this case, two communities of the Oaxacan mixteca were studied: Santiago Yolomecatl and San Andrés Chicahuaxtla. In this study, a questionnaire was applied to 20 per cent of families in each of the communities, a questionnaire to allopathic doctors and six stories of life at temazcaleras. The results indicate a coincidence between patients and doctors in the study populations on the medicinal uses of the temazcal bath: after childbirth and for muscle aches, however, interviewed temazcaleras indicate diseases that cures this bath are: angina, flu, rheumatism,scars, muscle aches after childbirth and cramping. For its part, doctors support the idea of preserving the temazcal bath because it is a healing means to treat diseases through steam and faster recovery of the body. The constructivist analysis of the responses gathered in questionnaires and life stories shows that the medicinal uses of the temazcal, before being recognised as such go through a process of evaluation, filtration and social construction. This process of acceptance, perception and recognition occurs through rules of knowledge, ideological connotations, rules and socialsymbols.

  15. Harmonic oscillator in heat bath: Exact simulation of time-lapse-recorded data and exact analytical benchmark statistics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørrelykke, Simon F; Flyvbjerg, Henrik

    2011-01-01

    The stochastic dynamics of the damped harmonic oscillator in a heat bath is simulated with an algorithm that is exact for time steps of arbitrary size. Exact analytical results are given for correlation functions and power spectra in the form they acquire when computed from experimental time-laps...

  16. Efficacy of 6-, 12-, and 24-h praziquantel bath treatments against Asian tapeworm Bothriocephalus acheilognathi in grass carp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Praziquantel is an effective antihelmintic that has been used in dogs and cats as a de-wormer. It has also been used successfully against tapeworms and trematodes in fish. The current study tested the efficacy of praziquantel bath treatments at various concentrations (0.187, 0.375, 0.75, 1.5, 3.0,...

  17. The structure of coatings obtained in the Zn-31Al-3Mg bath by the batch hot dip method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zn-Al dip coatings provide effective protection of steel surface against corrosion - better than traditional zinc coatings. Corrosion resistance can be further increased by adding Mg to the bath. Coatings obtained in Zn-Al-Mg baths are produced on metal plates by applying the continuous method. In this paper the author presents the results of tests on obtaining Zn-Al-Mg coatings on products with limited shape by use of the batch hot dip method. The growth kinetics of coatings obtained in the Zn-31Al-3Mg bath on steel with low silicon contents has been defined. The structure has been developed and the chemical composition of particular structural components of the coating has be established. It has been determined that the structure of coatings obtained in the Zn-31Al-3Mg bath is continuous. The course of reaction between the tested steel and liquid Zn-31Al-3Mg alloy is very abrupt, which leads to the formation of coatings with excess and non-uniform thickness.

  18. 77 FR 45242 - Revisions to Safety Standards for Durable Infant or Toddler Products: Infant Bath Seats and Full...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-31

    ... stringent. 75 FR 31691. ASTM notified us that the current version of the ASTM standard for infant bath seats..., with two modifications to ] make the standard more stringent. 75 FR 81766. ASTM notified us that the..., family child care homes, and places of public accommodation. 75 FR 81786-87. The crib rule...

  19. THE SOCIAL CONSTRUCTION OF BATH IN TWO COMMUNITIES TEMAZCAL OF THE MIXTECA REGION: SANTIAGO YOLOMECATL AND SAN ANDRES CHICAHUAXTLA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Valdés-Cobos

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The bathroom of temazcal is a knowledge of pre-Hispanic roots still practiced in rural and indigenous communities in our country. Studies on the temazcal have focused on its forms of construction and operation, however, the many therapeutic benefits temazcal bath attached to the human body, and women in particular, not have been sufficiently documented. In this case, two communities of the Oaxacan mixteca were studied: Santiago Yolomecatl and San Andrés Chicahuaxtla. In this study, a questionnaire was applied to 20 per cent of families in each of the communities, a questionnaire to allopathic doctors and six stories of life at temazcaleras. The results indicate a coincidence between patients and doctors in the study populations on the medicinal uses of the temazcal bath: after childbirth and for muscle aches, however, interviewed temazcaleras indicate diseases that cures this bath are: angina, flu, rheumatism, scars, muscle aches after childbirth and cramping. For its part, doctors support the idea of preserving the temazcal bath because it is a healing means to treat diseases through steam and faster recovery of the body. The constructivist analysis of the responses gathered in questionnaires and life stories shows that the medicinal uses of the temazcal, before being recognised as such go through a process of evaluation, filtration and social construction. This process of acceptance, perception and recognition occurs through rules of knowledge, ideological connotations, rules and social symbols.

  20. Harmonic oscillator in heat bath: Exact simulation of time-lapse-recorded data and exact analytical benchmark statistics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørrelykke, Simon F; Flyvbjerg, Henrik

    2011-01-01

    The stochastic dynamics of the damped harmonic oscillator in a heat bath is simulated with an algorithm that is exact for time steps of arbitrary size. Exact analytical results are given for correlation functions and power spectra in the form they acquire when computed from experimental time...

  1. 30 CFR 75.1712-3 - Minimum requirements of surface bathing facilities, change rooms, and sanitary toilet facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... supply of toilet paper shall be provided with each toilet. (v) Adequate handwashing facilities or hand... facilities, change rooms, and sanitary toilet facilities. 75.1712-3 Section 75.1712-3 Mineral Resources MINE... facilities, change rooms, and sanitary toilet facilities. (a) All bathing facilities, change rooms,...

  2. Two-dimensional spectroscopy for harmonic vibrational modes with nonlinear system-bath interactions. II. Gaussian-Markovian case

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tanimura, Y; Steffen, T

    2000-01-01

    The relaxation processes in a quantum system nonlinearly coupled to a harmonic Gaussian-Markovian heat bath are investigated by the quantum Fokker-Planck equation in the hierarchy form. This model describes frequency fluctuations in the quantum system with an arbitrary correlation time and thus brid

  3. 坐浴床的研制与临床应用%Development and Clinical Application of Sitz Bed Bath

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    颜峰; 卢克群

    2014-01-01

    Objective To explore the development and the effect of clinical application of sitz bath bed.Methods Patients were randomly divided into three groups , A, B and C.The patients in group A take a squatting bath directly , and patients in group B and C adopt the sitz bath chair and sitz bath bed respectively.Then the duration time , wound healing time , comfort and satisfaction level of the sitz bath in the three groups were compared.Results The duration time , wound healing time , comfort and satisfaction level of sitz bath in the group C and group A have a significant difference ( P<0.01 );Group C and group B have significant difference in wound healing time , comfort and satisfaction level ( P <0.05 ).Conclusion The sitz bath bed is convenient and comfortable and plays an active role in clinical treatment , and it is worth popularization and clinical application.%目的:探讨坐浴床的研制及临床应用效果。方法将患者随机分为A、B、C 3组,A组直接蹲在地上,B组坐在普通坐浴椅上,C组患者坐在坐浴床上,比较3组患者每次坐浴持续时间、切口愈合时间、舒适度和满意度的情况。结果 C组与A组患者坐浴持续时间、切口愈合时间、舒适度、满意度的比较差异有统计学意义( P<0.01);C组与B组患者在坐浴持续时间上无明显差异(P>0.05),在切口愈合时间、舒适度和满意度比较差异有统计学意义(P<0.05)。结论本坐浴床使用方便、舒适,坐浴效果好,值得临床推广应用。

  4. Excretion of radon in expired air after bathing and drinking of radioactive hot spring water at Misasa spa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The radon (Rn) content in expired air after bathing in, exposure in a hot air room to and drinking of Misasa radioactive hot spring water was determined, using an ionization chamber equipped with a vibrating reed electrometer. (1) The Rn contents in the indoor and outdoor air of Misasa spa were 0.5 - 1.0 pCi/l and 0.4 - 0.7 pCi/l, respectively. (2) The highest Rn content in the expired air of subjects bathed in radioactive hot spring (Rn 58.0 x 10-10 Ci/kg) was immediately after bathing, 10.8 - 25.9 pCi/l (bathing for 5 min), 16.8 - 27.9 pCi/l (for 10 min) and 38.8 - 59.3 pCi/l (for 15 min). The Rn content in expired air was reduced to about 1.0 pCi/l in 120 - 180 min. The longer the bathing time and the younger the subjects, the higher the Rn content in expired air. (3) The highest the Rn content in the expired air of subjects exposed in a hot air room (Rn in air 54.3 x 10-10 Ci/l, staying for 15 min) was 4.9 - 7.8 pCi/l. (4) The Rn content in the expired air of subjects immediately after drinking radioactive spring water (Rn content 596.8 x 10-10 Ci/kg, drinking 500 ml) was the highest, and 28.0 - 101.5 pCi/l, and reduced to about 1.3 pCi/l in 180 min. (J.P.N.)

  5. Parion Yamaç Hamamı / The Slope Bath of Parion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ersin Çelikbaş

    2015-05-01

    şılmıştır. Anahtar Kelimeler: Parion, Roma hamamı, hypocaust, sikke, laconicum. The Slope Bath of Parion Abstract The Slope Bath of Parion where the excavations were begun in 2008 located on the western slope of the hill 300 m east of the acropolis and the theatre, 100 m northeast of the Sedat-Naciye NUROVA Parion Excavation House. During survey works carried out on the slope a vaulted strocture remain of 1 m diameter was observed. The vaulted structure remain was thought to be related to the wall remain or to belong to either an important structure or structure group therefore the desicion for excavating this area was given. The Slope Bath having nine sections revealed during excavations so far, besides sheding light to the social and economical aspects of Parion, does present significant information regarding the architecture of the city. These revealed sections are significant due to their different features. By having no similar examples in Anatolia the laconicum section does give an idea about the bath’s architect. The need of a very hot section in a geography where the climate is warm will be investigated in this work. Other sections revealed during excavations besides the laconicum will be introduced in light of similar examples. Along with the structure’s architecture discovered artifacts will also be introduced with regards to their relation to the structure. Additionally the localization of the bath has been introduced and the effect of the close proximity of the location to the harbour on the desicion making of the bath’s location has been mentioned. Finally by investigating the finds and architectural remains discovered during Excavations preliminary conclusions on the Slope Bath’s construction date and usage phases have been reached. Keywords: Parion, Roman bath, hypocaust, coin, laconicum, acropolis.

  6. Chemical bath deposition of semiconductor thin films & nanostructures in novel microreactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    McPeak, Kevin M.

    Chemical bath deposition (CBD) offers a simple and inexpensive route to deposit semiconductor nanostructures and thin films, but lack of fundamental understanding and control of the underlying chemistry has limited its versatility. CBD is traditionally performed in a batch reactor, requiring only a substrate to be immersed in a supersaturated solution of aqueous precursors such as metal salts, complexing agents, and pH buffers. Highlights of CBD include low cost, operation at low temperature and atmospheric pressure, and scalability to large area substrates. In this dissertation, I explore CBD of semiconductor thin films and nanowire arrays in batch and continuous flow microreactors. Microreactors offer many advantages over traditional reactor designs including a reduction in mass transport limitations, precise temperature control and ease of production scale-up by "numbering up". Continuous flow micoreactors offer the unique advantage of providing reaction conditions that are time-invariant but change smoothly as a function of distance down the reaction channel. Growth from a bath whose composition changes along the reactor length results in deposited materials whose properties vary as a function of position on the substrate, essentially creating a combinatorial library. These substrates can be rapidly characterized to identify relationships between growth conditions and material properties or growth mechanisms. I have used CBD in a continuous flow microreactor to deposit ZnO nanowire arrays and CdZnS films whose optoelectronic properties vary as a function of position. The spatially-dependent optoelectronic properties of these materials have been correlated to changes in the composition, structure or growth mechanisms of the materials and ultimately their growth conditions by rigorous spatial characterization. CBD in a continuous flow microreactor, coupled with spatial characterization, provides a new route to understanding the connection between CBD growth

  7. Clinical Observation on Combined Tuina and Medicated Bath for Early Intervention of Neonatal Brain Injuries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘振寰; 丁建英; 韩丑萍

    2010-01-01

    目的:观察推拿、药浴等中医疗法早期干预对婴儿脑损伤的临床疗效.方法:对60例中重度脑损伤婴儿进行小儿健脑推拿及中药浴式水疗,同时配合中医传统五行音乐聆听及运动疗法等治疗.分别于治疗前、治疗3个月后采用Gesell测查法进行发育商(Development Quotient,DQ)评估,并在治疗1年半后进行远期随访.结果:治疗前、治疗3个月及一年半后发育商分别为(34.98±28.94),(66.17±14.91)和(75.40±14.69),与治疗前比较,治疗3个月及一年半后发育商各指标均有显著提高(P=0.000).结论:对脑损伤婴儿进行推拿中医早期干预可促进大脑发育,修复神经损伤,促进运动、认知的发育,有效预防神经系统后遗症的发生.%Objective: To observe the clinical effect of early intervention of combined tuina with medicated bath for neonatal brain injuries.Methods: Brain-benefiting tuina manipulations,medicated bath and music plus exercise therapies were employed in 60 infants with medium or severe brain injuries.The Gesell measurement methods were adopted prior to and 3 months after treatment to evaluate the development quotient(DQ).In addition,the long-term follow-up was made after one and a half years.Result: The scores of DQ prior to treatment,3 month after treatment and 1.5 years after treatment were(34.98±28.94),(66.17±14.91)and(75.40±14.69)respectively,showing a marked improvement after 3months and 1.5 years of treatment(P=0.000).Conclusion: Early intervention using tuina manipulations could enhance the brain development,repair the nerve injury,improve the motion and cognitive ability and prevent the sequela of the nervous system.

  8. Unexplained neurological events during bathing in young people: Possible association with the use of gas geysers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh Prabhjeet

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Here, we report sudden, unexplained neurological collapse in 14 young people while bathing with hot water associated with the use of liquefied petroleum gas (LPG-based water heaters (gas geysers in ill-ventilated bathrooms. None of the patients reported any circumstantial evidence of seizures or prior epilepsy. One patient developed cortical blindness and demonstrated posterior leucoencephalopathy on imaging studies. The remaining patients made rapid and excellent recovery without any residual neurological sequelae. In these cases, the results of all routine investigations, i.e., serum chemistry, brain imaging (computed tomography in 2 and magnetic resonance imaging in 10 and electroencephalography were normal. The clinical clustering of these cases in winter months with similar presentations of reversible encephalopathy probably indicates an inhalational toxin exposure. Therefore, we postulate a hypothesis that harmful emissions consisting of carbon monoxide (CO, hydrocarbon gases (HC and nitrogen oxides (NOx, produced by incomplete combustion of LPG might be responsible for the cellular injury and subsequent transient neurological deficits. Physicians should be aware of this entity in order to avoid misdiagnosis of this condition as seizures, and a public awareness should also be created regarding the proper use of these devices.

  9. Preparation and Characterization of SnO2 thin films deposited by Chemical Bath Deposition method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yusuf, Gbadebo T.; Raimi, Adepoju M.; Familusi, Timothy O.; Awodugba, Ayodeji O.; Efunwole, Hezekiah O.

    2013-04-01

    SnO2 thin films have been deposited onto the soda lime glass substrates by the chemical bath deposition method. The structural and optical properties of the SnO2 thin films were investigated. Tin chloride solution (SnCl2) and methanol were used as starting materials at substrate temperature 300^oC. The crystal structure and orientation of the SnO2 thin films were investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns. The average grain size of the films was calculated using the Scherer formula and was found to be 29.6 nm which increased to 30.04nm after annealing in air at 400^oC. The optical absorbance and transmittance measurements were recorded by using spectrophotometer. The average transmittance of the film was around 80 % at wavelength 550 nm. The optical band gap of the thin films was determined and found to be 3.71eV. The gas sensing properties of tin oxide thin films obtained in this work could be performed for different gases like CO, CH4, H2S, H2 etc.

