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Sample records for batch rsa decryption

  1. A Proposed Algorithm to improve security & Efficiency of SSL-TLS servers using Batch RSA decryption

    CERN Document Server

    Pateriya, R K; Shrivastava, S C; Patel, Jaideep

    2009-01-01

    Today, Internet becomes the essential part of our lives. Over 90 percent of the ecommerce is developed on the Internet. A security algorithm became very necessary for producer client transactions assurance and the financial applications safety. The rsa algorithm applicability derives from algorithm properties like confidentiality, safe authentication, data safety and integrity on the internet. Thus, this kind of networks can have a more easy utilization by practical accessing from short, medium, even long distance and from different public places. Rsa encryption in the client side is relatively cheap, whereas, the corresponding decryption in the server side is expensive because its private exponent is much larger. Thus ssl tls servers become swamped to perform public key decryption operations when the simultaneous requests increase quickly .The batch rsa method is useful for such highly loaded web server .In our proposed algorithm by reducing the response time and clients tolerable waiting time an improvement...

  2. VLSI design of an RSA encryption/decryption chip using systolic array based architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Chi-Chia; Lin, Bor-Shing; Jan, Gene Eu; Lin, Jheng-Yi

    2016-09-01

    This article presents the VLSI design of a configurable RSA public key cryptosystem supporting the 512-bit, 1024-bit and 2048-bit based on Montgomery algorithm achieving comparable clock cycles of current relevant works but with smaller die size. We use binary method for the modular exponentiation and adopt Montgomery algorithm for the modular multiplication to simplify computational complexity, which, together with the systolic array concept for electric circuit designs effectively, lower the die size. The main architecture of the chip consists of four functional blocks, namely input/output modules, registers module, arithmetic module and control module. We applied the concept of systolic array to design the RSA encryption/decryption chip by using VHDL hardware language and verified using the TSMC/CIC 0.35 m 1P4 M technology. The die area of the 2048-bit RSA chip without the DFT is 3.9 × 3.9 mm2 (4.58 × 4.58 mm2 with DFT). Its average baud rate can reach 10.84 kbps under a 100 MHz clock.

  3. Secure Batch Verification Protocol for RSA Signature Scheme

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIAZongpu; LIQingchao; LIZichen

    2005-01-01

    Harn, in 1998, proposed an efficient batch verification scheme for multiple RSA digital signatures.However, the scheme has a weakness, that is a signer can generate multiple signatures which can pass the batch verification scheme, but every one of these multiple signatures is not a valid signature. To avoid this disadvantage, we propose an improved batch verification scheme.

  4. Batch Private Keys Generation for RSA in Security Communication Systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Yun; CHEN Xin

    2005-01-01

    RSA public key cryptosystem is extensively used in information security systems.However, key generation for RSA cryptosystem requires multiplicative inversion over finite field, which has higher computational complexity, compared with either multiplication in common sense or modular multiplication over finite field. In order to improve the performance of key generation, we propose a batch private keys generation method in this paper. The method derives efficiency from cutting down multiplicative inversions over finite field. Theoretical analysis shows that the speed of batch private keys generation for s users is faster than that of s times solo private key generation. It is suitable for applications in those systems with large amount of users.

  5. RSA and its Correctness through Modular Arithmetic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meelu, Punita; Malik, Sitender

    2010-11-01

    To ensure the security to the applications of business, the business sectors use Public Key Cryptographic Systems (PKCS). An RSA system generally belongs to the category of PKCS for both encryption and authentication. This paper describes an introduction to RSA through encryption and decryption schemes, mathematical background which includes theorems to combine modular equations and correctness of RSA. In short, this paper explains some of the maths concepts that RSA is based on, and then provides a complete proof that RSA works correctly. We can proof the correctness of RSA through combined process of encryption and decryption based on the Chinese Remainder Theorem (CRT) and Euler theorem. However, there is no mathematical proof that RSA is secure, everyone takes that on trust!.

  6. Data Security With Colors Using Rsa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Sankara Rao,

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Data Security with Colors using RSA technique that integrates the RGB Color model with the well-known public key cryptographic algorithm RSA (Rivest, Shamir and Adleman. This model provides both confidentiality and authentication to the data sent across the network. RSA algorithm uses public key and private key to encrypt and decrypt the data and thus provides confidentiality. But the public key is known to everyone and so anyone can encrypt the data and send the message. Hence authentication of users is needed. In this technique we use RGB color model to provide authentication. Every user will have a unique color assigned to him. A sender must know the receiver’s color to send a message. The color value is encrypted using a key which is used as a password while decrypting the message. To decrypt the message, the receiver must provide his color values. If the decrypted color values and his color values are equal then the sender and receiver are send to be authentic. The data encryption and decryption follows RSA procedure. Thus both authentication and confidentiality are provided for the data.

  7. On the Efficiency of Fast RSA Variants in Modern Mobile Phones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Klaus; Larsen, Troels; Olsen, Kim

    2009-01-01

    Modern mobile phones are increasingly being used for more services that require modern security mechanisms such as the public-key cryptosystem RSA. It is, however, well-known that public-key cryptography demands considerable computing resources and that RSA encryption is much faster than RSA...... decryption. It is consequently an interesting question if RSA as a whole can be executed efficiently on modern mobile phones....

  8. Broadcast encryption schemes based on RSA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MU Ning-bo; HU Yu-pu; OU Hai-wen

    2009-01-01

    Three broadcast schemes for small receiver set using the property of RSA modulus are presented. They can solve the problem of data redundancy when the size of receiver set is small. In the proposed schemes, the center uses one key to encrypt the message and can revoke authorization conveniently. Every authorized user only needs to store one decryption key of a constant size. Among these three schemes, the first one has indistinguishability against adaptive chosen ciphertext attack (IND-CCA2) secure, and any collusion of authorized users cannot produce a new decryption key but the sizes of encryption modulus and ciphertext are linear in the number of receivers. In the second scheme, the size of ciphertext is half of the first one and any two authorized users can produce a new decryption key, but the center can identify them using the traitor tracing algorithm. The third one is the most efficient but the center cannot identify the traitors exactly.

  9. Polarisation Encryption/Decryption Module

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2002-01-01

    A polarisation encryption/decryption module comprising at least two array based modulating devices, preferably spatial light modulators (SLMs), at least one array based intensity detector, and at least one source of electromagnetic radiation. A local region of information displayed on a first of ...... rapidly. May be used for real time encryption/decryption of motion pictures. Further, a method of polarisation encrypting and decrypting information. The encryption/decryption is performed optically while the communication is performed electronically....

  10. VLSI implementation of RSA encryption system using ancient Indian Vedic mathematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thapliyal, Himanshu; Srinivas, M. B.

    2005-06-01

    This paper proposes the hardware implementation of RSA encryption/decryption algorithm using the algorithms of Ancient Indian Vedic Mathematics that have been modified to improve performance. The recently proposed hierarchical overlay multiplier architecture is used in the RSA circuitry for multiplication operation. The most significant aspect of the paper is the development of a division architecture based on Straight Division algorithm of Ancient Indian Vedic Mathematics and embedding it in RSA encryption/decryption circuitry for improved efficiency. The coding is done in Verilog HDL and the FPGA synthesis is done using Xilinx Spartan library. The results show that RSA circuitry implemented using Vedic division and multiplication is efficient in terms of area/speed compared to its implementation using conventional multiplication and division architectures.

  11. VLSI Implementation of RSA Encryption System Using Ancient Indian Vedic Mathematics

    OpenAIRE

    2006-01-01

    This paper proposes the hardware implementation of RSA encryption/decryption algorithm using the algorithms of Ancient Indian Vedic Mathematics that have been modified to improve performance. The recently proposed hierarchical overlay multiplier architecture is used in the RSA circuitry for multiplication operation. The most significant aspect of the paper is the development of a division architecture based on Straight Division algorithm of Ancient Indian Vedic Mathematics and embedding it in...

  12. A New Factorization Method to Factorize RSA Public Key Encryption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhagvant Ram Ambedkar

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The security of public key encryption such as RSA scheme relied on the integer factoring problem. The security of RSA algorithm is based on positive integer N, because each transmitting node generates pair of keys such as public and private. Encryption and decryption of any message depends on N. Where, N is the product of two prime numbers and pair of key generation is dependent on these prime numbers. The factorization of N is very intricate. In this paper a New Factorization method is proposed to obtain the factor of positive integer N. The proposed work focuses on factorization of all trivial and nontrivial integer numbers and requires fewer steps for factorization process of RSA modulus N. The New Factorization method is based on Pollard rho factorization method. Experimental results shown that factorization speed is fast as compare existing methods.

  13. New Weak Keys in RSA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Baocang; LIU Shuanggen; HU Yupu

    2006-01-01

    The security of the RSA system with the prime pairs of some special form is investigated. A new special-purpose algorithm for factoring RSA numbers is proposed. The basic idea of the method is to factor RSA numbers by factoring a well-chosen quadratic polynomial with integral coefficients. When viewed as a general-purpose algorithm, the new algorithm has a high computational complexity. It is shown that the RSA number n=pq can be easily factored if p and q have the special form of p=as+b, q=cs+d, where a, b, c, d are relatively small numbers. Such prime pairs (p, q) are the weak keys of RSA, so when we generate RSA modulus, we should avoid using such prime pairs (p, q).

  14. Decryption of pure-position permutation algorithms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵晓宇; 陈刚; 张亶; 王肖虹; 董光昌

    2004-01-01

    Pure position permutation image encryption algorithms, commonly used as image encryption investigated in this work are unfortunately frail under known-text attack. In view of the weakness of pure position permutation algorithm,we put forward an effective decryption algorithm for all pure-position permutation algorithms. First, a summary of the pure position permutation image encryption algorithms is given by introducing the concept of ergodic matrices. Then, by using probability theory and algebraic principles, the decryption probability of pure-position permutation algorithms is verified theoretically; and then, by defining the operation system of fuzzy ergodic matrices, we improve a specific decryption al-gorithm. Finally, some simulation results are shown.

  15. SEB teams up with RSA

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2011-01-01

    Globaalne kindlustusgrupp RSA ja SEB Pank teatasid 19. aprillil, et alustavad koostööd varakindlustustoodete pakkumisel SEB klientidele Eestis, mis tähendab seda, et RSAst saab ainus varakindlustuse pakkuja pangas

  16. Mathematical Attacks on RSA Cryptosystem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imad K. Salah

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper some of the most common attacks against Rivest, Shamir, and Adleman (RSA cryptosystem are presented. We describe the integer factoring attacks, attacks on the underlying mathematical function, as well as attacks that exploit details in implementations of the algorithm. Algorithms for each type of attacks are developed and analyzed by their complexity, memory requirements and area of usage.

  17. EFFICIENT ASIC ARCHITECTURE OF RSA CRYPTOSYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Varun Nehru

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a unified architecture design of the RSA cryptosystem i.e. RSA cryptoaccelerator along with key-pair generation. A structural design methodology for the same is proposed and implemented. The purpose is to design a complete cryptosystem efficiently with reduced hardware redundancy. Individual modular architectures of RSA, Miller-Rabin Test and Extended Binary GCD algorithm are presented and then they are integrated. Standard algorithm for RSA has been used. The RSA datapath has further been transformed into DPA resistant design. The simulation and implementation results using 180nm technology are shown and prove the validity of the architecture.

  18. Extending Algorithm of RSA Algorithm%基于RSA算法的扩展算法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张延招

    2011-01-01

    The security of RSA is designed on the basis of the difficulty of large integer decomposition.In the RSA public key encryption system the public key n is the product of two large prime number,aiming at the large integer n decomposition of the form n=pq(in which p,q as large prime number).The paper describes the encryption and decryption theory of extending RSA algorithm,aiming at the large integer n decomposition to the form n=p1,p2,…,pr(in which p1,p2,…,pr as large prime number).The addition of prime number could enhance the security of RSA algorithm.Compared to RSA algorithm,the extending RSA algorithm could be applied to both digital encryption/decryption and digital signature.Digital signature algorithm based on extending RSA algorithm is also of high security and reliability.%RSA的安全性是依据大整数分解的困难性而设计的。RSA公开密钥加密体制中n为2个大素数的乘积,即针对n=pq(p,q为大素数)的大整数分解,这里介绍了RSA算法的扩展算法的加密和解密原理,即针对n=p1,p2,…,pr(p1,p2,…,pr为大素数)的大整数分解。通过扩展素因子的个数达到RSA算法的安全性。比较RSA算法,扩展的RSA算法不仅可用于数据加密解密,也可用于数字签名。利用扩展的RSA算法实现数字签名也具有较高的安全性和可靠性。

  19. Improved RSA cryptosystem based on the study of number theory and public key cryptosystems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Israt Jahan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Security is required to transmit confidential information over the network. Security is also demanding in wide range of applications. Cryptographic algorithms play a vital role in providing the data security against malicious attacks. RSA algorithm is extensively used in the popular implementations of Public Key Infrastructures. In asymmetric key cryptography, also called Public Key cryptography, two different keys (which form a key pair are used. One key is used for encryption and only the other corresponding key must be used for decryption. No other key can decrypt the message – not even the original (i.e. the first key used for encryption. In this paper, we have proposed an improved approach of RSA algorithm using two public key pairs and using some mathematical logic rather than sending one public key d irectly.Because if an attacker has an opportunity of getting the public key componet they can find private key value by brute force search. General Terms: Cryptography, network security

  20. A Provably Secure Asynchronous Proactive RSA Scheme

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Rui-shan; LI Qiang; CHEN Ke-fei

    2005-01-01

    The drawback of the first asynchronous proactive RSA scheme presented by Zhou in 2001, is that the se curity definition and security proof do not follow the approach of provable security. This paper presented a provably secure asynchronous proactive RSA scheme, which includes three protocols: initial key distribution protocol,signature generation protocol and share refreshing protocol. Taken these protocols together, a complete provably secure proactive RSA scheme was obtained. And the efficiency of the scheme is approximate to that of the scheme of Zhou.

  1. An Optical Encryption and Decryption Method and System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2000-01-01

    (Xm, Ym) with the encoded phase value a (Xm, Ym). The method of decrypting comprises the steps of decrypting the mask by radiating electromagnetic radiation towards the mask and inserting into the path of the electromagnetic radiation a complex spatial electromagnetic radiation modulator comprising...

  2. Information security in data exchange between mobile devices with Android system using RSA encryption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Solís

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The new styles and ways of life lead to greater use of wireless networks, the mobile device being a tool for data transmission, which are susceptible to threats in the transmission channels in the network. IT security plays a very important role in guaranteeing the availability, privacy and integrity of information, one of the techniques that helps in this task is cryptography, whose foundation is to transform a message so that it is unintelligible except for those who have the Key to decipher it. The research focuses on the use of the RSA algorithm between mobile devices, the encrypted data is sent through communication channels called threads that through formulas and processes executed on the server, will help to execute the encryption and decryption of the data. To carry it out, a prototype for the exchange of data between mobile devices wirelessly was designed and implemented, conducting performance tests with three nodes to improve the security. The results show the efficiency of the algorithm and additionally its functionality, the times of encryption and decryption are fast against the sending of information without any method or algorithm used.

  3. Improved Mask Protected DES using RSA Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asha Latha S.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The data encryption standard is a pioneering and farsighted standard which helped to set a new paradigm for encryption standards. But now DES is considered to be insecure for some application. Asymmetric mask protected DES is an advanced encryption method for effectively protecting the advanced DES. There are still probabilities to improve its security. This paper propose a method, which introduce a RSA key generation scheme in mask protected DES instead of plain key, which result in enhancement in the security of present asymmetric mask protected DES. We further propose a Vedic mathematical method of RSA implementation which reduce the complexity of computation in RSA block thereby resulting in reduced delay (four timesthat improves the performance of overall system. The software implementation was performed using Xilinx 13.2 and Model-Sim was used for the simulation environment.

  4. Hardware modules of the RSA algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Škobić Velibor

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes basic principles of data protection using the RSA algorithm, as well as algorithms for its calculation. The RSA algorithm is implemented on FPGA integrated circuit EP4CE115F29C7, family Cyclone IV, Altera. Four modules of Montgomery algorithm are designed using VHDL. Synthesis and simulation are done using Quartus II software and ModelSim. The modules are analyzed for different key lengths (16 to 1024 in terms of the number of logic elements, the maximum frequency and speed.

  5. Cryptanalysis and Performance Evaluation of Enhanced Threshold Proxy Signature Scheme Based on RSA for Known Signers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raman Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In these days there are plenty of signature schemes such as the threshold proxy signature scheme (Kumar and Verma 2010. The network is a shared medium so that the weakness security attacks such as eavesdropping, replay attack, and modification attack. Thus, we have to establish a common key for encrypting/decrypting our communications over an insecure network. In this scheme, a threshold proxy signature scheme based on RSA, any or more proxy signers can cooperatively generate a proxy signature while or fewer of them cannot do it. The threshold proxy signature scheme uses the RSA cryptosystem to generate the private and the public key of the signers (Rivest et al., 1978. Comparison is done on the basis of time complexity, space complexity, and communication overhead. We compare the performance of four schemes (Hwang et al. (2003, Kuo and Chen (2005, Yong-Jun et al. (2007, and Li et al. (2007, with the performance of a scheme that has been proposed earlier by the authors of this paper. In the proposed scheme, both the combiner and the secret share holder can verify the correctness of the information that they are receiving from each other. Therefore, the enhanced threshold proxy signature scheme is secure and efficient against notorious conspiracy attacks.

  6. RSA algoritam i njegova praktična primena / RSA algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonja R. Kuljanski

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available RSA algoritam jeste algoritam sa javnim ključem koji uključuje tri koraka: generisanje ključa, enkripciju i dekripciju. RSA enkripciona šema je determinističaka što znači da se osnovni tekst uvek enkriptuje u isti šifrovani tekst za unapred zadati javni ključ. Da bi se izbegao ovaj problem, praktična implementacija RSA algoritma obično koristi neke strukture, kao što je dodavanje slučajnog teksta u samu poruku pre enkripcije. Ovo dodavanje obezbeđuje da osnovna poruka bude sigurna i da se može enkriptovati u veliki broj različitih šifrovanih poruka. Standardi, kao što je PKCS #1, pažljivo su dizajnirani tako da dodaju tekst u osnovnu poruku pre RSA same enkripcije. / RSA is an algorithm for public-key encryption. It is the first algorithm known to be suitable for encryption as well as digital signing. The RSA encryption scheme is deterministic in the sense that under a fixed public key, a particular plaintext is always encrypted to the same ciphertext. A deterministic encryption scheme (as opposed to a probabilistic encryption scheme is a cryptosystem which always produces the same ciphertext for a given plaintext and key, even over separate executions of the encryption algorithm. Probabilistic encryption uses randomness in an encryption algorithm, so that when encrypting the same message several times it will, in general, yield different ciphertexts.

  7. Dynamic RSA: Examining parasympathetic regulatory dynamics via vector-autoregressive modeling of time-varying RSA and heart period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Aaron J; Reeves, Jonathan W; Chi, Cyrus

    2016-07-01

    Expanding on recently published methods, the current study presents an approach to estimating the dynamic, regulatory effect of the parasympathetic nervous system on heart period on a moment-to-moment basis. We estimated second-to-second variation in respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) in order to estimate the contemporaneous and time-lagged relationships among RSA, interbeat interval (IBI), and respiration rate via vector autoregression. Moreover, we modeled these relationships at lags of 1 s to 10 s, in order to evaluate the optimal latency for estimating dynamic RSA effects. The IBI (t) on RSA (t-n) regression parameter was extracted from individual models as an operationalization of the regulatory effect of RSA on IBI-referred to as dynamic RSA (dRSA). Dynamic RSA positively correlated with standard averages of heart rate and negatively correlated with standard averages of RSA. We propose that dRSA reflects the active downregulation of heart period by the parasympathetic nervous system and thus represents a novel metric that provides incremental validity in the measurement of autonomic cardiac control-specifically, a method by which parasympathetic regulatory effects can be measured in process.

  8. Compensation for occupational diseases in the RSA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, J E; Garisch, D; Cornell, J E

    1987-03-01

    Compensation legislation for occupational disease in the RSA is at present complex and non-uniform, and the administrative bodies that process compensation claims are understaffed. In this setting occupational disease, particularly in migrant workers who are often ignorant of their rights under the law, frequently goes uncompensated. General practitioners and medical officers need to be aware of the basic provisions in the law, and how to submit claims in the best interests of their patients. Some case studies are included to illustrate problematic areas. The responsibilities of doctors in the diagnosis and compensation of occupational diseases are addressed.

  9. Privacy Protection in Cloud Using Rsa Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amandeep Kaur

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The cloud computing architecture has been on high demand nowadays. The cloud has been successful over grid and distributed environment due to its cost and high reliability along with high security. However in the area of research it is observed that cloud computing still has some issues in security regarding privacy. The cloud broker provide services of cloud to general public and ensures that data is protected however they sometimes lag security and privacy. Thus in this work of research an architecture is developed to preserve the security in two phases that is by RSA algorithm and auto-backup policy. Keywords:-

  10. The multi-dimension RSA and its low exponent security

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹珍富

    2000-01-01

    Using a well-known result of polynomial over the finite field , we show that the Euler-Fermat theorem holds in N[ x]. We present a multi-dimension RSA cryptosystem and point out that low exponent algorithm of attacking RSA is not suitable for the multi-dimension RSA. Therefore, it is believed that the security of the new cryptosystem is mainly based on the factorization of large integers.

  11. Simple optical decryption based on a modified joint transform correlator technique

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Huai-bin; WANG Tian-zuo; YUAN Xiao-cong

    2006-01-01

    A new encryption/decryption system for optical information security is proposed in this paper. We used an iterative Fourier transform algorithm to optimize the encrypted hologram as well as the decryption key as phase-only elements. The optical decryption was implemented by superimposing the encrypted hologram and the decryption key in a simple optical setup. Numerical simulation and optical experiment have confirmed the proposed technique as a simple and easy implementation for optical decryption, demonstrating potential applications in optical information security verification.

  12. Encryption and Decryption of Messages on Android using NFC Tags

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrei Dragan

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Working with NFC technology and mobile devices brings a faster and more secure way of doing things like giving out contact information, automating certain tasks or transmitting data, as easy as touching the two. What this article focuses on is the use of NFC tags on the Android platform to store random generated keys and automate the encryption and decryption of messages.

  13. Security Analysis and Performance Evaluation of Enhanced Threshold Proxy Signature Scheme Based on RSA for Known Signers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raman Kumar

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available An efficient threshold signature scheme solves the difficulties of the receiver to proof the approval of the document from the sender as well as detecting if the file has been altered by illegitimate parties. In these days there are plenty of signature schemes such as (t,n threshold proxy signature scheme. The network is a shared medium so that the weakness security attacks such as eavesdropping, replay attack and modification attack. Thus, we have to establish a common key for encrypting/decrypting our communications over an insecure network. In this scheme, a (t,n threshold proxy signature scheme based on RSA, any t or more proxy signers can cooperatively generate a proxy signature while t-1 or fewer of them can’t do it. The threshold proxy signature scheme uses the RSA cryptosystem to generate the private and the public key of the signers. Comparison is done on the basis of time complexity, space complexity and communication overhead. We compare the performance of four schemes: Hwang et al., Wen et al., Geng et al. and Fengying et al. with the performance of a scheme that has been proposed by the authors of this article earlier. In the proposed scheme, both the combiner and the secret share holder can verify the correctness of the information that they are receiving from each other. Therefore, the enhanced threshold proxy signature scheme is secure and efficient against notorious conspiracy attacks.

  14. Universally Composable Proactive Threshold RSA Signature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HONG Xuan; CHEN Ke-fei; LONG Yu

    2008-01-01

    Recently some efforts were made towards capturing the security requirements within the composable security framework.This modeling has some significant advantages in designing and analyzing complex systems.The threshold signature was discussed and a definition was given based on the universal composability framework,which is proved to be equivalent to the standard security definition.Furthermore,a simple,efficient and proactive threshold RSA signature protocol was presented.It is proved to be correct,consistent and unforgeable relative to the environment that at most t-1 parties are corrupted in each proactive stage.It is also secure under the universal composability framework.It is a UC based security and is proved to be equivalent to the standard security.

  15. DMAC-AN INTEGRATED ENCRYPTION SCHEME WITH RSA FOR AC TO OBSTRUCT INFERENCE ATTACKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Jeeva

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The proposal of indistinguishable encryption in Randomized Arithmetic Coding(RAC doesn’t make the system efficient because it was not encrypting the messages it sends. It recomputes the cipher form of every messages it sends that increases not only the computational cost but also increases the response time.Floating point representation in cipher increases the difficulty in decryption side because of loss in precison.RAC doesn’t handle the inference attacks like Man-in-Middle attack,Third party attack etc. In our system, Dynamic Matrix Arithmetic Coding(DMAC using dynamic session matrix to encrypt the messages. The size of the matrix is deduced from the session key that contains ID of end users which proves the server authentication.Nonce values is represented as the public key of the opponents encrypted by the session key will be exchanged between the end users to provide mutual authentication. If the adversary try to compromise either server or end users,the other system won’t respond and the intrusion will be easily detected. we have increased the hacking complexity of AC by integrating with RSA upto 99%.

  16. 基于参数优化批处理的TLS协议%Parameter Optimization-Based Batching TLS Protocol

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    齐芳; 贾维嘉; 鲍丰; 吴永东; 王国军

    2007-01-01

    TLS(transport layer security)协议的基本设计目标是为两个通信实体之间提供数据的保密性和完整性.由于在传输层安全握手协议中最耗费计算资源的步骤是服务器RSA解密运算,优化的批处理的RSA方法提出可以用于加速TLS会话的初始化.首先指出了以前的批处理方法由于要求多证书实现而实用性不强.然后提出了单一证书策略的方法,从而克服了这一问题.还提出结合用户对于因特网服务质量的要求优化了批处理参数.为了选择优化的批处理的参数,不仅考虑了服务器的性能,而且还考虑了客户可容忍的等待时间.通过分析并在阐述平均排队时间、批处理服务时间和系统稳定性的基础上提出了一种新颖的优化批处理调度算法,已部署在服务器上.最后通过分析和模拟两种方法验证了所提出方案的实用性和有效性.%The primary goal of the Transport Layer Security (TLS) protocol is to provide confidentiality and data integrity between two communicating entities. Since the most computationally expensive step in the TLS handshake protocol is the server's RSA decryption, it is introduced that optimal batch RSA can be used to speedup TLS session initialization. This paper first indicates that the previous batch method is impractical since it requires a multiple of certificates, then it proposes the unique certificate scheme to overcome the problem. It is also introduced that the batching parameter is optimized when integrating users' requirements for Internet Quality of Service (QoS). To select the optimal batching parameters, not only the server's performance but also the client's tolerable waiting time is considered. Based on the analysis of the mean queue time, batching service time and the stability of the system, a novel batch optimal scheduling algorithm which is deployed in a batching Web server is proposed. Finally, the proposed algorithm is evaluated to be practical and

  17. Synchronized chaotic phase masks for encrypting and decrypting images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rueda, Edgar; Vera, Carlos A.; Rodríguez, Boris; Torroba, Roberto

    2008-12-01

    This paper presents an alternative to secure exchange of encrypted information through public open channels. Chaotic encryption introduces a security improvement by an efficient masking of the message with a chaotic signal. Message extraction by an authorized end user is done using a synchronization procedure, thus allowing a continuous change of the encrypting and decrypting keys. And optical implementation with a 4f optical encrypting architecture is suggested. Digital simulations, including the effects of missing data, corrupted data and noise addition are shown. These results proof the consistency of the proposal, and demonstrate a practical way to operate with it.

  18. SRI RAMSHALAKA: A VEDIC METHOD OF TEXT ENCRYPTION AND DECRYPTION

    OpenAIRE

    Rajkishore Prasad

    2013-01-01

    This paper investigates usability of SriRamshalakha, a vedic tool used in Indian Astrology, in the encryption and decryption of plain English text. Sri Ram Shalaka appears in Sri RamChartmanas, one of the very popular sacred epic of Hindu religion, written by great Saint Tulsidasji. SriRamshalakha is used to fetch/infer the approximate answer of questions/decisions by the believers. Basically, the said shalaka embed nine philosophical verses from Sri RamCharitmanas in a matrix form based on w...

  19. DETERMIN LARGE PRIME NUMBERS TO COMPUTE RSA SYSTEM PARAMETERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioan Mang

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Cryptography, the secret writing, is probably same old as writing itself and has applications in data security insurance. There are cryptosystems where the encipher algorithm can be public. These are public key algorithms. Research on public key algorithms has been concerned with security aspects. The results of this research have induced sufficient confidence to apply public key cryptography a larger scale. The most used and checked public key-based cryptosystem was find by Rivest, Shamir and Adleman, so called RSA system. This paper shows the RSA algorithm. We have realised a program that is able to determine prime numbers with over 100 digits and compute RSA system parameters.

  20. Data Encryption and Decryption using Reed-Muller Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Upputuri Neelima

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Reed-Muller codes play an important role in communication. In communication, security and error free data transmission are two major problems. In this paper, we propose a eight bit original data is encoded using distinct Reed-Muller techniques such as positive polarity Reed-Muller(PPRM, negative polarity Reed-Muller(NPRM, fixed polarity Reed-Muller(FPRM for secure data communication and also we can compare these techniques in terms of cost. The eight bit encoded data which is obtains from these Reed-Muller techniques are encoded again using hamming code for error free communication. It is found that among all these techniques fixed polarity Reed-Muller is the best technique which gives less cost .We can also observes that secure and error free communication is possible between transmitter and receiver. The data encryption and decryption process has been simulated using Isim simulator and the code is written in Verilog HDL.

  1. A New Batch Verifying Scheme for Identifying Illegal Signatures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Adrian Atanasiu

    2013-01-01

    The concept of batch verifying multiple digital signatures is to find a method by which multiple digital signatures can be verified simultaneously in a lower time complexity than separately verifying all the signatures.In this article,we analyze the complexity of the batch verifying schemes defined by Li,Hwang and Chen in 2010,and propose a new batch verifying multiple digital signature scheme,in two variants:one for RSA-by completing the Harn's schema with an identifying illegal signatures algorithm,and the other adapted for a modified Elliptic Curve Digital Signature Algorithm protocol.

  2. RSA-Based Password-Authenticated Key Exchange, Revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Seonghan; Kobara, Kazukuni; Imai, Hideki

    The RSA-based Password-Authenticated Key Exchange (PAKE) protocols have been proposed to realize both mutual authentication and generation of secure session keys where a client is sharing his/her password only with a server and the latter should generate its RSA public/private key pair (e, n), (d, n) every time due to the lack of PKI (Public-Key Infrastructures). One of the ways to avoid a special kind of off-line (so called e-residue) attacks in the RSA-based PAKE protocols is to deploy a challenge/response method by which a client verifies the relative primality of e and φ(n) interactively with a server. However, this kind of RSA-based PAKE protocols did not give any proof of the underlying challenge/response method and therefore could not specify the exact complexity of their protocols since there exists another security parameter, needed in the challenge/response method. In this paper, we first present an RSA-based PAKE (RSA-PAKE) protocol that can deploy two different challenge/response methods (denoted by Challenge/Response Method1 and Challenge/Response Method2). The main contributions of this work include: (1) Based on the number theory, we prove that the Challenge/Response Method1 and the Challenge/Response Method2 are secure against e-residue attacks for any odd prime e (2) With the security parameter for the on-line attacks, we show that the RSA-PAKE protocol is provably secure in the random oracle model where all of the off-line attacks are not more efficient than on-line dictionary attacks; and (3) By considering the Hamming weight of e and its complexity in the. RSA-PAKE protocol, we search for primes to be recommended for a practical use. We also compare the RSA-PAKE protocol with the previous ones mainly in terms of computation and communication complexities.

  3. Security analysis of RSA cryptosystem algorithm and it's properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chenglian; Guo, Yongning; Lin, Juan

    2014-10-01

    The information technology rapidly development and dramatically changed the life style people, in addition to shortening the distance of communication, but also promote the smooth exchange of information flows. However, derivatives to facilitate the relative safety of these issues, since into the digital information age, the majority of the practitioners of engineering and technical personnel and technical workers in terms of technology, information security is increasingly becoming an important issue. The RSA algorithm was published in 1978. It is a kind of very popular and widely application modem cryptosystem in the world. Even though there are lots of articles to discuss about how to break the RSA, but it is still secure today. In this paper, the authors would like to introduce a variant attack to RSA.

  4. Deterministic and Probabilistic Approach in Primality Checking for RSA Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjoy Das

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The RSA cryptosystem, invented by Ron Rivest, Adi Shamir and Len Adleman was first publicized in the August 1977 issue of Scientific American [1]. The security level of this algorithm very much depends on two large prime numbers [2]. In this paper two distinct approaches have been dealt with for primality checking. These are deterministic approach and probabilistic approach. For the deterministic approach, it has chosen modified trial division and for probabilistic approach, Miller-Rabin algorithm is considered. The different kinds of attacks on RSA and their remedy are also being discussed. This includes the chosen cipher text attacks, short private key exponent attack and frequency attack. Apart from these attacks, discussion has been made on how to choose the primes for the RSA algorithm. The time complexity has been demonstrated for the various algorithms implemented and compared with others. Finally the future modifications and expectations arising out of the current limitations have also been stated at the end.

  5. QR code based noise-free optical encryption and decryption of a gray scale image

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiao, Shuming; Zou, Wenbin; Li, Xia

    2017-03-01

    In optical encryption systems, speckle noise is one major challenge in obtaining high quality decrypted images. This problem can be addressed by employing a QR code based noise-free scheme. Previous works have been conducted for optically encrypting a few characters or a short expression employing QR codes. This paper proposes a practical scheme for optically encrypting and decrypting a gray-scale image based on QR codes for the first time. The proposed scheme is compatible with common QR code generators and readers. Numerical simulation results reveal the proposed method can encrypt and decrypt an input image correctly.

  6. Atomic-AES: A compact implementation of the AES encryption/decryption core

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Banik, Subhadeep; Bogdanov, Andrey; Regazzoni, Francesco

    2016-01-01

    D that require access to both the AES encryption and decryption modules. In this paper we look to investigate whether the basic circuit of Moradi et al. can be tweaked to provide dual functionality of encryption and decryption (ENC/DEC) while keeping the hardware overhead as low as possible. As a result, we...... report an 8-bit serialized AES circuit that provides the functionality of both encryption and decryption and occupies around 2645 GE with a latency of 226 cycles. This is a substantial improvement over the next smallest AES ENC/DEC circuit (Grain of Sand) by Feldhofer et al. which takes around 3400 gates...

  7. The RSA Cryptoprocessor Hardware Implementation Based on Modified Montgomery Algorithm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Bo; WANG Xu; RONG Meng-tian

    2005-01-01

    RSA (Rivest-Shamir-Adleman)public-key cryptosystem is widely used in the information security area such as encryption and digital signature. Based on the modified Montgomery modular multiplication algorithm, a new architecture using CSA(carry save adder)was presented to implement modular multiplication. Compared with the popular modular multiplication algorithms using two CSA, the presented algorithm uses only one CSA, so it can improve the time efficiency of RSA cryptoprocessor and save about half of hardware resources for modular multiplication. With the increase of encryption data size n, the clock cycles for the encryption procedure reduce in T(n2) , compared with the modular multiplication algorithms using two CSA.

  8. Use of the RSA/RCOD Index to Identify Training Priority in Soccer Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Del P; Hjelde, Geir H; Cheng, Ching-Feng; Ngo, Jake K

    2015-10-01

    The use of RSA/RCOD index indicates the repeated change-of-direction (RCOD) performance relative to the repeated-sprint ability (RSA) and provides a standardized approach to prioritize training needs for RSA and RCOD. To compare the RSA/RCOD index among different age groups, RSA and RCOD were measured from 20 under-16 players (U16), 20 under-19 players (U19), and 17 first-team professional players (PRO) from a football (soccer) club that has regular participation in the UEFA Champions League. Each player performed the RSA and RCOD tests, during which the fastest time (FT), average time (AT), total time (TT), and percentage decrement score (%Dec) were recorded. No significant differences were found in RSA/RCOD index-FT, AT, TT, and %Dec among the 3 groups (p > 0.05) and between U19 and PRO in all RSA and RCOD measures (p > 0.05). Most values of RSA/RCOD index were 0.51 among the U16, U19, and PRO groups. Moreover, we concluded that the RSA/RCOD index might not be further changed after 16 years of age unless specific training programs for RSA and RCOD are prescribed. Therefore, this study provides an empirical case, and coaches can establish the RSA/RCOD index value relevant to their training system and monitor players' training needs of RSA and RCOD in a longer term.

  9. 对 Shor 算法破解 RSA 的探讨%Discussion on Cracking RSA With Shor Algorithm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    凃玲英; 胡一凡; 张洪涛; 代永涛; 熊红梅

    2015-01-01

    Since the randomness of Shor algorithm could lead to low success rate in cracking RSA.By analyzing the prin-ciple of Shor algorithm,characteristics of RSA public key password system and lots of data,the view that the way for quantum functional in randomly selecting value is regular was putting forward .Verified by number theory and Monte Carlo method,the results showed that if takes a perfect square,the cycle probably can′t meet the requirements of Shor al-gorithm.It comes to a conclusion that take a non-perfect square can improve the success rate of Shor algorithm in cracking RSA.%针对 Shor 算法具有随机性,会导致破解 RSA 公钥密码体制成功率不高的问题,对 Shor 算法原理、RSA 公钥密码体制特点和大量计算结果进行分析,提出量子函数式 f (x)=ax mod n 对 a 值的随机选取是有规律的。结合数论知识和蒙特卡洛法证明,结果表明:随机数 a 取完全平方数,所求周期 r 很可能不满足 Shor算法要求;a 取非完全平方数可以提高 Shor 算法破解 RSA 的成功率。

  10. Analysis of RSA Encryption and Decryption Algorithm Based on Test Method%基于试探法对RSA加密解密算法的剖析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张智顺; 周丽; 任广伟

    2008-01-01

    基于网络技术的发展,信息安全性已成为亟待解决的问题,在此,主要利用了试探法,对信息安全技术中的公开密钥RSA算法进行了研究,并对随机素数的产生做了简要的介绍,进一步阐述了RSA算法的时间复杂性,也说明了RSA的一些不足,同时也从试探法的角度上更容易理解和体会Euclidean算法.

  11. High speed data encryption and decryption using stimulated Brillouin scattering effect in optical fiber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Lilin; Zhang, Tao; Hu, Weisheng

    2011-11-01

    A novel all-optical encryption/decryption method based on stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS) effect in optical fiber is proposed for the first time. The operation principle is explained in detail and the encryption and decryption performance is experimentally evaluated. The encryption keys could be the SBS gain amplitude, bandwidth, central wavelength and spectral shape, which are configurable and flexibly controlled by the users. We experimentally demonstrate the SBS encryption/decryption process of a 10.86-Gb/s non-return-to-zero (NRZ) data by using both phase-modulated and current-dithered Brillouin pumps for proof-of-concept. Unlike the traditional optical encryption methods of chaotic communications and optical code-division-multiplexing access (OCDMA), the SBS based encryption/decryption technique can directly upgrade the current optical communication system to a secure communication system without changing the terminal transceivers, which is completely compatible with the current optical communication systems.

  12. AN EFFICIENT IMPLEMENTATION OF LRCA SCHEME FOR ENCRYPTION/DECRYPTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V MNSSVKR GUPTA

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available — Network has become a significant way to transmit information because of the arrival of information era and the rapid development of Internet. Various multimedia digital products (such as text, images, videos, sound data, etc. spread on the net. How to protect the benefit of the investors and legal rights owners is becoming an upcoming problem to solve. In this couple of years, the data encryption/decryption (modern cryptography technique develops rapidly, which can provide a new effective approach to deal with this problem. In this paper a strong time efficient cryptosystem is proposed. A novel approach in cellular automata is used in which the plain text is arranged into layers of binary digital planes and then encrypted based on the rule set of Automata. This scheme exhibits strength by inheriting the naive properties of Cellular Automata, unpredictability, homogeneity, parallelism and sensitivity to the initial conditions. The proposed scheme is analyzed for time efficiency and observed to possess better confusion and diffusion properties when compared with Advanced Encryption Standard (AES. This scheme has advantage, that it has variable key size and block size; depending on the size of the plain text chosen. Simulation results show that the proposed system is on par with AES.

  13. Adaptive Steganographic Algorithm using Cryptographic Encryption RSA Algorithms

    OpenAIRE

    Sharma, Manoj Kumar; Upadhyaya, Dr. Amit; Agarwal, Shalini

    2013-01-01

    Cryptography is the art of securing information by applying encryption and decryption on transmission data which ensure that the secret can be understood only by the right person.[1] Steganography is the process of sharing information in an undetectable way by making sure that nobody else can even detect the presence of a secret. If these two methods could be combined, it would provide a fool-proof security to information being communicated over a network. This paper propose two different ste...

  14. Cryptanalysis of a Type of CRT-Based RSA Algorithms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bao-Dong Qini; Ming Li; Fan-Yu Kong

    2008-01-01

    It is well known that the Chinese Remainder Theorem (CRT) can greatly improve the performances of RSA cryptosystem in both running times and memory requirements. However, if the implementation of CRT-based RSA is careless, an attacker can reveal some secret information by exploiting hardware fault cryptanalysis. In this paper, we present some fault attacks on a type of CRT-RSA algorithms namely BOS type schemes including the original BOS scheme proposed by Blomer, Otto, and Seifert at CCS 2003 and its modified scheme proposed by Liu et al. at DASC 2006. We first demonstrate that if some special signed messages such as m = 0, ±1 are dealt carelessly, they can be exploited by an adversary to completely break the security of both the BOS scheme and Liu et al.'s scheme. Then we present a new permanent fault attack on the BOS scheme with a success probability about 25%. Lastly, we propose a polynomial time attack on Liu et al.'s CRT-RSA algorithm, which combines physical fault injection and lattice reduction techniques when the public exponent is short.

  15. The mathematics of ciphers number theory and RSA cryptography

    CERN Document Server

    Coutinho, S C

    1999-01-01

    This book is an introduction to the algorithmic aspects of number theory and its applications to cryptography, with special emphasis on the RSA cryptosys-tem. It covers many of the familiar topics of elementary number theory, all with an algorithmic twist. The text also includes many interesting historical notes.

  16. Efficient ID-Based Multi-Decrypter Encryption with Short Ciphertexts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhen-Chuan Chai; Zhen-Fu Cao; Yuan Zhou

    2007-01-01

    Multi-decrypter encryption is a typical application in multi-user cryptographic branches.In multi-decrypter encryption, a message is encrypted under multiple decrypters' public keys in the way that only when all the decrypters cooperate, can the message be read.However, trivial implementation of multi-decrypter encryption using standard ap-proaches leads to heavy computation costs and long ciphertext which grows as the receiver group expands.This consumes much precious bandwidth in wireless environment, such as mobile ad hoc network.In this paper, we propose an efficient identity based multi-decrypter encryption scheme, which needs only one or zero (if precomputed) pairing computation and the ciphertext contains only three group elements no matter how many the receivers are.Moreover, we give a formal security definition for the scheme, and prove the scheme to be chosen ciphertext secure in the random oracle model, and discuss how to modify the scheme to resist chosen ciphertext attack.

  17. Adolescent RSA responses during an anger discussion task: Relations to emotion regulation and adjustment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Lixian; Morris, Amanda Sheffield; Harrist, Amanda W; Larzelere, Robert E; Criss, Michael M; Houltberg, Benjamin J

    2015-06-01

    The current study examined associations between adolescent respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) during an angry event discussion task and adolescents' emotion regulation and adjustment. Data were collected from 206 adolescents (10-18 years of age, M age = 13.37). Electrocardiogram (ECG) and respiration data were collected from adolescents, and RSA values and respiration rates were computed. Adolescents reported on their own emotion regulation, prosocial behavior, and aggressive behavior. Multilevel latent growth modeling was employed to capture RSA responses across time (i.e., linear and quadratic changes; time course approach), and adolescent emotion regulation and adjustment variables were included in the model to test their links to RSA responses. Results indicated that high RSA baseline was associated with more adolescent prosocial behavior. A pattern of initial RSA decreases (RSA suppression) in response to angry event recall and subsequent RSA increases (RSA rebound) were related to better anger and sadness regulation and more prosocial behavior. However, RSA was not significantly linked to adolescent aggressive behavior. We also compared the time course approach with the conventional linear approach and found that the time course approach provided more meaningful and rich information. The implications of adaptive RSA change patterns are discussed.

  18. Children's dynamic RSA change during anger and its relations with parenting, temperament, and control of aggression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Jonas G; Chocol, Caroline; Nuselovici, Jacob N; Utendale, William T; Simard, Melissa; Hastings, Paul D

    2013-02-01

    This study examined the moderating effects of child temperament on the association between maternal socialization and 4-6-year-old children's dynamic respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) change in response to anger-themed emotional materials (N=180). We used latent growth curve modeling to explore adaptive patterns of dynamic RSA change in response to anger. Greater change in RSA during anger-induction, characterized by more initial RSA suppression and a subsequent return to baseline, was related to children's better regulation of aggression. For anger-themed materials, low levels of authoritarian parenting predicted more RSA suppression and recovery for more anger-prone children, whereas more authoritative parenting predicted more RSA suppression and recovery for less anger-prone children. These findings suggest that children's adaptive patterns of dynamic RSA change can be characterized by latent growth curve modeling, and that these patterns may be differentially shaped by parent socialization experiences as a function of child temperament.

  19. A NEW RSA CRYPTOSYSTEM HARDWARE IMPLEMENTATION BASED ON MONTGOMERY'S ALGORITHM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢君明; 林争辉

    2002-01-01

    RSA public key crypto-system is a relatively safe technology, which is widely used in today's secure electronic communication. In this paper, a new implementation method to optimize a 1 024 bit RSA processor was presented. Basically, a fast modular multiplication architecture based on Montgomery's algorithm was proposed. Modular exponentiation algorithm scans encryption from right to left, so two modular multiplications can be processed parallel. The new architecture is also fit for an effective I/O interface. The time to calculate a modular exponentiation is about n2 clock cycles. The proposed architecture has a data rate of 93.7 kb/s for 1 024 bit work with a 100 MHz clock.

  20. Efficient and Robust Two-Party RSA Key Generation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Muxiang; HONG Fan; ZHENG Minghui; LI Jun

    2006-01-01

    An efficient two party RSA secret key sharing generation scheme based on a homomorphic encryption, which is semantically secure under the prime residuosity assumption, is proposed in this paper. At the stage of computing RSA modulo N, an initial distributed primality test protocol is used to reduce the computation complexity and increase the probability of N being a two-prime product. On the other aspect, the homomorphic encryption based sharing conversion protocols is devised and adopted in multi-party computing modulus N and secret key d. Comparing to any sharing conversion protocols based on oblivious transfer protocol, the homomorphic encryption based sharing conversion protocols are of high performance. Our scheme resists the passive attack and since a method of verifying the sharing was introduced in, the scheme can resists any cheating behaviors too. Security proof, computation complexity and communication complexity analysis are given at last.

  1. Meteosat Images Encryption based on AES and RSA Algorithms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boukhatem Mohammed Belkaid

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Satellite image Security is playing a vital role in the field of communication system and Internet. This work is interested in securing transmission of Meteosat images on the Internet, in public or local networks. To enhance the security of Meteosat transmission in network communication, a hybrid encryption algorithm based on Advanced Encryption Standard (AES and Rivest Shamir Adleman (RSA algorithms is proposed. AES algorithm is used for data transmission because of its higher efficiency in block encryption and RSA algorithm is used for the encryption of the key of the AES because of its management advantages in key cipher. Our encryption system generates a unique password every new session of encryption. Cryptanalysis and various experiments have been carried out and the results were reported in this paper, which demonstrate the feasibility and flexibility of the proposed scheme.

  2. RSA Power Analysis Obfuscation: A Dynamic FPGA Architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-01

    research provides a VHDL coded dynamic architecture for synthesization on a Xilinx Virtex-5 FPGA. This architecture provides two-way communication...Component Under Test (CUT) is the dynamic RSA implementation. This dynamic hardware is synthesized from VHDL onto a Xilinx Virtex-5 FPGA. The built in...The hardware platform used for this research is a the Xil- inx Virtex-5 FX FPGA. VHDL code is synthesized using the Xilinx design suite and downloaded

  3. Simplified Threshold RSA with Adaptive and Proactive Security

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Almansa Guerra, Jesus Fernando; Damgård, Ivan Bjerre; Nielsen, Jesper Buus

    2006-01-01

    We present the currently simplest, most efficient, optimally resilient, adaptively secure, and proactive threshold RSA scheme. A main technical contribution is a new rewinding strategy for analysing threshold signature schemes. This new rewinding strategy allows to prove adaptive security...... of a proactive threshold signature scheme which was previously assumed to be only statically secure. As a separate contribution we prove that our protocol is secure in the UC framework....

  4. An Efficient Proactive RSA Scheme for Ad Hoc Networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Rui-shan; CHEN Ke-fei

    2007-01-01

    A proactive threshold signature scheme is very important to tolerate mobile attack in mobile ad hoc networks. In this paper, we propose an efficient proactive threshold RSA signature scheme for ad hoc networks. The scheme consists of three protocols: the initial secret share distribution protocol, the signature generation protocol and the secret share refreshing protocol. Our scheme has three advantages. First, the signature generation protocol is efficient. Second, the signature generation protocol is resilient. Third, the share refreshing protocol is efficient.

