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Sample records for baterias em salvador

  1. Tabagismo em amostra de adolescentes escolares de Salvador-Bahia Smoking among school adolescents in Salvador (BA

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    Adelmo Souza Machado Neto

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: O hábito de fumar em geral se inicia na adolescência. No Brasil, as estimativas da freqüência deste hábito entre adolescentes variam de 1% até 35%. OBJETIVO: Estimar a prevalência do tabagismo entre os adolescentes da oitava série do ensino fundamental à terceira série do curso médio, em escolas de Salvador - Bahia, Brasil. MÉTODO: Feito um estudo do tipo corte transversal de caráter exploratório. Foram aplicados 3.500 questionários a alunos matriculados entre a 8ª série do ensino fundamental e a 3ª série do ensino médio, em cinco escolas da região metropolitana de Salvador (BA. Análise estatística: medidas descritivas e de associação (razão de prevalência e o teste t de Student e o do qui-quadrado. RESULTADOS: A prevalência do tabagismo entre adolescentes de Salvador (BA foi de 9,6%, considerando-se os 3.180 questionários válidos, sendo maior no sexo masculino (14% que no feminino (6%. À medida que aumentava a idade, elevava-se essa prevalência. A média de idade do início do tabagismo foi de 14 ± 2 anos. Dentre adolescentes, 46% experimentaram o cigarro e 20% destes continuaram fumando. Entre filhos de fumantes a freqüência foi maior. O número médio de cigarros consumidos por dia pelos adolescentes que fumavam diariamente (n = 132 foi de 7 ± 6, sendo maior no sexo masculino. CONCLUSÃO: A prevalência do tabagismo em uma amostra selecionada de adolescentes escolares de Salvador (BA foi de 9,6%, sendo maior entre os indivíduos do sexo masculino. A experimentação e a influência dos pais foram associadas ao tabagismo nos adolescentes.BACKGROUND: Most tobacco users become addicted during adolescence. In Brazil, smoking prevalence among teenagers varies from 1% to 35%. OBJECTIVE: To estimate the prevalence of smoking among teenagers, aged from 13 to 20, in fundamental and high school in Salvador, Bahia, Brazil. METHOD: Cross-sectional exploratory study. Thirty five hundred questionnaires were

  2. Epidemiologia do dengue em Salvador-Bahia,1995-1999 Epidemiology of dengue in Salvador-Bahia, 1995-1999

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    Maria da Glória Teixeira

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Desde 1981, o Brasil tem registrado epidemias de dengue de grande magnitude e atualmente circulam simultaneamente dois sorotipos DEN-1 e DEN--2, em mais de 2.700 municípios. Em Salvador - Bahia, situada na Região Nordeste do país, ocorreram duas epidemias nos anos de 1995 e 1996, e posterior endemização da doença. Este estudo analisa a incidência desta virose nesse município, no período de 1995 a 1999, considerando entre outras variáveis, sua distribuição nos Distritos Sanitários e a situação de densidade do Aedes aegypti. Utiliza como fonte de dados registros oficiais de notificação e do programa de combate vetorial da cidade. A taxa de incidência de dengue foi de 691,4 e 393,5 por 100.000 habitantes, respectivamente, em 1995 e 1996, reduziu-se para 65 por 100.000 em 1998. Nos Distritos Sanitários mais carentes, este indicador alcançou valores superiores a 800 por 100.000 habitantes. O Índice de Infestação Predial pelo Aedes chegou a atingir 54,1% em um dos seus bairros. Considerando a importância da reemergência do dengue no mundo os autores discutem os possíveis fatores que condicionaram a introdução do vírus, as suas apresentações epidemiológicas no curso de 4 anos, e a efetividade do programa de combate vetorial.Since 1981, Brazil has registered dengue epidemic and simultaneous circulation of the DEN-1 and DEN-2 serotypes in over 2,700 municipalities. In Salvador- Bahia, located in the Northeastern region of the Country, two epidemic outbreaks occurred in the years of 1995 and 1996, with further endemic spread of the disease. This study analyses the incidence of the virosis within this municipal area, from 1995 to 1999, considering, among other variables, its distribution in the Sanitary Districts and density of Aedes aegypti. Registers of notified cases and the city's Vectorial Control Program were used as data source. The incidence rate of notified cases of dengue in 1995 and 1996, which were 691.4 and 393

  3. Condições atuais da esquistossomose no "Dique do Tororó" em Salvador, Bahia

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    Ruth B. Amorim

    1976-06-01

    Full Text Available Os Autores apresentam os resultados de observações realizadas entre os anos de 1971 a 1974 sobre a incidência humana da esquistosomose no Dique do Tororó, em Salvador, Bahia, após alí terem sido realizadas melhorias pela engenhària sanitária e medidas de combate biológico ao caramujo vetor pelo uso de peixes predadores. Comparando com os resultados obtidos por outros Autores em 1960, concluem que o Dique do Tororó não mais representa uma importante fonte de propagação da esquistosomose.

  4. Componentes atencionais e de funções executivas em meninos com TDAH: dados de uma bateria neuropsicológica flexível

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    Hosana Alves Gonçalves

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Comparar o desempenho de sete meninos com diagnóstico comprovado de TDAH (G1 e 14 controles saudáveis (G2 em tarefas neuropsicológicas. MÉTODO: G1 e G2 foram pareados por sexo, idade e escolaridade em tarefas atencionais e executivas (Fluência Verbal e Discurso Narrativo da Bateria MAC, Teste de Cancelamento dos Sinos - versão infantil, Geração Aleatória de Números, Go-no Go do NEUPSILIN-Inf e N-Back auditivo. RESULTADOS: Destacaram-se diferenças entre os grupos quanto à atenção concentrada seletiva, à memória de trabalho, ao automonitoramento, à iniciação e à inibição. CONCLUSÃO: Foi possível verificar contribuições incipientes para um raciocínio de relações intercomponentes das FE e atencionais em pacientes com TDAH.

  5. Alterações de linguagem em pacientes idosos portadores de demência avaliados com a Bateria MAC Language alterations in elderly patients with dementia assessed with the MAC Battery

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    Cristine Koehler

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Identificar as alterações de linguagem em um grupo de pacientes idosos portadores de demência nas tarefas de evocação lexical livre, com critério ortográfico e com critério semântico, interpretação de metáforas e discurso narrativo da Bateria Montreal de Avaliação da Comunicação - Bateria MAC, bem como, verificar a frequência de déficits. MÉTODOS: Participaram do estudo 13 pacientes com demência de grau leve a moderada, atendidos no Setor de Neurologia do Ambulatório de Distúrbios do Movimento e Demências do Hospital Santa Clara da Irmandade Santa Casa de Misericórdia de Porto Alegre (ISCMPA. O instrumento neuropsicológico de avaliação foi a Bateria MAC e a aplicação das tarefas seguiu a seguinte ordem: evocação lexical livre, evocação lexical com critério ortográfico, evocação lexical com critério semântico, interpretação de metáforas e discurso narrativo. RESULTADOS: O grupo de pacientes com demência apresentou desempenho deficitário em todas as tarefas da Bateria MAC que foram avaliadas, com diferença significativa. Além disso, os participantes apresentaram maior frequência de déficits, em ordem decrescente, nas tarefas de reconto parcial do discurso narrativo (informações essenciais e presentes, seguidas pelas tarefas de evocação lexical com critério ortográfico e com critério semântico, e reconto integral do discurso narrativo. Pelo menos dois pacientes apresentaram alterações de desempenho em alguma das cinco tarefas realizadas da Bateria MAC. CONCLUSÃO: A avaliação de linguagem através da Bateria MAC permitiu a verificação de alterações do processamento linguístico em idosos com demência, o que caracteriza que tal instrumento também é aplicável para esta população clínica.PURPOSE: To identify language deficits in a group of elderly patients with dementia in tasks of free lexical retrieval, lexical retrieval with orthographic and semantic criteria

  6. Comida de rua: um estudo crítico e multirreferencial em Salvador, BA − Brasil / Street food: A critical and multifaceted study in Salvador, BA, Brazil

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    Cristian Oliveira Benevides Sanches Leal

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste artigo é descrever e analisar a situação da comida de rua em Salvador, BA – Brasil, compreendendo suas especificidades em diferentes contextos da cidade. Trata-se de estudo de caso único, cujas técnicas de coleta de dados foram a observação de cunho etnográfico, entrevistas semiestruturadas, uso de imagens e leitura de jornal local ao logo de um ano em três aspectos relacionados ao segmento: riscos relacionados aos alimentos e ao ambiente onde são comercializados e riscos relacionados aos trabalhadores. Os resultados indicaram grandes fragilidades relacionadas às categorias analisadas: diversidade de alimentos comercializados, mal manipulados e conservados; ambiente urbano insalubre, sem pontos de água, coleta de lixo inadequada, drenagem precária de águas e poluição atmosférica pelo elevado número de veículos; trabalhadores sem qualificação, sem uniformização adequada e submetidos a riscos sociais e ambientais constantes. Evidencia-se a necessidade da adoção de novas formas de gerenciamento de riscos para o segmento pela Vigilância sanitária, numa perspectiva intersetorial e solidária, dada a complexidade do objeto e a importância socioeconômica, cultural e nutricional da comida de rua. Constata-se a dificuldade para a VISA controlar os riscos relacionados à comida de rua atuando de forma apenas fiscalizatória, especialmente em grandes centros urbanos, como no caso de Salvador, BA. ==================================== This study aims to describe and analyze the present situation of street food in Salvador, BA, Brazil, understanding its specificities in different urban contexts. In this single case study, the data collection techniques included ethnographic observation, semi-structured interviews, use of images, and reading a local newspaper for one year focusing on three aspects related to the segment that include risks related to food, to the environment in which it is sold, and to workers

  7. Validação da bateria "Beck" de testes de habilidades para atletas brasileiros de "rugby" em cadeira de rodas Validation of beck battery of skills tests to Brazilian players of wheelchair rugby

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    José Irineu Gorla

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available O "Rugby" em Cadeira de Rodas é uma modalidade praticada por sujeitos com tetraplegia ou tetra-equivalência, desde 2005 no Brasil, onde existem aproximadamente 10 equipes em atividade. A avaliação motora é um dos meios de controle do treinamento que possibilita conquistar avanços no planejamento. A bateria "Beck" de testes de habilidades (manejo de bola, precisão de passes, bloqueio, velocidade e passes de longa distância para atletas da modalidade foi desenvolvida nos EUA por Yilla e Sherrill (1998. O objetivo deste estudo foi analisar os critérios de autenticidade científica da bateria para a população de atletas brasileiros. Os resultados de duas avaliações com a bateria (teste e re-teste realizadas com 11 atletas (média de idade 27,59 ± 5,37 anos, tempo de lesão 8,19 ± 3,83 anos, foram registrados por três avaliadores, o que possibilitou a análise de objetividade, fidedignidade e consistência interna. Foram utilizadas as ferramentas ANOVA para análise de objetividade e, coeficiente de correlação intraclasse e teste t para análise de fidedignidade e consistência. Não foram encontradas diferenças entre os resultados dos diferentes avaliadores (valores de p variando de 0,45 a 1,00 e os valores de correlação intraclasse encontrados (variação de r de 0,78 a 0,99 permitem concluir que a bateria é consistente e fidedigna. Os resultados encontrados neste estudo são evidências de que os critérios de autenticidade científica para a bateria são satisfeitos e a bateria pode ser considerada um instrumento válido para avaliação motora de atletas brasileiros de "rugby" em cadeira de rodas.The Wheelchair Rugby is a sport practiced by subjects with tetraplegia or tetra-equivalence, since 2005 in Brazil, where there are approximately 10 teams in business. The motricity evaluation is a means of training control that allows achieve real progress in planning. The BECK battery of skills tests (ball handling, precision

  8. ENTRE TORCEDORAS E ESPORTISTAS: A PRESENÇA FEMININA NA REVISTA ILUSTRADA SEMANA SPORTIVA EM SALVADOR NOS ANOS 1920

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    Henrique Sena dos Santos

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo discute a presença feminina nos esportes em Salvador nos anos 1920 através da revista Semana Esportiva. Fundada em 1921, veio a público num momento em que se inaugurou em Salvador um moderno estádio de futebol e um campo de jockey. Fazendo jus ao seu título, a revista acompanhava, detalhadamente, a vida esportiva da cidade, entrevistava atletas e dirigentes de clubes. Textos recomendando os esportes aos seus leitores eram publicados, indício de que as atividades atléticas e a estética corporal eram valorizadas, num contexto no qual circulavam discursos eugênicos. As capas da revista eram tomadas por imagens de torcedoras dos principais clubes de Salvador, lances de parti das de futebol ou regatas. Textos sobre a prática esportiva em diferentes lugares do país e do mundo eram frequentes. A análise das notícias, editoriais, crônicas, contos e entrevistas da Semana Esportiva, possibilitou perceber de que forma ocorreu o envolvimento feminino no universo esportivo, bem como identificar o perfil social das mulheres que vivenciavam aquele espaço. Além disso, buscou-se analisar o discurso da revista acerca da relação entre o esporte e as mulheres identificando em quais espaços e situações, o periódico considerava interessante o envolvimento daquelas na cultura esportiva. Ao final, concluímos que, se a presença feminina no universo esportivo da cidade defendeu alguns interesses masculinos, também foi resultado de lutas e tensões sociais em torno da reivindicação por parte das mulheres por novos espaços de sociabilidade.

  9. Prevalência de dislipidemias em adultos da demanda laboratorial de Salvador, Brasil Prevalence of dyslipidemias in non-hospital laboratory tests of adults from Salvador, Brazil

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    Ines Lessa

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Determinar a prevalência das dislipidemias em adultos da demanda laboratorial não-hospitalar da cidade de Salvador (BA. MÉTODOS: Casuística procedente de amostra probabilística de 25% dos laboratórios não-hospitalares da cidade que usavam o método enzimático para dosagem dos lípides séricos e controle de qualidade da Sociedade Brasileira de Patologia Clínica (93% do total; LDL estimado pela fórmula de Friedewald. Sorteados os meses ímpares de 1995 para o estudo. Critérios para dislipidemias, em mg/dl: colesterol ³240; LDL ³160; HDL ³200. Análise: prevalências, seus intervalos de confiança (IC a 95% e qui-quadrado (chi². RESULTADOS: Excluídos uma recusa e um laboratório que arquivava laudos só por 3 meses, foram analisados dados de 24 dos 26 laboratórios amostrados. Dos 7392 adultos, 65,5% eram mulheres. Prevalências estimadas e valores dos IC a 95% para homens, foram: hipercolesterolemia =24,0% (20,5; 27,5; LDL elevado =26,1 (22,4; 29,3; HDL baixo =15,9 (14,2; 17,8 e hipertrigliceridemia =27,6 (25,7; 29,5. Para mulheres: hipercolesterolemia =30,0 (27,8; 32,2, LDL elevado =33,1 (30,8; 35,4; HDL baixo =8,0 (7,1; 8,9 e hipertrigliceridemia =30,4 (29,0; 31,4. Todas as prevalências diferiram significantemente inter-gênero (p, 0,05 a pPURPOSE: To determine the prevalence of dyslipidemia in non-hospital laboratory tests of adults from Salvador, Brazil. METHODS: The study was carried out in subjects from a probabilistic sample of 25% of a total of 104 local laboratories that used the same enzymatic method for lipid analysis with the quality control as recommended by the Brazilian Society of Clinical Analyses. These represented 93% of all non-hospital laboratories of Salvador in 1995. The odd months of 1995 were selected for sampling in the present study. Criteria for dyslipidemias were: total cholesterol ³240; LDL ³160; HDL ³200mg/dl. Prevalence rates and their 95% confidence intervals (CI and chi² test were

  10. Componentes atencionais e de funções executivas em meninos com TDAH: dados de uma bateria neuropsicológica flexível Attentional components and executive functions in children with ADHD: data of a flexible neuropsychological battery

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    Hosana Alves Gonçalves; Rafael Mattevi Mohr; André Luiz Moraes; Larissa de Souza Siqueira; Mirella Liberatore Prando; Rochele Paz Fonseca

    2013-01-01

    OBJETIVO: Comparar o desempenho de sete meninos com diagnóstico comprovado de TDAH (G1) e 14 controles saudáveis (G2) em tarefas neuropsicológicas. MÉTODO: G1 e G2 foram pareados por sexo, idade e escolaridade em tarefas atencionais e executivas (Fluência Verbal e Discurso Narrativo da Bateria MAC, Teste de Cancelamento dos Sinos - versão infantil, Geração Aleatória de Números, Go-no Go do NEUPSILIN-Inf e N-Back auditivo). RESULTADOS: Destacaram-se diferenças entre os grupos quanto à atenção ...

  11. Anticorpo contra o vírus C da hepatite em pacientes sob programa de hemodiálise em Salvador, BA, Brasil Anti-HCV in patients undergoing hemodialysis in Salvador, BA, Brazil

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    Santana, Genoile Oliveira; Cotrim, Helma P.; MOTA Eduardo; Paraná, Raymundo; Nelma Pereira SANTANA; Luiz LYRA

    2001-01-01

    Racional - A prevalência da infecção pelo vírus da hepatite C em pacientes sob programa de hemodiálise tem sido amplamente variável. Objetivos -- Determinar a prevalência do anticorpo contra o vírus C da hepatite (anti-VHC) em pacientes sob hemodiálise em Salvador, BA e sua associação com transfusão de sangue, duração de hemodiálise e elevação de alaninoaminotransferase. Métodos - Durante um período de 17 meses, foram avaliados todos os pacientes em programa de hemodiálise, totalizando 395 in...

  12. Plumbemia em trabalhadores da indústria de reciclagem de baterias automotivas da Grande Porto Alegre, RS Blood lead levels in the battery recycling industry of the metropolitan region of Porto Alegre, RS

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    Renato Minozzo

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available A reciclagem de baterias pode contaminar o ar, o solo e a água, não só no lugar de processamento, mas também nas regiões circunvizinhas, sendo que os resíduos permanecem no local mesmo após o término da atividade. No presente artigo descrevemos os resultados da avaliação da plumbemia em 53 operários que trabalhavam com reciclagem de baterias automotivas e em 53 indivíduos sem história de exposição. Os dados obtidos foram comparados e discutidos em relação às normas do Ministério do Trabalho (MT e da Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA. A plumbemia no sangue do grupo controle foi de 2,44±1,15 µg/dl e, no grupo exposto, de 59,43±28,34 µg/dl, sendo que 79,2% dos indivíduos mostraram níveis acima do valor de referência (até 40 µg/dl. Estudos recentes recomendam estratégias para prevenir a intoxicação com chumbo: identificação, eliminação ou controle da fonte, monitoração da exposição e respectivos danos e um programa de recompra de baterias usadas das por parte da indústria de origem.Battery recycling may contaminate soil, air and water not only at the processing site but also in the neighboring areas, inasmuch as the residues remain at the site even after the end of the activity. In the present article, we describe the results of plumbism evaluation in 53 individuals that work with car battery recycling and 53 individuals without history of lead exposure. The obtained data were compared and discussed according to the regulations of Brazilian Ministry of Labor and OSHA (Occupational Safety and Health Administration. Blood lead levels in the control group were 2.44 ± 1.15 µg/dl and 59.43 ± 28.34 µg/dl in the exposed group. 79.2 % of the individuals presented levels above the reference value (40 µg/dl. Recent studies recommend strategies to prevent lead intoxication: source identification, control or elimination, monitoring of environmental exposure and hazards and a buy-back program of used

  13. Anticorpo contra o vírus C da hepatite em pacientes sob programa de hemodiálise em Salvador, BA, Brasil

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    Santana, Genoile Oliveira; Cotrim, Helma P.; MOTA Eduardo; Paraná, Raymundo; Nelma Pereira SANTANA; Luiz LYRA

    2001-01-01

    Racional - A prevalência da infecção pelo vírus da hepatite C em pacientes sob programa de hemodiálise tem sido amplamente variável. Objetivos -- Determinar a prevalência do anticorpo contra o vírus C da hepatite (anti-VHC) em pacientes sob hemodiálise em Salvador, BA e sua associação com transfusão de sangue, duração de hemodiálise e elevação de alaninoaminotransferase. Métodos - Durante um período de 17 meses, foram avaliados todos os pacientes em programa de hemodiálise, totalizando 395 in...

  14. Lead concentration and allocation in vegetable crops grown in a soil contaminated by battery residues Teores e alocação de chumbo em hortaliças cultivadas em solo contaminado por resíduos de baterias

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    Francisco de S Lima

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Lead (Pb is a very stable metal in soil and is highly toxic to humans and animals. Exposure to Pb occurs via inhalation of particles from industry and soil, as well as household dust, water, and contaminated food. A greenhouse experiment was carried out to evaluate Pb contents and allocation in vegetable crops grown in a soil contaminated by battery recycling wastes. Eight plant species were studied: tomato, sweet pepper, beet, carrot, cabbage, green collards, eggplant, and okra. The experiment was set up in blocks at random with four replicates. The results showed that carrot, green collards, beet, and okra were the most Pb tolerant species, while the others were very Pb-sensitive, since they did not complete their cycle. The decreasing order for Pb accumulation in the vegetables crops was: carrot > okra > tomato > eggplant > sweet pepper > green collards > cabbage > beet. Taking into account the Pb allocation in plants, the order was: root > stems > leaves > edible parts. Although carrot translocated the lowest Pb amount into the edible part, such level exceeded the legal limit.O chumbo (Pb é um elemento extremamente estável no solo e altamente tóxico para seres humanos e animais. A contaminação com chumbo geralmente ocorre pela exposição decorrente da inalação de partículas oriundas de indústrias ou do solo, ou ainda, pela ingestão de poeira doméstica, água e alimentos de origem animal e vegetal contaminados. O presente trabalho objetivou avaliar os teores e a alocação de Pb em hortaliças cultivadas em solo contaminado com resíduos de reciclagem de baterias. O experimento foi conduzido em casa-de-vegetação com delineamento experimental em blocos casualizados, com quatro repetições. Os tratamentos corresponderam a oito hortaliças: tomate, pimentão, beterraba, cenoura, repolho, couve manteiga, berinjela e quiabo. Os resultados mostraram que as espécies mais tolerantes ao Pb foram cenoura, couve-manteiga, beterraba e

  15. Componentes atencionais e de funções executivas em meninos com TDAH: dados de uma bateria neuropsicológica flexível Attentional components and executive functions in children with ADHD: data of a flexible neuropsychological battery

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    Hosana Alves Gonçalves

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Comparar o desempenho de sete meninos com diagnóstico comprovado de TDAH (G1 e 14 controles saudáveis (G2 em tarefas neuropsicológicas. MÉTODO: G1 e G2 foram pareados por sexo, idade e escolaridade em tarefas atencionais e executivas (Fluência Verbal e Discurso Narrativo da Bateria MAC, Teste de Cancelamento dos Sinos - versão infantil, Geração Aleatória de Números, Go-no Go do NEUPSILIN-Inf e N-Back auditivo. RESULTADOS: Destacaram-se diferenças entre os grupos quanto à atenção concentrada seletiva, à memória de trabalho, ao automonitoramento, à iniciação e à inibição. CONCLUSÃO: Foi possível verificar contribuições incipientes para um raciocínio de relações intercomponentes das FE e atencionais em pacientes com TDAH.OBJECTIVE: To compare the performance of seven boys with a confirmed diagnosis of ADHD (G1 and 14 healthy controls (G2 in neuropsychological tasks. METHOD: G1 and G2 were matched by gender, age and educational level. They were assessed through attentional and executive tasks (verbal fluency and narrative discourse from MAC Battery, Bells Test - children's version, Number Random Generation, Go-no Go and auditory N-Back. RESULTS: There were remarkable differences between groups for sustained focused attention, working memory, self-monitoring, initiation and inhibition. CONCLUSION: Contributions for incipient comprehension of relationships among cognitive components in ADHD patients could be identified.

  16. Trabalho e síndrome da estafa profissional (Síndrome de Burnout em médicos intensivistas de Salvador Professional Burnout Syndrome among intensive care physicians in Salvador, Brazil

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    Márcia Oliveira Staffa Tironi

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Descrever a prevalência da Síndrome de Burnout em médicos intensivistas de Salvador, associando-a a dados demográficos e aspectos da situação de trabalho (demanda psicológica e controle sobre o trabalho. MÉTODOS: Um estudo de corte transversal investigou a associação entre aspectos psicossocias do trabalho e a síndrome da estafa profissional em uma população de 297 médicos intensivistas de Salvador, Bahia. Um questionário individual autoaplicável avaliou aspectos psicossociais do trabalho, utilizando o modelo demanda-controle (Job Content Questionnaire e a saúde mental dos médicos, usando Inventário de Burnout de Maslach (MBI. RESULTADOS: Constatou-se elevada sobrecarga de trabalho e de trabalho em regime de plantão. A prevalência da Síndrome da Estafa Profissional (Burnout foi de 7,4% e estava mais fortemente associada com aspectos da demanda psicológica do trabalho do que com o controle deste por parte dos médicos intensivistas. CONCLUSÃO: Médicos com trabalho de alta exigência (alta demanda e baixo controle apresentaram 10,2 vezes mais burnout que aqueles com trabalho de baixa exigência (baixa demanda e alto controle.OBJECTIVE: Describe prevalence of the Burnout syndrome in intensive care physicians of Salvador, associated to demographic data and aspects of the work environment (psychological demand and job control. METHODS: This cross sectional study has investigated the association between work conditions and Burnout Syndrome in a population of 297 Intensive Care Physicians from Salvador, Bahia, Brazil. An individual, self-report questionnaire evaluated the physicians' psychological aspects of work, using the demand-control model (Job Content Questionnaire and their mental health, using the Maslash Burnout Inventory (MBI. RESULTS: The study found work overload,a high proportion of on duty physicians and low income for the hours worked. Prevalence of the Burnout Syndrome was 7.4% and it was more closely

  17. Tuberculose em Salvador: custos para o sistema de saúde e para as famílias

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    Costa João G

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: A tuberculose é uma das maiores causas de mortalidade no mundo, porém seus efeitos econômicos são pouco conhecidos. O objetivo do estudo foi o de estimar os custos do tratamento e prevenção da tuberculose para o sistema de saúde (público e privado e para as famílias. MÉTODOS: O estudo foi realizado no município de Salvador, BA, em 1999. Os dados para estimação dos custos para o sistema de saúde foram coletados nas secretarias de saúde, centros de saúde e em uma entidade filantrópica. Os custos públicos e privados foram estimados pela metodologia da contabilidade de custos. Os dados de custos para as famílias foram coletados por meio de questionários e incluem despesas com transporte, alimentação e outros, bem como as perdas de renda associadas à doença. RESULTADOS: O custo médio para tratamento de um caso novo de tuberculose foi de aproximadamente R$186,00 (US$103; para o tratamento de um paciente multiresistente o custo foi 27 vezes mais alto. Os custos para o serviço público corresponderam a 65% em internações, 32% em tratamento e apenas 3% em prevenção. As famílias comprometeram cerca de 33% da sua renda com despesas relacionadas a tuberculose. CONCLUSÕES: Apesar do fato das famílias não terem que pagar por medicamentos e tratamento, dado que este serviço é oferecido pelo Estado, os custos familiares ligados a perda de rendimentos devido a doença foram muito elevados. A proporção utilizada em prevenção pelo serviço público é pequena. Um maior investimento em campanhas de prevenção poderia não somente diminuir o número de casos, mas também, levar a um diagnósticos precoce, diminuindo os custos associados à hospitalização. A falta de um sistema integrado de custos não permite a visualização dos custos nos diversos setores.

  18. Seroprevalence of HIV, HTLV-I/II and other perinatally-transmitted pathogens in Salvador, Bahia Soroprevalência do HIV, HTLV-I/II e outros patógenos de transmissão perinatal em Salvador, Bahia

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    Jairo Ivo dos Santos

    1995-08-01

    Full Text Available Generation of epidemiological data on perinatally-transmitted infections is a fundamental tool for the formulation of health policies. In Brazil, this information is scarce, particularly in Northeast, the poorest region of the country. In order to gain some insights of the problem we studied the seroprevalence of some perinatally-transmitted infections in 1,024 low income pregnant women in Salvador, Bahia. The prevalences were as follow: HIV-1 (0.10%, HTLV-I/II (0.88%, T.cruzi (2.34%. T.pallidum (3.91%, rubella virus (77.44%. T.gondii IgM (2.87% and IgG (69.34%, HBs Ag (0.6% and anti-HBs (7.62%. Rubella virus and T.gondii IgG antibodies were present in more than two thirds of pregnant women but antibodies against other pathogens were present at much lower rates. We found that the prevalence of HTLV-I/II was nine times higher than that found for HIV-1. In some cases such as T.cruzi and hepatitis B infection there was a decrease in the prevalence over the years. On the other hand, there was an increase in the seroprevalence of T.gondii infection. Our data strongly recommend mandatory screening tests for HTLV-I/II, T.gondii (IgM, T.pallidum and rubella virus in prenatal routine for pregnant women in Salvador. Screening test for T.cruzi, hepatitis and HIV-1 is recommended whenever risk factors associated with these infections are suspected. However in areas with high prevalence for these infections, the mandatory screening test in prenatal care should be considered.A obtenção de dados epidemiológicos é de fundamental importância para o estabelecimento de políticas em Saúde Pública. No Brasil, essas informações são escassas, principalmente na região Nordeste. Para se obter alguns destes dados, avaliamos a soroprevalência de algumas infecções de transmissão perinatal, em cerca de 1024 gestantes de baixa renda, em Salvador, Bahia. Os resultados encontrados foram os seguintes: HIV-1 (0,10%, HTLV-I/II (0,88%, T.cruzi (2,34%, T.pallidum (3

  19. Redes solidárias em vigilância sanitária: a rede de gerenciamento da comida de rua em Salvador, BA – Brasil / Network solidarity in health surveillance: a management network for street food in Salvador, BA - Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Cristian Oliveira Benevides Sanches Leal; Carmen Fontes Teixeira

    2015-01-01

    O objetivo desse trabalho é analisar os limites e possibilidades do arranjo em rede como alternativa para o gerenciamento do risco relacionado à comida de rua. Discute-se a pertinência da organização de redes solidárias em vigilância sanitária (Visa), com base em um estudo de caso da Rede de gerenciamento da comida de rua, em Salvador/BA, entre 2008 a 2011. A metodologia incluiu entrevistas semi-estruturadas com membros da rede e utilização de imagens que revelam aspectos da situação da co...

  20. Gestão da segurança e saúde no trabalho em empresas produtoras de baterias automotivas: um estudo para identificar boas práticas Management of occupational health and safety in automotive battery companies: a study to identify best practices

    OpenAIRE

    Otávio José de Oliveira; Alessandra Bizan de Oliveira; Renan Augusto de Almeida

    2010-01-01

    A gestão da Segurança e Saúde no Trabalho (SST) reduz riscos de acidentes, promove a saúde e a satisfação dos trabalhadores, melhora os resultados operacionais e a imagem das organizações, sobretudo daquelas do setor industrial. Este artigo tem como principal objetivo identificar, a partir do método de estudo de caso duplo, boas práticas e principais dificuldades relacionadas à gestão da SST em empresas fabricantes de baterias automotivas da região centro-oeste do Estado de São Paulo. A colet...

  1. Diretrizes para implantação de sistemas de segurança e saúde do trabalho em empresas produtoras de baterias automotivas Guidelines to implement occupational health and safety systems in automotive batteries manufacturers

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    Otávio José de Oliveira

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available O desenvolvimento de Sistemas de Gestão da Segurança e Saúde no Trabalho (SGSST ganha um significado cada vez mais importante no desempenho das empresas, pois, por meio deles, é possível obter a promoção da saúde e satisfação dos trabalhadores e a redução dos riscos de acidentes. No entanto, para que um SGSST obtenha bons resultados, as empresas precisam estar atentas às dificuldades comumente encontradas durante o seu processo de implantação, procurando solucioná-las de maneira antecipada e estruturada. Pelo exposto, este trabalho tem como principal objetivo apresentar diretrizes, baseadas no referencial teórico e nos resultados dos estudos de caso realizados, para implantação de SGSSTs em empresas fabricantes de baterias automotivas. Para o seu desenvolvimento adotou-se o método de pesquisa qualitativa a partir da realização de dois estudos de caso em empresas fabricantes de baterias automotivas localizadas na cidade de Bauru. Os instrumentos de coleta de dados foram entrevistas semiestruturadas, análise de documentos e observação in loco. Ao final do artigo, são propostas diretrizes relacionadas aos seguintes elementos: alta direção, estratégia organizacional, cultura organizacional, departamento de Segurança e Saúde do Trabalho (SST, técnicos de SST, recursos humanos, treinamento, equipes multidisciplinares, comunicação interna, resistência à mudança, indicadores de desempenho, ferramentas gerenciais para solução de problemas de SST, gestão de projetos, recompensas e incentivos, e integração do sistema.The development of Health and Safety Management Systems has become increasingly important for the performance of companies since they can provide workers with good health and satisfaction and reduce the risks of accidents. However, in order for these systems to be efficient, the organizations need to be aware of the difficulties found during their implementation to overcome them ahead in a structured

  2. Características clínicas e prognóstico em pacientes com asma quase fatal em Salvador, Bahia Clinical characteristics and prognosis in near-fatal asthma patients in Salvador, Brazil

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    Eduardo Vieira Ponte

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Determinar a frequência de asma quase fatal em um grupo de pacientes com asma grave, assim como as características clínicas e o prognóstico desses pacientes em um ano de seguimento. MÉTODOS: Estudo prospectivo envolvendo 731 pacientes de baixa renda com asma grave tratados em um ambulatório de referência para asma na cidade de Salvador (BA. Os pacientes realizaram espirometria na admissão do estudo, receberam medicações para asma e foram monitorizados quanto à frequência de exacerbações durante o seguimento. Uma subamostra de 511 pacientes também respondeu questionários de sintomas e de qualidade de vida relacionada a asma. RESULTADOS: Dos 731 pacientes estudados, 563 (77% eram do sexo feminino, com mediana de idade de 47 anos, e 12% não eram alfabetizados. A maioria dos pacientes apresentava rinite, e 70 (10% relataram asma quase fatal antes da admissão. Desses 70 pacientes, 41 (59% relataram terem sido intubados previamente. Os pacientes com asma quase fatal na admissão eram mais propensos a exacerbações de asma durante o acompanhamento e tiveram menor resposta ao tratamento do que aqueles sem asma quase fatal. Os resultados dos questionários no final do acompanhamento foram semelhantes nos dois grupos de pacientes. CONCLUSÕES: A frequência de asma quase fatal foi alta nesta população de pacientes com asma grave e de baixa renda. Os pacientes com histórico de asma quase fatal tiveram um pior prognóstico que aqueles sem esse histórico, embora tenham recebido o mesmo tratamento. Curiosamente, a intensidade dos sintomas e a qualidade de vida no final do estudo foram semelhantes entre os dois grupos de pacientes.OBJECTIVE: To determine the frequency of near-fatal asthma in a group of severe asthma patients, as well as the clinical characteristics and prognosis of these patients within a one-year follow-up period. METHODS: A prospective study involving 731 low-income patients with severe asthma treated at a

  3. Impacto de um programa para profilaxia de tromboembolismo venoso em pacientes clínicos em quatro hospitais de Salvador Impact of a program for venous thromboembolism prophylaxis in hospitalized patients in four hospitals in Salvador

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    Ana Thereza C. Rocha

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Implementar um programa hospitalar de profilaxia de TEV através da criação de uma comissão, da realização de palestras e da distribuição de algoritmos baseados na Diretriz Brasileira para Profilaxia de TEV em Pacientes Clínicos e avaliar seu impacto na adequação da utilização de profilaxia em quatro hospitais de Salvador, Bahia. MÉTODOS: Foram realizados dois estudos de corte-transversal, um antes e um depois da implementação do programa, e comparadas as proporções de pacientes em risco de TEV e as mudanças na adequação da profilaxia. RESULTADOS: Foram avaliados 219 pacientes clínicos antes e 292 depois do programa. As taxas daqueles com pelo menos um fator de risco para TEV e daqueles com contra indicação (CI para heparina foram semelhantes nos dois grupos: 95% vs. 98% (p=0,13 e 42% vs. 34% (p=0,08, respectivamente. Nos dois estudos, 75% vs. 82% (p=0,06 eram candidates para profilaxia, e 44% vs. 55% (p =0,02 eram candidatos sem qualquer CI para heparina. Após o programa, utilizou-se mais profilaxia mecânica, 0,9% vs. 4,5% (p=0,03 e menos profilaxia farmacológica, 55,3% vs. 47,9% (p=0,04, embora tenha havido um aumento significativo na utilização das doses corretas das heparinas, 53% vs. 75% (pThere is a discrepancy between guideline recommendations and practice of venous thromboembolism (VTE prophylaxis in hospitals worldwide. OBJECTIVE: To implement a program using a risk-assessment tool (RAT for VTE and educational lectures based on the Brazilian Guidelines for VTE Prophylaxis for Medical Patients and to evaluate the impact of these tools on adequacy of VTE prophylaxis in 4 hospitals in Salvador, Bahia. METHODS: We performed two cross-sectional surveys before and after the implementation of the program to compare the proportion of patients at-risk of VTE and the changes in the adequacy of VTE prophylaxis. RESULTS: We compared the data of 219 medical patients before with 292 patients after the program

  4. Produtos naturais utilizados para tratamento de asma em crianças residentes na cidade de Salvador-BA, Brasil Natural products used for asthma treatment in children living in Salvador-BA, Brazil

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    Ryan dos S. Costa

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available O conhecimento popular é o passo inicial para a investigação científica de atividades terapêuticas de remédios caseiros. Diversas patologias podem ser tratadas ou amenizadas através de preparações de origem natural e muitos fármacos disponíveis são oriundos de fontes naturais. Este trabalho tem como objetivo avaliar o uso de remédios caseiros derivados de plantas para tratamento de asma em crianças residentes no município de Salvador. Os dados foram obtidos a partir de estudo realizado em Salvador sobre fatores de risco, uso de medicações e vias imunológicas relacionadas à asma em crianças. Foram calculadas as freqüências de uso de preparações caseiras para tratamento de asma por esta população e realizado uma revisão bibliográfica sobre os efeitos das plantas mais usadas. Dentre as espécies mais citadas, destacam-se o Allium sativum (alho que teve a maior freqüência de utilização na preparação dos remédios caseiros (25%, seguido da Allium cepa (cebola, 19,74%. Após a revisão crítica de literatura, constatou-se que a maioria das espécies é utilizada com base em relatos fundamentados no saber popular, sendo assim carente de evidências científicas para as atividades farmacoterapêuticas esperadas. Neste sentido, há necessidade de mais estudos farmacológicos para comprovação das atividades terapêuticas peculiares a cada produto de origem natural bem como para avaliar possíveis efeitos tóxicos destes produtos.The popular knowledge is the initial step for the scientific inquiry of therapeutical activities of herb-based remedies. Several pathologies can be treated or brightened up through this kind of preparations and also many of the available drugs in the market have natural sources. The objective of this work was to evaluate the use of herb-based remedies for treatment of asthma in children in the city of Salvador. Data were collected by a standard questionnaire during a transversal study carried

  5. Social inequalities and the rise in violent deaths in Salvador, Bahia State, Brazil: 2000-2006 Desigualdades sociais e crescimento das mortes violentas em Salvador, Bahia, Brasil: 2000-2006

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    Luiz Antonio Chaves Viana

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available An ecological study was carried out using information zones as units of analysis in order to assess the evolution of socio-spatial inequalities in mortality due to external causes and homicides in Salvador, Bahia State, Brazil, in 2000 and 2006. The Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics (Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística - IBGE and the City Health Department (Secretaria Municipal de Saúde provided the data sources, and causes of death were reviewed and reclassified based on reports from the Institute of Legal Medicine (Instituto Médico Legal. The information zones were classified into four social strata according to income and schooling. The ratio between mortality rates (inequality ratio was calculated and confirmed a rise of 98.5% in the homicide rate. In 2000, the risk of death due to external causes and murders in the stratum with the worst living conditions was respectively 1.40 and 1.94 times greater than in the reference stratum. In 2006 these figures were 2.02 and 2.24. The authors discuss the implications for inter-sectoral public policies, based on evidence from the study's findings.Com o objetivo de analisar a evolução das desigualdades socioespaciais na mortalidade por causas externas e homicídios em Salvador, Bahia, Brasil, entre 2000-2006, foi realizado um estudo ecológico, tendo as zonas de informação e estratos sociais como unidades de análise. O Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística (IBGE e a Secretaria Municipal de Saúde foram fontes de dados. As causas básicas de óbito foram revisadas e reclassificadas com base em relatórios do IML. As zonas de informação foram classificadas em quatro estratos sociais a partir da renda e da escolaridade. Calculou-se a razão entre as taxas de mortalidade (razão de desigualdade. Verificou-se aumento de 98,5% na taxa de homicídios no período. Em 2000, o risco de morte por causas externas e homicídios no estrato de piores condições de vida

  6. Breve relato histórico da luta por moradia em Salvador: o caso da ocupação Quilombo de Escada

    OpenAIRE

    Luciana da Luz Silva

    2008-01-01

    A partir da construção histórica, a nível nacionale local, este artigo discute a problematicado conflito fundiário urbano em Salvador, soba perspectiva da luta de classes que se afiguraentre os movimentos sociais e o capital imobiliário,ressaltando o papel mediador do Estado.Para ilustrar os argumentos explorados, será apresentadoo caso da ocupação do MSTB (Movimentodos Sem Teto da Bahia) Quilombo de Escada,aqui colocada enquanto parâmetro da atuaçãodos movimentos sociais de luta por habitaçã...

  7. Integrations of the arts in modern architecture in Salvador and the construction of a discourse ///// A integração das artes na arquitetura moderna em Salvador e a construção de um discurso

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    Neila Dourado Gonçalves Maciel

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available O presente artigo vem contribuir na reflexão sobre as representações possíveis da cidade, no caso Salvador, através da integração das artes durante a implantação da arquitetura moderna na capital baiana, entre as décadas de 1950 a 1970 e as relações que permearam a sua produção e apreensão, pensando aqui na análise do discurso visual elaborado por esta prática, considerando o contexto histórico-social e as relações de poder e de força que regiram a concretização de um modelo artístico supostamente moderno, que por sua vez, buscou uma formatação e consolidação de uma identidade nacional/regional/baiana para se auto-afirmar. Tomaremos como exemplo, a parceria estabelecida entre os arquitetos modernos e o artista plástico Carybé, artista com maior número de obras integradas às construções desse período,ao mesmo tempo em que artistas tão importantes como Rubem Valentim foram completamente negligenciados. ///// This paper is to contribute to the reflection on the possible representations of the city, where Salvador, through the integration of the arts during the deployment of modern architecture in Salvador, between the decades from 1950’ tod 1970’ and the relations that permeated their production and understanding, thinking here in the analysis of visual discourse produced by this practice, considering the historical and social context and power relations that led the implementation of a model supposedly artistic modern, which in turn, sought a formatting and consolidation of national identity / local / Bahia to assert itself. We will take as an example, the partnership established between modern architects and artist Carybé, artist with most number of works incorporated into the construction of this period, at the same time that artists as important as Rubem Valentim was completely neglected.

  8. Frontal assessment battery in a Brazilian sample of healthy controls: normative data Bateria de avaliação frontal em uma amostra brasileira de controles saudáveis: dados normativos

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    Rogério Beato

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To show data on the performance of healthy subjects in the Frontal Assessment Battery (FAB, correlating with gender, age, education, and scores in the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE. METHODS: Two hundred and seventy-five healthy individuals with mean age of 66.4±10.6 years-old were evaluated. Mean total FAB scores were established according to the educational level. RESULTS: Mean total FAB scores according to the educational level were 10.9±2.3, for one to three years; 12.8±2.7, for four to seven years; 13.8±2.2, for eight to 11 years; and 15.3±2.3, for 12 or more years. Total FAB scores correlated significantly with education (r=0.47; pOBJETIVO: Avaliar o desempenho de indivíduos brasileiros saudáveis na Bateria de Avaliação Frontal (FAB correlacionado com gênero, idade, educação e escores do Exame do Mini-Mental (MMSE. MÉTODOS: Foram avaliados 275 controles saudáveis com média de idade de 66,4±10,6 anos. Os escores médios foram estabelecidos de acordo com o nível educacional. RESULTADOS: Os escores médios da FAB em relação ao nível educacional foram 10,9±2,3 para um a três anos; 12,8±2,7 para quatro a sete anos; 13,8±2,2 para oito a 11 anos e 15,3±2,3 para 12 ou mais anos. Os escores totais da FAB se correlacionaram significativamente com o nível educacional (r=0,47; p<0,0001 e com os escores do MMSE (r=0,39; p<0,0001. Não foram observadas correlações significativas entre os escores da FA, o gênero e a idade. CONCLUSÃO: Na presente amostra, a versão brasileira da FAB sofreu influência do nível de escolaridade, mas não da idade e do gênero.

  9. Violência e desigualdade social: mortalidade por homicídios e condições de vida em Salvador, Brasil Violence and social inequalities: mortality rates due to homicides and life conditions in Salvador, Brazil

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    Adriana C Macedo

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: A relação entre pobreza e violência tem sido questionada por alguns autores. Nesse sentido, foi realizado estudo com o objetivo de analisar os diferenciais intra-urbanos de mortalidade por homicídio segundo as condições de vida. MÉTODOS: Estudo de agregados referente aos anos de 1991 e 1994, considerando as 75 zonas de informação de Salvador, BA, e a classificação de sua população em quatro estratos de condições de vida, a partir das variáveis renda e escolaridade. Para cada estrato, foram calculados a taxa de mortalidade por homicídios e o risco relativo de morte para o estrato de piores condições de vida em relação aos demais. Os dados foram obtidos de declarações de óbito, dos registros do Instituto Médico Legal e do Censo Demográfico de 1991. Foram calculados os intervalos de confiança a 95%, mediante o aplicativo Confidence Interval Analysis. RESULTADOS: As taxas de mortalidade por homicídio mais elevadas foram registradas nas áreas mais pobres da cidade. O risco relativo de morte por essa causa entre o estrato de piores e o de melhores condições de vida variou entre 2,9 e 5,1, sendo essa relação estatisticamente significante em nível de 5%. CONCLUSÃO: Os achados são sugestivos das possíveis relações entre homicídios e desigualdades sociais, o que levou a discussões sobre a relevância de iniciativas organizadas para a redução da violência.INTRODUCTION: Some studies have been questioning the association between poverty and violence. This study's purpose is to assess the distribution of homicide indicators associated with living conditions in Salvador, Brazil. METHODS: A cluster study for the years 1991 to 1994 was carried out including the 75 data centers of the city of Salvador, BA, Brazil. Using death certificates for the study period, yearly mortality rates and mortality ratios were estimated. The 1991 census data of monthly wages and years of education for all family providers were

  10. El Salvador

    OpenAIRE

    Rasmussen, Asger Nørregaard; Brabæk, Line; Jakobsen, Sofie Damgaard; Ahlbom, Anna Lohmann

    2013-01-01

    This project contains an analysis of the conflict in El Salvador between the gangs, pandillas, and the government. The object of analysis is the documentary La Vida Loca from 2008 by Christian Poveda. The project includes a discussion of whether the government truly intended to solve the conflict with their law of Mano Dura or whether it was a symbolic tool for gaining the support of the top part of society as well as using the pandilla as a scapegoat, allowing them to ignore the actual issue...

  11. Graça square in Salvador – BA: a “new” perception Largo da Graça em Salvador-BA: Uma “nova” percepção

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    Denise Silva Magalhães

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The experience undertaken along an empirical work at Largo da Graça (Graça Square, in Salvador, Bahia, motivated this article which presents a deep study with new researches, local visits, interviews and pictures, as a reality direct observation technique. But, which method to adopt in order to learn the essence of the studied space? Following a thought by Júlia Adão Bernardes, I strayed without a trail, expecting to have trailed it at the end of the work. The activities were systematized and rationalized in order to lead to a valid knowledge of the area; I proceeded the investigations and analysis of the facts, processes and institutions of the past, which interacted with the qualitative interviews on the local workers, inhabitants and visitors everyday life. My perception of the Largo da Graça has changed from a simply perceived to a lived space, a differentiated public space, through its concreteness and the daily practices and social dynamics there occurring.Experiência vivenciada durante um pequeno trabalho empírico realizado no Largo da Graça, em Salvador-BA, motivou este artigo que apresenta o estudo aprofundado com novas pesquisas, várias visitas ao local, entrevistas e fotos, como técnicas de observação direta da realidade. Mas, qual método deveria seguir para apreender a essência do espaço em questão? Seguindo uma ponderação de Júlia Adão Bernardes, caminhei sem caminho, esperando tê-lo feito ao final do trabalho. Sistematizei e racionalizei as atividades, para obter um conhecimento válido da área; procedi a investigações e análises de fatos, processos e instituições do passado, que interagiram com entrevistas qualitativas sobre o cotidiano dos frequentadores, moradores e trabalhadores do local. Transformou-se minha percepção do Largo da Graça, de um espaço apenas percebido, para um espaço vivido, um espaço público diferenciado por sua concretude e por práticas cotidianas e dinâmicas sociais que

  12. Impacto de causas básicas de morte na esperança de vida em Salvador e São Paulo, 1996

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    Barboni André Renê; Gotlieb Sabina Léa Davidson

    2004-01-01

    OBJETIVO: Avaliar e comparar o impacto de algumas causas básicas de morte na esperança de vida de residentes em duas áreas metropolitanas. MÉTODOS: Trata-se de um estudo ecológico descritivo, transversal, utilizando dados oficiais secundários (óbitos e populações) e estimativas para residentes nos municípios de Salvador, BA, e São Paulo, SP, em 1996. Analisou-se a importância dos grupos de causas de óbito na esperança de vida, utilizando-se tábuas de vida e a teoria de riscos competitivos. RE...

  13. Renovação hoteleira em Salvador: estratégias de diversificação, inovação e competitividade

    OpenAIRE

    Cypriano, Pedro; Gonçalves Gândara, José Manoel

    2011-01-01

    A existência de uma oferta de hotéis competitiva e bem dimensionada – em quantidade, qualidade e diversidade de produtos e serviços – é condição básica para que um destino turístico evolua em seu potencial de desenvolvimento. Com Salvador – capital do estado da Bahia, Brasil, e um dos maiores parques hoteleiros do país – não seria diferente. O objetivo deste trabalho é caracterizar a hotelaria e evidenciar seu processo de evolução nos últimos 12 anos, de modo a identificar as estratégias de i...

  14. Características de pacientes com síndrome da fibromialgia atendidos em hospital de Salvador-BA, Brasil Characteristics of patients with fibromyalgia syndrome assisted in a hospital of Salvador, BA, Brazil

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    Sérgio Ricardo Matos Rodrigues da Costa

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: descrever as características demográficas, sócio-econômicas e clínicas de pacientes com síndrome da fibromialgia (SF atendidos no Hospital Santo Antônio em Salvador, BA, Brasil. MÉTODOS: cento e vinte pacientes com SF foram avaliados prospectivamente por dois reumatologistas, quanto aos dados clínico-epidemiológicos e manifestações clínicas. RESULTADOS: todos os pacientes eram do sexo feminino, com média de idade igual a 29,8 anos. A dor difusa foi encontrada em todas as pacientes e fadiga em 94,2% (n=113. Ansiedade foi referida por 105 pacientes (87,5% e depressão por 47 (39,2%. O tender-point mais encontrado foi o suboccipital direito, em 40% (n=48 dos pacientes e o menos encontrado foi o glúteo direito, em 26,7% (n=26. A média do número total de tender points foi 13,6 (limites de 11 a 18, sendo a média e a mediana 14. O grupo de pacientes que tiveram número de tender-points superior ou igual à mediana apresentou, significativamente, menor renda familiar (pOBJECTIVE: to describe the demographic, socioeconomic and clinical characteristics of patients with Fibromyialgia Syndrome (FS assisted at the Hospital Santo Antônio in Salvador, BA, Brazil. METHODS: a hundred and twenty patients with FS were prospectively evaluated by two rheumatologists in relation to the clinical-epidemic data and clinical manifestations. RESULTS: all the patients were female, with average age of 29.8 years. Diffuse pain was found in all patients and fatigue was found in 94.2% (n = 113. Anxiety was referred by 105 patients (87.5% and depression by 47 (39.2% of them. The most common tender point found was the right subocciput, reported by 40% (n = 48 of the patients and the less found was the right gluteal, in 26.7% (n = 26. The mean of the total number of tender points was 13.6 (limits from 11 to 18, being the average and the median 14. The patients' group that had the number of tender points superior or equal to the median presented

  15. El Salvador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-02-01

    Background notes on El Salvador capsulizes specific statistical and descriptive information on geography, demography, government. and economic conditions. The man text describes the people, their history and the nature of the peace process, principal government officials, political conditions, human rights, the state of the economy, foreign relations, and relations with the US. In 1992, the estimated population was about 5 million of which 89% are mestizo (Spanish-Indian), 10% Indian, and 1% Caucasian. 58% live in rural areas. It is largely Roman Catholic. Literacy is about 65% among adults. 6 years of education are compulsory. 40% are engaged in agriculture, 27% in services, and 16% in industry. The gross domestic product was $5.1 billion; per capita income was $1160. El Salvador's history has been marked by frequent revolutions. Almost every present since 1932 has been a military officer. In the more recent past (1969-80), Honduras and El Salvador fought over borders; a peace treaty was signed in 1980, but it was not until 1992 that the land in dispute was awarded by the International Court of Justice to Honduras. During the 1970, efforts by Duarte were made toward democratic reform, but fraud and corruption contributed to the rise of armed guerrilla warfare as a means to bring about change. There were rightist and leftists groups accelerating violence; event he Salvadoran armed forces engaged in lawlessness. The judicial system failed. Nicaragua after 1979 supplied arms and munitions to 5 guerrilla groups. Duarte returned to power and his junta initiated land reform and nationalized banks and marketing of coffee and sugar. The elections in 1982 led to the transfer of power to Alvaro Magana. The new constitution in 1983 appeased some, but land reforms still did not satisfy guerrillas. Duarte was elected again in 1984 and Alfredo Christiani in 1989 in a peaceful transfer of power. In 1991 and 1992 peace accords were signed with the guerrillas. During this 12-year

  16. Acidentes por escorpião em uma área do Nordeste de Amaralina, Salvador, Bahia, Brasil Scorpion sting in an area of Nordeste de Amaralina, Salvador, Bahia, Brazil

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    Andréa Monteiro de Amorim

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Um estudo epidemiológico mediu a prevalência de pessoas que referiram acidentes por escorpião em uma amostra populacional do Areal, bairro Nordeste de Amaralina, Salvador, Bahia. Examinou-se uma amostra aleatória sistemática de 1367 indivíduos, correspondendo a 44,4% da população da área. Oitenta e dois indivíduos referiram haver sido picados por escorpião desde que residiam no Areal, resultando numa prevalência de 6% (IC 95% 4,7 - 7,3. A prevalência de pessoas picadas por escorpião aumentou nos grupos com maior tempo de residência no domicílio e com maior idade atual. Chamou atenção que 92,7% dos acidentes aconteceram dentro do domicílio. A incidência estimada para o período mais recente (janeiro a julho de 2000 foi de 1,15 casos/1.000 habitantes por mês. Este coeficiente compara-se ao mais elevado já referido na literatura especializada para uma área epidêmica para acidentes escorpiônicos.An epidemiological study was undertaken to determine the prevalence of individuals who referred scorpion sting accidents in a population sample from Areal, a neighborhood northeast of Amaralina, Salvador City, State of Bahia, Brazil. A random, systematic sample of 1,367 individuals was taken, corresponding to 44.4% of the total population. Eighty-two residents referred scorpion sting since they were resident in Areal, giving a prevalence coefficient of 6% (95% CI 4.7 - 7.3. The prevalence of persons stung by scorpions increased according to greater time spent in the domicile and more advanced age. It was remarkable that 92.7% of the scorpions stings occurred within the home. The incidence coefficient estimated for the most recent period of time (January to July, 2000 was 1.15 cases/1,000 inhabitants per month, comparable to the highest ever reported for an epidemic area.

  17. Evolução e distribuição espacial da mortalidade por causas externas em Salvador, Bahia, Brasil Trends and spatial distribution of mortality from external causes in Salvador, Bahia State, Brazil

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    Eni Devay de Freitas

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available A partir de 1980, as mortes violentas vêm se destacando como segunda principal causa de óbito no Brasil, tornando-se um importante problema de saúde pública. Este trabalho tem como objetivo descrever a evolução e a distribuição espacial das mortes violentas no espaço urbano de Salvador, uma cidade do Nordeste do Brasil, nos anos de 1988, 1991 e 1994. Trata-se de um estudo ecológico, cujos dados de mortalidade foram obtidos das Declarações de Óbito e dos arquivos do Instituto Médico Legal. Observou-se um aumento de 34,6% no número de mortes violentas entre os anos de 1988 e 1994. As maiores taxas de mortalidade ocorreram no sexo masculino nas faixas etárias de 20-29 (192,0 a 262,0/100.000 anos e de 65 anos ou mais (188,7 a 258,1/100.000. Os homicídios destacaram-se como primeira causa de morte em cerca de 75% dos distritos sanitários. Os autores discutem a necessidade de políticas públicas integradas e um conhecimento interdisciplinar para explicar as causas e enfrentar o problema da violência.Since 1980, external causes (ICD-9 E800-E999 have been ranked as the second leading causal group for mortality in Brazil, thus becoming a major public health problem. This study aimed to describe spatial distribution trends for violent deaths in the urban setting of Salvador, a city in Northeast Brazil, for the years 1988, 1991, and 1994. An ecological study was conducted, and mortality data were obtained from death certificates and the archives of the Institute for Forensic Medicine. There was an increase of 34.6% in the number of deaths from external causes between 1988 and 1994. The highest mortality rates were among men from 20 to 29 years of age (from 192.0 to 262.0/100,000 and those 65 years and over (from 188.7 to 258.1/100,000. Homicides were the leading cause of violent deaths in about 75.0% of neighborhoods. The authors discuss the need for comprehensive public policies and an interdisciplinary approach to elucidate the causes

  18. Fatores associados à dislipidemia em crianças e adolescentes de escolas públicas de Salvador, Bahia Factors associated with dyslipidemia in children and adolescents enrolled in public schools of Salvador, Bahia

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    Osvaldo Dário de Alcântara Neto

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Este estudo aborda os fatores associados a dislipidemia em crianças e adolescentes matriculados na rede pública de ensino da cidade de Salvador, BA. MÉTODOS: Os participantes foram submetidos a avaliação antropométrica, coleta de sangue para dosagem de colesterol e triglicérides. As informações relacionadas a consumo alimentar, atividade física e condições socioeconômicas e de moradia da família foram fornecidas pelos responsáveis. Regressão logistica mutivariada foi utilizada para as avaliações de interesse. RESULTADOS: A prevalência de dislipidemia encontrada no presente estudo foi de 25,5% (IC:95% 22,7; 28,3. Observou-se associação positiva e estatiticamentre significante entre dislipidemia e excesso de peso (0R = 3,40; IC95%: 2,07-5,58, moderado e alto consumo de alimentos de risco (OR = 1,49; IC95%: 1,01-2,19, baixo e moderado consumo de alimentos protetores (OR = 1,54; IC95%: 1,05-2,26 e menor nível de escolaridade materna (OR = 1,72; IC95%: 1,05-2,26. CONCLUSÃO: O excesso de peso, consumo alimentar inadequado e baixa escolaridade materna constituem fatores associados a dislipidemia.OBJECTIVE: We assessed the factors associated with dyslipidemia in children and adolescents enrolled in the public school system of the city of Salvador, Bahia. METHODS: All participants were submitted to anthropometric evaluation and to cholesterol and triglyceride blood tests. Data related to food intake, physical activity and family socioeconomic and housing conditions were obtained from parents or guardians. Data were analyzed using multivariate logistic regression. RESULTS: The prevalence of dyslipidemia was 25.5% (IC:95% 22.7; 28.3. We observed a significant positive association between dyslipidemia and the following factors: overweight (OR = 3.40, 95% CI 2.07 to 5.58, moderate and high intake of risk food (OR = 1.49, 95%: 1.01 to 2.19, low and moderate intake of protective foods (OR = 1.54, 95% CI 1.05 to 2.26 and lower

  19. Condições de trabalho e saúde dos médicos em Salvador, Brasil Conditions of work and health of physicians in the city of Salvador, Brasil

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    Carlito Lopes Nascimento Sobrinho

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: Descrever as condições de trabalho e de saúde dos médicos da cidade de Salvador, Bahia, Brasil. MÉTODOS: Utilizando delineamento transversal, estudou-se uma amostra aleatória de 350 médicos. Num questionário individual, autoaplicável, enviado pelo correio, foram coletadas informações sobre a saúde física, mental, hábitos de vida e condições de trabalho dos médicos. RESULTADOS: Os médicos referiram elevada sobrecarga de trabalho, excesso de trabalho em regime de plantão, múltiplas inserções, contratação precária sob a forma de remuneração por procedimento e baixa remuneração. A atividade de consultório particular foi referida por 45,2% dos médicos, mas apenas 1,5% exercia exclusivamente esta atividade. As queixas de saúde mais freqüentes estavam relacionadas à postura corporal e à saúde mental. A prevalência de distúrbios psíquicos menores, medida pelo Self Report Questionnaire (SRQ-20, foi de 26%. CONCLUSÃO: As condições de trabalho e saúde observadas apontam para a necessidade de mudanças profundas na organização do trabalho médico.BACKGROUND: The conditions of work and health of physicians in the city of Salvador, State of Bahia, Brasil were described. METHODS: A cross sectional study investigated a random sample of 350 physicians. Information about the physical and mental health, living habits and working conditions of these physicians was collected by self-reported, individual questionnaires forwarded by mail. RESULTS: The physicians reported excessive work loads, more than one job, low income, and precarious contracting with payment for each procedure performed. A private practice was also reported by 45.2% of the physicians however only 1.5% exercised it exclusively. The most frequent health complaints were related to body posture and mental health. CONCLUSION: The prevalence of minor psychological disorders was of 26.0%. The observed conditions of work and health point to a need

  20. Avaliação do nível de chumbo, em solo de várzea, proveniente da reciclagem de baterias Evaluation of the lead level, in low land soil, originated from a recycling of batteries

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    Gisele I. T. H. Wowk

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Visando caracterizar e quantificar os minerais da fração argila e avaliar a contaminação por chumbo (Pb ocasionada por efluentes de uma empresa recicladora de sucatas de baterias no município de Paula Freitas, PR, coletaram-se amostras de solo de várzea em cinco perfis. Além dos teores totais, as amostras de solo foram submetidas a análises químicas seqüenciais para determinação de diferentes formas de Pb: solúvel, trocável, ligado à matéria orgânica, ligado aos óxidos de alumínio e ferro e residual. A fração argila, estudada por difratometria de raios-X e análise termogravimétrica diferencial, apresentou altos teores de caulinita e menores de gibbsita, material amorfo e goethita. Todos os solos da várzea apresentaram teores de Pb superiores aos encontrados no solo sob mata (testemunha, evidenciando a contaminação ambiental. O perfil P2 indicou o maior potencial de contaminação do nível freático, pois continha maior teor de Pb total (2.399,6 µg cm-3 associado ao elevado teor do metal, na forma trocável (adsorção não específica. A alta superfície específica dos óxidos de Fe e Al de baixa cristalinidade promoveram maior retenção de Pb nos solos contaminados.In order to characterize and to quantify the minerals of the clay fraction and to evaluate the contamination by lead (Pb caused by effluents from a recycling company of waste batteries in Paula Freitas, Paraná state, Brazil , samples of low land soil were collected from five profiles. Besides the total levels, the soil samples were submitted to sequential chemical analyses for the determination of different Pb forms: soluble, exchangeable, linked to organic matter, linked to alluminiun and iron oxides and residual. The clay fraction, studied by X-ray diffraction and differential thermogravimetric analysis, presented high levels of kaolinite and small amounts of gibbsite, amorphous material and goethite. All samples of low land soil presented Pb levels

  1. Trabalho em saúde: vigilância sanitária de farmácias no município de Salvador (Bahia, Brasil Work in health: sanitary surveillance of drugstores in Salvador (state of Bahia, Brazil

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    Augusto Amorim Bastos

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available A farmácia é um estabelecimento de interesse da saúde onde são dispensados medicamentos, tecnologia terapêutica mais utilizada na prática médica. Este trabalho objetiva descrever e analisar a vigilância sanitária de farmácias. A partir da teoria do processo de trabalho em saúde, realizou-se um estudo sobre a vigilância sanitária em farmácias de Salvador (Bahia, Brasil, segundo as categorias analíticas agentes e atividades. Os dados foram coletados por meio da observação, análise documental e entrevistas. No processamento, utilizou-se o software QSR N Vivo. Verificou-se multiprofissionalidade no quadro técnico, profissionais com pouco tempo de serviço em vigilância sanitária de farmácias e insuficiente capacitação técnica para o exercício das atividades. Foram observadas deficiências de ordem gerencial no serviço, que ainda não incorporou práticas de planejamento e avaliação. As atividades estão direcionadas à concessão da licença sanitária, priorizando-se o atendimento à demanda espontânea, configurando um modelo tecnológico de intervenção baseado na inspeção sanitária. Revelou-se a necessidade de modernização do serviço e utilização de tecnologias diversificadas para propiciar o controle do risco, dado que a evolução tecnológica oferece medicamentos cada vez mais potentes, porém com maior grau de risco.A drugstore is an establishment of interest in health, from which medication is dispensed, namely the therapeutic technology most broadly used in the practice of medicine. The scope of this study is to describe and analyze the sanitary surveillance of drugstores. Based on the theory of working processes in healthcare, a case study was conducted on the sanitary surveillance of drugstores in Salvador (Bahia, Brazil, examining 2 analytical categories: agents and activities. Data were collected through observation, analysis of documents and interviews, and QSR N Vivo software was used for data

  2. Estratégia de apoio em saúde mental aos agentes comunitários de saúde de Salvador-BA Strategy for supporting community health agents in mental health actions in Salvador-BA

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    Cristiane Batista da Silva

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo descreve uma intervenção de apoio matricial, modelo de integração do cuidado em saúde mental na Estratégia de Saúde da Família (ESF, a partir de suporte técnico-pedagógico e retaguarda especializada à equipe de referência, cuja atuação permite que os sujeitos sejam cuidados na dinâmica do seu próprio território. OBJETIVO: relatar experiência de apoio matricial junto aos Agentes Comunitários de Saúde no bairro de Saramandaia (Salvador, Bahia que buscou formular novas formas de relação entre saúde mental e saúde da família. PROCEDIMENTOS METODOLÓGICOS: A experiência resultou de uma pesquisa, intitulada "Construção social da aprendizagem em saúde mental e saúde da família" e dos contatos com a equipe; nela foram respeitados três cuidados essenciais da pesquisa qualitativa: aprovação pelo comitê de ética, anonimato e resguardo do uso abusivo do poder na relação entre pesquisador e participantes. Para o matriciamento, foram realizadas reuniões teóricas, discussão de casos e visitas domiciliares. RESULTADOS: O apoio matricial propiciou a construção coletiva de saberes em saúde mental, garantiu espaço de cuidado aos Agentes Comunitários de Saúde e fomentou a construção de redes do cotidiano, estimulando a articulação entre saúde mental e saúde da família de forma a favorecer o exercício da cidadania e a autonomia dos sujeitos sobre sua própria saúde.This paper describes an intervention offering matrix support, a model for integrating mental health care in Family Health Strategy (FHS. In this model, technical-pedagogical and specialized services are offered to the primary care team, helping them to provide care to the patients in the dynamics of their own territory. OBJECTIVE: To report the experience of offering matrix support to Community Health Agents in the district of Saramandaia (Salvador, Bahia, which tried to formulate new possible relations between mental health and family

  3. Indução da fitoextração de chumbo por ácido cítrico em solo contaminado por baterias automotivas Citric acid enhances lead phytoextraction from a soil contaminated by automotive batteries

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    Eriberto Vagner de Souza Freitas

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available A fitoextração - uso de plantas para extrair contaminantes do solo - é uma técnica promissora de recuperação de solos contaminados. Como alternativa aos quelantes sintéticos, ácidos orgânicos naturais estão sendo propostos para induzir a fitoextração por serem rapidamente degradados no solo, evitando risco de poluição secundária. Este trabalho objetivou avaliar o desempenho do ácido cítrico aplicado em doses crescentes, total e parceladamente, na fitoextração induzida de Pb em solo contaminado por resíduos de baterias automotivas. O ácido cítrico, nas doses de 0, 20, 40, 60 e 80 mmol kg-1, foi aplicado de forma total no 30° dia de cultivo de milho (Zea mays e, parceladamente, no 30º e 34º dias de cultivo. Para efeito comparativo, um tratamento adicional com EDTA na concentração de 10 mmol kg-1 foi utilizado. Nas amostras de solo após aplicação dos tratamentos, foram determinados os teores de Pb solúvel e ligado a frações do solo. Pode-se concluir que o parcelamento das doses de ácido cítrico não influenciou a eficiência da fitoextração, sendo a aplicação única da dose total mais indicada para indução da acumulação de Pb pelas plantas. A remediação da área com fitoextração induzida pela aplicação de ácido cítrico é exequível em período relativamente curto e sem problemas secundários quanto à lixiviação de Pb. A aplicação de ácido cítrico provocou mobilização de Pb das frações menos solúveis (matéria orgânica e óxidos para a forma trocável. A distribuição de Pb nas frações do solo após aplicação do ácido apresentou a seguinte ordem: trocável > matéria orgânica > óxido de Fe cristalino > óxido de Fe amorfo.Phytoextraction of heavy metals is a promising green technology by which metals are extracted from contaminated soils and transferred to plant shoots. Natural organic acids are an alternative to synthetic chelates since the environmental risks are lower thanks

  4. Polifenóis totais e flavonoides em amostras de chá verde (Camellia sinensis L. de diferentes marcas comercializadas na cidade de Salvador-BA

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    L.A. FIRMINO

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available RESUMO Camellia sinensis é amplamente conhecida por seus efeitos benéficos à saúde humana. Dentre as diversas formas de processamento desta erva, o chá verde e chá preto são os mais populares. Neste trabalho objetivou-se avaliar os teores de fenólicos totais e flavonoides em amostras de 25 diferentes marcas disponíveis à venda em farmácias e supermercados de Salvador-Ba. Os resultados obtidos apresentaram diferenças significativas na concentração dos compostos fenólicos entre as marcas de chá verde estudadas. No estudo também ficou comprovado que, no preparo do chá verde, as amostras obtidas por infusão aquosa com agitação mecânica apresentaram maiores teores de polifenóis e flavonoides em relação àquelas que não foram submetidas à agitação.

  5. A implantação do projeto de atendimento Móvel de Urgência em Salvador/BA: panorama e desafios La implantación del proyecto de Atención de Urgencia Móvil en Salvador/BAHIA: panorama y retos Implantation of the Emergency Ambulance Service in Salvador, Bahia: reality and challenges

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    Célia Maria Sales Vieira

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available O estudo objetivou relatar a experiência na implantação e estruturação do projeto do Serviço Móvel de Urgência (SAMU-192, em Salvador, cujas bases legais foram portarias do Ministério da Saúde e a Norma Operacional de Assistência à Saúde 02/2002. O serviço tem como finalidade prestar assistência gratuita ao indivíduo, em um primeiro nível de atenção, com agravos de natureza clínica, cirúrgica, traumática e psiquiátrica que acarretam sofrimento, seqüelas ou morte e ocorrem fora do ambiente hospitalar. O objetivo específico foi garantir o atendimento às situações de urgência e emergência por meio do SAMU-192, regulado, hierarquizado e integrado ao Sistema Único de Saúde, assegurando recursos públicos inclusive integrados à rede complementar de assistência. Despesas para sua instalação foram pactuadas no município e em comissões intergestoras federal e estadual. Os desafios do serviço incluem educação comunitária, capacitação profissional, avaliação de recursos humanos e materiais, na dinâmica e qualidade da atenção.El estudio tuvo por objetivo narrar la experiencia sobre la implantación y estructuración del proyecto de Servicio de Urgencia Móvil (SAMU-192 en Salvador, basado legalmente por decretos del Ministerio de Salud y la Norma Operacional de Asistencia a la Salud 02/2002. La finalidad del servicio es brindar asistencia gratuita fuera del hospital al individuo en un primer nivel de atención, en casos de tipo clínico, quirúrgico, traumático y psiquiátrico que provocan sufrimiento, secuelas o muerte. El objetivo específico fue garantizar la atención en casos de urgencia y emergencia a través del SAMU-192, reglamentado, jerarquizado e integrado al Sistema Único de Salud, asegurando recursos públicos, inclusive integrados a la red complementaria de asistencia. Gastos por instalación fueron establecidos entre la municipalidad y comisiones inter-gestoras federales y estatales. Como

  6. Síndrome da meningite asséptica por enterovírus e Leptospira sp em crianças de Salvador, Bahia

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    Silva Hagamenon R.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivando verificar a freqüência de enterovírus (EV, leptospiras e arbovírus como agentes causais da síndrome da meningite asséptica (SMA, em períodos não-epidêmicos, e comparar os pacientes com e sem diagnóstico etiológico determinado, foram selecionados 112 pacientes de idade entre 3 meses e 15 anos, com suspeita clínica de SMA, referenciados para Hospital Couto Maia, especializado em Doenças Infecciosas e Parasitárias (Salvador, Bahia, Em 44,6% (n=50 a etiologia foi determinada: enterovírus em 37,7% (n=42 dos casos, pelo teste de PCR Amplicor, por cultura do líquor e/ou de fezes; a Leptospira sp. em 7,1% (n=8, pelo método da micro-aglutinação, e nenhum caso de arbovírus foi detectado (inibição da hemaglutinação passiva. Entre os 14 enterovírus dos 22 isolados, foram identificados seis diferentes sorotipos, sendo o Echovirus-4 predominante (27,2%; 6/22 entre outros (Coxsackie B2, B3, B6 e B9; EV 71. Conclui-se que, os enterovírus foram os agentes mais freqüentes, e que a leptospirose deve ser lembrada no diagnóstico diferencial da SMA. Uma vez que as características clínicas e liquóricas dos pacientes dos grupos com e sem determinação do agente etiológico foram semelhantes, pode-se supor que o diagnóstico presuntivo de SMA é de provável etiologia viral ou pela leptospira.

