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Sample records for bath deposition methods

  1. ZnSe thin films by chemical bath deposition method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lokhande, C.D.; Patil, P.S.; Tributsch, H. [Hahn-Meitner-Institute, Bereich Physikalische Chemie, Abt. CS, Glienicker Strasse-100, D-14109 Berlin (Germany); Ennaoui, A. [Hahn-Meitner-Institute, Bereich Physikalische Chemie, Abt. CG, Glienicker Strasse-100, D-14109 Berlin (Germany)

    1998-09-04

    The ZnSe thin films have been deposited onto glass substrates by the simple chemical bath deposition method using selenourea as a selenide ion source from an aqueous alkaline medium. The effect of Zn ion concentration, bath temperature and deposition time period on the quality and thickness of ZnSe films has been studied. The ZnSe films have been characterized by XRD, TEM, EDAX, TRMC (time-resolved microwave conductivity), optical absorbance and RBS techniques for their structural, compositional, electronic and optical properties. The as-deposited ZnSe films are found to be amorphous, Zn rich with optical band gap, Eg, equal to 2.9 eV

  2. Ammonia-free chemical bath method for deposition of microcrystalline cadmium selenide films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lokhande, C.D.; Lee, Eun-Ho; Jung, Kwang-Deog; Joo, Oh-Shim

    2005-01-01

    Chemical deposition of cadmium selenide (CdSe) films has been carried out from alkaline aqueous solution containing Cd 2+ and Se 2- ions. In general, the alkaline pH of the CdSe deposition bath has been adjusted by addition of liquid ammonia. However, the use of ammonia in large-scale chemical deposition method represents an environmental problem due to its volatility and toxicity. The volatility of ammonia changes the pH of deposition bath and results into irreproducible film properties. In the present paper, ammonia-free and weak alkaline (pH < 9.0) chemical method for cadmium selenide film has been developed. The cadmium selenide films are microcrystalline (grain size 0.5-0.7 μm) with hexagonal crystal structure. These films are photoactive and therefore, useful in photo conversion of light into electrical power

  3. Electrochromic and electrochemical capacitive properties of tungsten oxide and its polyaniline nanocomposite films obtained by chemical bath deposition method

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Nwanya, AC

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Polyanine and its nanocomposite WO3/PANI films were deposited on fluorine doped tin oxide (FTO) glassslides by simple chemical bath deposition method. The morphology structure of the composite film wasstudied using atomic force microscopy (AFM...

  4. Deposition and characterization of ZnS thin films using chemical bath deposition method in the presence of sodium tartrate as complexing agent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kassim, A.; Tee, T.W.; Min, H.S.; Nagalingam, S.

    2011-01-01

    ZnS thin films were deposited on indium tin oxide glass substrate using the chemical bath deposition method. The deposited films were characterized by X-ray diffraction and atomic force microscopy. The influence of bath temperature on the structure and morphology of the thin films was investigated at three different bath temperatures of 60, 70 and 80 deg. C in the presence of sodium tartrate as a complexing agent. The XRD results indicated that the deposited ZnS thin films exhibited a polycrystalline cubic structure. The number of ZnS peaks increased from three to four peaks as the bath temperature was increased from 60 to 80 deg. C based on the XRD patterns. From the AFM measurements, the film thickness and surface roughness were found to be dependent on the bath temperature. The grain size increased as the bath temperature was increased from 60 to 80 deg. C. (author)

  5. Fabrication of ZnO nanorod using spray-pyrolysis and chemical bath deposition method

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    Ramadhani, Muhammad F., E-mail: brian@tf.itb.ac.id; Pasaribu, Maruli A. H., E-mail: brian@tf.itb.ac.id; Yuliarto, Brian, E-mail: brian@tf.itb.ac.id; Nugraha, E-mail: brian@tf.itb.ac.id [Advanced Functional Materials Laboratory, Engineering Physics Department Faculty of Industrial Technology, Institut Teknologi Bandung (Indonesia)

    2014-02-24

    ZnO thin films with nanorod structure were deposited using Ultrasonic Spray Pyrolysis method for seed growth, and Chemical Bath Deposition (CBD) for nanorod growth. High purity Zn-hydrate and Urea are used to control Ph were dissolved in ethanol and aqua bidest in Ultrasonic Spray Pyrolysis process. Glass substrate was placed above the heater plate of reaction chamber, and subsequently sprayed with the range duration of 5, 10 and 20 minutes at the temperatures of 3500 C. As for the Chemical Bath Deposition, the glass substrate with ZnO seed on the surface was immerse to Zn-hydrate, HMTA (Hexa Methylene Tetra Amine) and deionized water solution for duration of 3, 5 and 7 hour and temperatures of 600 C, washed in distilled water, dried, and annealed at 3500 C for an hour. The characterization of samples was carried out to reveal the surface morphology using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). From the data, the combination of 5 minutes of Ultrasonic Spray Pyrolysis process and 3 hour of CBD has showed the best structure of nanorod. Meanwhile the longer Spraying process and CBD yield the bigger nanorod structure that have been made, and it makes the films more dense which make the nanorod collide each other and as a result produce unsymetric nanorod structure.

  6. PREPARATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF IRON SULPHIDE THIN FILMS BY CHEMICAL BATH DEPOSITION METHOD

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    Anuar Kassim

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available FeS2 thin films have been deposited by using low cost chemical bath deposition technique. The films obtained under deposition parameters such as bath temperature (90 °C, deposition period (90 min, electrolyte concentration (0.15 M and pH of the reactive mixture (pH 2.5. The thin films were characterized using X-ray diffraction and atomic force microscopy in order to study the structural and morphological properties. The band gap energy, transition type and absorption properties were determined using UV-Vis Spectrophotometer. X-ray diffraction displayed a pattern consistent with the formation of an orthorhombic structure, with a strong (110 preferred orientation. Atomic force microscopy image showed the substrate surface is well covered with irregular grains. A direct band gap of 1.85 eV was obtained according to optical absorption studies.   Keywords: Iron sulfide, X-ray diffraction, chemical bath deposition, thin films

  7. Microstructures and photocatalytic properties of porous ZnO films synthesized by chemical bath deposition method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Huihu; Dong, Shijie; Chang Ying; Zhou Xiaoping; Hu Xinbin

    2012-01-01

    Different porous ZnO film structures on the surface of alumina substrates were prepared through a simple chemical bath deposition method in the methanolic zinc acetate solution. The surface morphology and phase structure of porous ZnO film were determined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD), respectively. Both initial zinc acetate concentration and sintering temperature have great impact on the final film structures. With the increase of initial zinc acetate concentration, the porous structures can be finely tuned from circular nest like assemblies composed film into successive nest like film, and finally to globular aggregates composed film. By increasing the sintering temperature, the porous structure of successive nest like film can be further controlled. Furthermore, the crystallinity of photocatalysts also can be greatly improved. The photodegradation results of Methyl Orange revealed that porous ZnO film with successive nest like structure sintered at 500 °C exhibited the highest photocatalytic activity under UV illumination.

  8. Preparation and characterization of SnO2 thin film by chemical bath deposition method for solar cell application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wan Mohd Zin Wan Yunus; Saeideh Ebrahimiasl; Anuar Kassim

    2009-01-01

    Full text: Tin oxide thin films were synthesized by chemical bath deposition method on glass substrate .The as-deposited thin films were characterized for compositional, structural, surface morphological, optical and electrical properties. The X-ray diffraction patterns of the sample indicate that all samples are polycrystalline structure. AFM images show that the films consist of small uniform grains and are free of pinholes. (author)

  9. Photoelectrochemical Properties of CuO Grown by Using a Modified Chemical Bath Deposition Method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ha, Jin-wook; Ryu, Hyukhyun [Inje University, Gimhae (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Won-Jae [Dong-Eui University, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-06-15

    In this study, cupric oxide (CuO) nanorods were grown on the fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) glass substrate using a modified-chemical bath deposition (M-CBD) method. We investigated the morphology, structural, optical and photoelectrochemical properties of the cupric oxide nanorods with various growth durations by using field-emission scanning-electron microscopy (FE-SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), UV-visible spectroscopy (UV-vis) and three-electrode potentiostat, respectively. In this work, we found that the morphologies, thickness, growth rate, crystallinities, grain sizes and optical bandgap were controllable on the growth duration, which affected photocurrent density and photo-stability. The highest growth rate of CuO nanorods was 126 nm/min. From the XRD measurement, we also confirmed that (020) directional growth affected the growth of the CuO nanorods. A maximum photocurrent density of-1.88 mA/cm² at -0.55 V (vs. SCE) and high photo-stability value about 40% was obtained with 10 minutes growth duration.

  10. Room temperature synthesis and characterization of CdO nanowires by chemical bath deposition (CBD) method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dhawale, D.S.; More, A.M.; Latthe, S.S.; Rajpure, K.Y.; Lokhande, C.D.

    2008-01-01

    A chemical synthesis process for the fabrication of CdO nanowires is described. In the present work, transparent and conductive CdO films were synthesized on the glass substrate using chemical bath deposition (CBD) at room temperature. These films were annealed in air at 623 K and characterized for the structural, morphological, optical and electrical properties were studied by means of X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), optical and electrical resistivity. The XRD analysis showed that the as-deposited amorphous can be converted in to polycrystalline after annealing. Annealed CdO nanowires are 60-65 nm in diameter and length ranges typically from 2.5 to 3 μm. The optical properties revealed the presence of direct and indirect band gaps with energies 2.42 and 2.04 eV, respectively. Electrical resistivity measurement showed semiconducting behavior and thermoemf measurement showed n-type electrical conductivity

  11. Annealed Ce{sup 3+}-doped ZnO flower-like morphology synthesized by chemical bath deposition method

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    Koao, Lehlohonolo F., E-mail: koaolf@ufs.ac.za [Department of Physics, University of the Free State (Qwa Qwa campus), Private Bag X13, Phuthaditjhaba 9866 (South Africa); Dejene, Francis B.; Tsega, Moges [Department of Physics, University of the Free State (Qwa Qwa campus), Private Bag X13, Phuthaditjhaba 9866 (South Africa); Swart, Hendrik C. [Department of Physics, University of the Free State, P.O. Box 339, Bloemfontein 9300 (South Africa)

    2016-01-01

    We have successfully synthesized ZnO:xmol% Ce{sup 3+} (0≤x≤10 mol%) doped nanopowders via the chemical bath deposition method (CBD) technique at low temperature (80 °C) and annealed in air at 700 °C. The X-ray diffraction patterns showed that all the undoped and Ce-doped ZnO nanopowders have a hexagonal wurtzite polycrystalline structure with an average crystallite size of about 46 nm. Weak diffraction peaks related mainly to cerium oxide were also detected at higher concentrations of Ce{sup 3+} (x=5–10 mol%). The scanning electron microscopy study revealed that the nanopowder samples were assembled in flower-shaped undoped ZnO and pyramid-shaped Ce{sup 3+}-doped ZnO nanostructures. The UV–vis spectra showed that the absorption edges shifted slightly to the longer wavelengths with the increase in the Ce{sup 3+} ions concentration. Moreover, the photoluminescence (PL) results showed a relative weak visible emission for the Ce{sup 3+}-doped ZnO nanoparticles compared to the undoped ZnO. The effects of Ce{sup 3+}-doping on the structure and PL of ZnO nanopowders are discussed in detail.

  12. Effect of deposition temperature on the structural, morphological and optical band gap of lead selenide thin films synthesized by chemical bath deposition method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hone, Fekadu Gashaw, E-mail: fekeye@gmail.com [Hawassa University, Department of Physics, Hawassa (Ethiopia); Ampong, Francis Kofi [Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology, Department of Physics, Kumasi (Ghana)

    2016-11-01

    Lead selenide (PbSe) nanocrystalline thin films have been deposited on silica glass substrates by the chemical bath deposition technique. The samples were deposited at the bath temperatures of 60, 75 and 90 °C respectively and characterized by a variety of techniques. The XRD results revealed that the PbSe thin film deposited at 60 °C was amorphous in nature. Films deposited at higher temperatures exhibited sharp and intense diffraction peaks, indicating an improvement in crystallinety. The deposition temperature also had a strong influence on the preferred orientation of the crystallites as well as other structural parameters such as microstrain and dislocation density. From the SEM study it was observed that film deposited at 90 °C had well defined crystallites, uniformly distributed over the entire surface of the substrate. The EDAX study confirmed that the samples deposited at the higher temperature had a better stoichiometric ratio. The optical band gap varied from 2.26 eV to 1.13 eV with increasing deposition temperature. - Highlights: • The crystallinety of the films improved as the deposition temperature increased. • The deposition temperature strongly influenced the preferred orientations. • Microstrain and dislocation density are decreased linearly with deposition temperature. • Band gap decreased from 2.26 eV to 1.13 eV as the deposition temperature increased.

  13. Synthesis of Nanocrystalline SnOx (x = 1–2 Thin Film Using a Chemical Bath Deposition Method with Improved Deposition Time, Temperature and pH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zulkarnain Zainal

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Nanocrystalline SnOx (x = 1–2 thin films were prepared on glass substrates by a simple chemical bath deposition method. Triethanolamine was used as complexing agent to decrease time and temperature of deposition and shift the pH of the solution to the noncorrosive region. The films were characterized for composition, surface morphology, structure and optical properties. X-ray diffraction analysis confirms that SnOx thin films consist of a polycrystalline structure with an average grain size of 36 nm. Atomic force microscopy studies show a uniform grain distribution without pinholes. The elemental composition was evaluated by energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. The average O/Sn atomic percentage ratio is 1.72. Band gap energy and optical transition were determined from optical absorbance data. The film was found to exhibit direct and indirect transitions in the visible spectrum with band gap values of about 3.9 and 3.7 eV, respectively. The optical transmittance in the visible region is 82%. The SnOx nanocrystals exhibit an ultraviolet emission band centered at 392 nm in the vicinity of the band edge, which is attributed to the well-known exciton transition in SnOx. Photosensitivity was detected in the positive region under illumination with white light.

  14. Effects of TiO{sub 2} buffer layer on the photoelectrochemical properties of TiO{sub 2} Nano rods grown by modified chemical bath deposition method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Tae-hyun; Ha, Jin-wook; Ryu, Hyukhyun [Inje University, Gimhae (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Won-Jae [Dong-Eui University, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-08-15

    In this study, we grew TiO{sub 2} nano rods on TiO{sub 2}-film buffered FTO substrate using modified chemical bath deposition (M-CBD). The TiO{sub 2} buffer layer was grown by spin coating method with different RPM (revolutions per minute) values and deposition cycles. We investigated the effects of the RPM values and the deposition cycles on the morphological, structural and photoelectrochemical properties of TiO{sub 2} nano rods. In this work, we have also found that the morphological and structural properties of TiO{sub 2} nano rods affected the photoelectrochemical properties of TiO{sub 2} nano rods. And the maximum photocurrent density of 0.34 mA/cm{sup 2} at 0.6V (vs.SCE) was obtained from the buffer layer deposition process condition of 4,000 RPM and two-times buffer layer depositions.

  15. Structural and optical properties of Ni-doped CdS thin films prepared by chemical bath deposition method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Premarani, R. [Arumugam Pillai SeethaiAmmal College, Thiruppattur-630211 (India); Saravanakumar, S., E-mail: sarophy84@gmail.com; Chandramohan, R. [SreeSevuganAnnamalai College, Devakottai-630303 (India); Mahalingam, T. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Ajou University, Suwon 443-749 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-06-24

    The structural and optical behavior of undoped Cadmiun Sulphide (CdS) and Ni-doped CdS thinfilms prepared by Chemical Bath Deposition (CBD) technique is reported. The crystallite sizes of the thinfilms have been characterized by X-ray diffraction pattern (XRD). The particle sizes increase with the increase of Ni content in the CdS thinfilms. Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) results indicated that CdS thinfilms is made up of aggregate of spherical-like particles. The composition was estimated by Energy Dispersive Analysis of X-ray (EDX) and reported. Spectroscopic studies revealed considerable improvement in transmission and the band gap of the films changes with addition of Ni dopant that is associated with variation in crystallite sizes in the nano regime.

  16. Synthesis of nanocrystalline nickel-zinc ferrite (Ni0.8Zn0.2Fe2O4) thin films by chemical bath deposition method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pawar, D.K.; Pawar, S.M.; Patil, P.S.; Kolekar, S.S.

    2011-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Display Omitted Research highlights: → We have successfully synthesized nickel-zinc ferrite (Ni 0.8 Zn 0.2 Fe 2 O 4 ) thin films on stainless steel substrates using a low temperature chemical bath deposition method. → The surface morphological study showed the compact flakes like morphology. → The as-deposited thin films are hydrophilic (10 o o ) whereas the annealed thin films are super hydrophilic (θ o ) in nature. → Ni 0.8 Zn 0.2 Fe 2 O 4 thin films could be used in supercapacitor. - Abstract: The nickel-zinc ferrite (Ni 0.8 Zn 0.2 Fe 2 O 4 ) thin films have been successfully deposited on stainless steel substrates using a chemical bath deposition method from alkaline bath. The films were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), static water contact angle and cyclic voltammetry measurements. The X-ray diffraction pattern shows that deposited Ni 0.8 Zn 0.2 Fe 2 O 4 thin films were oriented along (3 1 1) plane. The FTIR spectra showed strong absorption peaks around 600 cm -1 which are typical for cubic spinel crystal structure. SEM study revealed compact flakes like morphology having thickness ∼1.8 μm after air annealing. The annealed films were super hydrophilic in nature having a static water contact angle (θ) of 5 o .The electrochemical supercapacitor study of Ni 0.8 Zn 0.2 Fe 2 O 4 thin films has been carried out in 6 M KOH electrolyte. The values of interfacial and specific capacitances obtained were 0.0285 F cm -2 and 19 F g -1 , respectively.

  17. Preparation of nanocrystalline Ni doped ZnS thin films by ammonia-free chemical bath deposition method and optical properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sahraei, Reza, E-mail: r.sahraei@ilam.ac.ir; Darafarin, Soraya

    2014-05-01

    Nanocrystalline Ni doped ZnS thin films were deposited on quartz, silicon, and glass substrates using chemical bath deposition method in a weak acidic solution containing ethylenediamine tetra acetic acid disodium salt (Na{sub 2}EDTA) as a complexing agent for zinc ions and thioacetamide (TAA) as a sulfide source at 80 °C. The films were characterized by energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometer (EDX), inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES), Fourier transform-infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), ultraviolet–visible spectrophotometry, and photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy. UV–vis transmission data showed that the films were transparent in the visible region. The X-ray diffraction analysis showed a cubic zinc blend structure. FE-SEM revealed a homogeneous morphology and dense nanostructures. The PL spectra of the ZnS:Ni films showed two characteristic bands, one broad band centered at 430 and another narrow band at 523 nm. Furthermore, concentration quenching effect on the photoluminescence intensity has been observed. - Highlights: • Nanocrystalline ZnS:Ni thin films were prepared by the chemical bath deposition method. • The size of ZnS:Ni nanocrystals was less than 10 nm showing quantum size effect. • SEM images demonstrated a dense and uniform surface that was free of pinholes. • The deposited films were highly transparent (>70%) in the visible region. • The PL spectra of ZnS:Ni thin films showed two emission peaks at 430 and 523 nm.

  18. Investigations on the synthesis, optical and electrical properties of TiO{sub 2} thin films by Chemical Bath Deposition (CBD) method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Govindasamy, Geetha [Bharathiar University, Coimbatore (India); Murugasen, Priya [Department of Physics, Saveetha Engineering College (India); Sagadevan, Suresh [Department of Physics, AMET University, Chennai (India)

    2016-03-15

    Titanium dioxide (TiO{sub 2} ) thin films were prepared by Chemical Bath Deposition (CBD) method. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis was used to examine the structure and to determine the crystallite size of TiO{sub 2} thin film. The surface morphology of the film was studied using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM).The optical properties were studied using the UV-Visible and photoluminescence (PL) spectrum. Optical constants such as band gap, refractive index, extinction coefficient and electric susceptibility were determined. The FTIR spectrum revealed the strong presence of TiO{sub 2} . The dielectric properties of TiO{sub 2} thin films were studied for different frequencies and different temperatures. The AC electrical conductivity test revealed that the conduction depended both on the frequency and the temperature. Photoconductivity study was carried out in order to ascertain the positive photoconductivity of the TiO{sub 2} thin films. (author)

  19. A Systematic Study of the Relationship among the Morphological, Structural and Photoelectrochemical Properties of ZnO Nanorods Grown Using the Microwave Chemical Bath Deposition Method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oh, Sungjin; Ryu, Hyukhyun [Inje University, Gimhae (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Won-Jae [Dong-Eui University, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-08-15

    In this study, zinc oxide (ZnO) nanostructures were grown on a ZnO seed layer/fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) substrate for different growth durations ranging from 5 to 40 min using the microwave chemical bath deposition method. We studied the effect of growth duration on the morphological, structural, optical and photoelectrochemical properties of the ZnO nanostructures. From this study, we found that the photoelectrochemical properties of the ZnO nanostructures were largely affected by their morphological and structural properties. As a result, we obtained the highest photocurrent density of 0.46 mA/cm{sup 2} (at 1.5 V vs. SCE) from the sample grown for 30 min.

  20. Incorporation of Mn2+ into CdSe quantum dots by chemical bath co-deposition method for photovoltaic enhancement of quantum dot-sensitized solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chenguang; Liu, Shaowen; Liu, Xingwei; Deng, Fei; Xiong, Yan; Tsai, Fang-Chang

    2018-03-01

    A photoelectric conversion efficiency (PCE) of 4.9% was obtained under 100 mW cm -2 illumination by quantum-dot-sensitized solar cells (QDSSCs) using a CdS/Mn : CdSe sensitizer. CdS quantum dots (QDs) were deposited on a TiO 2 mesoporous oxide film by successive ionic layer absorption and reaction. Mn 2+ doping into CdSe QDs is an innovative and simple method-chemical bath co-deposition, that is, mixing the Mn ion source with CdSe precursor solution for Mn : CdSe QD deposition. Compared with the CdS/CdSe sensitizer without Mn 2+ incorporation, the PCE was increased from 3.4% to 4.9%. The effects of Mn 2+ doping on the chemical, physical and photovoltaic properties of the QDSSCs were investigated by energy dispersive spectrometry, absorption spectroscopy, photocurrent density-voltage characteristics and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. Mn-doped CdSe QDs in QDSSCs can obtain superior light absorption, faster electron transport and slower charge recombination than CdSe QDs.

  1. Chemical bath ZnSe thin films: deposition and characterisation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lokhande, C. D.; Patil, P. S.; Ennaoui, A.; Tributsch, H.

    1998-01-01

    The zinc selenide (ZnSe) thin films have been deposited by a simple and inexpensive chemical bath deposition (CBD) method. The selenourea was used as a selenide ion source. The ZnSe films have been characterised by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDAX), Rutherford back scattering (RBS), and optical absorption. The as-deposited ZnSe films on various substrates are found to be amorphous and contain O2 and N2 in addition to Zn and Se. The optical band gap of the film is estimated to be 2.9 eV. The films are photoactive as evidenced by time resolved microwave conductivity (TRMC).

  2. A Comparative Study on Structural and Optical Properties of ZnO Micro-Nanorod Arrays Grown on Seed Layers Using Chemical Bath Deposition and Spin Coating Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sibel MORKOÇ KARADENİZ

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In this study, Zinc Oxide (ZnO seed layers were prepared on Indium Tin Oxide (ITO substrates by using Chemical Bath Deposition (CBD method and Sol-gel Spin Coating (SC method. ZnO micro-nanorod arrays were grown on ZnO seed layers by using Hydrothermal Synthesis method. Seed layer effects of structural and optical properties of ZnO arrays were characterized. X-ray diffractometer (XRD, Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM and Ultraviolet Visible (UV-Vis Spectrometer were used for analyses. ZnO micro-nanorod arrays consisted of a single crystalline wurtzite ZnO structure for each seed layer. Besides, ZnO rod arrays were grown smoothly and vertically on SC seed layer, while ZnO rod arrays were grown randomly and flower like structures on CBD seed layer. The optical absorbance peaks found at 422 nm wavelength in the visible region for both ZnO arrays. Optical bandgap values were determined by using UV-Vis measurements at 3.12 and 3.15 eV for ZnO micro-nanorod arrays on CBD seed layer and for ZnO micro-nanorod arrays on SC-seed layer respectively.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.ms.22.4.13443

  3. Effects of copper precursor concentration on the growth of cupric oxide nanorods for photoelectrode using a modified chemical bath deposition method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oh, Hee-bong [Department of Nano Science and Engineering, High Safety Vehicle Core Technology Research Center, Inje University, Gimhae, Gyeongnam 621-749 (Korea, Republic of); Ryu, Hyukhyun, E-mail: hhryu@inje.ac.kr [Department of Nano Science and Engineering, High Safety Vehicle Core Technology Research Center, Inje University, Gimhae, Gyeongnam 621-749 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Won-Jae [Department of Materials and Components Engineering, Dong-Eui University, Busan 614-714 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-01-25

    Highlights: • CuO nanorod photoelectrodes were prepared by modified CBD method. • The CuO nanorods were vertically grown with a high growth rate. • Effects of precursor concentration on the CuO nanorods were investigated. - Abstract: In this study, vertically aligned CuO nanorods were grown using a modified chemical bath deposition method with various copper precursor concentrations. The morphological, structural, optical and photoelectrochemical properties of the synthesized CuO samples were characterized using a field-emission scanning electron microscope, an X-ray diffractometer, a UV–visible spectrometer and a three-electrode potentiostat, respectively. The growth rates of the samples varied from 4.3 to 500 nm/min with the varying precursor concentrations. The vertically well-grown CuO nanorods exhibited one-dimensional growth along the (0 2 0) plane. We obtained a maximum photocurrent density of −1.05 mA/cm{sup 2} at −0.6 V (vs. SCE) from the CuO nanorod photoelectrode grown using the 10 mM copper precursor concentration.

  4. Effect of reaction time on structural, morphology and optical properties of ZnO nanoflakes prepared by chemical bath deposition method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Molefe, F.V.; Koao, L.F., E-mail: koaolf@qwa.ufs.ac.za; Dolo, J.J.; Dejene, B.F.

    2014-04-15

    ZnO nanoflakes have been successfully synthesized by the chemical bath deposition (CBD) method for different reaction times. X-ray diffraction (XRD) results confirm the initial formation of the cubic ZnO structure. However, increasing the reaction time resulted into the emergence of the well-known hexagonal wurtzite structure of ZnO. Scanning electron microscopy images showed the presence of agglomerated nanoflakes. The morphology was found not to depend on synthesis time. UV–vis spectra showed a partially increase in the percentage reflectance and the absorption edges red shifted to the higher wavelength with an increase in synthesis time. The highest band gap energy was obtained for ZnO synthesized for 1 min, with its estimated band gap energy of 3.91±0.08 eV. The estimated band gap decreased with an increase in the reaction time. The photoluminescent intensity of the emission peak at 473 nm decreased with an increase in reaction time.

  5. The effect of Cu{sup 2+} on structure, morphology and optical properties of flower-like ZnO synthesized using the chemical bath deposition method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koao, L.F., E-mail: koaolf@qwa.ufs.ac.za [Department of Physics, University of the Free State, Qwaqwa Campus, Private Bag X13, Phuthaditjhaba 9866 (South Africa); Dejene, B.F. [Department of Physics, University of the Free State, Qwaqwa Campus, Private Bag X13, Phuthaditjhaba 9866 (South Africa); Swart, H.C. [Department of Physics, University of the Free State, PO Box 339, Bloemfontein 9300 (South Africa)

    2014-04-15

    In this work undoped and Cu{sup 2+}-doped ZnO nanostructures were prepared by the chemical bath deposition (CBD) method at 80 °C. The structural, optical and luminescence properties of the undoped and Cu{sup 2+}-doped ZnO nanostructures were determined by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), UV–Visible Spectroscopy (UV) and Photoluminescence spectroscopy (PL) analyses. XRD analysis showed the sample prepared were hexagonal ZnO with grain sizes in the order of 46±1 nm. The estimated grain size was found not to dependent on the concentration of the Cu{sup 2+} ions used. The SEM analysis revealed that the shapes of the particles were flower-like and the addition of Cu{sup 2+} ions influenced the morphology of the samples. In the UV–Visible study the reflectance intensity decreased with an increase in the molar concentration of Cu{sup 2+} and there was no shift in the absorption edges. The PL analyses revealed that the highest luminescence intensity was obtained for the undoped ZnO. Thus Cu incorporated into the ZnO resulted in the change in its morphological, structural, and optical and luminescence properties.

  6. Study of the Morphological, Structural, Optical and Photoelectrochemical Properties of Zinc Oxide Nanorods Grown Using a Microwave Chemical Bath Deposition Method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oh, Sungjin; Ryu, Hyukhyun [Inje University, Gimhae (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Won-Jae [Dong-Eui University, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-04-15

    In this study, zinc oxide (ZnO) nanostructures were grown on a ZnO-buffered fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) substrate using a microwave chemical bath deposition method with different zinc oxide precursor concentrations from 0.01 to 0.5 M. We investigated the effects of the zinc oxide precursor concentration on the morphological, structural, optical and photoelectrochemical properties of the ZnO nanostructures. From this work, we found that ZnO one-dimensional structures mainly grew along the (002) plane, and the nanorod length, diameter, surface area and photoelectrochemical properties were largely dependent on the precursor concentration. That is, the photoelectrochemical properties were affected by the morphological and structural properties of the ZnO. The morphological, structural, optical and photoelectrochemical properties of the ZnO nanostructure were investigated by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) and atomic force microscope (AFM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), UV-visible spectroscopy and 3-electrode potentiostat. We obtained the highest photocurrent density of 0.37 mA/cm{sup 2} (at 1.1 V vs. SCE) from the precursor concentration of 0.07 M, which resulted in ZnO nanostructures with proper length and diameter, large surface area and good structural properties.

  7. Influence of Codoping on the Optical Properties of ZnO Thin Films Synthesized on Glass Substrate by Chemical Bath Deposition Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Shanmuganathan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Fe and K simultaneously doped ZnO thin films Zn0.99 K0.01 (Fex O (x=1, 2, 3, and 4% were synthesized by chemical bath deposition method. The XRD investigation reveals that all the doped ZnO thin films are in hexagonal wurtzite crystal structure without impurity phases. With increase in Fe concentration, the growth of thin films along c axis is evident from the XRD which indicates the increase in intensity along (002 direction. The same is visible from the surface morphology which shows the formation of hexagonal structure for higher Fe concentration. The topography shows gradual variation with Fe incorporation. The optical energy band gap obtained from the transmittance spectrum decreases from 3.42 to 3.06 eV with increase in Fe concentration indicating the red shift and this trend is consistent with the earlier experimental results. The UV emission is centered around 3.59 eV. The optical constants such as refractive index, extinction coefficient, and absorption coefficient which are essential for the optoelectronic applications were also determined.

  8. Short review on chemical bath deposition of thin film and characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mugle, Dhananjay, E-mail: dhananjayforu@gmail.com; Jadhav, Ghanshyam, E-mail: ghjadhav@rediffmail.com [Depertment of Physics, Shri Chhatrapati Shivaji College, Omerga-413606 (India)

    2016-05-06

    This reviews the theory of early growth of the thin film using chemical deposition methods. In particular, it critically reviews the chemical bath deposition (CBD) method for preparation of thin films. The different techniques used for characterizations of the chemically films such as X-ray diffractometer (XRD), Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Electrical conductivity and Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDS) are discussed. Survey shows the physical and chemical properties solely depend upon the time of deposition, temperature of deposition.

  9. Thermoluminescence of Zn O thin films deposited by chemical bath

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Camacho A, M. C.; Cruz V, C.; Bernal H, R.; Berman M, D.; Castano M, V. M.

    2015-10-01

    Full text: Zn O films on Si were synthesized using a deposition method by chemical bath and thermally treated at 900 degrees C for 12 h in air. The morphological characterization by scanning electron microscopy reveals that uniform films were obtained. To investigate the thermoluminescent properties of the films were exposed to irradiation with beta particles with doses in the range from 0.5 to 128 Gy. The brightness curves obtained using a heating rate of 5 degrees C have two peaks, one at 124 and another at 270 degrees C, and a linear dependence of the integrated thermoluminescence as a function of dose. The second maximum reveals the existence of localized trapping states of potential utility in thermoluminescent dosimetry. (Author)

  10. Bath parameter dependence of chemically deposited Copper Selenide thin film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Mamun; Islam, A.B.M.O.

    2004-09-01

    In this article, a low cost chemical bath deposition (CBD) technique has been used for the preparation Of Cu 2-x Se thin films on to glass substrate. Different thin fms (0.2-0.6/μm) were prepared by adjusting the bath parameter like concentration of ammonia, deposition time, temperature of the solution, and the ratios of the mixing composition between copper and selenium in the reaction bath. From these studies, it reveals that at low concentration of ammonia or TEA, the terminal thicknesses of the films are less, which gradually increases with the increase of concentrations and then drop down at still higher concentrations. It has been found that completing the Cu 2+ ions with EA first, and then addition of ammonia yields better results than the reverse process. The film thickness increases with the decrease of value x of Cu 2-x Se. (author)

  11. CdS films deposited by chemical bath under rotation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliva-Aviles, A.I.; Patino, R.; Oliva, A.I.

    2010-01-01

    Cadmium sulfide (CdS) films were deposited on rotating substrates by the chemical bath technique. The effects of the rotation speed on the morphological, optical, and structural properties of the films were discussed. A rotating substrate-holder was fabricated such that substrates can be taken out from the bath during the deposition. CdS films were deposited at different deposition times (10, 20, 30, 40 and 50 min) onto Corning glass substrates at different rotation velocities (150, 300, 450, and 600 rpm) during chemical deposition. The chemical bath was composed by CdCl 2 , KOH, NH 4 NO 3 and CS(NH 2 ) 2 as chemical reagents and heated at 75 deg. C. The results show no critical effects on the band gap energy and the surface roughness of the CdS films when the rotation speed changes. However, a linear increase on the deposition rate with the rotation energy was observed, meanwhile the stoichiometry was strongly affected by the rotation speed, resulting a better 1:1 Cd/S ratio as speed increases. Rotation effects may be of interest in industrial production of CdTe/CdS solar cells.

  12. CdS films deposited by chemical bath under rotation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliva-Aviles, A.I., E-mail: aoliva@mda.cinvestav.mx [Centro de Investigacion y de Estudios Avanzados Unidad Merida, Departamento de Fisica Aplicada. A.P. 73-Cordemex, 97310 Merida, Yucatan (Mexico); Patino, R.; Oliva, A.I. [Centro de Investigacion y de Estudios Avanzados Unidad Merida, Departamento de Fisica Aplicada. A.P. 73-Cordemex, 97310 Merida, Yucatan (Mexico)

    2010-08-01

    Cadmium sulfide (CdS) films were deposited on rotating substrates by the chemical bath technique. The effects of the rotation speed on the morphological, optical, and structural properties of the films were discussed. A rotating substrate-holder was fabricated such that substrates can be taken out from the bath during the deposition. CdS films were deposited at different deposition times (10, 20, 30, 40 and 50 min) onto Corning glass substrates at different rotation velocities (150, 300, 450, and 600 rpm) during chemical deposition. The chemical bath was composed by CdCl{sub 2}, KOH, NH{sub 4}NO{sub 3} and CS(NH{sub 2}){sub 2} as chemical reagents and heated at 75 deg. C. The results show no critical effects on the band gap energy and the surface roughness of the CdS films when the rotation speed changes. However, a linear increase on the deposition rate with the rotation energy was observed, meanwhile the stoichiometry was strongly affected by the rotation speed, resulting a better 1:1 Cd/S ratio as speed increases. Rotation effects may be of interest in industrial production of CdTe/CdS solar cells.

  13. Chemical Bath Deposition and Characterization of CdS layer for CZTS Thin Film Solar Cell

    OpenAIRE

    Kamal, Tasnim; Parvez, Sheikh; Matin, Rummana; Bashar, Mohammad Shahriar; Hossain, Tasnia; Sarwar, Hasan; Rashid, Mohammad Junaebur

    2016-01-01

    CZTS is a new type of an absorber and abundant materials for thin film solar cells (TFSC). Cadmium sulfide (CdS) is the n-type buffer layer of it with band gap of 2.42 eV. Cadmium sulfide (CdS) buffer layer of CZTS solar cell was deposited on soda-lime glass substrates by the Chemical Bath Deposition(CBD) method, using anhydrous Cadmium chloride(CdCl_2) and Thiourea (CS(NH_2)_2). Deposition of CdS using CBD is based on the slow release of Cd^ ions and S^ ions in an alkaline bath which is achi...

  14. Cobalt Xanthate Thin Film with Chemical Bath Deposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İ. A. Kariper

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Cobalt xanthate thin films (CXTFs were successfully deposited by chemical bath deposition, onto amorphous glass substrates, as well as on p- and n-silicon, indium tin oxide, and poly(methyl methacrylate. The structure of the films was analyzed by far-infrared spectrum (FIR, mid-infrared (MIR spectrum, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM. These films were investigated from their structural, optical, and electrical properties point of view. Electrical properties were measured using four-point method, whereas optical properties were investigated via UV-VIS spectroscopic technique. Uniform distribution of grains was clearly observed from the photographs taken by scanning electron microscope (SEM. The transmittance was about 70–80% (4 hours, 50°C. The optical band gap of the CXTF was graphically estimated to be 3.99–4.02 eV. The resistivity of the films was calculated as 22.47–75.91 Ω·cm on commercial glass depending on film thickness and 44.90–73.10 Ω ·cm on the other substrates. It has been observed that the relative resistivity changed with film thickness. The MIR and FIR spectra of the films were in agreement with the literature analogues. The expected peaks of cobalt xanthate were observed in NMR analysis on glass. The films were dipped in chloroform as organic solvent and were analyzed by NMR.

  15. Chemical bath deposition of CdS thin films doped with Zn and Cu

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. Zn- and Cu-doped CdS thin films were deposited onto glass substrates by the chemical bath technique. ... Cadmium sulfide; chemical bath deposition; doping; optical window. 1. ..... at low temperature (10 K), finding similar trends than.

  16. Cadmium sulfide thin films growth by chemical bath deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hariech, S.; Aida, M. S.; Bougdira, J.; Belmahi, M.; Medjahdi, G.; Genève, D.; Attaf, N.; Rinnert, H.

    2018-03-01

    Cadmium sulfide (CdS) thin films have been prepared by a simple technique such as chemical bath deposition (CBD). A set of samples CdS were deposited on glass substrates by varying the bath temperature from 55 to 75 °C at fixed deposition time (25 min) in order to investigate the effect of deposition temperature on CdS films physical properties. The determination of growth activation energy suggests that at low temperature CdS film growth is governed by the release of Cd2+ ions in the solution. The structural characterization indicated that the CdS films structure is cubic or hexagonal with preferential orientation along the direction (111) or (002), respectively. The optical characterization indicated that the films have a fairly high transparency, which varies between 55% and 80% in the visible range of the optical spectrum, the refractive index varies from 1.85 to 2.5 and the optical gap value of which can reach 2.2 eV. It can be suggested that these properties make these films perfectly suitable for their use as window film in thin films based solar cells.

  17. Polycrystalline thin films of antimony selenide via chemical bath deposition and post deposition treatments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez-Lazcano, Y.; Pena, Yolanda; Nair, M.T.S.; Nair, P.K.

    2005-01-01

    We report a method for obtaining thin films of polycrystalline antimony selenide via chemical bath deposition followed by heating the thin films at 573 K in selenium vapor. The thin films deposited from chemical baths containing one or more soluble complexes of antimony, and selenosulfate initially did not show X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns corresponding to crystalline antimony selenide. Composition of the films, studied by energy dispersive X-ray analyses indicated selenium deficiency. Heating these films in presence of selenium vapor at 573 K under nitrogen (2000 mTorr) resulted in an enrichment of Se in the films. XRD peaks of such films matched Sb 2 Se 3 . Evaluation of band gap from optical spectra of such films shows absorption due to indirect transition occurring in the range of 1-1.2 eV. The films are photosensitive, with dark conductivity of about 2 x 10 -8 (Ω cm) -1 and photoconductivity, about 10 -6 (Ω cm) -1 under tungsten halogen lamp illumination with intensity of 700 W m -2 . An estimate for the mobility life time product for the film is 4 x 10 -9 cm 2 V -1

  18. Synthesis of nanocrystalline nickel-zinc ferrite (Ni{sub 0.8}Zn{sub 0.2}Fe{sub 2}O{sub 4}) thin films by chemical bath deposition method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pawar, D.K. [Department of Chemistry, Shivaji University, Kolhapur 416 004 (M.S.) (India); Pawar, S.M. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Chonnam National University, 500 757 (Korea, Republic of); Patil, P.S. [Department of Physics, Shivaji University, Kolhapur 416 004 (M.S.) (India); Kolekar, S.S., E-mail: kolekarss2003@yahoo.co.in [Department of Chemistry, Shivaji University, Kolhapur 416 004 (M.S.) (India)

    2011-02-24

    Graphical abstract: Display Omitted Research highlights: > We have successfully synthesized nickel-zinc ferrite (Ni{sub 0.8}Zn{sub 0.2}Fe{sub 2}O{sub 4}) thin films on stainless steel substrates using a low temperature chemical bath deposition method. > The surface morphological study showed the compact flakes like morphology. > The as-deposited thin films are hydrophilic (10{sup o} < {theta} < 90{sup o}) whereas the annealed thin films are super hydrophilic ({theta} < 10{sup o}) in nature. > Ni{sub 0.8}Zn{sub 0.2}Fe{sub 2}O{sub 4} thin films could be used in supercapacitor. - Abstract: The nickel-zinc ferrite (Ni{sub 0.8}Zn{sub 0.2}Fe{sub 2}O{sub 4}) thin films have been successfully deposited on stainless steel substrates using a chemical bath deposition method from alkaline bath. The films were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), static water contact angle and cyclic voltammetry measurements. The X-ray diffraction pattern shows that deposited Ni{sub 0.8}Zn{sub 0.2}Fe{sub 2}O{sub 4} thin films were oriented along (3 1 1) plane. The FTIR spectra showed strong absorption peaks around 600 cm{sup -1} which are typical for cubic spinel crystal structure. SEM study revealed compact flakes like morphology having thickness {approx}1.8 {mu}m after air annealing. The annealed films were super hydrophilic in nature having a static water contact angle ({theta}) of 5{sup o}.The electrochemical supercapacitor study of Ni{sub 0.8}Zn{sub 0.2}Fe{sub 2}O{sub 4} thin films has been carried out in 6 M KOH electrolyte. The values of interfacial and specific capacitances obtained were 0.0285 F cm{sup -2} and 19 F g{sup -1}, respectively.

  19. Morphology and growth behavior of O_2-free chemical bath deposited ZnS thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jet Meitzner, K.; Tillotson, Brock M.; Siedschlag, Amanda T.; Moore, Frederick G.; Kevan, Stephen D.; Richmond, Geraldine L.

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the role of reagent concentrations and ambient O_2 on the morphology and growth behavior of ZnS thin films grown with the chemical bath deposition method. We investigate the role of substrate on film morphology, and find significant differences between films deposited on SiO_2 versus Si. The films are also sensitive to dissolved O_2 in the bath, as it causes a layer of SiO_2 to form at the ZnS/Si interface during deposition. Degassing of solutions and an N_2 atmosphere are effective to minimize this oxidation, allowing deposition of ZnS films directly onto Si. Under these conditions, we examine film properties as they relate to reagent bath concentrations. As the reagent concentrations are decreased, both the film roughness and growth rate decrease linearly. We also observe deformation and shifting of X-ray diffraction peaks that increases with decreasing reagent concentrations. The shifts are characteristic of lattice compression (caused by the substitution of oxygen for sulfur), and the deformation is characteristic of distortion of the lattice near crystal grain interfaces (caused by tensile stress from interatomic forces between neighboring crystal grains). At the weakest concentrations, the low roughness suggests a mixed growth mode in which both clusters and individual ZnS nanocrystallites contribute to film growth. With increasing reagent concentrations, the growth mode shifts and becomes dominated by deposition of clusters. - Highlights: • We deposit ZnS thin films by chemical bath deposition in an O_2-free environment. • The O_2-free environment is effective to minimize oxidation of the Si substrate. • The dominant growth mechanism changes with reagent concentrations. • Film morphology and composition change with reagent concentrations. • X-ray diffraction reveals tensile stress between ZnS crystal grains.

  20. Effect of protic solvents on CdS thin films prepared by chemical bath deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yao, Pin-Chuan, E-mail: pcyao@mail.dyu.edu.tw; Chen, Chun-Yu

    2015-03-31

    In this study, cadmium sulfide (CdS) thin films are grown on glass substrates by chemical bath deposition (CBD) in an aqueous bath containing 10–20 vol.% alcohol. The roles of ethanol as a protic solvent that substantially improves the quality of films are explored extensively. The deposited films in an alcohol bath are found to be more compact and smoother with smaller CdS grains. The X-ray diffractograms of the samples confirm that all films were polycrystalline with mixed wurtzite (hexagonal) and zinkblende (cubic) phases. Raman spectra indicate that, for a film deposited in an alcohol bath, the position of 1LO is closer to the value for single crystal CdS, indicating that these films have a high degree of crystallinity. The as-deposited CdS thin films in a 10 vol.% alcohol bath were found to have the highest visible transmittance of 81.9%. XPS analysis reveals a stronger signal of C1s for samples deposited in the alcohol baths, indicating that there are more carbonaceous residues on the films with protic solvent than on the films with water. A higher XPS S/Cd atomic ratio for films deposited in an alcohol bath indicates that undesirable surface reactions (leading to sulfur containing compounds other than CdS) occur less frequently over the substrates. - Highlights: • Study of CBD-CdS films grown in an alcohol-containing aqueous bath is reported. • The deposited films in an alcohol bath are more compact with smaller CdS grains. • Raman spectra show that in an alcohol bath, the CdS film has a better crystallinity. • XPS reveals more carbon residues remain on the films deposited using alcohol bath. • In an alcohol bath, the undesirable surface reactions with Cd ions were hindered.

  1. Electrodeposition of gold from formaldehyde-sulfite baths: bath stability and deposits characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana L. Cardoso

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available It was investigated Au(I-sulfite baths containing formaldehyde. As a result, high stability was achieved for baths containing formaldehyde concentration close to 10 mL L-1 with a lifetime superior to 600 days. On the other hand, cyclic voltammograms indicated that the increase of formaldehyde concentration in the bath promotes decreasing of the maximum cathodic current, so that, if the formaldehyde concentration is high, the surface areal concentration of gold will be low. Also, the lowest surface roughness was obtained for 10 mL L-1 of formaldehyde.

  2. SnS thin films deposited by chemical bath deposition, dip coating and SILAR techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaki, Sunil H.; Chaudhary, Mahesh D.; Deshpande, M. P.

    2016-05-01

    The SnS thin films were synthesized by chemical bath deposition (CBD), dip coating and successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR) techniques. In them, the CBD thin films were deposited at two temperatures: ambient and 70 °C. The energy dispersive analysis of X-rays (EDAX), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and optical spectroscopy techniques were used to characterize the thin films. The electrical transport properties studies on the as-deposited thin films were done by measuring the I-V characteristics, DC electrical resistivity variation with temperature and the room temperature Hall effect. The obtained results are deliberated in this paper.

  3. Structural and Optical Properties of Chemical Bath Deposited Silver Oxide Thin Films: Role of Deposition Time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. C. Nwanya

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Silver oxide thin films were deposited on glass substrates at a temperature of 50°C by chemical bath deposition technique under different deposition times using pure AgNO3 precursor and triethanolamine as the complexing agent. The chemical analysis based on EDX technique shows the presence of Ag and O at the appropriate energy levels. The morphological features obtained from SEM showed that the AgxO structures varied as the deposition time changes. The X-ray diffraction showed the peaks of Ag2O and AgO in the structure. The direct band gap and the refractive index increased as the deposition time increased and was in the range of 1.64–1.95 eV and 1.02–2.07, respectively. The values of the band gap and refractive index obtained indicate possible applications in photovoltaic and photothermal systems.

  4. Chemical bath deposited PbS thin films on ZnO nanowires for photovoltaic applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gertman, Ronen [Dept of Chemistry, Ben Gurion University of the Negev, Be' er Sheva 84105 (Israel); Ilse Katz Institute for Nanoscale Science and Technology, Ben Gurion University of the Negev, Be' er Sheva 84105 (Israel); Osherov, Anna; Golan, Yuval [Dept of Materials Engineering, Ben Gurion University of the Negev, Be' er Sheva 84105 (Israel); Ilse Katz Institute for Nanoscale Science and Technology, Ben Gurion University of the Negev, Be' er Sheva 84105 (Israel); Visoly-Fisher, Iris, E-mail: irisvf@bgu.ac.il [Ilse Katz Institute for Nanoscale Science and Technology, Ben Gurion University of the Negev, Be' er Sheva 84105 (Israel); Department of Solar Energy and Environmental Physics, Swiss Institute for Dryland Environmental and Energy Research, Jacob Blaustein Institutes for Desert Research, Ben Gurion University of the Negev, Sede Boqer Campus 84990 (Israel)

    2014-01-01

    Photovoltaic devices usually exploit mid-range band-gap semiconductors which absorb in the visible range of the solar spectrum. However, much energy is lost in the IR and near-IR range. We combined the advantages of small band-gap, bulk-like PbS deposited by facile, cheap and direct chemical bath deposition (CBD), with the good electronic properties of ZnO and the large surface area of nanowires, towards low cost photovoltaic devices utilizing IR and near-IR light. Surprisingly, CBD of PbS on ZnO, and particularly on ZnO nanowires, was not studied hitherto. Therefore, the mechanism of PbS growth by chemical bath deposition on ZnO nanowires was studied in details. A visible proof is shown for a growth mechanism starting from amorphous Pb(OH){sub 2} layer, that evolved into the ‘ion-by-ion’ growth mechanism. The growth mechanism and the resulting morphology at low temperatures were controlled by the thiourea concentration. The grain size affected the magnitude of the band-gap and was controlled by the deposition temperatures. Deposition above 40 °C resulted in bulk-like PbS with an optical band-gap of 0.4 eV. Methods were demonstrated for achieving complete PbS coverage of the complex ZnO NW architecture, a crucial requirement in optoelectronic devices to prevent shorts. Measurements of photocurrents under white and near-IR (784 nm) illumination showed that despite a 200 meV barrier for electron transfer at the PbS/ZnO interface, extraction of photo-electrons from PbS to the ZnO was feasible. The ability to harvest electrons from a narrow band-gap semiconductor deposited on a large surface-area electrode can advance the field towards high efficiency, low cost IR and near-IR sensors and third generation solar cells. - Highlights: • PbS was deposited on ZnO nanowires using chemical bath deposition. • At 50 °C the growth mechanism starts from an amorphous Pb(OH){sub 2} layer. • At 5 °C the growth mechanism of PbS can be controlled by thiourea concentrations

  5. Superhydrophobic Cu{sub 2}S@Cu{sub 2}O film on copper surface fabricated by a facile chemical bath deposition method and its application in oil-water separation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pi, Pihui, E-mail: phpi@scut.edu.cn; Hou, Kun; Zhou, Cailong; Li, Guidong; Wen, Xiufang; Xu, Shouping; Cheng, Jiang; Wang, Shuangfeng

    2017-02-28

    Highlights: • A superhydrophobic film with macro/nano structure was fabricated on copper surface. • The as-prepared film shows outstanding water repellency and long-term storage stability. • The same method was used to fabricate superhydrophobic/superoleophilic copper mesh. • The obtained mesh could realize separation of various oily sewages with separation efficiency above 94%. - Abstract: Cu{sub 2}S and Cu{sub 2}O composite (Cu{sub 2}S@Cu{sub 2}O) film with micro/nano binary structure was created on copper surface using the mixing solution of sodium thiosulphate and copper sulfate by a facile chemical bath deposition method. After modification with low-cost polydimethylsioxane (PDMS), the superhydrophobic Cu{sub 2}S@Cu{sub 2}O film was obtained. The as-prepared film shows outstanding water repellency with a water contact angle larger than 150° and long-term storage stability. The geometric morphology and chemical composition of the film were characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM), energy dispersive spectrometer (EDS) and attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR), respectively. Moreover, the same method was used to fabricate superhydrophobic/superoleophilic copper mesh, and it could realize separation of various oily sewages with separation efficiency above 94%. This strategy has potential to fabricate the practical superhydrophobic Cu{sub 2}S@Cu{sub 2}O film on copper surface on a large scale due to its simplicity and low cost.

  6. Growth of different phases and morphological features of MnS thin films by chemical bath deposition: Effect of deposition parameters and annealing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hannachi, Amira, E-mail: amira.hannachi88@gmail.com; Maghraoui-Meherzi, Hager

    2017-03-15

    Manganese sulfide thin films have been deposited on glass slides by chemical bath deposition (CBD) method. The effects of preparative parameters such as deposition time, bath temperature, concentration of precursors, multi-layer deposition, different source of manganese, different complexing agent and thermal annealing on structural and morphological film properties have been investigated. The prepared thin films have been characterized using the X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX). It exhibit the metastable forms of MnS, the hexagonal γ-MnS wurtzite phase with preferential orientation in the (002) plane or the cubic β-MnS zinc blende with preferential orientation in the (200) plane. Microstructural studies revealed the formation of MnS crystals with different morphologies, such as hexagons, spheres, cubes or flowers like. - Graphical Abstract: We report the preparation of different phases of manganese sulfide thin films (γ, β and α-MnS) by chemical bath deposition method. The effects of deposition parameters such as deposition time and temperature, concentrations of precursors and multi-layer deposition on MnS thin films structure and morphology were investigated. The influence of thermal annealing under nitrogen atmosphere at different temperature on MnS properties was also studied. Different manganese precursors as well as different complexing agent were also used. - Highlights: • γ and β-MnS films were deposited on substrate using the chemical bath deposition. • The effect of deposition parameters on MnS film properties has been investigated. • Multi-layer deposition was also studied to increase film thickness. • The effect of annealing under N{sub 2} at different temperature was investigated.

  7. Effect of Aluminum Doping on the Nanocrystalline ZnS:Al3+ Films Fabricated on Heavily-Doped p-type Si(100) Substrates by Chemical Bath Deposition Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, He-Jie; Liang, Yan; Gao, Xiao-Yong; Guo, Rui-Fang; Ji, Qiang-Min

    2015-06-01

    Intrinsic ZnS and aluminum-doped nanocrystalline ZnS (ZnS:Al3+) films with zinc-blende structure were fabricated on heavily-doped p-type Si(100) substrates by chemical bath deposition method. Influence of aluminum doping on the microstructure, and photoluminescent and electrical properties of the films, were intensively investigated. The average crystallite size of the films varying in the range of about 9.0 ˜ 35.0 nm initially increases and then decreases with aluminum doping contents, indicating that the crystallization of the films are initially enhanced and then weakened. The incorporation of Al3+ was confirmed from energy dispersive spectrometry and the induced microstrain in the films. Strong and stable visible emission band resulting from the defect-related light emission were observed for the intrinsic ZnS and ZnS:Al3+ films at room temperature. The photoluminescence related to the aluminum can annihilate due to the self-absorption of ZnS:Al3+ when the Al3+ content surpasses certain value. The variation of the resistivity of the films that initially reduces and then increases is mainly caused by the partial substitute for Zn2+ by Al3+ as well as the enhanced crystallization, and by the enhanced crystal boundary scattering, respectively.

  8. Optical and structural characterization of nickel oxide-based thin films obtained by chemical bath deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vidales-Hurtado, M.A.; Mendoza-Galvan, A.

    2008-01-01

    Nickel oxide-based thin films were obtained using the chemical bath deposition method on glass and silicon substrates. The precursor solution used was a mixture of nickel nitrate, urea, and deionized water. Molar concentration of nickel (0.3-1.0 M), deposition time, and immersing cycles were considered as deposition variables. Infrared spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction data reveal that all as-deposited films correspond to the transparent turbostratic phase α(II)-Ni(OH) 2 . However, the rate of deposition depends on nickel content in the solution. After annealing in air at temperatures above of 300 deg. C, the films are transformed to the NiO phase and show a grey/black color. In these films, scanning electron microscopy images show aggregates of thin stacked sheets on their surface, such aggregates can be easily removed leaving only a thin NiO layer of about 30 nm adhered firmly to the substrate, regardless of nickel concentration in the solution and deposition time. In order to obtain thicker NiO films with good optical properties a procedure is developed performing several immersing-annealing cycles

  9. Modification of optical and electrical properties of chemical bath deposited CdS using plasma treatments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez, G.; Krishnan, B.; Avellaneda, D.; Castillo, G. Alan; Das Roy, T.K.; Shaji, S.

    2011-01-01

    Cadmium sulphide (CdS) is a well known n-type semiconductor that is widely used in solar cells. Here we report preparation and characterization of chemical bath deposited CdS thin films and modification of their optical and electrical properties using plasma treatments. CdS thin films were prepared from a chemical bath containing Cadmium chloride, Triethanolamine and Thiourea under various deposition conditions. Good quality thin films were obtained during deposition times of 5, 10 and 15 min. CdS thin films prepared for 10 min. were treated using a glow discharge plasma having nitrogen and argon carrier gases. The changes in morphology, optical and electrical properties of these plasma treated CdS thin films were analyzed in detail. The results obtained show that plasma treatment is an effective technique in modification of the optical and electrical properties of chemical bath deposited CdS thin films.

  10. Modification of optical and electrical properties of chemical bath deposited CdS using plasma treatments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez, G. [Facultad de Ingenieria Mecanica y Electrica, Universidad Autonoma de Nuevo Leon, San Nicolas de los Garza, Nuevo Leon, C.P 66450 (Mexico); Krishnan, B. [Facultad de Ingenieria Mecanica y Electrica, Universidad Autonoma de Nuevo Leon, San Nicolas de los Garza, Nuevo Leon, C.P 66450 (Mexico); CIIDIT, Universidad Autonoma de Nuevo Leon, Apodaca, Nuevo Leon (Mexico); Avellaneda, D.; Castillo, G. Alan; Das Roy, T.K. [Facultad de Ingenieria Mecanica y Electrica, Universidad Autonoma de Nuevo Leon, San Nicolas de los Garza, Nuevo Leon, C.P 66450 (Mexico); Shaji, S., E-mail: sshajis@yahoo.com [Facultad de Ingenieria Mecanica y Electrica, Universidad Autonoma de Nuevo Leon, San Nicolas de los Garza, Nuevo Leon, C.P 66450 (Mexico); CIIDIT, Universidad Autonoma de Nuevo Leon, Apodaca, Nuevo Leon (Mexico)

    2011-08-31

    Cadmium sulphide (CdS) is a well known n-type semiconductor that is widely used in solar cells. Here we report preparation and characterization of chemical bath deposited CdS thin films and modification of their optical and electrical properties using plasma treatments. CdS thin films were prepared from a chemical bath containing Cadmium chloride, Triethanolamine and Thiourea under various deposition conditions. Good quality thin films were obtained during deposition times of 5, 10 and 15 min. CdS thin films prepared for 10 min. were treated using a glow discharge plasma having nitrogen and argon carrier gases. The changes in morphology, optical and electrical properties of these plasma treated CdS thin films were analyzed in detail. The results obtained show that plasma treatment is an effective technique in modification of the optical and electrical properties of chemical bath deposited CdS thin films.

  11. Chemical bath deposition of indium sulphide thin films: preparation and characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lokhande, C.D.; Ennaoui, A.; Patil, P.S.; Giersig, M.; Diesner, K.; Muller, M.; Tributsch, H. [Hahn-Meitner-Institut Berlin GmbH (Germany). Bereich Physikalische Chemie

    1999-02-26

    Indium sulphide (In{sub 2}S{sub 3}) thin films have been successfully deposited on different substrates under varying deposition conditions using chemical bath deposition technique. The deposition mechanism of In{sub 2}S{sub 3} thin films from thioacetamide deposition bath has been proposed. Films have been characterized with respect to their crystalline structure, composition, optical and electrical properties by means of X-ray diffraction, TEM, EDAX, optical absorption, TRMC (time resolved microwave conductivity) and RBS. Films on glass substrates were amorphous and on FTO (flourine doped tin oxide coated) glass substrates were polycrystalline (element of phase). The optical band gap of In{sub 2}S{sub 3} thin film was estimated to be 2.75 eV. The as-deposited films were photoactive as evidenced by TRMC studies. The presence of oxygen in the film was detected by RBS analysis. (orig.) 27 refs.

  12. The Effects of Electroless Nickel Plating Bath Conditions on Stability of Solution and Properties of Deposit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huh, Jin; Lee, Jae Ho

    2000-01-01

    Electroless depositions of nickel were conducted in different bath conditions to find optimum conditions of electroless nickel plating at low operating temperature and pH. The effect of complexing reagent on stability of plating solution was investigated. Sodium citrate complexed plating solution is more stable than sodium pyrophosphate complexed solution. The effects of nickel salt concentration, reducing agent, complexing agent and inhibitor on deposition rate was investigated. The effects of pH on deposition rate and content of phosphorous in deposited nickel were also analyzed. Electroless deposited nickel become crystallized with increasing pH due to lower phosphorous content. In optimum operating bath condition, deposition rate was 7 μm/hr at 60 .deg. C and pH 10.0 without stabilizer. The rate was decreased with stabilizer concentration

  13. The structural properties of CdS deposited by chemical bath deposition and pulsed direct current magnetron sputtering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lisco, F., E-mail: F.Lisco@lboro.ac.uk [Centre for Renewable Energy Systems Technology (CREST), School of Electronic, Electrical and Systems Engineering, Loughborough University, Leicestershire, LE11 3TU (United Kingdom); Kaminski, P.M.; Abbas, A.; Bass, K.; Bowers, J.W.; Claudio, G. [Centre for Renewable Energy Systems Technology (CREST), School of Electronic, Electrical and Systems Engineering, Loughborough University, Leicestershire, LE11 3TU (United Kingdom); Losurdo, M. [Institute of Inorganic Methodologies and of Plasmas, IMIP-CNR, via Orabona 4, 70126 Bari (Italy); Walls, J.M. [Centre for Renewable Energy Systems Technology (CREST), School of Electronic, Electrical and Systems Engineering, Loughborough University, Leicestershire, LE11 3TU (United Kingdom)

    2015-05-01

    Cadmium sulphide (CdS) thin films were deposited by two different processes, chemical bath deposition (CBD), and pulsed DC magnetron sputtering (PDCMS) on fluorine doped-tin oxide coated glass to assess the potential advantages of the pulsed DC magnetron sputtering process. The structural, optical and morphological properties of films obtained by CBD and PDCMS were investigated using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, scanning and transmission electron microscopy, spectroscopic ellipsometry and UV-Vis spectrophotometry. The as-grown films were studied and comparisons were drawn between their morphology, uniformity, crystallinity, and the deposition rate of the process. The highest crystallinity is observed for sputtered CdS thin films. The absorption in the visible wavelength increased for PDCMS CdS thin films, due to the higher density of the films. The band gap measured for the as-grown CBD-CdS is 2.38 eV compared to 2.34 eV for PDCMS-CdS, confirming the higher density of the sputtered thin film. The higher deposition rate for PDCMS is a significant advantage of this technique which has potential use for high rate and low cost manufacturing. - Highlights: • Pulsed DC magnetron sputtering (PDCMS) of CdS films • Chemical bath deposition of CdS films • Comparison between CdS thin films deposited by chemical bath and PDCMS techniques • High deposition rate deposition for PDCMS deposition • Uniform, pinhole free CdS thin films.

  14. The structural properties of CdS deposited by chemical bath deposition and pulsed direct current magnetron sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lisco, F.; Kaminski, P.M.; Abbas, A.; Bass, K.; Bowers, J.W.; Claudio, G.; Losurdo, M.; Walls, J.M.

    2015-01-01

    Cadmium sulphide (CdS) thin films were deposited by two different processes, chemical bath deposition (CBD), and pulsed DC magnetron sputtering (PDCMS) on fluorine doped-tin oxide coated glass to assess the potential advantages of the pulsed DC magnetron sputtering process. The structural, optical and morphological properties of films obtained by CBD and PDCMS were investigated using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, scanning and transmission electron microscopy, spectroscopic ellipsometry and UV-Vis spectrophotometry. The as-grown films were studied and comparisons were drawn between their morphology, uniformity, crystallinity, and the deposition rate of the process. The highest crystallinity is observed for sputtered CdS thin films. The absorption in the visible wavelength increased for PDCMS CdS thin films, due to the higher density of the films. The band gap measured for the as-grown CBD-CdS is 2.38 eV compared to 2.34 eV for PDCMS-CdS, confirming the higher density of the sputtered thin film. The higher deposition rate for PDCMS is a significant advantage of this technique which has potential use for high rate and low cost manufacturing. - Highlights: • Pulsed DC magnetron sputtering (PDCMS) of CdS films • Chemical bath deposition of CdS films • Comparison between CdS thin films deposited by chemical bath and PDCMS techniques • High deposition rate deposition for PDCMS deposition • Uniform, pinhole free CdS thin films

  15. Breakthrough to Non-Vacuum Deposition of Single-Crystal, Ultra-Thin, Homogeneous Nanoparticle Layers: A Better Alternative to Chemical Bath Deposition and Atomic Layer Deposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Kuang Liao

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Most thin-film techniques require a multiple vacuum process, and cannot produce high-coverage continuous thin films with the thickness of a few nanometers on rough surfaces. We present a new ”paradigm shift” non-vacuum process to deposit high-quality, ultra-thin, single-crystal layers of coalesced sulfide nanoparticles (NPs with controllable thickness down to a few nanometers, based on thermal decomposition. This provides high-coverage, homogeneous thickness, and large-area deposition over a rough surface, with little material loss or liquid chemical waste, and deposition rates of 10 nm/min. This technique can potentially replace conventional thin-film deposition methods, such as atomic layer deposition (ALD and chemical bath deposition (CBD as used by the Cu(In,GaSe2 (CIGS thin-film solar cell industry for decades. We demonstrate 32% improvement of CIGS thin-film solar cell efficiency in comparison to reference devices prepared by conventional CBD deposition method by depositing the ZnS NPs buffer layer using the new process. The new ZnS NPs layer allows reduction of an intrinsic ZnO layer, which can lead to severe shunt leakage in case of a CBD buffer layer. This leads to a 65% relative efficiency increase.

  16. Fast vertical growth of ZnO nanorods using a modified chemical bath deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Tae-hyun [Department of Nano Systems Engineering, Center for Nano Manufacturing, Inje University, Obang-dong, Gimhae, Gyeongnam 621-749 (Korea, Republic of); Ryu, Hyukhyun, E-mail: hhryu@inje.ac.kr [Department of Nano Systems Engineering, Center for Nano Manufacturing, Inje University, Obang-dong, Gimhae, Gyeongnam 621-749 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Won-Jae [Department of Materials and Components Engineering, Dong-Eui University, 995 Eomgwangno, Busanjin-gu, Busan 614-714 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-06-01

    Highlights: • We grew vertical ZnO nanorods by a modified CBD process with a fast growth rate. • We studied the effects of the CBD process by varying growth temperature, time, and concentration. • The ZnO nanorods grown by the modified CBD showed good morphological and structural properties. - Abstract: In this study, we grew vertical ZnO nanorods on seeded Si (1 0 0) substrates using a modified chemical bath deposition (CBD). We investigated the effects of the growth temperature, growth time and concentration on the morphological and structural properties of the ZnO nanorods using field emission gun scanning electron microscopy (FEG-SEM) and X-ray diffraction. This modified CBD method shows improved results over conventional CBD. ZnO nanorods with good structural XRD properties were grown with a very fast growth rate in a wide range of growth conditions and did not require post-growth annealing.

  17. Surface characterization of ZnO nanorods grown by chemical bath deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mbulanga, C.M., E-mail: crispin.mbulanga@nmmu.ac.za [Department of Physics, Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University, P.O. Box 77000, Port Elizabeth 6031 (South Africa); Urgessa, Z.N.; Tankio Djiokap, S.R.; Botha, J.R. [Department of Physics, Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University, P.O. Box 77000, Port Elizabeth 6031 (South Africa); Duvenhage, M.M.; Swart, H.C. [Department of Physics, University of the Free State, P.O Box 77000, Bloemfontein ZA9300 (South Africa)

    2016-01-01

    The surface composition of as-grown and annealed ZnO nanorods (ZNs) grown by a two-step chemical bath deposition method is investigated by the following surface-sensitive techniques: Time-of-Flight Secondary Ion Mass Spectroscopy (TOF-SIMS), X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) and Auger Electron Spectroscopy (AES). The presence of H on the surface and throughout the entire thickness of ZNs is confirmed by TOF-SIMS. Based on TOF-SIMS results, the O2 XPS peak mostly observable at ~531.5 is assigned to O bound to H. Furthermore, it is found that the near surface region of as-grown ZNs is Zn-rich, and annealing at high temperature (~850 °C) removes H-related defects from the surface of ZNs and affect the balance of zinc and oxygen concentrations.

  18. Photoluminescence study of aligned ZnO nanorods grown using chemical bath deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urgessa, Z.N.; Oluwafemi, O.S.; Dangbegnon, J.K.; Botha, J.R.

    2012-01-01

    The photoluminescence study of self-assembled ZnO nanorods grown on a pre-treated Si substrate by a simple chemical bath deposition method at a temperature of 80 °C is hereby reported. By annealing in O 2 environment the UV emission is enhanced with diminishing deep level emission suggesting that most of the deep level emission is due to oxygen vacancies. The photoluminescence was investigated from 10 K to room temperature. The low temperature photoluminescence spectrum is dominated by donor-bound exciton. The activation energy and binding energy of shallow donors giving rise to bound exciton emission were calculated to be around 13.2 meV, 46 meV, respectively. Depending on these energy values and nature of growth environment, hydrogen is suggested to be the possible contaminating element acting as a donor.

  19. Photoluminescence study of aligned ZnO nanorods grown using chemical bath deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Urgessa, Z.N. [Department of Physics, P.O. Box 77000, Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University, Port Elizabeth 6031 (South Africa); Oluwafemi, O.S. [Department of Chemistry and Chemical Technology, Walter Sisulu University, Mthatha Campus, Private Bag XI, 5117 (South Africa); Dangbegnon, J.K. [Department of Physics, P.O. Box 77000, Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University, Port Elizabeth 6031 (South Africa); Botha, J.R., E-mail: Reinhardt.Botha@nmmu.ac.za [Department of Physics, P.O. Box 77000, Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University, Port Elizabeth 6031 (South Africa)

    2012-05-15

    The photoluminescence study of self-assembled ZnO nanorods grown on a pre-treated Si substrate by a simple chemical bath deposition method at a temperature of 80 Degree-Sign C is hereby reported. By annealing in O{sub 2} environment the UV emission is enhanced with diminishing deep level emission suggesting that most of the deep level emission is due to oxygen vacancies. The photoluminescence was investigated from 10 K to room temperature. The low temperature photoluminescence spectrum is dominated by donor-bound exciton. The activation energy and binding energy of shallow donors giving rise to bound exciton emission were calculated to be around 13.2 meV, 46 meV, respectively. Depending on these energy values and nature of growth environment, hydrogen is suggested to be the possible contaminating element acting as a donor.