  10. Kinetics of the geometric isomerization of cyclohexene in a stochastic bath

    Science.gov (United States)

    Depaepe, J. M.; Ryckaert, J. P.; Bellemans, A.

    Rare-events molecular dynamics techniques are used to study the interconversion between the two half-chair isomers of cyclohexene (C6H10), in a solvent modelled through a stochastic bath, in order to investigate dynamic solvent effects on the isomerization rate. Adopting the torsional angle around the C-C sigma bond opposite to the double bond as the reaction coordinate, we calculate the equilibrium distribution of this coordinate (using umbrella sampling), and estimate the isomerization rate, including the transmission coefficient κ. The paper also contains methodological developments. A variant of Andersen's stochastic collision method (canonical ensemble sampling) is developed for molecules with constraints: by resampling Cartesian velocities of a localized subgroup of atoms of the molecule and leaving all other atomic velocity components unchanged, one mimics the collision of a virtual gas molecule with a subpart of the molecule of interest. To evaluate the transmission coefficient κ, the initial conditions for trajectories 'crossing the top' are automatically generated during the run, using a biased potential to obtain the probability of being at the saddle point.

  11. Impact of agricultural practices and river catchment characteristics on river and bathing water quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aitken, M N

    2003-01-01

    The objective was to investigate the potential risk of faecal indicator organism (FIO) bacteriological contamination of river catchments and coastal bathing waters from farm management practices and to develop practices to reduce the risk. A risk assessment on 117 farms was carried out in two river catchments in south-west Scotland. Manure storage facilities, farming practices, field conditions and catchment characteristics were assessed. River samples at 33 locations were regularly taken and analysed for FIOs. Available manure storage capacity and farm management practices are inadequate on a high proportion of farms and FIO contamination of watercourses was likely the result of effluent transported into watercourses due to non-collection or poor containment. In addition, surface run-off or leaching following land application of manure or intensive stocking in adverse conditions was a high risk on up to 50% of farms. The concentrations of FIOs in the streams of two sub-catchments with high livestock intensity was 4 to 8 times higher compared to the two sub-catchments which had a low livestock intensity. The majority of potential risks of agricultural pollution to watercourses may be eliminated through improved manure and dirty water management, forward planning of manure spreading activities and improved operational procedures. PMID:15137173

  12. Synthesis of CdS nanostructures using template-assisted ammonia-free chemical bath deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preda, N.; Enculescu, M.; Gherendi, F.; Matei, E.; Toimil-Molares, M. E.; Enculescu, I.

    2012-09-01

    CdS micro- and nano-structures (micro/nanotubes and nanostructured films) were obtained by ammonia-free chemical bath deposition using polymer templates (ion track-etched polycarbonate membranes and poly(styrene-hydroxyethyl methacrylate) nanosphere arrays). The semiconductor structures were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), optical absorption, photoluminescence and electrical measurements. The diameters of CdS tubes are between 300 nm and few microns and the lengths are up to tens of micrometers. The SEM images prove that the CdS films are nanostructured due to the deposition on the polymer nanosphere arrays. For both CdS structures (tubes and films) the XRD patterns show a hexagonal phase. The optical studies reveal a band gap value of about 2.5-2.6 eV and a red luminescence at ˜1.77 eV. A higher increase of conductivity is observed for illuminating the CdS nanostructured film when compared to the simple semiconductor film. This is a consequence of the periodic patterning induced by the polymer nanosphere array.

  13. Structural, electrical and optical properties of copper selenide thin films deposited by chemical bath deposition technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A low cost chemical bath deposition (CBD) technique has been used for the preparation of Cu2-xSe thin films on glass substrates. Structural, electrical and optical properties of these films were investigated. X-ray diffraction (XRD) study of the Cu2-xSe films annealed at 523K suggests a cubic structure with a lattice constant of 5.697A. Chemical composition was investigated by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). It reveals that absorbed oxygen in the film decreases remarkably on annealing above 423K. The Cu/Se ratio was observed to be the same in as-deposited and annealed films. Both as- deposited and annealed films show very low resistivity in the range of (0.04- 0.15) x 10-5 Ω-m. Transmittance and Reflectance were found in the range of 5-50% and 2-20% respectively. Optical absorption of the films results from free carrier absorption in the near infrared region with absorption coefficient of ∼108 m-1. The band gap for direct transition, Eg.dir varies in the range of 2.0-2.3eV and that for indirect transition Eg.indir is in the range of 1.25-1.5eV.1. (author)

  14. Investigation of chemical bath deposition of CdO thin films using three different complexing agents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khallaf, Hani [Department of Physics, University of Central Florida, Orlando, FL 32816 (United States); Chen, Chia-Ta; Chang, Liann-Be [Graduate Institute of Electro-Optical Engineering, Chang Gung University, Kweishan, Taoyuan 333, Taiwan (China); Green Technology Research Center, Chang Gung University, Kweishan, Taoyuan 333, Taiwan (China); Lupan, Oleg [Department of Physics, University of Central Florida, Orlando, FL 32816 (United States); Department of Microelectronics and Semiconductor Devices, Technical University of Moldova, 168 Stefan cel Mare Boulevard, MD-2004 Chisinau, Republic of Moldova (Moldova, Republic of); Dutta, Aniruddha; Heinrich, Helge [Department of Physics, University of Central Florida, Orlando, FL 32816 (United States); Advanced Materials Processing and Analysis Centre, Department of Mechanical, Materials, and Aerospace Engineering, University of Central Florida, Orlando, FL 32816 (United States); Shenouda, A. [Central Metallurgical R and D Institute (CMRDI), Tebbin, P.O. Box 87, Helwan (Egypt); Chow, Lee, E-mail: Lee.Chow@ucf.edu [Department of Physics, University of Central Florida, Orlando, FL 32816 (United States); Advanced Materials Processing and Analysis Centre, Department of Mechanical, Materials, and Aerospace Engineering, University of Central Florida, Orlando, FL 32816 (United States)

    2011-09-01

    Chemical bath deposition of CdO thin films using three different complexing agents, namely ammonia, ethanolamine, and methylamine is investigated. CdSO{sub 4} is used as Cd precursor, while H{sub 2}O{sub 2} is used as an oxidation agent. As-grown films are mainly cubic CdO{sub 2}, with some Cd(OH){sub 2} as well as CdO phases being detected. Annealing at 400 deg. C in air for 1 h transforms films into cubic CdO. The calculated optical band gap of as-grown films is in the range of 3.37-4.64 eV. Annealed films have a band gap of about 2.53 eV. Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy of as-grown films reveals cadmium to oxygen ratio of 1.00:1.74 {+-} 0.01 while much better stoichiometry is obtained after annealing, in accordance with the X-ray diffraction results. A carrier density as high as 1.89 x 10{sup 20} cm{sup -3} and a resistivity as low as 1.04 x 10{sup -2} {Omega}-cm are obtained.

  15. Tuning the effective coupling of an AFM lever to a thermal bath

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fabrication of high quality nano-electromechanical systems (NEMS) is nowadays extremely efficient. These NEMS will be used as sensors and actuators in integrated systems. Their use, however, raises questions about their interface (actuation, detection, read out) with external detection and control systems. Their operation implies many fundamental questions related to single particle effects such as Coulomb blockade, light matter interactions such as radiation pressure, thermal effects, Casimir forces and the coupling of nanosystems to the external world (thermal fluctuations, back action effect). Here we specifically present how the damping of an oscillating cantilever can be tuned in two radically different ways: (i) through an electromechanical coupling in the presence of a strong Johnson noise, (ii) through an external feedback control of thermal fluctuations which is the cold damping closely related to Maxwell's demon. This shows how the interplay between external control of micro-EMS (MEMS) or NEMS and their coupling to a thermal bath can lead to a wealth of effects that are nowadays extensively studied in different areas

  16. Electrochromic properties of porous NiO thin films prepared by a chemical bath deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xia, X.H.; Tu, J.P.; Zhang, J.; Wang, X.L. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China); Zhang, W.K.; Huang, H. [College of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science, Zhejiang University of Technology, Hangzhou 310032 (China)

    2008-06-15

    Highly porous nickel oxide thin films were prepared on ITO glass by a simple chemical bath deposition (CBD) method in combination with a following heat-treatment process. XRD analysis revealed that the as-deposited precursor film contained {beta}-Ni(OH){sub 2} and {gamma}-NiOOH, and they changed to cubic polycrystalline NiO after annealing. The FTIR results showed presence of free hydroxyl ion and water in the NiO thin films. The electrochromic properties of NiO thin films were investigated in an aqueous alkaline electrolyte (1 M KOH) by means of transmittance, cyclic voltammetry (CV) and chronoamperometry (CA) measurements. The NiO thin film annealed at 300 C exhibited a noticeable electrochromism and good memory effect. The coloration efficiency was calculated to be 42 cm{sup 2} C{sup -1} at 550 nm, with a variation of transmittance up to 82%. The porous NiO thin films also showed good reaction kinetics with fast switching speed, and the coloration and bleaching time were 8 and 10 s, respectively. (author)

  17. Characterization and Microhardness of Electrodeposited Ni-W Coatings Obtained from Gluconate Bath

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bera, Parthasarathi; Kumar, M. Dinesh; Anandan, Chinnasamy; Shivakumara, C.

    2015-11-01

    Ni-W alloy coatings are electrodeposited with direct and pulse current using gluconate bath at pH5. Effects of direct current (DC) and pulse current (PC) on structural characteristics of the coatings have been investigated by energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDXS), X-ray diffraction (XRD), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). EDXS shows that W contents are 13.3 and 12.6 at.% in DC and PC (10:40) Ni-W coatings, respectively. FESEM analysis exhibits the homogeneous coarse nodular morphology in DC plated deposits. DSC studies reveal that Ni-W coatings are thermally stable up to 400°C. XPS studies demonstrate that DC plated coating has significant amount of Ni and W in elemental form along with their respective oxidized species. In contrast, mainly oxidized metals are present in the as-deposited coatings prepared with PC plating. The microhardness of pulse current (100:400) deposited Ni-W coating is about 750 HK that is much higher than DC plated coating (635 HK). Heat treatment of the deposits carried out at different temperatures show a significant increase in microhardness which can be comparable with hard chromium coatings.

  18. Tuning the morphology of metastable MnS films by simple chemical bath deposition technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhandayuthapani, T.; Girish, M.; Sivakumar, R.; Sanjeeviraja, C.; Gopalakrishnan, R.

    2015-10-01

    In the present investigation, we have prepared the spherical particles, almond-like, and cauliflower-like morphological structures of metastable MnS films on glass substrate by chemical bath deposition technique at low temperature without using any complexing or chelating agent. The morphological change of MnS films with molar ratio may be due to the oriented aggregation of adjacent particles. The compositional purity of deposited film was confirmed by the EDAX study. X-ray diffraction and micro-Raman studies confirm the sulfur source concentration induced enhancement in the crystallization of films with metastable MnS phase (zinc-blende β-MnS, and wurtzite γ-MnS). The shift in PL emission peak with molar ratio may be due to the change in optical energy band gap of the MnS, which was further confirmed by the optical absorbance study. The paramagnetic behavior of the sample was confirmed by the M-H plot.

  19. Coupled Nosé-Hoover equations of motion to implement a fluctuating heat-bath temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukuda, Ikuo; Moritsugu, Kei

    2016-03-01

    The Nosé-Hoover (NH) equation provides a universal and powerful computer simulation protocol to realize an equilibrium canonical temperature for a target physical system. Here we demonstrate a general formalism to couple such NH equations. We provide a coupled NH equation that is constructed by coupling the NH equation of a target physical system and the NH equation of a temperature system. Thus, in contrast to the conventional single NH equation, the heat-bath temperature is a dynamical variable. The temperature fluctuations are not ad hoc, but instead are generated by the newly defined temperature system, and the statistical distribution of the temperature is completely described with an arbitrarily given probability function. The current equations of motion thus describe the physical system that develops with a predistributed fluctuating temperature, which allows enhanced sampling of the physical system. Since the total system is governed by a prescribed distribution, the equilibrium of the physical system is also reconstructed by reweighting. We have formulated a scheme for specifically setting the distribution of the dynamical inverse temperature and demonstrate the statistical relationship between the dynamical and physical temperatures. The statistical features, dynamical properties, and sampling abilities of the current method are demonstrated via the distributions, trajectories, dynamical correlations, and free energy landscapes for both a model system and a biomolecular system. These results indicated that the current coupled NH scheme works well.

  20. SIMPRE1.2: Considering the hyperfine and quadrupolar couplings and the nuclear spin bath decoherence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardona-Serra, Salvador; Escalera-Moreno, Luis; Baldoví, José J; Gaita-Ariño, Alejandro; Clemente-Juan, Juan M; Coronado, Eugenio

    2016-05-15

    SIMPRE is a fortran77 code which uses an effective electrostatic model of point charges to predict the magnetic behavior of rare-earth-based mononuclear complexes. In this article, we present SIMPRE1.2, which now takes into account two further phenomena. First, SIMPRE now considers the hyperfine and quadrupolar interactions within the rare-earth ion, resulting in a more complete and realistic set of energy levels and wave functions. Second, and to widen SIMPRE's predictive capabilities regarding potential molecular spin qubits, it now includes a routine that calculates an upper-bound estimate of the decoherence time considering only the dipolar coupling between the electron spin and the surrounding nuclear spin bath. Additionally, SIMPRE now allows the user to introduce the crystal field parameters manually. Thus, we are able to demonstrate the new features using as examples (i) a Gd-based mononuclear complex known for its properties both as a single ion magnet and as a coherent qubit and (ii) an Er-based mononuclear complex. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26833799

  1. Influence of Triethanolamine on the Chemical Bath Deposited NiS Thin Films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anuar Kassim

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Recently, many scientists looking for new chalcogenide materials for the solar cell applications. Nowadays, silicon-based solar cell became dominant products in the market. Because of expensive silicon-based solar cells, scientists hope replaces it with cheaper chalcogenide materials. Approach: The binary chalcogenide materials were deposited onto microscope glass slide using simple chemical bath deposition method. Here, we study the influence of complexing agent in the preparation of thin films. The structural and morphological of the deposited films have been studied using X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy, respectively. Results: The X-ray diffraction data showed that the films had polycrystalline in nature with hexagonal structure. The films deposited using 0.1 M of triethanolamine showed more NiS peaks and larger grain sizes as compared with 0.05M and 0.2 M triethanolamine based on the X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy analysis, respectively. Conclusion: The complexing agent played important role during the deposition process.

  2. Documentation of Historical Building via Virtual Tour: the Complex Building of Baths in Strasbourg

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koehl, M.; Schneider, A.; Fritsch, E.; Fritsch, F.; Rachedi, A.; Guillemin, S.

    2013-07-01

    The virtual visits exist for several years and rest on open source or professional software packages allowing to realize complete animations. The historic buildings are often fragile, sometimes difficultly and only partially accessible. It is the complex case of the building of the municipal baths of Strasbourg, France, object of this study. It is thus interesting to use the technologies of the virtual visits to document a historic building. If we content ourselves only of panoramic images, the visitor cannot take completely advantage of the site, especially if he does not know it in advance. It is a question of proposing to the visitor a guided tour, constrained, allowing him to move on to all the recommended places. Then to supply him further information on the most significant parts and to propose him images of archive to make comparisons. Of course, if he wants to walk alone in and around the building, he will have the leisure of it, but at his own risk. To realize such a visit, the paper shows the various necessary stages of elaboration, in particular by beginning with the writing of a scenario of the visit. This project written in several hands allowed to combine the knowledge of diverse actors working in the field of the inventory and of the heritage valorisation.