  7. Impacto de causas básicas de morte na esperança de vida em Salvador e São Paulo, 1996 Impact of underlying causes of death on life expectancy in Salvador and São Paulo, Brazil, 1996

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    André Renê Barboni

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar e comparar o impacto de algumas causas básicas de morte na esperança de vida de residentes em duas áreas metropolitanas. MÉTODOS: Trata-se de um estudo ecológico descritivo, transversal, utilizando dados oficiais secundários (óbitos e populações e estimativas para residentes nos municípios de Salvador, BA, e São Paulo, SP, em 1996. Analisou-se a importância dos grupos de causas de óbito na esperança de vida, utilizando-se tábuas de vida e a teoria de riscos competitivos. RESULTADOS: As esperanças de vida ao nascer masculinas para cada município (64,1 anos, em Salvador, e 63,4 anos, em São Paulo são menores que as das mulheres (70,3 anos, em Salvador e 73,9 anos, em São Paulo. Doenças de caráter infeccioso têm influência maior nas primeiras idades. As causas externas atuam principalmente entre os homens de idades intermediárias. Nas idades mais avançadas, destacam-se as doenças do aparelho circulatório. Por ordem de importância, atuaram, nos homens, as doenças do aparelho circulatório, as causas externas, as neoplasias, as doenças do aparelho respiratório e, por fim, as doenças infecciosas e parasitárias, em ambos os municípios estudados. No sexo feminino, a ordenação foi: doenças do aparelho circulatório, neoplasias, doenças do aparelho respiratório, doenças infecciosas e parasitárias e, por fim, as causas externas. CONCLUSÕES: As conhecidas disparidades sociais entre as duas capitais interferem, primeiramente, no nível estrutural, que vai desde a oferta e qualidade dos serviços disponíveis para a população até o grau de informação que estes serviços conseguem gerar, prejudicando análises mais minuciosas.OBJECTIVE: To evaluate and compare the impact of some underlying causes of death on life expectancy of residents in two metropolitan areas. METHODS: It was carried out a cross-sectional descriptive ecological study based on official data (deaths and populations and

  8. Necessidades de mulheres no puerpério imediato em uma maternidade pública de Salvador, Bahia, Brasil Necesidades de mujeres en el puerperio inmediato en una maternidad pública de Salvador, Bahia, Brasil Women's needs in immediate puerperium in a public maternity in Salvador, Bahia, Brazil

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    Mariza Silva Almeida

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Objetivando identificar as necessidades de puérperas que demandam cuidados de enfermagem e compreender como elas percebem os cuidados de enfermagem durante sua permanência no Alojamento Conjunto, realizamos uma pesquisa descritiva com dados qualitativos, orientados pela perspectiva de gênero. Entrevistamos 25 mulheres que se encontravam internadas em unidade de Alojamento Conjunto de uma maternidade pública de Salvador-Bahia. A análise de conteúdo na modalidade temática conduziu-nos à apreensão de duas categorias: a necessidade de acolhimento e necessidade de cuidados físicos. O resultado deste estudo aponta para a necessidade de modificações na prática e no modo de cuidar da enfermagem, não somente nos procedimentos técnicos, mas também na incorporação de valores e iniciativas humanizadoras do cuidado.Con el objetivo de identificar las necesidades de puérperas que demandan cuidados de enfermería y comprender cómo perciben los cuidados de enfermería durante su permanencia en el Alojamiento Conjunto, se llevó a cabo una investigación descriptiva con datos cualitativos, orientados por la perspectiva de género. Para tal efecto entrevistamos a 25 mujeres que se encontraban internadas en una unidad de Alojamiento Conjunto de una maternidade pública de Salvador-Bahia. El análisis de contenido en la modalidad temática nos condujo a la aprehensión de dos categorías: la necesidad de acogida y la necesidad de cuidados físicos. El resultado de este estudio apunta hacia la necesidad de modificaciones en la práctica y en el modo de cuidar de la enfermería, no sólo en los procedimientos técnicos, sino también en la incorporación de valores e iniciativas humanizadoras del cuidado.In order to identify women's needs in their immediate puerperium and to understand their perception of the nursing care they received during this period, the authors developed a descriptive study with qualitative data in a gender perspective

  9. Tabagismo: conhecimentos, atitudes, hábitos e grau de dependência de jovens fumantes em Salvador Tabaquismo: conocimientos, actitudes, hábitos y grado de dependencia de jóvenes fumadores en Salvador Smoking: knowledge, attitudes, habits and degree of dependence of young adults in Salvador

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    Aline Farias de Almeida

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available O estudo objetivou avaliar o grau de dependência ao cigarro e caracterizar dados sócio-demográficos, conhecimentos, hábitos e atitudes de jovens fumantes. Responderam um questionário 102 estudantes de Salvador, sendo 11 tabagistas. A idade média dos fumantes foi 18,2 anos e de experimentação do cigarro 13,4 anos. Houve predomínio de homens, jovens no 1.º ano colegial, de cor parda e entes próximos fumantes. A maioria recebeu orientação familiar e escolar sobre os prejuízos do fumo, mas poucos sabiam dos benefícios de parar de fumar. Quase metade fumava há mais de três anos e iniciou o hábito por curiosidade. Mais da metade fumava um cigarro por dia, com baixo teor de nicotina, comprava o cigarro em lojas, desejava parar de fumar, já fez tentativas, mas nunca parou. O grau de dependência foi baixo para a maioria dos jovens. O estudo oferece pistas para enfermeiras atuarem junto aos jovens no controle do tabagismo.En este estudio se tuvo como objetivo evaluar el grado de dependencia al cigarro y caracterizar datos sociodemográficos, conocimientos, hábitos y actitudes de jóvenes fumadores. Respondieron un cuestionario 102 estudiantes de Salvador, de los cuales 11 eran tabaquistas. La edad media de los fumadores fue 18,2 años y de experimentación del cigarro 13,4 años. Hubo predominio de hombres, jóvenes en el 1.º año colegial, de color pardo y con personas próximas, también, fumadoras. La mayoría recibió orientación familiar y escolar sobre los perjuicios del humo de cigarro, pero pocos sabían de los beneficios de parar de fumar. Casi la mitad fumaba desde hace más de tres años e inició el hábito por curiosidad. Más de la mitad fumaba un cigarro por dia, con bajo tenor de nicotina, compraba el cigarro en tiendas, deseaba parar de fumar, hizo intentos, pero nunca paró. El grado de dependencia fue bajo para la mayoría de los jóvenes.El estudio ofrece pistas para que las enfermeras actúen junto a los j

  10. Violência e desigualdade social: mortalidade por homicídios e condições de vida em Salvador, Brasil

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    Adriana C Macedo

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: A relação entre pobreza e violência tem sido questionada por alguns autores. Nesse sentido, foi realizado estudo com o objetivo de analisar os diferenciais intra-urbanos de mortalidade por homicídio segundo as condições de vida. MÉTODOS: Estudo de agregados referente aos anos de 1991 e 1994, considerando as 75 zonas de informação de Salvador, BA, e a classificação de sua população em quatro estratos de condições de vida, a partir das variáveis renda e escolaridade. Para cada estrato, foram calculados a taxa de mortalidade por homicídios e o risco relativo de morte para o estrato de piores condições de vida em relação aos demais. Os dados foram obtidos de declarações de óbito, dos registros do Instituto Médico Legal e do Censo Demográfico de 1991. Foram calculados os intervalos de confiança a 95%, mediante o aplicativo Confidence Interval Analysis. RESULTADOS: As taxas de mortalidade por homicídio mais elevadas foram registradas nas áreas mais pobres da cidade. O risco relativo de morte por essa causa entre o estrato de piores e o de melhores condições de vida variou entre 2,9 e 5,1, sendo essa relação estatisticamente significante em nível de 5%. CONCLUSÃO: Os achados são sugestivos das possíveis relações entre homicídios e desigualdades sociais, o que levou a discussões sobre a relevância de iniciativas organizadas para a redução da violência.

  11. Raça, Segmentação, Estudos Internacionais e o Contexto de uma Cidade de Afrodescendentes: Um Estudo em Salvador - BA

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    Isabela Lacerda Dos Santos

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Estimulado pelo aumento do poder de compra da população afrodescendente no Brasil, o mercado vem se preparando para esse grupo de consumidores. Em parâmetros atuais, na capital baiana, 12% da população possui renda acima de dez salários mínimos. Os afrodescendentes representam apenas 1,7% desse universo; a cor da pele é apontada em estudos contemporâneos internacionais como elemento que exerce uma influência predominante na segmentação em outros países. O objetivo geral deste trabalho é analisar a questão da etnia como critério de segmentação do mercado soteropolitano e, de forma secundária, estudar a existência de um comportamento de consumo específico que pode ser encontrada nesse grupo de consumidores. Para tal, uma amostra probabilística de 400 consumidores foi utilizada e, a partir dela, os hábitos de consumo dos consumidores de Salvador foram analisados. O estudo identificou que a etnia é responsável pela diferenciação de comportamento relativamente a relacionamento dentro dos grupos de influência, demonstrando que negros preferem se relacionar com pessoas da mesma raça; e, nos motivos que influenciam o momento da compra, aponta que os afrodescendentes são mais sensíveis a preço e liquidações, enquanto, os brancos, a modismo e tendências. DOI: 10.5585/remark.v9i1.2155

  12. Doenças cerebrovasculares como causa múltipla de morte em Salvador: magnitude e diferenças espaciais da mortalidade omitida nas estatísticas oficiais Spacial differences in the mortality by cerebrovascular disease as underlying and as associated cause of death, Salvador - Brazil

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    Ines Lessa

    1993-09-01

    Full Text Available Através de estudo descritivo de agregado (ecológico espacial foram determinadas as desigualdades sociais da mortalidade por doenças cerebrovasculares (DCV em Salvador, quantificada a parcela da mortalidade omitida nas estatísticas oficiais e identificadas zonas prioritárias para intensificação de ações preventivas. Foram incluídos no estudo todos os óbitos de adultos, de 1988, com menção de DCV como causa básica e como causa associada de morte, distribuídas conforme procedência por 66 zonas da cidade. Com a inclusão das DCV associadas detectou-se aumento de 29,10% na mortalidade. Os coeficientes variaram entre 22,94 a 376,62/100000 adultos e a variação média do excesso de mortalidade ficou entre 16,12 e 33,72%. Das 16 zonas com mortalidade elevada e prioritárias para intensificação de intervenções preventivas, 7 foram consideradas com mortalidade excepcionalmente elevada por terem ultrapassado o coeficiente de Salvador em 1,64 vezes o seu desvio» padrão corrigido. Os autores sugerem possíveis explicações para as desigualdades espaciais da mortalidade pelas DCV.Social inequalities and the excess (% in mortality by cerebrosvascular diseases (CVD unregistered in the official death statistics were studied in Salvador, Brazil, 1988. In an ecological spacial (aggregate desing, all death mentioning CVD as basic and as associated cause of death were reviewed and distributed, according to their addresses by 66 geographical zones. The mortality nates by CVD (basie+associated ranged from 22.94 to 376.62/ 100000 adults. The mortality fraction not included in the official statistics was 29.1% for Salvador with means between 16.12 and 33.72% in the group of zones of very low to those in the high mortality levels. Seven out of 16 zones included in the 4th quantil showed exceptionally high mortality rates (above those of Salvador + 1.64 X standard deviation corrected by the zones population. The authors discuss possible

  13. Evolução e distribuição espacial da mortalidade por causas externas em Salvador, Bahia, Brasil

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    Freitas Eni Devay de

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available A partir de 1980, as mortes violentas vêm se destacando como segunda principal causa de óbito no Brasil, tornando-se um importante problema de saúde pública. Este trabalho tem como objetivo descrever a evolução e a distribuição espacial das mortes violentas no espaço urbano de Salvador, uma cidade do Nordeste do Brasil, nos anos de 1988, 1991 e 1994. Trata-se de um estudo ecológico, cujos dados de mortalidade foram obtidos das Declarações de Óbito e dos arquivos do Instituto Médico Legal. Observou-se um aumento de 34,6% no número de mortes violentas entre os anos de 1988 e 1994. As maiores taxas de mortalidade ocorreram no sexo masculino nas faixas etárias de 20-29 (192,0 a 262,0/100.000 anos e de 65 anos ou mais (188,7 a 258,1/100.000. Os homicídios destacaram-se como primeira causa de morte em cerca de 75% dos distritos sanitários. Os autores discutem a necessidade de políticas públicas integradas e um conhecimento interdisciplinar para explicar as causas e enfrentar o problema da violência.

  14. Factors influencing growth and intestinal parasitic infections in preschoolers attending philanthropic daycare centers in Salvador, Northeast Region of Brazil Crescimento linear e infecções parasitárias intestinais em pré-escolares matriculados em creches filantrópicas de Salvador, Nordeste do Brasil

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    Rebecca L. Lander

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Poor growth and intestinal parasitic infections are widespread in disadvantaged urban children. This cross-sectional study assessed factors influencing poor growth and intestinal parasites in 376 children aged three to six years in daycare centers in Salvador, in the Northeast Region of Brazil. Data was obtained from seven daycare centers on child weight, height, socio-economic status, health and intestinal parasites in stool samples. Prevalence of moderate underweight ( -2SD, wasting and stunting was 12%, 16% and 6% respectively. Socioeconomic status, birth order, and maternal weight were predictors of poor anthropometric status. Almost 30% of children were infected with more than one intestinal parasite. Helminths (17.8%, notably Trichuris trichiura (12% and Ascaris lumbricoides (10.5%, and protozoan Giardia duodenalis (13% were the most common types of parasites detected. One percent of children had hookworm and Cryptosporidium sp. and 25% had non-pathogenic protozoan cysts. Boys from families with very low socio-economic status had lower linear growth and presented a greater risk of helminth infection. Deworming is considered an alternative for reducing the prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections in this age group.Déficit de crescimento e parasitoses são comuns entre crianças residentes em periferias. Em estudo transversal com 376 pré-escolares (3-6 anos de creches em Salvador, Nordeste do Brasil, avaliamos fatores predisponentes para déficit de crescimento e parasitose. Obtiveram-se dados em sete creches sobre peso da criança, altura, nível socioeconômico, estado de saúde e parasitos em amostras de fezes. Prevalência de baixo peso (-1 -2, desnutrição e baixa estatura foram 12%, 16%, e 6%, respectivamente; nível socioeconômico, ordem de nascimento e peso materno foram preditores da antropometria. Aproximadamente 30% estavam infectados com ≥ 1 parasita. Helmintos (17.8%, notavelmente Trichuris trichiura (12% e Ascaris

  15. Determinantes da experimentação do cigarro e do início precoce do tabagismo entre adolescentes escolares em Salvador (BA Determinants of smoking experimentation and initiation among adolescent students in the city of Salvador, Brazil

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    Adelmo de Souza Machado Neto

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Identificar os fatores associados à experimentação do cigarro e ao início precoce do tabagismo por adolescentes escolares (11-14 anos. MÉTODOS: Estudo transversal de base populacional com adolescentes escolares (ensino fundamental e médio de escolas públicas e particulares de Salvador, Bahia. Foi utilizado um protocolo de amostragem em múltiplos estágios. Os participantes da pesquisa responderam a um questionário anônimo, de preenchimento voluntário e autoaplicável. As variáveis dependentes foram o uso experimental do cigarro e o início precoce do tabagismo. Variáveis sociodemográficas, educacionais, relacionadas à influência da mídia e ao consumo de álcool foram consideradas variáveis independentes. Foi realizada a análise de regressão logística multivariada, seguida da análise da adequação do modelo de regressão logística final. RESULTADOS: A prevalência de experimentação do cigarro foi de 16,1% (IC95%: 15,1-17,2. Dos 5.347 alunos avaliados, 757 experimentaram cigarros, e 462 (61,2% desses 757 o fizeram antes dos 15 anos de idade (média de idade de experimentação de cigarros, 13,9 ± 1,8 anos. O início precoce do tabagismo associou-se com o tabagismo paterno (OR = 1,53; IC83%: 1,07-2,19 e com a influência da mídia (OR = 2,43; IC83%: 1,46-4,04. A experimentação de cigarros associou-se com o consumo do álcool (OR = 6,04; IC83%: 4,62-7,88, o tabagismo de amigos (OR = 3,18; IC83%: 2,54-3,99 e de namorados (OR = 3,42; IC83%: 1,78-6,56, assim como a intervenção educacional agressiva/coercitiva dos pais (OR = 1,60; IC83%: 1,26-2,04. CONCLUSÕES: O consumo do álcool e a influência de pessoas da convivência do jovem apresentaram uma forte associação com a experimentação de cigarros. O tabagismo paterno e a influência da mídia para os produtos do tabaco aumentaram as chances de consumo desta substância.OBJECTIVE: To identify the factors associated with smoking experimentation and initiation

  16. Avaliação e diagnóstico das condições de trabalho em duas indústrias de baterias chumbo-ácidas no Estado do Rio de Janeiro Evaluation and diagnosis of working conditions in two lead-acid batteries industries in the State of Rio de Janeiro

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    Ubirajara Aluizio de Oliveira Mattos

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available A análise do processo produtivo e das condições de trabalho em fábricas de baterias chumbo-ácidas apresenta uma gama de informações mais completas do que as que têm sido discutidas até então. O presente estudo analisa o processo produtivo de duas indústrias de baterias no Rio de Janeiro. A metodologia utilizada aborda o assunto de uma forma qualitativa, utilizando como ferramentas entrevistas estruturadas com os trabalhadores e análise do ambiente de trabalho. O principal objetivo deste artigo é mostrar uma metodologia de análise com visão ambiental ressaltando os riscos inerentes a estas atividades com uso de mapas de riscos, através de sua construção nos ambientes estudados. Os resultados sugerem um conjunto de recomendações, baseadas na literatura científica e nas normas de segurança e medicina do trabalho explicitadas pela legislação brasileira.The analysis of the productive process and work conditions in companies of lead-acid batteries presents a range of more complete information than the ones that have been discussed for others companies up to now for its low technology profile. The present study analyzes the productive process of two industries of batteries in Rio de Janeiro. The used methodology approaches the subject in a qualitative point of view, using tools as: worker's structured interviews and analysis of the work conditions, under an environmental concept. Thus, the main objective of this paper is to present a methodology including environment concept on work conditions and point out the inherent risks of these activities by construction of risk's maps. The results has suggested some recommendations, based on scientific knowledge so as safety and occupational health norms, adopted in Brazilian Legislation. Besides that it is pointed out the absolute necessity of general discussion with laborers’ participation.

  17. PERCEPÇÃO DOS GRADUANDOS EM CIÊNCIAS CONTÁBEIS DE SALVADOR (BA SOBRE OS CONCEITOS RELEVANTES DA TEORIA DA CONTABILIDADE

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    Adriano Leal Bruni

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Um domínio apropriado dos conceitos básicos da Contabilidade e uma análise das suas características são essenciais para o desenvolvimento da Teoria Contábil. O processo de tomada de decisões financeiras exige o conhecimento de valores econômicos adequados, o que se torna cada vez mais demandado pelos usuários da Contabilidade. Este trabalho, portanto, buscou aferir a compreensão de alguns termos explorados no contexto da disciplina Teoria da Contabilidade, tais como ativos, passivos, goodwill, receitas, despesas, ganhos e perdas. Examinou-se uma amostra composta por 591 alunos matriculados em cursos de Ciências Contábeis que já haviam frequentado a disciplina Teoria da Contabilidade em instituições de ensino superior localizadas na cidade de Salvador (BA. A análise dos resultados por meio de uma regressão logística indica que a relação desempenho do discente e titulação do docente é mais significativa que a relação desempenho do discente e tipo da IES, contudo, de forma geral, conceitos superficiais sobre os tópicos tratados nesse trabalho foram citados em todos os níveis. Os resultados evidenciaram, em geral, falhas na compreensão de conceitos contábeis relevantes para a formação do aluno, refletindo majoritariamente uma visão superada ou, no mínimo, conservadora. Quando comparados por tipo de instituição de ensino, os resultados indicam que estudantes de instituições públicas possuem melhor domínio dos conceitos considerados neste estudo. A compreensão melhora um pouco mais quando a titulação do docente evolui de especialista para mestre e deste para doutor.

  18. Nuances da vida e da morte no cotidiano da cidade de Salvador da Bahia seiscentista: a busca de evidências em um estudo paleobiológico

    OpenAIRE

    Mendonça, Teresa Cristina de Sousa

    2012-01-01

    The skeletons and teeth are sources of anthropological value that can determine the circumstances that humans lived. The objective of this study is to obtain as much conclusive information, as possible, about the life and death of individuals buried at the burial site in the Antiga Igreja da Sé, in Salvador, Bahia, Brazil. The study was based on demographic and pathologic characteristics of samples analyzed. Salvador was the capital of the Portuguese empire in the Americas until 1763. In a so...

  19. Study of the frequency of allergens in cosmetics components in patients with suspected allergic contact dermatitis Estudo da frequência dos alérgenos da bateria de cosméticos em pacientes com suspeita de dermatite alérgica de contato

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    Eliane Aparecida Silva

    2012-04-01

    epicutâneos com bateria de cosméticos, composta por dez substâncias. RESULTADOS: Dos 147 pacientes estudados, a sensibilização aos componentes do cosmético ocorreu em 31,29% dos casos, sendo 14 (19,18% corresponderam igualmente às substâncias BHT e trietanolamina, 13 (17,81% ao tioglicolato de amônia, 09 ao ácido sórbico (12,33%, 08 tonsilamida (10,95%, 06 germal (8,22%. Os demais elementos testados proporcionaram índices iguais ou inferiores a 5%. Observou-se maior freqüência de dermatite de contato aos componentes da bateria de cosméticos em mulheres e a idade mais acometida foi concordante com a faixa etária de maior atividade profissional da população. CONCLUSÕES: Houve maior freqüência de dermatite alérgica de contato pelas substâncias trietanolamina, BHT e tioglicolato de amônia, demonstrando pouca associação à dermatite de contato ocupacional.

  20. Significados e práticas de saúde e doença entre a população em situação de rua em Salvador, Bahia, Brasil Meanings and practices associated with health and illness among the homeless in Salvador, Bahia State, Brazil

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    Maria Magalhães Aguiar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi analisar práticas e significados atribuídos à saúde e à doença pela população em situação de rua em Salvador, Bahia, Brasil. Trata-se de um estudo qualitativo de enfoque antropológico com realização de observação participante e entrevistas semi-estruturadas com 13 indivíduos entre 30 e 66 anos. Os resultados apontam que as condições de vida e saúde deste grupo são muito precárias, sendo a violência sobressalente nas narrativas. Os principais problemas de saúde foram o abuso de substâncias psicoativas, HIV/AIDS, transtornos mentais, problemas odontológicos, dermatológicos e gastrointestinais. A saúde foi associada, entre outros significados, à capacidade de resistir ao cotidiano de dificuldades, enquanto a doença vinculou-se ao estado de debilidade impeditivo de lutar pela sobrevivência. Os serviços de saúde são procurados em situações graves e urgentes. Conclui-se pela necessidade de políticas específicas visando garantir condições de vida adequadas e acesso à saúde para esta população.This article aimed to analyze the practices and meanings associated with health and illness among homeless people in Salvador, Bahia State, Brazil. A qualitative anthropological study was conducted with participant observation and semi-structured interviews with 13 subjects 30 to 66 years of age. The results point to extremely precarious living and health conditions among the homeless. The narratives emphasize frequent violence. The main health problems were substance abuse, HIV/AIDS, mental disorders, and dental, dermatological, and gastrointestinal problems. Among other meanings, health was associated with the capacity to cope with everyday difficulties. Meanwhile, illness was identified as a state of weakness that hindered the struggle for survival. Homeless people only turned to health services when their health problems were serious and urgent. In conclusion, the study showed the need

  1. 1986 San Salvador, El Salvador Images

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — At least 1,000 people killed, 10,000 injured, 200,000 homeless and severe damage in the San Salvador area. About 50 fatalities were the result of landslides in the...

  2. Diversidade dos noctuídeos (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae em Salvador do Sul, Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil Diversity of owlet-moth (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae in Salvador do Sul, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil

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    Alexandre Specht

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available Diversity of owlet-moth (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae in Salvador do Sul, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. The purpose of this paper is to describe the Noctuidae community in Salvador do Sul, Rio Grande do Sul. Light traps captured the insects of this research. The quantitative data were collected through weekly sampling, during one year (1994-1995; the qualitative data were collected through non-systematic sampling, during four consecutive years. The community characterization was based on the richness, abundance, specific constancy, diversity indices and abundance distribution; also total richness estimates were calculated, by nonparametric statistical procedures. In the systematized collecting there were captured 4017 noctuids of 108 species, distributed in 14 subfamilies; in the non-systematized, another 189 additional species and two subfamilies. Amphipyrinae, Hadeninae and Ophiderinae had the largest species richness. The more constant species were noctuids of great economic importance; the accessories were related to specific vegetable groups; the accidentals have their host unknown. The accessories and accidental species were captured more in spring and summer; also in these periods were measured the highest values of richness, abundance and diversity. There was no fit between observed/calculated log normal and log series distribution models. The 2nd order Jackknife and Michaelis-Menten equation procedures estimated that the total richness values were close to the total number of the species in the studied area.

  3. Comparing breast feeding practices in baby friendly and non-accredited hospitals in Salvador, Bahia Comparação das práticas de amamentação em hospitais IHAC e não credenciados em Salvador, Bahia

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    Priscilla Nunes Ortiz

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: to compare compliance with Steps 4 to 10 of "The Steps to Successful Breastfeeding" in two hospitals accredited by the Baby-Friendly Hospital Initiative (BFHI group with two not yet accredited hospitals in Salvador. METHODS: a cross-sectional study was conducted with 100 women in BFHI-accredited hospitals and 103 women in non-BFHI-accredited hospitals by collecting data on their obstetric history, any breast feeding counseling received during antenatal care, and data on delivery and hospitalization. Data were obtained by applying questionnaires and reviewing patients' medical charts. The chi-square test was used for bivariate variables and Student's t test for continuous variables. RESULTS: statistically significant differences (pOBJETIVOS: comparar o cumprimento dos Passos de 4 a 10 dos "Dez Passos para o Sucesso do Aleitamento Materno" nos hospitais credenciados pela Iniciativa Hospital Amigo da Criança (grupo IHAC em relação a hospitais não credenciados em Salvador. MÉTODOS: um estudo de corte transversal foi conduzido com 100 mulheres no grupo IHAC e 103 mulheres no grupo não-IHAC através de entrevista abordando história obstétrica, orientações sobre aleitamento materno durante o pré-natal, informações sobre o parto e internamento. A coleta de dados foi realizada através da aplicação de questionários e pesquisa de prontuários. O teste do quiquadrado foi realizado para variáveis dicotômicas e o t de Student para variáveis contínuas. RESULTADOS: diferença estatisticamente significante (p<0,05 foi encontrada entre os grupos IHAC e não-IHAC na avaliação dos passos 5 (77% vs 35,9%, 6 (81% vs 31%, 8 (77% vs 52,4%, e 9 (100% vs 94,2%. Não houve diferença entre os dois grupos na avaliação dos passos 4, 7 ou 10. O cumprimento satisfatório nos hospitais do grupo IHAC foi encontrado na avaliação dos Passos 6, 7 e 9. CONCLUSÕES: os resultados evidenciam os benefícios do credenciamento na IHAC, mas enfatiza

  4. Evidências arqueológicas da saúde bucal em dois grupos populacionais da Salvador colonial

    OpenAIRE

    Mendonça, Teresa C.; Etchevarne, Carlos

    2007-01-01

    O presente trabalho apresenta evidências macroscópicas de patologias dentárias em remanescentes ósseos, resgatados das escavações no espaço cemiterial da Igreja da Sé Primacial do Brasil. Objetiva-se avaliar as condições de saúde bucal de dois grupos sociais marcadamente diferenciados. Os dados obtidos contribuirão para caracterizar o processo saúde-doença bucal e os elementos bioculturais a ele associados

  5. Mining in El Salvador

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pacheco Cueva, Vladimir

    2014-01-01

    In this guest article, Vladimir Pacheco, a social scientist who has worked on mining and human rights shares his perspectives on a current campaign against mining in El Salvador – Central America’s smallest but most densely populated country.......In this guest article, Vladimir Pacheco, a social scientist who has worked on mining and human rights shares his perspectives on a current campaign against mining in El Salvador – Central America’s smallest but most densely populated country....

  6. Condições de saúde bucal de crianças na faixa etária pré-escolar, residentes em áreas de abrangência do Programa Saúde da Família em Salvador, Bahia, Brasil The dental health of preschool-aged children resident in areas covered by the Family Health Program, in the city of Salvador, in the State of Bahia, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Tatiana Frederico de Almeida; Maria Cristina Teixeira Cangussu; Sônia Cristina Lima Chaves; David Inácio de Castro e Silva; Sóstenes Conceição dos Santos

    2009-01-01

    OBJETIVOS: determinar a prevalência e gravidade da cárie dentária, maloclusões, e alteração gengival em pré-escolares de cinco anos de idade residentes em áreas do Programa Saúde da Família (PSF). MÉTODOS: estudo de corte transversal, conduzido com crianças de cinco anos examinadas por equipes de saúde bucal do PSF e do programa de Procedimentos Coletivos do serviço municipal de saúde de Salvador, Bahia, Brasil, em 2005. Os critérios de diagnóstico da Organização Mundial da Saúde e do Projeto...

  7. Family context and incidence of dental caries in preschool children living in areas covered by the Family Health Strategy in Salvador, Bahia State, Brazil Contexto familiar e incidência de cárie dentária em pré-escolares residentes em áreas do Estratégia Saúde da Família em Salvador, Bahia, Brasil

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    Tatiana Frederico de Almeida

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Psychosocial factors influence family care and can jeopardize child development. This study aimed to analyze the association between maternal common mental disorders and incidence of early dental caries in preschool-age children living in areas covered by the Family Health Strategy in Salvador, Bahia State, Brazil, in a cohort design. A total of 472 children were examined and their mothers were interviewed from 2007 to 2008. Incidence of at least one tooth with caries was 21.19%, while 7.84% of the children showed high risk of caries. The results after adjusting for the child's age and maternal schooling showed that maternal common mental disorders were associated with high caries risk in deciduous teeth (adjusted RR = 2.41, 95%CI: 1.05-5.56, among children with 6 or fewer home appliances in the household; adjusted RR = 3.44, 95%CI: 1.06-11.17, among those that brushed twice or less per day. Maternal mental problems were associated with the development of caries in preschoolers.Fatores psicossociais influenciam o cuidado no contexto familiar, podendo prejudicar o desenvolvimento infantil. Este trabalho teve como objetivo analisar a associação entre transtornos mentais comuns maternos e a incidência de cárie precoce em crianças na faixa etária pré-escolar, residentes em áreas cobertas pelo Estratégia Saúde da Família em Salvador, Bahia, Brasil, em um estudo de coorte. Foram examinadas 472 crianças, e suas mães foram entrevistadas, no período de 2007 a 2008. A incidência de pelo menos 1 dente cariado foi de 21,19%, enquanto 7,84% das crianças apresentaram alto risco de cárie. Os resultados após ajuste por idade da criança e escolaridade materna mostraram que transtornos mentais comuns maternos associaram-se ao alto risco de cárie em dentes decíduos (RR ajustado = 2,41, IC95%: 1,05-5,56, entre as crianças com 6 ou menos eletrodomésticos no domicílio; RR ajustado = 3,44, IC95%: 1,06-11,17, entre as que realizavam escova

  8. Programa nacional de alimentação escolar: há segurança na produção de alimentos em escolas de Salvador (Bahia? National school food program: are the foods produced in the schools of Salvador (Bahia, Brazil, safe?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryzia de Cassia Vieira Cardoso

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo Avaliar a segurança da produção de alimentos em escolas atendidas pelo Programa Nacional de Alimentação Escolar, em Salvador (BA. Métodos Realizou-se um estudo transversal, com aplicação de formulários elaborados com base na Resolução de Diretoria Colegiada nº 216/04 da Agência Nacional de Vigilância Sanitária/Ministério da Saúde, em amostra estratificada formada por 235 escolas atendidas pelo Programa Nacional de Alimentação Escolar, contemplando a rede estadual e municipal de ensino da cidade de Salvador. No formulário, os itens avaliados apresentavam pontuação diferenciada em função do grau de risco associado à segurança dos alimentos. De acordo com a pontuação obtida, as escolas foram classificadas em cinco grupos em relação à condição higiênico-sanitária: crítico; insatis-fatório; regular; bom e excelente. Resultados Na avaliação global de adequação, 57,0% (134 das unidades apresentaram condições insatisfatórias, 42,6% (100 regulares e 0,4% (1 boa. Os itens que mais contribuíram para o baixo desempenho estão relacionados aos seguintes blocos: edificação, instalações, equipamentos, móveis e utensílios; higienização; abastecimento de água; manipuladores de alimentos; preparo dos alimentos e exposição do alimento preparado para consumo. Em condição intermediária de atendimento ficaram os blocos controle integrado de vetores e pragas urbanas, manejo de resíduos e matérias-primas, ingredientes e embalagens. Conclusão Verificou-se elevado nível de não conformidade quanto ao atendimento dos requisitos sanitários vigentes, o que evidencia falhas na segurança da produção da alimentação escolar. Os resultados indicam a necessidade de adoção de medidas corretivas com vistas a reduzir riscos à saúde das crianças assistidas e aumentar a eficiência do Programa Nacional de Alimentação Escolar, no município de Salvador (BA.Objective The objective of this study was to

  9. Hábitos relacionados ao descarte pós-consumo de aparelhos e baterias de telefones celulares em uma comunidade acadêmica Habits related to the post-consumption discard of mobile phones and their batteries within an academic community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Barbosa Zuquer Giaretta

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Cada vez mais a sociedade contemporânea incorpora em seu cotidiano equipamentos elétricos e eletrônicos, muitos deles contendo substâncias perigosas, que representam ameaças ao meio ambiente e riscos à saúde humana. Este artigo apresenta os resultados de uma pesquisa exploratória com o objetivo de relacionar comportamento de descarte pós-consumo de aparelhos e baterias de celulares, em um grupo de consumidores de telefonia móvel, que tem proximidade em seu cotidiano de trabalho e de estudo com informações sobre saúde pública e ambiental. Os resultados da pesquisa indicam que informação pode aproximar as pessoas do problema, porém não levam por si só à produção de alterações significativas sobre o que e como fazer com o descarte pós-consumo. Os participantes do estudo possibilitaram identificar, que além da informação e acesso a coletores específicos, outros aspectos e critérios pessoais ou coletivos interferem no procedimento de descarte: percepção sobre risco, valor econômico disponibilizado na compra do aparelho e vínculos afetivos, entre outros. Esses fatores podem produzir diferentes respostas dos usuários sobre como lidar com as inovações tecnológicas de uso pessoal.The contemporary society increasingly incorporates electric and electronic equipments (EEE in its everyday life, many of them containing dangerous substances that represent threats to the environment and risks to human health. This article presents the results of an exploratory research with the objective of investigating the behavior of post-consumption discard of mobile phones and their batteries in a group of consumers of mobile phones who are in contact, in their work and study, with information about public and environmental health. The results of the research indicate that information can approximate the people to the problem; however, it does not lead, by itself, to the production of significant alterations on how to perform the post

  10. Community violence and childhood asthma prevalence in peripheral neighborhoods in Salvador, Bahia State, Brazil Violência comunitária e prevalência de asma em crianças na periferia de Salvador, Bahia, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme da Costa Alves

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to identify degrees of exposure to community violence reported by parents and guardians of children from four to 12 years of age and the association with childhood asthma symptoms. A cross-sectional study was conducted with 1,232 parents/guardians in 24 peripheral neighborhoods in Salvador, the capital of Bahia State, Brazil. The authors investigated asthma symptoms in children and acts of violence in the community. More than 75% of parents/guardians had been exposed to community violence in the previous year, with 20% reporting high levels of exposure. Children that were more exposed to violence showed higher asthma prevalence (28.4% as compared to non-exposed children (16.4%. Children exposed to maximum levels of violence were nearly twice as likely to present asthma symptoms (adjusted OR = 1.94; 95%CI: 1.12-3.36. The study highlighted the relevance of community violence as a risk factor for asthma and the need for further research to elucidate methodological issues.O objetivo deste artigo foi identificar o grau de violência comunitária relatado por cuidadores de crianças entre quatro e 12 anos, além da influência dessa exposição na ocorrência de sintomas de asma nas crianças. Realizou-se um estudo transversal com 1.232 cuidadores residentes na cidade de Salvador, Bahia, Brasil. Investigaram-se sintomas de asma nas crianças e atos violentos na comunidade. Aproximadamente 75% dos cuidadores foram vítimas de violência comunitária no último ano, com 20% convivendo com graus elevados deste fenômeno. Encontrou-se prevalência de 28,4% de sintomas asmáticos entre crianças expostas ao grau máximo de violência, e 16,4% entre as não expostas. Encontrou-se associação estatisticamente significante entre exposição ao nível máximo de violência e ocorrência de sintomas asmáticos (OR ajustada = 1,94; IC95%: 1,12-3,36. Nossos achados sugerem a importância da violência comunitária como um dos fatores de risco

  11. A Bateria de Provas de Raciocínio (BPR-5 aplicada a um contexto organizacional The Bateria de Provas de Raciocínio (BPR-5 applied to an organizational context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viviane de Oliveira Baumgartl

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available O presente estudo relata os resultados de uma pesquisa de estabelecimento de normas para a Bateria de Provas de Raciocínio (BPR-5 e de investigação da relação entre variáveis demográficas e ocupacionais e os desempenhos na referida bateria. As normas foram estabelecidas especificamente para os funcionários do setor elétrico de uma companhia energética de Minas Gerais, por ocasião da reimplantação do processo de avaliação psicológica. A amostra foi composta por 57 funcionários, que possuíam escolaridade de, pelo menos, 2o grau incompleto. Em razão do nível de escolaridade foi utilizada no estudo a forma B da bateria. Os resultados revelaram correlações significativas entre as idades dos sujeitos, a escolaridade e o desempenho geral na prova. Evidenciou-se, portanto, a importância do estabelecimento de normas para a empresa, visto que a amostra organizacional apresenta características peculiares em relação à amostra original de estudo da respectiva bateria.This study shows the results of a test-norms establishment research for the Bateria de Provas de Raciocínio (BPR-5 and the investigation of relations between demographic and occupational variables and the performance of employees on the battery. The test-norms were established specifically for employees of the electricity sector of an energy company when the psychological assessment process was reintroduced. The sample consisted of 57 employees who had achieved high school at least. Because of that, only the B type of the battery was used in the research. The results showed significative relations among the age, schooling and general performance on the battery. Therefore, the importance of establishing test-norms for the company became evident, since the organizational sample shows peculiar characteristics when compared to the original study sample of the battery.

  12. Mortalidade por doenças infecciosas e parasitárias em Salvador - Bahia: evolução e diferenciais intra-urbanos segundo condições de vida Mortality due to infectious and parasitic diseases in Salvador, Bahia: evolution and intra-urban differences according to living conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria da Gloria Teixeira

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available Analisa-se a evolução da mortalidade por DIP em Salvador-BA e seus diferenciais intra-urbanos mediante estudo de série temporal e de agregados espaciais, nos anos noventa. O DATASUS e declarações de óbitos foram as fontes de dados. Na análise temporal, empregou-se mortalidade proporcional, taxa de mortalidade e razão de mortalidade padronizada (RMP. No estudo espacial, analisou-se as taxas de mortalidade por DIP segundo um índice de condições de vida (ICV. Entre 1991 e 1995, a mortalidade proporcional por DIP foi de 8,3% e o risco de morrer variou entre 55,9 e 34,0 por 100 mil habitantes. No período seguinte, a variação foi entre 52,8 e 41,1 por 100 mil habitantes. A razão de mortalidade padronizada por doenças infecciosas e parasitárias em 1998 foi de 1,3. As doenças infecciosas intestinais continuam sendo uma das principais causas de morte desse grupo. As áreas da cidade onde as condições de vida eram mais baixas concentravam as maiores taxas de mortalidade por DIP. A despeito do declínio, ainda existe um excesso de mortalidade por DIP em Salvador. O modelo de desenvolvimento do país e a reemergência de algumas doenças podem estar contribuindo para este padrão.The evolution of mortality due to infectious and parasitic diseases (IPD and its intra-urban distribution in Salvador (Bahia during the 1990's was analyzed in a study of time series and spatial aggregation. This data was obtained from DATASUS and from death certificates. Proportional mortality, mortality rate and standardized mortality ratio (SMR were used for the temporal analysis. Mortality rates due to IPD stratified by a living conditions index (LCI were analyzed in the spatial study. Between 1991 and 1995, the proportional mortality for IPD was 8.3% and the risk of dying varied between 55.9 and 34.0/100,000 inhabitants. After 1995 the variation was between 52.8 and 41.1/100,000 inhabitants. The standardized mortality ratio for infectious and parasitic

  13. Etiology of bacterial meningitis among children aged 2-59 months in Salvador, Northeast Brazil, before and after routine use of Haemophilus influenzae type b vaccine Etiologia da meningite bacteriana em crianças com idade entre 2 e 59 meses em Salvador, Nordeste do Brasil, antes e depois do uso rotineiro da vacina para Haemophilus influenzae tipo b

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    Cristiana M. Nascimento-Carvalho

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To describe the frequency of etiologic agents of bacterial meningitis (BM among children aged 2-59 months in a sample of patients in Salvador, Northeast Brazil, with emphasis on the frequency of BM of unknown etiology (BMUE, just before, during and after the implementation of routine immunization of infants with Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib vaccination. METHOD: Demographic, clinical and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF information was collected from the chart of every patient, aged 2-59 months, whose CSF exam was performed at the CSF Lab - José Silveira Foundation, between January 1989 and December 2001. Every CSF exam was completely performed according to standard methods. The etiologic diagnosis was based on either culture and/or latex-agglutination test. When the agent was only seen on Gram stained smear, the diagnosis was descriptive. BMUE was defined as: glucose 100 mg / dl, white blood cell count > 20 cells / mm³, percentage of neutrophils > 80%. RESULTS: Of 1519 patients, 894 (58.9% had normal exams and BM was diagnosed in 95 (6.2%. Etiologic agents were: Hib (44.2%, meningococcus (13.7%, Gram-negative bacilli (11.6%, Mycobacterium tuberculosis (6.3%, pneumococcus (4.2%, other agents (4.2%; BMUE was diagnosed in 15.8% of cases with BM. By analysing the frequency of BMUE and Hib among all exams performed yearly, the peaks were recorded in 1989 (5.3% and 1990 (16.9%, respectively, decreasing to 0.7% and 0% in 2001. CONCLUSION: It is possible that the implementation of the conjugate Hib vaccine during the 1990's has been decreasing not only the occurrence of Hib meningitis but also of BMUE.OBJETIVO: Descrever a freqüência dos agentes etiológicos de meningite bacteriana (MB em amostra das crianças com idade entre 2 e 59 meses, em Salvador, Nordeste do Brasil, com ênfase na freqüência de MB de etiologia indeterminada (MBEI, antes, durante e após a implementação da imunização rotineira de lactentes com vacina para

  14. Detecção de aglomerados espaciais de casos de neoplasia mamária em cães no município de Salvador, Bahia Detection of spatial clusters for breast cancer in canines in the city of Salvador, Bahia

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    Júlia Morena de Miranda Leão Toríbio

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Os tumores mamários espontâneos representam a neoplasia mais frequente em fêmeas caninas, correspondendo aproximadamente a 50% de todas as neoplasias. A maioria dos estudos científicos restringe-se a dados pontuais sobre a doença, sem a preocupação com sua distribuição geográfica ou mesmo com a possibilidade da geração de agregados desses eventos em uma determinada área. Levando-se em consideração a lacuna de informações na literatura, o presente trabalho teve como objetivo a criação de mapas temáticos da distribuição espacial das neoplasias mamárias em cadelas e a identificação de aglomerados de risco para a doença no município de Salvador, Bahia. Pela análise espacial de varredura, verificou-se que os casos de neoplasia mamária não estão homogeneamente distribuídos no município. Foi detectado um aglomerado primário estatisticamente significante (PSpontaneous mammary tumors represent the most frequent type of cancer in canines, accounting for approximately 50% of all neoplasms. The majority of scientific papers cited in the literature are limited to non refined epidemiological data, without mentioning the trend of this disease in generating clusters in a given geographical area. In this context, this research aimed to create thematic maps of spatial distribution of mammary neoplasms in bitches and to identify disease clusters for the city of Salvador, Bahia. Trough the spatial analysis scanning, it was found that cases of breast cancer is not evenly distributed in the municipality. A significant primary cluster was detected (P>0,001 covering 67.3% of the studied cases. Considering the gap in literature available in this field, it is believed that such results will become very important, especially in leading to new studies, where intrinsic and extrinsic variables regarding the animal must be taken into consideration and analyzed for factors risk identification to formulate educational plans targeting the

  15. Acondicionamento e coleta de resíduos sólidos domiciliares e impactos na saúde de crianças residentes em assentamentos periurbanos de Salvador, Bahia, Brasil Household solid waste bagging and collection and their health implications for children living in outlying urban settlements in Salvador, Bahia State, Brazil

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    Luiz Roberto Santos Moraes

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available O artigo apresenta estudo do acondicionamento e coleta de resíduos sólidos domiciliares e o impacto na saúde de crianças, por meio de pesquisa realizada em nove assentamentos humanos localizados em área periurbana da cidade de Salvador, Bahia, Brasil. Como indicadores epidemiológicos foram utilizados, em 1.893 crianças entre 5 e 14 anos, a infecção por nematóides intestinais, expressa pela prevalência de Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura e ancilostomídeos, e em 1.204 crianças menores de cinco anos, a incidência de diarréia e o estado nutricional, este expresso por indicadores antropométricos. Os resultados apresentam a maior prevalência dos três nematóides nas crianças dos domicílios que não dispõem de acondicionamento adequado e de coleta de resíduos sólidos que naquelas de domicílios com acondicionamento adequado e coleta regular, sendo a diferença encontrada estatisticamente significante, mesmo quando outros fatores de risco sócio-econômicos, culturais, demográficos e ambientais são considerados. Resultado semelhante é também observado com relação aos indicadores epidemiológicos, incidência de diarréia e estado nutricional.This paper presents a study on the bagging and collection of household solid waste and the health implications for children. The research was conducted in nine human settlements on the outskirts of Salvador, Bahia State, Brazil. Intestinal nematode infection, predominantly involving Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura, and hookworms, was used as an epidemiological indicator in 1,893 children from 5 to 14 years of age. The study also included diarrhea incidence and nutritional status as shown by anthropometric indicators in 1,204 children less than 5 years of age. There was a higher prevalence of the three nematodes in children living in households without proper bagging/isolation and collection of household solid waste as compared to those in areas with regular garbage

  16. Trap-nests used by Centris (Heterocentris) terminata Smith (Hymenoptera: Apidae, Centridini) at secondary Atlantic Forest fragments, in Salvador, Bahia State; Ninhos de Centris (Heterocentris) terminata Smith (Hymenoptera: Apidae, Centridini) em fragmentos de Mata Atlantica secundaria, Salvador, BA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drummmont, Patricia; Viana, Blandina F. [Universidade Federal da Bahia (UFBA), Salvador, BA (Brazil). Inst. de Biologia. Lab. de Biologia e Ecologia de Abelhas (LABEA); Silva, Fabiana O. da [Faculdade Tecnologia e Ciencias (FTC), Salvador, BA (Brazil); Faculdades Jorge Amado, Savador, BA (Brazil)

    2008-05-15

    Ninety-five nests of Centris (Heterocentris) terminata Smith were collected in trap nests, during November/2001 and January/2003, at two fragments (PZGV e CFO-UFBA) of secondary Atlantic Forest, in Salvador, Bahia State (13 deg 01' W and 38 deg 30' S). The highest nest frequencies occurred from December to February (summer), with no nests foundations from August to October (winter - early spring). Two-hundred eight adults emerged from 347 brood cells, being 164 males and 116 females (1: 0.42). During the study period sex ratio was male biased ({chi}{sup 2} = 9.342; gl = 10; P < 0.05). C. terminata nested in holes with diameters 6, 8, 10 mm, but 84,2% were constructed in 8 and 10 mm. nests had one to seven cells arranged in a linear series with the cell's partitions built with a mixture of sand and resin or oil. Male is significantly smaller than female, which emerges from the first cells constructed. Immature mortality occurred in 14.1% of brood cells (n 49), of which 13.0% were due fail in development and 1.2% due to parasitism of Coelioxys sp. (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae) e Tetraonyx sp. (Coleoptera: Meloidae). In the study site, weather, mainly pluviosity, rather than natural enemies influenced seasonal population abundance. The long period of nesting activity, local abundance and usage of trap nests, suggest the potential of C. terminata for management aiming at pollination of native and cultivated plants. (author)

  17. Dependência entre a performance de baterias VRLA e as características físico-químicas da matéria activa positiva

    OpenAIRE

    Pimenta, Bruna Oriana de Meneses

    2014-01-01

    Este trabalho final de mestrado tem como objectivo avaliar a influência das diversas características físico-químicas da matéria activa positiva na performance inicial de baterias VRLA AGM em descargas rápidas. Este estudo incidiu sobre a variação de parâmetros nas áreas do fabrico de pasta, empastamento e sazonamento. Foram preparados 7 lotes de pastas e as placas positivas resultantes dos mesmos deram origem a 7 versões, compostas por quatro baterias. Paracada ...

  18. Spotlight: El Salvador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-09-01

    As of mid-1998, El Salvador had a population of 5.8 million people residing in a land area of 8000 sq. miles. There were 29 births and 4 deaths per 1000 population, as well as 41 infant deaths for every 1000 live births, and a population growing in size at 2.5% annually. The average woman has 3.9 births during her reproductive lifetime and life expectancy is 65 years for men and 72 years for female. With 39% of El Salvador's population under age 15 years, it will continue to grow rapidly even as birth rates decline. The proportion of urban residents in El Salvador is expected to grow beyond the 1994 level of 45%. Population growth has intensified competition for farmland and jobs, with extreme poverty forcing Salvadoran farmers and laborers to make choices which are beneficial in the short term, but which may cause long-term environmental damage. Human and chemical wastes, often untreated and unregulated, pollute 90% of the rivers and almost all topsoil and drinking water in heavily populated areas. 66% of farmland in the mountainous area is eroded, and the resulting pollution and agricultural runoff threaten shellfish and seafood businesses close to the coast. While forests once covered 85% of El Salvador, now only less than 5% is forest, and much of the cleared land is so degraded that there is little hope of restoring endangered plant and animal species. Most of the country's workers are employed in agriculture, but industrial parks are helping the country's economic growth. 74% of Salvadoran men and 70% of women are literate, school enrollment levels are low, and about 4% of the country's gross national product comes from official development assistance. The El Salvador Environment Fund was created in 1994 to support small projects for environmental protection and child development. PMID:12348787

  19. Contexto familiar e alterações oclusais em pré-escolares no município de Salvador, Bahia, Brasil Influence of familiar context and malocclusion in children aged 0-5 years-old in the city of Salvador, State of Bahia, Brazil

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    Thaís Regis Aranha Rossi

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: avaliar a prevalência e a associação entre variáveis sócio-ambientais e a maloclusão infantil. MÉTODOS: estudo transversal, em crianças de 1-5 anos, residentes em seis áreas do Programa de Saúde da Família, em Salvador, Bahia, Brasil. Foram sorteadas 360 famílias pré-estratificadas, pelo cadastro das famílias das Unidade de Saúde da Família (USF (415 pré-escolares. Após a identificação, foram realizadas visitas domiciliares onde foram entrevistados os pais/responsáveis e as crianças examinadas. Foram utilizados como instrumentos a ficha A - Sistema de Atenção Básica, e o exame oclusal - presença ou ausência de alteração e tipo de desvio. A análise de regressão logística foi utilizada (pOBJECTIVES: the purpose was to investigate the prevalence and the association between social and environmental variables and the children malocclusion. METHODS: the population for this cross-sectional study comprised 360 families (415 schoolchildren resident in six areas where the Family Health Program is running in Salvador in the Brazilian State of Bahia. The dental examinations were carried out using criteria identifying the presence and type of malloclusion and a structured interview conducted with children's mothers or guardians. "Document A" and CAGE were used to report the social and environmental variables. Logistic regression (stepwise forward procedure, p<0.05 analyses were performed. RESULTS: the prevalence of malocclusion was 34.5%. Most families (77.2% lived in dwellings with thick partition walls. Exclusive breastfeeding rates were 64.8% and of these, 50.6% for the duration of the first seven months of life or more. 89.6% did not have the habit of digital suction, but the use of a pacifier was registered in 47%. The multivariate analysis identified an association with malocclusion: the number of individuals aged under 14 years in the household (OR=1.44; 95%CI: 1.02 - 2.26, digital sucking (OR=1.75; 95%CI: 1

  20. C677T polymorphism of the MTHFR gene and variant hemoglobins: a study in newborns from Salvador, Bahia, Brazil Polimorfismo C677T no gene da MTHFR e hemoglobinas variantes: um estudo em recém-nascidos de Salvador, Bahia, Brasil

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    Fábio David Couto

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available The C677T polymorphism in the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase gene (MTHFR is associated with an increase in total homocysteine serum levels (tHcy, described as a risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Eight hundred forty-three neonates from two different maternity hospitals, one public and another private, in Salvador, Bahia, Brazil were screened for this polymorphism by PCR and RFLP. The T-allele frequency in the total sample was 0.23, and the prevalence rates of heterozygous and homozygous carriers were 36.2% and 5.3%, respectively. The T-allele frequency differed and the T/T genotype was more prevalent at the private maternity hospital. The hemoglobin (Hb profile was investigated by HPLC in 763 newborns. The frequency of variant Hb was higher at the public than at the private maternity hospital. The association of the C677T polymorphism and the Hb profile was investigated in 683 newborns, showing a relatively high frequency of variant Hbs and the T allele. These data could provide an important basis for further studies focusing on potential risks of vaso-occlusive events in these individuals.O polimorfismo C677T no gene da MTHFR tem sido associado ao aumento dos níveis séricos de homocisteína.total (tHcy, descrito como fator de risco para o desenvolvimento de doenças cardiovasculares. Oitocentos e quarenta e três recém-nascidos (RNs, de duas maternidades diferentes, uma pública e a outra privada, em Salvador, Bahia, Brasil foram triados para o polimorfismo C677T por PCR e RFLP. A freqüência do alelo T foi de 0,23 e as prevalências dos genótipos C/T e T/T foram de 36,2% e 5,3%, respectivamente. A freqüência do alelo T diferiu e a prevalência do genótipo T/T foi mais elevada entre os RNs da maternidade privada. O perfil de hemoglobinas (Hb foi determinado por HPLC em 763 RNs. A freqüência de Hbs variantes foi mais elevada entre os RNs da maternidade pública Tsylla Balbino do que na maternidade privada do Hospital Santo

  1. Gestão da segurança e saúde no trabalho em empresas produtoras de baterias automotivas: um estudo para identificar boas práticas Management of occupational health and safety in automotive battery companies: a study to identify best practices

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    Otávio José de Oliveira

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available A gestão da Segurança e Saúde no Trabalho (SST reduz riscos de acidentes, promove a saúde e a satisfação dos trabalhadores, melhora os resultados operacionais e a imagem das organizações, sobretudo daquelas do setor industrial. Este artigo tem como principal objetivo identificar, a partir do método de estudo de caso duplo, boas práticas e principais dificuldades relacionadas à gestão da SST em empresas fabricantes de baterias automotivas da região centro-oeste do Estado de São Paulo. A coleta de dados se deu por meio de observação in loco, análise de documentos e entrevistas semiestruturadas com gestores e colaboradores. O trabalho revelou que o apoio da alta direção e da área de Recursos Humanos e a participação ativa dos colaboradores são determinantes para o sucesso deste sistema e que as principais dificuldades na sua gestão advêm de falhas na comunicação, inexistência de indicadores de SST e ausência de visão estratégica para segurança.Occupational Health and Safety management (OSH reduces the risk of accidents, promotes worker health and satisfaction and improves operational results and the image of organizations, especially those in the industrial sector. The main objective of this paper is to identify best practices and the main difficulties related to OSH management at automobile battery manufacturers in the midwest of the State of São Paulo, using the double case study method. Data was collected using on-site observation, document analysis and semi-structured interviews with managers and collaborators. The study revealed that support by top management, Human Resources and the active participation of collaborators are determining factors for the system's success and that the main difficulties in its management are failures in communication, nonexistence of OSH indicators and the lack of a strategic vision for safety.

  2. Formação para merendeiras: uma proposta metodológica aplicada em escolas estaduais atendidas pelo programa nacional de alimentação escolar, em Salvador, Bahia Professional training for school lunch cooks: a methodological experiment done in state schools supported by the National School Feeding Program in Salvador, Bahia, Brazil

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    Catarina Lima Leite

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Descrever uma experiência de formação desenvolvida para merendeiras de escolas atendidas pelo Programa Nacional de Alimentação Escolar. MÉTODOS: Trata-se de um estudo descritivo, cujo objeto de análise foi um curso realizado para merendeiras de 97 escolas estaduais, em Salvador (BA. A definição e a implementação da formação apresentou três etapas: sondagem de conteúdos e metodologias junto às merendeiras, desenvolvimento das atividades de formação e avaliação da metodologia do curso pelas merendeiras. RESULTADOS: A consulta às merendeiras possibilitou a indicação dos conteúdos de maior interesse e a metodologia a ser utilizada. O curso teve duração de 20 horas, em turmas de aproximadamente 35 pessoas, e foi realizado em unidades escolares. O programa da atividade apresentou conteúdos diferenciados, incluindo: o Programa Nacional de Alimentação Escolar, a merendeira no sistema da alimentação escolar, princípios de nutrição e alimentação e boas práticas de produção. Como recursos metodológicos foram adotados: teatro, exposição dialogada, oficinas, gincana, experiências práticas, jogos interativos, atividades em grupo, aplicação de formulários e um módulo que contemplava todas as apresentações. Ao final do evento, as merendeiras avaliaram o curso segundo os seguintes aspectos: explicação dos conteúdos, recursos utilizados, ritmo das atividades, atendimento às perguntas, apreensão dos conteúdos, aspectos positivos e negativos e sugestões. CONCLUSÃO: A experiência evidenciou a possibilidade de orientar a construção de um novo modelo de formação, mediante a contribuição e a valorização da consulta ao público-alvo, o que permitiu uma ressignificação das práticas tradicionais de formação e proporcionou maior chance de êxito, devido às demandas específicas apresentadas pelos próprios participantes.OBJECTIVE: This study reports a professional training experiment

  3. Associação entre atividade física no tempo livre e proteína C reativa em adultos na cidade de Salvador, Brasil Asociación entre actividad física en el tiempo libre y proteína C reactiva en adultos en la ciudad de Salvador, Brasil Association between leisure-time physical activity and C-reactive protein levels in adults, in the city of Salvador, Brazil

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    Francisco Pitanga

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available FUNDAMENTO: A atividade física no tempo livre (AFTL pode ser identificada como a participação em qualquer tipo de movimento corporal realizado nos momentos de lazer e está associada à redução no risco de diversos agravos cardiovasculares. OBJETIVO: Verificar se existe associação entre AFTL e proteína C reativa (PCR em adultos, na cidade de Salvador, Bahia. MÉTODOS: O estudo foi transversal, utilizando amostra composta por 822 adultos de ambos os sexos, com idade > 20 anos de idade. Foram considerados como ativos no tempo livre aqueles que, por meio de entrevista pessoal, informaram participar de atividades físicas nos momentos de lazer. Observaram-se também os níveis plasmáticos altos de PCR nos indivíduos com valores > 3,0 mg/l. Utilizou-se análise de regressão logística para estimar a razão de chances (RC com intervalo de confiança (IC a 95%. RESULTADOS: Após análise multivariada para possíveis confundidores, encontrou-se, entre homens, RC de 0,73 (0,68-0,79 demonstrando associação inversa entre AFTL e PCR elevada apenas em indivíduos do sexo masculino. Após estratificação por sexo, obesidade, diabete e tabagismo, constatou-se associação entre AFTL e PCR elevada em homens fumantes ou ex-fumantes, não-obesos e não-diabéticos, e em mulheres obesas e não-fumantes. CONCLUSÃO: Os resultados deste estudo podem trazer contribuições para a saúde pública, na medida em que podem ser utilizados para conscientizar sobre a importância da AFTL como uma das possíveis estratégias para a melhoria da saúde de grupos populacionais.FUNDAMENTO: Se puede definir la actividad física en el tiempo libre (AFTL como la participación en cualquier tipo de movimiento corporal realizado en los momentos de ocio, y está asociada a la reducción en el riesgo de diversos agravios cardiovasculares. OBJETIVO: Verificar si existe asociación entre AFTL y proteína C reactiva (PCR en adultos, en la ciudad de Salvador, Bahia. M

  4. Acessibilidade à atenção básica a famílias negras em bairro popular de Salvador, Brasil Acceso a la atención básica de familias negras en comunidad popular de Salvador, Brasil Accessibility to primary health care by black families in a poor neighborhood of Salvador, Northeastern Brazil

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    Leny Alves Bomfim Trad; Marcelo Eduardo Pfeiffer Castellanos; Maria Clara da Silva Guimarães

    2012-01-01

    OBJETIVO: Analisar a acessibilidade de famílias negras de bairro popular aos serviços de atenção básica à saúde. MÉTODOS: Estudo etnográfico, ancorado na antropologia de base interpretativa, realizado com 18 famílias selecionadas de um bairro popular de Salvador, BA, no período de dois anos. Os critérios de inclusão foram residência no bairro e autoclassificação como negros. A análise se baseou na antropologia interpretativa e considerou as categorias: autorreferência étnico-racial; experiênc...

  5. Re-significando a dor e superando a solidão: experiências do parto entre adolescentes de classes populares atendidas em uma maternidade pública de Salvador, Bahia, Brasil

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    Cecilia McCallum

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo examina o parto em uma maternidade pública de Salvador, Bahia, Brasil, com base na perspectiva de mulheres jovens e adolescentes, a maioria das quais negras e de classes populares. O estudo, de caráter antropológico, baseia-se na análise de entrevistas e na etnografia do hospital, particularmente do centro obstétrico. As mulheres descrevem o trabalho de parto como dominado pelo medo, solidão e dor, sensações que se transformam em amor com o nascimento da criança. Enfocando o parto como um processo biossocial, o trabalho mostra como as jovens produzem significados durante o processo de parturição, enquanto se encontram envolvidas nas interações sociais próprias ao parto hospitalar, particularmente com os profissionais de saúde. Do ponto de vista simbólico, as parturientes experienciam o parto como um rito de passagem que legitima a maternidade, em um contexto social e institucional que, ao contrário, deslegitima a reprodução sexual de mulheres negras, jovens e de baixa renda e estigmatiza a maternidade na adolescência.

  6. Re-significando a dor e superando a solidão: experiências do parto entre adolescentes de classes populares atendidas em uma maternidade pública de Salvador, Bahia, Brasil

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    McCallum Cecilia

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo examina o parto em uma maternidade pública de Salvador, Bahia, Brasil, com base na perspectiva de mulheres jovens e adolescentes, a maioria das quais negras e de classes populares. O estudo, de caráter antropológico, baseia-se na análise de entrevistas e na etnografia do hospital, particularmente do centro obstétrico. As mulheres descrevem o trabalho de parto como dominado pelo medo, solidão e dor, sensações que se transformam em amor com o nascimento da criança. Enfocando o parto como um processo biossocial, o trabalho mostra como as jovens produzem significados durante o processo de parturição, enquanto se encontram envolvidas nas interações sociais próprias ao parto hospitalar, particularmente com os profissionais de saúde. Do ponto de vista simbólico, as parturientes experienciam o parto como um rito de passagem que legitima a maternidade, em um contexto social e institucional que, ao contrário, deslegitima a reprodução sexual de mulheres negras, jovens e de baixa renda e estigmatiza a maternidade na adolescência.

  7. Representações e experiências sobre aborto legal e ilegal dos ginecologistas-obstetras trabalhando em dois hospitais maternidade de Salvador da Bahia Representations and experiences of obstetrician/gynecologists with legal and illegal abortion in two maternity-hospitals in Salvador da Bahia

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    Silvia De Zordo

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo qualitativo, realizado em dois hospitais-maternidade de Salvador da Bahia, foi investigar a experiência e as representações do aborto legal, analisadas em contraste com as representações do aborto ilegal, dos profissionais de saúde, em particular dos ginecologistas-obstetras.Usou-se como instrumentos um questionário e entrevistas semi-estruturadas com 25 profissionais de saúde (dos quais 13 ginecologistas-obstetras num hospital que oferece um serviço de aborto legal (P, e 20 profissionais de saúde (dos quais 9 ginecologistas-obstetras em outro hospital, que não oferece este serviço (F. Os fatores que mais influenciam as representações dos ginecologistas-obstetras entrevistados acerca do aborto e que explicam a alta taxa de objeção de consciencia no hospital P foram: 1- a criminalização do aborto e o medo de serem denunciados; 2- a estigmatização do aborto por certos grupos religiosos e pelos proprios médicos; 3- o treinamento em obstetrícia e a falta de uma formação boa no campo da epidemiologia da morbi-mortalidade materna e do aborto; 4- as representações acerca das relações de gênero. Os fatores principais associados à atitudes liberais foram: a idade - abaixo de 30/acima de 45 anos - a experiência com altas taxas de mortalidade materna devidas ao aborto e a experiência com o aborto legal.The objective of this qualitative study, carried out in two maternity-hospitals in Salvador da Bahia, was to investigate the experience and representations of health professionals, and particularly obstetricians-gynecologists, regarding legal abortion in comparison with their representations and experience with illegal abortion. A questionnaire was distributed and semi-structured interviews were conducted with 25 health professionals (13 obstetricians-gynecologists in a hospital providing legal abortion (P and with 20 health professionals (9 obstetricians-gynecologists in another hospital that does not

  8. Use of prescribed and non-prescribed medications among children living in poor areas in the city of Salvador, Bahia State, Brazil Consumo de medicamentos prescritos e não prescritos entre crianças residentes em áreas pobres de Salvador, Bahia, Brasil

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    Djanilson Barbosa dos Santos

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available A cross-sectional study of children living in poor areas in the city of Salvador, Bahia State, Brazil, was carried out in 2006 to investigate the prevalence of use of prescribed and non-prescribed medication. This population-based study included 1,382 children aged 4-11 years. The use prescribed and non-prescribed medication during the 15 day period preceding the interview was adopted as the dependent variable. Of the 1,382 children, 663 (48% had used at least one type of medication in the 15 days prior to the interview: in 267 cases (40.3%, mothers reported that the child had taken prescribed medication, while in 396 cases (59.7%, the child had taken medication that had not been prescribed by a physician. The most commonly prescribed drugs were analgesics (42.3%, systemic antibiotics (21.3% and antiasthmatic (16.5%. With respect to non-prescribed drugs, the most common were analgesics (65.2%, antitussives (15.7% and vitamins (9.3%. The results show a high prevalence of the use of non-prescription drugs among poor children, and large drug purchases of drugs by the head of household, highlighting deficiencies in coverage of the health system.A prevalência de uso de medicamentos prescritos e não prescritos foi investigada por intermédio dum estudo transversal, em crianças que vivem em áreas pobres da cidade de Salvador, Bahia, Brasil, em 2006. Estudo de base populacional que incluiu 1.382 crianças entre 4 e 11 anos de idade. O consumo de medicamentos prescritos e não prescritos nos 15 dias anteriores à entrevista foi considerado a variável dependente. Das 1.382 crianças, 663 (48% haviam consumido ao menos um medicamento nos últimos 15 dias: 267 (40,3% referidas pela mãe haviam consumido medicamentos prescritos e 396 (59,7% consumiram medicamentos não prescritos. Os grupos farmacológicos prescritos mais consumidos foram analgésicos (42,3%, antibacterianos sistêmicos (21,3% e antiasmáticos (16,5%. Os grupos farmacológicos n

  9. Acessibilidade à atenção básica a famílias negras em bairro popular de Salvador, Brasil

    OpenAIRE

    Leny Alves Bomfim Trad; Marcelo Eduardo Pfeiffer Castellanos; Maria Clara da Silva Guimarães

    2012-01-01

    OBJETIVO: Analisar a acessibilidade de famílias negras de bairro popular aos serviços de atenção básica à saúde. MÉTODOS: Estudo etnográfico, ancorado na antropologia de base interpretativa, realizado com 18 famílias selecionadas de um bairro popular de Salvador, BA, no período de dois anos. Os critérios de inclusão foram residência no bairro e autoclassificação como negros. A análise se baseou na antropologia interpretativa e considerou as categorias: autorreferência étnico-racial; experiênc...

  10. Mental disorders prevalence among female caregivers of children in a cohort study in Salvador, Brazil Prevalência de transtornos mentais entre cuidadoras de crianças de um estudo de coorte realizado em Salvador, Brasil

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    Darci Neves Santos

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The caregiver-child relationship is important for child development. The prevalence of mental disorders was assessed in a female caregiver group and associated with socioenvironmental factors. METHOD: A cross sectional study was conducted in 326 caregivers whose children have been participating in a cohort study on mental development since 1999. RESULTS: The overall prevalence of mental disorders assessed according to the CIDI version 2.1 was 47.5% (95% CI 0.42-0.53. They were predominantly anxiety disorders (32.8%; 95%CI 0.27-0.38, followed by mood disorders (26.1%; 95%CI 0.21-0.31 and psychoactive substance abuse (10.1%; 95%CI 0.07-0.13. Anxiety and mood disorders were less likely in younger caregivers and substance abuse disorder was less likely among those better educated. DISCUSSION: The overall prevalence was similar to previous estimates, although 32.8% of anxiety disorders exceeded previous findings, which is unsurprising in a female sample. CONCLUSIONS: Younger caregivers with higher schooling were more likely to have better mental health, which favors child development.OBJETIVO: A relação criança-cuidador tem repercussões sobre o desenvolvimento infantil. Estimou-se a prevalência de transtornos mentais em um conjunto de cuidadoras, associando esta prevalência com fatores sócio-ambientais. MÉTODO: Estudo transversal realizado com 326 cuidadoras de uma coorte infantil em seguimento desenvolvimental desde1999. RESULTADOS: A prevalência global avaliada pelo CIDI versão 2.1, foi 47,5% (95% IC 0,42-0,53, predominando os transtornos de ansiedade (32,8%, 95% IC 0,27-0,38, seguidos por transtornos de humor (26,1%, 95% IC 0,21-0,31 e abuso de substâncias psicoativas (10,1%, 95% IC 0,07-0,13. Melhor escolaridade reduziu a chance de transtornos por abuso de substância. Entre jovens, foi menor a probabilidade de ocorrência de transtornos ansiosos e de humor. DISCUSSÃO: A prevalência global coincidiu com outros achados; por

  11. Geografia da desigualdade social: Uma perspectiva de geografia urbana crítica apresentada a partir do exemplo da produção social da favela em Salvador-BA

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    Veronika Deffner

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Para a análise empírica do fenômeno da reprodução invisível das desigualdades sociais e espaciais nas cidades brasileiras, elaborou-se a proposta, aqui apresentada, de uma geografía da desigualdade social, a fim de embasar uma investigação das desigualdades, destacando o espaço como força poderosa no processo de reprodução social. Trata-se de uma geografía urbana hermenêutica, no sentido de entender a textura da cidade em sua construção social. O conceito foi operacionalizado a partir do exemplo idiográfico da cidade de Salvador-BA, com o intuito de disponibilizar um modelo operacional e aplicável também a outras metrópoles, tanto no Brasil como em outras formações sociais caraterizadas por mecanismos ocultos que disfarçam e perpetuam a lógica da dominação social, as sociedades da chamada “perifería da modernidade”, segundo o sociólogo brasileiro Jessé Souza (2000, 2006. O papel da Geografia nessa perspectiva é o de buscar compreender a textura urbana fragmentada e dividida pelas disposições sociais, a partir do exame do fenômeno específico das favelas.