  20. Fabrication of CdS films with superhydrophobicity by the microwave assisted chemical bath deposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Y; Tan, T; Wang, B; Zhai, R; Song, X; Li, E; Wang, H; Yan, H

    2008-04-15

    A simple method of microwave assisted chemical bath deposition (MA-CBD) was adopted to fabricate cadmium sulfide (CdS) thin films. The superhydrophobic surface with a water contact angle (CA) of 151 degrees was obtained. Via a scanning electron microscopy (SEM) observation, the film was proved having a porous micro/nano-binary structure which can change the property of the surface and highly enhance the hydrophobicity of the film. A possible mechanism was suggested to describe the growth of the porous structure, in which the microwave heating takes an important role in the formation of two distinct characteristic dimensions of CdS precipitates, the growth of CdS sheets in micro-scale and sphere particles in nano-scale. The superhydrophobic films may provide novel platforms for photovoltaic, sensor, microfluidic and other device applications.

  1. Heat bath method for the twisted Eguchi-Kawai model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fabricius, K.; Haan, O.

    1984-01-01

    We reformulate the twisted Eguchi-Kawaii model in a way that allows us to use the heat bath method for the updating procedure of the link matrices. This new formulation is more efficient by a factor of 2.5 in computer time and of 2.3 in memory need. (orig.)

  2. Heat bath method for the twisted Eguchi-Kawai model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fabricius, K.; Haan, O.

    1984-08-16

    We reformulate the twisted Eguchi-Kawaii model in a way that allows us to use the heat bath method for the updating procedure of the link matrices. This new formulation is more efficient by a factor of 2.5 in computer time and of 2.3 in memory need.

  3. Preparation of nanocrystalline ZnS by a new chemical bath deposition route

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sartale, S.D. [Department of Heterogeneous Material Systems (SE2), Hahn-Meitner-Institut, Glienicker Strasse 100, D-14109, Berlin (Germany); Sankapal, B.R. [Department of Heterogeneous Material Systems (SE2), Hahn-Meitner-Institut, Glienicker Strasse 100, D-14109, Berlin (Germany); Lux-Steiner, M. [Department of Heterogeneous Material Systems (SE2), Hahn-Meitner-Institut, Glienicker Strasse 100, D-14109, Berlin (Germany); Ennaoui, A. [Department of Heterogeneous Material Systems (SE2), Hahn-Meitner-Institut, Glienicker Strasse 100, D-14109, Berlin (Germany)]. E-mail: ennaoui@hmi.de

    2005-06-01

    We report a new chemical bath deposition route for the preparation of dense, compact and uniform nanocrystalline ZnS thin films, where thiourea acts as a complexing agent as well as a source of sulfide ions. The structural and morphological characterizations suggest that the film and the residual powder in the bath are formed by the aggregation of clusters of ZnS, namely cluster-by-cluster growth mechanism. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and HRTEM analyses indicate that the film and powder formed in the bath have cubic zinkblende structure. The films have high transmittance of about 75% in the visible region. Post-deposition annealing in Ar slightly improves the crystallinity and decreases the optical bandgap with increasing the annealing temperature.

  4. Preparation of nanocrystalline ZnS by a new chemical bath deposition route

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sartale, S.D.; Sankapal, B.R.; Lux-Steiner, M.; Ennaoui, A.

    2005-01-01

    We report a new chemical bath deposition route for the preparation of dense, compact and uniform nanocrystalline ZnS thin films, where thiourea acts as a complexing agent as well as a source of sulfide ions. The structural and morphological characterizations suggest that the film and the residual powder in the bath are formed by the aggregation of clusters of ZnS, namely cluster-by-cluster growth mechanism. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and HRTEM analyses indicate that the film and powder formed in the bath have cubic zinkblende structure. The films have high transmittance of about 75% in the visible region. Post-deposition annealing in Ar slightly improves the crystallinity and decreases the optical bandgap with increasing the annealing temperature

  5. CdS thin films prepared by laser assisted chemical bath deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia, L.V.; Mendivil, M.I.; Garcia Guillen, G.; Aguilar Martinez, J.A.; Krishnan, B.; Avellaneda, D.; Castillo, G.A.; Das Roy, T.K.; Shaji, S.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • CdS thin films by conventional CBD and laser assisted CBD. • Characterized these films using XRD, XPS, AFM, optical and electrical measurements. • Accelerated growth was observed in the laser assisted CBD process. • Improved dark conductivity and good photocurrent response for the LACBD CdS. - Abstract: In this work, we report the preparation and characterization of CdS thin films by laser assisted chemical bath deposition (LACBD). CdS thin films were prepared from a chemical bath containing cadmium chloride, triethanolamine, ammonium hydroxide and thiourea under various deposition conditions. The thin films were deposited by in situ irradiation of the bath using a continuous laser of wavelength 532 nm, varying the power density. The thin films obtained during deposition of 10, 20 and 30 min were analyzed. The changes in morphology, structure, composition, optical and electrical properties of the CdS thin films due to in situ irradiation of the bath were analyzed by atomic force microscopy (AFM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and UV–vis spectroscopy. The thin films obtained by LACBD were nanocrystalline, photoconductive and presented interesting morphologies. The results showed that LACBD is an effective synthesis technique to obtain nanocrystalline CdS thin films having good optoelectronic properties

  6. CdS thin films prepared by laser assisted chemical bath deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia, L.V.; Mendivil, M.I.; Garcia Guillen, G.; Aguilar Martinez, J.A. [Facultad de Ingenieria Mecanica y Electrica, Universidad Autonoma de Nuevo Leon, Av. Pedro de Alba s/n, Ciudad Universitaria, San Nicolas de los Garza, Nuevo Leon 66450 (Mexico); Krishnan, B. [Facultad de Ingenieria Mecanica y Electrica, Universidad Autonoma de Nuevo Leon, Av. Pedro de Alba s/n, Ciudad Universitaria, San Nicolas de los Garza, Nuevo Leon 66450 (Mexico); CIIDIT – Universidad Autonoma de Nuevo Leon, Apodaca, Nuevo Leon (Mexico); Avellaneda, D.; Castillo, G.A.; Das Roy, T.K. [Facultad de Ingenieria Mecanica y Electrica, Universidad Autonoma de Nuevo Leon, Av. Pedro de Alba s/n, Ciudad Universitaria, San Nicolas de los Garza, Nuevo Leon 66450 (Mexico); Shaji, S., E-mail: sshajis@yahoo.com [Facultad de Ingenieria Mecanica y Electrica, Universidad Autonoma de Nuevo Leon, Av. Pedro de Alba s/n, Ciudad Universitaria, San Nicolas de los Garza, Nuevo Leon 66450 (Mexico); CIIDIT – Universidad Autonoma de Nuevo Leon, Apodaca, Nuevo Leon (Mexico)

    2015-05-01

    Highlights: • CdS thin films by conventional CBD and laser assisted CBD. • Characterized these films using XRD, XPS, AFM, optical and electrical measurements. • Accelerated growth was observed in the laser assisted CBD process. • Improved dark conductivity and good photocurrent response for the LACBD CdS. - Abstract: In this work, we report the preparation and characterization of CdS thin films by laser assisted chemical bath deposition (LACBD). CdS thin films were prepared from a chemical bath containing cadmium chloride, triethanolamine, ammonium hydroxide and thiourea under various deposition conditions. The thin films were deposited by in situ irradiation of the bath using a continuous laser of wavelength 532 nm, varying the power density. The thin films obtained during deposition of 10, 20 and 30 min were analyzed. The changes in morphology, structure, composition, optical and electrical properties of the CdS thin films due to in situ irradiation of the bath were analyzed by atomic force microscopy (AFM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and UV–vis spectroscopy. The thin films obtained by LACBD were nanocrystalline, photoconductive and presented interesting morphologies. The results showed that LACBD is an effective synthesis technique to obtain nanocrystalline CdS thin films having good optoelectronic properties.

  7. Evaluation of variables which affect the hardness of nickel plate deposited from watts-type baths

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petit, G.S.; Wright, R.R.; Neff, W.A.

    1976-01-01

    In the course of the Cascade Improvement Program, many component equipment parts will be electroplated with nickel for corrosion protection. The maximum hardness which will be acceptable in the electroplated deposit is specified in Union Carbide's Job Specification JS-1396, Revision 3, entitled Electroplated Nickel Coatings on Steel Parts. The hardness specification is intended primarily as a control over both organic and inorganic impurities in the deposit. This report covers a study evaluating several of the numerous controllable variables which influence the hardness of the nickel plate deposited from a Watts-type bath. The variables tested were: 1) bath composition, 2) pH, 3) current density, 4) anode-cathode area ratio, and 5) bath temperature. Within the tested ranges of the variables studied, the pH and current density had the most influence on the plate hardness. The softest deposit was obtained with a bath pH of 1.5, a current density of 30 to 40 amperes/square foot, and with the anode-cathode area ratio in the range of 3:1 to 1:1

  8. PbS Thin Films for Photovoltaic Applications Obtained by Non-Traditional Chemical Bath Deposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pérez-García Claudia Elena

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available To optimize cost-efficiency relation for thin film solar cells, we explore the recently developed versions of chemical deposition of semiconductor films, together with classic CBD (Chemical Bath Deposition: SILAR (Successive Ionic Layer Adsorption and Reaction and PCBD (Photo Chemical Bath Deposition, all of them ammonia-free and ecologically friendly. The films of CdS and PbS were made, and experimental solar cells with CdS window layer and PbS absorber elaborated. We found that band gap of PbS films can be monitored by deposition process due to porosity-induced quantum confinement which depends on the parameters of the process. We expect that the techniques employed can be successfully used for production of optoelectronic devices.

  9. Investigation of CdS/InP heterojunction prepared by chemical bath deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rakovics, V.; Horvath, Zs.J.; Horvath, Zs.E.; Barsony, I.; Frigeri, C.; Besagni, T.

    2007-01-01

    CdS thin films have been deposited on InP and glass substrates using the chemical bath deposition technique. Baths containing CdSO 4 , thiourea, and NH 3 were used. The temperature of the deposition process was 65 C and the duration of deposition varied between 20 and 160 minutes. The properties of the CdS/InP heterojunction were investigated by TEM, EDS and X-ray diffraction. TEM pictures, EDS and X-ray rocking curves indicate the formation of a β-In 2 S 3 transition layer at the InP-CdS interface, which may reduce the lattice mismatch between InP and CdS. (copyright 2007 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  10. Annealing effect on structural and optical properties of chemical bath deposited MnS thin film

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ulutas, Cemal, E-mail: cemalulutas@hakkari.edu.tr [Faculty of Education, Hakkari Universty, 30000, Hakkari (Turkey); Gumus, Cebrail [Faculty of Science and Letters, Cukurova University, 01330, Adana (Turkey)

    2016-03-25

    MnS thin film was prepared by the chemical bath deposition (CBD) method on commercial microscope glass substrate deposited at 30 °C. The as-deposited film was given thermal annealing treatment in air atmosphere at various temperatures (150, 300 and 450 °C) for 1 h. The MnS thin film was characterized by using X-ray diffraction (XRD), UV-vis spectrophotometer and Hall effect measurement system. The effect of annealing temperature on the structural, electrical and optical properties such as optical constants of refractive index (n) and energy band gap (E{sub g}) of the film was determined. XRD measurements reveal that the film is crystallized in the wurtzite phase and changed to tetragonal Mn{sub 3}O{sub 4} phase after being annealed at 300 °C. The energy band gap of film decreased from 3.69 eV to 3.21 eV based on the annealing temperature.

  11. Antimony sulfide thin films prepared by laser assisted chemical bath deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaji, S.; Garcia, L.V.; Loredo, S.L.; Krishnan, B.

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Antimony sulfide thin films were prepared by normal CBD and laser assisted CBD. • Characterized these films using XRD, XPS, AFM, optical and electrical measurements. • Accelerated growth was observed in the laser assisted CBD process. • These films were photoconductive. - Abstract: Antimony sulfide (Sb_2S_3) thin films were prepared by laser assisted chemical bath deposition (LACBD) technique. These thin films were deposited on glass substrates from a chemical bath containing antimony chloride, acetone and sodium thiosulfate under various conditions of normal chemical bath deposition (CBD) as well as in-situ irradiation of the chemical bath using a continuous laser of 532 nm wavelength. Structure, composition, morphology, optical and electrical properties of the Sb_2S_3 thin films produced by normal CBD and LACBD were analyzed by X-Ray diffraction (XRD), Raman Spectroscopy, Atomic force microscopy (AFM), X-Ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), UV–vis spectroscopy and Photoconductivity. The results showed that LACBD is an effective synthesis technique to obtain Sb_2S_3 thin films for optoelectronic applications.

  12. Antimony sulfide thin films prepared by laser assisted chemical bath deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shaji, S., E-mail: sshajis@yahoo.com [Facultad de Ingeniería Mecánica y Eléctrica, Universidad Autónoma de Nuevo León, Av. Pedro de Alba s/n, Ciudad Universitaria, San Nicolás de los Garza, Nuevo León, 66455 (Mexico); CIIDIT—Universidad Autónoma de Nuevo León, Apodaca, Nuevo León (Mexico); Garcia, L.V. [Facultad de Ingeniería Mecánica y Eléctrica, Universidad Autónoma de Nuevo León, Av. Pedro de Alba s/n, Ciudad Universitaria, San Nicolás de los Garza, Nuevo León, 66455 (Mexico); Loredo, S.L. [Centro de Investigación en Materiales Avanzados (CIMAV), Unidad Monterrey, PIIT, Apodaca, Nuevo León (Mexico); Krishnan, B. [Facultad de Ingeniería Mecánica y Eléctrica, Universidad Autónoma de Nuevo León, Av. Pedro de Alba s/n, Ciudad Universitaria, San Nicolás de los Garza, Nuevo León, 66455 (Mexico); CIIDIT—Universidad Autónoma de Nuevo León, Apodaca, Nuevo León (Mexico); and others

    2017-01-30

    Highlights: • Antimony sulfide thin films were prepared by normal CBD and laser assisted CBD. • Characterized these films using XRD, XPS, AFM, optical and electrical measurements. • Accelerated growth was observed in the laser assisted CBD process. • These films were photoconductive. - Abstract: Antimony sulfide (Sb{sub 2}S{sub 3}) thin films were prepared by laser assisted chemical bath deposition (LACBD) technique. These thin films were deposited on glass substrates from a chemical bath containing antimony chloride, acetone and sodium thiosulfate under various conditions of normal chemical bath deposition (CBD) as well as in-situ irradiation of the chemical bath using a continuous laser of 532 nm wavelength. Structure, composition, morphology, optical and electrical properties of the Sb{sub 2}S{sub 3} thin films produced by normal CBD and LACBD were analyzed by X-Ray diffraction (XRD), Raman Spectroscopy, Atomic force microscopy (AFM), X-Ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), UV–vis spectroscopy and Photoconductivity. The results showed that LACBD is an effective synthesis technique to obtain Sb{sub 2}S{sub 3} thin films for optoelectronic applications.

  13. Ternary Ag-In-S polycrystalline films deposited using chemical bath deposition for photoelectrochemical applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Wen-Sheng; Wu, Ching-Chen; Jeng, Ming-Shan; Cheng, Kong-Wei; Huang, Chao-Ming; Lee, Tai-Chou

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes the preparation and characterization of ternary Ag-In-S thin films deposited on indium tin oxide (ITO)-coated glass substrates using chemical bath deposition (CBD). The composition of the thin films was varied by changing the concentration ratio of [Ag]/[In] in the precursor solutions. The crystal structure, optical properties, and surface morphology of the thin films were analyzed by grazing incidence X-ray diffraction (GIXRD), UV-vis spectroscopy, and field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM). GIXRD results indicate that the samples consisted of AgInS 2 and/or AgIn 5 S 8 crystal phases, depending on the composition of the precursor solutions. The film thicknesses, electrical resistivity, flat band potentials, and band gaps of the samples were between 1.12 and 1.37 μm, 3.73 x 10 -3 and 4.98 x 10 4 Ω cm, -0.67 and -0.90 V vs. NHE, and 1.83 and 1.92 eV, respectively. The highest photocurrent density was observed in the sample with [Ag]/[In] = 4. A photocurrent density of 9.7 mA cm -2 was obtained with an applied potential of 0.25 V vs. SCE in the three-electrode system. The photoresponse experiments were conducted in 0.25 M K 2 SO 3 and 0.35 M Na 2 S aqueous electrolyte solutions under irradiation by a 300 W Xe light (100 mW cm -2 ). The results show that ternary Ag-In-S thin film electrodes have potential in water splitting applications.

  14. Ternary Ag-In-S polycrystalline films deposited using chemical bath deposition for photoelectrochemical applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Wen-Sheng [Energy and Environmental Laboratories, Industrial Technology Research Institute, 195 Sec. 4, Chung-Hsing Road, Hsin-Chu 310, Taiwan (China); Wu, Ching-Chen [Department of Chemical Engineering, National Chung Cheng University, 168 University Road, Min-Hsiung, Chia-Yi 621, Taiwan (China); Jeng, Ming-Shan [Energy and Environmental Laboratories, Industrial Technology Research Institute, 195 Sec. 4, Chung-Hsing Road, Hsin-Chu 310, Taiwan (China); Cheng, Kong-Wei [Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering, Chang Gung University, 259 Wen-Hwa 1st Road, Kwei-Shan, Tao-Yuan 333, Taiwan (China); Huang, Chao-Ming [Department of Environmental Engineering, Kun Shan University, 949 Da Wan Road, Yung-Kang City, Tainan Hsien 710, Taiwan (China); Lee, Tai-Chou, E-mail: chmtcl@ccu.edu.tw [Department of Chemical Engineering, National Chung Cheng University, 168 University Road, Min-Hsiung, Chia-Yi 621, Taiwan (China)

    2010-04-15

    This paper describes the preparation and characterization of ternary Ag-In-S thin films deposited on indium tin oxide (ITO)-coated glass substrates using chemical bath deposition (CBD). The composition of the thin films was varied by changing the concentration ratio of [Ag]/[In] in the precursor solutions. The crystal structure, optical properties, and surface morphology of the thin films were analyzed by grazing incidence X-ray diffraction (GIXRD), UV-vis spectroscopy, and field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM). GIXRD results indicate that the samples consisted of AgInS{sub 2} and/or AgIn{sub 5}S{sub 8} crystal phases, depending on the composition of the precursor solutions. The film thicknesses, electrical resistivity, flat band potentials, and band gaps of the samples were between 1.12 and 1.37 {mu}m, 3.73 x 10{sup -3} and 4.98 x 10{sup 4} {Omega} cm, -0.67 and -0.90 V vs. NHE, and 1.83 and 1.92 eV, respectively. The highest photocurrent density was observed in the sample with [Ag]/[In] = 4. A photocurrent density of 9.7 mA cm{sup -2} was obtained with an applied potential of 0.25 V vs. SCE in the three-electrode system. The photoresponse experiments were conducted in 0.25 M K{sub 2}SO{sub 3} and 0.35 M Na{sub 2}S aqueous electrolyte solutions under irradiation by a 300 W Xe light (100 mW cm{sup -2}). The results show that ternary Ag-In-S thin film electrodes have potential in water splitting applications.

  15. Preparation of ZnS microdisks using chemical bath deposition and ZnS/p-Si heterojunction solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsiao, Y. J.; Meen, T. H.; Ji, L. W.; Tsai, J. K.; Wu, Y. S.; Huang, C. J.

    2013-10-01

    The synthesis and heterojunction solar cell properties of ZnS microdisks prepared by the chemical bath deposition method were investigated. The ZnS deposited on the p-Si blanket substrate exhibits good coverage. The lower reflectance spectra were found as the thickness of the ZnS film increased. The optical absorption spectra of the 80 °C ZnS microdisk exhibited a band-gap energy of 3.4 eV and the power conversion efficiency (PCE) of the AZO/ZnS/p-Si heterojunction solar cell with a 300 nm thick ZnS film was η=2.72%.

  16. Bath temperature effect on magnetoelectric performance of Ni-lead zirconate titanate-Ni laminated composites synthesized by electroless deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, W. [College of Materials Science and Technology, Nanjing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Nanjing 210016 (China); Wang, Y.G., E-mail: yingang.wang@nuaa.edu.c [College of Materials Science and Technology, Nanjing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Nanjing 210016 (China); Bi, K. [College of Materials Science and Technology, Nanjing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Nanjing 210016 (China)

    2011-03-15

    Magnetoelectric (ME) Ni-lead zirconate titanate-Ni laminated composites have been prepared by electroless deposition at various bath temperatures. The structure of the Ni layers deposited at various bath temperatures was characterized by X-ray diffraction, and microstructures were investigated by transmission electron microscopy. The magnetostrictive coefficients were measured by means of a resistance strain gauge. The transverse ME voltage coefficient {alpha}{sub E,31} was measured with the magnetic field applied parallel to the sample plane. The deposition rate of Ni increases with bath temperature. Ni layer with smaller grain size is obtained at higher bath temperature and shows higher piezomagnetic coefficient, promoting the ME effect of corresponding laminated composites. It is advantageous to increase the bath temperature, while trying to avoid the breaking of bath constituents. - Research Highlights: Laminated composites without interlayer are prepared by electroless deposition. Bath temperature affects the grain size of the deposited Ni layers. Higher bath temperature is beneficial to obtain stronger ME response.

  17. Evaluation of the structural, optical and electrical properties of AZO thin films prepared by chemical bath deposition for optoelectronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, K. Deva Arun; Valanarasu, S.; Rosario, S. Rex; Ganesh, V.; Shkir, Mohd.; Sreelatha, C. J.; AlFaify, S.

    2018-04-01

    Aluminum doped zinc oxide (AZO) thin films for electrode applications were deposited on glass substrates using chemical bath deposition (CBD) method. The influence of deposition time on the structural, morphological, and opto-electrical properties of AZO films were investigated. Structural studies confirmed that all the deposited films were hexagonal wurtzite structure with polycrystalline nature and exhibited (002) preferential orientation. There is no other impurity phases were detected for different deposition time. Surface morphological images shows the spherically shaped grains are uniformly arranged on to the entire film surface. The EDS spectrum confirms the presence of Zn, O and Al elements in deposited AZO film. The observed optical transmittance is high (87%) in the visible region, and the calculated band gap value is 3.27 eV. In this study, the transmittance value is decreased with increasing deposition time. The room temperature PL spectrum exposed that AZO thin film deposited at (60 min) has good optical quality with less defect density. The minimum electrical resistivity and maximum carrier concentration values were observed as 8.53 × 10-3(Ω cm) and 3.53 × 1018 cm-3 for 60 min deposited film, respectively. The obtained figure of merit (ϕ) value 3.05 × 10-3(Ω/sq)- 1 is suggested for an optoelectronic device.

  18. Characterization of CuInS2 thin films prepared by chemical bath deposition and their implementation in a solar cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lugo, S.; López, I.; Peña, Y.; Calixto, M.; Hernández, T.; Messina, S.

    2014-01-01

    CuInS 2 thin films were formed by the sequential deposition of In 2 S 3 –CuS layers on glass substrates, by chemical bath deposition technique, and heating these multilayer 1 h at 350 °C and 400 mPa. The morphology and thickness of the CuInS 2 thin films were analysed by scanning electron microscopy, showing particles with elongated shape and length about 40 nm, and thickness of 267 and 348 nm for samples from 15 and 24 h of deposition time in the chemical bath of In 2 S 3 , respectively. The energy band gap values of the films were around 1.4 eV, whereas the electrical conductivity showed values from 64.91 to 4.11 × 10 −3 Ω −1 cm −1 for the samples of 15 and 24 h of In 2 S 3 deposition bath, respectively. The obtained CuInS 2 films showed appropriate values for their application as an absorbing layer in photovoltaic structures of the type: glass/SnO 2 :F/CdS/Sb 2 S 3 /CuInS 2 /PbS/C/Ag. The whole structure was obtained through chemical bath deposition technique. The solar cell corresponding to 15 h of In 2 S 3 deposition duration bath showed energy-conversion efficiency (η) of 0.53% with open circuit voltage (V oc ) of 530 mV, short circuit current density (J sc ) of 2.43 mA cm −2 , and fill factor (FF) of 0.41. In the case of the structure with 24 h of deposition of In 2 S 3 bath, η = 0.43% was measured with the following parameters: V oc = 330 mV, J sc = 4.78 mA cm −2 and FF = 0.27. - Highlights: • CuInS 2 films were formed by chemical bath deposition followed by a heat treatment. • Prepared CuInS 2 thin films can work as an effective absorbing layer in a solar cell. • A complete solar cell structure was made by a chemical bath deposition method

  19. Characterization of CuInS{sub 2} thin films prepared by chemical bath deposition and their implementation in a solar cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lugo, S.; López, I. [Universidad Autónoma de Nuevo León, UANL, Facultad de Ciencias Químicas, Laboratorio de Materiales I, Av. Universidad, Cd. Universitaria 66451, San Nicolás de los Garza, Nuevo León, México (Mexico); Peña, Y., E-mail: yolapm@gmail.com [Universidad Autónoma de Nuevo León, UANL, Facultad de Ciencias Químicas, Laboratorio de Materiales I, Av. Universidad, Cd. Universitaria 66451, San Nicolás de los Garza, Nuevo León, México (Mexico); Calixto, M. [Instituto de Energías Renovables, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, C.P. 62580, Temixco, Morelos, México (Mexico); Hernández, T. [Universidad Autónoma de Nuevo León, UANL, Facultad de Ciencias Químicas, Laboratorio de Materiales I, Av. Universidad, Cd. Universitaria 66451, San Nicolás de los Garza, Nuevo León, México (Mexico); Messina, S. [Universidad Autónoma de Nayarit, Ciudad de la Cultura “Amado Nervo”, S/N C.P. 63155, Tepic, Nayarit, México (Mexico); and others

    2014-10-31

    CuInS{sub 2} thin films were formed by the sequential deposition of In{sub 2}S{sub 3}–CuS layers on glass substrates, by chemical bath deposition technique, and heating these multilayer 1 h at 350 °C and 400 mPa. The morphology and thickness of the CuInS{sub 2} thin films were analysed by scanning electron microscopy, showing particles with elongated shape and length about 40 nm, and thickness of 267 and 348 nm for samples from 15 and 24 h of deposition time in the chemical bath of In{sub 2}S{sub 3}, respectively. The energy band gap values of the films were around 1.4 eV, whereas the electrical conductivity showed values from 64.91 to 4.11 × 10{sup −3} Ω{sup −1} cm{sup −1} for the samples of 15 and 24 h of In{sub 2}S{sub 3} deposition bath, respectively. The obtained CuInS{sub 2} films showed appropriate values for their application as an absorbing layer in photovoltaic structures of the type: glass/SnO{sub 2}:F/CdS/Sb{sub 2}S{sub 3}/CuInS{sub 2}/PbS/C/Ag. The whole structure was obtained through chemical bath deposition technique. The solar cell corresponding to 15 h of In{sub 2}S{sub 3} deposition duration bath showed energy-conversion efficiency (η) of 0.53% with open circuit voltage (V{sub oc}) of 530 mV, short circuit current density (J{sub sc}) of 2.43 mA cm{sup −2}, and fill factor (FF) of 0.41. In the case of the structure with 24 h of deposition of In{sub 2}S{sub 3} bath, η = 0.43% was measured with the following parameters: V{sub oc} = 330 mV, J{sub sc} = 4.78 mA cm{sup −2} and FF = 0.27. - Highlights: • CuInS{sub 2} films were formed by chemical bath deposition followed by a heat treatment. • Prepared CuInS{sub 2} thin films can work as an effective absorbing layer in a solar cell. • A complete solar cell structure was made by a chemical bath deposition method.

  20. High quality antireflective ZnS thin films prepared by chemical bath deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tec-Yam, S.; Rojas, J.; Rejón, V.; Oliva, A.I.

    2012-01-01

    Zinc sulfide (ZnS) thin films for antireflective applications were deposited on glass substrates by chemical bath deposition (CBD). Chemical analysis of the soluble species permits to predict the optimal pH conditions to obtain high quality ZnS films. For the CBD, the ZnCl 2 , NH 4 NO 3 , and CS(NH 2 ) 2 were fixed components, whereas the KOH concentration was varied from 0.8 to 1.4 M. Groups of samples with deposition times from 60 to 120 min were prepared in a bath with magnetic agitation and heated at 90 °C. ZnS films obtained from optimal KOH concentrations of 0.9 M and 1.0 M exhibited high transparency, homogeneity, adherence, and crystalline. The ZnS films presented a band gap energy of 3.84 eV, an atomic Zn:S stoichiometry ratio of 49:51, a transmittance above 85% in the 300–800 nm wavelength range, and a reflectance below 25% in the UV–Vis range. X-ray diffraction analysis revealed a cubic structure in the (111) orientation for the films. The thickness of the films was tuned between 60 nm and 135 nm by controlling the deposition time and KOH concentration. The incorporation of the CBD-ZnS films into ITO/ZnS/CdS/CdTe and glass/Mo/ZnS heterostructures as antireflective layer confirms their high optical quality. -- Highlights: ► High quality ZnS thin films were prepared by chemical bath deposition (CBD). ► Better CBD-ZnS films were achieved by using 0.9 M-KOH concentration. ► Reduction in the reflectance was obtained for ZnS films used as buffer layers.

  1. Zinc Sulfide Buffer Layer for CIGS Solar Cells Prepared by Chemical Bath Deposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui-Wei You

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In this study, ZnS thin films were successfully synthesized by chemical bath deposition (CBD with starting materials of NH2-NH2, SC(NH22, and ZnSO4‧7H2O. ZnS thin films were deposited with different time on glass substrates by CBD at 80oC and pH=9. Based on X-ray diffraction (XRD patterns, it is found that the ZnS thin films exhibit cubic polycrystalline phase. It was found that the optimum deposition time is 90 min for preparing ZnS thin film that is suitable as buffer layer for CuIn1-xGaxSe2 solar cells. The thin film deposited for 90 min has high transmittance up to 80% in the spectra range from 350 nm to 800 nm, and the optical band gap is about 3.59 eV.

  2. Chemical bath deposited and dip coating deposited CuS thin films - Structure, Raman spectroscopy and surface study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tailor, Jiten P.; Khimani, Ankurkumar J.; Chaki, Sunil H.

    2018-05-01

    The crystal structure, Raman spectroscopy and surface microtopography study on as-deposited CuS thin films were carried out. Thin films deposited by two techniques of solution growth were studied. The thin films used in the present study were deposited by chemical bath deposition (CBD) and dip coating deposition techniques. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis of both the as-deposited thin films showed that both the films possess covellite phase of CuS and hexagonal unit cell structure. The determined lattice parameters of both the films are in agreement with the standard JCPDS as well as reported data. The crystallite size determined by Scherrer's equation and Hall-Williamsons relation using XRD data for both the as-deposited thin films showed that the respective values were in agreement with each other. The ambient Raman spectroscopy of both the as-deposited thin films showed major emission peaks at 474 cm-1 and a minor emmision peaks at 265 cm-1. The observed Raman peaks matched with the covellite phase of CuS. The atomic force microscopy of both the as-deposited thin films surfaces showed dip coating thin film to be less rough compared to CBD deposited thin film. All the obtained results are presented and deliberated in details.

  3. Studies of CdS/CdTe interface: Comparison of CdS films deposited by close space sublimation and chemical bath deposition techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Jun-feng, E-mail: pkuhjf@bit.edu.cn [Institut des Matériaux Jean Rouxel (IMN), Université de Nantes, UMR CNRS 6502, 2 rue de la Houssinière, BP 32229, 44322 Nantes Cedex 3 (France); Institute of Materials Science, Darmstadt University of Technology, Petersenstr. 23, 64287 Darmstadt (Germany); School of Physics, Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing 100081 (China); Fu, Gan-hua; Krishnakumar, V.; Schimper, Hermann-Josef [Institute of Materials Science, Darmstadt University of Technology, Petersenstr. 23, 64287 Darmstadt (Germany); Liao, Cheng [Department of Physics, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Jaegermann, Wolfram [Institute of Materials Science, Darmstadt University of Technology, Petersenstr. 23, 64287 Darmstadt (Germany); Besland, M.P. [Institut des Matériaux Jean Rouxel (IMN), Université de Nantes, UMR CNRS 6502, 2 rue de la Houssinière, BP 32229, 44322 Nantes Cedex 3 (France)

    2015-05-01

    The CdS layers were deposited by two different methods, close space sublimation (CSS) and chemical bath deposition (CBD) technique. The CdS/CdTe interface properties were investigated by transmission electron microscope (TEM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The TEM images showed a large CSS-CdS grain size in the range of 70-80 nm. The interface between CSS-CdS and CdTe were clear and sharp, indicating an abrupt hetero-junction. On the other hand, CBD-CdS layer had much smaller grain size in the 5-10 nm range. The interface between CBD-CdS and CdTe was not as clear as CSS-CdS. With the stepwise coverage of CdTe layer, the XPS core levels of Cd 3d and S 2p in CSS-CdS had a sudden shift to lower binding energies, while those core levels shifted gradually in CBD-CdS. In addition, XPS depth profile analyses indicated a strong diffusion in the interface between CBD-CdS and CdTe. The solar cells prepared using CSS-CdS yielded better device performance than the CBD-CdS layer. The relationships between the solar cell performances and properties of CdS/CdTe interfaces were discussed. - Highlights: • Studies of CdS deposited by close space sublimation and chemical bath deposition • An observation of CdS/CdTe interface by transmission electron microscope • A careful investigation of CdS/CdTe interface by X ray photoelectron spectra • An easier diffusion at the chemical bath deposition CdS and CdTe interface.

  4. Improvement of the characteristics of chemical bath deposition-cadmium sulfide films deposited on an O{sub 2} plasma-treated polyethylene terephthalate substrate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lim, Donggun [Department of Electronic Engineering, Korea National University of Transportation, Chungju-si, Chungcheongbuk-do 380-702 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jaehyeong [School of Electronic and Electrical Engineering, Sungkyunkwan University 300, Cheoncheon-dong, Jangan-gu, Sunwon, Kyeonggi-do, 440-746 (Korea, Republic of); Song, Woochang, E-mail: wcsong@kangwon.ac.kr [Department of Electrical Engineering, Kangwon National University, Samcheok-si, Gangwon-do 245-711 (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-11-01

    We prepared cadmium sulfide (CdS) films on a polyethylene terephthalate (PET) substrate by a chemical bath deposition (CBD) technique. To improve the adhesion between the CdS film and the PET substrate, the substrate was pre-treated with an O{sub 2} plasma by an inductively coupled plasma. The surface characterizations of the pre-treated PET substrate were analyzed by a contact angle measurement and atomic force microscopy. The results showed that that O{sub 2} plasma-treated PET films had more hydrophilic surface. The hydrophilic property of the substrate is one of the important factors when a film is prepared by CBD. The structural and the optical properties of the CdS films, deposited on PET substrates, were analyzed by using a scanning electron microscope, X-ray diffraction and a UV–visible spectrophotometer. The CdS films were formed on a compact and granular structure. The optical transmittance was also improved. Therefore, the O{sub 2} plasma treatment of a PET surface is an effective method of preparing CdS films deposited on substrates by CBD. - Highlights: • Chemical bath deposition of CdS film for flexible solar cells • O{sub 2} plasma treatment improved adhesion between the CdS and polymer substrate • Identification of best fabrication condition of CdS window layers for flexible solar cells.

  5. Fabrication of cuprous chloride films on copper substrate by chemical bath deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Yu-Ting; Ci, Ji-Wei; Tu, Wei-Chen [Department of Electronic Engineering, College of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, Chung Yuan Christian University, Chung-Li 32023, Taiwan (China); Uen, Wu-Yih, E-mail: uenwuyih@ms37.hinet.net [Department of Electronic Engineering, College of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, Chung Yuan Christian University, Chung-Li 32023, Taiwan (China); Lan, Shan-Ming [Department of Electronic Engineering, College of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, Chung Yuan Christian University, Chung-Li 32023, Taiwan (China); Yang, Tsun-Neng; Shen, Chin-Chang; Wu, Chih-Hung [Institute of Nuclear Energy Research, P.O. Box 3-11, Lungtan 32500, Taiwan (China)

    2015-09-30

    Polycrystalline CuCl films were fabricated by chemical bath deposition (CBD) on a Cu substrate at a low solution temperature of 90 °C. Continuous CuCl films were prepared using the copper (II) chloride (CuCl{sub 2}) compound as the precursor for both the Cu{sup 2+} and Cl{sup −} sources, together with repeated HCl dip treatments. An HCl dip pretreatment of the substrate favored the nucleation of CuCl crystallites. Further, interrupting the film deposition and including an HCl dip treatment of the film growth surface facilitated the deposition of a full-coverage CuCl film. A dual beam (FIB/SEM) system with energy dispersive spectrometry facilities attached revealed a homogeneous CuCl layer with a flat-top surface and an average thickness of about 1 μm. Both the excitonic and biexcitonic emission lines were well-resolved in the 6.4 K photoluminescence spectra. In particular, the free exciton emission line was observable at room temperature, indicating the good quality of the CuCl films prepared by CBD. - Highlights: • Cuprous chloride (CuCl) was prepared on Cu substrate by chemical bath deposition. • HCl dip treatments facilitated the deposition of a full-coverage CuCl film. • A homogeneous elemental distribution was recognized for the deposited CuCl layer. • Excitonic and biexcitonic photoluminescence lines of CuCl films were well-resolved. • The free exciton emission line of CuCl films was observable at room temperature.

  6. Chemical bath deposition of Cu{sub 3}BiS{sub 3} thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deshmukh, S.G., E-mail: deshmukhpradyumn@gmail.com; Vipul, Kheraj, E-mail: vipulkheraj@gmail.com [Department of Applied Physics, Sardar Vallabhbhai National Institute of Technology, Ichchhanath, Surat (India); Panchal, A.K. [Department of Electrical Engineering, Sardar Vallabhbhai National Institute of Technology, Ichchhanath, Surat (India)

    2016-05-06

    First time, copper bismuth sulfide (Cu{sub 3}BiS{sub 3}) thin films were synthesized on the glass substrate using simple, low-cost chemical bath deposition (CBD) technique. The synthesized parameters such as temperature of bath, pH and concentration of precursors were optimized for the deposition of uniform, well adherent Cu{sub 3}BiS{sub 3} thin films. The optical, surface morphology and structural properties of the Cu{sub 3}BiS{sub 3} thin films were studied using UV-VIS-NIR spectra, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The as- synthesized Cu{sub 3}BiS{sub 3} film exhibits a direct band gap 1.56 to 1.58 eV having absorption coefficient of the order of 10{sup 5} cm{sup −1}. The XRD declares the amorphous nature of the films. SEM images shows films were composed of close-packed fine spherical nanoparticles of 70-80 nm in diameter. The chemical composition of the film was almost stoichiometric. The optical study indicates that the Cu{sub 3}BiS{sub 3} films can be applied as an absorber layer for thin film solar cells.

  7. Effects of deposition period on the chemical bath deposited Cu4SnS4 thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kassim, Anuar; Wee Tee, Tan; Soon Min, Ho.; Nagalingam, Saravanan

    2010-01-01

    Cu 4 SnS 4 thin films were prepared by simple chemical bath deposition technique. The influence of deposition period on the structural, morphological and optical properties of films was studied. The films were characterized using X-ray diffraction, atomic force microscopy and UV-Vis Spectrophotometer. X-ray diffraction patterns indicated that the films were polycrystalline with prominent peak attributed to (221) plane of orthorhombic crystal structure. The films prepared at 80 min showed significant increased in the intensity of all diffractions. According to AFM images, these films indicated that the surface of substrate was covered completely. The obtained films also produced higher absorption characteristics when compared to the films prepared at other deposition periods based on optical absorption studies. The band gap values of films deposited at different deposition periods were in the range of 1.6-2.1 eV. Deposition for 80 min was found to be the optimum condition to produce good quality thin films under the current conditions. (author).

  8. Structural and optical studied of nano structured lead sulfide thin films prepared by the chemical bath deposition technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al Din, Nasser Saad, E-mail: nsaadaldin@yahoo.com; Hussain, Nabiha, E-mail: nabihahssin@yahoo.com [Damascus University Faculty of Science, Department of physics, Homs (Syrian Arab Republic); Jandow, Nidhal, E-mail: nidhaljandow@yahoo.com [Al –Mustansiriyah University, College of Education, Department of physics, Baghdad (Iraq)

    2016-07-25

    Lead (II) Sulfide PbS thin films were deposited on glass substrates at 25°C by chemical bath deposition (CBD) method. The structural properties of the films were studied as a function of the concentration of Thiourea (CS (NH{sub 2}){sub 2}) as Source of Sulfide and deposition time. The surface morphology of the films was characterized by X-ray diffraction and SEM. The obtained results showed that the as-deposited films Polycrystalline had cubic crystalline phase that belong to S.G: Fm3m. We found that they have preferred orientation [200]. Also the thickness of thin films decrease with deposition time after certain value and, it observed free sulfide had orthorhombic phase. Optical properties showed that the thin films have high transmission at visible range and low transmission at UV, IR range. The films of PbS have direct band gap (I.68 - 2.32 ev) at 300 K the values of band energy decreases with increases thickness of the Lead (II) Sulfide films.

  9. Influence of complexing agent (Na2EDTA on chemical bath deposited Cu4SnS4 thin films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anuar Kassim

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The quality of thin film is influenced by the presence of complexing agents such as Na2EDTA. The Cu4SnS4 thin films were deposited onto indium tin oxide glass substrate by chemical bath deposition method. The structural, morphological and optical properties of the deposited films have been studied using X-ray diffraction, atomic force microscopy and UV-Vis spectrophotometer, respectively. The XRD data showed that the films have a polycrystalline and orthorhombic structure. It also indicated that the most intense peak at 2 θ = 30.2° which belongs to (221 plane of Cu4 SnS4. The film deposited with 0.05 M Na2 EDTA showed good uniformity, good surface coverage with bigger grains and produced higher absorbance value. The band gap energy varies with the variation of Na2EDTA concentration which ranging from 1.56-1.60 eV. Deposition at concentration of 0.05 M Na2EDTA proved to offer a reasonably good Cu4SnS4 thin film.

  10. Influence of deposition time on the properties of chemical bath deposited manganese sulfide thin films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anuar Kassim

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Manganese sulfide thin films were chemically deposited from an aqueous solution containing manganese sulfate, sodium thiosulfate and sodium tartrate. The influence of deposition time (2, 3, 6 and 8 days on the properties of thin films was investigated. The structure and surface morphology of the thin films were studied by X-ray diffraction and atomic force microscopy, respectively. In addition, in order to investigate the optical properties of the thin films, the UV-visible spectrophotometry was used. The XRD results indicated that the deposited MnS2 thin films exhibited a polycrystalline cubic structure. The number of MnS2 peaks on the XRD patterns initially increased from three to six peaks and then decreased to five peaks, as the deposition time was increased from 2 to 8 days. From the AFM measurements, the film thickness and surface roughness were found to be dependent on the deposition time.

  11. Morphology of CdSe films prepared by chemical bath deposition: The role of substrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simurda, M.; Nemec, P.; Formanek, P.; Nemec, I.; Nemcova, Y.; Maly, P.

    2006-01-01

    We combine optical spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy to study the growth and the structural morphology of CdSe films prepared by chemical bath deposition (CBD) on two considerably different substrates. The films grown on glass are compact and strongly adherent to the substrate. On the contrary, the films deposited on carbon-coated glass (with approx. 20 nm thick amorphous carbon layer) are only loosely adherent to the substrate. Using transmission electron microscopy we revealed that even though the films grown on both substrates are assembled from closely spaced nanocrystals with diameter of about 5 nm, the films morphology on the sub-micrometer scale is considerably different in the two cases. While the films deposited on glass are rather compact, the films prepared on carbon layer have high porosity and are formed by interconnected spheres which size is dependent on the duration of deposition (e.g. 155 nm for 6 h and 350 nm for 24 h). This shows that the choice of the substrate for CBD has a stronger influence on the sub-micrometer film morphology than on the properties of individual nanocrystals forming the film

  12. Characterization of CuS nanocrystalline thin films synthesized by chemical bath deposition and dip coating techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaki, Sunil H.; Deshpande, M.P.; Tailor, Jiten P.

    2014-01-01

    CuS thin films were synthesized by chemical bath deposition and dip coating techniques at ambient temperature. The energy dispersive analysis of X-rays of the thin films confirmed that both the as synthesized thin films are stoichiometric. The X-ray diffraction of the chemical bath deposited and dip coating deposited thin films showed that the films possess hexagonal structure having lattice parameters, a = b = 3.79 A and c = 16.34 A. The crystallite sizes determined from the X-ray diffraction data using Scherrer's formula for the chemical bath deposition and dip coating deposition thin films came out to be nearly 11 nm and 13 nm, respectively. The optical microscopy of the as deposited thin films surfaces showed that the substrates are well covered in both the deposited films. The scanning electron microscopy of the thin films clearly showed that in chemical bath deposited thin films the grain size varies from few μm to nm, while in dip coating deposited films the grain size ranges in nm. The optical bandgap determined from the optical absorbance spectrum analysis showed, chemical bath deposited thin films possess direct bandgap of 2.2 eV and indirect bandgap of 1.8 eV. In the case of dip coating deposited thin films, the direct bandgap is 2.5 eV and indirect bandgap is 1.9 eV. The d.c. electrical resistivity variation with temperature for both the deposited films showed that the resistivity decreases with temperature thus confirming the semiconducting nature. The thermoelectric power variations with temperature and the room temperature Hall Effect study of both the synthesized CuS thin films showed them to be of p-type conductivity. The obtained results are discussed in details. - Highlights: • CuS thin films were synthesized by chemical bath deposition and dip coating techniques. • The films possessed hexagonal structure. • The optical absorption showed that the films had direct and indirect bandgap. • Study of electrical transport properties

  13. Chemical Bath Deposition of PbS:Hg2+ Nanocrystalline Thin Films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Palomino-Merino

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Nanocrystalline PbS thin films were prepared by Chemical Bath Deposition (CBD at 40 ± 2°C onto glass substrates and their structural and optical properties modified by in-situ doping with Hg. The morphological changes of the layers were analyzed using SEM and the X-rays spectra showing growth on the zinc blende (ZB face. The grain size determined by using X-rays spectra for undoped samples was found to be ~36 nm, whereas with the doped sample was 32–20 nm. Optical absorption spectra were used to calculate the Eg, showing a shift in the range 1.4–2.4 eV. Raman spectroscopy exhibited an absorption band ~135 cm−1 displaying only a PbS ZB structure.

  14. Microstructural characterization of chemical bath deposited and sputtered Zn(O,S) buffer layers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gautron, E.; Buffière, M.; Harel, S.; Assmann, L.; Arzel, L.; Brohan, L.; Kessler, J.; Barreau, N.

    2013-01-01

    The present work aims at investigating the microstructure of Zn(O,S) buffer layers relative to their deposition route, namely either chemical bath deposition (CBD) or RF co-sputtering process (PVD) under pure Ar. The core of the study consists of cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy (TEM) characterization of the differently grown Zn(O,S) thin films on co-evaporated Cu(In,Ga)Se 2 (CIGSe) absorbers. It shows that the morphology of Zn(O,S) layer deposited on CIGSe using CBD process is made of a thin layer of well oriented ZnS sphalerite-(111) and/or ZnS wurtzite-(0002) planes parallel to CIGSe chalcopyrite-(112) planes at the interface with CIGSe followed by misoriented nanometer-sized ZnS crystallites in an amorphous phase. As far as (PVD)Zn(O,S) is concerned, the TEM analyses reveal two different microstructures depending on the S-content in the films: for [S] / ([O] + [S]) = 0.6, the buffer layer is made of ZnO zincite and ZnS wurtzite crystallites grown nearly coherently to each other, with (0002) planes nearly parallel with CIGSe-(112) planes, while for [S] / ([O] + [S]) = 0.3, it is made of ZnO zincite type crystals with O atoms substituted by S atoms, with (0002) planes perfectly aligned with CIGSe-(112) planes. Such microstructural differences can explain why photovoltaic performances are dependent on the Zn(O,S) buffer layer deposition route. - Highlights: ► Zn(O,S) layers were grown by chemical bath (CBD) or physical vapor (PVD) deposition. ► For CBD, a 3 nm ZnS layer is followed by ZnS nano-crystallites in an amorphous phase. ► For PVD with [S] / ([O] + [S]) = 0.3, the layer has a Zn(O,S) zincite structure. ► For PVD with [S] / ([O] + [S]) = 0.6, ZnS wurtzite and ZnO zincite phases are mixed

  15. Effect of complexing agent on the photoelectrochemical properties of bath deposited CdS thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patil, S.B.; Singh, A.K.

    2010-01-01

    In the present paper photoelectrochemical (PEC) performance of bath deposited CdS thin films based on complexing agents i.e. ammonia and triethanolamine (TEA) has been discussed. Effect of annealing has also been analyzed. The as-deposited and annealed (at 523 K for 1 h in air) films were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis) absorption spectroscopy, SEM, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), and PEC properties. XRD studies revealed that the films were nanocrystalline in nature with mixed hexagonal and cubic phases. TEA complex resulted in better crystallinity. Further improvement in the crystallinity of the films was observed after air annealing. The marigold flower-like structure, in addition to flakes morphology, was observed with TEA complex, whereas for ammonia complex only flakes morphology was observed. The UV-vis absorption studies revealed that the optical absorption edge for the films with ammonia and TEA complex was around 475 nm and 500 nm, respectively. Annealing of the films resulted in red shift in the UV-vis absorption. The PEC cell performance of CdS films was found to be strongly affected by crystallinity and morphology of the films resulted due to complexing agent and annealing. The air annealed film deposited using TEA complex showed maximum short circuit current density (J sc ) and open circuit voltage (V oc ) i.e. 99 μA/cm 2 and 376 mV respectively, under 10 mW/cm 2 of illumination. The films deposited using TEA complex showed good stability under PEC cell conditions.

  16. Synthesis and photosensor study of as-grown CuZnO thin film by facile chemical bath deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gubari, Ghamdan M. M.; Ibrahim Mohammed S., M.; Huse, Nanasaheb P.; Dive, Avinash S.; Sharma, Ramphal

    2018-05-01

    We have successfully deposited CuZnO thin film on a glass substrate by facile chemical bath deposition method at 85 °C for 1 hr. Structural, topographical, Optical and Electrical properties of the prepared Thin Films were investigated by XRD, Raman spectrum, AFM, UV-Visible Spectrophotometer and I-V Measurement System respectively. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) pattern confirmed the formation of the CuZnO composition when compared with standard JCPDS card (JCPDF # 75-0576 & # 36-1451). The Raman analysis shows a major peak at 458 cm-1 with E2 (High) vibrational mode. AFM images revealed uniform deposition over an entire glass substrate with 66.2 nm average roughness of the film. From the optical absorption spectrum, clear band edge around ˜407 nm was observed which results in a wide energy band gap of ˜3.04 eV. The electrical properties were measured at room temperature in the voltage range ±5 V, showed a drastic enhancement in current under light illumination with the highest photosensitivity of ˜99.9 % for 260 W.

  17. Chemical bath deposition of Hg doped CdSe thin films and their characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhuse, V.M.

    2005-01-01

    The deliberate addition of Hg in CdSe thin film have been carried out using a simple, modified, chemical bath deposition technique with the objective to study the effect of Hg doping on properties of CdSe thin films. Synthesis was initiated at 278 K temperature using complexed cadmium sulphate, mercuric nitrate and sodium selenosulphate in an aqueous ammonical medium at pH 10. Films were characterized by XRD, SEM, optical absorption, electrical and thermoelectric techniques. The 'as deposited' films were uniform, well adherent, nearly stoichiometric and polycrystalline in a single cubic phase (zinc blende). Crystallite size determined from XRD and SEM was found to increase slightly with addition of Hg. The optical band gap of CdSe remains constant upto 0.05 mol% Hg doping, while it decreases monotonically with further increase in mercury content. Dark dc electrical resistivity and conduction activation energy of CdSe were found to decrease initially upto 0.05 mol% of Hg, thereafter increased for higher values of Hg but remains less than those of CdSe. All the films showed n-type of conductivity. A CdSe film containing 0.05 mol% of Hg showed higher absorption coefficient, and conductivity

  18. Tuning the morphology of metastable MnS films by simple chemical bath deposition technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dhandayuthapani, T. [Directorate of Distance Education, Alagappa University, Karaikudi 630004 (India); Girish, M. [Department of Physics, Alagappa University, Karaikudi 630004 (India); Sivakumar, R., E-mail: krsivakumar1979@yahoo.com [Directorate of Distance Education, Alagappa University, Karaikudi 630004 (India); Sanjeeviraja, C. [Department of Physics, Alagappa Chettiar College of Engineering and Technology, Karaikudi 630004 (India); Gopalakrishnan, R. [Department of Physics, Anna University, Chennai 600025 (India)

    2015-10-30

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • MnS films with diverse morphological features were prepared without any complexing agent. • The change in morphology of MnS films may be due to the “oriented aggregation”. • The dual role (as sulfur source and structure directing agent) of thiourea was observed. • Sulfur source concentration induced enhancement in the crystallization of films. - Abstract: In the present investigation, we have prepared the spherical particles, almond-like, and cauliflower-like morphological structures of metastable MnS films on glass substrate by chemical bath deposition technique at low temperature without using any complexing or chelating agent. The morphological change of MnS films with molar ratio may be due to the oriented aggregation of adjacent particles. The compositional purity of deposited film was confirmed by the EDAX study. X-ray diffraction and micro-Raman studies confirm the sulfur source concentration induced enhancement in the crystallization of films with metastable MnS phase (zinc-blende β-MnS, and wurtzite γ-MnS). The shift in PL emission peak with molar ratio may be due to the change in optical energy band gap of the MnS, which was further confirmed by the optical absorbance study. The paramagnetic behavior of the sample was confirmed by the M–H plot.

  19. Influence of variation in the concentration of ammonium hydroxide on the size of ZnO crystal obtained by Microwave Chemical Bath Deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galeazzi, R; Díaz, T; García, G; Rivera, B L; Rosendo, E; López, R; Morales, N; González, C M

    2013-01-01

    Films of good crystalline quality of ZnO were successfully prepared using the microwave chemical bath deposition method at a temperature of 80 °C. Concentration of the basic precursor was varied systematically in order to obtain different degrees of acidity in the precursor solutions. Increasing the pH causes an increase in yield. This increase is reflected on the thickness of the deposit. The results of atomic force microscopy (AFM) show an increase in particle size with increasing pH in agreement with the results obtained by profilometry.

  20. Effect of the sulfur and fluorine concentration on physical properties of CdS films grown by chemical bath deposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.E. Nieto-Zepeda

    Full Text Available Undoped and F-doped CdS thin films were grown on glass slides by chemical bath deposition using thiourea, cadmium acetate and ammonium fluoride as sulfur, cadmium, and fluorine sources, respectively. Undoped CdS films were deposited varying the concentration of thiourea. Once the optimal thiourea concentration was determined, based on the crystalline quality of the samples, this concentration was maintained and ammonium fluoride was added at different concentrations in order to explore the effect of the F nominal concentration on properties of CdS films. Undoped and F-doped CdS films were characterized by X-ray diffraction, UV–Vis, room temperature photoluminescence, and four probe resistivity measurements. Results showed highly transparent F-doped CdS films with strong PL and low resistivity were obtained. Keywords: CdS films, F-doped CdS films, Chemical bath deposition, Optical properties, Room temperature photoluminescence

  1. Composition and properties of nanocrystalline Zn S thin films prepared by a new chemical bath deposition route

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sahraei, R.; Goudarzi, A.; Ahmadpoor, H.; Motedayen Aval, Gh.

    2006-01-01

    Zinc sulfide nanocrystalline thin films were prepared by a new chemical bath deposition route on soda lime glass and quartz substrates using a weak acidic bath, in which disodium salt of ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) acts as a complexing agent and thioacetamide acts as a source of sulfide ions. The thickness of the films varied from a few nm to 500 nm. The chemical composition of films was studied by energy-dispersive X-ray analyzer and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The films are very close to Zinc sulfide stoichiometry and we did not observed any organic compounds in the impurity form in them. X-ray diffraction indicates that the film and powder formed in the same reaction bath have cubic zinc blende structure. The films have high transmittance of about 75% in the visible region. The optical band-gap energy (E g ) was determined to be 3.75 eV from the absorption spectrophotometry measurements.

  2. A chemical bath deposition route to facet-controlled Ag{sub 3}PO{sub 4} thin films with improved visible light photocatalytic activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gunjakar, Jayavant L.; Jo, Yun Kyung; Kim, In Young; Lee, Jang Mee; Patil, Sharad B. [Department of Chemistry and Nanoscience, College of Natural Sciences, Ewha Womans University, Seoul 03760 (Korea, Republic of); Pyun, Jae-Chul [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, College of Engineering, Yonsei University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Hwang, Seong-Ju, E-mail: hwangsju@ewha.ac.kr [Department of Chemistry and Nanoscience, College of Natural Sciences, Ewha Womans University, Seoul 03760 (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-08-15

    A facile, economic, and reproducible chemical bath deposition (CBD) method is developed for the fabrication of facet-controlled Ag{sub 3}PO{sub 4} thin films with enhanced visible light photocatalytic activity. The fine-control of bath temperature, precursor, complexing agent, substrate, and solution pH is fairly crucial in preparing the facet-selective thin film of Ag{sub 3}PO{sub 4} nanocrystal. The change of precursor from silver nitrate to silver acetate makes possible the tailoring of the crystal shape of Ag{sub 3}PO{sub 4} from cube to rhombic dodecahedron and also the bandgap tuning of the deposited films. The control of [Ag{sup +}]/[phosphate] ratio enables to maximize the loading amount of Ag{sub 3}PO{sub 4} crystals per the unit area of the deposited film. All the fabricated Ag{sub 3}PO{sub 4} thin films show high photocatalytic activity for visible light-induced degradation of organic molecules, which can be optimized by tailoring the crystal shape of the deposited crystals. This CBD method is also useful in preparing the facet-controlled hybrid film of Ag{sub 3}PO{sub 4}–ZnO photocatalyst. The present study clearly demonstrates the usefulness of the present CBD method for fabricating facet-controlled thin films of metal oxosalt and its nanohybrid. - Highlights: • The crystal facet of Ag{sub 3}PO{sub 4} films can be tuned by chemical bath deposition. • The crystal shape of Ag{sub 3}PO{sub 4} is tailorable from cube to rhombic dodecahedron. • Facet-tuned Ag{sub 3}PO{sub 4} film shows enhanced visible light photocatalyst activity.

  3. Optical and electrical properties of chemical bath deposited cobalt sulphide thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Govindasamy, Geetha [R& D Centre, Bharathiar University, Coimbatore (India); Murugasen, Priya, E-mail: priyamurugasen15@gmail.com [Department of Physics, Saveetha Engineering, Chennai, Tamil Nadu (India); Sagadevan, Suresh [Department of Physics, AMET University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu (India)

    2017-01-15

    Cobalt sulphide (CoS) thin films were synthesized using the Chemical Bath Deposition (CBD) technique. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis was used to study the structure and the crystallite size of CoS thin film. Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) studies reveal the surface morphology of these films. The optical properties of the CoS thin films were determined using UV-Visible absorption spectrum. The optical band gap of the thin films was found to be 1.6 eV. Optical constants such as the refractive index, the extinction coefficient and the electric susceptibility were determined. The dielectric studies were carried out at different frequencies and at different temperatures for the prepared CoS thin films. In addition, the plasma energy of the valence electron, Penn gap or average energy gap, the Fermi energy and electronic polarizability of the thin films were determined. The AC electrical conductivity measurement was also carried out for the thin films. The activation energy was determined by using DC electrical conductivity measurement. (author)

  4. In-situ boron doping of chemical-bath deposited CdS thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khallaf, Hani; Park, S.; Schulte, Alfons; Chai, Guangyu; Lupan, Oleg; Chow, Lee; Heinrich, Helge

    2009-01-01

    In-situ boron doping of CdS using chemical-bath deposition (CBD) is reported. The effect of B doping on optical properties, as well as electrical properties, crystal structure, chemistry, and morphology of CdS films is studied. We present a successful approach towards B doping of CdS using CBD, where a resistivity as low as 1.7 x 10 -2 Ωcm and a carrier density as high as 1.91 x 10 19 cm -3 were achieved. The bandgap of B-doped films was found to slightly decrease as the[B]/[Cd] ratio in the solution increases. X-ray diffraction studies showed B 3+ ions likely enter the lattice substitutionally. A phase transition, due to annealing, as well as induced lattice defects, due to B doping, were detected by micro-Raman spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy. The chemistry and morphology of films were unaffected by B doping. (copyright 2009 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  5. Synthesis and properties of chemical bath deposited ZnS multilayer films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamoun Allouche, N.; Ben Nasr, T.; Turki Kamoun, N.; Guasch, C.

    2010-01-01

    Zinc sulphide multilayer films are prepared by chemical bath deposition from different host solutions. X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy are used to characterize the structural properties of the films. The surface composition of the films is studied by Auger electrons spectroscopy, and optical properties are studied by spectrophotometric measurements. X-ray diffraction patterns reveal distinct single crystalline phase with preferential orientation along the (1 1 1) plane of the zinc blende structure for the ZnS multilayer. The spacing between (1 1 1) planes of ZnS is well matched to the spacing between (1 1 2) planes of the chalcopyrite CuInS 2 . After heat treatment all films show a near stoichiometric surface composition as indicated in their AES data. UV-vis measurements show that ZnS multilayer films prepared from the zinc sulphate solution have more than 70% transmission in the wavelengths above 350 nm and an optical band gap of about 3.76 eV.

  6. Photoluminescence transient study of surface defects in ZnO nanorods grown by chemical bath deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbagiovanni, E. G.; Strano, V.; Franzò, G.; Crupi, I.; Mirabella, S.

    2015-03-01

    Two deep level defects (2.25 and 2.03 eV) associated with oxygen vacancies (Vo) were identified in ZnO nanorods (NRs) grown by low cost chemical bath deposition. A transient behaviour in the photoluminescence (PL) intensity of the two Vo states was found to be sensitive to the ambient environment and to NR post-growth treatment. The largest transient was found in samples dried on a hot plate with a PL intensity decay time, in air only, of 23 and 80 s for the 2.25 and 2.03 eV peaks, respectively. Resistance measurements under UV exposure exhibited a transient behaviour in full agreement with the PL transient, indicating a clear role of atmospheric O2 on the surface defect states. A model for surface defect transient behaviour due to band bending with respect to the Fermi level is proposed. The results have implications for a variety of sensing and photovoltaic applications of ZnO NRs.

  7. Chemical bath deposited rutile TiO{sub 2} compact layer toward efficient planar heterojunction perovskite solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liang, Chao, E-mail: lc401997413@qq.com [State Centre for International Cooperation on Designer Low-Carbon and Environmental Material (SCICDLCEM), School of Materials Science and Engineering, Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou 450001 (China); Wu, Zhenhua, E-mail: 80116243@qq.com [Henan Information Engineering School, Zhengzhou 450000 (China); Li, Pengwei, E-mail: pengweili001@126.com [State Centre for International Cooperation on Designer Low-Carbon and Environmental Material (SCICDLCEM), School of Materials Science and Engineering, Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou 450001 (China); Fan, Jiajie, E-mail: fanjiajie@zzu.edu.cn [State Centre for International Cooperation on Designer Low-Carbon and Environmental Material (SCICDLCEM), School of Materials Science and Engineering, Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou 450001 (China); Zhang, Yiqiang, E-mail: yqzhang@zzu.edu.cn [State Centre for International Cooperation on Designer Low-Carbon and Environmental Material (SCICDLCEM), School of Materials Science and Engineering, Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou 450001 (China); Shao, Guosheng, E-mail: gsshao@zzu.edu.cn [State Centre for International Cooperation on Designer Low-Carbon and Environmental Material (SCICDLCEM), School of Materials Science and Engineering, Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou 450001 (China)

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Rutile TiO{sub 2} thin film can be grown on FTO substrate below 100 °C. • 200 mM TiCl{sub 4} precursor solution results in the best PSC performance. • UV/O{sub 3} treatment can reduce the carrier recombination effectively. • Over 12% power conversion efficiency can be achieved for PSCs. - Abstract: TiO{sub 2} is a best choice of electron transport layers in perovskite solar cells, due to its high electron mobility and stability. However, traditional TiO{sub 2} processing method requires rather high annealing temperature (>500 °C), preventing it from application to flexible devices. Here, we show that TiO{sub 2} thin films can be synthesized via chemical bath deposition below 100 °C. Typically, a compact layer of rutile TiO{sub 2} is deposited onto fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) coated substrates, in an aqueous TiCl{sub 4} solution at 70 °C. Through the optimization of precursor concentration and ultraviolet-ozone surface modification, over 12% power conversion efficiency can be achieved for CH{sub 3}NH{sub 3}PbI{sub 3} based perovskite solar cells. These findings offer a potential low-temperature technical solution in using TiO{sub 2} thin film as an effective transport layer for flexible perovskite solar cells.

  8. Structural and optical properties of nano-structured CdS thin films prepared by chemical bath deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bai, Rekha, E-mail: rekha.mittal07@gmail.com; Kumar, Dinesh; Chaudhary, Sujeet; Pandya, Dinesh K. [Thin Film Laboratory, Physics Department, Indian Institute of Technology Delhi, New Delhi-110016 (India)

    2016-05-06

    Cadmium sulfide (CdS) thin films have been deposited on conducting glass substrates by chemical bath deposition (CBD) technique. The effect of precursor concentration on the structural, morphological, compositional, and optical properties of the CdS films has been studied. Crystal structure of these CdS films is characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and it reveals polycrystalline structure with mixture of cubic and wurtzite phases with grain size decreasing as precursor concentration is increased. Optical studies reveal that the CdS thin films have high transmittance in visible spectral region reaching 90% and the films possess direct optical band gap that decreases from 2.46 to 2.39 eV with decreasing bath concentration. Our study suggests that growth is nucleation controlled.

  9. Structural and optical properties of nano-structured CdS thin films prepared by chemical bath deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bai, Rekha; Kumar, Dinesh; Chaudhary, Sujeet; Pandya, Dinesh K.

    2016-01-01

    Cadmium sulfide (CdS) thin films have been deposited on conducting glass substrates by chemical bath deposition (CBD) technique. The effect of precursor concentration on the structural, morphological, compositional, and optical properties of the CdS films has been studied. Crystal structure of these CdS films is characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and it reveals polycrystalline structure with mixture of cubic and wurtzite phases with grain size decreasing as precursor concentration is increased. Optical studies reveal that the CdS thin films have high transmittance in visible spectral region reaching 90% and the films possess direct optical band gap that decreases from 2.46 to 2.39 eV with decreasing bath concentration. Our study suggests that growth is nucleation controlled.

  10. On the structure, morphology, and optical properties of chemical bath deposited Sb2S3 thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krishnan, B.; Arato, A.; Cardenas, E.; Roy, T.K. Das; Castillo, G.A.

    2008-01-01

    In the present paper, we have reported the room temperature growth of antimony sulphide (Sb 2 S 3 ) thin films by chemical bath deposition and detailed characterization of these films. The films were deposited from a chemical bath containing SbCl 3 and Na 2 S 2 O 3 at 27 deg. C. We have analysed the structure, morphology, composition and optical properties of as deposited Sb 2 S 3 films as well as those subjected to annealing in nitrogen atmosphere or in air. As-deposited films are amorphous to X-ray diffraction (XRD). However, the diffused rings in the electron diffraction pattern revealed the existence of nanocrystalline grains in these films. XRD analysis showed that upon annealing in nitrogen atmosphere these films transformed into polycrystalline with orthorhombic structure. Also, we have observed that during heating in air, Sb 2 S 3 first converts into orthorhombic form and then further heating results in the formation of Sb 2 O 3 crystallites. Optical bandgap energy of as deposited and annealed films was evaluated from UV-vis absorption spectra. The values obtained were 2.57 and 1.73 eV for the as-deposited and the annealed films respectively

  11. High-throughput combinatorial chemical bath deposition: The case of doping Cu (In, Ga) Se film with antimony

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Zongkai; Zhang, Xiaokun; Li, Guang; Cui, Yuxing; Jiang, Zhaolian; Liu, Wen; Peng, Zhi; Xiang, Yong

    2018-01-01

    The conventional methods for designing and preparing thin film based on wet process remain a challenge due to disadvantages such as time-consuming and ineffective, which hinders the development of novel materials. Herein, we present a high-throughput combinatorial technique for continuous thin film preparation relied on chemical bath deposition (CBD). The method is ideally used to prepare high-throughput combinatorial material library with low decomposition temperatures and high water- or oxygen-sensitivity at relatively high-temperature. To check this system, a Cu(In, Ga)Se (CIGS) thin films library doped with 0-19.04 at.% of antimony (Sb) was taken as an example to evaluate the regulation of varying Sb doping concentration on the grain growth, structure, morphology and electrical properties of CIGS thin film systemically. Combined with the Energy Dispersive Spectrometer (EDS), X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS), automated X-ray Diffraction (XRD) for rapid screening and Localized Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (LEIS), it was confirmed that this combinatorial high-throughput system could be used to identify the composition with the optimal grain orientation growth, microstructure and electrical properties systematically, through accurately monitoring the doping content and material composition. According to the characterization results, a Sb2Se3 quasi-liquid phase promoted CIGS film-growth model has been put forward. In addition to CIGS thin film reported here, the combinatorial CBD also could be applied to the high-throughput screening of other sulfide thin film material systems.

  12. Phase-controlled preparation of TiO{sub 2} films and micro(nano)spheres by low-temperature chemical bath deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Mingsong, E-mail: wangms@mail.ujs.edu.cn [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang 212013 (China); Li, Qihui; Yu, Haiyan [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang 212013 (China); Hur, Seung Hyun [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Ulsan, Ulsan 680-749 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Eui Jung, E-mail: ejkim@ulsan.ac.kr [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Ulsan, Ulsan 680-749 (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-11-25

    Highlights: •Simultaneously preparation of TiO{sub 2} films and sphere-like precipitates by low-temperature chemical bath deposition. •The same building blocks observed in the films and precipitates. •Cluster-by-cluster attachment is succeeded by the ion-by-ion growth. •Phase-controlled growth of TiO{sub 2} by the effects of solvent or fluorine ion. -- Abstract: TiO{sub 2} films and micro(nano)spheres have been simultaneously prepared by means of low-temperature chemical bath deposition (CBD). The films and precipitates are found to be constructed of the same building blocks regardless of the bath conditions. Thin nanosheets of ca. 20 nm in thickness serve as the building blocks of rutile TiO{sub 2} grown in an acidic bath. They aggregate to form spheres to reduce the surface energy of the precipitates, while in the films they grow into discrete crystallites on the seeded substrate. Fine control over the crystalline phase of TiO{sub 2} is achieved by replacing some water with ethanol or the addition of NH{sub 4}F. A gradual transition from rutile to anatase is observed as the ethanol and NH{sub 4}F contents are increased. Moreover, the crystallite size of TiO{sub 2} is significantly reduced and there exists monodisperse nanoparticles and aggregate microspheres in the products modified with ethanol and NH{sub 4}F, respectively. This size-dependent phase transition is consistent with previous theoretical and thermodynamic studies. The facile tune of the TiO{sub 2} phase by low-temperature CBD method may be useful to improve the performance of TiO{sub 2} for its various applications.