  3. Morphology of CdSe films prepared by chemical bath deposition: The role of substrate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simurda, M. [Charles University in Prague, Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, Ke Karlovu 3, 121 16 Prague 2 (Czech Republic); Nemec, P. [Charles University in Prague, Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, Ke Karlovu 3, 121 16 Prague 2 (Czech Republic)]. E-mail: nemec@karlov.mff.cuni.cz; Formanek, P. [Institut fuer Strukturphysik, Technische Universitaet Dresden, Zellescher Weg 16, D-01062 Dresden (Germany); Nemec, I. [Charles University in Prague, Faculty of Science, Albertov 6, 128 43 Prague 2 (Czech Republic); Nemcova, Y. [Charles University in Prague, Faculty of Science, Albertov 6, 128 43 Prague 2 (Czech Republic); Maly, P. [Charles University in Prague, Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, Ke Karlovu 3, 121 16 Prague 2 (Czech Republic)

    2006-07-26

    We combine optical spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy to study the growth and the structural morphology of CdSe films prepared by chemical bath deposition (CBD) on two considerably different substrates. The films grown on glass are compact and strongly adherent to the substrate. On the contrary, the films deposited on carbon-coated glass (with approx. 20 nm thick amorphous carbon layer) are only loosely adherent to the substrate. Using transmission electron microscopy we revealed that even though the films grown on both substrates are assembled from closely spaced nanocrystals with diameter of about 5 nm, the films morphology on the sub-micrometer scale is considerably different in the two cases. While the films deposited on glass are rather compact, the films prepared on carbon layer have high porosity and are formed by interconnected spheres which size is dependent on the duration of deposition (e.g. 155 nm for 6 h and 350 nm for 24 h). This shows that the choice of the substrate for CBD has a stronger influence on the sub-micrometer film morphology than on the properties of individual nanocrystals forming the film.

  4. Morphology of CdSe films prepared by chemical bath deposition: The role of substrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We combine optical spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy to study the growth and the structural morphology of CdSe films prepared by chemical bath deposition (CBD) on two considerably different substrates. The films grown on glass are compact and strongly adherent to the substrate. On the contrary, the films deposited on carbon-coated glass (with approx. 20 nm thick amorphous carbon layer) are only loosely adherent to the substrate. Using transmission electron microscopy we revealed that even though the films grown on both substrates are assembled from closely spaced nanocrystals with diameter of about 5 nm, the films morphology on the sub-micrometer scale is considerably different in the two cases. While the films deposited on glass are rather compact, the films prepared on carbon layer have high porosity and are formed by interconnected spheres which size is dependent on the duration of deposition (e.g. 155 nm for 6 h and 350 nm for 24 h). This shows that the choice of the substrate for CBD has a stronger influence on the sub-micrometer film morphology than on the properties of individual nanocrystals forming the film

  5. Electroless Ni-P Deposition on Magnesium Alloy from a Sulfate Bath

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Guangyu; NIU Liyuan; JIANG Qing; JIANG Zhonghao; LIAN Jianshe

    2008-01-01

    A technology for electroless Ni-P deposition on AZ91D from a low cost plating bath containing sulfate nickel was proposed.The seal pretreatment was employed before the electroless Ni-P deposition for the sake of occluding the micro holes of the cast magnesium alloy and interdicting the bubble formation in the Ni-P coating during plating process.And pickling pretreatment can provide a better adhesion between the Ni-P deposition and AZ91D substrate.The deposition speed of the Ni-P coating is 29 um/h.The technology is employed to AZ91D magnesium alloy automobile parts and can provide high hardness and high wear-resistant.The weight losses of Ni-P plated and heat-treated Ni-P plated magnesium alloy specimen are only about I/6 and 1/10 that of bare magnesium alloy specimen after l0 min abrasion wear,respectively.The hardness of the electroless Ni-P plated brake pedal support brackets is 674.1 VHN and 935.7 VHN after 2 hours heat treatments at 180 C.The adhesion of Ni-P coatings on magnesium alloy substrates meets the demands of ISO Standards 2819.The technology is environment friendly and cannot cause hazard to environment because of absence of chromate in the whole process.

  6. [Update of DIN 19.643--treatment and disinfection of swimming pool and bathing tub water].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hässelbarth, U

    1992-08-01

    German Standards Specification DIN 19,643 is at present under revision for health reasons and because of both negative and positive experiences gathered in practice. To enable adaptation of the standards specification to future developments, a Part I of the specification is being created comprising the demands to be made on the quality of the water and general demands on the construction and operation of swimming pools and tubs and basins in bath houses, e.g. in spas or municipal swimming pools. The subsequent parts of the new specification (Part 2 to Part n) concern the demands to be made on individual combinations of processes; these can be supplemented at any time in accordance with technical progress without requiring revision of the entire standards specification. Essential innovations are the reformulation of the required efficiency of disinfection, the introduction of the parameters Legionella pneumophila, trihalogen methane (THM) and the reduction of the limit value for chloramines. Technically speaking, the new features concern the automatic measurement of the auxiliary parameters of hygiene such as redox potential, pH value and free chlorine, automatic control of disinfectant additions, automatic filter rinsing with fluidization of the filter-bed to a prescribed minimum bed expansion, and the sight-glas at the filter container. The demands made on Jacuzzi and warm water spouted bed besins are integrated into the specification, thus obviating the need for German Standards Specification DIN 19,644. PMID:1392275

  7. New method for determination of trihalomethanes in exhaled breath: Applications to swimming pool and bath environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A method for the estimation of the human intake of trihalomethanes (THMs), namely chloroform, bromodichloromethane, dibromochloromethane and bromoform, during showering and bathing is reported. The method is based on the determination of these compounds in exhaled breath that is collected by solid adsorption on Tenax using a device specifically designed for this purpose. Instrumental measurements were performed by automatic thermal desorption coupled to gas chromatography with electron capture detection. THMs in exhaled breath samples were determined during showering and swimming pool attendance. The levels of these compounds in indoor air and water were also determined as reference for interpretation of the exhaled breath results. The THM concentrations in exhaled breath of the volunteers measured before the exposure experiments showed a close correspondence with the THMs levels in indoor air where the sampler was located. Limits of detection in exhaled breath were dependent on THM analytes and experimental sites. They ranged between 170 and 710 ng m-3 in the swimming pool studies and between 97 and 460 ng m-3 in the showering studies. Application of this method to THMs determination during showering and swimming pool activities revealed statistically significant increases in THMs concentrations when comparing exhaled breath before and after exposure.

  8. Study of the crystallographic phase change on copper (I) selenide thin films prepared through chemical bath deposition by varying the pH of the solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandoval-Paz, M. G.; Rodríguez, C. A.; Porcile-Saavedra, P. F.; Trejo-Cruz, C.

    2016-07-01

    Copper (I) selenide thin films with orthorhombic and cubic structure were deposited on glass substrates by using the chemical bath deposition technique. The effects of the solution pH on the films growth and subsequently the structural, optical and electrical properties of the films were studied. Films with orthorhombic structure were obtained from baths wherein both metal complex and hydroxide coexist; while films with cubic structure were obtained from baths where the metal hydroxide there is no present. The structural modifications are accompanied by changes in bandgap energy, morphology and electrical resistivity of the films.

  9. [A case of hypersensitivity pneumonitis caused by inhalation of Mycobacterium avium from a home bath with a circulating water system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenmotsu, Hirotsugu; Honda, Atsuro; Baba, Tomohisa; Matsumoto, Yutaka; Shichi, Izumi; Eto, Takashi; Arai, Kazumori

    2005-11-01

    A 26-year-old man presented with complaints of exertional dyspnea and cough. The patient has already been given corticosteroids at a previous hospital. Chest CT revealed small centrilobular nodules with diffuse ground-glass opacities in both lungs. Lung biopsy specimens at thoracoscopy revealed non-necrotizing granulomas, patchy foci of mononuclear cell infiltration and fibrous thickening of alveolar septa, and Masson's bodies in bronchioles. Sputum culture showed the growth of Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC). Culture of water from the bath tub of his home showed MAC. Administration of antituberculous drugs and corticosteroids, and avoidance of bathing at home resulted in the improvement of his symptoms and CT findings. We believe the case is hypersensitivity pneumonitis to MAC in an immunocompetent patient, simulating hot tub lung. Hypersensitivity pneumonitis caused by MAC is rare in Japan. PMID:16366369

  10. How the choice of data reduction can strongly influence uncertainty assessment: A re-analysis of Mn-bath experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Mn-bath technique is widely used, especially by standardization laboratories, for the absolute determination of neutron emission rates. Understanding the limitations of the technique, and in particular the total measurement uncertainty, is crucial if quality results, fit for purpose, are to be reported. In this work, we show that the way in which the acquired data is analyzed can strongly influence the uncertainty assessment. We take a carefully performed set of Mn-bath measurements from the literature as our example and show that the same data when reanalyzed can be used to justify an uncertainty smaller by about an order of magnitude than was originally reported. This finding should caution all those involved in radiation measurements to critically assess their approach to data analysis and to perform a careful uncertainty analysis taking into account possible alternatives.

  11. Effect of condensation product of glycyl–glycine and furfural on electrodeposition of zinc from sulphate bath

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    H B Muralidhara; Y Arthoba Naik; T V Venkatesha

    2006-10-01

    Zinc electrodeposition from sulphate bath was carried out in presence of condensation product formed between glycyl–glycine (GGL) and furfural (FFL). The bath constituents were optimized through Hull cell experiments. Operating parameters such as pH, temperature and current density were also optimized. Current efficiency and throwing power were measured. Polarization study revealed shift of potential towards negative direction in the presence of addition agents. Corrosion resistance test revealed good protection of base metal by zinc coating obtained from developed electrolyte. SEM photomicrographs showed fine-grained deposit in the presence of condensation product. IR spectrum of the deposit showed inclusion of condensation product in the deposit during plating. The consumption of brightener in the lab scale was 7 mLL-1 for 1000 amp-h.

  12. Thermal annealing effect on structural and electrical properties of chemical bath-deposited CdS films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hiie, J. [Tallinn University of Technology, Department of Materials Science, Ehitajate tee 5, 19086 Tallinn (Estonia)], E-mail: jhiie@datanet.ee; Muska, K.; Valdna, V. [Tallinn University of Technology, Department of Materials Science, Ehitajate tee 5, 19086 Tallinn (Estonia); Mikli, V. [Tallinn University of Technology, Centre for Materials Research, Ehitajate tee 5, 19086 Tallinn (Estonia); Taklaja, A. [Tallinn University of Technology, Department of Radio and Communication Engineering, Ehitajate tee 5, 19086 Tallinn (Estonia); Gavrilov, A. [Tallinn University of Technology, Department of Physics, Ehitajate tee 5, 19086 Tallinn (Estonia)

    2008-08-30

    X-ray diffraction (XRD), atomic force microscopy (AFM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) and electrical investigations of CdCl{sub 2}-thiourea-ammonia bath-deposited (CBD) CdS films on glass before and after post-deposition annealing have been carried out. The thiourea (TU) concentration, temperature and H{sub 2}, vacuum and isothermal ambient have been varied at low concentration of cadmium 1 mM. Coverage on glass, resistivity of CdS and mobility of charge carriers could be controlled by temperature, time and ambient of heat-treatment, and by thiourea concentration in bath. It is concluded that sintering of CdS, slow diffusion, incorporation in lattice and vaporization of cadmium chloride are the main factors of the heat-treatment process, responsible for changes in resistivity of CBD CdS.

  13. Effect of Heat Assisted Bath Sonication on the Mechanical and Thermal Deformation Behaviours of Graphene Nanoplatelets Filled Epoxy Polymer Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin-Luen Phua

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Graphene nanoplatelets (GNP filled epoxy composites ranged from 0.2 to 5 vol.% were prepared in this study using simple heat assisted bath sonication for better GNP dispersion and exfoliation. The effects of GNP filler loading via heat assisted bath sonication on the mechanical properties and thermal deformation behaviour were investigated. Improvements on flexural strength and fracture toughness up to 0.4 vol.% filler loading were recorded. Further addition of GNP filler loading shows a deteriorating behaviour on the mechanical properties on the composites. The bulk electrical conductivity of the epoxy composites is greatly improved with the addition of GNP filler loading up to 1 vol.%. The thermal expansion of epoxy composites is reduced with the addition of GNP; however poor thermal stability of the composites is observed.

  14. The Optimization of the Oiling Bath Cosmetic Composition Containing Rapeseed Phospholipids and Grapeseed Oil by the Full Factorial Design

    OpenAIRE

    Michał Górecki; Anna Kurek-Górecka; Marian Sosada; Beata Pasker; Monika Pająk; Paweł Fraś

    2015-01-01

    The proper condition of hydrolipid mantle and the stratum corneum intercellular matrix determines effective protection against transepidermal water loss (TEWL). Some chemicals, improper use of cosmetics, poor hygiene, old age and some diseases causes disorder in the mentioned structures and leads to TEWL increase. The aim of this study was to obtain the optimal formulation composition of an oiling bath cosmetic based on rapeseed phospholipids and vegetable oil with high content of polyunsatur...

  15. Preparation and characterization of SnO2 thin film by chemical bath deposition method for solar cell application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Tin oxide thin films were synthesized by chemical bath deposition method on glass substrate .The as-deposited thin films were characterized for compositional, structural, surface morphological, optical and electrical properties. The X-ray diffraction patterns of the sample indicate that all samples are polycrystalline structure. AFM images show that the films consist of small uniform grains and are free of pinholes. (author)

  16. Structure and protein–protein interactions of methanol dehydrogenase from Methylococcus capsulatus (Bath)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Culpepper, Megen A. [Northwestern Univ., Evanston, IL (United States); Rosenzweig, Amy C. [Northwestern Univ., Evanston, IL (United States)

    2014-10-07

    In the initial steps of their metabolic pathway, methanotrophic bacteria oxidize methane to methanol with methane monooxygenases (MMOs) and methanol to formaldehyde with methanol dehydrogenases (MDHs). Several lines of evidence suggest that the membrane-bound or particulate MMO (pMMO) and MDH interact to form a metabolic supercomplex. To further investigate the possible existence of such a supercomplex, native MDH from Methylococcus capsulatus (Bath) has been purified and characterized by size exclusion chromatography with multi-angle light scattering and X-ray crystallography. M. capsulatus (Bath) MDH is primarily a dimer in solution, although an oligomeric species with a molecular mass of ~450–560 kDa forms at higher protein concentrations. The 2.57 Å resolution crystal structure reveals an overall fold and α₂β₂ dimeric architecture similar to those of other MDH structures. In addition, biolayer interferometry studies demonstrate specific protein–protein interactions between MDH and M. capsulatus (Bath) pMMO as well as between MDH and the truncated recombinant periplasmic domains of M. capsulatus (Bath) pMMO (spmoB). These interactions exhibit KD values of 833 ± 409 nM and 9.0 ± 7.7 μM, respectively. The biochemical data combined with analysis of the crystal lattice interactions observed in the MDH structure suggest a model in which MDH and pMMO associate not as a discrete, stoichiometric complex but as a larger assembly scaffolded by the intracytoplasmic membranes.

  17. Preparation and characterisation of nearly stoichiometric CdTe films from a non-aqueous electrodeposition bath

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gore, R. B.; Pandey, Rajendra Kumar; Kumar, S. R.

    1991-06-01

    The cathodic polarisation characteristics and the growth behaviour of CdTe films in an ethylene-glycol-based bath have been studied. Conditions favouring stoichiometric deposition have been examined. The influence of the processing variables on the film properties has also been discussed with the help of the XRD, SEM and XPS studies. It has been shown that the films deposited potentiostatically at -0.8 V are stoichiometric and single phase.

  18. Quantum theory of dissipation of a harmonic oscillator coupled to a nonequilibrium bath; Wigner-Weisskopf decay and physical spectra

    OpenAIRE

    Chaudhuri, Jyotipratim Ray; Deb, Bimalendu; Ray, Gautam Gangopadhyay Deb Shankar

    1999-01-01

    We extend the quantum theory of dissipation in the context of system-reservoir model, where the reservoir in question is kept in a nonequilibrium condition. Based on a systematic separation of time scales involved in the dynamics, appropriate generalizations of the fluctuation-dissipation and Einstein's relations have been pointed out. We show that the Wigner-Weisskopf decay of the system mode results in a rate constant which depending on the relaxation of nonequilibrium bath is dynamically m...