  12. Acessibilidade à atenção básica a famílias negras em bairro popular de Salvador, Brasil Acceso a la atención básica de familias negras en comunidad popular de Salvador, Brasil Accessibility to primary health care by black families in a poor neighborhood of Salvador, Northeastern Brazil

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    Leny Alves Bomfim Trad

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Analisar a acessibilidade de famílias negras de bairro popular aos serviços de atenção básica à saúde. MÉTODOS: Estudo etnográfico, ancorado na antropologia de base interpretativa, realizado com 18 famílias selecionadas de um bairro popular de Salvador, BA, no período de dois anos. Os critérios de inclusão foram residência no bairro e autoclassificação como negros. A análise se baseou na antropologia interpretativa e considerou as categorias: autorreferência étnico-racial; experiências de discriminação nos serviços; percepção sobre acessibilidade na atenção básica; e barreiras de acessibilidade. RESULTADOS E DISCUSSÃO: Identificaram-se os seguintes aspectos: a identidade étnico-racial e saúde: percepção dos usuários de que as barreiras organizacionais e de acesso se devem a um amplo contexto social que produz cidadãos "de primeira e de segunda categorias", mais do que a um racismo institucional; b acessibilidade no Sistema Único de Saúde (SUS: acesso problemático, permeado pela demora no atendimento, falta de compromisso dos profissionais de saúde, omissão dos gestores no controle e correção dessas situações; c acessibilidade na atenção básica: visão sobre o contexto mais geral do SUS e apoio na descrição dos entrevistados sobre o acesso aos serviços de atenção básica. CONCLUSÕES: Há barreiras de acessibilidade econômicas, organizacionais e culturais que se interpõem entre a oferta de serviços e o atendimento efetivo e oportuno das necessidades da população estudada.OBJETIVO: Analizar el acceso de familias negras de comunidad popular a los servicios de atención básica de salud MÉTODOS: Estudio etnográfico, basado en antropología de base interpretativa, realizado con 18 familias seleccionadas de una comunidad popular de Salvador, BA, Brasil, en período de dos años. Los criterios de inclusión fueron residencia en la comunidad y auto-clasificación como negros. El an

  13. Condições de saúde bucal de crianças na faixa etária pré-escolar, residentes em áreas de abrangência do Programa Saúde da Família em Salvador, Bahia, Brasil The dental health of preschool-aged children resident in areas covered by the Family Health Program, in the city of Salvador, in the State of Bahia, Brazil

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    Tatiana Frederico de Almeida

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: determinar a prevalência e gravidade da cárie dentária, maloclusões, e alteração gengival em pré-escolares de cinco anos de idade residentes em áreas do Programa Saúde da Família (PSF. MÉTODOS: estudo de corte transversal, conduzido com crianças de cinco anos examinadas por equipes de saúde bucal do PSF e do programa de Procedimentos Coletivos do serviço municipal de saúde de Salvador, Bahia, Brasil, em 2005. Os critérios de diagnóstico da Organização Mundial da Saúde e do Projeto Saúde Bucal foram utilizados e os exames foram realizados em escolas, creches ou em domicílios. RESULTADOS: participaram deste inquérito 1374 crianças. A prevalência da cárie foi de 49,6% e o ceo-d (média de dentes cariados, extraídos e obturados igual a 1,97, sendo que a maioria dos dentes encontrava-se cariados (85,78%. A prevalência de alteração gengival foi de 7,40% e maloclusões leve e moderada/severa de 24,90% e 12,70%, respectivamente. CONCLUSÕES: foram constatadas elevada prevalência e gravidade de problemas bucais passíveis de prevenção e controle mediante ações educativas, preventivas e curativas mais efetivas da atenção primária, em pré-escolares no município. A epidemiologia no serviço pode colaborar para o planejamento e acompanhamento de tais açõesOBJECTIVES: to determine the prevalence and severity of dental caries, malocclusions and gum damage in five-year-old preschool children resident in areas covered by the Family Health Program (PSF. METHODS: a cross-cutting study was carried out with five-year-old children examined by PSF dental health teams and as part of the Collective Procedures Program of the municipal health service of the city of Salvador, in the State of Bahia, Brazil, in 2005. The diagnostic criteria established by the World Health Organization and the Dental Health Project were used and the examinations were carried out in schools, crèches or the children's homes. RESULTS: the

  14. null Izalco, El Salvador Images

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Izalco is a young stratovolcano on the south flank of Santa Ana Volcano in western El Salvador. Its continuous small explosive eruptions (beginning in 1770) caused...

  15. El Salvador : Accounting and Auditing

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2005-01-01

    This report provides an assessment of accounting and auditing practices within El Salvador's corporate sector. It used International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS) and International Standards on Auditing (ISA) as benchmarks, and drew on international experience and good practices in those fields. Both statutory requirements and actual practices were analyzed as part of this review. The purpose of this ROSC is to assist the Government of El Salvador in strengthening the private sector's ...

  16. Reliability study of the Behavioral Assessment of the Dysexecutive Syndrome adapted for a Brazilian sample of older-adult controls and probable early Alzheimer's disease patients Um estudo de confiabilidade da Bateria de Avaliação da Síndrome Disexecutiva adaptada para uma amostra brasileira de idosos controles e pacientes com doença de Alzheimer provável em fase inicial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabíola Canali

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Ecological tests are useful in assessing executive function deficits and may be of value in appraising response to treatment in Alzheimer's disease patients. Our aims were to examine executive function using the Behavioral Assessment of the Dysexecutive Syndrome for a Brazilian sample of older-adult controls and probable early Alzheimer's disease patients, and verify the applicability of this test battery. METHOD: Forty-one older-adult controls were matched with mild Alzheimer's disease patients by age, education, and gender. RESULTS: There significant inter-group differences in overall profile and almost all subtests except temporal judgment, time spent on planning the first and second Zoo Map visit, number of errors when copying drawings, naming pictures and Six Modified Elements arithmetic, and dysexecutive questionnaire self-rating. The Behavioral Assessment of the Dysexecutive Syndrome item that best discriminated controls from patients was the Modified Six Elements - adapted (general index, with a sensitivity of 80% and specificity of 90%, (AUC = 0.91, p OBJETIVO: Testes ecológicos são os mais indicados para a avaliação dos déficits nas funções executivas, sendo importante também na avaliação da resposta ao tratamento de pacientes com doença de Alzheimer. O objetivo deste estudo é verificar o desempenho nas funções executivas usando a Behavioural Assessment of the Dysexecutive Syndrome em uma amostra brasileira de idosos controles e pacientes com doença de Alzheimer provável em fase inicial e a aplicabilidade desta bateria ecológica em nosso meio. MÉTODO: Avaliamos com a Behavioural Assessment of the Dysexecutive Syndrome 41 idosos controles e 41 pacientes com doença de Alzheimer provável em fase inicial, sem diferença estatisticamente significativa em relação à idade, escolaridade e sexo. RESULTADOS: Houve diferença estatisticamente significativa entre os grupos no escore total e em quase todos os

  17. Maus-tratos: estudo através da perspectiva da delegacia de proteção à criança e ao adolescente em Salvador, Bahia Maltreatment: study from the perspective of the police department for the frotection of the child and the adolescent in Salvador, Bahia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Clara de Rebolças Carvalho

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo transversal descreve a ocorrência de maus-tratos em uma delegacia de proteção a crianças e adolescentes em Salvador, Bahia, entre 1997 e 1999. Dados sociodemográficos e físicos das vítimas, agressores e denunciantes foram investigados a partir de uma amostra de 2.073 casos. As vítimas apresentaram idades entre 0 e 18 anos, 56,1% do sexo feminino. De todas as manifestações de maus-tratos, exceto o abuso físico, prevaleceram as sobre o sexo feminino. O subgrupo de pré-adolescentes foi o mais atingido. O tipo de maltrato mais freqüente foi o abuso físico (64,7%. Lesões corporais ocorreram em 22,2% dos casos, a maioria concentrando-se na cabeça e pescoço (65,3%. Observou-se intensa participação do sexo masculino entre os agressores (71,8%. Houve correlação positiva entre sexo feminino e abuso sexual e o sexo masculino e abuso físico, inclusive de forma mais severa em relação à presença de lesões corporais. As denúncias foram feitas pelos pais das vítimas (72,9%, sendo o sexo feminino mais freqüente. Neste estudo, não foi identificada nenhuma denúncia realizada pelos profissionais de saúde, refletindo maior necessidade de comprometimento destes na problemática, conforme as recomendações da política de redução da morbimortalidade por acidentes e violência.This cross-sectional study describes the occurrences of maltreatment recorded over three years (1997-1999 in a Brazilian Police Department for the Protection of the Child and the Adolescent. Socio-demographic and physical data of victims, aggressors and denouncers were investigated in a sample consisting of 2073 cases. The victims were aged between 0-18 years, of which 56.1% were girls. Data were entered into EPI INFO 2000 software and analyzed using descriptive statistics and chi-square test to determine significant differences (p<0.05. All manifestations of abuse, except physical abuse, tend to occur more frequently in females, and tend to be more

  18. Downtown revitalization in San Salvador

    OpenAIRE

    Ejeborn, Elisabet; Nedersjö, Julia

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this master’s thesis in spatial planning is to research the conditions in the historic city centre of San Salvador and make a strategy and urban design proposal for the area, but also to investigate the relationship between economic development, public institutions and the public space in this area. The research has been done through literature studies on El Salvador and formal/informal economy, onsite inventory, studies of good examples and interviews with people in the area. In t...

  19. Raça e lesão de órgãos-alvo da hipertensão arterial em pacientes atendidos em um ambulatório universitário de referência na cidade de Salvador Race and hypertensive target-organ damage in patients from an university-affiliated outpatient care referral clinic in the city of Salvador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Carlos Beisl Noblat

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar se a raça do paciente estaria associada à presença de hipertrofia ventricular esquerda, acidente vascular cerebral e insuficiência renal crônica em hipertensos atendidos em ambulatório de referência em Salvador-BA. MÉTODOS: Analisados dados de 622 pacientes com o primeiro atendimento em ambulatório de hipertensão, entre 1982 e 1986, e identificados os com história prévia ou seqüela de acidente vascular cerebral, hipertrofia ventricular esquerda ou insuficiência renal (creatinina sérica > 1,4 mg/dL. Modelos de regressão logística foram utilizados para estimar odds ratio (OR da associação entre raça (mulatos ou negros vs brancos e lesão de órgãos-alvo de hipertensão, ajustadas para sexo e idade. RESULTADOS: A média de idade dos pacientes foi 53,8±14,3 anos, 74,1% mulheres. Quanto à raça, 15,1% eram brancos, 65,9% mulatos e 19,0% negros. Acidente vascular cerebral foi significantemente mais freqüente em negros ou mulatos do que em brancos (odds ratio ajustada (ORa=3,44; intervalo de confiança (IC 95%=1,23-9,67. Quanto às associações envolvendo raça com os eventos hipertrofia ventricular esquerda e insuficiência renal as ORa não foram estatisticamente significantes, mas foram consistentes com maior prevalência de hipertrofia ventricular esquerda e insuficiência renal em negros e mulatos. CONCLUSÃO: Negros e mulatos hipertensos têm maior risco de lesão de órgão alvo do que brancos, com diferença racial maior para acidente vascular cerebral não fatal. Deve ser avaliada se diferenças raciais em mortalidade relacionada a complicações da hipertensão influenciam as associações observadas entre raça e lesão de órgãos-alvo.OBJECTIVE: To assess whether a patient's race is associated with the presence of left ventricular hypertrophy, stroke, and renal failure in hypertensive patients from an outpatient care referral clinic in the city of Salvador in the state of Bahia. METHODS: We

  20. NOVOS MODELOS ORGANIZACIONAIS E REPERCUSSÕES NA GESTÃO DOS RECURSOS HUMANOS: ESTUDO DE CASO EM SALVADOR-BA [doi: 10.5329/RECADM.20030201003

    OpenAIRE

    Sônia R. P. Fernandes; Guacyra Leal; Renata Matos

    2003-01-01

    RESUMO As transformações no mundo do trabalho têm impulsionado novos modelos organizacionais, refletindo nas práticas gerenciais e na gestão de recursos humanos (DRUCK, 1999; MENDES, 1997; VELOSO 1999). Este estudo objetivou analisar uma organização do segmento de serviços e suas estratégias gestão dos recursos humanos. A investigação adotou o desenho de corte transversal e foi estruturada em dois momentos....

  1. El Salvador Country Land Assessment

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2012-01-01

    This study assesses the alignment of land use, land tenure, and land market outcomes in El Salvador with public policy aspirations in recent decades for efficient, inclusive, and environmentally sustainable development in both urban and rural spaces. In doing so the study indirectly gauges the effectiveness of land sector institutions in facilitating such developmental outcomes in agricult...

  2. Salvador Dali : 1904-1989

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2004-01-01

    Sürrealismi joonte levimine mööblikujundusse - Salvador Dali Edvard Jamesile kavandatud diivan "Mae Westi huuled". Diivani ideeks Dali maal "Mae Westi nägu, mida võiks kasutada sürrealistliku ruumina", mille järgi on sisustatud üks ruum 1973. a. Hispaanias Figuerases avatud Dali majamuuseumis. 2 ill

  3. Family context and incidence of dental caries in preschool children living in areas covered by the Family Health Strategy in Salvador, Bahia State, Brazil Contexto familiar e incidência de cárie dentária em pré-escolares residentes em áreas do Estratégia Saúde da Família em Salvador, Bahia, Brasil

    OpenAIRE

    Tatiana Frederico de Almeida; Maria Isabel Pereira Vianna; Maria Beatriz Barreto de Souza Cabral; Maria Cristina Teixeira Cangussu; Fabiana Raynal Floriano

    2012-01-01

    Psychosocial factors influence family care and can jeopardize child development. This study aimed to analyze the association between maternal common mental disorders and incidence of early dental caries in preschool-age children living in areas covered by the Family Health Strategy in Salvador, Bahia State, Brazil, in a cohort design. A total of 472 children were examined and their mothers were interviewed from 2007 to 2008. Incidence of at least one tooth with caries was 21.19%, while 7.84% ...

  4. Indicadores antropométricos de obesidade como instrumento de triagem para risco coronariano elevado em adultos na cidade de Salvador - Bahia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pitanga Francisco José Gondim

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Comparar vários indicadores antropométricos de obesidade e identificar dentre eles qual melhor discrimina o risco coronariano elevado (RCE. MÉTODOS: Estudo de corte transversal, com amostra composta por 968 adultos de 30 a 74 anos de idade, sendo 391 (40,4% do sexo masculino. Foram construídas diversas curvas Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC e comparadas às áreas sob as mesmas entre o índice de conicidade (índice C, índice de massa corporal (IMC, razão circunferência cintura-quadril (RCCQ, circunferência de cintura (CC e RCE. Verificou-se também a sensibilidade e especificidade para identificar e comparar o melhor ponto de corte entre os diversos indicadores de obesidade para discriminar o RCE. Foi utilizado intervalo de confiança a 95%. RESULTADOS: A maior área sob a curva ROC foi encontrada entre o índice C e RCE, em indivíduos do sexo masculino, 0,80 (0,74-0,85, diferindo significativamente dos demais indicadores de obesidade. Em mulheres, a maior área sob a curva ROC encontrada foi de 0,76 (0,71-0,81, sendo iguais entre índice C, RCCQ e RCE. CONCLUSÃO: Esses resultados demonstram que o índice C e RCCQ são os melhores indicadores de obesidade para discriminar RCE. A CC tem intermediário poder discriminatório e o IMC foi o indicador antropométrico de obesidade menos adequado para discriminar RCE. Estes dados sugerem que os indicadores de obesidade abdominal são melhores para discriminar RCE que os indicadores de obesidade generalizada.

  5. Associação entre indicadores antropométricos de obesidade e risco coronariano em adultos na cidade de Salvador, Bahia, Brasil Association of anthropometric indicators of obesity with coronary risk in adults in the city of Salvador, Bahia, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco José Gondim Pitanga

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: O estudo teve como objetivo determinar a associação entre os diversos indicadores de obesidade e risco coronariano elevado (RCE em adultos na cidade de Salvador-BA. MÉTODOS: O desenho foi de corte transversal, com amostra composta por 968 adultos de 30-74 anos de idade, sendo 391 (40.4% homens. A análise constou da regressão logística, sendo calculadas as Odds Ratio (OR entre o índice de conicidade (índice C, índice de massa corporal (IMC, razão circunferência cintura-quadril (RCCQ, circunferência de cintura (CC e RCE. Utilizou-se intervalo de confiança a 95%. RESULTADOS: Após ajustamento por idade, as OR encontradas para homens foram: a RCCQ: 5.81 (3.00-11.23, b índice C: 5.52 (2.94-10.36, c CC: 4.37 (2.31-8.26, d IMC: 3.04 (1.62-5.73. Para mulheres dos 30 aos 49 anos e 50 aos 74 anos as OR encontradas foram, respectivamente: a RCCQ: 7.85 (2.15-28.69 e 1.81 (0.98-3.36; b IMC: 7.28 (1.61-32.97 e 1.09 (0.61-1.96; c índice C: 6.88 (1.89 -25.11 e 2.89 (1.58-5.27; d CC: 6.41 (2.09-19.65 e 1.38 (0.77-2.50. CONCLUSÕES: Os resultados demonstram que, entre homens e mulheres de 30-49 anos, todos os indicadores de obesidade apresentam forte associação com RCE, destacando-se entre os homens os indicadores de obesidade central, RCCQ e IC, enquanto que para as mulheres entre 50 e 74 anos o índice C é o melhor indicador.OBJECTIVE: To determine the association between the many anthropometric indicators of obesity and high coronary risk (HCR. METHODS: This is a cross-sectional study. Its population comprised 968 adults, 30-74 years of age, of which 391 (40.4% were men. Logistic regression analysis was used and the Odds Ratio (OR was calculated between the conicity index (C index, body mass index (BMI, waist-to-hip ratio (WHR, waist circumference (WC, and HCR. A 95% confidence interval was utilized. RESULTS: The OR between obesity indicators and HCR, adjusted by age, in men were: a WHR - 5.81 (3.00-11.23, b C index - 5.52 (2

  6. NOVOS MODELOS ORGANIZACIONAIS E REPERCUSSÕES NA GESTÃO DOS RECURSOS HUMANOS: ESTUDO DE CASO EM SALVADOR-BA [doi: 10.5329/RECADM.20030201003

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sônia R. P. Fernandes

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 21 false false false PT-BR X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 RESUMO As transformações no mundo do trabalho têm impulsionado novos modelos organizacionais, refletindo nas práticas gerenciais e na gestão de recursos humanos (DRUCK, 1999; MENDES, 1997; VELOSO 1999. Este estudo objetivou analisar uma organização do segmento de serviços e suas estratégias gestão dos recursos humanos. A investigação adotou o desenho de corte transversal e foi estruturada em dois momentos. Os resultados indicam que o modelo organizacional é tipico da reorganização produtiva - estrutura central com poucos trabalhadores e terceirização dos serviços. Também, a organização assemelha-se ao modelo simples (Robbins e apresenta características predominantes da metáfora da máquina (Morgan. Finalmente, as estratégias de gestão de recursos humanos, especialmente a partir do estilo de liderança adotado, tëm refletido no clima organizacional que foi avaliado pelos trabalhadores como positivo. Entretanto, as estratégias de desenvolvimento de recursos humanos - avaliação de desempenho e remuneração - não correspondem ao preconizado nas atuais concepções sobre gestão de pessoas. Palavras-chave: desenvolvimento recursos humanos; gestão recursos humanos; modelos organizacionais     ABSTRACT The transformations in the workplace have propelled new organizational models, reflecting on managerial practices and resource management (DRUCK, 1999; MENDES, 1997; VELOSO, 1999. This study was aimed analyze an organization belonging to the service sector and the strategies used by such organization in the management of human resources. The investigation followed a cross sectional design and it was structured in two distinct moments. The results indicate that the organizational model is typical of the productive reorganization – a central structure with few workers and contractors. In addition, the organization resembles the simple model

  7. Infestation of Aedes aegypti estimated by oviposition traps in Brazil Infestação por Aedes aegypti estimada por armadilha de oviposição em Salvador, Bahia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanêssa C G Morato

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To assess infestation levels of Aedes aegypti using the oviposition trap (ovitrap method and to compare these results with data obtained with the use of indices traditionally applied in public programs aimed at fighting this vector. METHODS: Nine sentinel areas in Northeastern, Brazil, were assessed and infestation levels were measured for a nine-month period. Egg density and container indices were estimated and compared with previous results found using the house index and Breteau index. RESULTS: The results indicated that the area studied was infested with this vector during the entire study period and that the infestation was widespread in all areas. Different results were found with the different indices studied. There were areas in which the house index and the Breteau index were negative or close to zero, whereas the container index for the same area was 11% and the egg density index was 8.3%. CONCLUSIONS: The container and egg density indices allow better assessment of infestation rates in a city than the conventionally used indices (house index and Breteau index. At lower operational costs and easier standardization, these indices can be applied as a measurement tool for assessing infestation rates during entomological surveillance in programs to fight Aedes aegypti.OBJETIVO: Estimar os índices de infestação do Aedes aegypti, utilizando ovitrampa com atrativo e comparar esse método com os tradicionalmente utilizados nos programas oficiais de combate ao vetor. MÉTODOS: Foram analisadas nove áreas sentinelas de Salvador, Estado da Bahia, durante nove meses. Foram calculados os índices de densidade de ovos e positividade de ovitrampa, e levantamento dos índices de infestação predial e de Breteau para comparação. RESULTADOS: Observou-se que o município apresentou infestação pelo vetor durante todo o período de estudo em todas as áreas sentinelas. Os índices nem sempre apresentaram resultados de infesta

  8. NOVOS MODELOS ORGANIZACIONAIS E REPERCUSSÕES NA GESTÃO DOS RECURSOS HUMANOS: ESTUDO DE CASO EM SALVADOR-BA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sônia R. P. Fernandes

    2003-05-01

    -family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;}

    RESUMO

    As transformações no mundo do trabalho têm impulsionado novos modelos organizacionais, refletindo nas práticas gerenciais e na gestão de recursos humanos (DRUCK, 1999; MENDES, 1997; VELOSO 1999. Este estudo objetivou analisar uma organização do segmento de serviços e suas estratégias gestão dos recursos humanos. A investigação adotou o desenho de corte transversal e foi estruturada em dois momentos. Os resultados indicam que o modelo organizacional é tipico da reorganização produtiva - estrutura central com poucos trabalhadores e terceirização dos serviços. Também, a organização assemelha-se ao modelo simples (Robbins e apresenta características predominantes da metáfora da máquina (Morgan. Finalmente, as estratégias de gestão de recursos humanos, especialmente a partir do estilo de liderança adotado, tëm refletido no clima organizacional que foi avaliado pelos trabalhadores como positivo. Entretanto, as estratégias de desenvolvimento de recursos humanos - avaliação de desempenho e remuneração - não correspondem ao preconizado nas atuais concepções sobre gestão de pessoas.

    Palavras-chave: desenvolvimento recursos humanos; gestão recursos humanos; modelos organizacionais

     

     

    ABSTRACT

    The transformations in the workplace have propelled new organizational models, reflecting on managerial practices and resource management (DRUCK, 1999; MENDES, 1997; VELOSO, 1999

  9. Salvador Dali Kopenhaagenis / Ave Räkk

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Räkk, Ave

    1999-01-01

    Salvador Dalí näitus Kopenhaageni moodsa kunsti muuseumis Arkenis kuni 2. I 2000. Eksponeeritud 119 originaaljoonistust autobiograafilisest raamatust 'The secret life of Salvador Dali', umbes 300 illustratsiooni, graafikat, skulptuure, kuld ja klaasehistöid, mööblit ja üks maal: 1944. a. valminud, esmakordselt avalikkuse ees olev 'Papillion'.

  10. Corporate Governance Country Assessment : El Salvador

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2012-01-01

    This report assesses El Salvador s corporate governance policy framework. It highlights recent improvements in corporate governance regulation, makes policy recommendations, and provides investors with a benchmark against which to measure corporate governance in El Salvador. The OECD Principles focus on private-sector publicly traded companies, both financial and nonfinancial, but are also...

  11. Manual for the Bateria de Examenes de Aptitud General (BEAG). Section II. Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Employment of Training Administration (DOL), Washington, DC. Office of Research and Development.

    The development and norming of a Spanish language edition of the United States Employment Service (USES) General Aptitude Test Battery (GATB) is described. The new edition, called the Bateria de Examenes de Aptitud General (BEAG), was designed to replace an earlier translation, the BGPA, prepared for use in Puerto Rico. Forms A and B were…

  12. Inserção do psicólogo em programas de atenção primária à adolescência: uma experiência em Salvador-Bahia The role of the psychologist in programs of primary care with adolescents: an experience in Salvador, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luís Augusto Vasconcelos da Silva

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Buscou-se relatar uma experiência de estágio curricular em Psicologia, no qual foram discutidos os novos contextos e demandas que surgem para a Psicologia, neste momento em que se encontra o processo de globalização e as influências neo-liberais. A inserção dos estagiários numa perspectiva multidisciplinar com profissionais de saúde foi concretizada a partir do desenvolvimento de grupos de adolescentes em um centro de saúde de um bairro de baixa-renda. Foram acompanhados três grupos, semanalmente, durante um semestre letivo, por dois estagiários de Psicologia. Buscou-se desenvolver estratégias de prevenção a partir da discussão de temas (AIDS, família, sexualidade e demandas em geral trazidas pelos adolescentes, estimulando-os a problematizar, planejar e programar ações a longo prazo, além de ter sido incentivado o desenvolvimento da autonomia na escolha de estilos de vida. Observou-se que os adolescentes passaram a demonstrar comportamentos que predizem a formação de suporte social e comportamentos assertivos. No encerramento das atividades foi proposto pelos adolescentes a confecção de um vídeo, uma peça teatral e uma reportagem.New contexts, social demands and economic perspectives of the current Brazilian reality in which the process of globalization and neoliberal influences were observed and discussed in an internship at the Department of Psychology of the Federal University of Bahia. Two trainees conducted a weekly meeting of a group of adolescents at a Primary Health Care Unit in a low income district. The group’s goals were the development of prevention strategies based on the discussion of issues (AIDS, family, sexuality and of autonomy to choose their lifestyles. The teenagers were encouraged to discuss these issues and to plan long-term actions. It could be seen that the adolescents started to present assertive behavior and developed new social support networks. At the end of the school term they were

  13. El Salvador - Non-Formal Skills Development

    Data.gov (United States)

    Millenium Challenge Corporation — The Non-Formal Skills Development Sub-Activity had a budget of $5 million (USD) to provide short-term training to vulnerable populations in El Salvador's Northern...

  14. Arreteeriti Salvador Dali võltsija

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    1999-01-01

    Hispaania politsei arreteeris Cadaquesis Salvador Dali endise sekretäri, ameeriklase John Peter Moore'i, kes tabati Dali võltslitograafiate müümiselt. Läbiotsimisel leiti Moore'i majast sadu võltsinguid

  15. Lenini ilmumine Salvador Dalile / Ants Juske

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Juske, Ants, 1956-

    2007-01-01

    Salvador Dali maali "Osaline kangastus. Kuus Lenini ilmumist tiibklaveril" ("Hallucination partielle. Six apparitions de Lénine sur un piano") verbaalsest interpretatsioonist Harkovi ülikooli uurija Oleg Zaslavski teooria alusel

  16. Fatores etiológicos da deficiência auditiva em crianças e adolescentes de um centro de referência APADA em Salvador-BA Etiology of hearing impairment in children and adolescents of a reference center APADA in the city of Salvador, state of Bahia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luzia Poliana Anjos da Silva

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available A audição representa a principal fonte para aquisição das habilidades de linguagem e fala da criança. A criança portadora de deficiência auditiva nos primeiros meses de vida é privada de estimulação sonora no período mais importante de seu desenvolvimento, e conseqüentemente, poderá apresentar alterações emocionais, sociais, e lingüísticas. Neste contexto é de suma relevância conhecer os principais fatores etiológicos que ocasionam a lesão auditiva para se traçar um perfil nosológico fidedigno, e serem tomadas as medidas cabíveis de prevenção e orientação as famílias sobre as repercussões da deficiência auditiva na infância. OBJETIVOS: Caracterizar o perfil etiológico da deficiência auditiva em um centro de referência para atendimento a crianças e adolescentes deficientes auditivos. METODOLOGIA: Foram realizadas entrevistas, triagem fonoaudiológica e avaliação de prontuários de 87 crianças deficientes auditivas cadastradas na Associação de Pais e Amigos dos Deficientes Auditivos do Estado da Bahia(APADA-BA, buscando-se determinar a etiologia, distribuição por sexo, idade do diagnóstico, grau de deficiência, idade de protetização e da reabilitação fonoaudiológica. RESULTADOS: Dentre as 87 crianças e adolescentes que passaram pela triagem fonoaudiológica, selecionamos uma amostra de 53 sujeitos, cujos pais compareceram as três sessões de anamnese e avaliação. O principal fator etiológico responsável pela deficiência auditiva na população avaliada foi a rubéola materna responsável por 32% dos casos de surdez, seguida pela meningite piogênica com 20%, causa idiopática com 15%, prematuridade com 9%, hereditariedade (pai ou mãe surdo e icterícia neonatal também apresentaram incidência de 6%; otite média crônica representou 4%, uso de misoprostol na gestação, sarampo, ototoxicidade e caxumba apareceram na amostra, cada fator, com 2%. CONCLUSÃO: O presente estudo demonstrou a

  17. Tu-U-Pb{sub T} ages of monazite and geothermobarometry of high level metapelitic rocks in the orogenic system Itabuna-Salvador-Curaca, state of Bahia, Brazil: a study in electron microprobe; Idades Th-U-Pb{sub T} de monazita e geotermobarometria de rochas metapeliticas de alto grau do sistema orogenico Itabuna-Salvador-Curaca, BA, Brasil: um estudo em microsonda eletronica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vlach, Silvio Roberto Farias; Lama, Eliane Aparecida del [Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil). Inst. de Geociencias. Dept. de Mineralogia e Geotectonica

    2002-12-15

    Electron microprobe Th-U-Pb T dating of monazite was performed on aluminous gneiss samples from the northern Jacurici and southern Ilheus areas of the Itabuna-Salvador-Curuca Orogenic System. Studied samples are spinel-sillimanite-cordierite-garnet gneiss and corundum-spinel-sillimanite-garnet gneiss that equilibrated during a high temperature metamorphism at T-P conditions of about 835 deg C/6,9 kbar and 890 deg C/7.4 kbar, respectively. Microprobe ages of monazite in equilibrium with these mineral associations are interpreted as true crystallization ages and date granulite facies metamorphism. Both samples gave ages of about 2.07 and 2.08 (+-0.02) Ga, in agreement with the known geochronological pattern in this system. The Ilheus sample contain a younger, contrasting monazite generation (e.g., with distinct REE patterns and Th/Gd ratios), dated at ca. 1.97 (+-0.04) Ga. Based on the occurrence of the corundum-sillimanite-quartz association in the sample and information from the literature, we suggest that this age may be related to a regional decompression event and/or a thermal overprint due to late intrusive magmatism (1.9 - 2.0 Ga) in the orogenic system. (author)

  18. Processo de adaptação da bateria Montreal de avaliação da comunicação: bateria MAC - ao português brasileiro Adaptation process to Brazilian Portuguese of the Montreal communication evaluation battery: MAC battery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rochele Paz Fonseca

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available O presente estudo tem por objetivo apresentar a adaptação do "Protocole Montréal d'Évaluation de la Communication - Protocole MEC" (Bateria Montreal de Avaliação da Comunicação - Bateria MAC ao Português Brasileiro. Esta bateria canadense foi construída para avaliar quatro processamentos comunicativos de ativação do hemisfério direito: discursivo, pragmático-inferencial, léxico-semântico e prosódico. Participaram do estudo seis tradutores, três juízes especialistas, 54 juízes não-especialistas e 16 participantes dos estudos piloto. Os procedimentos gerais promovidos foram tradução, análise de critérios psicolingüísticos por juízes e aplicação do instrumento em estudos piloto. As tarefas Interpretação de metáforas, Discurso narrativo e Julgamento semântico exigiram um processo de adaptação mais complexo e rigoroso. Com base em critérios psicolingüísticos, realizaram-se algumas mudanças nos estímulos, com a finalidade principal de manutenção do objetivo de cada tarefa do instrumento original. Este instrumento neuropsicológico pode ser uma ferramenta de avaliação da comunicação de indivíduos com lesão de hemisfério direito, lesão frontal, traumatismo crânio-encefálico e demência.This research aims to present the adaptation of the "Protocole Montréal d'Évaluation de la Communication - Protocole MEC" (Montreal Communication Evaluation Battery - MAC Battery to Brazilian Portuguese, in accordance with psycholinguistics criteria. MAC Battery is a Canadian instrument constructed to evaluate right hemisphere communicative and linguistic abilities, considering four processing domains: discoursive, pragmatic-inferential, lexical-semantic and prosodic. The participants were six translators, three specialist judges, 54 non-specialist judges and 16 subjects from pilot studies. Adaptation procedures included translation, judge analysis of psycholinguistics criteria and two pilot tests. Some tasks required

  19. Detecção de aglomerados espaciais de casos de neoplasia mamária em cães no município de Salvador, Bahia Detection of spatial clusters for breast cancer in canines in the city of Salvador, Bahia

    OpenAIRE

    Júlia Morena de Miranda Leão Toríbio; João Moreira da Costa Neto; Maria Emília Bavia; Alessandra Estrela da Silva Lima; Luciana Lobato Cardim; Deborah Daniela Madureira Trabuco Carneiro; Emanoel Ferreira Martins Filho; Lorena Gabriela Rocha Ribeiro

    2012-01-01

    Os tumores mamários espontâneos representam a neoplasia mais frequente em fêmeas caninas, correspondendo aproximadamente a 50% de todas as neoplasias. A maioria dos estudos científicos restringe-se a dados pontuais sobre a doença, sem a preocupação com sua distribuição geográfica ou mesmo com a possibilidade da geração de agregados desses eventos em uma determinada área. Levando-se em consideração a lacuna de informações na literatura, o presente trabalho teve como objetivo a criação de mapas...

  20. Women in physics in El Salvador

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez, T.; de Contreras, D.; Rivera, W.

    2013-03-01

    Current conditions impose serious limitations on admission to careers and specialization for physicists in general and especially for women in physics. This is a critical issue in a country where political instability, a civil war, and postwar conditions have limited the development of science and technology, and where there are just a few masters in science in the whole university and even fewer professionals with a PhD degree. In the past three years, El Salvador has defined clear lines of work that involve female physicists at the University of El Salvador. These lines are seismology, meteorology, climatology, and physics education.

  1. Desenvolvimento e validação de um novo sistema de seleção de talentos para a ginástica olímpica feminina: a Bateria PDGO Development and validation of a new system for talent selection in female artistic gymnastics: the PDGO Battery

    OpenAIRE

    Patrícia Arruda de Albuquerque; Paulo de Tarso Veras Farinatti

    2007-01-01

    A ginástica olímpica (GO) envolve atividades motoras que exigem capacidades específicas. Todavia, há carência de testes para detectar o potencial para o desempenho na GO em idades precoces. Este estudo descreve e apresenta evidências da validade de uma bateria de testes para a seleção de talentos para GO feminina. Inicialmente, foram levantadas as atividades que vêm sendo aplicadas por especialistas em GO, na literatura e por consulta através de questionários. A partir das 30 atividades menci...

  2. Desigualdades sociais e cobertura vacinal na cidade de Salvador, Bahia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita Barradas Barata

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Estimar as coberturas vacinais alcançadas em crianças nascidas na cidade de Salvador, analisando essas coberturas por condições socioeconômicas. Método: Foi realizado um inquérito domiciliar sobre cobertura vacinal, na cidade de Salvador, capital do Estado da Bahia, Nordeste do Brasil, sendo incluídas crianças nascidas em 2005, que no momento do estudo apresentavam 18 a 36 meses de idade. Foi realizada amostragem por conglomerados em múltiplas etapas. Os setores censitários foram estratificados utilizando-se dados do censo demográfico realizado em 2000. Foram coletados dados socioeconômicos dos domicílios. O tamanho da amostra foi definido a partir de metodologia específica para inquéritos de cobertura vacinal. O questionário foi aplicado tomando por base as informações constantes na caderneta de vacinação. Foi estimada a cobertura vacinal nos diversos estratos considerando o plano complexo de amostragem, ponderando as observações segundo a fração amostral, as perdas e o efeito do desenho. Resultados: Observou-se desigualdade socioeconômica nos diversos estratos, com um gradiente diretamente proporcional entre cobertura vacinal e nível socioeconômico. As diferenças mostram-se estatisticamente significantes entre os estratos D e E comparado ao estrato A. Em relação ao esquema completo, as crianças residentes nos estratos D e E apresentam cobertura significantemente menor que aquelas residentes no estrato B. Para vacinas não incluídas no esquema básico, as diferenças são muito acentuadas, sendo inferior a 3% nos estratos D e E. Conclusões: A cobertura vacinal pelo esquema completo ao final dos 18 meses de idade, com doses válidas, foi insatisfatória e foram observadas heterogeneidades entre os estratos socioeconômicos com pior cobertura nos grupos mais pobres.

  3. Carles Salvador, l'autoritat gramatical

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vicent Pitarch

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Carles Salvador had strong nationalistic convictions and was very active in promoting the Catalan language in several areas, specifically in developing treatises on spelling, grammar and lexicography. His work would help consolidate the standardization of Catalan in the Valencian Country and would make him an unquestionable authority on Catalan grammar.

  4. Detecção de doenças sexualmente transmissíveis em ambientes clínicos e não clínicos na Cidade de Salvador, Bahia, Brasil Screening of sexually transmitted diseases in clinical and non-clinical settings in Salvador, Bahia, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Santiago de Codes

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar (1 a aceitação de rastreamento para DST em ambientes não clínicos por indivíduos assintomáticos, (2 os fatores de risco e prevalência de DST em ambientes não clínicos e clínicos e (3 o rastreamento não clínico de populações assintomáticas como um método viável para controle das DST. Recrutamos 139 participantes masculinos e 486 femininos entre 18 e 30 anos em clínica de planejamento familiar, escolas e comunidades de baixa renda. Inquirimos os recrutados sobre sintomas de DST e comportamentos de risco para DST/HIV e os testamos para gonorréia, clamídia, sífilis e HIV. Exceto pelo HIV, as mulheres recrutadas diretamente da comunidade apresentavam maior prevalência de DST do que as que procuravam a clínica. O rastreamento das DST em ambientes não clínicos no Brasil é aceitável e vantajoso para jovens em comunidades de baixa renda. Participantes infectados provavelmente nunca teriam procurado assistência, sido testados ou tratados. Medidas para o controle das DST podem ser implementadas em qualquer lugar onde se alcancem as populações de risco e transformadas em rotina nos serviços de saúde, mesmo entre indivíduos com problemas não relacionados com DST.The objectives were to study: (1 acceptance of STD screening in non-clinical settings for asymptomatic individuals; (2 risk factors and STD prevalence among individuals in non-clinical and clinical settings; and (3 non-clinical screening of asymptomatic populations as a feasible method for STD control. We recruited 139 males and 486 females between 18 and 30 years of age from a family planning clinic, schools, and community centers in low-income neighborhoods. We asked about STD symptoms and STD/HIV risk behaviors and tested the individuals for gonorrhea, Chlamydia, syphilis, and HIV. Except for HIV, women recruited directly from the community had higher STD rates than those who came in for care at the clinic. Screening in non

  5. Prevalence of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in schoolchildren in the city of Salvador, Bahia, Brazil Prevalência do transtorno de déficit de atenção e hiperatividade em escolares na cidade do Salvador, Bahia, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milena Pereira Pondé

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD is the most common neuropsychiatric disorder of infancy and one of the most prevalent chronic diseases found in schoolchildren. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the prevalence of ADHD in schoolchildren through the use of a questionnaire responded by school-teachers. METHOD: A total of 774 children enrolled in the public and private school systems were evaluated. The diagnostic instrument used was a Teacher ADHD scale. RESULTS: Results showed that 6.7% of children were considered highly likely to have the disorder. Of the more severe cases of ADHD, the hyperactive-impulsive subtype was more frequently identified in girls, while the inattentive subtype was more prevalent among boys. CONCLUSION: The symptoms of attention deficit in hyperactive children may be underestimated by teachers since the symptoms of hyperactivity are more noticeable and disruptive.INTRODUÇÃO: O transtorno de déficit de atenção e hiperatividade (TDAH é o distúrbio neuropsiquiátrico mais comum na infância, estando, também, entre as doenças crônicas mais prevalentes em crianças escolares. OBJETIVO: Estimar a prevalência do TDAH em escolares através de inquérito com professores. MÉTODO: Foram avaliadas 774 crianças, matriculados na rede pública e privada de ensino. O instrumento diagnóstico utilizado foi a Escala de TDAH versão para professores. RESULTADOS: Estimou-se que 6,7% das crianças apresentavam alta probabilidade de apresentar o distúrbio. Dentre os casos mais severos de TDAH o subtipo hiperativo-impulsivo foi mais prevalente nos escolares do sexo feminino, enquanto o subtipo desatento foi mais prevalente entre as crianças do sexo masculino. CONCLUSÃO: Os sintomas do déficit de atenção em crianças hiperativas podem ser subestimados pelos professores visto que os sintomas da hiperatividade são mais disruptivos e visíveis.

  6. FORMA DE DESCARTE DE PILHAS E BATERIAS DE CELULARES USADAS POR MORADORES DO MUNICÍPIO DE CAMPOS DOS GOYTACAZES E CONSCIÊNCIA AMBIENTAL QUANTO O DESCARTE ADEQUADO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FORMA DE DESCARTE DE PILHAS E BATERIAS DE CELULARES USADAS POR MORADORES DO MUNICÍPIO DE CAMPOS DOS GOYTACAZES E CONSCIÊNCIA AMBIENTAL QUANTO O DESCARTE ADEQUADO

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available O descarte de pilhas e baterias é um problema que não envolve somente órgãos responsáveis, mas também a população como um todo. A cooperação da comunidade pode contribuir para a diminuição dos impactos causados por resíduos perigosos no meio ambiente. O objetivo do presente trabalho é analisar as formas de descarte de pilhas e baterias usadas pelos moradores dos bairros Calabouço, Jardim Carioca e Parque Guarus do município de Campos dos Goytacazes – RJ. Foi elaborado um questionário de seis perguntas fechadas, sendo duas perguntas sobre informações pessoais dos participantes e quatro perguntas sobre o descarte de pilhas e baterias. O mesmo foi aplicado a um total de 308 moradores (numero de pessoas alcançadas num período de seis meses dos bairros selecionados, sendo 98 do calabouço, 107 do Jardim Carioca e 103 do Parque Guarus. O resultado dos questionários foi tabulado, devidamente analisado e discutido com base no objetivo proposto pelo presente trabalho. Analisando os dados de modo geral é possível dizer que, embora a população não apresente conhecimento sobre os problemas ocasionados pelo descarte indevido, é necessário que haja por parte dos órgãos governamentais a implementação de políticas públicas que viabilizem o descarte correto e responsável uma vez que segundo a lei 12.305/2010 (que trata da Política Nacional de Resíduos Sólidos a responsabilidade pelo gerenciamento de resíduos sólidos, incluindo os perigosos é dos geradores, do poder público e dos instrumentos econômicos aplicáveis (Sistema de Gestão Integrada. Os fabricantes de pilhas e baterias ainda de acordo com a lei 12.305/2010 devem estruturar e implementar sistemas de logística reversa, ou seja, o retorno dos produtos após o uso pelo consumidor. Esse sistema quando colocado em prática traz benefícios como: o retorno de alguns materiais para o processo produtivo e redução do volume de resíduos despejados em aterros, no

  7. Tendência de mortalidade infantil na cidade do Salvador (Bahia Infant mortality trends in Salvador (Bahia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celia Guimarães Netto Dias

    1975-03-01

    Full Text Available Revisão das causas de óbito de crianças com menos de um ano de idade no município de Salvador Bahia (Brasil no período de 1962 a 1971, tendo sido investigada do ponto de vista estatístico, a tendência secular da mortalidade infantil. Para alguns dos dados foi ajustada uma reta pela equação matemática da forma Y = a + bx através do método dos mínimos quadrados, enquanto que para outros ajustou-se uma exponencial modificada do tipo Y = k + ab x. A tendência global da mortalidade infantil no período de 1962 a 1970 é descendente, tendo no entanto se elevado em 1971 atingindo um coeficiente praticamente igual ao alcançado no ano de 1964. Fato semelhante ocorreu com a mortalidade por enterite e outras doenças diarréicas.The death causes of children under one year of age in the city of Salvador, Brazil, between 1962 and 1971, including a statistical investigation of the secular tendency of the infant mortality rate, were reviewed. For some data a straight line was adjusted with a mathematical equation of the type Y = a + bx (method of the least squares. For other a modified exponential curve of the type Y = k + ab x was used. The general tendency of the infant mortality rate was descendent throughout the period 1962 to 1970, arising in 1971 to levels observed in 1964. A similar fact was encountered when neonatal mortality and mortality rates by gastroenteritis and other diarrheal diseases were studied.

  8. The radiological accident in San Salvador

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    On 5 February 1989, a radiological accident occurred at an industrial irradiation facility near San Salvador, the capital of the Republic of El Salvador. Prepackaged medical products are sterilized at the facility by irradiation by means of an intensely radioactive cobalt-60 source in a movable source rack. The accident happened when this source rack became stuck in the irradiation position. The operator bypassed the irradiator's already degraded safety systems and entered the radiation room with two other workers to free the source rack manually. The three workers were exposed to high radiation doses and developed the acute radiation syndrome. Their initial hospital treatment in San Salvador and subsequent more specialized treatment in Mexico City were effective in countering the acute effects. However, the legs and feet of two of the three men were so seriously injured that amputation was required. The worker who had been most exposed died six and a half months after the accident, his death being attributed to residual lung damage due to irradiation, exacerbated by injury sustained during treatment. The report details the events leading up to the accident, the circumstances of the accident itself and the response to it. From the facts established, lessons are derived for operators and suppliers of irradiators, national authorities, medical staff and international organizations. Detailed information on dosimetric and medical aspects of the accident for the specialist reader is presented in the appendices and annexes. 20 figs, 9 tabs, 24 photographs

  9. Hydrocarbon market in El Salvador; Mercado de hidrocarburos en El Salvador

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nava de Hernandez, Gina Mercedes [Ministerio de Economia, Direccion de Energia, Minas e Hidrocarburos (El Salvador)

    1997-07-01

    This document presents a summary of the present situation of the market of hydrocarbons in El Salvador, doing a synthesis of the conformation of the industry, of the demand of the country, the prices and others. In addition, it shows the situation before and after the deregulation, making emphasis in the changes originated by such a measure. [Spanish] El presente documento presenta un resumen de la situacion actual del mercado de los hidrocarburos en El Salvador, haciendo una sintesis de la conformacion de la industria, de la demanda del pais, los precios y otros. Ademas muestra la situacion antes y despues de la desregulacion, haciendo enfasis en los cambios ocurridos por tal medida.

  10. Salvador na "Globalização

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edgard Porto

    2001-05-01

    Full Text Available El texto sitúa la ciudad de Salvador-Bahía, tercera en población de Brasil, en el contexto de los impactos de la globalización. Desde la década de 1950 hasta la de 1970, Salvador se destacó de las demás ciudades del Nordeste de Brasil experimentando un rápido crecimento gracias a los incentivos y subsidios fiscales y financieros del gobierno federal. El crecimiento de la Región y ciudades fue desigual y abrupto, sobre todo Salvador, que abrió espacios internos para expandir y descentralizarse. Todavía, a partir de los años 80 y 90, con la reestruturación productiva y el neoliberalismo, que definen los terminos de la globalización, el proceso se invirtió. El espacio metropolitano se contrajo, económica y socialmente, con un aumento desmesurado de desempleados y sub-empreados, intensificando de esa forma el proceso de segregación y exclusión social. En contraposición, algunas «islas de modernidad» pasaron a conectarse, a partir de sus cada vez más reducidas y cada vez más ricas actividades económicas -el turismo, antes y encima de todo-, a puntos y espacios nacionales y, mayoritariamente, internacionales, mucho más de que a espacios y flujos internosThe following paper sets the city of Salvador-Bahía, Brazil´s third most populated city, in context with the effects of globalization. Between the 1950’s and 1970’s, Brazil’s northeastern region experienced fast economic growth due to federal financial and fiscal incentives. This sudden process occurred unevenly at regional and city levels, especially for Salvador that released internal areas to expand and decentralize itself. However, during the 1980’s and 1990’s this process was reversed due to neoliberalism and productive restructuring. These are the elements that define in what terms globalization sets in. Consequently, the economic and social spaces of the metropolitan area contracted, increasing the number of unemployed and under-employed people, and

  11. Battery monitoring in Mexican hybrid power systems; Monitoreo de las baterias en sistemas de potencia hibridos Mexicanos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flores, J. Roberto; Agredano, Jaime [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    1997-12-31

    almacenamiento de energia y muy frecuentemente este almacenamiento consiste en baterias que generalmente se conectan en arreglos en serie, en paralelo o una combinacion de ambos. En Mexico, al igual que en otros paises las baterias mas generalmente usadas para esta aplicacion son las baterias estacionarias y las baterias del tipo automotriz de ciclo profundo. Sin embargo la experiencia con ellas en estos sistemas generalmente no es muy buena. Una forma de superar es el de mantener un monitoreo con regularidad instalando un equipo de monitoreo, con el objeto de tomar acciones preventivas antes de que una falla en desarrollo pueda tener serias consecuencias, aumentando de esta manera el tiempo de vida practico de las baterias. Desafortunadamente, el monitoreo de baterias no es una facil tarea porque la mayor parte de los sistemas de potencia hibridos estan instalados en areas remotas, lo que lo hace dificil y costoso. En Mexico no ha sido posible mantener un monitoreo regular de todos los sistemas de potencia hibridos instalados debido al alto costo de este trabajo y a la falta de fondos. Los sistemas de potencia hibridos instalados en el Estado de Quintana Roo son los unicos sistemas que han sido monitoreados continuamente desde su instalacion. Este articulo da una vision general de los sistemas de potencia hibridos instalados en Mexico, enfocandose a los bancos de baterias, la forma como han sido monitoreados, los principales parametros usados para detectar posibles problemas prematuros y el metodo usado para evaluar las condiciones del banco de baterias. Finalmente se presentan algunos resultados de las actividades del monitoreo de bancos de baterias.

  12. Estudo eletroquímico da recuperação de metais de pilhas e de baterias descartadas após o uso Electrochemical study of metals recovery from spent batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kellie Provazi

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo da pesquisa é recuperar os principais metais presentes em um lote com uma mistura de diversos tipos de pilhas e de baterias descartadas após o uso, lote obtido em um posto de coleta. Para esse estudo, o resíduo das pilhas e das baterias foi moído, reduzido em forno elétrico, submetido à separação magnética e lixiviado. A composição química, após a lixiviação, foi reproduzida em uma solução sintética, que foi submetida à extração por solventes e reextração sendo que as soluções obtidas, após as reextrações, foram utilizadas como eletrólitos. Manganês, cobre, cobalto e níquel são recuperados na forma metálica após um tratamento que inclui as etapas pirometalúrgica, hidrometalúrgica e eletroquímica. Estudos anteriores definiram os parâmetros das etapas pirometalúrgica, lixiviação e extração por solventes que proporcionaram separação mais seletiva dos íons metálicos que se pretende recuperar. A contribuição do presente estudo é encontrar um processo que trate de todos os tipos de pilhas e de baterias juntos e recuperar seus metais mais importantes, evitando, assim, a etapa de separação prévia das baterias. Os filmes foram analisados quanto à sua espessura e composição.The research aims to recover the major metals present in a lot with the mixture of several types of spent batteries, obtained from a collection station. For this study, battery residue was crushed, reduced in an electric furnace, and subjected to magnetic separation and leaching. The chemical composition after leaching was reproduced in a synthetic solution, which was subjected to extraction by solvents, and re-extracted. The stripped solutions were used as electrolytes. Manganese, copper, cobalt and nickel were recovered in metallic form after a treatment that included pyrometallurgical, hydrometallurgical and electrochemical steps. Previous studies have defined the parameters of the pyrometallurgical steps, leaching

  13. Controle das emissões de chumbo particulado no entorno de uma reformadora de baterias da cidade do Rio de Janeiro usando ar como indicador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Lorena Quiterio

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available No período entre abril a julho de 1999, foram realizadas determinações dos níveis de chumbo no ar ambiente nas proximidades de uma reformadora de baterias (RB situada em Olaria (Rio de Janeiro, Brasil. A maioria das amostras coletadas a uma distância de até 25m da RB excederam o limite de 1,5µg.Pb.m-3 estabelecido pela Environmental Protect Agency (EPA, Estados Unidos. Esses resultados já foram publicados previamente (Quiterio et al., 2001. Neste trabalho, foram propostas a instalação de um sistema de exaustão Venture e algumas mudanças nos procedimentos operacionais. Após as modificações na RB, foi realizada uma nova campanha de monitoramento (agosto e setembro de 2000. As coletas foram realizadas nos três pontos considerados mais críticos, segundo as determinações anteriores. As concentrações medidas estiveram no intervalo 0,8-17,6µg.Pb.m-3, mostrando que as emissões de chumbo na atmosfera tiveram uma diminuição adequada. Contudo, a concentração na saída da chaminé é ainda maior que os limites estabelecidos pela EPA e, certamente, serão necessárias outras melhorias nas instalações e procedimentos.

  14. Intelligence, age and schooling: data from the Battery of Reasoning Tests (BRT-5 Inteligência, idade e escolarização: dados da Bateria de Provas de Raciocínio (BPR-5

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Primi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Intelligence is commonly divided into two distinctive areas: fluid intelligence (Gf, which is understood as the skill of reasoning or intelligence as a process, and crystallized intelligence (Gc that involves skills that are more related to learning and experience (knowledge-based skills. The objective of the present work was to investigate the effects that schooling and age exert on fluid and crystallized intelligence measuring students' results in sub-tests of the Battery of Reasoning Test (BRT-5. This study considered a sample composed of 1,722 students - 603 were assessed with Form A of the battery and 1,119 with Form B. The results show that intelligence is systematically associated with schooling and age. Some difficulties in separating the effects of cognitive development from the effects of formal learning on students' cognitive performance are also emphasized.A inteligência é comumente dividida em fluida (Gf, entendida como habilidade de raciocínio ou inteligência como um processo, e cristalizada (Gc como as habilidades mais associadas à aprendizagem e experiência (habilidades associadas aos conhecimentos. No presente trabalho, o objetivo foi investigar os efeitos que a escolarização e a idade exercem sobre Gf e Gc tomando os resultados dos alunos nos subtestes da Bateria de Provas de Raciocínio (BPR-5. Este estudo considerou uma amostra composta por 1722 estudantes respondendo 603 à forma A dessa bateria e 1119 à sua forma B. Os resultados apontam relações sistemáticas entre inteligência, escolaridade e idade. Também se enfatiza a dificuldade em se separar os efeitos do desenvolvimento cognitivo e da aprendizagem formal no desempenho cognitivo dos alunos.

  15. Automatic combustion control in coke oven plants; Controle automatico de combustao em baterias de coque

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torres, Afonso E.; Bissoli, Aluizio R.; Clemente, Jose M.; Oliveira, Jorge M. de; Alves, Marcelo T.; Silva, Mauro R. da [Companhia Siderurgica de Tubarao (CST), Serra, ES (Brazil)

    1996-12-31

    The Automatic Combustion Control of the three Coke Ovens Plants of CST had its first stage started in january 1996, when the Visual Inspection of the Coking End Point was replaced by the Automatic Detection with a Process Computer and thermocouples in the ascension pipes of the 147 ovens. Monitoring is performed in the operations of charging, leveling, discharging, guiding and moving of the 12 movable machines (charging car, discharging car, guide car and locomotive), and safe integrated functioning among these machines is done, using one Plc in each one. The data from each oven are transmitted to the Process Computer by radio waves. Based on temperatures reached by thermocouples installed in the combustion chambers of 10 walls in each coke oven plant, and the automatic detection of weight and moisture of the coal, the Process Computer performs the calculation of the Set Point of the temperature for each coke oven plant. The mathematical model in the Process Computer is responsible for this result and the value is sent to the Plc, in the operation room, in order to control the rate of combustible gas, The cooking time is controlled by this method and the results of coke production are in the target range. (author) 9 figs., 3 tabs.

  16. Geothermal energy prospecting in El Salvador

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geochronological and geological studies carried out in El Salvador C. A., located a production geothermal zone to the north of the volcanic belt, in a region named Ahuachapan-Chipilapa. Hydrothermal activity and geochemical analysis indicate the existence of active geothermal faults aligned to the directions South-North and Northwest-Southeast. Radon mapping in that region covered a total of 8.7 km2 where plastic detectors were placed 200 m apart. Results confirmed the existence of active faults and two producing geothermal wells were located. (author)

  17. Inquérito sôbre assistência hospitalar e morbidade hospitalar no município do Salvador (Bahia, Brasil Survey on hospital care and hospitalar morbidity in the county of Salvador, Bahia - Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celso Pugliese

    1971-06-01

    Full Text Available Para suprir a deficiência de dados sôbre a disponibilidade e a efetiva utilização de leitos hospitalares, bem como sôbre a morbidade hospitalar em nosso meio, procedeu-se a um censo hospitalar no município do Salvador, Bahia - Brasil. Em uma data escolhida ao acaso aplicou-se um questionário pré-codificado a todos Hospitais e Serviços de Urgência, ou a quaisquer outras entidades que mantivessem leitos hospitalares na área urbana de Salvador. Os questionários foram analisados e com base nos dados obtidos discutiu-se: disponibilidade de leitos e sua efetiva utilização; distribuição dos leitos entre as várias especialidades; serviços auxiliares ou complementares e sua adequação às necessidades; características das pessoas internadas; formas de pagamento da assistência hospitalar; morbidade hospitalar. Conclui-se que estudos desta natureza fornecem valiosos dados para o Planejamento de Saúde recomendando sua realização em maior escala.A hospitalar census was made in the City of Salvador to obtain the necessary data about the availability and utilization of hospital beds, and hospitalar morbidity. A precoced questionary for every single hospital in Salvador was filled out at a randon date. The questionaries were analysed and the following was discussed based on a computed data: availability and utilization of beds; distribution of beds by specialities; auxiliary services and their adequacy; individual characteristics of patients; payment of hospital services; hospitalar morbidity. The conclusion is that this kind of study supplies useful data for health planning and its wide application was recommended.

  18. CARACTERIZAÇÃO E ESTUDO DA LIXIVIAÇÃO DE METAIS DE ESCÓRIAS PROVENIENTES DA RECICLAGEM DE BATERIAS DE CHUMBO-ÁCIDO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelli Barbosa de Andrade

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available No Brasil, o chumbo metálico é obtido principalmente a partir da reciclagem de baterias de chumbo-ácido utilizando o processo pirometalúrgico, que é acompanhado da geração de uma escória que apresenta elementos como Fe, Si, S, Al, Ca, Zn, Pb. O objetivo deste trabalho foi de estudar a escória gerada no processo através da fluorescência e difração de raios X e de extrações utilizando o método de Tessier seguida da determinação das concentrações dos metais nos extratos por espectrometria de absorção atômica. Com os resultados da fluorescência de raios X, observou-se que a somatória das porcentagens dos elementos citados se aproxima a 97 %. Pela difração de raios X, detectou-se fases como: Pirrotita (Fe1-xS, Maghemita (Fe2O3, Fayalita (Fe2+2SiO4, Óxido de chumbo e alumínio (Pb2Al2O5, Hercinita (Fe2+Al2O4 e Óxido de chumbo (Pb2O3 e que nos extratos, estão presentes vários metais em concentrações variáveis, sendo que chumbo e ferro são encontrados geralmente em maior concentração.

  19. EL SALVADOR: ENTRE EL CONTINUISMO Y LA DESILUSIÓN El Salvador: Between Continuity and Disappointement

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    ROODY RÉSERVE

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available 2010 y 2011 han sido particularmente convulsivos para El Salvador. En 2010 Ia crisis institucional y el enfrentamiento entre los poderes Legislativo y Judicial marcaron la agenda. Cuatro magistrados de la Corte Suprema de Justicia fueron considerados en desacato con lo que se considera como el primer órgano del Estado en El Salvador. De no haber sido por fuertes presiones de la sociedad civil, los diputados habrían destituido a los magistrados por haber intervenido en materia electoral, que ellos consideran de su estricta incumbencia. 2011 terminó con la decisión del Presidente de militarizar la seguridad pública. Esto desencadenó una avalancha de renuncias de los miembros de su gabinete de seguridad y enfrentamiento con organismos de derechos humanos locales. Así, se abortó el experimento de impulsar una concepción de izquierda, novedosa para El Salvador, en materia de enfrentamiento de la violencia. De paso, durante estos dos años el desencuentro político entre el presidente Mauricio Funes y su partido el Frente Farabundo Martí para la Liberación Nacional (FMLN también ha marcado el ritmo de la vida política.2010 and 2011 have been two convulsive years for El Salvador. In 2010 the institutional crisis and confrontation between the Legislative and Judicial Organs were the most salient political events. Four Judgesfrom the Constitutional Court were considered in contempt with the Legislative, which is considered in El Salvador as thefirst Organ of the State. Had it not beenfor intense pressures from organized actors in the Civil Society, the deputies would have dismissed the judges, for having dared to decide in electoral matters, consider to be the sole responsibility ofthe legislators. 2011 ended with the president's decision to put the military in charge ofpublic security. This decision triggered an avalanche of resignationfrom members of his security cabinet and harsh criticism of the local human rights organizations. In 2011

  20. Obituary -- Salvador González Bedolla

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peña, H. José

    1997-04-01

    It is with great sadness that I must communicate the passing of our colleague Salvador Félix González Bedolla. The observational astronomers of the Observatorio Astronómico Nacional owe much to his pioneering effort at San Pedro Mártir, work that formed him as an astronomer, and helped him become one of the best photometric observers in México and, at the Instituto de Astronomóa of the UNAM, the academic technician with the highest productivity of articles derived from observations at the OAN. Salvador was an excellent student. He obtained the highest achievement award (Gabino Barreda) in high school, studied physics at the Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México (UNAM) and also finished the credits for his Master's degree in Physics with only his thesis separating him from his degree, an act which was constantly put off until his death. He began his career in Astronomy in 1973 under Dr. Eugenio Mendoza. Later he worked with Josef Warman in the observation of short period stars in the Observatorio `José Arbol y Bonilla'' in Zacatecas, México. I then began working continuously with him in this field of research which, thanks to his great work capacity, produced very good results. He continued in these fields of research not only within the Institute of Astronomy, but also in other research facilities, especially two: With the variable group from the Observatory at Nice, France, beginning in 1985, specializing in the pulsation of early stars. His main interest was in the β Cep stars and in the possibility of relating these stars to the new types of variables (such as the OB stars, the `53 Per' variables, the `ultrashort' period and the ``slow'' and Be variables) discovered near this zone. Hence, in view of this, his efforts were aimed at monitoring the stars that belong to these new groups in order to discover if they are really different from the classical β Cep stars. Moreover, beginning in 1984, Salvador began working with a group of astronomers from

  1. Caracterização mineralógica de azulejos de Salvador e Belém dos séculos XVI, XVII e XIX

    OpenAIRE

    Thais A. B. Caminha Sanjad; Rômulo Simões Angélica; Mário Mendonça de Oliveira; Walmeire Alves de Melo Costa

    2004-01-01

    O presente artigo trata da caracterização da composição mineralógica de azulejos antigos pertencentes aos séculos XVI, XVII e XIX, coletados em Salvador e Belém, visando à identificação da sua provável matéria-prima e a possível temperatura de queima. Quartzo foi identificado em todas as amostras. As demais fases cristalinas encontradas foram: mullita, cristobalita, calcita, anortita, hematita, gehlenita, diopsídio e wollastonita. Foi possível dividir as amostras em três grupos, em função da ...

  2. Determination of the load state of lead-acid batteries using neural networks; Determinacion del estado de carga de baterias plomo-acido utilizando redes neuronales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cristin V, Miguel A; Ortega S, Cesar A [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico)

    2005-07-01

    The charge of lead-acid batteries (LAB), as in any other type of batteries, consists of replacing the energy consumed during the discharge. Nevertheless, as no physical or chemical process is good enough to totality recharge a battery, it is necessary to supply to it more than the 100% of the energy demanded during its discharge. A critical factor to make a suitable load control of the batteries is to determine its own state of load. That is to say, to have an efficient load control, it is necessary to count on means that allow to accurately determining the residual capacity of the battery to deliver load. This one is the one of the aspects of greater interest in the research centers around world. For this reason, in this work it was pretended to develop a calculation algorithm of the state of load of batteries based on a fuzzy-neural network that could calculate the state of load without using the battery current as an input. This is because one of the main problems for the designers of battery load controllers is the correct supervision of the current that circulates around the system in all the rank of operation of the same one because the sensors do not have a linear behavior. [Spanish] La recarga de baterias plomo-acido (BPA), como cualquier otro tipo de baterias, consiste en reponer la energia consumida durante la descarga. Sin embargo, como ningun proceso fisico o quimico es lo bastante eficiente para recargar a totalidad una bateria, es necesario suministrarle mas del 100% de la energia demandada durante su descarga. Un factor critico para realizar un adecuado control de carga de las baterias, es determinar su propio estado de carga. Es decir, para tener un control de carga eficiente, es necesario contar con un medio que permita determinar con precision la capacidad remanente de la bateria para entregar carga. Este es uno de los aspectos de mayor interes en los centros de investigacion alrededor el mundo. Por tal razon, en este trabajo se propuso

  3. Investment prospects for geothermal power in El Salvador's electricity market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A mixed-integer optimizing programming model was created to simulate capacity expansion for the electricity market in El Salvador. Various demand scenarios were constructed, under which capacity expansion alternatives were tested. Results showed that possible geothermal projects were able to meet the growing energy needs of El Salvador, while yielding relatively low prices for the end-user. A best case projection for 2020 showed an increased proportion of geothermal generation in the energy mix by 6% compared to the present mix. Much of the current generating plants and planned capacity are distanced from the load center, San Salvador. In order to meet the country's increasing demand, it was found that generating capacity investment should be accompanied by transmission upgrades. Even when current conditions were simulated, transmission congestion appeared to be present. Results from some expansion scenarios showed that transmission congestion increased nodal prices despite the addition of further generating capacity. (Author)

  4. Investment prospects for geothermal power in El Salvador's electricity market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A mixed-integer optimizing programming model was created to simulate capacity expansion for the electricity market in El Salvador. Various demand scenarios were constructed, under which capacity expansion alternatives were tested. Results showed that possible geothermal projects were able to meet the growing energy needs of El Salvador, while yielding relatively low prices for the end-user. A best case projection for 2020 showed an increased proportion of geothermal generation in the energy mix by 6% compared to the present mix. Much of the current generating plants and planned capacity are distanced from the load center, San Salvador. In order to meet the country's increasing demand, it was found that generating capacity investment should be accompanied by transmission upgrades. Even when current conditions were simulated, transmission congestion appeared to be present. Results from some expansion scenarios showed that transmission congestion increased nodal prices despite the addition of further generating capacity

  5. [Chitons (Mollusca: Polyplacophora) from El Salvador, Central America].

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Ríos, Cedar I; Alvarez-Ruiz, Migdalia; Barraza, José E; Rivera, Ana M; Hasbún, Carlos R

    2007-03-01

    Collections of 11 species of shallow water Polyplacophora from El Salvador were made in July 2002. Previously only five species had been documented in El Salvador: Chaetopleura lurida (Sowerby, 1832); Ischnochiton guatemalensis (Thiele, 1910); Ceratozona angusta (Thiele, 1909); Chiton stokesii (Broderip, 1832) and Acantochitona exquisita (Pilsbry, 1893). Of these, L. guatemalensis and A. exquisita were not collected in this census. Seven other species are reported here for El Salvador for the first time: Lepidochitona beanii (Carpenter, 1857); Ischnochiton dispar (Sowerby, 1832); Stenoplax limaciformis (Sowerby, 1832); Callistochiton expressus (Carpenter, 1865); Acanthochitona arragonites (Carpenter, 1867); A. ferreirai (Lyons, 1988) and A. hirudiniformis (Sowerby, 1832). The known geographic distribution of 1. dispar is extended to the north. An un-named species of Lepidochitona is briefly described. PMID:18457124

  6. Uso de substâncias psicoativas entre estudantes de Medicina de Salvador (BA Psychoactive substance use by medical students from Salvador (BA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kleuber Moreira Lemos

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available CONTEXTO: Estudos indicam que estudantes de Medicina, apesar do seu dedutível conhecimento sobre os efeitos das substâncias psicoativas, consomem-nas em proporção semelhante à dos jovens de mesma idade na população geral. OBJETIVO: Analisar o padrão local do consumo dessas substâncias entre graduandos de Medicina e contribuir na formulação de atividades preventivas. MÉTODOS: Aplicação de questionário semi-estruturado no qual foi avaliada a freqüência de uso das substâncias psicoativas entre os estudantes, assim como as principais razões apontadas para o consumo. Foram analisados 404 questionários obtidos entre alunos dos seis anos de curso das duas maiores escolas médicas de Salvador. RESULTADOS: As drogas mais utilizadas no critério uso na vida foram álcool (92,8% e lança-perfume (46,2%. O uso de álcool apresentou-se constante nos seis anos de curso. Entretanto, o uso de tabaco, lança-perfume e tranqüilizantes aumentou significativamente para os alunos dos últimos anos (p BACKGROUND: Studies have shown that medical students consume psychoactive substances at the same rates as the same age youth on general population, despite their predictable knowledge about drugs effects. OBJECTIVE: To analyze the local pattern of psychoactive substances use among medical students and contribute for the formulation of preventive activities. METHODS: The frequency of psychoactive substances use was evaluated by a self-administered anonymous questionnaire that also asked the main reasons for that use. Four hundred and four students in the first to sixth year from the two biggest medical schools in Salvador answered the questionnaire. RESULTS: The lifetime use was bigger for alcohol (92.8% and inhalant (46.2%. Alcohol use was constant for the students from first to sixth year of course, but it was not statistically significant (p > 0.05. However, tobacco, inhalants and tranquilizers use had a significant increase at the last two years

  7. Monitoring and control system for the charging of batteries in photovoltaic applications; Sistema para monitorizar y controlar la carga de baterias en aplicaciones fotovoltaicas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ortega S, Cesar A; Pacheco A, Maria Jojutla; Orozco V, Jaime A; Cristin V, Miguel A [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico)

    2004-07-01

    The appropriate monitoring and control of the charging of lead-acid (LAB) batteries is an increasing necessity in an industry that demands systems with low maintenance costs and high availability. The problem of extending the batteries useful life becomes more complex when the batteries are charged through photovoltaic panels. The purpose of the present article is to offer the description of the system for monitoring and control for the charging of batteries developed at the Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE). This system performs a continuous monitoring of the charging state of the battery and of the main operation parameters. With the extracted information of the data, the fine tuning algorithm control can be made. The data are acquired in a personal computer through a serial connection. Once stored, they are presented to the user in a graphical way so that they can be analyzed. [Spanish] El adecuado monitoreo y control de carga de baterias plomo-acido (BPA) es una necesidad creciente en una industria que demanda sistemas con bajos costos de mantenimiento y alta disponibilidad. El problema de extender la vida util de las baterias se vuelve mas complejo cuando las baterias son cargadas a traves de paneles fotovoltaicos. La intencion del presente articulo es ofrecer la descripcion del sistema para monitoreo y control de carga de baterias desarrollado en el Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE). Este sistema realiza un monitoreo continuo del estado de carga de la bateria y de los principales parametros de operacion. Con la informacion extraida de los datos, se puede hacer la sintonizacion fina del algoritmo de control. Los datos se adquieren en una computadora personal a traves de un enlace serial. Una vez almacenados, se presentan al usuario de manera grafica para que puedan ser analizados.

  8. Cuidado infantil na relação entre adultos e crianças na periferia de salvador

    OpenAIRE

    Vania Bustamante; Cecilia McCallum

    2011-01-01

    Realizamos um estudo etnográfico sobre o cuidado infantil no cotidiano familiar de moradores de um bairro popular de Salvador, visando integrar preocupações da psicologia com a discussão antropológica sobre pessoa. Utilizamos observação participante e entrevistas. Tomando como ponto de partida as reflexões de Ayres, defendemos que o cuidado envolve construção permanente de projetos de pessoa em um marco de relações de poder. Como resultados da pesquisa, identificamos a centralidade do trabalh...

  9. Uma nota sobre ilusionismos e alegorias na pintura barroca de Salvador da Bahia A Note on Illusionism and Allegory in the Baroque Painting of Salvador, Bahia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luís de Moura Sobral

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available As principais tendências da pintura no Brasil colonial podem ser estudadas na Catedral de Salvador, a igreja do antigo Colégio da Companhia de Jesus. Datando dos finais do século XVII, várias séries de quadros de qualidade diversa, compõem com as esculturas dos altares um soberbo e complexo bel composto de propaganda inaciana. Para decorar o forro da Biblioteca, por cima da sacristia, os Jesuítas encomendaram cerca de 1735-1736 uma monumental quadratura ao pintor português António Simões Ribeiro (?-1755. A pintura é estudada em função da tradição de decoração das bibliotecas durante a época moderna. Para além da quadratura, Simões Ribeiro introduziu na arte brasileira as figuras alegóricas, tornando-se assim o primeiro pintor brasileiro verdadeiramente barroco e o criador da chamada Escola Bahiana.The main trends of the painting in colonial Brazil can be studied in the Cathedral of Salvador, Bahia, the church of the former Jesuit College. Dating from the late 17th Century, several cycles of paintings on the walls and the ceiling of the sacristy, of varying quality, accomplish particular symbolic functions; in conjunction with the sculpture of the altars, they compose a complex bel composto of Jesuit propaganda. To decorate the ceiling of their Library, above the sacristy, the Jesuits commissioned around 1735-1736 a huge quadratura from the Portuguese born painter António Simões Ribeiro (?-1755. This painting is discussed within the tradition of Library decoration in the Modern period. Besides the quadratura, Simões Ribeiro introduced in the Brazilian art the allegorical figures and became the first full-Baroque painter in Brazil and the initiator of the so-called Bahian School.