  5. Improved decryption quality and security of a joint transform correlator-based encryption system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilardy, Juan M.; Millán, María S.; Pérez-Cabré, Elisabet

    2013-02-01

    Some image encryption systems based on modified double random phase encoding and joint transform correlator architecture produce low quality decrypted images and are vulnerable to a variety of attacks. In this work, we analyse the algorithm of some reported methods that optically implement the double random phase encryption in a joint transform correlator. We show that it is possible to significantly improve the quality of the decrypted image by introducing a simple nonlinear operation in the encrypted function that contains the joint power spectrum. This nonlinearity also makes the system more resistant to chosen-plaintext attacks. We additionally explore the system resistance against this type of attack when a variety of probability density functions are used to generate the two random phase masks of the encryption-decryption process. Numerical results are presented and discussed.

  6. Information-Theoretic Secure Verifiable Secret Sharing over RSA Modulus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QIU Gang; WANG Hong; WEI Shimin; XIAO Guozhen

    2006-01-01

    The well-known non-interactive and information-theoretic secure verifiable secret sharing scheme presented by Pedersen is over a large prime. In this paper, we construct a novel non-interactive and information-theoretic verifiable secret sharing over RSA (Rivest,Shamir,Adleman) modulus and give the rigorous security proof. It is shown how to distribute a secret among a group such that any set of k parties get no information about the secret. The presented scheme is generally applied to constructions of secure distributed multiplication and threshold or forward-secure signature protocols.

  7. Lattice Based Attack on Common Private Exponent RSA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santosh Kumar Ravva

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Lattice reduction is a powerful concept for solving diverse problems involving point lattices. Lattice reduction has been successfully utilizing in Number Theory, Linear algebra and Cryptology. Not only the existence of lattice based cryptosystems of hard in nature, but also has vulnerabilities by lattice reduction techniques. In this paper, we show that Wieners small private exponent attack, when viewed as a heuristic lattice based attack, is extended to attack many instances of RSA when they have the same small private exponent.

  8. RSA2009参展厂商速递

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王伟

    2009-01-01

    2009年RSA Conference参展商数量减少到了大约325个,但还是引入了一些新的板块和议题吸引参与者,如IN-NOVATION SANDBOX、物理安全和其他安全相关的热点讨论,参与这次展览的厂商涉及到从Physical Security、IT Security 到Policy Compliance的方方面面.

  9. ECC Based Threshold Decryption Scheme and Its Application in Web Security

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Xian-feng; ZHANG Feng; QIN Zhi-guang; LIU Jin-de

    2004-01-01

    The threshold cryptography provides a new approach to building intrusion tolerance applications. In this paper, a threshold decryption scheme based elliptic curve cryptography is presented. A zero-knowledge test approach based on elliptic curve cryptography is designed. The application of these techniques in Web security is studied. Performance analysis shows that our scheme is characterized by excellent security as well as high efficiency.

  10. Secret Message Decryption: Group Consulting Projects Using Matrices and Linear Programming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurski, Katharine F.

    2009-01-01

    We describe two short group projects for finite mathematics students that incorporate matrices and linear programming into fictional consulting requests presented as a letter to the students. The students are required to use mathematics to decrypt secret messages in one project involving matrix multiplication and inversion. The second project…

  11. Batch By Batch Longitudinal Emittance Blowup MD

    CERN Document Server

    Mastoridis, T; Butterworth, A; Jaussi, M; Molendijk, J

    2012-01-01

    The transverse bunch emittance increases significantly at 450 GeV from the time of injection till the ramp due to IBS. By selectively blowing up the longitudinal emittance of the incoming batch at each injection, it should be possible to reduce the transverse emittance growth rates due to IBS. An MD was conducted on April 22nd 2012 to test the feasibility and performance of the batch-by-batch longitudinal emittance blowup. There were three main goals during the MD. First, to test the developed hardware, firmware, and software for the batch-by-batch blowup. Then, to measure the transverse emittance growth rates of blown-up and "witness" batches to quantify any improvement, and finally to test the ALLInjectSequencer class, which deals with the complicated gymnastics of introducing or masking the new batch to various RF loops.

  12. Batch Attribute-Based Encryption for Secure Clouds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Yang

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Cloud storage is widely used by organizations due to its advantage of allowing universal access with low cost. Attribute-based encryption (ABE is a kind of public key encryption suitable for cloud storage. The secret key of each user and the ciphertext are associated with an access policy and an attribute set, respectively; in addition to holding a secret key, one can decrypt a ciphertext only if the associated attributes match the predetermined access policy, which allows one to enforce fine-grained access control on outsourced files. One issue in existing ABE schemes is that they are designed for the users of a single organization. When one wants to share the data with the users of different organizations, the owner needs to encrypt the messages to the receivers of one organization and then repeats this process for another organization. This situation is deteriorated with more and more mobile devices using cloud services, as the ABE encryption process is time consuming and may exhaust the power supplies of the mobile devices quickly. In this paper, we propose a batch attribute-based encryption (BABE approach to address this problem in a provably-secure way. With our approach, the data owner can outsource data in batches to the users of different organizations simultaneously. The data owner is allowed to decide the receiving organizations and the attributes required for decryption. Theoretical and experimental analyses show that our approach is more efficient than traditional encryption implementations in computation and communication.

  13. Efficient RSA Key Generation and Threshold Paillier in the Two-Party Setting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hazay, Carmit; Mikkelsen, Gert Læssøe; Rabin, Tal

    2012-01-01

    The problem of generating an RSA composite in a distributed manner without leaking its factorization is particularly challenging and useful in many cryptographic protocols. Our first contribution is the first non-generic fully simulatable protocol for distributively generating an RSA composite...

  14. 基于嵌入式CPU的加解密子系统%Encryption and Decryption Subsystem Based on Embedded CPU

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王剑非; 马德; 熊东亮; 陈亮; 黄凯; 葛海通

    2014-01-01

    针对信息安全等级和应用场合变化时IP级复用的片上系统( SoC)集成验证效率低的问题,提出一种基于嵌入式CPU的加解密子系统。子系统包括RSA,DES,AES等多种加解密模块,通过硬件上的参数配置,构造满足不同信息安全应用和等级的子系统;采用低功耗高性能的嵌入式CPU,作为SoC中主CPU的协处理器,控制各加解密模块的工作,可减少对主CPU的访问,以降低功耗。将经过验证的加解密子系统作为整体集成到SoC中,实现子系统复用,可减少SoC设计和集成工作量,降低SoC验证难度;利用门控时钟技术,根据各加解密模块的工作状态管理时钟,从而降低加解密子系统的功耗。采用CKSoC设计集成方法,在SoC集成工具平台上可快速集成不同配置下的基于嵌入式CPU的加解密子系统。实验结果表明,构造子系统后的SoC设计和验证工作量明显减少,提高了工作效率。%To improve the efficiency of System-on-Chip( SoC) integration and verification for different applications of information security,a complete and pre-verified encryption and decryption subsystem based on embedded CPU is proposed. The subsystem includes cryptography modules such as RSA,DES,AES and so on. It can satisfy applications of different requirements on security levels. The embedded CPU in subsystem is a low-power and high-performance CPU,as a coprocessor for main CPU in SoC. It is responsible for controlling the operation of cryptography modules, reducing both the computation load of the main CPU and the power of SoC greatly. Integrating the pre-verified encryption and decryption subsystem as a whole to SoC, significantly reduces SoC design and integration effort and lowers the difficulty of SoC verification. Using gated clock technology, which manages the clock of cryptography modules based on their states,reduces the power of subsystem effectively. According to the CKSoC Integration method, the subsystem based

  15. ECC over RSA for Asymmetric Encryption-A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamlesh Gupta

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Cryptography is used to transmit the data securely in open network. This paper gives the survey of Elliptic Curve Cryptosystem (ECC used in many applications. ECC is a when compared to RSA and discrete logarithm systems, is a better option for the future. For this reason ECC is such an excellent choice for doing asymmetric cryptography in portable devices right now. The smaller ECC keys it turn makes the cryptographic operations that must be performed by the communicating devices to be embedded into considerably smaller hardware, so that software applications may complete cryptographic operations with fewer processor cycles, and operations can be performed much faster, while still retaining equivalent security. This means, in turn, reduced power consumption, less space consumed on the printed circuit board, and software applications that run more rapidly make lower memory demands. In brief, for communication using smaller devices and asymmetric cryptosystem we need ECC.

  16. 网络信息加密RSA算法的运算速度和保密性优化%Optimization of Operation Speed and Confidentiality of Network Information Encryption RSA Algorithm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许柯; 刘绪崇; 符振艾; 徐宇宏

    2015-01-01

    According to traditional RSA algorithm has low speed of computing and bad encryption result for encrypting the network information, this article puts forward the RSA encryption algorithm of network information with relevant improved SMM algorithm. The first step is to optimize the modulus and multiplication time of SMM algorithm, the second step is to use the improved SMM algorithm to optimize the RSA algorithm, aiming at the modified algorithm of binary hamming weight in the index, the purpose is to reduce the iteration number, eventually improve the encryption of original algorithm. Seen from the algorithm simulation results, compared with SMM algorithm, the proposed RSA network information encryption algorithm based on improved SMM algorithm and traditional RSA encryption algorithm has faster process of encryption and decryption, and has stronger encryption effect.%针对传统RSA算法在对网络信息进行加密的时候还存在运算速度不快、加密效果不好的问题,本文提出有关改进SMM算法的RSA网络信息加密算法,第一步是针对SMM算法的求模运算量以及乘法时间进行优化操作,第二步是使用改进的SMM算法对RSA算法进行优化,针对其算法的二进制指数中的汉明重量进行改良,目的是为了减少迭代数,最终提升原来算法的加密功能。通过算法仿真实验结果可以看出,本文提出的基于改进SMM算法的RSA网络信息加密算法以及传统RSA加密算法,再与SMM算法进行比较,加密以及解密过程的速度更快,并且加密效果更强。

  17. Combination of watermarking and joint watermarking-decryption for reliability control and traceability of medical images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouslimi, D; Coatrieux, G; Cozic, M; Roux, Ch

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a novel crypto-watermarking system for the purpose of verifying the reliability of images and tracing them, i.e. identifying the person at the origin of an illegal distribution. This system couples a common watermarking method, based on Quantization Index Modulation (QIM), and a joint watermarking-decryption (JWD) approach. At the emitter side, it allows the insertion of a watermark as a proof of reliability of the image before sending it encrypted; at the reception, another watermark, a proof of traceability, is embedded during the decryption process. The scheme we propose makes interoperate such a combination of watermarking approaches taking into account risks of interferences between embedded watermarks, allowing the access to both reliability and traceability proofs. Experimental results confirm the efficiency of our system, and demonstrate it can be used to identify the physician at the origin of a disclosure even if the image has been modified.

  18. Data Encryption and Decryption Algorithm Using Hamming Code and Arithmetic Operations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kurapati Sundar Teja

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper explains the implementation of data encryption and decryption algorithm using hamming code and arithmetic operations with the help of Verilog HDL. As the days are passing the old algorithms are not remained so strong cryptanalyst are familiar with them. Hamming code is one of forward error correcting code which has got many applications. In this paper hamming code algorithm was discussed and the implementation of it was done with arithmetic operations. For high security some arithmetic operations are added with hamming code process. A 3-bit data will be encrypted as 14-bit and using decryption process again we will receives 3-bit original data. The implemented design was tested on Spartan3A FPGA kit.

  19. Pro Spring Batch

    CERN Document Server

    Minella, Michael T

    2011-01-01

    Since its release, Spring Framework has transformed virtually every aspect of Java development including web applications, security, aspect-oriented programming, persistence, and messaging. Spring Batch, one of its newer additions, now brings the same familiar Spring idioms to batch processing. Spring Batch addresses the needs of any batch process, from the complex calculations performed in the biggest financial institutions to simple data migrations that occur with many software development projects. Pro Spring Batch is intended to answer three questions: *What? What is batch processing? What

  20. A randomized RSA study concentrating especially on continuous migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molt, Mats; Ryd, Leif; Toksvig-Larsen, Sören

    2016-06-01

    Background and purpose - There is a general call for phased introduction of new implants, and one step in the introduction is an early evaluation of micromotion. We compared the micromotion in the Triathlon and its predecessor, the Duracon total knee prosthesis, concentrating especially on continuous migration over 5 years of follow-up. Patients and methods - 60 patients were randomized to receive either a cemented Triathlon total knee prosthesis or a cemented Duracon total knee prosthesis. 3-D tibial component migration was measured by radiostereometric analysis (RSA) at 3 months and at 1, 2, and 5 years. Results - There was no statistically significant difference in maximum total point motion (MTPM) between the 2 groups (p = 0.1). The mean MTPM at 5 years for the Duracon was 1.10 (SD 1.21) mm and for the Triathlon it was 0.66 (SD 0.38) mm. The numbers of continuously migrating prostheses were similar in the groups at the fifth year of follow-up; 6 of 21 prostheses in the Duracon group and 3 of 21 in the Triathlon group had migrated more than 0.3 mm between the second year and the fifth year of follow-up (p = 0.2). Interpretation - The Triathlon has a micromotion pattern similar to that of the Duracon total knee system at both short-term and medium-term follow-up, and may therefore, over time, show the same good long-term mechanical stability.

  1. Improved Trial Division Technique for Primality Checking in RSA Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumarjit Banerjee

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The RSA cryptosystem, invented by Ron Rivest, Adi Shamir and Len Adleman was first publicized in the August 1977 issue of Scientific American. The security level of this algorithm very much depends on two large prime numbers. To check the primality of large number in personal computer is huge time consuming using the best known trial division algorithm. The time complexity for primality testing has been reduced using the representation of divisors in the form of 6n±1. According to the fundamental theorem of Arithmetic, every number has unique factorization. So to check primality, it is sufficient to check if the number is divisible by any prime below the square root of the number. The set of divisors obtained by 6n±1 form representation contains many composites. These composite numbers have been reduced by 30k approach. In this paper, the number of composites has been further reduced using 210k approach. A performance analysis in time complexity has been given between 210k approach and other prior applied methods. It has been observed that the time complexity for primality testing has been reduced using 210k approach.

  2. 基于硬件加密卡技术的RSA加密引擎的局部封装%The local package of RSA encryption engine based on hardware-based encryption card technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐敏

    2011-01-01

    目前主流的VPN是通过SSL协商进行认证的,其在调用Openssl的加密引擎过程中带来一个问题,即进行数据加密所使用的公钥不是自身的密钥,于是加密引擎不仅要有对私钥解密进行硬件实现,还要有对公钥加密实现原有算法调用的技术。本文介绍了目前主流的Openssl实现硬件RSA加密引擎仅对私钥解密数据进行调用,而对于公钥加密数据不调用的局部封装方法,有着重要的实用价值。%VPN is currently the mainstream for certification through the SSL negotiation, the encryption engine in the calling pro- cess Openssl creates a problem. Namely, the public key used to encrypt the data itself is not the key, so not only has a private key encryption engine decrypt the hardware implementation, but also for public key encryption algorithm to achieve the original call technology. This article describes the current mainstream hardware Openssl RSA encryption engine to decrypt the local data encapsulation methods in which private key data calls only, and does not call for public-key encryption. It has important practical value.

  3. Image authentication based on double-image encryption and partial phase decryption in nonseparable fractional Fourier domain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Lin; Ran, Qiwen; Zhao, Tieyu

    2017-02-01

    In this paper an image authentication scheme is proposed based on double-image encryption and partial phase decryption in nonseparable Fractional Fourier transform domain. Two original images are combined and transformed into the nonseparable fractional Fourier domain. Only part of the phase information of the encrypted result is kept for decryption while the rest part of phase and all the amplitude information are discarded. The two recovered images are hardly recognized by visual inspection but can be authenticated by the nonlinear correlation algorithm. The numerical simulations demonstrate the viability and validity of the proposed image authentication scheme.

  4. Spring batch essentials

    CERN Document Server

    Rao, P Raja Malleswara

    2015-01-01

    If you are a Java developer with basic knowledge of Spring and some experience in the development of enterprise applications, and want to learn about batch application development in detail, then this book is ideal for you. This book will be perfect as your next step towards building simple yet powerful batch applications on a Java-based platform.

  5. Longitudinal associations between temperament and socioemotional outcomes in young children: the moderating role of RSA and gender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales, Santiago; Beekman, Charles; Blandon, Alysia Y; Stifter, Cynthia A; Buss, Kristin A

    2015-01-01

    Temperament is an important predictor of socioemotional adjustment, such as externalizing and internalizing symptoms. However, there is not a one-to-one correspondence between temperamental predispositions and these outcomes, implying that other factors also contribute to the development of internalizing and externalizing problems. Self-regulation is believed to interact with temperament, and has been studied as a predictor for later socioemotional outcomes. Respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) is a psychophysiological measure of self-regulation that has been studied as a moderator of risk. The primary aim of the present study was to test if RSA baseline and RSA reactivity would moderate the link between temperament and socioemotional outcomes. Mothers reported the temperament of their infants (20 months; N = 154), RSA was collected at 24- and 42-months, and mothers reported externalizing and internalizing behaviors at kindergarten entry. RSA baseline and RSA reactivity moderated the relation between exuberant temperament and externalizing behaviors. However, these results were only significant for girls, such that high RSA baseline and greater RSA suppression predicted more externalizing behaviors when exuberance was high. Fearful temperament predicted later internalizing behaviors, but no moderation was present. These results are discussed in light of recent evidence regarding gender differences in the role of RSA as a protective factor for risk.

  6. Remarks on the bounds for cryptanalysis of low private key RSA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Haijian Zhou; Ping Luo; Daoshun Wang; Yiqi Dai

    2009-01-01

    Boneh and Durfee have developed a cryptanalytic algorithm on low private key RSA. The algorithm is based on lattice basis reduc-tion and breaks RSA with private key d < N0.292. Later on, an improved version by Blomer and May enhanced the efficiency, while reaching approximately this same upper bound. Unfortunately, in both the algorithms, there is a critical error in theoretical analysis, leading to the overestimated upper bound N0.292. In this paper we present a more precise analytical model, with which the theoretical upper bound on d is modified to approximately d < N0.277 for ordinary RSA systems with a 1024-bit public key (N, e).

  7. Security analysis of RSA cryptosystem algorithm and it’s properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Chenglian [School of Mathematics and Computer Science, Long Yan university, Lonyan 364012 (China); Guo, Yongning, E-mail: guoyn@163.com, E-mail: linjuanliucaihong@qq.com; Lin, Juan, E-mail: guoyn@163.com, E-mail: linjuanliucaihong@qq.com [Department of Mathematics and Computer Science, Fuqing Branch of Fujian Normal University, Fuqing 350300 (China)

    2014-10-06

    The information technology rapidly development and dramatically changed the life style people, in addition to shortening the distance of communication, but also promote the smooth exchange of information flows. However, derivatives to facilitate the relative safety of these issues, since into the digital information age, the majority of the practitioners of engineering and technical personnel and technical workers in terms of technology, information security is increasingly becoming an important issue. The RSA algorithm was published in 1978. It is a kind of very popular and widely application modem cryptosystem in the world. Even though there are lots of articles to discuss about how to break the RSA, but it is still secure today. In this paper, the authors would like to introduce a variant attack to RSA.

  8. A Systematic Methodology for Multi-Images Encryption and Decryption Based on Single Chaotic System and FPGA Embedded Implementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanzhong Zheng

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A systematic methodology is developed for multi-images encryption and decryption and field programmable gate array (FPGA embedded implementation by using single discrete time chaotic system. To overcome the traditional limitations that a chaotic system can only encrypt or decrypt one image, this paper initiates a new approach to design n-dimensional (n-D discrete time chaotic controlled systems via some variables anticontrol, which can achieve multipath drive-response synchronization. To that end, the designed n-dimensional discrete time chaotic controlled systems are used for multi-images encryption and decryption. A generalized design principle and the corresponding implementation steps are also given. Based on the FPGA embedded hardware system working platform with XUP Virtex-II type, a chaotic secure communication system for three digital color images encryption and decryption by using a 7D discrete time chaotic system is designed, and the related system design and hardware implementation results are demonstrated, with the related mathematical problems analyzed.

  9. Decryptable to Your Eyes: Visualization of Security Protocols at the User Interface

    CERN Document Server

    Nyang, DaeHun; Kwon, Taekyoung; Kang, Brent; Stavrou, Angelos

    2011-01-01

    The design of authentication protocols, for online banking services in particular and any service that is of sensitive nature in general, is quite challenging. Indeed, enforcing security guarantees has overhead thus imposing additional computation and design considerations that do not always meet usability and user requirements. On the other hand, relaxing assumptions and rigorous security design to improve the user experience can lead to security breaches that can harm the users' trust in the system. In this paper, we demonstrate how careful visualization design can enhance not only the security but also the usability of the authentication process. To that end, we propose a family of visualized authentication protocols, a visualized transaction verification, and a "decryptable to your eyes only" protocol. Through rigorous analysis, we verify that our protocols are immune to many of the challenging authentication attacks applicable in the literature. Furthermore, using an extensive case study on a prototype o...

  10. Generation of keys for image optical encryption in spatially incoherent light aimed at reduction of image decryption error

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheremkhin, Pavel A.; Evtikhiev, Nikolay N.; Krasnov, Vitaly V.; Rodin, Vladislav G.; Starikov, Sergey N.

    2014-05-01

    At present time methods of optical encryption are actively developed. The majority of existing methods of optical encryption use not only light intensity distribution, easily registered with photosensors, but also its phase distribution which require application of complex holographic schemes in conjunction with spatially coherent light. This leads to complex optical schemes and low decryption quality. To eliminate these disadvantages it is possible to implement optical encryption using spatially incoherent illumination which requires registration of light intensity distribution only. However this applies new restrictions on encryption keys: Fourier spectrum amplitude distribution of encryption key should overlap Fourier spectrum amplitude distribution of image to be encrypted otherwise loss of information is unavoidable. Therefore it seems that best key should have white spectrum. On the other hand due to fact that only light intensity distribution is registered, spectra of image to be encrypted and encryption key always have peaks at zero frequency and their heights depend on corresponding total energy. Since encrypted image contains noise, ratio of its average spectrum energy to noise average energy determines signal to noise ratio of decrypted image. Therefore ratio of amplitude at zero frequency to average spectrum amplitude (RZA) of encryption key defines decrypted images quality. For generation of encryption keys with low RZA method of direct search with random trajectory (DSRT) was used. To estimate impact of key RZA on decrypted images error numerical experiments were conducted. For experiments keys with different RZA values but with same energy value were generated and used. Numerically simulated optical encryption and decryption of set of test images was conducted. Results of experiment demonstrate that application of keys with low RZA generated by DSRT method leads to up to 20% lower error in comparison to keys generated by means of uniform random

  11. 50 CFR 648.207 - Herring Research Set-Aside (RSA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Herring Research Set-Aside (RSA). 648.207... during the interim years and decides to publish a second RFP. Proposals to fund research that would start..., researchers must provide the Council and NMFS with a report of research findings, which must include:...

  12. High-precision measurements of cementless acetabular components using model-based RSA: an experimental study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baad-Hansen, Thomas; Kold, Søren; Kaptein, Bart L;

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In RSA, tantalum markers attached to metal-backed acetabular cups are often difficult to detect on stereo radiographs due to the high density of the metal shell. This results in occlusion of the prosthesis markers and may lead to inconclusive migration results. Within the last few yea...

  13. Model-based shape matching of orthopaedic implants in RSA and fluoroscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prins, Anne Hendrik

    2015-01-01

    Model-based shape matching is commonly used, for example to measure the migration of an implant with Roentgen stereophotogrammetric analysis (RSA) or to measure implant kinematics with fluoroscopy. The aim of this thesis was to investigate the general usability of shape matching and to improve the r

  14. A collection of insurance brands: The story of RSA in Ireland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Brophy

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Many firms in financial services opt for corporate branding in order to unify their activities and leverage a strong brand across business units. While this may be the case, some financial service organisations retain the approach of using a collection of brands within the organisation. RSA has opted to retain its existing brands while gaining market share in Ireland. This paper studies the approach that RSA has taken in its brand architecture. Through a literature review of branding and rebranding, along with a historical study of the RSA Company going back to its foundation, the author attempts to chart the direction of the company alongside industry changes, such as product distribution and also the introduction of other stakeholders to the marketplace. Unlike its insurance peers, RSA is one of the few insurers that operates a portfolio of brands that operate in different markets within the industry. While the company is well known as a large insurer in Ireland, it retains its existing brands in a successful way through its product distribution

  15. Hybrid Batch Bayesian Optimization

    CERN Document Server

    Azimi, Javad; Fern, Xiaoli

    2012-01-01

    Bayesian Optimization aims at optimizing an unknown non-convex/concave function that is costly to evaluate. We are interested in application scenarios where concurrent function evaluations are possible. Under such a setting, BO could choose to either sequentially evaluate the function, one input at a time and wait for the output of the function before making the next selection, or evaluate the function at a batch of multiple inputs at once. These two different settings are commonly referred to as the sequential and batch settings of Bayesian Optimization. In general, the sequential setting leads to better optimization performance as each function evaluation is selected with more information, whereas the batch setting has an advantage in terms of the total experimental time (the number of iterations). In this work, our goal is to combine the strength of both settings. Specifically, we systematically analyze Bayesian optimization using Gaussian process as the posterior estimator and provide a hybrid algorithm t...

  16. Heuristics for batching and sequencing in batch processing machines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuda Basnet

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we discuss the “batch processing” problem, where there are multiple jobs to be processed in flow shops. These jobs can however be formed into batches and the number of jobs in a batch is limited by the capacity of the processing machines to accommodate the jobs. The processing time required by a batch in a machine is determined by the greatest processing time of the jobs included in the batch. Thus, the batch processing problem is a mix of batching and sequencing – the jobs need to be grouped into distinct batches, the batches then need to be sequenced through the flow shop. We apply certain newly developed heuristics to the problem and present computational results. The contributions of this paper are deriving a lower bound, and the heuristics developed and tested in this paper.

  17. A new distribution scheme of decryption keys used in optical verification system with multiple-wavelength information

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Niu Chun-Hui; Zhang Yan; Gu Ben-Yuan

    2005-01-01

    A new distribution scheme of decryption keys used in optical verification systems is proposed. The encryption procedure is digitally implemented with the use of an iteration algorithm in computer. Three target images corresponding to three wavelengths are encoded into three sets of phase-only masks (POMs) by a special distributing method. These three sets of POMs are assigned to three authorized users as the personal identification. A lensless optical system is used as the verification system. In the verification procedure, every two of the three authorized users can pass the verification procedure cooperatively, but only one user cannot do. Numerical simulation shows that the proposed distribution scheme of decryption keys not only can improve the security level of verification system, but also can bring convenience and flexibility for authorized users.

  18. A New Algorithm of Encryption and Decryption of Images Using Chaotic Mapping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Musheer Ahmad

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The combination of chaotic theory and cryptography forms an important field of information security. In the past decade, chaos based image encryption is given much attention in the research of information security and a lot of image encryption algorithms based on chaotic maps have been proposed. Due to some inherent features of images like bulk data capacity and high data redundancy, the encryption of images is different from that of texts; therefore it is difficult to handle them by traditional encryption methods. In this communication, a new image encryption algorithm based on three different chaotic maps is proposed. In the proposed algorithm, the plain-image is first decomposed into 8x8 size blocks and then the block based shuffling of image is carried out using 2D Cat map. Further, the control parameters of shuffling are randomly generated by employing 2D coupled Logistic map. After that the shuffled image is encrypted using chaotic sequence generated by one-dimensional Logistic map. The experimental results show that the proposed algorithm can successfully encrypt/decrypt the images with same secret keys, and the algorithm has good encryption effect, large key space and high sensitivity to a small change in secret keys. Moreover, the simulation analysis also demonstrates that the encrypted images have good information entropy, very low correlation coefficients and the distribution of gray values of an encrypted image has random-like behavior.

  19. VLSI Implementation of Encryption and Decryption System Using Hamming Code Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fazal Noorbasha

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we propose an optimized VLSI implementation of encryption and decryption system using hamming code algorithm. In the present field of communication has got many applications, and in every field the data is encoded at the transmitter and transfer on a communication channel and receive at the receiver after data is decoded. During the broadcast of data it might get degraded because of some noise on the channel. So it is crucial for the receiver to have some function which can recognize and correct the error in the received data. Hamming code is one of such forward error correcting code which has got many applications. In this paper the algorithm for hamming code is discussed and then implementation of it in verilog is done to get the results. Hamming code is an upgrading over parity check method. Here a code is implemented in verilog in which 4-bit of information data is transmitted with 3-redundancy bits. In order to do that the proposed method uses a Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA. It is known that FPGA provides quick implementation and fast hardware verification. It gives facilities of reconfiguring the design construct unlimited number of times. The HDL code is written in verilog, Gate Level Circuit and Layout is implemented in CMOS technology.

  20. Intellectual property rights vs. public access rights: ethical aspects of the DeCSS decryptation program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Vaagan

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. In 1999-2000, a Norwegian youth cracked a DVD-access code and published a decryptation program on the Internet. He was sued by the US DVD Copy Control Association (DVD-CCA and the Norwegian Motion Picture Association (MAP, allies of the US Motion Picture Association of America (MPAA, arrested by Norwegian police and charged with data crime. Two Norwegian court rulings in 2003 unanimously ruled that the program did not amount to a breach of Norwegian law, and he was fully acquitted. In the US, there have been related cases, some with other outcomes. Method. Based on a theoretical framework developed by Zwass, the paper discusses these court rulings and the wider issues of intellectual property rights versus public access rights. Analysis. The DVD-Jon case illustrates that intellectual property rights can conflict with public access rights, as the struggle between proprietary software and public domain software, as well as the SPARC and Open Archives Initiative reflect. Results. An assessment of the DVD-Jon case based on the Zwass framework does not give a clear information ethics answer. The analysis depends on whether one ascribes to consequentialist (e.g., utilitarian or de-ontological reflection, and also on which side of the digital gap is to be accorded most weight. Conclusion. While copyright interests are being legally strengthened, there may be ethically- grounded access rights that outweigh property rights.

  1. An Encryption-Decryption Method Using XOR Gate Based on the XPM between O-Band and C-Band Light Waves

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Ya-Ping; WU Chong-Qing; WANG Zhi; WANG Yong-Jun; YANG Shuang-Shou

    2009-01-01

    An all-optical encryption-decryption method using an exclusive-or gate hazed on the cross-phase modulation between O-band and C-band light waves is proposed. The feasibility of the encryption-decryption technique is verified by handling binary signals at 2.5Gbps, with less than 3dB penalty of extinction ratio and 1 dB polarization dependent loss.

  2. Algoritmo de criptografia RSA: análise entre a segurança e velocidade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Santos Andrade

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho é abordar a relação existente entre a busca pela segurança de dados e a velocidade de codificação e decodificação do algoritmo de criptografia RSA, que utiliza um par de números inteiros como ‘chave’. Considerando o tamanho da chave como requisito de segurança, devido à dificuldade computacional de fatorar números inteiros extensos, simulamos estes processos, com o algoritmo implementado na linguagem de programação C, utilizando chaves aleatórias de 1024, 2048 e 4096 bits. Desta forma, observamos o tempo de processamento em função do tamanho das chaves, confrontando segurança e desempenho.Palavras-chave: criptografia; algoritmo RSA; segurança; desempenho.

  3. Observation of switching between SA and RSA in silver/goldpolyaniline nanocomposite films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anand, P. B.; Jayalekshmi, S.

    2013-09-01

    In the present work, attempts have been made to embed Silver (Ag) /Gold (Au) - nanoparticles into polyaniline (PANI) matrix using an easy wet chemical route. It is expected that the resulting nanocomposite will show the interesting third order nonlinear optical characteristics of Ag/Au-nanoparicles modified by the advantageous properties of the conducting polymer PANI. Structural characterisation of Ag/Au-PANI nanocomposite samples was done using X-ray diffraction and Raman studies. UV-visible absorption spectra show the presence of surface plasmon resonance (SPR) peaks centred at 410 nm and 520 nm for Ag-PANI and Au-PANI nanocomposite films respectively, which is a signature of nano dimensionality of the composite samples. Third order nonlinear behaviour of the nanocomposite films was analysed using Z Scan technique employing the second harmonic output (532 nm) of a Q-switched Nd:YAG laser (Minilite, Continuum). It is seen that Ag/Au-PANI nanocomposite film samples show simultaneous presence of saturable absorption (SA) and reversible saturable absorptions (RSA) behaviour at 50 μJ laser excitation. This switching between SA and RSA has been reported in many metal nanocomposite systems. However similar behavior in nanocomposite film samples has not been pursued much. The highlight of the present work is the observation of the switching between SA and RSA in Ag/Au polyaniline nanocomposite films. The switching behavior can be ascribed to the interplay between ground state plasmon band bleaching and excited state absorption. Two photon assisted absorption has been identified as the prime factor contributing towards the observed RSA in these nanocomposite films.

  4. Precision measurements of the RSA method using a phantom model of hip prosthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mäkinen, Tatu J; Koort, Jyri K; Mattila, Kimmo T; Aro, Hannu T

    2004-04-01

    Radiostereometric analysis (RSA) has become one of the recommended techniques for pre-market evaluation of new joint implant designs. In this study we evaluated the effect of repositioning of X-ray tubes and phantom model on the precision of the RSA method. In precision measurements, we utilized mean error of rigid body fitting (ME) values as an internal control for examinations. ME value characterizes relative motion among the markers within each rigid body and is conventionally used to detect loosening of a bone marker. Three experiments, each consisting of 10 double examinations, were performed. In the first experiment, the X-ray tubes and the phantom model were not repositioned between one double examination. In experiments two and three, the X-ray tubes were repositioned between one double examination. In addition, the position of the phantom model was changed in experiment three. Results showed that significant differences could be found in 2 of 12 comparisons when evaluating the translation and rotation of the prosthetic components. Repositioning procedures increased ME values mimicking deformation of rigid body segments. Thus, ME value seemed to be a more sensitive parameter than migration values in this study design. These results confirmed the importance of standardized radiographic technique and accurate patient positioning for RSA measurements. Standardization and calibration procedures should be performed with phantom models in order to avoid unnecessary radiation dose of the patients. The present model gives the means to establish and to follow the intra-laboratory precision of the RSA method. The model is easily applicable in any research unit and allows the comparison of the precision values in different laboratories of multi-center trials.

  5. IMPLEMENTASI ALGORITMA KRIPTOGRAFI RIVEST SHAMIR ADLEMAN (RSA DAN VIGENERE CIPHER PADA GAMBAR BITMAP 8 BIT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andro Alif Rakhman

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Penggunaan informasi melalui media gambar atau citra mempunyai beberapa kelemahan, salah satunya adalah kemudahan melakukan manipulasi citra oleh pihak-pihak tertentu dengan bantuan teknologi yang berkembang sekarang ini. Upaya dalam peningkatan pengamanan pengiriman informasi melalui media gambar dan perlindungan atas hak cipta hasil karya media digital maka algoritma kriptografi dapat diterapkan untuk pengamanan citra tersebut. Pada penelitian ini, menggunakan perpaduan algoritma Rivest Shamir Adleman (RSA dan Vigenere Cipher untuk melakukan pengamanan citra. Citra yang akan digunakan yaitu file bitmap dengan kedalaman piksel 8 bit. Citra akan diolah dengan cara mengenkripsi nilai indeks warna RGB pada masing-masing piksel dengan menggunakan algoritma kriptografi RSA terlebih dahulu kemudian dilanjutkan dengan menggunakan algoritma Vigenere Cipher. Sedangkan untuk tahap pendekripsiannya dilakukan dengan menggunakan algoritma Vigenere Cipher terlebuh dahulu kemudian menggunakan algoritma kriptografi RSA. Selanjutnya dilakukan analisis pengaruh penerapan algoritma Rivest Shamir Adleman (RSA dan Vigenere Cipher pada citra yang akan diamankan, meliputi analisis ruang kunci, analisis perubahan indeks warna, dan analisis waktu proses enkripsi dan deskripsi.Pengujian yang dilakukan untuk analisis tersebut, menggunakan citra berdimensi 3840 x 2160 piksel dan ukuran file 7,91 MB dan citra berdimensi 5012 x 2819 piksel dan ukuran file 13,4 MB. Analisis ruang kunci menunjukkan bahwa citra telah berhasil didekripsikan dan secara visual pola citra kembali ke bentuk semula tanpa mengalami cacat sedikitpun. Analisis perubahan indek warna, dilihat secara visual pada hasil palette warna membuktikan bahwa metode enkripsi yang dirancang telah berhasil digunakan untuk memperbaruhi nilai indeks warna citra asli. Sedangkan dari analisis waktu proses enkripsi dan deskripsi dapat disimpulkan Rata-rata lama waktu yang dibutuhkan untuk proses dekripsi lebih lama

  6. RSA加密算法中MPI的应用%Application of MPI in RSA encryption algorithm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陆玉阳

    2015-01-01

    RSA加密算法在进行复杂判断和大数运算时,计算时间往往花费较多,对计算机的运行速度、存储容量等方面具有较高的要求.MPI能够提供较快的数值计算和数据处理能力,提供高性能并行计算.该文通过在RSA加密算法中MPI的应用,通过实践证明MPI并行计算可以改进RSA算法,提高加密速度、减少容量需求等.%RSA encryption algorithm in the complex judgment and operation of large Nbers, calculating the time tend to spend more, the computer run faster, have higher requirements in terms of storage capacity. MPI provides fast Nerical calculation and data processing capability, providing high performance parallel computing. Based on RSA encryption algorithm in application of MPI, MPI parallel computing can improve the RSA algorithm proved by practice, increase speed, reduce capacity requirements, and so on.

  7. Introducing random safety audits (RSA) in a neonatal intensive care unit (NICU).

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Szymanska, M

    2012-01-31

    Random safety audits (RSA) have been shown to be effective in improving standards of clinical practice. 19 data collection audits were performed relating to hygiene, safe prescribing, oxygen pulse oximetry monitoring and documentation in keeping with the requirements of the new Medical Practitioners Act (MPA) 2007. Hygiene audits (range from 20\\/25 to 21\\/21 80%-100%) and safe prescribing audits (range from 23\\/25 to 25\\/25 86%-100%) achieved n=25 100% compliance with unit guidelines over a 3 month period. Compliance with oxygen pulse oximetry monitoring guideline limits improved from 4\\/27 (15%) to 9\\/16 (56%). Compliance with requirement and use of Physician IMC registration number in documentation was only 10\\/18 (56%). RSA\\'s led to improvements in hygiene and prescribing. Compliance with oxygen monitoring guideline limits highlighted the need for greater education. Awareness of legal requirements relating to documentation improved but this has not translated into a change in practice. RSA\\'s can facilitate real time quality improvement in daily clinical practice.

  8. Aspects of ultra-high-precision diamond machining of RSA 443 optical aluminium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mkoko, Z.; Abou-El-Hossein, K.

    2015-08-01

    Optical aluminium alloys such as 6061-T6 are traditionally used in ultra-high precision manufacturing for making optical mirrors for aerospace and other applications. However, the optics industry has recently witnessed the development of more advanced optical aluminium grades that are capable of addressing some of the issues encountered when turning with single-point natural monocrystalline diamond cutters. The advent of rapidly solidified aluminium (RSA) grades has generally opened up new possibilities for ultra-high precision manufacturing of optical components. In this study, experiments were conducted with single-point diamond cutters on rapidly solidified aluminium RSA 443 material. The objective of this study is to observe the effects of depth of cut and feed rate at a fixed rotational speed on the tool wear rate and resulting surface roughness of diamond turned specimens. This is done to gain further understanding of the rate of wear on the diamond cutters versus the surface texture generated on the RSA 443 material. The diamond machining experiments yielded machined surfaces which are less reflective but with consistent surface roughness values. Cutting tools were observed for wear through scanning microscopy; relatively low wear pattern was evident on the diamond tool edge. The highest tool wear were obtained at higher depth of cut and increased feed rate.

  9. Dynamic Batch Bayesian Optimization

    CERN Document Server

    Azimi, Javad; Fern, Xiaoli

    2011-01-01

    Bayesian optimization (BO) algorithms try to optimize an unknown function that is expensive to evaluate using minimum number of evaluations/experiments. Most of the proposed algorithms in BO are sequential, where only one experiment is selected at each iteration. This method can be time inefficient when each experiment takes a long time and more than one experiment can be ran concurrently. On the other hand, requesting a fix-sized batch of experiments at each iteration causes performance inefficiency in BO compared to the sequential policies. In this paper, we present an algorithm that asks a batch of experiments at each time step t where the batch size p_t is dynamically determined in each step. Our algorithm is based on the observation that the sequence of experiments selected by the sequential policy can sometimes be almost independent from each other. Our algorithm identifies such scenarios and request those experiments at the same time without degrading the performance. We evaluate our proposed method us...

  10. Modelling of Batch Process Operations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2011-01-01

    Here a batch cooling crystalliser is modelled and simulated as is a batch distillation system. In the batch crystalliser four operational modes of the crystalliser are considered, namely: initial cooling, nucleation, crystal growth and product removal. A model generation procedure is shown...

  11. An RSA-Based Leakage-Resilient Authenticated Key Exchange Protocol Secure against Replacement Attacks, and Its Extensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Seonghan; Kobara, Kazukuni; Imai, Hideki

    Secure channels can be realized by an authenticated key exchange (AKE) protocol that generates authenticated session keys between the involving parties. In [32], Shin et al., proposed a new kind of AKE (RSA-AKE) protocol whose goal is to provide high efficiency and security against leakage of stored secrets as much as possible. Let us consider more powerful attacks where an adversary completely controls the communications and the stored secrets (the latter is denoted by “replacement” attacks). In this paper, we first show that the RSA-AKE protocol [32] is no longer secure against such an adversary. The main contributions of this paper are as follows: (1) we propose an RSA-based leakage-resilient AKE (RSA-AKE2) protocol that is secure against active attacks as well as replacement attacks; (2) we prove that the RSA-AKE2 protocol is secure against replacement attacks based on the number theory results; (3) we show that it is provably secure in the random oracle model, by showing the reduction to the RSA one-wayness, under an extended model that covers active attacks and replacement attacks; (4) in terms of efficiency, the RSA-AKE2 protocol is comparable to [32] in the sense that the client needs to compute only one modular multiplication with pre-computation; and (5) we also discuss about extensions of the RSA-AKE2 protocol for several security properties (i.e., synchronization of stored secrets, privacy of client and solution to server compromise-impersonation attacks).

  12. The stress-inducible displacement detected through RSA in non-migrating UKR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bragonzoni, Laura; Russo, Alessandro; Loreti, Ivano; Montagna, Luisa; Visani, Andrea; Marcacci, Maurilio

    2005-08-01

    Roentgen stereophotogrammetric analysis (RSA) under stress conditions was used to investigate possible stress-inducible displacement of the tibial component of unicompartmental knee prostheses (UKR) in which the stability was previously assessed by radiographic evaluation and standard supine RSA examinations. Sixteen patients, implanted with Duracon UNI(R) prosthesis, were selected for this study. The RSA protocol included examinations in plain upright standing posture and during execution of stress-inducing tasks in weight-bearing stance. The first follow-up was performed at an average of 14 months, and the second one at 26 months. The results showed non-negligible stress-induced rotations of the prosthetic tibial component in all the patients in most of the stress tasks performed. Rotational stress tasks and squatting turned out to be the stress conditions in which induced displacement reached the most significant values (p<0.05). These micromotions occurred mainly around the transverse axis of the knee joint and in one examination around the sagittal axis. Stress-induced translations were negligible in all the examinations. Moreover, we focused our attention on two patients suffering from inexplicable pain, and we observed a significant difference in the inducible rotation around the x-axis between these patients and the remaining fourteen. Stress-inducible displacement is a common finding in knee prostheses, but we observed that in patients with inexplicable pain, these micromotions reached values greater than the median calculated on patients without any pain. This result suggests the introduction of the stress-inducible displacement as a new parameter to be taken into consideration when analyzing the outcome of patients treated by UKR.

  13. 基于Common Lisp的RSA加密实现%RSA Encryption Based on Common Lisp Implementation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    解晨

    2013-01-01

    著名的非对称密钥加密系统——RSA公钥加密系统,是当今流行的加密系统,其简单的实现和高效的保密性使RSA加密算法成为当下最有影响力的公钥加密算法,并且其堪称完美的理论基础使得RSA加密算法可以抵抗目前所知的所有密码攻击.该文探究了RSA加密算法的原理,并使用一门小众语言Common Lisp对RSA加密进行了实现.%Asymmetric key encryption system -- the famous RSA public key encryption system, the encryption system is popu?lar, its simple implementation and high security RSA encryption algorithm to become the most influential contemporary public-key encryption algorithm, and it is theoretical basis of perfect makes the RSA encryption algorithm can resist all known attacks. This paper discusses the principle of RSA encryption algorithm, and realizes the encryption of RSA using a minority language Common Lisp.

  14. Non-random association of the Rsa I polymorphic site 5' to the beta-globin gene with major sickle cell haplotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharon, B; Poncz, M; Surrey, S; Schwartz, E

    1988-01-01

    There are three main African haplotypes associated with the sickle mutation on chromosome 11. We have examined an Rsa I polymorphism 550 bp 5' to the beta-globin gene to study the degree of linkage disequilibrium between this Rsa I site and the three haplotypes. This Rsa I site is contained within the 10.3 kb or less area of randomization separating the 5'- and 3'-haplotype clusters. The beta S-containing chromosomes of the Benin and Senegal haplotypes are not cut, while those of the Central African Republic are cleaved by Rsa I at this site. Possible explanations of these findings are discussed.

  15. Fibrinogen adsorption mechanisms at the gold substrate revealed by QCM-D measurements and RSA modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubiak, Katarzyna; Adamczyk, Zbigniew; Cieśla, Michał

    2016-03-01

    Adsorption kinetics of fibrinogen at a gold substrate at various pHs was thoroughly studied using the QCM-D method. The experimental were interpreted in terms of theoretical calculations performed according to the random sequential adsorption model (RSA). In this way, the hydration functions and water factors of fibrinogen monolayers were quantitatively evaluated at various pHs. It was revealed that for the lower range of fibrinogen coverage the hydration function were considerably lower than previously obtained for the silica sensor [33]. The lower hydration of fibrinogen monolayers on the gold sensor was attributed to its higher roughness. However, for higher fibrinogen coverage the hydration functions for both sensors became identical exhibiting an universal behavior. By using the hydration functions, the fibrinogen adsorption/desorption runs derived from QCM-D measurements were converted to the Γd vs. the time relationships. This allowed to precisely determine the maximum coverage that varied between 1.6mgm(-2) at pH 3.5 and 4.5mgm(-2) at pH 7.4 (for ionic strength of 0.15M). These results agree with theoretical eRSA modeling and previous experimental data derived by using ellipsometry, OWLS and TIRF. Various fibrinogen adsorption mechanisms were revealed by exploiting the maximum coverage data. These results allow one to develop a method for preparing fibrinogen monolayers of well-controlled coverage and molecule orientation.

  16. Algebra Structure of RSA Arithmetic%RSA算法中的代数结构

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    司光东; 杨加喜; 谭示崇; 肖国镇

    2011-01-01

    本文首次应用二次剩余理论对RSA中的代数结构进行了研究.计算出了Zn中模n的二次剩余和二次非剩余的个数,对它们之间的关系进行了分析,并用所有二次剩余构成的群对Zn进行了分割,证明了所有陪集构成的商群是一个Klein四元群.对强RSA的结构进行了研究,证明了强RSA中存在阶为φ(n)/2的元素,并且强RSA中Zn可由三个二次非剩余的元素生成.确定了Zn中任意元素的阶,证明了Zn中所有元素阶的最大值是lcm(p-1,q-1),并且给出了如何寻找Zn中最大阶元素方法.从而解决了RSA中的代数结构.%Based on the theory of quadratic residues, the algebra structure of RSA arithmetic is researched in this paper. This work calculates numbers of quadratic residues and non-residues in the group Zn* and investigates their relationship. Z*n is divided up by the group made up with all quadratic residues in Z*n and all cosets form a quotient group of order 4 which is a Klein group.Studyed the structure of strong RSA further,it shows that the element of order φ( n)/2 exists and the group Z*n can be generated by three elements of quadratic non-residues. Let the facterization n = p · q, the order of each element can be calculated, and the biggest order of all element is lcn ( p - 1, q - 1 ) in Z*n. It also shows how to find the element of the biggest order. So the algebra structure of RSA arithmetic is solved.

  17. Optical image cryptosystem using chaotic phase-amplitude masks encoding and least-data-driven decryption by compressive sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Jun; Zhang, Jing

    2015-03-01

    In our proposed optical image cryptosystem, two pairs of phase-amplitude masks are generated from the chaotic web map for image encryption in the 4f double random phase-amplitude encoding (DRPAE) system. Instead of transmitting the real keys and the enormous masks codes, only a few observed measurements intermittently chosen from the masks are delivered. Based on compressive sensing paradigm, we suitably refine the series expansions of web map equations to better reconstruct the underlying system. The parameters of the chaotic equations can be successfully calculated from observed measurements and then can be used to regenerate the correct random phase-amplitude masks for decrypting the encoded information. Numerical simulations have been performed to verify the proposed optical image cryptosystem. This cryptosystem can provide a new key management and distribution method. It has the advantages of sufficiently low occupation of the transmitted key codes and security improvement of information transmission without sending the real keys.