  19. Statistic evaluation of cysteine and allyl alcohol as additives for Cu-Zn coatings from citrate baths

    OpenAIRE

    Julyana Ribeiro Garcia; Dalva Cristina Baptista do Lago; Fernando Lucas Gonçalves Silva; Eliane D'Elia; Aderval Severino Luna; Lilian Ferreira de Senna

    2013-01-01

    In the present work, cysteine and allyl alcohol were added to citrate baths as additives to Cu-Zn coatings on steel substrates. In order to verify the effects of the deposition parameters (current density, mechanical stirring speed, and additives) on the coating composition, electrochemical behavior, morphology, and microstructure properties of Cu-Zn coatings, the electrodeposition of the alloy was carried out using an experimental composite design 2³, in which these parameters were considere...

  20. Variations in microbial indicator densities in beach waters and health-related assessment of bathing water quality.

    OpenAIRE

    Cheung, W. H.; Chang, K C; Hung, R. P.

    1991-01-01

    Daily and hourly variations in microbial indicators densities in the beach-waters of Hong Kong have been described. The levels of Escherichia coli at a number of beaches was observed to be influenced by tide, and for staphylococci, by bather numbers. The tidal influence was most obvious during spring tides; and for the effect of bathers, during neap tides. Both organisms are present in high densities in external sources of faecal pollution of bathing beaches, with the average staphylococci to...

  1. Effect of plating time on growth of nanocrystalline Ni–P from sulphate/glycine bath by electroless deposition method

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    N Latha; V Raj; M Selvam

    2013-08-01

    Nanocrystalline nickel phosphorus (NC-Ni–P) deposits from sulphate/glycine bath using a simple electroless deposition process is demonstrated. In the present investigation, nanoporous alumina films are formed on the aluminium surface by anodization process followed by deposition of nickel onto the pores by electroless plating method. Anodic aluminium oxide surface was first sensitized and activated by using palladium chloride solution before immersing into the electroless nickel bath. Electroless nickel plating was carried out from the optimized bath by changing the deposition time from 20 to 1800 s at a constant temperature of 80 °C and a pH of 4.0. Surface morphology, elemental composition, structure and reflectance of the deposits have been analysed by using scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray analysis, X-ray diffractometry and UV-visible spectroscopic studies, respectively. Electroless nickel deposits formed at an early stage produces dense uniform nanocrystals containing higher percentage of atomic phosphorus with cubic Ni (111) structure. As the deposition time increased, nanocrystalline sharp peak became amorphous and dimension of the crystal size varied from 54 to 72 nm.

  2. Manipulating Crystallization of Organolead Mixed-Halide Thin Films in Antisolvent Baths for Wide-Bandgap Perovskite Solar Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yuanyuan; Yang, Mengjin; Game, Onkar S; Wu, Wenwen; Kwun, Joonsuh; Strauss, Martin A; Yan, Yanfa; Huang, Jinsong; Zhu, Kai; Padture, Nitin P

    2016-01-27

    Wide-bandgap perovskite solar cells (PSCs) based on organolead (I, Br)-mixed halide perovskites (e.g., MAPbI2Br and MAPbIBr2 perovskite with bandgaps of 1.77 and 2.05 eV, respectively) are considered as promising low-cost alternatives for application in tandem or multijunction photovoltaics (PVs). Here, we demonstrate that manipulating the crystallization behavior of (I, Br)-mixed halide perovskites in antisolvent bath is critical for the formation of smooth, dense thin films of these perovskites. Since the growth of perovskite grains from a precursor solution tends to be more rapid with increasing Br content, further enhancement in the nucleation rate becomes necessary for the effective decoupling of the nucleation and the crystal-growth stages in Br-rich perovskites. This is enabled by introducing simple stirring during antisolvent-bathing, which induces enhanced advection transport of the extracted precursor-solvent into the bath environment. Consequently, wide-bandgap planar PSCs fabricated using these high quality mixed-halide perovskite thin films, Br-rich MAPbIBr2, in particular, show enhanced PV performance. PMID:26726763

  3. Water bath hyperthermia is a simple therapy for psoriasis and also stimulates skin tanning in response to sunlight

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An eight week trial, involving superficial hyperthermia delivered biweekly via simple water bath immersion, was tested for its ability to clear mild to moderate psoriatic lesions. Seven patients were treated and three cases rapidly improved. In the remaining patients, the treatment frequency was increased to alternate days; two cases improved significantly, one patient showed a partial response, and the fourth had no visible change (this was the only patient taking concurrent drug therapy - etretinate). In addition to resolving psoriatic lesions, water bath hyperthermia also reduced edema (swelling) and relieved pruritus (itching) in all patients, both during the treatment period and for up to several months after lesions had returned. Lesion reappearance occurred within one to three months after the last heat treatment. We retreated one patient and produced a second complete remission. These results indicate that simple repetitive water bath hyperthermia alone is effective in the treatment of psoriatic lesions in heatable locations. An unexpected side effect was enhanced melanin content (tanning) in all areas where hyperthermia treated skin was exposed to sunlight. (author)

  4. Aloe vera bathing improved physical and humoral protection in breeding stock after induced spawning in matrinxã (Brycon amazonicus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanuzzo, Fábio S; Zaiden, Sérgio F; Senhorini, José A; Marzocchi-Machado, Cleni M; Urbinati, Elisabeth C

    2015-07-01

    In this study, we show that induced spawning causes stress, an intense loss of epithelia and immunosuppression, decreasing physical and humoral protection in fish, effects that were prevented or improved in fish bathed with Aloe vera. A. vera has several medicinal properties, including wound healing and immunostimulatory effects, which we observed in this study. Fish bathed with A. vera had a higher number of epidermal goblet cells and, in general, an improved wound healing rate compared with the control after induced spawning. These effects might be related to (1) the stimulation of leukocyte activity, represented here by the increased leukocyte respiratory activity triggered by A. vera (leukocytes are recognized as playing an important role in wound repair); (2) the antimicrobial properties of A. vera, which decrease wound infection and accelerate the healing process; and (3) several mechanisms that explain the healing effect of A. vera (increased collagen synthesis, rate of epithelialization, and anti-inflammatory and moisturizing effects). Our results also suggest that caution is necessary during the induced spawning process, especially during stripping, and A. vera bathing is recommended after intensive aquaculture operations. PMID:25703714

  5. Reducing fluxes of faecal indicator compliance parameters to bathing waters from diffuse agricultural sources: The Brighouse Bay study, Scotland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The European Water Framework Directive requires the integrated management of point and diffuse pollution to achieve 'good' water quality in 'protected areas'. These include bathing waters, which are regulated using faecal indicator organisms as compliance parameters. Thus, for the first time, European regulators are faced with the control of faecal indicator fluxes from agricultural sources where these impact on bathing water compliance locations. Concurrently, reforms to the European Union (EU) Common Agricultural Policy offer scope for supporting on-farm measures producing environmental benefits through the new 'single farm payments' and the concept of 'cross-compliance'. This paper reports the first UK study involving remedial measures, principally stream bank fencing, designed to reduce faecal indicator fluxes at the catchment scale. Considerable reduction in faecal indicator flux was observed, but this was insufficient to ensure bathing water compliance with either Directive 76/160/EEC standards or new health-evidence-based criteria proposed by WHO and the European Commission. - Diffuse microbiological pollution from farming activities can be reduced by protected riparian zones

  6. The structural properties of CdS deposited by chemical bath deposition and pulsed direct current magnetron sputtering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lisco, F., E-mail: F.Lisco@lboro.ac.uk [Centre for Renewable Energy Systems Technology (CREST), School of Electronic, Electrical and Systems Engineering, Loughborough University, Leicestershire, LE11 3TU (United Kingdom); Kaminski, P.M.; Abbas, A.; Bass, K.; Bowers, J.W.; Claudio, G. [Centre for Renewable Energy Systems Technology (CREST), School of Electronic, Electrical and Systems Engineering, Loughborough University, Leicestershire, LE11 3TU (United Kingdom); Losurdo, M. [Institute of Inorganic Methodologies and of Plasmas, IMIP-CNR, via Orabona 4, 70126 Bari (Italy); Walls, J.M. [Centre for Renewable Energy Systems Technology (CREST), School of Electronic, Electrical and Systems Engineering, Loughborough University, Leicestershire, LE11 3TU (United Kingdom)

    2015-05-01

    Cadmium sulphide (CdS) thin films were deposited by two different processes, chemical bath deposition (CBD), and pulsed DC magnetron sputtering (PDCMS) on fluorine doped-tin oxide coated glass to assess the potential advantages of the pulsed DC magnetron sputtering process. The structural, optical and morphological properties of films obtained by CBD and PDCMS were investigated using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, scanning and transmission electron microscopy, spectroscopic ellipsometry and UV-Vis spectrophotometry. The as-grown films were studied and comparisons were drawn between their morphology, uniformity, crystallinity, and the deposition rate of the process. The highest crystallinity is observed for sputtered CdS thin films. The absorption in the visible wavelength increased for PDCMS CdS thin films, due to the higher density of the films. The band gap measured for the as-grown CBD-CdS is 2.38 eV compared to 2.34 eV for PDCMS-CdS, confirming the higher density of the sputtered thin film. The higher deposition rate for PDCMS is a significant advantage of this technique which has potential use for high rate and low cost manufacturing. - Highlights: • Pulsed DC magnetron sputtering (PDCMS) of CdS films • Chemical bath deposition of CdS films • Comparison between CdS thin films deposited by chemical bath and PDCMS techniques • High deposition rate deposition for PDCMS deposition • Uniform, pinhole free CdS thin films.

  7. Effects of system-bath entanglement on the performance of light-harvesting systems: A quantum heat engine perspective

    CERN Document Server

    Xu, Dazhi; Zhao, Yang; Cao, Jianshu

    2015-01-01

    We explore energy transfer in a generic three-level system, which is coupled to three non-equilibrium baths. Built on the concept of quantum heat engine, our three-level model describes non-equilibrium quantum processes including light-harvesting energy transfer, nano-scale heat transfer, photo-induced isomerization, and photovoltaics in double quantum-dots. In the context of light-harvesting, the excitation energy is first pumped up by sunlight, then is transferred via two excited states which are coupled to a phonon bath, and finally decays to the ground state. The efficiency of this process is evaluated by steady state analysis via a polaron-transformed master equation; thus a wide range of the system-phonon coupling strength can be covered. We show that the coupling with the phonon bath not only modifies the steady state, resulting in population inversion, but also introduces a finite steady state coherence which optimizes the energy transfer flux and efficiency. In the strong coupling limit, the steady s...

  8. Synthesis and characterization Bi2O2S thin film via chemical bath deposition at low pH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kariper, I Afşin

    2016-06-15

    Bismuth oxysulfide thin film was prepared using Bi(NO3)3 and Na2S as reactive. Since bismuth in the form of bismuth oxide is dissolved into water, bismuth and sulfide concentration of the chemical bath is very important. Bismuth oxysulfide (Bi2O2S) thin films were produced below pH2. Tested bismuth and sulfide concentrations are as follows: 2×10(-1)M, 2×10(-2)M, 2×10(-3)M, 2×10(-4)M bismuth and 1×10(-1)M, 1×10(-2)M, 1×10(-3)M, 1×10(-4)M sulfide. The structure of the films was examined via X-ray diffraction (XRD). Optical properties, such as transmission and absorbance were measured with Ultra violet-visible spectrum, and then refractive index and reflectivity were calculated. The pH of chemical bath was stabilized below pH of 2 using 13.85mL concentrated nitric acid. Deposition time and temperature of the baths were 4h and 30°C. It has been found that bismuth and sulfide concentrations affected the structure and thickness of the film. Also, optical band gap of the films varied with concentration, parallel to the change of the structure and film thickness. PMID:27043873

  9. A comparison of ultrasonically activated water stream and ultrasonic bath immersion cleaning of railhead leaf-film contaminant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodes, L. R.; Harvey, T. J.; Symonds, N.; Leighton, T. G.

    2016-09-01

    Leaf-film adhered to the railway track is a major issue during the autumn/fall season, as leaves fall onto the track and are entrained into the wheel-rail interface. This results in the development of a smooth, black layer. Presently, pressure washers must be used to clean the residue to prevent loss of traction, which can cause crashes or delays by forcing a reduced speed. These pressure washers consume large amounts of water and energy. In this study, use of an ultrasonic cleaning apparatus equipped with a 100 W transducer is investigated, using a low volume of water in the order of 1 l min‑1. This was applied to leaf-film samples generated in the laboratory, whose surface properties and thickness were confirmed with optical and stylus profilometry methods. Cleaning achieved by an ultrasonically activated water stream was compared to (a) non-activated water and (b) an ultrasonic bath with comparable power consumption. Cleaning efficacy was found to be much greater than that afforded by the ultrasonic bath; a rate of 14.3 mm2 s‑1 compared to 0.37 mm2 s‑1, and the ultrasonic bath only cleaned off around 20% of the leaf-film coverage even after 3 min of exposure.

  10. Effect of complexing agent on the photoelectrochemical properties of bath deposited CdS thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the present paper photoelectrochemical (PEC) performance of bath deposited CdS thin films based on complexing agents i.e. ammonia and triethanolamine (TEA) has been discussed. Effect of annealing has also been analyzed. The as-deposited and annealed (at 523 K for 1 h in air) films were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis) absorption spectroscopy, SEM, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), and PEC properties. XRD studies revealed that the films were nanocrystalline in nature with mixed hexagonal and cubic phases. TEA complex resulted in better crystallinity. Further improvement in the crystallinity of the films was observed after air annealing. The marigold flower-like structure, in addition to flakes morphology, was observed with TEA complex, whereas for ammonia complex only flakes morphology was observed. The UV-vis absorption studies revealed that the optical absorption edge for the films with ammonia and TEA complex was around 475 nm and 500 nm, respectively. Annealing of the films resulted in red shift in the UV-vis absorption. The PEC cell performance of CdS films was found to be strongly affected by crystallinity and morphology of the films resulted due to complexing agent and annealing. The air annealed film deposited using TEA complex showed maximum short circuit current density (Jsc) and open circuit voltage (Voc) i.e. 99 μA/cm2 and 376 mV respectively, under 10 mW/cm2 of illumination. The films deposited using TEA complex showed good stability under PEC cell conditions.