  10. Echinodermata das praias de Salvador (Bahia, Brasil The Echinoderms of Salvador beaches (Bahia, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orane Falcão de Souza Alves

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents 28 species of Echinoderms collected on 5 beaches of Salvador (12º54' to 13º01' S and 38º26' to 38º33' W, Brazil, which are distributed in 19 families. Ophiuroidea represented 53,6% of the collected species, followed by Echinoidea (28,6%, Asteroidea (7,1%, Holothuroidea (7,1%, and Crinoidea (3,6%. Ophiuroidea and Echinoidea were the most frequent groups, occurring at all the studied beaches while Crinoidea occurred only on 20% of them. Most of the species are characterized as belonging to the tropical warm waters, some to the shallow coastal areas and some having a broad bathymetric distribution. The richness of species values on beaches ranged from 7 to 24, at Itapua Beach, and from 2 to 14 among different kinds of habitats, where protected ones showed higher values.

  11. Performance of a Brazilian population in the EC 301 calculation and number processing battery: a pilot study Desempenho da população brasileira no processamento numérico e de cálculo através da bateria EC 301: estudo piloto

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela De Luccia

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: From a neuropsychological point of view calculation is a very complex function. A simple arithmetic operation demands many neurocognitive mechanisms that involve verbal, spatial and graphical processing, memory and attention. OBJECTIVE: To verify the calculation and number processing of healthy subjects and the effect of gender, age and schooling on their performance. METHOD: Forty-four normal subjects without complaints or neurological changes were evaluated. RESULTS: The educational level was significantly linked to performance in the majority of tests of the EC 301 battery, whereas no differences were noted regarding age and gender. CONCLUSION: Evaluation of the data of the healthy population shown in this study indicated that educational level can affect calculation and number processing, It is possible to note that battery EC 301 demonstrated sensitivity for appraisal of these abilities and therefore can be employed for clinical assessment in calculation and number disorders.INTRODUÇÃO: O cálculo do ponto de vista neuropsicológico é uma função muito complexa. Em uma simples operação aritmética estão envolvidos diversos processos neurocognitivos que envolvem os processamentos verbais, espaciais, gráficos, atenção e memória. OBJETIVO: Este estudo teve por objetivo verificar o desempenho de indivíduos saudáveis, no processamento numérico e de cálculo, através da bateria EC 301 e verificar as interferências do sexo, da idade e da escolaridade no desempenho destes indivíduos. MÉTODO: Foram avaliados 44 sujeitos normais sem queixas e/ou alterações neurológicas. RESULTADOS: O nível educacional mostrou-se fortemente relacionado ao desempenho obtido na maioria das provas da bateria EC 301, enquanto em relação ao sexo e idade não foram encontradas diferenças. CONCLUSÃO: Os dados encontrados na população avaliada neste estudo mostraram que o nível educacional pode influenciar o desempenho do processamento

  12. Desempenho de escolares de 1ª série na bateria de identificação de erros de reversão e inversão na escrita: estudo preliminar Performance of students from 1st grade in the inversion and reversion errors in the written identification test: preliminary study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz Aparecida Gimenez Gonçalves

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: caracterizar o desempenho de escolares da 1ª série na bateria de identificação de erros de reversão e inversão na escrita. MÉTODOS: participaram deste estudo 30 escolares de 1ª série de ensino público do município da cidade de Marília-SP, de ambos os gêneros, na faixa etária de 7 anos a 7 anos e 11 meses de idade. Como procedimento foi realizada a adaptação brasileira da bateria de identificação dos erros de reversão e inversão na escrita. Esta bateria é composta por 3 testes: teste de desempenho contínuo, teste de memória de curto prazo e teste de controle de escrita. Cada teste é composto por subtestes que visam identificar a capacidade dos escolares em identificar as inversões e reversões de letras e números isolados e letras e números em sequências. RESULTADOS: os resultados revelaram que os escolares da 1ª série apresentaram desempenho superior para identificação de reversão e inversão de letras dentro de palavras do que isoladamente, identificação da reversão para letras e números com desempenho superior se comparado a inversão de letras na palavra. Além disso, os escolares deste estudo apresentaram menor tempo para identificação de reversão e inversão de letras e números isolados do que em sequência. CONCLUSÃO: a Bateria adaptada para este estudo permitiu conhecer o perfil dos escolares de 1ª série quanto a identificação dos erros de inversão e reversão, entretanto, é necessário novas aplicações para verificar a ocorrência de identificação destes erros em populações de diferentes fase de alfabetização.PURPOSE: to characterize the performance of students from 1st grade in the inversion and reversion errors in the written identification Brazilian Test. METHODS: 30 students from 1st grade of a public school in Marília City, from both genders, ranging from 7 to 7 years and 11 month old took part. As a procedure, we carried out the inversion and reversion errors in the

  13. Market research completed in El Salvador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-01-01

    Intensive market research, completed in El Salvador for the contraceptive social marketing project of the Asociacion Demografica Salvadorena (ADS), was designed to obtain a better understanding of Salvadoran usage of and attitudes toward contraceptives in general and ADS products in particular. The research results are being used to develop a new marketing plan for the Contraceptive Social Marketing (CSM) program as it works to increase the program's effectiveness in reaching consumers. Points-of-purchase (retail outlets) were surveyed in November 1982 to study brand presence and vendor perceptions of consumer behavior in order to define the market in terms of products, prices, and distribution. Focus groups were conducted during November and December 1982 to probe consumer awareness and attitudes regarding methods, brands, and purchasing behavior. The results of the focus groups helped guide the development of a door-to-door consumer survey conducted from December 1982 through February 1983 to further define the market in terms of consumer size and characteristics. Personal interviews were conducted with the owner or manager of each of 247 pharmacies selected at random but in proportion to their distributional weight as to location. Aragon and Associates found that standard-dose orals and condoms were sold in 86% of the outlets surveyed and foaming tablets and low-dose pills in 37%. In terms of brand presence in outlets, the CSM products Perla (orals) and Condor (condom) both led their respective categories. In the foaming tablet category Suave had the lowest presence and Neo Sampoon the highest. The difference between reported and actual presence of contraceptives in the outlets was significant: 32% of the sellers of Perla, 18% of the sellers of Condor, and 26% of the sellers of Suave were out of stock at the time of the survey. The difference in average CSM product prices and the next lowest priced brands is very large. Dealers reported that their contraceptive

  14. An Introduction to the Psychedelic Psychotherapy of Salvador Roquet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villoldo, Alberto

    1977-01-01

    Psychosynthesis as developed by Salvador Roquet presents a new method combining Freudian, Frommian, and transpersonal therapies. Its immediate result is to obtain results expected from long-term psychoanalysis in an abbreviated period of time. It also helps the individual take responsibility for his own development. (Author/RK)

  15. Minera Australiana adquiere proyecto cuestionado en El Salvador

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pacheco Cueva, Vladimir

    2013-01-01

    This article looks at the environmental risks of gold mining in El Salvador in general and specifically at the risks associated with OceanaGold's project. The article also examines the stiff opposition to the project presented by an alliance of local and international organisations....

  16. El discurs sociolingüístic de Carles Salvador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordi Solé i Camardons

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In several of Salvador's writings –Qüestions de llenguatge (1936, El valencia a les escoles (1935 and reviews of various texts by Delfí Dalmau (1936– Solé recovers ideas and concepts taken up in current sociolinguistic discourse, for example, linguistic substitution, monolingualism in primary school curriculum, and the effects of passive polyglotism.

  17. Materiais cerâmicos de inserção aplicados a baterias de íons lítio Intercalation ceramic materials applied in lithium ions batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. C. Pesquero

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Esta revisão visa ser uma introdução à aplicação de materiais cerâmicos em dispositivos de armazenamento de energia, em especial baterias secundárias de íons lítio, dispositivos nos quais os materiais cerâmicos, especialmente óxidos, são muito importantes em todas as partes do dispositivo. A revisão está focada nos materiais cerâmicos para catodos e anodos, partes chaves destes dispositivos. Ela tem por principal finalidade ser uma fonte de informação para aqueles que desejem trabalhar com o desenvolvimento de materiais cerâmicos para tais tipos de dispositivos. Aspectos relacionados à nanotecnologia e materiais óxidos nanoestruturados para esta área são discutidos ao final do artigo.This paper aims to be an introductory text on the applications of ceramic materials to energy storage devices, mainly lithium ion secondary batteries, i.e. devices in which the ceramic materials, e.g. oxides, are very important in all parts of the device. This review is focused in ceramic materials for cathodes and anodes, which are key parts of the battery device. The main purpose is, therefore, to offer to the reader, who is interested in the development of ceramic materials for storage devices, enough information concerning the main oxide materials used nowadays and promising technology regarding nanoestructured oxides and electrode geometry based on the nanoscale.

  18. Para além de Salvador e do Recôncavo baiano: o culto aos santos na América Portuguesa Beyond Salvador and the Recôncavo baiano: cult to the saints in Portuguese America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tânia Maria Pinto de Santana

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Este texto pretende discutir alguns aspectos ligados à questão dos poucos avanços da catequese católica entre os negros, proposta pelo Clero na América - tomando como referência a cidade de Salvador e seu Recôncavo. Esses estariam ligados à sobrevivência de práticas pré-cristãs entre os africanos e seus descendentes. Marcados pela presença dos elementos cósmicos em suas concepções religiosas, esses priorizaram em suas crenças, a relação com os elementos da natureza, fazendo prevalecer uma experiência religiosa que colocava à margem conteúdos básicos transmitidos através da doutrina e dos ritos instituídos pela Igreja Católica.This text intends to discuss some aspects referent to the few advances of the Catholic catechism among the blacks, proposed by the Clergy in America - taking as reference the city of Salvador and its Recôncavo. These would be linked to the survival of pre-Christian practices among the Africans and their descendants. Marked by the presence of the cosmic elements in their religious concepts, these prioritized in their beliefs, the relation with the elements from the nature, prevailing a religious experience that laid aside basic contents transmitted through the doctrine and the rites established by the Catholic Church.

  19. Transportation in El Salvador: a commitment to global warming management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    San Salvador City, El Salvador, is a city plagued with air pollution caused by traffic and congestion. Forecasts indicate the problem is likely to worsen in the coming years. Delcan International Corporation was commissioned by the Ministry of Public Works of El Salvador to study and evaluate the design and alternatives to a Ring Road circling San Salvador. The project, financed by the Inter-American Development Bank, is discussed in this paper, along with a summary of aspects of an Intelligent Transportation System (ITS) and the environmental impacts assessment conducted. Human-induced changes in climate, increasing levels of greenhouse gases are referred to as global warming of climate change. Water vapour, methane, nitrous oxide, ozone are the main greenhouse gases, with carbon dioxide representing the biggest threat. Approximately 14 per cent of global carbon dioxide emissions are caused by fumes emanating from motor-vehicle gasoline-fuels, and 50 per cent of those are produced in developing countries. Motor vehicles produce 60 to 90 per cent of carbon dioxide emissions in Latin America urban centres. Some ways of reducing carbon dioxide emissions are: reduce travel, use more efficient vehicles, improving existing vehicle technologies and fuels, improving traveller behaviour, reducing congestion. ITS could be a valuable tool for measuring the effectiveness of measures designed to reduce carbon dioxide emissions. The Intelligent Transportation System assists with the evaluation of the optimization and enlargement of existing roads, especially downtown, the construction of a highway around the city. This evaluation includes an environmental impact assessment, a traffic study and the highway final design. The Government of El Salvador has shown its commitment to sustainable practices toward global warming

  20. Perspectivas de la diarrea por rotavirus en El Salvador

    OpenAIRE

    Roberto Arturo Zablah

    2005-01-01

    In December 2000, a large outbreak of gastroenteritis (GE) occurred in El Salvador that was associated with hospitalizations and deaths among children nationwide. Public concern was raised because the etiology was initially unknown and enteric control measures seemed ineffective. The outbreak was eventually linked to rotavirus, control measures were redirected to improving treatment with oral rehydration, and surveillance was initiated to characterize the etiologic agents of gastroenteritis. ...

  1. Revolutionary change in Nicaragua and El Salvador : a comparative analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Marti, Werner Johannes

    1988-01-01

    With the success of a leftist revolution in Nicaragua and a civil war against a strong revolutionary movement in El Salvador, Central America has become one of the flash points of world politics. The two revolutionary movements, which adhere to similar ideologies, emerged in countries with similar historical roots and similar socio-economic background. This thesis analyzes the question why the Nicaraguan revolution was successful after one and a half years of general insurrection,...

  2. Women in physics in El Salvador: Historical perspectives and current challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez, Telma; Jiménez, Diana; Larios, Gloria

    2015-12-01

    Physics as a discipline in El Salvador's higher education system has struggled historically; however, since 1991, it has enjoyed a growth-friendly environment. While there are few female physicists in El Salvador, they are employed in various organizations and educational institutions, demonstrating that physics is a viable career path. El Salvador currently offers a range of opportunities for women in physics. With the support of the 5th IUPAP International Conference on Women in Physics, we will both meet the challenges and take advantage of the opportunities that face female physicists in El Salvador.

  3. Development program of electrical vehicles of batteries in the UNAM; Programa de desarrollo de vehiculos electricos de baterias en la UNAM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carmona Paredes, G.; Chicurel Uziel, R.; Chicurel Uziel, E.; Gutierrez Martinez, F. [Instituto de Ingenieria, UNAM, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)

    2002-09-01

    Eight years ago, project to develop a small battery powered electric bus, known today as UNAM's Electric Vehicle, was started at the Engineering Institute. This project was followed by the design and construction, under an agreement with the Mexico City Government, of the Electrobus, a public transport vehicle that was recently put in operation and is being evaluated by the City's Electric Transportation Service. Two other projects, within the scope of UNAM's Electric Vehicle Development Program refer to light trucks: the Electrovira, characterized by exceptional maneuverability, and the Electric Delivery Vehicle. These projects are being carried out respectively by the Engineering Institute and the School of Engineering's Center for Design and Manufacture. Other parties that have collaborated in the program are: the School of Architecture's Center for Research in Industrial Design, the Instruments Center, and the School of Chemistry. Work is also being done on complementary aspects which include the development of an intelligent charger for large battery packs and of a dual electronic controller, a study of the dynamic performance of lead-acid batteries, the design of a battery monitoring system, and the search for new battery alternatives. [Spanish] Hace ocho anos, el Instituto de Ingenieria inicio el proyecto de desarrollo de un minibus electrico de baterias, conocido ahora como el Vehiculo Electrico UNAM. Este proyecto fue seguido de un convenio con el Gobierno del Distrito Federal para el diseno y construccion del Electrobus, un vehiculo para transporte publico que recientemente fue puesto en operacion para ser evaluado por el Servicio de Transporte Electrico del DF. Dos proyectos mas, enmarcados dentro del Programa de Desarrollo de Vehiculos Electricos, se refieren a vehiculos ligeros de carga como el Electrovira, caracterizado por su gran maniobrabilidad y el Vehiculo Electrico de Reparto. Estos proyectos se realizan respectivamente

  4. Monitoring and behavior of unsaturated volcanic pyroclastic in the Metropolitan Area of San Salvador, El Salvador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chávez, José Alexander; Landaverde, José; Landaverde, Reynaldo López; Tejnecký, Václav

    2016-01-01

    Field monitoring and laboratory results are presented for an unsaturated volcanic pyroclastic. The pyroclastic belongs to the latest plinian eruption of the Ilopango Caldera in the Metropolitan Area of San Salvador, and is constantly affected by intense erosion, collapse, slab failure, sand/silt/debris flowslide and debris avalanche during the rainy season or earthquakes. Being the flowslides more common but with smaller volume. During the research, preliminary results of rain threshold were obtained of flowslides, this was recorded with the TMS3 (a moisture sensor device using time domain transmission) installed in some slopes. TMS3 has been used before in biology, ecology and soil sciences, and for the first time was used for engineering geology in this research. This device uses electromagnetic waves to obtain moisture content of the soil and a calibration curve is necessary. With the behavior observed during this project is possible to conclude that not only climatic factors as rain quantity, temperature and evaporation are important into landslide susceptibility but also information of suction-moisture content, seepage, topography, weathering, ground deformation, vibrations, cracks, vegetation/roots and the presence of crust covering the surface are necessary to research in each site. Results of the field monitoring indicates that the presence of biological soil crusts a complex mosaic of soil, green algae, lichens, mosses, micro-fungi, cyanobacteria and other bacteria covering the slopes surface can protect somehow the steep slopes reducing the runoff process and mass wasting processes. The results obtained during the assessment will help explaining the mass wasting problems occurring in some pyroclastic soils and its possible use in mitigation works and early warning system. PMID:27186500

  5. Analysis of battery behavior in small photovoltaic systems; Analise do comportamento da bateria utilizada em sistemas fotovoltaicos de pequeno porte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fraga, Jose Renato Castro Pompeia; Cagnon, Jose Angelo [Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Agronomia - Energia na Agricultura - FCA/UNESP, Botucatu, SP (Brazil); Dept. de Engenharia Eletrica - FEB/UNESP, Bauru, SP (Brazil)], e-mails: jrfraga@feb.unesp.br, jacagnon@feb.unesp.br

    2011-07-01

    This work aimed to analyze the electric energy storage system generated from a photovoltaic system with lead-acid batteries. The increasing claim for energy in the world in addition to the need of using renewable energy sources in order to preserve the environment makes necessary the development of efficient techniques of power supply and control. Two photovoltaic systems were used in this work, a conventional one with stationary solar panel and another with automatic solar position system. The comparative analysis has allowed assessing the advantages of both systems. The following characteristics were obtained during the development of this work: charge, discharge, battery capacity, operating time rate, auto-discharge reaction (through fluctuation state), among other important information that allows an extended life to the stationary battery studied. The obtained results indicate that the battery connected to the mobile system provides 36% of additional energy compared to the fixed system. When the battery was unable to provide energy to the load, the battery connected to the mobile system consumed about 33% less energy than that one connected to the fixed system (author)

  6. Tuberculose na cidade de Salvador, Bahia, Brasil: o perfil na década de 1990 Tuberculosis in Salvador, Bahia, Brazil, in the 1990s

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Izabel Mota Xavier

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de caracterizar o perfil epidemiológico da tuberculose (incidência e mortalidade no Município de Salvador, Bahia, Brasil, na década de 1990, foram analisadas as características demográficas, clínicas e laboratoriais dos casos e óbitos por esta doença ocorridos no período. Foram calculadas as taxas médias anuais de mortalidade e da incidência por sexo, faixa etária e formas clínicas da doença com base nas informações dos bancos de dados do Sistema de Informações de Tuberculose da Secretaria de Saúde do Estado da Bahia e do Sistema de Informações de Mortalidade do Ministério da Saúde. Analisou-se a distribuição espacial da tuberculose segundo distritos sanitários. Ficou evidente o predomínio dos casos e óbitos no sexo masculino e na faixa etária de 15 a 39 anos. A forma pulmonar apresentou uma maior taxa de incidência e de mortalidade. Sobre a hipótese de que, a co-infecção AIDS/tuberculose possa contribuir para manter elevadas taxas de mortalidade, os dados existentes não corroboram para esta associação. A maior ocorrência de tuberculose em determinados distritos sanitários pode estar associada à densidade populacional e às condições desfavoráveis de vida.The characteristics of tuberculosis (TB cases and deaths were analyzed in order to characterize the epidemiological profile of TB (incidence and mortality in Salvador, Bahia, Brazil, in the 1990s. Annual incidence and mortality rates were calculated by gender, age bracket, and clinical forms of the disease using databases from the Tuberculosis Information System of the Bahia State Health Secretariat and the Mortality Information System of the Brazilian Ministry of Health. TB spatial distribution was analyzed according to health district. Cases and deaths were predominantly in males in the 15 to 39 year group. The pulmonary form showed the highest incidence and mortality. The existing data did not corroborate the hypothesis that AIDS

  7. Hipertensão arterial na população adulta de Salvador (BA - Brasil Arterial hypertension in the adult population of Salvador (BA - Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ínes Lessa

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Estimar a prevalência (Pr da hipertensão arterial (HA e da sua associação com outros fatores de risco cardiovascular em população fortemente miscigenada. MÉTODOS: Estudo de corte transversal, realizado em amostra populacional de 1.439 adultos e > 20 anos, em Salvador-Brasil. Todos responderam a questionário em domicilio e tiveram medidos: pressão arterial, peso, altura, circunferência da cintura (CC, glicemia e lípidas séricas. O critério para HA foi a média da PAS > 140 e/ou PAD > 90mmHg. Foram estimadas Pr da HA com IC a 95%. As associações foram medidas pelo OR ajustado (ORaj, por análise de regressão. RESULTADOS: A Pr total foi da HA foi 29,9%: 27,4% IC (23,9-31,2 em homens e 31,7%, IC(28,5-34,9 em mulheres. Em negros a Pr foi 31,6% para homens e 41,1% para mulheres. Em brancos foi 25,8% nos homens e 21,1% nas mulheres. A HA apresentou associação significante com idades > 40 anos, sobrepeso/obesidade [ORaj = 2,37(1,57-3,60] para homens e 1,62(1,02-2,58 para mulheres. Nos homens a HA associou-se à escolaridade elevada e nas mulheres com a cor da pele parda e negra, com obesidade abdominal, ORaj = 2,05 IC(1,31-3,21, diabetes ORaj = 2,16 IC(1,19-3,93 e com a menopausa. CONCLUSÃO: A HA predominou em negros de ambos os sexos, e em mulheres. Excetuando-se o sobrepeso/obesidade, as variáveis que se mantiveram independentemente associadas à HA diferiram entre os sexos. Os resultados sugerem aprofundamento do estudo da HA em negros e necessidade de intervenções educacionais contínuas e de início precoce.OBJECTIVE: To estimate the prevalence of hypertension (H and its association with other cardiovascular risk factors in a highly multiracial population. METHODS: A cross-sectional study carried out in Salvador, Brazil, in a population sample of 1439 adults > 20 years of age. All participants completed a questionnaire at home and had the following measurements taken: blood pressure, body weight, height, waist

  8. Desenvolvimento e validação de um novo sistema de seleção de talentos para a ginástica olímpica feminina: a Bateria PDGO Development and validation of a new system for talent selection in female artistic gymnastics: the PDGO Battery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Arruda de Albuquerque

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available A ginástica olímpica (GO envolve atividades motoras que exigem capacidades específicas. Todavia, há carência de testes para detectar o potencial para o desempenho na GO em idades precoces. Este estudo descreve e apresenta evidências da validade de uma bateria de testes para a seleção de talentos para GO feminina. Inicialmente, foram levantadas as atividades que vêm sendo aplicadas por especialistas em GO, na literatura e por consulta através de questionários. A partir das 30 atividades mencionadas, foi delineada uma bateria de testes com 22 atividades, aplicada em 55 crianças de cinco a nove anos de idade. Com uso de técnicas de análise fatorial, os escores fatoriais individuais foram calculados para o primeiro fator, sendo adotados como variável independente representativa do potencial das crianças para o desempenho em GO (PDGO. Uma regressão múltipla passo a passo gerou uma equação por meio da qual o PDGO era estimado a partir de apenas oito atividades. A validade cruzada da bateria e do índice PDGO foi verificada em 16 ginastas experientes e 19 crianças de escolinha. As primeiras obtiveram médias significativamente maiores (PDGO = 85,1 que as últimas (PDGO = 54,8, indicando que a bateria discriminou bem o potencial geral para o desempenho. Confirmou-se a validade construto com base na estrutura da análise fatorial, já que as atividades agruparam-se em torno de uma única dimensão do desempenho motor. Para a fidedignidade inter e intra-observadores, obtiveram-se correlações de 0,83 a 1,00, sem diferenças entre as médias nas situações observadas. Conclui-se que a bateria de testes, além de ser de aplicação rápida, simples, de baixo custo e fácil entendimento, reveste-se de validade e reprodutibilidade, podendo ser aplicada na seleção inicial de talentos para a GO. Estudos adicionais, porém, deveriam ser conduzidos para confirmação dos presentes resultados, envolvendo amostras maiores e abordagem

  9. El Salvador - Public Expenditure Review : Enhancing the Efficiency and Targeting of Expenditures, Volume 1. Main Report

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2010-01-01

    This Public Expenditure Review (PER), produced jointly by the World Bank and the Inter-American Development Bank (IADB), is an in-depth economic and sector report on El Salvador. The study builds on the analysis and recommendations of the PER delivered in 2004 that concluded that El Salvador faced the dual challenge of addressing deteriorating fiscal trends while financing key investments ...

  10. Carta de Gaspar Salvador a Miguel de Unamuno

    OpenAIRE

    Salvador, Gaspar

    2009-01-01

    Carta de Gaspar Salvador, Presidente del Consejo General de Educación de Tucumán, a Miguel de Unamuno en la que le envía sus libros “Legislación escolar de la provincia de Tucumán”, “Censo escolar de la provincia”, “Las asociaciones vecinales protectoras de la escuela” y cuatro folletos más; en los que podrá apreciar los adelantos que Argentina ha alcanzado en la instrucción pública bajo la administración de Ernesto Padilla.

  11. Sources of income persistence: evidence from rural El Salvador

    OpenAIRE

    Sosa Escudero, Walter; Marchionni, Mariana; Arias, Omar

    2006-01-01

    Este trabajo utiliza una base de datos longitudinales única sobre zonas rurales en El Salvador (1995-2001) para investigar las fuentes principales de la persistencia y variabilidad del ingreso. Primero, proponemos un marco econométrico donde un modelo dinámico de paneles se simplifica a una estructura lineal con covarianza dinámica, lo cual aumenta la cantidad de grados de libertad usualmente perdidos en la construcción de instrumentos para estimar modelos dinámicos estándar. Segundo, investi...

  12. Políticas de seguridad en El Salvador

    OpenAIRE

    Savenije, Wim

    2014-01-01

    El artículo analiza las políticas implementadas en el Salvador con el objetivo de disminuir la violencia y los delitos relacionados con las pandillas callejeras entre los años 2003 y 2013. Tras analizar los rasgos centrales de estas políticas concluye que a pesar de las profundas diferencias, se trato en todos los casos de medidas cortoplacistas, que buscaron soluciones instantáneas a problemas de seguridad complicados y de largo plazo -sea de estilo mano dura o en forma de dialogar con las p...

  13. Joan Oliver i Salvador Espriu en el teatre de postguerra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miquel Maria Gibert

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The author sets out the dramatic production of Joan Oliver and Salvador Espriu, two different ways of understanding the concept of theatrical literary creation and of interpreting projection requirements. Oliver, in general, presents the angle of the bourgeois comedy; the critical tone of the drama he produced before the Civil War either disappears or is considerably tempered. Espriu applies himself to a theatre with tragic roots, embellished with the combination of diverse elements, without taking the possibilities of immediate premiere performances into consideration.

  14. La memoria nacional puertorriqueña en Salvador Brau

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cortés Zavala, María Teresa

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available This articles studies some aspects of Santiago Brau's historiographical works, namely his ideas about the social and economic development of l9th Century Puerto Rico. It also analyzes Brau's considerations about the bases of the Portorrican indentity. Finally, it deals with the ideological trends that paved the way for Portorrican colective configuration, in which Brau was both part —as a member of the Autonomist Party— and ideological leader.

    Ensayo que a partir de la obra historiográfica de Salvador Brau, visualiza algunos de los elementos que reflejan su concepción respecto del desarrollo económico, político y social del Puerto Rico decimonónico. Igualmente analiza aquellos fundamentos que conforman o definen la identidad puertorriqueña y las consideraciones que al respecto presenta el autor. Mismos que interrelaciona en el marco de la discusión del modelo económico y político de "modernización" y "progreso" más ponderado en la época. Asimismo llama la atención en la obra de Salvador Brau, al apuntar hacia algunas de las corrientes de pensamiento que conformaron ese largo y cambiante proceso de formación colectiva en las que el propio Brau, como militante autonomista, además de tomar partido, marcó caminos.

  15. Analysis of the radiation accident in El Salvador

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    On 5 February 1989 at 2 a.m. local time in a cobalt-60 industrial irradiation facility, a series of events started leading to one of the most serious radiation accidents in this type of installation. It took place in Soyapango, a city situated 5 km from San Salvador, the capital of the Republic of El Salvador. In this accident, three workers were involved in the first event and a further four in the second. When the accident took place, the activity level was approximately 0.66 PBq (18,000 Ci). The source became blocked when being lowered to its safe position, where upon the technician responsible for the irradiator entered the chamber in breach of the few inadequate safety procedures, accompanied by two colleagues from an adjacent department; the three workers suffered acute radiation exposure, with the result that one of them died six-and-a-half months later, the second had both his legs amputated at mid-thigh, while the third recovered completely. This article describes the irradiator, outlines the causes of the accident and analyses the economic and social repercussions, with the aim of helping teams responsible for radiation protection and safety in industrial irradiation facilities to identify potentially hazardous circumstances and avoid accidents. (author)

  16. Resources and obstacles to developing and implementing a structural intervention to prevent HIV in San Salvador, El Salvador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickson-Gomez, Julia; Corbett, A Michelle; Bodnar, Gloria; Rodriguez, Karla; Guevara, Carmen E

    2010-02-01

    HIV prevention researchers have increasingly advocated structural interventions that address factors in the social, political and economic context to reduce disparities of HIV/AIDS among disadvantaged populations. This paper draws on data collected in three different types of low-income communities (n=6) in the San Salvador metropolitan area in El Salvador. Nine focus group discussions were conducted between January 2006 and July 2007, 6 with community leaders, and 3 with crack cocaine users, as well as in-depth interviews with 20 crack users and crack dealers. We explore opportunities and barriers to the implementation of a community-level, structural intervention. We first analyze the different forms of leadership, and other community resources including existing HIV prevention activities that could potentially be used to address the related problems of crack use and HIV in the communities, and the structural factors that may act as barriers to capitalizing on communities' strengths in interventions. Each of the communities studied demonstrated different resources that stem from each community's unique history and geographic location. HIV testing and prevention resources varied widely among the communities, with resources concentrated in one Older Central community despite a strong need in all communities. In many communities, fear of gang violence and non-responsiveness by government agencies to communities' needs have discouraged community organizing. In the discussion, we offer concrete suggestions for developing and implementing structural interventions to reduce HIV risks that use communities' different but complementary resources. PMID:19910099

  17. Musculação, uso de esteróides anabolizantes e percepção de risco entre jovens fisiculturistas de um bairro popular de Salvador, Bahia, Brasil Body-building, steroid use, and risk perception among young body-builders from a low-income neighborhood in the city of Salvador, Bahia State, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Jorge Alberto Bernstein Iriart; Tarcísio Matos de Andrade

    2002-01-01

    Estudos recentes em diferentes países têm apontado o aumento do consumo de esteróides anabolizantes entre jovens fisiculturistas e atletas, e os danos à saúde causados pelo seu uso indiscriminado. No Brasil, estudos sobre o uso de anabolizantes são escassos. No presente trabalho, examina-se a percepção de risco à saúde, associada ao consumo de anabolizantes, entre jovens fisiculturistas de um bairro pobre da cidade de Salvador. A metodologia privilegiou métodos de coleta de dados qualitativos...

  18. Results of investigation at the Ahuachapan Geothermal Field, El Salvador

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fink, J.B. (HydroGeophysics, Tucson, AZ (United States))

    1990-04-01

    The Ahuachapan Geothermal Field (AGF) is a 95 megawatt geothemal-sourced power-plant operated by the Comision Ejecutiva Hidroelectrica del Rio Lempa (CEL) of El Salvador. During the past decade, as part of an effort to increase in situ thermal reserves in order to realize the full generation capacity of the AGF, extensive surface geophysical coverage has been obtained over the AGF and the prospective Chipilapa area to the east. The geophysical surveys were performed to determine physical property characteristics of the known reservoir and then to search for similar characteristics in the Chipilapa area. A secondary objective was to evaluate the surface recharge area in the highlands to the south of the AGF. The principal surface electrical geophysical methods used during this period were DC resistivity and magnetotellurics. Three available data sets have been reinterpreted using drillhole control to help form geophysical models of the area. The geophysical models are compared with the geologic interpretations.

  19. El joc lúgubre de Salvador Dalí

    OpenAIRE

    Fanés, Fèlix,

    1996-01-01

    En la primera exposició que Salvador Dalí va fer a París el 20 de novembre de 1929 hi figurava l'oli Le jeu lugubre, una peça molt representativa del nou estil que el pintor iniciava aleshores. Aquest treball analitza diversos aspectes d'aquesta obra --el lloc que ocupa dins la producció de Dalí, les diverses interpretacions que tot seguit en van fer A. Breton i G. Bataille, les relacions iconogràfiques inesperades amb el quadre de Ticià L'ofrenda a la diosa de los amores-- i revela, a més, u...

  20. Fluid geochemistry of the San Vicente geothermal field (El Salvador)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aiuppa, A.; Carapezza, M.L.; Parello, F. [University of Palermo (Italy). Istituto di Mineralogia

    1997-02-01

    The volcano Chichontepeque (San Vicente) is one of the nine recent volcanoes making up the El Salvador sector of the WNW-ESE-trending active Central American volcanic belt. Thermal activity is at present reduced to a few thermal springs and fumaroles. The most important manifestations (Agua Agria and Los Infernillos Ciegos) are boiling springs and fumaroles located on the northern slope of the volcano (850 m a.s.l.) along two radial faults. The application of geothermometric and geobarometric methods to the gases and thermal waters suggests that both thermal areas are linked to the identified 1100-1300 m reservoir, whose temperature (250{sup o}C), lateral extension and chemical composition, as resulting from this study, are of interest for industrial development. (author)

  1. Nuevas obras de Luis y José Salvador Carmona

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Castro, Juan Nicolau

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Hace unos años publicábamos un artículo sobre un grupo de esculturas de José Salvador Carmona aún existentes o procedentes del convento de San Miguel de las Victorias de la villa de Priego en la provincia de Cuenca. Del conjunto existía una descripción del Padre Pedro Cruz Ocaña redactada antes de su dispersión y en el momento de realizar el trabajo nos encontramos con el hecho de que dos de las figuras del inventario no estaban en el pueblo y nada nos supieron decir sobre su paradero. En una visita a la Catedral de Cuenca tuvimos la sorpresa de encontrarlas en las dependencias del museo catedralicio. Las esculturas localizadas ahora son un San Pascual Bailón y un San Francisco de Asís recibiendo los estigmas....

  2. Emergence and proliferation of private security companies in El Salvador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boris Saavedra

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available El Salvador has been impacted by political instability and socioeconomic turmoil in a perfect environment for organized crime amidst the pacification and democratization of the country after a bloody internal conflict. This essay focuses on private security through a descriptive analysis of the factors that influence its development and implications for governance and governability in the country. Analysis of security as a common good, factors that influence the use of private security, and inter-institutional relations of private security and police require appropriate regulation in accordance with the factors mentioned above. When considering security as a common good, observance of fundamental rights is mandatory and forms the basis of legitimacy of government action.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5377/rpsp.v4i2.1765

  3. Perspectivas de la diarrea por rotavirus en El Salvador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Arturo Zablah

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available In December 2000, a large outbreak of gastroenteritis (GE occurred in El Salvador that was associated with hospitalizations and deaths among children nationwide. Public concern was raised because the etiology was initially unknown and enteric control measures seemed ineffective. The outbreak was eventually linked to rotavirus, control measures were redirected to improving treatment with oral rehydration, and surveillance was initiated to characterize the etiologic agents of gastroenteritis. Demographic and clinical data and fecal specimens were collected from a systematic sample of children < 5 years old with acute gastroenteritis. Stools were examined for rotavirus, bacteria, and parasites. Surveillance results were extrapolated to national data in order to estimate the national burden of rotavirus disease. Results: Surveillance between May 2001 and April 2002 demonstrated that rotavirus with winter seasonality, was associated with vomiting and dehydration, and accounted for an estimated 27% of 12,083 consultations for diarrhea. Children with rotavirus gastroenteritis were younger (median 9 months than those with GE due to other agents (median 13 months for bacteria, 16 months for parasites. Extrapolating to national data, we estimated the risk of a child experiencing a rotavirus-related medical visit, hospitalization, and death by the age of 5 years as 1:7, 1:56, and 1:531, respectively. Conclusions: The outbreak of gastroenteritis among children <5 years of age between December 2000 and February 2001 represented an exaggerated rotavirus season. The surveillance activity following the outbreak suggests that rotavirus is the most common cause of diarrheal disease in El Salvador. Further surveillance could provide a sound basis for improving the response to epidemics of gastroenteritis and could provide data needed to decide whether rotavirus vaccination should be included in the national program for childhood immunizations.

  4. Extreme Weather Risk Assessment: The Case of Jiquilisco, El Salvador

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melendez, Karla; Ceppi, Claudia; Molero, Juanjo; Rios Insua, David

    2014-05-01

    All major climate models predict increases in both global and regional mean temperatures throughout this century, under different scenarios concerning future trends in population growth or economic and technological development. This consistency of results across models has strengthened the evidence about global warming. Despite the convincing facts and findings of climate researchers, there is still a great deal of skepticism around climate change. There is somewhat less consensus about some of the consequences of climate change, for example in reference to extreme weather changes, in particular as regards more local scales. However, such changes seem to have already considerable impact in many regions across the world in terms of lives, economic losses, and required changes in lifestyles. This may demand appropriate policy responses both at national and local levels. Our work provides a framework for extreme weather multithreat risk management, based on probabilistic risk assessment (PRA). This may be useful in comparing the effectiveness of different actions to manage risks and inform judgment concerning the appropriate resource allocation to mitigate the risks. The methodology has been applied to the case study of the "El Marillo II" community, located in the municipality of Jiquilisco in El Salvador. There, the main problem related with extreme weather conditions are the frequent floods caused by rainfall, hurricanes , and water increases in the Lempa river nearby located. However, droughts are also very relevant. Based on several sources like SNET, newspapers, field visits to the region and interviews, we have built a detailed database that comprises extreme weather daily data from January 1971 until December 2011. Forecasting models for floods and droughts were built suggesting the need to properly manage the risks. We subsequently obtained the optimal portfolio of countermeasures, given the budget constraints. KEYWORDS: CLIMATE CHANGE, EXTREME WEATHER, RISK

  5. Philip Morris involvement in the development of an air quality laboratory in El Salvador

    OpenAIRE

    Kummerfeldt, C E; Barnoya, J; Bero, L

    2009-01-01

    Background: The tobacco industry has organised research institutions to generate misleading data on indoor air quality, including second-hand smoke exposure and health effects. Objectives: To describe tobacco industry involvement in the organisation and financial support of an air quality research laboratory in El Salvador. Methods: Tobacco industry documents on the internet were systematically searched from August 2007 to February 2008 for air quality studies undertaken in El Salvador, and l...

  6. Tsunami hazard assessment in El Salvador, Central America, from seismic sources through flooding numerical models

    OpenAIRE

    Álvarez-Gómez, J. A.; Í. Aniel-Quiroga; O. Q. Gutiérrez-Gutiérrez; J. Larreynaga; González, M.; M. Castro; F. Gavidia; Aguirre-Ayerbe, I.; P. González-Riancho; Carreño, E

    2013-01-01

    El Salvador is the smallest and most densely populated country in Central America; its coast has approximately a length of 320 km, 29 municipalities and more than 700 000 inhabitants. In El Salvador there have been 15 recorded tsunamis between 1859 and 2012, 3 of them causing damages and hundreds of victims. The hazard assessment is commonly based on propagation numerical models for earthquake-generated tsunamis and can be approached from both Probabilistic and D...

  7. Tsunami hazard assessment in El Salvador, Central America, from seismic sources through flooding numerical models.

    OpenAIRE

    Álvarez-Gómez, J. A.; Aniel-Quiroga, Í.; O. Q. Gutiérrez-Gutiérrez; J. Larreynaga; González, M.; M. Castro; F. Gavidia; Aguirre-Ayerbe, I.; P. González-Riancho; Carreño, E

    2013-01-01

    El Salvador is the smallest and most densely populated country in Central America; its coast has an approximate length of 320 km, 29 municipalities and more than 700 000 inhabitants. In El Salvador there were 15 recorded tsunamis between 1859 and 2012, 3 of them causing damages and resulting in hundreds of victims. Hazard assessment is commonly based on propagation numerical models for earthquake-generated tsunamis and can be approached through both probabilistic and determinis...

  8. Factors associated with body image dissatisfaction among adolescents in public schools students in Salvador, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Mônica L.P. Santana; Rita de Cássia R. Silva; Ana M. O. Assis; Raich, Rosa M.; Maria Ester P. C. Machado; Elizabete J. Pinto; Lia T. L. P. de Moraes; Hugo da C. Ribeiro Júnior

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To identify the prevalence of body image dissatisfaction and associated factors among students in Salvador, Brazil. Methods: A cross-sectional study involving a random sample of 1,494 (852 girls and 642 boys) adolescents between 11 and 17 years of age who were students in the public schools in Salvador, Brazil. Participants completed the Body Shape Questionnaire and the Eating Attitudes Test-26. Body image was characterized as satisfactory or unsatisfactory. We obtained demographic...

  9. Bacterial contamination in milk kitchens in pediatric hospitals in Salvador, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Romilda Castro Cairo; Luciana Rodrigues Silva; Carol Ferreira de Andrade; Maria Goreth de Andrade Barberino; Antônio Carlos Bandeira; Kleber Pimentel Santos; Daniel R. Diniz-Santos

    2008-01-01

    Milk may represent an important source of infectious agents to hospitalized pediatric patients. To describe the bacterial microflora isolated from the hands, stools, pharynx of all workers at milk kitchens in pediatric hospitals in the city of Salvador, Brazil, as well as in the formulas prepared by them, we carried out this cross-sectional study with all 91 workers from the 20 milk kitchens of all the public and private hospitals in Salvador, Brazil. Hand and pharynx swabs and stool samples ...

  10. Prevalência de dor lombar crônica na população da cidade de Salvador Chronic low back pain prevalence in the population of the city of Salvador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabela Costa Guerra Barreto Almeida

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: A dor lombar crônica atinge níveis epidêmicos na população geral e informações sobre o perfil das pessoas atingidas podem ajudar a direcionar investimentos para seu controle. OBJETIVO: Estimar a prevalência de dor lombar crônica na população e identificar fatores associados. MÉTODOS: Estudo transversal com base em inquérito populacional, desenvolvido em setores censitários da cidade de Salvador classificados por nível socioeconômico. Foram entrevistados 2.297 indivíduos em que se avaliou a presença de dor lombar através do mapa corporal. A análise exploratória dos fatores associados foi realizada pela regressão logística. RESULTADOS: A prevalência de dor lombar crônica na população foi de 14,7%, com maior freqüência entre ex-fumantes (19,7%, pessoas com circunferência da cintura acima da normalidade (16,8% e com escolaridade baixa (17,4% em relação com as demais categorias. Fatores como atividade física, classe social, consumo excessivo de álcool, raça, sexo e ocupação na época da entrevista não estiveram associados à dor lombar. Na análise de regressão múltipla, estado civil solteiro associou-se negativamente com dor lombar crônica, enquanto associações positivas e estatisticamente significantes foram observadas entre o tabagismo atual ou no passado e a dor lombar (OR 1,47; IC95%; 1,11-1,96; p INTRODUCTION: Chronic low back pain has epidemic levels in the general population and profiling the individuals affected may help directing investments to control the problem. OBJECTIVE: To estimate the prevalence of chronic low back pain in the population and to identify associated factors. METHODS: Transversal study based on a population survey carried out in the sectors classified by the census in the city of Salvador according to socio-economic level. 2,297 individuals were interviewed in whom low back pain was evaluated through a bodily map. Exploratory analysis of associated factors was

  11. Dermanyssus gallinae em galinhas poedeiras em bateria : carga parasitária, acção vectorial e ensaio de campo de um biopesticida

    OpenAIRE

    Pereira, Diogo Miguel da Costa

    2011-01-01

    ABSTRACT - Dermanyssus gallinae in battery caged system laying hens: parasite load, vectorial role and field trial of a biopesticide - Dermanyssus gallinae is one of the greatest challenges a laying hens’ farm has to deal with on a daily basis. In heavy infestations, this mite can cause clinical signs such as itching, damaged plumage, rashes with or without erythema and anemia, which can be deadly, but also stress and behaviour disorders. Therefore, the performance of the i...

  12. Relação entre fatores de personalidade e estratégias de coping em adolescentes Relationship between personality factors and coping strategies in adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Simon Santana Diniz; Daniela S. Zanini

    2010-01-01

    O objetivo deste estudo é investigar a relação entre fatores de personalidade e estratégias de coping em adolescentes. Participaram desta pesquisa 102 jovens de uma escola municipal de Goiânia com idade entre 11 e 15 anos, utilizando o Coping Response Inventory e a Bateria Fatorial de Personalidade. Os dados obtidos demonstraram que meninas utilizam mais a análise lógica para resolver seus problemas e os meninos apresentam maior pontuação em neuroticismo; que os adolescentes mais jovens utili...

  13. Tsunami hazard and risk assessment in El Salvador

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, M.; González-Riancho, P.; Gutiérrez, O. Q.; García-Aguilar, O.; Aniel-Quiroga, I.; Aguirre, I.; Alvarez, J. A.; Gavidia, F.; Jaimes, I.; Larreynaga, J. A.

    2012-04-01

    Tsunamis are relatively infrequent phenomena representing a greater threat than earthquakes, hurricanes and tornadoes, causing the loss of thousands of human lives and extensive damage to coastal infrastructure around the world. Several works have attempted to study these phenomena in order to understand their origin, causes, evolution, consequences, and magnitude of their damages, to finally propose mechanisms to protect coastal societies. Advances in the understanding and prediction of tsunami impacts allow the development of adaptation and mitigation strategies to reduce risk on coastal areas. This work -Tsunami Hazard and Risk Assessment in El Salvador-, funded by AECID during the period 2009-12, examines the state of the art and presents a comprehensive methodology for assessing the risk of tsunamis at any coastal area worldwide and applying it to the coast of El Salvador. The conceptual framework is based on the definition of Risk as the probability of harmful consequences or expected losses resulting from a given hazard to a given element at danger or peril, over a specified time period (European Commission, Schneiderbauer et al., 2004). The HAZARD assessment (Phase I of the project) is based on propagation models for earthquake-generated tsunamis, developed through the characterization of tsunamigenic sources -sismotectonic faults- and other dynamics under study -tsunami waves, sea level, etc.-. The study area is located in a high seismic activity area and has been hit by 11 tsunamis between 1859 and 1997, nine of them recorded in the twentieth century and all generated by earthquakes. Simulations of historical and potential tsunamis with greater or lesser affection to the country's coast have been performed, including distant sources, intermediate and close. Deterministic analyses of the threats under study -coastal flooding- have been carried out, resulting in different hazard maps (maximum wave height elevation, maximum water depth, minimum tsunami

  14. CARACTERIZAÇÃO E ESTUDO DA LIXIVIAÇÃO DE METAIS DE ESCÓRIAS PROVENIENTES DA RECICLAGEM DE BATERIAS DE CHUMBO-ÁCIDO

    OpenAIRE

    Michelli Barbosa de Andrade; Wilson Costa; André Vitor Chaves Andrade

    2014-01-01

    No Brasil, o chumbo metálico é obtido principalmente a partir da reciclagem de baterias de chumbo-ácido utilizando o processo pirometalúrgico, que é acompanhado da geração de uma escória que apresenta elementos como Fe, Si, S, Al, Ca, Zn, Pb. O objetivo deste trabalho foi de estudar a escória gerada no processo através da fluorescência e difração de raios X e de extrações utilizando o método de Tessier seguida da determinação das concentrações dos metais nos extratos por espectrometria de abs...

  15. Do GIZ ao AVA: a importância de um centro virtual de ensino de língua e cultura hispano-americana para discentes da rede pública de ensino da cidade de Salvador-Bahia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elissandro dos Santos Santana

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho é fruto de um projeto de intervenção e de lei em torno das contribuições de um Centro Virtual de Ensino Língua e Cultura Hispano-americana para discentes da rede pública de ensino da cidade do Salvador, Bahia. Para tanto, optou-se por uma pesquisa bibliográfica, por meio do levantamento de fontes primárias e secundárias, com vistas à fundamentação necessária para a consubstanciação de um plano de caráter interventivo que culminou em um trabalho de conclusão de especialização em Metodologia do ensino de língua espanhola. Ao longo do texto são abordados os seguintes tópicos: o contexto histórico-social e leis no tangente ao ensino de língua estrangeira no Brasil, a importância do turismo e qualificação de profissionais em língua espanhola para a cidade do Salvador e as possíveis contribuições de um Centro Virtual de ensino de espanhol.

  16. La ciencia política en El Salvador: sus primeros pasos

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    Álvaro Artiga-González

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Resumen En este trabajo se hace una descripción del más reciente desarrollo de la ciencia política en El Salvador. Se presentan sus orígenes, evolución, influencias académicas recibidas, desafíos, fortalezas, salidas laborales de los egresados de esta disciplina, su valoración social y su impacto. Al año 2005, en El Salvador solamente existe un programa académico de ciencia política. Éste funciona a nivel de estudios de maestría. Por esta razón la perspectiva adoptada para la descripción es más específica que general. Por otra parte, la investigación todavía es incipiente. La comunidad de politólogos salvadoreños tiene pocos miembros, todos con formación en el extranjero y representan, en cierta forma, una generación de relevo en las ciencias sociales salvadoreñas.Abstract In this paper, a description of the most recent development of political science in El Salvador is drawn. Its origins, evolution, academic influences, challenges, strengths, social appraisal, impacts and the job opportunities for the new professionals graduated from this discipline are briefly described. The paper emphasizes three points: First, the fact that only one Political Science Academic Program exists in El Salvador, a Master's Degree Program. This article mostly refers to this Program and, therefore, has a specific focus rather than a general one. Second, political science research is also still at its beginning stages. Finally, the Community of Salvadoran scholars in political science is small. In fact, it only has a few members, less than ten. They all graduated from foreign universities, and represent in someway a generational chance for the social sciences in El Salvador.

  17. Financiamiento de la seguridad pública en El Salvador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Alfredo Molina Batlle

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available El artículo describe y analiza el comportamiento de las principales variables que afectan la seguridad pública, tomando como referencia los homicidios, extorsiones y delitos al patrimonio, además de variables en el ámbito económico y que mantienen una relación con el tema de estudio; utilizando métodos comparativos, tendenciasy modelos econométricos, con el propósito de concluir sobre los datos históricos y situar al lector en el contexto salvadoreño. Con ello se crea un modelo de seguridad pública que permite definir escenarios financieros, concluyendo en ideas y propuesta de fuentes de financiamiento para obtenerlos recursos que fortalezcan las institucionesy programas que afectan la seguridad pública en el país, analizándolas bajo perspectivas e impactos macroeconómicos, procurando que estas no afecten las principales variables económicas.Revista Policía y Seguridad Pública 5(1 2015: 31-74

  18. The Ahuachapan geothermal field, El Salvador: Reservoir analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aunzo, Z.; Bodvarsson, G.S.; Laky, C.; Lippmann, M.J.; Steingrimsson, B.; Truesdell, A.H.; Witherspoon, P.A. (Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (USA); Icelandic National Energy Authority, Reykjavik (Iceland); Geological Survey, Menlo Park, CA (USA); Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (USA))

    1989-08-01

    The Earth Sciences Division of Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL) is conducting a reservoir evaluation study of the Ahuachapan geothermal field in El Salvador. This work is being performed in cooperation with the Comision Ejecutiva Hidroelectrica del Rio Lempa (CEL) and the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). This report describes the work done during the first year of the study (FY 1988--89), and includes the (1) development of geological and conceptual models of the field, (2) evaluation of the initial thermodynamic and chemical conditions and their changes during exploitation, (3) evaluation of interference test data and the observed reservoir pressure decline, and (4) the development of a natural state model for the field. The geological model of the field indicates that there are seven (7) major and five (5) minor faults that control the fluid movement in the Ahuachapan area. Some of the faults act as a barrier to flow as indicated by large temperature declines towards the north and west. Other faults act as preferential pathways to flow. The Ahuachapan Andesites provide good horizontal permeability to flow and provide most of the fluids to the wells. The underlying Older Agglomerates also contribute to well production, but considerably less than the Andesites. 84 refs.

  19. Police, Prevention, Social Capital and Communities in El Salvador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Antonio Argueta Hernández

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes the relationship between police and the community. In El Salvador, the role traditionally played by police has been that of the repressor of crime, with no concern for community outreach. However, over the last two years, the law enforcement agency has had an about face in terms of its attention to the problem of violence and crime. As a result, it has introduced the community police philosophy. That is, a law enforcement agency that empowers active participation in the community in identifying and preventing problems that affect it, meaning that community participation is promoted in terms of tasks tied to citizen security. Currently, what is under consideration is the degree to which there is a process of strengthening the bonds of solidarity, constructive relationships between neighbors, and the existence of social capital that contributes to cooperation between law enforcement and community in preventing violence and crime. Evidently the results of this new form of taking on public security will not be obtained immediately. It requires both the agents and commanders to be convinced that this philosophy can yield good results in crime prevention. However, the community must also become an active player in co-producing security.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5377/rpsp.v1i1.1391

  20. ANÁLISE PRELIMINAR DA CONTROLADORIA DA CIDADE DE SALVADOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Marcelo Pitiá Barreto

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The Controllership has been the subject of studies and analyzes and reflections of prominentresearchers of the sciences that focus on the field management of organizations such as theAdministration and Accounting. It is important to note the contribution of the Controllershipof public governance, the foundation of a democratic and participative management. In this context, it fits the purpose of this study, reflect on public performance of the comptroller of the city of Salvador, noting the contribution that effective governance in the municipality. The studies were developed in the Department of Finance (SEFAZ Controllership of the municipality who is linked to. With exploratory, descriptive investigation that involved field research, analysis of documents and reports issued by SEFAZ and the Court of the City(TCM. It is the chart of SEFAZ, your budget and the opinions of TCM. The results show the importance of the Comptroller and denote the impression that the institution studied, this area is not performing their role well.

  1. Political Participation of Civil Society Organizations in Salvador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jussara Borges

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available For the majority of citizens political participation in democracy requires just voting in periodical elections. However, this comprehension of participation has been pressed by theorists that defend the development of democracy by the deepening of citizens participation and by the increase of public service deficiency to satisfy social needs. Innovative participative practices, which challenge established concepts, have been more and more present in the performance of civil society organizations. On the other hand, social organizations have become privileged spaces to discuss and support public interest objectives. This paper discusses the ways social organizations of Salvador (BA, Brazil participate politically. The methodology encompassed interviews with 44 organizations. The main results show that: (i the observation of social organizations political participation requires new patterns of analysis to overcome traditional factors as “electoral participation”, “party identification” and “reliance in institutions”; (ii the new patterns of analysis must aggregate new actors to those factors; (iii among the main forms of participation there are those lined up to the concepts of the so called deliberative democracy, as, for example, the valorization of public debates; (iv there are changes in the political participation ways of these organizations, mainly in the sense of the development and the variety they express themselves.

  2. Hemoglobinopathies in newborns from Salvador, Bahia, Northeast Brazil

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    Adorno Elisângela Vitória

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Hemoglobinopathies are hereditary disorders of the hemoglobin molecule with a high prevalence worldwide. Brazil has a prevalence of 0.1 to 0.3% of newborns with sickle cell anemia and 20.0 to 25.0% of heterozygous alpha2 thalassemia among African Brazilians. In the present study, we investigated the presence of variant hemoglobins and alpha2(3.7 Kb and alpha2(4.2 Kb thalassemia in newborns from Salvador, Bahia, Brazil. Samples of umbilical cord blood from a total of 590 newborns were analyzed, of which 57 (9.8% were FAS; 36 (6.5% FAC; one (0.2% SF; and five (0.9% FSC. One hundred fourteen (22.2% newborns had alpha2(3.7 Kb thalassemia, of whom 101 (19.7% were heterozygous and 13 (2.5% homozygous, showing statistical significance for hematological data between newborns with normal alpha genes and alpha2(3.7 Kb thalassemia carriers. The alpha2(4.2 Kb thalassemia was not found. Frequencies found in the present study confirm that hemoglobinopathies are a public health problem in Brazil, emphasizing the need for neonatal screening and genetic counseling programs.

  3. DC resistivity at the Ahuachapan geothermal field, El Salvador

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fink, J.B.; de la Fuente D., M.; Rodriquez, C.; Cash, D.J.; Gerety, M.

    1988-01-01

    Deep dc resistivity surveying has been performed at the Ahuachapan Geothermal Field in western El Salvador. The field lies on the north base if the volcanic range that runs the length of the country and is the site of a significant active geothermal powerplant. The technical purpose of the surveying was to assess the geophysical properties of the geothermal regime around the existing field. The survey was carried out as a colinear dipole-dipole survey using dipole spacings of 500m and 1000m, and dipole separations of up to fourteen dipole lengths. Results included (1) the observation that the geothermal reservoir was not readily detectable due to surface lithologic changes and extensive cultural effects, (2) the hydrothermally altered areas are readily recognized by their low resistivities, (3) local lithologies appear to be mappable based on their in situ resistivities, (4) the greater field logistical convenience of the shorter 500m dipole spacings is negated by the increase in topographic effects, and (5) if appropriate dipole separations are used, there is no need to run surveys of both 500 and 1000 meter dipole spacings to gather shallow and deep information. 7 figs.

  4. Population data for 12 Y-chromosome STR loci in a sample from El Salvador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monterrosa, Juan Carlos; Morales, Josefina A; Yurrebaso, Iñaki; Gusmão, Leonor; García, Oscar

    2010-01-01

    Haplotype, allele frequencies and population data of 12 Y-chromosome STR loci DYS19, DYS385, DYS389I, DYS389II, DYS390, DYS391, DYS392, DYS393, DYS437, DYS438 and DYS439 were determined from a sample of 150 unrelated male individuals from El Salvador, Central America. A total of 131 haplotypes were identified by the 12 Y-STR loci of which 118 were unique. The haplotype diversity (99.08%) and the proportion of different haplotypes (87.33%) were estimated. R(ST) genetic distances were calculated between El Salvador and other populations from Southern and Central America, Europe and Africa. The highest R(ST) genetic distances were found when comparing El Salvador with African populations (0.334 Salvador and Southern and Central Native groups presented a wide range of values (from 0.024 to 0.210) that can be explained by the differences in the proportion of European versus Amerindian contributions in these population groups. The Multi Dimensional Scaling (MDS) plot analysis, based on pairwise R(ST) values, showed that the general population of El Salvador is closer to the European cluster (composed by European and South American general population samples from Brazil, Argentina, Colombia and Venezuela) than to the Southern/Central American cluster of Native and Mestizo populations. PMID:19962926

  5. El Salvador - Public Expenditure Review : Enhancing the Efficiency and Targeting of Expenditures, Volume 2. Chapters and Statistical Tables

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2010-01-01

    This Public Expenditure Review (PER), produced jointly by the World Bank and the Inter-American Development Bank (IADB), is an in-depth economic and sector report on El Salvador. The study builds on the analysis and recommendations of the PER delivered in 2004 that concluded that El Salvador faced the dual challenge of addressing deteriorating fiscal trends while financing key investments ...

  6. "Contra Viento y Marea" (Against Wind and Tide): Building Civic Identity among Children of Emigration in El Salvador

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyrness, Andrea

    2012-01-01

    This article examines contrasting approaches to citizenship education in two schools in San Salvador, El Salvador, in the face of highly visible transnational migration. I argue that while transnational realities challenge education for democratic citizenship, educational processes that enable students to interrogate their own transnational…

  7. Geodetically resolved slip distribution of the 27 August 2012 Mw=7.3 El Salvador earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geirsson, H.; La Femina, P. C.; DeMets, C.; Hernandez, D. A.; Mattioli, G. S.; Rogers, R.; Rodriguez, M.

    2013-12-01

    On 27 August 2012 a Mw=7.3 earthquake occurred offshore of Central America causing a small tsunami in El Salvador and Nicaragua but little damage otherwise. This is the largest magnitude earthquake in this area since 2001. We use co-seismic displacements estimated from episodic and continuous GPS station time series to model the magnitude and spatial variability of slip for this event. The estimated surface displacements are small (Gulf of Fonseca between El Salvador and Nicaragua. The observed tsunami additionally indicates near-trench rupture off the coast of El Salvador. The duration of the rupturing is estimated from seismic data to be 70 s, which indicates a slow rupture process. Since the geodetic moment we obtain agrees with the seismic moment, this indicates that the earthquake was not associated with aseismic slip.

  8. Ceramics from Villa El Salvador, a late formative site from the central coast of Peru

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We applied a multielemental analytical method for characterization of archaeological ceramics from Villa El Salvador. The ceramics were characterize using Instrumental Neutron Activation Analyses (INAA), Energy-Dispersive X-ray Fluorescence (EDXRF) and X-ray Diffraction (XRD) techniques. Whole vessels with no accurate provenience and Villa El Salvador ceramics sherds were analyzed. The EDXRF system can measure both the whole vessels and ceramics sherds. The results from the whole vessels were in good agreement with the results obtained from the ceramics sherds, with one exception. Thus, the comparison of the EDXRF spectra of the whole vessels with the data base of the Villa El Salvador sherd collection allows us the identification of distinctive groups of the site. (author)

  9. Relação entre habilidades de processamento auditivo e funções neuropsicológicas em adolescentes Relation between auditory processing abilities and neuropsychological process in teenagers

    OpenAIRE

    Mirella Liberatore Prando; Josiane Pawlowski; Jandyra Maria Guimarães Fachel; Mari Ivone Lanfredi Misorelli; Rochele Paz Fonseca

    2010-01-01

    OBJETIVO: averiguar a existência de relações entre o desempenho em testes de processamento auditivo e em tarefas cognitivas. MÉTODOS: participaram 12 adolescentes com desenvolvimento típico, estudantes de terceiro ano do Ensino Médio de escolas privadas do estado do Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil, examinados com uma bateria de testes de PA(C) e com o Instrumento de Avaliação Neuropsicológica Breve Neupsilin. Foram realizadas análises de correlação de Pearson e análises qualitativas intertestes par...

  10. Legislative attitudes toward overpopulation: the case of EL Salvador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verner, J G

    1975-10-01

    The members of the 1972-1974 national assembly of El Salvador were asked to complete questionnaires on population in an effort to determine what their general attitude toward the population problem was. Indications were that the legislators were factually aware of the dimensions of population growth and the existing overpopulation, and that both problems were seen as impediments to economic progress. They also showed a willingness to act quickly on various public programs for controlling population growth, primarily in the areas of public education and healht. However, while admitting the urgency of the problems, none of the legislators had individually done anything about them and no such plans were underway. They indicated in their responses that they would have to play a major role in formulating any population control policy and that such a policy would probably concentrate on measures to deal with overpopulation in the short run, i.e., to cut the population growth rate by educating and informing the populous both with general and governmental publicity and through sex education in schools. The policy would also in part attempt to alleviate the general social conditions that the legislators perceived as contributing to high birthrates, i.e., illiteracy, lack of sex information, unemployment, rural isolation, unavailability of contraceptives, and lack of family planning Support would be sought from the public in spite of the Catholic Church, though the Church would eventually have to be considered in the formulation of a final policy. The fact of religious opposition plus the fact that the government has not yet embarked on a policy make the adoption and implementation of such a policy unlikely in the forseeable future. The ligislators themselves were pessimistic as to the possibility of controlling the population and felt that in view of its rapid growth, the country would not be able to provide educational and employment opportunites for the advancement of the

  11. Problemática y conocimiento actual de Las tefras tierra blanca joven en el área Metropolitana de San Salvador, El Salvador Problematic and current knowledge of the tierra blanca joven tephras in the metropolitan area of San Salvador, El Salvador

    OpenAIRE

    José A. Chávez; Walter Hernández; Lubomir Kopecky

    2012-01-01

    En la actualidad el Área Metropolitana de San Salvador experimenta problemas graves de movimientos de ladera, erosión, colapso o asentamientos del terreno; fenómenos que son englobados popularmente en El Salvador por el término “cárcavas”. Esta problemática se presenta principalmente en las tefras volcánicas llamadas Tierra Blanca Joven (TBJ) producto de la última erupción pliniana de la Caldera de Ilopango, cuyos productos son una intercalación de estratos de piroclastos de caída...

  12. Permanências do urbanismo de colina como tradição luso-brasileira: os casos de Salvador e de São Paulo Permanencies of hill urbanism as a Portuguese-Brazilian tradition: the cases of Salvador and São Paulo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Geraldo Simões Junior

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available A partir da compreensão dos processos de ocupação das áreas de colina em cidades brasileiras e portuguesas, associados à tradição urbanística lusitana de fundar cidades em sítios elevados, buscamos identificar as principais características dessas áreas enquanto espaços privilegiados para o resgate de forte tradição presente em nossa cultura urbanística. Tomamos como exemplo dois casos paradigmáticos: Salvador e São Paulo. Primeiro núcleo urbano do Brasil fundado com status de cidade (1549, Salvador contou com plano constituído por traças e amostras, esboçando arruamento, muralhas e localização de edifícios públicos. A escolha do sítio fundacional, em sítio dominante, sobre atracadouro, constituindo a dualidade cidade alta/cidade baixa, é marca da urbanística de colina praticada pelos portugueses em seu império colonial. Por sua vez, poucas cidades da América portuguesa tiveram destino tão ligado à implantação em colina como São Paulo. Até 1850 a vida urbana se concentrou nessa acrópole; o centro criado no início do século XX foi implantado sobre a mesma elevação; modernizações sucessivas mantiveram foco no núcleo primitivo. Essa insistência na transformação da área central apagou traços da ocupação de matriz luso-brasileira, alterando traçados, morfologia e volumetria, e ocultando a própria situação topográfica. Propomos aqui esforço de recuperação dos elementos morfológicos da ocupação original desses sítios e compreensão dos padrões urbanísticosque as caracterizavam; identificando impactos dessas práticas no desenho e configuração urbanos, tendo em vista a revalorização desses elementos históricos, muitas vezes obscurecidos por ocupações posteriores, visando recuperar a forte relação com o sítio original em acrópole que marcou essas cidades.

  13. Do GIZ ao AVA: a importância de um centro virtual de ensino de língua e cultura hispano-americana para discentes da rede pública de ensino da cidade de Salvador-Bahia

    OpenAIRE

    Elissandro dos Santos Santana

    2013-01-01

    Este trabalho é fruto de um projeto de intervenção e de lei em torno das contribuições de um Centro Virtual de Ensino Língua e Cultura Hispano-americana para discentes da rede pública de ensino da cidade do Salvador, Bahia. Para tanto, optou-se por uma pesquisa bibliográfica, por meio do levantamento de fontes primárias e secundárias, com vistas à fundamentação necessária para a consubstanciação de um plano de caráter interventivo que culminou em um trabalho de conclusão de especialização em ...

  14. AN EARLY POSTCLASSIC ROUND STRUCTURE AT CIHUATÁN, EL SALVADOR (Una estructura circular del Posclásico Temprano en Cihuatán, El Salvador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paúl E. Amaroli Bertolucci

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Round temples in Mesoamerica have been commonly ascribed to Ehécatl-Quetzalcóatl, the God of Wind and Air, on the basis of conquest period chronicles referring to such buildings. Round structures have been rarely reported on the southeastern frontier of Mesoamerica and none has previously been adequately documented or published. A recently excavated round structure at the Early Postclassic site of Cihuatán in western El Salvador raises questions concerning its possible use. The platform, unfinished at the time Cihuatán was burned and abandoned, could have been intended to be either a temple to Ehécatl or a gladiatorial platform for sacrifices to Xipe Tótec, two Mexican deities whose presence in El Salvador is attested to by archaeological evidence from other sites. ESPAÑOL: Los templos circulares mesoamericanos por lo común se relacionan con el culto a Ehécatl-Quetzalcóatl, el dios del Viento y del Aire, en base a las crónicas coloniales. En la frontera sureste de Mesoamérica apenas se ha documentado o publicado en detalle ninguno de ellos. Aquí informamos sobre nuestra excavación de una plataforma circular en el sitio de Cihuatán, un centro urbano del Posclásico Temprano de El Salvador occidental, que plantea cuestiones sobre su posible uso. La plataforma, sin terminar en el momento de la destrucción y abandono de Cihuatán, podría haber sido un templo dedicado a Ehécatl o una plataforma de gladiadores relacionada con los sacrificios al dios Xipe Tótec, dos deidades mexicanas cuya presencia en El Salvador está confirmada por la evidencia arqueológica de otros sitios.

  15. As relações de trabalho dos fisioterapeutas na cidade de Salvador, Bahia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiago Santos de Souza

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available As transformações socioeconômicas decorrentes da reorganização do sistema vigente e da conformação do Estado neoliberal têm conduzido à precarização do mundo do trabalho. O processo de reestruturação produtiva, oriundo do setor industrial, tem acarretado um forte impacto no campo da saúde e, consequentemente, na fisioterapia. Este artigo analisa as relações de trabalho dos fisioterapeutas que atuam em clínicas particulares na cidade de Salvador, correlacionando-as com o processo de reestruturação do mundo do trabalho. Trata-se de um estudo exploratório, de natureza qualitativa, com base no referencial teórico da sociologia do trabalho. Foram realizadas entrevistas semiestruturadas com oito fisioterapeutas. A abordagem utilizada foi a análise de conteúdo por categorias temáticas, previamente identificadas pelos autores, a saber: centralidade do trabalho, conjuntura socioeconômica, precarização do trabalho, formação acadêmica e organização sindical. A análise compreensiva revelou a centralidade que o trabalho ocupa na vida dos fisioterapeutas. Na análise da conjuntura socioeconômica, foram identificados os processos que influenciam a atuação profissional e como eles moldam o perfil do trabalhador. Quanto à precarização do trabalho, foram caracterizados os vínculos empregatícios, as condições de trabalho, a estabilidade e a remuneração. A formação acadêmica foi vinculada à reprodução da lógica do capital, acompanhada pela expansão, sem planejamento e regulação, do Ensino Superior privado. Já a organização sindical mostrou-se distante do fisioterapeuta. A análise das correlações entre forças socioeconômicas que influenciam a prática profissional indicou que as relações de trabalho dos fisioterapeutas entrevistados mostraram-se precárias e instáveis.

  16. Salvador Dalí et le mécénat du Zodiaque

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhaar, Marijke

    2008-01-01

    When Salvador Dalí settled in Paris with the avowed aim to conquer the art world, he was unknown and virtually penniless. The great Economic Crisis which had hit Europe at that time, did nothing to improve his prospects. Yet, during his early years in the French capital, 1929-1935, he was able to pr

  17. Role of Temperature, Humidity and Rainfall on Influenza Transmission in Guatemala, El Salvador and Panama

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soebiyanto, Radina P.; Bonilla, Luis; Jara, Jorge; McCracken, John; Azziz?-Baumgartner, Eduardo; Widdowson, Marc-Alain; Kiang, Richard

    2012-01-01

    Worldwide, seasonal influenza causes about 500,000 deaths and 5 million severe illnesses per year. The environmental drivers of influenza transmission are poorly understood especially in the tropics. We aimed to identify meteorological factors for influenza transmission in tropical Central America. We gathered laboratory-confirmed influenza case-counts by week from Guatemala City, San Salvador Department (El Salvador) and Panama Province from 2006 to 2010. The average total cases per year were: 390 (Guatemala), 99 (San Salvador) and 129 (Panama). Meteorological factors including daily air temperature, rainfall, relative and absolute humidity (RH, AH) were obtained from ground stations, NASA satellites and land models. For these factors, we computed weekly averages and their deviation from the 5-yr means. We assessed the relationship between the number of influenza case-counts and the meteorological factors, including effects lagged by 1 to 4 weeks, using Poisson regression for each site. Our results showed influenza in San Salvador would increase by 1 case within a week of every 1 day with RH>75% (Relative Risk (RR)= 1.32, p=.001) and every 1C increase in minimum temperature (RR=1.29, p=.007) but it would decrease by 1 case for every 1mm-above mean weekly rainfall (RR=0.93,phumidity differ from some temperate-zone studies. But they indicate that climate parameters such as humidity and temperature could be predictive of influenza activity and should be incorporated into country-specific influenza transmission models

  18. Los costos económicos de la violencia en El Salvador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos ACEVEDO

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN: Este trabajo efectúa un ejercicio de cuantificación de los costos económicos asociados a las diversas manifestaciones y consecuencias de la situación de violencia prevaleciente en El Salvador, utilizando información para 2007. Tales costos son clasificados en cuatro grandes categorías: i costos en salud; ii costos institucionales (legales, judiciales y policiales; iii costos preventivos en seguridad privada; y iv pérdidas materiales. Los resultados de las estimaciones efectuadas indican que, en dicho año, la violencia impuso sobre El Salvador un costo económico equivalente a 10,9% del Producto Interno Bruto (PIB y a más del doble de las asignaciones presupuestarias para Educación y Salud. ABSTRACT: This essay carries out an accounting exercise on the economic costs derived from the violence situation which prevails in El Salvador, using information for 2007. Those costs are classified into four main categories: i costs on health; ii institutional costs (legal, judiciary and police; iii preventive costs for private security; and iv material losses. The results from the estimations performed indicate that, in 2007, the different expressions and consequences derived from the violence situation imponed on El Salvador an economic cost which was equivalent to 10,9% of Gross Domestic Product (GDP and more than twice the combined budget allocations to Education and Health.

  19. EDUCO Schools in El Salvador: A Democratic Tree in a Globalized Forest?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desmond, Cheryl T.