  13. Annealing Temperature Dependence of ZnO Nanostructures Grown by Facile Chemical Bath Deposition for EGFET pH Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazilah Rosli, Aimi; Awang, Zaiki; Sobihana Shariffudin, Shafinaz; Herman, Sukreen Hana

    2018-03-01

    Zinc Oxide (ZnO) nanostructures were deposited using chemical bath deposition (CBD) technique in water bath at 95 °C for 4 h. Post-deposition heat treatment in air ambient at various temperature ranging from 200-600 °C for 30 min was applied in order to enhance the electrical properties of ZnO nanostructures as the sensing membrane of extended-gate field effect transistor (EGFET) pH sensor. The as-deposited sample was prepared for comparison. The samples were characterized in terms of physical and sensing properties. FESEM images showed that scattered ZnO nanorods were formed for the as-deposited sample, and the morphology of the ZnO nanorods changed to ZnO nanoflowers when the heat treatment was applied from 200-600 °C. For sensing properties, the samples heated at 300 °C showed the higher sensitivity which was 39.9 mV/pH with the linearity of 0.9792. The sensing properties was increased with the increasing annealing treatment temperature up to 300 °C before decreased drastically.

  14. Coercivity enhancement of sintered Nd-Fe-B magnets by chemical bath deposition of TbCl{sub 3}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, Shuai, E-mail: gshuai@nimte.ac.cn; Zhang, Xiaofeng; Ding, Guangfei; Chen, Renjie; Yan, Aru [Key Laboratory of Magnetic Materials and Devices, Ningbo Institute of Material Technology and Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Ningbo 315201 (China); Zhejiang Province Key Laboratory of Magnetic Materials and Application Technology, Ningbo Institute of Material Technology and Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Ningbo 315201 (China); Lee, Don [Key Laboratory of Magnetic Materials and Devices, Ningbo Institute of Material Technology and Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Ningbo 315201 (China); University of Dayton, Dayton, Ohio 45469 (United States)

    2014-05-07

    The chemical bath deposition (CBD) and the grain boundary diffusion method were combined to diffuse the heavy rare earth for obtain the thick magnets with high coercivity and low heavy rare earth. The jet mill powders were soaked into the alcohol solution of 0.2 wt. % TbCl{sub 3}. A thin layer of TbCl{sub 3} was wrapped to the surface of (PrNd){sub 2}Fe{sub 14}B powder particles. The coercivity of magnet is increased from 11.89 kOe to 14.72 kOe without significant reduction of remanence after grain boundary diffusion in the sintering and the annealing processes. The temperature coefficients of the remanence and the coercivity are improved by the substitution of PrNd by Tb in the surface of grains. The highly accelerated temperature/humidity stress test (HAST) results indicate that the CBD magnet has poor corrosion resistance, attributing to the present of Cl atoms in the grain boundaries.

  15. Influence of humidity on the growth characteristics and properties of chemical bath-deposited ZnS thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Yi-Cheng; Chao, Yen-Tai [Department of Mechatronics Engineering, National Changhua University of Education, Changhua 50007, Taiwan (China); Yao, Pin-Chuan, E-mail: pcyao@mail.dyu.edu.tw [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Da-Yeh University, Dacun, Changhua 51591, Taiwan (China)

    2014-07-01

    In this study, the effect of humidity on the growth characteristics and properties of chemical bath-deposited ZnS thin films was systematically investigated. All deposition was conducted by an open CBD system under various relative humidity levels (RH) or by a hermetic CBD system as a comparison. It shows, for films deposited by an open system, the ambient humidity plays an important role in the quality of the resultant films. Damp environments lead to powdery films. Generally, all films prepared in this study using NH{sub 3} and hydrazine hydrate as the complexing agents were amorphous or poorly crystalline. For an open system, the [H{sup +}] from the dissolved carbon dioxide in the air competes with the ammonium ions in the bath solution. According to Le Châtelier's principle, more ammonia was consumed, which favors the free [Zn{sup +2}] in the solution, facilitating the homogeneous precipitation of Zn(OH){sub 2} and giving rise to a powdery film. The x-ray photoelectron spectrum shows, for an open system, the content of Zn–O compounds in the form of Zn(OH){sub 2} and ZnO, etc., is increased by the relative humidity of the environment. The visible transmittance is reduced by RH. The higher optical band gap of the as-deposited films could be attributed to the quantum confinement effects due to the small grain size of the polycrystalline ZnS films over the substrates.

  16. Surface modification of cadmium sulfide thin film honey comb nanostructures: Effect of in situ tin doping using chemical bath deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, K.C., E-mail: wilsonphy@gmail.com [Department of Physics, Govt. Polytechnic College Kothamangalam, Chelad P O, Ernakulam, Kerala 686681 (India); Department of Physics, B. S. Abdur Rahman University, Vandaloor, Chennai, Tamilnadu 600048 (India); Basheer Ahamed, M. [Department of Physics, B. S. Abdur Rahman University, Vandaloor, Chennai, Tamilnadu 600048 (India)

    2016-01-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Novel honey comb like cadmium sulfide thin film nanostructures prepared using chemical bath deposition on glass substrates. • Honey comb nanostructure found in two layers: an ultra thin film at bottom and well inter connected with walls of < 25 nm thick on top; hence maximum surface area possible for CdS nanostructure. • Shell size of the nanostructures and energy band gaps were controlled also an enhanced persistent conductivity observed on Sn doping. - Abstract: Even though nanostructures possess large surface to volume ratio compared to their thin film counterpart, the complicated procedure that demands for the deposition on a substrate kept them back foot in device fabrication techniques. In this work, a honey comb like cadmium sulfide (CdS) thin films nanostructure are deposited on glass substrates using simple chemical bath deposition technique at 65 °C. Energy band gaps, film thickness and shell size of the honey comb nanostructures are successfully controlled using tin (Sn) doping and number of shells per unit area is found to be maximum for 5% Sn doped (in the reaction mixture) sample. X-ray diffraction and optical absorption analysis showed that cadmium sulfide and cadmium hydroxide coexist in the samples. TEM measurements showed that CdS nanostructures are embedded in cadmium hydroxide just like “plum pudding”. Persistent photoconductivity measurements of the samples are also carried out. The decay constants found to be increased with increases in Sn doping.

  17. In situ, real-time thickness measurement techniques for bath-deposited CdS thin films on Cu(In,Ga)Se2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mann, Jonathan R.; Noufi, Rommel

    2012-01-01

    A technique has been developed that can measure the thickness of a 30–70 nm thin film of cadmium sulfide on a Cu(In,Ga)Se 2 substrate, in real time, as it grows in a chemical bath. The technique does not damage the film, and can be used to monitor batch depositions and roll-to-roll depositions with equal accuracy. The technique is based on reflectance spectroscopy through the chemical bath. - Highlights: ► Reflection spectra were collected during the chemical bath deposition of CdS. ► Two algorithms were generated to extract film thickness from each spectrum. ► Two conventional techniques were used to independently verify CdS film thicknesses. ► The accuracies of the algorithms are within 7% of the actual thicknesses. ► The algorithms offer in situ, real time thicknesses through the chemical bath.

  18. Effect of pH on the properties of ZnS thin films grown by chemical bath deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ben Nasr, T.; Kamoun, N.; Kanzari, M.; Bennaceur, R.

    2006-01-01

    Zinc sulphide thin films have been deposited on glass substrates using the chemical bath deposition technique. The depositions were carried out in the pH range of 10 to 11.5. Structure of these films was characterized by X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. Optical properties were studied by spectrophotometric measurements. Influence of the increased pH value on structural and optical properties is described and discussed in terms of transmission improvement in the visible range. Transmission spectra indicate a high transmission coefficient (∼70%). The direct band gap energy is found to be about 3.67 eV for the films prepared at pH equal to 11.5

  19. Effect of different complexing agents on the properties of chemical-bath-deposited ZnS thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Jun; Wei, Aixiang, E-mail: weiax@gdut.edu.cn; Zhao, Yu

    2014-03-05

    Highlights: • To fabricate high quality ZnS films need to promote the ion-by-ion process and restrain cluster-by-cluster process. • The complexation ability of tri-sodium citrate is stronger than that of hydrazine hydrate. • The nucleation density of nuclei determine the performance of ZnS thin films. -- Abstract: Zinc sulfide (ZnS) thin films were deposited on glass substrates using the chemical bath deposition (CBD) technique. The effects of different complexing agents (tri-sodium citrate, hydrazine hydrate) and their concentrations on the structure, composition, morphology, optical properties and growth mechanism of ZnS thin films were investigated. The results indicated that the chemical-bath-deposited ZnS thin films exhibit poor crystallinity and a high Zn/S atomic ratio with an average transmittance of 75% in the range of visible light. The ZnS thin films prepared using hydrazine hydrate as the complexing agent present a more compact surface, a smaller average particle size, and a sharper absorption edge at 300–340 nm compared with those prepared using tri-sodium citrate. Based on our experimental observations and analysis, we conclude that the predominant growth mechanism of ZnS thin films is an ion-by-ion process. The nucleation density of Zn(OH){sub 2} nuclei on the substrate in the initial stage produces the different morphologies and properties of the ZnS thin films prepared using the two complexing agents.

  20. Highly crystalline p-PbS thin films with tunable optical and hole transport parameters by chemical bath deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bai, Rekha; Kumar, Dinesh; Chaudhary, Sujeet; Pandya, Dinesh K.

    2017-01-01

    Lead sulfide (PbS) thin films, consisting of well faceted (up to 400 nm) cubic-nanocrystals and possessing significantly improved opto-electronic parameters essential for photovoltaic applications, are grown by utilizing chemical bath deposition (CBD) technique with bath concentrations of 10–200 mM. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Raman studies confirm the highly crystalline and pure phase of PbS. FESEM and HRTEM studies show that all the films possess uniform and compact (111) oriented nanocubic morphology. Bath concentration change provides tunability of nanocube size from 100 to 400 nm and the direct optical band gap from 1.50 to 0.94 eV. The PbS films exhibit p-type semiconducting behavior with hitherto unreported concurrent highest mobility of 29.3 cm"2V"−"1s"−"1 and high carrier concentration of ∼10"1"8 cm"−"3 with the lowest room temperature resistivity of 0.26 Ω–cm. The 25 mM and 10 mM films show significant surface plasmon absorption in 1200–2400 nm range making them suitable as efficient infrared absorbers in excitonic and multi-junction solar cells.

  1. Inverted bulk-heterojunction organic solar cell using chemical bath deposited titanium oxide as electron collection layer

    OpenAIRE

    Kuwabara, Takayuki; Sugiyama, Hirokazu; Kuzuba, Mitsuhiro  ; Yamaguchi, Takahiro; Takahashi, Kohshin

    2010-01-01

    Chemical bath deposited titanium oxide (TiOx ) as an electron collection layer is introduced between the organic layer and the indium tin oxide (ITO) electrode for improving the performance of inverted bulk-heterojunction organic thin film solar cells with 1 cm2 active area, where regioregular poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) and [6,6]-phenyl C61 butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) were mainly used as the photo-active layer. The uniform and thin TiOx film was easily prepared onto the ITO electrode ...

  2. Chemical bath deposition route for the synthesis of ultra-thin CuIn(S,Se){sub 2} based solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lugo, S. [Universidad Autónoma de Nuevo León (UANL), Fac. de Ciencias Químicas, Av. Universidad S/N, Ciudad Universitaria, San Nicolás de Los Garza, Nuevo León C.P. 66451 (Mexico); Sánchez, Y.; Neuschitzer, M.; Xie, H.; Insignares-Cuello, C.; Izquierdo-Roca, V. [Catalonia Institute for Energy Research (IREC), Jardins de les Dones de Negre 1, 08930 Sant Adrià del Besòs, Barcelona (Spain); Peña, Y. [Universidad Autónoma de Nuevo León (UANL), Fac. de Ciencias Químicas, Av. Universidad S/N, Ciudad Universitaria, San Nicolás de Los Garza, Nuevo León C.P. 66451 (Mexico); Saucedo, E., E-mail: esaucedo@irec.cat [Catalonia Institute for Energy Research (IREC), Jardins de les Dones de Negre 1, 08930 Sant Adrià del Besòs, Barcelona (Spain)

    2015-05-01

    CuIn(S,Se){sub 2} (CISSe) photovoltaic grade thin films are usually grown by expensive vacuum based methods or chemical routes that require highly toxic precursors. In this work, we present the synthesis of CISSe absorbers by a simple chemical bath deposition (CBD) route. In the first step, In{sub 2}S{sub 3}/Cu{sub 2−x}S stack was deposited as a precursor by CBD on Mo-coated soda lime glass substrates, using respectively thioacetamide and N,N′-dimethylthiourea as S source. Then the CISSe thin films were synthesized by the precursor's selenization at 450 °C. The obtained films were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The tetragonal chalcopyrite structure of CISSe was identified by XRD and Raman, confirming that the major part of S was replaced by Se. SEM images show a compact and homogeneous film and by cross-section the thickness was estimated to be around 700 nm. Solar cells prepared with these absorbers exhibit an open circuit voltage of 369 mV, a short circuit current density of 13.7 mA/cm{sup 2}, a fill factor of 45% and an efficiency of 2.3%. - Highlights: • Deposition of In{sub 2}S{sub 3}/Cu{sub 2−x}S multi-stacks by chemical bath deposition • Synthesis of CuIn(S,Se){sub 2} via a two stage process • Demonstration of the viability of this low cost method to produce photovoltaic grade CuIn(S,Se){sub 2}.

  3. Optimization of synthesis conditions of PbS thin films grown by chemical bath deposition using response surface methodology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yücel, Ersin, E-mail: dr.ersinyucel@gmail.com [Department of Physics, Faculty of Arts and Sciences, Mustafa Kemal University, 31034 Hatay (Turkey); Yücel, Yasin; Beleli, Buse [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Arts and Sciences, Mustafa Kemal University, 31034 Hatay (Turkey)

    2015-09-05

    Highlights: • For the first time, RSM and CCD used for optimization of PbS thin film. • Tri-sodium citrate, deposition time and temperature were independent variables. • PbS thin film band gap value was 2.20 eV under the optimum conditions. • Quality of the film was improved after chemometrics optimization. - Abstract: In this study, PbS thin films were synthesized by chemical bath deposition (CBD) under different deposition parameters. Response surface methodology (RSM) was used to optimize synthesis parameters including amount of tri-sodium citrate (0.2–0.8 mL), deposition time (14–34 h) and deposition temperature (26.6–43.4 °C) for deposition of the films. 5-level-3-factor central composite design (CCD) was employed to evaluate effects of the deposition parameters on the response (optical band gap of the films). The significant level of both the main effects and the interaction are investigated by analysis of variance (ANOVA). The film structures were characterized by X-ray diffractometer (XRD). Morphological properties of the films were studied with a scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The optical properties of the films were investigated using a UV–visible spectrophotometer. The optimum amount of tri-sodium citrate, deposition time and deposition temperature were found to be 0.7 mL, 18.07 h and 30 °C respectively. Under these conditions, the experimental band gap of PbS was 2.20 eV, which is quite good correlation with value (1.98 eV) predicted by the model.

  4. Optimization of synthesis conditions of PbS thin films grown by chemical bath deposition using response surface methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yücel, Ersin; Yücel, Yasin; Beleli, Buse

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • For the first time, RSM and CCD used for optimization of PbS thin film. • Tri-sodium citrate, deposition time and temperature were independent variables. • PbS thin film band gap value was 2.20 eV under the optimum conditions. • Quality of the film was improved after chemometrics optimization. - Abstract: In this study, PbS thin films were synthesized by chemical bath deposition (CBD) under different deposition parameters. Response surface methodology (RSM) was used to optimize synthesis parameters including amount of tri-sodium citrate (0.2–0.8 mL), deposition time (14–34 h) and deposition temperature (26.6–43.4 °C) for deposition of the films. 5-level-3-factor central composite design (CCD) was employed to evaluate effects of the deposition parameters on the response (optical band gap of the films). The significant level of both the main effects and the interaction are investigated by analysis of variance (ANOVA). The film structures were characterized by X-ray diffractometer (XRD). Morphological properties of the films were studied with a scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The optical properties of the films were investigated using a UV–visible spectrophotometer. The optimum amount of tri-sodium citrate, deposition time and deposition temperature were found to be 0.7 mL, 18.07 h and 30 °C respectively. Under these conditions, the experimental band gap of PbS was 2.20 eV, which is quite good correlation with value (1.98 eV) predicted by the model

  5. DEPOSITION OF NICKEL ON CARBON FIBRES BY GALVANIC METHOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavol Štefánik

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The investigation of coating parameters in quasi-static coating of Ni layer on carbon fibre tow by galvanic method is presented. The tow of fibres was immersed in typical galvanic bath based on NiSO4, NiCl2, Na2SO4 and H3BO3 and current to carbon fibres was supplied by two leading metal rolls which are parts of continuous coating apparatus. The main parameters were current of 1 A, electrolyte temperature of 50 °C and the distance from power contacts to level of galvanic bath (8 or 13 cm. The amount and structure of deposited Ni layer at coating time 15 and 90 seconds of exposure in electrolyte and depth of immersion of tow into bath were discussed.

  6. Effect of Annealing Temperature on Flowerlike Cu3BiS3 Thin Films Grown by Chemical Bath Deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deshmukh, S. G.; Patel, S. J.; Patel, K. K.; Panchal, A. K.; Kheraj, Vipul

    2017-10-01

    For widespread application of thin-film photovoltaic solar cells, synthesis of inexpensive absorber material is essential. In this work, deposition of ternary Cu3BiS3 absorber material, which contains abundant and environmentally benign elements, was carried out on glass substrate. Flowerlike Cu3BiS3 thin films with nanoflakes as building block were formed on glass substrate by chemical bath deposition. These films were annealed at 573 K and 673 K in sulfur ambient for structural improvement. Their structure was characterized using Raman spectroscopy, as well as their surface morphological and optical properties. The x-ray diffraction profile of as-deposited Cu3BiS3 thin film revealed amorphous structure, which transformed to orthorhombic phase after annealing. The Raman spectrum exhibited a characteristic peak at 290 cm-1. Scanning electron microscopy of as-deposited Cu3BiS3 film confirmed formation of nanoflowers with diameter of around 1052 nm. Wettability testing of as-deposited Cu3BiS3 thin film demonstrated hydrophobic nature, which became hydrophilic after annealing. The measured ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis) absorption spectra of the Cu3BiS3 thin films gave an absorption coefficient of 105 cm-1 and direct optical bandgap of about 1.42 eV after annealing treatment. Based on all these results, such Cu3BiS3 material may have potential applications in the photovoltaic field as an absorber layer.

  7. Study of the crystallographic phase change on copper (I) selenide thin films prepared through chemical bath deposition by varying the pH of the solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sandoval-Paz, M.G., E-mail: myrnasandoval@udec.cl [Departament of Physics, Faculty of Physical Sciences and Mathematics, University of Concepcion, Box 160-C, Concepción (Chile); Rodríguez, C.A. [Department of Materials Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University of Concepción, Edmundo Larenas 270, Concepción 4070409 (Chile); Porcile-Saavedra, P.F. [Departament of Physics, Faculty of Physical Sciences and Mathematics, University of Concepcion, Box 160-C, Concepción (Chile); Trejo-Cruz, C. [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, University of Biobío, Avenue Collao 1202, Box 5C, Concepción 4051381 (Chile)

    2016-07-15

    Copper (I) selenide thin films with orthorhombic and cubic structure were deposited on glass substrates by using the chemical bath deposition technique. The effects of the solution pH on the films growth and subsequently the structural, optical and electrical properties of the films were studied. Films with orthorhombic structure were obtained from baths wherein both metal complex and hydroxide coexist; while films with cubic structure were obtained from baths where the metal hydroxide there is no present. The structural modifications are accompanied by changes in bandgap energy, morphology and electrical resistivity of the films. - Graphical abstract: “Study of the crystallographic phase change on copper (I) selenide thin films prepared through chemical bath deposition by varying the pH of the solution” by M. G. Sandoval-Paz, C. A. Rodríguez, P. F. Porcile-Saavedra, C. Trejo-Cruz. Display Omitted - Highlights: • Copper (I) selenide thin films were obtained by chemical bath deposition. • Orthorhombic to cubic phase change was induced by varying the reaction solution pH. • Orthorhombic phase is obtained mainly from a hydroxides cluster mechanism. • Cubic phase is obtained mainly from an ion by ion mechanism. • Structural, optical and electrical properties are presented as a function of pH.

  8. One-step chemical bath deposition and photocatalytic activity of Cu2O thin films with orientation and size controlled by a chelating agent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, HaiYan; Dong, JinKuang; Chen, Chen

    2014-01-01

    Nanocrystalline cuprous oxide (Cu 2 O) thin films were prepared via a one-step chemical bath deposition (CBD) method. The effects of a chelating agent on the orientation, morphology, crystallite size, and photocatalytic activity of the thin films were carefully examined using X-ray diffractometry, scanning electron microscopy, and UV–vis spectrophotometry. The results confirmed that the crystallite size as well as the orientation of the films was dependent on the volume of trisodium citrate (TSC), demonstrating that the band gap ranged from 2.71 eV to 2.49 eV. The morphology and number density of the thin films also depended on the volume of TSC. In addition, the obtained Cu 2 O thin films could degrade methyl orange (MO) efficiently in the presence of H 2 O 2 under visible-light irradiation, and the mechanism for the enhanced photocatalytic activity of the Cu 2 O thin films with the assistance of H 2 O 2 was also explored in detail. - Graphical abstract: Nano-structured Cu 2 O thin films have been prepared by a one-step chemical bath deposition method. The number density, crystallite size, surface morphology and orientation of these thin films could be tailored by chelating agent. The results confirmed that the crystallite size as well as the orientation of the thin films was dependent on the volume of TSC, showed that the band gap ranged from 2.71 eV to 2.49 eV. The formation mechanism of the Cu 2 O particles could be illuminated by an oriented attachment mode. In addition, the obtained Cu 2 O thin films degraded methyl orange efficiently in the presence of H 2 O 2 under the irradiation of visible light, and the mechanism for photocatalytic reaction was also discussed in detail. - Highlights: • Oriented Cu 2 O thin films were prepared by one-step chemical bath deposition. • Orientation and crystallite size were dependent on trisodium citrate volume. • The enhanced visible light degradation mechanism was systematically studied. • Oriented attachment

  9. One-step chemical bath deposition and photocatalytic activity of Cu{sub 2}O thin films with orientation and size controlled by a chelating agent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, HaiYan, E-mail: xuhaiyan@ahjzu.edu.cn; Dong, JinKuang, E-mail: dongjinkuang1988@126.com; Chen, Chen, E-mail: 13865901653@139.com

    2014-01-15

    Nanocrystalline cuprous oxide (Cu{sub 2}O) thin films were prepared via a one-step chemical bath deposition (CBD) method. The effects of a chelating agent on the orientation, morphology, crystallite size, and photocatalytic activity of the thin films were carefully examined using X-ray diffractometry, scanning electron microscopy, and UV–vis spectrophotometry. The results confirmed that the crystallite size as well as the orientation of the films was dependent on the volume of trisodium citrate (TSC), demonstrating that the band gap ranged from 2.71 eV to 2.49 eV. The morphology and number density of the thin films also depended on the volume of TSC. In addition, the obtained Cu{sub 2}O thin films could degrade methyl orange (MO) efficiently in the presence of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} under visible-light irradiation, and the mechanism for the enhanced photocatalytic activity of the Cu{sub 2}O thin films with the assistance of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} was also explored in detail. - Graphical abstract: Nano-structured Cu{sub 2}O thin films have been prepared by a one-step chemical bath deposition method. The number density, crystallite size, surface morphology and orientation of these thin films could be tailored by chelating agent. The results confirmed that the crystallite size as well as the orientation of the thin films was dependent on the volume of TSC, showed that the band gap ranged from 2.71 eV to 2.49 eV. The formation mechanism of the Cu{sub 2}O particles could be illuminated by an oriented attachment mode. In addition, the obtained Cu{sub 2}O thin films degraded methyl orange efficiently in the presence of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} under the irradiation of visible light, and the mechanism for photocatalytic reaction was also discussed in detail. - Highlights: • Oriented Cu{sub 2}O thin films were prepared by one-step chemical bath deposition. • Orientation and crystallite size were dependent on trisodium citrate volume. • The enhanced visible light degradation mechanism

  10. Role of VI/II ratio on the growth of ZnO nanostructures using chemical bath deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Urgessa, Z.N., E-mail: zelalem.urgessa@nmmu.ac.za [Department of Physics, P.O. Box 77000, Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University, Port Elizabeth 6031 (South Africa); Oluwafemi, O.S. [Department of Chemistry and Chemical Technology, Walter Sisulu University, Mthatha Campus, Private Bag XI, 5117 (South Africa); Botha, J.R. [Department of Physics, P.O. Box 77000, Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University, Port Elizabeth 6031 (South Africa)

    2012-05-15

    In this paper the growth process and morphological evolution of ZnO nanostructures were investigated in a series of experiments using chemical bath deposition. The experimental results indicate that the morphological evolution depends on the reaction conditions, particularly on OH{sup -} to Zn{sup 2+} ratio (which directly affects the pH). For low VI/II ratios, quasi-spherical nanoparticles of an average diameter 30 nm are obtained, whereas for larger VI/II ratios, nanorods with an average diameter less than 100 nm are produced, which indicates that by systematically controlling the VI/II ratio, it is possible to produce different shapes and sizes of ZnO nanostructures. A possible mechanism for the nanostructural change of the as-synthesized ZnO from particle to rod was elucidated based on the relative densities of H{sup +} and OH{sup -} in the solution.

  11. Role of VI/II ratio on the growth of ZnO nanostructures using chemical bath deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urgessa, Z.N.; Oluwafemi, O.S.; Botha, J.R.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper the growth process and morphological evolution of ZnO nanostructures were investigated in a series of experiments using chemical bath deposition. The experimental results indicate that the morphological evolution depends on the reaction conditions, particularly on OH − to Zn 2+ ratio (which directly affects the pH). For low VI/II ratios, quasi-spherical nanoparticles of an average diameter 30 nm are obtained, whereas for larger VI/II ratios, nanorods with an average diameter less than 100 nm are produced, which indicates that by systematically controlling the VI/II ratio, it is possible to produce different shapes and sizes of ZnO nanostructures. A possible mechanism for the nanostructural change of the as-synthesized ZnO from particle to rod was elucidated based on the relative densities of H + and OH − in the solution.

  12. Chemical bath deposited zinc sulfide buffer layers for copper indium gallium sulfur-selenide solar cells and device analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kundu, Sambhu; Olsen, Larry C.

    2005-01-01

    Cadmium-free copper indium gallium sulfur-selenide (CIGSS) thin film solar cells have been fabricated using chemical bath deposited (CBD) zinc sulfide (ZnS) buffer layers. Shell Solar Industries provided high quality CIGSS absorber layers. The use of CBD-ZnS, which is a higher band gap material than CdS, improved the quantum efficiency of fabricated cells at lower wavelengths, leading to an increase in short circuit current. The best cell to date yielded an active area (0.43 cm 2 ) efficiency of 13.3%. The effect of the ZnS buffer layer thickness on device performance was studied carefully. This paper also presents a discussion of issues relevant to the use of the CBD-ZnS buffer material for improving device performance

  13. Design of γ measurement system of neutron source strength standard with a manganese sulphate bath method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Xiaoqiong; Wang Pan; Chen Mingchi; Zhang Hui

    2010-01-01

    It mostly introduced the hardware and software design and test of Measurement System of Neutron Source Strength Standard with a Manganese Sulphate Bath Method. Hardware of system mainly contains six modules named detector, high voltage source, head amplifier, main amplifier, single channel pulse-amplitude analyzer and data acquisition system. The software program of system data acquisition is made up of four functional modules: user login, parameter setting, data collection, and data saving. (authors)

  14. Thermoluminescence of Zn O thin films deposited by chemical bath; Termoluminiscencia de peliculas delgadas de ZnO depositadas por bano quimico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Camacho A, M. C.; Cruz V, C. [Universidad de Sonora, Departamento de Investigacion en Polimeros y Materiales, Apdo. Postal 130, 83000 Hermosillo, Sonora (Mexico); Bernal H, R.; Berman M, D. [Universidad de Sonora, Departamento de Investigacion en Fisica, Apdo. Postal 5-088, 83190 Hermosillo, Sonora (Mexico); Castano M, V. M., E-mail: carmencamacho@gimmunison.com [UNAM, Instituto de Fisica, Centro de Fisica Aplicada y Tecnologia Avanzada, Apdo. Postal 1-1010, 76000 Queretaro, Qro. (Mexico)

    2015-10-15

    Full text: Zn O films on Si were synthesized using a deposition method by chemical bath and thermally treated at 900 degrees C for 12 h in air. The morphological characterization by scanning electron microscopy reveals that uniform films were obtained. To investigate the thermoluminescent properties of the films were exposed to irradiation with beta particles with doses in the range from 0.5 to 128 Gy. The brightness curves obtained using a heating rate of 5 degrees C have two peaks, one at 124 and another at 270 degrees C, and a linear dependence of the integrated thermoluminescence as a function of dose. The second maximum reveals the existence of localized trapping states of potential utility in thermoluminescent dosimetry. (Author)

  15. Optical characterization of In{sub 2}S{sub 3} solar cell buffer layers grown by chemical bath and physical vapor deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trigo, J.F.; Asenjo, B.; Herrero, J.; Gutierrez, M.T. [Department of Energy, CIEMAT, Avda. Complutense, 22, 28040 Madrid (Spain)

    2008-09-15

    In this paper, we study the optical properties of indium sulfide thin films to establish the best conditions to obtain a good solar cell buffer layer. The In{sub 2}S{sub 3} buffer layers have been prepared by chemical bath deposition (CBD) and thermal evaporation (PVD). Optical behavior differences have been found between CBD and PVD In{sub 2}S{sub 3} thin films that have been explained as due to structural, morphological and compositional differences observed in the films prepared by both methods. The resultant refractive index difference has to be attributed to the lower density of the CBD films, which can be related to the presence of oxygen. Its higher refractive index makes PVD film better suited to reduce overall reflectance in a typical CIGS solar cell. (author)

  16. Reduced dynamics in spin-boson models: A method for both slow and fast bath

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golosov, Andrei A.; Friesner, Richard A.; Pechukas, Philip

    2000-01-01

    We study a model for treating dissipative systems, a one dimensional quantum system coupled to a harmonic bath. The dynamics of such a system can be described by Feynman's path integral expression for the reduced density matrix. In this formulation the interaction of the system with the environment is stored in the influence functional. Recently we showed that fast environmental modes that give rise to correlations in the influence functional which are short range in time can be treated efficiently by a memory equation algorithm, which is a discretized version of a master equation. In this work we extend this approach to treat slow environmental modes as well, thereby efficiently linking adiabatic and nonadiabatic regimes. In this extended method the long range correlations in the influence functional arising from slow bath modes are taken into account through Stock's semiclassical self-consistent-field approach. (c) 2000 American Institute of Physics

  17. Safety of tomatillos and products containing tomatillos canned by the water-bath canning method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKee, L H; Remmenga, M D; Bock, M A

    1998-01-01

    Three studies were conducted to evaluate the safety of tomatillos and products containing tomatillos canned by the water-bath processing method. In the first study, plain tomatillos were processed for 25, 37.5, 50 and 62.5 min. In the second study, five tomatillo/onion combinations were prepared while five tomatillo/green chile combinations were prepared in the third study. pH evaluations were conducted to determine safety in all studies using pH 4.2 as the cut-off value. No differences in the pH of plain tomatillos were detected due to processing time. All jars of plain tomatillos had pH values below 4.1. All combinations of tomatillos/onions and tomatillos/green chile containing more than 50% tomatillo had pH values below the 4.2 cut-off value. Results of the three studies indicate (1) acidification of plain tomatillos is probably unnecessary for canning by the water-bath processing method and (2) combinations of acidic tomatillos and low-acid onions or green chile must contain more than 50% tomatillos to have a pH low enough for safe water-bath processing.

  18. Indium sulfide buffer layers deposited by dry and wet methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asenjo, B.; Sanz, C.; Guillen, C.; Chaparro, A.M.; Gutierrez, M.T.; Herrero, J.

    2007-01-01

    Indium sulfide (In 2 S 3 ) thin films have been deposited on amorphous glass, glass coated by tin oxide (TCO) and crystalline silicon substrates by two different methods: modulated flux deposition (MFD) and chemical bath deposition (CBD). Composition, morphology and optical characterization have been carried out with Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), IR-visible-UV Spectrophotometry, X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectrometer. Different properties of the films have been obtained depending on the preparation techniques. With MFD, In 2 S 3 films present more compact and homogeneous surface than with CBD. Films deposited by CBD present also indium oxide in their composition and higher absorption edge values when deposited on glass

  19. The study of metal sulphide nanomaterials obtained by chemical bath deposition and hot-injection technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maraeva, E. V.; Alexandrova, O. A.; Forostyanaya, N. A.; Levitskiy, V. S.; Mazing, D. S.; Maskaeva, L. N.; Markov, V. Ph; Moshnikov, V. A.; Shupta, A. A.; Spivak, Yu M.; Tulenin, S. S.

    2015-11-01

    In this study lead sulphide - cadmium sulphide based layers were obtained through chemical deposition of water solutions and cadmium sulphide quantum dots were formed through hot-injection technique. The article discusses the results of surface investigations with the use of atomic force microscopy, Raman spectroscopy and photoluminescence measurements.

  20. The study of metal sulphide nanomaterials obtained by chemical bath deposition and hot-injection technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maraeva, E V; Alexandrova, O A; Levitskiy, V S; Mazing, D S; Moshnikov, V A; Shupta, A A; Spivak, Yu M; Forostyanaya, N A; Maskaeva, L N; Markov, V Ph; Tulenin, S S

    2015-01-01

    In this study lead sulphide – cadmium sulphide based layers were obtained through chemical deposition of water solutions and cadmium sulphide quantum dots were formed through hot-injection technique. The article discusses the results of surface investigations with the use of atomic force microscopy, Raman spectroscopy and photoluminescence measurements. (paper)

  1. Conformal coating of Ni(OH)2 nanoflakes on carbon fibers by chemical bath deposition for efficient supercapacitor electrodes

    KAUST Repository

    Alhebshi, Nuha

    2013-01-01

    A novel supercapacitor electrode structure has been developed in which a uniform and conformal coating of nanostructured Ni(OH)2 flakes on carbon microfibers is deposited in situ by a simple chemical bath deposition process at room temperature. The microfibers conformally coated with Ni(OH) 2 nanoflakes exhibit five times higher specific capacitance compared to planar (non-conformal) Ni(OH)2 nanoflake electrodes prepared by drop casting of Ni(OH)2 powder on the carbon microfibers (1416 F g-1vs. 275 F g-1). This improvement in supercapacitor performance can be ascribed to the preservation of the three-dimensional structure of the current collector, which is a fibrous carbon fabric, even after the conformal coating of Ni(OH)2 nanoflakes. The 3-D network morphology of the fibrous carbon fabric leads to more efficient electrolyte penetration into the conformal electrode, allowing the ions to have greater access to active reaction sites. Cyclic stability testing of the conformal and planar Ni(OH)2 nanoflake electrodes, respectively, reveals 34% and 62% drop in specific capacitance after 10 000 cycles. The present study demonstrates the crucial effect that electrolyte penetration plays in determining the pseudocapacitive properties of the supercapacitor electrodes. © 2013 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  2. Modification of optical and electrical properties of chemical bath deposited SnS using O{sub 2} plasma treatments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gómez, A. [Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Autónoma del Estado de México, Estado de México, México (Mexico); Martínez, H., E-mail: hm@fis.unam.mx [Instituto de Ciencias Fisicas, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Apartado Postal 48-3, 62251, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico); Calixto-Rodríguez, M. [Centro de Investigación en Energía, Universidad Autónoma del Estado de México, Estado de México, México (Mexico); Avellaneda, D. [Facultad de Ingeniería Mecánica y Eléctrica, Universidad Autónoma de Nuevo León, México (Mexico); Reyes, P.G. [Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Autónoma del Estado de México, Estado de México, México (Mexico); Flores, O. [Instituto de Ciencias Fisicas, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Apartado Postal 48-3, 62251, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico)

    2013-06-15

    In this paper, we report modifications of structural and optical, electrical properties that occur in tin sulphide (SnS) treated in O{sub 2} plasma. The SnS thin films were deposited by chemical bath deposition technique. The samples were treated in an O{sub 2} plasma discharge at 3 Torr of pressure discharge, a discharge voltage of 2.5 kV and 20 mA of discharge current. The prepared and treated thin films were characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray analysis. The photoconductivity and electrical effects of SnS have been studied. The SnS thin films had an orthorhombic crystalline structure. With the plasma treatment the optical gap and electrical properties of the SnS films changed from 1.61 to 1.84 eV, for 3.9 × 10{sup 5} to 10.42 Ω cm, respectively. These changes can be attributed to an increase in electron density, percolation effects due to porosity, surface degradation/etching that is an increase in surface roughness, where some structural changes related to crystallinity occurs like a high grain size as revealed by SEM images.

  3. Formation of a ZnS/Zn(S,O) bilayer buffer on CuInS2 thin film solar cell absorbers by chemical bath deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bär, M.; Ennaoui, A.; Klaer, J.; Kropp, T.; Sáez-Araoz, R.; Allsop, N.; Lauermann, I.; Schock, H.-W.; Lux-Steiner, M. C.

    2006-06-01

    The application of Zn compounds as buffer layers was recently extended to wide-gap CuInS2 (CIS) based thin film solar cells. Using an alternative chemical deposition route for the buffer preparation aiming at the deposition of a single-layer, nominal ZnS buffer without the need for any toxic reactants such as hydrazine has helped us to achieve a similar efficiency as respective CdS-buffered reference devices. In order to shed light on the differences of other Zn-compound buffers deposited in conventional chemical baths [chemical bath deposition (CBD)] compared to the buffer layers deposited by this alternative CBD process, the composition of the deposited buffers was investigated by x-ray excited Auger electron and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy to potentially clarify their superiority in terms of device performance. We have found that in the early stages of this alternative CBD process a thin ZnS layer is formed on the CIS, whereas in the second half of the CBD the growth rate is greatly increased and Zn(S,O) with a ZnS/(ZnS+ZnO) ratio of ~80% is deposited. Thus, a ZnS/Zn(S,O) bilayer buffer is deposited on the CIS thin film solar cell absorbers by the alternative chemical deposition route used in this investigation. No major changes of these findings after a postannealing of the buffer/CIS sample series and recharacterization could be identified.

  4. Application of chemometric methods for assessment and modelling of microbiological quality data concerning coastal bathing water in Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agelos Papaioannou

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background. Worldwide, the aim of managing water is to safeguard human health whilst maintaining sustainable aquatic and associated terrestrial, ecosystems. Because human enteric viruses are the most likely pathogens responsible for waterborne diseases from recreational water use, but detection methods are complex and costly for routine monitoring, it is of great interest to determine the quality of coastal bathing water with a minimum cost and maximum safety. Design and methods. This study handles the assessment and modelling of the microbiological quality data of 2149 seawater bathing areas in Greece over 10-year period (1997-2006 by chemometric methods. Results. Cluster analysis results indicated that the studied bathing beaches are classified in accordance with the seasonality in three groups. Factor analysis was applied to investigate possible determining factors in the groups resulted from the cluster analysis, and also two new parameters were created in each group; VF1 includes E. coli, faecal coliforms and total coliforms and VF2 includes faecal streptococci/enterococci. By applying the cluster analysis in each seasonal group, three new groups of coasts were generated, group A (ultraclean, group B (clean and group C (contaminated. Conclusions. The above analysis is confirmed by the application of discriminant analysis, and proves that chemometric methods are useful tools for assessment and modeling microbiological quality data of coastal bathing water on a large scale, and thus could attribute to effective and economical monitoring of the quality of coastal bathing water in a country with a big number of bathing coasts, like Greece.

  5. Growth of CdS thin films on indium coated glass substrates via chemical bath deposition and subsequent air annealing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghosh, Biswajit; Kumar, Kamlesh; Singh, Balwant Kr; Banerjee, Pushan; Das, Subrata, E-mail: neillohit@yahoo.co.in

    2014-11-30

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • CdS film grown on indium coated glass substrates via CBD and subsequent annealing. • Disappearance of the indium (1 1 2) peak confirms interdiffusion at 300 °C. • SIMS indicates the subsequent interdiffusion at progressively higher temperature. • Composite In–CdS layer showed lower photosensitivity compared to pure CdS. - Abstract: In the present work attempts were made to synthesize indium doped CdS films by fabricating In/CdS bilayers using CBD-CdS on vacuum evaporated In thin films and subsequent air annealing. 135 nm CdS films were grown onto 20 nm and 35 nm indium coated glass substrate employing chemical bath deposition technique. The In/CdS bilayers thus formed were subjected to heat treatment at the temperatures between 200 and 400 °C for 4 min in the muffle furnace to facilitate indium to diffuse into the CdS films. XRD pattern ascertained no noticeable shift in lattice constant implying grain boundary metal segregation, while secondary ion mass spectrometry indicated the diffusion profile of indium into CdS matrices. Mass spectrometry results showed that substantial diffusion of indium had been taken place within CdS at 400 °C. Dark and photocurrent with different illumination time were measured to ascertain the photosensitivity of pure and composite CdS films.

  6. Nanostructured ZnO thin films by chemical bath deposition in basic aqueous ammonia solutions for photovoltaic applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chu, J.B.; Huang, S.M.; Zhang, D.W.; Bian, Z.Q.; Li, X.D.; Sun, Z. [East China Normal University, Engineering Research Center for Nanophotonics and Advanced Instrument, Ministry of Education, Department of Physics, Shanghai (China); Yin, X.J. [Singapore Polytechnic, Advanced Materials Technology Center, Singapore (Singapore)

    2009-06-15

    This paper presents further insights and observations of the chemical bath deposition (CBD) of ZnS thin films using an aqueous medium involving Zn-salt, ammonium sulfate, aqueous ammonia, and thiourea. Results on physical and chemical properties of the grown layers as a function of ammonia concentration are reported. Physical and chemical properties were analyzed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray energy dispersive (EDX), and X-ray diffraction (XRD). Rapid growth of nanostructured ZnO films on fluorine-doped SnO{sub 2} (FTO) glass substrates was developed. ZnO films crystallized in a wurtzite hexagonal structure and with a very small quantity of Zn(OH){sub 2} and ZnS phases were obtained for the ammonia concentration ranging from 0.75 to 2.0 M. Flower-like and columnar nanostructured ZnO films were deposited in two ammonia concentration ranges, respectively: one between 0.75 and 1.0 M and the other between 1.4 and 2.0 M. ZnS films were formed with a high ammonia concentration of 3.0 M. The formation mechanisms of ZnO, Zn(OH){sub 2}, and ZnS phases were discussed in the CBD process. The developed technique can be used to directly and rapidly grow nanostructured ZnO film photoanodes. Annealed ZnO nanoflower and columnar nanoparticle films on FTO substrates were used as electrodes to fabricate the dye sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). The DSSC based on ZnO-nanoflower film showed an energy conversion efficiency of 0.84%, which is higher compared to that (0.45%) of the cell being constructed using a photoanode of columnar nanoparticle ZnO film. The results have demonstrated the potential applications of CBD nanostructured ZnO films for photovoltaic cells. (orig.)

  7. Comparative study of ZnSe thin films deposited from modified chemical bath solutions with ammonia-containing and ammonia-free precursors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Liangyan; Zhang Daoli; Zhai Guangmei; Zhang Jianbing

    2010-01-01

    Ammonia is one of the complexing agents which are the most commonly used in the precursors of ZnSe thin films by chemical bath deposition, but its high volatility may be harmful to human beings and environments. In our experiments, ZnSe films were obtained from modified chemical solutions with ammonia-containing and ammonia-free precursors. X-ray diffraction, field-emission scanning electron microscope (FSEM), and absorption spectrum were applied to investigate the microstructure, morphology and optical properties of the samples obtained from both growth conditions, which were investigated in this work. The ammonia-free chemical bath deposited ZnSe films showed comparable properties with the ammonia-containing ones, indicating that ZnSe films from ammonia-free chemical solution may be preferred buffer layer in thin film solar cells with less environmental contamination.

  8. A rapid detection method using flow cytometry to monitor the risk of Legionella in bath water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taguri, Toshitsugu; Oda, Yasunori; Sugiyama, Kanji; Nishikawa, Toru; Endo, Takuro; Izumiyama, Shinji; Yamazaki, Masayuki; Kura, Fumiaki

    2011-07-01

    Legionella species are the causative agents of human legionellosis, and bathing facilities have been identified as the sources of infection in several outbreaks in Japan. Researchers in Japan have recently reported evidence of significant associations between bacterial counts and the occurrence of Legionella in bathing facilities and in a hot tub model. A convenient and quantitative bacterial enumeration method is therefore required as an indicator of Legionella contamination or disinfection to replace existing methods such as time-consuming Legionella culture and expensive Legionella-DNA amplification. In this study, we developed a rapid detection method (RDM) to monitor the risk of Legionella using an automated microbial analyzing device based on flow cytometry techniques to measure the total number of bacteria in water samples within two minutes, by detecting typical patterns of scattered light and fluorescence. We first compared the results of our RDM with plate counting results for five filtered hot spring water samples spiked with three species of bacteria, including Legionella. Inactivation of these samples by chlorine was also assessed by the RDM, a live/dead bacterial fluorescence assay and plate counting. Using the RDM, the lower limit of quantitative bacterial counts in the spiked samples was determined as 3.0×10(3)(3.48log)counts mL(-1). We then used a laboratory model of a hot tub and found that the RDM could monitor the growth curve of naturally occurring heterotrophic bacteria with 1 and 2 days' delayed growth of amoeba and Legionella, respectively, and could also determine the killing curve of these bacteria by chlorination. Finally, samples with ≥3.48 or bacterial counts mL(-1) were tested using the RDM from 149 different hot tubs, and were found to be significantly associated with the positive or negative detection of Legionella with 95% sensitivity and 84% specificity. These findings indicated that the RDM can be used for Legionella control at

  9. On the sub-band gap optical absorption in heat treated cadmium sulphide thin film deposited on glass by chemical bath deposition technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chattopadhyay, P.; Karim, B.; Guha Roy, S.

    2013-01-01

    The sub-band gap optical absorption in chemical bath deposited cadmium sulphide thin films annealed at different temperatures has been critically analyzed with special reference to Urbach relation. It has been found that the absorption co-efficient of the material in the sub-band gap region is nearly constant up to a certain critical value of the photon energy. However, as the photon energy exceeds the critical value, the absorption coefficient increases exponentially indicating the dominance of Urbach rule. The absorption coefficients in the constant absorption region and the Urbach region have been found to be sensitive to annealing temperature. A critical examination of the temperature dependence of the absorption coefficient indicates two different kinds of optical transitions to be operative in the sub-band gap region. After a careful analyses of SEM images, energy dispersive x-ray spectra, and the dc current-voltage characteristics, we conclude that the absorption spectra in the sub-band gap domain is possibly associated with optical transition processes involving deep levels and the grain boundary states of the material

  10. On the sub-band gap optical absorption in heat treated cadmium sulphide thin film deposited on glass by chemical bath deposition technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chattopadhyay, P.; Karim, B.; Guha Roy, S.

    2013-12-01

    The sub-band gap optical absorption in chemical bath deposited cadmium sulphide thin films annealed at different temperatures has been critically analyzed with special reference to Urbach relation. It has been found that the absorption co-efficient of the material in the sub-band gap region is nearly constant up to a certain critical value of the photon energy. However, as the photon energy exceeds the critical value, the absorption coefficient increases exponentially indicating the dominance of Urbach rule. The absorption coefficients in the constant absorption region and the Urbach region have been found to be sensitive to annealing temperature. A critical examination of the temperature dependence of the absorption coefficient indicates two different kinds of optical transitions to be operative in the sub-band gap region. After a careful analyses of SEM images, energy dispersive x-ray spectra, and the dc current-voltage characteristics, we conclude that the absorption spectra in the sub-band gap domain is possibly associated with optical transition processes involving deep levels and the grain boundary states of the material.

  11. Rapid determination of tannins in tanning baths by adaptation of BSA method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molinari, R; Buonomenna, M G; Cassano, A; Drioli, E

    2001-01-01

    A rapid and reproducible method for the determination of tannins in vegetable tanning baths is proposed as a modification of the BSA method for grain tannins existing in literature. The protein BSA was used instead of leather powder employed in the Filter Method, which is adopted in Italy and various others countries of Central Europe. In this rapid method the tannin contents is determined by means a spectrophotometric reading and not by means a gravimetric analysis of the Filter Method. The BSA method, which belongs to mixed methods (which use both precipitation and complexation of tannins), consists of selective precipitation of tannin from a solution containing also non tannins by BSA, the dissolution of precipitate and the quantification of free tannin amount by its complexation with Fe(III) in hydrochloric solutions. The absorbance values, read at 522 nm, have been expressed in terms of tannic acid concentration by using a calibration curve made with standard solutions of tannic acid; these have been correlated with the results obtained by using the Filter Method.

  12. Method and apparatus for replenishing the helium bath in the rotor of a superconducting generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hofmann, A.; Schnapper, C.

    1980-01-01

    In order to replenish a helium bath in the super-conducting rotor of an electrical machine, in which bath liquid helium boils at subatmospheric pressure, with liquid helium from a helium reservoir, the liquid helium in the reservoir being at ambient pressure and a part of the liquid helium changing to the vapor phase during flow from the reservoir to the bath, liquid helium is introduced into the bath at a distance from the rotor axis of rotation, the liquid and vapor phases of the helium flowing from the reservoir to the bath are separated from one another in a phase separator fixed to the rotor, and the separated vapor phase is extracted from the separator. (MM) [de

  13. Monte Carlo calculation of correction factors for radionuclide neutron source emission rate measurement by manganese bath method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Chunjuan; Liu Yi'na; Zhang Weihua; Wang Zhiqiang

    2014-01-01

    The manganese bath method for measuring the neutron emission rate of radionuclide sources requires corrections to be made for emitted neutrons which are not captured by manganese nuclei. The Monte Carlo particle transport code MCNP was used to simulate the manganese bath system of the standards for the measurement of neutron source intensity. The correction factors were calculated and the reliability of the model was demonstrated through the key comparison for the radionuclide neutron source emission rate measurements organized by BIPM. The uncertainties in the calculated values were evaluated by considering the sensitivities to the solution density, the density of the radioactive material, the positioning of the source, the radius of the bath, and the interaction cross-sections. A new method for the evaluation of the uncertainties in Monte Carlo calculation was given. (authors)

  14. Zn–Mn alloy coatings from acidic chloride bath: Effect of deposition conditions on the Zn–Mn electrodeposition-morphological and structural characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loukil, N., E-mail: nloukil87@gmail.com; Feki, M.

    2017-07-15

    Highlights: • Zn-Mn co-deposition from an additives-free chloride bath is possible. • Effect of Mn{sup 2+} ion concentration and current density on Zn-Mn electrodeposition and particularly Mn content into Zn-Mn deposits were investigated. • A dimensionless graph model was used to analyze the effect of Mn{sup 2+} ion concentration as well as the applied potential on Zn-Mn nucleation process. • Effect of current density on the morphology and structure of Zn-Mn alloys deposits. • A transition from crystalline to amorphous structure may occur in the Mn alloy electrodeposits at high current densities. - Abstract: Zn–Mn alloy electrodeposition on steel electrode in chloride bath was investigated using cyclic voltammetric, chronopotentiometric and chronoamperometric techniques. Cyclic voltammetries (CV) reveal a deep understanding of electrochemical behaviors of each metal Zn, Mn, proton discharge and Zn–Mn co-deposition. The electrochemical results show that with increasing Mn{sup 2+} ions concentration in the electrolytic bath, Mn{sup 2+} reduction occurs at lower over-potential leading to an enhancement of Mn content into the Zn–Mn deposits. A dimensionless graph model was used to analyze the effect of Mn{sup 2+} ions concentration on Zn–Mn nucleation process. It was found that the nucleation process is not extremely affected by Mn{sup 2+} concentration. Nevertheless, it significantly depends on the applied potential. Several parameters such as Mn{sup 2+} ions concentration, current density and stirring were investigated with regard to the Mn content into the final Zn–Mn coatings. It was found that the Mn content increases with increasing the applied current density j{sub imp} and Mn{sup 2+} ions concentration in the electrolytic bath. However, stirring of the solution decreases the Mn content in the Zn–Mn coatings. The phase structure and surface morphology of Zn–Mn deposits are characterized by means of X-ray diffraction analysis and Scanning

  15. Synthesis and self-assembly of dumbbell shaped ZnO sub-micron structures using low temperature chemical bath deposition technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borade, P. [National Centre for Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, University of Mumbai, Kalina Campus, Santacruz (E), Mumbai 400098 (India); Joshi, K.U. [Anton-Paar India Pvt. Ltd., Thane (W), 400607 (India); Gokarna, A.; Lerondel, G. [Laboratoire de Nanotechnologie et D' Instrumentation Optique, Institut Charles Delaunay, CNRS UMR 6281, Université de Technologie de Troyes, 12 Rue Marie Curie, BP 2060, 10010 Troyes (France); Walke, P. [National Centre for Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, University of Mumbai, Kalina Campus, Santacruz (E), Mumbai 400098 (India); Late, D. [National Chemical Laboratory (NCL), Pune 400027 (India); Jejurikar, S.M., E-mail: jejusuhas@gmail.com [National Centre for Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, University of Mumbai, Kalina Campus, Santacruz (E), Mumbai 400098 (India)

    2016-02-01

    We report well dispersed horizontal growth of ZnO sub-micron structures using simplest technique ever known i.e. chemical bath deposition (CBD). A set of samples were prepared under two different cases A) dumbbell shaped ZnO grown in CBD bath and B) tubular ZnO structures evolved from dumbbell shaped structures by dissolution mechanism. Single phase wurtzite ZnO formation is confirmed using X-ray diffraction (XRD) technique in both cases. From the morphological investigations performed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), sample prepared under case A indicate formation of hex bit tool (HBT) shaped ZnO crystals, which observed to self-organize to form dumbbell structures. Further these microstructures are then converted into tubular structures as a fragment of post CBD process. The possible mechanism responsible for the self-assembly of HBT units to form dumbbell structures is discussed. Observed free excitonic peak located at 370 nm in photoluminescence (PL) spectra recorded at 18 K indicate that the micro/nanostructures synthesized using CBD are of high optical quality. - Highlights: • Controlled growth of Dumbbell shaped ZnO using Chemical Bath Deposition (CBD). • Growth mechanism of dumbbell shaped ZnO by self-assembling was discussed. • Quick Transformation of ZnO dumbbell structures in to tubular structures by dissolution. • Sharp UV Emission at 370 nm from both dumbbell and tubular structures.

  16. Influences of the CdS nanoparticles grown strategies on CdTe nanorods array films: A comparison between successive ionic layer absorption and reaction and chemical bath deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Jun; Zhou, Xiaoming; Lv, Pin; Yang, Lihua; Ding, Dong; Niu, Jiasheng; Liu, Li; Li, Xue; Fu, Wuyou; Yang, Haibin

    2016-01-01

    The cadmium sulfide (CdS) film is deposited on the surface of cadmium telluride (CdTe) nanorods (NRs) by two different methods, successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR) and chemical bath deposition (CBD) techniques. The influence of the deposition parameters on the properties of the films is investigated. Compared to SILAR, CBD is a simple and time saving technique, which can ensure full coverage and better growth of CdS on the surface of CdTe NRs. The photovoltaic characteristics of CdS sensitized CdTe films are also investigated. It is found that the CdTe/CBD-CdS thin film demonstrates excellent photoelectrical properties, which is ascribed to the large absorption coefficient of the material, indicating the potential applications in solar cells.

  17. Synthesis of layered birnessite-type manganese oxide thin films on plastic substrates by chemical bath deposition for flexible transparent supercapacitors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu Yu; Zhu Hongwei; Wang Jun [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510275 (China); Chen Zhenxing, E-mail: chenzx65@mail.sysu.edu.cn [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510275 (China)

    2011-10-20

    Highlights: > Layered birnessite-type MnO{sub 2} thin films are fabricated on ITO/PET substrates through a facile chemical bath deposition at room temperature. > The transmittance of the MnO{sub 2} thin films at 550 nm is up to 77.4%. > MnO{sub 2} thin films exhibit a special capacitance of 229.2 F g{sup -1} and 9.2 mF cm{sup -2}. > MnO{sub 2} thin films show a capacitance retention ratio of 83% after 1000 CV cycles. > MnO{sub 2} thin film electrodes show great mechanical flexibility and electrochemical stability even after 200 tensile and compressive bending cycles. - Abstract: Layered birnessite-type manganese oxide thin films are successfully fabricated on indium tin oxide coated polyethylene terephthalate substrates for flexible transparent supercapacitors by a facile, effective and inexpensive chemical bath deposition technology from an alkaline KMnO{sub 4} aqueous solution at room temperature. The effects of deposition conditions, including KMnO{sub 4} concentration, initial molar ratio of NH{sub 3}.H{sub 2}O and KMnO{sub 4}, bath temperature, and reaction time, on the electrochemical properties of MnO{sub 2} thin films are investigated. Layered birnessite-type MnO{sub 2} thin films deposited under optimum conditions display three-dimensional porous morphology, high hydrophilicity, and a transmittance of 77.4% at 550 nm. A special capacitance of 229.2 F g{sup -1} and a capacitance retention ratio of 83% are obtained from the films after 1000 cycles at 10 mV s{sup -1} in 1 M Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4}. Compressive and tensile bending tests show that as-prepared MnO{sub 2} thin film electrodes possess excellent mechanical flexibility and electrochemical stability.

  18. Herbal bathing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klooster, van 't Charlotte I.E.A.; Haabo, Vinije; Ruysschaert, Sofie; Vossen, Tessa; Andel, van Tinde R.

    2018-01-01

    Background: Herbal baths play an important role in the traditional health care of Maroons living in the interior of Suriname. However, little is known on the differences in plant ingredients used among and within the Maroon groups. We compared plant use in herbal baths documented for Saramaccan and

  19. New method for determination of trihalomethanes in exhaled breath: Applications to swimming pool and bath environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lourencetti, Carolina; Ballester, Clara; Fernandez, Pilar; Marco, Esther; Prado, Celia; Periago, Juan F.; Grimalt, Joan O.

    2010-01-01

    A method for the estimation of the human intake of trihalomethanes (THMs), namely chloroform, bromodichloromethane, dibromochloromethane and bromoform, during showering and bathing is reported. The method is based on the determination of these compounds in exhaled breath that is collected by solid adsorption on Tenax using a device specifically designed for this purpose. Instrumental measurements were performed by automatic thermal desorption coupled to gas chromatography with electron capture detection. THMs in exhaled breath samples were determined during showering and swimming pool attendance. The levels of these compounds in indoor air and water were also determined as reference for interpretation of the exhaled breath results. The THM concentrations in exhaled breath of the volunteers measured before the exposure experiments showed a close correspondence with the THMs levels in indoor air where the sampler was located. Limits of detection in exhaled breath were dependent on THM analytes and experimental sites. They ranged between 170 and 710 ng m -3 in the swimming pool studies and between 97 and 460 ng m -3 in the showering studies. Application of this method to THMs determination during showering and swimming pool activities revealed statistically significant increases in THMs concentrations when comparing exhaled breath before and after exposure.

  20. [Bath Plug Closure Method for Cerebrospinal Fluid Leakage by Endoscopic Endonasal Approach:Cooperative Treatment by Neurosurgeons and Otolaryngologists].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawaguchi, Tomohiro; Arakawa, Kazuya; Nomura, Kazuhiro; Ogawa, Yoshikazu; Katori, Yukio; Tominaga, Teiji

    2017-12-01

    Endoscopic endonasal surgery, an innovative surgical technique, is used to approach sinus lesions, lesions of the skull base, and intradural tumors. The cooperation of experienced otolaryngologists and neurosurgeons is important to achieve safe and reliable surgical results. The bath plug closure method is a treatment option for patients with cerebrospinal fluid(CSF)leakage. Although it includes dural and/or intradural procedures, surgery tends to be performed by otolaryngologists because its indications, detailed maneuvers, and pitfalls are not well recognized by neurosurgeons. We reviewed the cases of patients with CSF leakage treated by using the bath plug closure method with an endoscopic endonasal approach at our institution. Three patients were treated using the bath plug closure method. CSF leakage was caused by a meningocele in two cases and trauma in one case. No postoperative intracranial complications or recurrence of CSF leakage were observed. The bath plug closure method is an effective treatment strategy and allows neurosurgeons to gain in-depth knowledge of the treatment options for CSF leakage by using an endoscopic endonasal approach.

  1. Chemical bath deposition of thin semiconductor films for use as buffer layers in CuInS2 thin film solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaufmann, C.A.

    2002-01-01

    A CulnS 2 thin film solar cell is a multilayered semiconductor device. The solar cells discussed have a layer sequence Mo/CulnS 2 /buffer/i-ZnO/ZnO:Ga, where a heterojunction establishes between the p-type absorber and the n-type front contact. Conventionally the buffer consists of CdS, deposited by chemical bath deposition (CBD). Apart from providing process oriented benefits the buffer layer functions as a tool for engineering the energy band line-up at the heterojunction interface. Motivated through environmental concern and EU legislation it is felt necessary to substitute this potentially toxic layer by an alternative, Cd-free component. This thesis investigates the suitability of various Zn- and In-compounds, in particular In(OH,O) x S y , as alternative buffer layer materials using CBD. Initial experiments were carried out depositing Zn-based compounds from aqueous solutions. Characterization of the layers, the solution and the processed solar cells was performed. This thesis focuses on the investigation of the CBD process chemistry for the deposition of In-compound thin films. A careful study of the morphology and composition of the deposited thin films was conducted using electron microscopy (SEM, HREM), elastic recoil detection analysis, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and optical transmission spectroscopy. This allowed conclusions concerning the nucleation and film growth mechanism from the chemical bath. Connections between bath chemistry, different growth phases, layer morphology and solar cell performance were sought and an improved deposition process was developed. As a result, Cd-free CulnS 2 thin film solar cells with efficiencies of up to 10.6%) (total area) could be produced. Overall the substitution of CdS is shown to be possible by different alternative compounds, such as Zn(OH,O) x S y or In(OH,O) x S y . In the case of In(OH,O) x S y , an understanding of the CBD process and the effect of different growth phases on the resulting solar cell

  2. Effects of bathing on cerebral blood flow in healthy volunteers. Using Patlak plot method with technetium-99m ethyl cysteinate dimer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, Hiromi; Yorizumi, Kouji

    1997-01-01

    We studied the effects of bathing in warm water on cerebral blood flow (CBF). Seven healthy male volunteers were subjected to experiments. The subjects were bathed in warm water at 39degC for 20 minutes in a sitting position immersed up to the neck. Each subject received two CBF examinations: one under normal conditions and the other after taking a bath mentioned above. There was an interval of at least seven days between the two examinations. To measure CBF, we used the Patlak plot method with technetium-99m ethyl cysteinate dimer (99m-Tc ECD). To examine CBF after bathing, 99m-Tc ECD was injected within 10 minutes after bathing. Brain perfusion index (BPI) and regional CBF (rCBF) were used as indexes for evaluating CBF. The body temperature, pulse, blood pressure, arterial oxygen and carbon dioxide pressure, and hematocrit were also measured. Wilcoxon's signed rank test was used for statistical analyses. The following were observed: BPI increased significantly after bathing (p<0.05). rCBF in the cerebral cortex, particularly in the frontal lobe, tended to increase after bathing (p<0.05). No definite changes were observed in the cerebellar cortex, caudate nucleus, or thalamus. The body temperature and pulse increased significantly after bathing. No definite changes were observed in blood pressure, arterial oxygen and carbon dioxide pressure, or hematocrit. From the above, we conclude that bathing in warm water causes the cerebral blood flow to increase in healthy subjects. (author)

  3. Effect of deposition temperature on the structural and optical properties of CdSe thin films synthesised by chemical bath deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohammed, Mudhafer Ali [Department of Applied Sciences, University of Technology / Baghdad (Iraq); Jamil, Shatha Shammon Batros [Ministry of Science and Technology / Baghdad (Iraq)

    2013-12-16

    Cadmium selenide thin films were synthesized on glass substrates using chemical bath technique (CBD) at temperatures 320K, 330K, 340K,and 350K. The polycrystalline nature of the material was confirmed by X-ray diffraction technique and various structural parameters such as lattice parameters, grain size, dislocation density, and micro strain. The root mean square (RMS) roughness was obtained by using atomic force microscopy(AFM), which indicated a decreasing average roughness with the decrease of the bath temperature. Optical properties were carried out by UV-Visible transmittance spectra, and the band gap energy was determined.

  4. Cd{sub 1−x}Zn{sub x}S thin films with low Zn content obtained by an ammonia-free chemical bath deposition process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carreón-Moncada, I. [Centro de Investigación y de Estudios Avanzados del IPN, Unidad Saltillo, Av. Industria Metalúrgica 1062, CP. 25900, Ramos Arizpe, Coah., México (Mexico); González, L.A., E-mail: luis.gonzalez@cinvestav.edu.mx [Centro de Investigación y de Estudios Avanzados del IPN, Unidad Saltillo, Av. Industria Metalúrgica 1062, CP. 25900, Ramos Arizpe, Coah., México (Mexico); Pech-Canul, M.I. [Centro de Investigación y de Estudios Avanzados del IPN, Unidad Saltillo, Av. Industria Metalúrgica 1062, CP. 25900, Ramos Arizpe, Coah., México (Mexico); Ramírez-Bon, R. [Centro de Investigación y de Estudios Avanzados del IPN, Unidad Querétaro, Apartado Postal 1-798, CP. 76001 Querétaro, Qro., México (Mexico)

    2013-12-02

    Cd{sub 1−x}Zn{sub x}S films with low Zn content were obtained on glass substrates by an ammonia-free chemical bath deposition process. Alkaline reaction solutions were prepared using cadmium chloride, zinc chloride, sodium citrate, thiourea and potassium hydroxide. As a result of varying the mixture ratio between Cd and Zn precursors, microstructural studies from X-ray diffraction reveal that the resulting films have hexagonal, wurzite type, crystalline structure with changes in the preferential growth orientation. Important changes on the surface morphology and thickness of the Cd{sub 1−x}Zn{sub x}S films were also observed as effects of adding Zn to the CdS lattice. Optical studies show that Cd{sub 1−x}Zn{sub x}S thin films with energy band gaps in the range from 2.48 to 2.65 eV were obtained. - Highlights: • Cd{sub 1−x}Zn{sub x}S layers were grown on glass by ammonia-free chemical bath deposition • Films with low Zn content were obtained using reaction solutions with pH11.5 • Zn addition produced changes on the orientation growth and morphology of the films • Cd{sub 1−x}Zn{sub x}S films have energy band gap values from 2.48 to 2.65 eV.

  5. Growth and characterization of ZnO films deposited by chemical bath and annealed by microwaves (CBD-A{mu}W)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DIaz-Reyes, J [CIBA-IPN, Ex-Hacienda de San Juan Molino, Km. 1.5, Tepetitla, Tlaxcala, 90700 (Mexico); Martinez-Juarez, J; Garcia, M L; Galeazzi, R [CIDS-ICUAP, BUAP, 14 Sur y San Claudio S/N, CU. Edif. No. 137, Col. San Manuel, Puebla, Puebla 72570 (Mexico); Juarez, G, E-mail: jdiazr2001@yahoo.com [DIE-SEES, CINVESTAV-IPN, A. P. 14-740, Mexico, D. F. 07000 (Mexico)

    2010-06-15

    A study of the growth and the physical properties of ZnO films deposited by chemical bath technique and annealed by microwave are presented. For the deposition solution the molar ratio between zinc nitrate and urea is varied in a range of 1:1... 1:10. By X-ray obtains that layers have hexagonal polycrystalline wurtzite type unitary cell. The Raman spectra show the first order experimental Raman spectra of ZnO. The first order Raman modes are identified in the ZnO Raman spectra. The 300K photoluminescence shows radiative bands labelled by red, yellow, green and violet bands, which are associated to defects of oxygen and zinc vacancies. By EDS measurements determined their stoichiometry, which allows relating it with the intensity of radiative bands associated to oxygen and zinc vacancies.

  6. Effect of the cadmium ion source on the structural and optical properties of chemical bath deposited CdS thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rami, M.; Benamar, E.; Fahoume, M.; Chraibi, F.; Ennaoui, A.

    1999-06-01

    The chemical bath deposition (CBD) technique has been successfully used to deposit cadmium sulphide from cadmium chloride and cadmium acetate as the cadmium ion source and thiourea as the sulphur source on both glass microscope slide and indium tin oxide coated glass substrates. Various properties of the films such as surface morphology, crystallinity, optical properties and resistivitiy have been investigated. XRD patterns reveal that the CdS films deposited from cadmium chloride have an hexagonal structure. Their preferential orientation changes from (002) to (100) with the thermal annealing. Films deposited from cadmium acetate are amorphous but improve their crystallinity with annealing. SEM analysis shows that the grains of the as deposited films are randomly shaped and appear to be bigger in the case of the CdS prepared from cadmium chloride. The optical transmission of the layers are in the 70-80 % range for wavelength above the band gap absorption which makes them more appropriate as window material in heterojunction solar cells.