  18. Improvisation of Security aspect of Steganographic System by applying RSA Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manoj Kumar Ramaiya

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The applications accessing multimedia systems and content over the internet have grown extremely in the earlier few years. Moreover, several end users or intruders can simply use tools to synthesize and modify valuable information. The safety of information over unsafe communication channel has constantly been a primary concern in the consideration of researchers. It became one of the most important problems for information technology and essential to safeguard this valuable information during transmission. It is also important to determine where and how such a multimedia file is confidential. Thus, a need exists for emerging technology that helps to defend the integrity of information and protected the intellectual property privileges of owners. Various approaches are coming up to safeguard the data from unauthorized person. Steganography and Cryptography are two different techniques for security data over communication network. The primary purpose of Cryptography is to create message concept unintelligible or ciphertext might produce suspicious in the mind of opponents. On the other hand, Steganography implant secrete message in to a cover media and hides its existence. As a normal practice, data embedding is employed in communication, image, text or multimedia contents for the purpose of copyright, authentication and digital signature etc. Both techniques provides the sufficient degree of security but are vulnerable to intruder’s attacks when used over unsecure communication channel. Attempt to combines the two techniques i.e. Cryptography and Steganography, did results in security improvement. The existing steganographic algorithms primarily focus on embedding approach with less attention to pre-processing of data which offer flexibility, robustness and high security level. Our proposed model is based on Public key cryptosystem or RSA algorithms in which RSA algorithm is used for message encryption in encoding function and the resultant

  19. Crystal structure of Pseudomonas aeruginosa RsaL bound to promoter DNA reaffirms its role as a global regulator involved in quorum-sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Huaping; Gan, Jianhua; Zhao, Jingru; Kong, Weina; Zhang, Jing; zhu, Miao; Li, Fan; Song, Yaqin; Qin, Jin; Liang, Haihua

    2017-01-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa possesses at least three well-defined quorum-sensing (QS) (las, rhl and pqs) systems that control a variety of important functions including virulence. RsaL is a QS repressor that reduces QS signal production and ensures homeostasis by functioning in opposition to LasR. However, its regulatory role in signal homeostasis remains elusive. Here, we conducted a ChIP-seq assay and revealed that RsaL bound to two new targets, the intergenic regions of PA2228/PA2229 and pqsH/cdpR, which are required for PQS synthesis. Deletion of rsaL reduced transcription of pqsH and cdpR, thus decreasing PQS signal production. The ΔrsaL strain exhibited increased pyocyanin production and reduced biofilm formation, which are dependent on CdpR or PqsH activity. In addition, we solved the structure of the RsaL–DNA complex at a 2.4 Å resolution. Although the overall sequence similarity is quite low, RsaL folds into a HTH-like structure, which is conserved among many transcriptional regulators. Complementation results of the rsaL knockout cells with different rsaL mutants further confirmed the critical role of the DNA-binding residues (including Arg20, Gln27, Gln38, Gly35, Ser37 and Ser42) that are essential for DNA binding. Our findings reveal new targets of RsaL and provide insight into the detailed characterization of the RsaL–DNA interaction. PMID:27924027

  20. Three Year RSA Evaluation of Vitamin E Diffused Highly Cross-linked Polyethylene Liners and Cup Stability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sillesen, Nanna H; Greene, Meridith E; Nebergall, Audrey K;

    2015-01-01

    Vitamin E diffusion into highly cross-linked polyethylene (E-XLPE) is a method for enhancing oxidative stability of acetabular liners. The purpose of this study was to evaluate in vivo penetration of E-XLPE using radiostereometric analysis (RSA). Eighty-four hips were recruited into a prospective...

  1. Association between estrogen receptor β gene Rsa1 polymorphism and depressive disorder in peri-menopausal and menopausal women

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Xue-wen; REN Yong-hui; LI Xue-cheng; GAO Cheng-ge; LI Fen; HAN Zhen; LI Xu

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To investigate estrogen receptor β (ERβ) gene Rsa1 polymorphism and concentration of estrogen, FSH and LH in serum in peri-menopausal and menopausal women with depressive disorder. Methods: Seventy-four peri-menopausal and menopausal women with depressive disorder met ICD-10 and CCMD-3 assessment criteria for depressive disorder were recruited. ERβ gene Rsa1 polymorphism was analyzed with PCR-RFLP. Serum levels of estrogen, FSH and LH were measured by magnetism-ELISA. Results: The respective frequency of ERβ gene Rsa1 polymorphism was no significant difference between women with depressive disorder and the healthy women (χ2=1.106,P>0.05). The serum level of estrogen was lower in women with depressive disorder than in the healthy women (P<0.05). No difference was found for FSH and LH between two groups. Conclusion: ERβ gene Rsa1 polymorphism may be not associated with depressive disorder in the peri-menopausal and menopausal women. The serum level of estrogen is associated with depressive disorder in the peri-menopausal and menopausal women.

  2. Data-driven batch schuduling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bent, John [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Denehy, Tim [GOOGLE; Arpaci - Dusseau, Remzi [UNIV OF WISCONSIN; Livny, Miron [UNIV OF WISCONSIN; Arpaci - Dusseau, Andrea C [NON LANL

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we develop data-driven strategies for batch computing schedulers. Current CPU-centric batch schedulers ignore the data needs within workloads and execute them by linking them transparently and directly to their needed data. When scheduled on remote computational resources, this elegant solution of direct data access can incur an order of magnitude performance penalty for data-intensive workloads. Adding data-awareness to batch schedulers allows a careful coordination of data and CPU allocation thereby reducing the cost of remote execution. We offer here new techniques by which batch schedulers can become data-driven. Such systems can use our analytical predictive models to select one of the four data-driven scheduling policies that we have created. Through simulation, we demonstrate the accuracy of our predictive models and show how they can reduce time to completion for some workloads by as much as 80%.

  3. BatchJobs and BatchExperiments: Abstraction Mechanisms for Using R in Batch Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernd Bischl

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Empirical analysis of statistical algorithms often demands time-consuming experiments. We present two R packages which greatly simplify working in batch computing environments. The package BatchJobs implements the basic objects and procedures to control any batch cluster from within R. It is structured around cluster versions of the well-known higher order functions Map, Reduce and Filter from functional programming. Computations are performed asynchronously and all job states are persistently stored in a database, which can be queried at any point in time. The second package, BatchExperiments, is tailored for the still very general scenario of analyzing arbitrary algorithms on problem instances. It extends package BatchJobs by letting the user define an array of jobs of the kind apply algorithm A to problem instance P and store results. It is possible to associate statistical designs with parameters of problems and algorithms and therefore to systematically study their influence on the results. The packages main features are: (a Convenient usage: All relevant batch system operations are either handled internally or mapped to simple R functions. (b Portability: Both packages use a clear and well-defined interface to the batch system which makes them applicable in most high-performance computing environments. (c Reproducibility: Every computational part has an associated seed to ensure reproducibility even when the underlying batch system changes. (d Abstraction and good software design: The code layers for algorithms, experiment definitions and execution are cleanly separated and enable the writing of readable and maintainable code.

  4. 对RSA密码系统旁路攻击的防御%Resistance against side channel attack for RSA cryptosystem

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    祝力; 谷大武; 王超

    2008-01-01

    Based on the structure of the side channel attacks (SCAs) to RSA cryptosystem can resist the fault attack andcombine with the randomization method for the message and secret exponent, a new implementation scheme of CRT-based(the Chinese remained theorem) RSA is proposed. The proposed scheme can prevent simple power analysis (SPA), differentialpower analysis (DPA) and time attack, and is compatible with the existing RSA-CRT cryptosystem as well. In addition, animprovement for resisting fault attack is proposed, which can reduce extra computation time.

  5. BatchJS: Implementing Batches in JavaScript

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kasemier, D.

    2014-01-01

    None of our popular programming languages know how to handle distribution well. Yet our programs interact more and more with each other and our data resorts in databases and web services. Batches are a new addition to languages that can finally bring native support for distribution to our favourite

  6. Analysis of Adiabatic Batch Reactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erald Gjonaj

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available A mixture of acetic anhydride is reacted with excess water in an adiabatic batch reactor to form an exothermic reaction. The concentration of acetic anhydride and the temperature inside the adiabatic batch reactor are calculated with an initial temperature of 20°C, an initial temperature of 30°C, and with a cooling jacket maintaining the temperature at a constant of 20°C. The graphs of the three different scenarios show that the highest temperatures will cause the reaction to occur faster.

  7. Optical image encryption using a jigsaw transform for silhouette removal in interference-based methods and decryption with a single spatial light modulator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Pramod; Joseph, Joby; Singh, Kehar

    2011-05-01

    Interference-based optical encryption schemes have an inherent silhouette problem due to the equipollent nature of the phase-only masks (POMs) generated using an analytical method. One of the earlier methods suggested that removing the problem by use of exchanging process between two masks increases the computational load. This shortcoming is overcome with a noniterative method using the jigsaw transformation (JT) in a single step, with improved security because the inverse JT of these masks, along with correct permutation keys that are necessary to decrypt the original image. The stringent alignment requirement of the POMs in two different arms during the experiment is removed with an alternative method using a single spatial light modulator. Experimental results are provided to demonstrate the decryption process with the proposed method.

  8. 一种高效的彩色图像加密和解密算法%Efficient Encryption and Decryption Algorithm for Color Image

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭静玉

    2013-01-01

    分析了基于Arnold变换的加密方案在加密效果及加密效率方面的不足。提出了一种新的彩色图像加密及解密算法。加密过程将像素的物理位置置乱并映射到不同的色彩空间;解密过程提出了一种针对彩色图像的逆变换算法,使解密的时间仅依赖加密的密钥而不依赖变换周期。仿真分析比较了该算法在加密效果及加密效率方面的优势。实验数据表明,该加密算法的加密效果理想,且加密效率较高,是一种简单、可行的彩色图像加密方法。%The deficiencies of encryption scheme based on Arnold transformation is analyzed, and a new encryption/decryption algorithm for color image proposed. The physical locations of pixels are scrambled and mapped to different color spaces in the encryption process. An inverse conversion method for color im-age is suggested in decryption process, thus making the decryption time dependent only on the encryption key instead of on the conversion cycle. Simulation and comparison of the advantages of proposed algorithm in encryption effect and encryption efficiency indicates that the proposed algorithm could improve encryp-tion effect while raising the decryption efficiency, and thus a simple and feasible color image encryption method.

  9. Three Year RSA Evaluation of Vitamin E Diffused Highly Cross-linked Polyethylene Liners and Cup Stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sillesen, Nanna H; Greene, Meridith E; Nebergall, Audrey K; Nielsen, Poul T; Laursen, Mogens B; Troelsen, Anders; Malchau, Henrik

    2015-07-01

    Vitamin E diffusion into highly cross-linked polyethylene (E-XLPE) is a method for enhancing oxidative stability of acetabular liners. The purpose of this study was to evaluate in vivo penetration of E-XLPE using radiostereometric analysis (RSA). Eighty-four hips were recruited into a prospective 10-year RSA. This is the first evaluation of the multicenter cohort after 3-years. All patients received E-XLPE liners (E1, Biomet) and porous-titanium coated cups (Regenerex, Biomet). There was no difference (P=0.450) in median femoral head penetration into the E-XLPE liners at 3-years comparing cobalt-chrome heads (-0.028mm; inter-quartile range (IQR) - 0.065 to 0.047) with ceramic heads (-0.043mm, IQR - 0.143to0.042). The 3-year follow-up indicates minimal E-XLPE liner penetration regardless of head material and minimal early cup movement.

  10. Die godsdiensneutraliteitsbeginsel van die Amerikaanse demokrasie - implikasie vir onderwys in die RSA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.G. van Staden

    1995-03-01

    Full Text Available The principle of religious neutrality in the American democracy - implications for education in the RSA In a changing, democratic educational dispensation the accommodation of various religious convictions and religious needs of the heterogenous South African population is a matter that has to be dealt with with great circumspection. Valuable lessons that can prevent distress and disruption may be learnt from the way in which the American hyper-democracy has handled the situation. Democracy is the American's predominant pre-occupation. Any attempt of any group (e.g. a religious group to grant a monopoly in state schools to religious values in special learning content and religious ceremonies and practices has always been opposed. This approach has eventually led to total neutrality as regards traditional religious convictions and practices in American state schools, resulting in the establishment of another conviction (secular humanism in state schools. Thus it seems that neutrality as regards religious convictions is not possible. Absolutism of the principle of neutrality as regards traditional religions has resulted in a degeneration of moral values. If all the religious convictions cannot be accommodated in the South African public education system, it may for South Africa, as bastion of Christian civilization, be a danger sign as has been the case in the USA.

  11. Implementation of One Encryption and Decryption Software Based on C Language%基于C语言的加密解密软件的实现

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭秀萍

    2011-01-01

    介绍了信息加密技术中的置换法及其加密解密思想.采用置换法对文本文件中的字符信息进行加密,给出了一个完整的加密和解密软件制作的程序设计方法和详细步骤,并用C语言进行了具体实现.该软件在信息的传输和存储上具有较高的安全性,能有效防止信息被破解.%Thoughts on replacement algorithm as well as encryption and decryption of information encryption technology were introduced.Replacement algorithm was adopted to encrypt the characters in text files,whose a method of formula design for the comprehensive making process of an encryption and decryption software was given.C language was used to implement it.The findings show that this software has high safety in aspects of information transmit and sotre,which can prevent the information from being decrypted.

  12. The robustness and accuracy of in vivo linear wear measurements for knee prostheses based on model-based RSA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Ijsseldijk, E A; Valstar, E R; Stoel, B C; Nelissen, R G H H; Reiber, J H C; Kaptein, B L

    2011-10-13

    Accurate in vivo measurements methods of wear in total knee arthroplasty are required for a timely detection of excessive wear and to assess new implant designs. Component separation measurements based on model-based Roentgen stereophotogrammetric analysis (RSA), in which 3-dimensional reconstruction methods are used, have shown promising results, yet the robustness of these measurements is unknown. In this study, the accuracy and robustness of this measurement for clinical usage was assessed. The validation experiments were conducted in an RSA setup with a phantom setup of a knee in a vertical orientation. 72 RSA images were created using different variables for knee orientations, two prosthesis types (fixed-bearing Duracon knee and fixed-bearing Triathlon knee) and accuracies of the reconstruction models. The measurement error was determined for absolute and relative measurements and the effect of knee positioning and true seperation distance was determined. The measurement method overestimated the separation distance with 0.1mm on average. The precision of the method was 0.10mm (2*SD) for the Duracon prosthesis and 0.20mm for the Triathlon prosthesis. A slight difference in error was found between the measurements with 0° and 10° anterior tilt. (difference=0.08mm, p=0.04). The accuracy of 0.1mm and precision of 0.2mm can be achieved for linear wear measurements based on model-based RSA, which is more than adequate for clinical applications. The measurement is robust in clinical settings. Although anterior tilt seems to influence the measurement, the size of this influence is low and clinically irrelevant.

  13. Physicochemical Characteristics of Transferon™ Batches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medina-Rivero, Emilio; Vallejo-Castillo, Luis; Vázquez-Leyva, Said; Pérez-Sánchez, Gilberto; Favari, Liliana; Velasco-Velázquez, Marco; Estrada-Parra, Sergio; Pavón, Lenin; Pérez-Tapia, Sonia Mayra

    2016-01-01

    Transferon, a biotherapeutic agent that has been used for the past 2 decades for diseases with an inflammatory component, has been approved by regulatory authorities in Mexico (COFEPRIS) for the treatment of patients with herpes infection. The active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) of Transferon is based on polydispersion of peptides that have been extracted from lysed human leukocytes by a dialysis process and a subsequent ultrafiltration step to select molecules below 10 kDa. To physicochemically characterize the drug product, we developed chromatographic methods and an SDS-PAGE approach to analyze the composition and the overall variability of Transferon. Reversed-phase chromatographic profiles of peptide populations demonstrated batch-to-batch consistency from 10 representative batches that harbored 4 primary peaks with a relative standard deviation (RSD) of less than 7%. Aminogram profiles exhibited 17 proteinogenic amino acids and showed that glycine was the most abundant amino acid, with a relative content of approximately 18%. Further, based on their electrophoretic migration, the peptide populations exhibited a molecular mass of about 10 kDa. Finally, we determined the Transferon fingerprint using a mass spectrometry tool. Because each batch was produced from independent pooled buffy coat samples from healthy donors, supplied by a local blood bank, our results support the consistency of the production of Transferon and reveal its peptide identity with regard to its physicochemical attributes.

  14. NDA BATCH 2002-02

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory

    2009-12-09

    QC sample results (daily background checks, 20-gram and 100-gram SGS drum checks) were within acceptable criteria established by WIPP's Quality Assurance Objectives for TRU Waste Characterization. Replicate runs were performed on 5 drums with IDs LL85101099TRU, LL85801147TRU, LL85801109TRU, LL85300999TRU and LL85500979TRU. All replicate measurement results are identical at the 95% confidence level as established by WIPP criteria. Note that the batch covered 5 weeks of SGS measurements from 23-Jan-2002 through 22-Feb-2002. Data packet for SGS Batch 2002-02 generated using gamma spectroscopy with the Pu Facility SGS unit is technically reasonable. All QC samples are in compliance with established control limits. The batch data packet has been reviewed for correctness, completeness, consistency and compliance with WIPP's Quality Assurance Objectives and determined to be acceptable. An Expert Review was performed on the data packet between 28-Feb-02 and 09-Jul-02 to check for potential U-235, Np-237 and Am-241 interferences and address drum cases where specific scan segments showed Se gamma ray transmissions for the 136-keV gamma to be below 0.1 %. Two drums in the batch showed Pu-238 at a relative mass ratio more than 2% of all the Pu isotopes.

  15. Physicochemical Characteristics of Transferon™ Batches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilio Medina-Rivero

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Transferon, a biotherapeutic agent that has been used for the past 2 decades for diseases with an inflammatory component, has been approved by regulatory authorities in Mexico (COFEPRIS for the treatment of patients with herpes infection. The active pharmaceutical ingredient (API of Transferon is based on polydispersion of peptides that have been extracted from lysed human leukocytes by a dialysis process and a subsequent ultrafiltration step to select molecules below 10 kDa. To physicochemically characterize the drug product, we developed chromatographic methods and an SDS-PAGE approach to analyze the composition and the overall variability of Transferon. Reversed-phase chromatographic profiles of peptide populations demonstrated batch-to-batch consistency from 10 representative batches that harbored 4 primary peaks with a relative standard deviation (RSD of less than 7%. Aminogram profiles exhibited 17 proteinogenic amino acids and showed that glycine was the most abundant amino acid, with a relative content of approximately 18%. Further, based on their electrophoretic migration, the peptide populations exhibited a molecular mass of about 10 kDa. Finally, we determined the Transferon fingerprint using a mass spectrometry tool. Because each batch was produced from independent pooled buffy coat samples from healthy donors, supplied by a local blood bank, our results support the consistency of the production of Transferon and reveal its peptide identity with regard to its physicochemical attributes.

  16. Physicochemical Characteristics of Transferon™ Batches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Sánchez, Gilberto; Favari, Liliana; Estrada-Parra, Sergio

    2016-01-01

    Transferon, a biotherapeutic agent that has been used for the past 2 decades for diseases with an inflammatory component, has been approved by regulatory authorities in Mexico (COFEPRIS) for the treatment of patients with herpes infection. The active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) of Transferon is based on polydispersion of peptides that have been extracted from lysed human leukocytes by a dialysis process and a subsequent ultrafiltration step to select molecules below 10 kDa. To physicochemically characterize the drug product, we developed chromatographic methods and an SDS-PAGE approach to analyze the composition and the overall variability of Transferon. Reversed-phase chromatographic profiles of peptide populations demonstrated batch-to-batch consistency from 10 representative batches that harbored 4 primary peaks with a relative standard deviation (RSD) of less than 7%. Aminogram profiles exhibited 17 proteinogenic amino acids and showed that glycine was the most abundant amino acid, with a relative content of approximately 18%. Further, based on their electrophoretic migration, the peptide populations exhibited a molecular mass of about 10 kDa. Finally, we determined the Transferon fingerprint using a mass spectrometry tool. Because each batch was produced from independent pooled buffy coat samples from healthy donors, supplied by a local blood bank, our results support the consistency of the production of Transferon and reveal its peptide identity with regard to its physicochemical attributes. PMID:27525277

  17. Batching System for Superior Service

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-01-01

    Veridian's Portable Batch System (PBS) was the recipient of the 1997 NASA Space Act Award for outstanding software. A batch system is a set of processes for managing queues and jobs. Without a batch system, it is difficult to manage the workload of a computer system. By bundling the enterprise's computing resources, the PBS technology offers users a single coherent interface, resulting in efficient management of the batch services. Users choose which information to package into "containers" for system-wide use. PBS also provides detailed system usage data, a procedure not easily executed without this software. PBS operates on networked, multi-platform UNIX environments. Veridian's new version, PBS Pro,TM has additional features and enhancements, including support for additional operating systems. Veridian distributes the original version of PBS as Open Source software via the PBS website. Customers can register and download the software at no cost. PBS Pro is also available via the web and offers additional features such as increased stability, reliability, and fault tolerance.A company using PBS can expect a significant increase in the effective management of its computing resources. Tangible benefits include increased utilization of costly resources and enhanced understanding of computational requirements and user needs.

  18. Validation of a low-dose hybrid RSA and fluoroscopy technique: Determination of accuracy, bias and precision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ioppolo, James; Börlin, Niclas; Bragdon, Charles; Li, Mingguo; Price, Roger; Wood, David; Malchau, Henrik; Nivbrant, Bo

    2007-01-01

    Analyzing skeletal kinematics with radiostereometric analysis (RSA) following corrective orthopedic surgery allows the quantitative comparison of different implant designs. The purpose of this study was to validate a technique for dynamically estimating the relative position and orientation of skeletal segments using RSA and single plane X-ray fluoroscopy. Two micrometer-based in vitro phantom models of the skeletal segments in the hip and knee joints were used. The spatial positions of tantalum markers that were implanted into each skeletal segment were reconstructed using RSA. The position and orientation of each segment were determined in fluoroscopy images by minimizing the difference between the markers measured and projected in the image plane. Accuracy was determined in terms of bias and precision by analyzing the deviation between the applied displacement protocol and measured pose estimates. Measured translational accuracy was less than 100 microm parallel to the image plane and less than 700 microm in the direction orthogonal to the image plane. The measured rotational error was less than 1 degrees . Measured translational and rotational bias was not statistically significant at the 95% level of confidence. The technique allows real-time kinematic skeletal measurements to be performed on human subjects implanted with tantalum markers for quantitatively measuring the motion of normal joints and different implant designs.

  19. Implementation of Digital Signature Using Aes and Rsa Algorithms as a Security in Disposition System af Letter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siregar, H.; Junaeti, E.; Hayatno, T.

    2017-03-01

    Activities correspondence is often used by agencies or companies, so that institutions or companies set up a special division to handle issues related to the letter management. Most of the distribution of letters using electronic media, then the letter should be kept confidential in order to avoid things that are not desirable. Techniques that can be done to meet the security aspect is by using cryptography or by giving a digital signature. The addition of asymmetric and symmetric algorithms, i.e. RSA and AES algorithms, on the digital signature had been done in this study to maintain data security. The RSA algorithm was used during the process of giving digital signature, while the AES algorithm was used during the process of encoding a message that will be sent to the receiver. Based on the research can be concluded that the additions of AES and RSA algorithms on the digital signature meet four objectives of cryptography: Secrecy, Data Integrity, Authentication and Non-repudiation.

  20. Measured In Situ Atmospheric Ambient Aerosol Size-Distributions, Particle Concentrations, and Turbulence Data for RSA TA-6 Test Range, Redstone Arsenal, AL, April-May 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-01

    Concentrations, and Turbulence Data for RSA TA-6 Test Range, Redstone Arsenal , AL, April–May 2015 by Kristan Gurton, Stephanie Cunningham, and...Aerosol Size-Distributions, Particle Concentrations, and Turbulence Data for RSA TA-6 Test Range, Redstone Arsenal , AL, April–May 2015 by Kristan...Redstone Arsenal , AL Approved for public release; distribution unlimited. ii REPORT DOCUMENTATION PAGE Form Approved OMB No. 0704-0188

  1. NGBAuth - Next Generation Batch Authentication for long running batch jobs.

    CERN Document Server

    Juto, Zakarias

    2015-01-01

    This document describes the prototyping of a new solution for the CERN batch authentication of long running jobs. While the job submission requires valid user credentials, these have to be renewed due to long queuing and execution times. Described within is a new system which will guarantee a similar level of security as the old LSFAuth while simplifying the implementation and the overall architecture. The new system is being built on solid, streamlined and tested components (notably OpenSSL) and a priority has been to make it more generic in order to facilitate the evolution of the current system such as for the expected migration from LSF to Condor as backend batch system.

  2. CUDA based high performance implementation of RSA algorithm.%RSA算法的CUDA高效实现技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙迎红; 童元满; 王志英

    2011-01-01

    As a new architecture supporting general purpose computing on GPU, Compute Unified Device Architecture(CUDA) plays an important role in massive data parallel computing. RSA is a kind of computing concentrated public key cryptographic algorithm. To improve the performance of RSA algorithm,CUDA based high performance implementation is presented in this paper. The key of CUDA implementation of RSA is large amount of independent parallel Montgomery modular multiplication thread in the kernel side. The threads organization scheme and data structure of this implementation are also presented. Besides, shared memory based performance improvement method is also presented. According to the implementation method of this paper, the performance and throughput of RSA algorithm are obtained for a CUDA GPU.The experiment results show that the CUDA implementation can achieve more than 40 times speedup in comparison with general CPU implementation of RSA.%CUDA(Compute Unified Device Architecture)作为一种支持GPU通用计算的新型计算架构,在大规模数据并行计算方面得到了广泛的应用.RSA算法是一种计算密集型的公钥密码算法,给出了基于CUDA的RSA算法并行化高效实现技术,其关键为引入大量独立并发的Montgomery模乘线程,并给出了具体的线程组织、数据存储结构以及基于共享内存的性能优化实现技术.根据RSA算法CUDA实现方法,在某款GPU上测试了RSA算法的运算性能和吞吐率.实验结果表明,与RSA算法的通用CPU实现方式相比,CUDA实现能够实现超过40倍的性能加速.

  3. CYP2E1 Rsa Ⅰ polymorphism impacts on risk of colorectal cancer association with smoking and alcohol drinking

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    AIM: To investigate associations between the Rsa Ⅰpolymorphism of CYP2E1 and risk of colorectal cancer.METHODS: A case-control study was conducted with 315 colorectal cancer cases (105 colon, 210 rectal)and 439 population-based controls in Jiangsu Province of China. Genomic DNA samples were assayed for restriction fragment length polymorphisms in CYP2E1by PCR amplification followed by digestion with Rsa Ⅰ. Information on smoking and alcohol drinking was collected using a questionnaire. Odds ratios (ORs) were estimated with an unconditional logistic model.RESULTS: The proportional distribution of the CYP2E1 Rsa Ⅰ c1/c1, c1/c2 and c2/c2 genotypes were 61.4%,35.6% and 3.0% in controls, 60.6%, 33.7% and 5.8%in colon cancer cases, and 58.4%, 34.0% and 7.7% in rectal cancer cases, respectively. A significant difference was noted between controls and rectal cancer cases (P = 0.029), the c2/c2 genotype being associated with elevated OR (adjusted age, sex and status of the smoking and alcohol drinking) for rectal cancer (1.64,95% CI, 1.12-2.41, vs c1 allele carriers), but not for colon cancer. In interaction analysis between the CYP2E1Rsa Ⅰ genotype and smoking and drinking habits, we found a significant cooperative action between the c2/c2 genotype and alcohol drinking in the sex-, age-adjusted ORs for both colon (4.74, 95% CI, 1.10-20.40) and rectal (5.75, 95% CI, 1.65-20.05) cancers. Among nonsmokers, the CYP2E1 Rsa Ⅰ c2/c2 genotype was also associated with elevated ORs in the two sites (1.95, 95%CI, 0.99-3.86 and 2.30, 95% CI, 1.32-3.99).CONCLUSION: The results of the present study suggest that the CYP2E1 c2/c2 genotype increases susceptibility to rectal cancer and the gene-environmental interactions between the CYP2E1 polymorphism and smoking or alcohol drinking exist for colorectal neoplasia in general.

  4. Batch-oriented software appliances

    CERN Document Server

    Murri, Riccardo

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents AppPot, a system for creating Linux software appliances. AppPot can be run as a regular batch or grid job and executed in user space, and requires no special virtualization support in the infrastructure. The main design goal of AppPot is to bring the benefits of a virtualization-based IaaS cloud to existing batch-oriented computing infrastructures. In particular, AppPot addresses the application deployment and configuration on large heterogeneous computing infrastructures: users are enabled to prepare their own customized virtual appliance for providing a safe execution environment for their applications. These appliances can then be executed on virtually any computing infrastructure being in a private or public cloud as well as any batch-controlled computing clusters the user may have access to. We give an overview of AppPot and its features, the technology that makes it possible, and report on experiences running it in production use within the Swiss National Grid infrastructure SMSCG.

  5. NDA Batch 2002-13

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hollister, R

    2009-09-17

    QC sample results (daily background check drum and 100-gram SGS check drum) were within acceptance criteria established by WIPP's Quality Assurance Objectives for TRU Waste Characterization. Replicate runs were performed on drum LL85501243TRU. Replicate measurement results are identical at the 95% confidence level as established by WIPP criteria. HWM NCAR No. 02-1000168 issued on 17-Oct-2002 regarding a partially dislodged Cd sheet filter on the HPGe coaxial detector. This physical geometry occurred on 01-Oct-2002 and was not corrected until 10-Oct-2002, during which period is inclusive of the present batch run of drums. Per discussions among the Independent Technical Reviewer, Expert Reviewer and the Technical QA Supervisor, as well as in consultation with John Fleissner, Technical Point of Contact from Canberra, the analytical results are technically reliable. All QC standard runs during this period were in control. Data packet for SGS Batch 2002-13 generated using passive gamma-ray spectroscopy with the Pu Facility SGS unit is technically reasonable. All QC samples are in compliance with establiShed control limits. The batch data packet has been reviewed for correctness, completeness, consistency and compliance with WIPP's Quality Assurance Objectives and determined to be acceptable.

  6. 间歇结晶过程的分批优化%Batch-to-batch Optimization of Batch Crystallization Processes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Woranee Paengjuntuek; Paisan Kittisupakorn; Amornchai Arpornwichanop

    2008-01-01

    It is the fact that several process parameters are either unknown or uncertain. Therefore, an optimal control profile calculated with developed process models with respect to such process parameters may not give an optimal performance when implemented to real processes. This study proposes a batch-to-batch optimization strat-egy for the estimation of uncertain kinetic parameters in a batch crystallization process of potassium sulfate produc-tion. The knowledge of a crystal size distribution of the product at the end of batch operation is used in the proposedmethodology. The updated kinetic parameters are applied for determining an optimal operating temperature policy for the next batch run.

  7. Application of input amplitude masks in image encryption with spatially incoherent illumination for increase of decrypted images signal-to-noise ratio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheremkhin, Pavel A.; Evtikhiev, Nikolay N.; Krasnov, Vitaly V.; Molodtsov, Dmitriy Y.; Rodin, Vladislav G.; Shifrina, Anna V.

    2016-04-01

    The majority of existing methods of optical encryption use not only light intensity distribution, easily registered with photosensors, but also its phase distribution. This provides best encryption strength for fixed quantities of elements and phase levels in a mask. Downsides are holographic registration scheme used in order to register not only light intensity distribution but also its phase distribution and speckle noise occurring due to coherent illumination. That factors lead to very poor decryption quality when it comes from computer simulations to optical implementations. Method of optical encryption with spatially incoherent illumination does not have drawbacks inherent to coherent systems, however, as only light intensity distribution is considered, mean value of image to be encrypted is always above zero which leads to intensive zero spatial frequency peak in image spectrum. Therefore, in case of spatially incoherent illumination, image spectrum, as well as encryption key spectrum, cannot be white. If encryption is based on convolution operation, no matter coherent light used or not, Fourier spectrum amplitude distribution of encryption key should overlap Fourier spectrum amplitude distribution of image to be encrypted otherwise loss of information is unavoidable. Another factor affecting decrypted image quality is original image spectrum. Usually, most part of image energy is concentrated in area of low frequencies. Consequently, only this area in encrypted image contains information about original image, while other areas contain only noise. We propose to use additional encoding of input scene to increase size of the area containing useful information. This provides increase of signal-to-noise ratio in encrypted image and consequentially increases quality of decrypted images. Results of computer simulations of test images optical encryption with spatially incoherent illumination and additional input amplitude masks are presented.

  8. OpenCL-based MD5 Decryption Algorithm%基于Open CL的MD5破解算法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    翁捷; 吴强; 杨灿群

    2011-01-01

    This paper uses Open Computing Language(OpenCL) to realize the decrypting algorithm on heterogeneous platforms with Graphic Processing Unit(GPU).By using multi rounds attacking, graphics pipeline accelerates accessing and multi key attacking, the code runs 18 times faster on a NVIDIA GT200 GPU with Intel Q8230 quad-core CPU(2.3 GHz) than the decryption software, John the ripper, running on the same CPU-only platform.%在基于GPU的异构平台上,采用开放计算语言(OpenCL)实现破解算法,利用分轮生成攻击密码、图形演染管线加速存取以及多密码并行等方法对算法进行优化,在Intel四核CPU Q8230(2.3GHz)和一片NVIDIA GT200组成的平台上进行实验.实验结果表明,在相同CPU平台上该算法能够获得高于破解软件John the ripper 17倍的破解速度.

  9. Automatic endpoint determination for batch tea dryers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Temple, S.J.; Boxtel, van A.J.B.

    2001-01-01

    A laboratory batch fluid-bed dryer was developed for handling small samples of tea for experimental batch manufacture, and this dryer required a means of stopping drying when the process was complete. A control system was devised which requires only the initial weight of the sample to be entered int

  10. Automatic Endpoint Determination for Batch Tea Dryers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Temple, S.J.; Boxtel, van A.J.B.

    2000-01-01

    Agricultural Engineering and Physics, Wageningen University, Bomenweg 4, Wageningen, 6703 HD, The Netherlands Abstract: A laboratory batch fluid-bed dryer was developed for handling small samples of tea for experimental batch manufacture, and this dryer required a means of stopping drying when the p

  11. Supervision of Fed-Batch Fermentations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gregersen, Lars; Jørgensen, Sten Bay

    1999-01-01

    Process faults may be detected on-line using existing measurements based upon modelling that is entirely data driven. A multivariate statistical model is developed and used for fault diagnosis of an industrial fed-batch fermentation process. Data from several (25) batches are used to develop a mo...

  12. Following an Optimal Batch Bioreactor Operations Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ibarra-Junquera, V.; Jørgensen, Sten Bay; Virgen-Ortíz, J.J.;

    2012-01-01

    The problem of following an optimal batch operation model for a bioreactor in the presence of uncertainties is studied. The optimal batch bioreactor operation model (OBBOM) refers to the bioreactor trajectory for nominal cultivation to be optimal. A multiple-variable dynamic optimization of fed-b...

  13. Family based dispatching with batch availability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Zee, D.J.

    2013-01-01

    Family based dispatching rules seek to lower set-up frequencies by grouping (batching) similar types of jobs for joint processing. Hence shop flow times may be improved, as less time is spent on set-ups. Motivated by an industrial project we study the control of machines with batch availability, i.e

  14. Norton's theorem for batch routing queueing networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bause, Falko; Boucherie, Richard J.; Buchholz, Peter

    2001-01-01

    This paper shows that the aggregation and decomposition result known as Norton’s theorem for queueing networks can be extended to a general class of batch routing queueing networks with product-form solution that allows for multiple components to simultaneously release and receive (batches of) custo

  15. Consequence Identification for Maloperation in Batch Process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张玉良; 张贝克; 马昕; 曹柳林; 吴重光

    2013-01-01

    Batch processes are important in chemical industry, in which operators usually play a major role and hazards may arise by their inadvertent acts. In this paper, based on hazard and operability study and concept of qualitative simulation, an automatic method for adverse consequence identification for potential maloperation is proposed. The qualitative model for production process is expressed by a novel directed graph. Possible operation deviations from normal operating procedure are identified systematically by using a group of guidewords. The pro-posed algorithm is used for qualitative simulation of batch processes to identify the effects of maloperations. The method is illustrated with a simple batch process and a batch reaction process. The results show that batch processes can be simulated qualitatively and hazards can be identified for operating procedures including maloperations. After analysis for possible plant maloperations, some measures can be taken to avoid maloperations or reduce losses re-sulted from maloperations.

  16. Operation of a Batch Stripping Distillation Column

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    A stripping batch distillation column is preferred when the amount of the light component in the feed is small and the products are to be recovered at high purity. The operation modes of a batch stripping are believed to be the same as those of a rectifier. However, the control system of a stripper is different. In this paper, we explore three different control methods with Hysys (Hyprotech Ltd. 1997) for a batch stripper. The main difference is the control scheme for reboiler liquid level: (a) controlled by reflux flow; (b) controlled by reboiler heat duty; (c) controlled by bottom product flow. The main characteristics of operating a batch stripper with different control scheme are presented in this paper. Guidelines are provided for the startup of a batch stripper, the effects of somecontrol tuning parameters on the column performance are discussed.

  17. Batch Scheduling a Fresh Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardo, Nicholas P.; Woodrow, Thomas (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    The Network Queueing System (NQS) was designed to schedule jobs based on limits within queues. As systems obtain more memory, the number of queues increased to take advantage of the added memory resource. The problem now becomes too many queues. Having a large number of queues provides users with the capability to gain an unfair advantage over other users by tailoring their job to fit in an empty queue. Additionally, the large number of queues becomes confusing to the user community. The High Speed Processors group at the Numerical Aerodynamics Simulation (NAS) Facility at NASA Ames Research Center developed a new approach to batch job scheduling. This new method reduces the number of queues required by eliminating the need for queues based on resource limits. The scheduler examines each request for necessary resources before initiating the job. Also additional user limits at the complex level were added to provide a fairness to all users. Additional tools which include user job reordering are under development to work with the new scheduler. This paper discusses the objectives, design and implementation results of this new scheduler

  18. Batch and Fed-Batch Fermentation System on Ethanol Production from Whey using Kluyveromyces marxianus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Hadiyanto

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays reserve of fossil fuel has gradually depleted. This condition forces many researchers to  find energy alternatives which is renewable and sustainable in the future. Ethanol derived from cheese industrial waste (whey using fermentation process can be a new perspective in order to secure both energy and environment. The aim of this study was  to compare the operation modes (batch and fed-batch of fermentation system on ethanol production from whey using Kluyveromyces marxianus. The result showed that the fermentation process for ethanol production by fed-batch system was higher at some point of parameters compared with batch system. Growth rate and ethanol yield (YP/S of fed-batch fermentation were 0.122/h and 0.21 gP/gS respectively; growth rate and ethanol yield (YP/S of batch fermentation were 0.107/h, and 0.12 g ethanol/g substrate, respectively. Based on the data of biomass and ethanol concentrations, the fermentation process for ethanol production by fed-batch system were higher at some point of parameters compared to batch system. Periodic substrate addition performed on fed-batch system leads the yeast growth in low substrate concentrations and consequently  increasing their activity and ethanol productivity. Keywords: batch; ethanol; fed-batch; fermentation;Kluyveromyces marxianus, whey

  19. Batch process. Changes and problems of a batch process; Bacchi prosesu no hensen to kadai

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niwa, T. [Asahi Engineering (Japan)

    1997-09-05

    One of the characteristics of the manufacture of fine chemical products is multikind production. The life cycles of chemical industrial products have become shorter, and the difference between these life cycles and those of the manufacturing facility has become larger. The use of an FMS (Flexible Manufacturing System) has been demanded as the measure for solving the problems, and the advantages of a batch process have begun to be reconsidered. This paper describes the history of the development of a batch process, and then explains the problems of a batch process. The paper mentions the process control techniques, production information control systems, production support systems, training systems and process simulation systems as the main techniques supporting the development of a batch process. The paper mentions the modeling and standardizing of a batch process, systematic batch process designing methods and the modeling of a production control information system as the problems of a batch process. 8 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  20. LSF usage for batch at CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    Schwickerath, Ulrich

    2007-01-01

    Contributed poster to the CHEP07. Original abstract: LSF 7, the latest version of Platform's batch workload management system, addresses many issues which limited the ability of LSF 6.1 to support large scale batch farms, such as the lxbatch service at CERN. In this paper we will present the status of the evaluation and deployment of LSF 7 at CERN, including issues concerning the integration of LSF 7 with the gLite grid middleware suite and, in particular, the steps taken to endure an efficient reporting of the local batch system status and usage to the Grid Information System

  1. Systematic Methodology for Reproducible Optimizing Batch Operation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonné, Dennis; Jørgensen, Sten Bay

    2006-01-01

    This contribution presents a systematic methodology for rapid acquirement of discrete-time state space model representations of batch processes based on their historical operation data. These state space models are parsimoniously parameterized as a set of local, interdependent models. The present....... This controller may also be used for Optimizing control. The modeling and control performance is demonstrated on a fed-batch protein cultivation example. The presented methodologies lend themselves directly for application as Process Analytical Technologies (PAT).......This contribution presents a systematic methodology for rapid acquirement of discrete-time state space model representations of batch processes based on their historical operation data. These state space models are parsimoniously parameterized as a set of local, interdependent models. The present...... contribution furthermore presents how the asymptotic convergence of Iterative Learning Control is combined with the closed-loop performance of Model Predictive Control to form a robust and asymptotically stable optimal controller for ensuring reliable and reproducible operation of batch processes...

  2. Master-Batch Sector Develops Rapidly

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wu Lifeng

    2007-01-01

    @@ Plastic industry promotes the development of the master-batch sector The plastic processing industry in China has developed rapidly. The output is increasing rapidly and the quality is improving constantly.

  3. Batch process. Application of CAE technique to a batch process; Bacchi purosesu eno CAE gijutsu no tenkai

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Y.; Nakai, K.; Oba, S. [Aspentic Japan Co. Ltd. (Japan)

    1997-09-05

    This paper introduces recent topics of the application of the CAE technique to a batch process. A batch distillation modeling tool (BATCHFRAC) is aimed at modeling a distillation tower and a batch reactor for a batch process for fine chemical products, and is provided as an expanded additional function for ASPEN FLUS batch distillation. A batch process designing system (BATCH PLUS) is a comprehensive batch process simulator for efficiently carrying out the designing, the development or the analysis of a complicated recipe-based batch process concerning medical treatment, biotechnology and agriculture. A batch process information control system (Batch/21) is provided as a system having an expanded and additional function for a batch process of InfoPlus/21, an information control system which enables the observation, management and controlling of a process. 4 figs.

  4. Batch Extractive Distillation with Light Entrainer

    OpenAIRE

    Varga, Viktoria; Rev, Endre; Gerbaud, Vincent; Fonyo, Zsolt; Joulia, Xavier

    2006-01-01

    Use of a light entrainer in batch extractive distillation is justified when the mixture boils at a high temperature, or when an appropriate heavy or intermediate entrainer cannot be found. Feasibility of batch extractive distillation with light entrainer for separating minimum and maximum boiling azeotropes and close boiling mixtures is studied in this article. Our test mixtures are: ethanol/water (minimum boiling azeotrope) with methanol, water/ethylene diamine (maximum boiling azeotro...

  5. Batch extractive distillation with light entrainer

    OpenAIRE

    Varga, Viktoria; Rev, Endre; Gerbaud, Vincent; Lelkes, Zoltan; Fonyo, Zsolt; Joulia, Xavier

    2006-01-01

    Use of a light entrainer in batch extractive distillation is justified when the mixture boils at a high temperature, or when an appropriate heavy or intermediate entrainer cannot be found. Feasibility of batch extractive distillation with light entrainer for separating minimum and maximum boiling azeotropes and close boiling mixtures is studied in this article. Our test mixtures are: ethanol / water (minimum boiling azeotrope) with methanol, water / ethylene diamine (maximum boiling azeotrope...

  6. Transparent encryption and decryption methods for systems applications and products in data pocessing%面向SAP系统的透明加解密方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜海超; 赵明; 王蕊; 贾晓启

    2015-01-01

    针对广泛应用于国内的企业资源计划( ERP)商用管理软件———数据处理系统应用与产品( SAP)系统存在的本地文件导出安全性问题,建立高度匹配于SAP系统特点及特定进程的文件透明加解密系统,在驱动层针对SAP系统关联的特定进程涉及的新建、读、写文件等操作进行捕获,通过卷上下文与流上下文提取缓存信息,依据所捕获的文件操作类型,完成不同的缓存置换;在应用层实现密钥的获取与分发。同时实现了文件透明加解密系统的客户化定制,通过配置可以实现对SAP系统特定进程,导出文件类型甚至特定文件的指定。实验结果表明,该系统在对用户无干扰无需人工介入的前提下,能自动与SAP系统无缝对接,对导出文件透明加解密,并限定导出文件仅能在本地计算机中使用;最终有效地与SAP系统本身自带的用户名登录、权限管控等安全控制机制整合联动,完善了SAP系统在外部商业数据输出安全性管控上的缺失,提升企业对商业数据安全使用、输出的管控及保障能力。%For the national widely applied famous Enterprise Resource Planning ( ERP ) software system – Systems Applications and Products in data processing ( SAP) , against the existing outstanding local file exporting security problem, a transparent encryption and decryption file system was established according to SAP system characteristic and specific process. Operations of file creation, read and write within specific process in the driver layer were successfully captured by the transparent encryption and decryption file system, cache information of both volume up and low context and flow up and low context were also correctly extracted. Based on the captured operation type, cache replacement automation function was successfully achieved according to predefined rules. Additionally, in the application layer, security key

  7. Implementation of RSA 2048-bit and AES 256-bit with Digital Signature for Secure Electronic Health Record Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamad Ali Sadikin

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This research addresses the implementation of encryption and digital signature technique for electronic health record to prevent cybercrime such as robbery, modification and unauthorised access. In this research, RSA 2048-bit algorithm, AES 256-bit and SHA 256 will be implemented in Java programming language. Secure Electronic Health Record Information (SEHR application design is intended to combine given services, such as confidentiality, integrity, authentication, and nonrepudiation. Cryptography is used to ensure the file records and electronic documents for detailed information on the medical past, present and future forecasts that have been given only to the intended patients. The document will be encrypted using an encryption algorithm based on NIST Standard. In the application, there are two schemes, namely the protection and verification scheme. This research uses black-box testing and whitebox testing to test the software input, output, and code without testing the process and design that occurs in the system.We demonstrated the implementation of cryptography in SEHR. The implementation of encryption and digital signature in this research can prevent archive thievery.

  8. 27 CFR 19.748 - Dump/batch records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Dump/batch records. 19.748... OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Records and Reports Processing Account § 19.748 Dump/batch records. (a) Format of dump/batch records. Proprietor's dump/batch records shall contain,...

  9. 21 CFR 211.188 - Batch production and control records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Batch production and control records. 211.188... Reports § 211.188 Batch production and control records. Batch production and control records shall be... production and control of each batch. These records shall include: (a) An accurate reproduction of...

  10. A Batch Feeder for Inhomogeneous Bulk Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vislov, I. S.; Kladiev, S. N.; Slobodyan, S. M.; Bogdan, A. M.

    2016-04-01

    The work includes the mechanical analysis of mechanical feeders and batchers that find application in various technological processes and industrial fields. Feeders are usually classified according to their design features into two groups: conveyor-type feeders and non-conveyor feeders. Batchers are used to batch solid bulk materials. Less frequently, they are used for liquids. In terms of a batching method, they are divided into volumetric and weighting batchers. Weighting batchers do not provide for sufficient batching accuracy. Automatic weighting batchers include a mass controlling sensor and systems for automatic material feed and automatic mass discharge control. In terms of operating principle, batchers are divided into gravitational batchers and batchers with forced feed of material using conveyors and pumps. Improved consumption of raw materials, decreased loss of materials, ease of use in automatic control systems of industrial facilities allows increasing the quality of technological processes and improve labor conditions. The batch feeder suggested by the authors is a volumetric batcher that has no comparable counterparts among conveyor-type feeders and allows solving the problem of targeted feeding of bulk material batches increasing reliability and hermeticity of the device.

  11. Energy efficiency of batch and semi-batch (CCRO) reverse osmosis desalination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warsinger, David M; Tow, Emily W; Nayar, Kishor G; Maswadeh, Laith A; Lienhard V, John H

    2016-12-01

    As reverse osmosis (RO) desalination capacity increases worldwide, the need to reduce its specific energy consumption becomes more urgent. In addition to the incremental changes attainable with improved components such as membranes and pumps, more significant reduction of energy consumption can be achieved through time-varying RO processes including semi-batch processes such as closed-circuit reverse osmosis (CCRO) and fully-batch processes that have not yet been commercialized or modelled in detail. In this study, numerical models of the energy consumption of batch RO (BRO), CCRO, and the standard continuous RO process are detailed. Two new energy-efficient configurations of batch RO are analyzed. Batch systems use significantly less energy than continuous RO over a wide range of recovery ratios and source water salinities. Relative to continuous RO, models predict that CCRO and batch RO demonstrate up to 37% and 64% energy savings, respectively, for brackish water desalination at high water recovery. For batch RO and CCRO, the primary reductions in energy use stem from atmospheric pressure brine discharge and reduced streamwise variation in driving pressure. Fully-batch systems further reduce energy consumption by not mixing streams of different concentrations, which CCRO does. These results demonstrate that time-varying processes can significantly raise RO energy efficiency.