    2009-01-01

    This research on the Educacion con Participacion de Communidad (EDUCO) rural schools in El Salvador examined the nature of the reform and its impact on parent involvement and engagement for the local community; the underlying economic and political ideologies of EDUCO; and interpreted these findings to uncover the implications of the reform for…

  20. Phytolith analysis in fluvial quaternary sediment (San Salvador and Palmar formation) Uruguay river and Argentina eastern

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work is about two microfossils fluvial units deposited by the Uruguay river during the Quaternary. These are San Salvador and Palmar formation (Plio-Pleistocene - Upper Pleistocene).The Palmar formation is a band of 4-15 km along the right bank of the Uruguay river outcropping from the eastern provinces of Corrientes and Entre Rios, to Concepcion del Uruguay

  1. Evaluación del Proceso Consultivo Ciudadano en Villa el Salvador, Lima, Peru

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Calderon (Julio); L. Marulanda (Liliana)

    2001-01-01

    textabstractEl presente informe contiene un estudio de caso sobre “Evaluación del Proceso Consultivo Ciudadano en Villa el Salvador, Lima, Perú” realizado para el Instituto de Estudios de Vivienda y Desarrollo Urbano - IHS (Institute for Housing and Urban Development Studies) y el Programa SINPA (Su

  2. Agricultural Elites; Economic Structure; and the Transition Towards Democracy in El Salvador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Sofía Cardenal

    1996-12-01

    Full Text Available This article addresses the process of democratization in El Salvador. More particularly, it attempts to explain a political outcome: the Peace Accords that were achieved in this country in January of 1992. Despite the attention recent theories about democracy have placed on political variables and strategic behavior, this study focusses mainly on structural factors emphasizing the role that such variables played in explaining democratic change in El Salvador. The argument lay down here rests on Barrington Moore’s thesis regarding the role of agrarian elites in democratic transitions. Based on his seminal comparative study, he established that no democratic result could possibly emerge without an erosion of the agrarian elite’s power base. As this article discloses, the Moore Condition was fullfiled for El Salvador in the 80s, rendering possible the peace accords. One of the most important consequences of the war -and the political and social processes that accompanied it- concerned the changes that took place in the economy. Those transformations moved El Salvador away from an agro-export economy to place it into a commercial and moreindustrialized one, leading in turn to a weakening of the traditional agrarian elite.

  3. Mitochondrial Echoes of First Settlement and Genetic Continuity in El Salvador

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salas, Antonio; Lovo-Gómez, José; Álvarez-Iglesias, Vanesa; Cerezo, María; Lareu, María Victoria; Macaulay, Vincent; Richards, Martin B.; Carracedo, Ángel

    2009-01-01

    Background From Paleo-Indian times to recent historical episodes, the Mesoamerican isthmus played an important role in the distribution and patterns of variability all around the double American continent. However, the amount of genetic information currently available on Central American continental populations is very scarce. In order to shed light on the role of Mesoamerica in the peopling of the New World, the present study focuses on the analysis of the mtDNA variation in a population sample from El Salvador. Methodology/Principal Findings We have carried out DNA sequencing of the entire control region of the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) genome in 90 individuals from El Salvador. We have also compiled more than 3,985 control region profiles from the public domain and the literature in order to carry out inter-population comparisons. The results reveal a predominant Native American component in this region: by far, the most prevalent mtDNA haplogroup in this country (at ∼90%) is A2, in contrast with other North, Meso- and South American populations. Haplogroup A2 shows a star-like phylogeny and is very diverse with a substantial proportion of mtDNAs (45%; sequence range 16090–16365) still unobserved in other American populations. Two different Bayesian approaches used to estimate admixture proportions in El Salvador shows that the majority of the mtDNAs observed come from North America. A preliminary founder analysis indicates that the settlement of El Salvador occurred about 13,400±5,200 Y.B.P.. The founder age of A2 in El Salvador is close to the overall age of A2 in America, which suggests that the colonization of this region occurred within a few thousand years of the initial expansion into the Americas. Conclusions/Significance As a whole, the results are compatible with the hypothesis that today's A2 variability in El Salvador represents to a large extent the indigenous component of the region. Concordant with this hypothesis is also the observation of a

  4. Incidence of leukemias in children from El Salvador and Mexico City between 1996 and 2000: Population-based data

    OpenAIRE

    Bernáldez-Ríos Roberto; González-Miranda Guadalupe; Pérez-Saldivar María; de Reyes Gladys; Juárez-Ocaña Servando; Lorenzana Rodolpho; Bonilla Miguel; Mejía-Aranguré Juan; Ortiz-Fernández Antonio; Ortega-Alvarez Manuel; Martínez-García María; Fajardo-Gutiérrez Arturo

    2005-01-01

    Abstract Background There are very few studies that report the incidence of acute leukemias in children in Latin America. This work assesses the incidence of acute leukemias, between 1996 and 2000, in children from 0–14 years old who were attended at the Mexican Social Security Institute in Mexico City and in children from 0–11 years old in El Salvador. Methods Design: Population-based data. Hospitals: In San Salvador, El Salvador, Hospital Nacional de Niños "Benjamín Bloom", the only center ...

  5. Diferenciais de mortalidade entre as regiões metropolitanas de Belo Horizonte e Salvador, 1985-1995 Mortality differentials between metropolitan areas of Brazil, 1985-1995

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daisy Maria Xavier de Abreu

    2000-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Analisar a evolução da mortalidade, por idade e sexo, segundo as causas de morte, nas regiões metropolitanas de Belo Horizonte (RMBH e Salvador (RMS, entre 1985 e 1995. MÉTODOS: Os dados utilizados foram provenientes do Registro Civil, fornecidos pelo SIM (Sistema de Informação sobre Mortalidade do Ministério da Saúde. As causas de morte foram classificadas em evitáveis e não evitáveis. Aplicou-se o método de decomposição de Pollard para analisar a contribuição, na evolução dos ganhos de esperança de vida ao nascer, dos grupos de causas que tiveram um aumento da sua participação relativa na estrutura da mortalidade. RESULTADOS: O processo de declínio da mortalidade, em curso nas regiões metropolitanas estudadas, vem sofrendo mudanças nas últimas décadas com uma tendência à redução dos diferenciais existentes. No seu conjunto, as causas evitáveis reduziram seu peso relativo em ambas as regiões: na RMBH, de 36,5%, em 1985, para 30,6%, em 1995, entre os homens, e de 34,9%, em 1985, para 28%, em 1995, entre as mulheres. Na RMS, observou-se uma redução maior da participação relativa para as mulheres: de 35,4%, em 1985, para 25,9%, em 1995. Para os homens, essa participação passou de 44% do total, em 1985, para 39,7%, em 1995. CONCLUSÕES: Ainda persiste uma estrutura de causas de morte que pode estar indicando que, nas regiões estudadas, os progressos nos níveis de mortalidade não estão atingindo as populações menos favorecidas na intensidade e velocidade esperadas.OBJECTIVE: To analyze differential changes of rates and stratification of mortality by gender and causes of death in the metropolitan area of Belo Horizonte (RMBH and Salvador (RMS between 1985 and 1995. METHODS: The Ministry of Health's Mortality Information System (SIM provides data on death causes by age and sex that was used for this study. The groups of death causes were classified according to two major groups (preventable and non

  6. Avaliação de impacto de ações de combate ao Aedes aegypti na cidade de Salvador, Bahia Impact of action against Aedes aegypti in the city of Salvador, Bahia

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    Maria da Glória Teixeira

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available No atual estágio do conhecimento científico, a única medida de controle disponível para as infecções causadas pelo vírus da dengue é a eliminação do seu principal vetor urbano, o Aedes aegypti. O Brasil há muitas décadas desenvolve programas de combate a este mosquito; entretanto, observa-se desde o início dos anos oitenta uma expansão geográfica da infestação do seu território e circulação progressiva e intensa deste vírus, com registro de grandes epidemias e de transmissão endêmica em diferentes centros urbanos. Esta situação epidemiológica evidencia a existência de dificuldades para o controle destas infecções, razão pela qual o Ministério da Saúde solicitou uma avaliação da efetividade das ações que vinham sendo implementadas na cidade de Salvador pelo atual programa de combate vetorial, sendo o objetivo deste artigo apresentar os resultados deste estudo. Foi utilizado um desenho prospectivo, procedendo-se a inquéritos sorológicos de uma população amostral de indivíduos residentes em 30 distintos espaços da cidade - "áreas sentinelas". Os resultados revelaram elevadas soroprevalência (67,7% e soroincidência (70,6% para os sorotipos circulantes (DEN-1 e DEN-2, com grande variabilidade nos valores entre as 30 áreas estudadas. Verificou-se que a efetividade das medidas de combate vetorial é muito reduzida e, embora tenha sido encontrada uma Fração Prevenível de 29,7 %, mesmo em áreas sentinelas com Índices de Infestação Predial According to the current scientific knowledge, the only available means of controlling infections caused by the dengue virus is the elimination of its principal urban vector, the Aedes aegypti mosquito. Brazil has been implementing programs to fight the mosquito for decades; however, since the beginning of the 1980's the geographic range of infestation has been expanding steadily, resulting in increased circulation of the virus, large epidemics, and increased endemic

  7. Caracterização mineralógica de azulejos de Salvador e Belém dos séculos XVI, XVII e XIX

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    Thais A. B. Caminha Sanjad

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available O presente artigo trata da caracterização da composição mineralógica de azulejos antigos pertencentes aos séculos XVI, XVII e XIX, coletados em Salvador e Belém, visando à identificação da sua provável matéria-prima e a possível temperatura de queima. Quartzo foi identificado em todas as amostras. As demais fases cristalinas encontradas foram: mullita, cristobalita, calcita, anortita, hematita, gehlenita, diopsídio e wollastonita. Foi possível dividir as amostras em três grupos, em função da possível matéria-prima e temperatura de queima: grupo 1 - caulinita e quartzo, T entre 1200º e 1728º C; grupo 2 - quartzo, caulinita, calcita e/ou dolomita e óxido ou hidróxido de ferro, T entre 900º e 1200ºC; grupo 3 - quartzo, argilominerais (provavelmente caulinita, calcita e/ou dolomita e hidróxido ou óxido de ferro, T entre 1200º e 1565º C.The present article is a study about the mineralogical composition of ancient tiles from centuries XVI, XVII and XIX, found in Belém and Salvador, in order to interpret the possible raw material and burning temperature. Quartz was identified in all samples. Other crystalline phases found are mullite, cristobalite, calcite, anorthite, hematite, gehlenite, diopside and wollastonite. Based on the probable raw material and probable burning temperature it was possible to organize the samples into three groups: group 1 - kaolinite and quartz, T between 1200º and 1728º C; group 2 - kaolinite, calcite and/or dolomite and iron oxide or hydroxide, T between 900º e 1200ºC; group 3 - quartz, clay minerals (probably kaolinite, calcite and/or dolomite, iron oxide or hydroxide, and T between 1200º e 1565º C.

  8. Desempenho de idosos na bateria cognitiva CERAD: relações com variáveis sociodemográficas e saúde percebida Performance of the elderly in the CERAD cognitive battery: relations with socio-demographic variables and perceived health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pricila Cristina Correa Ribeiro

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do estudo foi avaliar o desempenho de idosos em testes cognitivos da bateria CERAD e sua relação com variáveis sociodemográficas e saúde percebida. Foram estudados 158 idosos integrantes do estudo PENSA (Processo do Envelhecimento Saudável. A média de idade foi de 70,2 anos ( DP=8,2 e a média de escolaridade de 7 anos ( DP =4. O melhor desempenho cognitivo, na maior parte dos testes, esteve associado a mais anos de escolaridade, menor idade e viver com companheiro. No teste de nomeação, observou-se melhor desempenho entre os homens, e melhor desempenho nos testes de memória esteve associado com melhor saúde percebida. Concluiu-se que escolaridade, idade, gênero, estado civil e saúde geral percebida implicaram diferenças significativas no desempenho cognitivo dos idosos.CERAD cognitive battery and its relation with socio-demographic variables and perceived health. The sample was composed by 158 community-dwelling elderly people who participated in the PENSA study (Study of Healthy Aging Process. Ages varied from 60 to 99 years old ( M=70.2; SD=8.2; with an average of seven years of education ( SD =4. Higher cognitive performance was associated with higher education, lower age, and having a partner. In the naming test, men outperformed women whereas higher memory performance was associated with better perceived health among women. It was concluded that education, age, gender, marital status and perceived health may be associated to variability in cognitive performance among elderly people.

  9. Tsunami hazard assessment in El Salvador, Central America, from seismic sources through flooding numerical models

    OpenAIRE

    Álvarez-Gómez, José Antonio; Aniel-Quiroga Zorrilla, Íñigo; Gutiérrez Gutiérrez, Omar Quetzalcóatl; Larreynaga Murcia, Jeniffer; González Rodríguez, Ernesto Mauricio; M. Castro; Gavidia Medina, Francisco; Aguirre Ayerbe, Ignacio; González-Riancho Calzada, Pino; Carreño Herrero, Emilio

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT. El Salvador is the smallest and most densely populated country in Central America; its coast has an approximate lenght of 320 km, 29 municipalities and more than 700.000 inhabitants. In El Salvador there were 15 recorded tsunamis between 1859 and 2012, 3 of them causing damages and resulting in hundreds of victims. Hazard assessment is commonly based on propagation numerical models for earthquake-generated tsunamis and can be approached through both probabilistic and deterministic m...

  10. Social Network Characteristics and HIV Vulnerability Among Transgender Persons in San Salvador: Identifying Opportunities for HIV Prevention Strategies

    OpenAIRE

    Barrington, Clare; Wejnert, Cyprian; Guardado, Maria Elena; Nieto, Ana Isabel; Bailey, Gabriela Paz

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to improve understanding of HIV vulnerability and opportunities for HIV prevention within the social networks of male-to-female transgender persons in San Salvador, El Salvador. We compare HIV prevalence and behavioral data from a sample of gay-identified men who have sex with men (MSM) (n = 279), heterosexual or bisexual identified MSM (n = 229) and transgender persons (n = 67) recruited using Respondent Driven Sampling. Transgender persons consistently reported ...

  11. Descentralização, clientelismo e capital social na governança urbana: comparando Belo Horizonte e Salvador

    OpenAIRE

    Boschi Renato Raul

    1999-01-01

    In this comparison of Belo Horizonte?s and Salvador?s experiences within three arenas of local government, the article focuses on the viability of institutional arrangements based on decentralization and citizen participation. It concludes that the relative success achieved when inaugurating city master plans, participatory budgeting (where civil society has direct input in budget definitions), and sectoral councils (councils for decentralized policy issue areas) is linked to three factors: p...

  12. Ethnographies of the Brau: body, masculinity and race in the reafricanization in Salvador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osmundo Pinho

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article, the author aims to explore the developments in the process known as "cultural and political reafricanization in Salvador," embodied in the transitory crystallization of a specific social figure known as the brau. This refers to an inflection of masculinity informed by the racial and gender tensions in Salvador, as well as a local re-appropriation of cultural themes in the African diaspora. The Braus were (are Negro youths, in the periphery, who re-invent a Negro visualness/bodiliness from re-readings of the North American soul 'culture' and are at the same time stigmatized by the middle class as violent, of "bad taste" and hyper-sexualized, that is, excessively 'Negro' and excessively 'masculinized,' in a hyperbolization, which, in a sense, contradicts the stigmatization.

  13. ISO/TC33 Meeting Held in Salvador,Brasil,October 2009

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    @@ ISO/TC33 Meeting was held in Salvador Brasil on 12-13 October 2009.Delegates from UK,USA,Germany,Australia,Japan and China attended the meeting.Two Chinese delegates,the new chairman of ISO/TC33 Li Hongxia fthe committee chaiman of SAC/TC193 and the president of Sinosteel Luoyang Institute of Refractories Research Co.,Ltd.)and Zhang Yongfhng(vice general secretary of SAC/TC193),were present.

  14. An interpretive study of food, snack and beverage advertisements in rural and urban El Salvador

    OpenAIRE

    Amanzadeh, Baharak; Sokal-Gutierrez, Karen; BARKER, Judith C.

    2015-01-01

    Background Globalization and increased marketing of non-nutritious foods and beverages are driving a nutrition transition in developing countries, adversely affecting the health of vulnerable populations. This is a visual interpretive study of food, snack, and beverage advertisements (ads) in rural and urban El Salvador to discern the strategies and messages used to promote consumption of highly processed, commercialized products. Methods Digital photographs of billboard and wall advertisemen...

  15. Transitions to peace effects on internal security forces in Nicaragua, El Salvador and Guatemala

    OpenAIRE

    Atha, Roberto J.

    2008-01-01

    This thesis examines the effect of transitions to peace in Nicaragua, El Salvador and Guatemala on internal security forces. It reveals how the influence of the military affected the implementation of internal security reforms, influencing the professionalism and effectiveness of police forces in the fight against violence and gangs today. The research shows Sandinista influence allowed Nicaragua to maintain an experienced core of security personnel that has confronted the present challeng...

  16. Religion and Architecture: Designing a temple of Candomble in Salvador Bahia, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Robles, Joaquin G.

    2007-01-01

    My thesis aims to create a place of worship for the people of the neighborhood of Plataforma, located in Salvador Bahia, Brazil. Candomble was introduced to Brazil during times of slavery and is the root of Afro-Brazilian culture. In the chaotic world of favelas (Portuguese for slums) the religion of Candomble brings people together and gives order to the community. The neighborhood's current temple also functions as the local priest's home. As an area of low socioeconomic status, Plataf...

  17. Interactions between Climate, Land Use and Vegetation Fire Occurrences in El Salvador

    OpenAIRE

    Dolors Armenteras; Cerian Gibbes; Carla A. Vivacqua; Juan Sebastián Espinosa; Wania Duleba; Fabio Goncalves; Christopher Castro

    2016-01-01

    Vegetation burning is a global environmental threat that results in local ecological, economic and social impacts but also has large-scale implications for global change. The burning is usually a result of interacting factors such as climate, land use and vegetation type. Despite its importance as a factor shaping ecological, economic and social processes, countries highly vulnerable to climate change in Central America, such as El Salvador, lack an assessment of this complex relationship. In...

  18. Susceptibility assessment of earthquake-triggered landslides in El Salvador using logistic regression

    OpenAIRE

    García Rodríguez, María José; Malpica Velasco, José Antonio; Benito Oterino, Belen; Díaz, Manuel

    2008-01-01

    This work has evaluated the probability of earthquake-triggered landslide occurrence in the whole of El Salvador, with a Geographic Information System (GIS) and a logistic regression model. Slope gradient, elevation, aspect, mean annual precipitation, lithology, land use, and terrain roughness are the predictor variables used to determine the dependent variable of occurrence or nonoccurrence of landslides within an individual grid cell. The results illustrate the importance of terrain roughne...

  19. Federico García Lorca y Salvador Novo : encuentro en Buenos Aires

    OpenAIRE

    García Gutiérrez, Rosa

    1999-01-01

    In 1933, the Mexican writer Salvador Novo met Federico García Lorca in Buenos Aires. Although they did not spend much time together, a very close relationship arose between them. One of the results of this relationship was Seamen Rhymes, a plaquette of which only a hundred copies were printed and which included a bilingual poem by Novo and four exclusive drawings by Lorca. This essay focuses on the analysis of Lorca and Novo's poetic developments and emphasizes their similar...

  20. El Salvador and Guatemala security sector reform and political party system effects on organized crime

    OpenAIRE

    Moran, Patrick J.

    2009-01-01

    Approved for public release, distribution unlimited Since the signing of peace treaties in El Salvador and Guatemala in 1992 and 1996 respectively, both countries have experienced exploding levels of crime and violence as a result of gangs, drug trafficking organizations, and organized crime. Because both nations share many common traits, a general perception is that the causes and effects of criminal activity are similar in both countries. The patterns, causes, and effects of criminal ...

  1. Validation of a food frequency questionnaire designed for adolescents in Salvador, Bahia, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Jean Márcia Oliveira MASCARENHAS; Rita de Cássia Ribeiro SILVA; Maria Ester Pereira Conceição MACHADO; SANTOS, Carlos Antonio de Souza Teles; Marchioni, Dirce Maria Lobo; Barreto, Maurício Lima

    2016-01-01

    Objective: This study assessed the validity of a Food Frequency Questionnaire used to assess food intake in adolescents in Salvador, Bahia, Brazil. Methods: Seventy adolescents enrolled in public schools aged 11 to 17 years participated in this study. The dietary intake of the adolescents was assessed using the Food Frequency Questionnaire and the mean value of three-day food record, used as the reference method. The mean (and standard deviation) energy and nutrient intakes estimated from th...

  2. Baseline physicochemical investigations on waters from three blue holes, San Salvador Island, Bahamas

    OpenAIRE

    Jacqueline Sampson; Ken Guilbeault

    2013-01-01

    Physicochemical parameters have been studied in the water column of Inkwell, Church, and Watling’s Blue Holes (San Salvador Island, Bahamas). Water samples were collected from multiple depths at the three blue holes to identify and characterize changes of physical and chemical parameters. The values were compared to the average ocean concentrations in order to assess how connectivity to the ocean, evaporation, freshwater input, and bacterial activity influence water rock interactions. The sal...

  3. Influenza Illness among Case-Patients Hospitalized for Suspected Dengue, El Salvador, 2012

    OpenAIRE

    Chacon, Rafael; Clara, Alexey Wilfrido; Jara, Jorge; Armero, Julio; de Lozano, Celina; El Omeiri, Nathalie; Widdowson, Marc-Alain; Azziz-Baumgartner, Eduardo

    2015-01-01

    We estimate the proportion of patients hospitalized for suspected dengue that tested positive for influenza virus in El Salvador during the 2012 influenza season. We tested specimens from 321 hospitalized patients: 198 patients with SARI and 123 patients with suspected dengue. Among 121 hospitalized suspected dengue (two co-infected excluded) patients, 28% tested positive for dengue and 19% positive for influenza; among 35 with suspected dengue and respiratory symptoms, 14% were positive for ...

  4. Carles Salvador i la reivindicació de l'ús social de la llengua catalana

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    Francesc Pérez i Moragón

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Carles Salvador described himself as «a politician of language». Already at an early age, he staunchly defended the right to speak Catalan in the Valencian Country at every level, beginning in primary school. Pérez i Moragón situates this posture within the Valencian linguistic panorama in an era characterized by the dictatorship of Primo de Rivera, the Second Republic, and the Franco regime.

  5. Violence against children:preliminary evidence from Colombia, El Salvador, Cambodia and Ecuador.

    OpenAIRE

    Blanco, F.; M. G. Breglia; L.Guarcello; Valdivia, C

    2008-01-01

    The issue of child abuse in developing countries is of utmost importance for designing policies directed to vulnerable children and aimed at combating the worst forms of child labour. Unfortunately there is limited empirical basis for formulating policies and programmes addressing violence against children in developing countries. This preliminary study uses data from El Salvador(SIMPOC 2001), Colombia (SIMPOC 2001), Cambodia (SIMPOC, 2001) and Ecuador (SIMPOC, 2001) and constitutes a startin...

  6. GPS detection of ionospheric perturbation before the 13 February 2001, El Salvador earthquake

    OpenAIRE

    Plotkin, V. V.

    2002-01-01

    A large earthquake of M6.6 occurred on 13 February 2001 at 14:22:05 UT in El Salvador. We detected ionospheric perturbation before this earthquake using GPS data received from CORS network. Systematic decreases of ionospheric total electron content during two days before the earthquake onset were observed at set of stations near the earthquake location and probably in region of about 1000 km from epicenter. This result is consistent with t...

  7. Crónica de la prensa salvadoreña: imaginarios que migran

    OpenAIRE

    Amparo Marroquín Parducci

    2008-01-01

    EL ARTÍCULO PRESENTA UN ESTUDIO DE LAS NARRATIVAS QUE LA PRENSA escrita ha venido construyendo en El Salvador en torno al fenómeno de la migración. Se argumenta que a través del tema de la migración se construye una poética de nación imaginada, y conjuntamente, se da la construcción de las alteridades que desde el discurso oficial se han mantenido vigentes.

  8. Red Lionfish (Pterois volitans) Invade San Salvador, Bahamas: No Early Effects on Coral and Fish Communities

    OpenAIRE

    Alexander, Amanda K.; Haynes, James M.

    2011-01-01

    Biological invaders are a leading contributor to global losses of biodiversity. A recent invader to the waters surrounding San Salvador, Bahamas, the red lionfish, Pterois volitans, was first reported in 2006; by 2009 they were common in waters 2-40 m deep around the island. Our study collected data on coral communities and fish assemblages at three patch reef complexes (Rice Bay, Rocky Point, Lindsay Reef) in 2007, during the initial phase of the invasion, and compared the results to a nearl...

  9. Testing cosmic dose rate models for ESR: Dating corals and molluscs on San Salvador, Bahamas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sealevel curves are best developed on tectonically stable coastlines, like San Salvador, where eolianites preserve transgressive and regressive phases associated with Quaternary high seastands, while reef facies mark the highstands. At 11 locations around San Salvador, terrestrial molluscs (Cerion) from the eolianites, lagoonal bivalves (Codakia), and corals from the highstand deposits were dated by ESR. Volumetrically averaged sedimentary dose rates were calculated from sedimentary geochemistry and time-averaged cosmic dose rates from each sample's current and past geologic contexts. Rice Bay Formation corals dated at 3.9 ± 0.3 to 7.1 ± 0.4 ka (OIS 1). Minimum ages for the Cockburn Town Member's regressive phase ranged from 49 ± 6 to 75 ± 8 ka, correlating with OIS 3-4. Codakia dates showed that an OIS 5a sealevel approached modern levels at 91-78 ka. In situ corals from the Cockburn Town Reef averaged from 127 ± 6 to 138 ± 10 ka, correlating well with OIS 5e. Ages from the Reef's rubble zones hint that some coral reefs grew as early as OIS 7, but were likely reworked during OIS 5. San Salvador preserves deposits from three mid to late Quaternary highstands above, and as many as three that closely approach, modern sealevel.

  10. Testing cosmic dose rate models for ESR: Dating corals and molluscs on San Salvador, Bahamas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deely, A.E. [RFK Science Research Institute, Glenwood Landing, NY, 11547-0866 (United States); Blackwell, B.A.B., E-mail: bonnie.a.b.blackwell@williams.edu [RFK Science Research Institute, Glenwood Landing, NY, 11547-0866 (United States); Dept. of Chemistry, Williams College, Williamstown MA, 01267-2692 (United States); Mylroie, J.E. [Dept. of Geosciences, Mississippi State University, MS, 39762-5448 (United States); Carew, J.L. [Dept. of Geology and Environmental Geosciences, College of Charleston, Charleston, SC 29424 (United States); Blickstein, J.I.B. [RFK Science Research Institute, Glenwood Landing, NY, 11547-0866 (United States); Skinner, A.R. [RFK Science Research Institute, Glenwood Landing, NY, 11547-0866 (United States); Dept. of Chemistry, Williams College, Williamstown MA, 01267-2692 (United States)

    2011-09-15

    Sealevel curves are best developed on tectonically stable coastlines, like San Salvador, where eolianites preserve transgressive and regressive phases associated with Quaternary high seastands, while reef facies mark the highstands. At 11 locations around San Salvador, terrestrial molluscs (Cerion) from the eolianites, lagoonal bivalves (Codakia), and corals from the highstand deposits were dated by ESR. Volumetrically averaged sedimentary dose rates were calculated from sedimentary geochemistry and time-averaged cosmic dose rates from each sample's current and past geologic contexts. Rice Bay Formation corals dated at 3.9 {+-} 0.3 to 7.1 {+-} 0.4 ka (OIS 1). Minimum ages for the Cockburn Town Member's regressive phase ranged from 49 {+-} 6 to 75 {+-} 8 ka, correlating with OIS 3-4. Codakia dates showed that an OIS 5a sealevel approached modern levels at 91-78 ka. In situ corals from the Cockburn Town Reef averaged from 127 {+-} 6 to 138 {+-} 10 ka, correlating well with OIS 5e. Ages from the Reef's rubble zones hint that some coral reefs grew as early as OIS 7, but were likely reworked during OIS 5. San Salvador preserves deposits from three mid to late Quaternary highstands above, and as many as three that closely approach, modern sealevel.

  11. Complicações neurológicas em anemia falciforme: avaliação neuropsicológica do desenvolvimento com o NEPSY Neurological complications in sickle cell anemia: a developmental neuropsychological assessment using NEPSY

    OpenAIRE

    Samantha Nunest; Denise L. Miranda; Aline T. Reis; Alice Maria S. Gramacho; Rita Lucena; Nayara Argollo

    2010-01-01

    Estudo de caso de duas crianças portadoras de anemia falciforme, com complicações neurológicas. Utilizou-se uma ampla bateria neuropsicológica - NEPSY. Uma criança apresentou acidente vascular cerebral com paresia de hemicorpo esquerdo, e a outra, ataque isquêmico transitório. As avaliações neuropsicológicas demonstraram que havia extenso prejuízo cognitivo no primeiro caso, em contraste com comprometimento leve no segundo. Baixas pontuações nas funções de atenção visual, memória operacional,...

  12. Fatores associados a sintomas de transtornos alimentares entre escolares da rede pública da cidade do Salvador, Bahia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thaisy Cristina Honorato Santos Alves

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Identificar prevalência e fatores associados aos sintomas de transtornos alimentares entre escolares. MÉTODOS: Estudo transversal envolvendo 365 escolares, de 7 a 14 anos de idade, do ensino fundamental de Salvador/BA. Aplicou-se nos escolares 13 anos de idade, o Teste de Atitudes Alimentares-26, o Teste de Investigação Bulímica de Edinburgh e o Teste de Imagem Corporal. O Child Behavior Checklist foi aplicado para todos os escolares. Coletaram-se dados antropométricos e alimentares, sobre estilo de vida, demográficos, socioeconômicos e puberais. Na análise estatística utilizou-se regressão de Poisson. RESULTADOS: Sintomas de transtornos alimentares estavam presentes em 23% dos escolares. Idade (RP: 1,25; IC95%: 1,11-1,40, insatisfação com imagem corporal (RP: 4,23; IC95%: 2,53-7,08, problema de comportamento de internalização (RP: 1,78; IC95%: 1,11-2,85, substituição das refeições por consumo de balas (RP: 2,14; IC95%: 1,24-3,69, maior consumo de frutas e outros vegetais (RP: 2,49; IC95%: 1,55-3,99 e escolaridade materna de 5ª a 8ª série (RP: 1,95; IC95%: 1,06-3,58 associaram-se ao aumento da ocorrência dos sintomas de transtornos alimentares. CONCLUSÃO: Observou-se alta prevalência de sintomas de transtornos alimentares entre os escolares; fatores sociodemográficos e comportamentais estavam associados ao evento.

  13. Grande corporação e estruturação da região industrial e urbana nos arredores de Salvador-Ba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristóvão Brito

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Ao longo da primeira metade do século XX, a formação da riqueza na Bahia dava-se de maneira muito limitada, baseada em atividades agromercantis e financeiras dependentes da generosidade da natureza e das flutuações dos preços dos produtos nos mercados estrangeiros. O Recôncavo, como núcleo histórico da base econômica baiana, refletia nos aspectos técnicos e produtivos, na infra-estrutura e na sociedade, o nível declinante das condições de vida e da geração de riqueza. É nesse ambiente que a Petrobras insere-se a partir da década de 1950 e passa a reestruturar a organização social, técnica e produtiva em torno da área onde ela produz e industrializa o petróleo e o gás natural. Como resultado disso, ao longo da segunda metade do século XX, emergiu um espaço urbano e industrial complexo nos arredores do município de Salvador.

  14. Cepas invasivas de pneumococo isoladas de crianças e adolescentes em Salvador Invasive pneumococcal strains isolated from children and adolescents in Salvador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiana M. Nascimento-Carvalho

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: descrever resistência antimicrobiana e sorotipos de cepas de pneumococo. MÉTODOS: durante 57 meses, foi conduzida uma vigilância de cepas invasivas de pneumococo de pacientes com idade OBJECTIVE: describe the antimicrobial resistance and serotype distribution of pneumococcal strains. METHODS: in a 57-month period, a laboratory-based surveillance of invasive pneumococcal strains from patients aged < 20 years was conducted. Pneumococcus was identified by means of tests for solubility in bile and optochin. Pneumococcal resistance to penicillin was screened by 1µg oxacillin disc and minimal inhibitory concentration was determined for the strains not susceptible to penicillin. Disc diffusion and broth microdilution methods were used for surveillance of resistance to other antimicrobials. Pneumococci were serotyped by means of the Neufeld-Quellung reactions. RESULTS: of 70 patients, 57.1% were males. The mean age was 1.92 yrs (mean 3.19 + 3.66 yrs, range 1 month to 19.5 yrs; 52.9% and 81.4% were < 2 yrs and < 5 yrs, respectively. The strains were isolated from blood (91.4%, CSF (2.9%, pleural (2.9%, peritoneal (1.4% and abscess (1.4% fluids from patients with pneumonia (77.1%, fever without localizing signs (10.0%, meningitis (4.3%, others (8.6%. Resistance was detected to penicillin (20.0%, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (65.7%, tetracycline (21.4%, ofloxacin (6.3%, erythromycin (5.7%, clindamycin (2.9%. All tested strains were susceptible to chloramphenicol and vancomycin. Among penicillin-resistant strains, high resistance was detected in one, the same that showed intermediate resistance to cefotaxime. The most frequent serotypes were: 14 (22.9%, 5 and 6A (10.0% each, 6B and 19F (8.6% each, 9V, 18C and 23F (5.7% each. Resistance to penicillin was detected in serotypes 14 (71.4%, 6B and 19F (14.3% each. CONCLUSIONS: of 70 strains, 67.2% were classified as serotypes included in the heptavalent conjugate pneumococcal vaccine as well as were all penicillin-resistant strains.

  15. Alterações neuropsicológicas em dependentes de cocaína/crack internados: dados preliminares Neuropsychological impairments in crack cocaine-dependent inpatients: preliminary findings

    OpenAIRE

    Paulo J Cunha; Sergio Nicastri; Luciana P Gomes; Renata M. Moino; Marco A Peluso

    2004-01-01

    OBJETIVO: Embora o uso de cocaína seja um problema significativo de saúde pública, há uma relativa escassez de dados científicos sobre as conseqüências neurocognitivas decorrentes da exposição à substância. MÉTODOS: Esse estudo avaliou a associação entre dependência de cocaína e crack e desempenho cognitivo. Uma ampla bateria de testes neuropsicológicos foi aplicada a 15 dependentes de cocaína, em abstinência por duas semanas, em tratamento em regime de internação, e em 15 sujeitos controles,...

  16. Mineralogical and textural evidences of melt transfer in a granulite from the Paleoproterozoic Itabuna-Salvador-Curaça belt (Salvador da Bahia, Brazil)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goncalves, Philippe; Santos de Souza, Jailma; Barbosa, Johildo; Bourque, Hugo; Floess, David

    2014-05-01

    In pelitic rocks, the effect of melt transfer (loss and/or gain) on phase relations can be successfully predicted via phase equilibrium modeling and more particularly using pseudosections with bulk composition as a variable (e.g. White et al., 2001). One of the most obvious effect of melt loss is the dehydration of the rock that limits further melting and favors the preservation of peak metamorphic assemblage. However, in most cases, melt loss has a limited effect that can be hardly seen mineralogically. Indeed, composition of phases like garnet, cordierite or plagioclase, that are first-order metamorphic phase, will not be affected significantly by melt loss. Therefore, evidences of melt extraction must be evidenced texturally. The goal of this contribution is to present an example where both mineralogical and textural evidences of melt extraction have been inferred. The studied sample is a pelitic granulite from the Paleoproterozoic Itabuna-Salvador-Curaça belt (Salvador da Bahia, Brazil). It is located in the city of Salvador da Bahia, next to the Farol da Bara. Structurally, it is located in a steeply deeping high strain zone that could have play a major role on the segregation and transfer of melt. The gneissic foliation is marked by a compositional banding with centimer-wide quartzo-feldspathic leucosomes in a garnet-bearing granulite. Leucosomes are almost systematically surrounded by a darker layer that is quartz-undersaturated and enriched in spinel and primatic sillimanite. This silica undersaturation is interpreted as the effect of extreme melt extraction and was modeled using phase diagram section. An interesting feature of the rock is that garnet grain size decreases and the number of garnet grains increases in the melanosome away from the leucosome. Furthermore, the type, amount and shape of inclusions in garnet, chemical composition and zoning in garnet also varies greatly and continuously across the gneissic foliation. Texturally, the presence of

  17. Cuando los hijos se quedan en El Salvador: Familias transnacionales y reunificación familiar de inmigrantes salvadoreños en Washington, D.C.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sánchez Molina, Raúl

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Current migratory flows develope new social-cultural patterns such as transnational families. Using ethnographic data collected in Washington, D.C. and El Salvador, this article describes and analyzes the different strategies develop by Salvadoran immigrants living in the Washington, D.C. metropolitan area to re-shape their domestic units. The immigrant modes of incorporation into the US societies and the logic of family unity affect these configurations to such an extent that until all the family members can be together again, the pre-migratory cultural patterns and those acquired in the host society affect in the transnational family configurations.

    Los actuales movimientos migratorios están propiciando el desarrollo de patrones socioculturales transnacionales que, en el ámbito de las unidades domésticas, permiten configuraciones de familias transnacionales. A partir de los datos obtenidos en una investigación etnográfica transnacional, este artículo describe y analiza las estrategias de inmigrantes en la reestructuración de sus familias. La lógica de la unidad familiar, por un lado, y los modos de incorporación de los salvadoreños al área metropolitana de Washington, D.C., por otro, explican las estrategias utilizadas por los inmigrantes en las reestructuración de sus unidades domésticas. De tal manera que hasta que los miembros de la familia puedan estar juntos de nuevo, tanto los patrones culturales premigratorios, como los adquiridos en las sociedades de asentamiento influyen en las configuraciones de las familias transnacionales.

  18. Estudo piloto da prevalência do transtorno de déficit de atenção e hiperatividade entre crianças escolares na cidade do Salvador, Bahia, Brasil A pilot study of prevalence of hyperactivity and attention deficit disorder in scholar children in Salvador, Bahia, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Carlos Cruz Freire

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available O presente estudo se propõe a estimar a prevalência do transtorno de déficit de atenção e hiperatividade (TDAH em escolares através de inquérito com professores. Foi realizado um estudo piloto baseado no total de alunos do ensino fundamental, em escolas da rede pública e privada da cidade do Salvador, BA. O instrumento diagnóstico utilizado foi a Escala de TDAH versão para professores. Oito crianças (5,3% apresentavam alta probabilidade de ter o subtipo predominantemente desatento, três escolares (2% apresentavam alta probabilidade de apresentar o subtipo predominantemente hiperativo/impulsivo e uma criança (0,6% apresentava alta probabilidade de apresentar o subtipo combinado. Crianças com TDAH podem ter sérios problemas de funcionamento social. O problema não se resume aos déficits trazidos pela doença, mas à associação co-mórbida com outros transtornos, que pode resultar em comprometimento social grave. O reconhecimento precoce e o manejo adequado do TDAH pode redirecionar o desenvolvimento educacional e psicossocial dessas crianças.This study aims to estimate the prevalence of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD in scholar children through a teacher's questionnaire. A pilot study was conducted based in the total number of students under high school, in public and private schools in Salvador, Bahia, Brazil. The instrument used was Teacher's version of ADHS scale. Eight kids (5.3% were recognized as highly probability of attention deficit disorder, three (2% with high probability of subtype hyperactive/impulsive, and one (0.6% as combined subtype. Children with ADHD might have serious social problems, not only brought by the disorder, but also due to co morbidity with other disorders, leading to serious social withdrawn. Early diagnostic and treatment of ADHD might improve educational and psychosocial development of these kids.

  19. Potential of Pigeon Creek, San Salvador, Bahamas, as Nursery Habitat for Juvenile Reef Fish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Conboy, Ian Christopher

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available This project assessed the significance of Pigeon Creek, San Salvador, Bahamas as a nursery habitat for coral reef fishes. Pigeon Creek’s perimeter is lined with mangrove and limestone bedrock. The bottom is sand or seagrass and ranges in depth from exposed at low tide to a 3-m deep, tide-scoured channel. In June 2006 and January 2007, fish were counted and their maturity was recorded while sampling 112 of 309 possible 50-m transects along the perimeter of the Pigeon Creek. Excluding silversides (Atherinidae, 52% of fish counted, six families each comprised >1% of the total abundance (Scaridae/parrotfishes, 35.3%; Lutjanidae/snappers, 23.9%; Haemulidae/grunts, 21.0%; Gerreidae/mojarras, 8.5%; Pomacentridae/damselfishes, 6.1%; Labridae/wrasses, 2.4%. There were few differences in effort-adjusted counts among habitats (mangrove, bedrock, mixed, sections (north, middle, southwest and seasons (summer 2006 and winter 2007. Red Mangrove (Rhizophora mangle, covering 68% of the perimeter was where 62% of the fish were counted. Snappers, grunts and parrotfishes are important food fishes and significant families in terms of reef ecology around San Salvador. Mangrove was the most important habitat for snappers and grunts; bedrock was most important for parrotfishes. The southwest section was important for snappers, grunts and parrotfishes, the north section for grunts and parrotfishes, and the middle section for snappers. Among the non-silverside fish counted, 91.2% were juveniles. These results suggest that Pigeon Creek is an important nursery for the coral reefs surrounding San Salvador and should be protected from potential disturbances.

  20. Chaparrastique (San Mighel) Volcano Eruptions since Dec. 29th, 2013, El Salvador

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez-Hackert, B.; Bajo, J. V.; Escobar, D.; Gutierrez, E.

    2015-12-01

    The December 29th, 2013 eruption of Chaparrastique (San Miguel) volcano in El Salvador came as a surprise and was the first of several small eruptions in the past two years. They came after many years of preceeding earthquake swarms and significant degassing. Being the second volcano to erupt in El Salvador in less than ten years, it caused grave concern for the population of the country. Although they were not large eruptions (VEI 2), the materials were widespread and caused deposits of volcanic tephra as far at the capital San Salvador and closed the airports in the vecinity for a couple of days. This is a summary of the research, mitigation and services that were done days after the first eruption on December 29, 2013 and the follwing months. In conjunction with the team of the Direccion General del Observatorio Ambiental from the Ministerio de Medio Ambiente y Recursos Naturales possible first response strategies were discussed and decided to obtain results that could be quickly put in place to mitigate and decide on actions such as evacuations or relocations of people living in volcano related high-risk hazard areas. Collection of samples, mapping and measurements of the volcanic tephra in the field together with Digital Globe and areal photography after the event, allowed identification of four different volcanic products that can be correlated to the opening of the vent and ending in the eruption of juvenile materials of basaltic to trachybasaltic composition, and the production of a lahar hazard map based on LaharZ.

  1. Interactions between Climate, Land Use and Vegetation Fire Occurrences in El Salvador

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    Dolors Armenteras

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Vegetation burning is a global environmental threat that results in local ecological, economic and social impacts but also has large-scale implications for global change. The burning is usually a result of interacting factors such as climate, land use and vegetation type. Despite its importance as a factor shaping ecological, economic and social processes, countries highly vulnerable to climate change in Central America, such as El Salvador, lack an assessment of this complex relationship. In this study we rely on remotely sensed measures of the Normalized Vegetation Difference Index (NDVI and thermal anomaly detections by the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS sensor to identify vegetation cover changes and fire occurrences. We also use land use data and rainfall observations derived from the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM data to determine the spatial and temporal variability and interactions of these factors. Our results indicate a highly marked seasonality of fire occurrence linked to the climatic variability with a peak of fire occurrences in 2004 and 2013. Low vegetation indices occurred in March–April, around two months after the driest period of the year (December–February, corresponding to months with high detection of fires. Spatially, 65.6% of the fires were recurrent and clustered in agriculture/cropland areas and within 1 km of roads (70% and only a 4.7% of fires detected were associated with forests. Remaining forests in El Salvador deserve more attention due to underestimated consequences of forest fires. The identification of these clear patterns can be used as a baseline to better shape management of fire regimes and support decision making in this country. Recommendations resulting from this work include focusing on fire risk models and agriculture fires and long-term ecological and economic consequences of those. Furthermore, El Salvador will need to include agricultural fires in the

  2. Red Lionfish (Pterois volitans Invade San Salvador, Bahamas: No Early Effects on Coral and Fish Communities

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    Alexander, Amanda K.

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Biological invaders are a leading contributor to global losses of biodiversity. A recent invader to the waters surrounding San Salvador, Bahamas, the red lionfish, Pterois volitans, was first reported in 2006; by 2009 they were common in waters 2-40 m deep around the island. Our study collected data on coral communities and fish assemblages at three patch reef complexes (Rice Bay, Rocky Point, Lindsay Reef in 2007, during the initial phase of the invasion, and compared the results to a nearly identical study done in 2001 before P. volitans colonized San Salvador. Prey selection and quantity of consumption by P. volitans were also examined. Coral and fish species richness, diversity, percent cover (corals and abundance (fish were similar in 2001 and 2007. Of the 5,078 fish recorded during our study on shallow patch reefs, only two were P. volitans, but they were more prevalent in deeper water along San Salvador’s “wall.” Captured P. volitans ranged in size from 19-32 cm, all longer than maturity length. Pallid goby (Coryphopterus eidolon, black cap basslet (Gramma melacara and red night shrimp (Rynchocienetes rigens were the most commonly identified stomach contents. The effects of the successful invasion and increasing population of P. volitans on San Salvador’s reef ecosystem are uncertain at this time; future monitoring of potential changes in coral and fish communities on the patch reefs of San Salvador is recommended to determine if population control measures need to be considered. Initial post-invasion data (2007, along with pre-invasion data (2001, are valuable benchmarks for future studies.

  3. Contextos funerários e estudo antropológico dos restos ósseos humanos dos hipogeus de Torre Velha 3 (São Salvador, Serpa): Uma aproximação ao estudo das comunidades humanas do Bronze do Sudoeste

    OpenAIRE

    Fidalgo, Daniel Filipe Ferreira

    2014-01-01

    O principal objectivo deste trabalho de investigação é aprofundar os dados conhecidos acerca das comunidades humanas que habitaram a região do Baixo Alentejo durante o Bronze Médio do Sudoeste (2070 – 1930 a.C. a 1170 – 1050 a.C.). Foi realizada uma análise da antropologia funerária e dos restos ósseos exumados de 21 dos 25 hipogeus registados em Torre Velha 3 (São Salvador, Serpa). Os restos ósseos humanos presentes nestas estruturas representam um total de 28 indivíduos, 2...

  4. Periodismo salvadoreño: de la intolerancia política a las posibilidades informativas

    OpenAIRE

    Mario Alfredo Cantarero

    2001-01-01

    En este artículo se plantea la historia reciente del periodismo salvadoreño: antes de los acuerdos de paz y después de los acuerdos de paz. Se sostiene que durante la guerra el periodismo se realizaba con las limitaciones que impuso la intolerancia política. A partir de los acuerdos de paz, por la distensión política y la instauración de la democracia, el periodismo tiene mayores posibilidades de realizar un trabajo más profesional. Sin embargo, profesionalizarlo más implica superar dificulta...

  5. Problemática y conocimiento actual de Las tefras tierra blanca joven en el área Metropolitana de San Salvador, El Salvador Problematic and current knowledge of the tierra blanca joven tephras in the metropolitan area of San Salvador, El Salvador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José A. Chávez

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available En la actualidad el Área Metropolitana de San Salvador experimenta problemas graves de movimientos de ladera, erosión, colapso o asentamientos del terreno; fenómenos que son englobados popularmente en El Salvador por el término “cárcavas”. Esta problemática se presenta principalmente en las tefras volcánicas llamadas Tierra Blanca Joven (TBJ producto de la última erupción pliniana de la Caldera de Ilopango, cuyos productos son una intercalación de estratos de piroclastos de caída, flujos y oleadas piroclásticos. Las tefras son parcialmente saturadas y la información geotécnica muestra la disminución de resistencia al corte y colapso al ser saturadas. Para caracterizar adecuadamente este material es necesario conocer la relación del contenido de humedad con los cambios de volumen y la cohesión aparente, que puede estar relacionada a la succión y a cementación. El entendimiento del comportamiento de los materiales geológicos puede ayudar en la simulación de estabilidad de taludes y diseño geotécnico en general.Currently the Metropolitan Area of San Salvador (AMSS is experimenting serious problems of mass movements, erosion, collapse or settlements, phenomena that in El Salvador are popularly encompassed by the term “carcavas”. This problematic is presented mainly in the volcanic tephras Tierra Blanca Joven (TBJ, product of the last plinian eruption of Ilopango Caldera, whose products are an intercalation of pyroclastic fall, flows and surge. The tephras are unsaturated and the geotechnical information shows a decrease of shear strength and collapse when saturated. To characterize properly this material is important to know the relationship of moisture content with the volume changes and apparent cohesion, which are related to suction and cementation. The understanding of the behavior of the geological materials can help in running slope stability simulations and geotechnical design in general.

  6. Matar para vivir; las maras de El Salvador. Estudio de los principales factores

    OpenAIRE

    Quijano González, Almudena

    2014-01-01

    La violencia es uno de los grandes problemas sociales que afecta a la sociedad latinoamericana. En concreto, en El Salvador, requieren de especial atención las pandillas juveniles o maras al ser producto del fracaso de una sociedad voraz e injusta que crea las condiciones necesarias para empujar hacia ellas a los y las jóvenes. Éstos, a su vez, se destruyen socialmente a sí mismos y a sus comunidades. Por tanto, romper los círculos de la violencia demanda propuestas contrarias al modelo repre...

  7. El Salvador, 1983: Marianela Garcia Villas n. 43.337 nell’elenco delle vittime civili

    OpenAIRE

    Chiara Forneris

    2008-01-01

    The article is focused on a specific case study of “a human rights woman activist” in El Salvador during the last authoritarian government (1976-1992): the lawyer Marianela García Villas. Marianela’s history, as human rights (HRs) activist, raises a fundamental question on how a woman could relate with a death scenario and a death context in her HRs political care. In her activity of reconstruction of death bodies of people who did not even have the dignity of death, Marianela has always work...

  8. A agricultura urbana como estratégia de sustentabilidade da cidade do salvador, Bahia, Brasil

    OpenAIRE

    Paraguassú, Lidice Almeida Arlego

    2013-01-01

    [ES]En la actualidad, el espacio urbano de la ciudad de Salvador, Bahía, Brasil, registra las tensiones ambientales decurrentes del crecimiento urbano agotador de su estructura biofísica. Los impactos ambientales son diversos y están directamente relacionados con la falta de planificación y de infraestructuras urbana, como la impermeabilización inadecuada del suelo, la canalización de los ríos, la ocupación irregular, etc. Las discusiones de estos problemas permitió un espacio para los est...

  9. Validation of an indirect ELISA for the diagnosis of Babesia bovis in El Salvador

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Validation and a preliminary serological study of Babesia bovis was made in El Salvador, using the indirect ELISA kit provided by the Joint FAO/IAEA Division of the International Atomic Energy Agency. Sera were collected from 545 cattle involving 10 regions of the country and various ages of cattle between 8 and 16 months. These were tested from May 1993 to February 1994. A 79.5% prevalence was found, but with a wide range from (5.8-100%), explained by different farm managing systems and different breeds. (author)

  10. Marvels of illusion: illusion and perception in the art of Salvador Dali

    OpenAIRE

    Martinez-Conde, Susana; Conley, Dave; Hine, Hank; Kropf, Joan; Tush, Peter; Ayala, Andrea; Macknik, Stephen L

    2015-01-01

    The surrealist movement aimed to blur the distinction between the real and the imagined. Such lack of a border between demonstrable truth and fantasy is perhaps most apparent in the art of Spanish painter Salvador Dali (1904–1989). Dali included numerous illusions in his artworks, with the intent to challenge the viewers' perceptions of reality and to enable them to see beyond the surface. The “Marvels of Illusion” exhibit, shown at The Dali Museum in St. Petersburg, FL., from June 14 to Octo...

  11. Tripear por San Salvador de Jujuy : La ciudad mirada desde una web de turistas y viajeros

    OpenAIRE

    Gaona, Melina

    2014-01-01

    Este artículo se inscribe en una investigación mayor que reflexiona acerca de las disputas de poder que se producen en torno a los sentidos de la ciudad de San Salvador de Jujuy. En el marco de este avance queremos considerar la manera en que se constituyen relatos acerca de la ciudad a partir de los comentarios elaborados por turistas y viajantes en TripAdvisor, una web de viajes que funciona como red social o comunidad on-line que incluye información turística a modo de foros virtuales. ...

  12. La dolarización en El Salvador: implicaciones, ventajas y riesgos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Ibarra

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available A fines del 2000 el gobierno salvadoreño tomó la decisión de dolarizar su economía de manera unilateral. El paso fundamental en esta dirección se dio en el mes de noviembre con la aprobación de la Ley de Integración Monetaria (LIM por la Asamblea Legislativa con fecha de vigencia del primero de enero de 2001. La LIM modificó radicalmente el marco legal del sistema financiero y monetario salvadoreño para permitir la plena utilización del dólar en todas las transacciones comerciales, financieras y contables en el país. De acuerdo con las autoridades salvadoreñas dicha reforma traerá importantes beneficios económicos al país, sobre todo en el largo plazo. El argumento central es que la integración monetaria unilateral conducirá a bajar la inflación hasta hacerla convergente con la de Estados Unidos y a abatir tanto el nivel como la volatilidad de las tasas de interés domésticas al reducir el riesgo cambiario y, en alguna medida, el riesgo país. Asimismo, fortalecerá al sistema financiero local, ayudará a su profundización y —muy importante— ampliará la oferta de crédito de largo plazo para fines de inversión. Dado que ha transcurrido poco tiempo de la puesta en vigor de la LIM y que, en principio, los beneficios de la dolarización se materializarían en el mediano y el largo plazo es prematuro intentar realizar una evaluación comprehensiva de sus efectos sobre la economía salvadoreña. Este trabajo pretende centrarse en examinar algunas de sus implicaciones principales, identificar ventajas y riesgos, así como elementos que indiquen su pertinencia.

  13. Crónica de la prensa salvadoreña: imaginarios que migran

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    Amparo Marroquín Parducci

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available EL ARTÍCULO PRESENTA UN ESTUDIO DE LAS NARRATIVAS QUE LA PRENSA escrita ha venido construyendo en El Salvador en torno al fenómeno de la migración. Se argumenta que a través del tema de la migración se construye una poética de nación imaginada, y conjuntamente, se da la construcción de las alteridades que desde el discurso oficial se han mantenido vigentes.

  14. GPS detection of ionospheric perturbation before the 13 February 2001, El Salvador earthquake

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    V. V. Plotkin

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available A large earthquake of M6.6 occurred on 13 February 2001 at 14:22:05 UT in El Salvador. We detected ionospheric perturbation before this earthquake using GPS data received from CORS network. Systematic decreases of ionospheric total electron content during two days before the earthquake onset were observed at set of stations near the earthquake location and probably in region of about 1000 km from epicenter. This result is consistent with that of investigators, which studied these phenomena with several observational techniques. However it is possible, that such TEC changes are simultaneously accompanied by changes due to solar wind parameters and Kp -index.

  15. The Agency's technical co-operation programme with El Salvador 1983-1993 country programme summaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report contains a review of the Agency's technical co-operation activities in El Salvador carried out during 1983-1993. In terms of coverage and analytical depth, country programmes summaries stand somewhere midway between in-depth country programme evaluations and individual project evaluations. They attempt to provide a comprehensive, descriptive picture of the Agency's co-operation with a Member State in a manner that will be particularly useful for programming decisions. The attempt is very much to describe - largely through statistical data - not to provide independent analysis and evaluation

  16. Incidence of leukemias in children from El Salvador and Mexico City between 1996 and 2000: Population-based data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernáldez-Ríos Roberto

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There are very few studies that report the incidence of acute leukemias in children in Latin America. This work assesses the incidence of acute leukemias, between 1996 and 2000, in children from 0–14 years old who were attended at the Mexican Social Security Institute in Mexico City and in children from 0–11 years old in El Salvador. Methods Design: Population-based data. Hospitals: In San Salvador, El Salvador, Hospital Nacional de Niños "Benjamín Bloom", the only center in El Salvador which attends all children, younger than 12 years, with oncologic disease. The Pediatric Hospital and the General Hospital of the Mexican Social Security Institute in Mexico City, the only centers in Mexico City which attend all those children with acute leukemia who have a right to this service. Diagnosis: All patients were diagnosed by bone marrow smear and were divided into acute lymphoid leukemia (ALL, acute myeloid leukemia (AML, chronic myeloid leukemia (CML, and unspecified leukemias (UL. The annual incidence rate (AIR and average annual incidence rate (AAIR were calculated per million children. Cases were stratified by age and assigned to one of four age strata: 1 Results The number of cases was 375 and 238 in El Salvador and Mexico City, respectively. AAIRs in Mexico City were 44.9, 10.6, 2.5, 0.5, and 58.4 per million children for ALL, AML, CML, UL, and total leukemias, respectively. The AAIRs in El Salvador could not be calculated because the fourth age stratum in El Salvador included children only from 0–11 years old. The incidence rates for the Salvadoran group of 0–11 year olds were 34.2, 7.1, 0.6, 0.2, and 43.2 per million children for ALL, AML, CML, UL, and total leukemias, respectively. Conclusion Reported AIRs for each age group in El Salvador were similar to those from other American countries. The AAIR of ALL in Mexico City is one of the highest reported for North America.

  17. Entre a casa e a roça: trajetórias de socialização no candomblé de habitantes de bairros populares de Salvador

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    Miriam C. M. Rabelo

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho discute trajetórias de socialização no candomblé de indivíduos de camadas populares de Salvador. Em primeiro lugar, trata das articulações entre a socialização primária e a socialização religiosa. Em segundo, busca compreender os modos pelos quais as relações travadas com entidades sagradas servem para adensar e estender certas linhas de relacionamento na família. A análise das trajetórias ressalta a importância do bairro como espaço de sociabilidade das famílias pobres. Mostra que relações com entidades muitas vezes precedem o vínculo com o terreiro, desenvolvendo-se e particularizando-se no espaço cotidiano da família e do bairro antes de serem formalizadas na instituição religiosa.This paper analyses trajectories of socialization in the candomblé of members of Salvador's lower classes. Firstly, it discusses the ways by which primary socialization within the family articulates with religious socialization. Then it turns to the question of understanding how relations with different classes of sacred entities may thicken or extend certain lines of relationship within the extended family. Analysis of the trajectories points to the significance of the neighborhood (bairro as a main space of sociability for the urban poor. It indicates that informal relations with entities often precede the establishment of formal bonds with candomblé houses, developing itself in the everyday space of the family and the bairro before being formalized in the religious institution.

  18. "Tem mulher, tem preventivo": sentidos das práticas preventivas do câncer do colo do útero entre mulheres de Salvador, Bahia, Brasil

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    Ana María Rico

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi compreender os significados das práticas preventivas do câncer do colo do útero entre mulheres de bairros populares de Salvador, Bahia, Brasil. Trata-se de estudo qualitativo, baseado na análise de conteúdo de entrevistas semiestruturadas com 15 mulheres entre 24 e 68 anos. Os resultados evidenciam alta valorização do Papanicolaou, que é realizado como parte de exames de rotina, sem, no entanto, sustentar-se no conhecimento biomédico sobre as suas funções. Além da acessibilidade aos serviços de saúde e da qualidade destes, outros fatores interferem na forma como essas mulheres significam a prevenção do câncer do colo do útero. Valores morais associados à sexualidade e ao gênero interferem na percepção de risco, na adoção de práticas preventivas e na interpretação dos resultados da citologia cervical. A realização continuada do Papanicolaou faz parte da construção da feminilidade, que é associada com maturidade e responsabilidade pessoal pelo cuidado de si em um contexto de medicalização do corpo feminino.

  19. Spatial analysis of migrating Apis mellifera colonies in Salvador, Bahia, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato L. Jr. Sandes

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Beekeeping in Brazil is growing but also associated with an increase in the number of human and animal accidents involved. In particular, bees of the Apis mellifera species (Africanized bees are known for their aggressive behaviour and frequent swarming activity due to their poor adaptation to the human environment. This study analyzed the spatial distribution of occurrences of migratory swarms of A. mellifera and recorded apicultural accidents in the city of Salvador, Bahia, Brazil. The association of demographic and climatic variations on places where the swarms occurred was also evaluated. The study is based on data collected within the frame of the “SOS Bees”, a project initiated for the protection of the environment and enforced by a special unit of the military police in Bahia. In the 3-year period from 2000 to 2003, 590 swarms were registered in 75 of the 98 zones of information of Salvador. Three cluster areas, representing 25.4% of all events, were identified. In that period, 316 apicultural accidents were registered involving humans and one involving dogs. The seasonal rise of the monthly average temperature showed an association with the increase of the number of swarming events.

  20. Diáspora salvadoreña: identidades y mapas culturales en el ciberespacio

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    José Luis Benítez

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available EL FENÓMENO DE LA MIGRACIÓN INTERNACIONAL PLANTEA NUEVOS desafíos de investigación al campo académico de la comunicación. En esta perspectiva, algunos estudios de comunicación han analizado el papel de los medios de comunicación y sus narrativas mediáticas sobre la migración, la construcción de imaginarios sociales acerca de la experiencia de emigrar, y la importancia de las nuevas tecnologías enlas prácticas cotidianas de los inmigrantes. En este contexto, este artículo explora algunos contenidos y formatos que grupos y comunidades migrantes salvadoreñas construyen desde sitios y páginas web, usos de medios de comunicación local y nacional accesibles desde el Internet, y nuevas plataformas de redes sociales como los blogs, Myspace, Facebook, YouTube, entre otros. Por tanto, este artículo intenta dibujar algunos trazos de mapas culturales y expresiones de identidades colectivas que la diáspora salvadoreña construye día a día en el ciberespacio.

  1. International Uranium Resources Evaluation Project (IUREP) national favourability studies: El Salvador

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    No information is available on past uranium exploration in El Salvador. The foetallogenic map of Central America (ICAITI, 1970) shows no uranium occurrences, and no descriptions of occurrences are available for this study. Information on current uranium exploration in El Salvador is not available. The 1922 mining code, as amended, covers all minerals, with special rules applicable to phosphates, petroleum and other hydrocarbons. The state owns all minerals, including phosphates, except for salt and other common materials. Mineral and surface rights are distinct. Both citizens and aliens may acquire mineral rights. There is a possibility of uranium potential in the clastic sediments containing interbedded volcanics, particularly where the latter are tuffaceous. These rocks occur chiefly in the north western part of the country and are of limited areal extent. The possibility of uranium occurrences associated with acid volcanics cannot be discounted, but it is difficult to evaluate rocks of this type for uranium with the present state of knowledge. Accordingly, potential resources are estimated at between 0 and 1,000 tonnes uranium

  2. Controle das emissões de chumbo particulado no entorno de uma reformadora de baterias da cidade do Rio de Janeiro usando ar como indicador Control of lead emissions from a battery repair shop in the city of Rio de Janeiro by monitoring air quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Lorena Quiterio

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available No período entre abril a julho de 1999, foram realizadas determinações dos níveis de chumbo no ar ambiente nas proximidades de uma reformadora de baterias (RB situada em Olaria (Rio de Janeiro, Brasil. A maioria das amostras coletadas a uma distância de até 25m da RB excederam o limite de 1,5µg.Pb.m-3 estabelecido pela Environmental Protect Agency (EPA, Estados Unidos. Esses resultados já foram publicados previamente (Quiterio et al., 2001. Neste trabalho, foram propostas a instalação de um sistema de exaustão Venture e algumas mudanças nos procedimentos operacionais. Após as modificações na RB, foi realizada uma nova campanha de monitoramento (agosto e setembro de 2000. As coletas foram realizadas nos três pontos considerados mais críticos, segundo as determinações anteriores. As concentrações medidas estiveram no intervalo 0,8-17,6µg.Pb.m-3, mostrando que as emissões de chumbo na atmosfera tiveram uma diminuição adequada. Contudo, a concentração na saída da chaminé é ainda maior que os limites estabelecidos pela EPA e, certamente, serão necessárias outras melhorias nas instalações e procedimentos.Lead levels in the air surrounding a battery repair shop (BRS located in the Olaria neighborhood (Rio de Janeiro, Brazil were monitored from April to July 1999. Most of the samples collected within 25 meters of the BRS exceeded the limit of 1.5µg.Pb.m-3 established by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA. These results were published in a previous article (Quiterio et al., 2001. In the current study, installation of a Venture ventilation system and some changes in the operational procedure were proposed. After the modifications in the BRS, a new monitoring campaign was performed (August and September, 2000. Three points were selected for air collection, corresponding to the most critical points found in the previous assessments. The new concentrations ranged from 0.8 to 17.6µg.Pb.m-3, showing that

  3. The Dilemma Between Peace and Justice. Transitional Justice in Post-conflict Context: the Cases of Guatemala and El Salvador

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    Marcos NOVARO

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to describe and explain the trade-off between justice and peace through the analysis of two post-conflict cases: Guatemala and El Salvador. Using the comparative methodology, we analyse the issues of truth, justice and reparation from the Peace Agreements until today.

  4. The Dilemma Between Peace and Justice. Transitional Justice in Post-conflict Context: the Cases of Guatemala and El Salvador

    OpenAIRE

    Novaro, Marcos

    2016-01-01

    This article aims to describe and explain the trade-off between justice and peace through the analysis of two post-conflict cases: Guatemala and El Salvador. Using the comparative methodology, we analyse the issues of truth, justice and reparation from the Peace Agreements until today.

  5. Women's Theologies, Women's Pedagogies: Liberating Praxes of Latin American Women Educators in El Salvador, Nicaragua, Bolivia, and Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Lauren Ila

    2009-01-01

    In this dissertation, through semi-structured interviews with 36 female social movement participants and 3 male participants in El Salvador, Nicaragua, Bolivia, and Argentina, I ask, "How do women in Latin American social movements perceive the influence of theology on these movements' pedagogies?" I argue that through this work, the women…

  6. Dimensions of Child Sexual Abuse before Age 15 in Three Central American Countries: Honduras, El Salvador, and Guatemala

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speizer, Ilene S.; Goodwin, Mary; Whittle, Lisa; Clyde, Maureen; Rogers, Jennifer

    2008-01-01

    Objective: The prevalence of sexual abuse during childhood or adolescence varies depending on the definitions and age categories used. This study examines the first national, population-based data available on child sexual abuse that occurs before age 15 in three countries: El Salvador, Guatemala, and Honduras. This study uses comparable…

  7. Shifting the Narrative: Child-Led Responses to Climate Change and Disasters in El Salvador and the Philippines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanner, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    Children and young people are commonly treated in the climate change and disasters literature as victims of natural events requiring protection by adults. This article critiques that narrative, drawing on examples from the Philippines and El Salvador that explore how children's groups have responded to such issues through child-centred…

  8. Household Survival in the Face of Poverty in Salvador, Brazil: Towards an Integrated Model of Household Activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norris, William P.

    1988-01-01

    Compares the survival strategies of low-income urban households in a squatter settlement in Salvador, Bahia, Brazil with those of such households in other regions. Suggests, uses, and criticizes a simple additive model of survival household activities. Identifies important factors that emerge, and suggests issues for further research. (Author/BJV)

  9. Occlusal characteristics and orthodontic treatment need in black adolescents in Salvador/BA (Brazil: an epidemiologic study using the Dental Aesthetics Index

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    Arthur Costa Rodrigues Farias

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The objective of this article is to evaluate the need of orthodontic treatment, prevalence and severity of the malocclusions in individuals of black ethnicity in a representative sample of schoolchildren of the city of Salvador/Brazil, as well as to verify if the malocclusion was affected by socio-demographic conditions such as age and gender. METHODS: The reference population was constituted of schoolchildren with age between 12 and 15 years, enrolled in public and private schools. The malocclusion was evaluated in 486 students of black ethnicity, with ages varying from 12 to 15 years, selected in random sample in multiple stages. The adopted significance level was 1% and the power of the test was 90%. A questionnaire registering demographic characteristics was filled out by each individual. The Dental Aesthetics Index (DAI was used by previously calibrated examiners (kappa 0.89, according to criteria of the World Health Organization. RESULTS: It was verified that most of the individuals (76% had little or any need for orthodontic treatment. About 24% showed a condition of severe malocclusion, culminating in a vital need for orthodontic treatment. The main occlusal characteristics found in the group with high need of orthodontic treatment were dental crowding and accentuated overjet. The age was positively related to the improvement of the maxillary overjet and to the presence of crowding. CONCLUSION: The development of public politics that aim the insertion of orthodontic treatment among the procedures of health programs, with the implementation and development of specialized centers, is fundamental.OBJETIVO: averiguar a necessidade de tratamento ortodôntico, prevalência e severidade das más oclusões em indivíduos negros numa amostra representativa de escolares da cidade de Salvador/BA (Brasil, além de determinar se as más oclusões eram afetadas por condições sociodemográficas como idade e sexo. MÉTODOS: o desenho

  10. LA LOCALIDAD HISTÓRICO ARQUEOLÓGICA DEL RÍO SAN SALVADOR (SORIANO, URUGUAY The historical archaeological town of Rio San Salvador (Soriano, Uruguay

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    José López Mazz

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Los primeros cronistas de la conquista del Río de la Plata expusieron la diversidad cultural reinante en el área en el siglo XVI. Las investigaciones arqueológicas de los años 60 y 70 confirman, a nivel arqueológico, la intensa ocupación de la que fue objeto esta zona próxima a la confluencia del río Paraná con el río Uruguay. Este trabajo presenta información producida durante un trabajo de diagnóstico realizado en el marco de la llamada Arqueología Pública, en un sitio de ocupación española del siglo XVI ubicado al oriente de dicha confluencia. Los resultados muestran que la ocupación del sitio desde el año 1000 AP está caracterizada por una amplia diversidad de estilos cerámicos. El área constituyó un lugar estratégico para los asentamientos europeos en función de la presencia de redes de intercambio pre existente. La información producida permite afinar la secuencia cronológica prehistórica para el bajo río Uruguay, al tiempo que abre el debate  respecto de la dinámica etnohistórica regional y del rol jugado por este particular asentamiento humano.   Palabras claves: asentamientos europeos, Uruguay, río San Salvador, siglo XVI.    Abstract Early chroniclers of the conquest of the Río de la Plata exposed the cultural diversity prevailing in the area in the sixteenth century. Archaeological research during the 60’s and 70’s confirm an intense occupation of the confluence of the Paraná river and the Uruguay river area. This paper presents information recovered during a diagnostic fieldwork developed on a Spanish settlement from the sixteenth century. The results show an intense occupation of the site since 1000 AP, characterized by a wide variety of ceramic styles. The area was a strategic location for European occupation due to the presence of preexisting exchange networks. Information produced refines prehistoric chronological sequence for lower Uruguay river while opening the discussion about regional

  11. Ocorrência de Platynosomum illiciens em felinos selvagens mantidos em cativeiro no estado da Bahia, Brasil Occurrence of Platynosomum illiciens in enclosured wild cats in the state of Bahia, Brazil

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    Letícia S. de Castro

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho relata a ocorrência de ovos de Platynosomum illiciens nas fezes de três espécies de felídeos silvestres Herpailurus yagouaroundi, Panthera onca e Leopardus tigrinus coletados nos recintos do Parque Zoobotânico Getúlio Vargas em Salvador, Bahia, Brasil. Sendo o primeiro registro deste parasito em P. onca e F. tigrinus.This paper reports the occurrence of eggs of Platynosomum illiciens, found in the feces of three species of wild cats Herpailurus yagouaroundi, Puma concolor and Leopardus tigrinus from material collected at the enclosures of the Park Zoobotânico Getúlio Vargas in Salvador, Bahia, Brazil. It is the first record of this parasite in P. onca and L. tigrinus.

  12. Salvador Dalí - un fenómeno cultural y mediático [Salvador Dalí - a cultural and medial phenomenon

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    Maurer Queipo, Isabel

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Salvador Dalí is most famous as a painter. He is less known for his role as universal artist, for his illustrations, his screenplays, his sceneries, his works in the areas of fashion, design and advertising. Dalí was also an author who commented and analysed in his numerous texts his own artistic products like his paintings, his sculptures, his public entrances and productions. La metamorfósis de Narciso (1937 and the poem of the same title may function as paradigmatic examples in this respect.The texts are less considered and rest rather unknown for the common audience. As one of the most extroverted artists of the surrealist movement, with an extraordinary pleasure for artistic, cultural and commercial experiments, Dalí offers us with this combination of painting/text a kind of media-game. In this sense, the intertextual, intermedia and intercultural references play an important role. Based on this media-ensemble, Dalí created his famous so called 'método paranoico-crítico' which also inspired the French psychoanalyst Jacques Lacan and offered an alternative to the passive automatisms of surrealism.This article intends to present the creative relations between this method and the paintings and texts of the Catalan artist as provocateur of dreams, nightmares, hallucinations and desires that each of us has.

  13. Tsunami hazard assessment in El Salvador, Central America, from seismic sources through flooding numerical models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Álvarez-Gómez, J. A.; Aniel-Quiroga, Í.; Gutiérrez-Gutiérrez, O. Q.; Larreynaga, J.; González, M.; Castro, M.; Gavidia, F.; Aguirre-Ayerbe, I.; González-Riancho, P.; Carreño, E.