  7. Effect of the cadmium ion source on the structural and optical properties of chemical bath deposited CdS thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rami, M.; Benamar, E.; Fahoume, M.; Chraibi, F.; Ennaoui, A. [University Mohamed V, Laboratory of Materials Physics, Dept., Faculty of Sciences, Rabat (Morocco)

    1999-06-01

    The chemical bath deposition (CBD) technique has been successfully used to deposit cadmium sulphide from cadmium chloride and cadmium acetate as the cadmium ion source and thiourea as the sulphur source on both glass microscope slide and indium tin oxide coated glass substrates. Various properties of the films such as surface morphology, crystallinity, optical properties and resistivity have been investigated. XRD patterns reveal that the CdS films deposited from cadmium chloride have an hexagonal structure. Their preferential orientation changes from (002) to (100) with the thermal annealing. Films deposited from cadmium acetate are amorphous but improve their crystallinity with annealing. SEM analysis shows that the grains of the as deposited films are randomly shaped and appear to be bigger in the case of the CdS prepared from cadmium chloride. The optical transmission of the layers are in the 70-80% range for wavelength above the band gap absorption which makes them more appropriate as window material in heterojunction solar cells. (authors)

  8. Preparation of highly photocatalytic active CdS/TiO{sub 2} nanocomposites by combining chemical bath deposition and microwave-assisted hydrothermal synthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Li, E-mail: qqhrll@163.com [College of Materials Science and Engineering, Qiqihar University, Qiqihar 161006 (China); Key Laboratory of Composite Modified Material of Colleges in Heilongjiang Province, Qiqihar 161006 (China); Wang, Lili [College of Materials Science and Engineering, Qiqihar University, Qiqihar 161006 (China); Hu, Tianyu [College of Environment and Resources, Jilin University, Changchun 130024 (China); Zhang, Wenzhi; Zhang, Xiuli; Chen, Xi [College of Materials Science and Engineering, Qiqihar University, Qiqihar 161006 (China)

    2014-10-15

    CdS/TiO{sub 2} nanocomposites were prepared from Cd and Ti (1:1 M ratio) using cetyltrimethylammonium bromide by a two-step chemical bath deposition (CBD) and microwave-assisted hydrothermal synthesis (MAHS) method. A series of nanocomposites with different morphologies and activities were prepared by varying the reaction time in the MAHS (2, 4, and 6 h). The crystal structure, morphology, and surface physicochemical properties of the nanocomposites were characterized by X-ray diffraction, UV–visible diffuse reflectance spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and N{sub 2} adsorption–desorption measurements. The results show that the CdS/TiO{sub 2} nanocomposites were composed of anatase TiO{sub 2} and hexagonal CdS phases with strong absorption in the visible region. The surface morphologies changed slightly with increasing microwave irradiation time, while the Brunauer–Emmett–Teller surface area increased remarkably. The photocatalytic degradation of methyl orange (MO) was investigated under UV light and simulated sunlight irradiation. The photocatalytic activity of the CdS/TiO{sub 2} (6 h) composites prepared by the MAHS method was higher than those of CdS, P25, and other CdS/TiO{sub 2} nanocomposites. The CdS/TiO{sub 2} (6 h) nanocomposites significantly affected the UV and microwave-assisted photocatalytic degradation of different dyes. To elucidate the photocatalytic reaction mechanism for the CdS/TiO{sub 2} nanocomposites, controlled experiments were performed by adding different radical scavengers. - Graphical abstract: CdS/TiO{sub 2} nanocomposites were prepared using CTAB by CBD combined with MAHS method. In addition, with increasing microwave irradiation time, the morphology of CdS/TiO{sub 2} changed from popcorn-like to wedge-like structure. - Highlights: • The CdS/TiO{sub 2} was prepared by CBD combined with MAHS two-step method under CTAB. • The morphologies of as-samples were different with the time of

  9. Structural, optical and electrical properties of copper antimony sulfide thin films grown by a citrate-assisted single chemical bath deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loranca-Ramos, F. E.; Diliegros-Godines, C. J.; Silva González, R.; Pal, Mou

    2018-01-01

    Copper antimony sulfide (CAS) has been proposed as low toxicity and earth abundant absorber materials for thin film photovoltaics due to their suitable optical band gap, high absorption coefficient and p-type electrical conductivity. The present work reports the formation of copper antimony sulfide by chemical bath deposition using sodium citrate as a complexing agent. We show that by tuning the annealing condition, one can obtain either chalcostibite or tetrahedrite phase. However, the main challenge was co-deposition of copper and antimony as ternary sulfides from a single chemical bath due to the distinct chemical behavior of these metals. The as-deposited films were subjected to several trials of thermal treatment using different temperatures and time to find the optimized annealing condition. The films were characterized by different techniques including Raman spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), profilometer, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), UV-vis spectrophotometer, and Hall Effect measurements. The results show that the formation of chalcostibite and tetrahedrite phases is highly sensitive to annealing conditions. The electrical properties obtained for the chalcostibite films varied as the annealing temperature increases from 280 to 350 °C: hole concentration (n) = 1017-1018 cm-3, resistivity (ρ) = 1.74-2.14 Ωcm and carrier mobility (μ) = 4.7-9.26 cm2/Vseg. While for the tetrahedrite films, the electrical properties were n = 5 × 1019 cm-3, μ = 18.24 cm2/Vseg, and ρ = 5.8 × 10-3 Ωcm. A possible mechanism for the formation of ternary copper antimony sulfide has also been proposed.

  10. Bath Salts

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... deaths and been blamed for a handful of suicides and murders. Two of the chemicals in bath salts (mephedrone and MDPV) are Schedule I class drugs. That means they have a high potential for abuse and no accepted medical use . People who are ...

  11. Effect of Eu{sup 3+} on the structure, morphology and optical properties of flower-like ZnO synthesized using chemical bath deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koao, L.F. [Department of Physics, University of the Free State (Qwaqwa Campus), Private Bag X13, Phuthaditjhaba ZA9866 (South Africa); Dejene, F.B., E-mail: dejenebf@qwa.ufs.ac.za [Department of Physics, University of the Free State (Qwaqwa Campus), Private Bag X13, Phuthaditjhaba ZA9866 (South Africa); Kroon, R.E. [Department of Physics, University of the Free State, P.O. Box 339, Bloemfontein ZA 9300 (South Africa); Swart, H.C., E-mail: swarthc@ufs.ac.za [Department of Physics, University of the Free State, P.O. Box 339, Bloemfontein ZA 9300 (South Africa)

    2014-03-15

    The chemical bath deposition (CBD) method was used to synthesize ZnO undoped and Eu{sup 3+}-doped nanostructures. The Eu{sup 3+} concentration was varied from 0.2 to 5 mol%. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) spectra of the undoped and low concentration Eu{sup 3+} doped ZnO nanostructures correspond to the various planes of a single hexagonal ZnO phase. The estimated crystalline grain size was calculated using the XRD spectra and was found to be in the order of 47±5 nm and independent on the Eu{sup 3+} ion concentration up to 4 mol%. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) micrographs, however, indicate that the addition of Eu{sup 3+} influences the morphology of the samples. In the UV–vis study the highest band gap energy was obtained for the undoped ZnO. The effective band gap energy of the ZnO decayed exponentially with the addition of Eu{sup 3+} up to 4 mol% where impurity phases started to appear. Although weak luminescence was observed for excitation above the bandgap at 300 nm the best results were obtained by exciting the Eu{sup 3+} directly through the {sup 7}F{sub 0}→{sup 5}L{sub 6} absorption band at 395 nm. Excitation at a wavelength of 395 nm produced the highest Eu{sup 3+} luminescence intensity without any noticeable ZnO defect emissions. The maximum luminescence intensity for this excitation was obtained for ZnO:3 mol% Eu{sup 3+} ions and luminescent quenching was observed for higher Eu concentrations. -- Highlights: • CBD was used to synthesize ZnO undoped and Eu{sup 3+}-doped nanostructures. • The powders having particles with flower-like morphology with good optical properties. • Weak luminescence for excitation above the bandgap at 300 nm. • Excitation at 395 nm produced the highest pure Eu{sup 3+} luminescence.

  12. Chemical bath deposited Mg{sub x}Zn{sub 1−x}S(O) thin films and their photoluminescence properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Inamdar, Akbar I.; Han, Jaeseok; Jo, Yongcheol; Kim, Jongmin; Pawar, S.M. [Division of Physics and Semiconductor Science, Dongguk University, Seoul 100-715 (Korea, Republic of); Yuldashev, Shavkat U. [Quantum-Functional Semiconductor Research Centre, Dongguk University, Seoul100-715 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Hyungsang, E-mail: hskim@dongguk.edu [Division of Physics and Semiconductor Science, Dongguk University, Seoul 100-715 (Korea, Republic of); Im, Hyunsik, E-mail: hyunsik7@dongguk.edu [Division of Physics and Semiconductor Science, Dongguk University, Seoul 100-715 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-12-15

    A zinc sulfide (ZnS) specimen was intentionally doped with transition metal (Mg-donor) elements using a chemical bath deposition (CBD) technique. Both the un-doped and the magnesium (Mg)-doped ZnS samples were confirmed to have hexagonal wurtzite ZnS crystal structure. The XRD patterns showed no characteristic peak for Mg indicating that the Mg{sup 2+} ions had been incorporated into ZnS(O) lattice sites. In contrast to un-doped samples, Mg doping resulted in changes in the morphological features of the spherical clusters which resulted in porous, spongy vermicular structures. The energy band gap of the Mg{sub x}Zn{sub 1−x}S(O) film was slightly larger than that for the ZnS(O) film. A photoluminescence study revealed that the emissions were near violet–blue–green in color. The emission characteristics consist of two components; emission in the near violet and in visible region. That is the first is between 4160 and 4400 Å and the second is at 5190 Å, and these are associated with the donor–acceptor transitions with sulfur vacancies as acceptors and the magnesium related defects (trap states) in the samples respectively. - Highlights: • Mg{sub x}Zn{sub 1−x}S(O) films are grown using a chemical bath deposition (CBD) technique. • Energy band widening and morphological changes are observed after Mg doping. • A PL study revealed that the emissions are near violet–blue–green in color. • The emissions are associated with the sulfur vacancies and Mg trap states.

  13. The effect of thermal annealing on the optical band gap of cadmium sulphide thin films, prepared by the chemical bath deposition technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ampong, F. K.; Boakye, F.; Asare Donkor, N. K.

    2010-01-01

    Cadmium sulphide thin films have been prepared by the chemical bath deposition technique (ph 11, 70 degree centigrade). Two different sets of films were prepared under varied conditions and concentrations of their ions sources (Cd 2+ from cadmium nitrate, S 2- from thiourea) and Na 2 EDTA as a complexing agent. A UV mini-Schimazu UV-VIS Spectrophotometer was used to determine the optical absorbance of the films as a function of wavelength at room temperature over the wavelength range 200 - 600 nm. The samples were then thermally annealed for thirty minutes, at temperatures of 100 degree centigrade, and 200 degree centigrade, after which the absorbance of the films were again recorded. The band gap values obtained for the sample with 0.5 M CdS as deposited, annealed at 100 degree centigrade and 200 degree centigrade were 2.1 eV, 2.2 eV and 2.3 eV respectively. Whilst the values obtained for the sample 0.15 CdS as deposited, annealed at 100 degree centigrade and annealed at 200 degree centigrade were 2.0 eV, 2.01 eV and 2.02 eV respectively. The increase in band gap with annealing temperature might be attributed to the improvement in crystallinity in the films. (au)

  14. Ammonia release method for depositing metal oxides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silver, G.L.; Martin, F.S.

    1993-12-31

    A method of depositing metal oxides on substrates which is indifferent to the electrochemical properties of the substrates and which comprises forming ammine complexes containing metal ions and thereafter effecting removal of ammonia from the ammine complexes so as to permit slow precipitation and deposition of metal oxide on the substrates.

  15. Structural, Surface Morphology and Optical Properties of ZnS Films by Chemical Bath Deposition at Various Zn/S Molar Ratios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fei-Peng Yu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, ZnS thin films were prepared on glass substrates by chemical bath deposition at various Zn/S molar ratios from 1/50 to 1/150. The effects of Zn/S molar ratio in precursor on the characteristics of ZnS films were demonstrated by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, optical transmittance, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and Fourier transform infrared spectrometry. It was found that more voids were formed in the ZnS film prepared using the precursor with Zn/S molar ratio of 1/50, and the other ZnS films showed the denser structure as the molar ratio was decreased from 1/75 to 1/150. From the analyses of chemical bonding states, the ZnS phase was indeed formed in these films. Moreover, the ZnO and Zn(OH2 also appeared due to the water absorption on film surface during deposition. This would be helpful to the junction in cell device. With changing the Zn/S molar ratio from 1/75 to 1/150, the ZnS films demonstrate high transmittance of 75–88% in the visible region, indicating the films are potentially useful in photovoltaic applications.

  16. Computing Wigner distributions and time correlation functions using the quantum thermal bath method: application to proton transfer spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basire, Marie; Borgis, Daniel; Vuilleumier, Rodolphe

    2013-08-14

    Langevin dynamics coupled to a quantum thermal bath (QTB) allows for the inclusion of vibrational quantum effects in molecular dynamics simulations at virtually no additional computer cost. We investigate here the ability of the QTB method to reproduce the quantum Wigner distribution of a variety of model potentials, designed to assess the performances and limits of the method. We further compute the infrared spectrum of a multidimensional model of proton transfer in the gas phase and in solution, using classical trajectories sampled initially from the Wigner distribution. It is shown that for this type of system involving large anharmonicities and strong nonlinear coupling to the environment, the quantum thermal bath is able to sample the Wigner distribution satisfactorily and to account for both zero point energy and tunneling effects. It leads to quantum time correlation functions having the correct short-time behavior, and the correct associated spectral frequencies, but that are slightly too overdamped. This is attributed to the classical propagation approximation rather than the generation of the quantized initial conditions themselves.

  17. ZnO nanorod arrays prepared by chemical bath deposition combined with rapid thermal annealing: structural, photoluminescence and field emission characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Hung-Wei; He, Hsin-Min; Lee, Yi-Mu; Yang, Hsi-Wen

    2016-01-01

    ZnO nanorod arrays were prepared by low temperature chemical bath deposition (CBD) combined with rapid thermal annealing (RTA) under different ambient conditions. The structure and morphology of the synthesized ZnO have been characterized by field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) and x-ray diffraction (XRD). The obtained ZnO samples are highly crystalline with a hexagonal wurtzite phase and also display well-aligned array structure. A pronounced effect on increased nanorod length was found for the RTA-treated ZnO as compared to the as-grown ZnO. Analysis of XRD indicates that the (0 0 2) feature peak of the as-grown ZnO was shifted towards a lower angle as compared to the peaks of RTA-treated ZnO samples due to the reduction of tensile strain along the c-axis by RTA. Photoluminescence (PL) studies reveal that the ZnO nanorod arrays receiving RTA in an O 2 environment have the sharpest UV emission band and greatest intensity ratio of near band-edge emission (NBE) to deep level emission (DLE). Additionally, the effects of RTA on the field emission properties were evaluated. The results demonstrate that RTA an O 2 environment can lower the turn-on field and improve the field enhancement factor. The stability of the field emission current was also tested for 4 h. (paper)

  18. pH Dependent Studies of Chemical Bath Deposition Grown ZnO-SiO{sub 2} Core-Shell Thin Films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seth, Rajni; Panwar, Sanjay [Maharishi Markandeshwar University, Ambala (India); Kumar, Sunil; Kang, T. W.; Jeon, H. C. [Dongguk University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-01-15

    ZnO-SiO{sub 2} core-shell thin films were synthesized using chemical-bath deposition at different pH. Optical studies were done to optimize the thin films to find suitable parameters for solar cell buffer layers. These studies were done by measuring the transmission at 500 nm, which is the peak of the solar spectrum. All the parameters were seen to be highly pH dependent. The transmittance for a sample synthesized with a pH of 10.8 reached 85%. The transmittance was found not to depend on the bandgap values, but it was found possibly to depend on the fewer defect states created at a particular pH, as shown by Urbach energy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) surface structure. An appreciable transmittance was observed in the blue region of the spectrum which had been missing until now in commercial CdS-based buffer layers. The Fourier-transform infrared and the energy dispersive X-ray spectra confirmed that the films were composed of only ZnO and silica only : no impurities were found. The urbach energy values and the SEM image of sample S3 clearly indicate the creation of fewer of defects, leading to higher crystallintiy and higher transmittance. Therefore, this shortcoming can be resolved by the substituted buffer layer of ZnO:SiO{sub 2} nano-composite thin film, which can enhance the blue response of the photovoltaic cells.

  19. TiO{sub 2} films obtained by microwave-activated chemical-bath deposition used to improve TiO{sub 2}-conducting glass contact

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zumeta, I.; Gonzalez, B. [Institute for Material Science and Technology, University of Havana, Colina Universitaria, Ciudad Habana 10 400 (Cuba); Ayllon, J.A.; Domenech, X. [Chemistry Department, Autonomous University of Barcelona, 08290 Cerdanyola del Valles (Spain); Vigil, E. [Institute for Material Science and Technology, University of Havana, Colina Universitaria, Ciudad Habana 10 400 (Cuba); Physics Faculty, University of Havana, Colina Universitaria, Ciudad Habana 10 400 (Cuba)

    2009-10-15

    In traditional solar cells, metal-semiconductor contacts used to extract photogenerated carriers are very important. In dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSC) not much attention has been given to contact between the TiO{sub 2} and the transparent conducting glass (TCO), which is used instead of a metal contact to extract electrons. TiO{sub 2} layers obtained by microwave-activated chemical-bath deposition (MW-CBD) are proposed to improve TiO{sub 2} contact to conducting glass. Spectra of incident photon to current conversion efficiency (IPCE) are obtained for two-photoelectrode TiO{sub 2} photoelectrochemical cells. IPCE spectra show higher values when TiO{sub 2} double layer photoelectrodes are used. In these, the first layer or contacting layer is made by MW-CBD. Best results are obtained for double layer photoelectrodes on FTO (SnO{sub 2}:F) as conducting oxide substrate. Modeling of IPCE spectra reveals the importance of electrical contact and electron extraction rate at the TiO{sub 2}/TCO interface. (author)

  20. Effect of band-aligned double absorber layers on photovoltaic characteristics of chemical bath deposited PbS/CdS thin film solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho Yeon, Deuk; Chandra Mohanty, Bhaskar; Lee, Seung Min; Soo Cho, Yong

    2015-09-23

    Here we report the highest energy conversion efficiency and good stability of PbS thin film-based depleted heterojunction solar cells, not involving PbS quantum dots. The PbS thin films were grown by the low cost chemical bath deposition (CBD) process at relatively low temperatures. Compared to the quantum dot solar cells which require critical and multistep complex procedures for surface passivation, the present approach, leveraging the facile modulation of the optoelectronic properties of the PbS films by the CBD process, offers a simpler route for optimization of PbS-based solar cells. Through an architectural modification, wherein two band-aligned junctions are stacked without any intervening layers, an enhancement of conversion efficiency by as much as 30% from 3.10 to 4.03% facilitated by absorption of a wider range of solar spectrum has been obtained. As an added advantage of the low band gap PbS stacked over a wide gap PbS, the devices show stability over a period of 10 days.

  1. Bubble bath soap poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002762.htm Bubble bath soap poisoning To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Bubble bath soap poisoning occurs when someone swallows bubble bath soap. ...

  2. Influence of the growth parameters on TiO2 thin films deposited using the MOCVD method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernardi M. I. B.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work we report the synthesis of TiO2 thin films by the Organometallic Chemical Vapor Deposition (MOCVD method. The influence of deposition parameters used during the growth in the obtained structural characteristics was studied. Different temperatures of the organometallic bath, deposition time, temperature and type of the substrate were combined. Using Scanning Electron Microscopy associated to Electron Dispersive X-Ray Spectroscopy, Atomic Force Microscopy and X-ray Diffraction, the strong influence of these parameters in the thin films final microstructure was verified.

  3. Freeform Deposition Method for Coolant Channel Closeout

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gradl, Paul R. (Inventor); Reynolds, David Christopher (Inventor); Walker, Bryant H. (Inventor)

    2017-01-01

    A method is provided for fabricating a coolant channel closeout jacket on a structure having coolant channels formed in an outer surface thereof. A line of tangency relative to the outer surface is defined for each point on the outer surface. Linear rows of a metal feedstock are directed towards and deposited on the outer surface of the structure as a beam of weld energy is directed to the metal feedstock so-deposited. A first angle between the metal feedstock so-directed and the line of tangency is maintained in a range of 20-90.degree.. The beam is directed towards a portion of the linear rows such that less than 30% of the cross-sectional area of the beam impinges on a currently-deposited one of the linear rows. A second angle between the beam and the line of tangency is maintained in a range of 5-65 degrees.

  4. THE AROMATIC PHYTO-BATHS ARE AN EFFECTIVE METHOD OF HYDROTHERAPY IN COMPLEX REHABILITATIVE TREATMENT OF CHILDREN WITH DIFFERENT DISEASES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. M. Konova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The drugs and phytoaromatic substances increases the efficacy of balneotherapy. Mineral, medicinal and aromatic baths are widely used in complex rehabilitation of patients from 1 month of age. Aromatic phyto-baths have a complex mechanism of action and a wide variety of therapeutic effects. Today special products based on natural plant components and essential oilsare are developed to prepare the aromatic phyto-baths. Only officially registered industrial drugs with clinical efficacy and safety were proven by clinical researches can be recommended for the pediatric using. Our studies demonstrated a positive impact aromatic phyto-baths to the dynamics of clinical symptoms at the patients with acute respiratory infections, atopic dermatitis; and also were revealed an increase of adaptive organism reserves.

  5. Synthesis of V-doped TiO{sub 2} films by chemical bath deposition and the effect of post-annealing on their properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shopova-Gospodinova, Denitsa [Institut fuer Materialwissenschaft, Universitaet Stuttgart, Heisenbergstrasse 3, D-70569 Stuttgart (Germany); Jeurgens, Lars P.H.; Welzel, Udo [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Intelligente Systeme (formerly MPI for Metals Research), Department Mittemeijer, Heisenbergstrasse 3, D-70569 Stuttgart (Germany); Bauermann, Luciana Pitta; Hoffmann, Rudolf C. [Institut fuer Materialwissenschaft, Universitaet Stuttgart, Heisenbergstrasse 3, D-70569 Stuttgart (Germany); Bill, Joachim, E-mail: mwishopova@imw.uni-stuttgart.de [Institut fuer Materialwissenschaft, Universitaet Stuttgart, Heisenbergstrasse 3, D-70569 Stuttgart (Germany)

    2012-07-01

    Amorphous composite films, composed of a Ti{sub 1-x}V{sub x}O{sub 2} solid-solution phase and a V{sub 2}O{sub 5} phase, were produced by chemical bath deposition and subsequently air-annealed at various temperatures up to 550 Degree-Sign C. The microstructure and chemical composition of the as-prepared and annealed films were investigated by a combinatorial experimental approach using Scanning electron microscopy, X-ray powder diffraction and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Ultraviolet-Visible Spectrometry was applied to determine the optical band gap of the as-prepared and annealed films. It followed that the incorporation of vanadium in the as-deposited films reduces the optical band gap of TiO{sub 2} from about 3.8 eV to 3.2 eV. Annealing of the films up to 350 Degree-Sign C leads to slight increase of band gap, as attributed to a reduction of the defect density in the initially amorphous oxide films due to the gradual development of long-range order and a concurrent reduction of the V{sup 4+}-dopant concentration in the Ti{sub 1-x}V{sub x}O{sub 2} solid-solution phase. The films crystallized upon annealing in air at 550 Degree-Sign C, which resulted in drastic changes of the phase constitution, optical absorbance and surface morphology. Due to the lower solubility of V{sup 4+} in crystalline TiO{sub 2}, V{sup 4+} segregates out of the crystallizing Ti{sub 1-x}V{sub x}O{sub 2} solid-solution phase, forming crystalline V{sub 2}O{sub 5} at the film surface. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Incorporation of vanadium in TiO2 thin film reduces its optical band gap. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Amorphous V-doped TiO2 and TiO2-V2O5 composite films were air-annealed up to 550 Masculine-Ordinal-Indicator C. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Annealing of the films up to 350 Degree-Sign C leads to slight increase of the band gap.

  6. Optical and structural study of In{sub 2}S{sub 3} thin films growth by co-evaporation and chemical bath deposition (CBD) on Cu{sub 3}BiS{sub 3}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mesa, F., E-mail: fgmesar@unal.edu.co [Unidad de Estudios Universitarios, Colegio Mayor de Nuestra Señora del Rosario, Cra. 24 N° 63C-69, Bogotá (Colombia); Chamorro, W. [Université de Lorraine, Institut Jean Lamour, Nancy (France); Hurtado, M. [Departamento de Quimica, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Cra. 30 N° 45-03, Bogotá (Colombia); Departamento de Física, Universidad de los Andes, Calle 21 No. 1-20, Bogotá (Colombia)

    2015-09-30

    Highlights: • In{sub 2}S{sub 3} thin films usually grow like an ultrathin. • Samples grown by CBD have a higher degree of coverage of the substrate unlike co-evaporation method. • Solar cells of Al/TCO/In{sub 2}S{sub 3}/Cu{sub 3}BiS{sub 3}/Mo structure. • In{sub 2}S{sub 3} thin films were deposited on Cu{sub 3}BiS{sub 3} (CBS), with of In{sub 2}S{sub 3} β-phase with tetragonal structure. - Abstract: We present the growth of In{sub 2}S{sub 3} onto Cu{sub 3}BiS{sub 3} layers and soda-lime glass (SLG) substrates by using chemical bath deposition (CBD) and physical co-evaporation. The results reveal that the microstructure and the optical properties of the In{sub 2}S{sub 3} films are highly dependent on the growth method. X-ray diffractrograms show that In{sub 2}S{sub 3} films have a higher crystallinity when growing by co-evaporation than by CBD. In{sub 2}S{sub 3} thin films grown by CBD with a thickness below 170 nm have an amorphous structure however when increasing the thickness the films exhibit two diffraction peaks associated to the (1 0 3) and (1 0 7) planes of the β-In{sub 2}S{sub 3} tetragonal structure. It was also found that the In{sub 2}S{sub 3} films present an energy bandgap (E{sub g}) of about 2.75 eV, regardless of the thickness of the samples.

  7. Chemical deposition methods using supercritical fluid solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sievers, Robert E.; Hansen, Brian N.

    1990-01-01

    A method for depositing a film of a desired material on a substrate comprises dissolving at least one reagent in a supercritical fluid comprising at least one solvent. Either the reagent is capable of reacting with or is a precursor of a compound capable of reacting with the solvent to form the desired product, or at least one additional reagent is included in the supercritical solution and is capable of reacting with or is a precursor of a compound capable of reacting with the first reagent or with a compound derived from the first reagent to form the desired material. The supercritical solution is expanded to produce a vapor or aerosol and a chemical reaction is induced in the vapor or aerosol so that a film of the desired material resulting from the chemical reaction is deposited on the substrate surface. In an alternate embodiment, the supercritical solution containing at least one reagent is expanded to produce a vapor or aerosol which is then mixed with a gas containing at least one additional reagent. A chemical reaction is induced in the resulting mixture so that a film of the desired material is deposited.

  8. Effect of deposition temperature on the structural and optical properties of CdSe QDs thin films deposited by CBD method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laatar, F.; Harizi, A.; Smida, A.; Hassen, M.; Ezzaouia, H.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Synthesis of CdSe QDs with L-Cysteine capping agent for applications in nanodevices. • The films of CdSe QDs present uniform and good dispersive particles at the surface. • Effect of bath temperature on the structural and optical properties of CdSe QDs thin films. • Investigation of the optical constants and dispersion parameters of CdSe QDs thin films. - Abstract: Cadmium selenide quantum dots (CdSe QDs) thin films were deposited onto glass substrates by a chemical bath deposition (CBD) method at different temperatures from an aqueous solution containing L-Cysteine (L-Cys) as capping agent. The evolution of the surface morphology and elemental composition of the CdSe films were studied by AFM, SEM, and EDX analyses. Structural and optical properties of CdSe thin films were investigated by XRD, UV–vis and PL spectroscopy. The dispersion behavior of the refractive index is described using the single oscillator Wemple-DiDomenico (W-D) model, and the physical dispersion parameters are calculated as a function of deposition temperature. The dispersive optical parameters such as average oscillator energy (E_o), dispersion energy (E_d), and static refractive index (n_o) were found to vary with the deposition temperature. Besides, the electrical free carrier susceptibility (χ_e) and the carrier concentration of the effective mass ratio (N/m*) were evaluated according to the Spitzer-Fan model.

  9. Effect of deposition temperature on the structural and optical properties of CdSe QDs thin films deposited by CBD method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laatar, F., E-mail: fakher8laatar@gmail.com [Photovoltaic Laboratory, Centre for Research and Technology Energy, Tourist Route Soliman, BP 95, 2050 Hammam-Lif (Tunisia); Harizi, A. [Photovoltaic and Semiconductor Materials Laboratory, Engineering Industrial Department, ENIT, Tunis El Manar University, BP 37, Le Belvédère, 1002 Tunis (Tunisia); Smida, A. [Photovoltaic Laboratory, Centre for Research and Technology Energy, Tourist Route Soliman, BP 95, 2050 Hammam-Lif (Tunisia); Hassen, M. [Photovoltaic Laboratory, Centre for Research and Technology Energy, Tourist Route Soliman, BP 95, 2050 Hammam-Lif (Tunisia); Higher Institute of Applied Science and Technology of Sousse, City Taffala (Ibn Khaldun), 4003 Sousse (Tunisia); Ezzaouia, H. [Photovoltaic Laboratory, Centre for Research and Technology Energy, Tourist Route Soliman, BP 95, 2050 Hammam-Lif (Tunisia)

    2016-06-15

    Highlights: • Synthesis of CdSe QDs with L-Cysteine capping agent for applications in nanodevices. • The films of CdSe QDs present uniform and good dispersive particles at the surface. • Effect of bath temperature on the structural and optical properties of CdSe QDs thin films. • Investigation of the optical constants and dispersion parameters of CdSe QDs thin films. - Abstract: Cadmium selenide quantum dots (CdSe QDs) thin films were deposited onto glass substrates by a chemical bath deposition (CBD) method at different temperatures from an aqueous solution containing L-Cysteine (L-Cys) as capping agent. The evolution of the surface morphology and elemental composition of the CdSe films were studied by AFM, SEM, and EDX analyses. Structural and optical properties of CdSe thin films were investigated by XRD, UV–vis and PL spectroscopy. The dispersion behavior of the refractive index is described using the single oscillator Wemple-DiDomenico (W-D) model, and the physical dispersion parameters are calculated as a function of deposition temperature. The dispersive optical parameters such as average oscillator energy (E{sub o}), dispersion energy (E{sub d}), and static refractive index (n{sub o}) were found to vary with the deposition temperature. Besides, the electrical free carrier susceptibility (χ{sub e}) and the carrier concentration of the effective mass ratio (N/m*) were evaluated according to the Spitzer-Fan model.

  10. Bath atomic composition and deposition time influence on the properties of nanostructured CdS{sub 0.5}Se{sub 0.5} thin films synthesized by CBD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez-Ramirez, E.A. [Escuela Superior de Ingeniería Química e Industrias Extractivas, Instituto Politécnico Nacional, CP 07738 México D.F. (Mexico); Hernandez-Perez, M.A., E-mail: angeleshp@yahoo.com [Escuela Superior de Ingeniería Química e Industrias Extractivas, Instituto Politécnico Nacional, CP 07738 México D.F. (Mexico); Aguilar-Hernandez, J.R.; Contreras-Puente, G. [Escuela Superior de Física y Matemáticas, Instituto Politécnico Nacional, CP 07738 México D.F. (Mexico)

    2015-09-01

    Chemical Bath Deposition (CBD) was used to grow CdS{sub 1−xf}Se{sub xf} (x{sub f} = 0.5) thin films on Corning glass substrates at 75 °C. The atomic composition of the bath was varied until an x{sub f} of 0.5 was obtained, maintaining the deposition time at 120 min. Then the deposition time was modified from 5 to 360 min. The structural and optical properties of the films were analyzed by Scanning Electron Microscopy, Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy, X-Ray Diffraction, UV–Vis Spectroscopy, Profilometry and Inductive Coupled Plasma-Optical Emission Spectroscopy (ICP-OES). A bath atomic composition of Cd:S:Se equal to 0.76:0.55:0.45 was employed to obtain a film of x{sub f} = 0.5. The films are constituted by clusters of semispherical nanoparticles (ϕ{sub av} = 15 nm), which are well-arranged in a “nanoworm” structure. The nucleation time of the particles is lower than 5 min. All the films are polycrystalline with hexagonal phase and preferentially orientated on the (002) plane. The crystal size (11–6 nm) and the band gap (2.17–1.99 eV) decrease with the content of Se and remain constant with the deposition time. The composition x{sub f} = 0.5 is achieved at different times to the heterogeneous (60 min) and homogeneous reactions (15 min). The kinetics of deposition and the consumption rate of Se change in a similar way, reaching the stability after 60 min. - Highlights: • CdS{sub 1−x}Se{sub x} ternary alloy thin films with x = 0.5 ± 0.05 can be grown by CBD at 75 °C. • CdS{sub 1−x}Se{sub x} nanocrystals are well arranged in a “worm” structure from 30 min and x ≥ 0.25. • The E{sub g} of (002) oriented hexagonal film is strongly affected by x and crystal size. • Films with x = 0.5 are obtained from 30 min using a Cd:S:Se = 0.76:0.5:0.6 bath ratio. • Consumption rate has the same behavior that growth rate, changing around 60 min.

  11. Iodine speciation in coastal and inland bathing waters and seaweeds extracts using a sequential injection standard addition flow-batch method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Inês C; Mesquita, Raquel B R; Bordalo, Adriano A; Rangel, António O S S

    2015-02-01

    The present work describes the development of a sequential injection standard addition method for iodine speciation in bathing waters and seaweeds extracts without prior sample treatment. Iodine speciation was obtained by assessing the iodide and iodate content, the two inorganic forms of iodine in waters. For the determination of iodide, an iodide ion selective electrode (ISE) was used. The indirect determination of iodate was based on the spectrophotometric determination of nitrite (Griess reaction). For the iodate measurement, a mixing chamber was employed (flow batch approach) to explore the inherent efficient mixing, essential for the indirect determination of iodate. The application of the standard addition method enabled detection limits of 0.14 µM for iodide and 0.02 µM for iodate, together with the direct introduction of the target water samples, coastal and inland bathing waters. The results obtained were in agreement with those obtained by ICP-MS and a colorimetric reference procedure. Recovery tests also confirmed the accuracy of the developed method which was effectively applied to bathing waters and seaweed extracts. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Investigation of Legionella Contamination in Bath Water Samples by Culture, Amoebic Co-Culture, and Real-Time Quantitative PCR Methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edagawa, Akiko; Kimura, Akio; Kawabuchi-Kurata, Takako; Adachi, Shinichi; Furuhata, Katsunori; Miyamoto, Hiroshi

    2015-10-19

    We investigated Legionella contamination in bath water samples, collected from 68 bathing facilities in Japan, by culture, culture with amoebic co-culture, real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR), and real-time qPCR with amoebic co-culture. Using the conventional culture method, Legionella pneumophila was detected in 11 samples (11/68, 16.2%). Contrary to our expectation, the culture method with the amoebic co-culture technique did not increase the detection rate of Legionella (4/68, 5.9%). In contrast, a combination of the amoebic co-culture technique followed by qPCR successfully increased the detection rate (57/68, 83.8%) compared with real-time qPCR alone (46/68, 67.6%). Using real-time qPCR after culture with amoebic co-culture, more than 10-fold higher bacterial numbers were observed in 30 samples (30/68, 44.1%) compared with the same samples without co-culture. On the other hand, higher bacterial numbers were not observed after propagation by amoebae in 32 samples (32/68, 47.1%). Legionella was not detected in the remaining six samples (6/68, 8.8%), irrespective of the method. These results suggest that application of the amoebic co-culture technique prior to real-time qPCR may be useful for the sensitive detection of Legionella from bath water samples. Furthermore, a combination of amoebic co-culture and real-time qPCR might be useful to detect viable and virulent Legionella because their ability to invade and multiply within free-living amoebae is considered to correlate with their pathogenicity for humans. This is the first report evaluating the efficacy of the amoebic co-culture technique for detecting Legionella in bath water samples.

  13. Investigation of Legionella Contamination in Bath Water Samples by Culture, Amoebic Co-Culture, and Real-Time Quantitative PCR Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akiko Edagawa

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available We investigated Legionella contamination in bath water samples, collected from 68 bathing facilities in Japan, by culture, culture with amoebic co-culture, real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR, and real-time qPCR with amoebic co-culture. Using the conventional culture method, Legionella pneumophila was detected in 11 samples (11/68, 16.2%. Contrary to our expectation, the culture method with the amoebic co-culture technique did not increase the detection rate of Legionella (4/68, 5.9%. In contrast, a combination of the amoebic co-culture technique followed by qPCR successfully increased the detection rate (57/68, 83.8% compared with real-time qPCR alone (46/68, 67.6%. Using real-time qPCR after culture with amoebic co-culture, more than 10-fold higher bacterial numbers were observed in 30 samples (30/68, 44.1% compared with the same samples without co-culture. On the other hand, higher bacterial numbers were not observed after propagation by amoebae in 32 samples (32/68, 47.1%. Legionella was not detected in the remaining six samples (6/68, 8.8%, irrespective of the method. These results suggest that application of the amoebic co-culture technique prior to real-time qPCR may be useful for the sensitive detection of Legionella from bath water samples. Furthermore, a combination of amoebic co-culture and real-time qPCR might be useful to detect viable and virulent Legionella because their ability to invade and multiply within free-living amoebae is considered to correlate with their pathogenicity for humans. This is the first report evaluating the efficacy of the amoebic co-culture technique for detecting Legionella in bath water samples.

  14. Method for deposition of a conductor in integrated circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creighton, J. Randall; Dominguez, Frank; Johnson, A. Wayne; Omstead, Thomas R.

    1997-01-01

    A method is described for fabricating integrated semiconductor circuits and, more particularly, for the selective deposition of a conductor onto a substrate employing a chemical vapor deposition process. By way of example, tungsten can be selectively deposited onto a silicon substrate. At the onset of loss of selectivity of deposition of tungsten onto the silicon substrate, the deposition process is interrupted and unwanted tungsten which has deposited on a mask layer with the silicon substrate can be removed employing a halogen etchant. Thereafter, a plurality of deposition/etch back cycles can be carried out to achieve a predetermined thickness of tungsten.

  15. Spray-Pyrolyzed Three-Dimensional CuInS2 Solar Cells on Nanocrystalline-Titania Electrodes with Chemical-Bath-Deposited Inx(OH)ySz Buffer Layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Duy-Cuong; Mikami, Yuki; Tsujimoto, Kazuki; Ryo, Toshihiro; Ito, Seigo

    2012-10-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) compound solar cells with the structure of plates> have been fabricated by spray pyrolysis deposition of CuInS2 and chemical-bath deposition of Inx(OH)ySz for the light absorber and buffer layer, respectively. The effect of deposition and annealing conditions of Inx(OH)ySz on the photovoltaic properties of 3D CuInS2 solar cells was investigated. Inx(OH)ySz annealed in air ambient showed a better cell performance than those annealed in nitrogen ambient and without annealing. The improvement of the performance of cells with Inx(OH)ySz buffer layers annealed in air ambient is due to the increase in oxide concentration in the buffer layers [confirmed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) measurement]. Among cells with Inx(OH)ySz buffer layers deposited for 1, 1.5, 1.75, and 2 h, that with Inx(OH)ySz deposited for 1.75 h showed the best cell performance. The best cell performance was observed for Inx(OH)ySz deposited for 1.75 h with annealing at 300 °C for 30 min in air ambient, and cell parameters were 22 mA cm-2 short-circuit photocurrent density, 0.41 V open-circuit voltage, 0.35 fill factor, and 3.2% conversion efficiency.

  16. Advance in research on aerosol deposition simulation methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Keyang; Li Jingsong

    2011-01-01

    A comprehensive analysis of the health effects of inhaled toxic aerosols requires exact data on airway deposition. A knowledge of the effect of inhaled drugs is essential to the optimization of aerosol drug delivery. Sophisticated analytical deposition models can be used for the computation of total, regional and generation specific deposition efficiencies. The continuously enhancing computer seem to allow us to study the particle transport and deposition in more and more realistic airway geometries with the help of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulation method. In this article, the trends in aerosol deposition models and lung models, and the methods for achievement of deposition simulations are also reviewed. (authors)

  17. The effect of Ce3+ on structure, morphology and optical properties of flower-like ZnO synthesized using the chemical bath method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koao, L.F.; Dejene, F.B.; Swart, H.C.; Botha, J.R.

    2013-01-01

    Ce 3+ doped ZnO flower-like structures were synthesized by the chemical bath deposition method (CBD). The influence of Ce 3+ as a dopant on the crystallization, surface morphology, optical and luminescent properties of ZnO flowers-like structures were investigated. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) spectra of the ZnO:Ce 3+ nanostructures correspond to the various planes of a single hexagonal ZnO phase for the lower Ce concentration samples. The estimated grain sizes calculated using the XRD spectra were found to be in order of 42±2 nm. The grain size was found to be not dependent on the concentration of the Ce 3+ ions used up to 3 mol% of Ce. Scanning Auger electron microscopy and scanning electron micrographs indicate that the addition of Ce 3+ influence the morphology of the samples. The flower-like structures obtained for the undoped and low concentration Ce doped ZnO changed into a mixed structure with the emergence of pyramid shapes for higher concentration Ce doped samples. The solid undoped and low concentration Ce doped powder showed good optical properties with a high reflectance in the visible regions. The properties, however, diminished at higher Ce concentration. The band gap energies decreased linearly with concentration from 3.0±0.1 to 2.4±0.3 eV for ZnO:0 mol% Ce 3+ up to ZnO:10 mol% Ce 3+ . Under 248 nm excitation, the undoped and low concentration Ce doped ZnO flower-like rods exhibited a green emission, peaking at about 559 nm. The higher Ce concentration (0.3 mol% and above) was emitted at 436 and 503 nm due to the Ce transitions. The intensity of these emission spectra of the ZnO:Ce 3+ decreased with the addition of more Ce 3+ ions. -- Highlights: • Ce 3+ doped ZnO flower-like structures were synthesized by CBD. • Flower-like hexagonal ZnO:Ce 3+ nanostructures were obtained for undoped and low mol% Ce. • ZnO changed into a mixed structure with emergence of pyramid shapes for higher mol% Ce. • Good optical properties with a high reflectance

  18. The effect of Ce{sup 3+} on structure, morphology and optical properties of flower-like ZnO synthesized using the chemical bath method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koao, L.F. [Department of Physics, University of the Free State, Qwaqwa Campus, Private Bag X13, Phuthaditjhaba 9866 (South Africa); Dejene, F.B., E-mail: dejenebf@qwa.ufs.ac.za [Department of Physics, University of the Free State, Qwaqwa Campus, Private Bag X13, Phuthaditjhaba 9866 (South Africa); Swart, H.C., E-mail: swarthc@ufs.ac.za [Department of Physics, University of the Free State, P.O. Box 339, Bloemfontein 9300 (South Africa); Botha, J.R. [Physics Department, P.O. Box 77000, Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University, Port Elizabeth 6031 (South Africa)

    2013-11-15

    Ce{sup 3+} doped ZnO flower-like structures were synthesized by the chemical bath deposition method (CBD). The influence of Ce{sup 3+} as a dopant on the crystallization, surface morphology, optical and luminescent properties of ZnO flowers-like structures were investigated. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) spectra of the ZnO:Ce{sup 3+}nanostructures correspond to the various planes of a single hexagonal ZnO phase for the lower Ce concentration samples. The estimated grain sizes calculated using the XRD spectra were found to be in order of 42±2 nm. The grain size was found to be not dependent on the concentration of the Ce{sup 3+} ions used up to 3 mol% of Ce. Scanning Auger electron microscopy and scanning electron micrographs indicate that the addition of Ce{sup 3+} influence the morphology of the samples. The flower-like structures obtained for the undoped and low concentration Ce doped ZnO changed into a mixed structure with the emergence of pyramid shapes for higher concentration Ce doped samples. The solid undoped and low concentration Ce doped powder showed good optical properties with a high reflectance in the visible regions. The properties, however, diminished at higher Ce concentration. The band gap energies decreased linearly with concentration from 3.0±0.1 to 2.4±0.3 eV for ZnO:0 mol% Ce{sup 3+} up to ZnO:10 mol% Ce{sup 3+}. Under 248 nm excitation, the undoped and low concentration Ce doped ZnO flower-like rods exhibited a green emission, peaking at about 559 nm. The higher Ce concentration (0.3 mol% and above) was emitted at 436 and 503 nm due to the Ce transitions. The intensity of these emission spectra of the ZnO:Ce{sup 3+} decreased with the addition of more Ce{sup 3+} ions. -- Highlights: • Ce{sup 3+} doped ZnO flower-like structures were synthesized by CBD. • Flower-like hexagonal ZnO:Ce{sup 3+}nanostructures were obtained for undoped and low mol% Ce. • ZnO changed into a mixed structure with emergence of pyramid shapes for higher mol% Ce

  19. Express method for determining productivity of deposits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bobrovnik, M D; Gurzhiy, D V

    1980-01-01

    It is indicated that the practice of studying cross sectional views in the Ciscarpathian oil and gas province demonstrated the existence of a direct link between productivity of deposits and the degree of transformation of bitumens in rock. The bituminous matter which fills the micropores and microfractures in rocks in the productive part of the section have light tones of brown color, in the transcontour part of the field it is dark brown and black. In the water-bearing part of the section, oxidized bitumens are noted in the rock jointly with iron hydroxides. This law can be used to correct the conclusions, data on field geophysics, productivity of deposits.

  20. Assessment of the effectiveness of uranium deposit searching methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suran, J.

    1998-01-01

    The following groups of uranium deposit searching methods are described: radiometric review of foreign work; aerial radiometric survey; automobile radiometric survey; emanation survey up to 1 m; emanation survey up to 2 m; ground radiometric survey; radiometric survey in pits; deep radiometric survey; combination of the above methods; and other methods (drilling survey). For vein-type deposits, the majority of Czech deposits were discovered in 1945-1965 by radiometric review of foreign work, automobile radiometric survey, and emanation survey up to 1 m. The first significant indications of sandstone type uranium deposits were observed in the mid-1960 by aerial radiometric survey and confirmed later by drilling. (P.A.)

  1. Formation of a ZnS Zn S,O bilayer buffer on CuInS2 thin film solar cell absorbers by chemical bath deposition

    OpenAIRE

    Bär, M.; Ennaoui, A.; Klaer, J.; Kropp, T.; S ez Araoz, R.; Allsop, N.; Lauermann, I.; Schock, H. W.; Lux Steiner, M.C

    2006-01-01

    The application of Zn compounds as buffer layers was recently extended to wide gap CuInS2 CIS based thin film solar cells. Using a new chemical deposition route for the buffer preparation aiming at the deposition of a single layer, nominal ZnS buffer without the need for any toxic reactants such as, e.g. hydrazine, has helped to achieve a similar efficiency as respective CdS buffered reference devices. In order to shed light on the differences of other Zn compound buffers deposited in con...

  2. Electrical and optical characterization of the influence of chemical bath deposition time and temperature on CdS/Cu(In,Ga)Se{sub 2} junction properties in Cu(In,Ga)Se{sub 2} solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seo, Han-Kyu; Ok, Eun-A [Korea Institute of Science and Technology (KIST), Seoul 136-791 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Korea University, Seoul 136-701 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Won-Mok; Park, Jong-Keuk [Korea Institute of Science and Technology (KIST), Seoul 136-791 (Korea, Republic of); Seong, Tae-Yeon [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Korea University, Seoul 136-701 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Dong Wha; Cho, Hoon Young [Department of Physics, College of Engineering, Dongguk University, Seoul 100-715 (Korea, Republic of); Jeong, Jeung-hyun, E-mail: jhjeong@kist.re.kr [Korea Institute of Science and Technology (KIST), Seoul 136-791 (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-11-01

    The effects of varying the conditions for the chemical bath deposition (CBD) of cadmium sulfide (CdS) layers on CdS/Cu(In,Ga)Se{sub 2} (CIGS) hetero-junctions were investigated using photoluminescence (PL), electroluminescence (EL), deep level transient spectroscopy (DLTS), and red-light-illuminated current-voltage (I–V) measurements. We demonstrated that varying CBD-CdS conditions such as the temperature and time influenced the recombination pathways around the CdS/CIGS junction via the formation of different electronic defects, which eventually changed the photovoltaic conversion efficiency. As the CBD-CdS time and temperature were increased, the cell efficiency decreased. PL measurements revealed that this degradation of the cell efficiency was accompanied by increases in the defect-related recombination, which were attributed to the existence of donor defects around CdS/CIGS having an energy level of 0.65 eV below conduction band, as revealed by DLTS. Increasing distortions in the red-light-illuminated I–V characteristics suggested that the related defects might also have played a critical role in metastable changes around the CdS/CIGS junction. Because the CBD-CdS time and temperature were considered to influence the diffusion of impurities into the CIGS surface, the evolution of the efficiency, PL spectra, defect populations, and red-light-illuminated I–V characteristics observed in this work could be attributed to the diffusion of impurities during the CBD-CdS process. - Highlights: • CdS layers were grown by chemical bath deposition (CBD). • The CBD-CdS influenced the efficiency of Cu(In,Ga)Se{sub 2} (CIGS) solar cell. • It could be related to slight alteration in carrier recombination around CdS/CIGS. • Photo- and electroluminescence spectra detected those alterations in recombination. • The variation of results could be related to the changes in deep-level defects.

  3. Use of different Zn precursors for the deposition of Zn(S,O) buffer layers by chemical bath for chalcopyrite based Cd-free thin-film solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saez-Araoz, R.; Lux-Steiner, M.C. [Hahn Meitner Institut, Berlin (Germany); Freie Universitaet Berlin, Berlin (Germany); Ennaoui, A.; Kropp, T.; Veryaeva, E. [Hahn Meitner Institut, Berlin (Germany); Niesen, T.P. [AVANCIS GmbH and Co. KG, Munich (Germany)

    2008-10-15

    Progress in fabricating Cu(In,Ga)(S,Se){sub 2} (CIGSSe) solar cells with Zn(S,O) buffer layers prepared by chemical bath deposition (CBD) is discussed. The effect of different Zn salt precursors on solar cell device performance is investigated using production scale CIGSSe absorbers provided by AVANCIS GmbH and Co. KG. The CBD process has been developed at the Hahn-Meitner-Institut (HMI) using zinc nitrate, zinc sulphate or zinc chloride as zinc precursor. An average efficiency of 14.2{+-}0.8% is obtained by using one-layer CBD Zn(S,O) The dominant recombination path for well performing solar cells is discussed based on the results obtained from temperature dependent J(V) analysis. The structure and morphology of buffer layers deposited using zinc nitrate and zinc sulphate has been studied by means of transmission electron micrographs of glass/Mo/CIGSSe/Zn(S,O) structures. Results show a conformal coverage of the absorber by a Zn(S,O) layer of 15-25 nm consisting of nanocrystals with radii of {proportional_to}5 nm. XAES analysis of the buffer layer reveals a similar surface composition for buffer layers deposited with zinc nitrate and zinc sulphate. (copyright 2008 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  4. Method and device for weld deposit cladding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barger, J.J.

    1977-01-01

    In order to get weld beads of good quality, uniform thickness and faultless transition regions between neighboring beads in weld deposit cladding of metallic workpoeces, it is proposed to use a device in which the electromagnets are arranged adjacent to th zone of molten welding powder and molten metal besides having got suitable supplies for applying the welding powder, the polarity of the magnets being chosen in such a way that the lines of flux between the poles are counteracting the lines of flux surrounding the electrode band because of the welding current. Several variants of arranging the electrodes are presented in detail. (UWI) [de

  5. Assessment of cyanobacteria impact on bathing water quality in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krzysztof Skotak

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Quality of bathing water is of key importance for bathers’ health, mainly due to the fact, that each year millions of people use bathing sites as places for recreation and sport activities. Most of the bathing sites are of adequate quality of water, but still there are cases of health risk because bathing water is polluted. One of the main health risk factor in bathing water are cyanobacteria and their blooms. Cyanobacteria are microorganisms of morphological features of bacteria and algae. They live in colonies, which in large quantities show up as streaks, dense foam on the water surface. The aim of this paper was to assess the impact of cyanobacteria blooms on health regarding bathing water quality in Poland. Materials and methods: Assessment covered all bathing sites in Poland supervised by Polish National Sanitary Inspection (PIS in the period from 2007 to 2009. The base was data collected during bathing water monitoring conducted by PIS and their formal decisions of bathing bans introduced in response to revealed bathing water pollution. Results and discussion: The results of assessment indicate, that about one-fourth of all bathing bans in Poland was due to cyanobacteria blooms. Conclusions: Every fifth bathing sites located on artificial lake or water reservoir and every tenth on the sea bathing sites were polluted. Average period of bathing ban due to cyanobacteria blooms in Poland varies. Relatively the shortest bathing bans were observed on the sea bathing sites (no longer than one week on average. Much longer were bathing bans on lakes and artificial lakes (one month on average.

  6. What Are Bath Salts?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... bath salts can produce: feelings of joy increased social interaction increased sex drive paranoia nervousness hallucinations (see or ... Institutes of Health; U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Cite this article APA Style MLA Style ...

  7. Synthetic Cathinones ("Bath Salts")

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Alcohol Club Drugs Cocaine Fentanyl Hallucinogens Inhalants Heroin Marijuana MDMA (Ecstasy/Molly) Methamphetamine Opioids Over-the-Counter Medicines Prescription Medicines Steroids (Anabolic) Synthetic Cannabinoids (K2/Spice) Synthetic Cathinones (Bath Salts) Tobacco/ ...

  8. Electroplating method for producing ultralow-mass fissionable deposits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruddy, F.H.

    1989-01-01

    A method for producing ultralow-mass fissionable deposits for nuclear reactor dosimetry is described, including the steps of holding a radioactive parent until the radioactive parent reaches secular equilibrium with a daughter isotope, chemically separating the daughter from the parent, electroplating the daughter on a suitable substrate, and holding the electroplated daughter until the daughter decays to the fissionable deposit

  9. Vertically aligned carbon nanotube growth by pulsed laser deposition and thermal chemical vapor deposition methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sohn, Jung Inn; Nam, Chunghee; Lee, Seonghoon

    2002-01-01

    We have grown vertically aligned carbon nanotubes on the various substrates such as a planar p-type Si(1 0 0) wafer, porous Si wafer, SiO 2 , Si 3 N 4 , Al 2 O 3 , and Cr by thermal chemical vapor deposition (CVD) at 800 deg.C, using C 2 H 2 gas as a carbon source and Fe catalyst films deposited by a pulsed laser on the substrates. The Fe films were deposited for 5 min by pulsed laser deposition (PLD). The advantage of Fe deposition by PLD over other deposition methods lies in the superior adhesion of Fe to a Si substrate due to high kinetic energies of the generated Fe species. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images show that vertically well-aligned carbon nanotubes are grown on Fe nanoparticles formed from the thermal annealing of the Fe film deposited by PLD on the various substrates. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) images show that the Fe film annealed at 800 deg.C is broken to Fe nanoparticles of 10-50 nm in size. We show that the appropriate density of Fe nanoparticles formed from the thermal annealing of the film deposited by PLD is crucial in growing vertically aligned carbon nanotubes. Using a PLD and a lift-off method, we developed the selective growth of carbon nanotubes on a patterned Fe-coated Si substrate

  10. A novel Ag catalyzation process using swelling impregnation method for electroless Ni deposition on Kevlar® fiber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Hongwei; Bai, Ruicheng; Shao, Qinsi; Gao, Yufang; Li, Aijun; Tang, Zhiyong

    2015-12-01

    A novel Ag catalyzation process using swelling impregnation pretreatment method was developed for electroless nickel (EN) deposition on Kevlar fiber. Firstly, the fiber was immersed into an aqueous dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) solution of silver nitrate to impart silver nitrate into the inner part of the fiber near the surface. Subsequently silver nitrate was reduced to metal silver nanoparticles on the fiber surface by treatment with aqueous solution of sodium borohydride. After electroless plating, a dense and homogeneous nickel coating was obtained on the fiber surface. The silver nanoparticles formed at the fiber surface functioned as a catalyst for electroless deposition as well as an anchor for the plated layer. The study also revealed that the incorporation of surfactant sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) in electroless nickel plating bath can enhance the adhesion strength of EN layer with the fiber surface and minimize the surface roughness of the EN coating. The Ni plated Kevlar fiber possessed excellent corrosion resistance and high tensile strength.

  11. A new method for spray deposit assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chester M. Himel; Leland Vaughn; Raymond P. Miskus; Arthur D. Moore

    1965-01-01

    Solid fluorescent particles suspended in a spray liquid are distributed in direct proportion to the size of the spray droplets. Use of solid fluorescent particles is the basis of a new method for visual recognition of the size and number of droplets impinging on target and nontarget portions of sprayed areas.

  12. Study on the Impact of Coagulation Bath Temperature on the Surface Morphology and Performance of Polyethylene Membrane Prepared by TIPS Method in Purification of Collagen Protein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Akbari

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Fabrication of an efficient microfiltration polymeric membrane with low fouling characteristic and high permeation flux is an essential task for developing membrane-related researches and membrane industries. Surface skin layer which decreases the membrane permeation and accelerates the membrane fouling in purification and separation of protein solution is usually observed for all membranes fabricated via thermally induced phase separation (TIPS method. In this work, the impact of coagulation bath temperature on the skin layer thickness and performance of fabricated membranes was investigated. Collagen protein purification tests were carried out to investigate the impact of skin layer on the performance and determine the fouling mechanisms of the membranes. Obtained results showed that when coagulation bath temperature increases, the thickness of skin layer decreases. In membranes with lower surface porosity, decline in protein permeation is mainly due to the standard blocking fouling mechanism which is a kind of the irreversible fouling phenomenon. In membranes with higher surface porosity, however, decline in protein permeation is mainly due to the intermediate blocking fouling mechanism which is a kind of reversible fouling phenomenon. Obtained results from permeation flux and spectrophotometric analyses of inlet feed and retentate streams within 800 min showed that the collagen recovery ratio for modified and unmodified membranes were 5.6 and less than 1%, respectively. It is worth to mention that for membrane with lower surface porosity the collagen filtration process was stopped within 400 min due to the membrane fouling. For membrane with higher surface porosity, however there was no halting in filtration process within 800 min.

  13. Water Evaporation in Swimming Baths

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hyldgård, Carl-Erik

    This paper is publishing measuring results from models and full-scale baths of the evaporation in swimming baths, both public baths and retraining baths. Moreover, the heat balance of the basin water is measured. In addition the full-scale measurements have given many experiences which are repres......This paper is publishing measuring results from models and full-scale baths of the evaporation in swimming baths, both public baths and retraining baths. Moreover, the heat balance of the basin water is measured. In addition the full-scale measurements have given many experiences which...... are represented in instructions for carrying out and running swimming baths. If you follow the instructions you can achieve less investments, less heat consumption and a better comfort to the bathers....

  14. Electrodeposition in the Ni-plating bath containing multi-walled carbon nanotubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An Baigang; Li Lixiang; Li Hongxi

    2008-01-01

    An electrodeposition procedure is performed in the Ni-plating bath containing multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs). The effects of MWNTs on the electrodeposits and process of Ni deposition are investigated by scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction and electrochemical methods. The results show that there is an optimum concentration of MWNTs, at which the surface of the cathode can be uniformly and completely covered by MWNTs and thus Ni can be uniformly deposited on the MWNTs to form the MWNTs coated with a uniform Ni layer. The introduction of MWNTs in the Ni-plating bath increases the cathodic polarization of Ni deposition due to the two aspects as follows: The addition of MWNTs enhances the charge transfer for the reduction of Ni and also supplies a large active surface area for a great deal of nucleation of Ni, consequently results in an increase of concentration polarization. The deposition of Ni on the MWNTs requires the higher activation energy than that on the Cu. The MWNTs adsorbed on the cathode also induce Ni to deposit as smaller grains due to a large increase of nucleation sites of Ni. Therefore, more uniform and compact coating in appearance than Ni coating formed in the plating bath without MWNTs can be obtained

  15. Analysis of tellurium thin films electrodeposition from acidic citric bath

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kowalik, Remigiusz; Kutyła, Dawid [AGH University of Science and Technology, Faculty of Non-Ferrous Metals, al. A. Mickiewicza 30, 30-059 Krakow (Poland); Mech, Krzysztof [AGH University of Science and Technology, Academic Centre for Materials and Nanotechnology, al. A. Mickiewicza 30, Krakow (Poland); Żabiński, Piotr, E-mail: rkowalik@agh.edu.pl [AGH University of Science and Technology, Faculty of Non-Ferrous Metals, al. A. Mickiewicza 30, 30-059 Krakow (Poland)

    2016-12-01

    This work presents the description of the electrochemical process of formation thin tellurium layers from citrate acidic solution. The suggested methodology consists in the preparation of stable acidic baths with high content of tellurium, and with the addition of citrate acid. In order to analyse the mechanism of the process of tellurium deposition, the electroanalytical tests were conducted. The tests of cyclic voltammetry and hydrodynamic ones were performed with the use of polycrystalline gold disk electrode. The range of potentials in which deposition of tellurium in direct four-electron process is possible was determined as well as the reduction of deposited Te° to Te{sup 2−} and its re-deposition as a result of the comproportionation reaction. On the basis of the obtained results, the deposition of tellurium was conducted by the potentiostatic method. The influence of a deposition potential and a concentration of TeO{sub 2} in the solution on the rate of tellurium coatings deposition was examined. The presence of tellurium was confirmed by X-ray spectrofluorometry and electron probe microanalysis. In order to determine the phase composition and the morphology, the obtained coatings were analysed with the use of x-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy.

  16. In{sub 6}Se{sub 7} thin films by heating thermally evaporated indium and chemical bath deposited selenium multilayers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ornelas, R.E.; Avellaneda, D. [Universidad Autonoma de Nuevo Leon, Facultad de Ingenieria Mecanica y Electrica, San Nicolas de los Garza, Nuevo Leon-66450 (Mexico); Shaji, S. [Universidad Autonoma de Nuevo Leon, Facultad de Ingenieria Mecanica y Electrica, San Nicolas de los Garza, Nuevo Leon-66450 (Mexico); Universidad Autonoma de Nuevo Leon-CIIDIT, Apodaca, N.L (Mexico); Castillo, G.A.; Roy, T.K. Das [Universidad Autonoma de Nuevo Leon, Facultad de Ingenieria Mecanica y Electrica, San Nicolas de los Garza, Nuevo Leon-66450 (Mexico); Krishnan, B., E-mail: kbindu_k@yahoo.com [Universidad Autonoma de Nuevo Leon, Facultad de Ingenieria Mecanica y Electrica, San Nicolas de los Garza, Nuevo Leon-66450 (Mexico); Universidad Autonoma de Nuevo Leon-CIIDIT, Apodaca, N.L (Mexico)

    2012-05-15

    Indium selenide (In{sub 6}Se{sub 7}) thin films were prepared via selenization of thermally evaporated indium thin films by dipping in sodium selenosulphate solution followed by annealing in nitrogen atmosphere. First, indium was thermally evaporated on glass substrate. Then, the indium coated glass substrates were dipped in a solution containing 80 ml 0.125 M sodium selenosulphate and 1.5 ml dilute acetic acid (25%) for 5 min. Glass/In-Se layers were annealed at 200-400 Degree-Sign C in nitrogen atmosphere (0.1 Torr) for 30 min. X-ray diffraction studies showed the formation of monoclinic In{sub 6}Se{sub 7}. Morphology of the thin films formed at different conditions was analyzed using Scanning electron microscopy. The elemental analysis was done using Energy dispersive X-ray detection. Electrical conductivity under dark and illumination conditions was evaluated. Optical band gap was computed using transmittance and reflectance spectra. The band gap value was in the range 1.8-2.6 eV corresponding to a direct allowed transition. We studied the effect of indium layer thickness and selenium deposition time on the structure, electrical and optical properties of In{sub 6}Se{sub 7} thin films.

  17. Studies on structural, optical, and photoelectric properties of CdS{sub 1-x}Se{sub x} films fabricated by selenization of chemical bath deposited CdS films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Tianyu; Gu, Han; Ge, Zhenhua; Zhang, Lei; Wang, Zhicheng; Fang, Yong; Han, Zhida; Qian, Bin; Jiang, Xuefan [Department of Physics, Changshu Institute of Technology, Changshu (China); Wu, Wangping [School of Mechanical Engineering, Changzhou University, Changzhou (China)

    2017-02-15

    In this paper, high-photosensitive CdS{sub 1-x}Se{sub x} films are synthesized by a two-step technique, which includes the chemical bath deposition of CdS films and a following selenization process. The structural, optical, and photoelectric properties of the CdS{sub 1-x}Se{sub x} films were investigated. With the substitution of selenium for sulfur atoms, grain sizes of the as-prepared CdS{sub 1-x}Se{sub x} films are effectively enlarged and reach the scales of the films thickness when the selenization temperature exceeds 450 C. With increasing the selenization temperature from 350 to 550 C, the band gaps of CdS{sub 1-x}Se{sub x} films gradually decrease from 2.37 to 1.82 eV. Under the co-action of the grain-size enlargement and band-gap decrease, the CdS{sub 1-x}Se{sub x} films fabricated at 450 C show very pronounced photosensitivity. Noteworthy, the ratio of photo to dark conductivity of the CdS{sub 1-x}Se{sub x} film selenized at 450 C reaches 1.1 x 10{sup 5}, suggesting a promising application potential in the photoelectric devices. (copyright 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  18. Application of mathematical methods to the investigation of uranium deposits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Formery, P.; Ziegler, V.

    1958-01-01

    It may be considered approximately that grades, widths and accumulations (grade-width products), in french uranium deposits are distributed according to a lognormal law. This property associated to KRIGE'S and de WIGE'S formulae make a powerful tool in ore deposits surveys. The correlation between radioactivities and grades is realized, in logarithmic coordinates, through a straight line the properties of which are analysed in the paper. MATHERON'S recent works, in association with data of classical statistics and the above mentioned formulae make possible to complete the ore reserves evaluation by computing the accuracy. Statistical methods applied to ore deposits have given birth to a parameter which is as important as the mean grade for characterisation of deposits: the absolute dispersion. (author) [fr

  19. The application of X-ray fluorescence (XRF) method for the determination chemical composition of glass bath raw materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Werfel, Z.

    1974-01-01

    The estimation of determination accuracy of glass sand, limestone and dolomite compositions by the means of X-ray fluorescence method has been made. The most important advantage of XRF method application is short time of analysis. The preparation time of sample is not longer than 20 minutes, the analysis of single sample is about 1,5 minutes. The comparison of results of determinations by the means of XRF and complexometric methods have been given. (author)

  20. Hardness Enhancement of STS304 Deposited with Yttria Stabilized Zirconia by Aerosol Deposition Method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lim, Il-Ho; Park, Chun-Kil; Kim, Hyung Sun; Jeong, Dea-Yong [Inha University, Incheon (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Yong-Seok [Sodoyeon Co., Yeoju (Korea, Republic of); Kong, Young-Min [University of Ulsan, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Kweon Ho [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-03-15

    To improve the surface hardness of the STS304, Yttria stabilized zirconia (YSZ) films with nano-sized grain were deposited by an aerosol-deposition (AD) method. Coating layers showed dense structure and had -5µm thickness. When 3 mol% YSZ powders with tetragonal phase were deposited on STS304 substrate, tetragonal structure was transformed to cubic structure due to the high impact energy during the AD process. At the same time, strong impact by YSZ particles allowed the austenite phase in STS304 to be transformed into martensite phase. Surface hardness measured with nano indentor showed that YSZ coated film had 11.5 GPa, which is larger value than 7 GPa of STS304.

  1. Nanocrystalline CdS{sub 1−x}Se{sub x} alloys as thin films prepared by chemical bath deposition: Effect of x on the structural and optical properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez-Ramirez, E.A. [Escuela Superior de Ingeniería Química e Industrias Extractivas, Instituto Politécnico Nacional, CP 07738, México D.F. (Mexico); Hernandez-Perez, M.A., E-mail: mhernandezp0606@ipn.mx [Escuela Superior de Ingeniería Química e Industrias Extractivas, Instituto Politécnico Nacional, CP 07738, México D.F. (Mexico); Aguilar-Hernandez, J. [Escuela Superior de Física y Matemáticas, Instituto Politécnico Nacional, CP 07738, México D.F. (Mexico); Rangel-Salinas, E. [Escuela Superior de Ingeniería Química e Industrias Extractivas, Instituto Politécnico Nacional, CP 07738, México D.F. (Mexico)

    2014-12-05

    Highlights: • CdS1−xSe{sub x} films with tunable structural and optical properties were grown by CBD. • Thin films are composed by a solid solution of the CdS{sub 1−x}Se{sub x} ternary alloy. • Crystal size, band gap and photoluminescence signal, decrease with the composition. • Ternary alloys show hexagonal phase with preferential orientation on (0 0 2) plane. • Films with x ⩾ 0.5 show semi-spherical grains composed by nanoworms structures. - Abstract: CdS{sub 1−x}Se{sub x} thin films were deposited on Corning glass substrates at 75 °C by chemical bath deposition (CBD) varying the composition “x” from 0 to 1 at a constant deposition time of 120 min. The composition of the films was adjusted by modifying the concentration as well as the ratio of the precursors. The morphological, compositional, structural and optical properties of the films were analyzed using several techniques such as Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDS), X-ray Diffraction (XRD), UV–Vis Spectroscopy (UV–Vis) and Photoluminescence (PL). The films grow as layers following the ion by ion mechanism, the density of the films decreases with x. Films are constituted by clusters (100–600 nm in diameter) of semispherical particles with sizes fluctuating from 10 to 20 nm. For x ⩾ 0.5 the particles are well-arranged in a “worm-like” structure. All the films are polycrystalline, to x = 0 (CdS) the cubic phase is present, the increase of composition promotes the formation of hexagonal phase or a mixture of both cubic and hexagonal phases. Preferential orientation in the (1 0 0) or (0 0 2) plane is observed. The crystal size decreases from 20 to 6 nm when x is increased. The optical properties can be easily tuned by adjusting the composition. Optical absorption analysis shows that the band gap (E{sub g}) value shifts to red in function of x (from 2.47 to 1.99 eV). Photoluminescence signal changes as “x” varies showing a regular behavior

  2. Method of removing crud deposited on fuel element clusters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yokota, Tokunobu; Yashima, Akira; Tajima, Jun-ichiro.

    1982-01-01

    Purpose: To enable easy elimination of claddings deposited on the surface of fuel element. Method: An operator manipulates a pole from above a platform, engages the longitudinal flange of the cover to the opening at the upper end of a channel box and starts up a suction pump. The suction amount of the pump is set such that water flow becomes within the channel box at greater flow rate than the operational flow rate in the channel box of the fuel element clusters during reactor operation. This enables to remove crud deposited on the surface of individual fuel elements with ease and rapidly without detaching the channel box. (Moriyama, K.)

  3. Control and optimization of baths for electrodeposition of Co-Mo-B amorphous alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Prasad

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available Optimization and control of an electrodeposition process for depositing boron-containing amorphous metallic layer of cobalt-molybdenum alloy onto a cathode from an electrolytic bath having cobalt sulfate, sodium molybdate, boron phosphate, sodium citrate, 1-dodecylsulfate-Na, ammonium sulfate and ammonia or sulfuric acid for pH adjustments has been studied. Detailed studies on bath composition, pH, temperature, mechanical agitation and cathode current density have led to optimum conditions for obtaining satisfactory alloy deposits. These alloys were found to have interesting properties such as high hardness, corrosion resistance, wear resistance and also sufficient ductility. A voltammetric method for automatic monitoring and control of the process has been proposed.

  4. Method of research and study of uranium deposits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lenoble, A.

    1955-01-01

    In a first part, the author gives a fast retrospective of the evaluations of the uranium deposits in the French Union. The author established a method of prospecting and studying, modifiable at all times following the experiences and the results, permitting to make the general inventory of uranium resources on the territory. The method is based on: 1 - the determination of geological guides in order to mark the most promising deposits, 2 - the definition of a methodology adapted to every steps of the research, 3 - the choice of the material adapted for each of the steps. This method, originally established for the prospecting in crystalline massifs, is adaptable to the prospecting of the sedimentary formations. (M.B.) [fr

  5. THE IMPROVEMENT OF THE EXCAVATION METHODS IN BAUXITE DEPOSITS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borislav Perić

    1990-12-01

    Full Text Available The underground bauxite excavation in Yugoslavia is getting more important recently due to gradual exploitation of shallow deposits. The main excavation method is sublevel caving method. That technology of exploitation is characterized by high excavation loosses reaching even to 50% due to mixing of bauxite with waste. By beds with competent limestone roof which are not liable to direct caving are formed unplanned open spaces so the work safety is often dangercd by sudden caving. That was the reason for carrying out the observations in situ and investigations on mathematical models to define boundary of excavated space stability. This investigation were the basis for the new conception of further excavation of the »Jukići-Didare« mine with the application of even three exploitation methods maximally adapted to the characteristics of the remaining part of deposit.

  6. Exposure emanation methods of prospecting for mineral deposits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Titov, V.L.; Venkov, V.A.; Avdeeva, T.Ya.; Kuvshinnikova, E.I.