  12. AN APPROXIMATE EXPRESSION RELATED WITH RSA FIXED POINTS%与RSA不动点有关的一个渐近表示

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于秀源

    2004-01-01

    Let T=T(n,e,α) be the number of fixed points of RSA(n,e) that are co-prime with n=pq,and A,B be sets of prime numbers in (1,x) and (1,y) respectively. An estimation on the mean-valueM(A,B,e,α) = 1(#A)(#B) ∑p∈A,q∈B,(p,q)=1 logT(pq,e,α) is given.

  13. Predicting 3D pose in partially overlapped X-ray images of knee prostheses using model-based Roentgen stereophotogrammetric analysis (RSA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Chi-Pin; Lin, Shang-Chih; Shih, Kao-Shang; Huang, Chang-Hung; Lee, Chian-Her

    2014-12-01

    After total knee replacement, the model-based Roentgen stereophotogrammetric analysis (RSA) technique has been used to monitor the status of prosthetic wear, misalignment, and even failure. However, the overlap of the prosthetic outlines inevitably increases errors in the estimation of prosthetic poses due to the limited amount of available outlines. In the literature, quite a few studies have investigated the problems induced by the overlapped outlines, and manual adjustment is still the mainstream. This study proposes two methods to automate the image processing of overlapped outlines prior to the pose registration of prosthetic models. The outline-separated method defines the intersected points and segments the overlapped outlines. The feature-recognized method uses the point and line features of the remaining outlines to initiate registration. Overlap percentage is defined as the ratio of overlapped to non-overlapped outlines. The simulated images with five overlapping percentages are used to evaluate the robustness and accuracy of the proposed methods. Compared with non-overlapped images, overlapped images reduce the number of outlines available for model-based RSA calculation. The maximum and root mean square errors for a prosthetic outline are 0.35 and 0.04 mm, respectively. The mean translation and rotation errors are 0.11 mm and 0.18°, respectively. The errors of the model-based RSA results are increased when the overlap percentage is beyond about 9%. In conclusion, both outline-separated and feature-recognized methods can be seamlessly integrated to automate the calculation of rough registration. This can significantly increase the clinical practicability of the model-based RSA technique.

  14. Model Penjadwalan Batch Multi Item dengan Dependent Processing Time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sukoyo Sukoyo

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates a development of single machine batch scheduling for multi items with dependent processing time. The batch scheduling problem is to determine simultaneously number of batch (N, which item and its size allocated for each batch, and processing sequences of resulting batches. We use total actual flow time as the objective of schedule performance. The multi item batch scheduling problem could be formulated into a biner-integer nonlinear programming model because the number of batch should be in integer value, the allocation of items to resulting batch need binary values, and also there are some non-linearity on objective function and constraint due to the dependent processing time. By applying relaxation on the decision variable of number of batch (N as parameter, a heuristic procedure could be applied to find solution of the single machine batch scheduling problem for multi items.

  15. Survey of Layer Flocks Contamination to Mycoplasma gallisepticum in East Azerbaijan Province by Rapid Slide Agglutination (R.S.A Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehrdad Nazeri

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluation of R.S.A. method efficiency in distinguishing M. gallisepticum and contamination rate of MG in Iran. In this study totally 300 serum samples from 20 farms collected and sent to laboratory. In lab, samples centrifuged at 2500 rpm for 5 min. Separated serums kept in Bain Marie at 56ºC. Then 50 μ of serum are mixed with 50 : RSA-MG antigen on the slide and were assayed under light. Of 300 serum samples, 52 samples (17.3% were positive, 10 samples (3.3% were suspicious and 238 samples (79.3% were negative reported. Finally, primarily can be conclude that R.S.A method is specific method for detection of M. gallisepticum and has minimum Err with maximum sensitivity. Secondarily can be conclude that contamination rate of M. gallisepticum in Iran is higher than standard levels and must be take measures in this field.

  16. Dynamic Fractional Resource Scheduling vs. Batch Scheduling

    CERN Document Server

    Casanova, Henri; Vivien, Frédéric

    2011-01-01

    We propose a novel job scheduling approach for homogeneous cluster computing platforms. Its key feature is the use of virtual machine technology to share fractional node resources in a precise and controlled manner. Other VM-based scheduling approaches have focused primarily on technical issues or on extensions to existing batch scheduling systems, while we take a more aggressive approach and seek to find heuristics that maximize an objective metric correlated with job performance. We derive absolute performance bounds and develop algorithms for the online, non-clairvoyant version of our scheduling problem. We further evaluate these algorithms in simulation against both synthetic and real-world HPC workloads and compare our algorithms to standard batch scheduling approaches. We find that our approach improves over batch scheduling by orders of magnitude in terms of job stretch, while leading to comparable or better resource utilization. Our results demonstrate that virtualization technology coupled with light...

  17. 大规模ad hoc网络下的高效的主动RSA方案%An efficient proactive RSA scheme for large-scale ad hoc networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张瑞山; 陈克非

    2007-01-01

    A previous proactive RSA scheme for large-scale ad hoc network has been shown to be faulty. In this paper, we present a new proactive RSA scheme for ad hoc networks, which includes four protocols: the initial key distribution protocol,the share refreshing protocol, the share distribution protocol, and the signature generation protocol. This scheme has two advantages: the building blocks are secure, and the system is efficient.

  18. 加密文件系统的原理及其解密方法分析%Analysis of the Principle and Decryption Methods of Encryption File System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张合; 刘小红

    2011-01-01

    In order to decrypt unusable encrypted files caused by accidental reason,studies the principle of Encryption File System and its trait,and discusses several recovery methods to decrypt unusable encrypted files caused by accidental reason.According to the%为了解决意外导致的加密文件无法恢复的问题,研究EFS加密、解密的原理及其特点,针对意外导致的加密文件无法使用问题,探讨几种恢复方法,针对这些方法的局限性简述解决方案。

  19. Exploring the Transition From Batch to Online

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Anker Helms

    2010-01-01

    of the truly interactive use of computers known today. The transition invoked changes in a number of areas: technological, such as hybrid forms between batch and online; organisational such as decentralization; and personal as users and developers alike had to adopt new technology, shape new organizational...... structures, and acquire new skills. This work-in-progress paper extends an earlier study of the transition from batch to online, based on oral history interviews with (ex)-employees in two large Danish Service Bureaus. The paper takes the next step by ana-lyzing a particular genre: the commercial computer...

  20. 新月柄杆菌RsaA分泌系统用于大肠杆菌胞外递送重组蛋白的初步研究%Preliminary Study on Exportation of Heterologous Recombinant Proteins in Escherichia coli Utilizing RsaA Secretion System of Caulobacter crescentus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宁亚蕾; 周立雄; 肖斌; 张卫军; 曾浩; 毛旭虎; 邹全明

    2008-01-01

    目的:构建基于新月柄杆菌RsaA外运机制的以大肠杆菌为宿主的原核胞外分泌表达载体系统.方法:利用分子克隆手段,按RsaA分泌系统操纵子组织方式,将RsaA系统外运功能基因配合以异源调控序列克隆至pQE30骨架质粒.以绿色荧光蛋白(GFP)为报告分子、大肠杆菌M15为宿主菌,诱导表达后通过Western Blotting检测培养上清中GFP的表达.结果:获得了与设计完全一致的pQABPS载体,利用该载体系统,在培养上清中报告分子GFP的表达明显增加,且是通过特异的RsaA外运机制被分泌至胞外的,而非渗漏表达或简单的信号肽引导.结论:在大肠杆菌中重现了RsaA分泌系统的外运功能,为该系统在基因工程领域的应用研究打下了良好基础.

  1. Monte Carlo simulation on kinetics of batch and semi-batch free radical polymerization

    KAUST Repository

    Shao, Jing

    2015-10-27

    Based on Monte Carlo simulation technology, we proposed a hybrid routine which combines reaction mechanism together with coarse-grained molecular simulation to study the kinetics of free radical polymerization. By comparing with previous experimental and simulation studies, we showed the capability of our Monte Carlo scheme on representing polymerization kinetics in batch and semi-batch processes. Various kinetics information, such as instant monomer conversion, molecular weight, and polydispersity etc. are readily calculated from Monte Carlo simulation. The kinetic constants such as polymerization rate k p is determined in the simulation without of “steady-state” hypothesis. We explored the mechanism for the variation of polymerization kinetics those observed in previous studies, as well as polymerization-induced phase separation. Our Monte Carlo simulation scheme is versatile on studying polymerization kinetics in batch and semi-batch processes.

  2. Sojourn time distributions in a Markovian G-queue with batch arrival and batch removal

    OpenAIRE

    1999-01-01

    We consider a single server Markovian queue with two types of customers; positive and negative, where positive customers arrive in batches and arrivals of negative customers remove positive customers in batches. Only positive customers form a queue and negative customers just reduce the system congestion by removing positive ones upon their arrivals. We derive the LSTs of sojourn time distributions for a single server Markovian queue with positive customers and negative custom...

  3. Batch and fed-batch fermentation of Bacillus thuringiensis using starch industry wastewater as fermentation substrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vu, Khanh Dang; Tyagi, Rajeshwar Dayal; Valéro, José R; Surampalli, Rao Y

    2010-08-01

    Bacillus thuringiensis var. kurstaki biopesticide was produced in batch and fed-batch fermentation modes using starch industry wastewater as sole substrate. Fed-batch fermentation with two intermittent feeds (at 10 and 20 h) during the fermentation of 72 h gave the maximum delta-endotoxin concentration (1,672.6 mg/L) and entomotoxicity (Tx) (18.5 x 10(6) SBU/mL) in fermented broth which were significantly higher than maximum delta-endotoxin concentration (511.0 mg/L) and Tx (15.8 x 10(6) SBU/mL) obtained in batch process. However, fed-batch fermentation with three intermittent feeds (at 10, 20 and 34 h) of the fermentation resulted in the formation of asporogenous variant (Spo-) from 36 h to the end of fermentation (72 h) which resulted in a significant decrease in spore and delta-endotoxin concentration and finally the Tx value. Tx of suspended pellets (27.4 x 10(6) SBU/mL) obtained in fed-batch fermentation with two feeds was the highest value as compared to other cases.

  4. Batch process. Optimum designing and operation of a batch process; Bacchi purosesu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hasebe, S. [Kyoto Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1997-09-05

    Since the control of a batch process becomes dynamic, it becomes necessary to handle the process differently from a continuous process in terms of the designing, operating and controlling of the process. This paper describes the characteristics and the problems to be solved of a batch process from three points of view, the designing, operation and controlling of the process. A major problem of a batch process is the designing difficulty. In a batch process, the amount of products capable of being manufactured per unit time by each apparatus and that by the whole plant structured by combining apparatuses are different, and therefore the time and apparatus capacity are wasted in some cases. The actual designing of a batch process involves various factors, such as the seasonal fluctuation of demand for products, the possibility of expanding the apparatuses in the future and the easiness of controlling the process, and the shipment of products during consecutive holidays and periodic maintenance, which are not included in the formulation of mathematical programming problems. Regarding the optimum operation of a batch process and the controlling of the same, descriptions of forming of a dynamic optimum operation pattern and verification of the sequence control system are given. 9 refs., 4 figs.

  5. Batch and fed-batch production of butyric acid by Clostridium butyricum ZJUCB

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HE Guo-qing; KONG Qing; CHEN Qi-he; RUAN Hui

    2005-01-01

    The production of butyric acid by Clostridium butyricum ZJUCB at various pH values was investigated. In order to study the effect of pH on cell growth, butyric acid biosynthesis and reducing sugar consumption, different cultivation pH values ranging from 6.0 to 7.5 were evaluated in 5-L bioreactor. In controlled pH batch fermentation, the optimum pH for cell growth and butyric acid production was 6.5 with a cell yield of 3.65 g/L and butyric acid yield of 12.25 g/L. Based on these results, this study then compared batch and fed-batch fermentation of butyric acid production at pH 6.5. Maximum value (16.74 g/L) of butyric acid concentration was obtained in fed-batch fermentation compared to 12.25 g/L in batch fermentation. It was concluded that cultivation under fed-batch fermentation mode could enhance butyric acid production significantly (P<0.01) by C. butyricum ZJUCB.

  6. 运用第三方recovery破解安卓手机屏幕锁%Lockscreen Passcode Decryption on Android Smartphone Using a Custom Recovery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    石穗东; 李蒙; 雷鸣

    2015-01-01

    The screening of crime-related smartphones can provide critical clues for case investigation. On examination of an Android smartphone with passcodes set up without turning on USB debugging, it’s hard to obtain evidence if the suspect doesn’t cooperate. A new method using a custom recovery is introduced. Since official recovery doesn’t have functions of backuping, restoring or flashing a custom ROM in light of the safety concern, a custom recovery was flashed on Android smartphone using the backup system function, and then decrypted the passcode file extracted from the backup file, or flashed a path to delete passcode files. Theoretically flashing a custom recovery is safe, as it only modifies the recovery partition without partition data changing. However, it is risky to some extent when flashing a smartphone. Some dos and don’ts are proposed in this paper.%安卓智能手机的取证法一般需要开启手机 USB 调试模式,遇到设有密码且未开启 USB 调试的手机,如果嫌疑人不配合工作往往很难进行取证。文章介绍一种新的工作思路:由于安全原因官方版 recovery 功能较少,可以刷入第三方 recovery 利用其备份系统功能,从备份文件中提取密码文件后进行破解,或刷入删除密码文件的补丁来清除密码。文章最后介绍了刷 recovery 的注意事项。

  7. Using Forensics to Untangle Batch Effects in TCGA Data - TCGA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehan Akbani, Ph.D., and colleagues at the University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center developed a tool called MBatch to detect, diagnose, and correct batch effects in TCGA data. Read more about batch effects in this Case Study.

  8. IVR RSA Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This database contains trip-level reports submitted by vessels participating in Research Set-Aside projects with IVR reporting requirements.

  9. BATCHING PRINCIPLE OF RATING POINT ACCRUAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Safontsev

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyzes characteristics of the postindustrial educational system, including the credit competence assessment, academic loads, and module-rating discipline structure. The employers’ judgments, reflected in the survey outcomes, make it possible to single out the most significant competencies for students to master. Such findings are regarded as a foundation for developing the assignment modules, integrating the problematic, testing and projecting tasks, designed to master necessary competences; their effectiveness is estimated by using the criteria of behavioral psychology. The paper demonstrates the sequences of monitoring assessment of students’ academic achievements, and recommends the batching principle of rating point accrual, based on criterion-oriented evaluation standards, reflecting students’ competence levels. The authors identify the basic competence indicators: interest in the subject, reflections on the test results, and inner motivation for project activities. The complex of batching equations is given for developing the training cards of academic disciplines, and guaranteeing the effectiveness of education system.

  10. Optimal operation of batch membrane processes

    CERN Document Server

    Paulen, Radoslav

    2016-01-01

    This study concentrates on a general optimization of a particular class of membrane separation processes: those involving batch diafiltration. Existing practices are explained and operational improvements based on optimal control theory are suggested. The first part of the book introduces the theory of membrane processes, optimal control and dynamic optimization. Separation problems are defined and mathematical models of batch membrane processes derived. The control theory focuses on problems of dynamic optimization from a chemical-engineering point of view. Analytical and numerical methods that can be exploited to treat problems of optimal control for membrane processes are described. The second part of the text builds on this theoretical basis to establish solutions for membrane models of increasing complexity. Each chapter starts with a derivation of optimal operation and continues with case studies exemplifying various aspects of the control problems under consideration. The authors work their way from th...

  11. Batch Processing of CMOS Compatible Feedthroughs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, F.E.; Heschel, M.; Hansen, Ole

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents a technique for batch fabrication of electrical feedthroughs in CMOS wafers. The presented process is designed with specific attention on industrial applicability. The electrical feedthroughs are processed entirely by low temperature, CMOS compatible processes. Hence, the proc......This paper presents a technique for batch fabrication of electrical feedthroughs in CMOS wafers. The presented process is designed with specific attention on industrial applicability. The electrical feedthroughs are processed entirely by low temperature, CMOS compatible processes. Hence....... The feedthrough technology employs a simple solution to the well-known CMOS compatibility issue of KOH by protecting the CMOS side of the wafer using sputter deposited TiW/Au. The fabricated feedthroughs exhibit excellent electrical performance having a serial resistance of 40 mOmega and a parasitic capacitance...

  12. Batch Computed Tomography Analysis of Projectiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-01

    resolution. 2.2 CT Image Analysis An algorithm was developed in Matlab † that performed image analysis on each individual cross-sectional image of the...be obtained with a minimum number of descriptor parameters, effectively reducing † Matlab (matrix...single core of an Intel Xeon X5650 processor operating at 2.67 GHz. To batch process the (210) projectiles, a Matlab script was written to parallelize

  13. Isopropyl alcohol recovery by heteroazeotropic batch distillation

    OpenAIRE

    Van Baelen, Guy; Vreysen, Steven; Gerbaud, Vincent; Rodriguez-Donis, Ivonne; Geens, Jeroen; Janssens, Bart

    2010-01-01

    Solvent recovery is becoming a major issue in the pharmaceutical and specialty chemical industries. Solvent recovery by conventional batch distillation is limited by the frequent presence of azeotropes in the used solvent mixtures. Most distillation processes for the separation of azeotropic or difficult zeotropic mixtures involve the addition of an entrainer (homogeneous and heterogeneous azeotropic distillation or extractive distillation). In this study the recovery of IPA (isopropyl alc...

  14. Capacitated max -Batching with Interval Graph Compatibilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nonner, Tim

    We consider the problem of partitioning interval graphs into cliques of bounded size. Each interval has a weight, and the weight of a clique is the maximum weight of any interval in the clique. This natural graph problem can be interpreted as a batch scheduling problem. Solving a long-standing open problem, we show NP-hardness, even if the bound on the clique sizes is constant. Moreover, we give a PTAS based on a novel dynamic programming technique for this case.

  15. Differential Timing Attack Against the Software Implementation of RSA%一种针对RSA算法软件应用的差分计时攻击

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈财森; 王韬; 田军舰

    2011-01-01

    The former timing attack against RSA algorithm is either just in theory research, or taken in experiment under specifical condition. The object of timing attack mostly is smart card. The former has the disadvantage of low feasibility and small range. We aim to overcome the disadvantage. This thesis provides a feasible timing attack scheme, based the differential statistics algorithm and analysis of variance. Finally we take the attack scheme into practice on the software implementation of RSA, the result indicates that our attack scheme has a better feasibility than the former, and also extend the attack object to RSA with different length key.%原有针对一般RSA算法的计时攻击方式不是只在理论上进行研究,就是在某种特定的条件下进行实验,其主要研究对象是智能卡,具有可行性不高、攻击范围狭窄等缺点.在深入研究分析RSA实现算法基础上,结合差分统计分析方法,引入方差分析假设检验,提出一种可行的计时攻击算法,并针对RSA算法的软件应用进行攻击验证,结果表明提出的攻击方案不仅比传统攻击方式具有更高的可行性,而且能够适用于不同密钥长度的攻击.

  16. Accuracy Enhancement of Electrotechnical System for Bulk Material Batching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bukreev Victor G.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In the paper an automatic system for batching and mixing the components of combined feed is considered. A novel algorithm has been proposed for the batching error correction caused by mass of the material column dropping into the batching bin. The proposed algorithm has been validated in a simulation model and in an experimental facility.

  17. On-line Scheduling Of Multi-Server Batch Operations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Zee, D.J.; van Harten, A.; Schuur, P.C.

    1999-01-01

    Batching jobs in a manufacturing system is a very common policy in most industries. Main reasons for batching are avoidance of setups and/or facilitation of material handling. Good examples of batch-wise production systems are ovens found in aircraft industry and in semiconductor manufacturing. Thes

  18. Batch Model for Batched Timestamps Data Analysis with Application to the SSA Disability Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, Qingqi; Yuan, Ao; Che, Xuan; Huynh, Minh; Zhou, Chunxiao

    2016-01-01

    The Office of Disability Adjudication and Review (ODAR) is responsible for holding hearings, issuing decisions, and reviewing appeals as part of the Social Security Administration’s disability determining process. In order to control and process cases, the ODAR has established a Case Processing and Management System (CPMS) to record management information since December 2003. The CPMS provides a detailed case status history for each case. Due to the large number of appeal requests and limited resources, the number of pending claims at ODAR was over one million cases by March 31, 2015. Our National Institutes of Health (NIH) team collaborated with SSA and developed a Case Status Change Model (CSCM) project to meet the ODAR’s urgent need of reducing backlogs and improve hearings and appeals process. One of the key issues in our CSCM project is to estimate the expected service time and its variation for each case status code. The challenge is that the systems recorded job departure times may not be the true job finished times. As the CPMS timestamps data of case status codes showed apparent batch patterns, we proposed a batch model and applied the constrained least squares method to estimate the mean service times and the variances. We also proposed a batch search algorithm to determine the optimal batch partition, as no batch partition was given in the real data. Simulation studies were conducted to evaluate the performance of the proposed methods. Finally, we applied the method to analyze a real CPMS data from ODAR/SSA.

  19. BATCH-GE: Batch analysis of Next-Generation Sequencing data for genome editing assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boel, Annekatrien; Steyaert, Woutert; De Rocker, Nina; Menten, Björn; Callewaert, Bert; De Paepe, Anne; Coucke, Paul; Willaert, Andy

    2016-07-27

    Targeted mutagenesis by the CRISPR/Cas9 system is currently revolutionizing genetics. The ease of this technique has enabled genome engineering in-vitro and in a range of model organisms and has pushed experimental dimensions to unprecedented proportions. Due to its tremendous progress in terms of speed, read length, throughput and cost, Next-Generation Sequencing (NGS) has been increasingly used for the analysis of CRISPR/Cas9 genome editing experiments. However, the current tools for genome editing assessment lack flexibility and fall short in the analysis of large amounts of NGS data. Therefore, we designed BATCH-GE, an easy-to-use bioinformatics tool for batch analysis of NGS-generated genome editing data, available from https://github.com/WouterSteyaert/BATCH-GE.git. BATCH-GE detects and reports indel mutations and other precise genome editing events and calculates the corresponding mutagenesis efficiencies for a large number of samples in parallel. Furthermore, this new tool provides flexibility by allowing the user to adapt a number of input variables. The performance of BATCH-GE was evaluated in two genome editing experiments, aiming to generate knock-out and knock-in zebrafish mutants. This tool will not only contribute to the evaluation of CRISPR/Cas9-based experiments, but will be of use in any genome editing experiment and has the ability to analyze data from every organism with a sequenced genome.

  20. Multi-objective optimization of glycopeptide antibiotic production in batch and fed batch processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maiti, Soumen K.; Eliasson Lantz, Anna; Bhushan, Mani

    2011-01-01

    Fermentation optimization involves potentially conflicting multiple objectives such as product concentration and production media cost. Simultaneous optimization of these objectives would result in a multiobjective optimization problem, which is characterized by a set of multiple solutions, knows...... as pareto optimal solutions. These solutions gives flexibility in evaluating the trade-offs and selecting the most suitable operating policy. Here, ε-constraint approach was used to generate the pareto solutions for two objectives: product concentration and product per unit cost of media, for batch and fed...... batch operations using process model for Amycolatopsis balhimycina, a glycopeptide antibiotic producer. This resulted in a set of several pareto optimal solutions with the two objectives ranging from (0.75gl−1, 3.97g$-1) to (0.44gl−1, 5.19g$-1) for batch and from (1.5gl−1, 5.46g$-1) to (1.1gl−1, 6.34g...

  1. 基于RSA的数字图像加密算法%An Encryption Algorithm for Digital Image Based on RSA System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨昔阳; 李志伟

    2009-01-01

    It proposes a novel encryption method for digital image based on an Arnold scrambling transform, a chaos encryption algorithm and RSA encryption system. The parameters of the Arnold transform and chaos encryption algorithm are encrypted by RSA system and stored in LSB of an image to ensure the security in transmission. The example in this paper shows that the proposed method is an efficient way to encrypt a digital image.%提出一种基于RSA公钥、Arnold置乱变换和混沌加密算法相结合的公开密钥数字图像加密体制,利用客户的公钥对Arnold置乱变换和混沌序列初值进行RSA加密,确保了只有合法用户才能获取置乱参数信息并将图像复原.RSA对参数的加密信息隐藏于图像LSB中,无需另外传递密文,运算简单,具有良好的加密与隐藏效果.

  2. Cache Timing Attack on RSA Sliding Window Algorithm%针对RSA滑动窗口算法的Cache计时攻击

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田军舰; 寇应展; 陈财森; 高靖哲; 曾剑隽

    2011-01-01

    Based on researching RSA signature algorithm and theory of cache timing attack, analyzing the implementation of RSA in OpenSSL0.9.8a, a caching timing attack method is given against the process of accessing initial table in the sliding windows algorithm. Simulation result demonstrates the cache timing attack can get more than 700 bit secret key from 1 024 bit private key and needs less samples compare to the timing attack based on statistic analysis.%研究RSA签名算法和Cache计时攻击原理,分析OpenSSL0.9.8a中的RSA实现过程,针对RSA滑动窗口算法中的访问初始化表操作,提出一种Cache计时攻击方法.实验结果表明,该方法在1次攻击中可获得1 024 bit密钥中700 bit以上的密钥,与传统基于统计方法的计时攻击相比,所需样本更少.

  3. File Encryption System Based on Triple DES and RSA%基于Triple DES与RSA的文件加密系统

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡振

    2012-01-01

    Comparing the characteristics of symmetric cryptography and asymmetric cryptography, this paper outlines the basic principles of the Triple DES algorithm and the RSA algorithm. On the basis of a detailed analysis of issues related to file security and in-depth study on . NET Framework encryption algorithm class, this paper proposes the file encryption scheme on the combination of the Triple DES algorithm and the RSA algorithm, designs the system' s overall structure and the basic process, then the system is realized with VB. NET. After practice, the results show that the system is simple and convenient for file encryption.%比较对称密码体制与非对称密码体制的特点,简述Triple DES算法与RSA算法的基本原理.在详细分析文件安全的相关问题和深入研究.NET Framework密码算法类的基础上,提出Triple DES算法与RSA算法结合运用的文件加密方案,设计系统的总体结构和基本流程,并以VB.NET实现了基于Triple DES与RSA的文件加密系统.实践表明,用本系统进行文件加密简单而方便.

  4. CONVERSION OF PINEAPPLE JUICE WASTE INTO LACTIC ACID IN BATCH AND FED – BATCH FERMENTATION SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah Mochamad Busairi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Pineapple juice waste contains valuable components, which are mainly sucrose, glucose, and fructose. Recently, lactic acid has been considered to be an important raw material for the production of biodegradable lactide polymer. The fermentation experiments were carried out in a 3 litres fermentor (Biostat B Model under anaerobic condition with stirring speed of 50 rpm, temperature at 40oC, and pH of 6.00. Effect of feed concentration on lactic acid production, bacterial growth, substrate utilisation and productivity was studied. The results obtained from fed- batch culture fermentation showed that the maximum lactic acid productivity was 0.44 g/L.h for feed concentration of 90 g/L at 48 hours. Whereas the lactic acid productivity obtained from fed-batch culture was twice and half fold higher than that of batch culture productivity.  Buangan jus nanas mengandung komponen yang berharga terutama sukrosa, glukosa, dan fruktosa. Asam laktat adalah bahan baku yang terbaru dan penting untuk dibuat sebagai polimer laktat yang dapat terdegradasi oleh lingkungan. Percobaan dilakukan pada fermentor 3 liter (Model Biostat B di bawah kondisi anaerob dengan kecepatan pengadukan 50 rpm, temperatur 40oC, dan pH 6,00. Pengaruh konsentrasi umpan terhadap produksi asam laktat, pertumbuhan mikroba, pengggunaan substrat dan produktivitas telah dipelajari. Hasil yang didapatkan pada fermentasi dengan menggunakan sistem fed-batch menunjukkan bahwa produktivitas asam laktat maksimum adalah 0.44 g/L,jam dengan konsentrasi umpan, 90 g/L pada waktu 48 jam. Bahkan produktivitas asam laktat yang didapat pada kultur fed-batch lebih tinggi 2,5 kali dari pada proses menggunakan sistem batch

  5. Sojourn time distributions in a Markovian G-queue with batch arrival and batch removal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Woo Shin

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available We consider a single server Markovian queue with two types of customers; positive and negative, where positive customers arrive in batches and arrivals of negative customers remove positive customers in batches. Only positive customers form a queue and negative customers just reduce the system congestion by removing positive ones upon their arrivals. We derive the LSTs of sojourn time distributions for a single server Markovian queue with positive customers and negative customers by using the first passage time arguments for Markov chains.

  6. 光通信网物理层全光异或加解密技术研究%Research on all-optical XOR encryption and decryption technology for physical layer of optical communication networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹东东; 邓大鹏; 朱峰; 郭燕; 李将

    2013-01-01

    针对目前光通信保密系统中基于电信号处理的流密码加解密技术的局限性,提出基于全光信号处理的加解密技术;对几种典型的全光异或加密方案进行了研究,介绍了各自的工作原理、特点及研究进展;利用 OptiSystem 软件搭建了基于SOA-MZI(半导体光放大器-马赫-曾德干涉仪)异或门的全光加解密系统仿真模型,并基于 HNLF(高非线性光纤)的自相位调制效应设计了一个优化结构对系统进行优化。研究表明:全光加解密技术具有优良的特性,能使整个光通信保密系统运算速率更高,传输更安全。%In view of the limitations of the electric signal processing-based stream cipher encryption/decryption technology for optical communication security systems,this paper presents an all-optical signal processing-based encryption/decryption tech-nology,studies several typical all-optical XOR encryption schemes and introduces their operating principles,characteristics and research advances.Then,it builds a simulation model for the SOA-MZI XOR gate-based all-optical encryption/decryption sys-tem using the OptiSystem software and optimizes the system by a optimization structure designed on the basis of the self-phase modulation effects of High Nonlinear Fiber (HNLF).Studies show that the all-optical encryption/decryption technology has excellent performances and enables the entire security system to have higher operation rates and more secured transmissions.

  7. Timing and Estimates of Plio-Pleistocene Sea-Level Highstands from the Republic of South Africa (RSA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hearty, Paul; Raymo, Maureen; Sandstrom, Michael; Rovere, Alessio; O'Leary, Michael

    2016-04-01

    The rapid rise in atmospheric CO2 exceeding 400 ppmv is driving an urgent need to better understand past sea level, ice sheet dynamics, and climate change associated with past warmer geological intervals. The LR04 record reveals sustained intervals during the Pliocene (5.6-2.6 Ma) when δ18O exceeded the present levels, indicating a possible decrease in the volume of polar ice sheets. Other shorter intervals of likely decreased ice volume occur during Pleistocene interglacials including MIS 5e, 11, 31, and 37.Here we focus on the middle Pliocene warm period (MPWP; 3.3 to 2.9 Ma), an interval during which Earth experienced CO2 levels around 400 ppmv (Fedorov et al., 2013). The intra-plate coastal margin of western South Africa, a region of relative tectonic stability and relative insensitivity to uncertainty in mantle viscosity as is effects corrections for glacial isostatic adjustment, is a promising region for deriving estimates of eustatic sea level (ESL; thus ice volumes) at the end of the MPWP (Rovere et al., 2014). During a field expedition covering several thousand kilometres along coastlines of western and southern coasts of RSA, we documented the stratigraphy, geomorphology, and geochronology of Pliocene and Pleistocene shorelines with differential GPS providing decimeter scale accuracy to stratigraphic contacts and sea-level indicators. From about twenty sites, precise elevations (as yet uncorrected for GIA) of multiple sea stands were recorded. Strontium isotopes were used to date the shell material from many of the marine sites, but only three sites yielded reliable age data that passed screening criteria for diagenesis. The oldest shoreline evidence, from Cliffs Point on the west coast near the Olifants River, is observed at 34.9 ±0.2 m asl and yields an age 4.70 ± 0.20 Ma; a younger shoreline from the southern coast Bredasdorp site is observed at >24.0 ± 1.5 m asl and yields ages from 3.00 ± 0.45 to 3.55 ± 0.31 Ma, the interval of the MPWP. . A

  8. Decrypting SO(10-inspired leptogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pasquale Di Bari

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Encouraged by the recent results from neutrino oscillation experiments, we perform an analytical study of SO(10-inspired models and leptogenesis with hierarchical right-handed (RH neutrino spectrum. Under the approximation of negligible misalignment between the neutrino Yukawa basis and the charged lepton basis, we find an analytical expression for the final asymmetry directly in terms of the low energy neutrino parameters that fully reproduces previous numerical results. This expression also shows that it is possible to identify an effective leptogenesis phase for these models. When we also impose the wash-out of a large pre-existing asymmetry NB−Lp,i, the strong thermal (ST condition, we derive analytically all those constraints on the low energy neutrino parameters that characterise the ST-SO(10-inspired leptogenesis solution, confirming previous numerical results. In particular we show why, though neutrino masses have to be necessarily normally ordered, the solution implies an analytical lower bound on the effective neutrino-less double beta decay neutrino mass, mee≳8 meV, for NB−Lp,i=10−3, testable with next generation experiments. This, in combination with an upper bound on the atmospheric mixing angle, necessarily in the first octant, forces the lightest neutrino mass within a narrow range m1≃(10–30 meV (corresponding to ∑imi≃(75–125 meV. We also show why the solution could correctly predict a non-vanishing reactor neutrino mixing angle and requires the Dirac phase to be in the fourth quadrant, implying sin⁡δ (and JCP negative as hinted by current global analyses. Many of the analytical results presented (expressions for the orthogonal matrix, RH neutrino mixing matrix, masses and phases can have applications beyond leptogenesis.

  9. Decrypting $SO(10)$-inspired leptogenesis

    CERN Document Server

    Di Bari, Pasquale; Fiorentin, Michele Re

    2014-01-01

    Encouraged by the recent results from neutrino oscillation experiments, we perform an analytical study of $SO(10)$-inspired models and leptogenesis with hierarchical right-handed (RH) neutrino spectrum. Under the approximation of negligible misalignment between the neutrino Yukawa basis and the charged lepton basis, we find an analytical expression for the final asymmetry directly in terms of the low energy neutrino parameters that fully reproduces previous numerical results. This expression also shows that is possible to identify an effective leptogenesis phase for these models. When we also impose the wash-out of a large pre-existing asymmetry $N^{\\rm p,i}_{B-L}$, the strong thermal (ST) condition, we derive analytically all those constraints on the low energy neutrino parameters that characterise the {\\rm ST}-$SO(10)$-inspired leptogenesis solution, confirming previous numerical results. In particular we show why, though neutrino masses have to be necessarily normally ordered, the solution implies an analy...

  10. Transfer of Campylobacter from a Positive Batch to Broiler Carcasses of a Subsequently Slaughtered Negative Batch: A Quantitative Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seliwiorstow, Tomasz; Baré, Julie; Van Damme, Inge; Gisbert Algaba, Ignacio; Uyttendaele, Mieke; De Zutter, Lieven

    2016-06-01

    The present study was conducted to quantify Campylobacter cross-contamination from a positive batch of broiler chicken carcasses to a negative batch at selected processing steps and to evaluate the duration of this cross-contamination. During each of nine visits conducted in three broiler slaughterhouses, Campylobacter levels were determined on broiler carcasses originating from Campylobacter-negative batches processed immediately after Campylobacter-positive batches. Data were collected after four steps during the slaughter process (scalding, plucking, evisceration, and washing) at 1, 10, and 20 min after the start of the slaughter of the batches. Campylobacter levels in ceca of birds from Campylobacter-positive batches ranged from 5.62 to 9.82 log CFU/g. When the preceding positive batch was colonized at a low level, no (enumerable) carcass contamination was found in a subsequent negative batch. However, when Campylobacter levels were high in the positive batch, Campylobacter was found on carcasses of the subsequent negative batch but at levels significantly lower than those found on carcasses from the preceding positive batch. The scalding and the evisceration process contributed the least (< 1.5 log CFU/g) and the most (up to 4 log CFU/ g), respectively, to the Campylobacter transmission from a positive batch to a negative batch. Additionally, the number of Campylobacter cells transferred from positive to negative batches decreased over the first 20 min of sampling time. However, the reduction was slower than previously estimated in risk assessment studies, suggesting that pathogen transfer during crosscontamination is a complex process.

  11. PBSNG—Batch System for Farm Architecture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    J.Fromm; K.Genser; 等

    2001-01-01

    FBSNG [1] is a redesigned version of Farm Batch System (FBS[1]),which was developed as a batch process management system for off-line Run II data processing at FNAL.FBSNG is designed for UNIX computer farms and is capable of managing up to 1000 nodes in a single farm.FBSNG allows users to start arrays of parallel processes on one or more farm computers,It uses a simplified abstract resource counting method for load balancing between computers.The resource counting approach allows FBSNG to be a simple and flexible tool for farm resource management.FBSNG scheduler features include guaranteed and controllable” fair-share” scheduling.FBSNG is easily portable across different flavors of UNIX.The system has been successfully used at Fermilab as well as by off-site collaborators for several years on farms of different sizes and different platforms for off-line data processing,Monte-Carlo data generation and other tasks.

  12. Efectos de 2 Tipos de Entrenamiento Interválico de Alta Intensidad en la Habilidad para Realizar Esfuerzos Máximos (RSA Durante una Pretemporada de Fútbol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Rodríguez Fernández

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available El trabajo de pretemporada persigue mejorar el rendimiento del futbolista tanto en lo referente a la habilidad para realizar esfuerzos máximos como a su capacidad aeróbica y de recuperación. El objetivo de este estudio fue comparar durante una pretemporada los efectos de 2 programas de entrenamiento interválicos con series de diferente duración en la habilidad de repetir sprints (RSA. Diecinueve jugadores de fútbol con valores medios ± SD de 20,9 ± 1,6 años de edad; 68,8 ± 5,1 Kg de peso; 176,1 ± 5,1 cm de altura; y 9,6 ± 2,4% de grasa corporal fueron asignados al azar al grupo de Speed Endurance Training (SET para realizar 2x10 min con 10, 15 y 20 s al 100% con 30, 45 y 60 s de recuperación (n = 9, o al grupo High Interval Training (HIT para realizar 4x4 min al 95% FCmax (n = 10. Un test RSA de 8x30 m con 25 s de recuperación activa fue realizado antes y después de la intervención (10 sesiones de entrenamiento junto con un Yo-Yo Intermittent Recovery Test level 1 en la evaluación inicial. Tanto SET como HIT ven incrementado su rendimiento de forma significativa (p < 0,05 en RSAmejor (3,12% y 3,59% respectivamente y muy significativamente (p < 0,01 en RSAmedia (3,00% y 3,91% y RSAtotal (3,12% y 4,08%, pero sin cambios significativos en los índices de fatiga (Sdec y Change. Estos resultados demuestran que tanto la intervención SET como HIT se han mostrado útiles para aumentar el rendimiento en algunas de las variables determinantes en el test RSA, durante el periodo de pretemporada.

  13. Adaptive quality prediction of batch processes based on PLS model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Chun-fu; ZHANG Jie; WANG Gui-zeng

    2006-01-01

    There are usually no on-line product quality measurements in batch and semi-batch processes,which make the process control task very difficult.In this paper,a model for predicting the end-product quality from the available on-line process variables at the early stage of a batch is developed using partial least squares (PLS)method.Furthermore,some available mid-course quality measurements are used to rectify the final prediction results.To deal with the problem that the process may change with time,recursive PLS (RPLS) algorithm is used to update the model based on the new batch data and the old model parameters after each batch.An application to a simulated batch MMA polymerization process demonstrates the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  14. Melting Properties of Loose and Granulated Glass Batch

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Jing; DENG Zhenglu; XIE Jun; CHENG Jinshu; HAN Jianjun; ZHOU Xuedong

    2014-01-01

    The physical properties, the pre-reacting performance and melting properties of the loose glass batch and the granulated glass batch were investigated, respectively. The experimental results showed that compacted glass batch could reduce dust, use ultra-fine powder, and improve heat transfer efficiency. When loose glass batch was compressed into granular, the thermal conductivity was increased from 0.273 W/m•℃to 0.430 W/m•℃, the activation energy Ea of pre-reacting decreased from 178.77 kJ/mol to 143.30 kJ/mol. Using the pre-reacted granular glass batch can significantly reduce the melting time, increase the batch melting rate, and decrease the heat consumption of 1kg molten glass from 3591.24 to 3277.03kJ/kg.

  15. TANK 50 BATCH 0 SALTSTONE FORMULATION CONFIRMATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Langton, C.

    2006-06-05

    Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) personnel were requested to confirm the Tank 50 Batch 0 grout formulation per Technical Task Request, SSF-TTR-2006-0001 (task 1 of 2) [1]. Earlier Batch 0 formulation testing used a Tank 50 sample collected in September 2005 and is described elsewhere [2]. The current testing was performed using a sample of Tank 50 waste collected in May 2006. This work was performed according to the Technical Task and Quality Assurance Plan (TT/QAP), WSRC-RP-2006-00594 [3]. The salt solution collected from Tank 50 in May 2006 contained approximately 3 weight percent more solids than the sample collected in September 2005. The insoluble solids took longer to settle in the new sample which was interpreted as indicating finer particles in the current sample. The saltstone formulation developed for the September 2005 Tank 50 Batch 0 sample was confirmed for the May 2006 sample with one minor exception. Saltstone prepared with the Tank 50 sample collected in May 2006 required 1.5 times more Daratard 17 set retarding admixture than the saltstone prepared with the September In addition, a sample prepared with lower shear mixing (stirring with a spatula) had a higher plastic viscosity (57 cP) than samples made with higher shear mixing in a blender (23cP). The static gel times of the saltstone slurries made with low shear mixing were also shorter ({approx}32 minutes) than those for comparable samples made in the blender ({approx}47 minutes). The addition of the various waste streams (ETP, HEU-HCAN, and GPE-HCAN) to Tank 50 from September 2005 to May 2006 has increased the amount of set retarder, Daratard 17, required for processing saltstone slurries through the Saltstone facility. If these streams are continued to be added to Tank 50, the quantity of admixtures required to maintain the same processing conditions for the Saltstone facility will probably change and additional testing is recommended to reconfirm the Tank 50 Saltstone formulation.

  16. ENGINEERING CONTRACT ON FY-2 BATCH 2 SATELLITES SIGNED

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SunQing

    2004-01-01

    The signing ceremony of the Engineering Contract on FY-2 Batch 2 (FY-2 02) Satellites was held in Beijing by Commission of Science, Technology and Industry for National Defense (COSTIND) on August 31, 2004. The contract on the development and manufacture of FY-2 batch 2 satellites and the contract on the launch, test and control of FY-2 Batch 2 satellites were signed by China Meteorological Administration (CMA),

  17. Batching, Scheduling, Disjunctive graph, Local search, Simulated Annealing, Wafer fabrication

    OpenAIRE

    Yugma, Claude; Dauzere-Peres, Stephane; Artigues, Christian; Derreumaux, Alexandre; Sibille, Olivier

    2011-01-01

    Abstract This paper proposes an efficient heuristic algorithm for solving a complex batching and scheduling problem in a diffusion area of a semiconductor plant. Diffusion is frequently bottleneck in the plant and also one of the most complex areas in terms of number of machines, constraints to satisfy and the large number of lots to manage. The purpose of this study is to investigate an approach to group lots in batches and to schedule these batches on machines. The proble...

  18. A batch fabricated biomimetic dry adhesive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Northen, Michael T.; Turner, Kimberly L.

    2005-08-01

    The fine hair adhesive system found in nature is capable of reversibly adhering to just about any surface. This dry adhesive, best demonstrated in the pad of the gecko, makes use of a multilevel conformal structure to greatly increase inelastic surface contact, enhancing short range interactions and producing significant amounts of attractive forces. Recent work has attempted to reproduce and test the terminal submicrometre 'hairs' of the system. Here we report the first batch fabricated multi-scale conformal system to mimic nature's dry adhesive. The approach makes use of massively parallel MEMS processing technology to produce 20-150 µm platforms, supported by single slender pillars, and coated with ~2 µm long, ~200 nm diameter, organic looking polymer nanorods, or 'organorods'. To characterize the structures a new mesoscale nanoindenter adhesion test technique has been developed. Experiments indicate significantly improved adhesion with the multiscale system. Additional processing caused a hydrophilic to hydrophobic transformation of the surface and testing indicated further improvement in adhesion.

  19. Reducing variance in batch partitioning measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mariner, Paul E.

    2010-08-11

    The partitioning experiment is commonly performed with little or no attention to reducing measurement variance. Batch test procedures such as those used to measure K{sub d} values (e.g., ASTM D 4646 and EPA402 -R-99-004A) do not explain how to evaluate measurement uncertainty nor how to minimize measurement variance. In fact, ASTM D 4646 prescribes a sorbent:water ratio that prevents variance minimization. Consequently, the variance of a set of partitioning measurements can be extreme and even absurd. Such data sets, which are commonplace, hamper probabilistic modeling efforts. An error-savvy design requires adjustment of the solution:sorbent ratio so that approximately half of the sorbate partitions to the sorbent. Results of Monte Carlo simulations indicate that this simple step can markedly improve the precision and statistical characterization of partitioning uncertainty.

  20. Reactive Scheduling in Multipurpose Batch Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayani, A.; Shaik, Munawar A.

    2010-10-01

    Scheduling is an important operation in process industries for improving resource utilization resulting in direct economic benefits. It has a two-fold objective of fulfilling customer orders within the specified time as well as maximizing the plant profit. Unexpected disturbances such as machine breakdown, arrival of rush orders and cancellation of orders affect the schedule of the plant. Reactive scheduling is generation of a new schedule which has minimum deviation from the original schedule in spite of the occurrence of unexpected events in the plant operation. Recently, Shaik & Floudas (2009) proposed a novel unified model for short-term scheduling of multipurpose batch plants using unit-specific event-based continuous time representation. In this paper, we extend the model of Shaik & Floudas (2009) to handle reactive scheduling.

  1. 转化RSA为氢化可的松的新月弯胞霉筛选%SCREENING OF CURVULARIA LNATA WITH THE ABILITY OF BIOCONVERTING RSA TO HYDROCORTISONE SCREENING OF CURVULARIA LNATA WITH THE ABILITY OF BIOCONVERTING RSA TO HYDROCORTISONE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜连祥; 王敏; 王赓; 孙烨

    2001-01-01

    A strain C4 with ability of bioconversion from steroid RSA to hydrocortisone was selected fron the soil sample. It was identifide as Cuvularia Iunata according its morphological characters of clump and individuals. The optimum culture medium was established by orthogonal experiments :glucose 10g ,soybean powder 10g,water 1000mL, pH6.5. Determined by silica gel chromatography and high-performance liquid chromatography, the bioconversion ratio of hydrocortisone was 34%. At the same tine, the percentage change of RSA,hydrocortisone and other byproducts were measured during the course of bioconversion.%从土样中筛选到1株能转化甾体化合物RSA(17α-羟基孕甾-4-烯-3,20-二酮-21-醋酸酯)生成氢可的松(11β,17a,2l-三羟基孕甾-4-烯-3,20-二酮)的C4菌株,经菌落形态与个体形态观察,初步鉴定为新月弯胞霉(curvularia lunata)。正交实验确定该菌株的最适培养基为:葡萄糖10g,黄豆粉10g,自来水1000mL,pH6.5.经硅胶层析和高交液相色谱测定,氢化可的松转化率为34%。同时还测定了转化过程中RSA、氢化可的松及其它副产物的百分含量的变化。

  2. 基于新月柄杆菌RsaA外运机制的EspA及EspA-IL-24融合蛋白胞外分泌表达研究%Study on Extracellular Expression of EspA and EspA-IL-24 Proteins in Escherichia coli Following RsaA Exportation Mechanism of Caulobacter crescentus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宁亚蕾; 周立雄; 毛旭虎; 张卫军; 程琰; 余抒; 邹全明

    2008-01-01

    目的:实现大肠杆菌分泌蛋白(Esp)A及EspA与白细胞介素(IL)-24融合蛋白的胞外分泌表达,进一步验证基于新月柄杆菌RsaA外运机制的原核胞外分泌表达载体系统的有效性和通用性,并改造优化该系统.方法:利用分子克隆手段,按RsaA分泌系统操纵子组织方式,将获得的RsaA系统元件编码序列和异源调控序列克隆至pQE30骨架质粒,构建新的胞外分泌表达质粒pQABP2S;以大肠杆菌为宿主菌诱导表达EspA及EspA-IL-24融合蛋白,并通过Western blot检测目标蛋白在培养上清中的表达.结果:获得了新的胞外分泌表达载体pQABP2S;与对照相比,该载体宿主系统培养上清中目标蛋白EspA及EspA-IL-24的表达量明显增加.结论:在大肠杆菌中通过RsaA分泌系统可实现分子大小不同的EspA及EspA-IL-24融合蛋白的特异性分泌表达,进一步证实该分泌表达策略的有效性和通用性;调整调控序列以优化分泌系统的尝试,为此类基因工程技术平台的开发提供了借鉴.

  3. Batch process. Batch process used in a beer brewery; Biru kojo no bacchi purosesu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kihara, K. [Kirin Engneering Co. Ltd. (Japan)

    1997-09-05

    In a beer brewing process, there is a system in which unit operation of chemical engineering is combined with the techniques of food and fermentation engineering in order to brew beer meeting the quality concept. This paper introduces the characteristics of a batch system used in the brewing of beer and the control method for the brewing of beer. The characteristics of the batch system used in a beer brewing process are the following three. In order to minimize the quality variation ascribed to the raw materials and the process, the materials are blended in various parts of the system. In the saccharification step which determines the quality of beer, two methods, i.e. a batch method and a continuous method are used, and beer brewing companies employ a saccharification system meeting the condition for attaining a desired quality of their own products. Two mashing systems are operated at different cycles shifted by half cycle from each other, not starting both at a time, so as to level the peaks of the utilities, whereby the operation of the utility-related facility is optimized. 1 ref., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  4. Adaptive scheduling of batch servers in flow shops

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Zee, D.J.