    2013-11-01

    El Salvador is the smallest and most densely populated country in Central America; its coast has an approximate length of 320 km, 29 municipalities and more than 700 000 inhabitants. In El Salvador there were 15 recorded tsunamis between 1859 and 2012, 3 of them causing damages and resulting in hundreds of victims. Hazard assessment is commonly based on propagation numerical models for earthquake-generated tsunamis and can be approached through both probabilistic and deterministic methods. A deterministic approximation has been applied in this study as it provides essential information for coastal planning and management. The objective of the research was twofold: on the one hand the characterization of the threat over the entire coast of El Salvador, and on the other the computation of flooding maps for the three main localities of the Salvadorian coast. For the latter we developed high-resolution flooding models. For the former, due to the extension of the coastal area, we computed maximum elevation maps, and from the elevation in the near shore we computed an estimation of the run-up and the flooded area using empirical relations. We have considered local sources located in the Middle America Trench, characterized seismotectonically, and distant sources in the rest of Pacific Basin, using historical and recent earthquakes and tsunamis. We used a hybrid finite differences-finite volumes numerical model in this work, based on the linear and non-linear shallow water equations, to simulate a total of 24 earthquake-generated tsunami scenarios. Our results show that at the western Salvadorian coast, run-up values higher than 5 m are common, while in the eastern area, approximately from La Libertad to the Gulf of Fonseca, the run-up values are lower. The more exposed areas to flooding are the lowlands in the Lempa River delta and the Barra de Santiago Western Plains. The results of the empirical approximation used for the whole country are similar to the results

  14. Tsunami hazard assessment in El Salvador, Central America, from seismic sources through flooding numerical models

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    J. A. Álvarez-Gómez

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available El Salvador is the smallest and most densely populated country in Central America; its coast has approximately a length of 320 km, 29 municipalities and more than 700 000 inhabitants. In El Salvador there have been 15 recorded tsunamis between 1859 and 2012, 3 of them causing damages and hundreds of victims. The hazard assessment is commonly based on propagation numerical models for earthquake-generated tsunamis and can be approached from both Probabilistic and Deterministic Methods. A deterministic approximation has been applied in this study as it provides essential information for coastal planning and management. The objective of the research was twofold, on the one hand the characterization of the threat over the entire coast of El Salvador, and on the other the computation of flooding maps for the three main localities of the Salvadorian coast. For the latter we developed high resolution flooding models. For the former, due to the extension of the coastal area, we computed maximum elevation maps and from the elevation in the near-shore we computed an estimation of the run-up and the flooded area using empirical relations. We have considered local sources located in the Middle America Trench, characterized seismotectonically, and distant sources in the rest of Pacific basin, using historical and recent earthquakes and tsunamis. We used a hybrid finite differences – finite volumes numerical model in this work, based on the Linear and Non-linear Shallow Water Equations, to simulate a total of 24 earthquake generated tsunami scenarios. In the western Salvadorian coast, run-up values higher than 5 m are common, while in the eastern area, approximately from La Libertad to the Gulf of Fonseca, the run-up values are lower. The more exposed areas to flooding are the lowlands in the Lempa River delta and the Barra de Santiago Western Plains. The results of the empirical approximation used for the whole country are similar to the results obtained

  15. Polycystic ovary syndrome in Salvador, Brazil: a prevalence study in primary healthcare

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    Gabrielli Ligia

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS is a common condition in women of reproductive age. It is characterized by hyperandrogenism, oligomenorrhea/amenorrhea and polycystic ovaries. It is associated with obesity, diabetes, dyslipidemia and cardiovascular disease. No studies have been conducted on the prevalence of PCOS in Brazilian or South American women. Few studies using the Rotterdam criteria have been published. The objective of the present study was to calculate the prevalence of PCOS at primary healthcare level in Salvador, Brazil based on these criteria. Methods This was a cross-sectional, two-phase study conducted in a probability sample of women of 18–45 years of age screened for cervical cancer in the primary healthcare network of the city of Salvador, Brazil. In the first phase, interviews were conducted, weight, height, waist circumference, blood pressure and random blood sugar levels were measured, and the presence of acne and hirsutism was investigated. Women with at least one diagnostic criterion were referred for the second phase, which consisted of specialist consultation, pelvic ultrasonography and hormone measurements for differential diagnosis and/or investigation of a second criterion. Results Of the 859 women interviewed, 88.5% were black and 58.7% had 11 years of schooling or less. A diagnosis of PCOS was excluded in 84.4%, undetermined in 7.1% and confirmed in 8.5% (95%CI: 6.80–10.56. There were no statistically significant differences between these three groups with respect to weight, body mass index, waist circumference, blood sugar levels or arterial blood pressure. Women with PCOS were younger (p = 0.00, taller (p = 0.04, had fewer children (p = 0.00, were better educated (p = 0.01, and had higher total testosterone levels (p = 0.01 and a higher LH/FSH ratio (p = 0.01. Conclusion According to the Rotterdam criteria, the prevalence of PCOS in women seeking primary

  16. Periodismo salvadoreño: de la intolerancia política a las posibilidades informativas

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    Mario Alfredo Cantarero

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo se plantea la historia reciente del periodismo salvadoreño: antes de los acuerdos de paz y después de los acuerdos de paz. Se sostiene que durante la guerra el periodismo se realizaba con las limitaciones que impuso la intolerancia política. A partir de los acuerdos de paz, por la distensión política y la instauración de la democracia, el periodismo tiene mayores posibilidades de realizar un trabajo más profesional. Sin embargo, profesionalizarlo más implica superar dificultades propias del gremio de periodistas, que se encuentran el orden de la responsabilidad social, el manejo técnico, el respeto a las leyes y a la asunción de normas éticas.

  17. Tapping Mexico's experience for a restructured market such as that of El Salvador

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, the strategy applied in Mexico to promote electric power savings within the principal consumer sector of this resource is raised. Special emphasis is placed on the newly developed programs by the Fideicomiso para el Ahorro de Energia Electrica (FIDE). The fundamental purpose has been to eliminate the barriers that hinder the transformation of the equipment, services and financing markets to energy efficiency, in commercial conditions that are developed based on the profitability of these projects that are being developed by the principal participating agents in this field. Finally, reference is made to the scope of the current FIDE project, contracted to the Rio Lempa Hydropower Commission of El Salvador, whose goal is to design a National Energy Efficiency Program and is the agency responsible for its implementation. (The author)

  18. MAX-DOAS measurements of tropospheric NO2 over San Salvador: preliminary results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alberti, Carlos; Wagner, Thomas

    2015-04-01

    We present the first Multi-AXis-Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (MAX-DOAS) measurements at San Salvador. MAX-DOAS observes spectra of scattered sun light taken at different elevation angles. From the spectra the so called slant column density (SCD, the integrated trace gas concentration along the atmospheric light path) is derived. We quantify the dSCD of NO2 at different measurement conditions. From the measured NO2 SCDs we calculate the tropospheric vertical column density using the so called geometric approximation. The preliminary results of this MAX DOAS observations and the diurnal variation of the retrieved trace gas dSCDs will be presented. We also use the MAX-DOAS results for the validation of satellite observations.

  19. El Salvador, 1983: Marianela Garcia Villas n. 43.337 nell’elenco delle vittime civili

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    Chiara Forneris

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available The article is focused on a specific case study of “a human rights woman activist” in El Salvador during the last authoritarian government (1976-1992: the lawyer Marianela García Villas. Marianela’s history, as human rights (HRs activist, raises a fundamental question on how a woman could relate with a death scenario and a death context in her HRs political care. In her activity of reconstruction of death bodies of people who did not even have the dignity of death, Marianela has always worked with a HRs approach and for the positive statement of the right to life “as right of piece of bread, a roof and a book”, and so anticipating the HRs interdependence and interconnection interpretation. Her potential motherhood, as a woman, was projected over a private sphere towards the promotion of social progress and better standards of life in larger freedom.

  20. El Salvador, 1983: Marianela Garcia Villas n. 43.337 nell’elenco delle vittime civili

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiara Forneris

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The article is focused on a specific case study of “a human rights woman activist” in El Salvador during the last authoritarian government (1976-1992: the lawyer Marianela García Villas. Marianela’s history, as human rights (HRs activist, raises a fundamental question on how a woman could relate with a death scenario and a death context in her HRs political care. In her activity of reconstruction of death bodies of people who did not even have the dignity of death, Marianela has always worked with a HRs approach and for the positive statement of the right to life “as right of piece of bread, a roof and a book”, and so anticipating the HRs interdependence and interconnection interpretation. Her potential motherhood, as a woman, was projected over a private sphere towards the promotion of social progress and better standards of life in larger freedom.

  1. The actual state of USP/Princeton University cooperation: paleomagnetics and geochronological results in mafic dikes from Salvador, Olivenca e Uaua regions, Sao Francisco Craton

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The actual development state of paleomagnetics and geochronology studies in precambrian metamorphic and anorogenic proterozoic intrusive unities from Salvador, Olivenca and Maua regions is shown. (C.G.C.)

  2. Bacterial contamination in milk kitchens in pediatric hospitals in Salvador, Brazil

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    Romilda Castro Cairo

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Milk may represent an important source of infectious agents to hospitalized pediatric patients. To describe the bacterial microflora isolated from the hands, stools, pharynx of all workers at milk kitchens in pediatric hospitals in the city of Salvador, Brazil, as well as in the formulas prepared by them, we carried out this cross-sectional study with all 91 workers from the 20 milk kitchens of all the public and private hospitals in Salvador, Brazil. Hand and pharynx swabs and stool samples were collected from all workers, as well as samples of the milk and formulas delivered by the kitchens. All samples were cultured for the detection of pathogenic and non-pathogenic bacteria. Pathogenic bacteria were isolated from 20 (22.0% and 8 (8.8% cultures of the hands and pharynx of the workers, respectively. No pathogenic bacteria were isolated from stool samples. Pathogenic bacteria were isolated from 17 (18.7% milk samples. The prevalence of pathogenic bacteria in hand swabs was significantly higher in workers from public (37.8% than from private (6.5% hospitals (prevalence ratio [PR]=5.8; p<0.01. Pathogenic bacteria were isolated from two (4.4% workers from public hospitals and six (13.0% workers from private hospitals (PR=0.38; p=0.27. Pathogenic bacteria were isolated from 11 (24.4% milk samples from public hospitals and 6 (13.0% from private hospitals (PR=1.9; p=0.16. A high prevalence of contamination was found, mainly on the hands of workers on units for manipulation of milk. Preventive efforts should be intensified and focus primarily on effective hand washing and continuous work supervision.

  3. Catching-up with pentavalent vaccine: Exploring reasons behind lower rotavirus vaccine coverage in El Salvador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suarez-Castaneda, Eduardo; Burnett, Eleanor; Elas, Miguel; Baltrons, Rafael; Pezzoli, Lorenzo; Flannery, Brendan; Kleinbaum, David; de Oliveira, Lucia Helena; Danovaro-Holliday, M Carolina

    2015-11-27

    Rotavirus vaccine was introduced in El Salvador in 2006 and is recommended to be given concomitantly with DTP-HepB-Haemophilus influenzae type b (pentavalent) vaccine at ages 2 months (upper age limit 15 weeks) and 4 months (upper age limit 8 months) of age. However, rotavirus vaccination coverage continues to lag behind that of pentavalent vaccine, even in years when national rotavirus vaccine stock-outs have not occurred. We analyzed factors associated with receipt of oral rotavirus vaccine among children who received at least 2 doses of pentavalent vaccine in a stratified cluster survey of children aged 24-59 months conducted in El Salvador in 2011. Vaccine doses included were documented on vaccination cards (94.4%) or in health facility records (5.6%). Logistic regression and survival analysis were used to assess factors associated with vaccination status and age at vaccination. Receipt of pentavalent vaccine by age 15 weeks was associated with rotavirus vaccination (OR: 5.1; 95% CI 2.7, 9.4), and receipt of the second pentavalent dose by age 32 weeks was associated with receipt of two rotavirus vaccine doses (OR: 5.0; 95% CI 2.1-12.3). Timely coverage with the first pentavalent vaccine dose was 88.2% in the 2007 cohort and 91.1% in the 2008 cohort (p=0.04). Children born in 2009, when a four-month national rotavirus vaccine stock-out occurred, had an older median age of receipt of rotavirus vaccine and were less likely to receive rotavirus on the same date as the same dose of pentavalent vaccine than children born in 2007 and 2008. Upper age limit recommendations for rotavirus vaccine administration contributed to suboptimal vaccination coverage. Survey data suggest that late rotavirus vaccination and co-administration with later doses of pentavalent vaccine among children born in 2009 helped increase rotavirus vaccine coverage following shortages. PMID:26263200

  4. Titan2D Based Pyroclastic Flows Hazard Maps for Santa Ana Volcano, El Salvador

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajo, J. V.; Martinez-Hackert, B.; Escobar, C. D.; Gutierrez, R. E.

    2009-05-01

    Santa Ana Volcano is located in the Apaneca Volcanic Field located to the west of El Salvador, Central America. It is one the six active volcanoes monitor by the Servicios Nacionales de Estudios Territoriales (SNET) in El Salvador, out of twenty that are considered active in this small country by Smithsonian definition. The Santa Ana Volcano is surrounded by rural communities in its proximal areas and in its close distal areas by the second largest city of the country. On October 1st 2005, after a few months of increased fumarolic and seismic activity, it erupted generating a 10 km high steam and ash plume, reportedly seen by some aircraft and estimated using photography by SNET members. Ash was deposited to the west, north-west part of the country, following typical wind pattern for the region, as well as small pyroclastic flows and major lahars in its eastern part. Coffee plantations were lost, as was some crop of coffee in the following season. However, to the west the ash fertilized the land and resulted in an enhanced harvest of coffee beans. Only 2 people were killed from the Blast, thanks to the auto evacuation of proximal communities. Whilst the last eruption had a relatively low human life toll, a stronger eruption spells havoc almost certainly for the region. At this moment no exhaustive study and understanding exists of the pyroclastic flows generated by the Santa Ana Volcano nor a map for this particular hazard. This study proposes the use of Titan2D for those two purposes, using a DEM generated by the SNET using topographic maps as well as DEMs generated using Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer Images (ASTER).

  5. Factors associated with body image dissatisfaction among adolescents in public schools students in Salvador, Brazil

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    Mônica L.P. Santana

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To identify the prevalence of body image dissatisfaction and associated factors among students in Salvador, Brazil. Methods: A cross-sectional study involving a random sample of 1,494 (852 girls and 642 boys adolescents between 11 and 17 years of age who were students in the public schools in Salvador, Brazil. Participants completed the Body Shape Questionnaire and the Eating Attitudes Test-26. Body image was characterized as satisfactory or unsatisfactory. We obtained demographic, anthropometric and economic information and information regarding the stage of maturation, self-perception of body weight, and consumption of sweetened beverages and diet soft drinks. To identify associated factors we used Poisson regression analysis. Results: Body image dissatisfaction was present in 19.5% of the adolescents, with a prevalence of 26.6% among the girls and 10% among the boys. Independent of sex, the prevalence of body image dissatisfaction was higher among adolescents who were overweight or obese (girls, PR: 1.38, CI: 1.09-1.73 and boys, PR: 2.26, CI: 1.08-4.75, higher among those who perceived themselves as fat (girls, PR: 2.85, CI: 2.07-3.93 and boys, PR: 3.17, CI: 1.39-7.23, and higher among those who had negative attitudes toward eating (girls, PR: 2.42, CI: 1.91-3.08 and boys, PR: 4.67, CI: 2.85-7.63. A reduction in body image dissatisfaction was only identified among underweight girls (PR: 0.12, CI: 0.03-0.49. Conclusions: A high occurrence of body image dissatisfaction was observed among the adolescents, and biological and behavioral factors were associated with this dissatisfaction.

  6. Incidence of diarrhea in children living in urban slums in Salvador, Brazil

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    Maria Clotildes N. de Melo

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Diarrhea remains a major health issue in developing countries, with high morbidity and mortality rates. Determining the incidence of acute diarrhea in children and its associated factors is crucial to the planning of preventive approaches. The objective of this study was to determine the incidence of diarrhea and to assess some relevant associated factors to it in children younger than 40 months living in two slums of Salvador, Brazil. This is the first prospective cohort, community-based study that was performed in two periurban slums of Salvador, Brazil. Eighty-four children younger than 40 months were randomly selected and visited every other day for one year. The chi-square test was used to evaluate the occurrence of diarrhea and its associated factors. During the surveillance period, 232 diarrhea episodes were identified, resulting in an incidence rate of 2.8 episodes/child/year. In average (mean value of 84 children,each child suffered 11.1 days of diarrhea per year, yielding an average duration of 3.9 days per episode. The highest incidence rates were found among children under one year old. Early weaning, male sex, malnutrition, having a mother younger than 25 years or who considered her child malnourished, missed immunizations and previous pneumonia were associated factors for suffering diarrheal episodes. The rates of incidence and duration of diarrhea that we found are in accordance to those reported by others. Additionally, our results reinforce the importance of environmental and health-related associated factors to the onset of diarrhea.

  7. Candida species isolated from the vaginal mucosa of HIV-infected women in Salvador, Bahia, Brazil

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    Paula Matos Oliveira

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC is the second most common vaginal infection. HIV-infection is a risk factor for this infection. OBJECTIVE: To determine the frequency of VVC and to describe the main Candida species isolated and their susceptibility to antifungal drugs in HIV-infected patients, compared to HIV-uninfected women in Salvador, Brazil. METHODS: Cross-sectional study including a group of 64 HIV-infected women and 76 uninfected women, followed up at the AIDS reference center and at the Gynecological Clinic of Escola Bahiana de Medicina e Saúde Pública (Salvador, Bahia, Brazil. RESULTS: Frequency of Candida spp. was higher in HIV-infected women (29.7% than in HIV-uninfected controls (14.5% (p = 0.02. The odds ratio value for vulvovaginal candidiasis in HIV-infected patients was 2.6 (95% CI: 1.07 - 6.32 p = 0.03. Candida albicans was the most commonly isolated species in both HIV-infected (52.3% and uninfected women (85.7%, followed by C. parapsolis in 17.6% and 14.3%, respectively. In HIV-infected women, C. glabrata, C. parapsilosis, and a coinfection of C. albicans and C. glabrata were also identified. There was no significant difference between Candida species isolated from the vaginal mucosa of women with VVC and colonization of the vaginal mucosa of HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected women. One C. glabrata isolate from an HIV-infected patient was resistant to fluconazole and other two isolates exhibited a dose-dependent susceptibility. CONCLUSION: Our results confirm a higher frequency of Candida spp. isolated from the vaginal mucosa of HIV-infected women and a broader spectrum of species involved. Only Candida glabrata isolates showed decreased susceptibility to fluconazole.

  8. Magnitude e caracterização de situações de coerção sexual vivenciadas por jovens de três grandes capitais brasileiras: Porto Alegre, Rio de Janeiro e Salvador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moraes Cláudia Leite de

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available O artigo estima a magnitude da coerção sexual entre jovens, moradores de três grandes centros urbanos brasileiros. Além de avaliar a prevalência, analisa as características de vítimas e perpetradores, identifica as principais estratégias de coerção utilizadas e explora os cenários sociais que favoreceram a ocorrência da violência sexual. Trata-se de parte dos resultados de um inquérito domiciliar realizado em Porto Alegre, Rio de Janeiro e Salvador, concluído em 2002 - Pesquisa GRAVAD. Foram realizadas entrevistas em uma amostra estratificada de homens e mulheres entre 18 e 24 anos, totalizando 4.634 respondentes (47,2% homens e 52,8% mulheres. A prevalência de coerção sexual ao longo da trajetória de vida foi estimada em 16,5% para as mulheres e 11,1% para os homens. A idade da vítima e do perpetrador no primeiro episódio, o tipo de relacionamento entre esses, e as formas de constrangimento utilizadas variaram entre rapazes e moças. A grande magnitude do evento, suas diferenças entre homens e mulheres e as maiores prevalências em certos subgrupos populacionais impõem a elaboração imediata de políticas e estratégias de ação específicas para a prevenção do problema.

  9. Prevalência da dissociação óculo-manual em crianças com dislexia do desenvolvimento - doi: 10.4025/actascihealthsci.v34i1.7499 Prevalence of eye-hand preference dissociation in childrens with development dyslexia - doi: 10.4025/actascihealthsci.v34i1.7499

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Alexandre Bastos

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available A presente pesquisa caracterizou-se em determinar a prevalência da dissociação ocular e manual em crianças com dislexia do desenvolvimento em idade escolar comparadas com crianças normais, pertencentes a escolas públicas. Participaram do estudo crianças entre sete e 12 anos. O Grupo I foi constituído por crianças diagnosticadas com dislexia do desenvolvimento (n = 64 e o Grupo II constituído por crianças- padrão na mesma faixa etária (n = 80. Foi aplicada a Bateria Psicomotora. As crianças disléxicas obtiveram escores significativos de prevalência manual esquerda e ocular direita. Tais resultados sugerem que esta falta de especialização da lateralidade pode comprometer a execução motora.

  10. The use of ethanol in the bus in public transport system of Salvador (Bahia): environmental benefits; O uso de onibus a etanol no sistema de transporte publico de Salvador (Bahia): beneficios ambientais

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carvalho, Alberto Rodamilans Freire de; Lopo, Luciene Matos; Pereira, Osvaldo Livio Soliano [Universidade Salvador (UNIFACS), BA (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    This article makes an initial approach on the environmental benefits, the replacement of diesel vehicles to the public transportation system in Salvador by cars to ethanol and natural gas. It also makes an approach on reducing the emission of pollutants like carbon monoxide (CO), hydrocarbons (HC), oxides of nitrogen (NOx) and particulate material, and estimates the environmental benefit caused by the reduction of the emission of pollutants. (author)

  11. Musculação, uso de esteróides anabolizantes e percepção de risco entre jovens fisiculturistas de um bairro popular de Salvador, Bahia, Brasil Body-building, steroid use, and risk perception among young body-builders from a low-income neighborhood in the city of Salvador, Bahia State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Alberto Bernstein Iriart

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available Estudos recentes em diferentes países têm apontado o aumento do consumo de esteróides anabolizantes entre jovens fisiculturistas e atletas, e os danos à saúde causados pelo seu uso indiscriminado. No Brasil, estudos sobre o uso de anabolizantes são escassos. No presente trabalho, examina-se a percepção de risco à saúde, associada ao consumo de anabolizantes, entre jovens fisiculturistas de um bairro pobre da cidade de Salvador. A metodologia privilegiou métodos de coleta de dados qualitativos tais como etnografia, entrevistas semi-estruturadas e grupo focal com usuários de anabolizantes. Os dados produzidos descrevem as principais substâncias utilizadas e os padrões de uso, e apontam a falta de informação dos jovens entrevistados sobre a extensão dos danos à saúde decorrentes do consumo de anabolizantes, mostrando que para muitos, o desejo de desenvolver massa muscular e alcançar o corpo ideal se sobrepõe ao risco de efeitos colaterais. Os resultados indicam a necessidade de se desenvolver ações culturalmente apropriadas, voltadas para a prevenção do abuso de anabolizantes junto à essa população.Recent studies in different countries have shown an increase in anabolic steroid consumption among young people and the harm caused by indiscriminate use. In Brazil, research on steroid abuse is scarce. The present study examines the risk perception of health problems associated with anabolic steroid consumption among young working-class adults engaged in body-building practices in a poor neighborhood in the city of Salvador, Bahia. The methodology involved an anthropological approach based on qualitative research techniques consisting of ethnography, in-depth interviews, and a focus group with steroid users. The data describe the most common substances consumed and highlight the lack of information among interviewees concerning potential related health hazards, showing that for many steroid consumers the quest for muscle

  12. Violência contra mulheres: a experiência de usuárias de um serviço de urgência e emergência de Salvador, Bahia, Brasil Violence against woman: clients of emergency care units in Salvador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iracema Viterbo Silva

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo apresenta resultados de uma pesquisa sobre violência contra a mulher, realizada em um hospital de urgência e emergência de Salvador, Bahia, Brasil. Definindo-se uma amostra por conglomerado e utilizando-se de um questionário, foram realizadas 701 entrevistas com mulheres na faixa etária de 15 a 49 anos, sendo que 321 referiram algum tipo de violência: física, sexual e/ou psicológica. Constatou-se que embora a violência contra a mulher ocorra independentemente das características sócio-demográficas, é no espaço doméstico onde o fenômeno mais ocorre. Entre mulheres que referiram violência física foi encontrado um número maior de casos de doenças mentais e comportamentais, problemas decorrentes das causas externas, doenças do aparelho geniturinário e causas mal definidas. Conclui-se que os serviços de saúde têm de ter profissionais preparados para atender essas mulheres, que muitas vezes buscam a unidade para aliviar suas dores sem, no entanto, receber uma resposta concreta às suas reais necessidades.This article discusses research on violence against women treated at an emergency care hospital in Salvador, Bahia, Brazil. A total of 701 interviews were conducted in a cluster sample of women ages 15 to 49 years, of whom 321 reported some episode of physical, sexual, and/or psychological violence. Although violence against the women in this sample was not associated with social/demographic characteristics, most cases of violence occurred in the domestic environment. Among women reporting physical violence, there were more cases of mental and behavioral disorders, problems resulting from external causes, genitourinary tract diseases, and ill-defined causes. The article concludes that health services need professionals who are prepared to treat these women, who often come to emergency care units to relieve their pain and suffering but fail to find a concrete response to their real needs.

  13. Lead concentration and allocation in vegetable crops grown in a soil contaminated by battery residues Teores e alocação de chumbo em hortaliças cultivadas em solo contaminado por resíduos de baterias

    OpenAIRE

    Francisco de S Lima; Clístenes WA do Nascimento; Fernando BV da Silva; Vinícius GB de Carvalho; Mateus R Ribeiro Filho

    2009-01-01

    Lead (Pb) is a very stable metal in soil and is highly toxic to humans and animals. Exposure to Pb occurs via inhalation of particles from industry and soil, as well as household dust, water, and contaminated food. A greenhouse experiment was carried out to evaluate Pb contents and allocation in vegetable crops grown in a soil contaminated by battery recycling wastes. Eight plant species were studied: tomato, sweet pepper, beet, carrot, cabbage, green collards, eggplant, and okra. The experim...

  14. Estudo comparativo de métodos para a predição do consumo máximo de oxigênio e limiar anaeróbio em atletas

    OpenAIRE

    Fabio Mahseredjian; Turíbio Leite de Barros Neto; Antonio Sérgio Tebexreni

    1999-01-01

    A aplicação de uma bateria de testes de avaliação da aptidão física em laboratório envolve uma série de equipamentos sofisticados, principalmente quando o objetivo é a determinação da potência aeróbia (consumo máximo de oxigênio e limiar anaeróbio). Os equipamentos para obtenção desses índices são de alto custo financeiro e requerem profissionais com bom conhecimento, técnico e científico, para seu manuseio, além da impossibilidade de sua utilização para aplicar testes em grande escala. A aná...

  15. Freqüência de Adenocarcinoma de Endométrio em Ambulatório de Histeroscopia: Um Estudo Multicêntrico

    OpenAIRE

    Viscomi Francesco Antonio; Lima Sonia Maria Rolim Rosa; Aldrighi José Mendes; Ihlenfeld Mauro Fernando Kürten

    2002-01-01

    Objetivo: realizar um censo sobre a freqüência do adenocarcinoma de endométrio em mulheres submetidas a histeroscopia diagnóstica em cinco serviços brasileiros de vídeo-endoscopia ginecológica localizados em São Paulo, Rio de Janeiro, Salvador, Caxias do Sul e Porto Alegre. Métodos: foram utilizados questionários padronizados com o objetivo de obter as informações sobre a presença de adenocarcinoma, acometimento da cavidade uterina e tipo histológico nos exames histeroscópicos de mulheres na ...

  16. Prevalência e fatores associados ao sedentarismo no lazer em adultos Prevalence and variables associated with leisure-time sedentary lifestyle in adults

    OpenAIRE

    Francisco José Gondim Pitanga; Ines Lessa

    2005-01-01

    O objetivo do estudo foi verificar a prevalência e determinantes do sedentarismo no lazer em adultos, na cidade de Salvador, Bahia, Brasil. O desenho foi transversal em amostra de 2.292 adultos > 20 anos de idade, sendo 1.271 (55,0%) do sexo feminino. Sedentários no lazer foram aqueles que informaram não participar de atividades físicas nos momentos de lazer, em uma semana habitual. Inicialmente, calculou-se a prevalência do sedentarismo no lazer no total, por variáveis associadas e estratifi...

  17. Integration of foreign and local medical staff in a disaster area: the Honduras and El Salvador experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waisman, Yehezkel

    2003-06-01

    International medical aid after natural disasters may take various forms, ranging from self-sufficient military forces to single experts or specialists who function primarily as advisers. A model integrating foreign and local medical staff has not previously been reported. In response to the call for international aid by the Honduran and El Salvadorian governments in the wake of Hurricane Mitch in November 1998 and the San Salvador earthquake in January 2001, Israel sent medical supplies and 10 member teams of medical professionals to each country. The aim of the present paper is to describe the unique Israeli approach to providing healthcare in disaster areas by integrating foreign and local medical staff, and to discuss its advantages and disadvantages. The paper focuses on the experience of the two emergency medicine physicians on the team who were assigned to the Atlantida General Hospital in La Ceiba, Honduras. The same team in San Salvador subsequently applied the same approach. PMID:12789069

  18. Socio-economic Impacts of Acid Mine Drainage: A Caste Study of the San Sebastian Mine in Eastern El Salvador

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pacheco Cueva, Vladimir

    , when compared to the average water household expenditure in El Salvador, in order to satisfy their daily water requirements. The book also provides policy recommendations to government, resource extraction companies and NGOs to help them calculate and integrate the costs of water replacement in socio-economic...... negative environmental legacies but one that is rarely analyzed in terms of its socio-economic impacts. To contribute to this body of knowledge the current book documents the methods used to measure the socio-economic effects of AMD and provides results from a study carried in the community of San...... Sebastian in eastern El Salvador. Using an ecosystems services approach, the book estimates the costs of having to replace water that would otherwise have been obtained from local natural sources at little or no charge. The results show that households in San Sebastian use a high proportion of their incomes...

  19. Impacts of a high-discharge submarine sewage outfall on water quality in the coastal zone of Salvador (Bahia, Brazil)

    KAUST Repository

    Roth, F.

    2016-03-30

    Carbon and nitrogen stable isotopic signatures of suspended particulate organic matter and seawater biological oxygen demand (BOD) were measured along a coastal transect during summer 2015 to investigate pollution impacts of a high-discharge submarine sewage outfall close to Salvador, Brazil. Impacts of untreated sewage discharge were evident at the outfall site by depleted δ13Corg and δ15N signatures and 4-fold increased BOD rates. Pollution effects of a sewage plume were detectable for more than 6 km downstream from the outfall site, as seasonal wind- and tide-driven shelf hydrodynamics facilitated its advective transport into near-shore waters. There, sewage pollution was detectable at recreational beaches by depleted stable isotope signatures and elevated BOD rates at high tides, suggesting high bacterial activity and increased infection risk by human pathogens. These findings indicate the urgent necessity for appropriate wastewater treatment in Salvador to achieve acceptable standards for released effluents and coastal zone water quality.

  20. Impacts of a high-discharge submarine sewage outfall on water quality in the coastal zone of Salvador (Bahia, Brazil).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, F; Lessa, G C; Wild, C; Kikuchi, R K P; Naumann, M S

    2016-05-15

    Carbon and nitrogen stable isotopic signatures of suspended particulate organic matter and seawater biological oxygen demand (BOD) were measured along a coastal transect during summer 2015 to investigate pollution impacts of a high-discharge submarine sewage outfall close to Salvador, Brazil. Impacts of untreated sewage discharge were evident at the outfall site by depleted δ(13)Corg and δ(15)N signatures and 4-fold increased BOD rates. Pollution effects of a sewage plume were detectable for more than 6km downstream from the outfall site, as seasonal wind- and tide-driven shelf hydrodynamics facilitated its advective transport into near-shore waters. There, sewage pollution was detectable at recreational beaches by depleted stable isotope signatures and elevated BOD rates at high tides, suggesting high bacterial activity and increased infection risk by human pathogens. These findings indicate the urgent necessity for appropriate wastewater treatment in Salvador to achieve acceptable standards for released effluents and coastal zone water quality. PMID:27038882

  1. Descentralização, clientelismo e capital social na governança urbana: comparando Belo Horizonte e Salvador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boschi Renato Raul

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available In this comparison of Belo Horizonte?s and Salvador?s experiences within three arenas of local government, the article focuses on the viability of institutional arrangements based on decentralization and citizen participation. It concludes that the relative success achieved when inaugurating city master plans, participatory budgeting (where civil society has direct input in budget definitions, and sectoral councils (councils for decentralized policy issue areas is linked to three factors: prior decentralization processes; articulation between different decision-making units; and, above all, the neutralization of clientelistic control mechanisms through the introduction of horizontal loyalty networks and spaces of representation that in the final analysis will foster greater social capital and accountability.

  2. Clinical and bacteriological characteristics of invasive pneumococcal disease after pneumococcal 10-valent conjugate vaccine implementation in Salvador, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Carolina Regis Leite; Jailton Azevedo; Vivian Santos Galvão; Otávio Moreno-Carvalho; Joice Neves Reis; Cristiana Nascimento-Carvalho

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Invasive pneumococcal disease is a relevant public health problem in Brazil, especially among children and the elderly. In July/2010 a 10-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine was introduced to the immunization schedule of Brazilian children under two years of age. Between July/2010 and December/2013 we conducted a case-series study on invasive pneumococcal disease in Salvador, Brazil to describe the clinical and bacteriological profile of invasive pneumococcal disease cases during t...

  3. El Salvador en tiempos de Monseñor Romero. El camino hacia la guerra civil (1978-1980

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Héctor Grenni

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available El presente escrito presenta las contradicciones que se dieron en uno de los periodos de mayor efervescencia social en El Salvador: los años 1978 a 1981. La situación derivó con frecuencia en violencia y hacia la radicalización de las propuestas, lo que hizo que el camino hacia la guerra civil que probablemente nadie quería, y que estalló entre 1980 y 1992, se transformase en la única posibilidad. Esta efervescencia, que tuvo varios actores principales, dio paso a la violencia, que terminó con la vida del arzobispo de San Salvador. Se propone en este artículo que el asesinato del arzobispo Óscar Romero fue un acontecimiento decisivo en la radicalización definitiva de las posturas y en el estallido de la guerra.   This paper looks at the contradictions that took place in one of the periods of greatest social upheaval in El Salvador: the years between 1978 and 1981. The situation derived more than often in violence and leaned towards the radicalization of proposals, which made civil war seem like the only possible solution. Although in all probability nobody wanted this war, it erupted between 1980 and 1992. This upheaval, along with its numerous actors, led to a scenario marked by violence, which ended with the life of the Archbishop of San Salvador. In view of this, this article argues that the assassination of Archbishop Óscar Romero was a decisive event in the definite radicalization of the political positions as well as in the eruption of the war.

  4. Labor rights of employees of the private security providers in El Salvador, and their relation to psychosocial risk

    OpenAIRE

    Carlos Alberto Coca Muñoz

    2014-01-01

    This paper draws the attention of the academic community, businessmen, worker associations/unions, and public decision makers to the relation between preventing psychosocial risks for private security workers in El Salvador, and the respect for their worker rights as enshrined in the Constitution of the Republic, the Labor Code, and the General Law for the Prevention of Risk at the Workplace. It addresses the doctrine and legal framework of psychosocial risk, and government responsibility in ...

  5. Assessment of earthquake-triggered landslide susceptibility in El Salvador based on an Artificial Neural Network model

    OpenAIRE

    García-Rodríguez, M. J.; J. A. Malpica

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents an approach for assessing earthquake-triggered landslide susceptibility using artificial neural networks (ANNs). The computational method used for the training process is a back-propagation learning algorithm. It is applied to El Salvador, one of the most seismically active regions in Central America, where the last severe destructive earthquakes occurred on 13 January 2001 (Mw 7.7) and 13 February 2001 (M

  6. Assessment of earthquake-triggered landslide susceptibility in El Salvador based on an Artificial Neural Network model

    OpenAIRE

    García-Rodríguez, M. J.; J. A. Malpica

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents an approach for assessing earthquake-triggered landslide susceptibility using artificial neural networks (ANNs). The computational method used for the training process is a back-propagation learning algorithm. It is applied to El Salvador, one of the most seismically active regions in Central America, where the last severe destructive earthquakes occurred on 13 January 2001 (Mw 7.7) and 13 February 2001 (Mw 6.6). The first one triggered more than 600 landsli...

  7. El Salvador; Report on the Observance of Standards and Codes (ROSC)—Data Module

    OpenAIRE

    International Monetary Fund

    2004-01-01

    This Report on the Observance of Standards and Codes (ROSC) on the Data Module on El Salvador reviews summary assessment of data quality. Dissemination of data subject to the IMF’s Special Data Dissemination Standard (SDDS) is in observance of all SDDS specifications, including data coverage, periodicity, timeliness, and the dissemination of advance data release calendars. IMF staff recommends provision of a sufficient budgetary, human resource, and information technology resource allocatio...

  8. Quail egg safety and trade on beaches of Salvador (BA): a study from a child labor perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Permínio Oliveira Vidal Júnior; Ryzia de Cassia Vieira Cardoso; Larissa Santos Assunção

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to describe the trade and microbiological quality of boiled quail eggs on the waterfront of Salvador , Bahia, Brazil, from the child labor perspective. METHODS: This cross-sectional study administered semi-structured questionnaires to 40 underage vendors and performed the microbiological assessment of 40 quail egg samples as follows: mesophilic aerobic microorganism count, coagulase-positive staphylococcus count, estimation of the most probable number of total and ...

  9. Transnational caregiving between Australia, Italy and El Salvador: the impact of institutions on the capability to care at a distance

    OpenAIRE

    Merla, Laura; Baldassar, Loretta

    2011-01-01

    This paper applies the capabilities approach to examine transnational family practices and the exchange of care between adult migrant children and their ageing parents living at a distance. An aim of the paper is to raise awareness about the importance of transnational caregiving to migrant well-being. Using qualitative oral history data, we highlight the role of the state in facilitating caregiving across distance between the countries where the parents are living, in this case El Salvador a...

  10. “The Power of Violence in War and Peace: Post-Cold War Lessons from El Salvador

    OpenAIRE

    Bourgois, Philippe

    2001-01-01

    The Cold War sanitized the author’s analysis of political violence among revolutionary peasants in El Salvador during the 1980s. A 20 year retrospective analysis of his fieldwork documents the ways political terror and repression become embedded in daily interactions that normalize interpersonal brutality in a dynamic of everyday violence. Furthermore, the structural, symbolic and interpersonal violence that accompanies both revolutionary mobilization and also labor migration to the U.S. inne...

  11. Early detection and intervention in congenital deaf children inserted in special schools of the city of Salvador / BA

    OpenAIRE

    Carvalho, Lavínia Santos de; Cavalheiro, Laura Giotto

    2009-01-01

    Introduction: The hearing loss interferes with the child's linguistic development, impairs its insertion in the society and produces cognitive and emotional consequences in case he or she is not inserted in an early and suitable educational and therapeutic program. Objective: To characterized the early detection process and intervention in children with hearing loss inserted in special schools of the city of Salvador - BA. Method: We evaluated the records and carried out interview with mother...

  12. Um estudo etno-epidemiológico da violência urbana na cidade de Salvador, Bahia, Brasil: os atos de extermínio como objeto de análise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mônica Nunes

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available O presente estudo, reunindo uma vertente epidemiológica e uma vertente antropológica, permitiu evidenciar os significados sociais subjacentes a dados indicados pela comparação do monitoramento de diferenciais da distribuição das taxas de mortalidade por homicídios em um bairro de Salvador, realizados em dois períodos: o primeiro situado entre 1988 e 1994 e o segundo, entre 1994 e 2000. O estudo etnográfico indicou que, no primeiro período, ocorreu o extermínio de muitas pessoas consideradas delinqüentes e o assassinato de muitos moradores no bairro, o que, no estudo epidemiológico, corresponde a um aumento na taxa de mortalidade por causas externas. Já entre 91-94, observa-se um decréscimo na taxa de mortalidade, coincidindo, no trabalho de campo, com o período considerado de "acalmia". Na segunda metade da década de noventa, observa-se um novo aumento da taxa de homicídios na área de estudo, embora os moradores revelem uma imagem pacífica do bairro. O presente estudo realiza uma hermenêutica da violência nesse bairro, especialmente dos atos de extermínio, e das dinâmicas sociais que a envolviam nos seus diversos períodos.

  13. Spread pattern of the first dengue epidemic in the city of Salvador, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carvalho Marilia S

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The explosive epidemics of dengue that have been occurring in various countries have stimulated investigation into new approaches to improve understanding of the problem and to develop new strategies for controlling the disease. The objective of this study was to evaluate the characteristics of diffusion of the first dengue epidemic that occurred in the city of Salvador in 1995. Methods The epidemiological charts and records of notified cases of dengue in Salvador in 1995 constituted the source of data. The cases of the disease were georeferenced according to census areas (spatial units and epidemiological weeks (temporal unit. Kernel density estimation was used to identify the pattern of spatial diffusion using the R-Project computer software program. Results Of the 2,006 census areas in the city, 1,400 (70% registered cases of dengue in 1995 and the spatial distribution of these records revealed that by the end of 1995 practically the entire city had been affected by the virus, with the largest concentration of cases occurring in the western region, composed of census areas with a high population density and predominantly horizontal residences compared to the eastern region of the city, where there is a predominance of vertical residential buildings. Conclusion The pattern found in this study shows the characteristics of the classic process of spreading by contagion that is common to most infectious diseases. It was possible to identify the epicenter of the epidemic from which centrifugal waves of the disease emanated. Our results suggest that, if a more agile control instrument existed that would be capable of rapidly reducing the vector population within a few days or of raising the group immunity of the population by means of a vaccine, it would theoretically be possible to adopt control actions around the epicenter of the epidemic and consequently reduce the incidence of the disease in the city. This finding emphasizes

  14. The Role of Temperature and Humidity on Seasonal Influenza in Tropical Areas: Guatemala, El Salvador and Panama, 2008-2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soebiyanto, Radina P.; Clara, Wilfrido; Jara, Jorge; Castillo, Leticia; Sorto, Oscar Rene; Marinero, Sidia; Antinori, Maria E. Barnett de; McCracken, John P.; Widdowson, Marc-Alain; Azziz-Baumgartner, Eduardo; Kiang, Richard K.

    2014-01-01

    Background: The role of meteorological factors on influenza transmission in the tropics is less defined than in the temperate regions. We assessed the association between influenza activity and temperature, specific humidity and rainfall in 6 study areas that included 11 departments or provinces within 3 tropical Central American countries: Guatemala, El Salvador and Panama. Method/ Findings: Logistic regression was used to model the weekly proportion of laboratory-confirmed influenza positive samples during 2008 to 2013 (excluding pandemic year 2009). Meteorological data was obtained from the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission satellite and the Global Land Data Assimilation System. We found that specific humidity was positively associated with influenza activity in El Salvador (Odds Ratio (OR) and 95% Confidence Interval of 1.18 (1.07-1.31) and 1.32 (1.08-1.63)) and Panama (OR = 1.44 (1.08-1.93) and 1.97 (1.34-2.93)), but negatively associated with influenza activity in Guatemala (OR = 0.72 (0.6-0.86) and 0.79 (0.69-0.91)). Temperature was negatively associated with influenza in El Salvador's west-central departments (OR = 0.80 (0.7-0.91)) whilst rainfall was positively associated with influenza in Guatemala's central departments (OR = 1.05 (1.01-1.09)) and Panama province (OR = 1.10 (1.05-1.14)). In 4 out of the 6 locations, specific humidity had the highest contribution to the model as compared to temperature and rainfall. The model performed best in estimating 2013 influenza activity in Panama and west-central El Salvador departments (correlation coefficients: 0.5-0.9). Conclusions/Significance: The findings highlighted the association between influenza activity and specific humidity in these 3 tropical countries. Positive association with humidity was found in El Salvador and Panama. Negative association was found in the more subtropical Guatemala, similar to temperate regions. Of all the study locations, Guatemala had annual mean temperature and specific

  15. [Trends and spatial distribution of mortality from external causes in Salvador, Bahia State, Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Freitas, E D; Paim, J S; da Silva, L M; Costa, M da C

    2000-01-01

    Since 1980, external causes (ICD-9 E800-E999) have been ranked as the second leading causal group for mortality in Brazil, thus becoming a major public health problem. This study aimed to describe spatial distribution trends for violent deaths in the urban setting of Salvador, a city in Northeast Brazil, for the years 1988, 1991, and 1994. An ecological study was conducted, and mortality data were obtained from death certificates and the archives of the Institute for Forensic Medicine. There was an increase of 34.6% in the number of deaths from external causes between 1988 and 1994. The highest mortality rates were among men from 20 to 29 years of age (from 192.0 to 262.0/100,000) and those 65 years and over (from 188.7 to 258.1/100,000). Homicides were the leading cause of violent deaths in about 75.0% of neighborhoods. The authors discuss the need for comprehensive public policies and an interdisciplinary approach to elucidate the causes and deal with the problem of violence. PMID:11175529

  16. Geomorphic zoning and eogenetic karst on limestones within the supratidal environment: San Salvador, Bahamas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark H. Horwitz

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available An examination of eogenetic karst along supratidal coastal and tidally-influenced inland-lake shoreline sites was conducted on San Salvador Island, Bahamas in order to gain insight into the karst forming processes active along the land-marine interface. Based on proximity to marine aerosols and the spatial distribution patterns of surficial karst morphologies and biotic populations, four shore-parallel geomorphic zones are identified. Spatial affinities suggest haloclastic, bioerosional, and to a lesser degree, mixing dissolution/corrosion processes dominate the seaward-most region of the coastal platform, the region regularly wetted by sea spray and most deeply dissected. Further landward, where the platform remains largely free of marine aerosol, surficial karst development is more subdued and appears to be dominated by meteoric dissolution processes. The observed meso- and micro-karst morphologies and associated geomorphic zoning patterns are the combined products of biological, chemical, and physical processes unique to the supratidal zone, and are largely controlled by position relative to the land-marine interface and sea level

  17. Prevalence and correlates of erectile dysfunction in Salvador, northeastern Brazil: a population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira, E D; Lisboa Lôbo, C F; Villa, M; Nicolosi, A; Glasser, D B

    2002-08-01

    Our objectives were to determine the prevalence of erectile dysfunction (ED) in Brazil and to explore potential sociodemographic, medical, and lifestyle correlates. A cross-sectional, population-based, household survey was conducted in Salvador, Bahia, Brazil. Cluster samples of representative households were randomly selected for interviews. Of 654 eligible subjects, 602 (92%) participated. A structured questionnaire was administered by trained interviewers. ED was categorized as 'none', 'mild', 'moderate', or 'severe' according to the ability to 'attain and/or maintain an erection satisfactory for sexual intercourse'. All data were obtained by self-report. The age-adjusted prevalence of ED was 39.5% (minimal 25.1%, moderate 13.1%, severe 1.3%). Prevalence and severity increased with age. Having never been married, diabetes, depression, or prostate disease and current depressive or lower urinary tract symptoms were significantly (P<0.05) associated with increased prevalence. Medical, sociodemographic, and lifestyle variables associated with ED may alert physicians to patients at risk for ED and offer insight to its etiology. PMID:12161762

  18. Behaviour of zirconium in the weathering of granulites from Salvador-BA/Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The weathering related to mineralogy with chemical analysis of Zr in granulites and their weathered equivalents in Salvador - Brazil, is studied. The mineralogical and petrographical characteristics were correlated with analyses for K,Al and Zr. The fresh rocks are quartz-rich pyroxene granulites, the weathered samples were submitted to bromoform and electromagnetic separations to recovery nearly pure zircon from the fraction coarser than 50 micros. These zircons were classified by color, size and shape. Proportions between different colors of zircon were correlated with petrography of fresh granulites. Studies of zircons resistent to acid attack indicated, that the darker colors were due to iron oxide staining. Chemical analyses for Zr in fresh rocks presented values higher than the values corresponding to zircon observed in thin sections, sugesting the presence of Zr as a trace element in ferromagnesian silicates. In the weathered rocks, Zr values are much higher than those corresponding to recovered zircon. Comparisons of K2O, Al2O3 and Zr values in fresh and weathered rocks indicated a loss of K2O, and a gain of Zr by weathering. However, maximum losses of K2O do not coincide with maximum gains of Zr. (author)

  19. Community Essay: Developing a sustainable water-delivery system in rural El Salvador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael G. Wing

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Engineers Without Borders-USA (EWB-USA consists of over 50 professional chapters throughout the country and over 100 student chapters at engineering universities. The goal of EWB-USA is to assist developing communities implement sustainable engineering projects that foster quality-of-life improvements while developing internationally responsible engineers and engineering students. An EWB-USA chapter at Oregon State University (EWB-OSU has focused efforts on designing a sustainable water system to provide clean water for two communities in El Salvador. The communities are located in remote and mountainous terrain and have little available data describing local resources. The health of the communities has suffered due to a lack of clean drinking water. Small teams from the EWB-OSU chapter have now twice visited the communities to collect data using global positioning system (GPS receivers. Financial support for travel costs has come from a variety of sources. The local community has helped field teams locate important resources and verify information to support the design process. Although considerable project progress has occurred, challenges have resulted from working in remote and rugged landscapes and also from land use and ownership considerations in the communities. We describe in this essay EWB-OSU activities to design and implement an engineering project to provide freshwater to rural communities in a remote, rural community.

  20. What is needed to improve food sales in schools?Food vendors’ opinion from El Salvador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline eHilari

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Latin America and the Caribbean are at the forefront of the double burden of malnourishment, with rocketing rates of overweight, obesity and stagnant prevalence of stunting in many countries. School children are at a crucial age for setting eating habits, physical activity, nutritional status and long term outcomes both in their health as well as their education and economic productivity. Save the Children International implements a school health and nutrition program in 45 rural schools in El Salvador, Central America. The program aims at increasing the consumption of protein and micronutrients while reducing intake of sugar and fats in school children. In addition, there is great emphasis on food hygiene and safe handling, through training of the food vendors. We developed a conceptual framework for school nutrition programs that is phrased around five different moments: school snacks, school stores, nutrition learning, bringing food to school and eating at home. Monitoring and control lies in the hands of student brigades, which fosters child participation. We present findings of a qualitative evaluation on sale regulation in school food stores, documenting additional interventions that were needed to foster compliance. We explore how vendors are making money on healthy food if head teachers and parents are involved in regulating food stores and children are motivated to cherish fruits and vegetables. Based on these findings, we discuss a model of an enabling environment for healthy food at school.

  1. Present-day crustal deformation along the El Salvador Fault Zone from ZFESNet GPS network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staller, Alejandra; Martínez-Díaz, José Jesús; Benito, Belén; Alonso-Henar, Jorge; Hernández, Douglas; Hernández-Rey, Román; Díaz, Manuel

    2016-02-01

    This paper presents the results and conclusions obtained from new GPS data compiled along the El Salvador Fault Zone (ESFZ). We calculated a GPS-derived horizontal velocity field representing the present-day crustal deformation rates in the ESFZ based on the analysis of 30 GPS campaign stations of the ZFESNet network, measured over a 4.5 year period from 2007 to 2012. The velocity field and subsequent strain rate analysis clearly indicate dextral strike-slip tectonics with extensional component throughout the ESFZ. Our results suggest that the boundary between the Salvadoran forearc and Caribbean blocks is a deformation zone which varies along the fault zone. We estimate that the movement between the two blocks is at least ~ 12 mm yr- 1. From west to east, this movement is variably distributed between faults or segments of the ESFZ. We propose a kinematic model with three main blocks; the Western, Central and Eastern blocks delimited by major faults. For the first time, we were able to provide a quantitative measure of the present-day horizontal geodetic slip rate of the main segments of ESFZ, ranging from ~ 2 mm yr- 1 in the east segment to ~ 8 mm yr- 1, in the west and central segments. This study contributes new kinematic and slip rate data that should be used to update and improve the seismic hazard assessments in northern Central America.

  2. PERCEPTION OF UNDERGRADUATE ACCOUNTANCY STUDENTS IN SALVADOR (BA ABOUT RELEVANT ACCOUNTING THEORY CONCEPTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriano Leal Bruni

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Mastering basic Accountancy concepts appropriately and analyzing their characteristics are essential for the development of Accounting Theory. The financial decision making process requires knowledge on adequate economic values, which Accounting users are increasingly demanding. The aim of this research was to ascertain the understanding of some terms explored in the context of the subject Accounting Theory, such as assets, liabilities, goodwill, revenues, expenses, gains and losses. A sample was investigated, comprising 591 students enrolled in Accountancy programs who had already taken the subject Accounting Theory at higher education institutions (HEI located in the city of Salvador (BA, Brazil. Logistic regression analysis of the results indicates that the relation between student performance and the teacher’s degree is more significant than the relation between student performance and type of HEI. In general, however, superficial concepts on the topics addressed in this study were cited at all levels. The results generally disclosed errors in the understanding of relevant accounting concepts for students’ education, mainly reflecting an outdated, or at least conservative view. When compared per type of education institution, the results indicate that students from public institutions better master the concepts considered in this study. The understanding improves further when the teacher’s degree evolves from specialist to M.Sc. and Ph.D.

  3. Teachers' knowledge, attitudes and experience in sexual abuse prevention education in El Salvador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurtado, Alicia; Katz, Craig; Ciro, Dianne; Guttfreund, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    Research on how to prevent child sexual abuse (CSA) in developing nations is practically non-existent. We sought to determine Salvadoran teachers' knowledge, attitudes, experience and barriers to CSA detection and reporting to assess the need for a CSA prevention programme and to assess barriers in conducting such a programme. One hundred teachers completed a questionnaire while they visited the Tin Marin Children's Museum in San Salvador. Nineteen of these teachers also participated in a focus group. We found that 89% of teachers reported at least two signs and symptoms of child abuse. One hundred per cent of teachers agreed that it is their responsibility to teach students about sexual abuse. Unusual for a study of this kind, parental migration was mentioned as making children vulnerable to CSA, and fear of gang violence and retribution was identified as interfering with teachers' ability to protect children. We conclude that Salvadoran teachers were knowledgeable about CSA detection and reporting and would support a programme in which they are trained to speak to their students about this topic. Barriers to reporting child abuse, such as teachers' safety and fear, need to be addressed in future CSA prevention programmes. PMID:24172028

  4. Bringing solar home systems to rural El Salvador: lessons for small NGOs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents the results of case studies examining two independent projects that worked to bring solar home systems (SHSs) to isolated communities in El Salvador. Both projects were implemented by small nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) that did not have prior experience with SHSs. One project was market-based: families were given the opportunity to purchase the systems at going prices. The other was donor-based: residents were provided the equipment in return for their agreement to cooperate in local environmental protection efforts. Results of a comparative analysis support several conclusions. (1) For small NGOs, the promotion of markets is appealing because of the potential for financial sustainability; yet a reliance on markets may also heighten complexity and increase opportunities for failure. (2) In implementation of market-based projects, all stakeholders, including potential consumers, private-sector service providers, and the staff of NGOs acting as project managers, will face pressures to modify and adapt their attitudes and behaviors. (3) Alternative models for small-scale projects that integrate market-based and donor-based design features deserve consideration

  5. The Ahuachapan geothermal field, El Salvador: Exploitation model, performance predictions, economic analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ripperda, M.; Bodvarsson, G.S.; Lippmann, M.J.; Witherspoon, P.A. (Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States)); Goranson, C. (Geothermal Consultant Richmond, California (USA))

    1991-05-01

    The Earth Sciences Division of Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL) is conducting a reservoir evaluation study of the Ahuachapan geothermal field in El Salvador. This work is being performed in cooperation with the Comision Ejecutiva Hidroelectrica del Rio Lempa (CEL) and the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) with funding from the US Agency for International Development (USAID). This appendix to the report describes the work done during the second year of the study (FY89--90). The first year's report included (1) the development of geological and conceptual models of the field, (2) the evaluation of the reservoir's initial thermodynamic and chemical conditions and their changes during exploitation, (3) the evaluation of interference test data and the observed reservoir pressure decline and (4) the development of a natural state model for the field. In these appendices the results of reservoir engineering studies to evaluate different production-injection scenarios for the Ahuachapan geothermal field are discussed. The purpose of the work was to evaluate possible reservoir management options to enhance as well as to maintain the productivity of the field during a 30-year period (1990--2020). The ultimate objective was to determine the feasibility of increasing the electrical power output at Ahuachapan from the current level of about 50 MW{sub e} to the total installed capacity of 95 MW{sub e}. the flow rate and flowing enthalpy are shown for 1975--1990 and extrapolated out to 2015. Future temperature distributions are predicted.

  6. Mental health and primary care: an experience with community health agents in Salvador-BA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noêmia Aragão Casais

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To share an experience of a link between primary care and mental health by means of matrix support. Method: A survey conducted from March to December 2007, in Pernambués neighborhood, District of Cabula-beiru, in Salvador - Bahia. The shared knowledge construction was carried out by residents of the Multidisciplinary Residency Program in Health from the Nucleus of Mental Health, State University of Bahia, with Community Health Agents (ACS. Meetings, discussions and domiciliary visits were applyed as sharing technics and tools with phonographic recording, photographic register and report. The obtained information were evaluated regarding their content and were divided into stages and categories. Results: We determined the following stages by means of the technique: approach, ties’ strengthening, teamwork and conclusion. The results were analyzed based on the ACS’ everyday interactivity for cooperation, thus obtaining the development of a critical spirit in the assesment of the relationship between primary care and mental health. Final Considerations: The exchange of experiences produced significant learning, besides health promotion for all those involved in the process: ACS, families cared for and residents.

  7. Double incision wound healing bioassay using Hamelia patens from El Salvador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez-Beloz, Alfredo; Rucinski, James C; Balick, Michael J; Tipton, Camille

    2003-10-01

    Hamelia patens Jacq. (Rubiaceae) has received little attention in the laboratory for its wound healing ability even though it is commonly used as a treatment for wounds throughout Central America. A double incision wound healing bioassay was carried out with a crude extract of Hamelia patens collected from El Salvador. Animals were divided into three groups. Group I (n = 14) had the left incision treated with 5% (w/w) Hamelia patens and the contralateral side with petroleum jelly (PJ). Group II (n = 14) had the left incision treated with 10% (w/w) ointment and the contralateral side with petroleum jelly. Group III (n = 10) had the left incision treated with petroleum jelly and the contralateral side left untreated. Breaking strength of the incisions was measured on day 7 and day 12. For Groups I and II, there was no significant difference between treatment and control incisions at day 7. On day 12, there was a significant difference between the treated and control incisions for Groups I and II. There was no significant difference between petroleum jelly and untreated incisions for Group III on day 7 and day 12. Hamelia patens does increase breaking strength of wounds significantly more than the control group. Further wound healing studies of this plant are warranted. PMID:12963138

  8. The Ahuachapan geothermal field, El Salvador: Exploitation model, performance predictions, economic analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ripperda, M.; Bodvarsson, G.S.; Lippmann, M.J.; Witherspoon, P.A.; Goranson, C.

    1991-05-01

    The Earth Sciences Division of Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL) is conducting a reservoir evaluation study of the Ahuachapan geothermal field in El Salvador. This work is being performed in cooperation with the Comision Ejecutiva Hidroelectrica del Rio Lempa (CEL) and the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) with funding from the US Agency for International Development (USAID). This report describes the work done during the second year of the study (FY89--90). The first year's report included (1) the development of geological and conceptual models of the field, (2) the evaluation of the reservoir's initial thermodynamic and chemical conditions and their changes during exploitation, (3) the evaluation of interference test data and the observed reservoir pressure decline and (4) the development of a natural state model for the field. In the present report the results of reservoir engineering studies to evaluate different production-injection scenarios for the Ahuachapan geothermal field are discussed. The purpose of the work was to evaluate possible reservoir management options to enhance as well as to maintain the productivity of the field during a 30-year period (1990--2020). The ultimate objective was to determine the feasibility of increasing the electrical power output at Ahuachapan from the current level of about 50 MW{sub e} to the total installed capacity of 95 MW{sub e}. 20 refs., 75 figs., 10 tabs.

  9. Virtual Visit to the ATLAS Control Room during The National Week of Science and Technology, Salvador

    CERN Multimedia

    ATLAS Experiment

    2012-01-01

    The Polytechnic School of the Federal University of Bahia (EPUFBA) was founded in 1897 in the city of Salvador, Bahia, Brazil. Currently there are in EPUFBA 10 undergraduate and six graduate programs in engineering, The EPUFBA is one of the largest Brazilian centers of education and research in engineering and technology. The National Week of Science and Technology (SNCT) is an annual event organized by the Ministry of Science and Technology (MCT) and in 2012 will take place in the period between October 15th and 21st. The SNCT is held since 2004 and its aim is to mobilize the population, especially children and youth around science and technology themes and activities. In SNCT activities are carried out in all regions of the country, involving several partners, such as universities, research institutions, schools, public and private companies, government entities and civil society. In 2011, there were approximately 16,000 activities in 654 cities. http://atlas-live-virtual-visit.web.cern.ch/atlas-live-virtua...

  10. First results on small ruminant brucellosis and tuberculosis and caprine arthritis-encephalitis in El Salvador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linderot de Cardona, Kristina; De Gracia Scanapieco, Abelardo; Braun, Peggy G

    2016-06-01

    This paper reports a first-time study performed in El Salvador on the presence or absence of antibodies to three important animal diseases in small ruminants. The work was conducted in the west and central departments of the country, selecting 42 and 43 cantons with an existing sheep and goat population, respectively. Serum samples were collected from 396 sheep and 335 goats and tested for seropositivity to Brucella (B.) spp. The specimens from goats were also tested for antibodies to caprine arthritis-encephalitis (CAE) virus. Four (1 %) sheep and none of the goats were seropositive by Rose Bengal test. All animals were negative by indirect ELISA (iELISA) for B. abortus. All animals were negative by iELISA for CAE. A total of 383 sheep and 330 goats underwent the single intradermal cervical tuberculin (SICT) test for tuberculosis. Seventy (18 %) sheep and 43 (13 %) goats reacted to the SICT test. Those reactors were subjected to the single intradermal comparative cervical tuberculin (SICCT) test, and one (0.3 %) goat was deemed to be a positive reactor. No mycobacteria were diagnosed in concluding analyses, and further studies are considered necessary to determine the prevalence of the investigated diseases. Additionally, it is recommended that small ruminants should be included in the national eradication program on bovine brucellosis and tuberculosis to prevent potential reservoirs. PMID:26992736

  11. Study of the carbon and oxygen isotopic compositions in marine shells of Salvador-Bahia, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The carbon and oxygen isotopic composition of 68 samples of marine shells from the region of Salvador was determined. These samples are from points on the open coast and in the interior of the Todos os Santos Bay and they are composed in part by recent specimens and in part by old specimens taken from Quaternary sediments. The results for δ 18O are in the range of -2,83per mille to + 1,21per mille (PDB) and for δ 13C in the range of -3,10per mille to +2,63per mille (PDB). The reults for the recent shells from the interior of the Todos os Santos Bay show variations in the δ 13C values associated to the dominance of organic matter in some regions. For the old samoles, gathered in te variations in the δ 13C values was associated to the existence in points of that region of deposits of fluvio-lagunar sediments, originated during the last marine transgression. It was identified, for a few species with the same age and location, the effect of biological fractionations. Nevertheless, the observed dominant factor on the isotopic differentiation was the environmental fractionation. (Author)

  12. Relação entre fatores de personalidade e estratégias de coping em adolescentes Relationship between personality factors and coping strategies in adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Santana Diniz

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo é investigar a relação entre fatores de personalidade e estratégias de coping em adolescentes. Participaram desta pesquisa 102 jovens de uma escola municipal de Goiânia com idade entre 11 e 15 anos, utilizando o Coping Response Inventory e a Bateria Fatorial de Personalidade. Os dados obtidos demonstraram que meninas utilizam mais a análise lógica para resolver seus problemas e os meninos apresentam maior pontuação em neuroticismo; que os adolescentes mais jovens utilizam mais coping de evitação e os mais velhos, o coping de aproximação; e que tanto a apreciação do problema como os traços de personalidade relacionam-se significativamente com o uso de estratégias de coping. Os resultados são discutidos de acordo com as teorias de coping.The aim of this study is to investigate the relationship between personality factors and coping strategies in adolescents. 102 students from a municipal school in Goiânia aged between 11 and 15 years old was assessed using Coping Response Inventory and the "Bateria Fatorial de Personalidade". Data showed that girls use more logical analysis to solve their problems and that boys had higher scores on neuroticism; that younger adolescents use more avoidance coping responses and older ones use more approach coping responses; and that both coping appraisal and personality traits are significantly related to the use of coping strategies. The results are discussed according to coping theories.

  13. Mapeo de ingeniería geológica en parte sur del área metropolitana de San Salvador Engineering geology mapping in the southern part of the metropolitan area of San Salvador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José A Chávez

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available El uso de mapas geológicos clásicos que agrupan los estratos por edad u origen, dificulta la interpretación y uso para diseños de ingeniería civil o planificación urbana, para las personas sin conocimientos profundos en geología. Debido a esto se ha llevado a cabo mapeo de ingeniería geológica en sector sur del Área Metropolitana de San Salvador, haciendo uso de la metodología de bandas. El objetivo de la metodología es que la información geológica, peligrosidad geológica y recomendaciones geotécnicas puedan representarse y agruparse dependiendo de las características intrínsecas de cada zona. Esta información puede ser fácilmente interpretada por los planificadores urbanos, constructores privados y agencias gubernamentales. La debilidad en la recopilación e investigación de información geológica y geotécnica en El Salvador, son unas de las razones de la problemática que experimenta la región, indicando la importancia de mejorar el manejo del riesgo, así como la mecánica de suelos y de rocasThe use of classic geologic maps, where geological layers are grouped according to their age or origin, makes difficult the interpretation and use for civil engineer design or urban planning to people without deep knowledge in geology. Due to this reason engineering geological mapping has been carried out in the southern part of the Metro- politan Area of San Salvador using the stripe method. The objective of the methodology is that geological information, geological hazards and geotechnical recommendations as well, can be represented and grouped depending on the intrinsic characteristics of each zone. This information can be easily interpreted for urban planners, private builders and government agencies. The weakness in the compilation and research of geological and geotechnical information in El Salvador, are some of the reasons for the current problems that experiment the region, indicating the importance of improving risk

  14. Freqüência de Adenocarcinoma de Endométrio em Ambulatório de Histeroscopia: Um Estudo Multicêntrico Endometrial Adenocarcinoma Frequency in a Hysteroscopy Outpatient Clinic: A Multicenter Study

    OpenAIRE

    Francesco Antonio Viscomi; Sonia Maria Rolim Rosa Lima; José Mendes Aldrighi; Mauro Fernando Kürten Ihlenfeld

    2002-01-01

    Objetivo: realizar um censo sobre a freqüência do adenocarcinoma de endométrio em mulheres submetidas a histeroscopia diagnóstica em cinco serviços brasileiros de vídeo-endoscopia ginecológica localizados em São Paulo, Rio de Janeiro, Salvador, Caxias do Sul e Porto Alegre. Métodos: foram utilizados questionários padronizados com o objetivo de obter as informações sobre a presença de adenocarcinoma, acometimento da cavidade uterina e tipo histológico nos exames histeroscópicos de mulheres na ...

  15. Gravidade dos acidentes de trabalho atendidos em serviços de emergência Gravedad de los accidentes de trabajo atendidos en servicios de emergencia Severity of occupational injuries treated in emergency services

    OpenAIRE

    Vilma Sousa Santana; Cibele Xavier; Maria Claudia Peres Moura; Rosane Oliveira; Jônatas Silva Espírito-Santo; Gustavo Araújo

    2009-01-01

    OBJETIVO: Estimar o nível de gravidade de acidentes de trabalho e fatores associados. MÉTODOS: Estudo longitudinal realizado em Salvador, BA, conduzido com todos os 406 casos de acidentes de trabalho atendidos em duas unidades de emergência de hospitais públicos, entre junho e agosto de 2005. Os participantes foram identificados durante a admissão no serviço de emergência e entrevistados mensalmente em suas residências, até o retorno ao trabalho ou finalização do tratamento. A gravidade foi d...

  16. Mortality attributed to myocardial infarction in the male and female population of Salvador, BA, between 1981 and 1996

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Carlos Santana Passos

    2000-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To describe according to gender the trend in mortality attributed to myocardial infarction (MI in the population of Salvador, Bahia between 1981 and 1996. METHODS: This study was on mortality due to MI estimates by period and gender of the city of Salvador, Bahia. Data from 1981 to 1996 were stratified by quadrienia, and the percentage reduction in death rate due to MI relative to the preceding period (PRR was determined. Comparisons between genders were expressed by the male/female death ratio (DR based on the gender-related PPR. RESULTS: An overall increase of approximately 8% was observed in the death rate attributed to MI for the period 1985-1988 (89.2/10 5 individuals / year versus the period 1981-1984 (82.1/10(5/ year. In the subsequent periods, overall reductions of 10% and 20.3% were observed for the periods 1989-1992 and 1993-1996, respectively. For men, the PPRs were 11.1 in the period 1989-1992 and 22.7% in the period 1993-1996. The PPRs in women were lower: 8.6% and 17.4% between 1989 and 1992, and 1993 and 1996, respectively. Death rate reduction was greater for men than women, then the male/female DR decreased from 1.66 in 1981-1984 to 1.35 in 1993-1996. CONCLUSION: The results indicate a trend towards a reduction in the death rate attributed to myocardial infarction in the city of Salvador from the second half of the 1980s onwards, striking in men.

  17. Evaluation of blood stream infections by Candida in three tertiary hospitals in Salvador, Brazil: a case-control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Goreth Barberino

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Invasive infections caused by Candida spp. are an important problem in immunocompromised patients. There is scarce data on the epidemiology of blood stream candidiasis in Salvador, Brazil. This study evaluates the risk factors associated with candidemia, among patients admitted to three tertiary, private hospitals, in Salvador, Brazil. We conducted a case-control, retrospective study to compare patients with diagnosis of candidemia in three different tertiary hospitals in Salvador, Brazil. Patients were matched for nosocomial, acquired infections, according to the causal agent: cases were defined by positive blood cultures for Candida species. Controls were those patients who had a diagnosis of systemic bacterial infection, with a positive blood culture to any bacteria, within the same time period (± 30 days of case identification. The groups were compared for the main known risk factors for candidemia and for mortality rates. A hundred thirty-eight patients were identified. Among the 69 cases, only 14 were diagnosed as infected by Candida albicans. Candida species were defined in only eight cultures: C. tropicalis (4 cases, C. glabrata, C. parapsilosis, C. guillermondi, C. formata (1 case each. The main risk factors, identified in a univariate analysis, were: presence of a central venous catheter (CVC, use of parenteral nutrition support (PNS, previous exposure to antibiotics, and chronic renal failure (CRF. No association was detected with surgical procedures, diabetes mellitus, neutropenia or malignancies. Patients were more likely to die during the hospitalization period, but the rates of death caused by the infections were similar for cases and controls. The length of hospitalization was similar for both groups, as well as the time for a positive blood culture. Blood stream infection by Candida spp. is associated with CVC, PNS, previous use of antibiotics, and CRF. The higher mortality rate for cases probably better reflects the severity

  18. Dimensions of health and social structure in the early intermediate period cemetery at Villa El Salvador, Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pechenkina, Ekaterina A; Delgado, Mercedes

    2006-10-01

    This paper examines relationships between the social structure of a community and the health of its members, based on analysis of human skeletal remains (N = 64) from Villa El Salvador XII (100 BC-AD 100), a prehistoric cemetery located in the lower Lurín Valley, Peru. The ambiguity of social status as conventionally inferred from archaeological context is among the principal complicating factors in such an inquiry. We use multidimensional scaling of skeletal markers to identify the presence of patterned health-based heterogeneity in our sample, without making a priori assumptions about underlying social structure at Villa El Salvador. This procedure situates every skeleton relative to all others in the sample on the basis of multiple health markers, eliciting health groups. Once recognized, the relevance of those groups to social structure can be evaluated by comparison with a broad range of presumptive archaeological status indicators. We test the hypothesis that the distribution of stress indicators in human skeletons covaries with archaeological indicators of social differentiation. Based on multivariate analysis of skeletal indicators, we conclude that the cemetery at Villa El Salvador was utilized by two social groups with different geographic affinities: one of local coastal origin, and the other probably from the upper Lurín Valley or adjacent higher altitudes. These groups differ in skeletal characteristics related to childhood health, probably reflecting systematic contrasts in the growth environments of the studied individuals. This same division is independently supported by the distribution of cranial deformation, a possible marker of ethnicity. We also document some inequality in the distribution of labor among male individuals, as reflected by the relative advancement of degenerative joint disease, and congruent with differences in the number and quality of associated funerary offerings. PMID:16596594

  19. Is It Still a Disaster if It is Routine? A Case Study in El Salvador

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton, T.; Rios Sanchez, M.; MacLennan, C.; Gierke, J. S.