    1985-01-01

    Fundamentals of the theory and practice of new methods for prospecting of mineral deposits-exposure emanation surveys are stated. Different modifications of these methods are considered: emanation track method, electron alphametry, technique based on the recording of alpha radiation of radon daughter products and thermoluminescent dosemeters. Advanatges of these methods as compared with the conventional emanation survey using emanometers and methods based on the recording of gamma radiation intensity are shown. Problems of the theory and practical aspects of the concrete modifications application as well as systems for data acquisition and processing fields of the methods application, technique of works performance and survey data interpretation are considered in detail; methods sensitivity, probable mechanisms of radon transport in bowels, role of a depth component of the radiactive emanation concentration field are evaluated. Examples of the method application in practice are given, emanation anomalies and their evaluation methods are classified

  7. Diffusion mechanism in molten salt baths during the production of carbide coatings via thermal reactive diffusion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Aliakbar Ghadi; Hassan Saghafian; Mansour Soltanieh; Zhi-gang Yang

    2017-01-01

    The diffusion mechanism of carbide-forming elements from a molten salt bath to a substrate surface was studied in this research, with particular focus on the processes occurring in the molten bath at the time of coating. Metal, oxide, and metal-oxide baths were investi-gated, and the coating process was performed on H13 steel substrates. Scanning electron microscopy and electron-probe microanalysis were used to study the coated samples and the quenched salt bath. The thickness of the carbide coating layer was 6.5 ± 0.5, 5.2 ± 0.5, or 5.7 ± 0.5μm depending on whether it was deposited in a metal, oxide, or metal-oxide bath, respectively. The phase distribution of vanadium-rich regions was 63%, 57%, and 74% of the total coating deposited in metal, oxide, and metal-oxide baths, respectively. The results obtained using the metal bath indicated that undissolved suspended metal particles deposited onto the substrate surface. Then, carbon subsequently diffused to the sub-strate surface and reacted with the metal particles to form the carbides. In the oxide bath, oxide powders dissolved in the bath with or without binding to the oxidative structure (Na2O) of borax; they were then reduced by aluminum and converted into metal particles. We concluded that, in the metal and oxide baths, the deposition of metal particles onto the sample surface is an important step in the formation of the coating.

  8. New 'ex vivo' radioisotopic method of quantitation of platelet deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Badimon, L.; Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN; Thrombosis and Atherosclerosis Unit, Barcelona; Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN; Fuster, V.; Chesebro, J.H.; Dewanjee, M.K.

    1983-01-01

    We have developed a sensitive and quantitative method of 'ex vivo' evaluation of platelet deposition on collagen strips, from rabbit Achilles tendon, superfused by flowing blood and applied it to four animal species, cat, rabbit, dog and pig. Autologous platelets were labeled with indium-111-tropolone, injected to the animal 24 hr before the superfusion and the number of deposited platelets was quantitated from the tendon gamma-radiation and the blood platelet count. We detected some platelet consumption with superfusion time when blood was reinfused entering the contralateral jugular vein after collagen contact but not if blood was discarded after the contact. Therefore, in order to have a more physiological animal model we decided to discard blood after superfusion of the tendon. In all species except for the cat there was a linear relationship between increase of platelet on the tendon and time of exposure to blood superfusion. The highest number of platelets deposited on the collagen was found in cats, the lowest in dogs. Ultrastructural analysis showed the platelets were deposited as aggregates after only 5 min of superfusion. (orig.)

  9. Methods of preparing deposits containing iron oxides for recycling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Lis

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The metallurgical industry is one of the largest sources of wastes. Some of them, however, owing to their content of metals such as zinc or iron, may become valuable secondary raw materials. In order to achieve that purpose, they require appropriate preparation. This article provides a discussion on the methods of preparation of scrap from steelworks, namely deposits containing iron oxides, enabling their recycling.

  10. Preparation of ultrafine grained copper nanoparticles via immersion deposit method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbasi-Kesbi, Fatemeh; Rashidi, Ali Mohammad; Astinchap, Bandar

    2018-03-01

    Today, the exploration about synthesis of nanoparticles is much of interest to materials scientists. In this work, copper nanoparticles have been successfully synthesized by immersion deposit method in the absence of any stabilizing and reducing agents. Copper (II) sulfate pentahydrate as precursor salt and distilled water and Ethylene glycol as solvents were used. The copper nanoparticles were deposited on plates of low carbon steel. The effects of copper sulfate concentrations and solvent type were investigated. X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and UV-Visible spectroscopy were taken to investigate the crystallite size, crystal structure, and morphology and size distribution and the growth process of the nanoparticles of obtained Cu particles. The results indicated that the immersion deposit method is a particularly suitable method for synthesis of semispherical copper nanoparticles with the crystallites size in the range of 22 to 37 nm. By increasing the molar concentration of copper sulfate in distilled water solvent from 0.04 to 0.2 M, the average particles size is increased from 57 to 81 nm. The better size distribution of Cu nanoparticles was achieved using a lower concentration of copper sulfate. By increasing the molar concentration of copper sulfate in water solvent from 0.04 to 0.2, the location of the SPR peak has shifted from 600 to 630 nm. The finer Cu nanoparticles were formed using ethylene glycol instead water as a solvent. Also, the agglomeration and overlapping of nanoparticles in ethylene glycol were less than that of water solvent.

  11. Thermal baths as quantum resources: more friends than foes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurizki, Gershon; Shahmoon, Ephraim; Zwick, Analia

    2015-12-01

    In this article we argue that thermal reservoirs (baths) are potentially useful resources in processes involving atoms interacting with quantized electromagnetic fields and their applications to quantum technologies. One may try to suppress the bath effects by means of dynamical control, but such control does not always yield the desired results. We wish instead to take advantage of bath effects, that do not obliterate ‘quantumness’ in the system-bath compound. To this end, three possible approaches have been pursued by us. (i) Control of a quantum system faster than the correlation time of the bath to which it couples: such control allows us to reveal quasi-reversible/coherent dynamical phenomena of quantum open systems, manifest by the quantum Zeno or anti-Zeno effects (QZE or AZE, respectively). Dynamical control methods based on the QZE are aimed not only at protecting the quantumness of the system, but also diagnosing the bath spectra or transferring quantum information via noisy media. By contrast, AZE-based control is useful for fast cooling of thermalized quantum systems. (ii) Engineering the coupling of quantum systems to selected bath modes: this approach, based on field-atom coupling control in cavities, waveguides and photonic band structures, allows one to drastically enhance the strength and range of atom-atom coupling through the mediation of the selected bath modes. More dramatically, it allows us to achieve bath-induced entanglement that may appear paradoxical if one takes the conventional view that coupling to baths destroys quantumness. (iii) Engineering baths with appropriate non-flat spectra: this approach is a prerequisite for the construction of the simplest and most efficient quantum heat machines (engines and refrigerators). We may thus conclude that often thermal baths are ‘more friends than foes’ in quantum technologies.

  12. Thermal baths as quantum resources: more friends than foes?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurizki, Gershon; Zwick, Analia; Shahmoon, Ephraim

    2015-01-01

    In this article we argue that thermal reservoirs (baths) are potentially useful resources in processes involving atoms interacting with quantized electromagnetic fields and their applications to quantum technologies. One may try to suppress the bath effects by means of dynamical control, but such control does not always yield the desired results. We wish instead to take advantage of bath effects, that do not obliterate ‘quantumness’ in the system-bath compound. To this end, three possible approaches have been pursued by us. (i) Control of a quantum system faster than the correlation time of the bath to which it couples: such control allows us to reveal quasi-reversible/coherent dynamical phenomena of quantum open systems, manifest by the quantum Zeno or anti-Zeno effects (QZE or AZE, respectively). Dynamical control methods based on the QZE are aimed not only at protecting the quantumness of the system, but also diagnosing the bath spectra or transferring quantum information via noisy media. By contrast, AZE-based control is useful for fast cooling of thermalized quantum systems. (ii) Engineering the coupling of quantum systems to selected bath modes: this approach, based on field–atom coupling control in cavities, waveguides and photonic band structures, allows one to drastically enhance the strength and range of atom–atom coupling through the mediation of the selected bath modes. More dramatically, it allows us to achieve bath-induced entanglement that may appear paradoxical if one takes the conventional view that coupling to baths destroys quantumness. (iii) Engineering baths with appropriate non-flat spectra: this approach is a prerequisite for the construction of the simplest and most efficient quantum heat machines (engines and refrigerators). We may thus conclude that often thermal baths are ‘more friends than foes’ in quantum technologies. (invited comment)

  13. Colloidal spray method for low cost thin coating deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, Ai-Quoc; Glass, Robert S.; Lee, Tae H.

    2002-01-01

    A dense or porous coating of material is deposited onto a substrate by forcing a colloidal suspension through an ultrasonic nebulizer and spraying a fine mist of particles in a carrier medium onto a sufficiently heated substrate. The spraying rate is essentially matched to the evaporation rate of the carrier liquid from the substrate to produce a coating that is uniformly distributed over the surface of the substrate. Following deposition to a sufficient coating thickness, a single sintering step may be used to produce a dense ceramic coating. Using this method, coatings ranging in thickness from about one to several hundred microns can be obtained. By using a plurality of compounds in the colloidal suspension, coatings of mixed composition can be obtained. By using a plurality of solutions and separate pumps and a single or multiple ultrasonic nebulizer(s), and varying the individual pumping rates and/or the concentrations of the solutions, a coating of mixed and discontinuously graded (e.g., stepped) or continuously graded layers may be obtained. This method is particularly useful for depositing ceramic coatings. Dense ceramic coating materials on porous substrates are useful in providing improved electrode performance in devices such as high power density solid oxide fuel cells. Dense ceramic coatings obtained by the invention are also useful for gas turbine blade coatings, sensors, steam electrolyzers, etc. The invention has general use in preparation of systems requiring durable and chemically resistant coatings, or coatings having other specific chemical or physical properties.

  14. A sensitive new method of ex vivo platelet deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Badimon, L.; Fuster, V.; Dewanjee, M.K.; Romero, J.C.

    1982-01-01

    In 1978, an in vivo quantitative method of platelet aggregation based on the increment of weight of a rabbit tendon when superfused with flowing blood (3 ml/min) derived from a carotid artery of a cat and reentering the contralateral jugular vein was reported. TO increase the sensitivity of the method, researches labeled platelets with indium-111 and reinjected them after two hours; then, with a gamma counter, researches quantitated the 111 In-labeled platelets deposited on the superfused rabbit tendon. Results of the radioactivity method and of the weight method were compared. Researchers found that the 111 In-labeling of platelets was more precise and reproducible method, rendering possible the use of a small amount of blood without need for reentry into the venous system

  15. Measurement of unattached radon progeny based in electrostatic deposition method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canoba, A.C.; Lopez, F.O.

    1999-01-01

    A method for the measurement of unattached radon progeny based on its electrostatic deposition onto wire screens, using only one pump, has been implemented and calibrated. The importance of being able of making use of this method is related with the special radiological significance that has the unattached fraction of the short-lived radon progeny. Because of this, the assessment of exposure could be directly related to dose with far greater accuracy than before. The advantages of this method are its simplicity, even with the tools needed for the sample collection, as well as the measurement instruments used. Also, the suitability of this method is enhanced by the fact that it can effectively be used with a simple measuring procedure such as the Kusnetz method. (author)

  16. New Brightener for Zn-Fe Alloy Plating from Sulphate Bath

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. M. Praveen

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Zn-Fe alloy electrodeposition was carried out in the presence of condensation product 2-{[(1E-(3,4-dimethoxyphenylmethylidene]amino}-3-hydroxypropanoic acid formed between veratraldehyde and serine in acid sulphate bath. Hull cell was used for optimizing the operating parameters and bath constituents. During deposition, the potential was shifted towards cathodic direction in the presence of addition agents and brightener. The polarization studies show that deposition taking place in basic bath and optimum bath was 1.08 and 1.15 V, respectively. Current efficiency and throwing power were reached around 85% and 26%, respectively. The SEM images of bright deposit indicated its fine-grained nature and appreciable reduction in the grain size. XRD studies have showed that the grain size of the deposit generated from optimum bath was 16 nm. UV-visible spectroscopic studies confirm the formation of complex between metal ion and brightener.

  17. Methods of exploitation of different types of uranium deposits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-09-01

    Deposits are mined using three broad types of mining methods: open pit, underground and in situ leaching. This publication addresses all aspects of mining and milling methods for several types of deposits and provides information to assist in the selection process of methods and also considers what actions must be taken into account for obtaining regulatory approvals for a project and for final decommissioning and reclamation of a project. The objective of this publication is to provide a process of selections of methods for mining engineers and managers involved in modernising ongoing operations or considering opening new operations. Several practical examples are given. These guidelines can be consulted and used in many countries involved in uranium mining and milling operations. The examples where costs are given can also be adjusted to specific economic conditions of various countries. The authors are from four uranium producing countries. They bring diversified experience for all types of mining and milling operations from tile opening of a mine to the decommissioning of the complete operation

  18. Methods of exploitation of different types of uranium deposits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-09-01

    Deposits are mined using three broad types of mining methods: open pit, underground and in situ leaching. This publication addresses all aspects of mining and milling methods for several types of deposits and provides information to assist in the selection process of methods and also considers what actions must be taken into account for obtaining regulatory approvals for a project and for final decommissioning and reclamation of a project. The objective of this publication is to provide a process of selections of methods for mining engineers and managers involved in modernising ongoing operations or considering opening new operations. Several practical examples are given. These guidelines can be consulted and used in many countries involved in uranium mining and milling operations. The examples where costs are given can also be adjusted to specific economic conditions of various countries. The authors are from four uranium producing countries. They bring diversified experience for all types of mining and milling operations from tile opening of a mine to the decommissioning of the complete operation.

  19. Size dependent optical characteristics of chemically deposited

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Keywords. Thin film; ZnS; CBD method; optical properties. Abstract. ZnS thin films of different thicknesses were prepared by chemical bath deposition using thiourea and zinc acetate as S2- and Zn2+ source. The effect of film thickness on the optical and structural properties was studied. The optical absorption studies in the ...

  20. Influence of bath temperature and bath composition on Co-Ag electrodeposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia-Torres, Jose; Valles, Elisa; Gomez, Elvira

    2010-01-01

    A study of the best conditions to prepare smooth heterogeneous Co-Ag films with low amounts of S from a thiourea-based electrolytic bath has been performed. Using a 0.01 M AgClO 4 + 0.1 M Co(ClO 4 ) 2 + 0.1 M thiourea + 0.1 M sodium gluconate + 0.3 M H 3 BO 3 + 0.1 M NaClO 4 bath, low temperature (10 o C) allowed obtaining compact and smooth deposits containing 2 wt.% sulphur. Decreasing thiourea content 0.06 M and increasing gluconate concentration up to 0.3 M, better deposits (more compact with lower sulphur content (1.2 wt.%)) were obtained. A clear influence of the species present in the bath on the film quality was observed: while gluconate favoured film cohesion, boric acid hindered hydrogen adsorption. For all films, fcc-Ag, hcp-Co and hcp-CoAg 3 phases were always detected by XRD, TEM and electron diffraction, their proportions varying with the electrodeposition conditions. Magnetic measurements revealed that the increase in the CoAg 3 led to an increase in the film coercivity. GMR values were only measured at cryogenic temperatures, they being higher for the deposits with the lowest sulphur content revealing that sulphur exerts a negative effect on magnetoresistance.

  1. Deposit and scale prevention methods in thermal sea water desalination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Froehner, K.R.

    1977-01-01

    Introductory remarks deal with the 'fouling factor' and its influence on the overall heat transfer coefficient of msf evaporators. The composition of the matter dissolved in sea water and the thermal and chemical properties lead to formation of alkaline scale or even hard, sulphate scale on the heat exchanger tube walls and can hamper plant operation and economics seriously. Among the scale prevention methods are 1) pH control by acid dosing (decarbonation), 2) 'threshold treatment' by dosing of inhibitors of different kind, 3) mechanical cleaning by sponge rubber balls guided through the heat exchanger tubes, in general combined with methods no. 1 or 2, and 4) application of a scale crystals germ slurry (seeding). Mention is made of several other scale prevention proposals. The problems encountered with marine life (suspension, deposit, growth) in desalination plants are touched. (orig.) [de

  2. ZnS nanoflakes deposition by modified chemical method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Desai, Mangesh A.; Sartale, S. D.

    2014-01-01

    We report deposition of zinc sulfide nanoflakes on glass substrates by modified chemical method. The modified chemical method involves adsorption of zinc–thiourea complex on the substrate and its dissociation in presence of hydroxide ions to release sulfur ions from thiourea which react with zinc ions present in the complex to form zinc sulfide nanoflakes at room temperature. Influence of zinc salt and thiourea concentrations ratios on the morphology of the films was investigated by scanning electron microscope (SEM). The ratio of zinc and thiourea in the zinc–thiourea complex significantly affect the size of the zinc sulfide nanoflakes, especially width and density of the nanoflakes. The X-ray diffraction analysis exhibits polycrystalline nature of the zinc sulfide nanoflakes with hexagonal phase

  3. Annealing dependence of residual stress and optical properties of TiO2 thin film deposited by different deposition methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hsi-Chao; Lee, Kuan-Shiang; Lee, Cheng-Chung

    2008-05-01

    Titanium oxide (TiO(2)) thin films were prepared by different deposition methods. The methods were E-gun evaporation with ion-assisted deposition (IAD), radio-frequency (RF) ion-beam sputtering, and direct current (DC) magnetron sputtering. Residual stress was released after annealing the films deposited by RF ion-beam or DC magnetron sputtering but not evaporation, and the extinction coefficient varied significantly. The surface roughness of the evaporated films exceeded that of both sputtered films. At the annealing temperature of 300 degrees C, anatase crystallization occurred in evaporated film but not in the RF ion-beam or DC magnetron-sputtered films. TiO(2) films deposited by sputtering were generally more stable during annealing than those deposited by evaporation.

  4. Bath of my home (50 yeras report No.1); Wagaya no ofuro (50 nenshi No.1)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-01-10

    Looking back at the history of bath after the war, the fuel, water heating method, hot water method, bathtub, shape of bathroom, bathing tools and bathing method have undergone surprising changes, from the period just after the war for which the number of households having their baths was small and public baths were at the height of their prosperity, to the present period for which households are generally equipped with a shower and bathtub. This paper describes the history of bath after the war in Japan, including the bathing methods and goods which came to stay in each period, placing the focus on the bathing acts and equipment. For 10 years since 1945, the housing shortage had been serious, and public baths had prospered. For this period, the bath heating fuel was mainly coal and firewood, and soap was still valuable. Since 1955, the housing situation had changed better, and the time had entered the age of bath-at-home. Since this period, aluminum bath furnaces had been mass-produced. Neutral shampoo appeared on the market and were sold like hot cakes.

  5. Decoherence by engineered quantum baths

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rossini, Davide [NEST-CNR-INFM and Scuola Normale Superiore, Piazza dei Cavalieri 7, I-56126 Pisa (Italy); Calarco, Tommaso [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Trento and BEC-CNR-INFM, I-38050 Povo (Italy); Giovannetti, Vittorio [NEST-CNR-INFM and Scuola Normale Superiore, Piazza dei Cavalieri 7, I-56126 Pisa (Italy); Montangero, Simone [NEST-CNR-INFM and Scuola Normale Superiore, Piazza dei Cavalieri 7, I-56126 Pisa (Italy); Fazio, Rosario [NEST-CNR-INFM and Scuola Normale Superiore, Piazza dei Cavalieri 7, I-56126 Pisa (Italy)

    2007-07-13

    Optical lattices can be used to simulate quantum baths and hence they can be of fundamental help to study, in a controlled way, the emergence of decoherence in quantum systems. Here we show how to implement a pure dephasing model for a two-level system coupled to an interacting spin bath. In this scheme it is possible to implement a large variety of spin environments embracing Ising, XY and Heisenberg universality classes. After having introduced the model, we calculate exactly the decoherence for the Ising and the XY spin bath model. We find universal features depending on the critical behaviour of the spin bath, both in the short- and long-time limits. The rich scenario that emerges can be tested experimentally and can be of importance for the understanding of the coherence loss in open quantum systems.

  6. Cigar Lake, an original method for an exceptional deposit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caleix, C.

    1997-01-01

    In 1976, the discovery of the high grade Deposit at Cluff Lake in the north of the province of Saskatchewan (Canada) opened new prospects in uranium deposits, which in turn quickly led to the discovery of exceptional deposits both in terms of grade (up 10 % in metal uranium) and tonnage (150, 000 tons of metal per deposit and more). Among these deposits are Key Lake, Cigar Lake, Midwest, MacClean, and more recently, Mac Arthur. These discoveries as well as future ones make the north of Saskatchewan the world's greatest and most interesting uranium-producing province. (authors)

  7. Working methods experimentation: Bauzot deposit, Bauzot and La Faye deposits - Empty room with initial thin veins sub-layers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paucard, A.

    1959-01-01

    The Bauzot deposit was one of the first small CEA workings, and thus served as a guinea-pig for the testing of several working methods. The lessons learned at Bauzot render the rapid choice of a suitable method for the working of large CEA deposits possible. Reprint from 2 papers published in 'Revue de l'Industrie Minerale', vol. 40, n. 12, dec 1958, and Nov 1958, p. 831-843 [fr

  8. A method of quantitative prediction for sandstone type uranium deposit in Russia and its application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang Shushuai; Jiang Minzhong; Li Xiaolu

    2008-01-01

    The paper presents the foundational principle of quantitative predication for sandstone type uranium deposits in Russia. Some key methods such as physical-mathematical model construction and deposits prediction are described. The method has been applied to deposits prediction in Dahongshan region of Chaoshui basin. It is concluded that the technique can fortify the method of quantitative predication for sandstone type uranium deposits, and it could be used as a new technique in China. (authors)

  9. Preliminary Groundwater Assessment using Electrical Method at Quaternary Deposits Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazreek, Z. A. M.; Raqib, A. G. A.; Aziman, M.; Azhar, A. T. S.; Khaidir, A. T. M.; Fairus, Y. M.; Rosli, S.; Fakhrurrazi, I. M.; Izzaty, R. A.

    2017-08-01

    Alternative water sources using groundwater has increasingly demand in recent years. In the past, proper and systematic study of groundwater potential was varies due to several constraints. Conventionally, tube well point was drilled based on subjective judgment of several parties which may lead to the uncertainties of the project success. Hence, this study performed an electrical method to investigate the groundwater potential at quaternary deposits area particularly using resistivity and induced polarization technique. Electrical method was performed using ABEM SAS4000 equipment based on pole dipole array and 2.5 m electrode spacing. Resistivity raw data was analyzed using RES2DINV software. It was found that groundwater was able to be detected based on resistivity and chargeability values which varied at 10 - 100 Ωm and 0 - 1 ms respectively. Moreover, suitable location of tube well was able to be proposed which located at 80 m from the first survey electrode in west direction. Verification of both electrical results with established references has shown some good agreement thus able to convince the result reliability. Hence, the establishment of electrical method in preliminary groundwater assessment was able to assist several parties in term groundwater prospective at study area which efficient in term of cost, time, data coverage and sustainability.

  10. Influence of deposition rate on the properties of tin coatings deposited on tool steels using arc method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akhtar, P.; Abbas, M.

    2007-01-01

    Titanium nitride (TiN) widely used as hard coating material, was coated on tool steels, namely on high-speed steel (HSS) and D2 tool steel by physical vapour deposition method. The study concentrated on cathodic arc physical vapour deposition (CAPVD), a technique used for the deposition of hard coatings for tooling applications, and which has many advantages. The main drawback of this technique, however, is the formation of macrodroplets (MD's) during deposition, resulting in films with rougher morphology. Various standard characterization techniques and equipment, such as electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, hardness testing machine, scratch tester and pin-on-disc machine, were used to analyze and quantify the following properties and parameters, surface morphology, thickness, hardness, adhesion and coefficient of friction (COF) of the deposited coatings. Surface morphology revealed that the MD's produced during the etching stage, protruded through the thin film, resulting in film with deteriorated surface features. Both coating thickness and indentation loads influenced the hardness of the deposited coatings. The coatings deposited on HSS exhibit better adhesion compared to those on D2 tool steel. Standard deviation indicates that the coating deposited with thickness around 6.7 macro m showed the most stable trend of COF versus sliding distance. (author)

  11. High power RF window deposition apparatus, method, and device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ives, Lawrence R.; Lucovsky, Gerald; Zeller, Daniel

    2017-07-04

    A process for forming a coating for an RF window which has improved secondary electron emission and reduced multipactor for high power RF waveguides is formed from a substrate with low loss tangent and desirable mechanical characteristics. The substrate has an RPAO deposition layer applied which oxygenates the surface of the substrate to remove carbon impurities, thereafter has an RPAN deposition layer applied to nitrogen activate the surface of the substrate, after which a TiN deposition layer is applied using Titanium tert-butoxide. The TiN deposition layer is capped with a final RPAN deposition layer of nitridation to reduce the bound oxygen in the TiN deposition layer. The resulting RF window has greatly improved titanium layer adhesion, reduced multipactor, and is able to withstand greater RF power levels than provided by the prior art.

  12. Uniform deposition of uranium hexafluoride (UF6): Standardized mass deposits and controlled isotopic ratios using a thermal fluorination method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNamara, Bruce K; O'Hara, Matthew J; Casella, Andrew M; Carter, Jennifer C; Addleman, R Shane; MacFarlan, Paul J

    2016-07-01

    We report a convenient method for the generation of volatile uranium hexafluoride (UF6) from solid uranium oxides and other U compounds, followed by uniform deposition of low levels of UF6 onto sampling coupons. Under laminar flow conditions, UF6 is shown to interact with surfaces within a fixed reactor geometry to a highly predictable degree. We demonstrate the preparation of U deposits that range between approximately 0.01 and 500ngcm(-2). The data suggest the method can be extended to creating depositions at the sub-picogramcm(-2) level. The isotopic composition of the deposits can be customized by selection of the U source materials and we demonstrate a layering technique whereby two U solids, each with a different isotopic composition, are employed to form successive layers of UF6 on a surface. The result is an ultra-thin deposit that bears an isotopic signature that is a composite of the two U sources. The reported deposition method has direct application to the development of unique analytical standards for nuclear safeguards and forensics. Further, the method allows access to very low atomic or molecular coverages of surfaces. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Ag2S deposited on oxidized polypropylene as composite material for solar light absorption

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krylovaa, V.; Milbrat, Alexander; Embrachts, A.; Baltrusaitis, Jonas

    2014-01-01

    Thin film metal chalcogenides are superior solar light absorbers and can be combined into a functional material when deposited on polymeric substrates. Ag2S composite materials were synthesized on oxidized polypropylene using chemical bath deposition method and their properties were explored using

  14. Preparation of highly dispersed PEM fuel cell catalysts using electroless deposition methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beard, K.D.; Schaal, M.T.; Van Zee, J.W.; Monnier, J.R. [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of South Carolina, Swearingen Engineering Center, 301 South Main Street, Columbia, SC 29208 (United States)

    2007-03-30

    A methodology for the electroless deposition (ED) of PtCl{sub 6}{sup 2-} using dimethylamine borane (DMAB) on a Rh-seeded carbon support has been developed for electrochemical and fuel cell applications. This procedure required seeding the carbon with a Rh-precursor catalyst via wet impregnation prior to the exposure of an aqueous ED bath containing PtCl{sub 6}{sup 2-}, DMAB, and sodium citrate (complexing/stabilizing agent). Kinetic parameters that affect the extent and rate of PtCl{sub 6}{sup 2-} deposition include concentrations of PtCl{sub 6}{sup 2-}, DMAB, and sodium citrate as well as pH and concentrations of Rh seed sites. A linear relationship between rate and extent of PtCl{sub 6}{sup 2-} deposition and DMAB and Rh concentrations was found while the citrate concentration had little effect on rate and a modest effect on extent. Lastly, extent of PtCl{sub 6}{sup 2-} deposition showed a maximum with respect to pH. Characterization of the Rh-seeded, carbon support by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) shows that the Rh particle diameters remain constant at 33-43 Aa as the Rh weight loading increases from 0.4% to 2.2% to 4.4%. Further, after deposition of similar loadings of Pt, TEM analysis shows Pt particle diameters decrease with increasing Rh loading, since equal amounts of Pt were deposited on greater numbers of Rh seed particles. This pattern suggests a shell-core geometry, where Pt is deposited more or less uniformly around a Rh core. (author)

  15. Quantitative assessment of combination bathing and moisturizing regimens on skin hydration in atopic dermatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, Charles; Eichenfield, Lawrence F

    2009-01-01

    Standard recommendations for skin care for patients with atopic dermatitis stress the importance of skin hydration and the application of moisturizers. However, objective data to guide recommendations regarding the optimal practice methods of bathing and emollient application are scarce. This study quantified cutaneous hydration status after various combination bathing and moisturizing regimens. Four bathing/moisturizer regimens were evaluated in 10 subjects, five pediatric subjects with atopic dermatitis and five subjects with healthy skin. The regimens consisted of bathing alone without emollient application, bathing and immediate emollient application, bathing and delayed application, and emollient application alone. Each regimen was evaluated in all subjects, utilizing a crossover design. Skin hydration was assessed with standard capacitance measurements. In atopic dermatitis subjects, emollient alone yielded a significantly (p hydration over 90 minutes (206.2% baseline hydration) than bathing with immediate emollient (141.6%), bathing and delayed emollient (141%), and bathing alone (91.4%). The combination bathing and emollient application regimens demonstrated hydration values at 90 minutes not significantly greater than baseline. Atopic dermatitis subjects had a decreased mean hydration benefit compared with normal skin subjects. Bathing without moisturizer may compromise skin hydration. Bathing followed by moisturizer application provides modest hydration benefits, though less than that of simply applying moisturizer alone.

  16. Standard test method for determining atmospheric chloride deposition rate by wet candle method

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2002-01-01

    1.1 This test method covers a wet candle device and its use in measuring atmospheric chloride deposition (amount of chloride salts deposited from the atmosphere on a given area per unit time). 1.2 Data on atmospheric chloride deposition can be useful in classifying the corrosivity of a specific area, such as an atmospheric test site. Caution must be exercised, however, to take into consideration the season because airborne chlorides vary widely between seasons. 1.3 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

  17. Uniform deposition of uranium hexafluoride (UF6): Standardized mass deposits and controlled isotopic ratios using a thermal fluorination method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McNamara, Bruce K.; O’Hara, Matthew J.; Casella, Andrew M.; Carter, Jennifer C.; Addleman, R. Shane; MacFarlan, Paul J.

    2016-07-01

    Abstract: We report a convenient method for the generation of volatile uranium hexafluoride (UF6) from solid uranium oxides and other uranium compounds, followed by uniform deposition of low levels of UF6 onto sampling coupons. Under laminar flow conditions, UF6 is shown to interact with surfaces within the chamber to a highly predictable degree. We demonstrate the preparation of uranium deposits that range between ~0.01 and 470±34 ng∙cm-2. The data suggest the method can be extended to creating depositions at the sub-picogram∙cm-2 level. Additionally, the isotopic composition of the deposits can be customized by selection of the uranium source materials. We demonstrate a layering technique whereby two uranium solids, each with a different isotopic composition, are employed to form successive layers of UF6 on a surface. The result is an ultra-thin deposit of UF6 that bears an isotopic signature that is a composite of the two uranium sources. The reported deposition method has direct application to the development of unique analytical standards for nuclear safeguards and forensics.

  18. Formation of CdS thin films in a chemical bath environment under the action of an external magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaskes-Luna, Kh.G.; Zekhe, A.; Nhukhil'o-Garsiya, M.P.; Starostenko, O.

    2000-01-01

    The effect of external magnetic field on obtaining thin CdS films on glass sub layers through the method of chemical deposition from the cadmium chloride aqueous solution is studied. The intensity and direction of the magnetic field during deposition obviously affect the number of physical properties of polycrystalline films: thickness, grain size and optical quality. The films characteristics are studied through an atomic-power microscope, light absorption spectroscopy and conductometry in darkness. The results obtained are interpreted on the basis of notions on the cadmium and sulfur specific interaction in the chemical bath with a magnetic field [ru

  19. Comparison of radiation detector performance for different metal contacts on CdZnTe deposited by electroless deposition method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheng, Q.; Dierre, F.; Crocco, J.; Bensalah, H.; Dieguez, E. [Crystal Growth Laboratory, Department of Materials Physics, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Ayoub, M. [Durham Scientific Crystals Laboratory, Netpark, Thomas Wright Way, Sedgefield, TS21, 3FD (United Kingdom); Corregidor, V.; Alves, E. [Unidade de Fisica e Aceleradores, LFI, ITN, E.N.10, 2686-953, Sacavem (Portugal); Fernandez-Ruiz, R. [Servicio Interdepartamental de Investigacion. Laboratorio de TXRF/Laue-XRD. Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Perez, J.M. [CIEMAT, Edificio 22, Avda Complutense 22, 28040 Madrid (Spain)

    2011-11-15

    A comparative study of four different metals gold (Au), platinum (Pt), ruthenium (Ru) and rhodium (Rh) deposited on CdZnTe(CZT) by the electroless deposition method has been carried out. Two of these materials, Ru and Rh, have been deposited for the first time by this method. In contrast to the Pt deposition, the deposition of Ru and Rh were not carried out under the optimal conditions. The metals deposited on the samples were identified by Total reflection X-ray Fluorescence (TXRF). Rutherford Backscattering Spectrometry (RBS) analyses show that Au forms the thickest layer ({proportional_to}160 nm) for the experimental conditions of this work. Current-voltage measurements show that Pt forms a more linear ohmic contact with the lowest leakage current. A {sup 57}Co gamma ray spectrum gave a better detector performance with a FWHM 11 keV at 122 keV. (copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  20. Method for depositing high-quality microcrystalline semiconductor materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guha, Subhendu [Bloomfield Hills, MI; Yang, Chi C [Troy, MI; Yan, Baojie [Rochester Hills, MI

    2011-03-08

    A process for the plasma deposition of a layer of a microcrystalline semiconductor material is carried out by energizing a process gas which includes a precursor of the semiconductor material and a diluent with electromagnetic energy so as to create a plasma therefrom. The plasma deposits a layer of the microcrystalline semiconductor material onto the substrate. The concentration of the diluent in the process gas is varied as a function of the thickness of the layer of microcrystalline semiconductor material which has been deposited. Also disclosed is the use of the process for the preparation of an N-I-P type photovoltaic device.

  1. The Effects of Two Thick Film Deposition Methods on Tin Dioxide Gas Sensor Performance

    OpenAIRE

    Bakrania, Smitesh D.; Wooldridge, Margaret S.

    2009-01-01

    This work demonstrates the variability in performance between SnO2 thick film gas sensors prepared using two types of film deposition methods. SnO2 powders were deposited on sensor platforms with and without the use of binders. Three commonly utilized binder recipes were investigated, and a new binder-less deposition procedure was developed and characterized. The binder recipes yielded sensors with poor film uniformity and poor structural integrity, compared to the binder-less deposition meth...

  2. Phosphorus-31 NMR analysis of gold plating baths

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, R.E.

    1992-03-01

    This report describes the nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) analysis of gold plating baths in the Micro-Miniature Electronic Assembly department of Allied-Signal Inc., Kansas City Division (KCD). The baths were analyzed for phosphorylated components. In freshly prepared gold plating baths in this department the principle compound observed is aminotrimethyl-phosphonate, or ATMP. As the bath is used in production, the ATMP breaks down; and new compounds, aminodimethylphosphonate (ADMP), aminomonomethylphosphonate, (AMMP), and inorganic phosphate (H{sub 2}PO{sub 4}{sup {minus}}), are formed. The NMR method has been used for almost three years to monitor the concentrations of the ATMP and breakdown products. In a previous report, results from January through October 1988 were reported. In this report, results from November 1988 through January 1991 are given.

  3. Characteristic functions of quantum heat with baths at different temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aurell, Erik

    2018-06-01

    This paper is about quantum heat defined as the change in energy of a bath during a process. The presentation takes into account recent developments in classical strong-coupling thermodynamics and addresses a version of quantum heat that satisfies quantum-classical correspondence. The characteristic function and the full counting statistics of quantum heat are shown to be formally similar. The paper further shows that the method can be extended to more than one bath, e.g., two baths at different temperatures, which opens up the prospect of studying correlations and heat flow. The paper extends earlier results on the expected quantum heat in the setting of one bath [E. Aurell and R. Eichhorn, New J. Phys. 17, 065007 (2015), 10.1088/1367-2630/17/6/065007; E. Aurell, Entropy 19, 595 (2017), 10.3390/e19110595].

  4. Effect of sonochemical synthesized TiO2 nanoparticles and coagulation bath temperature on morphology, thermal stability and pure water flux of asymmetric cellulose acetate membranes prepared via phase inversion method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abedini Reza

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, asymmetric pure CA and CA/ TiO2 composite membranes were prepared via phase inversion by dispersing TiO2 nanopaticles in the CA casting solutions induced by immersion precipitation in water coagulation bath. TiO2 nanoparticles, which were synthesized by the sonochemical method, were added into the casting solution with different concentrations. Effects of TiO2 nanoparticles concentration (0 wt. %, 5wt.%, 10wt.%, 15wt.%, 20wt.% and 25wt.% and coagulation bath temperature (CBT= 25°C, 50°C and 75°C on morphology, thermal stability and pure water flux (PWF of the prepared membranes were studied and discussed. Increasing TiO2 concentration in the casting solution film along with higher CBT resulted in increasing the membrane thickness, water content (WC, membrane porosity and pure water flux (PWF, also these changes facilitate macrovoids formation. Thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA shows that thermal stability of the composite membranes were improved by the addition of TiO2 nanopaticles. Also TGA results indicated that increasing CBT in each TiO2 concentration leads to the decreasing of decomposition temperature (Td of hybrid membranes.

  5. A simple method to deposit palladium doped SnO2 thin films using plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Young Soon; Wahab, Rizwan; Shin, Hyung-Shik; Ansari, S. G.; Ansari, Z. A.

    2010-01-01

    This work presents a simple method to deposit palladium doped tin oxide (SnO 2 ) thin films using modified plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition as a function of deposition temperature at a radio frequency plasma power of 150 W. Stannic chloride (SnCl 4 ) was used as precursor and oxygen (O 2 , 100 SCCM) (SCCM denotes cubic centimeter per minute at STP) as reactant gas. Palladium hexafluroacetyleacetonate (Pd(C 5 HF 6 O 2 ) 2 ) was used as a precursor for palladium. Fine granular morphology was observed with tetragonal rutile structure. A peak related to Pd 2 Sn is observed, whose intensity increases slightly with deposition temperature. Electrical resistivity value decreased from 8.6 to 0.9 mΩ cm as a function of deposition temperature from 400 to 600 deg. C. Photoelectron peaks related to Sn 3d, Sn 3p3, Sn 4d, O 1s, and C 1s were detected with varying intensities as a function of deposition temperature.

  6. Effect of some addition agents on the electrodeposition of cadmium from acidic chloride baths

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abd El-Halim, A.M.; Baghlaf, A.O.; Sobahi, M.I.

    1984-01-01

    A further development of a chloride-based cadmium plating bath containing 0.3 M CdCl 2 .(5/2)H 2 O, 0.1 M HCl, 0.4 M H 3 BO 3 and 2.0 M NH 4 Cl (bath I) is described. The influences of the individual addition agents thiourea, coumarin Ni 2+ ions and I - ions on the characteristics of cadmium electrodeposition from acidic chloride electrolytes containing 0.3 M CdCl 2 .(5/2)H 2 O, 0.1 M HCl, 0.4 M H 3 BO 3 , 2.0 M NH 4 Cl, 0.5 M sodium potassium tartrate and 5 g gelatin l -1 (bath II) were studied. Bath II including a combination of the four above-mentioned additives was denoted bath III. The additive-containing bath III produced a brighter but less hard cadmium deposit than the additive-free bath II. The individual effects of melamine, 3-methyl-4-p-methoxyphenylazopyrazol-5-one, dimethylformamide (DMF) and DMF with biacetyl-bis-(benzoylhydrazone) on the cathodic polarization and current efficiency of cadmium electrodeposition from baths II and III, as well as on the morphology and microhardness of the as-plated cadmium deposits, were investigated and discussed. (Auth.)

  7. Electrosynthesis of cadmium selenide films from sodium citrate-selenosulphite bath

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lokhande, C.D.; Lee, Eun-Ho; Jung, Kwang-Deog; Joo, Oh-Shim

    2005-01-01

    Electrosynthesis of cadmium selenide (CdSe) film has been carried out from deposition bath containing sodium selenosulphite, along with cadmium complexed with sodium citrate under potentiostatic deposition condition on titanium substrates. The pH of deposition bath was weakly basic (< 9.0). The CdSe films up to 3.0 μm were deposited. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) studies revealed that the CdSe films are microcrystalline with increased grain size after annealing. The scanning electron microscopy showed that the films are porous with cauliflower-like morphology. The photelectrochemical characterization showed that the CdSe films are photoactive

  8. Method and means for detecting magnetic deposits in tubular plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lord, W

    1981-03-04

    Deposits of magnetite on tubes in a heat exchanger, e.g., a steam generator, are detected by measuring the magnetic reluctance within the tubes. A probe for measuring the reluctance includes a permanent magnet (or a magnetic core and an excitation coil wound on the core) and a magnetic flux detector such as a Hall generator mounted for example on one of the non-magnetic rings. Changes in flux density as the probe is pushed through the tubes are detected by the Hall generator, thus indicating the presence of magnetite deposits. The probe includes a non-magnetic tube for pushing it through the heat exchanger tubes.

  9. Structural analysis of CdS thin films obtained by multiple dips of oscillating chemical bath

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gutierrez Lazos, C.D. [Seccion de Electronica del Estado Solido, Centro de Investigacion y de Estudios Avanzados, Av. Instituto Politecnico Nacional 2508, Col. San Pedro Zacatenco, 07360 Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Rosendo, E., E-mail: erosendo@siu.buap.m [Centro de Investigacion en Dispositivos Semiconductores, Universidad Autonoma de Puebla, 14 Sur y San Claudio, Col. San Manuel, C.P. 72570, Puebla (Mexico); Ortega, M. [Seccion de Electronica del Estado Solido, Centro de Investigacion y de Estudios Avanzados, Av. Instituto Politecnico Nacional 2508, Col. San Pedro Zacatenco, 07360 Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Oliva, A.I. [Departamento de Fisica Aplicada, Centro de Investigacion y de Estudios Avanzados, Unidad Merida, A.P. 73 Cordemex, 97310 Merida, Yucatan (Mexico); Tapia, O.; Diaz, T.; Juarez, H.; Garcia, G. [Centro de Investigacion en Dispositivos Semiconductores, Universidad Autonoma de Puebla, 14 Sur y San Claudio, Col. San Manuel, C.P. 72570, Puebla (Mexico); Rubin, M. [Facultad de Ciencias de la Computacion, 14 Sur y San Claudio, Col. San Manuel, C.P. 72570, Puebla (Mexico)

    2009-11-25

    Highly oriented CdS thin films with thicknesses greater than 1 mum were deposited by multiple dips, using oscillating chemical bath deposition (OCBD) at the bath temperature of 75 deg. C, and deposition time ranging from 15 to 75 min for a single dip. Samples with different thickness were prepared by repeating the deposition process for two and three times. The films deposited by a single dip have the alpha-greenockite structure showing the (0 0 2) as preferred orientation, as indicated by the X-ray diffraction measurements. This notable characteristic is preserved in the samples obtained from two or three dips. The crystallite size for the samples deposited by a single dip depends on the deposition time, because it varied from 23 to 37 nm as the deposition time increased. Nevertheless for samples deposited by two and three dips, the grain size shows no noticeable change, being about 22 nm.

  10. Plasma levels of 8-methoxypsoralen following PUVA-bath photochemotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kobyletzki, G. von; Hoffmann, K.; Kerscher, M.; Altmeyer, P. [Ruhr-Univ., Dept. of Dermatology, Bochum (Germany)

    1998-08-01

    Administration of 8-methoxypsoralen (8-MOP) in a dilute bath water solution is an effective therapeutic alternative to oral PUVA therapy, avoiding systemic side effects, offering better bioavailability of the psoralen and requiring much smaller amounts of UVA for induction of therapeutic effects. To obtain exact data about the percutaneous absorption of 8-MOP during a psoralen bath, the plasma levels of the drug were determined in 26 patients with different skin diseases by a reverse high-performance liquid chromatographic method. Fifteen patients receiving oral PUVA therapy (0.8 mg 8-MOP/kg body weight) served as a positive control group. Bath solutions were prepared by diluting 15 ml of 0.5% stock solution of 8-MOP in 150 l of bath water (0.5 mg/l, 37 deg. C). Blood samples were drawn from patients 5, 30, 60, 120 and 180 min after the bath. In the oral PUVA group, blood samples were obtained 1 1/2 h after administration of the drug. In 23 og 26 patients, 8-MOP levels were undetectable in every blood sample. After 30 min, two patients showed detectable levels of 8-MOP (5 ng/ml, 7 ng/ml), while 60 min after the PUVA bath 8-MOP was detectable in only one volunteer (5 ng/ml). In patients receiving oral 8-MOP therapy, serum levels varied between 45 and 360 ng/ml 1 1/2 h after drug administration. Our data confirm extremely low 8-MOP levels resulting from 8-MOP bath water treatments and provide confirmation of the absence of systemic side effects in patients who are undergoing PUVA-bath therapy. (au) 15 refs.

  11. Plasma levels of 8-methoxypsoralen following PUVA-bath photochemotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobyletzki, G. von; Hoffmann, K.; Kerscher, M.; Altmeyer, P.

    1998-01-01

    Administration of 8-methoxypsoralen (8-MOP) in a dilute bath water solution is an effective therapeutic alternative to oral PUVA therapy, avoiding systemic side effects, offering better bioavailability of the psoralen and requiring much smaller amounts of UVA for induction of therapeutic effects. To obtain exact data about the percutaneous absorption of 8-MOP during a psoralen bath, the plasma levels of the drug were determined in 26 patients with different skin diseases by a reverse high-performance liquid chromatographic method. Fifteen patients receiving oral PUVA therapy (0.8 mg 8-MOP/kg body weight) served as a positive control group. Bath solutions were prepared by diluting 15 ml of 0.5% stock solution of 8-MOP in 150 l of bath water (0.5 mg/l, 37 deg. C). Blood samples were drawn from patients 5, 30, 60, 120 and 180 min after the bath. In the oral PUVA group, blood samples were obtained 1 1/2 h after administration of the drug. In 23 og 26 patients, 8-MOP levels were undetectable in every blood sample. After 30 min, two patients showed detectable levels of 8-MOP (5 ng/ml, 7 ng/ml), while 60 min after the PUVA bath 8-MOP was detectable in only one volunteer (5 ng/ml). In patients receiving oral 8-MOP therapy, serum levels varied between 45 and 360 ng/ml 1 1/2 h after drug administration. Our data confirm extremely low 8-MOP levels resulting from 8-MOP bath water treatments and provide confirmation of the absence of systemic side effects in patients who are undergoing PUVA-bath therapy. (au)

  12. 21 CFR 890.5110 - Paraffin bath.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Paraffin bath. 890.5110 Section 890.5110 Food and... PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Therapeutic Devices § 890.5110 Paraffin bath. (a) Identification. A paraffin bath is a device intended for medical purposes that consists of a tub to be filled...

  13. Predicting sulphur and nitrogen deposition using a simple statistical method

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Oulehle, F.; Kopáček, Jiří; Chuman, T.; Černohous, V.; Hůnová, I.; Hruška, Jakub; Krám, Pavel; Lachmaová, Z.; Navrátil, Tomáš; Štěpánek, Petr; Tesař, Miroslav; Christopher, Evans D.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 140, sep (2016), s. 456-468 ISSN 1352-2310 Grant - others:EHP(CZ) EHP-CZ02-OV-1-014-2014 Program:CZ02 Institutional support: RVO:67179843 ; RVO:60077344 ; RVO:67985831 ; RVO:67985874 Keywords : precipitation * sulphur * nitrogen * deposition * monitoring * upscaling Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour; DD - Geochemistry (GLU-S); DI - Air Pollution ; Quality (BC-A); BK - Fluid Dynamics (UH-J) Impact factor: 3.629, year: 2016

  14. Methods for the characterization of pyrolytic deposited carbon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bongartz, K.; Hoven, H.; Koizlik, K.

    Pyrocarbon is deposited as a coating material on fuel kernels used in HTGRs. For the development of particle coatings specified for various reactor designs, it is necessary to know the properties of pyrocarbon and their changes by neutron irradiation. In this report, procedures are described which are used to characterize pyrocarbon: measurement of geometry, density, microporosity, apparent crystallite size, anisotropy of orientation, modulus of elasticity, and strength of coatings, as well as ceramography, etching by oxidation, secondary and transmission electron microscopy. (auth)

  15. Contribution to the methods for estimating uranium deposits (1963)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlier, A.

    1964-02-01

    Having defined a deposit of economic value according to the marginal theory, the author discriminates several categories of ore reserves according to the degree of knowledge of the deposit and according to the mining stage where the ore is considered. He dismisses the conventional French classification of 'on sight', 'probable' and 'possible' ore categories and suggests more suitable ones. The 'sensu stricto', ore reserves are those for which the random error can be calculated. The notion of the natural contrast of grades in an ore deposit (absolute dispersion coefficient α) is introduced in relation to this topic. The author considers three types of mining exploration. The first is the random exploration so often met; the second is the logical exploration based on a systematic location of underground works, bore-holes, etc. The third, and hardest to achieve, is the one which minimizes exploration costs for a given level of accuracy. Part of the publication deals with sampling errors such as those resulting from the quartering of a heap of ore (theory of Pierre GY) or those resulting from the use of radiometric measurement of grade. Another part deals with the extension error (entailed by the assimilation of samples to the deposit they are issued from) and gives the essential formulae in order to appraise the random error (Geo-statistics of Matheron). As to the estimator itself the work shows how the disharmony between the ore sample and the associated influence zone can be solved by the way of 'kriging'. The thesis gives numerous examples of the various numerical parameters, characteristics of an uranium deposit (absolute dispersion coefficient) or of an uranium ore (liberation parameter) as well as a few examples of linear correlations between gamma radioactivity and uranium grade. Three complete examples of reserve evaluation are given. The end of the thesis deals with the notion of ruin risk which has to be taken in some cases. A detailed alphabetical index is

  16. Chemical bath deposited Zn(Se,OH){sub x} on Cu(In,Ga)(S,Se){sub 2} for high efficiency thin film solar cells: growth kinetics, electronic properties, device performance and loss analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ennaoui, A.; Weber, M. [Hahn-Meitner-Institut Berlin GmbH (Germany). Bereich Physikalische Chemie; Saad, M.; Harneit, W.; Lux-Steiner, M.C. [Hahn-Meitner-Institut Berlin GmbH (Germany). Bereich Festkoerperphysik; Karg, F. [Siemens Solar GmbH, Muenchen (Germany)

    2000-02-21

    Zn(Se,OH){sub x} thin films were grown on Cu(In,Ga)(S,Se){sub 2} (CIGSS) substrate by chemical bath technique. The initial formation and subsequent development of the CIGSS/Zn(Se,OH){sub x} interface are studied by XPS photoemission spectroscopy. Changes in the In 4d and Zn 3d core lines are used to directly determine the CIGSS/Zn(Se,OH){sub x} heterojunction valence band discontinuity and the consequent heterojunction band diagram. For device optimization the thickness and good surface coverage were controlled by XPS-UPS photoemission spectroscopy. A Zn(Se,OH){sub x} thickness below 10 nm has been found to be optimum for achieving a homogeneous and compact film on CIGSS. A remarkably high active area efficiency up to 15.7% (total area efficiency 13.26% with open circuit voltage (V{sub oc}) up to 565.74 mV, a fill factor (FF) of 71% and a short-circuit photocurrent density (J{sub ph}) greater than 33.01 mA/cm{sup 2}) are obtained. The internal parameters, such as the saturation currents, the series resistance R{sub s} and shunt resistance R{sub sh} are calculated. Major losses in these cells are due to the significant influence of the series resistance R{sub s} on the fill factor. (orig.)

  17. A possible method of carbon deposit mapping on plasma facing components using infrared thermography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitteau, R.; Spruytte, J.; Vallet, S.; Travere, J.M.; Guilhem, D.; Brosset, C.

    2007-01-01

    The material eroded from the surface of plasma facing components is redeposited partly close to high heat flux areas. At these locations, the deposit is heated by the plasma and the deposition pattern evolves depending on the operation parameters. The mapping of the deposit is still a matter of intense scientific activity, especially during the course of experimental campaigns. A method based on the comparison of surface temperature maps, obtained in situ by infrared cameras and by theoretical modelling is proposed. The difference between the two is attributed to the thermal resistance added by deposited material, and expressed as a deposit thickness. The method benefits of elaborated imaging techniques such as possibility theory and fuzzy logics. The results are consistent with deposit maps obtained by visual inspection during shutdowns

  18. Electrochemical evaluation of under-deposit corrosion and its inhibition using the wire beam electrode method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tan Yongjun, E-mail: yj.tan@curtin.edu.a [Western Australian Corrosion Research Group, Department of Chemistry, Curtin University, GPO Box U1987, Perth (Australia); Fwu, Young; Bhardwaj, Kriti [Western Australian Corrosion Research Group, Department of Chemistry, Curtin University, GPO Box U1987, Perth (Australia)

    2011-04-15

    Research highlights: A new experiment method for evaluating under-deposit corrosion and its inhibitors. Under-deposit corrosion did not occur in a CO{sub 2} saturated pure brine solution. Inhibitor imidazoline addition and O{sub 2} contamination initiated under-deposit corrosion. Inhibitor imidazoline reduced general corrosion but enhanced localised corrosion. - Abstract: A new experimental method has been applied to evaluate under-deposit corrosion and its inhibition by means of an electrochemically integrated multi-electrode array, namely the wire beam electrode (WBE). Maps showing galvanic current and corrosion potential distributions were measured from a WBE surface that was partially covered by sand. Under-deposit corrosion did not occur during the exposure of the WBE to carbon dioxide saturated brine under ambient temperature. The introduction of corrosion inhibitor imidazoline and oxygen into the brine was found to significantly affect the patterns and rates of corrosion, leading to the initiation of under-deposit corrosion over the WBE.

  19. Evaluation of methods for characterizations of deposits; Utvaerdering av metoder foer avlagringsmaetningar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoegberg, J.; Bjoerkman, P. [Vattenfall Utveckling AB, Aelvkarleby (Sweden)

    2001-11-01

    In boilers there are problems with deposits on parts exposed to the flue gas, in particular on heat exchanging parts and to an increasing extent with the changeover to the use of biofuels and wood waste fuels. In order to solve the problems deposits are examined by using a deposit probe and taking deposit samples from the interior of the boiler. In this report an evaluation of methods of analysis is performed based on experiences in both literature and laboratory work. The evaluation forms the basis of an instruction for deposit measurements in 'Vaermeforsks Maethandbok'. The procedure for use of deposit probes is treated as well as the importance of careful and well planned sample preparation before analysis. In the literature a large number of methods used for analysis of deposits from flue ashes and similar applications are found. The methods include chemical analyses of solids and liquids, analysis of crystal structures, thermal properties and the solid mechanics of the materials. Several methods, for example SEM-EDX, XRF, ICP, IC and methods for determining the mechanical and thermal properties are suited for a survey examination of a deposit, while more specialised methods with higher resolution can add information but require a clear framing of a question and in practice are suited for only separate samples. Examples from the latter category are AES, ESCA and TOF-SIMS.

  20. Measuring the thickness of austenitic weld deposits on carbon steel walls using a magnetic method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wagner, K.

    1988-01-01

    The theoretical background is described of a magnetic method characterized by a marked compensation of the undesirable effect of δ-ferrite content in the deposit, on the accuracy of measuring deposit thickness. A description is also given of the basic types of sensors and the results are summarized of comparing measurements performed on weld deposits of WWER-type reactor pressure vessels. (author). 7 figs., 5 refs

  1. Deposition of tin oxide doped with fluorine produced by sol-gel method and deposited by spray-pyrolysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maia, Paulo Herbert Franca; Lima, Francisco Marcone; Sena, Aline Cosmo de; Silva, Alvaro Neuton; Almeida, Ana Fabiola Leite de; Freire, Francisco Nivaldo Aguiar

    2014-01-01

    Solar energy is one of the most important sources of renewable energy today, but its production is based on silicon cells, expensive and difficult to produce, so the research seek new materials to replace them. This work aims to deposit tin oxide doped with fluorine on the glass substrate using the sol-gel method to provide a working solution and spray pyrolysis technique to perform the deposition. F-SnO2 (FTO) were synthesized by sol-gel method, employing NH_4F and SnCl_2 precursor in an ethanol solution. Before the formation of the gel phase, the entire solution was sprayed, with the aid of a pistol aerographic substrate under heated at 600 °C divided by 50 applications and cooled in the furnace. The substrates had resistances between 10 and 30 S.cm. The energy dispersive x-ray (EDS) revealed the presence of fluorine in the SnO_2 network. (author)

  2. Deposition and Tribological Properties of Sulfur-Doped DLC Films Deposited by PBII Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nutthanun Moolsradoo

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Sulfur-doped diamond-like carbon films (S-DLC fabricated from C2H2 and SF6 mixtures were used to study the effects of sulfur content and negative pulse bias voltage on the deposition and tribological properties of films prepared by plasma-based ion implantation (PBII. The structure and relative concentration of the films were analyzed by Raman spectroscopy and Auger electron spectroscopy. Hardness and elastic modulus of films were measured by nanoindentation hardness testing. Tribological characteristics of films were performed using a ball-on-disk friction tester. The results indicate that with the increasing sulfur content, the hardness and elastic modulus decrease. Additionally, by changing the negative pulse bias voltage from 0 kV to −5 kV, the hardness and elastic modulus increase, while the friction coefficient and specific wear rate tends to decrease. Moreover, at a negative pulse bias voltage of −5 kV and flow-rate ratio of 1 : 2, there is considerable improvement in friction coefficient of 0.05 under ambient air is due to the formation of a transfer films on the interface. The decrease in the friction coefficient of films doped with 4.9 at.% sulfur is greater under high vacuum (0.03 than under ambient air (>0.1.

  3. Electrical properties of aluminum contacts deposited by DC sputtering method for photovoltaic applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krawczak Ewelina

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of aluminum contacts is common in the process of silicon solar cells production because of low contact resistivity. It has also a great importance in thin film technology for photovoltaics, especially in copper-indium-gallium-diselenide (CIGS devices. The final stage of CIGS cell production is the top contact deposition of high conductivity layer for lateral current collection. Such material has to be highly optically transparent as well. In order to make a contact, metal is deposited onto TCO layer with minimum shadowing to allow as much light as possible into device. The metal grid contact is being made by deposition of few microns of aluminum. The resistivity of the deposited material as well as resistance between the metal grid and TCO layer plays a great role in high quality solar cell production. This paper presents the results of four point probe conductivity analysis of Al thin films deposited by direct current (DC magnetron sputtering method. Influence of technological parameters of the Al deposition process on sheet resistance of deposited layers has been showed. In order to obtain the lowest resistivity of the thin contact layer, optimal set of sputtering parameters, i.e. power applied, deposition time and deposition pressure was found. The resistivity of the contact between two adjacent Al metal fingers deposited onto transparent conductive Al-doped zinc oxide film has been also examined.

  4. Electrical properties of aluminum contacts deposited by DC sputtering method for photovoltaic applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krawczak, Ewelina; Gułkowski, Sławomir

    2017-10-01

    The use of aluminum contacts is common in the process of silicon solar cells production because of low contact resistivity. It has also a great importance in thin film technology for photovoltaics, especially in copper-indium-gallium-diselenide (CIGS) devices. The final stage of CIGS cell production is the top contact deposition of high conductivity layer for lateral current collection. Such material has to be highly optically transparent as well. In order to make a contact, metal is deposited onto TCO layer with minimum shadowing to allow as much light as possible into device. The metal grid contact is being made by deposition of few microns of aluminum. The resistivity of the deposited material as well as resistance between the metal grid and TCO layer plays a great role in high quality solar cell production. This paper presents the results of four point probe conductivity analysis of Al thin films deposited by direct current (DC) magnetron sputtering method. Influence of technological parameters of the Al deposition process on sheet resistance of deposited layers has been showed. In order to obtain the lowest resistivity of the thin contact layer, optimal set of sputtering parameters, i.e. power applied, deposition time and deposition pressure was found. The resistivity of the contact between two adjacent Al metal fingers deposited onto transparent conductive Al-doped zinc oxide film has been also examined.

  5. Methods of mineral potential assessment of uranium deposits: A mineral systems approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaireth, S.

    2014-01-01

    Conclusions: • Choice of methods depends on the objective; • Basics: – Know your mineral system (deposit-type): SCIENCE; – Create useful datasets: A MUST; • Mineral system approach can be rewarding. For successful examples visit GA’s website; • Don’t overdo or oversell it (only detailed exploration such as drilling can find a deposit)

  6. Machine Learning Methods for Identifying Composition of Uranium Deposits in Kazakhstan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuchin Yan

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper explores geophysical methods of wells survey, as well as their role in the development of Kazakhstan’s uranium deposit mining efforts. An analysis of the existing methods for solving the problem of interpreting geophysical data using machine learning in petroleum geophysics is made. The requirements and possible applications of machine learning methods in regard to uranium deposits of Kazakhstan are formulated in the paper.

  7. GEOLOGICAL-GEOPHYSICAL EXPLORATION OF THE BAUXITE DEPOSITS APPLICATION OF THE SHALLOW SEIZMIC REFLECTION METHOD

    OpenAIRE

    Ivan Dragičević; Miroslav Andrić; Ivan Blašković

    1991-01-01

    The exploration of bauxite deposits in the region of the carbonaceous Dinarides has been performed by using different geological and geophysical methods. Deposits laying shallower or deeper below the roof sediments have so far most often been discovered by expensive drilling methods in a corresponding grid. Complex geological explorations have led to a series of valuable data thus enabling the application of other much more economical methods as well. In the region of the bauxite sedimentary ...

  8. Conjugate gradient heat bath for ill-conditioned actions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceriotti, Michele; Bussi, Giovanni; Parrinello, Michele

    2007-08-01

    We present a method for performing sampling from a Boltzmann distribution of an ill-conditioned quadratic action. This method is based on heat-bath thermalization along a set of conjugate directions, generated via a conjugate-gradient procedure. The resulting scheme outperforms local updates for matrices with very high condition number, since it avoids the slowing down of modes with lower eigenvalue, and has some advantages over the global heat-bath approach, compared to which it is more stable and allows for more freedom in devising case-specific optimizations.

  9. Handbook of methods for acid-deposition studies. Laboratory analyses for soil chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blume, L.J.; Schumacher, P.W.; Schaffer, K.A.; Cappo, K.A.; Papp, M.L.

    1990-09-01

    The handbook describes methods used to process and analyze soil samples. It is intended as a guidance document for groups involved in acid deposition monitoring activities similar to those implemented by the Aquatic Effects Research Program of the National Acid Precipitation Assessment Program. These methods were developed for use in the Direct/Delayed Response Project, a component project of the Aquatic Effects Research Program within the Office of Ecological Processes and Effects Research. The program addresses the following issues relating to the effects of acid deposition on aquatic ecosystems: The extent and magnitude of past change; The change to be expected in the future under various deposition scenarios; The maximum rates of deposition below which further change is not expected; and The rate of change or recovery of aquatic ecosystems if deposition rates are decreased. Chemical and physical parameters were measured during the Direct/Delayed Response Project and are described in the document

  10. Characterization of nanostructures of ZnO and ZnMnO films deposited by successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jimenez-Garcia, F.N.; Espinosa-Arbelaez, D.G.; Vargas-Hernandez, C.; Real, A. del; Rodriguez-Garcia, M.E.

    2011-01-01

    ZnO and ZnMnO thin films were obtained by the successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR) method. All thin films were deposited on glass microscope slide. A precursor solution of 0.1 M of ZnCl 2 complexed with ammonium hydroxide and water close to boiling point (92 deg. C) as a second solution was used for the ZnO films. An uncomplexed bath comprised of 0.1 M ZnCl 2 , 0.1 M MnCl 2, and a second solution of 0.1 ml of NH 4 OH with water close to boiling point was used for the ZnMnO films. The film samples were deposited by the SILAR method and annealed at 200 deg. C for 15 min. These samples were characterized using X-Ray Diffraction (XRD), Scanning Electron Microscopy with Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDS), and Atomic Force Microscope. Atomic absorption was used to determine quantitatively the amount of Mn incorporated into the films. According to the XRD patterns these films were polycrystalline with wurtzite hexagonal structure. The morphology of the ZnO films constituted by rice-like and flower-like structures changed significantly to nanosheet structures with the Mn incorporation. The Mn inclusion in a ZnO structure was less than 4% according to the results from EDS, XRD, and atomic absorption.

  11. Characterization of nanostructures of ZnO and ZnMnO films deposited by successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jimenez-Garcia, F.N. [Departamento de Fisica y Matematicas, Universidad Autonoma de Manizales, Antigua Estacion del Ferrocarril, Manizales, Caldas (Colombia); Departamento de Fisica y Quimica, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Sede Manizales, Campus la Nubia, Manizales, Caldas (Colombia); Espinosa-Arbelaez, D.G. [Departamento de Nanotecnologia, Centro de Fisica Aplicada y Tecnologia Avanzada, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Blv. Juriquilla 3001, Juriquilla, Queretaro, C.P. 76230 (Mexico); Posgrado en Ciencia e Ingenieria Materiales, Instituto de Investigacion en Materiales, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Mexico DF (Mexico); Vargas-Hernandez, C. [Departamento de Fisica y Quimica, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Sede Manizales, Campus la Nubia, Manizales, Caldas (Colombia); Real, A. del [Departamento de Nanotecnologia, Centro de Fisica Aplicada y Tecnologia Avanzada, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Blv. Juriquilla 3001, Juriquilla, Queretaro, C.P. 76230 (Mexico); Rodriguez-Garcia, M.E., E-mail: marioga@fata.unam.mx [Departamento de Nanotecnologia, Centro de Fisica Aplicada y Tecnologia Avanzada, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Blv. Juriquilla 3001, Juriquilla, Queretaro, C.P. 76230 (Mexico)

    2011-09-01

    ZnO and ZnMnO thin films were obtained by the successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR) method. All thin films were deposited on glass microscope slide. A precursor solution of 0.1 M of ZnCl{sub 2} complexed with ammonium hydroxide and water close to boiling point (92 deg. C) as a second solution was used for the ZnO films. An uncomplexed bath comprised of 0.1 M ZnCl{sub 2}, 0.1 M MnCl{sub 2,} and a second solution of 0.1 ml of NH{sub 4}OH with water close to boiling point was used for the ZnMnO films. The film samples were deposited by the SILAR method and annealed at 200 deg. C for 15 min. These samples were characterized using X-Ray Diffraction (XRD), Scanning Electron Microscopy with Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDS), and Atomic Force Microscope. Atomic absorption was used to determine quantitatively the amount of Mn incorporated into the films. According to the XRD patterns these films were polycrystalline with wurtzite hexagonal structure. The morphology of the ZnO films constituted by rice-like and flower-like structures changed significantly to nanosheet structures with the Mn incorporation. The Mn inclusion in a ZnO structure was less than 4% according to the results from EDS, XRD, and atomic absorption.

  12. Atmospheric Deposition: Sampling Procedures, Analytical Methods, and Main Recent Findings from the Scientific Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Amodio

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The atmosphere is a carrier on which some natural and anthropogenic organic and inorganic chemicals are transported, and the wet and dry deposition events are the most important processes that remove those chemicals, depositing it on soil and water. A wide variety of different collectors were tested to evaluate site-specificity, seasonality and daily variability of settleable particle concentrations. Deposition fluxes of POPs showed spatial and seasonal variations, diagnostic ratios of PAHs on deposited particles, allowed the discrimination between pyrolytic or petrogenic sources. Congener pattern analysis and bulk deposition fluxes in rural sites confirmed long-range atmospheric transport of PCDDs/Fs. More and more sophisticated and newly designed deposition samplers have being used for characterization of deposited mercury, demonstrating the importance of rain scavenging and the relatively higher magnitude of Hg deposition from Chinese anthropogenic sources. Recently biological monitors demonstrated that PAH concentrations in lichens were comparable with concentrations measured in a conventional active sampler in an outdoor environment. In this review the authors explore the methodological approaches used for the assessment of atmospheric deposition, from the analysis of the sampling methods, the analytical procedures for chemical characterization of pollutants and the main results from the scientific literature.

  13. GEOLOGICAL-GEOPHYSICAL EXPLORATION OF THE BAUXITE DEPOSITS APPLICATION OF THE SHALLOW SEIZMIC REFLECTION METHOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Dragičević

    1991-12-01

    Full Text Available The exploration of bauxite deposits in the region of the carbonaceous Dinarides has been performed by using different geological and geophysical methods. Deposits laying shallower or deeper below the roof sediments have so far most often been discovered by expensive drilling methods in a corresponding grid. Complex geological explorations have led to a series of valuable data thus enabling the application of other much more economical methods as well. In the region of the bauxite sedimentary basin Mesihovina-Rakitno, western Herzegovina, at the site of Studena vrila - after extensive geological explorations - a conclusion was drawn that the shallow seismic reflection geophysical method as well might be successfully applied in locating new bauxite deposits. In the paper, the geological framework of the bauxite deposits occurrences, stipulating the selection of this methode, will be presented. Measurements were performed on a known deposit (L-84, Povaljenica, completely defined by exploration drilling. The obtained results justify the selection of the shallow seismic reflection method as one of the methods for exploring bauxite deposits beneath the roof beds.

  14. An innovative jet boring mining method available for the high grade uranium ore underground deposits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Narcy, J.L.

    1996-01-01

    An innovative mining method, based on the capability of a high pressure water jet to desaggregate rock, has been conceived and tested with success at the highest grade uranium ore deposit in the world, the Cigar Lake deposit in Saskatchewan, Canada. 113 tonnes of ore at 13% U were mined out by a new jet-boring mining method operated on a semi-industrial basis, in 1992 during the test mining program of Cigar Lake Project. (author). 9 figs

  15. Isotope investigation of anodic slime movements in copper electrorefining baths

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urbanski, T.; Kohman, L.; Strzelecki, M.; Chojecki, M.; Kaczynska, R.; Wieclaw, B.

    1975-01-01

    A method was developed and introduced for monitoring the movement of silver-containing anodic slimes in copper electrorefining baths. Radioactive 111 Ag was used as tracer and copper plates labelled with the tracer were inserted into the anodes. During electrorefining the slime produced was continuously marked by the tracer. The activity of 111 Ag was measured at various points inside the bath by sampling and continuously registered with the aid of integrators. It was found that more than 99 percent of the slime slipped to the bottom of the bath close to the anode surface and did not migrate even at highest electrolyte flow rates. Small quantities of suspended slime contained an insignificant concentration of silver and should not be a source of cathode contamination. (author)

  16. Method for detecting clusters of possible uranium deposits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conover, W.J.; Bement, T.R.; Iman, R.L.