  11. Technological study of electrochemical uranium fuel reprocessing in fused chloride bath

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study is applied to metallic fuels recycling, concerning advanced reactor concept, which was proposed and tested in LMR type reactors. Conditions for electrochemical non-irradiated uranium fuel reprocessing in fused chloride bath in laboratory scale were established. Experimental procedures and parameters for dehydration treatment of LiCl-KCl eutectic mixture and for electrochemical study of U3+/U system in LiCl-KCl were developed and optimized. In the voltammetric studies many working electrodes were tested. As auxiliary electrodes, graphite and stainless steels crucibles were verified, with no significant impurities inclusions in the system. Ag/AgCl in Al2O3 with 1 w% in AgCl were used as reference electrode. The experimental set up developed for electrolyte treatment as well as for the study of the system U3+/U in LiCl-KCl showed to be adequate and efficient. Thermogravimetric Techniques, Scanning Electron Microscopy with Energy Dispersive X-Ray Spectrometry and cyclic voltametry showed an efficient dehydration method by using HCl gas and than argon flux for 12 h. Scanning Electron Microscopy, with Energy Dispersive X-Ray Spectrometry and Inductively Coupled Plasma Emission Spectrometry and DC Arc Emission Spectrometry detected the presence of uranium in the cadmium phase. X-ray Diffraction and also Inductively Coupled Plasma Emission Spectrometry and DC Arc Emission Spectrometry were used for uranium detection in the salt phase. The obtained results for the system U3+/U in LiCl-KCl showed the viability of the electrochemical reprocessing process based on the IFR advanced fuel cycle. (author)

  12. Chemical bath composition effect on the properties of electrodeposited CuInSe2 thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • CIS thin films were grown by electrodeposition technique. • For [Se]/[Cu + In] molar ratio less than 1.3 CIS films have single phase chalcopyrite structure. • For [Se]/[Cu + In] = 1.3 CuSe secondary phase is present. • The optical absorption is due to an allowed direct transition with band gap range between 1.04 and 1.2 eV. -- Abstract: Polycrystalline chalcopyrite CuInSe2 (CIS) thin films were deposited by electrodeposition technique onto ITO coated glass substrates. The used bath solution is formed by dissolution of CuCl2, InCl3, and SeO2 salts in de-ionized water, where the [Se]/[Cu + In] molar ratio is ranged from 0.4 to 1.3. The deposited films have been annealed at 300 °C for 30 min in argon atmosphere. The films structure and surface morphology characterizations were carried out respectively by means of X-ray diffraction method (XRD) and scanning electron microscope (SEM). XRD results indicate that CIS films having single phase chalcopyrite are obtained when the [Se]/[Cu + In] molar ratio is less than 1.3. While, for [Se]/[Cu + In] = 1.3, CuSe secondary phase is present together with CIS chalcopyrite phase. The crystallites were found to have a preferred orientation along (1 1 2) direction. The UV–visible optical transmittance measurements show that films absorption is due to allowed direct transition with a band gap ranged from 1.04 to 1.2 eV

  13. Crystallization behavior of tetragonal ZrO{sub 2} prepared in a silica bath

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Moo-Chin, E-mail: mcwang@kmu.edu.tw [Department of Fragrance and Cosmetic Science, Kaohsiung Medical University, 100 Shih-Chuan 1st Road, Kaohsiung 80708, Taiwan (China); Huang, Hung-Jui [Department of Fragrance and Cosmetic Science, Kaohsiung Medical University, 100 Shih-Chuan 1st Road, Kaohsiung 80708, Taiwan (China)

    2013-09-10

    Highlights: ► The activation energy of t-ZrO{sub 2} crystallization calculated by the JMA equation is 643.0 ± 13.9 kJ·mol{sup −1}. ► The growth morphology parameter (n) and crystallization mechanism index (m) are approximated as 3.0. ► Bulk nucleation is dominant in the t-ZrO{sub 2} crystallization process, and has a spherical-like morphology. ► The TEM microstructure reveals that the t-ZrO{sub 2} crystallites have a spherical-like morphology. - Abstract: The synthesis of zirconia (ZrO{sub 2}) precursor powders by a co-precipitation process is studied in this work, using a silica bath prepared at 348 K and pH = 7, with 10 min mixing using zirconium (IV) nitrate and tetraethylorthosilicate (TEOS, Si(OC{sub 2}H{sub 5}){sub 4}) as the starting materials. The XRD result show that only a single phase of tetragonal ZrO{sub 2} (t-ZrO{sub 2}) appears when the freeze dried precursor powders are calcined between 1173 and 1473 K for 120 min. The activation energy of t-ZrO{sub 2} crystallization, as calculated by the Johnson–Mehl–Avrami (JMA) equation, is 643.0 ± 13.9 kJ/mol. The growth morphology parameter (n) and crystallization mechanism index (m) are approximated as 3.0, which indicates that bulk nucleation is dominant in the t-ZrO{sub 2} crystallization process, and that the material has a plate-like morphology.

  14. Corrosion behavior of titanium in contact with lead in sulphuric acid anodizing bath

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Titanium, due to its improved corrosion resistance, is frequently used for making Heat Exchangers, Jigs and Fixtures required by Electroplating Industry for anodizing of different components. However, some serious problem may be encountered in practice if titanium comes in contact with others metals. The galvanic corrosion behavior of titanium alloy in contact with pure lead directly or indirectly (i.e., two samples placed apart in the test solution and connected with titanium wire) in standard 15 % sulphuric acid anodizing bath (test solution) has been studied by weight loss method. The Electrochemical Method (ASTM G5 ) was used to supplement weight loss results. The effect of concentration of test solution on corrosion rate was also studied and the behavior of protective oxide film formed on Ti surface discussed. The present study also touched another aspect, which plays an important part in galvanic corrosion i.e., the effect of cathode/anode area ratio. An unfavorable area ratio leading to localize attack is due to formation of a large cathode/small anodic corrosion cell. The cathodic behavior of Pb was also studied to justify corrosion of titanium although it is noble in the Galvanic Series as compared to Pb. Titanium in contact with lead exhibits anodic control and its dissolution as titanium sulphate in turns increases its corrosion rate. The study also revealed that the electrolyte attacks highly at regions very close to contact and also on the welding spots, where welding is done for fabrication of heat exchanger. This is because at this point protective films is less continuous as compared to the polished surface where the films is more continuous and thus more protective. (author)

  15. Evaluation of pH of bathing soaps and shampoos for skin and hair care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose Tarun

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Normal healthy skin has potential of hydrogen (pH range of 5.4-5.9 and a normal bacterial flora. Use of soap with high pH causes an increase in skin pH, which in turn causes an increase in dehydrative effect, irritability and alteration in bacterial flora. The majority of soaps and shampoos available in the market do not disclose their pH. Aims and Objectives: The aim of this study was to assess the pH of different brands of bathing soaps and shampoos available in the market. Materials and Methods: The samples of soaps and shampoos were collected from shops in the locality. The samples of different brands are coded before the analysis of the pH. Solution of each sample was made and pH was measured using pH meter. Results: Majority of the soaps have a pH within the range of 9-10. Majority of the shampoos have a pH within the range of 6-7. Conclusions: The soaps and shampoos commonly used by the population at large have a pH outside the range of normal skin and hair pH values. Therefore, it is hoped that before recommending soap to patient especially those who have sensitive and acne prone skin, due consideration is given to the pH factor and also that manufacturers will give a thought to pH of soaps and shampoos manufactured by them, so that their products will be more skin and hair friendly.

  16. Chemical bath deposition and characterization of electrochromic thin films of sodium vanadium bronzes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Najdoski, Metodija, E-mail: metonajd@yahoo.com [Institute of Chemistry, Faculty of Natural Sciences and Mathematics, Sts. Cyril and Methodius University, POB 162, Arhimedova 5, 1000 Skopje, Republic of Macedonia (Macedonia, The Former Yugoslav Republic of); Koleva, Violeta [Institute of General and Inorganic Chemistry, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, 1113 Sofia (Bulgaria); Demiri, Sani [Institute of Chemistry, Faculty of Natural Sciences and Mathematics, Sts. Cyril and Methodius University, POB 162, Arhimedova 5, 1000 Skopje, Republic of Macedonia (Macedonia, The Former Yugoslav Republic of)

    2012-03-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We report a new chemical bath method for the deposition of vanadium bronze thin films. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The films are phase mixture of NaV{sub 6}O{sub 15} and Na{sub 1.1}V{sub 3}O{sub 7.9} with 10.58% lattice water. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The as-deposited vanadium bronze films exhibit two-step electrochromism. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer They change their yellow-orange color to green and then from green to blue color. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The method allows the preparation of films on substrates with low melting point. -- Abstract: Thin yellow-orange films of sodium vanadium oxide bronzes have been prepared from a sodium-vanadium solution (1:1) at 75 Degree-Sign C and pH = 3. The composition, structure and morphology of the films have been studied by XRD, IR spectroscopy, TG and SEM-EDX analyses. It has been established that the prepared films are a phase mixture of hydrated NaV{sub 6}O{sub 15} (predominant component) and Na{sub 1.1}V{sub 3}O{sub 7.9} with total water content of 10.58%. The sodium vanadium bronze thin films exhibit two-step electrochromism followed by color change from yellow-orange to green, and then from green to blue. The cyclic voltammetry measurements on the as-deposited and annealed vanadium bronze films reveal the existence of different oxidation/reduction vanadium sites which make these films suitable for electrochromic devices. The annealing of the films at 400 Degree-Sign C changes the composition, optical and electrochemical properties.

  17. Chemical bath deposition and characterization of electrochromic thin films of sodium vanadium bronzes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► We report a new chemical bath method for the deposition of vanadium bronze thin films. ► The films are phase mixture of NaV6O15 and Na1.1V3O7.9 with 10.58% lattice water. ► The as-deposited vanadium bronze films exhibit two-step electrochromism. ► They change their yellow-orange color to green and then from green to blue color. ► The method allows the preparation of films on substrates with low melting point. -- Abstract: Thin yellow-orange films of sodium vanadium oxide bronzes have been prepared from a sodium–vanadium solution (1:1) at 75 °C and pH = 3. The composition, structure and morphology of the films have been studied by XRD, IR spectroscopy, TG and SEM–EDX analyses. It has been established that the prepared films are a phase mixture of hydrated NaV6O15 (predominant component) and Na1.1V3O7.9 with total water content of 10.58%. The sodium vanadium bronze thin films exhibit two-step electrochromism followed by color change from yellow-orange to green, and then from green to blue. The cyclic voltammetry measurements on the as-deposited and annealed vanadium bronze films reveal the existence of different oxidation/reduction vanadium sites which make these films suitable for electrochromic devices. The annealing of the films at 400 °C changes the composition, optical and electrochemical properties

  18. Expression, purification and biochemical characterization of a family 6 carboxylesterase from Methylococcus capsulatus (bath).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soni, Surabhi; Odaneth, Annamma A; Lali, Arvind M; Chandrayan, Sanjeev K

    2016-06-01

    The genome of Methylococcus capsulatus (bath) encodes a protein R-est6 that is annotated as a lipase family 3 protein. The phylogenetic and the sequence analyses linked this protein to the family 6 carboxylesterase. The gene encoding R-est6 was cloned and overexpressed in Escherichia coli and the recombinant 6x-His tagged protein was purified by Ni-NTA affinity chromatography. The buffers used in the purification were modified by adding 1% glycerol instead of the salt to prevent the protein aggregation. Far UV-CD spectrum and gel filtration chromatography of the purified R-est6 confirmed that the protein was well folded like a typical α/β hydrolase and had the quaternary structure of a tetramer, in addition to a compact monomer. The optimum pH was in the range of 7.0-9.0 and the optimum temperature was at 55 °C for the hydrolysis of pNP-butyrate. As expected, being a member of the family 6 carboxylesterase, R-est6 hydrolyzed triglycerides, pNP esters of the small and the medium fatty acid chain esters and an aryl ester-phenyl acetate. However, R-est6 was also found to hydrolyze the long-chain fatty acid ester which had never been reported for the family 6 carboxylesterase. Additionally, R-est6 was stable and active in the different water-miscible organic solvents. Therefore, the broad substrate range and the structural stability of R-est6 would be advantageous for its application in industrial processes. PMID:26899525

  19. THE BALNEARY RESOURCE, A GENERATOR OF BUILT HERITAGE. THE STRATIGRAPHIC FEATURES OF HERCULANE BATHS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. SPÂNU

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The balneary resource, a generator of built heritage. The stratigraphic features of Herculane Baths. The exploitation of natural resources, regardless of type, usually consists of two phases: firstly, the development of exploitation processes and secondly the development of exploitation structures – elements or built structures intended for the processing of the concerned natural resources. Many such structures have been declared architectural heritage monuments due to their historical, documentary, representative and aesthetical value, examples being numerous and varied. Water is the main resource that dictates the occurrence and development of human settlements and creates various typologies that derive from the accessibility, exploitation methods, and adaptation to the conditions and characteristics of the resource. With a peculiar evolution in terms of the dynamics of the binomial composed of natural resource and architectural heritage resource, mineral resources (especially balneal waters fall in a distinct category: although mainly utilitarian in function, they have also cultural, aesthetic and even religious purposes. Besides their curative properties, spa mineral waters can be used as is, in many cases directly from the source, this being the explanation why they have generated such great and continuous interest - forming today a highly stratified built heritage background. Keeping in mind the sustainable development for a medium or a long period of time, an analysis of the interrelations between the balneal natural resource and the deriving architectural heritage is necessary. The purpose of such analysis is determining the limitations of exploitation and identifying the optimal means of safeguarding both elements, the natural water resource and the anthropogenic one, for a more rational territory management.

  20. Crystallization behavior of tetragonal ZrO2 prepared in a silica bath

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► The activation energy of t-ZrO2 crystallization calculated by the JMA equation is 643.0 ± 13.9 kJ·mol−1. ► The growth morphology parameter (n) and crystallization mechanism index (m) are approximated as 3.0. ► Bulk nucleation is dominant in the t-ZrO2 crystallization process, and has a spherical-like morphology. ► The TEM microstructure reveals that the t-ZrO2 crystallites have a spherical-like morphology. - Abstract: The synthesis of zirconia (ZrO2) precursor powders by a co-precipitation process is studied in this work, using a silica bath prepared at 348 K and pH = 7, with 10 min mixing using zirconium (IV) nitrate and tetraethylorthosilicate (TEOS, Si(OC2H5)4) as the starting materials. The XRD result show that only a single phase of tetragonal ZrO2 (t-ZrO2) appears when the freeze dried precursor powders are calcined between 1173 and 1473 K for 120 min. The activation energy of t-ZrO2 crystallization, as calculated by the Johnson–Mehl–Avrami (JMA) equation, is 643.0 ± 13.9 kJ/mol. The growth morphology parameter (n) and crystallization mechanism index (m) are approximated as 3.0, which indicates that bulk nucleation is dominant in the t-ZrO2 crystallization process, and that the material has a plate-like morphology

  1. Irreversible adiabatic decoherence of dipole-interacting nuclear-spin pairs coupled with a phonon bath

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domínguez, F. D.; González, C. E.; Segnorile, H. H.; Zamar, R. C.

    2016-02-01

    We study the quantum adiabatic decoherence of a multispin array, coupled with an environment of harmonic phonons, in the framework of the theory of open quantum systems. We follow the basic formal guidelines of the well-known spin-boson model, since in this framework it is possible to derive the time dependence of the reduced density matrix in the adiabatic time scale, without resorting to coarse-graining procedures. However, instead of considering a set of uncoupled spins interacting individually with the boson field, the observed system in our model is a network of weakly interacting spin pairs; the bath corresponds to lattice phonons, and the system-environment interaction is generated by the variation of the dipole-dipole energy due to correlated shifts of the spin positions, produced by the phonons. We discuss the conditions that the model must meet in order to fit within the adiabatic regime. By identifying the coupling of the dipole-dipole spin interaction with the low-frequency acoustic modes as the source of decoherence, we calculate the decoherence function of the reduced spin density matrix in closed way, and estimate the decoherence rate of a typical element of the reduced density matrix in one- and three-dimensional models of the spin array. Using realistic values for the various parameters of the model we conclude that the dipole-phonon mechanism can be particularly efficient to degrade multispin coherences, when the number of active spins involved in a given coherence is high. The model provides insight into the microscopic irreversible spin dynamics involved in the buildup of quasiequilibrium states and in the coherence leakage during refocusing experiments in nuclear magnetic resonance of crystalline solids.