    2002-01-01

    Batch servicing is a common way of benefiting from economies of scale in manufacturing operations. Good examples of production systems that allow for batch processing are ovens found in the aircraft industry and in semiconductor manufacturing. In this paper we study the issue of dynamic scheduling o

  5. Dynamic Simulation of Batch Photocatalytic Reactor (BPR) for Wastewater Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutta, Suman

    2012-08-01

    Reactive dyes discharged from dyehouse causes a serious environmental problem. UV/TiO2 photocatalysis has been employed effectively for these organic dyes removal from dye-house effluent. This process produces less amount of non-toxic final product. In this paper a photocatalytic reactor has been designed for Reactive red 198 (RR198) removal from aqueous solution. The reactor is operating in batch mode. After each batch, TiO2 catalyst has been separated and recycled in the next batch. Mathematical model equation of this batch photocatalytic reactor (BPR) has been developed considering Langmuir-Hinshelwood kinetics. Simulation of BPR has been carried out using fourth order Runge-Kutta (RK) method and fifth order RK method (Butcher method). This simulation results can be used to develop an automatic photocatlytic reactor for industrial wastewater treatment. Catalyst activity decay and its effect on each batch have been incorporated in this model.

  6. On the track of fish batches in three distribution networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Randrup, Maria; Wu, Haiping; Jørgensen, Bo M.

    2012-01-01

    Three fish products sampled in retail shops were traced back to their origin and fish from the same batch were tracked forward towards the retailer, thereby simulating a recall situation. The resulting distribution networks were very complex, but to the extent that companies were willing to provide...... the necessary information, it was possible to locate the end destinations of the fish batches. The batch sizes and the number of companies involved clearly rose when batch joining occurred. Thus, a fault in a small batch can potentially have widespread implications. The study also underlines the importance...... of discovering a fault as early as possible in order to minimise the costs of a recall. The localisation of distributed products during a recall operation can be facilitated by a well-constructed traceability system....

  7. Batch Delivery Scheduling with Multiple Decentralized Manufacturers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shi Li

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses an integrated decision on production scheduling and delivery operations, which is one of the most important issues in supply chain scheduling. We study a model in which a set of jobs ordered by only one customer and a set of decentralized manufacturers located at different locations are considered. Specifically, each job must be assigned to one of the decentralized manufacturers to process on its single machine facility. Then, the job is delivered to the customer directly in batch without intermediate inventory. The objective is to find a joint schedule of production and distribution to optimize the customer service level and delivery cost. In our work, we discuss this problem considering two different situations in terms of the customer service level. In the first one, the customer service is measured by the maximum arrival time, while the customer service is measured by the total arrival time in the second one. For each situation, we develop a dynamic programming algorithm to solve, respectively. Moreover, we identify a special case for the latter situation by introducing its corresponding solutions.

  8. Biodenitrification in Sequencing Batch Reactors. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silverstein, J. [Colorado Univ., Boulder, CO (United States). Dept. of Civil, Environmental, and Architectural Engineering

    1996-01-23

    One plan for stabilization of the Solar Pond waters and sludges at Rocky Flats Plant (RFP), is evaporation and cement solidification of the salts to stabilize heavy metals and radionuclides for land disposal as low-level mixed waste. It has been reported that nitrate (NO{sub 3}{sub {minus}}) salts may interfere with cement stabilization of heavy metals and radionuclides. Therefore, biological nitrate removal (denitrification) may be an important pretreatment for the Solar Pond wastewaters at RFP, improving the stability of the cement final waste form, reducing the requirement for cement (or pozzolan) additives and reducing the volume of cemented low-level mixed waste requiring ultimate disposal. A laboratory investigation of the performance of the Sequencing Batch Reactor (SBR) activated sludge process developed for nitrate removal from a synthetic brine typical of the high-nitrate and high-salinity wastewaters in the Solar Ponds at Rocky Flats Plant was carried out at the Environmental Engineering labs at the University of Colorado, Boulder, between May 1, 1994 and October 1, 1995.

  9. Kinetic study of batch and fed-batch enzymatic saccharification of pretreated substrate and subsequent fermentation to ethanol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gupta Rishi

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Enzymatic hydrolysis, the rate limiting step in the process development for biofuel, is always hampered by its low sugar concentration. High solid enzymatic saccharification could solve this problem but has several other drawbacks such as low rate of reaction. In the present study we have attempted to enhance the concentration of sugars in enzymatic hydrolysate of delignified Prosopis juliflora, using a fed-batch enzymatic hydrolysis approach. Results The enzymatic hydrolysis was carried out at elevated solid loading up to 20% (w/v and a comparison kinetics of batch and fed-batch enzymatic hydrolysis was carried out using kinetic regimes. Under batch mode, the actual sugar concentration values at 20% initial substrate consistency were found deviated from the predicted values and the maximum sugar concentration obtained was 80.78 g/L. Fed-batch strategy was implemented to enhance the final sugar concentration to 127 g/L. The batch and fed-batch enzymatic hydrolysates were fermented with Saccharomyces cerevisiae and ethanol production of 34.78 g/L and 52.83 g/L, respectively, were achieved. Furthermore, model simulations showed that higher insoluble solids in the feed resulted in both smaller reactor volume and shorter residence time. Conclusion Fed-batch enzymatic hydrolysis is an efficient procedure for enhancing the sugar concentration in the hydrolysate. Restricting the process to suitable kinetic regimes could result in higher conversion rates.

  10. Glucoamylase production in batch, chemostat and fed-batch cultivations by an industrial strain of Aspergillus niger

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Henrik; Beyer, Michael; Nielsen, Jens

    2000-01-01

    The Aspergillus niger strain BO-1 was grown in batch, continuous (chemostat) and fed-batch cultivations in order to study the production of the extracellular enzyme glucoamylase under different growth conditions. In the pH range 2.5-6.0, the specific glucoamylase productivity and the specific...

  11. 基于AES的软件加密解密的设计与实现%The design and implement of the Software encryption and decryption technology basing on the AES Algorithm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐高阳; 孙世坤

    2015-01-01

    The popularity of computer and the Importance to IPR protection have made great progresses in the Software encryption technology. That the AES algorithm is replacing the DES algorithm are prevalent. This paper first introduces a new method for encrypting text and decrypting text by the AES Algorithm, and designs an Example about the AES Algorithm basing on the platform of the Visual C++2010.%随着计算机的普及以及重视知识产权保护,使得软件加密技术蓬勃兴起,AES算法正取代DES算法成为使用广泛的新标准。介绍了如何运用AES算法对文档进行加密和解密,并给出了一个基于Visual C++2010开发平台和AES算法的实例。

  12. 从苏俄密档看孙中山晚年的农民土地思想%Analysis of Sun Yat-sen' s Thoughts on Farmers and Lands in His Later Years from the Soviet Decrypted Files

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪澎

    2012-01-01

    前苏联解体后解密的共产国际、联共(布)与中国革命档案资料显示,孙中山晚年认为农民是中国革命的基础,但农民尚没有很好的组织和力量,难以对抗地主民团;孙中山也完全不同意共产国际提出的“分配地主土地给农民”的激进土地革命政策,而是坚持以税收和赎买来消除土地占有和土地使用中的不公正现象.解密档案基本上反映了孙中山晚年的农民土地思想.%As indicated by the decrypted files of Comintern, CPSU (Bolshevik) and China revolution after the disintegration of former Soviet Union, Sun Yat-sen, in his later years, deemed that the farmers were the foundation of China revolution, but the fanners had not yet organizations and power to resist the landlord class; Sun Yat-sen also completely denied the radical land revolution policies of "distributing the landlords' lands to farmers" proposed by the Comintern, he stuck to the way of taxes and redemption to eliminate the injustice in land tenure and utilization. The decrypted files gave a basic reflection of Sun Yat-sen' s thoughts on farmlands in his late years.

  13. FRIT DEVELOPMENT FOR SLUDGE BATCH 6

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fox, K.; Edwards, T.; Zamecnik, J.

    2010-05-13

    The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) evaluated a large number of Sludge Batch 6 (SB6) composition projections to support frit optimization for SB6 vitrification at the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF). The evaluations discussed in this report occurred over a period of about 4 months, and included about 40 composition projections, developed by both Savannah River Remediation (SRR) and SRNL. Paper study assessments were used to evaluate the sludge composition projections with arrays of potential frit compositions using the predictive models in the DWPF Product Composition Control System (PCCS). Both nominal sludge compositions and sludge compositions with anticipated compositional variation were considered. The model predictions were used to identify candidate frit compositions for each SB6 projection and to provide some guidance to SRR on washing and blending strategies for SB6 preparation. This report presents a chronological review of this process and summarizes the findings at each stage. Following initial feedback from this work, the number of washes in Tank 51 was reduced to increase the projected sodium concentration in SB6. Analyses of predicted frit performance before and after a potential decant of Tank 40 showed that the post-decant SB6 composition would be difficult to process with any frit composition and that this scenario should be avoided. Based on the most recent SB6 projections (February 2010 SB6 composition projections developed at SRNL using the measured SB6 qualification sample composition and the revised Tank Farm washing plan), Frit 418 appears to be viable for SB6 processing at a target waste loading of 36%. A Nominal Stage PCCS Measurement Acceptability Region (MAR) assessment gave projected operating windows of 25-41% waste loading, limited by predictions of nepheline crystallization. The projected operating window is reduced to 25-38% waste loading when anticipated compositional variation is considered, again limited by

  14. Numerical modeling of batch formation in waste incineration plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Obroučka Karel

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is a mathematical description of algorithm for controlled assembly of incinerated batch of waste. The basis for formation of batch is selected parameters of incinerated waste as its calorific value or content of pollutants or the combination of both. The numerical model will allow, based on selected criteria, to compile batch of wastes which continuously follows the previous batch, which is a prerequisite for optimized operation of incinerator. The model was prepared as for waste storage in containers, as well as for waste storage in continuously refilled boxes. The mathematical model was developed into the computer program and its functionality was verified either by practical measurements or by numerical simulations. The proposed model can be used in incinerators for hazardous and municipal waste.

  15. Optimal control of a fed-batch fermentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dekkers, R.M.

    1984-01-01

    The common cultivation of bakers' yeast is an aerobic fed-batch fermentation under sugar-limited growth. The ultimate objective of on-line computer control is to optimize the process through maximizing the productivity of biomass formation while minimizing the consumption of raw materials for the product. Results obtained on the optimal control of a fed-batch fermentation are given. The aspects to be considered are instrumentation, state estimation, optimization and process control.

  16. Differences of silicon photodiode spectral reflectance among the same batch

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    A.L.Mu(n)oz Zurita; J.Campos Acosta; A.Pons Aglio; A.Shcherbakov

    2008-01-01

    Photodiode's reflectance plays an important role regarding the relation between responsivity and the incident flux. In this work we analyze how the spectral reflectance changes among photodiodes from the same manufacturer and batch and how the reflectance of three standard photodiodes has drifted during six years. The results show that the reflectance changes from diode to diode within the same batch and also show th.at the reflectance ofphotodiodes changes on time. This ageing is spectrally dependent.

  17. Reliability and validity of resilience scale for adults(RSA) in military students%成人心理弹性量表在军校大学生中的信效度研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张佳佳; 任景敏; 黄健; 李敏; 魏琳; 张钰; 李培培; 张丽丽; 汪涛

    2010-01-01

    目的 研究成人心理弹性量表(RSA)在军校大学生中的信效度.方法 采用成人心理弹性量表(RSA)和症状自评量表(SCL-90)中的抑郁、焦虑、躯体化3个因子对某军校616名学生进行整群抽样调查.结果 ①对RSA采用探索性因素分析.共提取5个因子.各项目在因子上的负荷在0.423~0.834之间,累计方差解释率为58.439%;②RSA各因子之间相关显著.相关系数在0.228~0.580之间;各因子与总分相关显著,相关系数在0.565~0.789之间;③效标SCL-90的抑郁、焦虑和躯体化三个因子的均分与RSA均分之间呈显著负相关,相关系数为-0.437(n=593,P=0.000);④RSA各个因子的同质性信度在0.52~0.86之间,RSA问卷信度为0.91.结论 RSA量表在军校学生中信效度较好.%Objective To research the reliability and validity of resilience scale for adults(RSA)in military students.Methods RSA, depression, anxiety and somatization of Self-report Symptom Checklist 90(SCL-90)were applied in this survey to 616 military students.Results ①A 5-factor structure of resilience was showed by explorative factor analysis.Each item had a factor loading between 0.423~0.834, and the total variance explained at 58.439%.②The correlations between the subscales of the RSA were all obvious positive, ranging from 0.228~0.580;and the correlations between subscales of the RSA and total resilience were all obvious positive, ranging from 0.565~0.789.③There was a obvious negative correlation between total depression, anxiety and somatization and total resilience, the correlation coefficient was-0.437(n=593, P=0.000).④Tbe reliability coefficient of the RSA was 0.91, and the respective dimensions had Cronbach's alphas between 0.52~0.86.Conclusion The results show that RSA has acceptable reliability and validity in military students.

  18. 改进的RSA算法在数字签名中的应用%Improved RSA algorithm and application in digital signature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖振久; 胡驰; 陈虹

    2014-01-01

    In order to enhance the operation efficiency of RSA algorithm, a new improved algorithm is suggested in this paper which makes some improvements in structure and operation, and it is applied to digital signature. The experiment makes comparison between a combinatorial optimization algorithm which combines SMM with index of 2k hexadecimal algorithm and the new algorithm. It shows that the new algorithm reaches a high level in operation speed.%针对传统RSA密码算法运算效率较低的问题,在标准RSA密码算法的自身结构和具体运算操作两方面做出了相应的改进,提出了一种新的RSA密码优化算法,并将该算法运用到数字签名技术中。然后通过仿真实验,将其与传统RSA算法以及基于乘同余对称特性的SMM算法和指数2k进制化相结合的组合优化算法相比较,实验结果表明新的RSA密码优化算法在提升运算速度方面达到了较高的水平。

  19. 基于RSA的叛逆者追踪方案的设计与分析%The Analysis and Design of Traitor Tracing Scheme Based on RSA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    齐亚莉

    2012-01-01

    叛逆者追踪方案是版权保护中的重要工具。基于RSA算法的安全性,设计叛逆者追踪方案,数据分发者分别为每个用户进行初始化,使每个用户都具有标志性的用户信息,可准确地追踪到叛逆者。对方案进行分析后得出结论:为保证安全性,需要不断增加密钥长度,但其不可否认性和防诬陷性使该追踪算法的应用受到一定限制。%Traitor tracing technology is an important measure to data copyright protection. This paper designs a traitor tracing scheme based on RSA, which dispatches special information for every users respectively. The information for one user is the label of him. The scheme has the advantages of tracing traitor and revoking traitor successfully. But it is restrained by non-re- pudiation and full frameproof to application.

  20. Polynomial Batch Codes for Efficient IT-PIR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henry Ryan

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Private information retrieval (PIR is a way for clients to query a remote database without the database holder learning the clients’ query terms or the responses they generate. Compelling applications for PIR are abound in the cryptographic and privacy research literature, yet existing PIR techniques are notoriously inefficient. Consequently, no such PIRbased application to date has seen real-world at-scale deployment. This paper proposes new “batch coding” techniques to help address PIR’s efficiency problem. The new techniques exploit the connection between ramp secret sharing schemes and efficient information-theoretically secure PIR (IT-PIR protocols. This connection was previously observed by Henry, Huang, and Goldberg (NDSS 2013, who used ramp schemes to construct efficient “batch queries” with which clients can fetch several database records for the same cost as fetching a single record using a standard, non-batch query. The new techniques in this paper generalize and extend those of Henry et al. to construct “batch codes” with which clients can fetch several records for only a fraction the cost of fetching a single record using a standard non-batch query over an unencoded database. The batch codes are highly tuneable, providing a means to trade off (i lower server-side computation cost, (ii lower server-side storage cost, and/or (iii lower uni- or bi-directional communication cost, in exchange for a comparatively modest decrease in resilience to Byzantine database servers.

  1. Shortcut Algorithm for Simulation of Batch Extractive Distillation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Huixiong; XU Shimin; HU Hui; XIAO Bin

    2007-01-01

    The batch extractive distillation (BED) process has the advantages of both batch and extractive distillation. It is one of the most promising means for the separation of azeotropic and close-boiling point systems. However, so far this process has not been applied in industry due to its over-complexity. A new shortcut model was proposed to simulate the operation of the batch extractive distillation operations. This algorithm is based on the assumption that the batch extractive distillation column can be considered as a continuous extractive distillation column with changing feed at anytime. Namely, the whole batch process is simulated as a succession of a finite number of steady states of short duration, in which holdup is considered as constant mole. For each period of time the batch extractive distillation process is solved through the algorithm for continuous extractive distillation. Finally, the practical implementation of the shortcut model is discussed and data from the lab-oratory and literature are presented. It is found that this model has better adaptability, more satisfactory accuracy and less calculative load than previous rigorous model. Hence the algorithm for simulating BED is verified.

  2. Batch process monitoring based on multilevel ICA-PCA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhi-qiang GE; Zhi-huan SONG

    2008-01-01

    In this paper,we describe a new batch process monitoring method based on multilevel independent component analysis and principal component analysis (MLICA-PCA).Unlike the conventional multi-way principal component analysis (MPCA) method,MLICA-PCA provides a separated interpretation for multilevel batch process data.Batch process data are partitioned into two levels:the within-batch level and the between-batch level.In each level,the Gaussian and non-Ganssian components of process information can be separately extracted.I2,T2 and SPE statistics are individually built and monitored.The new method facilitates fault diagnosis.Since the two variation levels arc decomposed,the variables responsible for faults in each level can be identified and interpreted more easily.A case study of the Dupont benchmark process showed that the proposed method was more efficient and interpretable in fault detection and diagnosis,compared to the alternative batch process monitoring method.

  3. [Characteristic of Particulate Emissions from Concrete Batching in Beijing].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Yi-feng; Zhou, Zhen; Zhong, Lian-hong; Yan, Jing; Qu, Song; Huang, Yu-hu; Tian, He- zhong; Pan, Tao

    2016-01-15

    With the economic development and population growth in Beijing, there is a strong need for construction and housing, which leads to the increase of the construction areas. Meanwhile, as a local provided material, the production of concrete has been raised. In the process of concrete production by concrete batching, there are numerous particulates emitted, which have large effect on the atmospheric environment, however, systematic study about the tempo-spatial characteristics of pollutant emission from concrete batching is still rare. In this study, we estimated the emission of particulates from concrete batching from 1991 to 2012 using emission factor method, analyzed the tempo-spatial characteristics of pollutant emission, established the uncertainty range by adopting Monte-Carlo method, and predicted the future emission in 2020 based on the relative environmental and economical policies. The results showed that: (1) the emissions of particulates from concrete batching showed a trend of "first increase and then decrease", reaching the maximum in 2005, and then decreased due to stricter emission standard and enhanced environmental management. (2) according to spatial distribution, the emission of particulates from concrete batch mainly concentrated in the urban area with more human activities, and the area between the fifth ring and the sixth ring contributed the most. (3) through scenarios analysis, for further reducing the emission from concrete batching in 2020, more stricter standard for green production as well as powerful supervision is needed.

  4. RSA加密算法的有效实现及在云计算中的应用%Analysis to Effective Realization of RSA Encryption Algorithm and Its Application in the Cloud Computing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢会娟; 韩昌豪; 吴明珠

    2014-01-01

    随着互联网的发展,云计算模式能够提供便捷的、可用的和按需要网络资源,云计算的核心是如何存储和管理用户的数据,除了配置存储设备的之外,还要考虑到存储在云中的数据的安全性。RSA加密算法是基于一个比较简单的数论-两个大素数相乘十分容易实现,但要对它的乘积进行因式分解却十分困难,RSA加密算法是将乘积公开作为加密密钥的非对称加密方法,在云计算中应用RSA算法对存储在云中的数据进行加密,能够保证了数据的安全性。%With the development of the Internet, cloud computing can provide convenient and available network resources, the core of cloud computing is how to store and manage user data, cloud computing does not provide storage devices, but also takes into account the security of the data stored in the cloud. RSA encryption algorithm is based on a relatively simple theory of math-multiplying two large prime numbers is very easy to achieve, but it's the factorization is very difficult, RSA encryption al⁃gorithm considers a product as a public encryption key and is an asymmetric encryption method. To ensure the security of the da⁃ta, RSA encryption algorithm is applied for the data storage in the cloud.

  5. Fed-batch versus batch cultures of Yarrowia lipolytica for γ-decalactone production from methyl ricinoleate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Nelma; Teixeira, José A; Belo, Isabel

    2012-04-01

    Constant medium feeding rate and intermittent fed-batch fermentation strategies were investigated aiming to increase the yields of γ-decalactone production by Yarrowia lipolytica, using methyl ricinoleate as substrate and ricinoleic acid source. The accumulation of another compound, 3-hydroxy-γ-decalactone, was also analyzed since it derives from the direct precursor of γ-decalactone thereby providing information about the enzymatic activities of the pathway. Both strategies were compared with the traditional batch mode in terms of overall productivity and yield in respect to the substrate. Although the productivity of γ-decalactone was considerably higher in the batch mode (168 mg l(-1) h(-1)), substrate conversion to lactone (73 mg γ-decalactone g(-1)) was greater in the intermittent fed-batch giving 6.8 g γ-decalactone l(-1). This last strategy therefore has potential for γ-decalactone production at an industrial level.

  6. Batch and High Cell Density Fed-Batch Culture Productions of an Organophosphorus Hydrolase

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    0.02 g H3BO3, 0.01 g NaMoO4@ 2H2O , and 0.01 g CuSO4 . Fed-Batch Fermentations were carried out in the same Bio-Flow 3000 unit fitted with 10 L...per L): 3.0 g nitrilotriacetic acid, 6.0 MgSO4@7H2O, 1.0 g NaCl, 1.0 g MnSO4@H2O, 0.5 g FeSO4@7H20, 0.1 CaCl2@ 2H2O , 0.1 CoCl2@6H2O, 0.1 g ZnSO4@7H2O

  7. SLUDGE BATCH VARIABILITY STUDY WITH FRIT 418

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, F.; Edwards, T.

    2010-11-29

    The Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) initiated processing Sludge Batch 6 (SB6) in the summer of 2010. In support of processing, the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) provided a recommendation to utilize Frit 418 to process SB6. This recommendation was based on assessments of the compositional projections for SB6 available at the time from the Liquid Waste Organization (LWO) and SRNL (using a model-based approach). To support qualification of SB6, SRNL executed a variability study to assess the applicability of the current durability models for SB6. The durability models were assessed over the expected Frit 418-SB6 composition range. Seventeen glasses were selected for the variability study based on the sludge projections used in the frit recommendation. Five of the glasses are based on the centroid of the compositional region, spanning a waste loading (WL) range of 32 to 40%. The remaining twelve glasses are extreme vertices (EVs) of the sludge region of interest for SB6 combined with Frit 418 and are all at 36% WL. These glasses were fabricated and characterized using chemical composition analysis, X-ray diffraction (XRD) and the Product Consistency Test (PCT). After initiating the SB6 variability study, the measured composition of the SB6 Tank 51 qualification glass produced at the SRNL Shielded Cells Facility indicated that thorium was present in the glass at an appreciable concentration (1.03 wt%), which made it a reportable element for SB6. This concentration of ThO{sub 2} resulted in a second phase of experimental studies. Five glasses were formulated that were based on the centroid of the new sludge compositional region combined with Frit 418, spanning a WL range of 32 to 40%. These glasses were fabricated and characterized using chemical composition analysis and the PCT. Based on the measured PCT response, all of the glasses (with and without thorium) were acceptable with respect to the Environmental Assessment (EA) reference glass

  8. SLUDGE BATCH 7B GLASS VARIABILITY STUDY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, F.; Edwards, T.

    2011-10-25

    The Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) is preparing to initiate processing Sludge Batch 7b (SB7b). In support of the upcoming processing, the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) provided a recommendation to utilize Frits 418 with a 6% Na{sub 2}O addition (26 wt% Na{sub 2}O in sludge) and 702 with a 4% Na{sub 2}O addition (24 wt% Na{sub 2}O in sludge) to process SB7b. This recommendation was based on assessments of the compositional projections for SB7b available at the time from the Savannah River Remediation (SRR). To support qualification of SB7b, SRNL executed a variability study to assess the applicability of the current durability models for SB7b. The durability models were assessed over the expected composition range of SB7b, including potential caustic additions, combined with Frits 702 and 418 over a 32-40% waste loading (WL) range. Thirty four glasses were selected based on Frits 418 and 702 coupled with the sludge projections with an additional 4-6% Na{sub 2}O to reflect the potential caustic addition. Six of these glasses, based on average nominal sludge compositions including the appropriate caustic addition, were developed for both Frit 418 and Frit 702 at 32, 36 and 40% WL to provide coverage in the center of the anticipated SB7b glass region. All glasses were fabricated and characterized using chemical composition analysis, X-ray diffraction (XRD) and the Product Consistency Test (PCT). To comply with the DWPF Glass Product Control Program, a total of thirty four glasses were fabricated to assess the applicability of the current DWPF PCCS durability models. Based on the measured PCT response, all of the glasses were acceptable with respect to the Environmental Assessment (EA) benchmark glass regardless of thermal history. The NL[B] values of the SB7b variability study glasses were less than 1.99 g/L as compared to 16.695 g/L for EA. A small number of the D-optimally selected 'outer layer' extreme vertices (EV) glasses were not

  9. A study on clavulanic acid production by Streptomyces clavuligerus in batch, fed-batch and continuous processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. B. Neto

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Clavulanic acid (CA is a potent inhibitor of beta-lactamases, enzymes that are responsible for the hydrolysis of beta-lactam antibiotics. It is a secondary metabolite produced by the filamentous aerobic bacterium Streptomyces clavuligerus in submerged cultivations. In the present work clavulanic acid production in batch, fed-batch and continuous bioreactors was studied with the objective of increasing productivity. The operating conditions: temperature, aeration and agitation, were the same in all cases, 28º C, 0.5 vvm and 800 rpm, respectively. The CA concentration obtained in the fed-batch culture, 404 mg L-1, was ca twice the value obtained in the batch culture, 194 mg L-1, while 293 mg L-1 was obtained in the continuous culture. The highest productivity was obtained in the continuous cultivation, 10.6 mg L-1 h-1, as compared with 8.8 mg L-1 h-1 in the fed-batch process and 3.5 mg L-1 h-1 in the batch process, suggesting that continuous culture of Streptomyces clavuligerus is a promising strategy for clavulanic acid production.

  10. Butanol production by immobilised Clostridium acetobutylicum in repeated batch, fed-batch, and continuous modes of fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolejš, Igor; Krasňan, Vladimír; Stloukal, Radek; Rosenberg, Michal; Rebroš, Martin

    2014-10-01

    Clostridium acetobutylicum immobilised in polyvinylalcohol, lens-shaped hydrogel capsules (LentiKats(®)) was studied for production of butanol and other products of acetone-butanol-ethanol fermentation. After optimising the immobilisation protocol for anaerobic bacteria, continuous, repeated batch, and fed-batch fermentations in repeated batch mode were performed. Using glucose as a substrate, butanol productivity of 0.41 g/L/h and solvent productivity of 0.63 g/L/h were observed at a dilution rate of 0.05 h(-1) during continuous fermentation with a concentrated substrate (60 g/L). Through the process of repeated batch fermentation, the duration of fermentation was reduced from 27.8h (free-cell fermentation) to 3.3h (immobilised cells) with a solvent productivity of 0.77 g/L/h (butanol 0.57 g/L/h). The highest butanol and solvent productivities of 1.21 and 1.91 g/L/h were observed during fed-batch fermentation operated in repeated batch mode with yields of butanol (0.15 g/g) and solvents (0.24 g/g), respectively, produced per gram of glucose.

  11. Supply Chain Batching Problem with Identical Orders and Lifespan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shanlin Li

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In the real world, there are a large number of supply chains that involve the short lifespan products. In this paper, we consider an integrated production and distribution batch scheduling problem on a single machine for the orders with a short lifespan, because it may be cheaper or faster to process and distribute orders in a batch than to process and distribute them individually. Assume that the orders have the identical processing time and come from the same location, and the batch setup time is a constant. The problem is to choose the number of batches and batch sizes to minimize the total delivery time without violating the order lifespan. We first give a backward dynamic programming algorithm, but it is not an actually polynomial-time algorithm. Then we propose a constant time partial dynamic programming algorithm by doing further research into the recursion formula in the algorithm. Further, using the difference characteristics of the optimal value function, a specific calculating formula to solve the problem with the setup time being integer times of the processing time is obtained.

  12. RSA算法中Z*(φ)(n)的代数结构研究%Study on Algebraic Structure of Z*(φ)(n) in RSA Algorithm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    裴东林; 胡建军; 李旭

    2013-01-01

    [Abstract] Based on the theory of quadratic residues, this paper considers the algebraic structure of Z*φ(n) in the two order strong RSA algorithm. It is proved that the element α of Z*φ(n) gets maximal order if and only if gcd(α±l,n1) = 1, and the numbers of quadratic residues in the group Z*φ(n) is φ(φ(n))/8 .Z*φ(n) is divided up by the group which is composed of all quadratic residues, and all cosets form a Klein eight-group. It proves that the group Z*φ(n) can be generated by seven elements of quadratic non-residues.%应用二次剩余理论,对二阶强RSA算法中Z*(φ)(n)的代数结构进行研究,证明Z*(φ)(n)中元素a取最大阶的充要条件为gcd(a±1,n1)=1,以及任意元素的阶Z*(φ)(n)中模(φ)(n)的二次剩余个数为(φ)(φ)(n))/8,以所有二次剩余构成的群对Z*(φ)(n)进行分割,利用所有陪集构成一个Klein八元群,在此基础上证明Z*(φ)(n)可由7个二次非剩余元素生成.

  13. Displacement of the medial meniscus within the passive motion characteristics of the human knee joint: an RSA study in human cadaver knees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tienen, T G; Buma, P; Scholten, J G F; van Kampen, A; Veth, R P H; Verdonschot, N

    2005-05-01

    The objective of this study was to validate an in vitro human cadaver knee-joint model for the evaluation of the meniscal movement during knee-joint flexion. The question was whether our model showed comparable meniscal displacements to those found in earlier meniscal movement studies in vivo. Furthermore, we determined the influence of tibial torque on the meniscal displacement during knee-joint flexion. Three tantalum beads were inserted in the medial meniscus of six human-cadaver joints. The knee joints were placed and loaded in a loading apparatus, and the movements of the beads were determined by means of RSA during knee-joint flexion and extension with and without internal tibial (IT) and external tibial (ET) torque. During flexion without tibial torque, all menisci moved in posterior and lateral direction. The anterior horn showed significantly greater excursions than the posterior horn in both posterior and lateral direction. Internal tibial torque caused an anterior displacement of the pathway on the tibial plateau. External tibial torque caused a posterior displacement of the pathway. External tibial torque restricted the meniscal displacement during the first 30 degrees of knee-joint flexion. The displacements of the meniscus in this experiment were similar to the displacements described in the in vivo MRI studies. Furthermore, the application of tibial torque confirmed the relative immobility of the posterior horn of the meniscus. During external tibial torque, the posterior displacement of the pathway on the tibial plateau during the first 30 degrees of flexion might be restricted by the attached knee-joint capsule or the femoral condyle. This model revealed representative meniscal displacements during simple knee-joint flexion and also during the outer limits of passive knee-joint motion.

  14. Detection of Rsa Ⅰ gene polimorphism of low density lipoprotein receptor related protein and its influence on serum lipid level in hemodialysis patients%血液透析患者低密度脂蛋白受体相关蛋白Rsa Ⅰ位点基因多态性对血脂水平的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王玉新; 张以勤; 叶婧; 陆元善; 徐琴君; 邹和群

    2012-01-01

    Objectives To investigate the characteristics of dislipidemia and influence by low density lipoprotein receptor related protein (LRP) exon 3 Rsa Ⅰ gene polymorphism in hemodialysis patients.Methods serum total cholesterol (TC),triglyceride (TG),low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDLC),high density lipoprotein cholesterol ( HDLC),apolipoproteins ( Apo A1,B,E) and lipoprotein (a) [Lp (a)] were measured,polymerase chain reaction - restriction fragment length polymophism ( PCR - RFLP) was used to detect LRP gene polymorphism in hemodialysis patients.Results The serum levels of TG and ApoB were higher significantly in the hemodialysis patients compared to contrals,and the levels of TC,LDLC,HDLC were lower compared to controls.Patients with cardiovascular disorder had higher TG level compared to patients without the disorder.The data of LRP polymorphism detected by PCR - RFLP showed that the allele frequency and the distribution of the LRP genotype of tetranucleotide reapeat sequence and exon 3 did not differ significantly between controls and hemodialysis patients.There was no statistic difference in serum lipid level between hemodialysis patients with different genotype of LRP exon 3.Conclusions Hemodialysis patients were liable to develop hypertrglyeridemia and hypocholesteroldemia.TG level might related to the development of cardiovascular disorder in hemodialysis patients.There is different influence of LRP Rsa Ⅰ gene polymorphism on lipid levels between controls and hemodialysis patients.%目的 探讨血液透析患者脂代谢紊乱的临床特征及低密度脂蛋白受体相关蛋白(LRP)外显子3RsaⅠ位点基因多态性对脂代谢的影响.方法 生化方法检测血液透析患者血清总胆固醇(TC)、甘油三酯(TG)、高密度脂蛋白胆固醇(HDLC)、低密度脂蛋白胆固醇(LDLC)、载脂蛋白(Apo)A1、ApoB、ApoE及脂蛋白(Lp)(a)水平,多聚合酶链反应-限制性片断长度多态性方法( PCR - RFLP)检测LRP外显子3Rsa

  15. From Fed-batch to Continuous Enzymatic Biodiesel Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2015-01-01

    In this this paper, we use mechanistic modelling to guide the development of acontinuous enzymatic process that is performed as a fed-batch operation. In this workwe use the enzymatic biodiesel process as a case study. A mechanistic model developedin our previous work was used to determine...... measured components (triglycerides, diglycerides, monoglycerides, free fatty acid and fatty acid methyl esters(biodiesel)) much better than using fed-batch data alone given the smaller residuals. We also observe a reduction in the correlation between the parameters.The model was then used to predict that 5...... reactors are required (with a combined residence time of 30 hours) to reach a final biodiesel concentration within 2 % of the95.6 mass % achieved in a fed-batch operation, for 24 hours....

  16. Run-to-run product quality control of batch processes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIA Li; SHI Ji-ping; CHENG Da-shuai; CHIU Min-sen

    2009-01-01

    Batch processes have been increasingly used in the production of low volume and high value added products.Consequently,optimization control in batch processes is crucial in order to derive the maximum benefit.In this paper,a run-to-run product quality control based on iterative learning optimization control is developed.Moreover,a rigorous theorem is proposed and proven in this paper,which states that the tracking error under the optimal iterative learning control (ILC) law can converge to zero.In this paper,a typical nonlinear batch continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR) is considered,and the results show that the performance of trajectory tracking is gradually improved by the ILC.

  17. Application of gain scheduling to the control of batch bioreactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardello, Ralph; San, Ka-Yiu

    1987-01-01

    The implementation of control algorithms to batch bioreactors is often complicated by the inherent variations in process dynamics during the course of fermentation. Such a wide operating range may render the performance of fixed gain PID controllers unsatisfactory. In this work, a detailed study on the control of batch fermentation is performed. Furthermore, a simple batch controller design is proposed which incorporates the concept of gain-scheduling, a subclass of adaptive control, with oxygen uptake rate as an auxiliary variable. The control of oxygen tension in the biorector is used as a vehicle to convey the proposed idea, analysis and results. Simulation experiments indicate significant improvement in controller performance can be achieved by the proposed approach even in the presence of measurement noise.

  18. Batch Statistical Process Monitoring Approach to a Cocrystallization Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarraguça, Mafalda C; Ribeiro, Paulo R S; Santos, Adenilson O Dos; Lopes, João A

    2015-12-01

    Cocrystals are defined as crystalline structures composed of two or more compounds that are solid at room temperature held together by noncovalent bonds. Their main advantages are the increase of solubility, bioavailability, permeability, stability, and at the same time retaining active pharmaceutical ingredient bioactivity. The cocrystallization between furosemide and nicotinamide by solvent evaporation was monitored on-line using near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) as a process analytical technology tool. The near-infrared spectra were analyzed using principal component analysis. Batch statistical process monitoring was used to create control charts to perceive the process trajectory and define control limits. Normal and non-normal operating condition batches were performed and monitored with NIRS. The use of NIRS associated with batch statistical process models allowed the detection of abnormal variations in critical process parameters, like the amount of solvent or amount of initial components present in the cocrystallization.

  19. Batch variation between branchial cell cultures: An analysis of variance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Heinz Johs. Max; Grosell, M.; Kristensen, L.

    2003-01-01

    We present in detail how a statistical analysis of variance (ANOVA) is used to sort out the effect of an unexpected batch-to-batch variation between cell cultures. Two separate cultures of rainbow trout branchial cells were grown on permeable filtersupports ("inserts"). They were supposed...... and introducing the observed difference between batches as one of the factors in an expanded three-dimensional ANOVA, we were able to overcome an otherwisecrucial lack of sufficiently reproducible duplicate values. We could thereby show that the effect of changing the apical medium was much more marked when...... the radioactive lipid precursors were added on the apical, rather than on the basolateral, side. Theinsert cell cultures were obviously polarized. We argue that it is not reasonable to reject troublesome experimental results, when we do not know a priori that something went wrong. The ANOVA is a very useful...

  20. Batch-related sterile endophthalmitis following intravitreal injection of bevacizumab

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morteza Entezari

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: To report a series of patients with sterile endophthalmitis after intravitreal bevacizumab (IVB injection from 2 different batches of bevacizumab. Materials and Methods: Records of 11 eyes with severe inflammation after IVB injections from two different batches (7 eyes from one and 4 from the other on two separate days were evaluated. Fifteen eyes of 15 patients in one day were treated with one batch and 18 eyes of 17 patients were treated another day using another batch injected for different retinal diseases. Each batch was opened on the day of injection. We used commercially available bevacizumab (100 mg/4 ml kept at 4°C. Severe cases with hypopyon were admitted to the ward and underwent anterior chamber and vitreous tap for direct smear and culture. Results: Pain, redness and decreased vision began after 11-17 days. All had anterior chamber and vitreous reactions and 5 had hypopyon. Antibiotics and corticosteroids were initiated immediately, but the antibiotics were discontinued after negative culture results. Visual acuity returned to pre-injection levels in 10 eyes after 1 month and only in one eye pars plana vitrectomy was performed. Mean VA at the time of presentation with inflammation (1.76 ± 0.78 logMAR decreased significantly (P = 0.008 compared to the initial mean corrected VA (1.18 ± 0.55 logMAR; however, final mean corrected VA (1.02 ± 0.48 logMAR improved in comparison with the baseline but not to a significant level (P = 0.159. Conclusions: We report a cluster of sterile endophthalmitis following intravitreal injection of bevacizumab from the same batch of bevacizumab that has a favorable prognosis.

  1. MD2013: Tune shift along the batch at flat top

    CERN Document Server

    Carver, Lee Robert; Buffat, Xavier; Giovannozzi, Massimo; Iadarola, Giovanni; Metral, Elias; Salvant, Benoit; CERN. Geneva. ATS Department

    2017-01-01

    A series of tests were performed that led to a measurement of the tune shift along a 96 bunch batch with 25ns spacing at at top. The measurements demonstrated the ability of the transverse damper (ADT) to excite single bunches with minimal pulse leakage to neighbouring bunches (with 25ns bunch spacing). The processes were tested and refined with tests at injection and end of fill (EOF) before carrying out the excitation at at top before a physics fill. The tune shift along the batch was shown to be less than ≈4x10-4 for both beams, both planes.

  2. Stochastic growth logistic model with aftereffect for batch fermentation process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosli, Norhayati; Ayoubi, Tawfiqullah [Faculty of Industrial Sciences and Technology, Universiti Malaysia Pahang, Lebuhraya Tun Razak, 26300 Gambang, Pahang (Malaysia); Bahar, Arifah; Rahman, Haliza Abdul [Department of Mathematical Sciences, Faculty of Science, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 Johor Bahru, Johor (Malaysia); Salleh, Madihah Md [Department of Biotechnology Industry, Faculty of Biosciences and Bioengineering, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 Johor Bahru, Johor (Malaysia)

    2014-06-19

    In this paper, the stochastic growth logistic model with aftereffect for the cell growth of C. acetobutylicum P262 and Luedeking-Piret equations for solvent production in batch fermentation system is introduced. The parameters values of the mathematical models are estimated via Levenberg-Marquardt optimization method of non-linear least squares. We apply Milstein scheme for solving the stochastic models numerically. The effciency of mathematical models is measured by comparing the simulated result and the experimental data of the microbial growth and solvent production in batch system. Low values of Root Mean-Square Error (RMSE) of stochastic models with aftereffect indicate good fits.

  3. MD2013: Tune shift along the batch at flat top

    CERN Document Server

    Carver, Lee Robert; Buffat, Xavier; Giovannozzi, Massimo; Iadarola, Giovanni; Metral, Elias; Salvant, Benoit; CERN. Geneva. ATS Department

    2017-01-01

    A series of tests were performed that led to a measurement of the tune shift along a 96 bunch batch with 25ns spacing at flat top. The measurements demonstrated the ability of the transverse damper (ADT) to excite single bunches with minimal pulse leakage to neighbouring bunches (with 25ns bunch spacing). The processes were tested and refined with tests at injection and end of fill (EOF) before carrying out the excitation at flat top before a physics fill. The tune shift along the batch was shown to be less than ≈4x10-4 for both beams, both planes.

  4. Stochastic growth logistic model with aftereffect for batch fermentation process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosli, Norhayati; Ayoubi, Tawfiqullah; Bahar, Arifah; Rahman, Haliza Abdul; Salleh, Madihah Md

    2014-06-01

    In this paper, the stochastic growth logistic model with aftereffect for the cell growth of C. acetobutylicum P262 and Luedeking-Piret equations for solvent production in batch fermentation system is introduced. The parameters values of the mathematical models are estimated via Levenberg-Marquardt optimization method of non-linear least squares. We apply Milstein scheme for solving the stochastic models numerically. The effciency of mathematical models is measured by comparing the simulated result and the experimental data of the microbial growth and solvent production in batch system. Low values of Root Mean-Square Error (RMSE) of stochastic models with aftereffect indicate good fits.

  5. Analysis and modelling of the energy requirements of batch processes; Analyse und Modellierung des Energiebedarfes in Batch-Prozessen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bieler, P.S.

    2002-07-01

    This intermediate report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) presents the results of a project aiming to model the energy consumption of multi-product, multi-purpose batch production plants. The utilities investigated were electricity, brine and steam. Both top-down and bottom-up approaches are described, whereby top-down was used for the buildings where the batch process apparatus was installed. Modelling showed that for batch-plants at the building level, the product mix can be too variable and the diversity of products and processes too great for simple modelling. Further results obtained by comparing six different production plants that could be modelled are discussed. The several models developed are described and their wider applicability is discussed. Also, the results of comparisons made between modelled and actual values are presented. Recommendations for further work are made.

  6. Lipid production in batch and fed-batch cultures of Rhodosporidium toruloides from 5 and 6 carbon carbohydrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wiebe Marilyn G

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Microbial lipids are a potential source of bio- or renewable diesel and the red yeast Rhodosporidium toruloides is interesting not only because it can accumulate over 50% of its dry biomass as lipid, but also because it utilises both five and six carbon carbohydrates, which are present in plant biomass hydrolysates. Methods R. toruloides was grown in batch and fed-batch cultures in 0.5 L bioreactors at pH 4 in chemically defined, nitrogen restricted (C/N 40 to 100 media containing glucose, xylose, arabinose, or all three carbohydrates as carbon source. Lipid was extracted from the biomass using chloroform-methanol, measured gravimetrically and analysed by GC. Results Lipid production was most efficient with glucose (up to 25 g lipid L−1, 48 to 75% lipid in the biomass, at up to 0.21 g lipid L−1 h−1 as the sole carbon source, but high lipid concentrations were also produced from xylose (36 to 45% lipid in biomass. Lipid production was low (15–19% lipid in biomass with arabinose as sole carbon source and was lower than expected (30% lipid in biomass when glucose, xylose and arabinose were provided simultaneously. The presence of arabinose and/or xylose in the medium increased the proportion of palmitic and linoleic acid and reduced the proportion of oleic acid in the fatty acids, compared to glucose-grown cells. High cell densities were obtained in both batch (37 g L−1, with 49% lipid in the biomass and fed-batch (35 to 47 g L−1, with 50 to 75% lipid in the biomass cultures. The highest proportion of lipid in the biomass was observed in cultures given nitrogen during the batch phase but none with the feed. However, carbohydrate consumption was incomplete when the feed did not contain nitrogen and the highest total lipid and best substrate consumption were observed in cultures which received a constant low nitrogen supply. Conclusions Lipid production in R. toruloides was lower from arabinose and mixed

  7. The second batch of environmental standard qualified list released

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    The Ministry of Environmental Protection released the second batch of enterprises list that basically meet environment standards recently. Total 41 enterprises from 10 provinces and autonomous regions of Inner Mongolia, Jiangsu, Jiangxi, Sichuan, Gansu and so on are included in the list.

  8. A fixed-size batch service queue with vacations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ho Woo Lee

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with batch service queues with vacations in which customers arrive according to a Poisson process. Decomposition method is used to derive the queue length distributions both for single and multiple vacation cases. The authors look at other decomposition techniques and discuss some related open problems.

  9. Development of Production Control in Small Batch Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Németh Péter

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Our aim with this paper is to develop a new performance measurement and control system for small batch production in the automotive industry. For this reason, we present our previous research results for warehouse performance measurement and adopt its methodology to production control. The proposed method is based on artificial intelligence (neural networks.

  10. Optimal parametric sensitivity control for a fed-batch reactor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stigter, J.D.; Keesman, K.J.

    2001-01-01

    The paper presents a method to derive an optimal parametric sensitivity controller for optimal estimation of a set of parameters in an experiment. The method is demonstrated for a fed batch bio-reactor case study for optimal estimation of the saturation constant Ks and, albeit intuitively, the param

  11. Optimal parametric sensitivity control of a fed-batch reactor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stigter, J.D.; Keesman, K.J.

    2004-01-01

    The paper presents an optimal parametric sensitivity controller for estimation of a set of parameters in an experiment. The method is demonstrated for a fed-batch bioreactor case study for optimal estimation of the half-saturation constant KS and the parameter combination µmaxX/Y in which µmax is th

  12. Many-body approach to the dynamics of batch learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, K. Y. Michael; Li, S.; Tong, Y. W.

    2000-09-01

    Using the cavity method and diagrammatic methods, we model the dynamics of batch learning of restricted sets of examples, widely applicable to general learning cost functions, and fully taking into account the temporal correlations introduced by the recycling of the examples. The approach is illustrated using the Adaline rule learning teacher-generated or random examples.

  13. Spatial and interannual variability in Baltic sprat batch fecundity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haslob, H.; Tomkiewicz, Jonna; Hinrichsen, H.H.;

    2011-01-01

    in the central Baltic Sea, namely the Bornholm Basin, Gdansk Deep and Southern Gotland Basin. Environmental parameters such as hydrography, fish condition and stock density were tested in order to investigate the observed variability in sprat fecundity. Absolute batch fecundity was found to be positively related...

  14. Perancangan Sistem Pengaduk Pada Bioreaktor Batch Untuk Meningkatkan Produksi Biogas

    OpenAIRE

    Candrika Widiartanti Yuwono; Totok Soehartanto

    2013-01-01

    Proses anaerob merupakan proses fermentasi dimana memiliki proses yang berlangsung cukup lama. Dan pada bioreaktor anaerob sistem batch, diduga terdapat indikasi pada penurunan jumlah produksi biogas, yang disebabkan karena tejadi pengendapan atau pemisahan antara limbah cair dengan padatannya. Untuk itu muncul upaya untuk melakukan sistem pengadukan agar terjadi homogenitas dan bisa menyerupai seperti kondisi awal, sehingga diharapkan dapat memperpanjang masa produksi biogas. Adapun pengaduk...

  15. Batch cooling crystallization and pressure filtration of sulphathiazole

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Häkkinen, Antti; Pöllänen, Kati; Karjalainen, Milja

    2005-01-01

    crystal suspensions obtained through an unseeded batch-cooling-crystallization process was studied. Sulphathiazole, which is an antibiotic agent with multiple polymorphic forms, was produced by performing laboratory-scale cooling crystallization experiments from five different mixtures of water and propan...

  16. Proactive Threshold RSA Signature Scheme Based on Polynomial Secret Sharing%基于多项式秘密共享的前摄性门限RSA签名方案

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐甫

    2016-01-01

    现有可证明安全的前摄性门限RSA签名方案均依赖加性秘密共享方法,存在每次签名均需所有成员参与,易暴露合法成员的秘密份额,签名效率低下等问题。该文以Shoup门限签名为基础,提出一种基于多项式秘密共享的前摄性门限RSA签名方案,并对其进行了详细的安全性及实用性分析。结果表明,在静态移动攻击者模型中,该方案是不可伪造的和稳健的,与现有同类方案相比,其通信开销更低,运算效率更高。%All the existing provable secure proactive threshold RSA signature schemes rely on additive secret sharing, in which all players have to cooperate to produce a signature, valid players’ secret shares may be exposed, and the computing efficiency is too low. Based on Shoup’s threshold RSA signature scheme, a proactive threshold RSA signature scheme is proposed by using polynomial secret sharing, and its security and practicability are analyzed. Results show that the proposed scheme is unforgeable and robust under the model of static mobile adversary, and compared with the existing comparable schemes, its communication overhead is lower and computing efficiency is higher.