    1978-01-01

    When a two-dimensional map contains points that appear to be scattered somewhat at random, a question that often arises is whether groups of points that appear to cluster are merely exhibiting ordinary behavior, which one can expect with any random distribution of points, or whether the clusters are too pronounced to be attributable to chance alone. A method for detecting clusters along a straight line is applied to the two-dimensional map of 214 Bi anomalies observed as part of the National Uranium Resource Evaluation Program in the Lubbock, Texas, region. Some exact probabilities associated with this method are computed and compared with two approximate methods. The two methods for approximating probabilities work well in the cases examined and can be used when it is not feasible to obtain the exact probabilities

  17. The mechanical spectra of deposited materials by a composite reed vibration method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ying, X.N.; Zhang, L.; Yuan, Y.H.

    2010-01-01

    Recently a composite reed vibration method has been designed to measure the mechanical spectra (complex Young's modulus) of materials from liquid to solid state. The mechanical spectra of materials can be obtained from a composite system consisting of a substrate reed and of materials deposited on it. In this report, two sets of formulas to calculate the mechanical spectra of deposited materials are further analyzed. The proof is given for the previous named 'approximate formulas' (labeled as Formula II). Then the composite reed vibration method can be safely used as an extension of the mechanical spectrum method of the thin solid film. At the same time, some comments are made on previous analytical formulas (labeled as Formula I). At last, more experiments with a small amount of deposited materials are performed. It is found that smaller quantity is more favorable to achieve the intrinsic mechanical spectra of deposited materials.

  18. Measurement of the specific surface area of loose copper deposit by electrochemical methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. A. Dolmatova

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In the work the surface area of the electrode with dispersed copper deposit obtained within 30 seconds was evaluated by techniques of chronopotentiometry (CPM and impedance spectroscopy. In method CPM the electrode surface available for measurement depends on the value of the polarizing current. At high currents during the transition time there is a change of surface relief that can not determine the full surface of loose deposit. The electrochemical impedance method is devoid of this shortcoming since the measurements are carried out in indifferent electrolyte in the absence of current. The area measured by the impedance is tens of times higher than the value obtained by chronopotentiometry. It is found that from a solution containing sulfuric acid the deposits form with a high specific surface area. Based on these data it was concluded that the method of impedance spectroscopy can be used to measure in situ the surface area of the dispersed copper deposits.

  19. Reuse of Expired Cefort Drug in Nickel Electrodeposition From Watts Bath

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delia-Andrada Duca

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper demonstrates the possibility to use ceftriaxone (CEFTR active compound from expired Cefort as additive in nickel electrodeposition from Watts baths. Electrochemical behaviour and the influence of CEFTR on nickel electroplating were studied by electrochemical methods. Experimental data recommends CEFTR as additive in nickel electroplating from Watts baths.

  20. Potentiodynamic studies of Ni-P-TiO{sub 2} nano-composited coating on the mild steel deposited by electroless plating method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uttam, Vibha, E-mail: vibhauttam74@gmail.com; Duchaniya, R. K., E-mail: rkduchaniya.meta@mnit.ac.in [Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, MNIT Jaipur (India)

    2016-05-06

    Now a days, corrosion studies are important for reducing the wastage of metals. The importance of corrosion studies is two folds i.e. first is economic, including the reduction of material losses resulting from the wasting away or sudden failure of materials and second is conservation Electroless process is an autocatalytic reduction method in which metallic ions are reduced in the solution. Nanocomposite coatings of Ni-P-TiO{sub 2} on mild steel are deposited by varying volume of TiO{sub 2} nano-powder by electroless method from Ni-P plating bath containing Nickel Sulphate as a source of nickel ions, sodium hypophosphite as the reducing agent, lactic acid as a complexing agents and TiO{sub 2} nano powder. Electroless Ni-P-TiO{sub 2} coating have been widely used in the chemical process industries, mechanical industries, electronic industries and chloroalkali industries due to their excellent corrosion with mechanical properties. In the present work, deposition of Ni-P alloy coating and Ni-P-TiO{sub 2} nanocomposited coatings were done on the mild steel and corrosion properties were studied with Potentio-dynamic polarization measurements method in 3.5 wt% sodium chloride solution. It showed in the experiments that Ni-P-TiO{sub 2} nanocomposited coating has better corrosion resistance as comparedthan Ni-P alloy coating. Morphological studies were done by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), energy–dispersive analysis of X-ray (EDAX) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). These studies confirmed the deposition of Ni-P alloy coating and Ni-P-TiO{sub 2} nanocomposited coating.

  1. Potentiodynamic studies of Ni-P-TiO2 nano-composited coating on the mild steel deposited by electroless plating method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uttam, Vibha; Duchaniya, R. K.

    2016-05-01

    Now a days, corrosion studies are important for reducing the wastage of metals. The importance of corrosion studies is two folds i.e. first is economic, including the reduction of material losses resulting from the wasting away or sudden failure of materials and second is conservation Electroless process is an autocatalytic reduction method in which metallic ions are reduced in the solution. Nanocomposite coatings of Ni-P-TiO2 on mild steel are deposited by varying volume of TiO2 nano-powder by electroless method from Ni-P plating bath containing Nickel Sulphate as a source of nickel ions, sodium hypophosphite as the reducing agent, lactic acid as a complexing agents and TiO2 nano powder. Electroless Ni-P-TiO2 coating have been widely used in the chemical process industries, mechanical industries, electronic industries and chloroalkali industries due to their excellent corrosion with mechanical properties. In the present work, deposition of Ni-P alloy coating and Ni-P-TiO2 nanocomposited coatings were done on the mild steel and corrosion properties were studied with Potentio-dynamic polarization measurements method in 3.5 wt% sodium chloride solution. It showed in the experiments that Ni-P-TiO2 nanocomposited coating has better corrosion resistance as comparedthan Ni-P alloy coating. Morphological studies were done by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), energy-dispersive analysis of X-ray (EDAX) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). These studies confirmed the deposition of Ni-P alloy coating and Ni-P-TiO2 nanocomposited coating.

  2. Numerical Models of Sewage Dispersion and Statistica Bathing Water Standards

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Ole; Larsen, Torben

    1991-01-01

    As bathing water standards usually are founded in statistical methods, the numerical models used in outfall design should reflect this. A statistical approach, where stochastic variations in source strength and bacterial disappearance is incorporated into a numerical dilution model is presented. ...

  3. Application of mathematical statistics methods to study fluorite deposits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chermeninov, V.B.

    1980-01-01

    Considered are the applicability of mathematical-statistical methods for the increase of reliability of sampling and geological tasks (study of regularities of ore formation). Compared is the reliability of core sampling (regarding the selective abrasion of fluorite) and neutron activation logging for fluorine. The core sampling data are characterized by higher dispersion than neutron activation logging results (mean value of variation coefficients are 75% and 56% respectively). However the hypothesis of the equality of average two sampling is confirmed; this fact testifies to the absence of considerable variability of ore bodies

  4. Novel composite cBN-TiN coating deposition method: structure and performance in metal cutting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Russell, W.C.; Malshe, A.P.; Yedave, S.N.; Brown, W.D.

    2001-01-01

    Cubic boron nitride coatings are under development for a variety of applications but stabilization of the pure cBN form and adhesion of films deposited by PVD and ion-based methods has been difficult. An alternative method for depositing a composite cBN-TiN film has been developed for wear related applications. The coating is deposited in a two-stage process utilizing ESC (electrostatic spray coating) and CVI (chemical vapor infiltration). Fully dense films of cBN particles evenly dispersed in a continuous TiN matrix have been developed. Testing in metal cutting has shown an increase in tool life (turning - 4340 steel) of three to seven times, depending of machining parameters, in comparison with CVD deposited TiN films. (author)

  5. Characterization of an innovative method for RuO2 deposition using Electron Microscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cavalca, Filippo

    Many photocatalysts work better or exclusively when a suitable cocatalyst, such as RuO2, is deposited on their surface. An innovative method of RuO2 deposition has been found to improve the performance of photocatalysts such as (Ga1-xZnx)(N1-xOx), WO3, SrTiO3 and TiO2. Here we use high angle annu...

  6. New depositing method of Langmuir-Blodgett film of fatty acid soap as a radioactive source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iwahashi, Makio; Watanabe, Norifumi; Seimiya, Tsutomu; Naito, Fujio

    1985-02-01

    A stable radioactive source in vacuo was obtained by a new depositing method of Langmuir-Blodgett (L/B) film. In spite of the slight consumption of the substrate solution (only 2-2.5 ml) for preparing a 15 mm x 25 mm sized L/B film containing four molecular layers of /sup 109/Cd-eicosanoate, the deposition of the film was complete. (author).

  7. New system for bathing bedridden patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenleaf, J. E.; Staley, R. A.; Payne, P. A.

    1973-01-01

    Multihead shower facility can be used with minimal patient handling. Waterproof curtain allows patient to bathe with his head out of shower. He can move completely inside shower to wash his face and hair. Main advantage of shower system is time saved in giving bath.

  8. Large capacity water and air bath calorimeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    James, S.J.; Kasperski, P.W.; Renz, D.P.; Wetzel, J.R.

    1993-01-01

    EG and G Mound Applied Technologies has developed an 11 in. x 17 in. sample size water bath and an 11 in. x 17 in. sample size air bath calorimeter which both function under servo control mode of operation. The water bath calorimeter has four air bath preconditioners to increase sample throughput and the air bath calorimeter has two air bath preconditioners. The large capacity calorimeters and preconditioners were unique to Mound design which brought about unique design challenges. Both large capacity systems calculate the optimum set temperature for each preconditioner which is available to the operator. Each system is controlled by a personal computer under DOS which allows the operator to download data to commercial software packages when the calorimeter is idle. Qualification testing yielded a one standard deviation of 0.6% for 0.2W to 3.0W Pu-238 heat standard range in the water bath calorimeter and a one standard deviation of 0.3% for the 6.0W to 20.0W Pu-238 heat standard range in the air bath calorimeter

  9. Method for in situ carbon deposition measurement for solid oxide fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhn, J.; Kesler, O.

    2014-01-01

    Previous methods to measure carbon deposition in solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) anodes do not permit simultaneous electrochemical measurements. Electrochemical measurements supplemented with carbon deposition quantities create the opportunity to further understand how carbon affects SOFC performance and electrochemical impedance spectra (EIS). In this work, a method for measuring carbon in situ, named here as the quantification of gasified carbon (QGC), was developed. TGA experiments showed that carbon with a 100 h residence time in the SOFC was >99.8% gasified. Comparison of carbon mass measurements between the TGA and QGC show good agreement. In situ measurements of carbon deposition in SOFCs at varying molar steam/carbon ratios were performed to further validate the QGC method, and suppression of carbon deposition with increasing steam concentration was observed, in agreement with previous studies. The technique can be used to investigate in situ carbon deposition and gasification behavior simultaneously with electrochemical measurements for a variety of fuels and operating conditions, such as determining conditions under which incipient carbon deposition is reversible.

  10. Deposition of titanium nitride layers by electric arc – Reactive plasma spraying method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Şerban, Viorel-Aurel; Roşu, Radu Alexandru; Bucur, Alexandra Ioana; Pascu, Doru Romulus

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Titanium nitride layers deposited by electric arc – reactive plasma spraying method. ► Deposition of titanium nitride layers on C45 steel at different spraying distances. ► Characterization of the coatings hardness as function of the spraying distances. ► Determination of the corrosion behavior of titanium nitride layers obtained. - Abstract: Titanium nitride (TiN) is a ceramic material which possesses high mechanical properties, being often used in order to cover cutting tools, thus increasing their lifetime, and also for covering components which are working in corrosive environments. The paper presents the experimental results on deposition of titanium nitride coatings by a new combined method (reactive plasma spraying and electric arc thermal spraying). In this way the advantages of each method in part are combined, obtaining improved quality coatings in the same time achieving high productivity. Commercially pure titanium wire and C45 steel as substrate were used for experiments. X-ray diffraction analysis shows that the deposited coatings are composed of titanium nitride (TiN, Ti 2 N) and small amounts of Ti 3 O. The microstructure of the deposited layers, investigated both by optical and scanning electron microscopy, shows that the coatings are dense, compact, without cracks and with low porosity. Vickers microhardness of the coatings presents maximum values of 912 HV0.1. The corrosion tests in 3%NaCl solution show that the deposited layers have a high corrosion resistance compared to unalloyed steel substrate.

  11. Reactive Chemical Vapor Deposition Method as New Approach for Obtaining Electroluminescent Thin Film Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina V. Utochnikova

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The new reactive chemical vapor deposition (RCVD method has been proposed for thin film deposition of luminescent nonvolatile lanthanide aromatic carboxylates. This method is based on metathesis reaction between the vapors of volatile lanthanide dipivaloylmethanate (Ln(dpm3 and carboxylic acid (HCarb orH2Carb′ and was successfully used in case of HCarb. Advantages of the method were demonstrated on example of terbium benzoate (Tb(bz3 and o-phenoxybenzoate thin films, and Tb(bz3 thin films were successfully examined in the OLED with the following structure glass/ITO/PEDOT:PSS/TPD/Tb(bz3/Ca/Al. Electroluminescence spectra of Tb(bz3 showed only typical luminescent bands, originated from transitions of the terbium ion. Method peculiarities for deposition of compounds of dibasic acids H2Carb′ are established on example of terbium and europium terephtalates and europium 2,6-naphtalenedicarboxylate.

  12. Co-deposition methods for the fabrication of organic optoelectronic devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Mark E.; Liu, Zhiwei; Wu, Chao

    2016-09-06

    A method for fabricating an OLED by preparing phosphorescent metal complexes in situ is provided. In particular, the method simultaneously synthesizes and deposits copper (I) complexes in an organic light emitting device. Devices comprising such complexes may provide improved photoluminescent and electroluminescent properties.

  13. Experimental Investigation of the Electro Co-deposition of (Zinc-Nickel Alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekhlas Abdulrahman Salman

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available abstract An experimental investigation has been carried out for zinc-nickel (Zn-Ni electro-deposition using the constant applied current technique. Weight difference approach method was used to determine the cathode current efficiency and deposit thickness. Also, the influence effect of current density on the deposition process, solderability, and porosity of the plating layer in microelectronic applications were examined. The bath temperature effect on nickel composition and the form of the contract was studied using Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM. Moreover, elemental nature of the deposition was analyzed by Energy Dispersive X-Ray (EDX. It has been found that the best bath temperature was 40˚C, specifically at a concentration of 73 g/L of NiCl2.6H2O, has a milestone influence on the nickel composition and structure of the deposits. The potential is a major factor influencing the deposition coating alloy which is adjusted by the operations of the cathodic polarization; rather than the standard potential of the two metals as determined by the e.m.f. series. The anomalous deposition was obtained at a current density lower than 0.8 A/dm2, while normal deposition occurred at current densities less than 1.2 A/dm2. Corrosion behavior was exhibited by the bath and for performance was carried out, and it shows that the best corrosion performance was for nickel composition of 10-12.6 wt%.

  14. Rapid processing method for solution deposited YBa2Cu3O7-δ thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dawley, J.T.; Clem, P.G.; Boyle, T.J.; Ottley, L.M.; Overmyer, D.L.; Siegal, M.P.

    2004-01-01

    YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7-δ (YBCO) films, deposited on buffered metal substrates, are the primary candidate for second-generation superconducting (SC) wires, with applications including expanded power grid transmission capability, compact motors, and enhanced sensitivity magnetic resonance imaging. Feasibility of manufacturing such superconducting wires is dependent on high processing speed, often a limitation of vapor and solution-based YBCO deposition processes. In this work, YBCO films were fabricated via a new diethanolamine-modified trifluoroacetic film solution deposition method. Modifying the copper chemistry of the YBCO precursor solution with diethanolamine enables a hundredfold decrease in the organic pyrolysis time required for MA/cm 2 current density (J c ) YBCO films, from multiple hours to ∼20 s in atmospheric pressure air. High quality, ∼0.2 μm thick YBCO films with J c (77 K) values ≥2 MA/cm 2 at 77 K are routinely crystallized from these rapidly pyrolyzed films deposited on LaAlO 3 . This process has also enabled J c (77 K)=1.1 MA/cm 2 YBCO films via 90 m/h dip-coating on Oak Ridge National Laboratory RABiTS textured metal tape substrates. This new YBCO solution deposition method suggests a route toward inexpensive and commercializable ∼$10/kA m solution deposited YBCO coated conductor wires

  15. Chemical vapour deposition - a promising method for production of different kinds of carbon nanotubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leonhardt, A.; Ritschel, M.; Bartsch, K.; Graff, A.; Taeschner, C.; Fink, J. [Institut fuer Festkoerper- und Werkstofforschung Dresden e.V. (Germany)

    2001-08-01

    Carbon nanostructures (fibres, multi and single walled tubes) have been synthesized by catalytic chemical vapour deposition. The catalyst material, deposition temperature and the used hydrocarbon are the main parameters responsible for the formation of the desired structure. In dependence on these parameters and by optimising the deposition process nanofibres with herringbone structure and tubular multiwalled nanotubes were deposited in large amounts and high purity. In the case of single wall nanotubes synthesis an aftertreatment and process is absolutely necessary to obtain material with high percentage of tubes. Layers of disordered and aligned multiwalled nanotubes were deposited on oxidised silicon substrates coated with thin sputtered metal layers (Co, permalloy) by using the micro-wave assisted plasma CVD process or the bias supported hot filament CVD method. The latter method allows relatively low deposition temperatures (550 - 750 C). The obtained carbon modifications were characterised by scanning and transmission electron microscopy. Furthermore, the electron field emission of the CNT's layers were investigated. (orig.)

  16. In vitro characterization of hydroxyapatite layers deposited by APS and HVOF thermal spraying methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radu Alexandru Roşu

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Titanium alloys are successfully used in medicine as implants due to their high mechanical properties and good biocompatibility. To improve implant osseointegration of titanium alloys, they are covered with hydroxyapatite because of its bioactive properties. Coating the implants with hydroxyapatite by thermal spraying, due to the temperatures developed during the deposition process, the structure can be degraded, leading to formation of secondary phases, such as TCP, TT CP, CaO. The paper presents the experimental results of hydroxyapatite layers deposition by two thermal spraying methods: Atmospheric Plasma Spraying (APS and High Velocity Oxy-Fuel (HVOF. The microstructure of the deposited layers is characterized by X-ray diffraction analysis and electronic microscopy. The bioactivity of the hydroxyapatite layers was investigated in Simulated Body Fluid (SBF by immersing the covered samples deposited by the two thermal spraying methods. In both cases the coatings did not present defects as cracks or microcracks. X-ray diffraction performed on hydroxyapatite deposited layers shows that the structure was strongly influenced by plasma jet temperature, the structure consisting mainly of TCP (Ca3PO42. The samples deposited by HVO F after immersing in SBF lead to formation of biological hydroxyapatite, certifying the good bioactivity of the coatings.

  17. Handbook of thin film deposition processes and techniques principles, methods, equipment and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Seshan, Krishna

    2002-01-01

    New second edition of the popular book on deposition (first edition by Klaus Schruegraf) for engineers, technicians, and plant personnel in the semiconductor and related industries. This book traces the technology behind the spectacular growth in the silicon semiconductor industry and the continued trend in miniaturization over the last 20 years. This growth has been fueled in large part by improved thin film deposition techniques and the development of highly specialized equipment to enable this deposition. The book includes much cutting-edge material. Entirely new chapters on contamination and contamination control describe the basics and the issues-as feature sizes shrink to sub-micron dimensions, cleanliness and particle elimination has to keep pace. A new chapter on metrology explains the growth of sophisticated, automatic tools capable of measuring thickness and spacing of sub-micron dimensions. The book also covers PVD, laser and e-beam assisted deposition, MBE, and ion beam methods to bring together a...

  18. The effects of two thick film deposition methods on tin dioxide gas sensor performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakrania, Smitesh D; Wooldridge, Margaret S

    2009-01-01

    This work demonstrates the variability in performance between SnO(2) thick film gas sensors prepared using two types of film deposition methods. SnO(2) powders were deposited on sensor platforms with and without the use of binders. Three commonly utilized binder recipes were investigated, and a new binder-less deposition procedure was developed and characterized. The binder recipes yielded sensors with poor film uniformity and poor structural integrity, compared to the binder-less deposition method. Sensor performance at a fixed operating temperature of 330 °C for the different film deposition methods was evaluated by exposure to 500 ppm of the target gas carbon monoxide. A consequence of the poor film structure, large variability and poor signal properties were observed with the sensors fabricated using binders. Specifically, the sensors created using the binder recipes yielded sensor responses that varied widely (e.g., S = 5 - 20), often with hysteresis in the sensor signal. Repeatable and high quality performance was observed for the sensors prepared using the binder-less dispersion-drop method with good sensor response upon exposure to 500 ppm CO (S = 4.0) at an operating temperature of 330 °C, low standard deviation to the sensor response (±0.35) and no signal hysteresis.

  19. The Effects of Two Thick Film Deposition Methods on Tin Dioxide Gas Sensor Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smitesh D. Bakrania

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available This work demonstrates the variability in performance between SnO2 thick film gas sensors prepared using two types of film deposition methods. SnO2 powders were deposited on sensor platforms with and without the use of binders. Three commonly utilized binder recipes were investigated, and a new binder-less deposition procedure was developed and characterized. The binder recipes yielded sensors with poor film uniformity and poor structural integrity, compared to the binder-less deposition method. Sensor performance at a fixed operating temperature of 330 ºC for the different film deposition methods was evaluated by exposure to 500 ppm of the target gas carbon monoxide. A consequence of the poor film structure, large variability and poor signal properties were observed with the sensors fabricated using binders. Specifically, the sensors created using the binder recipes yielded sensor responses that varied widely (e.g., S = 5 – 20, often with hysteresis in the sensor signal. Repeatable and high quality performance was observed for the sensors prepared using the binder-less dispersion-drop method with good sensor response upon exposure to 500 ppm CO (S = 4.0 at an operating temperature of 330 ºC, low standard deviation to the sensor response (±0.35 and no signal hysteresis.

  20. Inverse Leidenfrost effect: self-propelling drops on a bath

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gauthier, Anais; van der Meer, Devaraj; Lohse, Detlef; Physics of Fluids Team

    2017-11-01

    When deposited on very hot solid, volatile drops can levitate over a cushion of vapor, in the so-called Leidenfrost state. This phenomenon can also be observed on a hot bath and similarly to the solid case, drops are very mobile due to the absence of contact with the substrate that sustains them. We discuss here a situation of ``inverse Leidenfrost effect'' where room-temperature drops levitate on a liquid nitrogen pool - the vapor is generated here by the bath sustaining the relatively hot drop. We show that the drop's movement is not random: the liquid goes across the bath in straight lines, a pattern only disrupted by elastic bouncing on the edges. In addition, the drops are initially self-propelled; first at rest, they accelerate for a few seconds and reach velocities of the order of a few cm/s, before slowing down. We investigate experimentally the parameters that affect their successive acceleration and deceleration, such as the size and nature of the drops and we discuss the origin of this pattern.

  1. Lattice-Boltzmann Method with Dynamic Grid Refinement for Simulating Particle Deposition on a Single Fibre

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helmut Schomburg

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available In this work a numerical approach to predict the deposition behaviour of nano-scale particles on the surface of a single fibre by resolving the resulting dendrite-like particle structures in detail is presented. The gas flow simulation is carried out by a two-dimensional Lattice-Boltzmann method, which is coupled with a Lagrangian approach for the particle motion. To decrease calculation time and system requirements the Lattice-Boltzmann model is extended to allow for local grid refinement. Because of the a priori unknown location of deposition, the simulation procedure starts on a coarse mesh which is then locally refined in a fully adaptive way in regions of accumulated particles. After each deposition the fluid flow is recalculated in order to resolve the coupling of the flow with the growing particle structures correctly. For the purpose of avoiding unphysical blocking of flow by growing particle dendrites the Lattice-Boltzmann method is extended to permeable cells in these regions using the Brinkmann equation. This extended deposition model is compared to simpler approaches, where the deposit has no retroaction on the flow or is treated as a solid structure. It is clear that the permeable model is most realistic and allows considering the particle deposition on a fibre as two-dimensional problem. Comprehensive simulations were conducted for analysing the importance of different parameters, i.e. free-stream velocity and particle diameter on the deposit structure. The results of this sensitivity analysis agree qualitatively well with former published numerical and experimental results. Finally the structure of the particle deposit was quantitatively characterised by using a modified fractal dimension.

  2. Method and system for near-field spectroscopy using targeted deposition of nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Mark S. (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    There is provided in one embodiment of the invention a method for analyzing a sample material using surface enhanced spectroscopy. The method comprises the steps of imaging the sample material with an atomic force microscope (AFM) to select an area of interest for analysis, depositing nanoparticles onto the area of interest with an AFM tip, illuminating the deposited nanoparticles with a spectrometer excitation beam, and disengaging the AFM tip and acquiring a localized surface enhanced spectrum. The method may further comprise the step of using the AFM tip to modulate the spectrometer excitation beam above the deposited nanoparticles to obtain improved sensitivity data and higher spatial resolution data from the sample material. The invention further comprises in one embodiment a system for analyzing a sample material using surface enhanced spectroscopy.

  3. Quantitative percutaneous CO2 measurement following CO2 mineral water baths by means of the isotope ratio

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mass, I.; Huebner, G.; Birkenfeld, H.; Zelaitis, L.; Ploetner, G.

    1983-01-01

    A method for the quantitative determination of the carbon dioxide penetration through the human skin during a medical carbon dioxide mineral water bath is described. The natural isotope variation of carbon in the carbon dioxide of bath water, blood, and exspiratory gas are used for the calculation of the penetrated carbon dioxide amount. The method permits to optimize the effectiveness of medical carbon dioxide baths. (author)

  4. Use of ultrasonic baths for analytical applications: a new approach for optimisation conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nascentes Clésia C.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Optimisation conditions for obtaining maximum cavitation intensity in ultrasonic baths are proposed using a simple and fast method. Parameters such as water volume, temperature, detergent concentration, horizontal and vertical positions, number of tubes in the bath, sonication time and bath water substitution were studied. The results obtained for both baths studied (Neytech and Cole-Parmer lead to the following conditions for maximum cavitation intensity: 1 L of water at room temperature, 0.2 % (v/v of detergent, central position on the bottom of the tank. Only one tube at a time should be used inside the bath during the ultrasound application. The cavitation intensity was linear with the sonication time up to 10 minutes and the water substitution during the sonication improved reproducibility. This system using continuous water change makes possible the sonication of 6 consecutive samples, without changes in the water volume.

  5. Graphene-based structure, method of suspending graphene membrane, and method of depositing material onto graphene membrane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zettl, Alexander K.; Meyer, Jannik Christian

    2013-04-02

    An embodiment of a method of suspending a graphene membrane across a gap in a support structure includes attaching graphene to a substrate. A pre-fabricated support structure having the gap is attached to the graphene. The graphene and the pre-fabricated support structure are then separated from the substrate which leaves the graphene membrane suspended across the gap in the pre-fabricated support structure. An embodiment of a method of depositing material includes placing a support structure having a graphene membrane suspended across a gap under vacuum. A precursor is adsorbed to a surface of the graphene membrane. A portion of the graphene membrane is exposed to a focused electron beam which deposits a material from the precursor onto the graphene membrane. An embodiment of a graphene-based structure includes a support structure having a gap, a graphene membrane suspended across the gap, and a material deposited in a pattern on the graphene membrane.

  6. The transformation to cadmium oxide through annealing of cadmium oxide hydroxide deposited by ammonia-free SILAR method and the photocatalytic properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chávez Urbiola, I.R.; Ramírez Bon, R.; Vorobiev, Y.V.

    2015-01-01

    Cadmium oxide-hydroxide films were prepared on glass substrates from aqueous alkaline solution at room temperature which was prepared by a more simple and economic version of chemical bath deposition — SILAR (successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction) method. The films obtained were converted to polycrystalline cadmium oxide by annealing treatment at different temperatures. It was found that the annealing temperature affects the grain size and films' density. The morphology, crystallinity, optical and electrical properties of the material obtained confirms its high quality. Finally its photocatalytical effect on methylene blue colorant was observed and analyzed. We expect that this method of CdO films preparation might be of interest for applications in solar energy converter and photocatalytical reactors. - Highlights: • Original SILAR production of Cd(O_2)_0_._8_8(OH)_0_._2_4 and its conversion to CdO were found. • Crystalline structure of CdO obtained is not different from that in bulk crystals. • The thickness of the film is controlled with the number of cycles. • The CdO and Cd(O_2)_0_._8_8(OH)_0_._2_4 has a similar photocatalytic effect • The properties of the CdO films are influenced by annealing process.

  7. The transformation to cadmium oxide through annealing of cadmium oxide hydroxide deposited by ammonia-free SILAR method and the photocatalytic properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chávez Urbiola, I.R., E-mail: ichavez@qro.cinvestav.mx; Ramírez Bon, R.; Vorobiev, Y.V.

    2015-10-01

    Cadmium oxide-hydroxide films were prepared on glass substrates from aqueous alkaline solution at room temperature which was prepared by a more simple and economic version of chemical bath deposition — SILAR (successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction) method. The films obtained were converted to polycrystalline cadmium oxide by annealing treatment at different temperatures. It was found that the annealing temperature affects the grain size and films' density. The morphology, crystallinity, optical and electrical properties of the material obtained confirms its high quality. Finally its photocatalytical effect on methylene blue colorant was observed and analyzed. We expect that this method of CdO films preparation might be of interest for applications in solar energy converter and photocatalytical reactors. - Highlights: • Original SILAR production of Cd(O{sub 2}){sub 0.88}(OH){sub 0.24} and its conversion to CdO were found. • Crystalline structure of CdO obtained is not different from that in bulk crystals. • The thickness of the film is controlled with the number of cycles. • The CdO and Cd(O{sub 2}){sub 0.88}(OH){sub 0.24} has a similar photocatalytic effect • The properties of the CdO films are influenced by annealing process.

  8. Remote sensing technology prospecting methods of interlayer oxidation zone type sandstone uranium deposit in Yili basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Xianfang; Huang Shutao; Pan Wei; Feng Jie; Liu Dechang; Zhang Jingbo; Xuan Yanxiu; Rui Benshan

    1998-12-01

    Taking Yili Basin as an example, remote sensing technology and method of interlayer oxidation zone type sandstone uranium deposit have systematically been summarized. Firstly, principle, methods and procedures of the second development of scientific experimental satellite photograph have been elaborated in detail. Three dimensional stereo simulation, display, and multi-parameters extraction have been recommended. Secondarily, the research is focused on prospective section image features in different type images and their geological implications and on establishing recognition keys of promising areas. Finally, based on above research results, three graded predictions, i.e. regional prospect, promising sections and favourable location in the deposit have been made step by step and reconnaissance and prospecting range are gradually reduced. The practice has indicated that breakthrough progress has been made in application to prospect prognosis of interlayer oxidation zone type sandstone uranium deposit and good verified results have been obtained

  9. Method to determine the sticking coefficient of precursor molecules in atomic layer deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rose, M.; Bartha, J.W.

    2009-01-01

    A method to determine the sticking coefficient of precursor molecules used in atomic layer deposition (ALD) will be introduced. The sticking coefficient is an interesting quantity for comparing different ALD processes and reactors but it cannot be observed easily. The method relies on free molecular flow in nanoscale cylindrical holes. The sticking coefficient is determined for tetrakis(dimethylamino)titanium in combination with ozone. The proposed method can be applied independent of the type of reactor, precursor delivery system and precursors.

  10. PREPARING OF THE CHAMELEON COATING BY THE ION JET DEPOSITION METHOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakub Skocdopole

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Preparation of chameleon coatings using an Ionized Jet Deposition (IJD technique is reported in the present paper. IJD is a new flexible method for thin film deposition developed by Noivion, Srl. The chameleon coatings are thin films characterised by a distinct change of their tribological properties according to the external conditions. The deposited films of SiC and TiN materials were examined by the Raman spectroscopy, SEM and XPS. The results of the Raman spectroscopy have proved an amorphous structure of SiC films. The data from XPS on TiN films have shown that the films are heavily oxidized, but also prove that the films are composed of TiN and pure Ti. The SEM provided information about the size of grains and particles constituting the deposited films, which is important for tribological properties of the films. Deposition of the chameleon coating is very complex problem and IJD could be ideal method for preparation of this coating.

  11. Cathodoluminescence characteristics of polycrystalline diamond films grown by cyclic deposition method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seo, Soo-Hyung; Park, Chang-Kyun; Park, Jin-Seok

    2002-01-01

    Polycrystalline diamond films were deposited using a cyclic deposition method where the H 2 plasma for etching (t E ) and the CH 4 +H 2 plasma for growing (t G ) are alternately modulated with various modulation ratios (t E /t G ). From the measurement of full width at half maximum and I D /I G intensity ratio obtained from the Raman spectra, it was found that diamond defects and non-diamond carbon phases were reduced a little by adopting the cyclic deposition method. From the cathodoluminescence (CL) characteristics measured for deposited films, the nitrogen-related band (centered at approximately 590 nm) as well as the so-called band-A (centered at approximately 430 nm) were observed. As the cyclic ratio t E /t G increased, the relative intensity ratio of band-A to nitrogen-related band (I A /I N ) was found to monotonically decrease. In addition, analysis of X-ray diffraction spectra and scanning electron microscope morphologies showed that CL characteristics of deposited diamond films were closely related to their crystal orientations and morphologies

  12. An indirect method to measure the electric charge deposited on insulators during PIXE analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dinator, M.I.; Cancino, S.A.; Miranda, P.A. [Departamento de Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Chile, Las Palmeras 3425, Nunoa, Santiago (Chile); Morales, J.R. [Departamento de Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Chile, Las Palmeras 3425, Nunoa, Santiago (Chile)], E-mail: rmorales@uchile.cl; Seelenfreund, A. [Universidad Academia de Humanismo Cristiano, Condell 343, Providencia, Santiago (Chile)

    2007-10-15

    Total charge deposited by a proton beam in an insulator during PIXE analysis has been indirectly determined using a Mylar film coated with cobalt. Elemental concentrations in the samples, pieces of volcanic glass, were obtained and compared to concentrations determined by ICP OES on the same samples. The strong agreement between these results shows the accuracy of the charge determined by this method.

  13. Analysis rbs of CdS thin films grown by cbd to different intensities of the magnetic field and temperature of the chemical bath

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pedrero, E.; Vigil, O.

    1999-01-01

    Depth and composition of CdS thin films grown by chemical bath deposition under different temperature and magnetic DC field conditions, were determined by Rutherford Backscattering Spectrometry. The above parameters were evaluated as a function of the bath temperature and the intensity of the induction magnetic field applied

  14. Electrodeposition of zinc-nickel alloy from fluoborate baths - as a substitute for electrogalvanising

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramesh Bapu, G.N.K.; Ayyapparaju, J.; Devaraj, G.

    Use of fluoborate electroytes have been investigated for depositing a suitable composition of zinc-nickel alloy on mild steel for better corrosion protection. In the present investigation, the plating and bath conditions have been optimized so that zinc-nickel alloy coating from fluoborate solutions find applications for plating wires as well as other articles advantageously in the place of zinc coatings.

  15. Electrodes from carbon nanotubes/NiO nanocomposites synthesized in modified Watts bath for supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakamada, Masataka; Abe, Tatsuhiko; Mabuchi, Mamoru

    2016-09-01

    A modified Watts bath coupled with pulsed current electroplating is used to uniformly deposit ultrafine nickel oxide particles (diameter < 4 nm) on multiwalled carbon nanotubes. The capacitance of the multiwalled carbon nanotubes/nickel oxide electrodes was as high as 2480 F g-1 (per mass of nickel oxide), which is close to the theoretical capacitance of NiO.

  16. MATADOR (Methods for the Analysis of Transport And Deposition Of Radionuclides) code description and User's Manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avci, H.I.; Raghuram, S.; Baybutt, P.

    1985-04-01

    A new computer code called MATADOR (Methods for the Analysis of Transport And Deposition Of Radionuclides) has been developed to replace the CORRAL-2 computer code which was written for the Reactor Safety Study (WASH-1400). This report is a User's Manual for MATADOR. MATADOR is intended for use in system risk studies to analyze radionuclide transport and deposition in reactor containments. The principal output of the code is information on the timing and magnitude of radionuclide releases to the environment as a result of severely degraded core accidents. MATADOR considers the transport of radionuclides through the containment and their removal by natural deposition and by engineered safety systems such as sprays. It is capable of analyzing the behavior of radionuclides existing either as vapors or aerosols in the containment. The code requires input data on the source terms into the containment, the geometry of the containment, and thermal-hydraulic conditions in the containment

  17. Voltammetric determination of Zn(II in Zn-Fe alloy electroplating baths using square-wave voltammetry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Favaron Regiane

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available A routine analytical method for zinc (II determination in Zn-Fe alloy galvanic baths was developed employing square-wave voltammetry with the static mercury drop electrode (SMDE as working electrode. Real alloy bath samples were analyzed by the standard addition method and recovery tests were undertaken. The supporting electrolytes used in the analyses were 1.0 mol L-1 NH3 / 0.2 mol L-1 NH4Cl or 0.1 mol L-1 citric acid (pH=3, presenting peak potentials for zinc (II, respectively, at -1.30 V and -0.99 V vs. Ag|AgCl (saturated KCl. The proposed voltammetric method showed a linear response range at 25 °C between 1.0 x 10-5 and 2.2 x 10-4 mol L-1 for zinc (II, in both electrolytes studied. The interference levels for some metals, such as Cu (II, Pb (II, Cr (III and Mn (II, which could prejudice Zn-Fe alloy deposition, were evaluated. These ions did not present significant degrees of interference in the zinc (II determination. The zinc (II recovery tests for the proposed method exhibited a good agreement with the reference method, showing relative errors lower than 3.0%.

  18. Fabrication of ordered bulk heterojunction organic photovoltaic cells using nanopatterning and electrohydrodynamic spray deposition methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sung-Eun; Kim, Sehwan; Kim, Kangmin; Joe, Hang-Eun; Jung, Buyoung; Kim, Eunkyoung; Kim, Woochul; Min, Byung-Kwon; Hwang, Jungho

    2012-12-21

    Organic photovoltaic cells with an ordered heterojunction (OHJ) active layer are expected to show increased performance. In the study described here, OHJ cells were fabricated using a combination of nanoimprinting and electrohydrodynamic (EHD) spray deposition methods. After an electron donor material was nanoimprinted with a PDMS stamp (valley width: 230 nm, period: 590 nm) duplicated from a Si nanomold, an electron acceptor material was deposited onto the nanoimprinted donor layer using an EHD spray deposition method. The donor-acceptor interface layer was observed by obtaining cross-sectional images with a focused ion beam (FIB) microscope. The photocurrent generation performance of the OHJ cells was evaluated with the current density-voltage curve under air mass (AM) 1.5 conditions. It was found that the surface morphology of the electron acceptor layer affected the current and voltage outputs of the photovoltaic cells. When an electron acceptor layer with a smooth thin (250 nm above the valley of the electron donor layer) surface morphology was obtained, power conversion efficiency was as high as 0.55%. The electrohydrodynamic spray deposition method used to produce OHJ photovoltaic cells provides a means for the adoption of large area, high throughput processes.

  19. Innovations in electrophoretic deposition: Alternating current and pulsed direct current methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chávez-Valdez, Alejandra; Boccaccini, Aldo R.

    2012-01-01

    This review summarizes emerging developments in the field of alternating current (AC) and pulsed direct current (DC) electrophoretic deposition (EPD) in aqueous or organic media. Numerous applications of AC-EPD are discussed including two major groups of investigations: (i) AC-EPD to suppress water hydrolysis at high voltages in inorganic (ceramic) coatings and (ii) AC-EPD for deposition of biological entities. The deposition, purification and manipulation of carbon nanotubes and nanoparticles by AC-EPD to form specific arrays, for development of sensors and other electronic devices and the application of AC-EPD as method for separation of particles according to their shape or size are also presented. Other applications reviewed relate to the fabrication by AC-EPD of toxic gas sensors from oxides and superconducting layers. The main materials being examined by AC-EPD are inorganic, including carbon nanotubes, TiO 2 nanoparticles, Al 2 O 3 , Si, SnO 2 , ZnO and WO 3 and biological entities, e.g. bacteria cells. For pulsed EPD, the applications reviewed are divided in pulsed current and pulsed voltage EPD. Among the applications of pulsed EPD, the formation of thick films from aqueous suspensions without water decomposition, the fabrication of multilayer and composite materials and the size-selective deposition of ceramic nanoparticles are the most important investigated to date, based on the quality of the coatings and deposits obtained and their relevance for applications.

  20. Diamond coating deposition by synergy of thermal and laser methods-A problem revisited

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ristic, Gordana S.; Trtica, Milan S.; Bogdanov, Zarko D.; Romcevic, Nebojsa Z.; Miljanic, Scepan S.

    2007-01-01

    Diamond coatings were deposited by synergy of the hot filament CVD method and the pulse TEA CO 2 laser, in spectroactive and spectroinactive diamond precursor atmospheres. Resulting diamond coatings are interpreted relying on evidence of scanning electron microscopy as well as microRaman spectroscopy. Thermal synergy component (hot filament) possesses an activating agent for diamond deposition, and contributes significantly to quality and extent of diamond deposition. Laser synergy component comprises a solid surface modification as well as the spectroactive gaseous atmosphere modification. Surface modification consists in changes of the diamond coating being deposited and, at the same time, in changes of the substrate surface structure. Laser modification of the spectroactive diamond precursor atmosphere means specific consumption of the precursor, which enables to skip the deposition on a defined substrate location. The resulting process of diamond coating elimination from certain, desired locations using the CO 2 laser might contribute to tailoring diamond coatings for particular applications. Additionally, the substrate laser modification could be optimized by choice of a proper spectroactive precursor concentration, or by a laser radiation multiple pass through an absorbing medium

  1. Potentiometric titration of zinc and cadmium in electrolytes of in galvanic baths

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kosyuga, E.A.; Kalugin, A.A.; Gur'ev, I.A.

    1979-01-01

    The method of potentiometric titration of zinc and cadmium by complexone 3 in electrolytes of galvanic baths using sulphide - silver electrode for determining the finite point of titration is suggested. Copper (2) ions are proposed as indicator ions. The potentiometric determination should be performed at pH=10. The method is verified on model electrolyte solutions and on the electrolyte solutions of operating baths.The technique can be used for automatic control. The time for analysis is 10 minutes

  2. Possible application of underground leaching of uranium in ''sandstone'' deposits by drilling method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bareja, E.

    1988-01-01

    Underground leaching as the method for excavation of uranium from its sandstone deposits is applied in many countries. A preliminary examination of a possible use of this method to sandstone deposits in Poland suggests it to be analysed against the uranium mineralization, noted within sediments of the Lower Triassic age in the Peribaltic Syneclise in the Krynica Morska - Paslek area. Before a definite decision on such exploitation of uranium, geologic and hydrogeologic conditions should be studied of individual uranium-bearing beds, particularly their permeability and insulation by impermeable claystone series as well as extraction of uranium from its bearing sandstones. The depth at which uranium-bearing beds occur, forms a very important item. The depth at which uranium ores described in literature and exploited by this method occur, does not exceed 700 m. 7 refs. (author)

  3. A prediction method for the wax deposition rate based on a radial basis function neural network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Xie

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The radial basis function neural network is a popular supervised learning tool based on machinery learning technology. Its high precision having been proven, the radial basis function neural network has been applied in many areas. The accumulation of deposited materials in the pipeline may lead to the need for increased pumping power, a decreased flow rate or even to the total blockage of the line, with losses of production and capital investment, so research on predicting the wax deposition rate is significant for the safe and economical operation of an oil pipeline. This paper adopts the radial basis function neural network to predict the wax deposition rate by considering four main influencing factors, the pipe wall temperature gradient, pipe wall wax crystal solubility coefficient, pipe wall shear stress and crude oil viscosity, by the gray correlational analysis method. MATLAB software is employed to establish the RBF neural network. Compared with the previous literature, favorable consistency exists between the predicted outcomes and the experimental results, with a relative error of 1.5%. It can be concluded that the prediction method of wax deposition rate based on the RBF neural network is feasible.

  4. A novel method of calculating the energy deposition curve of nanosecond pulsed surface dielectric barrier discharge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He, Kun; Wang, Xinying; Lu, Jiayu; Cui, Quansheng; Pang, Lei; Di, Dongxu; Zhang, Qiaogen

    2015-01-01

    To obtain the energy deposition curve is very important in the fields to which nanosecond pulse dielectric barrier discharges (NPDBDs) are applied. It helps the understanding of the discharge physics and fast gas heating. In this paper, an equivalent circuit model, composed of three capacitances, is introduced and a method of calculating the energy deposition curve is proposed for a nanosecond pulse surface dielectric barrier discharge (NPSDBD) plasma actuator. The capacitance C d and the energy deposition curve E R are determined by mathematically proving that the mapping from C d to E R is bijective and numerically searching one C d that satisfies the requirement for E R to be a monotonically non-decreasing function. It is found that the value of capacitance C d varies with the amplitude of applied pulse voltage due to the change of discharge area and is dependent on the polarity of applied voltage. The bijectiveness of the mapping from C d to E R in nanosecond pulse volumetric dielectric barrier discharge (NPVDBD) is demonstrated and the feasibility of the application of the new method to NPVDBD is validated. This preliminarily shows a high possibility of developing a unified approach to calculate the energy deposition curve in NPDBD. (paper)

  5. Mapping of an ultrasonic bath for ultrasound assisted extraction of mangiferin from Mangifera indica leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulkarni, Vrushali M; Rathod, Virendra K

    2014-03-01

    The present work deals with the mapping of an ultrasonic bath for the maximum extraction of mangiferin from Mangifera indica leaves. I3(-) liberation experiments (chemical transformations) and extraction (physical transformations) were carried out at different locations in an ultrasonic bath and compared. The experimental findings indicated a similar trend in variation in an ultrasonic bath by both these methods. Various parameters such as position and depth of vessel in an ultrasonic bath, diameter and shape of a vessel, frequency and input power which affect the extraction yield have been studied in detail. Maximum yield of mangiferin obtained was approximately 31 mg/g at optimized parameters: distance of 2.54 cm above the bottom of the bath, 7 cm diameter of vessel, flat bottom vessel, 6.35 cm liquid height, 122 W input power and 25 kHz frequency. The present work indicates that the position and depth of vessel in an ultrasonic bath, diameter and shape of a vessel, frequency and input power have significant effect on the extraction yield. This work can be used as a base for all ultrasonic baths to obtain maximum efficiency for ultrasound assisted extraction. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Polyamide 6/clay membranes: effect of precipitation bath in morphology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferreira, Rodholfo da S.B.; Pereira, Caio H. do O; Leite, Amanda M.D.; Araujo, Edcleide M.; Lira, Helio L.

    2015-01-01

    Polyamide 6 membranes and their nanocomposites with 5% clay were obtained by the phase inversion method and the precipitation was made in distilled water bath and also in the mixture of solvent and distilled water. The nanocomposites were characterized by XRD and membranes by SEM. By XRD analysis, it was found that the obtained nanocomposite presents a structure probably exfoliated and / or partially exfoliated, it was also possible to observe the presence of two characteristic peaks (α and γ) of the polyamide 6 phases. In the SEM micrographs it was seen that the presence of clay promote alterations in morphology, size and distribution of pores. The presence of acid in the precipitation bath leads to a significant decrease in the filter layer, but also an increase in the quantity of pore size. (author)

  7. Portable bathtub: technology for bed bath in bedridden patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dirce Stein Backes

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: determine the benefits of the Portable Bathtub as technology for bed bath in bedridden patients. Method: qualitative research of exploratory-descriptive character, whose data were collected by means of 30 interviews with patients, family members and professionals directly involved in bed bath, carried out with Portable Bathtub, in bedridden patients of a medical clinic, from July to December 2015. Results: from the data encoded by thematic content analysis resulted two categories: Portable Bathtub: from morphine to the patient's rekindled eyes; From mechanized practice to unique, transforming care. Conclusion: we concluded that the Portable Bathtub constitutes enhancing technology, as it enables clinical improvement of the patient's general condition and transcends traditional mechanized practices by the reach of advanced nursing care practices.

  8. Exploration of method determining hydrogeologic parameters of low permeability sandstone uranium deposits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ji Hongbin; Wu Liwu; Cao Zhen

    2012-01-01

    A hypothesis of regarding injecting test as 'anti-pumping' test is presented, and pumping test's 'match line method' is used to process data of injecting test. Accurate hydrogeologic parameters can be obtained by injecting test in the sandstone uranium deposits with low permeability and small pumping volume. Taking injecting test in a uranium deposit of Xinjiang for example, the hydrogeologic parameters of main ore-bearing aquifer were calculated by using the 'anti-pumping' hypothesis. Results calculated by the 'anti-pumping' hypothesis were compared with results calculated by water level recovery method. The results show that it is feasible to use 'anti-pumping' hypothesis to calculate the hydrogeologic parameters of main ore-bearing aquifer. (authors)

  9. Sampling methods for pasture, soil and deposition for radioactivity emergency preparedness in the Nordic countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isaksson, M.

    2002-01-01

    The aim of this work was to compare sampling techniques for pasture, soil and deposition, planned for radioactivity surveillance in emergency situations in the Nordic countries. The basis of the survey was a questionnaire, sent to radiation protection authorities and laboratories. Sampling of pasture is performed with a cutting height between 1 and 5 cm above the ground from an area of about 1 m 2 . The sampling plots are usually randomly positioned. Soil samples, 3 to 20 cores in various patterns, are generally taken by a corer of varying diameter. For deposition sampling, precipitation collectors of different sizes are used. When comparing results, the differences between laboratories should be borne in mind so that proper corrections can be made. It is, however, important to consider that, especially in an emergency situation, the use of standardised methods may worsen the results if these methods are not part of the daily work. (orig.)

  10. Experimental studies of thin films deposition by magnetron sputtering method for CIGS solar cell fabrication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gułkowski Sławomir

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Among a variety of the thin film solar cell technologies of second generation, copper-indium-gallium-diselenide device (CIGS with the latest highest lab cell efficiency record of 22.4 % seems to be the most promising for the power generation. This is partly due to the advantages of using low cost films of few microns thick not only as a metallic contacts but also as a main structure of the solar cell consisted of high quality semiconductor layers. This paper reports the experimental studies of the CIGS absorber formation on Soda Lime Glass substrate covered by thin molybdenum film as a back contact layer. All structures were deposited with the use of magnetron sputtering method only. Technological parameters of the deposition process such as deposition power, pressure and deposition time were optimized for each layer of the structure. Mo back contact was examined in terms of resistivity. EDS measurements were carried out to verify stoichiometric composition of CIGS absorber. Thin film of Al was used as a top contact in order to examine the quality of p-n junction. The I-V electrical characteristic of the p-n junction was analysed in terms of solar cell application.

  11. Experimental studies of thin films deposition by magnetron sputtering method for CIGS solar cell fabrication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gułkowski, Sławomir; Krawczak, Ewelina

    2017-10-01

    Among a variety of the thin film solar cell technologies of second generation, copper-indium-gallium-diselenide device (CIGS) with the latest highest lab cell efficiency record of 22.4 % seems to be the most promising for the power generation. This is partly due to the advantages of using low cost films of few microns thick not only as a metallic contacts but also as a main structure of the solar cell consisted of high quality semiconductor layers. This paper reports the experimental studies of the CIGS absorber formation on Soda Lime Glass substrate covered by thin molybdenum film as a back contact layer. All structures were deposited with the use of magnetron sputtering method only. Technological parameters of the deposition process such as deposition power, pressure and deposition time were optimized for each layer of the structure. Mo back contact was examined in terms of resistivity. EDS measurements were carried out to verify stoichiometric composition of CIGS absorber. Thin film of Al was used as a top contact in order to examine the quality of p-n junction. The I-V electrical characteristic of the p-n junction was analysed in terms of solar cell application.

  12. New 'ex vivo' radioisotopic method of quantitation of platelet deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Badimon, L.; Fuster, V.; Chesebro, J.H.; Dewanjee, M.K.

    1983-01-01

    We have developed a sensitive and quantitative method of 'ex vivo' evaluation of platelet deposition on collagen strips, from rabbit Achilles tendon, superfused by flowing blood and applied it to four animal species, cat, rabbit, dog and pig. Autologous platelets were labeled with indium-111-tropolone, injected to the animal 24 hr before the superfusion and the number of deposited platelets was quantitated from the tendon gamma-radiation and the blood platelet count. We detected some platelet consumption with superfusion time when blood was reinfused entering the contralateral jugular vein after collagen contact but not if blood was discarded after the contact. Therefore, in order to have a more physiological animal model we decided to discard blood after superfusion of the tendon. In all species except for the cat there was a linear relationship between increase of platelet on the tendon and time of exposure to blood superfusion. The highest number of platelets deposited on the collagen was found in cats, the lowest in dogs. Ultrastructural analysis showed the platelets were deposited as aggregates after only 5 min of superfusion.

  13. The Tobacco Deposition and Trial Testimony Archive (DATTA) project: origins, aims, and methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Ronald M; Douglas, Clifford E; Beasley, John K

    2006-12-01

    Research on previously secret tobacco industry documents has grown substantially during the past decade, since these documents first became available as the result of private and governmental litigation and investigations by the US Congress and the US Food and Drug Administration. Complementary research on tobacco litigation testimony is now being conducted through the Tobacco Deposition and Trial Testimony Archive (DATTA) project. We obtained transcripts of depositions and trial testimony, deposition and trial exhibits, expert reports, and other litigation documents from law firms, court reporter firms, individual lawyers and witnesses, tobacco company websites, and other sources. As of 3 March 2006, the publicly available collection of DATTA (http://tobaccodocuments.org/datta) contained 4850 transcripts of depositions and trial testimony, including a total of about 820,000 transcript pages. Transcripts covered testimony from 1957 to 2005 (85% were for testimony from 1990 to 2005) given by more than 1500 witnesses in a total of 232 lawsuits. Twelve research teams were established to study the transcripts, with each team covering a particular topic (for example, the health consequences of tobacco use, addiction and pharmacology, tobacco advertising and promotion, tobacco-product design and manufacture, economic impact of tobacco use, youth initiation of tobacco use, and public understanding of the risks of tobacco use and exposure to second-hand smoke). The teams used qualitative research methods to analyse the documents, and their initial findings are published throughout this journal supplement.

  14. Deposition of Ni-CGO composite anodes by electrostatic assisted ultrasonic spray pyrolysis method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, J.-C.; Chang, C.-L.; Hsu, C.-S.; Hwang, B.-H.

    2007-01-01

    Deposition of composite films of Ni and Gd-doped ceria was carried out using the electrostatic assisted ultrasonic spray pyrolysis method for the first time. The composite films were highly homogeneous, as revealed by element mapping via energy-dispersive spectrometry. Scanning electron microscope examinations revealed that deposition temperature and electric field strength had profound influence on resultant microstructure, while composition of the precursor solution had little effect. A highly porous cauliflower structure ideal for solid oxide fuel cell anode performance was obtained with a deposition temperature of 450 deg. C under an electric field introduced by an applied voltage of 12 kV. Films obtained with a lower deposition temperature of 250 deg. C or a higher applied voltage of 15 kV resulted in denser films with low porosity, while lower applied voltages of 7 or 5 kV resulted in thinner or discontinuous films due to the insufficient electrostatic attraction on the aerosol droplets. As revealed by AC impedance measurement, the area specific resistances of the Ni-CGO anode with porous cauliflower structure were rather low and a value of 0.09 Ω cm 2 at 550 deg. C was obtained

  15. The annual averaged atmospheric dispersion factor and deposition factor according to methods of atmospheric stability classification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Hae Sun; Jeong, Hyo Joon; Kim, Eun Han; Han, Moon Hee; Hwang, Won Tae [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-09-15

    This study analyzes the differences in the annual averaged atmospheric dispersion factor and ground deposition factor produced using two classification methods of atmospheric stability, which are based on a vertical temperature difference and the standard deviation of horizontal wind direction fluctuation. Daedeok and Wolsong nuclear sites were chosen for an assessment, and the meteorological data at 10 m were applied to the evaluation of atmospheric stability. The XOQDOQ software program was used to calculate atmospheric dispersion factors and ground deposition factors. The calculated distances were chosen at 400 m, 800 m, 1,200 m, 1,600 m, 2,400 m, and 3,200 m away from the radioactive material release points. All of the atmospheric dispersion factors generated using the atmospheric stability based on the vertical temperature difference were shown to be higher than those from the standard deviation of horizontal wind direction fluctuation. On the other hand, the ground deposition factors were shown to be same regardless of the classification method, as they were based on the graph obtained from empirical data presented in the Nuclear Regulatory Commission's Regulatory Guide 1.111, which is unrelated to the atmospheric stability for the ground level release. These results are based on the meteorological data collected over the course of one year at the specified sites; however, the classification method of atmospheric stability using the vertical temperature difference is expected to be more conservative.

  16. Gold nanoparticles and films produced by a laser ablation/gas deposition (LAGD) method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawakami, Yuji; Seto, Takafumi; Yoshida, Toshinobu; Ozawa, Eiichi

    2002-01-01

    Gold nanoparticles have great potential for various nanoelectronic applications such as single electron transistors, an infrared absorption sensor and so on. It is very important to understand and control the size distribution of the particles for such a variety of applications. In this paper, we report the size distribution of gold nanoparticles and the relationship between the nanoparticle-films and the electrical property produced by a laser ablation method. Gold nanoparticle-films were prepared by a technique, which sprays nanoparticles on the substrate through a nozzle. We call it a gas deposition method. The nanoparticles were generated by the nanosecond pulsed Nd:YAG laser ablation of a gold substrate under a low-pressure inert gas atmosphere. The ambient pressure was changed to control the average size and their distribution. The particles produced in the generation chamber were transported by a helium carrier gas to the deposition chamber and deposited on a substrate to form the films composed of gold nanoparticles. The electrical resistivity of the generated gold nanoparticle-films on the glass substrates was measured using a four-probe method. The size distribution of the nanoparticles was examined using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and a low-pressure differential mobility analyzer (LP-DMA). The relationship between the particle size and the electrical properties of each film made by the different synthesis conditions were analyzed. The electrical resistivity changed from the order of 10 -5 to 10 -1 Ω cm depending on the ambient pressure and the size distribution

  17. Comparison of microscopic method and computational program for pesticide deposition evaluation of spraying

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaim Aldemir

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this work was to compare two methods to estimate the deposition of pesticide applied by aerial spraying. Hundred and fifty pieces of water sensitive paper were distributed over an area of 50 m length by 75 m width for sampling droplets sprayed by an aircraft calibrated to apply a spray volume of 32 L/ha. The samples were analysed by visual microscopic method using NG 2 Porton graticule and by an image analyser computer program. The results reached by visual microscopic method were the following: volume median diameter, 398±62 mum; number median diameter, 159±22 mum; droplet density, 22.5±7.0 droplets/cm² and estimated deposited volume, 22.2±9.4 L/ha. The respective ones reached with the computer program were: 402±58 mum, 161±32 mum, 21.9±7.5 droplets/cm² and 21.9±9.2 L/ha. Graphs of the spatial distribution of droplet density and deposited spray volume on the area were produced by the computer program.

  18. Quantum mechanical treatment of large spin baths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Röhrig, Robin; Schering, Philipp; Gravert, Lars B.; Fauseweh, Benedikt; Uhrig, Götz S.

    2018-04-01

    The electronic spin in quantum dots can be described by central spin models (CSMs) with a very large number Neff≈104 to 106 of bath spins posing a tremendous challenge to theoretical simulations. Here, a fully quantum mechanical theory is developed for the limit Neff→∞ by means of iterated equations of motion (iEoM). We find that the CSM can be mapped to a four-dimensional impurity coupled to a noninteracting bosonic bath in this limit. Remarkably, even for infinite bath the CSM does not become completely classical. The data obtained by the proposed iEoM approach are tested successfully against data from other, established approaches. Thus the iEoM mapping extends the set of theoretical tools that can be used to understand the spin dynamics in large CSMs.

  19. Novikov Engine with Fluctuating Heat Bath Temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwalbe, Karsten; Hoffmann, Karl Heinz

    2018-04-01

    The Novikov engine is a model for heat engines that takes the irreversible character of heat fluxes into account. Using this model, the maximum power output as well as the corresponding efficiency of the heat engine can be deduced, leading to the well-known Curzon-Ahlborn efficiency. The classical model assumes constant heat bath temperatures, which is not a reasonable assumption in the case of fluctuating heat sources. Therefore, in this article the influence of stochastic fluctuations of the hot heat bath's temperature on the optimal performance measures is investigated. For this purpose, a Novikov engine with fluctuating heat bath temperature is considered. Doing so, a generalization of the Curzon-Ahlborn efficiency is found. The results can help to quantify how the distribution of fluctuating quantities affects the performance measures of power plants.

  20. Comparing the effects of reflexology and foot bath on sleep quality in the elderly

    OpenAIRE

    Seyyedrasooli

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Sleep disturbances are common mental problems reported among elders. It seems some non-pharmacological interventions, can improve their sleep quality. The aim of this study is to compare the effectiveness of two interventions, reflexology and foot bath, on sleep quality in elderly people. Methods: This is a clinical trial without control group, conducted on 46 elderly men in two groups of reflexology and foot bath. Written informed consent was completed by subjects. Reflexolo...

  1. Method of research and study of uranium deposits; Methode de recherches et d'etude des gites uraniferes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lenoble, A [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1955-07-01

    In a first part, the author gives a fast retrospective of the evaluations of the uranium deposits in the French Union. The author established a method of prospecting and studying, modifiable at all times following the experiences and the results, permitting to make the general inventory of uranium resources on the territory. The method is based on: 1 - the determination of geological guides in order to mark the most promising deposits, 2 - the definition of a methodology adapted to every steps of the research, 3 - the choice of the material adapted for each of the steps. This method, originally established for the prospecting in crystalline massifs, is adaptable to the prospecting of the sedimentary formations. (M.B.) [French] Dans une premiere partie, l'auteur donne une retrospective rapide des estimations des gites uraniferes dans l'Union Francaise. L'auteur a etabli une methode de prospection et d'etude, modifiable a tout instant suivant les experiences et les resultats, permettant de faire l'inventaire general des ressources en uranium du territoire. La methode est base sur: 1 - la determination de guides geologiques afin de reperer les gisements les plus prometteurs, 2 - la definition d'une methodologie adaptee a chaque stade de la recherche, 3 - le choix du materiel adapte pour chacun des stades. Cette methode, a l'origine etablie pour la prospection en massifs cristallins, est adaptable a la prospection des formations sedimentaires. (M.B.)

  2. Low-temperature SiON films deposited by plasma-enhanced atomic layer deposition method using activated silicon precursor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suh, Sungin; Kim, Jun-Rae; Kim, Seongkyung; Hwang, Cheol Seong; Kim, Hyeong Joon, E-mail: thinfilm@snu.ac.kr [Department of Materials Science and Engineering with Inter-University Semiconductor Research Center (ISRC), Seoul National University, 599 Gwanak-ro, Gwanak-gu, Seoul 08826 (Korea, Republic of); Ryu, Seung Wook, E-mail: tazryu78@gmail.com [Department of Electrical Engineering, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305-2311 (United States); Cho, Seongjae [Department of Electronic Engineering and New Technology Component & Material Research Center (NCMRC), Gachon University, Seongnam-si, Gyeonggi-do 13120 (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-01-15

    It has not been an easy task to deposit SiN at low temperature by conventional plasma-enhanced atomic layer deposition (PE-ALD) since Si organic precursors generally have high activation energy for adsorption of the Si atoms on the Si-N networks. In this work, in order to achieve successful deposition of SiN film at low temperature, the plasma processing steps in the PE-ALD have been modified for easier activation of Si precursors. In this modification, the efficiency of chemisorption of Si precursor has been improved by additional plasma steps after purging of the Si precursor. As the result, the SiN films prepared by the modified PE-ALD processes demonstrated higher purity of Si and N atoms with unwanted impurities such as C and O having below 10 at. % and Si-rich films could be formed consequently. Also, a very high step coverage ratio of 97% was obtained. Furthermore, the process-optimized SiN film showed a permissible charge-trapping capability with a wide memory window of 3.1 V when a capacitor structure was fabricated and measured with an insertion of the SiN film as the charge-trap layer. The modified PE-ALD process using the activated Si precursor would be one of the most practical and promising solutions for SiN deposition with lower thermal budget and higher cost-effectiveness.

  3. Surface Modification of Ceramic Membranes with Thin-film Deposition Methods for Wastewater Treatment

    KAUST Repository

    Jahangir, Daniyal

    2017-12-01

    Membrane fouling, which is caused by deposition/adsorption of foulants on the surface or within membrane pores, still remains a bottleneck that hampers the widespread application of membrane bioreactor (MBR) technology for wastewater treatment. Recently membrane surface modification has proved to be a useful method in water/wastewater treatment to improve the surface hydrophilicity of membranes to obtain higher water fluxes and to reduce fouling. In this study, membrane modification was investigated by depositing a thin film of same thickness of TiO2 on the surface of an ultrafiltration alumina membrane. Various thin-film deposition (TFD) methods were employed, i.e. electron-beam evaporation, sputter and atomic layer deposition (ALD), and a comparative study of the methods was conducted to assess fouling inhibition performance in a lab-scale anaerobic MBR (AnMBR) fed with synthetic municipal wastewater. Thorough surface characterization of all modified membranes was carried out along with clean water permeability (CWP) tests and fouling behavior by bovine serum albumin (BSA) adsorption tests. The study showed better fouling inhibition performance of all modified membranes; however the effect varied due to different surface characteristics obtained by different deposition methods. As a result, ALD-modified membrane showed a superior status in terms of surface characteristics and fouling inhibition performance in AnMBR filtration tests. Hence ALD was determined to be the best TFD method for alumina membrane surface modification for this study. ALD-modified membranes were further characterized to determine an optimum thickness of TiO2-film by applying different ALD cycles. ALD treatment significantly improved the surface hydrophilicity of the unmodified membrane. Also ALD-TiO2 modification was observed to reduce the surface roughness of original alumina membrane, which in turn enhanced the anti-fouling properties of modified membranes. Finally, a same thickness of ALD

  4. Metal oxide targets produced by the polymer-assisted deposition method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia, Mitch A., E-mail: mitch@berkeley.ed [Department of Chemistry, Room 446 Latimer Hall, University of California Berkeley, Berkeley, CA 94720-1460 (United States); Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Ali, Mazhar N.; Chang, Noel N.; Parsons-Moss, T. [Department of Chemistry, Room 446 Latimer Hall, University of California Berkeley, Berkeley, CA 94720-1460 (United States); Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Ashby, Paul D. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Gates, Jacklyn M. [Department of Chemistry, Room 446 Latimer Hall, University of California Berkeley, Berkeley, CA 94720-1460 (United States); Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Stavsetra, Liv [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Gregorich, Kenneth E.; Nitsche, Heino [Department of Chemistry, Room 446 Latimer Hall, University of California Berkeley, Berkeley, CA 94720-1460 (United States); Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)

    2010-02-11

    The polymer-assisted deposition (PAD) method was used to create crack-free homogenous metal oxide films for use as targets in nuclear science applications. Metal oxide films of europium, thulium, and hafnium were prepared as models for actinide oxides. Films produced by a single application of PAD were homogenous and uniform and ranged in thickness from 30 to 320 nm. Reapplication of the PAD method (six times) with a 10% by weight hafnium(IV) solution resulted in an equally homogeneous and uniform film with a total thickness of 600 nm.

  5. Metal oxide targets produced by the polymer-assisted deposition method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia, Mitch A.; Ali, Mazhar N.; Chang, Noel N.; Parsons-Moss, T.; Ashby, Paul D.; Gates, Jacklyn M.; Stavsetra, Liv; Gregorich, Kenneth E.; Nitsche, Heino

    2010-01-01

    The polymer-assisted deposition (PAD) method was used to create crack-free homogenous metal oxide films for use as targets in nuclear science applications. Metal oxide films of europium, thulium, and hafnium were prepared as models for actinide oxides. Films produced by a single application of PAD were homogenous and uniform and ranged in thickness from 30 to 320 nm. Reapplication of the PAD method (six times) with a 10% by weight hafnium(IV) solution resulted in an equally homogeneous and uniform film with a total thickness of 600 nm.

  6. 2D modeling of direct laser metal deposition process using a finite particle method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anedaf, T.; Abbès, B.; Abbès, F.; Li, Y. M.

    2018-05-01

    Direct laser metal deposition is one of the material additive manufacturing processes used to produce complex metallic parts. A thorough understanding of the underlying physical phenomena is required to obtain a high-quality parts. In this work, a mathematical model is presented to simulate the coaxial laser direct deposition process tacking into account of mass addition, heat transfer, and fluid flow with free surface and melting. The fluid flow in the melt pool together with mass and energy balances are solved using the Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) software NOGRID-points, based on the meshless Finite Pointset Method (FPM). The basis of the computations is a point cloud, which represents the continuum fluid domain. Each finite point carries all fluid information (density, velocity, pressure and temperature). The dynamic shape of the molten zone is explicitly described by the point cloud. The proposed model is used to simulate a single layer cladding.

  7. Synthesis and Characterization of Molybdenum Doped ZnO Thin Films by SILAR Deposition Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radha, R.; Sakthivelu, A.; Pradhabhan, D.

    2016-08-01

    Molybdenum (Mo) doped zinc oxide (ZnO) thin films were deposited on the glass substrate by Successive Ionic Layer Adsorption and Reaction (SILAR) deposition method. The effect of Mo dopant concentration of 5, 6.6 and 10 mol% on the structural, morphological, optical and electrical properties of n-type Mo doped ZnO films was studied. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) results confirmed that the Mo doped ZnO thin films were polycrystalline with wurtzite structure. The field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) studies shows that the surface morphology of the films changes with Mo doping. A blue shift of the optical band gap was observed in the optical studies. Effect of Mo dopant concentration on electrical conductivity was studied and it shows comparatively high electrical conductivity at 10 mol% of Mo doping concentration.

  8. Apparatus and method for pulsed laser deposition of materials on wires and pipes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, Felix E.

    2003-01-01

    Methods and apparatuses are disclosed which allow uniform coatings to be applied by pulsed laser deposition (PLD) on inner and outer surfaces of cylindrical objects, such as rods, pipes, tubes, and wires. The use of PLD makes this technique particularly suitable for complex multicomponent materials, such as superconducting ceramics. Rigid objects of any length, i.e., pipes up to a few meters, and with diameters from less than 1 centimeter to over 10 centimeters can be coated using this technique. Further, deposition is effected simultaneously onto an annular region of the pipe wall. This particular arrangement simplifies the apparatus, reduces film uniformity control difficulties, and can result in faster operation cycles. In addition, flexible wires of any length can be continuously coated using the disclosed invention.

  9. Novel Evaporation Process for Deposition of Kesterite Thin Films Synthesized by Solvothermal Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. A. Estrada-Ayub

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Kesterite, a quaternary compound of Cu2ZnSnS4, is a promising option as a material absorber to reduce the cost of photovoltaic solar cells. The solvothermal method is a way to synthesize nanoparticles of this material. In this work, once synthesized, particles were deposited on a substrate through evaporation, and their morphological, structural, and optical properties were studied. Results show that changes of precursor ratios during solvothermal synthesis result in a modification of particle morphology but not on its size. The deposition of already synthesized kesterite through evaporation preserves kesterite structure and permits the formation of a homogenous film on a substrate. Optical reflectance and transmittance measurements allowed estimating the band-gap energy between 1.41 and 1.46 eV for representative samples, which is near the optimum for the absorber material.