  2. Oxidative stress, hemoglobin content, superoxide dismutase and catalase activity influenced by sulphur baths and mud packs in patients with osteoarthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jokić Aleksandar

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. It is weel-known that sulphur baths and mud paks demonstrate beneficial effects on patients suffering from degenerative knee and hip osteoarthritis (OA through the increased activity of protective antioxidant enzymes. The aim of this study was to assess lipid peroxidation level, i.e. malondialdehyde concetration, in individuals with knee and/or hip osteoarthritis (OA, as well as to determine the influence of sulphur baths and mud packs application on the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD and catalase (CAT in order to minimize or eliminate excessive free radical species production (oxidative stress. Methods. Thirty one patiens with knee and/or hip OA of both sexes were included in the study. All OA patients received mud pack and sulphur bath for 20 minutes a day, for 6 consecutive days a week, over 3 weeks. Blood lipid peroxidation, ie malondialdehyde concentration, superoxide dismutase and catalase activity were measured spectrophotometrically, before, on day 5 during the treatment and at the end of spa cure. Healthy volunteers (n = 31 were the controls. Results. The sulphur baths and mud packs treatment of OA patients caused a significant decrease in plasma malondialdehyde concentration compared to the controls ( p < 0.001. The mean SOD activity before the terapy was 1 836.24 U/gHb, on day 5 it rose to 1 942.15 U/gHb and after the spa cure dropped to 1 745.98 U/gHb. Catalase activity before the therapy was 20.56 kU/gHb and at the end of the terapy decreased to 16.16 kU/gHb. The difference in catalase activity before and after the therapy was significant (p < 0.001, and also significant as compared to control (p < 0.001. At the end of the treatment significant increase of hemoglobin level and significant decrease of pain intensity were noticed. Conclusion. A combined 3-week treatment by sulphur bath and mud packs led to a significant decrease of lipid peroxidation in plasma, as well as pain intensity in the patients with OA

  3. Pembuatan Kitosan Oligomer Melalui Metode Degradasi Oksidatif Dengan Penambahan H2o2 Dan Ultrasonic Bath Dan Pengaruhnya Terhadap Viskositas Dan Berat Molekul

    OpenAIRE

    Julianti, Salmi

    2012-01-01

    A research about the preparation of chitosan oligomers with oxidative degradation method by H2O2 30% and ultrasonic bath and the influence on viscosity and molecular weight has been studied. Chitosan oligomers were obtained under degradation process by strong oxidizing H2O2 30% and ultrasonic bath. The chitosan oligomers that were obtained, then determined the value of intrinsic viscosity by using ostwald viscometry and the value of molecular weight by using Mark-Kuhn-Houwink equation. The r...

  4. Effect of Lavender Cream with or without Foot-bath on Anxiety, Stress and Depression in Pregnancy: a Randomized Placebo-Controlled Trial

    OpenAIRE

    Fatemeh Effati-Daryani; Sakineh Mohammad-Alizadeh-Charandabi; Mojgan Mirghafourvand; Mohsen Taghizadeh; Azam Mohammadi

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Psychological disorders are associated with maternal and neonatal morbidities. We aimed to evaluate the effect of Lavender cream with or without foot-bath on depression, anxiety and stress of pregnant women. Methods: In this trial, 141 women at 25 to 28 weeks gestation were randomly assigned into three groups (47 at each group); receiving Lavender cream with foot-bath, only Lavender cream, or placebo, 2g every night for two months. Depression, anxiety and stress were assessed ...

  5. THE MICROBIOLOGICAL AND SANITARY STATE OF SAND IN THE MUNICIPAL BATHING BEACH IN SZCZECIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kinga Zatoń

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Artificial beaches, i.e. places in the public sphere, are usually intended for recreation, located at water reservoirs, rivers, and their surface is naturally occurring or applied sand. The urban bathing beach located in Szczecin by the Deep lake has sand purchased and distributed on the beach by the Municipal Services Office in Szczecin (a few hundred ton. The beach is divided into sectors, a volleyball court is in one part, in the next section catering and sanitary facilities are located, and the remaining area is a place intended for sunbathing and playing games. The aim of the experiment was to assess the effects of different ways of using the beach on changes of microbiological properties of the sand. The tests were taken from the beach sand in May 2013 (first term examinations, and in September, after several months of use (the second term of examinations. The sand was collected near catering and sanitary sector (the first object and from the area of the volleyball court (the second object, as well as the playground for children (the third object. The facilities were distanced from the shoreline of the lake by approx. 8 metres. The comparison included the number of heterotrophic bacteria, fungi and the detected presence of coliform bacteria, including Escherichia coli, bacteria of the genus Salmonella and eggs of intestinal parasites. In any of the objects, or the periods of time, eggs of intestinal parasites and bacteria of the genus Salmonella were detected. The presence of coliform bacteria including E. coli was found in the sand collected from a catering-sanitary zone, there was also the biggest number of bacteria and fungi. The number of heterotrophic bacteria and fungi was similar in samples of sand taken from the volleyball court and from the playground, in this sand there was no bacteria belonging to the E. coli species, although in several samples from the playground other bacteria belonging to the coliform genus were detected. To

  6. Designing the Color of Hot-Dip Galvanized Steel Sheet Through Destructive Light Interference Using a Zn-Ti Liquid Metallic Bath

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levai, Gabor; Godzsák, Melinda; Török, Tamas I.; Hakl, Jozsef; Takáts, Viktor; Csik, Attila; Vad, Kalman; Kaptay, George

    2016-05-01

    The color of hot-dip galvanized steel sheet was adjusted in a reproducible way using a liquid Zn-Ti metallic bath, air atmosphere, and controlling the bath temperature as the only experimental parameter. Coloring was found only for samples cooled in air and dipped into Ti-containing liquid Zn. For samples dipped into a 0.15 wt pct Ti-containing Zn bath, the color remained metallic (gray) below a 792 K (519 °C) bath temperature; it was yellow at 814 K ± 22 K (541 °C ± 22 °C), violet at 847 K ± 10 K (574 °C ± 10 °C), and blue at 873 K ± 15 K (600 °C ± 15 °C). With the increasing bath temperature, the thickness of the adhered Zn-Ti layer gradually decreased from 52 to 32 micrometers, while the thickness of the outer TiO2 layer gradually increased from 24 to 69 nm. Due to small Al contamination of the Zn bath, a thin (around 2 nm) alumina-rich layer is found between the outer TiO2 layer and the inner macroscopic Zn layer. It is proven that the color change was governed by the formation of thin outer TiO2 layer; different colors appear depending on the thickness of this layer, mostly due to the destructive interference of visible light on this transparent nano-layer. A complex model was built to explain the results using known relationships of chemical thermodynamics, adhesion, heat flow, kinetics of chemical reactions, diffusion, and optics. The complex model was able to reproduce the observations and allowed making predictions on the color of the hot-dip galvanized steel sample, as a function of the following experimental parameters: temperature and Ti content of the Zn bath, oxygen content, pressure, temperature and flow rate of the cooling gas, dimensions of the steel sheet, velocity of dipping the steel sheet into the Zn-Ti bath, residence time of the steel sheet within the bath, and the velocity of its removal from the bath. These relationships will be valuable for planning further experiments and technologies on color hot-dip galvanization of steel

  7. Designing the Color of Hot-Dip Galvanized Steel Sheet Through Destructive Light Interference Using a Zn-Ti Liquid Metallic Bath

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levai, Gabor; Godzsák, Melinda; Török, Tamas I.; Hakl, Jozsef; Takáts, Viktor; Csik, Attila; Vad, Kalman; Kaptay, George

    2016-07-01

    The color of hot-dip galvanized steel sheet was adjusted in a reproducible way using a liquid Zn-Ti metallic bath, air atmosphere, and controlling the bath temperature as the only experimental parameter. Coloring was found only for samples cooled in air and dipped into Ti-containing liquid Zn. For samples dipped into a 0.15 wt pct Ti-containing Zn bath, the color remained metallic (gray) below a 792 K (519 °C) bath temperature; it was yellow at 814 K ± 22 K (541 °C ± 22 °C), violet at 847 K ± 10 K (574 °C ± 10 °C), and blue at 873 K ± 15 K (600 °C ± 15 °C). With the increasing bath temperature, the thickness of the adhered Zn-Ti layer gradually decreased from 52 to 32 micrometers, while the thickness of the outer TiO2 layer gradually increased from 24 to 69 nm. Due to small Al contamination of the Zn bath, a thin (around 2 nm) alumina-rich layer is found between the outer TiO2 layer and the inner macroscopic Zn layer. It is proven that the color change was governed by the formation of thin outer TiO2 layer; different colors appear depending on the thickness of this layer, mostly due to the destructive interference of visible light on this transparent nano-layer. A complex model was built to explain the results using known relationships of chemical thermodynamics, adhesion, heat flow, kinetics of chemical reactions, diffusion, and optics. The complex model was able to reproduce the observations and allowed making predictions on the color of the hot-dip galvanized steel sample, as a function of the following experimental parameters: temperature and Ti content of the Zn bath, oxygen content, pressure, temperature and flow rate of the cooling gas, dimensions of the steel sheet, velocity of dipping the steel sheet into the Zn-Ti bath, residence time of the steel sheet within the bath, and the velocity of its removal from the bath. These relationships will be valuable for planning further experiments and technologies on color hot-dip galvanization of steel

  8. Stainless steel bath chair backrest type of abdominal perineal resection of rectal cancer patients afterhip bath compliance effect observation%不锈钢靠背式坐浴椅对腹会阴联合直肠癌根治术术后患者坐浴依丛性的效果观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    骆菊英; 朱慧琴; 梁玉环

    2012-01-01

    目的探讨不锈钢靠背式坐浴椅对腹会阴联合直肠癌根治术术后患者坐浴依丛性的观察.方法将110例腹会阴联合直肠癌根治术术后需坐浴的患者随机分为实验组(n=55)和对照组(n=55).实验组采用不锈钢靠背式坐浴椅,对照组采用简易坐浴架坐浴.结果实验组没有不良事件发生,坐浴时间达标率、坐浴依从性、满意度明显高于对照组,经比较,P均<0.05,有统计学差异.结论不锈钢靠背式坐浴椅,可以明显降低了不良事件的发生率,提高了患者的依从性和满意率,值得临床推广.%Objectives Stainless steel back type ofhip bath chair on abdominal perineal resection of rectal cancer patients afterhip bath compliance observation.Methods 110 cases of radical resection for rectal carcinoma after the bath of patients were randomlydivided into experimentalgroup (n=55) and controlgroup (n=55).The experimentalgroupUsed stainless steelhip bath chair backrest type, controlgroup with simple bath rack bath.Results The experimentalgroup showed no adverse events occurred, sitz bath time success rate, bath compliance, satisfaction washigher than that of the controlgroup, by comparison, P<0.05, with statisticaldifference.Conclusions Stainless steel backhip bath chair, can significantly reduce the incidence of adverse events, and improve the patient compliance and satisfaction rate, worthy of clinical application.

  9. Ultrasonic-assisted synthesis of aqueous CdTe/CdS QDs in salt water bath heating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Ultrasonic promotes formation of crystal nucleus and QDs were synthesized in 0.5 h. • The new heating method provides a PLQY of up to 97.13%. • The synthesis mechanism of the core shell structure of the CdTe/CdS QDs was inferred. • The preparation method was efficient, simple and clean. - Abstract: A novel simple method for fast and efficient synthesis of aqueous CdTe/CdS quantum dots (QDs) with core–shell structure was developed by using salt water bath heating with the ultrasonic-assisted technique in this paper. The formation of crystal nucleus was promoted by ultrasonic and CdTe/CdS QDs with blue fluorescence were synthesized only in 0.5 h. The heat source was bath heating in salt water solution at 60% NaCl and the heating temperature could reach 105 °C. The heating method solved the biggest drawback of low photoluminescence quantum yield (PLQY) of ordinal bath heating in water. The preparation was cheap, simple and had less pollution to the environment. The properties of the CdTe/CdS QDs were thoroughly investigated by ultraviolet–visible (UV–vis), photoluminescence (PL), transmission electron microscope (TEM), laser size analysis, fourier transform infrared spectra (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS). Different CdTe/CdS QDs with core shell structure were efficiently synthesized and the maximum PLQY could reach 97.13% when refluxing at 105 °C for 2 h. These QDs exhibited uniform dispersity, high fluorescence intensity, good optical property and long life of fluorescent. The synthesis mechanism of the core shell structure of the QDs was inferred that the Cd2+ might coordinate with sulfur (S) as well as thiol propionate (–SCH2CH2COO−1) to constitute two relatively thick compound layers on the QDs surface as passive shells

  10. Microstructure and Properties of SAE 2205 Stainless Steel After Salt Bath Nitrocarburizing at 450 °C

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Jing; Wang, Jun; Lin, Yuanhua; Gu, Tan; Zeng, Dezhi; Huang, Runbo; Ji, Xiong; Fan, Hongyuan

    2014-04-01

    Nitrocarburizing of the type SAE 2205 duplex stainless steel was conducted at 450 °C, using a type of salt bath chemical surface treatment, and the microstructure and properties of the nitrided surface were systematically researched. Experimental results revealed that a modified layer transformed on the surface of samples with the thickness ranging from 3 to 28 μm changed with the treatment time. After 2205 duplex stainless steel was subjected to salt bath nitriding at 450 °C for time less than 8 h, the preexisting ferrite zone in the surface transformed into austenite by active nitrogen diffusion. The main phase of the nitrided layer was the expanded austenite. When the treatment time was extended to 16 h, the preexisting ferrite zone in the expanded austenite was decomposed and transformed partially into ɛ-nitride precipitate. When the treatment time extended to 40 h, the preexisting ferrite zone in the expanded austenite was transformed into ɛ-nitride and CrN precipitate. Further, a large amount of nitride precipitated from preexisting austenite zone. The nitrided layer depth thickness changed intensively with the increasing nitriding time. The growth of the nitride layer takes place mainly by nitrogen diffusion according to the expected parabolic rate law. The salt bath nitriding can effectively improve the surface hardness. The maximum values measured from the treated surface are observed to be approximately 1400 HV0.1 after 8 h, which is about 3.5 times as hard as the untreated material (396 HV0.1). Low-temperature nitriding can improve the erosion/corrosion resistance. After nitriding for 4 h, the sample has the best corrosion resistance.