  17. Detección de Anomalías en Oráculos Criptográficos tipo RSA por medio de análisis probabilísticas y estadísticos

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Esta línea de investigación persigue la elaboración de herramientas matemáticas susceptibles de ser sistematizadas en un software capaz de detectar anomalías y mal funcionamiento en servicios de infraestructura de clave pública (PKI) que utilicen el esquema RSA. Esta herramienta se puede aplicar en redes Públicas o Privados, Lan´s, o Wan´s e incluso Internet; en sistemas militares como del ámbito civil. Dada la complejidad de los sistemas actuales, se hace cada vez más complicada la det...

  18. Design and realization of anti-addiction mobile software based on RSA algorithm%基于RSA加密算法的防沉迷手机软件设计与实现

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈璐; 吴鹏; 张锦祥; 方美玉

    2016-01-01

    以Android系统为平台,设计开发了一个青少年防沉迷手机软件.采用了RSA (Rivest-Shamir-Adleman)非对称密钥算法以增加登入验证的破解难度,并对娱乐软件和上网总时间加以防沉迷管理.该软件主要包括软件前台、软件后台、RSA验证和防沉迷管理等模块.

  19. Computer Simulation of Batch Grinding Process Based on Simulink 5.0

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Xia; YANG Ying-jie; DENG Hui-yong; HUANG Guang-yao

    2005-01-01

    How to use Simulink software in grinding system was studied. The method of designing batch grinding subsystem and the steps of building batch grinding blockset were introduced. Based on batch grinding population balance model, batch grinding was simulated with Simulink. The results show that the simulation system designed with Simulink explain reasonably the impersonal rule of batch grinding. On the basis of batch grinding simulation, the computer simulation of mineral processing system with Simulink of grinding and classification, comminution, etc, can be properly explored.

  20. Batch and fed-batch simultaneous saccharification and fermentation of primary sludge from pulp and paper mills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendes, Cátia Vanessa Teixeira; Rocha, Jorge Manuel Dos Santos; de Menezes, Fabrícia Farias; Carvalho, Maria da Graça Videira Sousa

    2016-09-26

    Primary sludge from a Portuguese pulp and paper mill, containing 60% of carbohydrates, and unbleached pulp (as reference material), with 93% of carbohydrates, were used to produce ethanol by simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF). SSF was performed in batch or fed-batch conditions without the need of a pretreatment. Cellic(®) CTec2 was the cellulolytic enzymatic complex used and Saccharomyces cerevisiae (baker's yeast or ATCC 26602 strain) or the thermotolerant yeast Kluyveromyces marxianus NCYC 1426 were employed. Primary sludge was successfully converted to ethanol and the best results in SSF efficiency were obtained with S. cerevisiae. An ethanol concentration of 22.7 g L(-1) was produced using a content of 50 g L(-1) of carbohydrates from primary sludge, in batch conditions, with a global conversion yield of 81% and a production rate of 0.94 g L(-1) h(-1). Fed-batch operation enabled higher solids content (total carbohydrate concentration of 200 g L(-1), equivalent to a consistency of 33%) and a reduction of three-quarters of cellulolytic enzyme load, leading to an ethanol concentration of 40.7 g L(-1), although with lower yield and productivity. Xylitol with a concentration up to 7 g L(-1) was also identified as by-product in the primary sludge bioconversion process.

  1. MASS PRODUCTION OF THE BENEFICIAL NEMATODE STEINERNEMA CARPOCAPSAE UTILIZING A FED-BATCH CULTURING PROCESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonard D. Holmes

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The present study deals with the batch and fed-batch mass production of Steinernema carpocapsae. S. carpocapsae is an entomoparasitic nematode that is used as a biological control agent of soil-borne crop insect pests. The ability and efficiency of fed-batch culture process was successful through the utilization of the nematode’s bacterial symbiont Xenorhabdus nematophila. Results from the fed-batch process were compared to those obtain from the standard batch process. The fed-batch process successively improved the mass production process of S. carpocapsae employing liquid medium technology. Within the first week of the fed-batch process (day six, the nematode density obtained was 202,000 nematodes mL−1; whereas on day six, batch culture mode resulted in a nematode density of 23,000 nematodes mL−1. The fed-batch process was superior to that of batch production with a yield approximately 8.8-fold higher. In fed-batch process, the nematode yield was improved 88.6 % higher within a short amount of time compared to the batch process. Fed-batch seems to make the process more efficient and possibly economically viable.

  2. The research of Web Front-end Encryption AIgorithm and the ImpIementation of Decryption Program%Web前端加密算法的研究及解密程序的实现

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    傅桐乐

    2015-01-01

    如今,大部分网站使用Web前端加密技术以提高密码在传输过程中的安全性。文章首先阐述了加密技术的现状和加密技术在网站密码传输中的应用,然后测试某网站加密算法的安全性,用嗅探器捕获网页Post密码时的数据包并对数据包进行分析,研究该网站前端基于Javascript实现的加密算法,用Python编程实现对该网站密码的解密。最后,针对该网站的密码传输安全提出改进方案。%Nowdays, Most websites uses web front-end encryption technoIogy to keep passwords safe whiIe transmit ing. FirstIy, This paper describes the status of encryption technoIogy and the appIication of encryption technoIogy in websites passwords transmission, and then tests a website encryption security. It uses snif er to anaIyzes the packets which captures when webpage posts password. Next, researches the web front-end encryption aIgorithm which base on javascript. After that, decrypts the website ciphers with python programming. FinaI y, gives some soIutions to improve the website passwords security during transmission.

  3. On the choice of batch mode in order to maximize throughput

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weeda, P.J.

    1990-01-01

    An analysis of serial process configurations consisting of three processes and two machines shows interesting relations between the choice of batch mode (or batch structure), utilization of capacities and maximum throughput.

  4. Nonlinear dynamic modeling of multicomponent batch distillation: a case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiménez L.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is to compare several of the commercial dynamic models for batch distillation available worldwide. In this context, BATCHFRAC(TM, CHEMCAD(TM BATCH, and HYSYS.Plant® software performances are compared to experimental data. The software can be used as soft sensors, playing the roll of ad-hoc observers or estimators for control objectives. Rigorous models were used as an alternative to predict the concentration profile and to specify the optimal switching time from products to slop cuts. The performance of a nonlinear model obtained using a novel identification algorithm was also studied. In addition, the strategy for continuous separation was revised with residue curve map analysis using Aspen SPLIT(TM.

  5. APPLICATION OF MODEL PREDICTIVE CONTROL TO BATCH POLYMERIZATION REACTOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.M. Ghasem

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available The absence of a stable operational state in polymerization reactors that operates in batches is factor that determine the need of a special control system. In this study, advanced control methodology is implemented for controlling the operation of a batch polymerization reactor for polystyrene production utilizingmodel predictive control. By utilizing a model of the polymerization process, the necessary operational conditions were determined for producing the polymer within the desired characteristics. The maincontrol objective is to bring the reactor temperature to its target temperature as rapidly as possible with minimal temperature overshoot. Control performance for the proposed method is encouraging. It has been observed that temperature overshoot can be minimized by the proposed method with the use of both reactor and jacket energy balance for reactor temperature control.

  6. Sorting Olive Batches for the Milling Process Using Image Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Aguilera Puerto

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The quality of virgin olive oil obtained in the milling process is directly bound to the characteristics of the olives. Hence, the correct classification of the different incoming olive batches is crucial to reach the maximum quality of the oil. The aim of this work is to provide an automatic inspection system, based on computer vision, and to classify automatically different batches of olives entering the milling process. The classification is based on the differentiation between ground and tree olives. For this purpose, three different species have been studied (Picudo, Picual and Hojiblanco. The samples have been obtained by picking the olives directly from the tree or from the ground. The feature vector of the samples has been obtained on the basis of the olive image histograms. Moreover, different image preprocessing has been employed, and two classification techniques have been used: these are discriminant analysis and neural networks. The proposed methodology has been validated successfully, obtaining good classification results.

  7. Method to incorporate energy integration considerations in multiproduct batch processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corominas, J.; Espuna, A.; Puigjaner, L. (Universidad Politecnica de Cataluna, Barcelona (Spain))

    Systemization of an energy saving grass-root design and retrofitting technology based on process integration is a subject of increasing interest in plants running under the batch mode of operation. In this work, the solution to the product changeover problem is studied in order to achieve a feasible and optimized heat exchange network design for multiproduct batch plants. A new methodology is presented which is based on: (a) the campaign-mode of plant operation; and (b) the study of energy integration for each campaign. The concept of Macronetwork is also introduced. Algorithms to obtain the best feasible matches and energy targets are presented and results of test-case studies are discussed to illustrate this methodology. (author)

  8. A new look at energy integration in multiproduct batch processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corominas, J.; Espuna, A.; Puigjaner, L. (Univ. Politecnica de Catalunya (Spain). Chemical Engineering Dept.)

    1993-01-01

    Systematization of an energy saving grass-root design and retrofitting technology based on process integration is a subject of increasing interest in plants running under the batch mode of operation. In this work, the solution to the changeover product problem is studied in order to achieve a feasible and optimized heat exchange network design for multiproduct batch plants. A new methodology is presented which is based on: (a) the campaign-mode of plant operation, (b) the study of energy integration for each campaign. The concept of Macronetwork is also introduced. This includes the heat exchanger network of all campaigns in an overall design, and contemplates the common matches between networks of campaigns of different products. Algorithms to obtain the best feasible matches and energy targets are presented and results of test-case studies are discussed to illustrate this methodology. (author)

  9. MACROSCOPIC KINETIC MODELS OF GLYCEROL BATCH FERMENTATION WITH OSMOTOLERANT YEAST

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    l introductionGlycerol production by fermentation has beenwidely investigated to meet the great commercialdemand in last decades and osmotolerant yeast wasthe microorganism studied most. To analyze thefermentation process more efficiently, a kinetic modelshould be established but little works about it werereported because of its complicated metabolism ofglycerol [1-3]. Batch fermentation experiment showedthat low glucose concentration in the latterfermentation stage resulted in decrease in both glucoseconsu...

  10. From batch to continuous extractive distillation using thermodynamic insight: class 1.0-2 case B

    OpenAIRE

    Shen,Weifeng; Benyounes, Hassiba; Gerbaud, Vincent

    2011-01-01

    A systematic feasibility analysis is presented for the separation azeotropic mixtures by batch and continuous extractive distillation. Based on batch feasibility knowledge, batch and continuous separation feasibility is studied under reflux ratio and entrainer flow-rate for the ternary system chloroform-vinyl acetate-butyl acetate, which belongs to the class 1.0-2 separating maximum boiling temperature azeotropes using a heavy entrainer. How information on feasibility of batch mode could be e...

  11. On-line Scheduling Algorithm for Penicillin Fed-batch Fermentation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XUE Yao-feng; YUAN Jing-qi

    2005-01-01

    An on-line scheduling algorithm to maximize gross profit of penicillin fed-batch fermentation is proposed. According to the on-line classification method, fed-batch fermentation batches are classified into three categories. Using the scheduling strategy, the optimal termination sequence of batches is obtained. Pseudo on-line simulations for testing the proposed algorithm with the data from industrial scale penicillin fermentation are carried out.

  12. Algorithms for On-line Order Batching in an Order-Picking Warehouse

    OpenAIRE

    Sebastian Henn

    2009-01-01

    In manual order picking systems, order pickers walk or ride through a distribution warehouse in order to collect items required by (internal or external) customers. Order batching consists of combining these – indivisible – customer orders into picking orders. With respect to order batching, two problem types can be distinguished: In off-line (static) batching all customer orders are known in advance. In on-line (dynamic) batching customer orders become available dynamically over time. This r...

  13. Fault Diagnosis of Batch Reactor Using Machine Learning Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sujatha Subramanian

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Fault diagnosis of a batch reactor gives the early detection of fault and minimizes the risk of thermal runaway. It provides superior performance and helps to improve safety and consistency. It has become more vital in this technical era. In this paper, support vector machine (SVM is used to estimate the heat release (Qr of the batch reactor both normal and faulty conditions. The signature of the residual, which is obtained from the difference between nominal and estimated faulty Qr values, characterizes the different natures of faults occurring in the batch reactor. Appropriate statistical and geometric features are extracted from the residual signature and the total numbers of features are reduced using SVM attribute selection filter and principle component analysis (PCA techniques. artificial neural network (ANN classifiers like multilayer perceptron (MLP, radial basis function (RBF, and Bayes net are used to classify the different types of faults from the reduced features. It is observed from the result of the comparative study that the proposed method for fault diagnosis with limited number of features extracted from only one estimated parameter (Qr shows that it is more efficient and fast for diagnosing the typical faults.

  14. Treatment of slaughterhouse wastewater in anaerobic sequencing batch reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Masse, D. I.; Masse, L. [Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, Lennoxville, PQ (Canada)

    2000-09-01

    Slaughterhouse waste water was treated in anaerobic sequencing batch reactors operated at 30 degrees C. Two of the batch reactors were seeded with anaerobic granular sludge from a milk processing plant reactor; two others received anaerobic non-granulated sludge from a municipal waste water treatment plant. Influent total chemical oxygen demand was reduced by 90 to 96 per cent at organic loading rates ranging from 2.07 kg to 4.93 kg per cubic meter. Reactors seeded with municipal sludge performed slightly better than those containing sludge from the milk processing plant. The difference was particularly noticeable during start-up, but the differences between the two sludges were reduced with time. The reactors produced a biogas containing 75 per cent methane. About 90.5 per cent of the chemical oxygen demand removed was methanized; volatile suspended solids accumulation was determined at 0.068 kg per kg of chemical oxygen demand removed. The high degree of methanization suggests that most of the soluble and suspended organic material in slaughterhouse waste water was degraded during the treatment in the anaerobic sequencing batch reactors. 30 refs., 1 tab., 6 figs.

  15. Perancangan Sistem Pengaduk Pada Bioreaktor Batch Untuk Meningkatkan Produksi Biogas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Candrika Widiartanti Yuwono

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Proses anaerob merupakan proses fermentasi dimana memiliki proses yang berlangsung cukup lama. Dan pada bioreaktor anaerob sistem batch, diduga terdapat indikasi pada penurunan jumlah produksi biogas, yang disebabkan karena tejadi pengendapan atau pemisahan antara limbah cair dengan padatannya. Untuk itu muncul upaya untuk melakukan sistem pengadukan agar terjadi homogenitas dan bisa menyerupai seperti kondisi awal, sehingga diharapkan dapat memperpanjang masa produksi biogas. Adapun pengadukan merupakan salah satu faktor yang berpengaruh pada kehidupan mikroba. Dan pada penelitian ini akan dilakukan perancangan sistem pengaduk yang digerakkan oleh sebuah motor dimana menggunakan timer dan pengatur kecepatan. Desain disesuaikan dengan substrat yang digunakan yaitu limbah cair tahu dan eceng gondok, yang mengalami pengendapan sehingga pada pengaduk memiliki blade yang diletakkan di dasar dalam bioreaktor. Sistem pengadukan dilakukan pada saat nilai pH yang diamati tiap harinya mengalami penurunan, yaitu pada hari ke–24 pH bernilai 6,49. Dan pada pengukuran berikutnya ditunjukkan dengan pH bernilai 6,89. Pengadukan dilakukan secara pelan dengan putaran 170 rpm selama 2 x 1 menit. Hasil daripada jumlah produksi biogas yang dihasilkan bisa dibandingkan antara bioreaktor batch tidak berpengaduk dengan bioreaktor batch berpengaduk, dimana berturut-turut memiliki jumlah volume 467 mL (25 hari dan 873 mL (31 hari.

  16. Fed-batch production of tetanus toxin by Clostridium tetani.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fratelli, Fernando; Siquini, Tatiana Joly; de Abreu, Marcelo Estima; Higashi, Hisako Gondo; Converti, Attilio; de Carvalho, João Carlos Monteiro

    2010-01-01

    This study deals with the effects of the initial nitrogen source (NZ Case TT) level and the protocol of glucose addition during the fed-batch production of tetanus toxin by Clostridium tetani. An increase in the initial concentration of NZ Case TT (NZ(0)) accelerated cell growth, increased the consumption of the nitrogen source as well as the final yield of tetanus toxin, which achieved the highest values (50-60 L(f)/mL) for NZ(0) > or = 50 g/L. The addition of glucose at fixed times (16, 56, and 88 h) ensured a toxin yield ( approximately 60 L(f)/mL) about 33% higher than those of fed-batch runs with addition at fixed concentration ( approximately 45 L(f)/mL) and about 300% higher than those obtained in reference batch runs nowadays used at industrial scale. The results of this work promise to substantially improve the present production of tetanus toxin and may be adopted for human vaccine production after detoxification and purification.

  17. Polynomial Transfer Lot Sizing Techniques for Batch Processing on Consecutive Machines

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-09-01

    batch, while still specifying sizable batches? Goldratt , the developer of OPT (Optimized Production Technology) [7; 12, pp. 692-715; 101, answered this...and Jeffrey L Rummel, Batching to Minimize Flow Times on One Machine, Management Science, 33, #6, 1987, pp. 784-799. [71 Goldratt , Eliyahu and Robert

  18. A General framework for the Synthesis and Operational Design of Batch Processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    The objective of this paper is to present a general problem formulation and a general methodlogy for the synthesis of batch operations and the operational design of individual batch processes, such as mixing, reaction and separation. The general methodology described supplies the batch routes...

  19. A general framework for the synthesis and operational design of batch processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Papaeconomou, Eirini; Gani, Rafiqul; Jørgensen, Sten Bay

    2002-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to present a general problem formulation and a general methodology for the synthesis of batch operations and the operational design of individual batch processes, such as mixing, reaction and separation. The general methodology described supplies the batch routes...

  20. Look-ahead strategies for controlling batch operations in industry : basic insights in rule construction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Zee, D.J.; Sullivan, W.A.; Ahmad, M.M.; Fichtner, D.; Sauer, W.; Weigert, G.; Zerna, T.

    2002-01-01

    Batching jobs in a manufacturing system is a very common policy in most industries. Main reasons for batching are avoidance of set ups and/or facilitation of material handling. Examples of batch-wise production systems are ovens found in aircraft industry and in semiconductor manufacturing. Starting

  1. Data Driven Modeling for Monitoring and Control of Industrial Fed-Batch Cultivations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonné, Dennis; Alvarez, María Antonieta; Jørgensen, Sten Bay

    2014-01-01

    time within the batch and the batch number. The model set is parsimoniously parametrized as a set of local, interdependent models which are estimated from data for as few as half a dozen batches. On the basis of state space models transformed from the acquired input–output model set, the asymptotic...

  2. Correlation analysis of family function, coping style and mental health of RSA patients%复发性流产患者家庭功能及应对方式与心理状况分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾晓琴; 肖青; 龚桂芳

    2014-01-01

    Objective To explore the relationship between family function and coping style of recurrent spontaneous abortion ( RSA) women and mental health.Methods Totally 150 RSA patients and 150 ordinary women were selected in patient group and control group , respectively.Family Assessment Device (FAD), Medical Coping Mode Questionnaire and Symptom Check List-90 (SCL-90) were used to evaluate the relationship among them .Results Compared with the control group , the patient group had higher average score and total score on SCL-90 (both P<0.05), and the scores on “solving problem”,“communication”,“role”,“behavior control” and“general features”in FAD were obviously lower (t value was 3.58, 2.81, 2.45, 2.16 and 2.81, respectively, all P<0.05).RSA patients were more inclined to adopt a “yield” negative coping style ( t =3.08, P <0.01).SCL-90 scores and FAD scores of RSA patients showed a significant positive correlation (P<0.05).There was significant negative correlation between factors of family function and coping style of“yield”(r value was -0.12, -0.12, -0.12, -0.11, -0.14, -0.13 and -0.12, respectively, all P<0.05).Multiple regression analysis showed that the marital relationship and the frequency of natural abortion were major factors affecting the mental health of RSA patients.Conclusion RSA women has poor mental health , and we should help them to establish a correct perception and positive coping style.Clinical diagnosis and treatment combining active sustained and individual care with comprehensive intervention should be provided for them and focus on family intervention , so as to improve psychological health of RSA patients .%目的:探讨复发性流产( RSA)患者家庭功能、个人应对方式及心理健康之间的关系。方法选取复发性流产患者及普通妇女各115例作为病例组及对照组,采用家庭功能评定量表、医学应对方式问卷及症状自评量表( SCL-90)进行调查,分析三者

  3. Effect of Recipe of Supplementing Qi and Activating Blood (RSA) on NO3-、ONOO-、MDA、GLU、AMY in Faeces of High Fat Diet Rats%补气活血法对高脂饮食大鼠粪便NO-3 、ONOO- 、MDA、GLU、AMY的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马月梅; 刘晓秋; 张永斌

    2011-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effect of high fat diet on NO3-、 ONOO - ,MDA,glucose,amylase activity. PNA,PSA binding rates af amylase, amylase isoenzyme profile in rat faeces and the effect of recipe of supplementing Qi and activating blood ( RSA )Methods Male rats were randomly divided into four groups: normal group( feeding ordinary diet) ; model group( feeding high fat diet) ;RSA Ⅰ ( feeding RSAI ( S: A =2: 1) by gastrogavage) ; RSA 2 ( feeding RSA2 ( S: A = 1 : 2) by gastrogavage) . N03- , ONOO- , MDA , glucose and amylase activity in rat faeces were determined by colorimetric method. N -glycan patterns of amylase were determined with lectin ( PSA and PNA) affinity precipitation method, and faeces amylase isoenzyme profile was separated by electrophoresis on polyacrylamide gels electrophoresis ( PAGE). Results High fat diet rats showed the symptoms of polyuria, polydipsia, polyphagia and weight loss. These abnormal signs were improved after treatment with RSA. In high fat diet rats, amylase activity, N03 - , P - Amy.S - Amy in faeces were decreased, while PSA, PNA binding rates of amylase, glucose, ONOO - in faeces were increased. After treatment with RSA, all of these indicators were improved. There was difference between RSA1 action and RSA 2 action. Conclusion Supplementing Qi and activating blood method can improve N - glycan deficiency in faeces amylase and up - regulate faeces amylase activity , and increase N03- , also decrease glucose, ONOO- in faeces, thus can regulate the digestion/absorption and glucose metabolism, can reduce oxygen free radicalinduced intestinal damage. This study also showed the different impacts of two different RSA.%目的 研究高脂饮食对大鼠粪便NO3-、ONOO-、MDA、GLU、AMY活性、AMY PSA、PNA结合率、AMY谱的影响,同时研究补气活血中药的作用.方法 雄性SD大鼠随机分为正常组,喂饲普通饲料;模型组,喂饲高脂饲料;补气活血1组(RSA 1),2∶ 1补气

  4. Persistence of Escherichia coli in batch and continuous vermicomposting systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hénault-Ethier, Louise; Martin, Vincent J J; Gélinas, Yves

    2016-10-01

    Vermicomposting is a biooxidation process in which epigeicearthworms act in synergy with microbial populations to degrade organic matter. Vermicomposting does not go through a thermophilic stage as required by North American legislations for pathogen eradication. We examined the survival of a Green Fluorescent Protein (GFP) labeled Escherichia coli MG1655 as a model for the survival of pathogenic bacteria in both small-scale batch and medium-scale continuously-operated systems to discern the influence of the earthworm Eisenia fetida, nutrient content and the indigenous vermicompost microbial community on pathogen abundance. In batch systems, the microbial community had the greatest influence on the rapid decline of E. coli populations, and the effect of earthworms was only visible in microbially-impoverishedvermicomposts. No significant earthworm density-dependent relationship was observed on E. coli survival under continuous operation. E. coli numbers decreased below the US EPA compost sanitation guidelines of 10(3)Colony Forming Units (CFU)/g (dry weight) within 18-21days for both the small-scale batch and medium-scale continuous systems, but it took up to 51days without earthworms and with an impoverished microbial community to reach the legal limit. Nutrient replenishment (i.e. organic carbon) provided by continuous feed input did not appear to extend E. coli survival. In fact, longer survival of E. coli was noticed in treatments where less total and labile sugars were available, suggesting that sugars may support potentially antagonist bacteria in the vermicompost. Total N, pH and humidity did not appear to affect E. coli survival. Several opportunistic human pathogens may be found in vermicompost, and their populations are likely kept in check by antagonists.

  5. Increased efficiency of batch-processed melt-textured YBCO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litzkendorf, D.; Habisreuther, T.; Bierlich, J.; Surzhenko, O.; Zeisberger, M.; Kracunovska, S.; Gawalek, W.

    2005-02-01

    Results on an established batch process preparing melt-textured YBCO in high quality and quantity will be reported. We used a standard composition Y1.5Ba2Cu3O7-X+1 wt% CeO2 without further doping to fabricate single-domain YBCO monoliths in different sizes and shapes (cylindrical, quadratic) as well as rectangular multi-seeded YBCO monoliths. Up to 2-3 kg melt-textured YBCO blocks are grown reproducibly in one box furnace run. Top seeding by self-made SmBCO was improved and rationalized. Optimization of oxygen annealing treatment leads to macro-crack free YBCO monoliths. Each YBCO monolith was characterized by integral levitation force and field mapping. In a single-domain quadratic monolith with an edge length of 38 mm a maximum induction of 1.44 T at 77 K and a distance of 0.5 mm was frozen. The reproducibility of the batch process is guaranteed. Mean maximum induction from 1.1 to 1.2 T at 77 K per batch was reached. A trapped magnetic field of 2.5 T was achieved between two single-domain monoliths in a gap of 1.5 mm at 77 K. Depending on the application function, elements with different sizes, designs and more or less complex geometry are constructed in several working steps by cutting, machining, bonding and passivation. Selected function elements were checked with field mapping at 77 K. Results of our function elements in HTSC reluctance motors using single-domain material are shown. We will report on a fly-wheel system and a system to levitate persons.

  6. REAL WASTE TESTING OF SLUDGE BATCH 5 MELTER FEED RHEOLOGY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reboul, S.; Stone, M.

    2010-03-17

    Clogging of the melter feed loop at the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) has reduced the throughput of Sludge Batch 5 (SB5) processing. After completing a data review, DWPF attributed the clogging to the rheological properties of the Slurry Mix Evaporator (SME) project. The yield stress of the SB5 melter feed material was expected to be high, based on the relatively high pH of the SME product and the rheological results of a previous Chemical Process Cell (CPC) demonstration performed at the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL).

  7. Stability assessment of a moderately conforming all-polyethylene tibial component in total knee arthroplasty: a prospective RSA study with 2 years of follow-up of the Kinemax Plus design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adalberth, G; Nilsson, K G; Byström, S; Kolstad, K; Mallmin, H; Milbrink, J

    1999-01-01

    The magnitude and pattern of the migration of an all-polyethylene tibial component with moderately conforming articular surfaces in total knee arthroplasty was analyzed in 20 patients > or =60 years during a 2-year follow-up using radiostereometry (RSA). Most of the migration occurred during the initial 4 months, whereafter the migration diminished, reaching a mean maximum migration of 0.75 mm at 2 years. Similar patterns were found for rotation of the implant. Maximum subsidence at 2 years was 0.7 mm and was most commonly located at the posteromedial part of the tibial component. These results indicate that an all-polyethylene tibial component with moderately conforming articular geometry and with a thickness of 10-12 mm demonstrated migration patterns compatible with a favorable prognosis in regard to future aseptic loosening.

  8. 二维码加密的手机签到系统设计%The Design of Mobile Check-in System Based on RSA and QR Code Encryption

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹记东; 和斌涛

    2016-01-01

    This mobile check-in system can realize notice, check, records and query four functions. Based on RSA and QR code encryption technology, at the same time, considering time ,area and identity when using QR code sign in which can effectively prevent the long-distance scanning and the check by other.%文章设计的手机签到系统集会议通知、会议签到、记录报表、记录查询四大功能于一身。基于RSA和二维码加密技术,同时在利用二维码扫码签到时合理地考虑了扫码时间、扫码地址、扫码身份识别等因素,可以有效地防止异地扫描和现场代签等情况。

  9. Comparison of laboratory batch and flow-through microcosm bioassays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clément, Bernard J P; Delhaye, Hélène L; Triffault-Bouchet, Gaëlle G

    2014-10-01

    Since 1997, we have been developing a protocol for ecotoxicological bioassays in 2-L laboratory microcosms and have applied it to the study of various pollutants and ecotoxicological risk assessment scenarios in the area of urban facilities and transport infrastructures. The effects on five different organisms (micro-algae, duckweeds, daphnids, amphipods, chironomids) are assessed using biological responses such as growth, emergence (chironomids), reproduction (daphnids) and survival, with a duration of exposure of 3 weeks. This bioassay has mainly been used as a batch bioassay, i.e., the water was not renewed during the test. A flow-through microcosm bioassay has been developed recently, with the assumption that conditions for the biota should be improved, variability reduced, and the range of exposure patterns enlarged (e.g., the possibility of maintaining constant exposure in the water column). This paper compares the results obtained in batch and flow-through microcosm bioassays, using cadmium as a model toxicant. As expected, the stabilization of physico-chemical parameters, increased organism fitness and reduced variability were observed in the flow-through microcosm bioassay.

  10. Treatemnt of Wastewater with Modified Sequencing Batch Biofilm Reactor Technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡龙兴; 刘宇陆

    2002-01-01

    This paper describes the removel of COD and nitrogen from wastewater with modified sequencing batch biofilm reactor,The strategy of simultaneous feeding and draining was explored.The results show that introduction of a new batch of wastewater and withdrawal of the purifeid water can be conducted simultaneously with the maximum volumetric exchange rate of about 70%,Application of this feeding and draining mode leads to the reduction of the cycle time,the increase of the utilization of the reactor volume and the simplification of the reactor structure.The treatment of a synthetic wastewater containing COD and nitrogen was investigated.The operation mode of F(D)-O(i.e.,simultaneous feeding and draining followed by the aerobic condition)was adopted.It was found that COD was degraded very fast in the initial reaction period of time,then reduced slowly and the ammonia nitrogen and nitrate nitrogen concentrations decreased and increased with time respectively,while the nitrite nitrogen level increased first and then reduced.The relationship between the COD or ammonia nitrogen loading and its removal rate was examined,and the removal of COD,ammonia nitrogen and total nitrogen could exceed 95%,90%and 80% respectively,The fact that nitrogen could e removed more completely under constant aeration(aerobic condition)of the SBBR operation mode is very interesting and could be explained in several respects.

  11. Transfer bonding technology for batch fabrication of SMA microactuators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grund, T.; Guerre, R.; Despont, M.; Kohl, M.

    2008-05-01

    Currently, the broad market introduction of shape memory alloy (SMA) microactuators and sensors is hampered by technological barriers, since batch fabrication methods common to electronics industry are not available. The present study intends to overcome these barriers by introducing a wafer scale transfer process that allows the selective transfer of heat-treated and micromachined shape memory alloy (SMA) film or foil microactuators to randomly selected receiving sites on a target substrate. The technology relies on a temporary adhesive bonding layer between SMA film/foil and an auxiliary substrate, which can be removed by laser ablation. The transfer technology was tested for microactuators of a cold-rolled NiTi foil of 20 μm thickness, which were heat-treated in free-standing condition, then micromachined on an auxiliary substrate of glass, and finally selectively transferred to different target substrates of a polymer. For demonstration, the new technology was used for batch-fabrication of SMA-actuated polymer microvalves.

  12. Road Safety Audit RSA : best practice guidelines, qualification for auditors and 'programming'. Deliverable D4 of the RiPCORD-iSEREST project (Road Infrastructure Safety Protection - Core-Research and Development for Road Safety in Europe; Increasing safety and reliability of secondary roads for a sustainable Surface Transport).

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Matena, S. Weber, R. Huber, C.A. Hruby, Z. Pokorny, P. Gaitanidou, E. Vaneerdewegh, P. Strnad, B. Cardoso, J. Schermers, G. & Elvik, R.

    2009-01-01

    This report contains 'best practice' guidelines for road safety audits (RSA) and summarises practices which have been successfully applied in European countries or abroad. The goals of this report are to inform the reader on the reasons why carrying out audits is beneficial and how to successfully c

  13. Bagasse hydrolyzates from Agave tequilana as substrates for succinic acid production by Actinobacillus succinogenes in batch and repeated batch reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corona-González, Rosa Isela; Varela-Almanza, Karla María; Arriola-Guevara, Enrique; Martínez-Gómez, Álvaro de Jesús; Pelayo-Ortiz, Carlos; Toriz, Guillermo

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this work was to obtain fermentable sugars by enzymatic or acid hydrolyses of Agave tequilana Weber bagasse in order to produce succinic acid with Actinobacillus succinogenes. Hydrolyses were carried out with mineral acids (sulfuric and hydrochloric acids) or a commercial cellulolytic enzyme, and were optimized statistically by a response surface methodology, having as factors the concentration of acid/enzyme and time of hydrolysis. The concentration of sugars obtained at optimal conditions for each hydrolysis were 21.7, 22.4y 19.8g/L for H2SO4, HCl and the enzymatic preparation respectively. Concerning succinic acid production, the enzymatic hydrolyzates resulted in the highest yield (0.446g/g) and productivity (0.57g/Lh) using A. succinogenes in a batch reactor system. Repeated batch fermentation with immobilized A. succinogenes in agar and with the enzymatic hydrolyzates resulted in a maximum concentration of succinic acid of 33.6g/L from 87.2g/L monosaccharides after 5 cycles in 40h, obtaining a productivity of 1.32g/Lh.

  14. Intact cell mass spectrometry as a progress tracking tool for batch and fed-batch fermentation processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helmel, Michaela; Marchetti-Deschmann, Martina; Raus, Martin; Posch, Andreas E; Herwig, Christoph; Šebela, Marek; Allmaier, Günter

    2015-02-01

    Penicillin production during a fermentation process using industrial strains of Penicillium chrysogenum is a research topic permanently discussed since the accidental discovery of the antibiotic. Intact cell mass spectrometry (ICMS) can be a fast and novel monitoring tool for the fermentation progress during penicillin V production in a nearly real-time fashion. This method is already used for the characterization of microorganisms and the differentiation of fungal strains; therefore, the application of ICMS to samples directly harvested from a fermenter is a promising possibility to get fast information about the progress of fungal growth. After the optimization of the ICMS method to penicillin V fermentation broth samples, the obtained ICMS data were evaluated by hierarchical cluster analysis or an in-house software solution written especially for ICMS data comparison. Growth stages of a batch and fed-batch fermentation of Penicillium chrysogenum are differentiated by one of those statistical approaches. The application of two matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) instruments in the linear positive ion mode from different vendors demonstrated the universal applicability of the developed ICMS method. The base for a fast and easy-to-use method for monitoring the fermentation progress of P. chrysogenum is created with this ICMS method developed especially for fermentation broth samples.

  15. Modeling of Xanthophyllomyces dendrorhous growth on glucose and overflow metabolism in batch and fed-batch cultures for astaxanthin production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yuan-Shuai; Wu, Jian-Yong

    2008-12-01

    An astaxanthin-producing yeast Xanthophyllomyces dendrorhous ENM5 was cultivated in a liquid medium containing 50 g/L glucose as the major carbon source in stirred fermentors (1.5-L working volume) in fully aerobic conditions. Ethanol was produced during the exponential growth phase as a result of overflow metabolism or fermentative catabolism of glucose by yeast cells. After accumulating to a peak of 3.5 g/L, the ethanol was consumed by yeast cells as a carbon source when glucose in the culture was nearly exhausted. High initial glucose concentrations and ethanol accumulation in the culture had inhibitory effects on cell growth. Astaxanthin production was partially associated with cell growth. Based on these culture characteristics, we constructed a modified Monod kinetic model incorporating substrate (glucose) and product (ethanol) inhibition to describe the relationship of cell growth rate with glucose and ethanol concentrations. This kinetic model, coupled with the Luedeking-Piret equation for the astaxanthin production, gave satisfactory prediction of the biomass production, glucose consumption, ethanol formation and consumption, and astaxanthin production in batch cultures over 25-75 g/L glucose concentration ranges. The model was also applied to fed-batch cultures to predict the optimum feeding scheme (feeding glucose and corn steep liquor) for astaxanthin production, leading to a high volumetric yield (28.6 mg/L) and a high productivity (5.36 mg/L/day).

  16. Citric acid production from hydrolysate of pretreated straw cellulose by Yarrowia lipolytica SWJ-1b using batch and fed-batch cultivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaoyan; Lv, Jinshun; Zhang, Tong; Deng, Yuanfang

    2015-01-01

    In this study, crude cellulase produced by Trichoderma reesei Rut-30 was used to hydrolyze pretreated straw. After the compositions of the hydrolysate of pretreated straw were optimized, the study showed that natural components of pretreated straw without addition of any other components such as (NH4)2SO4, KH2PO4, or Mg(2+) were suitable for citric acid production by Yarrowia lipolytica SWJ-1b, and the optimal ventilatory capacity was 10.0 L/min/L medium. Batch and fed-batch production of citric acid from the hydrolysate of pretreated straw by Yarrowia lipolytica SWJ-1b has been investigated. In the batch cultivation, 25.4 g/L and 26.7 g/L citric acid were yields from glucose and hydrolysate of straw cellulose, respectively, while the cultivation time was 120 hr. In the three-cycle fed-batch cultivation, citric acid (CA) production was increased to 42.4 g/L and the cultivation time was extended to 240 hr. However, iso-citric acid (ICA) yield in fed-batch cultivation (4.0 g/L) was similar to that during the batch cultivation (3.9 g/L), and only 1.6 g/L of reducing sugar was left in the medium at the end of fed-batch cultivation, suggesting that most of the added carbon was used in the cultivation.

  17. Enhanced phenylpyruvic acid production with Proteus vulgaris in fed-batch and continuous fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coban, Hasan B; Demirci, Ali; Patterson, Paul H; Elias, Ryan J

    2016-01-01

    Phenylpyruvic acid is a deaminated form of phenylalanine and is used in various areas such as development of cheese and wine flavors, diagnosis of phenylketonuria, and to decrease excessive nitrogen accumulation in the manure of farm animals. However, reported phenylpyruvic acid fermentation studies in the literature have been usually performed at shake-flask scale with low production. In this study, phenylpyruvic acid production was evaluated in bench-top bioreactors by conducting fed-batch and continuous fermentation for the first time. As a result, maximum phenylpyruvic acid concentrations increased from 1350 mg/L (batch fermentation) to 2958 mg/L utilizing fed-batch fermentation. Furthermore, phenylpyruvic acid productivity was increased from 48 mg/L/hr (batch fermentation) to 104 and 259 mg/L/hr by conducting fed-batch and continuous fermentation, respectively. Overall, this study demonstrated that fed-batch and continuous fermentation significantly improved phenylpyruvic acid production in bench-scale bioreactor production.

  18. Optimal operation of batch processes via the tracking of active constraints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonvin, Dominique; Srinivasan, Bala

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents a new measurement-based optimization framework for batch processes whereby optimal operation can be achieved via the tracking of active constraints. It is shown that, under mild assumptions and to a first-order approximation, tracking the necessary conditions of optimality is equivalent to tracking active constraints (both during the batch and at the end of the batch). Thus the optimal input trajectories can be adjusted using measurements without the use of a model of the process. When only batch-end measurements are available, the proposed method leads itself to an efficient batch-to-batch optimization scheme. The approach is illustrated via the simulation of a semibatch reactor under uncertainty.

  19. Biological Treatment of Leachate using Sequencing Batch Reactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WDMC Perera

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE TA Abstract   In Sri Lanka municipal solid waste is generally disposed in poorly managed open dumps which lack liner systems and leachate collection systems. Rain water percolates through the waste layers to produce leachate which drains in to ground water and finally to nearby water bodies, degrading the quality of water. Leachate thus has become a major environmental concern in municipal waste management and treatment of leachate is a major challenge for the existing and proposed landfill sites.   The study was conducted to assess the feasibility of the usage of the Sequencing Batch Reactor in the treatment of the landfill leachate up to the proposed levels in the draft report of “Proposed Sri Lankan standard for landfill leachate to be disposed to the inland waters". Leachate collected from the open dumpsite at Meethotamulla, Western Province, Sri Lanka was used for leachate characterization.   SBR was constructed with a 10-liter working volume operated in an 18 hour cycle mode and each cycle consists of 15hours of aerobic, 2h settle and 0.5 h of fill/decant stages. The Dissolved Oxygen level within the SBR was maintained at 2 mg/l through the aerobic stage. Infeed was diluted with water during the acclimatization period and a leachate to water ratio of 55:45 was maintained. The removal efficiencies for different parameters were; COD (90.5%, BOD (92.6%, TS (92.1%, Conductivity (83.9%, Alkalinity (97.4%, Hardness (82.2%, Mg (80.5%, Fe (94.2%, Zn (63.4%, Cr (31.69%, Pb (99.6%, Sulphate (98.9%, and Phosphorus (71.4% respectively. In addition Ni and Cd were removed completely during a single SBR cycle. Thus the dilution of leachate in the dumpsites using municipal wastewater, groundwater or rainwater was identified as the most cost effective dilution methods. The effluent from the Sequencing batch reactor is proposed to be further treated using a constructed wetland before releasing to surface water.

  20. A CATASTROPHIC-CUM-RESTORATIVE QUEUING SYSTEM WITH CORRELATED BATCH ARRIVALS AND VARIABLE CAPACITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rakesh Kumar

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we study a catastrophic-cum-restorative queuing system with correlated batch arrivals and service in batches of variable sizes. We perform the transient analysis of the queuing model. We obtain the Laplace Transform of the probability generating function of system size. Finally, some particular cases of the model have been derived and discussed. Keywords: Queue length, Catastrophes, Correlated batch arrivals, Broadband services, Variable service capacity, and Restoration.

  1. General model for studying the feasibility of heterogeneous extractive batch distillation

    OpenAIRE

    Hegely, Laszlo; Gerbaud, Vincent; Lang, Peter

    2014-01-01

    International audience; By extending our former model for batch heteroazeotropic distillation, a general model is developed for the batch heterogeneous extractive distillation. An entrainer-rich and an entrainer-lean phase are present in the decanter, where the holdup of both phases can be reduced, kept constant, or increased, thanks to batch operation mode. Any fraction of both phases can be refluxed or withdrawn as distillate. The entrainer is fed continuously either onto one of the plates ...

  2. Reactive schedule modification in multipurpose batch chemical plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kanakamedala, K.B.; Reklaitis, G.V.; Venkatasubramanian, V. (Purdue Univ., West Lafayette, IN (United States). School of Chemical Engineering)

    1994-01-01

    A new scheme is described for reactive schedule modification in the face of unexpected deviations in processing times and unit availabilities of a multipurpose batch plant (MBP). Schedule modification is done using at least impact heuristic beam search which proceeds in two levels: creation of a decision tree which makes use of possible reroutings of the product that is causing a conflict, and heuristic pruning of the search space to contain the combinatorial complexity. The heuristic chooses a path among all possible reroutings for a product such that the impact of each decision on the rest of the schedule is kept as small as possible. This approach has been implemented and tested on a number of simulated deviations in a MBP case study with three products. The proposed least impact heuristic was found to perform better than the earliest finishing unit heuristic in all the cases considered.

  3. Hybrid modeling of xanthan gum bioproduction in batch bioreactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zabot, Giovani L; Mecca, Jaqueline; Mesomo, Michele; Silva, Marceli F; Prá, Valéria Dal; de Oliveira, Débora; Oliveira, J Vladimir; Castilhos, Fernanda; Treichel, Helen; Mazutti, Marcio A

    2011-10-01

    This work is focused on hybrid modeling of xanthan gum bioproduction process by Xanthomonas campestris pv. mangiferaeindicae. Experiments were carried out to evaluate the effects of stirred speed and superficial gas velocity on the kinetics of cell growth, lactose consumption and xanthan gum production in a batch bioreactor using cheese whey as substrate. A hybrid model was employed to simulate the bio-process making use of an artificial neural network (ANN) as a kinetic parameter estimator for the phenomenological model. The hybrid modeling of the process provided a satisfactory fitting quality of the experimental data, since this approach makes possible the incorporation of the effects of operational variables on model parameters. The applicability of the validated model was investigated, using the model as a process simulator to evaluate the effects of initial cell and lactose concentration in the xanthan gum production.

  4. Sample Results From Routine Salt Batch 7 Samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peters, T. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2016-01-14

    Strip Effluent Hold Tank (SEHT) and Decontaminated Salt Solution Hold Tank (DSSHT) samples from several of the “microbatches” of Integrated Salt Disposition Project (ISDP) Salt Batch (“Macrobatch”) 7B have been analyzed for 238Pu, 90Sr, 137Cs, cations (Inductively Coupled Plasma Emission Spectroscopy - ICPES), and anions (Ion Chromatography Anions - IC-A). The analytical results from the current microbatch samples are similar to those from previous macrobatch samples. The Actinide Removal Process (ARP) and the Modular Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction Unit (MCU) continue to show more than adequate Pu and Sr removal, and there is a distinct positive trend in Cs removal (increasing cesium decontamination), due to the use of the Next Generation Solvent (NGS). The bulk chemistry of the DSSHT and SEHT samples do not show any signs of unusual behavior.

  5. Efficient estimation of the maximum metabolic productivity of batch systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    St. John, Peter C.; Crowley, Michael F.; Bomble, Yannick J.

    2017-01-31

    Production of chemicals from engineered organisms in a batch culture involves an inherent trade-off between productivity, yield, and titer. Existing strategies for strain design typically focus on designing mutations that achieve the highest yield possible while maintaining growth viability. While these methods are computationally tractable, an optimum productivity could be achieved by a dynamic strategy in which the intracellular division of resources is permitted to change with time. New methods for the design and implementation of dynamic microbial processes, both computational and experimental, have therefore been explored to maximize productivity. However, solving for the optimal metabolic behavior under the assumption that all fluxes in the cell are free to vary is a challenging numerical task. Previous studies have therefore typically focused on simpler strategies that are more feasible to implement in practice, such as the time-dependent control of a single flux or control variable.

  6. Hadoop distributed batch processing for Gaia: a success story

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riello, Marco

    2015-12-01

    The DPAC Cambridge Data Processing Centre (DPCI) is responsible for the photometric calibration of the Gaia data including the low resolution spectra. The large data volume produced by Gaia (~26 billion transits/year), the complexity of its data stream and the self-calibrating approach pose unique challenges for scalability, reliability and robustness of both the software pipelines and the operations infrastructure. DPCI has been the first in DPAC to realise the potential of Hadoop and Map/Reduce and to adopt them as the core technologies for its infrastructure. This has proven a winning choice allowing DPCI unmatched processing throughput and reliability within DPAC to the point that other DPCs have started following our footsteps. In this talk we will present the software infrastructure developed to build the distributed and scalable batch data processing system that is currently used in production at DPCI and the excellent results in terms of performance of the system.

  7. Minimum Amount of Slop Cut in Batch Distillation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    The pulse-control operation technique which alternates between total reflux operation and total efflux operation in batch distillation was studied along with the minimum amount of slop cut.Total reflux time was confirmed by dynamic simulation, and total efflux time was adopted by statistic method. For the mixture of hexane and cyclohexane and the traditional constant reflux ratio operation strategy, the amount of slop cut is 1.8-2.1 times of the minimum amount of slop cut; whereas for the pulse-control operation strategy, it is 1.2-1.4 times of the minimum amount of slop cut. So compared with the traditional constant reflux ratio operation, the pulse-control operation can decrease the amount of slop cut and operation time, and meanwhile, enhance separation efficiency and yield.

  8. CONSOLIDATING BATCH AND TRANSACTIONAL WORKLOADS USING DEPENDENCY STRUCTURE PRIORITIZATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.NIVETHITHA

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Organizations offer efficient services to their customers through cloud. These services can either be a batch or transactional workloads. To offer a real-time service, there comes a need to schedule these workloads in an efficient way. An idea to consolidate these workloads enables us to cut down the energy consumption and infrastructure cost. It will be harder to consolidate both these workloads due to the difference in their nature, performance goals and control mechanisms. The proposed work implements the concept of Dependency Structure Prioritization (DSP to assign priority to the job. This work tends to make effective resource utilization through reducing the number of job migration and missed deadline jobs by considering the deadline and the priority of the job as the most important evaluation factor.

  9. Hydrothermal liquefaction of biomass: developments from batch to continuous process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, Douglas C; Biller, Patrick; Ross, Andrew B; Schmidt, Andrew J; Jones, Susanne B

    2015-02-01

    This review describes the recent results in hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL) of biomass in continuous-flow processing systems. Although much has been published about batch reactor tests of biomass HTL, there is only limited information yet available on continuous-flow tests, which can provide a more reasonable basis for process design and scale-up for commercialization. High-moisture biomass feedstocks are the most likely to be used in HTL. These materials are described and results of their processing are discussed. Engineered systems for HTL are described; however, they are of limited size and do not yet approach a demonstration scale of operation. With the results available, process models have been developed, and mass and energy balances determined. From these models, process costs have been calculated and provide some optimism as to the commercial likelihood of the technology.