  10. Dopamine/TiO{sub 2} hybrid thin films prepared by the liquid phase deposition method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gutierrez-Tauste, David [Departament de Quimica, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, Campus UAB, Edifici Cn, 08290 Cerdanyola del Valles, Barcelona (Spain)], E-mail: davidg@qf.uab.es; Domenech, Xavier [Departament de Quimica, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, Campus UAB, Edifici Cn, 08290 Cerdanyola del Valles, Barcelona (Spain); Domingo, Concepcion [Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales (CSIC), Campus UAB, 08290 Cerdanyola del Valles, Barcelona (Spain); Ayllon, Jose A. [Departament de Quimica, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, Campus UAB, Edifici Cn, 08290 Cerdanyola del Valles, Barcelona (Spain)

    2008-04-30

    Liquid phase deposition method is applied to one-step production of a hybrid material composed by dopamine(DA) and TiO{sub 2} anatase. An optimized amount of the enediol derivative is added to a fluoride titania precursor aqueous solution in order to entrap this modifier within the growing TiO{sub 2}, yielding a DA/TiO{sub 2} nanocomposite material. Uniform, well-adhered and brown-colored thin films are deposited on indium tin oxide covered glass substrate. The DA/TiO{sub 2} hybrid material has been characterized by infrared spectroscopy, electronic microscopy, X-ray diffraction and UV-vis spectroscopy. The formation of the hybrid material seems to be reasonably explained by linkage of different TiO{sub 2} nanocrystallites taking advantage of both enediol and amine groups of DA.

  11. Impedimetric Thiourea Sensing in Copper Electrorefining Bath based on DC Magnetron Sputtered Nanosilver as Highly Uniform Transducer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mozaffari, S.A.; Amoli, H. Salar; Simorgh, S.; Rahmanian, R.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Fabrication of a novel disposable impedimetric thiourea sensor based on nanostructured Ag film transducer. • Exploiting sputtering as a high-tech method for preparation of highly uniform nanostructured Ag film. • A wonderful combination of nanostructured Ag film and carbon paper substrate as remarkably stable and reproducible sensor for thiourea detection in copper electrorefining bath. • Application of impedimetric assessment for thiourea monitoring due to its rapidity, sensitivity, and repeatability. - Abstract: Highly uniform sputtered nanostructured silver (Nano-Ag) film on the conductive carbon paper (CP) substrate (Nano-Ag/CP) was applied as a novel approach for thiourea (TU) measurement in copper electrorefining bath. Nano-Ag film was achieved by direct current (DC) magnetron sputtering system at the optimized instrumental deposition conditions. Characterization of the surface structure of Nano-Ag film by field emission-scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), exhibits uniform Nano-Ag film as an effective transducer for TU sensing. Step by step monitoring of Nano-Ag/CP electrode fabrication were performed using electrochemical methods such as cyclic voltammetry (CV) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) techniques. Fabricated Nano-Ag/CP electrode was used for TU determination using EIS assessment. The impedimetric results show high sensitivity for TU sensing within 2.0–250 ppm.

  12. Measurement of unattached aerosols of 222 Rn progeny by means of an electrostatic deposition method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canoba, Analia C.; Lopez, Fabio O.

    2001-01-01

    A method for the measurement of unattached radon progeny based on its electrostatic deposition onto wire screens, using only one pump, has been implemented and calibrated. The importance of being able of making use of this method is related with the special radiological significance that has the unattached fraction of the short-lived radon progeny. Because of this, the assesment of exposure could be directly related to dose with far greater accuracy than before.The advantages of this method are its simplicity, even with the tools needed for the sample collection, as well as the measurement instruments used. Also, the suitability of this method is enhanced by the fact that it can effectively be used with a simple measuring procedure such as the Kusnetz method. (author)

  13. The influence of nonbilinear system-bath coupling on quantum-mechanical activated rate processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Navrotskaya, Irina; Geva, Eitan

    2006-01-01

    The dependence of quantum-mechanical activated rate processes on the system-bath coupling strength was investigated in the case of a double-well nonbilinearly coupled to a harmonic bath, where the system-bath coupling is linear in the bath coordinates and nonlinear in the reaction coordinate. Such nonbilinear coupling is known to give rise to a classical friction kernel which is explicitly dependent on the reaction coordinate. We show that it can also lead to quantum-mechanical barrier-crossing rates, whose dependence on the system-bath coupling strength is qualitatively different from that observed in the quantum-mechanical bilinear case and classical nonbilinear case. More specifically, it is shown that the quantum-mechanical barrier-crossing rate may monotonically increase as a function of the system-bath coupling strength, in cases where the classical barrier-crossing rate goes through a turnover, and that the rate of quantum-mechanical barrier-crossing can be lower than that of classical barrier-crossing. We show that those purely quantum-mechanical effects are of a thermodynamical, rather than dynamical, nature, and that they originate from the difference in friction between the barrier top and the reactant and product wells. Our conclusions are supported by results obtained via the CMD method, which were also found to be in very good agreement with numerically exact calculations based on the QUAPI method

  14. Methods of trend analysis for atmospheric deposition into the sea; Trendabschaetzung atmosphaerischer Stoffeintraege in die Meere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuhbier, P.; Uhlig, S.; Fraenzel, A.; Schick, N.

    2001-02-01

    In order to prevent a considerable deterioration in the detectability of time trends in depositions as a result of fluctuations in the climatic conditions, an adjustment whereby the entry data are recomputed into an 'average' weather conditions appears inevitable. Accordingly, the aim of the project was the development of a concept for the adjustment and trend analysis of depositions including the examination of a number of statistical methods, with the form of the adjustment being the focus of the work. As per this concept, adjustment takes place on the basis of monthly data. The adjusted depositions are then summarized before trend analysis follows on the basis of these adjusted annual depositions. Finally the trend sensitivity of the method is examined as part of a power analysis. A data bank-based software was developed as part of the project in order to carry out the extensive calculations. With this software, the most diverse trend analysis and adjustment methods were realised and tested. It may first of all be noted that the evaluations conducted confirm the practicality of the adjustment concept developed, with various methods being deployable for fixing the adjustment parameter according to the measurement site and parameter concerned. The average reduction in the scatter of the annual depositions vis-'a-vis the non-adjusted depositions is over 40%. This amounts to a substantial improvement in trend sensitivity and makes for a clear reduction in the length of the requisite time series. However, there is no method among the adjustment methods investigated which, considering all the prerequisites, may be regarded as being superior to the other methods. The question as to which form of adjustment yields the most favourable results depends on the pollutants and the site-related conditions in each case. (orig.) [German] Um zu verhindern, dass durch klimatische Schwankungen die Nachweisbarkeit zeitlicher Trends in Depositionen wesentlich

  15. National implementation of the UNECE convention on long-range transboundary air pollution (effects). Pt. 1. Deposition loads: methods, modelling and mapping results, trends

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gauger, Thomas [Federal Agricultural Research Centre, Braunschweig (DE). Inst. of Agroecology (FAL-AOE); Stuttgart Univ. (Germany). Inst. of Navigation; Haenel, Hans-Dieter; Roesemann, Claus [Federal Agricultural Research Centre, Braunschweig (DE). Inst. of Agroecology (FAL-AOE)

    2008-09-15

    The report on the implementation of the UNECE convention on long-range transboundary air pollution Pt.1, deposition loads (methods, modeling and mapping results, trends) includes the following chapters: Introduction, deposition on air pollutants used for the input for critical loads in exceeding calculations, methods applied for mapping total deposition loads, mapping wet deposition, wet deposition mapping results, mapping dry deposition, dry deposition mapping results, cloud and fog mapping results, total deposition mapping results, modeling the air concentration of acidifying components and heavy metals, agricultural emissions of acidifying and eutrophying species.

  16. Methods of mineral potential assessment of uranium deposits: A mineral systems approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaireth, S.

    2014-01-01

    deposit). The five questions include: i) what is the architecture and size of the system; ii) what is P-T and geodynamic history of the system; iii) what is the nature of the fluids and fluid reservoirs in the system; iv) what is the nature of fluid pathways; and v) what is the chemistry of metal transport and deposition in space as well as time. Analysis of fertile mineral systems can provide useful information on geological processes essential to form an economic mineral deposit in an area. Mappable features of these processes in geological datasets can then be used to estimate probabilities visualised in the form of mineral potential, prospectivity and favourability maps. The probabilities (levels of mineral potential, favourability index) can be either shown using non-numerical (high, moderate and low), ordinal (numbers expressing ranking) and cardinal (numbers expressing quantities) scales. This paper will discuss advantages and disadvantages of various GIS-based methods of qualitative assessment and will also present a number of case studies illustrating mineral potential assessment of uranium deposits carried out in Geoscience Australia. (author)

  17. Prospects of hydrocarbon deposits exploration using the method of induced polarization during geomagnetic-variation profiling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    К. М. Ермохин

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Traditionally it is believed that the effect of induced polarization is an interfering factor for the measurement of electromagnetic fields and their interpretation during conducting works using magnetotelluric sounding and geomag-netic-variation profiling methods. A new method is proposed for isolating the effects of induced polarization during geomagnetic-variation profiling aimed at searching for hydrocarbon deposits on the basis of phase measurements during the conduct of geomagnetic-variation profiling. The phenomenon of induced polarization is proposed to be used as a special exploration mark for deep-lying hydrocarbon deposits. The traditional method of induced polarization uses artificial field sources, the powers of which are principally insufficient to reach depths of 3-5 km, which leads to the need to search for alternative - natural sources in the form of telluric and magnetotelluric fields. The proposed method makes it possible to detect and interpret the effects of induced polarization from deep-seated oil and gas reservoirs directly, without relying on indirect signs.

  18. Methods of improvement of forecasting of development of mineral deposits' power supply

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander V. Putilov

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Mineral deposits (among which non-ferrous metals take a leading place are situated on the territory of our planet rather unevenly, and often in out-of-the-way places. Nuclear power (particularly, transportable nuclear power plants provides the new possibilities of power supply, which is very important for deposits' development. This article shares the economic aspects of forecasting in the field of power development (in particular, nuclear power on the basis of transportable nuclear power plants. Economic barriers of development of innovative nuclear technologies are considered on the example of transportable nuclear power plants. At the same time, there are given the ways of elimination of such barrier to development of this technology as methodical absence of investigation of a question of distribution of added cost between producers of innovative equipment and final product. Addition of new analytical tool (“business diagonal” is offered for a method of definition of economically efficient distribution of added cost (received as a result of introduction of innovative technologies between participants of production and consumption of atomic energy within the “economic cross” model. There is offered the order of use of method of cash flows discounting at calculations between nuclear market participants. Economic methods, offered in this article, may be used in forecasting of development of other energy technologies and introduction of prospective energy equipment.

  19. Palaeomagnetic dating method accounting for post-depositional remanence and its application to geomagnetic field modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsson, A.; Suttie, N.

    2016-12-01

    Sedimentary palaeomagnetic data may exhibit some degree of smoothing of the recorded field due to the gradual processes by which the magnetic signal is `locked-in' over time. Here we present a new Bayesian method to construct age-depth models based on palaeomagnetic data, taking into account and correcting for potential lock-in delay. The age-depth model is built on the widely used "Bacon" dating software by Blaauw and Christen (2011, Bayesian Analysis 6, 457-474) and is designed to combine both radiocarbon and palaeomagnetic measurements. To our knowledge, this is the first palaeomagnetic dating method that addresses the potential problems related post-depositional remanent magnetisation acquisition in age-depth modelling. Age-depth models, including site specific lock-in depth and lock-in filter function, produced with this method are shown to be consistent with independent results based on radiocarbon wiggle match dated sediment sections. Besides its primary use as a dating tool, our new method can also be used specifically to identify the most likely lock-in parameters for a specific record. We explore the potential to use these results to construct high-resolution geomagnetic field models based on sedimentary palaeomagnetic data, adjusting for smoothing induced by post-depositional remanent magnetisation acquisition. Potentially, this technique could enable reconstructions of Holocene geomagnetic field with the same amplitude of variability observed in archaeomagnetic field models for the past three millennia.

  20. Regression Methods for Virtual Metrology of Layer Thickness in Chemical Vapor Deposition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Purwins, Hendrik; Barak, Bernd; Nagi, Ahmed

    2014-01-01

    The quality of wafer production in semiconductor manufacturing cannot always be monitored by a costly physical measurement. Instead of measuring a quantity directly, it can be predicted by a regression method (Virtual Metrology). In this paper, a survey on regression methods is given to predict...... average Silicon Nitride cap layer thickness for the Plasma Enhanced Chemical Vapor Deposition (PECVD) dual-layer metal passivation stack process. Process and production equipment Fault Detection and Classification (FDC) data are used as predictor variables. Various variable sets are compared: one most...... algorithm, and Support Vector Regression (SVR). On a test set, SVR outperforms the other methods by a large margin, being more robust towards changes in the production conditions. The method performs better on high-dimensional multivariate input data than on the most predictive variables alone. Process...

  1. Comparison of the different methods for the recovery of suspended matter from estuarine waters: deposition, filtration and centrifugation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Etcheber, H; Jouanneau, J M

    1980-12-01

    The advantages and disadvantages of three methods used to recover heavy metals from estuarine waters are compared. Deposition, filtration, and centrifugation were used on samples from the Gironde estuary of France. Recovery by deposition is satisfactory in cases of flocculation and high turbidity. Centrifugation is reliable for the determination of several elements in zones of low turbidity. (12 references, 4 tables)

  2. Methods of optimization of reactive sputtering conditions of Al target during AlN films deposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chodun Rafal

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Encouraged by recent studies and considering the well-documented problems occurring during AlN synthesis, we have chosen two diagnostic methods which would enable us to fully control the process of synthesis and characterize the synthesized aluminum nitride films. In our experiment we have compared the results coming from OES measurements of plasma and circulating power characteristics of the power supply with basic features of the deposited layers. The dual magnetron system operating in AC mode was used in our studies. Processes of aluminum target sputtering were carried out in an atmosphere of a mixture of argon and nitrogen. The plasma emission spectra were measured with the use of a monochromator device. Analyses were made by comparing the positions and intensities of spectral lines of the plasma components. The results obtained allowed us to characterize the sputtering process under various conditions of gas mixture compositions as well as power distribution more precisely, which is reported in this work. The measured spectra were related to the deposition rate, the structure morphology of the films and chemical composition. Our work proved that the use of plasma OES and circulating power measurements make possible to control the process of sputtering and synthesis of deposited films in situ.

  3. Imaging Quaternary glacial deposits and basement topography using the transient electromagnetic method for modeling aquifer environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simard, Patrick Tremblay; Chesnaux, Romain; Rouleau, Alain; Daigneault, Réal; Cousineau, Pierre A.; Roy, Denis W.; Lambert, Mélanie; Poirier, Brigitte; Poignant-Molina, Léo

    2015-08-01

    Aquifer formations along the northern shore of the Saint-Lawrence River in Quebec (Canada) mainly consist of glacial and coastal deposits of variable thickness overlying Precambrian bedrock. These deposits are important because they provide the main water supply for many communities. As part of a continuing project aimed at developing an inventory of the groundwater resources in the Charlevoix and Haute-Côte-Nord (CHCN) regions of the province of Quebec in Canada, the central loop transient electromagnetic (TEM) method was used to map the principal hydrogeological environments in these regions. One-dimensional smooth inversion models of the TEM soundings have been used to construct two-dimensional electrical resistivity sections, which provided images for hydrogeological validation. Electrical contour lines of aquifer environments were compared against available well logs and Quaternary surface maps in order to interpret TEM soundings. A calibration table was achieved to represent common deposits and basements. The calibration table was then exported throughout the CHCN region. This paper presents three case studies; one in the Forestville site, another in the Les Escoumins site and the other in the Saint-Urbain site. These sites were selected as targets for geophysical surveys because of the general lack of local direct hydrogeological data related to them.

  4. Nanostructured CdS thin films deposited by spray pyrolysis method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kerimova, A.; Bagiyev, E.; Aliyeva, E.; Bayramov, A. [Institute of Physics, Azerbaijan National Academy of Sciences, Baku (Azerbaijan)

    2017-06-15

    Influence of solution pH on the structural and optical properties of CdS films deposited by conventional spray pyrolysis technique was studied. X-Ray Diffraction (XRD), Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM), Photoluminescence spectroscopy (PLS), and Spectroscopic Ellipsometry (SE) methods were used for the characterization of the deposited films. PL spectrum of the film deposited from the solution with pH = 10.2 shows broad-band PL emission located at 460 nm (2.7 eV), which can be attributed to the quantum size effect at grain sizes of <10 nm. No shifts of ε{sub 1} and ε{sub 2} due to the quantum size effect are observed in dielectric function spectra, what can be caused by low concentration of nano-sized (<10 nm) CdS grains. The change in the film properties with the pH of the solution was analyzed in terms of variation of grain sizes of the polycrystalline films. (copyright 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  5. Nuclear geophysical methods for exploration of wells in fields of solid mineral deposits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fel'dman, I.I.; Blyumentsev, A.M.; Karnikolo, V.F.; Zheltikov, A.N.

    1974-01-01

    Chromite and sulphur deposits have been used to illustrate the necessity and desirabilty of applying a combination of nuclear-geophysics logging methods and correlations between individual rock and ore components for localization and evaluation of ore bodies in borehole sections. On chromite deposits the combination includes neutron-capture spectrometric gamma-logging, epithermal neutron-neutron logging, selective gamma-gamma logging and gamma-gamma density logging. Neutron-capture spectrometric gamma-logging ensures an unambiguous localization of ores in borehole sections; epithermal neutron-neutron logging enables ores to be separated by the degree of dissemination; selective gamma-gamma logging is used to determine the content of Cr 2 O 3 and gamma-gamma density logging determines the volume weight. In addition a close correlation between Cr 2 O 3 and SiO 2 contents allows the silica content to be estimated. Application of a three-channel apparatus of the RSK-3 type ensures that all the measurements are made in two descent-ascension operations. The implementation of the combination described has ensured transition to drilling with a reduced selection of core samples. On sulphur deposits of carbonate type the combination includes epithermal neutron-neutron logging, gamma-gamma density logging and neutron-capture spectrometric gamma-logging

  6. Surface Enhanced Raman Scattering Substrates Made by Oblique Angle Deposition: Methods and Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hin On Chu

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Surface Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy presents a rapid, non-destructive method to identify chemical and biological samples with up to single molecule sensitivity. Since its discovery in 1974, the technique has become an intense field of interdisciplinary research, typically generating >2000 publications per year since 2011. The technique relies on the localised surface plasmon resonance phenomenon, where incident light can couple with plasmons at the interface that result in the generation of an intense electric field. This field can propagate from the surface from the metal-dielectric interface, so molecules within proximity will experience more intense Raman scattering. Localised surface plasmon resonance wavelength is determined by a number of factors, such as size, geometry and material. Due to the requirements of the surface optical response, Ag and Au are typical metals used for surface enhanced Raman applications. These metals then need to have nano features that improve the localised surface plasmon resonance, several variants of these substrates exist; surfaces can range from nanoparticles in a suspension, electrochemically roughened electrodes to metal nanostructures on a substrate. The latter will be the focus of this review, particularly reviewing substrates made by oblique angle deposition. Oblique angle deposition is the technique of growing thin films so that the material flux is not normal to the surface. Films grown in this fashion will possess nanostructures, due to the atomic self-shadowing effect, that are dependent mainly on the deposition angle. Recent developments, applications and highlights of surface enhanced Raman scattering substrates made by oblique angle deposition will be reviewed.

  7. Responses of Lithium-Modified Bath to a Shift in Heat Input/Output Balance and Observation of Freeze-Lining Formation During the Heat Balance Shift

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jingjing; Taylor, Mark; Dorreen, Mark

    2018-02-01

    In the aluminum electrolysis process, new industrial aluminum/electricity power markets demand a new cell technology to extend the cell heat balance and amperage operating window of smelters by shifting the steady states. The current work investigates the responses of lithium-modified bath system when the input/output balance is shifted in a laboratory analogue to the industrial heat balance shift. Li2CO3 is added to the cryolite-AlF3-CaF2-Al2O3 system as a bath modifier. A freeze deposit is formed on a `cold finger' dipped into the bath and investigated by X-ray diffraction analysis and electron probe X-ray microanalysis. The macro- and micro-structure of the freeze lining varies with the bath superheat (bath temperature minus bath liquidus temperature) and an open crystalline layer with entrapped liquid dominates the freeze thickness. Compared with the cryolite-AlF3-CaF2-Al2O3 bath system, the lithium-modified bath freeze is more sensitive to the heat balance shift. This freeze investigation provides primary information to understand the variation of the side ledge in an industrial cell when the lithium-modified bath system is used.

  8. Methods of three-dimensional electrophoretic deposition for ceramic and cermet applications and systems thereof

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Klint Aaron; Kuntz, Joshua D.; Worsley, Marcus

    2016-09-27

    A ceramic, metal, or cermet according to one embodiment includes a first layer having a gradient in composition, microstructure and/or density in an x-y plane oriented parallel to a plane of deposition of the first layer. A ceramic according to another embodiment includes a plurality of layers comprising particles of a non-cubic material, wherein each layer is characterized by the particles of the non-cubic material being aligned in a common direction. Additional products and methods are also disclosed.

  9. Self-organized synthesis of silver dendritic nanostructures via an electroless metal deposition method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, T.; Wu, X. L.; Mei, Y. F.; Chu, P. K.; Siu, G. G.

    2005-09-01

    Unique silver dendritic nanostructures, with stems, branches, and leaves, were synthesized with self-organization via a simple electroless metal deposition method in a conventional autoclave containing aqueous HF and AgNO3 solution. Their growth mechanisms are discussed in detail on the basis of a self-assembled localized microscopic electrochemical cell model. A process of diffusion-limited aggregation is suggested for the formation of the silver dendritic nanostructures. This nanostructured material is of great potential to be building blocks for assembling mini-functional devices of the next generation.

  10. Eight-term cyclic phosphites as coke deposit inhibitors and a method for producing them

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vershinin, P.V.; Chebotareva, E.G.; Kadyrova, V.Kh.; Kirpichnikov, P.A.; Pozdnev, V.V.; Vershinin, Yu.P.; Zharkova, V.M.

    1982-01-01

    It is proposed that a eight-term cyclic phosphite formula be used where R = methyl, R' = tertiary-butyl or alpha-methylcyclohexyl, R'' = tertiary-butyl, R''' = hydrogen, methyl, tertiary-butyle, bromine, X = methylene and sulfur as coke deposit inhibitors in the pyrolysis of petroleum raw materials. A method for producing the eight-term cyclic phosphite formula is proposed where a cyclic chlorophosphite formula interacts with a phenol formula in a medium of polar aprotic solvent using a base at 80-100 degrees.

  11. Optical Properties of a-SiC:H Films Deposited by Glowdischarge Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lusitra Munisa

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available he optical properties of amorphous silicon carbon films deposited by glowdischarge method have been studied using ultra violet-visible (uv-vis spectroscopy. The refractive index was calculated by Swanepoel’s formula using transmission data then followed by numerical simulation. The films density tends to decrease with increasing carbon content. The widening of the optical gap by increasing carbon content indicates the enhancement of film’s transparence. Both real and imaginary parts of the dielectric constant show variation in magnitude as the carbon content increase.

  12. Bulk heterojunction organic photovoltaic cell fabricated by the electrospray deposition method using mixed organic solvent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fukuda, Takeshi; Takagi, Kenji; Asano, Takashi [Department of Functional Materials Science, Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Saitama University, 255 Shimo-Okubo, Sakura-ku, Saitama 338-8570 (Japan); RIKEN, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wakou-shi, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Honda, Zentaro; Kamata, Norihiko; Ueno, Keiji; Shirai, Hajime [Department of Functional Materials Science, Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Saitama University, 255 Shimo-Okubo, Sakura-ku, Saitama 338-8570 (Japan); Ju, Jungmyoung; Yamagata, Yutaka; Tajima, Yusuke [RIKEN, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wakou-shi, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan)

    2011-07-15

    A high-efficiency bulk heterojunction organic photovoltaic cell (OPV) was achieved by the electrospray deposition method. The surface roughness of the P3HT:PCBM thin film can be reduced using the mixed solvent consisting of o-dichlorobenzene (o-DCB) and acetone. The effect of acetone concentration is related to its dielectric constant. Under an optimized concentration of acetone in o-DCB (20 vol%), the P3HT/PCBM active layer with a smooth surface can be formed, and the power conversion efficiency of the OPV was 1.9%. (copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  13. A Review of Carbon Nanomaterials’ Synthesis via the Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yehia M. Manawi

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Carbon nanomaterials have been extensively used in many applications owing to their unique thermal, electrical and mechanical properties. One of the prime challenges is the production of these nanomaterials on a large scale. This review paper summarizes the synthesis of various carbon nanomaterials via the chemical vapor deposition (CVD method. These carbon nanomaterials include fullerenes, carbon nanotubes (CNTs, carbon nanofibers (CNFs, graphene, carbide-derived carbon (CDC, carbon nano-onion (CNO and MXenes. Furthermore, current challenges in the synthesis and application of these nanomaterials are highlighted with suggested areas for future research.

  14. A Review of Carbon Nanomaterials’ Synthesis via the Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD) Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manawi, Yehia M.; Samara, Ayman; Al-Ansari, Tareq; Atieh, Muataz A.

    2018-01-01

    Carbon nanomaterials have been extensively used in many applications owing to their unique thermal, electrical and mechanical properties. One of the prime challenges is the production of these nanomaterials on a large scale. This review paper summarizes the synthesis of various carbon nanomaterials via the chemical vapor deposition (CVD) method. These carbon nanomaterials include fullerenes, carbon nanotubes (CNTs), carbon nanofibers (CNFs), graphene, carbide-derived carbon (CDC), carbon nano-onion (CNO) and MXenes. Furthermore, current challenges in the synthesis and application of these nanomaterials are highlighted with suggested areas for future research. PMID:29772760

  15. In Situ Coupling of Ultrasound to Electro- and Photo-Deposition Methods for Materials Synthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Magdziarz

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This short review provides the current state-of-the-art of in situ coupling of ultrasound to chemical deposition methods. A synergetic action of the ultrasound and light radiation or electrical fields may result in new powerful methodologies, and these include sonophotodeposition and sonoelectrodeposition processes. The effect of ultrasound is explained on the base of different physical mechanisms emerging from cavitation phenomenon. Some possible mechanisms of the interactions between ultrasound and photochemical and electrochemical processes are discussed here. The application of sonophotodeposition and sonoelectrodeposition as green energy sources in the syntheses of different nanomaterials is also reviewed.

  16. Method of determining paper-deposited materials, eg. lead, by their reaction with radioactive krypton

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tolgyessy, J.; Pruzinec, J.

    1976-01-01

    The invention claims a method of determining substances on a paper carrier based on the substance reaction with 85 Kr gas and the measurement of radioactivity of the kryptonate formed. Lead is shown as an example. Different amounts of lead acetate were deposited on Whatman 2 chromatographic paper as was an unknown sample of Pb salt. The paper was exposed to a 2.5 mCi 85 Kr atmosphere for 48 hours. The activity of the individual spots was then measured, a calibration curve established and the amount of lead in the analyzed sample read-out. (Ha)

  17. Atomic layer deposition-A novel method for the ultrathin coating of minitablets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hautala, Jaana; Kääriäinen, Tommi; Hoppu, Pekka; Kemell, Marianna; Heinämäki, Jyrki; Cameron, David; George, Steven; Juppo, Anne Mari

    2017-10-05

    We introduce atomic layer deposition (ALD) as a novel method for the ultrathin coating (nanolayering) of minitablets. The effects of ALD coating on the tablet characteristics and taste masking were investigated and compared with the established coating method. Minitablets containing bitter tasting denatonium benzoate were coated by ALD using three different TiO 2 nanolayer thicknesses (number of deposition cycles). The established coating of minitablets was performed in a laboratory-scale fluidized-bed apparatus using four concentration levels of aqueous Eudragit ® E coating polymer. The coated minitablets were studied with respect to the surface morphology, taste masking capacity, in vitro disintegration and dissolution, mechanical properties, and uniformity of content. The ALD thin coating resulted in minimal increase in the dimensions and weight of minitablets in comparison to original tablet cores. Surprisingly, ALD coating with TiO 2 nanolayers decreased the mechanical strength, and accelerated the in vitro disintegration of minitablets. Unlike previous studies, the studied levels of TiO 2 nanolayers on tablets were also inadequate for effective taste masking. In summary, ALD permits a simple and rapid method for the ultrathin coating (nanolayering) of minitablets, and provides nanoscale-range TiO 2 coatings on porous minitablets. More research, however, is needed to clarify its potential in tablet taste masking applications. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Assessment of nasal spray deposition pattern in a silicone human nose model using a color-based method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kundoor, Vipra; Dalby, Richard N

    2010-01-01

    To develop a simple and inexpensive method to visualize and quantify droplet deposition patterns. Deposition pattern was determined by uniformly coating the nose model with Sar-Gel (a paste that changes from white to purple on contact with water) and subsequently discharging sprays into the nose model. The color change was captured using a digital camera and analyzed using Adobe Photoshop. Several tests were conducted to validate the method. Deposition patterns of different nasal sprays (Ayr, Afrin, and Zicam) and different nasal drug delivery devices (Afrin nasal spray and PARI Sinustar nasal nebulizer) were compared. We also used the method to evaluate the effect of inhaled flow rate on nasal spray deposition. There was a significant difference in the deposition area for Ayr, Afrin, and Zicam. The deposition areas of Afrin nasal spray and PARI Sinustar nasal nebulizer (2 min and 5 min) were significantly different. Inhaled flow rate did not have a significant effect on the deposition pattern. Lower viscosity formulations (Ayr, Afrin) provided greater coverage than the higher viscosity formulation (Zicam). The nebulizer covered a greater surface area than the spray pump we evaluated. Aerosol deposition in the nose model was not affected by air flow conditions.

  19. Phosphorus-31 NMR (nuclear magnetic resonance) analysis of gold plating baths

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, R.E.

    1990-01-01

    This report describes the nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) analysis of the gold plating baths in the Micro-Miniature Electronic Assembly department of Allied-Signal Inc., Kansas City Division (KCD). The baths were analyzed for phosphorylated components. In freshly prepared gold plating baths, a 50-percent aqueous solution of aminotrimethylphosphonate (ATMP) is the principal compound observed. As the bath is used in production, the ATMP breaks down and new materials (phosphate, ADMP, and AMMP) are identified. The NMR method was used to monitor the concentrations of the ATMP and breakdown products for a nine-month period. The 225-liter bath had plated approximately 100 square feet of gold during the nine-month period. These results can be used to predict the performance of baths as they are used in production. The accuracy of the analysis is 96 percent for ATMP and 92 percent for phosphate. The precision (relative standard deviation) is 5.2 percent for ATMP and 4.5 percent for phosphate. 1 ref., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  20. Helpless patients' perception of bed-bath in tertiary health ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Helpless patients' perception of bed-bath in tertiary health institutions in Enugu, Southeast Nigeria. ... Journal Home > Vol 10, No 2 (2005) > ... patients to bed bathing by nurses is a very important aspect of quality assurance in nursing care.

  1. Optimization of mining methods for steep vein uranium ore deposits of French COGEMA company

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caleix, C.

    1985-01-01

    The Compagnie Generale des Matieres Nucleaires is currently exploiting several steep vein uranium deposits in France. The upper parts are exploited using the open-cast method, in the lower parts underground mining is used. The veins with a thickness of several meters fill faults caused by tectonic activity. With regard to the low strength of the rocks, wooden supports are used or fills. In the course of the past 25 years several mining methods have been tried of which overhand stoping was selected with an oblique ramp driven in the ore, this mainly for securing operating safety and the profitability of selective exploitation. In overburdens with a low bearing capacity the method of underhand benching in slices was used with a concrete fill and later underhand benching in slices with concrete reinforcing plates. Overhand stoping is being tried with fill and electric self-propelled machines left in the stope and mechanized driving of raises by full profile drilling. (B.S.)

  2. Corrosion and deposit evaluation in industrial plants by non destructive testing method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azali Muhammad; Abd Razak Hamzah; Abd Aziz Mohamed; Mohd Pauzi Ismail; S Saad; S Sayuti; S Ahmad

    2000-01-01

    In petrochemical plants, the detection of corrosion and evaluation of deposit in insulated pipes using a radiography method are very challenging tasks. This main degradation problem experienced by pipelines is due to water condensation. It will cause deposit and scale inside the pipe, as well as between the insulation and pipe for the cold temperature pipes. On the other hand, for the hot temperature pipes the main problem is mainly due to corrosion/erosion attack inside the pipe. In the case of corrosion study one of the most important parameters in a piping or pipeline to be monitored and measured is that the wall thickness. In general, most pipeline corrosion monitoring and evaluation for both insulated and non-insulated pipes is done by using an ultrasonic method. The most common technique for corrosion is that based on the A-Scan, using either a normal flow detector or some form of dedicated equipment. However, with recent development of ultrasonic technology, more advance method, namely B-Scan and C-scan techniques are also available. The most notable disadvantage of using this current method is that the insulation covered the pipe has to be removed before the inspection can be carried out and this is considered as not so cost effective. Due to this reason other alternative NDT method, namely radiographic testing method has been studied. The testing technique used in this studied are tangential technique and double wall radiographic technique which involve studying the changing in density of radiographic film. The result found using tangential technique is consistent with real thickness of the pipe. However for the later technique the result is only achieved with a reasonable accuracy when the changing in wall thickness is very small. The result of the studies is discussed in this paper

  3. Controlling of morphology and electrocatalytic properties of cobalt oxide nanostructures prepared by potentiodynamic deposition method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hallaj, Rahman [Department of Chemistry, University of Kurdistan, P.O. Box 416, Sanandaj (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Akhtari, Keivan [Department of Chemistry, University of Kurdistan, P.O. Box 416, Sanandaj (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Research Center for Nanotechnology, University of Kurdistan, P.O.Box 416, Sanandaj (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Salimi, Abdollah, E-mail: absalimi@uok.ac.ir [Department of Chemistry, University of Kurdistan, P.O. Box 416, Sanandaj (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Research Center for Nanotechnology, University of Kurdistan, P.O.Box 416, Sanandaj (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Soltanian, Saied [Department of Physics, University of Kurdistan, P.O. Box 416, Sanandaj (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2013-07-01

    Electrodeposited cobalt oxide nanostructures were prepared by Repetitive Triangular Potential Scans (RTPS) as a simple, remarkably fast and scalable potentiodynamic method. Electrochemical deposition of cobalt oxide nanostructures onto GC electrode was performed from aqueous Co(NO{sub 3}){sub 2}, (pH 6) solution using cyclic voltammetry method. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) were used to characterize the morphology of fabricated nanostructures. The evaluation of electrochemical properties of deposited films was performed using cyclic voltametry (CV) and impedance spectroscopy (IS) techniques. The analysis of the experimental data clearly showed that the variations of potential scanning ranges during deposition process have drastic effects on the geometry, chemical structure and particle size of cobalt oxide nanoparticles. In addition, the electrochemical and electrocatalytic properties of prepared nanostructures can be controlled through applying different potential windows in electrodeposition process. The imaging and voltammetric studies suggested to the existence of at least three different shapes of cobalt-oxide nanostructures in various potential windows applied for electrodeposition. With enlarging the applied potential window, the spherical-like cobalt oxide nanoparticles with particles sizes about 30–50 nm changed to the grain-like structures (30 nm × 80 nm) and then to the worm-like cobalt oxide nanostructures with 30 nm diameter and 200–400 nm in length. Furthermore, the roughness of the prepared nanostructures increased with increasing positive potential window. The GC electrodes modified with cobalt oxide nanostructures shows excellent electrocatalytic activity toward H{sub 2}O{sub 2} and As (III) oxidation. The electrocatalytic activity of cobalt oxide nanostructures prepared at more positive potential window toward hydrogen peroxide oxidation was increased, while for As(III) oxidation the electrocatalytic

  4. Controlling of morphology and electrocatalytic properties of cobalt oxide nanostructures prepared by potentiodynamic deposition method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hallaj, Rahman; Akhtari, Keivan; Salimi, Abdollah; Soltanian, Saied

    2013-01-01

    Electrodeposited cobalt oxide nanostructures were prepared by Repetitive Triangular Potential Scans (RTPS) as a simple, remarkably fast and scalable potentiodynamic method. Electrochemical deposition of cobalt oxide nanostructures onto GC electrode was performed from aqueous Co(NO 3 ) 2 , (pH 6) solution using cyclic voltammetry method. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) were used to characterize the morphology of fabricated nanostructures. The evaluation of electrochemical properties of deposited films was performed using cyclic voltametry (CV) and impedance spectroscopy (IS) techniques. The analysis of the experimental data clearly showed that the variations of potential scanning ranges during deposition process have drastic effects on the geometry, chemical structure and particle size of cobalt oxide nanoparticles. In addition, the electrochemical and electrocatalytic properties of prepared nanostructures can be controlled through applying different potential windows in electrodeposition process. The imaging and voltammetric studies suggested to the existence of at least three different shapes of cobalt-oxide nanostructures in various potential windows applied for electrodeposition. With enlarging the applied potential window, the spherical-like cobalt oxide nanoparticles with particles sizes about 30–50 nm changed to the grain-like structures (30 nm × 80 nm) and then to the worm-like cobalt oxide nanostructures with 30 nm diameter and 200–400 nm in length. Furthermore, the roughness of the prepared nanostructures increased with increasing positive potential window. The GC electrodes modified with cobalt oxide nanostructures shows excellent electrocatalytic activity toward H 2 O 2 and As (III) oxidation. The electrocatalytic activity of cobalt oxide nanostructures prepared at more positive potential window toward hydrogen peroxide oxidation was increased, while for As(III) oxidation the electrocatalytic activity decreased

  5. Comprehensive geophysical and geochemical method and prognosis criteria for the exploration of unconformity type uranium deposit in Russia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Mao; Chen Zuyi

    2007-01-01

    According to the transcripts of the lectures by Russian experts during the investigation and training in Russia, the comprehensive geophysical and geochemical method and the prognosis criteria of Russia's unconformity type uranium deposit exploration are introduced in the paper. (authors)

  6. Factors influencing the choice of bathing with medicated versus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Soap is a cleansing agent obtained through the chemical interaction between fat and alkali. Bathing has become a daily routine of most people as a result of the ready availability of the bathing soap. The aim of this study is to find out reasons for an individual's choice of bathing soap and awareness of any potential adverse ...

  7. A theory of electron baths: One-electron system dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDowell, H.K.

    1992-01-01

    The second-quantized, many-electron, atomic, and molecular Hamiltonian is partitioned both by the identity or labeling of the spin orbitals and by the dynamics of the spin orbitals into a system coupled to a bath. The electron bath is treated by a molecular time scale generalized Langevin equation approach designed to include one-electron dynamics in the system dynamics. The bath is formulated as an equivalent chain of spin orbitals through the introduction of equivalent-chain annihilation and creation operators. Both the dynamics and the quantum grand canonical statistical properties of the electron bath are examined. Two versions for the statistical properties of the bath are pursued. Using a weak bath assumption, a bath statistical average is defined which allows one to achieve a reduced dynamics description of the electron system which is coupled to the electron bath. In a strong bath assumption effective Hamiltonians are obtained which reproduce the dynamics of the bath and which lead to the same results as found in the weak bath assumption. The effective (but exact) Hamiltonian is found to be a one-electron Hamiltonian. A reduced dynamics equation of motion for the system population matrix is derived and found to agree with a previous version. This equation of motion is useful for studying electron transfer in the system when coupled to an electron bath

  8. 20 CFR 654.412 - Bathing, laundry, and handwashing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Bathing, laundry, and handwashing. 654.412... RESPONSIBILITIES OF THE EMPLOYMENT SERVICE SYSTEM Housing for Agricultural Workers Housing Standards § 654.412 Bathing, laundry, and handwashing. (a) Bathing and handwashing facilities, supplied with hot and cold...

  9. ZnO crystal growth on microelectrode by electrochemical deposition method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kondo, Y; Ashida, A; Nouzu, N; Fujimura, N

    2011-01-01

    Zinc Oxide crystals were grown by constant potential electrochemical deposition method on the substrate with the Pt working electrode which consists of Pt film with large area and μm-sized line and space structured area. In case of depositions with cathodic potential of -0.3V, ZnO crystal is not observed on the micro electrode, but observed on the electrode with large area (0.2 cm 2 ). By using electrolyte with higher pH, ZnO crystal grows on both areas. In case of lower pH, ZnO crystal does not grow on either. From these results, the pH range for growth of ZnO on the microelectrode seems to be higher than that on the electrode with large area. And, it is expected that the pH just on the surface of μm-sized electrode is lower than that in the bulk of electrolyte. Based on these results, it can be concluded that control of the pH in vicinity of the surface is very important to ECD method for micro- and nano-scaled devices.

  10. Preparation Of Deposited Sediment Sample By Casting Method For Environmental Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hutabarat, Tommy; Ristin PI, Evarista

    2000-01-01

    The preparation of deposited sediment sample by c asting m ethod for environmental study has been carried out. This method comprises separation of size fraction and casting process. The deposited sediment samples were wet sieved to separate the size fraction of >500 mum, (250-500) mum, (125-250) mum and (63-125) mum and settling procedures were followed for the separation of (40-63) mum, (20-40) mum, (10-20) mum and o C, ashed at 450 o C, respectively. In the casting process of sample, it was used polyester rapid cure resin and methyl ethyl ketone peroxide (MEKP) hardener. The moulded sediment sample was poured onto caster, allow for 60 hours long. The aim of this method is to get the casted sample which can be used effectively, efficiently and to be avoided from contamination of each other samples. Before casting, samples were grinded up to be fine. The result shows that casting product is ready to be used for natural radionuclide analysis

  11. A comparison of diamond growth rate using in-liquid and conventional plasma chemical vapor deposition methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Yoshiyuki; Toyota, Hiromichi; Nomura, Shinfuku; Mukasa, Shinobu; Inoue, Toru

    2009-01-01

    In order to make high-speed deposition of diamond effective, diamond growth rates for gas-phase microwave plasma chemical vapor deposition and in-liquid microwave plasma chemical vapor deposition are compared. A mixed gas of methane and hydrogen is used as the source gas for the gas-phase deposition, and a methanol solution of ethanol is used as the source liquid for the in-liquid deposition. The experimental system pressure is in the range of 60-150 kPa. While the growth rate of diamond increases as the pressure increases, the amount of input microwave energy per unit volume of diamond is 1 kW h/mm 3 regardless of the method used. Since the in-liquid deposition method provides a superior cooling effect through the evaporation of the liquid itself, a higher electric input power can be applied to the electrodes under higher pressure environments. The growth rate of in-liquid microwave plasma chemical vapor deposition process is found to be greater than conventional gas-phase microwave plasma chemical vapor deposition process under the same pressure conditions.

  12. A comparison of diamond growth rate using in-liquid and conventional plasma chemical vapor deposition methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Yoshiyuki; Toyota, Hiromichi; Nomura, Shinfuku; Mukasa, Shinobu; Inoue, Toru

    2009-06-01

    In order to make high-speed deposition of diamond effective, diamond growth rates for gas-phase microwave plasma chemical vapor deposition and in-liquid microwave plasma chemical vapor deposition are compared. A mixed gas of methane and hydrogen is used as the source gas for the gas-phase deposition, and a methanol solution of ethanol is used as the source liquid for the in-liquid deposition. The experimental system pressure is in the range of 60-150 kPa. While the growth rate of diamond increases as the pressure increases, the amount of input microwave energy per unit volume of diamond is 1 kW h/mm3 regardless of the method used. Since the in-liquid deposition method provides a superior cooling effect through the evaporation of the liquid itself, a higher electric input power can be applied to the electrodes under higher pressure environments. The growth rate of in-liquid microwave plasma chemical vapor deposition process is found to be greater than conventional gas-phase microwave plasma chemical vapor deposition process under the same pressure conditions.

  13. ANOMALOUS ELECTRODEPOSITION OF Fe-Ni ALLOY COATING FROM SIMPLE AND COMPLEX BATHS AND ITS MAGNETIC PROPERTY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M A Islam

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Electrodeposition of Fe-Ni thin films has been carried on copper substrate under various electrodeposition conditions from two simple and six complex baths. Sulfate baths composing of NiSO4. 7H2O, FeSO4.7H2O, H3BO3 and Na2SO4KEYWORDS: Anomalous Electrodeposition, Fe-Ni Coating, Complexing agent, Current Density, Magnetic Property. 1. INTRODUCTION Alloy electrodeposition technologies can extend tremendously the potential of electrochemical deposition processes to provide coatings that require unique mechanical, chemical and physical properties [1]. There has been a great research interest in the development and characterization of iron-nickel (Fe-Ni thin films due to their operational capacity, economic interest, magnetic and other properties [2]. Due to their unique low coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE and soft magnetic properties, Fe-Ni alloys have been used in industrial applications for over 100 years [3]. Typical examples of applications that are based on the low CTE of Fe-Ni alloys include: thermostatic bimetals, glass sealing, integrated circuit packaging, cathode ray tube, shadow masks, membranes for liquid natural gas tankers; applications based on the soft magnetic properties include: read-write heads for magnetic storage, magnetic actuators, magnetic shielding, high performance transformer cores. comprise the simple baths whereas complex baths were prepared by adding ascorbic acid, saccharin and citric acid in simple baths. The effect of bath composition, pH and applied current density on coating appearance, composition, morphology and magnetic property were studied. Wet chemical analysis technique was used to analyze the coating composition whereas SEM and VSM were used to study the deposit morphology and magnetic property respectively. Addition of complexing agents in plating baths suppressed the anomalous nature of Fe-Ni alloy electrodeposition. Coatings obtained from simple baths were characterized by coarse grained non

  14. Effects and safety of mechanical bathing as a complementary therapy for terminal stage cancer patients from the physiological and psychological perspective: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujimoto, Sawako; Iwawaki, Yoko; Takishita, Yukie; Yamamoto, Yoko; Murota, Masako; Yoshioka, Saori; Hayano, Azusa; Hosokawa, Toyoshi; Yamanaka, Ryuya

    2017-11-01

    In palliative care hospitals in Japan, mechanical bathing is conducted to maintain cleanliness. However, the physiological and psychological influence of mechanical bathing on patients has not been sufficiently studied. The objective of this study was to assess, using physiological and psychological indices, the effects of mechanical bathing care for patients in the terminal stage of cancer. Mechanical bathing was performed using a Marine Court SB7000 in a supine or semi-seated position. The heart rate variability analysis method was used to measure autonomic nervous system function. The patients' state of anxiety was assessed using the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI), a psychological index, and patients' verbal responses were also collected after mechanical bathing. Twenty-four patients were enrolled in this study. Their sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous activity did not differ before and after bathing. A significant difference was found between pre- and post-bathing anxiety, as evaluated by STAI (P mechanical bathing according to STAI evaluation and their verbal responses. The findings suggest that the method of bathing used in this study is safe and pain-relieving for terminal stage cancer patients. It is thus possible to provide safe and comfortable care for terminal stage cancer patients using mechanical baths. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com

  15. Characterization of ZnS thin films synthesized through a non-toxic precursors chemical bath

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodríguez, C.A. [Department of Materials Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University of Concepción, Edmundo Larenas 270, Concepción 4070409 (Chile); Sandoval-Paz, M.G. [Department of Physics, Faculty of Physics and Mathematics, University of Concepción, Concepción (Chile); Cabello, G. [Department of Basic Sciences, Faculty of Sciences, University of Bío-Bío, Campus Fernando May, Chillán (Chile); Flores, M.; Fernández, H. [Department of Physics, Faculty of Physics and Mathematics, University of Chile, Beauchef 850, Santiago (Chile); Carrasco, C., E-mail: ccarrascoc@udec.cl [Department of Materials Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University of Concepción, Edmundo Larenas 270, Concepción 4070409 (Chile)

    2014-12-15

    Highlights: • High quality ZnS thin films have been deposited by chemical bath deposition technique from a non-toxic precursor’s solution. • Nanocrystalline ZnS thin films with large band gap energy were synthesized without using ammonia. • Evidence that the growing of the thin films is carried out by means of hydroxide mechanism was found. • The properties of these ZnS thin films are similar and in some cases better than the corresponding ones produced using toxic precursors such as ammonia. - Abstract: In solar cells, ZnS window layer deposited by chemical bath technique can reach the highest conversion efficiency; however, precursors used in the process normally are materials highly volatile, toxic and harmful to the environment and health (typically ammonia and hydrazine). In this work the characterization of ZnS thin films deposited by chemical bath in a non-toxic alkaline solution is reported. The effect of deposition technique (growth in several times) on the properties of the ZnS thin film was studied. The films exhibited a high percentage of optical transmission (greater than 80%); as the deposition time increased a decreasing in the band gap values from 3.83 eV to 3.71 eV was observed. From chemical analysis, the presence of ZnS and Zn(OH){sub 2} was identified and X-ray diffraction patterns exhibited a clear peak corresponding to ZnS hexagonal phase (1 0 3) plane, which was confirmed by electron diffraction patterns. From morphological studies, compact samples with well-defined particles, low roughness, homogeneous and pinhole-free in the surface were observed. From obtained results, it is evident that deposits of ZnS–CBD using a non-toxic solution are suitable as window layer for TFSC.

  16. Non-invasive method for quantitative evaluation of exogenous compound deposition on skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stamatas, Georgios N; Wu, Jeff; Kollias, Nikiforos

    2002-02-01

    Topical application of active compounds on skin is common to both pharmaceutical and cosmetic industries. Quantification of the concentration of a compound deposited on the skin is important in determining the optimum formulation to deliver the pharmaceutical or cosmetic benefit. The most commonly used techniques to date are either invasive or not easily reproducible. In this study, we have developed a noninvasive alternative to these techniques based on spectrofluorimetry. A mathematical model based on diffusion approximation theory is utilized to correct fluorescence measurements for the attenuation caused by endogenous skin chromophore absorption. The limitation is that the compound of interest has to be either fluorescent itself or fluorescently labeled. We used the method to detect topically applied salicylic acid. Based on the mathematical model a calibration curve was constructed that is independent of endogenous chromophore concentration. We utilized the method to localize salicylic acid in epidermis and to follow its dynamics over a period of 3 d.

  17. Development of polishing methods for Chemical Vapor Deposited Silicon Carbide mirrors for synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuchs, B.A.; Brown, N.J.

    1987-01-01

    Material properties of Chemical Vapor Deposited Silicon Carbide (CVD SiC) make it ideal for use in mirrors for synchrotron radiation experiments. We developed methods to grind and polish flat samples of CVD SiC down to measured surface roughness values as low as 1.1 Angstroms rms. We describe the processing details, including observations we made during trial runs with alternative processing recipes. We conclude that pitch polishing using progressively finer diamond abrasive, augmented with specific water based lubricants and additives, produces superior results. Using methods based on these results, a cylindrical and a toroidal mirror, each about 100 x 300mm, were respectively finished by Continental Optical and Frank Cooke, Incorporated. WYCO Interferometry shows these mirrors have surface roughness less than 5.7 Angstroms rms. These mirrors have been installed on the LLNL/UC X-ray Calibration and Standards Facility at the Stanford Synthrotron Radiation Laboratory

  18. Hydroxyapatite coatings on titanium dioxide thin films prepared by pulsed laser deposition method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suda, Yoshiaki; Kawasaki, Hiroharu; Ohshima, Tamiko; Nakashima, Shouta; Kawazoe, Syuichi; Toma, Tetsuya

    2006-01-01

    Hydroxyapatite (HAp) coated on titanium dioxide (TiO 2 ) thin films has been developed to supplement the defects of both TiO 2 and HAp. Thin films have been prepared by pulsed laser deposition (PLD) method using HAp and HAp(10%) + TiO 2 targets. X-ray diffraction (XRD) shows that there are many small peaks of Ca 1 0(PO 4 ) 6 (OH) 2 crystal, and no impurity other than HAp is detected in HAp films prepared using pure HAp target. The composition ratio of the film was analyzed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). HAp coatings on TiO 2 thin films have been prepared using HAp(10%) + TiO 2 targets. XRD and XPS measurements suggest that crystalline HAp + TiO 2 thin films are obtained by the PLD method using HAp(10%) + TiO 2 target

  19. Methods for shifting the pattern of energy deposition with a MAPA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guerquin-Kern, J.L.; Hagmann, M.J.; Levin, R.L.

    1987-01-01

    In earlier work the authors observed local heating in bone when an amputated human leg was treated with a MAPA. For this reason we have experimentally compared several methods for controlling the pattern of energy deposition. These methods include radial displacement of the phantom relative to the MAPA, adjusting phase and magnitude of the currents in the dipole elements, and the use of dielectric spacers between the bolus and parts of the phantom. Cylindrical homogeneous muscle-phantoms have been used in these tests. Both theory and experiments show that greater displacement of the pattern can be obtained using phase-shifting than is possible with radial displacement of the phantom. Dielectric spacers act as a shield by decoupling the phantom from the MAPA. The dielectric spacers are simple to use and give results that are stable and easy to predict

  20. Deposition of additives onto surface of carbon materials by blending method--general conception

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Przepiorski, Jacek

    2005-01-01

    Carbon fibers loaded with potassium carbonate and with metallic copper were prepared by applying a blending method. Raw isotropic coal pitch was blended with KOH or CuBr 2 and obtained mixtures were subjected to spinning. In this way KOH and copper salt-blended fiber with uniform distribution of potassium and copper were spun. The raw fibers were exposed to stabilization with a mixture of CO 2 and air or air only through heating to 330 deg. C and next to treatment with carbon dioxide or hydrogen at higher temperatures. Electron probe micro-analysis (EPMA) analyses showed presence of potassium carbonate or metallic copper predominantly in peripheral regions of the obtained fibers. Basing on the mechanisms of potassium and copper diffusion over the carbon volume, generalized method for the deposition of additives onto surface of carbon materials is proposed

  1. Cannabinoid Hyperemesis Relieved by Compulsive Bathing

    OpenAIRE

    Chang, Yoon Hee; Windish, Donna M.

    2009-01-01

    Cannabinoid hyperemesis is a clinical syndrome characterized by repeated vomiting and associated learned compulsive hot water bathing behavior due to long-term marijuana use. Research has indentified type 1 cannabinoid receptors in the intestinal nerve plexus that have an inhibitory effect on gastrointestinal motility. This inhibitory effect may lead to hyperemesis in marijuana users. The thermoregulatory role of endocannabinoids may be responsible for the patient's need to take hot showers. ...

  2. Calcium phosphate/porous silicon biocomposites prepared by cyclic deposition methods: Spin coating vs electrochemical activation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hernandez-Montelongo, J., E-mail: jacobo.hernandez@uam.es [Departamento de Física Aplicada, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Gallach, D.; Naveas, N.; Torres-Costa, V. [Departamento de Física Aplicada, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Climent-Font, A. [Departamento de Física Aplicada, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Centro de Microanálisis de Materiales (CMAM), Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, Madrid 28049 (Spain); García-Ruiz, J.P. [Departamento de Biología Molecular, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, Cantoblanco, Madrid 28049 (Spain); Manso-Silvan, M. [Departamento de Física Aplicada, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, 28049 Madrid (Spain)

    2014-01-01

    Porous silicon (PSi) provides an excellent platform for bioengineering applications due to its biocompatibility, biodegradability, and bioresorbability. However, to promote its application as bone engineering scaffold, deposition of calcium phosphate (CaP) ceramics in its hydroxyapatite (HAP) phase is in progress. In that sense, this work focuses on the synthesis of CaP/PSi composites by means of two different techniques for CaP deposition on PSi: Cyclic Spin Coating (CSC) and Cyclic Electrochemical Activation (CEA). Both techniques CSC and CEA consisted on alternate Ca and P deposition steps on PSi. Each technique produced specific morphologies and CaP phases using the same independent Ca and P stem-solutions at neutral pH and at room temperature. The brushite (BRU) phase was favored with the CSC technique and the hydroxyapatite (HAP) phase was better synthesized using the CEA technique. Analyses by elastic backscattering spectroscopy (EBS) on CaP/PSi structures synthesized by CEA supported that, by controlling the CEA parameters, an HAP coating with the required Ca/P atomic ratio of 1.67 can be promoted. Biocompatibility was evaluated by bone-derived progenitor cells, which grew onto CaP/PSi prepared by CSC technique with a long-shaped actin cytoskeleton. The density of adhered cells was higher on CaP/PSi prepared by CEA, where cells presented a normal morphological appearance and active mitosis. These results can be used for the design and optimization of CaP/PSi composites with enhanced biocompatibility for bone-tissue engineering. - Highlights: • Proposed cyclic methods produce specific morphologies and CaP phases in biocomposites. • The brushite phase is favored in the biocomposite produced by Cyclic Spin Coating. • The hydroxyapatite phase is favored in the biocomposite produced by Cyclic Electrochemical Activation. • The Ca/P atomic ratio of hydroxyapatite was validated by elastic backscattering spectroscopy. • Cells grown showed morphological and

  3. Calcium phosphate/porous silicon biocomposites prepared by cyclic deposition methods: Spin coating vs electrochemical activation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hernandez-Montelongo, J.; Gallach, D.; Naveas, N.; Torres-Costa, V.; Climent-Font, A.; García-Ruiz, J.P.; Manso-Silvan, M.

    2014-01-01

    Porous silicon (PSi) provides an excellent platform for bioengineering applications due to its biocompatibility, biodegradability, and bioresorbability. However, to promote its application as bone engineering scaffold, deposition of calcium phosphate (CaP) ceramics in its hydroxyapatite (HAP) phase is in progress. In that sense, this work focuses on the synthesis of CaP/PSi composites by means of two different techniques for CaP deposition on PSi: Cyclic Spin Coating (CSC) and Cyclic Electrochemical Activation (CEA). Both techniques CSC and CEA consisted on alternate Ca and P deposition steps on PSi. Each technique produced specific morphologies and CaP phases using the same independent Ca and P stem-solutions at neutral pH and at room temperature. The brushite (BRU) phase was favored with the CSC technique and the hydroxyapatite (HAP) phase was better synthesized using the CEA technique. Analyses by elastic backscattering spectroscopy (EBS) on CaP/PSi structures synthesized by CEA supported that, by controlling the CEA parameters, an HAP coating with the required Ca/P atomic ratio of 1.67 can be promoted. Biocompatibility was evaluated by bone-derived progenitor cells, which grew onto CaP/PSi prepared by CSC technique with a long-shaped actin cytoskeleton. The density of adhered cells was higher on CaP/PSi prepared by CEA, where cells presented a normal morphological appearance and active mitosis. These results can be used for the design and optimization of CaP/PSi composites with enhanced biocompatibility for bone-tissue engineering. - Highlights: • Proposed cyclic methods produce specific morphologies and CaP phases in biocomposites. • The brushite phase is favored in the biocomposite produced by Cyclic Spin Coating. • The hydroxyapatite phase is favored in the biocomposite produced by Cyclic Electrochemical Activation. • The Ca/P atomic ratio of hydroxyapatite was validated by elastic backscattering spectroscopy. • Cells grown showed morphological and

  4. Investigation of ZnTe thin films grown by Pulsed Laser Deposition method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kotlyarchuk, B.; Savchuk, V.

    2007-01-01

    This paper is devoted to optimization of the Pulsed Laser Deposition (PLD) growth condition of ZnTe films on various substrates and subsequent investigation of relevant parameters of growth process, structural, optical and electrical properties of grown films. Studies of the effect of growth parameters on the structural quality and properties of grown films were carried out. X-ray diffraction measurements showed that the ZnTe films, which have been deposited at optimal substrate temperatures, were characterized by a (111) preferred orientation with large average grain size. The optical transmission and reflectance in the energy range 1.5-5.5 eV for films grown at various substrate temperatures were measured. We calculated the variation in the absorption coefficient with the photon energy from the transmittance spectrum for samples grown at various substrate temperatures. Obtained data were analyzed and the value of the absorption coefficient, for allowed direct transitions, has been determined as a function of photon energy. We found that the undoped ZnTe films, which were grown by the PLD method, are typically p-type and possess resistivity in the range of 10 3 Ωcm at room temperature. (copyright 2007 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  5. Method of suppressing the deposition of Co-60 to primary coolant pipeways in a nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoshi, Michio; Tachikawa, Enzo; Goto, Satoshi; Sagawa, Chiaki; Yonezawa, Chushiro.

    1987-01-01

    Purpose: To suppress the deposition of Co-60 to primary coolant pipeways in a nuclear reactor. Method: To reduce the accumulation of Co-60 by causing chemical species of extremely similar chemical property with soluble Co-60 to be present together in coolants and replacing the deposition of Co-60 to the primary coolant pipeways in a nuclear reactor with that of the coexistent chemical spacies. Ni or Zn is used as the coexistet chemical spacies of similar chemical property with Co-60. The coexistent amount is from 5 to 10 times of the soluble Co-60 in the primary coolants. Ni or Zn solution adjusted with concentration is poured into and mixed with the coolants from a water feed source by using a high pressure constant volume pump. The amount of Co-60 taken into the pipeways caused by corrosion due to high temperature coolant is reduced to about 1/5 as compared with the case of Co-60 alone if 1 ppb of soluble Co-60 is present in water and 5 ppb of soluble Ni or Zn is added and, reduced to 1/12 if the amount of Ni or Zn is 10 ppb. (Kamimura, M.)

  6. Ergodicity of the Stochastic Nosé-Hoover Heat Bath

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei Chung Lo,; Baowen Li,

    2010-07-01

    We numerically study the ergodicity of the stochastic Nosé-Hoover heat bath whose formalism is based on the Markovian approximation for the Nosé-Hoover equation [J. Phys. Soc. Jpn. 77 (2008) 103001]. The approximation leads to a Langevin-like equation driven by a fluctuating dissipative force and multiplicative Gaussian white noise. The steady state solution of the associated Fokker-Planck equation is the canonical distribution. We investigate the dynamics of this method for the case of (i) free particle, (ii) nonlinear oscillators and (iii) lattice chains. We derive the Fokker-Planck equation for the free particle and present approximate analytical solution for the stationary distribution in the context of the Markovian approximation. Numerical simulation results for nonlinear oscillators show that this method results in a Gaussian distribution for the particles velocity. We also employ the method as heat baths to study nonequilibrium heat flow in one-dimensional Fermi-Pasta-Ulam (FPU-β) and Frenkel-Kontorova (FK) lattices. The establishment of well-defined temperature profiles are observed only when the lattice size is large. Our results provide numerical justification for such Markovian approximation for classical single- and many-body systems.

  7. Measurement of the odor impact of a waste deposit using the SF6-tracer method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roetzer, H.; Muehldorf, V.; Riesing, J.

    1994-12-01

    Landfill gas emitted from a waste deposit often causes odor nuisance in the vicinity. For a new sanitary landfill to be established in an area where also other sources of odor existed, very low limits for additional odor nuisance were given by local authorities. To verify that the odor concentrations were below these limit values, the odor contributions of different sources had to be distinguished. Olfactometric methods, using human observers to estimate the intensity of odors, were not applicable to this problem. For direct measurements by analytical methods concentrations of odorous substances were too small. Therefore a tracer method was applied to measure the odor impact of the sanitary landfill to its environment. The emitted landfill gas was labelled with the tracer gas SF 6 . The tracer gas was parted to even amounts and released through ten special nozzles equally distributed over the surface of the landfill. In the area around the landfill the concentration of the tracer gas was measured by collecting air samples and analysing them with a gas chromatograph with an electron capture detector. Fifteen air sampling units were used to collect eight consecutive air samples at each selected point. These measurements gave the relation between the emission of landfill gas and the resulting concentrations in ambient air. With these transmission coefficients the concentrations of odorous gases at the sampling points were evaluated, using the emission concentrations measured by analytical techniques at the landfiIl site. The resulting odor concentrations were compared with values of odor thresholds to establish the odor impact of the waste deposit on the environment. (author)

  8. Dose calculation methods in photon beam therapy using energy deposition kernels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahnesjoe, A.

    1991-01-01

    The problem of calculating accurate dose distributions in treatment planning of megavoltage photon radiation therapy has been studied. New dose calculation algorithms using energy deposition kernels have been developed. The kernels describe the transfer of energy by secondary particles from a primary photon interaction site to its surroundings. Monte Carlo simulations of particle transport have been used for derivation of kernels for primary photon energies form 0.1 MeV to 50 MeV. The trade off between accuracy and calculational speed has been addressed by the development of two algorithms; one point oriented with low computional overhead for interactive use and one for fast and accurate calculation of dose distributions in a 3-dimensional lattice. The latter algorithm models secondary particle transport in heterogeneous tissue by scaling energy deposition kernels with the electron density of the tissue. The accuracy of the methods has been tested using full Monte Carlo simulations for different geometries, and found to be superior to conventional algorithms based on scaling of broad beam dose distributions. Methods have also been developed for characterization of clinical photon beams in entities appropriate for kernel based calculation models. By approximating the spectrum as laterally invariant, an effective spectrum and dose distribution for contaminating charge particles are derived form depth dose distributions measured in water, using analytical constraints. The spectrum is used to calculate kernels by superposition of monoenergetic kernels. The lateral energy fluence distribution is determined by deconvolving measured lateral dose distributions by a corresponding pencil beam kernel. Dose distributions for contaminating photons are described using two different methods, one for estimation of the dose outside of the collimated beam, and the other for calibration of output factors derived from kernel based dose calculations. (au)

  9. "Roman Baths" in Contemporary Spa Tourism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vesna Merc

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available The commercialisation of images and symbols from antiquity, so characteristic of Slovenia since its independence, has been reflected over the last decade in spa tourism as well. Since the great crises in the sixties, and especially since the eighties, fifteen Slovene natural health resorts have concentrated on developing wellness and activities programs. This change in orientation has been accompanied by renovations, an expansion of the water surfaces and capacities, and new wellbeing, wellness, spirituality and beauty programs. An analysis of Slovene spas, wellness centres and hotel web pages shows that they frequently offer rooms, usually saunas, which are imitations of the Roman baths. These rooms are usually called "Roman saunas", "Tepidarium", "Caldarium", and "Roman-Irish baths". At Terme Ptuj, Zdravilišče Laško, Šmarješke Toplice, Grand Hotel Palace in Portorož, and Terme Čatež, saunas have been built or renovated in the Roman style. This trend of Roman rooms is a novelty, less than a decade old in Slovenia. The first sauna with a Roman theme, a Roman-Irish bath, was opened in 1997 in the Health and Beauty Centre at Terme Čatež. Modern Roman saunas are very popular, found not only in Slovenia but also in other parts of Europe, especially Germany and Austria. Their popularity has spread from the areas formerly occupied by the Romans to other parts of world, for example the USA and the Republic of South Africa. An analysis of Slovene saunas and wellness centres reveals a well-established trend to recreate certain parts of the Roman baths. This is attempted not only through Roman-style decorations, but also through certain structures particular to the Roman baths, such as the caldarium, tepidarium, and in one case even a laconicum. The approach, however, is highly eclectic, blending Roman, Greek and, above all, modern elements. The purpose of such rooms is to increase the appeal of the spas, while their design is mostly based on

  10. An Advanced Electrospinning Method of Fabricating Nanofibrous Patterned Architectures with Controlled Deposition and Desired Alignment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasel, Sheikh Md

    We introduce a versatile advanced method of electrospinning for fabricating various kinds of nanofibrous patterns along with desired alignment, controlled amount of deposition and locally variable density into the architectures. In this method, we employed multiple electrodes whose potentials have been altered in milliseconds with the help of microprocessor based control system. Therefore, key success of this method was that the electrical field as well as charge carrying fibers could be switched shortly from one electrode's location to another, as a result, electrospun fibers could be deposited on the designated areas with desired alignment. A wide range of nanofibrous patterned architectures were constructed using proper arrangement of multiple electrodes. By controlling the concurrent activation time of two adjacent electrodes, we demonstrated that amount of fibers going into the pattern can be adjusted and desired alignment in electrospun fibers can be obtained. We also revealed that the deposition density of electrospun fibers in different areas of patterned architectures can be varied. We showed that by controlling the deposition time between two adjacent electrodes, a number of functionally graded patterns can be generated with uniaxial alignment. We also demonstrated that this handy method was capable of producing random, aligned, and multidirectional nanofibrous mats by engaging a number of electrodes and switching them in desired patterns. A comprehensive study using finite element method was carried out to understand the effects of electrical field. Simulation results revealed that electrical field strength alters shortly based on electrode control switch patterns. Nanofibrous polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) scaffolds and its composite reinforced with wollastonite and wood flour were fabricated using rotating drum electrospinning technique. Morphological, mechanical, and thermal, properties were characterized on PVA/wollastonite and PVA/wood flour nanocomposites

  11. A New Method for in Situ Measurement of Bt-Maize Pollen Deposition on Host-Plant Leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rudolph Vögel

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Maize is wind pollinated and produces huge amounts of pollen. In consequence, the Cry toxins expressed in the pollen of Bt maize will be dispersed by wind in the surrounding vegetation leading to exposure of non-target organisms (NTO. NTO like lepidopteran larvae may be affected by the uptake of Bt-pollen deposited on their host plants. Although some information is available to estimate pollen deposition on host plants, recorded data are based on indirect measurements such as shaking or washing off pollen, or removing pollen with adhesive tapes. These methods often lack precision and they do not include the necessary information such as the spatial and temporal variation of pollen deposition on the leaves. Here, we present a new method for recording in situ the amount and the distribution of Bt-maize pollen deposited on host plant leaves. The method is based on the use of a mobile digital microscope (Dino-Lite Pro, including DinoCapture software, which can be used in combination with a notebook in the field. The method was evaluated during experiments in 2008 to 2010. Maize pollen could be correctly identified and pollen deposition as well as the spatial heterogeneity of maize pollen deposition was recorded on maize and different lepidopteran host plants (Centaurea scabiosa, Chenopodium album, Rumex spp., Succina pratensis and Urtica dioica growing adjacent to maize fields.