  11. Multiphasic modeling of charged solute transport across articular cartilage: Application of multi-zone finite-bath model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arbabi, Vahid; Pouran, Behdad; Weinans, Harrie; Zadpoor, Amir A

    2016-06-14

    Charged and uncharged solutes penetrate through cartilage to maintain the metabolic function of chondrocytes and to possibly restore or further breakdown the cartilage tissue in different stages of osteoarthritis. In this study the transport of charged solutes across the various zones of cartilage was quantified, taken into account the physicochemical interactions between the solute and the cartilage constituents. A multiphasic finite-bath finite element (FE) model was developed to simulate equine cartilage diffusion experiments that used a negatively charged contrast agent (ioxaglate) in combination with serial micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) to measure the diffusion. By comparing the FE model with the experimental data both the diffusion coefficient of ioxaglate and the fixed charge density (FCD) were obtained. In the multiphasic model, cartilage was divided into multiple (three) zones to help understand how diffusion coefficient and FCD vary across cartilage thickness. The direct effects of charged solute-FCD interaction on diffusion were investigated by comparing the diffusion coefficients derived from the multiphasic and biphasic-solute models. We found a relationship between the FCD obtained by the multiphasic model and ioxaglate partitioning obtained from micro-CT experiments. Using our multi-zone multiphasic model, diffusion coefficient of the superficial zone was up to ten-fold higher than that of the middle zone, while the FCD of the middle zone was up to almost two-fold higher than that of the superficial zone. In conclusion, the developed finite-bath multiphasic model provides us with a non-destructive method by which we could obtain both diffusion coefficient and FCD of different cartilage zones. The outcomes of the current work will also help understand how charge of the bath affects the diffusion of a charged molecule and also predict the diffusion behavior of a charged solute across articular cartilage. PMID:27033729

  12. Hot dip aluminide coating of Ti and the effect of impurities and alloying additions in the molten Al bath

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The growth kinetics of the alumide coating layer formed on Ti dipped in molten Al of super purity (99.995%) or commercial purity (99.8%) were investigated under short-times and low-temperatures dipping conditions. Therfore, platelets of technically pure Ti (99.7%) were hot dipped in the molten Al bath held at 700, 750 or 800deg C for 15, 30, 45, 60 and 75 min. The effect of the presence, in the Al bath, of a small amount of Ti, Ta, Mo, V, Zr, Fe, Mg, Zn, Cu, Sn or Si on the thickness of the coating layer was also investigated at 800deg C. The structure of the coating layer was examined metallographically and the coexisting phases were identified from their compositional analysis and their X-ray diffraction patterns. TiAl3 was found to be the only intermetallic compound existing in all the coating layers. At constant temperature, the thickness of the coating layer increases linearly with the time in both the super refined and commercially pure Al baths. The growth rate increases with increasing temperature in the range under investigation. The presence of alloying elements in the molten Al affects differently the thickness of the coating layer. Si is the most effective element. It strongly reduced the layer thickness even at small Si contents. A slight reducing effect was observed for Zn, Cu and Sn. Ti, Ta and Mo have a noticeable increasing effect whereas Zr, V, Fe and Mg appear to have a slight increasing effect on the coating thickness. Mo was found to cause severe pitting of the Ti surface. (orig./MM)

  13. Bone mineral density in women on long-term mud-bath therapy in a Salus per Aquam (SPA environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Loi

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to assess bone mineral density (BMD in women on long-term mud-bath therapy (MBT for osteoarthritis in a Salus per Aquam (SPA environment. Two hundred and fifty female patients were randomly enrolled in this study in the SPA center of Sardara (Cagliari, Italy where they were treated with a combination of daily full body mudpacks and bicarbonate-alkaline mineral water baths at cycles of 2 weeks/year. BMD was evaluated by means of calcaneus ultrasonometry (Sahara Hologic Inc., Bedford, MA, USA and results analyzed according to duration of treatment and clinical variables. In the group of patients undergoing MBT for more than 10 years (group A and for 3 to 10 years (group B a reduced frequency of osteopenia and osteoporosis was detected (35.8% and 7.6% group A; 38.4% and 8.5% group B, respectively compared to controls (group C (48.9% and 23.4%, P<0.01 and P<0.001. Furthermore, higher T-score values were detected in group A and B (-1.05±1.28 and -1.24±0.94, respectively compared to group C (-1.93±0.78 (P<0.0002 and P<0.0001. Similar results were observed in the analysis of data restricted to women in menopause only. Long-term mud-bath therapy in SPA environment appeared to be beneficial for BMD.

  14. Circulating levels of adiponectin, resistin, and visfatin after mud-bath therapy in patients with bilateral knee osteoarthritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fioravanti, Antonella; Giannitti, Chiara; Cheleschi, Sara; Simpatico, Antonella; Pascarelli, Nicola Antonio; Galeazzi, Mauro

    2015-11-01

    Adipocytokines, including adiponectin, resistin, and visfatin may play an important role in the pathophysiology of osteoarthritis (OA). Spa therapy is one of the most commonly used non-pharmacological approaches for OA, but its mechanisms of action are not completely known. The aim of the present study was to assess whether a cycle of mud-bath therapy (MBT) influences the serum levels of adiponectin, resistin, and visfatin in patients with knee OA. As part of a prospective randomized, single blind-controlled trial evaluating the efficacy of MBT in knee OA, we included in this study 95 outpatients. One group ( n = 49) received a cycle of MBT at the spa center of Chianciano Terme (Italy) in addition to the usual treatment, and one group (control group; n = 46) continued their regular care routine alone. Patients were assessed at basal time and at the end of the study (15 days) for clinical and biochemical parameters. Clinical assessments included spontaneous pain on a visual analog scale (VAS) score and the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities index (WOMAC) subscores for knee OA evaluated as total pain score (W-TPS), total stiffness score (W-TSS), and total physical function score (W-TPFS). Adiponectin, resistin and visfatin serum levels were assessed by enzyme immunoassay methods. At the end of the mud-bath therapy, serum adiponectin levels showed a significant decrease ( p adiponectin and resistin but not the circulating levels of visfatin. In view of the recent evidences about the involvement of adiponectin and resistin in the pathogenesis and progression of OA, the decrease of these adipokines after mud-bath therapy may play a protective role in the course of the disease. However, it remains to be clarified which of the mechanisms of action of MBT may have determined the changes in serum levels of adiponectin and resistin that we observed.

  15. The generalized uncertainty principle, entropy bounds and black-hole (non-)evaporation in a thermal bath

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this work we apply the generalized uncertainty principle (GUP) to the problem of maximum entropy and evaporation/absorption of the energy of black holes near the Planck scale. Within this general approach we find corrections to the maximum entropy and indications of the quenching of evaporation, not only because the evaporation term goes to a finite limit, but also because the absorption of quanta seems to help the balance for black holes in a thermal bath. Then, residual masses at around the Planck scale may be the final outcome of primordial black-hole evaporation. (letter to the editor)

  16. The Role of a Polariton Bath in the Emission Spectrum of an Open Nanocavity-Quantum Dot System

    OpenAIRE

    Moure, Nicolás; Vinck-Posada, Herbert; Rodríguez, Boris A.

    2012-01-01

    We investigate the effect of a polariton bath on the photoluminescence (PL) spectrum of the elementary excitations for a confined nanocavity-quantum dot (nC-QD) system. We modeled the nC-QD system as a two-level exciton in strong coupling with a single photonic cavity mode interacting with its environment. The non-hamiltonian processes induced by the environment are taken into account via a Born-Markov master equation which includes: gain and loss of excitons and photons into/out of the cavit...

  17. Evaluation of the Index of Bathing from Biological Indicators of the Soledade Reservoir in Soledade, State of Paraiba, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera Lucia Antunes de Lima

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available It is known that water is one of the most important natural resources and is indispensable for the survival and various recreational activities. This study aimed to evaluate the water quality of the Reservoir Soledade, in Soledade, the state of Paraiba for the bathing. The study was conducted in the years 2008 and 2009, when they were assessed the biological parameter fecal coliform. The results showed that the waters of the Reservoir of Soledade aren’t in accordance with the pattern of quality set by CONAMA Resolution 274/2000 to water balneabilidade, and allowed this to be classified as inappropriate according to the methodology used by CETESB.

  18. Effect of D.C. electric field on salt bath nitriding for 35 steel and kinetics analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • A rapid salt bath nitriding technology enhanced by D.C. electric field was developed primarily. • The heating duration could be shortened to less than a half. • Higher surface hardness, modestly higher sub-surface hardness and superior hardness profile were obtained. • The diffusion coefficient of nitrogen was increased to more than 1.9 times and Q value was decrease. • Chemical reactions were promoted and active atoms were forced to diffuse directionally toward the treated specimen. - Abstract: A rapid salt bath nitriding technology was primarily developed by additionally applying direct current (D.C.) electric field on the basis of traditional technique (NM). Characterization of the modified surface layers was made by means of optical microscopy, Vickers micro-hardness test and X-ray diffraction analysis. The results showed that D.C. electric field could significantly enhance the nitriding efficiency and the enhancement effect was closely related to the intensity of D.C. electric field. By applying D.C electric field of 7.5 V, even a little thicker compound layer could be obtained at only half duration of that in traditional technique, and the thickness of compound layer increased more than 60%, from 18 μm up to 29 μm at the same treating temperature of 848 K and holding duration of 100 min. Meanwhile, higher surface hardness, modestly higher sub-surface hardness and superior hardness profile were obtained assisted by D.C. electric field. It was also found that the diffusion coefficient of nitrogen was increased more than 1.9 times and activation energy was decreased from 184 kJ/mol to 159 kJ/mol enhanced by D.C. electric field. The possible enhancement mechanism is that D.C. electric field can promote chemical reactions and produce more active nitrogen atoms in the salt bath, positively charge the active atoms and force them diffuse directionally toward the surface of the treated specimen, and hence significantly improve the efficiency

  19. Effect of D.C. electric field on salt bath nitriding for 35 steel and kinetics analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Zhengshou; Dai, Mingyang; Shen, Zhiyuan [Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Materials Surface Technology, Changzhou University, Changzhou 213164 (China); Hu, Jing, E-mail: jinghoo@126.com [Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Materials Surface Technology, Changzhou University, Changzhou 213164 (China); Materials Research and Education Center, Auburn University, AL 36849 (United States)

    2015-02-25

    Highlights: • A rapid salt bath nitriding technology enhanced by D.C. electric field was developed primarily. • The heating duration could be shortened to less than a half. • Higher surface hardness, modestly higher sub-surface hardness and superior hardness profile were obtained. • The diffusion coefficient of nitrogen was increased to more than 1.9 times and Q value was decrease. • Chemical reactions were promoted and active atoms were forced to diffuse directionally toward the treated specimen. - Abstract: A rapid salt bath nitriding technology was primarily developed by additionally applying direct current (D.C.) electric field on the basis of traditional technique (NM). Characterization of the modified surface layers was made by means of optical microscopy, Vickers micro-hardness test and X-ray diffraction analysis. The results showed that D.C. electric field could significantly enhance the nitriding efficiency and the enhancement effect was closely related to the intensity of D.C. electric field. By applying D.C electric field of 7.5 V, even a little thicker compound layer could be obtained at only half duration of that in traditional technique, and the thickness of compound layer increased more than 60%, from 18 μm up to 29 μm at the same treating temperature of 848 K and holding duration of 100 min. Meanwhile, higher surface hardness, modestly higher sub-surface hardness and superior hardness profile were obtained assisted by D.C. electric field. It was also found that the diffusion coefficient of nitrogen was increased more than 1.9 times and activation energy was decreased from 184 kJ/mol to 159 kJ/mol enhanced by D.C. electric field. The possible enhancement mechanism is that D.C. electric field can promote chemical reactions and produce more active nitrogen atoms in the salt bath, positively charge the active atoms and force them diffuse directionally toward the surface of the treated specimen, and hence significantly improve the efficiency

  20. Influence of Bath Composition at Acidic pH on Electrodeposition of Nickel-Layered Silicate Nanocomposites for Corrosion Protection

    OpenAIRE

    Jeerapan Tientong; Casey R. Thurber; Nandika D’Souza; Adel Mohamed; Golden, Teresa D.

    2013-01-01

    Nickel-layered silicates were electrochemically deposited from acidic bath solutions. Citrate was used as a ligand to stabilize nickel (II) ions in the plating solution. The silicate, montmorillonite, was exfoliated by stirring in aqueous solution over 24 hours. The plating solutions were analyzed for zeta-potential, particle size, viscosity, and conductivity to investigate the effects of the composition at various pHs. The solution particles at pH 2.5 (−22.2 mV) and pH 3.0 (−21.9 mV) were mo...

  1. Union Dyeing Behavior on the Blends of Tencel and Shrinkproofing Wool with the Same Reactive Dyestuffs in One Bath

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU Quan; WU Chan-juan; XU Bin

    2002-01-01

    In order to obtain union colour on the blends of Tencel and shrink-proofing wool and improve the efficiency of dyeing process, the dyeing behavior on the blends of Tencel and shrink-proofing wool in the same bath was studied. The Argazol TW reactive dyestuffs were involved in the dyeing process. The parameters under different conditions such as exhaustion, fixation,compatibility as well as soaping fastness were investigated in detail. It is shown that the Argazol TW reactive dyestuffs are suitable for dyeing of blends of Tencel and shrink-proofing wool and good dyeing behavior can be expected.

  2. Mechanism of Tin-bridge formation on C-Dip packages in acid tin bath, and its inhibition technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We investigate the mechanism of a tin-bridge formation on the solder glass surface during acid bright tin plating of a C-Dip package. In the PbO-ZnO-B2O3 system under study, the formation is found to be primarily due to the cathodic reduction of sulfates on the glass surface. And these sulfates, mainly PbSO4, are shown to be the products of a precleaning with acids. The bath conditions are varied to see their effect on the tinbridge formation. We find that the formation can be avoided by pretreating the glass surface with oxyful. Possible mechanisms for this are discussed

  3. Bilayer ZnO nanostructure fabricated by chemical bath and its application in quantum dot sensitized solar cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chemical bath method was used to synthesize bilayer ZnO nanostructure on ITO glass in the alkaline solution. As revealed by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM), the product consists of a layered structure of ZnO nanorods at the bottom and nanoflower atop. The as-prepared sample was assembled in quantum dot sensitized solar cell (QDSSC), which obtained the incident photon to current conversion efficiency (IPCE) of 15% at 400 nm and power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 0.45%. Therefore, this novel bilayer ZnO nanostructure has the potential for application in solar cell device as the photoelectrode.

  4. A controlled trial of the effect of aromatherapy on birth outcomes using "Rose essential oil" inhalation and foot bath

    OpenAIRE

    Masoomeh Kheirkhah; Nassimeh Setayesh Valipour; Leila Neisani; Hamid Haghani

    2013-01-01

    Background and aim: Aromatherapy is the art and science of using essential oils extracted from aromatic plants, and is concerned with natural balance, coordination and promotion of health. This study was designed to determine the effect of "rose (Rosa damascena) essential oil" inhalation and foot bath on the improvement of maternal and neonatal health outcomes. Material and methods: This study was a randomized clinical trial, conducted on 80 primiparous women in Shahid Akbar Abadi Maternity H...

  5. Experimental study on the formation and growth of electroless nickel-boron coatings from borohydride-reduced bath on mild steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vitry, Veronique, E-mail: veronique.vitry@umons.ac.be [Service de Metallurgie, Universite de Mons, Rue de l' Epargne 56, 7000 Mons (Belgium); Sens, Adeline [Service de Metallurgie, Universite de Mons, Rue de l' Epargne 56, 7000 Mons (Belgium); Kanta, Abdoul-Fatah [Service de Sciences des Materiaux, Universite de Mons, Rue de l' Epargne 56, 7000 Mons (Belgium); Delaunois, Fabienne [Service de Metallurgie, Universite de Mons, Rue de l' Epargne 56, 7000 Mons (Belgium)

    2012-12-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Initiation mechanism of electroless Ni-B on St-37 steel has been identified. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Different phases of the plating process were observed and identified. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Influence of chemical heterogeneity on coating morphology was revealed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Batch replenishment of the plating bath induces new germination phase. - Abstract: Quality and homogeneity of electroless nickel-boron coatings are very important for applications in corrosion and electronics and are completely dependent on the formation of the deposit. The growth and formation process of electroless nickel-boron was investigated by immersing mild steel (St-37) samples in an un-replenished bath for various periods of time (from 5 s to 1 h). The coatings obtained at the different stages of the process were then characterized: thickness was measured by SEM, morphology was observed, weight gain was recorded and top composition of the coatings was obtained from XPS. Three main phases were identified during the coating formation and links between plating time, instantaneous deposition rate, chemistry of last formed deposit and morphology were established. The mechanism for initial deposition on steel substrate for borohydride-reduced electroless nickel bath was also observed. Those results were confronted with chemistry evolution in the unreplenished plating bath during the process. This allowed getting insight about phenomena occurring in the plating bath and their influence on coating formation.

  6. Mineralogical and microstructural studies of mortars from the bath complex of the Roman villa rustica near Mosnje (Slovenia)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study deals with the characterization of mortars collected from bath complex of the Roman villa rustica from an archeological site near Mosnje (Slovenia). The mortar layers of the mosaics, wall paintings and mortar floors were investigated. A special aggregate consisting of brick fragments was present in the mortars studied. The mineralogical and petrographic compositions of the mortars were determined by means of optical microscopy, X-ray powder diffraction and FTIR spectroscopy. Analysis of aggregate-binder interfaces using SEM-EDS revealed various types of reactivity rims. In order to assess the hydraulic characteristics of the mortars, the acid-soluble fractions were determined by ICP-OES. Furthermore, the results of Hg-porosimetry and gas sorption isotherms showed that mortars with a higher content of brick fragments particles exhibited a higher porosity and a greater BET surface area but a lower average pore diameter compared to mortars lacking this special aggregate. - Highlights: → Mineral and microstructural characterizations of brick-lime mortars. → Hydraulic character of mortars in Roman baths complex. → Reaction rims were observed around brick fragments and dolomitic grains. → Higher content of brick particles yielded a higher BET surface area. → Addition of brick particles increased porosity and diminished pore size diameter.