    2012-12-01

    El Salvador is among the world's highest ranked in terms of risks of natural disasters. According to a United Nations study, almost 90% of the country's territory is highly susceptible to the effects of a natural disaster and correspondingly 95% of the country's population lives within the disaster-prone regions. This high vulnerability, coupled with the country's relatively small area, has led to some paradoxical situations involving the way disaster risk is managed at the local level. One extreme example occurs annually in a small town that borders a large, shallow lake (laguna). The lake level rises by 2 to 4 meters during every year's wet season from May to October, prompting the surrounding families to temporarily relocate in response to these annual floods. A series of storms related to Tropical Depression 12E during the 2011 wet season resulted in flooding levels of nearly 5 meters. Nearly 300 households were evacuated, and a government-run emergency shelter was set up nearby. Owing to the regularity of the situation, however, not a single person needed to use the emergency shelter. Many of those who are most affected by the annual flooding will move their belongings to second homes (their own or those of relatives or friends) in advance of the wet season but remain in their flood-prone dwellings so as to be eligible to receive the aid that is sure to come when the lake level rises. Considerable funds are provided to the community for relief. This scenario occurs predictably every year. The regularity of the flooding raises questions concerning the local views on the normalcy of the flooding. To evaluate the local perceptions of flood risk, a vulnerability analysis was conducted using surveys and interviews. To better characterize the flooding risks, a hazard analysis was performed using satellite imagery and GIS. In addition to the surveys of families affected by flooding each year, the residents living in higher elevations unaffected by flooding were

  20. Attributes of patient-centered primary care associated with the public perception of good healthcare quality in Brazil, Colombia, Mexico and El Salvador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doubova, Svetlana V; Guanais, Frederico C; Pérez-Cuevas, Ricardo; Canning, David; Macinko, James; Reich, Michael R

    2016-09-01

    This study evaluated primary care attributes of patient-centered care associated with the public perception of good quality in Brazil, Colombia, Mexico and El Salvador. We conducted a secondary data analysis of a Latin American survey on public perceptions and experiences with healthcare systems. The primary care attributes examined were access, coordination, provider-patient communication, provision of health-related information and emotional support. A double-weighted multiple Poisson regression with robust variance model was performed. The study included between 1500 and 1503 adults in each country. The results identified four significant gaps in the provision of primary care: not all respondents had a regular place of care or a regular primary care doctor (Brazil 35.7%, Colombia 28.4%, Mexico 22% and El Salvador 45.4%). The communication with the primary care clinic was difficult (Brazil 44.2%, Colombia 41.3%, Mexico 45.1% and El Salvador 56.7%). There was a lack of coordination of care (Brazil 78.4%, Colombia 52.3%, Mexico 48% and El Salvador 55.9%). Also, there was a lack of information about healthy diet (Brazil 21.7%, Colombia 32.9%, Mexico 16.9% and El Salvador 20.8%). The public's perception of good quality was variable (Brazil 67%, Colombia 71.1%, Mexico 79.6% and El Salvador 79.5%). The primary care attributes associated with the perception of good quality were a primary care provider 'who knows relevant information about a patient's medical history', 'solves most of the health problems', 'spends enough time with the patient', 'coordinates healthcare' and a 'primary care clinic that is easy to communicate with'. In conclusion, the public has a positive perception of the quality of primary care, although it has unfulfilled expectations; further efforts are necessary to improve the provision of patient-centered primary care services in these four Latin American countries. PMID:26874326

  1. Multiple Paternity in the Norway Rat, Rattus norvegicus, from Urban Slums in Salvador, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Federico; Richardson, Jonathan L; Dion, Kirstin; Mariani, Carol; Pertile, Arsinoe C; Burak, Mary K; Childs, James E; Ko, Albert I; Caccone, Adalgisa

    2016-03-01

    The Norway rat, Rattus norvegicus, is one of the most important pest species globally and the main reservoir of leptospires causing human leptospirosis in the urban slums of tropical regions. Rodent control is a frequent strategy in those settings to prevent the disease but rapid growth from residual populations and immigration limit the long-term effectiveness of interventions. To characterize the breeding ecology of R. norvegicus and provide needed information for the level of genetic mixing, which can help identify inter-connected eradication units, we estimated the occurrence of multiple paternity, distances between mothers and sires, and inbreeding in rats from urban slum habitat in Salvador, Brazil. We genotyped 9 pregnant females, their 66 offspring, and 371 males at 16 microsatellite loci. Multiple paternity was observed in 22% (2/9) of the study litters. Of the 12 sires that contributed to the 9 litters, we identified 5 (42%) of those sires among our genotyped males. Related males were captured in close proximity to pregnant females (the mean inter-parent trapping distance per litter was 70 m, ±58 m SD). Levels of relatedness between mother-sire pairs were higher than expected and significantly higher than relatedness between all females and non-sire males. Our findings indicate multiple paternity is common, inbreeding is apparent, and that mother-sire dyads occur in close proximity within the study area. This information is relevant to improve the spatial definition of the eradication units that may enhance the effectiveness of rodent management programs aimed at preventing human leptospirosis. High levels of inbreeding may also be a sign that eradication efforts are successful. PMID:26733693

  2. Spatial distribution of triatomines (Reduviidae: Triatominae in urban areas of the city of Salvador, Bahia, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karine de Souza O. Santana

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Environmental changes have a strong influence on the emergence and/or reemergence of infectious diseases. The city of Salvador, Brazil -currently the focus of a housing boom linked to massive deforestation- is an example in point as the destruction of the remaining areas of the Atlantic Forest around the city has led to an increased risk for Chagas disease. Human domiciles have been invaded by the triatomine vectors of Trypansoma cruzi, the flagellate protozoan causing Chagas disease, a problem of particular concern in urban/suburban areas of the city such as the Patamares sector in the north-east, where numbers of both the vector and human cases of the disease have increased lately. To control and prevent further deterioration of the situation, the control programme for Chagas disease, developed by the Bahia Center for Zoonosis Control, has divided the area into a grid of designated surveillance units (ZIs that are subjected to vector examination. In six out of 98 of these ZIs, 988 triatomes were collected and georeferenced during the 3-year period between 2006 and 2009. The hottest months, that are also generally the driest, showed the highest numbers of triatomines with Triatoma tibiamaculata being the predominant species (98.3% with Panstrongylus geniculatus present only occasionally (0.6%. Fifty-four percent of all triatomines captured were found inside the homes, and 48.6% out of 479 individuals in the affected ZIs selected for analysis tested positive for T. cruzi infection. The study presented here is a pioneering initiative to map the spatial distribution of triatomines based on geographical information systems with the additional aim of contributing to an expanded knowledge-base about T. cruzi and its vectors in urban areas and raise public health awareness of the risks involved.

  3. Validation of a food frequency questionnaire designed for adolescents in Salvador, Bahia, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean Márcia Oliveira MASCARENHAS

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study assessed the validity of a Food Frequency Questionnaire used to assess food intake in adolescents in Salvador, Bahia, Brazil. Methods: Seventy adolescents enrolled in public schools aged 11 to 17 years participated in this study. The dietary intake of the adolescents was assessed using the Food Frequency Questionnaire and the mean value of three-day food record, used as the reference method. The mean (and standard deviation energy and nutrient intakes estimated from the Food Frequency Questionnaire and food records were calculated. The paired Student's t test was used to determine differences between the data. Results: Pearson's correlation coefficient and Kappa statistics were used to measure the strength of the association between the two instruments. There was variation in the crude unadjusted (r=0.61-0.73 and deattenuated (r=0.33-0.99 Pearson correlation coefficients. After adjusting for energy, the crude and deattenuated coefficients ranged from r=0.53-0.81 and r=0.27-0.99, respectively. The intake of energy and most nutrients were found to be adequate, except for fiber (r=0.27 and calcium (r=0.33, which showed a weak correlation. Kappa statistics showed good correlation between all values varying from r=0.47 to 0.73. Conclusion: It is considered that an average r value greater than 0.40 indicates a good correlation, the results obtained indicate the good ability of the Food Frequency Questionnaire to assess individuals according to their usual intake of most nutrients.

  4. Integrando la gestión del riesgo, planificación urbana y vivienda social: lecciones de El Salvador

    OpenAIRE

    Christine Wamsler

    2007-01-01

    Más atención se está dando a la necesidad de integrar la gestión del riesgo en el trabajo de desarrollo para poder reducir así la vulnerabilidad de los pobres que viven en áreas urbanas. Usando El Salvador como estudio de caso, este artículo analiza el proceso de integración en dos sectores de desarrollo: planificación urbana y vivienda social. El objetivo es identificar de qué manera se puede superar la separación existente entre gestión del riesgo, planificación urbana y vivi...

  5. Límites de la sociedad y perspectivas de la sociología.El planteamiento de Salvador Lissarrague

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margarita Campoy Lozar

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo versa sobre la dimensión del pensamiento de Salvador Lissarrague directamente implicada tanto en la Teoría Sociológica como en la temática propia de la Sociología General. El tratamiento de ambas no sólo esclarece las complejas conexiones entre poder, derecho y realidad social. También, entendida la sociedad como convivencia, muestranse muy afortunados sus conceptos «estricta convicción-neto ajustamiento», en cuanto criterios analíticos a aplicar en el desciframiento de su naturaleza.

  6. El Salvador: Análisis de competitividad y medio ambiente (ACMA): Prioridades para la gestión ambiental

    OpenAIRE

    Lawrence Pratt; Luis Rivera; Ricardo Quiroga

    2005-01-01

    Este documento, en el contexto de El Salvador, busca demostrar que el clima de negocios, las relaciones comerciales y la competitividad no están desasociados del desempeño ambiental. Al contrario, un buen desempeño ambiental es un requisito que permite mayores accesos a mercados y mayor productividad y calidad en las inversiones. En este estudio se analizan prioridades del marco regulatorio ambiental en el contexto de las relaciones comerciales, así como las implicaciones en términos de desaf...

  7. Potabilización de Agua de Río en Zonas Rurales y Semi-Urbanas de El Salvador

    OpenAIRE

    Maffet Herrera, Macarena

    2007-01-01

    El presente estudio esta enmarcado dentro de El Plan Director de Abastecimiento y Saneamiento de Aguas en Zonas Rurales en el sur de la Libertad, realizado conjuntamente, desde el 2001, por la Asociación Catalana de Ingeniería Sin Fronteras, Asociación Comunitaria Unida por el Agua y la Agricultura ACUA y otras instituciones salvadoreñas. A raíz del estudio realizado por Plan Director se detecta la necesidad de dar una nueva alternativa de abastecimiento a un conjunto de comuni...

  8. Influencia de la guerra civil en El Salvador (1980-1992) en el desarrollo de la prensa nacional

    OpenAIRE

    Lic Antonio Herrera

    1998-01-01

    Resulta difícil resumir en estas páginas doce años de guerra civil. Narrar una guerra es narrar muerte, destrucción, pérdida de valiosas vidas humanas, de los valores morales, del derecho a la vida.Sin embargo, esta realidad parece ser el pan de cada día en muchas naciones, que al igual que El Salvador, han pasado o pasan por estos momentos tristes de su historia. Lo importante quizá, es reflexionar sobre aquellas cosas que pueden servir para cambiar la sociedad y hacer de ella algo mejor

  9. Influencia de la guerra civil en El Salvador (1980-1992 en el desarrollo de la prensa nacional

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lic Antonio Herrera

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Resulta difícil resumir en estas páginas doce años de guerra civil. Narrar una guerra es narrar muerte, destrucción, pérdida de valiosas vidas humanas, de los valores morales, del derecho a la vida.Sin embargo, esta realidad parece ser el pan de cada día en muchas naciones, que al igual que El Salvador, han pasado o pasan por estos momentos tristes de su historia. Lo importante quizá, es reflexionar sobre aquellas cosas que pueden servir para cambiar la sociedad y hacer de ella algo mejor

  10. Capital social y desarrollo económico. Los casos de Silicon Valley y Villa El Salvador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Galaso Reca

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo se refiere a las relaciones existentes entre el capital social y el desarrollo económico. Para ello, en primer lugar presenta un marco teórico que muestra la evolución del concepto de capital social, su clasificación, medición y algunas aplicaciones prácticas. Posteriormente, explica teóricamente los efectos del capital social en el desarrollo económico. Finalmente, analiza dos experiencias de desarrollo económico altamente vinculadas con el concepto de capital social: los casos de Silicon Valley y Villa El Salvador.

  11. La privatización de la seguridad en Centroamérica : el caso de El Salvador

    OpenAIRE

    Saavedra Pérez, Boris Omar

    2014-01-01

    Las últimas décadas han sido testigo del rápido crecimiento y consolidación de la industria global de la seguridad privada. Estas empresas, prestan servicio de seguridad y defensa en centros urbanos y en zonas en conflicto. El surgimiento de la privatización de la seguridad y defensa obedece entre otras cosas, a la mutación del poder que no ha sido suficientemente reconocido ni entendido. En El Salvador la democratización y el proceso de pacificación ha caracterizado el pais en los ú...

  12. El Hipogeo Secreto de Salvador Elizondo, una novela paradigmática del posmodernismo en México

    OpenAIRE

    Sabugal Torres, Eduardo

    2005-01-01

    El objeto de estudio es la novela El Hipogeo Secreto, obra del escritor mexicano Salvador Elizondo. El cometido de este trabajo es encontrar algunas especificidades respecto a la estructura de la novela así como referencias a las figuras contenidas en ella. Aquí el término de figura se emplea como concepto específico de figura de pensamiento (schemata) que va más allá de toda concretización elocutiva. Es decir apunta más a un contenido conceptual que a una formulación lin...

  13. El Salvador, acceso ciudadano directo a las Elecciones Legislativas y de Concejos Municipales, 11 marzo del 2012: una experiencia desde la observación electoral

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arturo Fournier Facio

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Perspectiva de la experiencia como observador electoral internacional en las elecciones de medio período de El Salvador, para los puestos de elección popular de la Asamblea Legislativa y de miembros de Concejos Municipales. Inicia con una comparación de los fundamentos normativos y constitucionales del sistema electoral de Costa Rica y el Salvador, para continuar con la descripción de las novedades implementadas en el proceso. Finaliza con un informe sobre el proceso de observación, los pro y contra detectados durante la jornada electoral.

  14. Los Derechos Humanos y el Bloque de Constitucionalidad en los sistemas de justicia latinoamericanos: propuesta de un modelo de justicia en El Salvador

    OpenAIRE

    Rodríguez Molina, José Antonio

    2016-01-01

    Existe interés por parte del autor de esta tesis doctoral, en el sentido que el tema que se desarrolla permita a la comunidad jurídica salvadoreña, tener conocimiento sobre una figura que para muchos operadores jurídicos en el país es una verdadera novedad jurídica. El trabajo de investigación realizado que presento tiene como propósitos primordiales: exponer a los operadores del Sistema de Justicia en El Salvador, la importancia que reviste el conocimiento de la doctrina llamada Bloque de Co...

  15. Geomorphological method in the elaboration of hazard maps for flash-floods in the municipality of Jucuarán (El Salvador)

    OpenAIRE

    Fernández-Lavado, C.; G. Furdada; M. A. Marqués

    2007-01-01

    This work deals with the elaboration of flood hazard maps. These maps reflect the areas prone to floods based on the effects of Hurricane Mitch in the Municipality of Jucuarán of El Salvador. Stream channels located in the coastal range in the SE of El Salvador flow into the Pacific Ocean and generate alluvial fans. Communities often inhabit these fans can be affected by floods. The geomorphology of these stream basins is associated with small areas, steep slopes, well developed regolite and ...

  16. El obispado de Burgos en la Baja Edad Media. Formas de fortalecer su jurisdicción frente al monasterio de San Salvador de Oña

    OpenAIRE

    Díez Herrera, Carmen

    2015-01-01

    The bishopric of Burgos employed different procedures in the late Middle Ages in an attempt to impose its jurisdiction on the churches of its diocese and against the power that monasteries like San Salvador de Oña held over their dependent churches and monasteries. A lawsuit between the abbey of San Salvador de Oña and the priests of Santa Eulalia in Liencres (Cantabria) is described to highlight some of the procedures used by the bishopric of Burgos to try to impose its authority over a mona...

  17. Familia, amigos y otras fuentes de información asociadas al inicio de las relaciones sexuales en adolescentes de El Salvador

    OpenAIRE

    Ruiz-Canela, M.; Lopez-del-Burgo, C. (Cristina); Carlos, S. (Silvia); Calatrava, M. (María); Osorio, A; Irala, J. (Jokin) de

    2012-01-01

    Objetivo. El objetivo de este estudio es comprobar cómo influyen en el inicio de la actividad sexual de los jóvenes salvadoreños los mensajes que reciben sobre cuestiones de sexualidad, afectividad y ocio a través de la familia, los amigos y los medios de comunicación. Métodos. Estudio transversal a partir de una muestra representativa de 2 615 estudiantes (de 13 a 19 años) de El Salvador. Se utilizó un muestreo sistemático aleatorio para seleccionar 30 colegios. Se recogieron aspectos so...

  18. Uso da poeira e do ar como indicadores de contaminação ambiental em áreas circunvizinhas a uma fonte de emissão estacionária de chumbo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quiterio Simone Lorena

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho, determinou-se o nível de chumbo (Pb presente no ar em ambientes externos e na poeira doméstica de residências localizadas próximo a uma reformadora de baterias (RB. Uma das principais fontes de exposição ao Pb são empresas do setor de RB, que ainda utilizam processos e tecnologia obsoletos em instalações precárias. Na área externa à RB foram realizadas coletas em seis pontos localizados a aproximadamente 25m e a 500m da RB. Os resultados obtidos mostram que o limite para Pb no ar atmosférico (Pb-Ar de 1,5µg Pb.m-3 foi excedido em 50% das amostras coletadas, variando de 0,03 a 183,3µg Pb.m-3. As coletas nas dependências internas e externas das residências foram realizadas em seis pontos de quatorze residências localizadas a aproximadamente 25m, 50m e a 500m da RB. O limite de Pb na poeira doméstica (Pb-Pd de 1.500µg Pb.m-2 foi excedido em 44% das amostras coletadas, apresentando valores variáveis de 2,2 a 54.338,9µg Pb.m-2.

  19. Selecção desportiva de jovens futebolistas : estudo comparativo por nível de prática em jogadores da Associação de Futebol de Viseu

    OpenAIRE

    Abreu, Marco Paulo Gaspar Ramos de

    2011-01-01

    O presente estudo examinou o processo de selecção desportiva, através da aplicação de uma bateria de testes aos jovens jogadores do escalão de sub-14, com vista a distinção entre elites (jogadores de nível nacional) e subgrupos de não elite (jogadores de nível distrital). A amostra é constituída por 76 futebolistas masculinos (13.16-15.07anos), divididos em dois grupos, isto é, grupo de nível nacional (n=44) e nível local (n=32). Foram consideradas variáveis relativas à experiência despor...

  20. El Crimen Organizado en las Cárceles: Las Extorsiones desde los Centros Penales en El Salvador (2008-2009

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    Juan Ricardo Gómez Hecht

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Se explora el delito de extorsión en El Salvador y la manera como la mayoría de estas actividades ilícitas son planificadas, ordenadas y negociadas por grupos de crimen organizado, desde los diversos centros penitenciarios del país a través de sus estructuras reticulares. A partir de una profunda investigación bibliográfica y empírica, el trabajo se centra en analizar las condiciones criminógenas de carácter político-gubernamental, cultural-social y económico que se conjugan en El Salvador para generar que organizaciones criminales desde el interior de los centros penales se dediquen a extorsionar nacional o transnacionalmente. Finalmente se concluye que las estructuras de crimen organizado desde los centros penales constituyen una amenaza a la seguridad del Estado. Las actividades ilegales de estas organizaciones socava la habilidad del Estado para proveer servicios, proteger a las personas y mantener la confianza de la ciudadanía en el gobierno y la democraciaDOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5377/rpsp.v3i1.1333

  1. Prevalence of behavior problems and associated factors in preschool children from the city of Salvador, state of Bahia, Brazil

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    Letícia M. dos Santos

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective:To identify the prevalence of internalizing and externalizing behavior problems among preschoolers from the city of Salvador, state of Bahia, Brazil, and their associations with maternal mental health and family characteristics.Methods:This was a cross-sectional study of 349 children aged 49 to 72 months, randomly selected from 20,000 households representing the range of socioeconomic and environmental conditions in Salvador. In 1999, we assessed sociodemographic variables and family environment characteristics. In 2001, we used the Child Behavior Checklist to measure and describe the frequencies of behavior problems. We conducted bivariate and multivariate analysis to estimate associations between family and maternal factors and prevalence of behavior problems.Results:The overall prevalence of behavior problems was 23.5%. The prevalence of internalizing problems was 9.7%, and that of externalizing problems, 25.2%. Behavior problems were associated with several maternal mental health variables, namely: presence of at least one psychiatric diagnosis (odds radio [OR] 3.01, 95%CI 1.75-5.18, anxiety disorder (OR 2.06, 95%CI 1.20-3.46, affective disorder (OR 2.10, 95%CI 1.21-3.65, and mental health disorders due to use of psychoactive substances (OR 2.31, 95%CI 1.18-4.55.Conclusion:The observed prevalence of child behavior problems fell within the range reported in previous studies. Maternal mental health is an important risk factor for behavior problems in preschool-aged children.

  2. Phytochemical and Biological Studies of <em>Agave em>attenuata>

    OpenAIRE

    Vincenzo De Feo; Muhammad Riaz; Nasir Rasool; Muhammad Zubair; Komal Rizwan; Muhammad Zia-Ul-Haq

    2012-01-01

    The present study was conducted to examine various biological activities of a methanol extract of <em>Agave attenuataem> leaves. GC-MS analysis of the <em>n>-hexane fraction from the extract revealed the presence of 31 compounds, with mono-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (11.37%), 1,2-benzenedicarboxylic acid (6.33%), <em>n>-docosane (6.30%) and eicosane (6.02%) as the major components. The leaves contained appreciable levels of total phenolic contents (10...

  3. ßS-Haplotypes in sickle cell anemia patients from Salvador, Bahia, Northeastern Brazil

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    Gonçalves M.S.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available ßS-Globin haplotypes were studied in 80 (160 ßS chromosomes sickle cell disease patients from Salvador, Brazil, a city with a large population of African origin resulting from the slave trade from Western Africa, mainly from the Bay of Benin. Hematological and hemoglobin analyses were carried out by standard methods. The ßS-haplotypes were determined by PCR and dot-blot techniques. A total of 77 (48.1% chromosomes were characterized as Central African Republic (CAR haplotype, 73 (45.6% as Benin (BEN, 1 (0.63% as Senegal (SEN, and 9 (5.63% as atypical (Atp. Genotype was CAR/CAR in 17 (21.3% patients, BEN/BEN in 17 (21.3%, CAR/BEN in 37 (46.3%, BEN/SEN in 1 (1.25%, BEN/Atp in 1 (1.25%, CAR/Atp in 6 (7.5%, and Atp/Atp in 1 (1.25%. Hemoglobin concentrations and hematocrit values did not differ among genotype groups but were significantly higher in 25 patients presenting percent fetal hemoglobin (%HbF > or = 10% (P = 0.002 and 0.003, respectively. The median HbF concentration was 7.54 ± 4.342% for the CAR/CAR genotype, 9.88 ± 3.558% for the BEN/BEN genotype, 8.146 ± 4.631% for the CAR/BEN genotype, and 4.180 ± 2.250% for the CAR/Atp genotype (P = 0.02, although 1 CAR/CAR individual presented an HbF concentration as high as 15%. In view of the ethnic and geographical origin of this population, we did not expect a Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium for CAR/CAR and BEN/BEN homozygous haplotypes and a high proportion of heterozygous CAR/BEN haplotypes since the State of Bahia historically received more slaves from Western Africa than from Central Africa.

  4. Baseline physicochemical investigations on waters from three blue holes, San Salvador Island, Bahamas

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    Jacqueline Sampson

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Physicochemical parameters have been studied in the water column of Inkwell, Church, and Watling’s Blue Holes (San Salvador Island, Bahamas. Water samples were collected from multiple depths at the three blue holes to identify and characterize changes of physical and chemical parameters. The values were compared to the average ocean concentrations in order to assess how connectivity to the ocean, evaporation, freshwater input, and bacterial activity influence water rock interactions. The salinity concentrations vary between the surface and ~ -4 m in each blue hole before stabilizing to rather similar values (~19.6‰. Mixing processes in the water column at Inkwell and Church blue holes are inferred from changes in the concentration of chloride. The degree of variation is a mixed signal resulting from changes of the precipitation/evaporation balance and tidal driven water-rock interaction. Inkwell is strongly influenced by tidal pumping, which causes ample value fluctuations, most notably salinity (1.01 to 21.8‰, chloride (Cl- from 300 to 9591.8 mg/L, and total hardness (9 to 293 mg/L within the mixing zone. This location is the only site that may have a true halocline. Watlings’s geochemical parameters have the smallest range (i.e., salinity 30.19 - 34.30‰ due to a lack of mixing that suggests that this site has a direct conduit connection to the ocean. The furthest inland blue hole (Church lacks significant geochemical fluctuations with the exception of Cl-, which changes from 19600 mg/L to 1800 mg/L between the depths of 1 and 2 m. The abrupt modification of Cl- values between surface and -2 m suggests mixing is occurring. The lack of other parameter variations within the water column suggests restricted flow via narrow conduits or more likely matrix flow. Salinity values decrease from the surface (21.47‰ to ~ -1 m (17.78‰ whereas, sulfate (SO42- concentration at the same depth reach its maximum value (4009 mg/L. The high sulfate

  5. Analyzing the Learning of the Taking Personal and Social Responsibility Model within a New Physical Education Undergraduate Degree Program in El Salvador

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andre, Mauro H.; Mandigo, James L.

    2013-01-01

    El Salvador has an unfortunate history that includes a military regime and a civil war that together created a legacy of violence in which the country still struggles nowadays. Salud Escolar Integral (SEI) was created in 2005 by universities, federal governments, a corporate sponsor, and sport associations as a program to combat youth violence…

  6. Dreams that do not come true: Re-addressing social security to expand old-age social protection : The case of informal workers in El Salvador

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N.E.A. Joya (Nancy)

    2007-01-01

    textabstractThis paper focuses on old-age income security, with the objective to explore obstacles and opportunities to expand social protection for informal workers in El Salvador. It first introduces the main concepts and debates on social security, social protection, coverage and informality, to

  7. Avaliação da psicopatologia em crianças e adolescentes : contributos para a aferição da bateria ASEBA para o período escolar

    OpenAIRE

    Nogueira, Joana da Silva

    2013-01-01

    Na nossa sociedade, as crianças são avaliadas desde o seu nascimento através da sua condição física, comportamento, linguagem, cognição, aprendizagem, competência social, humor e personalidade. As avaliações são orientadas por premissas relativamente ao desenvolvimento das crianças e ao comportamento segundo as normas sociais e culturais adotadas atualmente. Os pais, restantes familiares, professores, colegas, membros da comunidade e profissionais de saúde são parte integrante ...

  8. Bastões de grafite reciclados de baterias comuns e seu uso como eletrodo modificado em hidrogenação eletrocatalítica de alguns substratos orgânicos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lofrano Renata C. Z.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents some results on the employ of recycled graphite electrode obtained from used common 1.5 V batteries in the preparation of modified electrode and the electrocatalytical hydrogenation of benzaldehyde and of n-valeraldehyde. This inexpensive and easy to obtain electrode was prepared by coating it with a 1:1 mixed film of poly-(allylfenil ether: poly-[allyl p-(2-ethylammonium benzene ether] and introduction of dispersed platinum particles by ion exchange and reduction of PtCl4-2. Electroreduction of H+ from aqueous H2SO4 using the proposed electrode hydrogenated the substrates in a way comparable with that of vitreous carbon electrode.

  9. Diretrizes para implantação de sistemas de segurança e saúde do trabalho em empresas produtoras de baterias automotivas Guidelines to implement occupational health and safety systems in automotive batteries manufacturers

    OpenAIRE

    Otávio José de Oliveira; Alessandra Bizan de Oliveira; Renan Augusto de Almeida

    2010-01-01

    O desenvolvimento de Sistemas de Gestão da Segurança e Saúde no Trabalho (SGSST) ganha um significado cada vez mais importante no desempenho das empresas, pois, por meio deles, é possível obter a promoção da saúde e satisfação dos trabalhadores e a redução dos riscos de acidentes. No entanto, para que um SGSST obtenha bons resultados, as empresas precisam estar atentas às dificuldades comumente encontradas durante o seu processo de implantação, procurando solucioná-las de maneira antecipada e...

  10. Produção de dióxido de manganês eletrolítico para uso em baterias de lítio Production of electrolytic manganese dioxide for usage in lithium batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edison A. Laurindo

    1999-07-01

    Full Text Available The e phase of electrolytic manganese dioxide (EMD is the structural form most easily converted in the LiMn2O4 spinel used as cathode in lithium batteries. Thus, employing titanium as anode, a study of electrolysis parameters was carried out in order to determine the best conditions to produce an e-EMD suitable for that spinel preparation. The influence of solution temperature (65oC and 90oC and current density (between 1 mA/cm2 and 17.5 mA/cm2 on the anode potential and the EMD properties was investigated using an aqueous 2.0 mol/L MnSO4 + 0.30 mol/L H2SO4 solution. In any of the electrolysis conditions tested only the e-EMD structure was obtained, but its specific surface area varied with the applied current density and temperature. Drying the e-EMD at temperatures between 60oC and 120oC did not cause any phase changes. To produce a suitable EMD at the highest current density possible without passivation of the titanium anode, the best electrolysis parameters were determined to be 90oC and 15 mA/cm2. The e-EMD thus obtained had a specific surface area (BET of ca. 65 m2/g.

  11. Optimal design of sampling and mapping schemes in the radiometric exploration of Chipilapa, El Salvador (Geo-statistics); Diseno optimo de esquemas de muestreo y mapeo en la exploracion radiometrica de Chipilapa, El Salvador (Geo-estadistica)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balcazar G, M.; Flores R, J.H

    1992-01-15

    As part of the knowledge about the radiometric surface exploration, carried out in the geothermal field of Chipilapa, El Salvador, its were considered the geo-statistical parameters starting from the calculated variogram of the field data, being that the maxim distance of correlation of the samples in 'radon' in the different observation addresses (N-S, E-W, N W-S E, N E-S W), it was of 121 mts for the monitoring grill in future prospectus in the same area. Being derived of it an optimization (minimum cost) in the spacing of the field samples by means of geo-statistical techniques, without losing the detection of the anomaly. (Author)

  12. Design and construction of a go-kart hybrid PEM fuel cell / rechargeable battery; Diseno y construccion de un go-kart hibrido pila de combustible PEM / bateria recargable

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suarez Alcantara, Karina; Rodriguez Castellanos, Andres; Soloza Feria, Omar [Centro de Investigacion y de Estudios Avanzados del IPN, Mexico D.F. (Mexico)]. E-mail: k.suarez.alcantara@gmail.com

    2008-11-15

    An hybrid Polymer Electrolyte Membrane Fuel Cell, PEMFC-Rechargeable Battery Go-kart has been designed and manufactured using AutoCAD software for the design and a CNC mechanical machine for the manufacture of components of the fuel cell. The membrane-electrode assemblies, MEAs, were integrated with a Gore-Select membrane and carbon cloth with Pt (20 wt % /C) 0.5 mg/cm{sup 2} anode and cathode electrode catalysts loading. High density graphite collector plates with 5mm thickness were used as collector plates. The estimated weigh of the go-kart with a driver is about 120 kg. The demand of the motor of the go-kart is 20 V and 5 A (100W), supplied by an hybrid system integrated by three 30Watts PEMFC. The commercially available Pb/acid rechargeable battery supplies energy for peripheral equipment. [Spanish] En este trabajo se presenta el diseno y la construccion de un go-kart hibrido pila de combustible con membrana de conduccion protonica tipo PEM (Proton Exchange Membrane, por sus siglas en ingles) y pila recargable. El diseno de los colectores de corriente de la pila se realizo utilizando el programa AutoCAD y la construccion mediante una fresadora con control numerico, CNC. Los ensambles membrana-electrocatalizador de la pila estan formados por membranas Gore-Select y por electrodos de Pt soportado en tela de carbon al 20 %peso/C con carga de 0.5 mg /cm{sup 2}, en anodo y catodo. Los platos colectores de corriente fueron manufacturados en grafito de alta densidad con espesor de 5 mm. La caracterizacion de la pila de combustible se realizo mediante ensayos de polarizacion potenciostatica. El peso total del go-kart y una persona a bordo es de 120 kg. La potencia del go-kart es generada por un motor de corriente directa de 20 V y 5 A (100 Watts). Para tal efecto, se construyeron tres pilas de combustible de 30 W cada una, con un respaldo de baterias recargables comerciales de Pb/acido para energizar equipos perifericos.

  13. El Salvador 2008: entre la polarización ideológica y la crisis económica El Salvador 2008: Between Ideological Polarization and Economic Crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CARLOS G RAMOS

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Durante el 2008 la dinámica del país giró en torno a los preparativos electorales de los segundos comicios generales de la postguerra interna. En estos deberá renovarse el Poder Ejecutivo, redefinirse la composición legislativa, elegirse nuevos diputados al Parlamento Centroamericano (PARLACEN, así como a los alcaldes de los 262 municipios del país. Lo cierto es que el ambiente preelectoral, las campañas partidarias y, sobre todo, la contienda por la presidencia marcaron el discurso y comportamiento político de todos los sectores de la sociedad. Así, al finalizar el año, El Salvador observaba signos claros de una agudizada polarización política, que ni los primeros efectos locales de la crisis financiera internacional lograban diluir, y se preparaba para entrar en la última recta de lo que se perfiló como una contienda histórica por la presidencia que dibujaba, por vez primera en 20 años, la posibilidad de alternancia.During 2008 the dynamics of the country focused on the second general elections in the post-civil war, where will be renewed the executive, the legislative and the members of the Central American Parliament (PARLACEN, and the mayors of the 262 municipalities. The electoral atmosphere, the campaigns, and above all, the contest for the presidency marked the political discourse and behavior of all sectors of the society. At the end of the year, El Salvador observed clear signs of a heightened political polarization - that even the local effects of the international financial crisis could dilute-, and was preparing to enter to a new scenery that could be mark, for the first time in 20 years, by the possibility of the presidency's alternation.

  14. Atmospheric concentrations and dry deposition fluxes of particulate trace metals in Salvador, Bahia, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    de P. Pereira, Pedro A.; Lopes, Wilson A.; Carvalho, Luiz S.; da Rocha, Gisele O.; de Carvalho Bahia, Nei; Loyola, Josiane; Quiterio, Simone L.; Escaleira, Viviane; Arbilla, Graciela; de Andrade, Jailson B.

    Respiratory system is the major route of entry for airborne particulates, being the effect on the human organism dependent on chemical composition of the particles, exposure time and individual susceptibility. Airborne particulate trace metals are considered to represent a health hazard since they may be absorbed into human lung tissues during breathing. Fossil fuel and wood combustion, as well as waste incineration and industrial processes, are the main anthropic sources of metals to the atmosphere. In urban areas, vehicular emissions—and dust resuspension associated to road traffic—become the most important manmade source. This work investigated the atmospheric concentrations of TSP, PM 10 and elements such as iron, manganese, copper and zinc, from three different sites around Salvador Region (Bahia, Brazil), namely: (i) Lapa Bus Station, strongly impacted by heavy-duty diesel vehicles; (ii) Aratu harbor, impacted by an intense movement of goods, including metal ores and concentrates and near industrial centers and; (iii) Bananeira Village located on Maré Island, a non-vehicle-influenced site, with activities such as handcraft work and fishery, although placed near the port. Results have pointed out that TSP concentrations ranged between 16.9 (Bananeira) and 354.0 μg m -3 (Aratu#1), while for PM 10 they ranged between 30.9 and 393.0 μg m -3, both in the Lapa Bus Station. Iron was the major element in both Lapa Station and Aratu (#1 and #2), with average concentrations in the PM 10 samples of 148.9, 79.6 and 205.0 ng m -3, respectively. Zinc, on the other hand, was predominant in samples from Bananeira, with an average concentration of 145.0 ng m -3 in TSP samples, since no PM 10 sample was taken from this site. The main sources of iron in the Lapa Station and Aratu harbor were, respectively, soil resuspension by buses and discharge of solid granaries, as fertilizers and metal ores. On the other hand, zinc and copper in the bus station were mainly from

  15. Time Lags between Exanthematous Illness Attributed to Zika Virus, Guillain-Barré Syndrome, and Microcephaly, Salvador, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paploski, Igor A D; Prates, Ana Paula P B; Cardoso, Cristiane W; Kikuti, Mariana; Silva, Monaise M O; Waller, Lance A; Reis, Mitermayer G; Kitron, Uriel; Ribeiro, Guilherme S

    2016-08-01

    Zika virus infection emerged as a public health emergency after increasing evidence for its association with neurologic disorders and congenital malformations. In Salvador, Brazil, outbreaks of acute exanthematous illness (AEI) attributed to Zika virus, Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS), and microcephaly occurred in 2015. We investigated temporal correlations and time lags between these outbreaks to identify a common link between them by using epidemic curves and time series cross-correlations. Number of GBS cases peaked after a lag of 5-9 weeks from the AEI peak. Number of suspected cases of microcephaly peaked after a lag of 30-33 weeks from the AEI peak, which corresponded to time of potential infections of pregnant mothers during the first trimester. These findings support the association of GBS and microcephaly with Zika virus infection and provide evidence for a temporal relationship between timing of arboviral infection of pregnant women during the first trimester and birth outcome. PMID:27144515

  16. Optimal design of sampling and mapping schemes in the radiometric exploration of Chipilapa, El Salvador (Geo-statistics)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As part of the knowledge about the radiometric surface exploration, carried out in the geothermal field of Chipilapa, El Salvador, its were considered the geo-statistical parameters starting from the calculated variogram of the field data, being that the maxim distance of correlation of the samples in 'radon' in the different observation addresses (N-S, E-W, N W-S E, N E-S W), it was of 121 mts for the monitoring grill in future prospectus in the same area. Being derived of it an optimization (minimum cost) in the spacing of the field samples by means of geo-statistical techniques, without losing the detection of the anomaly. (Author)

  17. Salvador de Bahia : Réflexions sur une cité mystique à résoudre

    OpenAIRE

    Desbiens, Yvan

    2011-01-01

    En fonction de l’importance prédominante du Brésil en Amérique latine, comme pays en voie de développement (Mauro, 1975 : 77-87), et de son potentiel de ressources naturelles riches et diversifiées, l'analyse de la ville de Salvador de Bahia au nord-est du Brésil exige une mise en relation incontournable des dimensions historiques, coloniales et sociologiques dans la compréhension du pluralisme de la réalité brésilienne. Cet article dépeint quelques caractéristiques urbaines de la ville de Sa...

  18. Time Lags between Exanthematous Illness Attributed to Zika Virus, Guillain-Barré Syndrome, and Microcephaly, Salvador, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paploski, Igor A.D.; Prates, Ana Paula P.B.; Cardoso, Cristiane W.; Kikuti, Mariana; Silva, Monaise M. O.; Waller, Lance A.; Reis, Mitermayer G.; Kitron, Uriel

    2016-01-01

    Zika virus infection emerged as a public health emergency after increasing evidence for its association with neurologic disorders and congenital malformations. In Salvador, Brazil, outbreaks of acute exanthematous illness (AEI) attributed to Zika virus, Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS), and microcephaly occurred in 2015. We investigated temporal correlations and time lags between these outbreaks to identify a common link between them by using epidemic curves and time series cross-correlations. Number of GBS cases peaked after a lag of 5–9 weeks from the AEI peak. Number of suspected cases of microcephaly peaked after a lag of 30–33 weeks from the AEI peak, which corresponded to time of potential infections of pregnant mothers during the first trimester. These findings support the association of GBS and microcephaly with Zika virus infection and provide evidence for a temporal relationship between timing of arboviral infection of pregnant women during the first trimester and birth outcome. PMID:27144515

  19. Social network based recruitment successfully reveals HIV-1 transmission networks among high risk individuals in El Salvador

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennis, Ann M.; Murillo, Wendy; de Maria Hernandez, Flor; Guardado, Maria Elena; Nieto, Ana Isabel; de Rivera, Ivette Lorenzana; Eron, Joseph J.; Paz-Bailey, Gabriela

    2013-01-01

    Objective HIV in Central America is concentrated among certain groups such as men who have sex with men (MSM) and female sex workers (FSW). We compared social recruitment chains and HIV transmission clusters from 699 MSM and 757 FSW to better understand factors contributing to ongoing HIV transmission in El Salvador. Methods Phylogenies were reconstructed using pol sequences from 119 HIV-positive individuals recruited by respondent driven sampling (RDS) and compared to RDS chains in three cities in El Salvador. Transmission clusters with a mean pairwise genetic distance ≤0.015 and Bayesian posterior probabilities=1 were identified. Factors associated with cluster membership were evaluated among MSM. Results Sequences from 34 (43%) MSM and 4 (10%) FSW grouped in 14 transmission clusters. Clusters were defined by risk group (12 MSM clusters) and geographic residence (only one spanned separate cities). In 4 MSM clusters (all n=2), individuals were also members of the same RDS chain but only 2 had members directly linked through recruitment. All large clusters (n≥3) spanned more than one RDS chain. Among MSM, factors independently associated with cluster membership included recent infection by BED assay (P=0.02), sex with stable male partners (P=0.02), and sex with ≥3 male partners in past year (P=0.04). Conclusions We found few HIV transmissions corresponding directly with the social recruitment. However, we identified clustering in nearly one half of MSM suggesting RDS recruitment was indirectly but successfully uncovering transmission networks, particularly among recent infections. Interrogating RDS chains with phylogenetic analyses may help refine methods for identifying transmission clusters. PMID:23364512

  20. Quail egg safety and trade on beaches of Salvador (BA: a study from a child labor perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Permínio Oliveira Vidal Júnior

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to describe the trade and microbiological quality of boiled quail eggs on the waterfront of Salvador , Bahia, Brazil, from the child labor perspective. METHODS: This cross-sectional study administered semi-structured questionnaires to 40 underage vendors and performed the microbiological assessment of 40 quail egg samples as follows: mesophilic aerobic microorganism count, coagulase-positive staphylococcus count, estimation of the most probable number of total and thermotolerant coliforms/Escherichia coli, and testing for Salmonella spp.. The results were compared with the standards provided by the Resolution RDC nº 12/2001, National Sanitary Surveillance Agency. RESULTS: The vendors were mostly female (57.5% students (95.0% aged 8 to 17 years. The most common reason for working was supplementation of the family income (57.5%. The mean gross income was R$38.31/day. Most of them presented inadequate personal hygiene but they recognized that foods could cause diseases. Many (47.5% vendors reported washing their hands up to twice daily. Mean mesophilic aerobic microorganism and coagulase-positive staphylococcus counts were 2.43 and 2.01 log colony-forming unit/g, respectively, and the estimated thermotolerant coliform contamination was 0.98 log most probable number/g. Escherichia coli was found in 15.0% of the samples and none contained Salmonella spp. Most (55.0% samples were noncompliant with the legislation. CONCLUSION: The results evidenced the presence of minors selling quail eggs on beaches of Salvador and suggest risk to consumers' health because of the detected contamination and vendors' ignorance of principles of hygiene.

  1. Binge Drinking among Men Who Have Sex with Men and Transgender Women in San Salvador: Correlates and Sexual Health Implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peacock, Erin; Andrinopoulos, Katherine; Hembling, John

    2015-08-01

    High rates of heavy alcohol use among men who have sex with men (MSM) and transgender women (TW) have been linked to increased vulnerability for HIV and poor mental health. While theories explaining elevated drinking levels among sexual minorities have been forwarded, few investigations have assessed the potential pathways using empirical data, particularly with an explicit focus on self-stigma and among MSM and TW in low- and middle-income countries. This study examined the relationship between stigma-related stress (specifically, self-stigma and concealment of one's sexual orientation) and binge drinking in a sample of MSM and TW (n = 670) in San Salvador, El Salvador, recruited using respondent-driven sampling. Levels of alcohol consumption among participants were high: only 39 % of the sample did not drink alcohol or did not binge drink, while 34 % engaged in binge drinking at least weekly. Among MSM, high self-stigma was associated with binge drinking at least weekly (adjusted relative risk ratio (aRRR) = 2.1, p risk behavior and was actually associated with increased intention to test for HIV in the next 12 months (aOR = 2.8, p risk behavior (and may even be associated with increased intention to test for HIV in the next 12 months) lends further support to the suggestion that these individuals with healthy concepts of the self (as indicated by high levels of disclosure and low levels of risky sexual behavior) may engage in binge drinking because of the influence of the social environment. Further research is needed to establish the pathways linking stigma-related stress to heavy alcohol use so that points of intervention can be identified. PMID:25591660

  2. Climate Change, Adaptation, and Formal Education: the Role of Schooling for Increasing Societies' Adaptive Capacities in El Salvador and Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Wamsler

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available With a worldwide increase in disasters, the effects of climate change are already being felt, and it is the urban poor in developing countries who are most at risk. There is an urgent need to better understand the factors that determine people's capacity to cope with and adapt to adverse climate conditions. This paper examines the influence of formal education in determining the adaptive capacity of the residents of two low-income settlements: Los Manantiales in San Salvador (El Salvador and Rocinha in Rio de Janeiro (Brazil, where climate-related disasters are recurrent. In both case study areas, it was found that the average levels of education were lower for households living at high risk, as opposed to residents of lower risk areas. In this context, the influence of people's level of education was identified to be twofold due to (a its direct effect on aspects that reduce risk, and (b its mitigating effect on aspects that increase risk. The results further suggest that education plays a more determinant role for women than for men in relation to their capacity to adapt. In light of these results, the limited effectiveness of institutional support identified by this study might also relate to the fact that the role of formal education has so far not been sufficiently explored. Promoting (improved access to and quality of formal education as a way to increase people's adaptive capacity is further supported with respect to the negative effects of disasters on people's level of education, which in turn reduce their adaptive capacity, resulting in a vicious circle of increasing risk.

  3. Desenvolvimento motor global de crianças do 1º ciclo do ensino básico com e sem prática prévia de natação em contexto escolar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera Martins

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Foi objetivo deste estudo descrever o nível de desenvolvimento motor global de crianças do 1º ciclo do ensino básico, com e sem experiência prévia em programas de ensino da natação. A amostra foi constituída por 140 crianças portuguesas do 1º ao 4º ano de escolaridade: 53 crianças sem experiência em programas aquáticos; e 87 crianças com histórico de participação em programas de ensino da natação no contexto escolar. O desenvolvimento motor global das crianças foi avaliado recorrendo à bateria de testes “Test of Gross Motor Development 2”. Os resultados revelaram a existência de diferenças significativas (p < .05 entre os grupos de crianças no que se refere ao desenvolvimento motor global e à mestria em diversas habilidades motoras globais em todos os anos de escolaridade. A influência da prática da natação parece maior nas habilidades de controlo de objetos. Mesmo assim, a classificação qualitativa do desenvolvimento motor é maioritariamente baixa para ambos os grupos. Em conclusão, os resultados demonstraram que o desenvolvimento motor global das crianças avaliadas é maioritariamente insuficiente, tendo por base a escala normativa Americana. Contudo, as crianças com experiência aquática em contexto escolar parecem agregar um estado otimizado de desenvolvimento motor em diversas habilidades, em particular na manipulação de objetos.

  4. L'évolution de l'action collective à Villa el Salvador (Lima) : de la communauté autogérée au budget participatif

    OpenAIRE

    Diana Burgos-Vigna

    2003-01-01

    This work analyzes the collective action of the inhabitants of Villa el Salvador, a " barriada" in Lima, by stressing the destructuring of the social fabric that has altered the cohesion of this community since its foundation in 1973. The government policies, the clientelism of some heads of state, as well as the Shining Path and the transformation of the Peruvian political landscape had an impact on the modes of mobilization of the residents of Villa El Salvador. Nevertheless, a community dy...

  5. Avaliação dos estágios extracurriculares de medicina em unidade de terapia intensiva adulto Evaluation of extracurricular internships in the adult's intensive care units

    OpenAIRE

    Diego Teixeira Nascimento; Maria Almeida Dias; Rodrigo de Sousa Mota; Luciana Barberino; Larissa Durães; Paulo André Jesuino dos Santos

    2008-01-01

    OBJETIVOS: A formação em medicina intensiva pelos estudantes de Salvador (BA) tem acontecido através de estágios extracurriculares. Este estudo visou detectar mudanças na postura e no interesse dos acadêmicos que concluíram estes estágios e os tipos mais comuns de atividades desenvolvidas. MÉTODOS: Estudo transversal descritivo realizado com estudantes que fizeram estágios extracurriculares em unidades de terapia intensiva adulto no segundo semestre de 2006. Utilizou-se um questionário auto-a...

  6. Heridas en la memoria: la guerra civil salvadoreña en el recuerdo de niñez de un pandillero.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Zúñiga Núñez.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes the childhood memory of a gang member who grew up, from the mid-1970s through the 1980s, in the middle of El Salvador's civil war. Hector, the pseudonym I gave him, was a guerillero, soldier, emigrant, and also, when he became a teenager, a gang member. His story reflects a large number of historical processes. The aim of this article is to analyze this simultaneity of processes as a totality present in the life story of this person. To do so, I present Hector's testimony, framed in the context of the civil war. Then I use various concepts (like memory, violence, and institutionalization to understand the story within the network of social relations in El Salvador.

  7. The attitude of the Chilean newspaper "El Mercurio" towards the main economic policies of the Popular Unity government of Salvador Allende (1970 - 1973).

    OpenAIRE

    2002-01-01

    Resumé of History major: “The attitude of the Chilean newspaper ‘El Mercurio’ towards the main economic policies of the Popular Unity government of Salvador Allende (1970-73)” By Paul Francis Llewellyn Department of History University of Oslo, Norway Autumn 2002 Introduction This investigation will show in what manner the conservative daily newspaper El Mercurio presented the main economic policies of the Chilean left-wing Popular Unity (UP) government during its ter...

  8. El obispado de Burgos en la Baja Edad Media. Formas de fortalecer su jurisdicción frente al monasterio de San Salvador de Oña

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Díez Herrera, Carmen

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The bishopric of Burgos employed different procedures in the late Middle Ages in an attempt to impose its jurisdiction on the churches of its diocese and against the power that monasteries like San Salvador de Oña held over their dependent churches and monasteries. A lawsuit between the abbey of San Salvador de Oña and the priests of Santa Eulalia in Liencres (Cantabria is described to highlight some of the procedures used by the bishopric of Burgos to try to impose its authority over a monastic parish church, by favouring, at the villagers’ request, its transformation into a difusa parish church. This paper helps to define the concept of a difusa church, whilst demonstrating the difficult path the episcopal institution had to take in order to achieve the effective recognition of its rights.Se consideran los diferentes procedimientos que desarrolló el obispado de Burgos en la Baja Edad Media para intentar implantar su jurisdicción en las iglesias de su diócesis frente a las competencias desempeñadas por monasterios como San Salvador de Oña en sus iglesias y monasterios dependientes. Un pleito establecido entre la abadía de San Salvador de Oña y los clérigos de la iglesia de Santa Eulalia de Liencres (Cantabria sirve para poner de relieve alguno de esos procedimientos utilizados por el obispado de Burgos para intentar imponer su autoridad en una iglesia monasterial parroquial al favorecer, a petición de los hijos de la villa, su transformación en iglesia parroquial difusa. Este artículo ayuda a definir el concepto de iglesia difusa a la vez que revela el conflictivo camino que tuvo que recorrer la institución episcopal hasta conseguir el reconocimiento efectivo de sus derechos.

  9. Habitat use patterns of the invasive red lionfish Pterois volitans: a comparison between mangrove and reef systems in San Salvador, Bahamas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pimiento, Catalina; Nifong, James C.; Hunter, Margaret E.; Monaco, Eric; Silliman, Brian R.

    2015-01-01

    The Indo-Pacific red lionfish Pterois volitans is widespread both in its native and its non-native habitats. The rapid invasion of this top predator has had a marked negative effect on fish populations in the Western Atlantic and the Caribbean. It is now well documented that lionfish are invading many tropical and sub-tropical habitats. However, there are fewer data available on the change in lionfish abundance over time and the variation of body size and diet across habitats. A recent study in San Salvador, Bahamas, found body size differences between individuals from mangrove and reef systems. That study further suggested that ontogenetic investigation of habitat use patterns could help clarify whether lionfish are using the mangrove areas of San Salvador as nurseries. The aim of the present study is to determine temporal trends in lionfish relative abundance in mangrove and reef systems in San Salvador, and to further assess whether there is evidence suggesting an ontogenetic shift from mangroves to reef areas. Accordingly, we collected lionfish from mangrove and reef habitats and calculated catch per unit effort (a proxy for relative abundance), compared body size distributions across these two systems, and employed a combination of stable isotope, stomach content, and genetic analyses of prey, to evaluate differences in lionfish trophic interactions and habitat use patterns. Our results show that populations may have increased in San Salvador during the last 4 years, and that there is a strong similarity in body size between habitats, stark differences in prey items, and no apparent overlap in the use of habitat and/or food resources. These results suggest that there is not evidence an for ontogenetic shift from mangroves to reefs, and support other studies that propose lionfish are opportunistic forages with little movement across habitats.

  10. Emission of gas and atmospheric dispersion of SO2 during the December 2013 eruption at San Miguel volcano (El Salvador)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salerno, Giuseppe G.; Granieri, Domenico; Liuzzo, Marco; La Spina, Alessandro; Giuffrida, Giovanni B.; Caltabiano, Tommaso; Giudice, Gaetano; Gutierrez, Eduardo; Montalvo, Francisco; Burton, Michael; Papale, Paolo

    2016-04-01

    San Miguel volcano, also known as Chaparrastique, is a basaltic volcano along the Central American Volcanic Arc (CAVA). Volcanism is induced by the convergence of the Cocos Plate underneath the Caribbean Plate, along a 1200-km arc, extending from Guatemala to Costa Rica and parallel to the Central American Trench. The volcano is located in the eastern part of El Salvador, in proximity to the large communities of San Miguel, San Rafael Oriente, and San Jorge. Approximately 70,000 residents, mostly farmers, live around the crater and the city of San Miguel, the second largest city of El Salvador, ten km from the summit, has a population of ~180,000 inhabitants. The Pan-American and Coastal highways cross the north and south flanks of the volcano.San Miguel volcano has produced modest eruptions, with at least 28 VEI 1-2 events between 1699 and 1967 (datafrom Smithsonian Institution http://www.volcano.si.edu/volcano.cfm?vn=343100). It is characterized by visible milddegassing from a summit vent and fumarole field, and by intermittent lava flows and Strombolian activity. Since the last vigorous fire fountaining of 1976, San Miguel has only experienced small steam explosions and gas emissions, minor ash fall and rock avalanches. On 29 December 2013 the volcano erupted producing an eruption that has been classified as VEI 2. While eruptions tend to be low-VEI, the presence of major routes and the dense population in the surrounding of the volcano increases the risk that weak explosions with gas and/or ash emission may pose. In this study, we present the first inventory of SO2, CO2, HCl, and HF emission rates on San Miguel volcano, and an analysis of the hazard from volcanogenic SO2 discharged before, during, and after the December 2013 eruption. SO2 was chosen as it is amongst the most critical volcanogenic pollutants, which may cause acute and chronicle disease to humans. Data were gathered by the geochemical monitoring network managed by the Ministerio de Medio Ambiente

  11. Analysis of the spatial dynamics and drivers of forest cover change in the Lempa River Basin of El Salvador

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castaneda, Hector

    This work studies the changes of forest cover that have happened in the Lempa River Basin of El Salvador during the period 1979-2003. Although historically the trend has been towards the loss of forest cover since colonial times, over the period of study a large increase in forest cover was detected. The main tool of evaluation was the analysis of LANDSAT satellite imagery. Images for the dates 1979, 1990-91, and 2003 were classified into forest and noon-forest land covers. Then the changes in land cover were analyzed to determine what were the social, geophysical and climatic drivers determining why and where these new forest appeared. The results indicate that there has been an overall increase in forest cover from 20% in 1979 to 43% in 2003. Although there has been extensive deforestation, this has happened mostly around the main urban centers within the basin. In the more rural and remote areas, the tendency has been towards a resurgence in forest cover. The increase in forest was found to be significantly related to remittances, inaccessibility to roads and markets, density of urban populations, poverty and the civil war of the 1980s. Among the geospatial factors that determined where deforestation and reforestation happened were distance to roads and urban centers, slope, elevation, land use capability, and irrigation potential. The results indicate that the tendency in the future will be towards further reforestation but at a slower rate. Although reforestation and deforestation happened simultaneously, there are clear differences in the spatial patterns that each of these phenomena follow. In terms of climate, it was found areas subjected to inter-annual rainfall extremes due to El Nino Southern Oscillation, particularly areas with low agricultural potential, were more likely to be abandoned and left to revert to forest than those with more stable rainfall. The results of this study support the hypothesis that El Salvador is undergoing a Forest Transition

  12. Heavy metals, arsenic, and pesticide contamination in an area with high incidence of chronic kidney disease of non-traditional causes in El Salvador

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, D. A.; Ribó, A.; Quinteros, E.; Mejia, R.; Jovel, R.; VanDervort, D.; Orantes, C. M.

    2013-12-01

    Chronic kidney disease of non-traditional causes is epidemic in Central America, Southern Mexico and other regions of the world such as Sri Lanka, where the origin of the illness is attributed to exposure to agrochemicals and arsenic in soils and groundwater. In Central America, several causes have been suggested for this illness including: high ambient temperatures and chronic dehydration, and toxic effects of agrochemicals. Previous research using step-wise multivariate regression in El Salvador found statistically significant correlation between the spatial distribution of the number of sick people per thousand inhabitants and the percent area cultivated with sugar cane, cotton, and beans, and maximum ambient temperature, with sugar cane cultivation as the most significant factor. This study aims to investigate the possible effects of agricultural activities in the occurrence of this illness looking at heavy metal, arsenic and pesticide contamination in soil, water and sediments of a community located in Bajo Lempa region (Ciudad Romero, El Salvador) and heavily affected by this illness. The Bajo Lempa region is close to Lempa River delta, in the Pacific coast. Ground and surface water, sediment and soil samples were collected in the village where the patients live and in the agricultural areas where they work. With respect to the heavy metals, lead and cadmium where detected in the soils but below the standards for cultivated soils, however, they were not detected in the majority of surface and groundwater. Of the inorganic contaminants, arsenic was present in most soil, sediments, and water samples with some concentrations considerable higher than the standards for cultivated lands and drinking water. Statistically different concentrations in soils were found for the village soils and the cultivated soils, with arsenic higher in the cultivated soils. For the pesticides, results show a significant pollution of soil and groundwater of organochlorine pesticides

  13. Análise de sobrevida de meningite piogênica em crianças Survival analysis of acute pyogenic meningitis in children

    OpenAIRE

    RITA LUCENA; IRENIO GOMES; JULIETA GÓES; AILTON MELO

    1998-01-01

    Com o objetivo de estabelecer a letalidade intra-hospitalar de meningite piogênica em crianças da cidade de Salvador, realizamos análise de todos os prontuários dos pacientes com idade inferior a 15 anos admitidos no Hospital Couto Maia, entre 1990 e 1992, segundo publicado anteriormente. As curvas de sobrevida baseadas nas taxas de letalidade e no tempo de permanência hospitalar foram analisadas, comparando-se os grupos de etiologia identificada e não identificada. A mesma análise foi utiliz...

  14. Relatório de atividade profissional para obtenção do Grau de Mestre em engenharia do ambiente

    OpenAIRE

    Moura, Bruno Salvador Pereira de

    2013-01-01

    Dissertação de Mestrado, Engenharia do Ambiente, Faculdade de Ciência e Tecnologia, Universidade do Algarve, 2013 O presente relatório foi preparado por Bruno Salvador Pereira de Moura no âmbito da sua candidatura ao grau de Mestre em Engenharia do Ambiente, pela Faculdade de Ciências e Tecnologias da Universidade do Algarve. Pretende refletir a experiência profissional do candidato na área de gestão e certificação ambiental de projetos de construção civil e apresentar as suas ...

  15. C677T polymorphism of the MTHFR gene and variant hemoglobins: a study in newborns from Salvador, Bahia, Brazil

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    Fábio David Couto

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available The C677T polymorphism in the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase gene (MTHFR is associated with an increase in total homocysteine serum levels (tHcy, described as a risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Eight hundred forty-three neonates from two different maternity hospitals, one public and another private, in Salvador, Bahia, Brazil were screened for this polymorphism by PCR and RFLP. The T-allele frequency in the total sample was 0.23, and the prevalence rates of heterozygous and homozygous carriers were 36.2% and 5.3%, respectively. The T-allele frequency differed and the T/T genotype was more prevalent at the private maternity hospital. The hemoglobin (Hb profile was investigated by HPLC in 763 newborns. The frequency of variant Hb was higher at the public than at the private maternity hospital. The association of the C677T polymorphism and the Hb profile was investigated in 683 newborns, showing a relatively high frequency of variant Hbs and the T allele. These data could provide an important basis for further studies focusing on potential risks of vaso-occlusive events in these individuals.

  16. C677T polymorphism of the MTHFR gene and variant hemoglobins: a study in newborns from Salvador, Bahia, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Couto Fábio David

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The C677T polymorphism in the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase gene (MTHFR is associated with an increase in total homocysteine serum levels (tHcy, described as a risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Eight hundred forty-three neonates from two different maternity hospitals, one public and another private, in Salvador, Bahia, Brazil were screened for this polymorphism by PCR and RFLP. The T-allele frequency in the total sample was 0.23, and the prevalence rates of heterozygous and homozygous carriers were 36.2% and 5.3%, respectively. The T-allele frequency differed and the T/T genotype was more prevalent at the private maternity hospital. The hemoglobin (Hb profile was investigated by HPLC in 763 newborns. The frequency of variant Hb was higher at the public than at the private maternity hospital. The association of the C677T polymorphism and the Hb profile was investigated in 683 newborns, showing a relatively high frequency of variant Hbs and the T allele. These data could provide an important basis for further studies focusing on potential risks of vaso-occlusive events in these individuals.

  17. Early detection and intervention in congenital deaf children inserted in special schools of the city of Salvador / BA

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    Carvalho, Lavínia Santos de

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The hearing loss interferes with the child's linguistic development, impairs its insertion in the society and produces cognitive and emotional consequences in case he or she is not inserted in an early and suitable educational and therapeutic program. Objective: To characterized the early detection process and intervention in children with hearing loss inserted in special schools of the city of Salvador - BA. Method: We evaluated the records and carried out interview with mothers of 22 congenital deaf children aged from six to eight years. Results: The mean age in case of deaf suspicion was of 1.2 years and when inserted to an educational and/or therapeutic treatment program it achieved 3.5 years. 46% of the children use hearing aid and had access to the device aged 3.6 year on average. Only 36.5% undergo phonoaudiologic therapy and 9.1% maintain oral function. Conclusion: The deaf children evaluated had a late access to language and some don't use a hearing aid system or began to use it at more advanced ages and only a few follow phonoaudiological therapy. Therefore, it's necessary to promote the implementation of the public policies intended for the hearing health in the pediatric and neonatal population which enable the integral, universal and quality attention.

  18. Prevalência da dissociação óculo-manual em crianças com dislexia do desenvolvimento = Prevalence of eye-hand preference dissociation in childrens with development dyslexia

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    Marielza Regina Ismael Martins

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A presente pesquisa caracterizou-se em determinar a prevalência da dissociação ocular e manual em crianças com dislexia do desenvolvimento em idade escolar comparadas com crianças normais, pertencentes a escolas públicas. Participaram do estudo crianças entre sete e 12 anos. O Grupo I foi constituído por crianças diagnosticadas com dislexia do desenvolvimento (n = 64 e o Grupo II constituído por crianças- padrão na mesma faixa etária (n = 80. Foi aplicada a Bateria Psicomotora. As crianças disléxicas obtiveram escores significativos de prevalência manual esquerda e ocular direita. Tais resultados sugerem que esta falta de especialização da lateralidade pode comprometer a execução motora.This research was characterized to determine the prevalence of dissociation eye and hand in children with developmental dyslexia at school age compared with normal children from public schools. Study participants were children between seven and 12 years. Group I consisted of children diagnosed with developmental dyslexia (n = 64 and Group II consists of standard children the same age (n = 80. Psychomotor Battery was applied. Dyslexic children scored significant prevalence of left hand and right eye. These results suggest that this lack of expertise of laterality may impair motor execution.

  19. School Literary Canon and Teaching of Literature in Middle School: A Critical Analysis of High School Programs in El Salvador Canon literario escolar y enseñanza de la literatura en la educación media: Un análisis crítico de los programas de enseñanza secundaria en El Salvador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauricio Aguilar Ciciliano

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes the pedagogical-didactic model for the teaching of Literature in Middle School in the Salvadoran Educational system. This is part of a larger work towards a PhD project. The main goal of this project is to characterize the historical process in the construction of this model through a critical analysis of canonization sources. The findings suggest that the teaching of Literature is performed based on a historicist, pro-European, male-based approach. Among the consequences of this type of education are progressive invisibility of women writers and the marginal status of the Salvadoran literature, despite the reformist discourse that postulates gender equality and strengthening of the national identity as central policies in the current educational project.Recibido 20 de marzo de 2013 • Corregido 14 de junio de 2013 • Aceptado 19 de junio de 2013 Este artículo analiza el modelo didáctico-pedagógico para la enseñanza de la literatura en la educación media salvadoreña. Es parte de un trabajo más amplio de tesis doctoral. El objetivo es caracterizar el proceso histórico de conformación de dicho modelo mediante un análisis crítico de las fuentes de canonización. Los hallazgos sugieren que la enseñanza de la literatura se realiza con base en un enfoque historicista, europeizante y masculino; entre las consecuencias de este tipo de enseñanza se encuentran la progresiva invisibilización de la mujer escritora y el estatus marginal que ocupa la literatura salvadoreña, pese al discurso reformista que postula la equidad de género y el fortalecimiento de la identidad nacional como políticas centrales del actual proyecto educativo.Doctor en Educación de la Universidad de Costa Rica. Máster en Derechos Humanos y Educación para la Paz. Licenciado en Letras. Investigador del Consejo de Investigaciones Científicas de la Universidad de El Salvador (CIC-UES. Actualmente labora como profesor de la Universidad de El

  20. Perfil neuropsicológico em doentes com epilepsia do lobo temporal

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    Daniela Marques

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A epilepsia do lobo temporal (ELT é o tipo de epilepsia refractária mais comum nos adultos. Existe um consenso quanto ao compromisso da memória na ELT com esclerose hipocampal. Contudo, no que respeita a outras funções como é o caso da atenção, funções executivas, rendimento intelectual e linguagem, o consenso não é tão generalizado. Para este estudo analisámos retrospectivamente um grupo de 76 doentes com epilepsia refractária, 48 doentes com epilepsia do lobo temporal (23 com lateralização à direita e 25 com lateralização à esquerda e 28 doentes com epilepsia extratemporal. Aplicámos uma batería de provas utilizada no âmbito do programa da Cirurgia da Epilepsia do Hospital de Egas Moniz em Lisboa, Portugal. Os resultados mostram que a bateria aplicada apresenta consistência interna no âmbito da avaliação dos doentes com ELT. Encontrámos que os doentes com ELT apresentam um padrão generalizados de défices, o que pode ser indicativo de compromisso noutras áreas, para além do hipocampo. Um achado que consideramos pertinente foi o facto da memória verbal com interferência (memoria a longo termo se manter adequada, sugerindo que esta função não está comprometida na ELT. Em suma, para além do padrão generalizado de défices cognitivos, também conseguimos observar o impacto da doença ao nível das variáveis sociodemográficas, assim como establecer uma relação com os achados neurobiológicos anteriormente descritos na literatura.

  1. Reference Gene Selection in the Desert Plant <em>Eremosparton songoricuem>m>

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    Dao-Yuan Zhang

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available <em>Eremosparton songoricum em>(Litv. Vass. (<em>E. songoricumem> is a rare and extremely drought-tolerant desert plant that holds promise as a model organism for the identification of genes associated with water deficit stress. Here, we cloned and evaluated the expression of eight candidate reference genes using quantitative real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reactions. The expression of these candidate reference genes was analyzed in a diverse set of 20 samples including various <em>E. songoricumem> plant tissues exposed to multiple environmental stresses. GeNorm analysis indicated that expression stability varied between the reference genes in the different experimental conditions, but the two most stable reference genes were sufficient for normalization in most conditions.<em> EsEFem> and <em>Esα-TUB> were sufficient for various stress conditions, <em>EsEF> and <em>EsACT> were suitable for samples of differing germination stages, and <em>EsGAPDH>and <em>Es>UBQ em>were most stable across multiple adult tissue samples. The <em>Es18Sem> gene was unsuitable as a reference gene in our analysis. In addition, the expression level of the drought-stress related transcription factor <em>EsDREB2em>> em>verified the utility of<em> E. songoricumem> reference genes and indicated that no single gene was adequate for normalization on its own. This is the first systematic report on the selection of reference genes in <em>E. songoricumem>, and these data will facilitate future work on gene expression in this species.

  2. Dementia and mild cognitive impairment in patients with Parkinson's disease Demência e transtorno cognitivo leve em pacientes com doença de Parkinson

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    Gloria Maria Almeida Souza Tedrus

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research was to assess the occurrence of cognitive impairment in 32 individuals (average age: 67.2 years old with Parkinson' disease (PD. Procedures: clinical-neurological assessment; modified Hoehn and Yahr staging scale (HYS; standard neuropsychological battery of CERAD (Consortium to Establish a Registry for Alzheimer' Disease; Pfeffer questionnaire; and Clinical Dementia Rating. A comparison was made with a control group (CG, consisting of 26 individuals with similar age and educational level but without cognitive impairment. The PD patients showed an inferior performance in the CERAD battery when compared to the CG. Three PD sub-groups were characterised according to cognition: no cognitive impairment - 15 cases; mild cognitive impairment - 10; dementia - 7 cases. There was a significant association between motor disability (HYS and the occurrence of dementia. Dementia and mild cognitive impairment frequently occur in PD patients and should be investigated in a routine way.O objetivo desta pesquisa foi avaliar a ocorrência de déficits cognitivos em 32 indivíduos (idade média: 67,2 anos com doença de Parkinson (DP. Procedimentos: avaliação clínico-neurológica, escala de Hoehn and Yahr modificada (EHY, bateria neurospicológica do CERAD (Consortium to Establish a Registry for Alzheimer' Disease, questionário de Pfeffer e escore clínico da demência (Clinical Dementia Rating. Foi feita comparação com grupo controle (GC de 26 indivíduos sem declínio cognitivo, com idade e nível educacional similares. Os pacientes com DP tiveram desempenho inferior na bateria CERAD, quando comparados ao do GC. Foram caracterizados 3 subgrupos com PD segundo a cognição: sem déficits cognitivos - 15 casos; transtorno cognitivo leve - 10; demência - 7 casos. Houve associação entre comprometimento motor e ocorrência de demência. Demência e transtorno cognitivo leve são freqüentes em pacientes com DP e devem ser

  3. O impacto do ambiente familiar nos primeiros anos de vida: um estudo com adolescentes de uma invasão de Salvador, Bahia The impact of early family environment: a study with adolescents from Salvador (Bahia

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    Ana Cecília de Sousa Bastos

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available Medidas de ajustamento psicossocial de 56 adolescentes de um bairro popular foram efetuadas, mediante um inquérito epidemiológico, para avaliar o poder preditivo de variáveis ambientais e sócio-econômicas, avaliadas quando esses sujeitos tinham entre 0 e 5 anos. Foram consideradas variáveis relativas a três diferentes momentos no curso de vida da família. A qualidade da estimulação no ambiente familiar precoce (escores no Inventário HOME mostrou-se mais importante do que psicopatologia parental na análise de diferenças entre escores médios para problemas (QMPI e competências (ACQ. O único fator do HOME significativamente correlacionado ao escore no QMPI foi "punição e restrição física" (pMeasures of psychosocial adjustment were made through an epidemiological survey on 56 teenagers of a popular neighborhood of Salvador to evaluate the predictive power of environmental and socioeconomic variables, evaluated when those subjects had between 0 and 5 years. Variables concerning to three different moments in the course of life of the family were considered. The quality of the stimulation in the early family environment (scores at HOME Inventory revealed more important than parental psychopathology in the analysis of differences among medium scores for problems (QMPI and competencies (ACQ - Achenbach, Quay & Conners' Checklist. The only factor of the HOME Inventory correlated to the score in QMPI was "punishing and restriction" (p<0,05. In general, high scores at HOME Inventory were associated to higher indexes of adjustment; however, some factors that indicate adversity in the first years predicted higher levels of competence, getting the attention for the complexity inherent to determination of vulnerability-resilience in developmental processes.

  4. Synthesis, Crystal Structure and Luminescent Property of Cd (II Complex with <em>N-Benzenesulphonyl-L>-leucine

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    Xishi Tai

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available A new trinuclear Cd (II complex [Cd3(L6(2,2-bipyridine3] [L =<em> Nem>-phenylsulfonyl-L>-leucinato] has been synthesized and characterized by elemental analysis, IR and X-ray single crystal diffraction analysis. The results show that the complex belongs to the orthorhombic, space group<em> Pem>212121 with<em> aem> = 16.877(3 Å, <em>b> em>= 22.875(5 Å, <em>c em>= 29.495(6 Å, <em>α> em>= <emem>= <emem>= 90°, <em>V> em>= 11387(4 Å3, <em>Z> em>= 4, <em>Dc>= 1.416 μg·m−3, <emem>= 0.737 mm−1, <em>F> em>(000 = 4992, and final <em>R>1 = 0.0390, <em>ωR>2 = 0.0989. The complex comprises two seven-coordinated Cd (II atoms, with a N2O5 distorted pengonal bipyramidal coordination environment and a six-coordinated Cd (II atom, with a N2O4 distorted octahedral coordination environment. The molecules form one dimensional chain structure by the interaction of bridged carboxylato groups, hydrogen bonds and p-p interaction of 2,2-bipyridine. The luminescent properties of the Cd (II complex and <em>N-Benzenesulphonyl-L>-leucine in solid and in CH3OH solution also have been investigated.

  5. Fault kinematics in northern Central America and coupling along the subduction interface of the Cocos Plate, from GPS data in Chiapas (Mexico), Guatemala and El Salvador

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco, A.; Lasserre, C.; Lyon-Caen, H.; Kostoglodov, V.; Molina, E.; Guzman-Speziale, M.; Monterosso, D.; Robles, V.; Figueroa, C.; Amaya, W.; Barrier, E.; Chiquin, L.; Moran, S.; Flores, O.; Romero, J.; Santiago, J. A.; Manea, M.; Manea, V. C.