  12. Resummed memory kernels in generalized system-bath master equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mavros, Michael G.; Van Voorhis, Troy

    2014-01-01

    Generalized master equations provide a concise formalism for studying reduced population dynamics. Usually, these master equations require a perturbative expansion of the memory kernels governing the dynamics; in order to prevent divergences, these expansions must be resummed. Resummation techniques of perturbation series are ubiquitous in physics, but they have not been readily studied for the time-dependent memory kernels used in generalized master equations. In this paper, we present a comparison of different resummation techniques for such memory kernels up to fourth order. We study specifically the spin-boson Hamiltonian as a model system bath Hamiltonian, treating the diabatic coupling between the two states as a perturbation. A novel derivation of the fourth-order memory kernel for the spin-boson problem is presented; then, the second- and fourth-order kernels are evaluated numerically for a variety of spin-boson parameter regimes. We find that resumming the kernels through fourth order using a Padé approximant results in divergent populations in the strong electronic coupling regime due to a singularity introduced by the nature of the resummation, and thus recommend a non-divergent exponential resummation (the “Landau-Zener resummation” of previous work). The inclusion of fourth-order effects in a Landau-Zener-resummed kernel is shown to improve both the dephasing rate and the obedience of detailed balance over simpler prescriptions like the non-interacting blip approximation, showing a relatively quick convergence on the exact answer. The results suggest that including higher-order contributions to the memory kernel of a generalized master equation and performing an appropriate resummation can provide a numerically-exact solution to system-bath dynamics for a general spectral density, opening the way to a new class of methods for treating system-bath dynamics

  13. Effects of pH and temperature on the deposition properties of stannate chemical conversion coatings formed by the potentiostatic technique on AZ91 D magnesium alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elsentriecy, Hassan H.; Azumi, Kazuhisa; Konno, Hidetaka

    2008-01-01

    The effects of pH and temperature of a stannate bath on the quality of stannate chemical conversion coatings formed on AZ91 D magnesium alloy by using the potentiostatic polarization technique at E = -1.1 V were investigated in order to improve uniformity and corrosion protection performance of the coating films. It was found that the uniformity and corrosion resistance of coating films deposited by potentiostatic polarization were closely associated with pH and temperature of the coating bath. The pH and temperature to obtain the best coating film were investigated as a function of corrosion protection performance evaluated by curves of potentiodynamic anodic polarization conducted in borate buffer solution. Scanning electron microscope observation and electrochemical corrosion tests of the stannate-coated samples confirmed significant improvement in uniformity and corrosion resistivity of coating films deposited by the potentiostatic technique by modifying the pH and temperature of the coating bath. It was also found that uniformity and corrosion resistivity of the coating films deposited by the potentiostatic technique were considerably improved compared to those of coatings deposited by the simple immersion method at the best conditions of pH and temperature of the coating bath

  14. Effects of deposition temperature on electrodeposition of zinc–nickel alloy coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qiao, Xiaoping; Li, Helin; Zhao, Wenzhen; Li, Dejun

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Both normal and anomalous deposition can be realized by changing bath temperature. ► The Ni content in Zn–Ni alloy deposit increases sharply as temperature reach 60 °C. ► The abrupt change in coating composition is caused by the shift of cathodic potential. ► The deposition temperature has great effect on microstructure of Zn–Ni alloy deposit. -- Abstract: Zinc–nickel alloy coatings were electrodeposited on carbon steel substrates from the ammonium chloride bath at different temperatures. The composition, phase structure and morphology of these coatings were analyzed by energy dispersive spectrometer, X-ray diffractometer and scanning electron microscopy respectively. Chronopotentiometry and potentiostatic methods were also employed to analyze the possible causes of the composition and structure changes induced by deposition temperature. It has been shown that both normal and anomalous co-deposition of zinc and nickel could be realized by changing deposition temperature under galvanostatic conditions. The abrupt changes in the composition and phase structure of the zinc–nickel alloy coatings were observed when deposition temperature reached 60 °C. The sharply decrease of current efficiency for zinc–nickel co-deposition was also observed when deposition temperature is higher than 40 °C. Analysis of the partial current densities showed that the decrease of current efficiency with the rise of deposition temperature was due to the enhancement of the hydrogen evolution. It was also confirmed that the ennoblement of cathodic potential was the cause for the increase of nickel content in zinc–nickel alloy coatings as a result of deposition temperature rise. The good zinc–nickel alloy coatings with compact morphology and single γ phase could be obtained when the deposition temperature was fixed at 30–40 °C

  15. Chemical solution deposition method of fabricating highly aligned MgO templates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paranthaman, Mariappan Parans [Knoxville, TN; Sathyamurthy, Srivatsan [Knoxville, TN; Aytug, Tolga [Knoxville, TN; Arendt, Paul N [Los Alamos, NM; Stan, Liliana [Los Alamos, NM; Foltyn, Stephen R [Los Alamos, NM

    2012-01-03

    A superconducting article includes a substrate having an untextured metal surface; an untextured barrier layer of La.sub.2Zr.sub.2O.sub.7 or Gd.sub.2Zr.sub.2O.sub.7 supported by and in contact with the surface of the substrate; a biaxially textured buffer layer supported by the untextured barrier layer; and a biaxially textured superconducting layer supported by the biaxially textured buffer layer. Moreover, a method of forming a buffer layer on a metal substrate includes the steps of: providing a substrate having an untextured metal surface; coating the surface of the substrate with a barrier layer precursor; converting the precursor to an untextured barrier layer; and depositing a biaxially textured buffer layer above and supported by the untextured barrier layer.

  16. Determination of ''2''1''0Po in fertilizers by electrochemical deposition method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oezalp, N.; Sac, M.; Tanbay, A.; Yener, G.

    2001-01-01

    In this study, activities of radioactive polonium and natural radionuclide concentrations in fertilizer most consumed in agricultural lands in Turkey were measured. Fertilizers containing phosphorus and potassium increase yield and quality. But, they contain some radionuclides. These radionuclides dissolve in water and first transport into plants and then transport from plants to humans. In the latest years, artificial fertilizing has replaced natural fertilizing in agriculture. Therefore, fruits and vegetables contain radionuclides those are found in artificial fertilizers. In this study, electrochemical deposition technique with alpha counting method was used for determining the radioactivity level of polonium in fertilizers. Radium, potassium and thorium concentrations were measured by gamma spectrometry. TSP, MAP, DSP,MKP, (15-15-15), (18-18-18), (20-20-20) compost fertilizers consumed at most has been analyzed and the results were evaluated with respect to human health

  17. Macrokinetics of carbon nanotubes synthesis by the chemical vapor deposition method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rukhov, Artem; Dyachkova, Tatyana; Tugolukov, Evgeny; Besperstova, Galina

    2017-11-01

    A new approach to studying and developing basic processes which take place on the surface of a metal catalyst during the thermal decomposition of carbonaceous substances in the carbon nanotubes synthesis by the chemical vapor deposition method was proposed. In addition, an analysis was made of the interrelationships between these thermal, diffusion, hydrodynamic and other synthesis processes. A strong effect of the catalyst regeneration stage on the stage of nanotube formation has been shown. Based on the developed approach, a mathematical model was elaborated. Comparison of the calculation and the experiment carried out with the NiO-MgO catalyst at propane flow rate of 50 mL/min (standard conditions) and ethanol flow rate 0.3 mL/min (liq.) has revealed a discrepancy of less than 10%.

  18. Deposition of inorganic particulate aerosols to vegetation - a new method of estimating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwiecien, M.

    1997-01-01

    A new, direct method was developed for quantifying inorganic particulate aerosols trapped by the forest canopy, and for determining the resulting input of elements to a forest ecosystem. The method is based on direct measurements of only six parameters. Using this method, it is possible to determine the load of aerosols trapped by the forest canopy and deposited to leaves, as well as the load of aerosols falling to the forest floor by impaction on plants. It is also possible to estimate the aerosol input of soluble and insoluble elements to an ecosystem. With this new method it was found that the load of aerosols trapped by the canopy of a mixed forest locate din the Rybnik Coal Basin averaged 189.0 kg x ha -1 x growing season or 39.3% of the total inorganic particles reaching the ecosystem. The trapped aerosols provided 13.4 kg x ha -1 of soluble nitrogen and 0.91 kg x ha -1 of insoluble nitrogen over the growing season. At the same time, the input of soluble nitrogen from the atmosphere with rainfall to an open area averaged 13.9 kg x ha -1 , and the input of insoluble nitrogen with inorganic dusts averaged 1.4. kg x ha -1

  19. Flatbed scanners as a source of imaging. Brightness assessment and additives determination in a nickel electroplating bath.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidal, M; Amigo, J M; Bro, R; Ostra, M; Ubide, C; Zuriarrain, J

    2011-05-23

    Desktop flatbed scanners are very well-known devices that can provide digitized information of flat surfaces. They are practically present in most laboratories as a part of the computer support. Several quality levels can be found in the market, but all of them can be considered as tools with a high performance and low cost. The present paper shows how the information obtained with a scanner, from a flat surface, can be used with fine results for exploratory and quantitative purposes through image analysis. It provides cheap analytical measurements for assessment of quality parameters of coated metallic surfaces and monitoring of electrochemical coating bath lives. The samples used were steel sheets nickel-plated in an electrodeposition bath. The quality of the final deposit depends on the bath conditions and, especially, on the concentration of the additives in the bath. Some additives become degraded with the bath life and so is the quality of the plate finish. Analysis of the scanner images can be used to follow the evolution of the metal deposit and the concentration of additives in the bath. Principal component analysis (PCA) is applied to find significant differences in the coating of sheets, to find directions of maximum variability and to identify odd samples. The results found are favorably compared with those obtained by means of specular reflectance (SR), which is here used as a reference technique. Also the concentration of additives SPB and SA-1 along a nickel bath life can be followed using image data handled with algorithms such as partial least squares (PLS) regression and support vector regression (SVR). The quantitative results obtained with these and other algorithms are compared. All this opens new qualitative and quantitative possibilities to flatbed scanners. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Fabrication of Co thin films using pulsed laser deposition method with or without employing external magnetic field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ehsani, M.H., E-mail: Ehsani@semnan.ac.ir [Thin Film Laboratory, Faculty of Physics, Semnan University (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Mehrabad, M. Jalali [Thin Film Laboratory, Faculty of Physics, Semnan University (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Kameli, P. [Department of Physics, Isfahan University of technology, Isfahan 8415683111 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2016-11-01

    In this work, the external magnetic field effects on growth condition during deposition processes of the Co thin films were studied. Two specimens of Co films with different condition (with and without external magnetic field) were synthesized by pulsed laser deposition method. Structural and magnetic properties of the Co thin films were systematically studied, using atomic force microscope analysis and magnetization measurement, respectively. During the deposition processes, the external applied magnetic field had been provided by a permanent magnet. The experimental results show that the external magnetic field enables one to tune the magnetic properties of the deposited thin films. To clarify this effect, using Multi-Physics COMSOL simulation environment, a study of vapor flux by applied magnetic field during deposition were performed. Comparison between experimental data and output data of the simulation show promising accommodation and approve the existence of a strong correlation between the structural and magnetic properties of the specimens, and deposition rate of Co thin films. - Graphical abstract: Simulation results of the cobalt particles tracing sputtered from the source to substrate with an external magnetic field. Convergence of the particles flux (left) and also the spiral motion of the cobalt particles (right) increase dramatically as they approach the substrate and NdFe35 magnet. - Highlights: • The external magnetic field effects on growth condition during deposition processes of the Co thin films were studied. • Structural and magnetic properties of the Co thin films were systematically studied, using atomic force microscope analysis and magnetization measurement, respectively. • The experimental results show that the external magnetic field enables one to tune the magnetic properties of the deposited thin films. • To clarify this effect, using Multi-Physics COMSOL simulation environment, a study of vapor flux by applied magnetic field

  1. Creation of quantum steering by interaction with a common bath

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Zhe; Xu, Xiao-Qiang; Liu, Bo

    2018-05-01

    By applying the hierarchy equation method, we computationally study the creation of quantum steering in a two-qubit system interacting with a common bosonic bath. The calculation does not adopt conventional approximate approaches, such as the Born, Markov, rotating-wave, and other perturbative approximations. Three kinds of quantum steering, i.e., Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen steering (EPRS), temporal steering (TS), and spatiotemporal steering (STS), are considered. Since the initial state of the two qubits is chosen as a product state, there does not exist EPRS at the beginning. During the evolution, we find that STS as well as EPRS are generated at the same time. An inversion relationship between STS and TS is revealed. By varying the system-bath coupling strength from weak to ultrastrong regimes, we find the nonmonotonic dependence of STS, TS, and EPRS on the coupling strength. It is interesting to study the dynamics of the three kinds of quantum steering by using an exactly numerical method, which is not considered in previous researches.

  2. Kinetics of Ni–Mo electrodeposition from Ni-rich citrate baths

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beltowska-Lehman, E.; Indyka, P.

    2012-01-01

    The kinetics of Ni–Mo alloy electrodeposition on steel substrates from an aqueous citrate–ammonia complex baths has been investigated by means of steady-state polarisation measurements in a system with a rotating disc electrode (RDE). Partial current densities for discharge of Ni(II) and Mo(VI) ions and hydrogen evolution as a function of molybdate concentration in the bath, cathode potentials and the rate of mass transport were determined. It has been shown that – under all investigated conditions – Ni–Mo alloy deposition is more favourable than pure nickel and the cathodic process is strongly influenced by the Mo(VI) content in the solution. The Ni(II) electroreduction rate initially increases, as the cathode potential shifts towards more negative values and the concentration of molybdate grows in the solution. However, for the highest examined MoO 4 2− content, a considerable decrease in the rate of the process is subsequently observed at certain limit potentials, the values of which depend on molybdate concentration and hydrodynamic conditions. This effect, related to the formation of intermediate molybdenum oxides (characterised by very low overvoltage for hydrogen evolution), becomes less pronounced when the RDE rotation speed is increased. Hydrogen evolution is strongly associated with molybdenum deposition. An increase of the molybdate ions concentration in the bath, as well as an increase in the rate of mass transport, leads to an increase in Mo content in deposits and to the reduction of current efficiency. The Ni–Mo coatings electrodeposited from the designed bath (with the current efficiency of about 70%) containing about 30 wt.% Mo, are characterised by a shiny-grey appearance and good adhesion to the steel substrate. They are characterised by column growth and amorphous microstructure with randomly distributed nanocrystallites of the MoNi 4 intermetallic phase.

  3. Application of geoelectric methods for man-caused gas deposit mapping and monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yakymchuk, M. A.; Levashov, S. P.; Korchagin, I. N.; Syniuk, B. B.

    2009-04-01

    The rather new application of original geoelectric methods of forming of short-pulsed electromagnetic field (FSPEF) and vertical electric-resonance sounding (VERS) (FSPEF-VERS technology) (Levashov et al., 2003; 2004) is discussed. In 2008 the FSPEF-VERS methods were used for ascertaining the reasons of serious man-caused accident on gas field. The emission of water with gas has occurred near an operational well on one gas field. The assumption was discussed, that some part of gas from producing horizons has got into the upper horizons, in aquiferous stratum layers. It promoted creation of superfluous pressure in aquiferous stratums which has led to accident on the field. Operative geophysical investigations within an accident site were carried out by FSPEF and VERS geoelectric methods on 07.10.08 and 13.10.08 on the first stage. The primary goal of executed works was detection and mapping of gas penetration zones in aquiferous stratums of cross-section upper part, and also the determination of bedding depths and a total area of distribution of gas in upper aquiferous stratums. The anomalous zone were revealed and mapped by FSPEF survey. It is caused by raised migration of water in upper horizons of a cross-section. The depths of anomalous polarized layers (APL) of "gas" and „aquiferous stratum" type were defined by VERS method. The VERS data are presented by sounding diagram's and columns, by vertical cross-sections lengthways and transversely of gas penetration zones, by map of thicknesses of man-caused gas "deposit". The perforation on depths of 450 and 310 m was spent in a producing borehole on the first day investigation data. Gas discharges were received from 450 and 310 m depths. Three degassing boreholes have been drilled on 08.11.08 working day. Depths of wells are about 340 m. Gas inflows were received from 330 m depth. Drilling of fourth well was conducted. The anomalous zone area has decreased twice in comparison with two previous surveys. So, the

  4. Electro-deposition as a repair method for embedded metal grids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oostra, A. Jolt [Zernike Institute for Advanced Materials, University of Groningen, Nijenborgh 4, 9747 AG, Groningen (Netherlands); Reddy, Anil; Smits, Edsger C.P.; Abbel, Robert; Groen, Wilhelm A. [Holst Centre/TNO, High Tech Campus 31, 5605 KN Eindhoven (Netherlands); Blom, Paul W.M. [Max Planck Institute für Polymerforschung, Ackermannweg 10, 55128 Mainz (Germany); Michels, Jasper J., E-mail: michels@mpip-mainz.mpg.de [Holst Centre/TNO, High Tech Campus 31, 5605 KN Eindhoven (Netherlands); Max Planck Institute für Polymerforschung, Ackermannweg 10, 55128 Mainz (Germany)

    2016-03-31

    A method is presented to self-repair cracks in embedded silver grid structures used in large area organic electronics. The repair procedure is based on electro-deposition, incited by the application of a moderate DC voltage across the crack. During this process the organic anode that is in direct electrical contact with the silver grid, functions as an appropriate medium for ion migration. Restoration of conductivity is achieved by the formation of dendritic metal structures that connect the cathodic to the anodic side of the crack. The metal dendrites decrease the gap resistance by one order of magnitude. Subsequently, another three orders of magnitude are gained upon sintering the dendrites using a high voltage pulse, yielding restored conductance levels nearly within one order of magnitude difference from native track conductance. - Highlights: • An innovative method to repair cracks in embedded silver electrodes is presented. • The method targets application in flexible hybrid- and organic electronics. • The mechanism relies on dendritic growth of metallic structures. • Sintering yields restored conductivity levels approaching the original value.

  5. Boring of full scale deposition holes using a novel dry blind boring method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Autio, J.; Kirkkomaeki, T. [Saanio and Riekkola Oy, Helsinki (Finland)

    1996-10-01

    Three holes the size of deposition holes (depth 7.5 m and diameter 1.5 m) were bored in the Research Tunnel at Olkiluoto, Finland. A novel full-face boring technique was used based on rotary crushing of rock and removal of crushed rock by vacuum flushing through the drill string. The purpose of the work was to demonstrate the feasibility of the technique. During the boring test procedures were carried out in order to determine the effect of changes in operating parameters on the performance of the boring machine and the quality of the hole. The boring method was found to be technically feasible and efficient. Evaluation of the quality of the hole included studies of the geometry of the hole, measurements of the surface roughness using a laser profilometer and study of excavation disturbances in the zone adjacent to the surface of the holes using two novel methods, He-gas diffusion and the {sup 14}C-polymethylmethacrylate methods. 43 refs.

  6. Investigation of the fluidized bed-chemical vapor deposition (FBCVD) process using CFD-DEM method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Malin; Liu Rongzheng; Wen Yuanyun; Liu Bing; Shao Youlin

    2014-01-01

    The CFD-DEM-CVD multiscale coupling simulation concept was proposed based on the mass/momentum/energy transfer involved in the FB-CVD process. The pyrolysis process of the reaction gas in the spouted bed can be simulated by CFD method, then the concentration field and velocity field can be extracted and coupled with the particle movement behavior which can be simulated by DEM. Particle deposition process can be described by the CVD model based on particle position, velocity and neighboring gas concentration. This multiscale coupling method can be implemented in the Fluent@-EDEM@ software with their UDF (User Definition Function) and API (Application Programming Interface). Base on the multiscale coupling concept, the criterion for evaluating FB-CVD process is given. At first, the volume in the coating furnace is divided into two parts (active coating area and non-active coating area) based on simulation results of chemical pyrolysis process. Then the residence time of all particles in the active coating area can be obtained using the CFD-DEM simulation method. The residence time distribution can be used as a criterion for evaluating the gas-solid contact efficiency and operation performance of the coating furnace. At last different coating parameters of the coating furnace are compared based on the proposed criterion. And also, the future research emphasis is discussed. (author)

  7. Survey and analysis of deep water mineral deposits using nuclear methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Staehle, C.M.; Noakes, J.E.; Spaulding, J.

    1991-01-01

    Present knowledge of the location, quality, quantity and recoverability of sea floor minerals is severely limited, particularly in the abyssal depths and deep water within the 200 mile Exclusion Economic Zone (EEZ) surrounding the U.S. Pacific Islands. To improve this understanding and permit exploitation of these mineral reserves much additional data is needed. This paper will discuss a sponsored program for extending existing proven nuclear survey methods currently used on the shallow continental margins of the Atlantic and Gulf of Mexico into the deeper waters of the Pacific. This nuclear technology can be readily integrated and extended to depths of 2000 m using the existing RCV-150 remotely operated vehicle (ROV) and the PISCESE V manned deep submersible vehicle (DSV) operated by The University of Hawaii's, Hawaii Underseas Research Laboratory (HURL). Previous papers by the authors have also proposed incorporating these nuclear analytical methods for survey of the deep ocean through the use of Autonomous Underwater Vehicle (AUX). Such a vehicle could extend the use of passive nuclear instrument operation, in addition to conventional analytical methods, into the abyssal depths and do so with speed and economy not otherwise possible. The natural radioactivity associated with manganese nodules and crustal deposits is sufficiently above normal background levels to allow discrimination and quantification in near real time

  8. Faraday effect of polycrystalline bismuth iron garnet thin film prepared by mist chemical vapor deposition method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yao, Situ; Kamakura, Ryosuke; Murai, Shunsuke; Fujita, Koji; Tanaka, Katsuhisa

    2017-01-01

    We have synthesized polycrystalline thin film composed of a single phase of metastable bismuth iron garnet, Bi_3Fe_5O_1_2, on a fused silica substrate, one of the most widely utilized substrates in the solid-state electronics, by using mist chemical vapor deposition (mist CVD) method. The phase purity and stoichiometry are confirmed by X-ray diffraction and Rutherford backscattering spectrometry. The resultant thin film shows a small surface roughness of 3.251 nm. The saturation magnetization at room temperature is 1200 G, and the Faraday rotation angle at 633 nm reaches −5.2 deg/μm. Both the magnetization and the Faraday rotation angles are somewhat higher than those of polycrystalline BIG thin films prepared by other methods. - Highlights: • Thin film of polycrystalline Bi_3Fe_5O_1_2 was prepared by the mist CVD method. • Optimized conditions were found for the synthesis of single phase of Bi_3Fe_5O_1_2. • The Faraday rotation angle at 633 nm is –5.2 deg/μm at room temperature. • The Faraday rotation is interpreted by the electronic transitions of Fe"3"+ ions.

  9. Faraday effect of polycrystalline bismuth iron garnet thin film prepared by mist chemical vapor deposition method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yao, Situ; Kamakura, Ryosuke; Murai, Shunsuke; Fujita, Koji; Tanaka, Katsuhisa, E-mail: tanaka@dipole7.kuic.kyoto-u.ac.jp

    2017-01-15

    We have synthesized polycrystalline thin film composed of a single phase of metastable bismuth iron garnet, Bi{sub 3}Fe{sub 5}O{sub 12}, on a fused silica substrate, one of the most widely utilized substrates in the solid-state electronics, by using mist chemical vapor deposition (mist CVD) method. The phase purity and stoichiometry are confirmed by X-ray diffraction and Rutherford backscattering spectrometry. The resultant thin film shows a small surface roughness of 3.251 nm. The saturation magnetization at room temperature is 1200 G, and the Faraday rotation angle at 633 nm reaches −5.2 deg/μm. Both the magnetization and the Faraday rotation angles are somewhat higher than those of polycrystalline BIG thin films prepared by other methods. - Highlights: • Thin film of polycrystalline Bi{sub 3}Fe{sub 5}O{sub 12} was prepared by the mist CVD method. • Optimized conditions were found for the synthesis of single phase of Bi{sub 3}Fe{sub 5}O{sub 12}. • The Faraday rotation angle at 633 nm is –5.2 deg/μm at room temperature. • The Faraday rotation is interpreted by the electronic transitions of Fe{sup 3+} ions.

  10. High-rate deposition of photocatalytic TiO2 films by oxygen plasma assist reactive evaporation method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakai, Tetsuya; Kuniyoshi, Yuji; Aoki, Wataru; Ezoe, Sho; Endo, Tatsuya; Hoshi, Yoichi

    2008-01-01

    High-rate deposition of titanium dioxide (TiO 2 ) film was attempted using oxygen plasma assisted reactive evaporation (OPARE) method. Photocatalytic properties of the film were investigated. During the deposition, the substrate temperature was fixed at 400 deg. C. The film deposition rate can be increased by increasing the supply of titanium atoms to the substrate, although oversupply of the titanium atoms causes oxygen deficiency in the films, which limits the deposition rate. The film structure depends strongly on the supply ratio of oxygen molecules to titanium atoms O 2 /Ti and changes from anatase to rutile structure as the O 2 /Ti supply ratio increased. Consequently, the maximum deposition rates of 77.0 nm min -1 and 145.0 nm min -1 were obtained, respectively, for the anatase and rutile film. Both films deposited at such high rates showed excellent hydrophilicity and organic decomposition performance. Even the film with rutile structure deposited at 145.0 nm min -1 had a contact angle of less than 2.5 deg. by UV irradiation for 5.0 h and an organics-decomposition performance index of 8.9 [μmol l -1 min -1 ] for methylene blue

  11. Sub level open stoping mining method for the Remaja type deposits, Kalan, West Kalimantan, Indonesia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sumaryanto, A.

    2014-01-01

    According to historic drilling, probing and trenching, geologists previously assumed that the Eko Remaja type deposits belonged to the vein type family. To test this assumption, it was decided to drive a tunnel into Eko Remaja hill, in which eighteen mineralized intersections were discovered. A small mining test has been carried out in the area where the potentially mineable veins are concentrated. The idea was to check the continuity of the mineralization and assist in considering possible mining methods. Two methods were considered: the traditional and well known cut and fill method, or the long parallel holes method. This second method has not been used a lot up to now so was dropped. Regarding cut and fill testing, it was decided to test vein 179 from the tunnel level at 450-460 m above sea level. As a vein continuity check a ramp was driven in vein 169 and a drift in vein 169 at both levels 169 and 179. Vein 179 vein seemed rather regular at 450 level, but was quite different in the ramp in 169 vein and in the 179 drift at level 460. No continuity at all existed between the two levels or at level 460. Although good quality ore was found, it was considered that it could not be mined by the cut and fill method due to a lack of continuity. Hence the regular vein type concept was abandoned for the Eko Remaja type deposits, which looked more like some kind of “stockwork”, although not very complicated, because there are at the maximum three general directions of the mineralization. Fortunately, the major part of the reserves are concentrated in the four veins 157,169,179 and 184 which are rather close to each other. Although the quantity of waste will be important, diluted ore could still be extracted. Fortunately ore and the waste are quite distinctive in aspect, colour, shape, specific gravity and radioactivity. Therefore sorting is included in the present study, considering low capital and operating costs means and equipment. Two methods have been studied

  12. An acoustic method for predicting relative strengths of cohesive sediment deposits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, A. H.; Sanders, W. M.

    2017-12-01

    Cohesive sediment dynamics are fundamentally determined by sediment mineralogy, organic matter composition, ionic strength of water, and currents. These factors work to bind the cohesive sediments and to determine depositional rates. Once deposited the sediments exhibit a nonlinear response to stress and they develop increases in shear strength. Shear strength is critically important in resuspension, transport, creep, and failure predictions. Typically, shear strength is determined by point measurements, both indirectly from free-fall penetrometers or directly on cores with a shear vane. These values are then used to interpolate over larger areas. However, the remote determination of these properties would provide continuos coverage, yet it has proven difficult with sonar systems. Recently, findings from an acoustic study on cohesive sediments in a laboratory setting suggests that cohesive sediments may be differentiated using parametric acoustics; this method pulses two primary frequencies into the sediment and the resultant difference frequency is used to determine the degree of acoustic nonlinearity within the sediment. In this study, two marine clay species, kaolinite and montmorillonite, and two biopolymers, guar gum and xanthan gum were mixed to make nine different samples. The samples were evaluated in a parametric acoustic measurement tank. From the parametric acoustic measurements, the quadratic nonlinearity coefficient (beta) was determined. beta was correlated with the cation exchange capacity (CEC), an indicator of shear strength. The results indicate that increased acoustic nonlinearity correlates with increased CEC. From this work, laboratory measurements indicate that this correlation may be used evaluate geotechnical properties of cohesive sediments and may provide a means to predict sediment weakness in subaqueous environments.

  13. Characteristics of indium zinc oxide films deposited using the facing targets sputtering method for OLEDs applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rim, Y.S.; Kim, H.J.; Kim, K.H.

    2010-01-01

    The amorphous indium zinc oxide (IZO) thin films were deposited on polyethersulfone (PES) and glass substrates using the facing targets sputtering (FTS) system. The electrical, optical and structural properties of the IZO thin films deposited as functions of sputtering parameters on the glass and PES substrates. An optimal IZO deposition condition is fabricated for organic light-emitting device (OLED) based on glass and PES. The amorphous IZO anode-based OLEDs show superior current density and luminance characteristics.

  14. Studies of radioactive deposition on farm buildings and testing of some methods for decontamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersson, Inger; Erlandsson, B.; Hansson, J.; Dolby, C.M.

    1993-01-01

    Studies were made of radioactive fallout on roofs of farm buildings and of some methods of decontamination. The aim was to find ways of reducing the external radiation dose to farmers working and farm animals housed in stables in a fallout situation. The roof material studied was steel plate (A) and tile (B,C, D), each with four sample areas of ca. 1 m 2 . The roof samples were collected at three places and from totally four building in regions which in 1986 (after the Chernobyl fallout) has a 137 Cs ground depositions of 3040 kBq/m 2 (A, B, C) and > 100 kBq/m 2 (D). Four different decontamination methods were tested: 1. High pressure washing with water. 2. Repeated high pressure washing with water. 3. Application of foam of a sanitizing chemical for livestock buildings followed by high pressure washing with water. 4. Application of a solution of KCl followed by high pressure washing with water. In C, the effect of decontamination expressed as the percentage decrease of the 137 Cs activity was on average for all methods, 55%. This material was coated before the decontamination by a marked growth of algae or moss, which was effectively washed off during the sanitizing procedure. In B, the average activity decontamination effect was 25%, while in D (with the highest original activity, but without growth of organic material) the effect was very small, 3%. In A, the activity level before decontamination was so low that measurements after decontamination were considered unnecessary. Method number 4 was the most effective in B and C, 32% and 64%, respectively, while method number 3 was the most effective in D, 5.7%. The results indicate that good effects can be achieved in radioactivity decontamination of roof material with equipment and chemicals which are normally available on farms

  15. Fundamental Study of Bed Bath Technique : Subjective and Objective Evaluations of Epidermal Effects of Bed Bathing Using Bar Soap and Water-Dissolved Liquid Soap

    OpenAIRE

    月田, 佳寿美; 竹田, 千佐子; 長谷川, 智子; 白川, かおる

    2003-01-01

    Purpose: To clarify epidermal effects of bed bathing using bar soap and water-dissolved liquid soap (liquid soap). Method: The subjects were 33 healthy female college students. Subjects' arms were cleaned by two methods, using bar soap and liquid soap. The following objective data were collected from the subjects: skin sebum, moisturization, pH, and feelings of skin conditions (rashes, redness, itchiness, and irritation). Results : 1. Cleansing effects of both methods on oily dirt seemed no d...

  16. Tsunami deposits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-08-15

    The NSC (the Nuclear Safety Commission of Japan) demand to survey on tsunami deposits by use of various technical methods (Dec. 2011), because tsunami deposits have useful information on tsunami activity, tsunami source etc. However, there are no guidelines on tsunami deposit survey in JAPAN. In order to prepare the guideline of tsunami deposits survey and evaluation and to develop the method of tsunami source estimation on the basis of tsunami deposits, JNES carried out the following issues; (1) organizing information of paleoseismological record and tsunami deposit by literature research, (2) field survey on tsunami deposit, and (3) designing the analysis code of sediment transport due to tsunami. As to (1), we organize the information gained about tsunami deposits in the database. As to (2), we consolidate methods for surveying and identifying tsunami deposits in the lake based on results of the field survey in Fukui Pref., carried out by JNES. In addition, as to (3), we design the experimental instrument for hydraulic experiment on sediment transport and sedimentation due to tsunamis. These results are reflected in the guideline on the tsunami deposits survey and evaluation. (author)

  17. Tsunami deposits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    The NSC (the Nuclear Safety Commission of Japan) demand to survey on tsunami deposits by use of various technical methods (Dec. 2011), because tsunami deposits have useful information on tsunami activity, tsunami source etc. However, there are no guidelines on tsunami deposit survey in JAPAN. In order to prepare the guideline of tsunami deposits survey and evaluation and to develop the method of tsunami source estimation on the basis of tsunami deposits, JNES carried out the following issues; (1) organizing information of paleoseismological record and tsunami deposit by literature research, (2) field survey on tsunami deposit, and (3) designing the analysis code of sediment transport due to tsunami. As to (1), we organize the information gained about tsunami deposits in the database. As to (2), we consolidate methods for surveying and identifying tsunami deposits in the lake based on results of the field survey in Fukui Pref., carried out by JNES. In addition, as to (3), we design the experimental instrument for hydraulic experiment on sediment transport and sedimentation due to tsunamis. These results are reflected in the guideline on the tsunami deposits survey and evaluation. (author)

  18. Fabrication of Cu–Zn–Sn–S–O Thin Films by the Electrochemical Deposition Method and Application to Heterojunction Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai Yang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A new multinary semiconductor Cu2ZnSnS4−O (CZTSO, which does not contain toxic elements and expensive rare metals, was fabricated by the electrochemical deposition (ECD method. CZTSO thin films were deposited onto indium tin oxide (ITO- coated glass substrates by DC and two-step pulsed ECD from aqueous solutions containing CuSO4, ZnSO4, SnSO4, and Na2S2O3. The films deposited by pulsed ECD contained smaller amount of oxygen than those deposited by DC ECD. The films had band gap energies in a range from 1.5 eV and 2.1 eV. By a photoelectrochemical measurement, it was confirmed that CZTSO films showed p-type conduction and photosensitivity. CZTSO/ZnO heterojunctions exhibited rectification properties in a current-voltage measurement.

  19. Method of depositing an electrically conductive oxide film on a textured metallic substrate and articles formed therefrom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christen, David K.; He, Qing

    2001-01-01

    The present invention provides a biaxially textured laminate article having a polycrystalline biaxially textured metallic substrate with an electrically conductive oxide layer epitaxially deposited thereon and methods for producing same. In one embodiment a biaxially texture Ni substrate has a layer of LaNiO.sub.3 deposited thereon. An initial layer of electrically conductive oxide buffer is epitaxially deposited using a sputtering technique using a sputtering gas which is an inert or forming gas. A subsequent layer of an electrically conductive oxide layer is then epitaxially deposited onto the initial layer using a sputtering gas comprising oxygen. The present invention will enable the formation of biaxially textured devices which include HTS wires and interconnects, large area or long length ferromagnetic and/or ferroelectric memory devices, large area or long length, flexible light emitting semiconductors, ferroelectric tapes, and electrodes.

  20. Reproducible insulin secretion from isolated rat pancreas preparations using an organ bath.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morita, Asuka; Ouchi, Motoshi; Terada, Misao; Kon, Hiroe; Kishimoto, Satoko; Satoh, Keitaro; Otani, Naoyuki; Hayashi, Keitaro; Fujita, Tomoe; Inoue, Ken-Ichi; Anzai, Naohiko

    2018-02-09

    Diabetes mellitus is a lifestyle-related disease that is characterized by inappropriate or diminished insulin secretion. Ex vivo pharmacological studies of hypoglycemic agents are often conducted using perfused pancreatic preparations. Pancreas preparations for organ bath experiments do not require cannulation and are therefore less complex than isolated perfused pancreas preparations. However, previous research has generated almost no data on insulin secretion from pancreas preparations using organ bath preparations. The purpose of this study was to investigate the applicability of isolated rat pancreas preparations using the organ bath technique in the quantitative analysis of insulin secretion from β-cells. We found that insulin secretion significantly declined during incubation in the organ bath, whereas it was maintained in the presence of 1 µM GLP-1. Conversely, amylase secretion exhibited a modest increase during incubation and was not altered in the presence of GLP-1. These results demonstrate that the pancreatic organ bath preparation is a sensitive and reproducible method for the ex vivo assessment of the pharmacological properties of hypoglycemic agents.

  1. Zinc electrodeposition on copper substrate using cyanide bath for the production of 66,67,68Ga

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kakavand, T.; Mokhtari, L.; Sadeghi, M.; Majdabadi, A.

    2010-01-01

    The electroplating of zinc is carried out in an alkaline cyanide bath. Operating parameters such as pH, temperature, and current density and amount of the electrolyte components are optimized. The optimum conditions of the electrodeposition of zinc were as follows: 2.7 g L -1 ZnO, 7.1 g L -1 KCN, 11.1 g L -1 KOH, pH = 13-14, DC current density of ca 8.55 mA cm -2 at 40-50 deg C temperature with 89% current efficiency. SEM photomicrographs revealed fine-grained structure of the deposit from the bath. (author)

  2. The mechanism of the nano-CeO2 films deposition by electrochemistry method as coated conductor buffer layers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu, Yuming; Cai, Shuang; Liang, Ying; Bai, Chuanyi; Liu, Zhiyong; Guo, Yanqun; Cai, Chuanbing

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Crack-free CeO 2 film thicker than 200 nm was prepared on NiW substrate by ED method. • Different electrochemical processes as hydroxide/metal mechanisms were identified. • The CeO 2 precursor films deposited by ED method were in nano-scales. - Abstract: Comparing with conventional physical vapor deposition methods, electrochemistry deposition technique shows a crack suppression effect by which the thickness of CeO 2 films on Ni–5 at.%W substrate can reach a high value up to 200 nm without any cracks, make it a potential single buffer layer for coated conductor. In the present work, the processes of CeO 2 film deposited by electrochemistry method are detailed investigated. A hydroxide reactive mechanism and an oxide reactive mechanism are distinguished for dimethyl sulfoxide and aqueous solution, respectively. Before heat treatment to achieve the required bi-axial texture performance of buffer layers, the precursor CeO 2 films are identified in nanometer scales. The crack suppression for electrochemistry deposited CeO 2 films is believed to be attributed to the nano-effects of the precursors

  3. Water-assisted growth of graphene on carbon nanotubes by the chemical vapor deposition method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Jian-Min; Dai, Ye-Jing

    2013-05-21

    Combining carbon nanotubes (CNTs) with graphene has been proved to be a feasible method for improving the performance of graphene for some practical applications. This paper reports a water-assisted route to grow graphene on CNTs from ferrocene and thiophene dissolved in ethanol by the chemical vapor deposition method in an argon flow. A double injection technique was used to separately inject ethanol solution and water for the preparation of graphene/CNTs. First, CNTs were prepared from ethanol solution and water. The injection of ethanol solution was suspended and water alone was injected into the reactor to etch the CNTs. Thereafter, ethanol solution was injected along with water, which is the key factor in obtaining graphene/CNTs. Transmission electron microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and Raman scattering analyses confirmed that the products were the hybrid materials of graphene/CNTs. X-ray photo-electron spectroscopy analysis showed the presence of oxygen rich functional groups on the surface of the graphene/CNTs. Given the activity of the graphene/CNT surface, CdS quantum dots adhered onto it uniformly through simple mechanical mixing.

  4. Geochemical modeling of orogenic gold deposit using PCANN hybrid method in the Alut, Kurdistan province, Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadzadeh, Mohammadjafar; Nasseri, Aynur

    2018-03-01

    In this paper stream sediments based geochemical exploration program with the aim of delineating potentially promising areas by a comprehensive stepwise optimization approach from univariate statistics, PCA, ANN, and fusion method PCANN were under taken for an orogenic gold deposit located in the Alut, Kurdistan province, NW of Iran. At first the data were preprocessed and then PCA were applied to determine the maximum variability directions of elements in the area. Subsequently the artificial neural network (ANN) was used for quick estimation of elemental concentration, as well as discriminating anomalous populations and intelligent determination of internal structure among the data. However, both the methods revealed constraints for modeling. To overcome the deficiency and shortcoming of each individual method a new methodology is presented by integration of both "PCA & ANN" referred as PCANN method. For integrating purpose, the detected PCs pertinent to ore mineralization selected and intruded to neural network structure, as a result different MLPs with various algorithms and structures were produced. The resulting PCANN maps suggest that the gold mineralization and its pathfinder elements (Au, Mo, W, Bi, Sb, Cu, Pb, Ag & As) are associated with metamorphic host rocks intruded by granite bodies in the Alut area. In addition, more concealed and distinct Au anomalies with higher intensity were detected, confirming the privileges of the method in evaluating susceptibility of the area in delineating new hidden potential zones. The proposed method demonstrates simpler network architecture, easy computational implementation, faster training speed, as well as no need to consider any primary assumption about the behavior of data and their probability distribution type, with more satisfactory predicting performance for generating gold potential map of the area. Comparing the results of three methods (PCA, ANN and PCANN), representing the higher efficiency and more

  5. Effects of choline chloride on electrodeposited Ni coating from a Watts-type bath

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yurong; Yang, Caihong; He, Jiawei; Wang, Wenchang; Mitsuzak, Naotoshi; Chen, Zhidong

    2016-05-01

    Electrodeposition of bright nickel (Ni) was carried out in a Watts-type bath. Choline chloride (ChCl) was applied as a multifunctional additive and substitute for nickel chloride (NiCl2) in a Watts-type bath. The function of ChCl was investigated through conductivity tests, anodic polarization, and cathodic polarization experiments. The studies revealed that ChCl performed well as a conducting salt, anodic activator, and cathodic inhibitor. The effects of ChCl on deposition rate, preferred orientation, grain size, surface morphology, and microhardness of Ni coatings were also studied. The deposition rate reached a maximum value of greater than 27 μm h-1 when 20 g L-1 ChCl was introduced to the bath. Using X-ray diffraction, it was confirmed that progressive addition of ChCl promoted the preferred crystal orientation modification from (2 0 0) and (2 2 0) to (1 1 1), refined grain size, and enhanced microhardness. The presence of ChCl lowered the roughness of the coating.

  6. Recovery process for electroless plating baths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Roger W.; Neff, Wayne A.

    1992-01-01

    A process for removing, from spent electroless metal plating bath solutions, accumulated byproducts and counter-ions that have deleterious effects on plating. The solution, or a portion thereof, is passed through a selected cation exchange resin bed in hydrogen form, the resin selected from strong acid cation exchangers and combinations of intermediate acid cation exchangers with strong acid cation exchangers. Sodium and nickel ions are sorbed in the selected cation exchanger, with little removal of other constituents. The remaining solution is subjected to sulfate removal through precipitation of calcium sulfate hemihydrate using, sequentially, CaO and then CaCO.sub.3. Phosphite removal from the solution is accomplished by the addition of MgO to form magnesium phosphite trihydrate. The washed precipitates of these steps can be safely discarded in nontoxic land fills, or used in various chemical industries. Finally, any remaining solution can be concentrated, adjusted for pH, and be ready for reuse. The plating metal can be removed from the exchanger with sulfuric acid or with the filtrate from the magnesium phosphite precipitation forming a sulfate of the plating metal for reuse. The process is illustrated as applied to processing electroless nickel plating baths.

  7. Physical Properties of Nanostructured CdO Films from Alkaline Baths Containing Saccharin as Additive

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bünyamin Şahin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Nanostructured cadmium oxide (CdO films were fabricated on glass substrates from alkaline baths containing saccharin as an additive by a successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR method. The effects of saccharin concentration in the bath on the structural, morphological, and optical properties were studied by means of scanning electron microscopy (SEM, X-ray diffraction (XRD, photoluminescence, and Raman spectroscopy. The analyses showed that the surface morphologies, XRD peak intensities, Raman spectroscopy, and photoluminescence properties of CdO films changed with saccharin concentration. From the results, it can be said that morphological characteristic and optical properties of the films could be calibrated by adding various saccharin percentages in the growth bath.

  8. High power pulsed magnetron sputtering: A method to increase deposition rate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raman, Priya; McLain, Jake; Ruzic, David N; Shchelkanov, Ivan A.

    2015-01-01

    High power pulsed magnetron sputtering (HPPMS) is a state-of-the-art physical vapor deposition technique with several industrial applications. One of the main disadvantages of this process is its low deposition rate. In this work, the authors report a new magnetic field configuration, which produces deposition rates twice that of conventional magnetron's dipole magnetic field configuration. Three different magnet pack configurations are discussed in this paper, and an optimized magnet pack configuration for HPPMS that leads to a higher deposition rate and nearly full-face target erosion is presented. The discussed magnetic field produced by a specially designed magnet assembly is of the same size as the conventional magnet assembly and requires no external fields. Comparison of deposition rates with different power supplies and the electron trapping efficiency in complex magnetic field arrangements are discussed

  9. The effect of sauna bathing on lipid profile in young, physically active, male subjects

    OpenAIRE

    Dorota Gryka; Wanda Pilch; Marta Szarek; Zbigniew Szygula; Łukasz Tota

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of the study was to evaluate effects of Finnish sauna bathing on lipid profile in healthy, young men. Material and Methods: Sixteen male subjects (20–23 years) were subjected to 10 sauna bathing sessions in a Finnish sauna every 1 or 2 days. The mean sauna temperature was 90±2°C, while humidity was 5–16%. Each session consisted of three 15-minute parts and a 2-minute cool-down between them. The following measurements were taken before and after the sauna sessions: body mas...

  10. Skin hydration in nursing home residents using disposable bed baths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillis, Katrin; Tency, Inge; Roelant, Ella; Laureys, Sarina; Devriendt, Hendrik; Lips, Dirk

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate a new way for applying bed baths and reducing the risk for dry skin by comparing the effect of two washing methods on skin hydration. A cluster randomized trial was conducted. Skin hydration was measured before and after implementation of disposable wash gloves, using a MoistureMeter SC at three skin sites. Total skin hydration did not differ between residents at the start of the study in both groups. After implementation, the post minus pre hydration scores were higher for the intervention group than the control group at all skin sites. However, the difference was only significant at cheek site. The use of disposable wash gloves does not increase the risk for dry skin in comparison with traditional washing methods. These results may encourage the introduction of disposable wash gloves as an innovation in daily skin care practice. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Deep repository - engineered barrier systems. Assessment of backfill materials and methods for deposition tunnels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gunnarsson, D.; Moren, L.; Sellin, P; Keto, P.

    2007-09-01

    The main objectives of this report are to: (1) present density criteria considering deposition tunnels for the investigated backfill materials, (2) evaluate what densities can be achieved with the suggested backfill methods, (3) compare the density criteria to achievable densities, (4) based on this comparison evaluate the safety margin for the combinations of backfill materials and methods and, (5) make recommendations for further investigations and development work. The backfilling methods considered in this report are compaction of backfill material in situ in the tunnel and placement of pre-compacted blocks and pellets. The materials investigated in the second phase of the SKB-Posiva backfilling programme can be divided into three main categories: (1) Bentonite clays: two high-grade Na-bentonites from Wyoming (MX-80 and SPV200), one low-grade bentonite from Kutch (India Asha 2 0), and one high- and one low-grade Ca-bentonite from Milos (Deponite CA-N and Milos backfill). The highgrade bentonites are used in different bentonite-ballast mixtures. (2) Smectite-rich mixed-layer clays: one from Dnesice-Plzensko Jih (DPJ) located in the Czech Republic and one from Northern Germany (Friedland clay). (3) Mixtures of bentonite and ballast: Mixtures consisting of high-grade bentonite (30, 40 and 50 w-%) and crushed rock with different type of grain size distribution or sand. The general conclusion from the comparison between estimated achievable densities and the density criteria is that placing pre-compacted blocks of swelling clay or 50/50 mixture and pellets in the tunnel results in the highest safety margin. (orig.)

  12. Characterization of hydroxyapatite coatings deposited by hydrothermal electrochemical method on NaOH immersed Ti6Al4V

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He, Daihua; Liu, Ping; Liu, Xinkuan; Ma, Fengcang; Chen, Xiaohong; Li, Wei; Du, Jiandi; Wang, Pu; Zhao, Jun

    2016-01-01

    The hydrothermal electrochemical method was used to deposit hydroxyapatite coating on Ti6Al4V. In order to improve the bonding strength between the coating and substrate, the substrates were modified by 8 M NaOH solution before the deposition. The effects of immersing time on the substrate, on the hydroxyapatite coating, and on the bonding strength were studied. X-Ray Diffraction, Scanning Electron Microscope, Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy and Drop Shape Analysis Method were applied. And the crystallinity of hydroxyapatite coating was calculated. The results show that immersing treatment effects the phase compositions, the microstructure and the wettability of the substrate surface. A porous, three-dimensional network structure is formed on the Ti6Al4V surface through the NaOH immersion. The pore size and depth increase with the increase of immersing time from 12 to 48 h. The surface microstructure of Ti6Al4V with 60 h′ immersion time was different from the others. The modification treatment can improve the bonding strength between hydroxyapatite coating and the substrate obviously. The value of the bonding strength with the substrate immersed for 48 h is larger than those of the others. A bone-like apatite layer forms on the coating after 3 days of soaking in SBF, implying with good bioactivity of the hydroxyapatite coatings deposited by the method. The surface characteristics of the sample immersed with 48 h are more conductive to the deposition of hydroxyapatite and to the improvement of the bonding strength. The formation mechanism of hydroxyapatite coating deposited by hydrothermal electrochemical method was discussed. - Highlights: • Immerse Ti6Al4V alloy with NaOH solution for different immersing time. • We deposit hydroxyapatite coating by hydrothermal electrochemical method. • We examine changes of composition, microstructure, bonding strength and bioactivity of the hydroxyapatite coating. • 48 h is the optimal immersing time. • We

  13. Thermal and cardiorespiratory newborn adaptations during hot tub bath

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gentil Gomes da Fonseca Filho

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate thermal and cardiorespiratory adaptation during hot tub bath and shower in healthy newborns in the first hours of life. Study design: This is a randomized blind controlled trial, registered in ReBEC (No. RBR-4z26f3 with 184 newborns divided into hot tub group (n=84 and shower (n=100. Newborns from intervention group were immersed in a hot tub with warm water up to the neck, without exposure to air flow, and control group received traditional shower. Heart rate, respiratory rate and temperature were measured before and immediately after bath by an investigator blinded to the type of bath. Results: Groups were similar in gender, gestational age, birth weight, Apgar score at 5th minute and hours of life, p => 0.05. To analyze thermal and cardiorespiratory adjustments, difference between post-bath variables and pre-bath was calculated. In this analysis, it was found statistically significant difference between two types of bath regarding heart rate, respiratory rate and temperature. Hot tub bath decreases heart and respiratory rates and increases temperature, whereas shower provides the opposite effect (0.0001. Conclusion: This study demonstrates that hot tub baths and shower, in healthy newborns, promote thermal and cardiorespiratory adaptations, reflecting thermal, cardiac and respiratory positive reactions after hot tub bath.

  14. The suggestion of droplets generation prevention method of CNx coating by ion beam assisted deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yagi, Yuji; Tokoroyama, Takayuki; Kousaka, Hiroyuki; Umehara, Noritsugu; Fuwa, Yoshio; Manabe, Kazuyoshi

    2013-01-01

    It has been reported that the carbon nitride (CNx) coating was the super-low friction in which friction coefficient was less than 0.01, and it attracts attention as a high wear resistance and low friction material. When synthesizing a CNx coating with Ion Beam Assisted Deposition (IBAD) method, it was clear that the small asperities called droplets was generated onto the CNx coating surface with increasing thickness, and these droplets generated high friction. Therefore, it is necessary to clarify droplets generation mechanism to reduce droplets. To establish optimal coating conditions for controlling droplets were clarified by paying attention to the energy of an electron beam and the shape of a carbon target. First of all, 300 nm thickness CNx coatings were synthesized with five different filament current densities to clarify the relationship between the filament current density and droplet heights. Secondly, the effect of carbon target shape on droplets generation was confirmed with normal and processed carbon target. Finally, friction coefficient of these surfaces was measured by friction tests under PAO lubrication. (author)

  15. Superhydrophobic multi-scale ZnO nanostructures fabricated by chemical vapor deposition method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Ming; Feng, Chengheng; Wu, Chunxia; Ma, Weiwei; Cai, Lan

    2009-07-01

    The ZnO nanostructures were synthesized on Si(100) substrates by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) method. Different Morphologies of ZnO nanostructures, such as nanoparticle film, micro-pillar and micro-nano multi-structure, were obtained with different conditions. The results of XRD and TEM showed the good quality of ZnO crystal growth. Selected area electron diffraction analysis indicates the individual nano-wire is single crystal. The wettability of ZnO was studied by contact angle admeasuring apparatus. We found that the wettability can be changed from hydrophobic to super-hydrophobic when the structure changed from smooth particle film to single micro-pillar, nano-wire and micro-nano multi-scale structure. Compared with the particle film with contact angle (CA) of 90.7 degrees, the CA of single scale microstructure and sparse micro-nano multi-scale structure is 130-140 degrees, 140-150 degrees respectively. But when the surface is dense micro-nano multi-scale structure such as nano-lawn, the CA can reach to 168.2 degrees . The results indicate that microstructure of surface is very important to the surface wettability. The wettability on the micro-nano multi-structure is better than single-scale structure, and that of dense micro-nano multi-structure is better than sparse multi-structure.

  16. Hydroxyapatite coating on cobalt alloys using electrophoretic deposition method for bone implant application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aminatun; M, Shovita; I, Chintya K.; H, Dyah; W, Dwi

    2017-05-01

    Damage on bone due to osteoporosis and cancer triggered high demand for bone implant prosthesis which is a permanent implant. Thus, a prosthesis coated with hydroxyapatite (HA) is required because it is osteoconductive that can trigger the growth of osteoblast cells. The purpose of this study is to determine the optimum concentration of HA suspension in terms of the surface morphology, coating thickness, adhesion strength and corrosion rate resulting in the HA coating with the best characteristics for bone implant. Coating using electrophoretic deposition (EPD) method with concentrations of 0.02M, 0.04M, 0.06M, 0.08M, and 0.1M was performed on the voltage and time of 120V and 30 minutes respectively. The process was followed by sintering at the temperature of 900 °C for 10 minutes. The results showed that the concentration of HA suspension influences the thickness and the adhesion of layer of HA. The higher the concentration of HA-ethanol suspension the thicker the layer of HA, but its coating adhesion strength values became lower. The concentration of HA suspension of 0.04 M is the best concentration, with characteristics that meet the standards of the bone implant prosthesis. The characteristics are HA coating thickness of 199.93 ± 4.85 μm, the corrosion rate of 0.0018 mmpy and adhesion strength of 4.175 ± 0.716 MPa.

  17. Effect of bath temperature on structure, morphology and thermoelectric properties of CoSb{sub 3} thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yadav, Suchitra, E-mail: suchitrayadav87@gmail.com; Pandya, Dinesh K.; Chaudhary, Sujeet [Thin Film Laboratory, Physics Department, Indian Institute of Technology Delhi, New Delhi-110016 (India)

    2016-05-23

    CoSb{sub 3} thin films are deposited on conducting glass substrates (FTO) by electrodeposition at different bath temperatures (60°C, 70°C and 80°C) and the resulting influence of the bath temperature on the structure, morphology and electrical properties of films is investigated. X-ray diffraction confirms the formation of CoSb{sub 3} phase in the films. Scanning electron microscopy reveals that different morphologies ranging from branched nano-flakes to nano-needles evolve as bath temperature increases. It is concluded that a growth temperature of 80°C is suitable for producing CoSb{sub 3} films with such properties that show potential feasibility for thermoelectric applications.

  18. A comparative study of CdS thin films deposited by different techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pérez-Hernández, G., E-mail: german.perez@ujat.mx [Universidad Juárez Autónoma de Tabasco, Avenida Universidad s/n, Col. Magisterial, Villahermosa, Tabasco 86040 (Mexico); Pantoja-Enríquez, J. [Centro de Investigación y Desarrollo Tecnológico en Energías Renovables, UNICACH, Libramiento Norte No 1150, Tuxtla Gutiérrez, Chiapas 29039 (Mexico); Escobar-Morales, B. [Instituto Tecnológico de Cancún, Avenida Kábah Km 3, Cancún, Quintana Roo 77500 (Mexico); Martinez-Hernández, D.; Díaz-Flores, L.L.; Ricardez-Jiménez, C. [Universidad Juárez Autónoma de Tabasco, Avenida Universidad s/n, Col. Magisterial, Villahermosa, Tabasco 86040 (Mexico); Mathews, N.R.; Mathew, X. [Centro de Investigación en Energía, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Temixco, Morelos 62580 (Mexico)

    2013-05-01

    Cadmium sulfide thin-films were deposited on glass slides and SnO{sub 2}:F coated glass substrates by chemical bath deposition, sputtering and close-spaced sublimation techniques. The films were studied for the structural and opto-electronic properties after annealing in an ambient identical to that employed in the fabrication of CdTe/CdS devices. Quantum efficiency of the CdTe/CdS solar cells fabricated with CdS buffer films prepared by the three methods were investigated to understand the role of CdS film preparation method on the blue response of the devices. The higher blue response observed for the devices fabricated with chemical bath deposited CdS film is discussed. - Highlights: ► CdS films were prepared by different techniques. ► Role of CdS on the blue response of device was studied. ► Structural and optical properties of CdS were analyzed. ► Chemically deposited CdS has high blue transmittance. ► CdS deposition method influences diffusion of S and Te.

  19. Deposition of MgB2 Thin Films on Alumina-Buffered Si Substrates by using Hybrid Physical-Chemical Vapor Deposition Method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, T. G.; Park, S. W.; Seong, W. K.; Huh, J. Y.; Jung, S. G.; Kang, W. N.; Lee, B. K.; An, K. S.

    2008-01-01

    [ MgB 2 ] thin films were fabricated using hybrid physical-chemical vapor deposition (HPCVD) method on silicon substrates with buffers of alumina grown by using atomic layer deposition method. The growth war in a range of temperatures 500 - 600 degrees C and under the reactor pressures of 25 - 50 degrees C. There are some interfacial reactions in the as-grown films with impurities of mostly Mg 2 Si, MgAl 2 O 4 , and other phases. The T c 's of MgB 2 films were observed to be as high as 39 K, but the transition widths were increased with growth temperatures. The magnetization was measured as a function of temperature down to the temperature of 5 K, but the complete Meissner effect was not observed, which shows that the granular nature of weak links is prevailing. The formation of mostly Mg 2 Si impurity in HPCVD process is discussed, considering the diffusion and reaction of Mg vapor with silicon substrates.

  20. Electrodeposition of CdTe thin film from acetate-based ionic liquid bath

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldiya, Manmohansingh; Bhagat, Dharini; Mukhopadhyay, Indrajit

    2018-05-01

    CdTe being a direct band gap semiconductor, is mostly used in photovoltaics. Here we present, the synthesis of CdTe thin film on fluorine doped tin oxide (FTO) substrate potentiostatically using 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate ([Bmim][Ac]) ionic liquid (IL) bath at 90 °C. Major advantages of using electrodeposition involves process simplicity, large scalability & economic viability. Some of the benefits offered by IL electrolytic bath are low vapour pressure, wide electrochemical window, and good ionic mobility. Cd(CH3COO)2 (anhydrous) and TeO2 were used as the source precursors. The IL electrolytic bath temperature was kept at 90 °C for deposition, owing to the limited solubility of TeO2 in [Bmim][Ac] IL at room temperature. Cathodic electrodeposition was carried out using a three electrode cell setup at a constant potential of -1.20 V vs. platinum (Pt) wire. The CdTe/FTO thin film were annealed in argon (Ar) atmosphere. Optical study of nanostructured CdTe film were done using UV-Vis-IR and Raman spectroscopy. Raman analysis confirms the formation of CdTe having surface optics (SO) mode at 160.6 cm-1 and transverse optics (TO) mode at 140.5 cm-1. Elemental Te peaks at 123, 140.5 and 268 cm-1 were also observed. The optical band gap of Ar annealed CdTe thin film were found to be 1.47 eV (absorbance band edge ˜ 846 nm). The optimization of deposition parameters using acetate-based IL electrolytic bath to get nearly stoichiometric CdTe thin film is currently being explored.

  1. Effects of choline chloride on electrodeposited Ni coating from a Watts-type bath

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Yurong; Yang, Caihong; He, Jiawei; Wang, Wenchang [School of Petrochemical Engineering, Changzhou University, Changzhou 213164 (China); Mitsuzak, Naotoshi [Qualtec Co., Ltd, Osaka 590-0906 (Japan); Chen, Zhidong, E-mail: zdchen.lab@gmail.com [School of Material Science and Engineering, Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Materials, Surface and Technology, Changzhou University, Changzhou 213164 (China); Jiangsu Collaborative Innovation Center of Photovoltaic Science and Engineering, Changzhou University, Changzhou 213164 (China); Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Advanced Catalytic Material and Technology, Changzhou University, Changzhou 213164 (China)

    2016-05-30

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • ChCl was applied as additive and conducting salt in Watts-type bath. • Progressive addition of ChCl leads to the crystal orientation (1 1 1) predominant. • The grain size and microhardness were refined and enhanced by increasing ChCl. • ChCl could be a good alternative to NiCl{sub 2} and additives for bright Ni electroplating. - Abstract: Electrodeposition of bright nickel (Ni) was carried out in a Watts-type bath. Choline chloride (ChCl) was applied as a multifunctional additive and substitute for nickel chloride (NiCl{sub 2}) in a Watts-type bath. The function of ChCl was investigated through conductivity tests, anodic polarization, and cathodic polarization experiments. The studies revealed that ChCl performed well as a conducting salt, anodic activator, and cathodic inhibitor. The effects of ChCl on deposition rate, preferred orientation, grain size, surface morphology, and microhardness of Ni coatings were also studied. The deposition rate reached a maximum value of greater than 27 μm h{sup −1} when 20 g L{sup −1} ChCl was introduced to the bath. Using X-ray diffraction, it was confirmed that progressive addition of ChCl promoted the preferred crystal orientation modification from (2 0 0) and (2 2 0) to (1 1 1), refined grain size, and enhanced microhardness. The presence of ChCl lowered the roughness of the coating.

  2. Experimental study on the formation and growth of electroless nickel-boron coatings from borohydride-reduced bath on mild steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vitry, Veronique, E-mail: veronique.vitry@umons.ac.be [Service de Metallurgie, Universite de Mons, Rue de l' Epargne 56, 7000 Mons (Belgium); Sens, Adeline [Service de Metallurgie, Universite de Mons, Rue de l' Epargne 56, 7000 Mons (Belgium); Kanta, Abdoul-Fatah [Service de Sciences des Materiaux, Universite de Mons, Rue de l' Epargne 56, 7000 Mons (Belgium); Delaunois, Fabienne [Service de Metallurgie, Universite de Mons, Rue de l' Epargne 56, 7000 Mons (Belgium)

    2012-12-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Initiation mechanism of electroless Ni-B on St-37 steel has been identified. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Different phases of the plating process were observed and identified. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Influence of chemical heterogeneity on coating morphology was revealed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Batch replenishment of the plating bath induces new germination phase. - Abstract: Quality and homogeneity of electroless nickel-boron coatings are very important for applications in corrosion and electronics and are completely dependent on the formation of the deposit. The growth and formation process of electroless nickel-boron was investigated by immersing mild steel (St-37) samples in an un-replenished bath for various periods of time (from 5 s to 1 h). The coatings obtained at the different stages of the process were then characterized: thickness was measured by SEM, morphology was observed, weight gain was recorded and top composition of the coatings was obtained from XPS. Three main phases were identified during the coating formation and links between plating time, instantaneous deposition rate, chemistry of last formed deposit and morphology were established. The mechanism for initial deposition on steel substrate for borohydride-reduced electroless nickel bath was also observed. Those results were confronted with chemistry evolution in the unreplenished plating bath during the process. This allowed getting insight about phenomena occurring in the plating bath and their influence on coating formation.

  3. Preparation of silicon-substituted hydroxyapatite coatings on Ti–30Nb–xTa alloys using cyclic electrochemical deposition method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Eun-Sil [Department of Dental Materials, Research Center of Nano-Interface Activation for Biomaterials, School of Dentistry, Chosun University (Korea, Republic of); Jeong, Yong-Hoon [Biomechanics and Tissue Engineering Laboratory, Division of Orthodontics, College of Dentistry, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH (United States); Choe, Han-Cheol, E-mail: hcchoe@chosun.ac.kr [Department of Dental Materials, Research Center of Nano-Interface Activation for Biomaterials, School of Dentistry, Chosun University (Korea, Republic of); Brantley, William A. [Division of Restorative Science and Prosthodontics, College of Dentistry, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH (United States)

    2014-12-01

    Silicon-substituted hydroxyapatite coatings on Ti–30Nb–xTa alloys, prepared using a cyclic electrochemical deposition method, have been investigated using a variety of surface analytical experimental methods. The silicon-substituted hydroxyapatite (Si-HA) coatings were prepared by electrolytic deposition in electrolytes containing Ca{sup 2+}, PO{sub 4}{sup 3−} and SiO{sub 3}{sup 2−} ions. The deposited layers were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), and a wettability test. Phase transformation from (α″ + β) to largely β occurred with increasing Ta content in the Ti –30Nb–xTa alloys, yielding larger grain size. The morphology of the Si-HA coatings was changed by increasing the number of deposition cycles, with the initial plate-like structures changing to mixed rod-like and plate-like shapes, and finally to a rod-like structure. From the ATR-FTIR spectra, Si existed in the form of SiO{sub 4}{sup 4−} groups in Si-HA coating layer. The lowest aqueous contact angles and best wettability were found for the Si-HA coatings prepared with 30 deposition cycles. - Highlights: • Electrochemically deposited Si-HA coatings on Ti –30Nb–xTa alloys were investigated. • The Si-HA coatings were initially precipitated along the martensitic structure. • The morphology of the Si-HA coating changed with the deposition cycles. • Si existed in the form of SiO{sub 4}{sup 4−} groups in the Si-HA coating.

  4. Preparation of silicon-substituted hydroxyapatite coatings on Ti–30Nb–xTa alloys using cyclic electrochemical deposition method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Eun-Sil; Jeong, Yong-Hoon; Choe, Han-Cheol; Brantley, William A.

    2014-01-01

    Silicon-substituted hydroxyapatite coatings on Ti–30Nb–xTa alloys, prepared using a cyclic electrochemical deposition method, have been investigated using a variety of surface analytical experimental methods. The silicon-substituted hydroxyapatite (Si-HA) coatings were prepared by electrolytic deposition in electrolytes containing Ca 2+ , PO 4 3− and SiO 3 2− ions. The deposited layers were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), and a wettability test. Phase transformation from (α″ + β) to largely β occurred with increasing Ta content in the Ti –30Nb–xTa alloys, yielding larger grain size. The morphology of the Si-HA coatings was changed by increasing the number of deposition cycles, with the initial plate-like structures changing to mixed rod-like and plate-like shapes, and finally to a rod-like structure. From the ATR-FTIR spectra, Si existed in the form of SiO 4 4− groups in Si-HA coating layer. The lowest aqueous contact angles and best wettability were found for the Si-HA coatings prepared with 30 deposition cycles. - Highlights: • Electrochemically deposited Si-HA coatings on Ti –30Nb–xTa alloys were investigated. • The Si-HA coatings were initially precipitated along the martensitic structure. • The morphology of the Si-HA coating changed with the deposition cycles. • Si existed in the form of SiO 4 4− groups in the Si-HA coating

  5. Sun protection factor persistence during a day with physical activity and bathing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bodekaer, M.; Faurschou, A.; Philipsen, P.A.

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND/PURPOSE: The persistence of sunscreens during a day with physical activity and bathing is often debated. We wished to examine the durability of the protection achieved by one sunscreen application. METHODS: Seven areas were marked on the back of 24 volunteers. One area was phototested ...

  6. Assessment of marine gas hydrate deposits: A comparative study of seismic, electromagnetic and seafloor compliance methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Willoughby, E. C.; Schwalenberg, K.; Edwards, R.N.; Spence, G.D.; Hyndman, R.D.

    2005-07-01

    The existence, distribution and concentration of marine natural gas hydrate are mostly diagnosed using seismic data. The base of the hydrate stability zone marks an acoustic impedance contrast, which generally mimics seafloor topography and is associated with a bright, negative-polarity reflector, known as the Bottom Simulating Reflector (BSR). However, limitations of seismic methods include uncertainty in the origin of the BSR, which does not distinguish between low velocity gas and high velocity hydrate, blanking, and lack of clear upper boundary reflections. Sufficiently accurate hydrate layer velocities have been obtained at few sites, and these could better evaluate hydrate content with reference to velocities in similar sediments without hydrate- a situation very difficult to find. Therefore, estimation of the total mass of a deposit is difficult using seismic data alone. We have developed two supplementary geophysical imaging techniques for the evaluation of marine hydrate: A deep-towed controlled-source electromagnetic (CSEM) and a seafloor compliance experiment. These methods are sensitive to physical properties of the sedimentary section, which are modified by the presence of gas hydrate, namely the resistivity and the bulk shear modulus depth profile, respectively. CSEM data are gathered by inline receivers towed behind an AC transmitter; high precision timing allows measurement of the EM field propagation time through marine sediments which is proportional to resistivity, which is increased by the presence of insulating hydrate. Seafloor compliance is the transfer function between pressure induced on the seafloor by surface gravity waves and the associated deformation of the seafloor. It is mostly sensitive to shear modulus anomalies. Shear modulus is increased by hydrates, which can cement grains together. Here we present field data at a gas hydrate site, south of ODP Hole 889B in northern Cascadia, over a proposed new IODP transect, where these three

  7. Method of removing sodium deposited to constituent element of LMFBR type reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitsuta, Susumu; Nakagawa, Tamotsu.

    1989-01-01

    Spent reactor core constituent elements deposited with sodium are vertically embedded in an inactive powder contained in a container. Then, a blower for a gas circulation circuit disposed through the inactive powder from below is driven to supply inactive gases by way of a dispersion plate from blow the container. The inactive gases and/or mechanical vibrations fluidize the inactive powder and keep the inside of the container to 300 - 600degC. Then, sodium deposited to the reactor core constituent elements is deposited to the inactive powdery particles and evaporated. The inactive gases accompanying sodium vapors discharged from the container are cooled and sodium is separated by condensation and recovered. This can outstandingly reduce the amount of radioactive wastes and deposited sodium can be removed efficiently irrespective of the amount of heat generated. (T.M.)

  8. Estimating the erosion and deposition rates in a small watershed by the 137Cs tracing method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Mian; Li Zhanbin; Yao Wenyi; Liu Puling

    2009-01-01

    Understanding the erosion and deposition rates in a small watershed is important for designing soil and water conservation measures. The objective of this study is to estimate the net soil loss and gain at points with various land use types and landform positions in a small watershed in the Sichuan Hilly Basin of China by the 137 Cs tracing technique. Among various land use types, the order of erosion rate was bare rock > sloping cultivated land > forest land. The paddy field and Caotu (a kind of cultivated land located at the foot of hills) were depositional areas. The erosion rate under different landform was in this order: hillside > saddle > hilltop. The footslope and the valley were depositional areas. The 137 Cs technique was shown to provide an effective means of documenting the spatial distribution of soil erosion and deposition within the small watershed

  9. The oil-dispersion bath in anthroposophic medicine – an integrative review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Büssing, Arndt; Cysarz, Dirk; Edelhäuser, Friedrich; Bornhöft, Gudrun; Matthiessen, Peter F; Ostermann, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    Background Anthroposophic medicine offers a variety of treatments, among others the oil-dispersion bath, developed in the 1930s by Werner Junge. Based on the phenomenon that oil and water do not mix and on recommendations of Rudolf Steiner, Junge developed a vortex mechanism which churns water and essential oils into a fine mist. The oil-covered droplets empty into a tub, where the patient immerses for 15–30 minutes. We review the current literature on oil-dispersion baths. Methods The following databases were searched: Medline, Pubmed, Embase, AMED and CAMbase. The search terms were 'oil-dispersion bath' and 'oil bath', and their translations in German and French. An Internet search was also performed using Google Scholar, adding the search terms 'study' and 'case report' to the search terms above. Finally, we asked several experts for gray literature not listed in the above-mentioned databases. We included only articles which met the criterion of a clinical study or case report, and excluded theoretical contributions. Results Among several articles found in books, journals and other publications, we identified 1 prospective clinical study, 3 experimental studies (enrolling healthy individuals), 5 case reports, and 3 field-reports. In almost all cases, the studies described beneficial effects – although the methodological quality of most studies was weak. Main indications were internal/metabolic diseases and psychiatric/neurological disorders. Conclusion Beyond the obvious beneficial effects of warm bathes on the subjective well-being, it remains to be clarified what the unique contribution of the distinct essential oils dispersed in the water can be. There is a lack of clinical studies exploring the efficacy of oil-dispersion baths. Such studies are recommended for the future. PMID:19055811