  7. Postexercise Impact of Ice-Cold Water Bath on the Oxidant-Antioxidant Balance in Healthy Men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paweł Sutkowy

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to determine the effect of a 5 min head-out ice-cold water bath on the oxidant-antioxidant balance in response to exercise. The crossover study included the subjects (n=24; aged 28.7±7.3 years who performed two identical stationary cycling bouts for 30 min and recovered for 10 min at room temperature (RT=20°C; session 1 or in a pool with ice-cold water (ICW=3°C, 5 min immersion; session 2. The concentration of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS in blood plasma (TBARSpl and erythrocytes (TBARSer and the erythrocytic activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD, catalase (CAT, and glutathione peroxidase (GPx were measured three times during each of the two study sessions: before the exercise (baseline and 20 and 40 min after the appropriate recovery session. Lower concentration of TBARSpl 40 min after postexercise recovery in ICW was revealed as compared with that after recovery at RT (P<0.05. Moreover, a statistically significant postexercise increase in the TBARSpl and TBARSer concentrations was found (P<0.01 and P<0.05, resp.. A short-term ice-cold water bath decreases postexercise lipid peroxidation.

  8. Optimal control of a Cope rearrangement by coupling the reaction path to a dissipative bath or a second active mode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We compare the strategy found by the optimal control theory in a complex molecular system according to the active subspace coupled to the field. The model is the isomerization during a Cope rearrangement of Thiele’s ester that is the most stable dimer obtained by the dimerization of methyl-cyclopentadienenylcarboxylate. The crudest partitioning consists in retaining in the active space only the reaction coordinate, coupled to a dissipative bath of harmonic oscillators which are not coupled to the field. The control then fights against dissipation by accelerating the passage across the transition region which is very wide and flat in a Cope reaction. This mechanism has been observed in our previous simulations [Chenel et al., J. Phys. Chem. A 116, 11273 (2012)]. We compare here, the response of the control field when the reaction path is coupled to a second active mode. Constraints on the integrated intensity and on the maximum amplitude of the fields are imposed limiting the control landscape. Then, optimum field from one-dimensional simulation cannot provide a very high yield. Better guess fields based on the two-dimensional model allow the control to exploit different mechanisms providing a high control yield. By coupling the reaction surface to a bath, we confirm the link between the robustness of the field against dissipation and the time spent in the delocalized states above the transition barrier

  9. Ochre Bathing of the Bearded Vulture: A Bio-Mimetic Model for Early Humans towards Smell Prevention and Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tributsch, Helmut

    2016-01-01

    Since primordial times, vultures have been competing with man for animal carcasses. One of these vultures, the once widespread bearded vulture ( Gypaetus barbatus ), has the habit of bathing its polluted feathers and skin in red iron oxide - ochre - tainted water puddles. Why? Primitive man may have tried to find out and may have discovered its advantages. Red ochre, which has accompanied human rituals and everyday life for more than 100,000 years, is not just a simple red paint for decoration or a symbol for blood. As modern experiments demonstrate, it is active in sunlight producing aggressive chemical species. They can kill viruses and bacteria and convert smelly organic substances into volatile neutral carbon dioxide gas. In this way, ochre can in sunlight sterilize and clean the skin to provide health and comfort and make it scentless, a definitive advantage for nomadic meat hunters. This research thus also demonstrates a sanitary reason for the vulture's habit of bathing in red ochre mud. Prehistoric people have therefore included ochre use into their rituals, especially into those in relation to birth and death. Significant ritual impulses during evolution of man may thus have developed bio-mimetically, inspired from the habits of a vulture. It is discussed how this health strategy could be developed to a modern standard helping to fight antibiotics-resistant bacteria in hospitals. PMID:26784238

  10. The electrochemical behaviour study of La3+ ion in fused chlorides bath. The LaNi5 formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The electrochemical behaviour of La3+ ion was studied in fused chlorides bath, with purpose to obtain LaNi5 formation parameters. The lanthanum reduction/reoxidation mechanism and intermetallic compound formation were investigated by cyclic voltammetry, chronopotentiommetry and galvanostatic electrodeposition. The electrolyte employed was eutectic mixture NaCl-KCl (1:1) with anhydrous LaCl3 as solute, since 0,25 mol. L-1 up to 2 mol. L-1, between 700 deg C and 800 deg C. The anhydrous LaCl3 was prepared by lanthanum chloride slow dehydration with HCl flow and heating until 300 deg C. Over molybdenum, results depicted that lanthanum electrochemical behaviour was quasi-reversible and electrodeposition occurred in a charge transfer step with three electrons. In nickel, intermetallic compound formation was observed by interdiffusion. The scanning electronic microscopy (SEM-EDS) and X ray diffraction analysis indicated that layers composition depend on temperature and solute concentration in fused bath. Mainly LaNi5 intermetallic compound was formed with LaCl3 anhydrous concentration of 2 mol. L-1 at 750 deg C, with cathodic current density until 100 mA.cm-2. (author)

  11. Statistic evaluation of cysteine and allyl alcohol as additives for Cu-Zn coatings from citrate baths

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julyana Ribeiro Garcia

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available In the present work, cysteine and allyl alcohol were added to citrate baths as additives to Cu-Zn coatings on steel substrates. In order to verify the effects of the deposition parameters (current density, mechanical stirring speed, and additives on the coating composition, electrochemical behavior, morphology, and microstructure properties of Cu-Zn coatings, the electrodeposition of the alloy was carried out using an experimental composite design 2³, in which these parameters were considered the entry variables and the measured properties were the response variables. The confidence level was 95% and the results were shown as response surface diagrams. It was possible to verify that the current density affected the zinc content in the coating, while the coating produced from cysteine-contained bath presented the worse anticorrosive performance. In a general way, it was possible to observe that the studied parameters affected the morphology, grain size, and the electrochemical behavior of these coatings, although only a few response variables were statistically influenced by them.

  12. Statistic evaluation of cysteine and allyl alcohol as additives for Cu-Zn coatings from citrate baths

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julyana Ribeiro Garcia

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present work, cysteine and allyl alcohol were added to citrate baths as additives to Cu-Zn coatings on steel substrates. In order to verify the effects of the deposition parameters (current density, mechanical stirring speed, and additives on the coating composition, electrochemical behavior, morphology, and microstructure properties of Cu-Zn coatings, the electrodeposition of the alloy was carried out using an experimental composite design 2³, in which these parameters were considered the entry variables and the measured properties were the response variables. The confidence level was 95% and the results were shown as response surface diagrams. It was possible to verify that the current density affected the zinc content in the coating, while the coating produced from cysteine-contained bath presented the worse anticorrosive performance. In a general way, it was possible to observe that the studied parameters affected the morphology, grain size, and the electrochemical behavior of these coatings, although only a few response variables were statistically influenced by them.

  13. Optimal representation of the bath response function & fast calculation of influence functional coefficients in open quantum systems with BATHFIT 1

    CERN Document Server

    Dattani, Nikesh S; Pollock, Felix A

    2012-01-01

    Today's most popular techniques for accurately calculating the dynamics of the reduced density operator in an open quantum system, either require, or gain great computational benefits, from representing the bath response function a(t) in the form a(t)={\\Sigma}_k^K p_k e^{O_k t} . For some of these techniques, the number of terms in the series K plays the lead role in the computational cost of the calculation, and is therefore often a limiting factor in simulating open quantum system dynamics. We present an open source MATLAB program called BATHFIT 1, whose input is any spectral distribution functions J(w) or bath response function, and whose output attempts to be the set of parameters {p_k,w_k}_k=1^K such that for a given value of K, the series {\\Sigma}_k^k p_k e^{O_k t} is as close as possible to a(t). This should allow the user to represent a(t) as accurately as possible with as few parameters as possible. The program executes non-linear least squares fitting, and for a very wide variety of spectral distrib...

  14. Ochre Bathing of the Bearded Vulture: A Bio-Mimetic Model for Early Humans towards Smell Prevention and Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helmut Tributsch

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Since primordial times, vultures have been competing with man for animal carcasses. One of these vultures, the once widespread bearded vulture ( Gypaetus barbatus , has the habit of bathing its polluted feathers and skin in red iron oxide - ochre - tainted water puddles. Why? Primitive man may have tried to find out and may have discovered its advantages. Red ochre, which has accompanied human rituals and everyday life for more than 100,000 years, is not just a simple red paint for decoration or a symbol for blood. As modern experiments demonstrate, it is active in sunlight producing aggressive chemical species. They can kill viruses and bacteria and convert smelly organic substances into volatile neutral carbon dioxide gas. In this way, ochre can in sunlight sterilize and clean the skin to provide health and comfort and make it scentless, a definitive advantage for nomadic meat hunters. This research thus also demonstrates a sanitary reason for the vulture’s habit of bathing in red ochre mud. Prehistoric people have therefore included ochre use into their rituals, especially into those in relation to birth and death. Significant ritual impulses during evolution of man may thus have developed bio-mimetically, inspired from the habits of a vulture. It is discussed how this health strategy could be developed to a modern standard helping to fight antibiotics-resistant bacteria in hospitals.

  15. Effect of different complexing agents on the properties of chemical-bath-deposited ZnS thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Jun; Wei, Aixiang, E-mail: weiax@gdut.edu.cn; Zhao, Yu

    2014-03-05

    Highlights: • To fabricate high quality ZnS films need to promote the ion-by-ion process and restrain cluster-by-cluster process. • The complexation ability of tri-sodium citrate is stronger than that of hydrazine hydrate. • The nucleation density of nuclei determine the performance of ZnS thin films. -- Abstract: Zinc sulfide (ZnS) thin films were deposited on glass substrates using the chemical bath deposition (CBD) technique. The effects of different complexing agents (tri-sodium citrate, hydrazine hydrate) and their concentrations on the structure, composition, morphology, optical properties and growth mechanism of ZnS thin films were investigated. The results indicated that the chemical-bath-deposited ZnS thin films exhibit poor crystallinity and a high Zn/S atomic ratio with an average transmittance of 75% in the range of visible light. The ZnS thin films prepared using hydrazine hydrate as the complexing agent present a more compact surface, a smaller average particle size, and a sharper absorption edge at 300–340 nm compared with those prepared using tri-sodium citrate. Based on our experimental observations and analysis, we conclude that the predominant growth mechanism of ZnS thin films is an ion-by-ion process. The nucleation density of Zn(OH){sub 2} nuclei on the substrate in the initial stage produces the different morphologies and properties of the ZnS thin films prepared using the two complexing agents.

  16. Homogeneous ZnO nanostructure arrays on GaAs substrates by two-step chemical bath synthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ZnO nanostructures, including nanowires, nanorods, and nanoneedles, have been deposited on GaAs substrates by the two-step chemical bath synthesis. It was demonstrated that the O2-plasma treatment of GaAs substrates prior to the sol–gel deposition of seed layers was essential to conformally grow the nanostructures instead of 2D ZnO bunches and grains on the seed layers. Via adjusting the growth time and concentration of precursors, nanostructures with different average diameter (26–225 nm), length (0.98–2.29 μm), and density (1.9–15.3 × 109 cm−2) can be obtained. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first demonstration of ZnO nanostructure arrays grown on GaAs substrates by the two-step chemical bath synthesis. As an anti-reflection layer on GaAs-based solar cells, the array of ZnO nanoneedles with an average diameter of 125 nm, a moderate length of 2.29 μm, and the distribution density of 9.8 × 109 cm−2 has increased the power conversion efficiency from 7.3 to 12.2 %, corresponding to a 67 % improvement.

  17. On the structure, morphology, and optical properties of chemical bath deposited Sb2S3 thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the present paper, we have reported the room temperature growth of antimony sulphide (Sb2S3) thin films by chemical bath deposition and detailed characterization of these films. The films were deposited from a chemical bath containing SbCl3 and Na2S2O3 at 27 deg. C. We have analysed the structure, morphology, composition and optical properties of as deposited Sb2S3 films as well as those subjected to annealing in nitrogen atmosphere or in air. As-deposited films are amorphous to X-ray diffraction (XRD). However, the diffused rings in the electron diffraction pattern revealed the existence of nanocrystalline grains in these films. XRD analysis showed that upon annealing in nitrogen atmosphere these films transformed into polycrystalline with orthorhombic structure. Also, we have observed that during heating in air, Sb2S3 first converts into orthorhombic form and then further heating results in the formation of Sb2O3 crystallites. Optical bandgap energy of as deposited and annealed films was evaluated from UV-vis absorption spectra. The values obtained were 2.57 and 1.73 eV for the as-deposited and the annealed films respectively

  18. Influence of humidity on the growth characteristics and properties of chemical bath-deposited ZnS thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Yi-Cheng; Chao, Yen-Tai [Department of Mechatronics Engineering, National Changhua University of Education, Changhua 50007, Taiwan (China); Yao, Pin-Chuan, E-mail: pcyao@mail.dyu.edu.tw [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Da-Yeh University, Dacun, Changhua 51591, Taiwan (China)

    2014-07-01

    In this study, the effect of humidity on the growth characteristics and properties of chemical bath-deposited ZnS thin films was systematically investigated. All deposition was conducted by an open CBD system under various relative humidity levels (RH) or by a hermetic CBD system as a comparison. It shows, for films deposited by an open system, the ambient humidity plays an important role in the quality of the resultant films. Damp environments lead to powdery films. Generally, all films prepared in this study using NH{sub 3} and hydrazine hydrate as the complexing agents were amorphous or poorly crystalline. For an open system, the [H{sup +}] from the dissolved carbon dioxide in the air competes with the ammonium ions in the bath solution. According to Le Châtelier's principle, more ammonia was consumed, which favors the free [Zn{sup +2}] in the solution, facilitating the homogeneous precipitation of Zn(OH){sub 2} and giving rise to a powdery film. The x-ray photoelectron spectrum shows, for an open system, the content of Zn–O compounds in the form of Zn(OH){sub 2} and ZnO, etc., is increased by the relative humidity of the environment. The visible transmittance is reduced by RH. The higher optical band gap of the as-deposited films could be attributed to the quantum confinement effects due to the small grain size of the polycrystalline ZnS films over the substrates.

  19. Um banho termostático de baixo custo (temperatura ambiente até 0ºC A low cost thermal bath (room temperature to 0 ºC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina M. Quintella

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Thermal baths to decrease ambient temperature are an indispensable tool for most research and teaching laboratories, especially those in tropical or equatorial regions. A simple and inexpensive thermal bath has been developed based on a scratched compressor. It has three possible setups for cooling: sample immersed into the bath, sample flowing through the bath, and cooling liquid flowing in a jacket around the sample. It has been tested for 40 months. The temperature ranges from room temperature to 0 °C, when using water. The repeatability is better than 3% and the precision varies from 0.5% to 2%.

  20. Comparison of dose distribution by means of bolus versus water bath phantom technique in treatment of cutaneous sarcoma of an extremity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Research showed that cutaneous involvement by Kaposi sarcoma is frequently diffuse, requiring large-field irradiation. The authors have compared selective tissue compensation accomplished with a 1.5-cm bolus cast with that achieved by the 2-cm water bath phantom technique. Dosimetric determinations were performed by using 6MVX and cobalt-60 with heterogeneity corrections. Application of a 1.5-cm bolus effectively eliminated dose buildup and provided tissue compensation equivalent or superior to that of water bath phantom technique. Treatment of other cutaneous lesions (such as angiosarcoma) that require higher total doses should be accompanied by dosimetric evaluation, because a ±5% range in delivered dose may result in a significant total dose differential over the target volume (300-700 cGy) in either technique. Application of 1.5-cm bolus provided superior accuracy in treatment positioning and dose homogeneity comparable to the more standard water bath phantom technique