    2012-06-01

    New GPS measurements in Chiapas (Mexico), Guatemala and El Salvador are used to constrain the fault kinematics in the North America (NA), Caribbean (CA) and Cocos (CO) plates triple junction area. The regional GPS velocity field is first analysed in terms of strain partitioning across the major volcano-tectonic structures, using elastic half-space modelling, then inverted through a block model. We show the dominant role of the Motagua Fault with respect to the Polochic Fault in the accommodation of the present-day deformation associated with the NA and CA relative motion. The NA/CA motion decreases from 18-22 mm yr-1 in eastern Guatemala to 14-20 mm yr-1 in central Guatemala (assuming a uniform locking depth of 14-28 km), down to a few millimetres per year in western Guatemala. As a consequence, the western tip of the CA Plate deforms internally, with ≃9 mm yr-1 of east-west extension (≃5 mm yr-1 across the Guatemala city graben alone). Up to 15 mm yr-1 of dextral motion can be accommodated across the volcanic arc in El Salvador and southeastern Guatemala. The arc seems to mark the northern boundary of an independent forearc sliver (AR), pinned to the NA plate. The inversion of the velocity field shows that a four-block (NA, CA, CO and AR) model, that combines relative block rotations with elastic deformation at the block boundaries, can account for most of the GPS observations and constrain the overall kinematics of the active structures. This regional modelling also evidences lateral variations of coupling at the CO subduction interface, with a fairly high-coupling (≃0.6) offshore Chiapas and low-coupling (≃0.25) offshore Guatemala and El Salvador.

  6. Social vulnerability as a contributing factor to disasters in Central America: A case study at San Vicente volcano, El Salvador

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowman, L. J.; Henquinet, K. B.; Gierke, J. S.; Rose, W. I.

    2012-12-01

    El Salvador's geographic location on the Pacific Ring of Fire at the juncture of the Caribbean and Cocos plates exposes its population to various natural hazards, including volcanic eruptions (e.g., Santa Ana in 2005), earthquakes (e.g., January 13 and February 13, 2001), and landslides and flooding due to tropical rainfall events (e.g., Hurricane Mitch in 1998, Hurricane Stan in 2005). Such hazards can be devastating anywhere, but the condition of social vulnerability in which many Salvadorans currently live exacerbates the impacts of these hazards. Aspects contributing to most rural Salvadorans being marginalized include a colonial history marked by ethnic discrimination and laws prohibiting land ownership, lack of access to desirable land in an agrarian society, a poor education system, global economic policies that foster inequality, political marginalization, a bloody civil conflict, and rampant criminality and violence. In November 2009, an extreme rainfall event triggered landslides and lahars killing over 200 people at San Vicente volcano. This disaster brought to light weaknesses in disaster preparedness and response plans. Despite the existence of recent hazard maps and lahar inundation models (2001), and the occurrence of a similar, deadly event in 1934, the population appeared to be unaware of the risk, and lacked the organization and decision-making protocols to adequately deal with the emergency. Therefore, in the aftermath of the 2009 lahars, much of the focus on disaster risk reduction (DRR) initiatives has been aimed at the communities affected by this most recent event. Our study examines root causes of social vulnerability and assesses the apparent impacts of these interventions on the population, including individual's perceptions regarding these risk-reducing interventions. Two years after the event, though aid abounds, many people remain vulnerable to hazards in this area. Semi-structured interviews were completed with survivors of the 2009

  7. Prevalence of hepatitis C virus (HCV infection and HCV genotypes of hemodialysis patients in Salvador, Northeastern Brazil

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    Silva L.K.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Hepatitis C virus (HCV infection has been identified as the major cause of chronic liver disease among patients on chronic hemodialysis (HD, despite the important reduction in risks obtained by testing candidate blood donors for anti-HCV antibodies and the use of recombinant erythropoietin to treat anemia. A cross-sectional study was performed to estimate the prevalence of HCV infection and genotypes among HD patients in Salvador, Northeastern Brazil. Anti-HCV seroprevalence was determined by ELISA in 1243 HD patients from all ten different dialysis centers of the city. HCV infection was confirmed by RT-PCR and genotyping was performed by restriction fragment length polymorphism. Anti-HCV seroprevalence among HD patients was 10.5% (95% CI: 8.8-12.3 (Murex anti-HCV, Abbott Murex, Chicago, IL, USA. Blood samples for qualitative HCV detection and genotyping were collected from 125/130 seropositive HD patients (96.2%. HCV-RNA was detected in 92/125 (73.6% of the anti-HCV-positive patients. HCV genotype 1 (77.9% was the most prevalent, followed by genotype 3 (10.5% and genotype 2 (4.6%. Mixed infections of genotypes 1 and 3 were found in 7.0% of the total number of patients. The present results indicate a significant decrease in anti-HCV prevalence from 23.8% detected in a study carried out in 1994 to 10.5% in the present study. The HCV genotype distribution was closely similar to that observed in other hemodialysis populations in Brazil, in local candidate blood donors and in other groups at risk of transfusion-transmitted infection.

  8. Assessment of earthquake-triggered landslide susceptibility in El Salvador based on an Artificial Neural Network model

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    M. J. García-Rodríguez

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an approach for assessing earthquake-triggered landslide susceptibility using artificial neural networks (ANNs. The computational method used for the training process is a back-propagation learning algorithm. It is applied to El Salvador, one of the most seismically active regions in Central America, where the last severe destructive earthquakes occurred on 13 January 2001 (Mw 7.7 and 13 February 2001 (Mw 6.6. The first one triggered more than 600 landslides (including the most tragic, Las Colinas landslide and killed at least 844 people.

    The ANN is designed and programmed to develop landslide susceptibility analysis techniques at a regional scale. This approach uses an inventory of landslides and different parameters of slope instability: slope gradient, elevation, aspect, mean annual precipitation, lithology, land use, and terrain roughness. The information obtained from ANN is then used by a Geographic Information System (GIS to map the landslide susceptibility. In a previous work, a Logistic Regression (LR was analysed with the same parameters considered in the ANN as independent variables and the occurrence or non-occurrence of landslides as dependent variables. As a result, the logistic approach determined the importance of terrain roughness and soil type as key factors within the model. The results of the landslide susceptibility analysis with ANN are checked using landslide location data. These results show a high concordance between the landslide inventory and the high susceptibility estimated zone. Finally, a comparative analysis of the ANN and LR models are made. The advantages and disadvantages of both approaches are discussed using Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC curves.

  9. Transnacionalismo y modelos de codesarrollo: impacto en el desarrollo local de las comunidades de origen. Estudio de caso: El Salvador y Colombia

    OpenAIRE

    Cabezas Valencia, Rhina Marlene

    2012-01-01

    El trabajo analiza dos modelos de codesarrollo y sus respectivos impactos en el desarrollo local de las comunidades de origen. Los flujos migratorios transnacionales estudiados son: El Salvador - Estados Unidos de América y Colombia - España. En cada uno de los casos se identificaron variables de comparación como el tipo de capital social, actores participantes, génesis y evolución de los flujos migratorios, remesas, consolidación de redes sociales transnacionales, marco normativo, entre otra...

  10. The 2012 August 27 Mw7.3 El Salvador earthquake: expression of weak coupling on the Middle America subduction zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geirsson, Halldor; LaFemina, Peter C.; DeMets, Charles; Hernandez, Douglas Antonio; Mattioli, Glen S.; Rogers, Robert; Rodriguez, Manuel; Marroquin, Griselda; Tenorio, Virginia

    2015-09-01

    Subduction zones exhibit variable degrees of interseismic coupling as resolved by inversions of geodetic data and analyses of seismic energy release. The degree to which a plate boundary fault is coupled can have profound effects on its seismogenic behaviour. Here we use GPS measurements to estimate co- and post-seismic deformation from the 2012 August 27, Mw7.3 megathrust earthquake offshore El Salvador, which was a tsunami earthquake. Inversions of estimated coseismic displacements are in agreement with published seismically derived source models, which indicate shallow (segment of the Central American margin and may be a characteristic of margins hosting tsunami earthquakes.

  11. CINCO SIGLOS DE HISTORIA DENDROCRONOLÓGICA DE LOS AHUEHUETES (Taxodium mucronatum Ten.) DEL PARQUE EL CONTADOR, SAN SALVADOR ATENCO, ESTADO DE MÉXICO

    OpenAIRE

    José Villanueva-Díaz; Julián Cerano-Paredes; Armando Gómez-Guerrero; Arian Correa-Díaz; Luis U. Castruita-Esparza; Rosalinda Cervantes-Martínez; Stahle, David W.; Aldo R. Martínez-Sifuentes

    2014-01-01

    La reconstrucción de la variabilidad climática por medio de anillos de crecimiento es una técnica que permite estudiar el clima y el crecimiento arbóreo del pasado. Con la finalidad de recuperar información dendroclimática, en el parque El Contador, San Salvador Atenco, Estado de México, se analizaron restos de árboles de ahuehuete (Taxodium mucronatum Ten.) del siglo XV y núcleos de crecimiento de árboles vivos en el área de influencia del parque. Las muestras se analizaron con técnicas dend...

  12. Rehabilitació de les façanes i cobertes del Pavelló de Sant Salvador de l' Hospital de Sant Pau i la Santa Creu

    OpenAIRE

    Ardévol Pulpillo, Aina

    2013-01-01

    Aquest PFG consisteix en el seguiment de l'obra de rehabilitació de façanes i cobertes del pavelló de Sant Salvador del recinte de l'Hospital de Sant Pau de Barcelona, edifici situat al costat llevant després d'accedir al recinte pel carrer Cartagena. El conjunt arquitectònic de l'Hospital de la Santa Creu i Sant Pau és un referent molt important del patrimoni i la cultura de Catalunya, reconegut al 1997 com Hospital de Patrimoni Mundial per la UNESCO, per la seva singularitat ...

  13. Parentesco y casas en un barrio de bajos ingresos asistido por el Programa de Salud Familiar en Salvador, Bahía, Brasil

    OpenAIRE

    Vania Bustamante; Cecilia Anne McCallum

    2011-01-01

    En este trabajo se analiza la construcción cotidiana del parentesco en un barrio de bajos ingresos de Salvador atendido por el Programa de Salud Familiar (PSF). Fueron realizadas entrevistas y observación participante durante tres años de trabajo de campo. Encontramos que el parentesco se construye permanentemente en base a vínculos de "sangre" y de "consideración". Mostramos la comprensión que los informantes tienen sobre sus "casas" y la relación entre la "configuración de las casas" y la c...

  14. La organización del municipio salvadoreño entre 1840 y 1869. Una aproximación a la construcción del estado desde el ámbito local

    OpenAIRE

    Clara Pérez Fabregat

    2015-01-01

    Este artículo plantea un acercamiento al proceso de construcción estatal de El Salvador desde la perspectiva de las Municipalidades, a mediados del siglo xix. Se parte de la base de que el ente municipal colaboró, en la medida de sus posibilidades, con importantes recursos financieros y humanos en la constitución del estado liberal decimonónico. Sobre este supuesto se hace una introducción a las relaciones fiscales entre el estado salvadoreño y sus municipios. La delegación de funciones en lo...

  15. Red GPS ZFESNET para el estudio de la evolución del ciclo sísmico de deformaciones y esfuerzos asociado a la zona de falla de El Salvador

    OpenAIRE

    Staller Vázquez, Alejandra; Martínez Díaz, José Jesús; Benito Oterino, Belen; Hernández, Douglas; Díaz, Manuel; Pullinger, Carlos; DeMets, C.; Canora Catalán, Carolina; Álvarez Gómez, José Antonio; Béjar, Marta

    2008-01-01

    El Salvador se caracteriza por la presencia de fallas de desgarre sísmicamente activas subparalelas a la zona de subducción. Estas estructuras han sido las responsables de la mayoría de los terremotos destructivos que han tenido lugar a lo largo de la costa Pacífica en el arco volcánico centroamericano, desde Guatemala hasta Costa Rica. La Zona de Falla de El Salvador (ZFES) es una de las principales estructuras tectónicas de la región estudiada, y posiblemente la estructura donde se está aco...

  16. La viabilidad de las prácticas de participación ciudadana en la gestión municipal: El caso del presupuesto participativo de Villa El Salvador (Perú, 2000-2002)

    OpenAIRE

    Juan Carlos Cortázar Velarde; Carla Lecaros

    2003-01-01

    El estudio de caso pretende contribuir a una mejor comprensión de los procesos que hacen viables aquellas prácticas de participación ciudadana que requieren una elevada interacción con las organizaciones y funcionarios públicos. La experiencia estudiada consiste en el diseño y puesta en marcha del presupuesto participativo en el distrito de Villa El Salvador (Perú), entre el año 2000 e inicios del 2002. Villa El Salvador es un distrito popular del sur de la ciudad de Lima que comenzó a formar...

  17. Evaluation of Antioxidant and Antiproliferative Properties of Three <em>Actinidia> (<em>Actinidia> <em>kolomikta>, <em>Actinidia argutaem>, <em>Actinidia> <em>chinensis> Extracts <em>in Vitroem>

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    Jia-Ren Liu

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The total phenolic content, total flavonoid content, vitamin C content, and antioxidant activities of ethanol extracts from different kiwifruit varieties (<em>Actinidia> <em>kolomikta>, <em>Actinidia argutaem>, <em>Actinidia> <em>chinensis> were determined in this study. Multiple scavenging activity assays including the hydroxyl radical, O2·radical, DPPH, and the ABTS+ radical scavenging activity assays were used to identify the antioxidant activities of <em>Actinidia> extracts. The cell viability of HepG2 and HT-29 cells was also examined in this study. The results demonstrated that the <em>Actinidia kolomiktaem> extract had a higher antioxidant activity than the other two <em>Actinidia> extracts. There is a positive correlation between antioxidant activity and the polyphenols and vitamin C content in all three extracts (<em>R>2 ≥ 0.712, <em>p> em>< 0.05. The <em>Actinidia argutaem> extract had the highest inhibitory effect on HepG2 and HT-29 cell growth. These results provide new insight into the health functions of fruit and demonstrate that <em>Actinidia> extracts can potentially have health benefits.

  18. Clinical, hematological, and molecular characterization of sickle cell anemia pediatric patients from two different cities in Brazil Caracterização clínica, hematológica e molecular de crianças portadoras da anemia falciforme em duas diferentes cidades do Brasil

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    Isa Menezes Lyra

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available This study focused on clinical, hematological, and molecular aspects of sickle cell anemia pediatric patients from two different cites in Brazil. Seventy-one patients from São Paulo and Salvador, aged 3 to 18 years, were evaluated. Hematological analyses, betaS globin gene haplotypes, and alpha2 3.7kb-thalassemia were performed. Numbers of hospitalizations due to vaso-occlusive crises, infections, stroke, and cholelithiasis were investigated. São Paulo had more hospitalizations from vaso-occlusion, cholelithiasis, and stroke than Salvador. The Ben/CAR genotype predominated in both cities. alpha2 3.7kb-thalassemia had a frequency of 28.2% in Salvador, mostly with Ben/CAR genotype (45.0%, while São Paulo had 22.5% with similar frequencies of the Ben/ CAR and CAR/CAR genotypes. Sickle cell anemia patients from São Paulo also had more episodes of stroke, which was observed among CAR/CAR, atypical, and BEN/CAR haplotypes. In Salvador stroke was only observed in the Ben/CAR genotype. Cholelithiasis had similar frequencies in the two cities. These data suggest a milder phenotype among patients in Salvador, possibly due to genetic, environmental, and socioeconomic factors. Further studies are needed to elucidate modulating factors and phenotype association.O objetivo desse estudo foi avaliar aspectos clínicos, hematológicos e moleculares de pacientes pediátricos portadores de anemia falciforme em duas cidades brasileiras: Salvador e São Paulo. Foram estudados 71 pacientes com idades variando entre 3 a 18 anos, analisando-se os seguintes aspectos: perfis hematológicos, haplótipos dos genes da globina beta, presença de talassemia alfa-2(3.7kb, número de internações por vaso-oclusão, infecção, presença de acidente vascular cerebral e litíase biliar. O genótipo Ben/CAR predominou nas duas cidades. Talassemia alfa-2(3.7kb teve freqüência de 28,2% em Salvador e 22,5% em São Paulo. Os pacientes de São Paulo apresentaram um número maior

  19. <em>α>-Glucosidase Inhibitory Constituents from <em>Acanthopanax senticosusem> Harm Leaves

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    Hai-Xue Kuang

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available A new triterpene glycoside, 3-<em>O-[(α>-L-rhamnopyranosyl(1→2]-[<em>β>-D-glucuronopyranosyl-6-<em>O>-methyl ester]-olean-12-ene-28-olic acid (1 and a new indole alkaloid, 5-methoxy-2-oxoindolin-3-acetic acid methyl ester (5 were isolated from the leaves of <em>Acanthopanax senticosusem> Harms along with six known compounds. The structures of the new compounds were determined by means of 2D-NMR experiments and chemical methods. All the isolated compounds were evaluated for their glycosidase inhibition activities and compound 6 showed significant <em>α>-glucosidase inhibition activity.

  20. Comparações de medidas de qualidade de vida entre mulheres e homens em hemodiálise Comparisons of quality of life measures between women and men on hemodialysis

    OpenAIRE

    Gildete Barreto Lopes; Maria Tereza Silveira Martins; Cácia Mendes Matos; Josete Leão de Amorim; Eneida Barreto Leite; Eva Alves Miranda; Antonio Alberto Lopes

    2007-01-01

    OBJETIVO: Comparar homens e mulheres, tratados cronicamente por hemodiálise, quanto a escores de qualidade de vida relacionada com saúde (QVRS) e avaliar potenciais influências da idade e comorbidades. MÉTODOS: Corte transversal dos dados da linha de base de 254 mulheres e 349 homens participantes do estudo PROHEMO, sendo desenvolvido em unidades de diálise de Salvador. Utilizando a versão do Kidney Disease Quality of Life Short Form (KDQOL-SF), validada para a população brasileira, foram det...

  1. Vulnerability in the context of HIV and syphilis infection in a population of men who have sex with men (MSM) in Salvador, Bahia State, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brignol, Sandra; Dourado, Inês; Amorim, Leila D; Kerr, Lígia Regina Franco Sansigolo

    2015-05-01

    Social, individual, and programmatic vulnerability of men who have sex with men (MSM) in the context of the HIV epidemic and other sexually transmitted infections (STI) is a reality in many countries. The survey Behavior, Attitudes, Practices, and Prevalence of HIV and Syphilis in Men Who Have Sex with Men in 10 Brazilian Cities selected 383 MSM in the city of Salvador, Bahia State, Brazil, using the respondent driven sampling (RDS) technique. Individual vulnerability early sexual initiation (51%), average of eight sex partners, and unprotected receptive anal sex with casual (32%) and steady partners (45%) and positive rapid tests HIV (6.5%) and syphilis (9%). Social vulnerability young adults (80%), black race/skin color (91%), mean monthly family income of BRL 1,000.00, and personal history of discrimination (57%). Programmatic factors no previous HIV test (63%) and no access to lubricant gel (88%). The study showed a profile of vulnerability and the urgent need for interventions and STI prevention in the MSM population in Salvador, in addition to high prevalence rates for HIV and syphilis. PMID:26083178

  2. Using Peer-Referral Chains with Incentives to Promote HIV Testing and Identify Undiagnosed HIV Infections Among Crack Users in San Salvador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glasman, Laura R; Dickson-Gomez, Julia; Lechuga, Julia; Tarima, Sergey; Bodnar, Gloria; de Mendoza, Lorena Rivas

    2016-06-01

    In El Salvador, crack users are at high risk for HIV but they are not targeted by efforts to promote early HIV diagnosis. We evaluated the promise of peer-referral chains with incentives to increase HIV testing and identify undiagnosed HIV infections among networks of crack users in San Salvador. For 14 months, we offered HIV testing in communities with a high prevalence of crack use. For the following 14 months, we promoted chains in which crack users from these communities referred their peers to HIV testing and received a small monetary incentive. We recorded the monthly numbers of HIV testers, and their crack use, sexual risk behaviors and test results. After launching the referral chains, the monthly numbers of HIV testers increased significantly (Z = 6.90, p peer-referral period reported fewer HIV risk behaviors, but a similar percentage (~5 %) tested HIV positive in both periods. More women than men received an HIV-positive diagnosis throughout the study (χ(2)(1, N = 799) = 4.23, p = .040). Peer-referral chains with incentives can potentially increase HIV testing among networks of crack users while retaining a focus on high-risk individuals. PMID:26687093

  3. Proyectos, debates y críticas en torno a la vivienda obrera en el Noroeste argentino. San Salvador de Jujuy (1930-1945

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    Jerez, Marcelo

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Resumen El presente artículo se inserta dentro del conjunto de estudios que analizan a la vivienda obrera en la Argentina. Tiene como objetivo examinar los diseños y programas habitacionales elaborados durante los años previos a la irrupción del primer peronismo en la ciudad capital de la provincia de Jujuy: San Salvador de Jujuy. En esta tarea se presta atención a los debates, críticas y revisiones en torno a los diversos proyectos de vivienda obrera en un distrito del Noroeste argentino. Asimismo se pretende destacar las líneas de encuentro y particularidades de estos programas en relación a lo acontecido en otros puntos del país. Abstract This article is inserted into a set of studies that analyze the workers' housing in Argentina. It aims to examine the designs and housing programs developed during the years before the emergence of the Peronismo in the capital city of the province of Jujuy: San Salvador de Jujuy. The attention is focused in the discussions and reviews around the different projects of working class houses in a district of the Northwestern Argentina. It also pretends to give importance to similar lines and particularities of these programs related to other areas of the country.

  4. Rompendo paradigmas através da luta: a greve das/os tecelãs/ões em setembro de 1919 (Salvador-Bahia

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    Vanessa Cristina Santos Matos

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to analyze the movement of weavers´ strike (according to an specific context, its origins, actions and consequences, prompting the internal system of factories (their regulations, the hierarchical relationships of power, and struggles to guarantee the right of association, which resulted in the stoppage of all activities of the textile sector. The attitude to go on a strike, mobilizations and the stroll show that the direction of the movement and the working class were aware of their actions and those likely consequences, what signalize, beforehand, the ideological, classist and political character of women´s actions: radicalized by the practices of confronting the authoritarianism employers and threats (police repression, harassment of the press. They endured through the collective support and a network of solidarity.

  5. NOVOS MODELOS ORGANIZACIONAIS E REPERCUSSÕES NA GESTÃO DOS RECURSOS HUMANOS: ESTUDO DE CASO EM SALVADOR-BA

    OpenAIRE

    Sônia R. P. Fernandes; Guacyra Leal; Renata Matos

    2003-01-01

  1. «De la locura a la esperanza: ¿Nunca Más?». Impunity in El Salvador and Guatemala

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    Elena MARTÍNEZ BARAHONA

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The issue of transition to democracy has been approached mainly from political elite perspective. Researchers have found that fights amongst elite groups determine what measures are taken during the first steps of policial transitions –including trials to repressors. However, judiciary branch, civil society and changes in Government can influence the process– bringing about changes in justice policies further later. This issue, which has been studied in Latin American Southern Cone, is less studied in Central America, where the emphasis was placed on search of truth, and on the efforts made to prosecute past human rights violations –with little initial results at a national level. That is why this work is aimed to explore the development and current status of the mechanisms of transitional justice in Guatemala and El Salvador, focused on the prosecution of crimes committed during the conflict, and its evolution and the played role by national and international actors.

  2. Prevalencia de patrones electrocardiográficos tipo Brugada en un centro de monitoreo cardíaco transtelefónico en El Salvador

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    Hugo Alberto Abrego

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: Desde que se definieron los criterios que permiten diagnosticar el síndrome de Brugada, se han realizado varios estudios para determinar la prevalencia en el electrocardiograma (ECG de los pacientes con esta enfermedad. El objetivo de esta investigación fue determinar la prevalencia de los distintos patrones electrocardiográficos tipo Brugada (PETB en una población con acceso a monitoreo electrocardiográfico transtelefónico en El Salvador. Métodos: Todos los ECGs recibidos desde el 1/1/2002 hasta el 1/12/2004 en un centro de monitoreo transtelefónico fueron analizados por 2 cardiólogos de manera independiente. Los pertenecientes a pacientes a quienes se les diagnosticó enfermedad cardiovascular estructural y los de quienes tomaban fármacos de acción cardiovascular fueron excluidos. Resultados: De un total de 11669 ECGs de igual número de pacientes, algún PETB se encontró en 81 pacientes (0.7%. El promedio de edad de los pacientes fue de 36.4 ± 15.4 años; 64.6% de ellos eran masculinos. En 5 pacientes (6,17% se encontró el patrón tipo 1, todos estaban asintomáticos y en 1 se colocó un cardiodesfibrilador implantable por tener arritmia ventricular maligna inducible. El patrón tipo 2 fue el más frecuente (59 pacientes, 72,83% y solo se encontraron 17 pacientes con patrón tipo 3 (20,98%, todos asintomáticos. Conclusión: El electrocardiograma con PETB no es raro en esta población de El Salvador. Hay aproximadamente 1 PETB por cada 144 individuos y 1 caso de PETB tipo 1 por cada 2334 individuos de consulta general.Aim: Since the diagnostic criteria for the Brugada syndrome were defined, several studies have been made to calculate the electrocardiographic prevalence of this disease. The objective of this study was to define the prevalence of the different Brugada-type patterns in a population with access to transtelephonic electrocardiographic monitoring in El Salvador. Methods: All the electrocardiograms (ECG

  3. Social networks of men who have sex with men: a study of recruitment chains using Respondent Driven Sampling in Salvador, Bahia State, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brignol, Sandra Mara Silva; Dourado, Inês; Amorim, Leila Denise; Miranda, José Garcia Vivas; Kerr, Lígia R F S

    2015-11-01

    Social and sexual contact networks between men who have sex with men (MSM) play an important role in understanding the transmission of HIV and other sexually transmitted infections (STIs). In Salvador (Bahia State, Brazil), one of the cities in the survey Behavior, Attitudes, Practices, and Prevalence of HIV and Syphilis among Men Who Have Sex with Men in 10 Brazilian Cities, data were collected in 2008/2009 from a sample of 383 MSM using Respondent Driven Sampling (RDS). Network analysis was used to study friendship networks and sexual partner networks. The study also focused on the association between the number of links (degree) and the number of sexual partners, in addition to socio-demographic characteristics. The networks' structure potentially facilitates HIV transmission. However, the same networks can also be used to spread messages on STI/HIV prevention, since the proximity and similarity of MSM in these networks can encourage behavior change and positive attitudes towards prevention. PMID:26648372

  4. Probing The Buried Remains of The Todos los Santos, City of San Salvador in Hoping Island with Shallow Subsurface Geophysics Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Yi-fan; Chang, Pin-yu; Eugenio Borao Mateo, José

    2013-04-01

    The study in ancient sites with GPR is widely documented over several decades. This non-invasive geophysical method provides a rapid measure for anthropogenic objects and therefore serves as a guide for possible excavation for the next stage of archaeological surveys. City of San Salvador, which is a Dutch colonial city consisted of fortress, hospitals and churches in 17 century, is located in the Hoping Island in Keelung, Taiwan. The fortress and its affiliated structures were abandoned and left collapsing since the mid-17th century. Some relics of the fortress wall were still remained until the early 20th century but the fast development projects in the island has caused the relics demolished or buried under building or road pavements. Many wells and bones have been found around the area belong to over three hundred years ago. As a consequence, the government initiated a new excavation project at the parking lot where the ancient convent of Todos los Santos is believed since 2011 in order to find the remains of the convent in city of San Salvador. Meanwhile we have surveyed with GPR to help guiding the excavation location. In this case, we surveyed with wide-angle-refraction/reflection (WARR) of GPR as well as common-offset array, to compensate the defect of traditional common-offset of lack of longitudinal resolution with velocity profile, and the combination of velocity profile and common-offset data helped distinguish the signals from other noises and further located the position of subsurface structures. After data analysis and numerical modeling of the buried materials, we have located the possible remains of walls of the convent or other structures around 0.9 to 1.3 meters in depth that can offer useful information to better plan the archaeological excavations.

  5. Assessment of the factor structure and reliability of the 28 item version of the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-28 in El Salvador

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    Pat Gibbons

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Quisimos evaluar tanto la estructura factorial como la confiabilidad de la versión de 28 ítem del Cuestionario de Salud General (GHQ-28 en una muestra noclínica en El Salvador. Aplicamos el GHQ-28 a una muestra de 714 de alumnos universitarios en El Salvador. Utilizamos un análisis de componentes principales y seleccionamos una solución de 4 factores. Reaplicamos la prueba a un grupo de los participantes después de un promedio de 3 meses, para evaluar la confiabilidad de ‘retest’ del instrumento y calculamos la confiabilidad interna del GHQ-28 a través de la prueba alfa de Cronbach. Los resultados del análisis factorial correspondieron estrechamente con la estructura factorial antes identificada, aunque encontramos una correlación más alta entre las escalas, sobre todo entre Ansiedad e insomnio y Somatización. La fiabilidad test-retest y la consistencia interna alcanzaron valores de 0,70 o superiores. Los resultados del análisis factorial indican una gran coincidencia con las conclusiones de otros entornos culturales, lo que apoya la hipótesis de Goldberg de que hay una manera común de comunicar angustia psicológica en culturas distintas. Las escalas de Depresión severa y de Disfunción social parecen ser relativamente estables e independientes, mientras que las de Ansiedad e insomnio y de Somatización se correlacionan más. La fiabilidad del instrumento es satisfactoria.

  6. The Antimicrobial Efficacy of <em>Elaeis guineensisem>: Characterization, <em>in Vitroem> and <em>in Vivoem> Studies

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    Sreenivasan Sasidharan

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The urgent need to treat multi-drug resistant pathogenic microorganisms in chronically infected patients has given rise to the development of new antimicrobials from natural resources. We have tested <em>Elaeis guineensis em>Jacq> em>(Arecaceae methanol extract against a variety of bacterial, fungal and yeast strains associated with infections. Our studies have demonstrated that <em>E. guineensisem> exhibits excellent antimicrobial activity <em>in vitroem> and <em>in vivoem> against the bacterial and fungal strains tested. A marked inhibitory effect of the <em>E. guineensisem> extracts was observed against <em>C. albicansem> whereby <em>E. guineensisem> extract at ½, 1, or 2 times the MIC significantly inhibited <em>C. albicansem> growth with a noticeable drop in optical density (OD of the bacterial culture. This finding confirmed the anticandidal activity of the extract on <em>C. albicansem>. Imaging using scanning (SEM and transmission (TEM electron microscopy was done to determine the major alterations in the microstructure of the extract-treated <em>C. albicansem>. The main abnormalities noted via SEM and TEM studies were the alteration in morphology of the yeast cells. <em>In vivoem> antimicrobial activity was studies in mice that had been inoculated with <em>C. albicansem> and exhibited good anticandidal activity. The authors conclude that the extract may be used as a candidate for the development of anticandidal agent.<em> em>

  7. Evaluation of Pseudopteroxazole and Pseudopterosin Derivatives against <em>Mycobacterium> <em>tuberculosis> and Other Pathogens

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    Malcolm W. B. McCulloch

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Pseudopterosins and pseudopteroxazole are intriguing marine natural products that possess notable antimicrobial activity with a commensurate lack of cytotoxicity. New semi-synthetic pseudopteroxazoles, pseudopteroquinoxalines and pseudopterosin congeners along with simple synthetic mimics of the terpene skeleton were synthesized. In order to build structure-activity relationships, a set of 29 new and previously reported compounds was assessed for <em>in> <em>vitro> antimicrobial and cytotoxic activities. A number of congeners exhibited antimicrobial activity against a range of Gram-positive bacteria including <em>Mycobacterium> <em>tuberculosis> H37Rv, with four displaying notable antitubercular activity against both replicating and non-replicating persistent forms of <em>M.> <em>tuberculosis>. One new semi-synthetic compound, 21-((1<em>H>-imidazol-5-ylmethyl-pseudopteroxazole (7a, was more potent than the natural products pseudopterosin and pseudopteroxazole and exhibited equipotent activity against both replicating and non-replicating persistent forms of <em>M.> <em>tuberculosis> with a near absence of <em>in> <em>vitro> cytotoxicity. Pseudopteroxazole also exhibited activity against strains of <em>M.> <em>tuberculosis> H37Rv resistant to six clinically used antibiotics.

  8. Deficiência de 5alfa-redutase tipo 2: experiências de Campinas (SP e Salvador (BA 5alpha-reductase type 2 deficiency: experiences from Campinas (SP and Salvador (BA

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    Christine Hackel

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Apresentar a experiência relativa a pacientes com deficiência da enzima 5alfa-redutase tipo 2 provenientes de três serviços distintos no Brasil. CASUÍSTICA E MÉTODOS: Foram incluídos 25 pacientes com sinais clínicos e hormonais de deficiência da 5alfa-redutase 2 pertencentes a 23 famílias, 15 oriundas da Bahia, 7 de São Paulo e 1 de Minas Gerais. Foram avaliados dados clínicos, hormonais e moleculares. A análise molecular dos 5 éxons do gene SRD5A2 foi feita por meio da técnica de PCR, seguida de seqüenciamento automático ou manual. RESULTADOS: Em 10 famílias havia mutações no gene SRD5A2 em homozigose (5 com G183S, 2 com R246W, 1 com G196S, 1 com del642T, 1 com 217_218insC e em 3 em heterozigose composta (1 com Q126R/IVS3+1G>A, 1 com Q126R/del418T e 1 com Q126R/G158R; em 3 casos os afetados eram heterozigotos, apresentando apenas uma mutação deletéria (1 com G196S, 1 com A207D e 1 com R246W. Em 7 casos não foram detectadas anormalidades ao seqüenciamento. Observou-se maior freqüência da G183S em pacientes miscigenados (Afro-Euro-Brasileiros oriundos da Bahia. Os achados clínicos e hormonais não diferiram entre os casos com e sem mutação, à exceção da freqüência de consangüinidade e da maior gravidade da ambigüidade genital nos primeiros. CONCLUSÕES: Os resultados encontrados salientam a importância da investigação molecular para o diagnóstico dessa doença, ressaltando o achado de uma mutação bastante freqüente em nosso meio (G183S, especialmente em pacientes miscigenados oriundos da Bahia, e a descrição de mutações que até o momento só foram relatadas em pacientes brasileiros.OBJECTIVE: To report the experience regarding patients with steroid 5alpha-reductase type 2 deficiency from three different clinical services in Brazil. CASUISTIC AND METHODS: Twenty five patients with clinical and hormonal features of 5alpha-reductase deficiency from 23 families (15 from Bahia, 7 from S

  9. Communicating External Voting Rights to Diaspora Communities. Challenges and Opportunities in the Cases of El Salvador and Costa Rica / Comunicando los derechos de votación en el extranjero a las diásporas. Los casos de El Salvador y Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Bravo

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available AbstractThis paper fills a gap in the literature of international public relations by exploring the challenges that home governments face when trying to convey information about newly established political rights to diaspora communities located in host countries. It does so by analyzing the cases of El Salvador and Costa Rica, two Central American countries that will offer external voting rights (absentee vote to their citizens, for the first time, in the national elections of 2014.ResumenEsta investigación explora los retos que los gobiernos nacionales enfrentan cuando tratan de comunicar información sobre los derechos de voto en el extranjero a sus diásporas en países huéspedes. Esta investigación analiza los casos de El Salvador y Costa Rica, dos países de Centroamérica que empezarán a ofrecer el derecho al voto en el extranjero a sus ciudadanos, por primera vez, en las elecciones del 2014.

  10. Aspectos psicossociais do trabalho e dor musculoesquelética em professores Psychosocial work-related factors and musculoskeletal pain among schoolteachers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jefferson Paixão Cardoso

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Investigou-se a associação entre aspectos psicossociais do trabalho e queixas de dor musculoesquelética (DME em professores. Um estudo censitário de corte transversal investigou 4.496 professores da rede municipal de ensino infantil e fundamental de Salvador, Bahia, Brasil. Informações sobre queixas de dor musculoesquelética em membros superiores, membros inferiores e dorso (variáveis dependentes, categorias do Modelo Demanda-Controle (variáveis independentes e covariáveis foram coletadas num questionário padronizado autoaplicável. Análises de regressão logística multivariada revelaram que professores com trabalho de alta exigência apresentaram prevalência de DME mais elevada e professores em baixa exigência, prevalência mais baixa, em cada um dos três segmentos corporais estudados. Professores em trabalho ativo apresentaram prevalência de DME mais elevada do que professores em trabalho de baixa exigência, em membros superiores e dorso. Maiores taxas de prevalência de DME associaram-se à maior demanda psicológica nos três segmentos corporais e ao baixo controle sobre o trabalho em membros superiores, apenas.This study aimed to investigate the association between work-related psychosocial factors and musculoskeletal pain (MP among primary schoolteachers in the public school system in Salvador, Bahia State, Brazil. A cross-sectional epidemiological study included all 4,496 teachers from the system. A self-applied mail questionnaire was used to collect information on complaints of musculoskeletal pain in the upper limbs, lower limbs, and back (dependent variables, demand-control model quadrants (independent variables, and covariables. Multivariate logistic regression showed that teachers in high-stress jobs presented the highest MP rates, and that those with low-stress jobs had the lowest rates in all three body segments. Teachers in active jobs presented higher MP rates than those in low-stress jobs, particularly in the

  11. Efficient Heterologous Transformation of <em>Chlamydomonas> reinhardtiiem> <em>npq2em> Mutant with the Zeaxanthin Epoxidase Gene Isolated and Characterized from<em> Chlorella zofingiensisem>

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herminia Rodríguez

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available In the violaxanthin cycle, the violaxanthin de-epoxidase and zeaxanthin epoxidase catalyze the inter-conversion between violaxanthin and zeaxanthin in both plants and green algae. The zeaxanthin epoxidase gene from the green microalga <em>Chlorella zofingiensisem> (<em>Czzep> has been isolated<em>. em>This gene encodes a polypeptide of 596 amino acids. A single copy of <em>Czzep> has been found in the <em>C. zofingiensisem> genome by Southern blot analysis. qPCR analysis has shown that transcript levels of <em>Czzep> were increased after zeaxanthin formation under high light conditions. The functionality of <em>Czzep> gene by heterologous genetic complementation in the <em>Chlamydomonas> mutant <em>npq2em>, which lacks zeaxanthin epoxidase (ZEP activity and accumulates zeaxanthin in all conditions, was analyzed. The <em>Czzep> gene was adequately inserted in the pSI105 vector and expressed in <em>npq2em>. The positive transformants were able to efficiently convert zeaxanthin into violaxanthin, as well as to restore their maximum quantum efficiency of the PSII (Fv/Fm. These results show that <em>Chlamydomonas> can be an efficient tool for heterologous expression and metabolic engineering for biotechnological applications.

  12. Avaliação populacional de lagartas e inimigos naturais em azevém, com rede de varredura

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Specht Alexandre

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Os noctuídeos constituem as principais pragas fitófagas de gramíneas e decisões sobre seu controle baseiam-se em porcentuais de desfolhamento, desconsiderando o grau de incidência da praga. Este estudo objetivou testar a rede de varredura na avaliação das populações de Noctuidae e principais grupos de inimigos naturais, em azevém (Lolium multiflorum Lam., nos turnos da manhã e da noite. O trabalho foi conduzido em duas lavouras, em Salvador do Sul, RS. Realizou-se um experimento com coletas semanais e outro, complementar, com coletas em cada fase de desenvolvimento do azevém, mantendo criação laboratorial. No primeiro, foram coletadas 2.044 lagartas, das quais somente 151 foram coletadas no período matinal; à noite foram detectadas diferenças estatísticas entre datas de coleta e tamanho das lagartas. Também foram capturadas 387 aranhas, 577 microimenópteros e 983 outros insetos de interesse no controle biológico; houve significância estatística entre turnos e datas em relação a Carabidae, Forficulidae, Tachinidae, Nabidae, Vespidae, microimenópteros e Araneae. Do segundo experimento, obtiveram-se 11 espécies, das quais Pseudaletia sequax Franc., 1951, foi a predominante. O emprego da rede de varredura permite avaliar as populações de Noctuidae e principais grupos de inimigos naturais, em azevém, no turno da noite.

  13. Análise do efeito de implementação de armazenamento térmico em banco de gelo e armazenamento elétrico em baterias Sódio-Enxofre (NaS) sobre o custo de exploração de edifícios de serviços

    OpenAIRE

    Amado, Kélton Simão Quaresma Lima

    2015-01-01

    Portugal praticamente não possui recursos energéticos fósseis endógenos, nomeadamente aqueles que asseguram as necessidades energéticas da maioria dos países desenvolvidos – o petróleo, o carvão e o gásnatural. Esta escassez de recursos fósseis conduz a uma elevada dependência energética externa [1]. No entanto, a crescente utilização das energias renováveis como aenergia solar, eólica e geotérmica a nível nacional contribuem para a diminuição da dependência ...

  14. Reference Gene Selection in the Desert Plant <em>Eremosparton songoricuem>m>

    OpenAIRE

    Dao-Yuan Zhang; Yuan-Ming Zhang; Wood, Andrew J.; Xiao-Shuang Li; Hong-Lan Yang

    2012-01-01

    <em>Eremosparton songoricum em>(Litv.) Vass. (<em>E. songoricumem>) is a rare and extremely drought-tolerant desert plant that holds promise as a model organism for the identification of genes associated with water deficit stress. Here, we cloned and evaluated the expression of eight candidate reference genes using quantitative real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reactions. The expression of these candidate reference genes was analyzed in a diverse set...

  15. La organización del municipio salvadoreño entre 1840 y 1869. Una aproximación a la construcción del estado desde el ámbito local

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clara Pérez Fabregat

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo plantea un acercamiento al proceso de construcción estatal de El Salvador desde la perspectiva de las Municipalidades, a mediados del siglo xix. Se parte de la base de que el ente municipal colaboró, en la medida de sus posibilidades, con importantes recursos financieros y humanos en la constitución del estado liberal decimonónico. Sobre este supuesto se hace una introducción a las relaciones fiscales entre el estado salvadoreño y sus municipios. La delegación de funciones en los municipios fue una estrategia de los grupos dominantes que controlaban el gobierno ejecutivo para implementar un proyecto político que lograra un estado centralizado desde un punto de vista político y económico.

  16. Démocratie participative et attractivité des villes en Amérique latine. Étude comparée de Rosario (Argentine) et Villa El Salvador (Pérou)

    OpenAIRE

    Diana Burgos-Vigna

    2010-01-01

    The article compares the urban development policies in two Latin-American cities, Rosario in Argentina and Villa El Salvador in Peru. Both of these policies are characterized by the implementation of participative local governance. An analysis is made of the impact that the processes of participative democracy have on the regional attractiveness of these two cities, both from a national and an international point of view.

  17. EM International. Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-07-01

    It is the intent of EM International to describe the Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management`s (EM`s) various roles and responsibilities within the international community. Cooperative agreements and programs, descriptions of projects and technologies, and synopses of visits to international sites are all highlighted in this semiannual journal. Focus on EM programs in this issue is on international collaboration in vitrification projects. Technology highlights covers: in situ sealing for contaminated sites; and remote sensors for toxic pollutants. Section on profiles of countries includes: Arctic contamination by the former Soviet Union, and EM activities with Germany--cooperative arrangements.

  18. International EMS Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langhelle, Audun; Lossius, Hans Morten; Silfvast, Tom;

    2004-01-01

    . Access to on-line medical advice of a physician is not available; (2) Finland: the autonomy of the individual municipalities and their responsibility to cover for primary and specialised health care, as well as the EMS, and the lack of supporting or demanding legislation regarding the EMS; (3) Iceland is...... the only country that has emergency medicine (EM) as a recognised speciality but there is a need for more fully trained specialists in EM; (4) Norway: the ordinary ground ambulance is pointed out as the weakest link in the EM chain and a health reform demands extensive co-operation between the new...... health enterprises to re-establish a nation-wide air ambulance service; (5) Sweden: to create evidence based medicine standards for treatment in emergency medicine, a better integration of all part of the chain of survival, a formalised education in EM and a nation wide physician staffed helicopter EMS...

  19. Índices de aptidão funcional em jogadores de futebol da Seleção Nacional da Jamaica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Roberto Santos Silva

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available O principal objetivo deste estudo foi mostrar alguns índices de aptidão funcional em 24 jogadores de futebol da Seleção Nacional da Jamaica, com média de idade de 23,9 ± 3,7 anos, equipe pré-classificada para a Copa do Mundo da França. Todos os atletas foram submetidos a uma bateria de testes que constou de: 1 avaliação da potência, resistência muscular e o índice de fadiga no teste de Wingate, realizado numa bicicleta computadorizada da marca Cybex, modelo Bike; 2 teste isocinético computadorizado de membros inferiores no equipamento da marca Cybex, modelo 1200; 3 avaliação da flexibilidade pelo teste de Wells e Dillon; 4 exames laboratoriais; e 5 avaliação odontológica, realizada através de exames clínicos num consultório da marca Funk modelo MLX Plus. Os seguintes parâmetros e os resultados encontrados foram: Wingate: potência pico corrigida pelo peso = 11,8 ± 1,8w.kg-1; potência média = 9,1 ± 1,2w.kg-1; índice de fadiga = 46,2 ± 15,2%; Flexibilidade = 19,8 ± 4,6cm; Exames laboratoriais: urina tipo I; fezes; hemoglobina = 14,3 ± 1,0g%; ferro = 104 ± 29ng/dl; ferritina = 81,8 ± 41,7ng/dl; transferrina = 502,5 ± 113,5ug/dl; hematócrito = 43,5 ± 2,9%; eritrócitos = 4,95 ± 0,40 milhões/m³; glicose = 91,0 ± 8,5mg/dl; Avaliação odontológica: tártaro em 5 (21%; cáries em 24 (100%; gengivites em 10 (42%; endodontia em 3 (12,5%; pulpites em 1 (4%; diastema em 2 (8%; heterotópicos em 13 (54%; extrações realizadas em 14 (58%; extrações não realizadas em 4 (17%; obturações em 4 (17%; próteses em 16 (67%; a profilaxia estava sendo feita em 17 (71% dos atletas examinados; Desempenho isocinético: torque de MMII direito a 60°S-1 na extensão = 290,4 ± 95,6Nm; na flexão = 216,1 ± 31,4Nm; torque de MMII esquerdo a 60°S-1 na extensão = 291,6 ± 62,5Nm; na flexão = 205,8 ± 35,8Nm. CONCLUSÃO: Apesar da falta de estrutura tecnológica do futebol jamaicano, os resultados demonstraram que os

  20. (Descontrole de parâmetros clínicos e antropométricos em indivíduos com doença arterial coronária

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glicia Gleide Gonçalves Gama

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Estudo de corte transversal que avaliou parâmetros clínicos e antropométricos em 100 indivíduos com doença arterial coronária, atendidos em um ambulatório de cardiologia preventiva em um hospital público, em Salvador/BA. Na coleta de dados empregou-se entrevista, avaliação clínica e laboratorial. Os resultados foram analisados em médias e percentuais. Predominou homens, faixa etária 200 mg/dl, 36% sobrepeso, 28% obesidade, 65% algum estágio de hipertensão arterial, 65% HDL-C baixo e 43% estava com colesterol total alto. Em indivíduos de alto risco cardiovascular e condições socioeconômicas deficitárias constatou-se o descontrole de vários fatores de risco cardiovascular, demandando práticas de cuidar efetivas para o controle da doença.

  1. Restauración de la torre mudéjar del salvador de Teruel. Aragón, España

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pérez Sánchez, Antonio

    1993-12-01

    Full Text Available The Torre del Salvador together with the rest of the Mudejar architecture of Teruel was included in the World Heritage List in Í986. Its restoration, promoted by the Aragón Government, has kept in mind its value as architectural element, a key piece of the Mudejar style of Aragón and Spain and as a symbolic part of the city. Paying attention to these meanings, the intervention tries to extend its survival and return it its splendor. There are no spatial transformations but merely an encounter with the traditional materials, a study and a contemporary interpretation of them and of the techniques through which they were applied. It was necessary to pay special attention to the plaster since it was the only composite used, as well as to another fundamental part of the Mudejar style of Teruel, the glazed ceramics of the facades, partly lost or deteriorated. The article tries to transmit the methodology of the project and the work which, together with the close familiarity with the building itself have been essential in the documentary and complementary studies.

    La Torre del Salvador, junto con el resto de arquitectura mudéjar de Teruel, fue incluida en la Lista del Patrimonio Mundial en 1986. Su restauración, promovida por el Gobierno de Aragón, ha tenido en cuenta su valor como elemento arquitectónico, pieza clave del mudéjar aragonés y español y como parte simbólica de la ciudad. Atendiendo estos significados la intervención trata de prolongar su supervivencia y devolverle su esplendor. No hay transformaciones espaciales, tan sólo un encuentro con los materiales tradicionales, su estudio, y una interpretación actual de los mismos y de las técnicas con las que fueron aplicados. Ha sido necesario prestar especial atención al yeso por ser el único aglomerante con que se construyó y a la cerámica vidriada de fachadas, inseparable del mudéjar turolense, en parte perdida o deteriorada. El artículo intenta transmitir la

  2. Geomorphological method in the elaboration of hazard maps for flash-floods in the municipality of Jucuarán (El Salvador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Fernández-Lavado

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available This work deals with the elaboration of flood hazard maps. These maps reflect the areas prone to floods based on the effects of Hurricane Mitch in the Municipality of Jucuarán of El Salvador. Stream channels located in the coastal range in the SE of El Salvador flow into the Pacific Ocean and generate alluvial fans. Communities often inhabit these fans can be affected by floods. The geomorphology of these stream basins is associated with small areas, steep slopes, well developed regolite and extensive deforestation. These features play a key role in the generation of flash-floods. This zone lacks comprehensive rainfall data and gauging stations. The most detailed topographic maps are on a scale of 1:25 000. Given that the scale was not sufficiently detailed, we used aerial photographs enlarged to the scale of 1:8000. The effects of Hurricane Mitch mapped on these photographs were regarded as the reference event. Flood maps have a dual purpose (1 community emergency plans, (2 regional land use planning carried out by local authorities. The geomorphological method is based on mapping the geomorphological evidence (alluvial fans, preferential stream channels, erosion and sedimentation, man-made terraces. Following the interpretation of the photographs this information was validated on the field and complemented by eyewitness reports such as the height of water and flow typology. In addition, community workshops were organized to obtain information about the evolution and the impact of the phenomena. The superimposition of this information enables us to obtain a comprehensive geomorphological map. Another aim of the study was the calculation of the peak discharge using the Manning and the paleohydraulic methods and estimates based on geomorphologic criterion. The results were compared with those obtained using the rational method. Significant differences in the order of magnitude of the calculated discharges were noted. The rational method

  3. Evolution of magmatism from the uppermost cretaceous to Oligocene, and its relationship to changing tectonic regime, in the Inca de Oro-El Salvador area (Northern Chile)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present geochronological and petrological data for extrusive and intrusive rocks in the Inca de Oro and El Salvador sheets (in prep.), and the Potrerillos (Tomlinson et al., 1999) and Salar de Maricunga sheets (Cornejo et al., 1998), III Region, Chile (26o-27o S). Most of these data were collected as part of the SERNAGEOMIN regional mapping programme. Additionally, we include published data for El Salvador and Potrerillos districts (Cornejo et al., 1997; Marsh et al., 1997; Gustafson et al., 2001). The dataset includes K/Ar, Ar/Ar and U-Pb mineral ages, which have been carefully selected for quality. The area is underlain by Carboniferous-Permian granitic basement rocks, which are covered by Triassic to Early Upper Cretaceous volcanic and sedimentary successions, including both marine and continental sequences (Cornejo et al., 1993). The period studied in this paper includes extrusive and intrusive rocks of Maastrichtian to Oligocene age, which are of particular interest since they record the 'preparation' of the lithosphere prior to, during, and after the mid-Eocene Incaic deformation and associated porphyry copper event. Shortening in the early-upper Cretaceous (95-85Ma; e.g. Mpodozis and Ramos, 1989; Arevalo and Grocott, 2000) deformed large areas of northen Chile, and marked the transition from the dominance of intra-arc extension to that of shortening punctuated by periods of extension. We recognise seven tectono-magmatic periods from the uppermost Cretaceous to Oligocene, comprising a volcanic sedimentary event contemporaneous with an extensional tectonic regime in the Upper Cretaceous, associated with graben formation, followed by an important compressive event at the beginning of the Tertiary. The middle Paleocene was again dominated by voluminous volcanic activity (collapse calderas) in an extensional regime. During the lowest Eocene the magmatic activity in the area shows a gradual transition from pyroxene-bearing to amphibole-bearing lithologies

  4. Cognitive impairment in a Brazilian sample of patients with bipolar disorder Prejuízo cognitivo em uma amostra brasileira de pacientes com transtorno do humor bipolar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Júlia J Schneider

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Persistent neurocognitive deficits have been described in bipolar mood disorder. As far as we are aware, no study have examined whether the cognitive impairment is presented in the same way in a Brazilian sample. METHOD: Cognitive function of 66 patients with bipolar disorder (32 with depressive symptoms and 34 euthymic and 28 healthy subjects was examined using a complete cognitive battery. RESULTS: Patients with bipolar disorder presented a significantly poorer performance in eight of the 12 subtests when compared to healthy subjects. There was no significant difference between the subgroups of patients. These patients showed impairment in both verbal and non-verbal cognitive function. CONCLUSION: Cognitive impairment was found in both groups of patients with bipolar disorder. The findings described here suggest an overall impairment of cognitive function, independent of mood symptoms. This is in line with data showing that cognitive deficits may be a persistent characteristic of bipolar disorder.OBJETIVO: Déficits neurocognitivos persistentes têm sido descritos no transtorno do humor bipolar; entretanto, não há estudos em amostras brasileiras para avaliar se o prejuízo se apresenta da mesma forma. MÉTODO: Foi realizada uma avaliação cognitiva em 66 pacientes bipolares (32 com sintomas depressivos e 34 eutímicos e 28 controles, utilizando-se uma bateria cognitiva completa. RESULTADOS: Em oito dos 12 subtestes avaliados os pacientes apresentaram desempenho significativamente inferior em relação aos controles. Não houve diferença significativa entre os grupos de pacientes. Foram encontrados prejuízos cognitivos tanto na área verbal como na área não verbal da cognição. CONCLUSÃO: Foi observada uma performance inferior em ambos os grupos de pacientes com transtorno bipolar. As dificuldades cognitivas encontradas apontam para um prejuízo global no funcionamento cognitivo, independente da presença de sintomas

  5. Concepções de normalidade e saúde mental entre infratores presos de uma unidade prisional da cidade do Salvador Conceptions of normality and mental health among prisoners in a correctional institution in the city of Salvador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Thereza Ávila Dantas Coelho

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Apesar de recentemente no Brasil alguns estudos terem se dedicado à investigação dos conceitos de normalidade e saúde mental, inexistem ainda pesquisas que tratem desta questão entre infratores presos. Este trabalho pretendeu, justamente, investigar tal tema nessa parcela da população. Para tanto, utilizou o referencial metodológico de coleta e análise de dados da teoria dos sistemas de signos, significados e práticas. Verificamos que, na perspectiva dos entrevistados, a normalidade e a saúde mental estão associadas aos comportamentos apontados pela literatura científica como normais e saudáveis, o inverso ocorrendo em relação aos conceitos de anormalidade e doença mental. Um aspecto relevante deste estudo é a forma pela qual a violência criminal foi abordada pelos detentos. Ao mesmo tempo em que eles consideraram tal tipo de violência como característico de uma anormalidade ou doença, não se consideraram nem anormais nem violentos por terem cometido um delito. Esse aspecto parece apontar para a existência de duas diferentes visões: uma que reproduz o primeiro tipo de associação, e outra que admite a co-existência de um momento de violência criminal com o estado de normalidade e saúde mental.Although in Brazil some recent studies analyzed the concepts of normality and mental health, there are still no investigations dealing with this question among prisoners. Thus, this work aims specifically at investigating this subject in this segment of the population. The methodology used in this study was collection of data and practical analysis according to the theory of systems of signs, meanings and practices. We verified that the interviewees associated normality and mental health with the behaviors considered normal and sane in the scientific literature. The inverse occurred in relation to the concepts of abnormality and insanity. A relevant aspect of this study was the prisoner's approach to criminal violence. At the

  6. « Être-noir » (Blackness) : une pratique collective à Salvador de Bahia. Faire de la sociologie urbaine après le « cultural turn » “Blackness” as a Collective Practice in Salvador de Bahia - Urban Sociology after the Cultural Turn

    OpenAIRE

    Martina Löw

    2012-01-01

    Chacune des villes du Brésil portent en elles des contributions singulières à la production d’une identité nationale, bien qu’elles n’échappent pas aux influences homogénéisantes de la globalisation. Cette co-construction d’une identité partagée n’empêche toutefois pas que se structurent distinctement les actes et les sensations des habitants des métropoles concernées, générant des pratiques collectives – mais spécifiques – d’interprétation de la réalité. À Salvador de Bahia, l’« être-noir » ...

  7. Trap-nests used by Centris (Heterocentris) terminata Smith (Hymenoptera: Apidae, Centridini) at secondary Atlantic Forest fragments, in Salvador, Bahia State

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ninety-five nests of Centris (Heterocentris) terminata Smith were collected in trap nests, during November/2001 and January/2003, at two fragments (PZGV e CFO-UFBA) of secondary Atlantic Forest, in Salvador, Bahia State (13 deg 01' W and 38 deg 30' S). The highest nest frequencies occurred from December to February (summer), with no nests foundations from August to October (winter - early spring). Two-hundred eight adults emerged from 347 brood cells, being 164 males and 116 females (1: 0.42). During the study period sex ratio was male biased (χ2 = 9.342; gl = 10; P < 0.05). C. terminata nested in holes with diameters 6, 8, 10 mm, but 84,2% were constructed in 8 and 10 mm. nests had one to seven cells arranged in a linear series with the cell's partitions built with a mixture of sand and resin or oil. Male is significantly smaller than female, which emerges from the first cells constructed. Immature mortality occurred in 14.1% of brood cells (n 49), of which 13.0% were due fail in development and 1.2% due to parasitism of Coelioxys sp. (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae) e Tetraonyx sp. (Coleoptera: Meloidae). In the study site, weather, mainly pluviosity, rather than natural enemies influenced seasonal population abundance. The long period of nesting activity, local abundance and usage of trap nests, suggest the potential of C. terminata for management aiming at pollination of native and cultivated plants. (author)

  8. Validation and utilization of PCR for differential diagnosis and prevalence determination of Entamoeba histolytica/Entamoeba dispar in Salvador City, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fred Luciano Neves Santos

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Amoebiasis is an infection caused by Entamoeba histolytica and is a potential health risk in countries in which health barriers are inappropriate. Since the discovery of Entamoeba dispar, the prevalence of amoebiasis has been modified. OBJECTIVE: This study has standardized the PCR technique applied for the diagnosis of different species of the E. histolytica/E. dispar complex and has evaluated the prevalence of infection among patients attending private and public clinical laboratories in Salvador City, Bahia State, Brazil. RESULTS: Analysis of 52,704 stool samples by microscopic examination demonstrated that 1,788 (3.4% were positive for the E. histolytica/E. dispar complex and infection occurred more often in samples originated from public clinical laboratories (5.0% than those that came from private laboratories (3.2%. PCR performed in approximately 15% (262 E. histolytica/E. dispar complex positive samples, randomly chosen, amplified 227 samples (86.6%, all of them positive for E. dispar. The non-amplified 35 samples (13.4% were also negative for E. histolytica-specific galactose adhesin. Moreover, to exclude a probable infection caused by E. hartmanni, morphometric analysis demonstrated that non-amplified samples had cyst sizes comparable to E. histolytica/E. dispar (>10 µm. CONCLUSION: The absence of amplification of these samples indicates the presence of PCR inhibitors in the stool samples or the presence of DNA from Entamoeba species other than E. dispar, E. histolytica or E. hartmanni.

  9. The unrest of the San Miguel volcano (El Salvador, Central America): installation of the monitoring network and observed volcano-tectonic ground deformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonforte, Alessandro; Hernandez, Douglas Antonio; Gutiérrez, Eduardo; Handal, Louis; Polío, Cecilia; Rapisarda, Salvatore; Scarlato, Piergiorgio

    2016-08-01

    On 29 December 2013, the Chaparrastique volcano in El Salvador, close to the town of San Miguel, erupted suddenly with explosive force, forming a column more than 9 km high and projecting ballistic projectiles as far as 3 km away. Pyroclastic density currents flowed to the north-northwest side of the volcano, while tephras were dispersed northwest and north-northeast. This sudden eruption prompted the local Ministry of Environment to request cooperation with Italian scientists in order to improve the monitoring of the volcano during this unrest. A joint force, made up of an Italian team from the Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia and a local team from the Ministerio de Medio Ambiente y Recursos Naturales, was organized to enhance the volcanological, geophysical and geochemical monitoring system to study the evolution of the phenomenon during the crisis. The joint team quickly installed a multiparametric mobile network comprising seismic, geodetic and geochemical sensors (designed to cover all the volcano flanks from the lowest to the highest possible altitudes) and a thermal camera. To simplify the logistics for a rapid installation and for security reasons, some sensors were colocated into multiparametric stations. Here, we describe the prompt design and installation of the geodetic monitoring network, the processing and results. The installation of a new ground deformation network can be considered an important result by itself, while the detection of some crucial deforming areas is very significant information, useful for dealing with future threats and for further studies on this poorly monitored volcano.

  10. A conserved serine residue regulates the stability of Drosophila Salvador and human WW domain-containing adaptor 45 through proteasomal degradation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Di, E-mail: DiWu@mail.nankai.edu.cn; Wu, Shian

    2013-04-19

    Highlights: •Ser-17 is key for the stability of Drosophila Sav. •Ala mutation of Ser-17 promotes the proteasomal degradation of Sav. •Ser-17 residue is not the main target of Hpo-induced Sav stabilization. •Hpo-dependent and -independent mechanisms regulate Sav stability. •This mechanism is conserved in the homologue of Sav, human WW45. -- Abstract: The Hippo (Hpo) pathway is a conserved tumor suppressor pathway that controls organ size through the coordinated regulation of apoptosis and proliferation. Drosophila Salvador (Sav), which limits organ size, is a core component of the Hpo pathway. In this study, Ser-17 was shown to be important for the stability of Sav. Alanine mutation of Ser-17 promoted the proteasomal degradation of Sav. Destabilization and stabilization of the Sav protein mediated by alanine mutation of Ser-17 and by Hpo, respectively, were independent of each other. This implies that the stability of Sav is controlled by two mechanisms, one that is Ser-17-dependent and Hpo-independent, and another that is Ser-17-independent and Hpo-dependent. These dual mechanisms also regulated the human counterpart of Drosophila Sav, WW domain-containing adaptor 45 (WW45). The conservation of this regulation adds to its significance in normal physiology and tumorigenesis.

  11. Epidemiological aspects of influenza A related to climatic conditions during and after a pandemic period in the city of Salvador, northeastern Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Rosangela de Castro; Siqueira, Marilda Agudo Mendonça; Netto, Eduardo Martins; Bastos, Jacione Silva; Nascimento-Carvalho, Cristiana Maria; Vilas-Boas, Ana Luisa; Bouzas, Maiara Lana; Motta, Fernando do Couto; Brites, Carlos

    2014-01-01

    During the influenza pandemic of 2009, the A(H1N1)pdm09, A/H3N2 seasonal and influenza B viruses were observed to be co-circulating with other respiratory viruses. To observe the epidemiological pattern of the influenza virus between May 2009-August 2011, 467 nasopharyngeal aspirates were collected from children less than five years of age in the city of Salvador. In addition, data on weather conditions were obtained. Indirect immunofluorescence, real-time transcription reverse polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), and sequencing assays were performed for influenza virus detection. Of all 467 samples, 34 (7%) specimens were positive for influenza A and of these, viral characterisation identified Flu A/H3N2 in 25/34 (74%) and A(H1N1)pdm09 in 9/34 (26%). Influenza B accounted for a small proportion (0.8%) and the other respiratory viruses for 27.2% (127/467). No deaths were registered and no pattern of seasonality or expected climatic conditions could be established. These observations are important for predicting the evolution of epidemics and in implementing future anti-pandemic measures. PMID:24714967

  12. Epidemiological aspects of influenza A related to climatic conditions during and after a pandemic period in the city of Salvador, northeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosangela de Castro Silva

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available During the influenza pandemic of 2009, the A(H1N1pdm09, A/H3N2 seasonal and influenza B viruses were observed to be co-circulating with other respiratory viruses. To observe the epidemiological pattern of the influenza virus between May 2009-August 2011, 467 nasopharyngeal aspirates were collected from children less than five years of age in the city of Salvador. In addition, data on weather conditions were obtained. Indirect immunofluorescence, real-time transcription reverse polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR, and sequencing assays were performed for influenza virus detection. Of all 467 samples, 34 (7% specimens were positive for influenza A and of these, viral characterisation identified Flu A/H3N2 in 25/34 (74% and A(H1N1pdm09 in 9/34 (26%. Influenza B accounted for a small proportion (0.8% and the other respiratory viruses for 27.2% (127/467. No deaths were registered and no pattern of seasonality or expected climatic conditions could be established. These observations are important for predicting the evolution of epidemics and in implementing future anti-pandemic measures.

  13. El nuevo espacio rural en El Salvador. Análisis de un programa educativo de participación comunitaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Marta Ramo Garzarán

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available El actual concepto de Derecho a la Educación como Educación para Todos, está vinculado al desarrollo social, económico, político y cultural de los países en desarrollo y especialmente al de sus contextos rurales. Desde este enfoque, este estudio analiza la efectividad de algunas políticas educativas llevadas a cabo en las dos últimas décadas en el Salvador, EDUCO. Estas decisiones políticas en materia educativa han tenido como objetivo la protección, promoción y realización progresiva del citado derecho en el ámbito rural y en el nuevo concepto de ruralidad. También el concepto de ruralidad no se puede aislar del sentido del espacio Rural Latinoamericano, que, aunque sigue dando sentido a un estilo de vida y constituye un patrimonio territorial imprescindible, se caracteriza por la marginalidad, el olvido de la cultura rural y la falta de oportunidades.

  14. Cell Signaling and Differential Protein Expression in Neuronal Differentiation of Bone Marrow Mesenchymal Stem Cells with Hypermethylated Salvador/Warts/Hippo (SWH Pathway Genes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui-Hung Tzeng

    Full Text Available Human mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs modified by targeting DNA hypermethylation of genes in the Salvador/Warts/Hippo pathway were induced to differentiate into neuronal cells in vitro. The differentiated cells secreted a significant level of brain-derived neurotrophy factor (BDNF and the expression of BDNF receptor tyrosine receptor kinase B (TrkB correlated well with the secretion of BDNF. In the differentiating cells, CREB was active after the binding of growth factors to induce phosphorylation of ERK in the MAPK/ERK pathway. Downstream of phosphorylated CREB led to the functional maturation of differentiated cells and secretion of BDNF, which contributed to the sustained expression of pERK and pCREB. In summary, both PI3K/Akt and MAPK/ERK signaling pathways play important roles in the neuronal differentiation of MSCs. The main function of the PI3K/Akt pathway is to maintain cell survival during neural differentiation; whereas the role of the MAPK/ERK pathway is probably to promote the maturation of differentiated MSCs. Further, cellular levels of protein kinase C epsilon type (PKC-ε and kinesin heavy chain (KIF5B increased with time of induction, whereas the level of NME/NM23 nucleoside diphosphate kinase 1 (Nm23-H1 decreased during the time course of differentiation. The correlation between PKC-ε and TrkB suggested that there is cross-talk between PKC-ε and the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway.

  15. Mental health and primary care: an experience with community health agents in Salvador-BA - doi:10.5020/18061230.2009.p264

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allann Carneiro Cunha

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available means of matrix support. Method: A survey conducted from March to December 2007, in Pernambués neighborhood, District of Cabula-beiru, in Salvador - Bahia. The shared knowledge construction was carried out by residents of the Multidisciplinary Residency Program in Health from the Nucleus of Mental Health, State University of Bahia, with Community Health Agents (ACS. Meetings, discussions and domiciliary visits were applyed as sharing technics and tools with phonographic recording, photographic register and report. The obtained information were evaluated regarding their content and were divided into stages and categories. Results: We determined the following stages by means of the technique: approach, ties’ strengthening, teamwork and conclusion. The results were analyzed based on the ACS’ everyday interactivity for cooperation, thus obtaining the development of a critical spirit in the assesment of the relationship between primary care and mental health. Final Considerations: The exchange of experiences produced significant learning, besides health promotion for all those involved in the process: ACS, families cared for and residents.

  16. Assessing risk behaviors and prevalence of sexually transmitted and blood-borne infections among female crack cocaine users in salvador - Bahia, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ceuci L.X. Nunes

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Crack cocaine use is associated with risky sexual behaviors and sexually transmitted infections (STIs, including HIV. We investigated sociodemographic and behavioral characteristics and infection rates in female crack cocaine users from impoverished communities of Salvador, Bahia, Brazil. A sample of 125 female crack cocaine users was recruited. Overall, the interviewees had low educational level and high rate of unemployment (close to 90%. One-third (37% reported having traded sex for money or drugs, and 58% reported that they had not used condoms during intercourse in the last 30 days. The prevalence of infections was low: HIV-1.6%; HCV-2.4%; HBV- 0.8%; HTLV I/II-4.0%; and syphilis-4.0%. The combination of dire poverty and high prevalence of risk behaviors turn such populations a preferential target of initiatives aiming to reduce drug-related harm and promote social development. Low infection rates should not be viewed with complacency, but as a window of opportunity to implement prevention initiatives and reduce social marginalization.

  17. Factors associated with HIV infection among a respondent-driven sample of men who have sex with men in Salvador, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brignol, Sandra; Kerr, Ligia; Amorim, Leila Denise; Dourado, Inês

    2016-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) continues to disproportionately affect men who have sex with men (MSM); therefore, we investigated the sociodemographic, biological, and sexual behavioral risk factors associated with HIV infection in the city of Salvador, Bahia. This study is part of the national survey Behavior, Attitudes, Practices and Prevalence of HIV and Syphilis among men who have sex with men in 10 Brazilian Cities, which is a cross-sectional survey whose participants were selected by means of the respondent-driven sampling. Exact logistic regression analysis was used to measure the association of potential risk factors with HIV infection due to an HIV prevalence lower than 10% and a small sample size (383). The prevalence of HIV was 6.3% (95%CI 3.9-8.8) and the risk factors associated with HIV infection in our adjusted final model included having never been tested for syphilis (OR = 3.1; 95%CI 1.3 - 7.3) and having more than eight sexual partners (OR = 3.3; 95%CI 1.4 - 8.1). This study highlights the high prevalence of HIV among MSM in the sample compared with the general population and confirms the importance of testing for syphilis in the context of the HIV epidemic as early detection may provide opportunities to prevent sexually transmitted diseases. PMID:27532750

  18. International EMS Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langhelle, Audun; Lossius, Hans Morten; Silfvast, Tom;

    2004-01-01

    Emergency medicine service (EMS) systems in the five Nordic countries have more similarities than differences. One similarity is the involvement of anaesthesiologists as pre-hospital physicians and their strong participation for all critically ill and injured patients in-hospital. Discrepancies do....... Access to on-line medical advice of a physician is not available; (2) Finland: the autonomy of the individual municipalities and their responsibility to cover for primary and specialised health care, as well as the EMS, and the lack of supporting or demanding legislation regarding the EMS; (3) Iceland...... is the only country that has emergency medicine (EM) as a recognised speciality but there is a need for more fully trained specialists in EM; (4) Norway: the ordinary ground ambulance is pointed out as the weakest link in the EM chain and a health reform demands extensive co-operation between the new health...

  19. Isolation and Characterization of a Lycopene ε-Cyclase Gene of <em>Chlorella em>(Chromochloris> <em>zofingiensis>. Regulation of the Carotenogenic Pathway by Nitrogen and Light

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Angeles Vargas

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The isolation and characterization of the lycopene ε-cyclase gene from the green microalga <em>Chlorella em>(Chromochloris> <em>zofingiensis> (<em>Czlcy-e> was performed. This gene is involved in the formation of the carotenoids α-carotene and lutein. <em>Czlcy-e> gene encoded a polypeptide of 654 amino acids. A single copy of <em>Czlcy-e> was found in <em>C. zofingiensisem>. Functional analysis by heterologous complementation in <em>Escherichia coliem> showed the ability of this protein to convert lycopene to δ-carotene. In addition, the regulation of the carotenogenic pathway by light and nitrogen was also studied in <em>C. zofingiensisem>. High irradiance stress did not increase mRNA levels of neither lycopene β<em>->cyclase gene (<em>lcy-b> nor lycopene ε-cyclase gene<em> em>(lcy-e> as compared with low irradiance conditions, whereas the transcript levels of <em>psy>, <em>pds>, <em>chyB> and <em>bkt> genes were enhanced, nevertheless triggering the synthesis of the secondary carotenoids astaxanthin, canthaxanthin and zeaxanthin and decreasing the levels of the primary carotenoids α-carotene, lutein, violaxanthin and β-carotene. Nitrogen starvation <em>per seem> enhanced mRNA levels of all genes considered, except <em>lcy-e and pdsem>, but did not trigger the synthesis of astaxanthin, canthaxanthin nor zeaxanthin. The combined effect of both high light and nitrogen starvation stresses enhanced significantly the accumulation of these carotenoids as well as the transcript levels of <em>bkt> gene, as compared with the effect of only high irradiance stress.

  20. Emergency Medical Service (EMS) Stations

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — EMS Locations in Kansas The EMS stations dataset consists of any location where emergency medical services (EMS) personnel are stationed or based out of, or where...