  10. Study on the numerical simulation of batch sieving process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIAO Hong-guang; MA Jiao; ZHAO Yue-min; CHEN Lun-jian

    2006-01-01

    Screening was widely used in many sectors of industry. However, it is rather incomplete to the cognition of the sieving process for us due to the daedal separation process involving interactions of thousands of particulates. To address this problem, two dimensional numerical simulation of batch sieving process was performed by adopting advanced discrete element method (DEM), which is one of the highly nonlinear digitized dynamic simulative methods and can be used to reveal the quantitative change from particle dimension level. DEM simulation results show that the jam phenomena of sieve-plate apertures of the "blinding particles" in the screen feed can be demonstrated vividly and results also reveal that the velocity of particle moving on the screen plate will vary along with the screen length. This conclusion will be helpful to the design and operation of screen.

  11. Simulated annealing and joint manufacturing batch-sizing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarker Ruhul

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available We address an important problem of a manufacturing system. The system procures raw materials from outside suppliers in a lot and processes them to produce finished goods. It proposes an ordering policy for raw materials to meet the requirements of a production facility. In return, this facility has to deliver finished products demanded by external buyers at fixed time intervals. First, a general cost model is developed considering both raw materials and finished products. Then this model is used to develop a simulated annealing approach to determining an optimal ordering policy for procurement of raw materials and also for the manufacturing batch size to minimize the total cost for meeting customer demands in time. The solutions obtained were compared with those of traditional approaches. Numerical examples are presented. .

  12. Hydrothermal liquefaction of biomass: Developments from batch to continuous process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elliott, Douglas C.; Biller, Patrick; Ross, Andrew; Schmidt, Andrew J.; Jones, Susanne B.

    2015-02-01

    This review describes the recent results in hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL) of biomass in continuous-flow processing systems. Although much has been published about batch reactor tests of biomass HTL, there is only limited information yet available on continuous-flow tests, which can provide a more reasonable basis for process design and scale-up for commercialization. High-moisture biomass feedstocks are the most likely to be used in HTL. These materials are described and results of their processing are discussed. Engineered systems for HTL are described however they are of limited size and do not yet approach a demonstration scale of operation. With the results available process models have been developed and mass and energy balances determined. From these models process costs have been calculated and provide some optimism as to the commercial likelihood of the technology.

  13. Increased CPC batch size study for Tank 42 sludge in the Defense Waste Processing Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daniel, W.E.

    2000-01-06

    A series of experiments have been completed at TNX for the sludge-only REDOX adjusted flowsheet using Tank 42 sludge simulant in response to the Technical Task Request HLW/DWPT/TTR-980013 to increase CPC batch sizes. By increasing the initial SRAT batch size, a melter feed batch at greater waste solids concentration can be prepared and thus increase melter output per batch by about one canister. The increased throughput would allow DWPF to dispose of more waste in a given time period thus shortening the overall campaign.

  14. Lipase-catalysed transesterification of soya bean oil for biodiesel production during continuous batch operation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Wei; Xu, Yuanyuan; Liu, Dehua

    2003-10-01

    The effects of temperature, oil/alcohol molar ratio and by-product glycerol were studied during Lipozyme TL IM-catalysed continuous batch operation when short-chain alcohols were used as the acyl acceptor. In non-continuous batch operation, the optimal oil/alcohol ratio and temperature were 1:4 and 40-50 degrees C; however, during the continuous batch operation, the optimal oil/alcohol ratio and temperature were 1:1 and 30 degrees C; 95% of enzymic activity remained after 10 batches when isopropanol was adopted to remove by-product glycerol during repeated use of the lipase.

  15. Analysis of Mixing Characteristics of Batch Stirred Vessels Using the Networks-of-Zones Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Batch stirred vessels, being devoid of through flow, cannot be assessed by the classical response technique. However, visible inert tracers can be readily observed in a batch or semi-batch stirred vessel. Visible images of the mixing and dispersion of the tracer present a picture in both space and time of the mixing process. Axi-symmetric networks of backmixed zones were used in an image reconstruction approach to analytically characterize the mixing. Computer generated images were compared with experimental results. The qualitative agreement between the observed and calculated images suggests that the analysis of batch stirred reactors can be used to guide operational strategies to control internal concentration fields.

  16. Sludge Batch 2 (Marcobath 3) Flowsheet Studies with Simulants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koopman, D.C.

    2001-03-02

    Sludge-only process simulations of the Sludge Receipt and Adjustment Tank (SRAT) and the Slurry Mix Evaporator (SME) cycle were conducted for the two most likely scenarios for Sludge Batch 2 (Macrobatch 3). The two scenarios are a roughly 50:50 blend of Tank 8 and Tank 40 washed sludge and Tank 40 washed sludge by itself. The testing used new simulants of Tank 8 and Tank 40 washed sludge prepared at the University of South Carolina. The washing endpoint was about 0.5 moles sodium per liter supernate. This report summarizes both the simulant preparation and process simulation activities. The rheology work requested in the Task Plan will be documented in a separate report. Two scoping SRAT simulations were conducted for Tank 40 sludge. This was followed by a complete SRAT and SME simulation using Sludge Batch 1B acid stoichiometry (137.5 percent). Four scoping SRAT simulations were conducted for the Tank 8/40 blend. Three complete SRAT and SME simulations using blended sludge were then performed. One was at the recommended acid stoichiometry of 125 percent. The second used identical acid stoichiometry with HM levels of noble metals. The final run was at worst case noble metals and assumed complete transfer of the Formic Acid Feed Tank. Testing was completed without any major incidents. Hydrogen flow rates in excess of the design bases (0.65 lbs./hr for the SRAT and 0.23 lbs./hr for the SME) are marked in bold. Full details on the noble metals concentrations can be found in the body of the report.

  17. Optimal control of batch emulsion polymerization of vinyl chloride

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Damslora, Andre Johan

    1998-12-31

    The highly exothermic polymerization of vinyl chloride (VC) is carried out in large vessels where the heat removal represents a major limitation of the production rate. Many emulsion polymerization reactors are operated in such a way that a substantial part of the heat transfer capacity is left unused for a significant part of the total batch time. To increase the reaction rate so that it matches the heat removal capacity during the course of the reaction, this thesis proposes the use of a sufficiently flexible initiator system to obtain a reaction rate which is high throughout the reaction and real-time optimization to compute the addition policy for the initiator. This optimization based approach provides a basis for an interplay between design and control and between production and research. A simple model is developed for predicting the polymerization rate. The model is highly nonlinear and open-loop unstable and may serve as an interesting case for comparison of nonlinear control strategies. The model is fitted to data obtained in a laboratory scale reactor. Finally, the thesis discusses optimal control of the emulsion polymerization reactor. Reduction of the batch cycle time is of major economic importance, as long as the quality parameters are within their specifications. The control parameterization had a major influence on the performance. A differentiable spline parameterization was applied and the optimization is illustrated in a number of cases. The best performance is obtained when the reactor temperature is obtained when the optimization is combined with some form of closed-loop control of the reactor temperature. 112 refs., 48 figs., 4 tabs.

  18. A comparative study of sequencing batch reactor and moving-bed sequencing batch reactor for piggery wastewater treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwannate Sombatsompop

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This research aims to comparatively study the efficiency of piggery wastewater treatment by the moving-bed sequencing batch reactor (moving-bed SBR system with held medium, and the conventional sequencing batch reactor (SBR system, by varying the organic load from 0.59 to 2.36 kgCOD/m3.d. The COD treatment efficiency of the SBR and moving-bed SBR was higher than 60% at an organic load of 0.59 kgCOD/m3.d and higher than 80% at the organic loads of 1.18-2.36 kgCOD/m3.d. The BOD removal efficiency was greater than 90% at high organic loads of 1.18-2.36 kgCOD/m3.d. The moving-bed SBR gave TKN removal efficiency of 86-93%, whereas the SBR system exhibited the removal efficiency of 75-87% at all organic loads. The amount of effluent suspended solids for SBR systems exceeded the piggery wastewater limit of 200 mg/L at the organic load of 2.36 kgCOD/m3.d while that for the moving-bed SBR system did not. When the organic load was increased, the moving-bed SBR system yielded better treatment efficiency than that of the SBR system. The wastewater treated by the moving-bed SBR system met the criteria of wastewater standard for pig farms at all organic loads, while that treated by the SBR system was not satisfactory at a high organic load of 2.36 kgCOD/m3.d.

  19. Production of laccase by Coriolus versicolor and its application in decolorization of dyestuffs : (Ⅰ) Production of laccase by batch and repeated-batch processes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    The production of laccase by Coriolus versicolor wasstudied. The effect of cultivation conditions on laccase productionby Coriolus versicolor was examined to obtain optimal medium andcultivation conditions. Both batch and repeated-batch processeswere performed for laccase production. In repeated-batchfermentation with self-immobilized mycelia, total of 14 cycles wereperformed with laccase activity in the range between 3.4 and 14.8U/ml.

  20. Effect of using batch or semi-batch reactor on the chemical composition distribution of styrene-maleic anhydride-acrylonitrile terpolymers

    OpenAIRE

    Cunha, Regina de J. S.; Ailton S. Gomes

    1997-01-01

    Texto completo: acesso restrito. p.595-600 The influence of the reactor type on distribution of chemical composition of STY AN/MA terpolymers obtained by free-radical polymerization is shown. When a batch reactor was used we have obtained polymers with broad chemical composition distribution. However, if a semi-batch reactor with appropriate addition protocol was used it can be possible to synthesize terpolymers with homogeneous chemical composition.

  1. Improving the batch-to-batch reproducibility of microbial cultures during recombinant protein production by regulation of the total carbon dioxide production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenzsch, Marco; Gnoth, Stefan; Kleinschmidt, Martin; Simutis, Rimvydas; Lübbert, Andreas

    2007-03-10

    Batch-to-batch reproducibility of fermentation processes performed during the manufacturing processes of biologics can be increased by operating the cultures at feed rate profiles that are robust against typically arising disturbances. Remaining randomly appearing deviations from the desired path should be suppressed automatically by manipulating the feed rate. With respect to the cells' physiology it is best guiding the cultivations along an optimal profile of the specific biomass growth rate mu(t). However, there are two problems that speak for further investigations: Upon severe disturbances that may happen during the fermentation, the biomass concentration X may significantly deviate from its desired value, then a fixed mu-profile leads to a diminished batch-to-batch reproducibility. Second, the specific growth rate cannot easily be estimated online to a favourably high accuracy, hence it is difficult to determine the deviations in mu from the desired profile. The alternative discussed here solves both problems by keeping the process at the corresponding total cumulative carbon dioxide production-profile: it is robust against distortions in X and the controlled variable can accurately be measured online during cultivations of all relevant sizes. As compared to the fermentation practice currently used in industry, the experimental results, presented at the example of a recombinant protein production with Escherichia coli cells, show that CPR-based corrections lead to a considerably improved batch-to-batch reproducibility.

  2. 基于RSA的网关口令认证密钥交换协议的分析与改进%Cryptanalysis and Improvement of Gateway-Oriented Password Authenticated Key Exchange Protocol Based on RSA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪定; 王平; 雷鸣

    2015-01-01

    设计安全高效的基于RSA的口令认证密钥交换协议是密码学领域的公开难题.2011年Wei等学者首次提出了一个基于RSA的可证明安全的网关口令认证密钥交换协议,并声称在随机预言模型下基于大整数的素因子分解困难性证明了协议的安全性.利用该协议中服务器端提供的预言机服务,提出一种分离攻击,攻击者只需发起几十次假冒会话便可恢复出用户的口令.攻击结果表明,该协议无法实现所声称的口令保护这一基本安全目标,突出显示了分离攻击是针对基于RSA的口令认证密钥交换协议的一种严重安全威胁.进一步指出了协议形式化安全证明中的失误,给出一个改进方案.分析结果表明,改进方案在提高安全性的同时保持了较高效率,更适于移动通信环境.%It remains an open problem to design a secure and efficient RSA-based password-authenticated key exchange (PAKE )protocol in the areas of cryptography .In 2011 ,Wei proposed the first provably secure gateway-oriented PAKE protocol us-ing RSA ,and claimed that the protocol is provably secure in the random oracle model based on the intractability of the integer fac-torization problem .However ,in this short paper ,we point out that an adversary can launch the separation attack on their protocol by exploiting the oracle service unwittingly provided by the server ,and a user’s password can thus be guessed just after tens of mali-cious sessions .Our cryptanalysis result invalidates Wei’s claim that their protocol can achieve the security goal of password protec-tion ,and highlights the damaging threat that separation attack poses to RSA-based PAKE protocols .Furthermore ,we uncover the flaws in their formal security proof and put forward an enhancement to overcome the identified defect .The analysis results show that the improved protocol eliminates the vulnerability of Wei’s protocol while keeping the

  3. SULFATE SOLUBILITY LIMIT VERIFICATION FOR DWPF SLUDGE BATCH 7A

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Billings, A.

    2011-04-19

    During processing at the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF), high sulfate concentrations in the feed are a concern to DWPF as it can lead to the formation of a detrimental, sulfate-rich, molten salt phase on the surface of the glass melt pool. To avoid these issues, a sulfate concentration limit was implemented into the Product Composition Control System (PCCS). Related to SB7a frit development efforts, the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) assessed the viability of using the current 0.6 wt % SO{sub 4}{sup 2-} limit set for SB6 (in glass) and the possibility of increasing the SO{sub 4}{sup 2-} solubility limit in PCCS to account for anticipated sulfur concentrations, targeted waste loadings, and inclusion of secondary streams (e.g., Actinide Removal Process (ARP)) with two recommended frits (Frit 418 and Frit 702) for SB7a processing. For a nominal SB7a blend with a 63 inch SB6 heel remaining in Tank 40 (projection SB7a-63), a 0.60 wt% SO{sub 4}{sup 2-} in glass limit was determined for waste loadings of 34 wt% up to 40 wt% with Frit 418 based on crucible melts with batched chemicals. SRNL also examined the inclusion of ARP for the same blending scenario (SB7a-63-ARP) with Frit 418 and at least a 0.6 wt% SO{sub 4}{sup 2-} level, and waste loadings of 34 wt% to 40 wt% were also acceptable. When a visible yellow and/or white sulfate salt layer was visible on the surface of any cooled glass, it was assumed to have surpassed the solubility limit of SO{sub 4}{sup 2-} for that particular composition. All of the glasses fabricated at these concentrations did not exhibit a sulfate rich salt layer on the surface of the glass melt and retained the majority of the batched SO{sub 4}{sup 2-}. At higher levels of SO{sub 4}{sup 2-} 'spiked' into the projected sludge compositions over the aforementioned interval of waste loadings, with Frit 418, low viscosity sulfur layers were observed on the surface of glass melts which confirm exceeding the solubility

  4. Role of batch depletion of broiler houses on the occurrence of Campylobacter spp. in chicken flocks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hald, Birthe; Rattenborg, Erik; Madsen, Mogens

    2001-01-01

    Aims: The effect of batch depletion of broiler houses for campylobacter occurrence in broiler flocks was estimated in 10 flocks, each comprising a separate female and male batch. Methods and Results: The chicks were sampled first bq; cloacal swabs in the broiler houses before the start of the dep...

  5. Procedures for Separations within Batches of Values, 1. The Orderly Tool Kit and Some Heuristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-03-01

    separations within batches of values, I. The orderly tool kit and some heuristics by Thu Hoang* and John W. Tukey** *Universite Rene Descartes ...separations with batches of values, . The orderly tool kit and heuristics Thu Hoang* and John W. Tukey** *Universite Rene Descartes Laboratoire de

  6. Fed-batch fermentation dealing with nitrogen limitation in microbial transglutaminase production by Streptoverticillium mobaraense

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhu, Y.; Rinzema, A.; Tramper, J.; Bruin, E. de; Bol, J.

    1998-01-01

    In the later stages of a batch fermentation for microbial transglutaminase production by Streptoverticillium mobaraense the availability of a nitrogen source accessible to the microorganism becomes critical. Fed-batch fermentation is investigated with the aim of avoiding this substrate limitation. W

  7. Leaching Behavior Of Mineral Processing Waste: Comparison Of Batch And Column Investigations

    Science.gov (United States)

    In this study, a comparison of laboratory batch and column experiments on metal release profile from a mineral processing waste (MPW) is presented. Batch (equilibrium) and column (dynamic) leaching tests were conducted on ground MPW at different liquid–solid ratios (LS) to determ...

  8. Batch fertility and larval parameters of the jaguar cichlid (Cichlasoma managuense spawned in the laboratory (ESP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Günther Nonell

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Batch fertility and larval parameters of 32 spawns of the jaguar guapote (Cichlasoma managuense in the laboratory were analyzed. Batch fertility was positively correlated with the female weight with spawns between about 3000 to 6000 larvae for females between 100 and 500 g wet weight. No significant correlation was found between larval parameters (fresh weight and % dry weight and female weight.

  9. A conditional likelihood approach for regression analysis using biomarkers measured with batch-specific error.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ming; Flanders, W Dana; Bostick, Roberd M; Long, Qi

    2012-12-20

    Measurement error is common in epidemiological and biomedical studies. When biomarkers are measured in batches or groups, measurement error is potentially correlated within each batch or group. In regression analysis, most existing methods are not applicable in the presence of batch-specific measurement error in predictors. We propose a robust conditional likelihood approach to account for batch-specific error in predictors when batch effect is additive and the predominant source of error, which requires no assumptions on the distribution of measurement error. Although a regression model with batch as a categorical covariable yields the same parameter estimates as the proposed conditional likelihood approach for linear regression, this result does not hold in general for all generalized linear models, in particular, logistic regression. Our simulation studies show that the conditional likelihood approach achieves better finite sample performance than the regression calibration approach or a naive approach without adjustment for measurement error. In the case of logistic regression, our proposed approach is shown to also outperform the regression approach with batch as a categorical covariate. In addition, we also examine a 'hybrid' approach combining the conditional likelihood method and the regression calibration method, which is shown in simulations to achieve good performance in the presence of both batch-specific and measurement-specific errors. We illustrate our method by using data from a colorectal adenoma study.

  10. Monitoring and Characterization of Crystal Nucleation and Growth during Batch Crystallization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kadam, S.S.

    2012-01-01

    Batch crystallization is commonly used in pharmaceutical, agrochemical, specialty and fine chemicals industry. The advantages of batch crystallization lie in its ease of operation and the relatively simple equipment that can be used. On the other hand a major disadvantage associated with it is the i

  11. Challenging Conventional Assumptions of Automated Information Retrieval with Real Users: Boolean Searching and Batch Retrieval Evaluations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hersh, William; Turpin, Andrew; Price, Susan; Kraemer, Dale; Olson, Daniel; Chan, Benjamin; Sacherek, Lynetta

    2001-01-01

    Describes research conducted at the TREC (Text Retrieval Conference) interactive track that compared Boolean and natural language searching, showing they achieved comparable results; and assessed the validity of batch-oriented retrieval evaluations, showing that the results from batch evaluations were not comparable to those obtained in…

  12. Inhibition of Sulfide Mineral Oxidation by Surface Coating Agents: Batch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, J.; Ji, M. K.; Yun, H. S.; Park, Y. T.; Gee, E. D.; Lee, W. R.; Jeon, B.-H.

    2012-04-01

    Mining activities and mineral industries have impacted on rapid oxidation of sulfide minerals such as pyrite (FeS2) which leads to Acid Mine Drainage (AMD) formation. Some of the abandoned mines discharge polluted water without proper environmental remediation treatments, largely because of financial constraints in treating AMD. Magnitude of the problem is considerable, especially in countries with a long history of mining. As metal sulfides become oxidized during mining activities, the aqueous environment becomes acid and rich in many metals, including iron, lead, mercury, arsenic and many others. The toxic heavy metals are responsible for the environmental deterioration of stream, groundwater and soils. Several strategies to remediate AMD contaminated sites have been proposed. Among the source inhibition and prevention technologies, microencapsulation (coating) has been considered as a promising technology. The encapsulation is based on inhibition of O2 diffusion by surface coating agent and is expected to control the oxidation of pyrite for a long time. Potential of several surface coating agents for preventing oxidation of metal sulfide minerals from both Young-Dong coal mine and Il-Gwang gold mine were examined by conducting batch experiments and field tests. Powdered pyrite as a standard sulfide mineral and rock samples from two mine outcrops were mixed with six coating agents (KH2PO4, MgO and KMnO4 as chemical agents, and apatite, cement and manganite as mineral agents) and incubated with oxidizing agents (H2O2 or NaClO). Batch experiments with Young-Dong coal mine samples showed least SO42- production in presence of KMnO4 (16% sulfate production compared to no surface coating agents) or cement (4%) within 8 days. In the case of Il-Gwang mine samples, least SO42- production was observed in presence of KH2PO4 (8%) or cement (2%) within 8 days. Field-scale pilot tests at Il-Gwang site also showed that addition of KH2PO4 decreased sulfate production from 200 to

  13. Batch and continuous extraction of bromelain enzyme by reversed micelles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Maria Frattini Fileti

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The main aim of this study was to optimize the conditions for bromelain extraction by reversed micelles from pineapple juice (Ananas comosus. The purification was carried out in batch extraction and a micro-column with pulsed caps for continuous extraction. The cationic micellar solution was made of BDBAC as a surfactant, isooctane as a solvent and hexanol as a co-solvent. For the batch process, a purification factor of 3 times at the best values of surfactant agent, co-solvent and salt concentrations, pH of the back and forward extractions were, 100 mM, 10% v/v, 1 M, 3.5 and 8, respectively. For the continuous operation, independent variables optimal point was determined: ratio between light phase flow rate and total flow rate equal to 0.67 and 1 second for the time interval between the pulses. This optimal point led to a productivity of 1.29 mL/min and a purification factor of 4.96.Este trabalho teve como objetivo principal otimizar as condições para extração da bromelina do suco do abacaxi (Ananas comosus por micelas reversas. A purificação foi feita usando o processo de extração em batelada e contínuo, este último em uma micro-coluna de campânulas pulsantes. A solução micelar catiônica foi preparada com o surfactante BDBAC, i-octano como solvente e hexanol como co-solvente. Na extração em batelada encontrou-se um fator de purificação de 3 vezes, e seus melhores valores de concentração do agente surfactante, co-solvente e sal, de pH da re-extração e extração, foram respectivamente iguais a: 100 mM, 10% v/v, 1 M, 3,5 e 8. Para a operação contínua, as variáveis independentes ótimas foram: 0,67 para a razão entre as taxas de fluxos da fase leve e a total e 1 s para o intervalo de tempo entre pulsos das campânulas. Este ponto ótimo leva a uma produtividade de 1,29 mL/min e a um fator de purificação igual a 4,96.

  14. Rational Distributed Computation of the RSA Private Key over the Shared Euler Totient Function%基于欧拉函数秘密分享的RSA私钥的理性分布计算

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李铁牛; 李红达

    2010-01-01

    Along with the distributed computation becoming more and more popular,security mechanisms of the distributed RSA key computation to enhance the strength of distributed authentication and data privacy have been developed quite a lot. However,most of them are the solutions for parties with traditional types like being semi-honest or malicious. We propose a rational approach to dealing with the distributed computation of the RSA private key based on the secret sharing of the Euler totient function over polynomials,in which each player evolved is selfish and motivated to gain interest as mush as possible. The achievement is that it is a Nash equilibrium that each player follows the execution of the prescribed protocol. And the strategy survives the iterated deletion of weakly dominated strategies%随着分布式计算的发展,分布式计算环境中的安全性问题变得越来越突出.基于RSA算法的分布式认证和分布式数据加密等安全性机制也取得了长足的发展.不过,这些机制中大部分是基于传统密码协议中参与者类型的假设:半诚实或恶意的.本文从假设参与者是理性的这一视角出发,设计了基于RSA欧拉函数秘密分享的RSA私钥的分布式计算协议.协议中所有的参与者均是理性的,他们以自我利益为驱动.所有的参与者均采取遵守协议的执行这一策略形成了纳什均衡,并且该策略是不能严格劣势剔除的.

  15. Case-by-case risk assessment of broiler meat batches: An effective control strategy for Campylobacter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Bjarke Bak; Nauta, Maarten; Korsgaard, Helle;

    2013-01-01

    In 2006, the Danish government decided to take new measures to control Salmonella and Campylobacter in Danish and imported retail meat. The legal basis for these new measures was article 14 in the EU food law, which states that food shall not be placed on the market if it is unsafe, among others...... and the results of more than 3,000 batches of broiler meat tested since 2007. The risk was assessed for batches with one or more samples positive for Campylobacter (>100 cfu/g). Reductions in the number of positive batches from 2007 to 2010 were observed for both domestic (from 17% to 7%, p=0.01) and imported......, for reasons of contamination. This provision allows each member state to make a specific risk assessment of food batches, and decide whether a batch poses an unacceptable risk to the consumer or not. Here we present the basis for the risk assessment model on Campylobacter used in this new approach...

  16. Simultaneous denitrifying phosphorus accumulation in a sequencing batch reactor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YUAN Linjiang; HAN Wei; WANG Lei; YANG Yongzhe; WANG Zhiying

    2007-01-01

    In order to achieve simultaneous nitrogen and phosphorus removal in the biological treatment process,denitrifying phosphorus accumulation(DNPA)and its affecting factors were studied in a sequencing batch reactor(SBR)with synthetic wastewater.The results showed that when acetate was used as the sole carbon resource in the influent.the sludge acclimatized under anaerobic/aerobic operation had good phosphorus removal ability.Denitrifying phosphorus accumulation was observed soon when fed with nitrate instead of aeration following the anaerobic stage,which is a vital premise to DNPA.If DNPA sludge is fed with nitrate prior to the anaerobic stage,the DNPA would weaken or even disappear.At the high concen tration of nitrate fed in the anoxic stage,the longer anoxic time needed,the better the DNPA was.Induced DNPA did not disappear even though an aerobic stage followed the anoxic stage,but the shorter the aerobic stage lasted,the higher the proportions of phosphorus removal via DNPA to total removal.

  17. Methods for batch fabrication of cold cathode vacuum switch tubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walker, Charles A. (Albuquerque, NM); Trowbridge, Frank R. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2011-05-10

    Methods are disclosed for batch fabrication of vacuum switch tubes that reduce manufacturing costs and improve tube to tube uniformity. The disclosed methods comprise creating a stacked assembly of layers containing a plurality of adjacently spaced switch tube sub-assemblies aligned and registered through common layers. The layers include trigger electrode layer, cathode layer including a metallic support/contact with graphite cathode inserts, trigger probe sub-assembly layer, ceramic (e.g. tube body) insulator layer, and metallic anode sub-assembly layer. Braze alloy layers are incorporated into the stacked assembly of layers, and can include active metal braze alloys or direct braze alloys, to eliminate costs associated with traditional metallization of the ceramic insulator layers. The entire stacked assembly is then heated to braze/join/bond the stack-up into a cohesive body, after which individual switch tubes are singulated by methods such as sawing. The inventive methods provide for simultaneously fabricating a plurality of devices as opposed to traditional methods that rely on skilled craftsman to essentially hand build individual devices.

  18. Biological hydrogen production measured in batch anaerobic respirometers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logan, Bruce E; Oh, Sang-Eun; Kim, In S; Van Ginkel, Steven

    2002-06-01

    The biological production of hydrogen from the fermentation of different substrates was examined in batch tests using heat-shocked mixed cultures with two techniques: an intermittent pressure release method (Owen method) and a continuous gas release method using a bubble measurement device (respirometric method). Under otherwise identical conditions, the respirometric method resulted in the production of 43% more hydrogen gas from glucose than the Owen method. The lower conversion of glucose to hydrogen using the Owen protocol may have been produced by repression of hydrogenase activity from high partial pressures in the gastight bottles, but this could not be proven using a thermodynamic/rate inhibition analysis. In the respirometric method, total pressure in the headspace never exceeded ambient pressure, and hydrogen typically composed as much as 62% of the headspace gas. High conversion efficiencies were consistently obtained with heat-shocked soils taken at different times and those stored for up to a month. Hydrogen gas composition was consistently in the range of 60-64% for glucose-grown cultures during logarithmic growth but declined in stationary cultures. Overall, hydrogen conversion efficiencies for glucose cultures were 23% based on the assumption of a maximum of 4 mol of hydrogen/ mol of glucose. Hydrogen conversion efficiencies were similar for sucrose (23%) and somewhat lower for molasses (15%) but were much lower for lactate (0.50%) and cellulose (0.075%).

  19. Degradation of formaldehyde in anaerobic sequencing batch biofilm reactor (ASBBR).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, N S; Zaiat, M

    2009-04-30

    The present study evaluated the degradation of formaldehyde in a bench-scale anaerobic sequencing batch reactor, which contained biomass immobilized in polyurethane foam matrices. The reactor was operated for 212 days at 35 degrees C with 8h sequential cycles, under different affluent formaldehyde concentrations ranging from 31.6 to 1104.4 mg/L (formaldehyde loading rates from 0.08 to 2.78 kg/m(3)day). The results indicate excellent reactor stability and over 99% efficiency in formaldehyde removal, with average effluent formaldehyde concentration of 3.6+/-1.7 mg/L. Formaldehyde degradation rates increased from 204.9 to 698.3mg/Lh as the initial concentration of formaldehyde was increased from around 100 to around 1100 mg/L. However, accumulation of organic matter was observed in the effluent (chemical oxygen demand (COD) values above 500 mg/L) due to the presence of non-degraded organic acids, especially acetic and propionic acids. This observation poses an important question regarding the anaerobic route of formaldehyde degradation, which might differ substantially from that reported in the literature. The anaerobic degradation pathway can be associated with the formation of long-chain oligomers from formaldehyde. Such long- or short-chain polymers are probably the precursors of organic acid formation by means of acidogenic anaerobic microorganisms.

  20. Virtual Sensors for Biodiesel Production in a Batch Reactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Betty Y. López-Zapata

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Fossil fuel combustion produces around 98% of coal emissions. Therefore, liquid and gaseous biofuels have become more attractive due to their environmental benefits. The biodiesel production process requires measurements that help to control and supervise the variables involved in the process. The measurements provide valuable information about the operation conditions and give estimations about the critical variables of the process. The information from measurements is essential for monitoring the state of a process and verifying if it has an optimal performance. The objective of this study was the conception of a virtual sensor based on the Extended Kalman Filter (EKF and the model of a batch biodiesel reactor for estimating concentrations of triglycerides (TG, diglycerides (DG, monoglycerides (MG, methyl ester (E, alcohol (A, and glycerol (GL in real-time through measurement of the temperature and pH. Estimation of the TG, DG, MG, E, A, and Gl through this method eliminates the need for additional sensors and allows the use of different types of control. For the performance analysis of the virtual sensor, the data obtained from the EKF are compared with experimental data reported in the literature, with the mean square error of the estimate then being calculated. In addition, the results of this approach can be implemented in a real system, since it only uses measurements available in a reactor such as temperature and pH.

  1. Sample Results from Routine Salt Batch 7 Samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peters, T. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States)

    2015-05-13

    Strip Effluent Hold Tank (SEHT) and Decontaminated Salt Solution Hold Tank (DSSHT) samples from several of the “microbatches” of Integrated Salt Disposition Project (ISDP) Salt Batch (“Macrobatch”) 7B have been analyzed for 238Pu, 90Sr, 137Cs, Inductively Coupled Plasma Emission Spectroscopy (ICPES), and Ion Chromatography Anions (IC-A). The results from the current microbatch samples are similar to those from earlier samples from this and previous macrobatches. The Actinide Removal Process (ARP) and the Modular Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction Unit (MCU) continue to show more than adequate Pu and Sr removal, and there is a distinct positive trend in Cs removal, due to the use of the Next Generation Solvent (NGS). The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) notes that historically, most measured Concentration Factor (CF) values during salt processing have been in the 12-14 range. However, recent processing gives CF values closer to 11. This observation does not indicate that the solvent performance is suffering, as the Decontamination Factor (DF) has still maintained consistently high values. Nevertheless, SRNL will continue to monitor for indications of process upsets. The bulk chemistry of the DSSHT and SEHT samples do not show any signs of unusual behavior.

  2. Batch Mode Active Learning for Regression With Expected Model Change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Wenbin; Zhang, Muhan; Zhang, Ya

    2016-04-20

    While active learning (AL) has been widely studied for classification problems, limited efforts have been done on AL for regression. In this paper, we introduce a new AL framework for regression, expected model change maximization (EMCM), which aims at choosing the unlabeled data instances that result in the maximum change of the current model once labeled. The model change is quantified as the difference between the current model parameters and the updated parameters after the inclusion of the newly selected examples. In light of the stochastic gradient descent learning rule, we approximate the change as the gradient of the loss function with respect to each single candidate instance. Under the EMCM framework, we propose novel AL algorithms for the linear and nonlinear regression models. In addition, by simulating the behavior of the sequential AL policy when applied for k iterations, we further extend the algorithms to batch mode AL to simultaneously choose a set of k most informative instances at each query time. Extensive experimental results on both UCI and StatLib benchmark data sets have demonstrated that the proposed algorithms are highly effective and efficient.

  3. Unusal pattern of product inhibition: batch acetic acid fermentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bar, R.; Gainer, J.L.; Kirwan, D.J.

    1987-04-20

    The limited tolerance of microorganisms to their metabolic products results in inhibited growth and product formation. The relationship between the specific growth rate, micro, and the concentration of an inhibitory product has been described by a number of mathematical models. In most cases, micro was found to be inversely proportional to the product concentration and invariably the rate of substrate utilization followed the same pattern. In this communication, the authors report a rather unusual case in which the formation rate of a product, acetic acid, increased with a decreasing growth rate of the microorganism, Acetobacter aceti. Apparently, a similar behavior was mentioned in a review report with respect to Clostridium thermocellum in a batch culture but was not published in the freely circulating literature. The fermentation of ethanol to acetic acid, C/sub 2/H/sub 5/OH + O/sub 2/ = CH/sub 3/COOH + H/sub 2/O is clearly one of the oldest known fermentations. Because of its association with the commercial production of vinegar it has been a subject of extensive but rather technically oriented studies. Suprisingly, the uncommon uncoupling between the inhibited microbial growth and the product formation appears to have been unnoticed. 13 references.

  4. Degradation of formaldehyde in anaerobic sequencing batch biofilm reactor (ASBBR)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pereira, N.S. [Laboratorio de Processos Biologicos (LPB), Departamento de Hidraulica e Saneamento, Escola de Engenharia de Sao Carlos (EESC), Universidade de Sao Paulo - USP, Engenharia Ambiental, Bloco 4-F, Av. Joao Dagnone, 1100 Santa Angelina, 13.563-120 Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil); Zaiat, M. [Laboratorio de Processos Biologicos (LPB), Departamento de Hidraulica e Saneamento, Escola de Engenharia de Sao Carlos (EESC), Universidade de Sao Paulo - USP, Engenharia Ambiental, Bloco 4-F, Av. Joao Dagnone, 1100 Santa Angelina, 13.563-120 Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil)], E-mail: zaiat@sc.usp.br

    2009-04-30

    The present study evaluated the degradation of formaldehyde in a bench-scale anaerobic sequencing batch reactor, which contained biomass immobilized in polyurethane foam matrices. The reactor was operated for 212 days at 35 deg. C with 8 h sequential cycles, under different affluent formaldehyde concentrations ranging from 31.6 to 1104.4 mg/L (formaldehyde loading rates from 0.08 to 2.78 kg/m{sup 3} day). The results indicate excellent reactor stability and over 99% efficiency in formaldehyde removal, with average effluent formaldehyde concentration of 3.6 {+-} 1.7 mg/L. Formaldehyde degradation rates increased from 204.9 to 698.3 mg/L h as the initial concentration of formaldehyde was increased from around 100 to around 1100 mg/L. However, accumulation of organic matter was observed in the effluent (chemical oxygen demand (COD) values above 500 mg/L) due to the presence of non-degraded organic acids, especially acetic and propionic acids. This observation poses an important question regarding the anaerobic route of formaldehyde degradation, which might differ substantially from that reported in the literature. The anaerobic degradation pathway can be associated with the formation of long-chain oligomers from formaldehyde. Such long- or short-chain polymers are probably the precursors of organic acid formation by means of acidogenic anaerobic microorganisms.

  5. Pembuatan Biodiesel Secara Batch Dengan Memanfaatkan Gelombang Mikro (Microwave

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rhesa Purnama Putra

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Biodiesel merupakan bioenergi atau bahan bakar nabati yang dibuat dari minyak nabati, baik minyak baru atau bekas penggorengan melalui proses transesterifikasi, esterifikasi, atau proses esterifikasi-transesterifikasi. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk membuat biodiesel dari minyak goreng secara batch melalui proses transesterifikasi dengan menggunakan radiasi mikrowave serta mempelajari berapa daya dan waktu optimal yang diperlukan untuk proses pembuatan biodiesel dengan radiasi microwave dengan katalis CaO, H2SO4, dan tanpa katalis. Dalam penelitian ini digunakan tiga variabel, yaitu daya (Watt;100,200,300,400, waktu (menit; 5,10,15,20 dan jenis katalis; CaO, H2SO4, dan tanpa katalis. Pada tahap persiapan menghitung volume minyak dan metanol yang akan dicampur. Kemudian mencampurnya didalam reaktor. Lalu mendinginkan campuran hingga terbentuk dua lapisan atas dan bawah dilanjutkan dengan melakukan pemisahan lapisan atas (biodiesel dari lapisan bawah (gliserol. Adapun pada tahap analisis, biodiesel hasil reaksi transesterfikasi dianalisa untuk mendapatkan data yield metil ester, densitas, viskositas, dan flash point. Dari penelitian diketahui bahwa hasil yang didapatkan masih belum dapat memenuhi standar biodiesel yang ditetapkan. Katalis CaO dapat memberikan hasil yang lebih baik dibandingkan dengan katalis H2SO4 dan tanpa katalis. Kondisi operasi untuk menghasilkan kualitas yield biodiesel terbaik yaitu pada daya 200 Watt selama 20 menit dengan menggunakan katalis CaO. Yield biodiesel terbesar didapatkan yield sebesar 60,11 %.

  6. Biodegradation of phenanthrene in an anaerobic batch reactor: growth kinetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.S. Nasrollahzadeh

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present research was to demonstrate the ability of mixed consortia of microorganisms to degrade high concentrations of phenanthrene (PHE as the sole carbon source. Batch experiments were carried out by the induction of mineral salt medium containing PHE to the seed culture and monitoring PHE biodegradation. The microbial propagation was conducted using PHE concentrations in the range of 20 to 100 mg/l. The microbial growth on PHE was defined based on Monod and modified Logistic rate models. The kinetic studies revealed that maximum specific growth rates (μm for PHE concentrations of 20, 50 and 100 mg/l were 0.12, 0.23 and 0.035 h-1, respectively. The doubling times for microbial population in PHE concentrations of 20, 50 and 100 mg/l were 13, 15 and 17.5 h, respectively. Also, maximum cell dry weight (xm of 54.23 mg/l was achieved, while the inhibition coefficient was 0.023 h-1. It was observed that the experimental data were well represented by the proposed models. It was also found that the biodegradation of PHE was successfully performed by the isolated strains.

  7. Batch liquid-liquid extraction of phenol from aqueous solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palma, M.S.A.; Shibata, C. [Department of Biochemical Pharmaceutical Technology, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo-SP (Brazil); Paiva, J.L. [Department of Chemical Engineering, Polytechnical School, University of Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo-SP (Brazil); Zilli, M. [Department of Chemical and Process Engineering, University of Genoa, Genoa (Italy); Converti, A.

    2010-01-15

    The aim of this work is the study of batch liquid-liquid extraction of phenol from aqueous solutions in a bench-scale well-mixed reactor. The influence of the ratio of phase volumes, temperature, and rotational speed on phenol removal (0.72-1.1 % w/w) was investigated using methyl isobutyl ketone as an extracting solvent. For this purpose, the ratio of phase volumes were set at 0.1 and 0.2, the temperature at 10, 20, and 30 C, and the rotational speed at 300, 400, and 500 rpm. A physical model based on the material balance of the phases as well as the equation of mass flux between the phases allowed the estimation of the overall coefficient of mass transfer coupled with the superficial area. Moreover, it proved to fit, satisfactorily well, the experimental data of residual phenol concentration in the organic phase versus time under all the conditions investigated. (Abstract Copyright [2010], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  8. Separation of Benzene and Cyclohexane by Batch Extractive Distillation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Jiao; ZHANG Weijiang; GUI Xia

    2007-01-01

    Azeotropic liquid mixture cannot be separated by conventional distillation. But extractive distillation or combination of the two can be valid for them. An experiment to separate benzene and cyclohexane by batch extractive distillation was carried out with N, N-dimethylformide (DMF), dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) and their mixture as extractive solvent. The effect of the operation parameterssuch as solvent flow rate and reflux ratio on the separation was studied under the same operating conditions. The results show that the separation effect was improved with the increase of solvent flow rate and the reflux ratio; all the three extractive solvents can separate benzene and cyclohexane, with DMF being the most efficient one, the mixture the second, and DMSO the least. In the experiment the best operation conditions are with DMF as extractive solvent, the solvent flow rate being 12.33 mL/min, and the reflux ratio being 6. As a result, we can get cyclohexane from the top of tower with the average product content being 86.98%, and its recovering ratio being 83.10%.

  9. Pretreatment of coking wastewater using anaerobic sequencing batch reactor (ASBR)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Bing; SUN Ying-lan; LI Yu-ying

    2005-01-01

    A laboratory-scale anaerobic sequencing batch reactor (ASBR) was used to pretreat coking wastewater. Inoculated anaerobic granular biomass was acclimated for 225 d to the coking wastewater, and then the biochemical methane potential (BMP)of the coking wastewater in the acclimated granular biomass was measured. At the same time, some fundamental technological factors, such as the filling time and the reacting time ratio (tf/tr), the mixing intensity and the intermittent mixing mode, that affect anaerobic pretreatment of coking wastewater with ASBR, were evaluated through orthogonal tests. The COD removal efficiency reached 38%~50% in the stable operation period with the organic loading rate of 0.37~0.54 kg COD/(m3.d) at the optimum conditions of tf/tr, the mixing intensity and the intermittent mixing mode. In addition, the biodegradability of coking wastewater distinctly increased after the pretreatment using ASBR. At the end of the experiment, the microorganism forms on the granulated sludge in the ASBR were observed using SEM (scanning electron microscope) and fluoroscope. The results showed that the dominant microorganism on the granular sludge was Methanosaeta instead of Methanosarcina dominated on the inoculated sludge.

  10. Changes of Resistance During Polyelectrolyte-enhanced Stirred Batch Ultrafiltration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU Xin-Sheng; Kwang-Ho CHOO

    2007-01-01

    The permeation flux or the resistance in the ultrafiltration process is mainly limited by osmotic pressure,and it may originate from various kinds of polymer interactions. However, the real origin of permeation resistance hasn't been clarified yet in the light of polymer solution nature. The removal of nitrate contamination by polyelectrolytes was carried out with stirred batch ultrafiltration. The polyelectrolyte concentrations both in permeate and retentate were analyzed with total organic carbon analyzer and permeate mass was acquired by electronic balance connected with computer. The total resistance was calculated and interpreted based on the osmotic pressures in three concentration regimes. In the dilute region, the resistance was proportional to polymer concentration; in the semidilute region, the resistance depended on polymer concentration in the parabolic relationship; in the highly concentrated solution regime, the osmotic pressure factor (OPF) would dominate the total resistance; and the deviation from OPF control could come from the electrostatic repulsion between the tightly compacted and charged polyelectrolyte particles at extremely concentrated solution regime. It was first found that dilute and semidilute concentration regions can be easily detected by plotting the log-log curves of the polymer concentration versus the ratio of the total resistance to polymer concentration. The new concept OPF was defined and did work well at highly concentrated regime.

  11. Kinetic Batch Soil Adsorption Studies of 2, 4-dinitroanisole (DNAN)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arthur, J.; Mark, N. W.; Taylor, S.; Brusseau, M. L.; Dontsova, K.

    2014-12-01

    Currently the explosive 2, 4, 6- trinitrotoluene (TNT) is used as a main ingredient in munitions; however the compound has failed to meet sensitivity requirements. The replacement compound being tested is 2, 4-dinitroanisole (DNAN). DNAN is less sensitive to shock, high temperatures, and has good detonation characteristics. However, DNAN is more soluble than TNT, which can influence transport and fate behavior and thus bioavailability and exposure potential. DNAN has been shown to have some human and environmental toxicity. The objective of this study was to investigate the environmental fate of DNAN in soil, with a specific focus on sorption processes. Batch experiments were conducted using 11 soils collected from military installations located across the United States. The soils were characterized for pH, specific surface area, electrical conductivity, cation exchange capacity, and organic carbon content. Adsorption kinetic data determined at room temperature were fitted using the first order kinetic equation. Adsorption isotherms were fitted with linear and Freundlich isotherm equations. The magnitudes of the linear adsorption coefficients ranged from 0.6 to 6 cm3/g. Results indicated that the adsorption of DNAN is strongly dependent on the amount of organic carbon present in the soil.

  12. [Growth and development kinetics of Bacillus thuringiensis in batch culture].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakharova, Z V; Ignatenko, Iu N; Schulz, F; Khovrychev, M P; Rabotnova, I L

    1985-01-01

    The kinetics of Bacillus thuringiensis growth and its assimilation of nutrient substances were studied under the conditions of batch cultivation in a complex medium containing yeast extract and in a chemically defined medium with amino acids. The growth of B. thuringiensis can be divided into five phases: exponential growth; decelerated growth; stationary phase when protein crystals are formed; stationary phase when spores are formed; lysis of sporangia releasing spores. The first phase may in turn be subdivided into three stages according to changes in the specific growth rate and substrate assimilation: a high specific growth rate and no glucose assimilation; an abrupt drop in mu and the beginning of intensive glucose assimilation from the medium; a new rise in the specific growth rate. As follows from the results of studying the kinetics of B. thuringiensis growth in a chemically defined medium, the above changes in the exponential growth phase are due to the fact that the culture assimilates yeast extract components in the complex medium or amino acids in the chemically defined medium during this phase, and then starts to assimilate glucose and ammonium in the following phases of growth.

  13. Analyses on the Treatment of Pre-thrombotic State in RSA Patients from the TCM Syndrome of Kidney Deficiency and Blood Stasis%从“肾虚血瘀”论治复发性流产血栓前状态

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢志燕; 常惠

    2015-01-01

    血栓前状态与复发性流产密切相关,无论从“治未病”,还是从“有故无殒亦无殒也”的理论出发,中医药在防治复发性流产血栓前状态方面的优势不容忽视。%Since recurrent spontaneous abortion (RSA) is strongly associated with the pre-thrombotic state, Chinese medicine in preventing the pre-thrombotic state of RSA should never be neglected according to the TCM theory, such as the theory of " preventive treatment of diseases" and " whether with harsh nature or without, the medicine aiming at diseases can not lead to abortion".

  14. The ppuI-rsaL-ppuR quorum-sensing system regulates cellular motility, pectate lyase activity, and virulence in potato opportunistic pathogen Pseudomonas sp. StFLB209.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Taro; Morohoshi, Tomohiro; Someya, Nobutaka; Ikeda, Tsukasa

    2015-01-01

    Pseudomonas sp. StFLB209 was isolated from potato leaf as an N-acylhomoserine lactone (AHL)-producing bacterium and showed a close phylogenetic relationship with P. cichorii, a known plant pathogen. Although there are no reports of potato disease caused by pseudomonads in Japan, StFLB209 was pathogenic to potato leaf. In this study, we reveal the complete genome sequence of StFLB209, and show that the strain possesses a ppuI-rsaL-ppuR quorum-sensing system, the sequence of which shares a high similarity with that of Pseudomonas putida. Disruption of ppuI results in a loss of AHL production as well as remarkable reduction in motility. StFLB209 possesses strong pectate lyase activity and causes maceration on potato tuber and leaf, which was slightly reduced in the ppuI mutant. These results suggest that the quorum-sensing system is well conserved between StFLB209 and P. putida and that the system is essential for motility, full pectate lyase activity, and virulence in StFLB209.

  15. Growth kinetics of Saccharomyces cerevisiae in batch and fed-batch cultivation using sugarcane molasses and glucose syrup from cassava starch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Win, S S; Impoolsup, A; Noomhorm, A

    1996-02-01

    Growth kinetics of Saccharomyces cerevisiae in glucose syrup from cassava starch and sugarcane molasses were studied using batch and fed-batch cultivation. The optimum temperature and pH required for growth were 30 degrees C and pH 5.5, respectively. In batch culture the productivity and overall cell yield were 0.31 g L-1 h-1 and 0.23 g cells g-1 sugar, respectively, on glucose syrup and 0.22 g L-1 h-1 and 0.18 g cells g-1 sugar, respectively, on molasses. In fed-batch cultivation, a productivity of 3.12 g L-1 h-1 and an overall cell yield of 0.52 g cells g-1 sugar were achieved in glucose syrup cultivation and a productivity of 2.33 g L-1 h-1 and an overall cell yield of 0.46 g cells g-1 sugar were achieved in molasses cultivation by controlling the reducing sugar concentration at its optimum level obtained from the fermentation model. By using an on-line ethanol sensor combined with a porous Teflon tubing method in automating the feeding of substrate in the fed-batch culture, a productivity of 2.15 g L-1 h-1 with a yield of 0.47 g cells g-1 sugar was achieved using glucose syrup as substrate when ethanol concentration was kept at a constant level by automatic control.

  16. A Single Dynamic Metabolic Model Can Describe mAb Producing CHO Cell Batch and Fed-Batch Cultures on Different Culture Media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robitaille, Julien; Chen, Jingkui; Jolicoeur, Mario

    2015-01-01

    CHO cell culture high productivity relies on optimized culture medium management under fed-batch or perfused chemostat strategies enabling high cell densities. In this work, a dynamic metabolic model for CHO cells was further developed, calibrated and challenged using datasets obtained under four different culture conditions, including two batch and two fed-batch cultures comparing two different culture media. The recombinant CHO-DXB11 cell line producing the EG2-hFc monoclonal antibody was studied. Quantification of extracellular substrates and metabolites concentration, viable cell density, monoclonal antibody concentration and intracellular concentration of metabolite intermediates of glycolysis, pentose-phosphate and TCA cycle, as well as of energetic nucleotides, were obtained for model calibration. Results suggest that a single model structure with a single set of kinetic parameter values is efficient at simulating viable cell behavior in all cases under study, estimating the time course of measured and non-measured intracellular and extracellular metabolites. Model simulations also allowed performing dynamic metabolic flux analysis, showing that the culture media and the fed-batch strategies tested had little impact on flux distribution. This work thus paves the way to an in silico platform allowing to assess the performance of different culture media and fed-batch strategies.

  17. Change in turnover capacity of crude recombinant dye-decolorizing peroxidase (rDyP) in batch and fed-batch decolorization of Remazol Brilliant Blue R.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakeri, M; Shoda, M

    2007-09-01

    Decolorization of the representative anthraquinone dye, Remazol Brilliant Blue R (RBBR) was assessed to determine the practical potential of crude recombinant dye-decolorizing peroxidase generated by Aspergillus oryzae (rDyP) in term of turnover capacity of rDyP. The turnover capacity, defined as the milligram of RBBR decolorized per unit of rDyP inactivated over the catalytic life time of rDyP, was quantified under condition by H(2)O(2) -mediated rDyP inactivation. In batch culture, equimolar batch addition of H(2)O(2) and RBBR yielded complete decolorization of RBBR by rDyP, with a turnover capacity of 4.75. In stepwise fed-batch addition of H(2)O(2), the turnover capacity increased to 5.76, and by increasing dye concentration, it reached 14.3. When H(2)O(2) was added in continuous fed-batch to minimize rDyP inactivation and 1.6 mM dye was added in stepwise fed-batch mode, the turnover capacity increased to 20.4. At this turnover capacity, 1 l of crude rDyP solution containing 5,000 U could decolorize up to 102 g RBBR in 650 min.

  18. Statistical Review of Data from DWPF's Process Samples for Batches 19 Through 30

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edwards, T.B.

    1999-04-06

    The measurements derived from samples taken during the processing of batches 19 through 30 at the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) affords an opportunity for review and comparisons. This report has looked at some of the statistics from these data. Only the data reported by the DWPF lab (that is, the data provided by the lab as representative of the samples taken) are available for this analysis. In some cases, the sample results reported may be a subset of the sample results generated by the analytical procedures. A thorough assessment of the DWPF lab's analytical procedures would require the complete set of data. Thus, the statistics reported here, specifically, as they relate to analytical uncertainties, are limited to the reported data for these samples, A fell for the consistency of the incoming slurry is the estimation of the components of variation for the Sludge Receipt and Adjustment Tank (SRAT) receipts. In general, for all of the vessels, the data from batches after 21 show smaller batch-to-batch variation than the data from all the batches. The relative contributions of batch-to-batch versus residual, which includes analytical, are presented in these analyses.

  19. Shortcut Procedure for Inverted Batch Distillation Column (Ⅰ) Multicomponent Ideal System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Inverted batch distillation colunm(stripper) is opposed to a conventional batch distillation column(rectifier). It has a storage vessel at the top and products leave the column at the bottom. The batch stripper is favourable to separate mixtures with a small amount of light components by removing the heavy components as bottom products. In this paper, we are presenting a shortcut procedure based on our earlier work for design and simulation of the inverted batch distillation column, which is equivalent to the Fenske-Underwood-Gilliland procedure for continuous distillation. Given a separation task, we propose to compute the minimum number of stages(Nbmin)and the minimum reboil ratio(Rbmin) required in a batch stripper,which are the stages and reboil ratio required in a hypothetical inverted batch distillation colnmn operating in total reboil ratio or having an infinite number of stages,respectively. Then, it is shown that the performance of inverted batch columns with a finite number of stages and reboil ratios could be correlated in Gilliland coordinates with the minimum stages Nbmin and the minimum reboil ratio Rbmin.

  20. Simulation of kefiran production of Lactobacillus kefiranofaciens JCM6985 in fed-batch reactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamas Cheirsilp

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Kinetics of kefiran production by Lactobacillus kefiranofaciens JCM6985 has been investigated. A mathematical model taking into account the mechanism of exopolysaccharides production has been developed. Experiments were carried out in batch mode in order to obtain kinetic model parameters that were further applied to simulate fed-batch processes. A simplification of parameter fitting was also introduced for complicated model. The fed-batch mode allows more flexibility in the control of the substrate concentration as well as product concentration in the culture medium. Based on the batch mathematical model, a fed-batch model was developed and simulations were done. Simulation study in fed-batch reactor resulted that substrate concentration should be controlled at 20 g L-1 to soften the product inhibition and also to stimulate utilization of substrate and its hydrolysate. From simulation results of different feeding techniques, it was found that constant feeding at 0.01 L h-1 was most practically effective feeding profile for exopolysaccharides production in fed-batch mode.

  1. Tc-99 Adsorption on Selected Activated Carbons - Batch Testing Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mattigod, Shas V.; Wellman, Dawn M.; Golovich, Elizabeth C.; Cordova, Elsa A.; Smith, Ronald M.

    2010-12-01

    CH2M HILL Plateau Remediation Company (CHPRC) is currently developing a 200-West Area groundwater pump-and-treat system as the remedial action selected under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act Record of Decision for Operable Unit (OU) 200-ZP-1. This report documents the results of treatability tests Pacific Northwest National Laboratory researchers conducted to quantify the ability of selected activated carbon products (or carbons) to adsorb technetium-99 (Tc-99) from 200-West Area groundwater. The Tc-99 adsorption performance of seven activated carbons (J177601 Calgon Fitrasorb 400, J177606 Siemens AC1230AWC, J177609 Carbon Resources CR-1240-AW, J177611 General Carbon GC20X50, J177612 Norit GAC830, J177613 Norit GAC830, and J177617 Nucon LW1230) were evaluated using water from well 299-W19-36. Four of the best performing carbons (J177606 Siemens AC1230AWC, J177609 Carbon Resources CR-1240-AW, J177611 General Carbon GC20X50, and J177613 Norit GAC830) were selected for batch isotherm testing. The batch isotherm tests on four of the selected carbons indicated that under lower nitrate concentration conditions (382 mg/L), Kd values ranged from 6,000 to 20,000 mL/g. In comparison. Under higher nitrate (750 mg/L) conditions, there was a measureable decrease in Tc-99 adsorption with Kd values ranging from 3,000 to 7,000 mL/g. The adsorption data fit both the Langmuir and the Freundlich equations. Supplemental tests were conducted using the two carbons that demonstrated the highest adsorption capacity to resolve the issue of the best fit isotherm. These tests indicated that Langmuir isotherms provided the best fit for Tc-99 adsorption under low nitrate concentration conditions. At the design basis concentration of Tc 0.865 µg/L(14,700 pCi/L), the predicted Kd values from using Langmuir isotherm constants were 5,980 mL/g and 6,870 mL/g for for the two carbons. These Kd values did not meet the target Kd value of 9,000 mL/g. Tests

  2. SLUDGE BATCH 6/TANK 51 SIMULANT CHEMICAL PROCESS CELL SIMULATIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koopman, David; Best, David

    2010-04-28

    Qualification simulant testing was completed to determine appropriate processing conditions and assumptions for the Sludge Batch 6 (SB6) Shielded Cells demonstration of the DWPF flowsheet using the qualification sample from Tank 51 for SB6 after SRNL washing. It was found that an acid addition window of 105-139% of the DWPF acid equation (100-133% of the Koopman minimum acid equation) gave acceptable Sludge Receipt and Adjustment Tank (SRAT) and Slurry Mix Evaporator (SME) results for nitrite destruction and hydrogen generation. Hydrogen generation occurred continuously after acid addition in three of the four tests. The three runs at 117%, 133%, and 150% stoichiometry (Koopman) were all still producing around 0.1 lb hydrogen/hr at DWPF scale after 42 hours of boiling in the SRAT. The 150% acid run reached 110% of the DWPF SRAT limit of 0.65 lb H{sub 2}/hr, and the 133% acid run reached 75% of the DWPF SME limit of 0.223 lb H{sub 2}/hr. Conversely, nitrous oxide generation was subdued compared to previous sludge batches, staying below 25 lb/hr in all four tests or about a fourth as much as in comparable SB4 testing. Two other processing issues were noted. First, incomplete mercury suspension impacted mercury stripping from the SRAT slurry. This led to higher SRAT product mercury concentrations than targeted (>0.45 wt% in the total solids). Associated with this issue was a general difficulty in quantifying the mass of mercury in the SRAT vessel as a function of time, especially as acid stoichiometry increased. About ten times more mercury was found after drying the 150% acid SME product to powder than was indicated by the SME product sample results. Significantly more mercury was also found in the 133% acid SME product samples than was found during the SRAT cycle sampling. It appears that mercury is segregating from the bulk slurry in the SRAT vessel, as mercury amalgam deposits for example, and is not being resuspended by the agitators. The second processing issue

  3. MELT RATE FURNACE TESTING FOR SLUDGE BATCH 5 FRIT OPTIMIZATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, D; Fox, K; Pickenheim, B; Stone, M

    2008-10-03

    Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) was requested to provide the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) with a frit composition for Sludge Batch 5 (SB5) to optimize processing. A series of experiments were designed for testing in the Melt Rate Furnace (MRF). This dry fed tool can be used to quickly determine relative melt rates for a large number of candidate frit compositions and lead to a selection for further testing. Simulated Sludge Receipt and Adjustment Tank (SRAT) product was made according to the most recent SB5 sludge projections and a series of tests were conducted with frits that covered a range of boron and alkali ratios. Several frits with relatively large projected operating windows indicated melt rates that would not severely impact production. As seen with previous MRF testing, increasing the boron concentration had positive impacts on melt rate on the SB5 system. However, there appears to be maximum values for both boron and sodium above which the there is a negative effect on melt rate. Based on these data and compositional trends, Frit 418 and a specially designed frit (Frit 550) have been selected for additional melt rate testing. Frit 418 and Frit 550 will be run in the Slurry Fed Melt Rate Furnace (SMRF), which is capable of distinguishing rheological properties not detected by the MRF. Frit 418 will be used initially for SB5 processing in DWPF (given its robustness to compositional uncertainty). The Frit 418-SB5 system will provide a baseline from which potential melt rate advantages of Frit 550 can be gauged. The data from SMRF testing will be used to determine whether Frit 550 should be recommended for implementation in DWPF.

  4. Batch phenol biodegradation study and application of factorial experimental design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Hellal

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A bacterium, Pseudomonas aeruginosa (ATTC27853, was investigated for its ability to grow and to degrade phenol as solecarbon source, in aerobic batch culture. The parameters which affect the substrate biodegradation such as the adaptation ofbacteria to phenol, the temperature, and the nature of the bacteria were investigated. The results show that for a range oftemperature of 30 to 40°C, the best degradation of phenol for a concentration of 100mg/l was observed at 30°C. The regenerationof the bacterium which allows the reactivation of its enzymatic activity, shows that the degradation of 100 mg/ l ofsubstrate at 30° C required approximately 50 hours with revivified bacteria, while it only starts after 72 hours for those norevivified. Adapted to increasing concentrations, allows the bacteria to degrade a substrate concentration of about 400mg/l in less than 350 hours.A second part was consisted in the determination of a substrate degradation model using the factorial experiment design,as a function of temperature (30-40°C and of the size of the inoculums (260.88 - 521.76mg/ l. The results were analyzedstatistically using the Student’s t-test, analysis of variance, and F-test. The value of R2 (0.99872 and adjusted R2 (0.9962close to 1.0, verifies the good correlation between the observed and the predicted values, and provides the excellent relationshipbetween the independent variables (factors and the response (the time of the phenol degradation. F-value found above200, indicates that the considered model is statistically significant.

  5. Transient and Stationary Losses in a Finite-Buffer Queue with Batch Arrivals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzej Chydzinski

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We present an analysis of the number of losses, caused by the buffer overflows, in a finite-buffer queue with batch arrivals and autocorrelated interarrival times. Using the batch Markovian arrival process, the formulas for the average number of losses in a finite time interval and the stationary loss ratio are shown. In addition, several numerical examples are presented, including illustrations of the dependence of the number of losses on the average batch size, buffer size, system load, autocorrelation structure, and time.

  6. Design and construction of a batch oven for investigation of industrial continuous baking processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stenby Andresen, Mette; Risum, Jørgen; Adler-Nissen, Jens

    2013-01-01

    of the baking was documented over a range of temperatures (160C to 190C). Practical Applications The purpose of this paper is to describe a new specially designed pilot scale batch oven. The batch oven is designed and constructed to imitate the baking processes in continuous tunnel ovens with forced convection......A new batch oven has been constructed to mimic industrial convection tunnel ovens for research and development of continuous baking processes. The process parameters (air flow, air temperature, air humidity, height of baking area and the baking band velocity) are therefore highly controllable...

  7. Characteristics of anoxic phosphors removal in sequence batch reactor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Ya-yi; PAN Mian-li; Yan Min; PENG Yong-zhen; WANG Shu-ying

    2007-01-01

    The characteristics of anaerobic phosphorus release and anoxic phosphorus uptake was investigated in sequencing batch reactors using denitrifying phosphorus removing bacteria (DPB) sludge. The lab-scale experiments were accomplished under conditions of various nitrite concentrations (5.5, 9.5, and 15 mg/L) and mixed liquor suspended solids (MLSS) (1844, 3231, and 6730 mg/L). The results obtained confirmed that nitrite, MLSS, and pH were key factors, which had a significant impact on anaerobic phosphorus release and anoxic phosphorus uptake in the biological phosphorous removal process. The nitrites were able to successfully act as electron acceptors for phosphorous uptake at a limited concentration between 5.5 and 9.5 mg/L. The denitrification and dephosphorous were inhibited when the nitrite concentration reached 15 mg/L. This observation indicated that the nitrite would not inhibit phosphorus uptake before it exceeded a threshold concentration. It was assumed that an increase of MLSS concentration from 1844 mg/L to 6730 mg/L led to the increase of denitrification and anoxic P-uptake rate. On the contrary, the average P uptake/N denitrifying reduced from 2.10 to 1.57 mg PO43--P/mg NO3--N. Therefore, it could be concluded that increasing MLSS of the DEPHANOX system might shorten the reaction time of phosphorus release and anoxic phosphorus uptake. However, excessive MLSS might reduce the specific denitrifying rate. Meanwhile, a rapid pH increase occurred at the beginning of the anoxic conditions as a result of denitrification and anoxic phosphate uptake. Anaerobic P release rate increased with an increase in pH. Moreover, when pH exceeded a relatively high value of 8.0, the dissolved P concentration decreased in the liquid phase, because of chemical precipitation. This observation suggested that pH should be strictly controlled below 8.0 to avoid chemical precipitation if the biological denitrifying phosphorus removal capability is to be studied accurately.

  8. SLUDGE BATCH 5 VARIABILITY STUDY WITH FRIT 418

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raszewski, F; Tommy Edwards, T; David Peeler, D

    2008-09-29

    The Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) is preparing to initiate processing Sludge Batch 5 (SB5) in early FY 2009. In support of the upcoming processing, the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) provided a recommendation to utilize Frit 418 as a transitional frit to initiate processing of SB5. This recommendation was based on the results of assessments on the compositional projections for SB5 available at that time from both the Liquid Waste Organization (LWO) and SRNL (using a model-based approach). To support qualification of the Frit 418-SB5 system, SRNL executed a variability study to assess the acceptability of the Frit 418-SB5 glasses with respect to durability and the applicability of the current durability models. Twenty one glasses were selected for the variability study based on the available SB5 projections primarily spanning a waste loading (WL) range of 25-37%. In order to account for the addition of caustic to Tank 40, which occurred in July 2008, 3 wt% Na2O was added to the original Tank 40 heel projections. The addition of the Actinide Removal Process (ARP) stream to the blend composition was also included. Two of the glasses were fabricated at 25% and 28% WL in order to challenge the homogeneity constraint of the Product Composition Control System (PCCS) for SB5 coupled operations. These twenty one glasses were fabricated and characterized using chemical composition analysis, X-ray Diffraction (XRD) and the Product Consistency Test (PCT). The results of this study indicate that Frit 418 is a viable option for sludge-only and coupled operations. The addition of ARP did not have any negative impacts on the acceptability and predictability of the variability study glasses. Based on the measured PCT response, all of the glasses were acceptable as compared to the Environmental Assessment (EA) reference glass regardless of the thermal history and were also predictable using the current PCCS model for durability. The homogeneity constraint can

  9. Tank 40 Final Sludge Batch 8 Chemical Characterization Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bannochie, Christopher J.

    2013-09-19

    A sample of Sludge Batch 8 (SB8) was pulled from Tank 40 in order to obtain radionuclide inventory analyses necessary for compliance with the Waste Acceptance Product Specifications (WAPS). The SB8 WAPS sample was also analyzed for chemical composition, including noble metals, and fissile constituents, and these results are reported here. These analyses along with the WAPS radionuclide analyses will help define the composition of the sludge in Tank 40 that is currently being fed to the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) as SB8. At SRNL, the 3-L Tank 40 SB8 sample was transferred from the shipping container into a 4-L high density polyethylene bottle and solids were allowed to settle. Supernate was then siphoned off and circulated through the shipping container to complete the transfer of the sample. Following thorough mixing of the 3-L sample, a 553 g sub-sample was removed. This sub-sample was then utilized for all subsequent slurry sample preparations. Eight separate aliquots of the slurry were digested, four with HNO{sub 3}/HCl (aqua regia) in sealed Teflon(r) vessels and four with NaOH/Na{sub 2}O{sub 2} (alkali or peroxide fusion) using Zr crucibles. Two Analytical Reference Glass - 1 (ARG-1) standards were digested along with a blank for each preparation. Each aqua regia digestion and blank was diluted to 1:100 mL with deionized water and submitted to Analytical Development (AD) for inductively coupled plasma - atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES) analysis, inductively coupled plasma - mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) analysis, atomic absorption spectroscopy (AA) for As and Se, and cold vapor atomic absorption spectroscopy (CV-AA) for Hg. Equivalent dilutions of the alkali fusion digestions and blank were submitted to AD for ICP-AES analysis. Tank 40 SB8 supernate was collected from a mixed slurry sample in the SRNL Shielded Cells and submitted to AD for ICP-AES, ion chromatography (IC), total base/free OH-/other base, total inorganic carbon/total organic

  10. Uranium Adsorption on Ion-Exchange Resins - Batch Testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mattigod, Shas V.; Golovich, Elizabeth C.; Wellman, Dawn M.; Cordova, Elsa A.; Smith, Ronald M.

    2010-12-01

    The uranium adsorption performance of five resins (Dowex 1, Dowex 21K 16-30 [fresh], Dowex 21K 16-30 [regenerated], Purofine PFA600/4740, and ResinTech SIR-1200) were tested using unspiked, nitrate-spiked, and nitrate-spiked/pH adjusted source water from well 299-W19-36. These batch tests were conducted in support of a resin selection process in which the best resin to use for uranium treatment in the 200-West Area groundwater pump-and-treat system will be identified. The results from these tests are as follows: • The data from the high-nitrate (1331 mg/L) tests indicated that Dowex 1, Dowex 21K 16-30 (fresh), Purofine PFA600/4740, and ResinTech SIR-1200 all adsorbed uranium similarly well with Kd values ranging from ~15,000 to 95,000 ml/g. All four resins would be considered suitable for use in the treatment system based on uranium adsorption characteristics. • Lowering the pH of the high nitrate test conditions from 8.2 to 7.5 did not significantly change the uranium adsorption isotherms for the four tested resins. The Kd values for these four resins under high nitrate (1338 mg/L), lower pH (7.5) ranged from ~15,000 to 80,000 ml/g. • Higher nitrate concentrations greatly reduced the uranium adsorption on all four resins. Tests conducted with unspiked (no amendments; nitrate at 337 mg/L and pH at 8.2) source water yielded Kd values for Dowex 1, Dowex 21K 16-30 (fresh), Purofine PFA600/4740, and ResinTech SIR-1200 resins ranging from ~800,000 to >3,000,000 ml/g. These values are about two orders of magnitude higher than the Kd values noted from tests conducted using amended source water. • Compared to the fresh resin, the regenerated Dowex 21K 16-30 resin exhibited significantly lower uranium-adsorption performance under all test conditions. The calculated Kd values for the regenerated resin were typically an order of magnitude lower than the values calculated for the fresh resin. • Additional testing using laboratory columns is recommended to better

  11. Aerobic Granulation in Sequencing Batch Reactor (SBR Treating Saline Wastewater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ensieh Taheri

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE AR-SA MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 Background and Objectives: Aerobic sludge granulation is an advanced phenomenonin which its mechanisms have not been understood. Granulation can be a promising and novel biological wastewater treatment technology to eliminate organic and inorganic materials in future. High salinity is a parameter which leads to plasmolisatian and reduction of the cell activity. This could be a problem for biological treatment of the saline wastewater. Aerobic granule was formed and investigated during this study. Materials and Methods: This study is an intervention study on the treatment of wastewater with 500-10000 mg/L concentration of NaCl by sequencing batch reactor. Asynthesized wastewater including nutrient required for microorganism's growth was prepared. Input and output pH and EC were measured. Range of pH and DO varied between 7-8, and 2-5 mg/L, respectively. SEM technology was used to identify graduals properties.Results: In terms of color, granules divided into two groups of light brown and black. Granule ranged in 3-7mm with the sediment velocity of 0.9-1.35 m/s and density of 32-60 g/L.Properties of granules were varied. Filamentous bacteria and fungi were dominant in some granules. However non filamentous bacteria were dominant in others. EDX analysis indicated the presence of Ca and PO4.Conclusion: Granules with non filamentous bacterial were compact and settled faster. Presence of different concentrations of salinity leaded to plasmolysis of the bacterial cells and increased concentrations of EPS  in the system as a result  of which granulation accelerated. /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso

  12. CONVERTING FROM BATCH TO CONTINUOUS INTENSIFIED PROCESSING IN THE STT? REACTOR

    Science.gov (United States)

    The fluid dynamics, the physical dimensions and characteristics of the reaction zones of continuous process intensification reactors are often quite different from those of the batch reactors they replace. Understanding these differences is critical to the successful transit...

  13. An optimal campaign structure for multicomponent batch distillation with reversible reaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wajge, R.M.; Reklaitis, G.V. [Purdue Univ., West Lafayette, IN (United States). School of Chemical Engineering

    1998-05-01

    When resource utilization and/or minimization of waste is comparable in importance to the production rate, the design of the operation policy should encompass an entire campaign of batches rather than a single batch. This notion of campaign optimization is particularly relevant to batch distillation with reversible reaction which produces significant amounts of off-cuts. Reprocessing these off-cuts merely based on consideration of a single batch may lead not only to inefficient production rates but also to the inefficient utilization of reactants. A general strategy for deciding the campaign structure for such an operation is presented. The concept of distillation characteristic is introduced, and its exploitation is shown to result in a simple but effective reprocessing policy for off-cuts. The economic benefits of such a campaign structure are demonstrated with the help of a case study.

  14. Effects of CO2 enrichment and nutrients supply intermittency on batch cultures of Isochrysis galbana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picardo, Marta C; de Medeiros, José Luiz; Araújo, Ofélia de Queiroz F; Chaloub, Ricardo Moreira

    2013-09-01

    Aiming at enhanced performance to increase economic feasibility of microalgae based processes, Isochrysis galbana was grown in three modes of cultivation: batch, intermittent fed batch and semi-continuous. The batch mode was conducted under two regimes of aeration: conventional aeration and CO2 enriched aeration (5% v/v in air). Increased biomass productivity without significant impact on lipid accumulation was observed for CO2 enriched aeration relatively to cultivation aerated with air only. The intermittent fed batch cultivation policy was proven to be useful for lipid accumulation, increasing the lipid content by 19.8%. However, the semi-continuous mode resulted in higher productivity due to increased biomass concentration; the biomass productivity reached 0.51 g/(Ld). Fluorescence measurements were performed; the calculated low electron transport rate showed the need to increase the irradiance. The results showed that I. galbana can be grown in semi-continuous condition at high levels of biomass productivity.

  15. Batched Triangular Dense Linear Algebra Kernels for Very Small Matrix Sizes on GPUs

    KAUST Repository

    Charara, Ali

    2017-03-06

    Batched dense linear algebra kernels are becoming ubiquitous in scientific applications, ranging from tensor contractions in deep learning to data compression in hierarchical low-rank matrix approximation. Within a single API call, these kernels are capable of simultaneously launching up to thousands of similar matrix computations, removing the expensive overhead of multiple API calls while increasing the occupancy of the underlying hardware. A challenge is that for the existing hardware landscape (x86, GPUs, etc.), only a subset of the required batched operations is implemented by the vendors, with limited support for very small problem sizes. We describe the design and performance of a new class of batched triangular dense linear algebra kernels on very small data sizes using single and multiple GPUs. By deploying two-sided recursive formulations, stressing the register usage, maintaining data locality, reducing threads synchronization and fusing successive kernel calls, the new batched kernels outperform existing state-of-the-art implementations.

  16. Stormwater Pollution Prevention Plan TA-60 Asphalt Batch Plant Revision 2: January 2017

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sandoval, Leonard Frank [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-02-01

    The Stormwater Pollution Prevention Team (PPT) is applicable to operations at the Technical Area (TA)- 60 Asphalt Batch Plant (ABP) located on Eniwetok Drive/Sigma Mesa, in Los Alamos County, New Mexico at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL).

  17. MOFCOM announced supplement to the first batch of 2012 export quotas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    The Ministry of Commerce of China supplemented the first batch of rare earth export quotas, which were assigned to the companies that had passed the inspection of the Ministry of Environmental Protection.

  18. Enhanced methane production via repeated batch bioaugmentation pattern of enriched microbial consortia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zhiman; Guo, Rongbo; Xu, Xiaohui; Wang, Lin; Dai, Meng

    2016-09-01

    Using batch and repeated batch cultivations, this study investigated the effects of bioaugmentation with enriched microbial consortia (named as EMC) on methane production from effluents of hydrogen-producing stage of potato slurry, as well as on the indigenous bacterial community. The results demonstrated that the improved methane production and shift of the indigenous bacterial community structure were dependent on the EMC/sludge ratio and bioaugmentation patterns. The methane yield and production rate in repeated batch bioaugmentation pattern of EMC were, respectively, average 15% and 10% higher than in one-time bioaugmentation pattern of EMC. DNA-sequencing approach showed that the enhanced methane production in the repeated batch bioaugmentation pattern of EMC mainly resulted from the enriched iron-reducing bacteria and the persistence of the introduced Syntrophomonas, which led to a rapid degradation of individual VFAs to methane. The findings contributed to understanding the correlation between the bioaugmentation of microbial consortia, community shift, and methane production.

  19. A Novel Operation Policy for Dilute Component Separation Quasi-batch Distillation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗祎青; 袁希钢; 杨祖杰; 刘春江

    2005-01-01

    A new operation policy--quasi-batch distillation for recovering infinitesimal amounts species existing in a mixture is presented. In quasi-batch distillation operation, feed is introduced with a constant flow rate onto the feed stage of the column, and the flow rate of the distillate is the same as that of the feed, whereas the bottom product is withdrawn periodically. The behavior of quasi-batch distillation is simulated and analyzed through an example on heavy water separation. Comparing with continuous or batch distillation, the new operation policy is more reliable and efficient to achieve higher recovery of dilute component. This is especially suitable for separating small amount of precious species from large amount of raw material.

  20. Constrained Run-to-Run Optimization for Batch Process Based on Support Vector Regression Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    An iterative (run-to-run) optimization method was presented for batch processes under input constraints. Generally it is very difficult to acquire an accurate mechanistic model for a batch process. Because support vector machine is powerful for the problems characterized by small samples, nonlinearity, high dimension and local minima, support vector regression models were developed for the end-point optimization of batch processes. Since there is no analytical way to find the optimal trajectory, an iterative method was used to exploit the repetitive nature of batch processes to determine the optimal operating policy. The optimization algorithm is proved convergent. The numerical simulation shows that the method can improve the process performance through iterations.

  1. A cellular automata model for simulating fed-batch penicillin fermentation process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu Naigong; Ruan Xiaogang

    2006-01-01

    A cellular automata model to simulate penicillin fed-batch fermentation process(CAPFM)was established in this study,based on a morphologically structured dynamic penicillin production model,that is in turn based on the growth mechanism of penicillin producing microorganisms and the characteristics of penicillin fed-batch fermentation.CAPFM uses the three-dimensional cellular automata as a growth space,and a Moore-type neighborhood as the cellular neighborhood.The transition roles of CAPFM are designed based on mechanical and structural kinetic models of penicillin batch-fed fermentation processes.Every cell of CAPFM represents a single or specific number of penicillin producing microorganisms,and has various state.The simulation experimental results show that CAPFM replicates the evolutionary behavior of penicillin batch-fed fermentation processes described by the structured penicillin production kinetic model accordingly.

  2. The second batch of RE export quota in 2009 released/Brief News

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    @@ In accordance with"Regulation on Import and Export of Commodities of the People's Republic of China",the Ministry of Commerce released the second batch of RE export quota of common trade in 2009 on June 29.

  3. UNBOUNDED BATCH SCHEDULING WITH A COMMON DUE WINDOW ON A SINGLE MACHINE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hongluan ZHAO; Guojun LI

    2008-01-01

    The common due window scheduling problem with batching on a single machine is dealt with to minimize the total penalty of weighted earliness and tardiness. In this paper it is assumed that a job incurs no penalty as long as it is completed within the common due window. It is the first time for the due window scheduling to be extended to this situation so that jobs can be processed in batches. An unbounded version of batch scheduling is also considered. Hence, jobs, no matter how many there are, can be processed in a batch once the machine is free. For two cases that the location of due window is either a decision variable or a given parameter, polynomial algorithms are proposed based on several optimal properties.

  4. Bicriteria Scheduling on a Series-Batching Machine to Minimize Makespan and Total Weighted Completion Time with Equal Length Job

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HE Cheng; LIN Hao; DOU Jun-mei; MU Yun-dong

    2014-01-01

    It is known that the problem of minimizing total weighted completion time on a series-batching machine is NP-hard. We consider a series-batching bicriteria scheduling problem of minimizing makespan and total weighted completion time with equal length job simultaneously. A batching machine can handle up to b jobs in a batch, where b is called the batch capacity of the machine. We study the unbounded model with b≥n, where n denotes the number of jobs. A dynamic programming algorithm is proposed to solve the unbounded model, which can find all Pareto optimal schedules in O(n3) time.

  5. COTS FPGA/SRAM Irradiations Using a Dedicated Testing Infrastructure for Characterization of Large Component Batches

    CERN Document Server

    Slawosz, Uznanski; Johannes, Walter; Andrea, Vilar-Villanueva

    2015-01-01

    This paper introduces a new testing platform for irradiation of large batches of COTS FPGA and SRAMs. The main objective is measurement of component radiation response and assessment of component-to-component variability within one batch. The first validation and test results using the testing platform are presented for 150nm TFT SRAM (Renesas) and different sizes of the 130nm ProASIC3 FPGA (Microsemi).

  6. STUDY ON MAXIMUM SPECIFIC SLUDGE ACIVITY OF DIFFERENT ANAEROBIC GRANULAR SLUDGE BY BATCH TESTS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The maximum specific sludge activity of granular sludge from large-scale UASB, IC and Biobed anaerobic reactors were investigated by batch tests. The limitation factors related to maximum specific sludge activity (diffusion, substrate sort, substrate concentration and granular size) were studied. The general principle and procedure for the precise measurement of maximum specific sludge activity were suggested. The potential capacity of loading rate of the IC and Biobed anaerobic reactors were analyzed and compared by use of the batch tests results.

  7. Batch Scheduling of Recurrent Applications for Energy Savings on Mobile Phones

    OpenAIRE

    Marina, Mahesh; Calder, Matthew

    2010-01-01

    Recurrent applications that mostly run in the background are a significant source of power consumption on battery-limited mobile phones. We highlight the pitfalls of scheduling such applications independently without awareness of each other's schedules. We illustrate the significant energy savings that can be achieved via batch scheduling of recurrent mobile phone applications. We then present our on-going work on developing a general batch scheduling framework for such applications and also ...

  8. Fed-batch pediocin production by Pediococcus acidilactici NRRL B-5627 on whey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez Guerra, Nelson; Bernárdez, Paula Fajardo; Agrasar, Ana Torrado; López Macías, Cristina; Castro, Lorenzo Pastrana

    2005-08-01

    Cell growth and pediocin production by Pediococcus acidilactici NRRL B-5627 on whey were compared by using batch fermentation and re-alkalized fed-batch fermentation. The batch fermentations were performed on DWG [DW (diluted whey) supplemented with 1% (w/v) glucose], DWYE [DW supplemented with 2% (w/v) yeast extract] and DWGYE (DW supplemented with 1% glucose plus 2% yeast extract) media. The fed-batch culture on DWYE medium was fed with a mixture of concentrated whey (48 g of total sugars/l) supplemented with 2% yeast extract and 400 g/l concentrated glucose. The re-alkalized fed-batch culture was characterized by higher biomass (6.57 g/l) and pediocin [517.6 BU (bacteriocin activity units)/ml] concentrations compared with the batch processes on MRS (de Man, Rogosa and Sharpe) broth (1.76 g/l and 493.2 BU/ml), DW (0.17 g/l and 57.7 BU/ml), DWG (0.14 g/l and 53.6 BU/ml), DWYE (1.43 g/l and 187.6 BU/ml) and DWGYE (1.28 g/l and 167.3 BU/ml) media. A mixed acid fermentation was observed during the growth of P. acidilactici NRRL B-5627 in the fed-batch culture on DWYE medium, and other products (acetic acid and ethanol) in addition to lactic acid accumulated in the medium. Mathematical models were set up to describe fed-batch production of biomass and pediocin by P. acidilactici. The models developed offer a better fit and a more realistic description of the experimental biomass and pediocin production data when compared with the logistic and Luedeking and Piret model.

  9. Fed-batch CHO cell culture for lab-scale antibody production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fan, Yuzhou; Ley, Daniel; Andersen, Mikael Rørdam

    2016-01-01

    Fed-batch culture is the most commonly used upstream process in industry today for recombinant monoclonal antibody production using Chinese hamster ovary cells. Developing and optimizing this process in the lab is crucial for establishing process knowledge, which enable rapid and predictable tech......-transfer to manufacturing scale. In this chapter, we will describe stepwise how to carry out fed-batch CHO cell culture for lab-scale antibody production....

  10. IMPROVING ENERGY EFFICIENCY OF SILICON CARBIDE CERAMICS PRODUCTION BY BATCH REGULATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dmitriy Zhukov

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses an energy-efficient method for producing SiC-based composites via doping with oxide eutectic compositions and batch granulometry regulation. The influence of batch granulometry on physico-mechanical properties of ceramics is studied, and fractions ratio is determined allowing us to obtain a dense material with improved strength and fracture toughness. Such ceramics shows excellent mechanical behavior and holds much promise as a structural and armor material.

  11. Actual waste demonstration of the nitric-glycolic flowsheet for sludge batch 9 qualification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Newell, D. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Pareizs, J. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Martino, C. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Reboul, S. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Coleman, C. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Edwards, T. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Johnson, F. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2017-03-09

    For each sludge batch that is processed in the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF), the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) performs qualification testing to demonstrate that the sludge batch is processable. Based on the results of this actual-waste qualification and previous simulant studies, SRNL recommends implementation of the nitric-glycolic acid flowsheet in DWPF. Other recommendations resulting from this demonstration are reported in section 5.0.

  12. New extractive configuration separating azeotropic mixture in semi-batch way

    OpenAIRE

    Stéger, Csaba; Rev, Endre; Horvath, Laszlo; Fonyo, Zsolt; Meyer, Michel; Lelkes, Zoltan

    2006-01-01

    A new variant of batch extractive distillation, the so-called inverse-fed batch extractive distillation is presented. The total amount of the entrainer is pre-loaded to the boiler, and the mixture charge to be separated is continuously fed to the column in this novel configuration. The feasibility study of conventional extractive distillation was extended and a thorough study was performed to separate a maximum boiling azeotrope with intermediate boiling entrainer. The new configuration was f...

  13. Heterogeneous batch distillation processes for waste solvent recovery in pharmaceutical industry

    OpenAIRE

    Rodriguez-Donis, Ivonne; Gerbaud, Vincent; Arias-Barreto, Alien; Joulia, Xavier

    2009-01-01

    A summary about our experiences in the introduction of heterogeneous entrainers in azeotropic and extractive batch distillation is presented in this work. Essential advantages of the application of heterogeneous entrainers are showed by rigorous simulation and experimental verification in a bench batch distillation column for separating several azeotropic mixtures such as acetonitrile – water, n hexane – ethyl acetate and chloroform – methanol, commonly found in pharmaceutical industry.

  14. OPTIMAL FEED STRATEGY FOR FED-BATCH GLYCEROL FERMENTATION DETERMINED BY MAXIMUM PRINCIPLE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    1 IntroductionGlycerol fed-batch fermentation is attractive tocommercial application since it can control theglucose concentration by changing the feed rate andget a high glycerol yield, therefore it is essential todevelop an optimal glucose feed strategy. For mostof fed-batch fermentation, optimization of feed ratewas based on Pontryagin's maximum principle [if.Since the term of feed rate appears linearly in theHamiltonian, the optimal feed rate profile usuallyconsists of ba,lg-bang intervals and singular ...

  15. SULFATE SOLUBILITY LIMIT VERIFICATION FOR DWPF SLUDGE BATCH 7B

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fox, K.

    2011-10-03

    The objective of this study was to determine a sulfate solubility limit in glass for Sludge Batch 7b (SB7b). The SB7b composition projection provided by Savannah River Remediation (SRR) on May 25, 2011 was used as the basis for formulating glass compositions to determine the sulfate limit. Additions of Na{sub 2}O to the projected sludge composition were made by the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) due to uncertainty in the final concentration of Na{sub 2}O for SB7b, which is dependent on washing effectiveness and the potential need to add NaOH to ensure an acceptable projected operating window. Additions of 4, 6, and 8 wt % Na{sub 2}O were made to the nominal May 25, 2011 composition projection. An updated SB7b composition projection was received from SRR on August 4, 2011. Due to compositional similarities, no additional experimental work using the August 4, 2011 compositions was considered to be necessary for this study. Both Frit 418 and Frit 702 were included in this study. The targeted sulfate (SO{sub 4}{sup 2-}) concentrations of the study glasses were selected within the range of 0.6 to 0.9 wt % in glass. A total of 52 glass compositions were selected based on the compositional variables of Na{sub 2}O addition, Actinide Removal Process (ARP) stream addition, waste loading, frit composition, and sulfate concentration. The glasses were batched, melted, and characterized following SRNL procedures. Visual observations were recorded for each glass after it cooled and used as in indicator of sulfur retention. Representative samples of each of the glasses fabricated were subjected to chemical analysis to determine whether the targeted compositions were met, as well as to determine the quantity of sulfate that was retained after melting. In general, the measured composition data showed that there were only minor issues in meeting the targeted compositions for the study glasses, and the measured sulfate concentrations for each study glass were within 10% of

  16. An order-picking operations system for managing the batching activities in a warehouse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Cathy H. Y.; Choy, K. L.; Ho, G. T. S.; Lee, C. K. M.

    2014-06-01

    Nowadays, customer orders with high product variety in small quantities are often received and requested for timely delivery. However, the order-picking process is a labour-intensive and costly activity to handle those small orders separately. In such cases, small orders are often grouped into batches so that two or more orders can be served at once to increase the picking efficiency and thus reduce the travel distance. In this paper, an order-picking operations system (OPOS) is proposed to assist the formulation of an order-picking plan and batch-handling sequence. The study integrates a mathematical model and fuzzy logic technique to divide the receiving orders into batches and prioritise the batch-handling sequence for picking, respectively. Through the proposed system, the order-picking process can be managed as batches with common picking locations to minimise the travel distance, and the batch-picking sequence can be determined as well. To demonstrate the use of the system, a case study in a third-party logistics warehouse is presented, and the result shows that both the order-picking activity and labour utilisation can be better organised.

  17. Model Integrasi Penjadwalan Produksi Batch dan Penjadwalan Perawatan dengan Kendala Due Date

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahedi .

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the integration model of batch production and preventive maintenance scheduling on a single machine producing an item to be delivered at a common due date. The machine is a deteriorating machine that requires preventive maintenance to ensure the availability of the machine at a desired service level. Decision variables of the model are the number of preventive maintenances, the schedule, length of production runs, as well as the number of batches, batch sizes and the production schedule of the resulting batches for each production run. The objective function of the model is to minimize the total cost consisting of inventory costs during parts processing, setup cost and cost of preventive maintenance. The results show three important points: First, the sequence of optimal batches always follows the SPT (short processing time. Second, variation of preventive maintenance unit cost does not influence the sequence of batches. Third, the first production run length from production starting time is smaller than the next production run length and this pattern continues until the due date. When in process inventory unit cost is increased, the pattern will continue until a specified cost limit, and beyond the limit the pattern will change to be the opposite pattern.

  18. On-line Batch Process Monitoring and Diagnosing Based on Fisher Discriminant Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Xu; SHAO Hui-he

    2006-01-01

    A new on-line batch process monitoring and diagnosing approach based on Fisher discriminant analysis (FDA) was proposed. This method does not need to predict the future observations of variables, so it is more sensitive to fault detection and stronger implement for monitoring. In order to improve the monitoring performance,the variables trajectories of batch process are separated into several blocks. The key to the proposed approach for on-line monitoring is to calculate the distance of block data that project to low-dimension Fisher space between new batch and reference batch. Comparing the distance with the predefine threshold, it can be considered whether the batch process is normal or abnormal. Fault diagnosis is performed based on the weights in fault direction calculated by FDA. The proposed method was applied to the simulation model of fed-batch penicillin fermentation and the results were compared with those obtained using MPCA. The simulation results clearly show that the on-line monitoring method based on FDA is more efficient than the MPCA.

  19. Analysis and modelling of the energy consumption of chemical batch plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bieler, P.S.

    2004-07-01

    This report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) describes two different approaches for the energy analysis and modelling of chemical batch plants. A top-down model consisting of a linear equation based on the specific energy consumption per ton of production output and the base consumption of the plant is postulated. The model is shown to be applicable to single and multi-product batches for batch plants with constant production mix and multi-purpose batch plants in which only similar chemicals are produced. For multipurpose batch plants with highly varying production processes and changing production mix, the top-down model produced inaccurate results. A bottom-up model is postulated for such plants. The results obtained are discussed that show that the electricity consumption for infrastructure equipment was significant and responsible for about 50% of total electricity consumption. The specific energy consumption for the different buildings was related to the degree of automation and the production processes. Analyses of the results of modelling are presented. More detailed analyses of the energy consumption of this apparatus group show that about 30 to 40% of steam energy is lost and thus a large potential for optimisation exists. Various potentials for making savings, ranging from elimination of reflux conditions to the development of a new heating/cooling-system for a generic batch reactor, are identified.

  20. Improving cellulase productivity of Penicillium oxalicum RE-10 by repeated fed-batch fermentation strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Xiaolong; Song, Wenxia; Liu, Guodong; Li, Zhonghai; Yang, Piao; Qu, Yinbo

    2017-03-01

    Medium optimization and repeated fed-batch fermentation were performed to improve the cellulase productivity by P. oxalicum RE-10 in submerged fermentation. First, Plackett-Burman design (PBD) and central composite design (CCD) were used to optimize the medium for cellulase production. PBD demonstrated wheat bran and NaNO3 had significant influences on cellulase production. The CCD results showed the maximum filter paper activity (FPA) production of 8.61U/mL could be achieved in Erlenmeyer flasks. The maximal FPA reached 12.69U/mL by submerged batch fermentation in a 7.5-L stirred tank, 1.76-fold higher than that on the original medium. Then, the repeated fed-batch fermentation strategy was performed successfully for increasing the cellulase productivity from 105.75U/L/h in batch fermentation to 158.38U/L/h. The cellulase activity and the glucan conversion of delignined corn cob residue hydrolysis had no significant difference between the enzymes sampled from different cycles of the repeated fed-batch fermentation and that from batch culture.

  1. An LMI Method to Robust Iterative Learning Fault-tolerant Guaranteed Cost Control for Batch Processes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Limin; CHEN Xi; GAO Furong

    2013-01-01

    Based on an equivalent two-dimensional Fornasini-Marchsini model for a batch process in industry,a closed-loop robust iterative learning fault-tolerant guaranteed cost control scheme is proposed for batch processes with actuator failures.This paper introduces relevant concepts of the fault-tolerant guaranteed cost control and formulates the robust iterative learning reliable guaranteed cost controller (ILRGCC).A significant advantage is that the proposed ILRGCC design method can be used for on-line optimization against batch-to-batch process uncertainties to realize robust tracking of set-point trajectory in time and batch-to-batch sequences.For the convenience of implementation,only measured output errors of current and previous cycles are used to design a synthetic controller for iterative learning control,consisting of dynamic output feedback plus feed-forward control.The proposed controller can not only guarantee the closed-loop convergency along time and cycle sequences but also satisfy the H∞ performance level and a cost function with upper bounds for all admissible uncertainties and any actuator failures.Sufficient conditions for the controller solution are derived in terms of linear matrix inequalities (LMIs),and design procedures,which formulate a convex optimization problem with LMI constraints,are presented.An example of injection molding is given to illustrate the effectiveness and advantages of the ILRGCC design approach.

  2. A batch modelling approach to monitor a freeze-drying process using in-line Raman spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarraguça, Mafalda Cruz; De Beer, Thomas; Vervaet, Chris; Remon, Jean-Paul; Lopes, João Almeida

    2010-11-15

    Freeze-drying or lyophilisation is a batch wise industrial process used to remove water from solutions, hence stabilizing the solutes for distribution and storage. The objective of the present work was to outline a batch modelling approach to monitor a freeze-drying process in-line and in real-time using Raman spectroscopy. A 5% (w/v) D-mannitol solution was freeze-dried in this study as model. The monitoring of a freeze-drying process using Raman spectroscopy allows following the product behaviour and some process evolution aspects by detecting the changes of the solutes and solvent occurring during the process. Herewith, real-time solid-state characterization of the final product is also possible. The timely spectroscopic measurements allowed the differentiation between batches operated in normal process conditions and batches having deviations from the normal trajectory. Two strategies were employed to develop batch models: partial least squares (PLS) using the unfolded data and parallel factor analysis (PARAFAC). It was shown that both strategies were able to developed batch models using in-line Raman spectroscopy, allowing to monitor the evolution in real-time of new batches. However, the computational effort required to develop the PLS model and to evaluate new batches using this model is significant lower compared to the PARAFAC model. Moreover, PLS scores in the time mode can be computed for new batches, while using PARAFAC only the batch mode scores can be determined for new batches.

  3. Design and Implementation of Android System Short Message Encryption based on 3DES and RSA%基于3DES和RSA的Android系统短信加密设计与实现

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马玉琢; 郭玉翠

    2016-01-01

    Android System, as an open source system, is more and more popular.At the same time, its security and user privacy face a great challenge.This paper puts forward an encryption scheme to protect the privacy of short mes-sage. Starting from the overall architecture and hierarchical idea of Android system, a new encryption scheme based on the hybrid encryption algorithm is proposed in this paper through the analysis and research on the 3DES symmetric encryption algorithm and RSA non symmetric encryption algorithm. The process of realizing algorithmis introduced in detail. The test by using the Android simulator to send and receive the short message proves the feasibility of the short message encryption scheme.%Android系统作为开源的系统,受到越来越多的青睐,同时其安全性及用户的隐私也受到了极大的考验。本文提出了一种针对短信隐私保护的加密方案。从 Android 系统的整体架构及分层思想出发,通过对3DES 对称加密算法及 RSA非对称加密算法的原理进行分析与研究,提出了一种新型的针对 Android系统的混合加密算法的短信加密方案,详细地介绍了具体的实现过程。使用Android模拟器进行的收发仿真实验,证明了短信加密方案的可行性。

  4. 基于RSA的有序多重数字签名在电子病案中的实现%Application of Sequential Multi-signture based Based RSA in Electronic Medical Record

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨李梅; 杨慧杰; 黄坚; 杨新宇

    2011-01-01

    Objective In order to strengthen information management securit in electronic medical record , and speed up the implem entation of "Electronic Signature Law " in medical and health fields. Methods The application of sequential multi-signature based on RSA in electronic medical record is researched . Results With the help of this application . the safety and reliability of electronic medical record is ensured . Besides. security mechanism could be provided in the process of generating . saving , managing and calling the electronic medical record . Conclusion Technical possibility is provided to make electronic medical record have the same legal effect as paper record . so that legitim ate evidence is available to resolve medical disputes effectively .%目的 为了加强电子病案信息安全管理,加快在医疗卫生领域的落实.方法 初步探讨基于RSA的有序多重数字签名在电子病案中的实现与应用.结果 通过这种应用,保证了电子病案的安全与可靠,为电子病案的生成、保存、管理和调用提供了安全保障机制.结论 为电子病案与纸质病案具有相同的法律效力,提供了技术上的可能;为有效解决医疗纠纷提供合法的证据支持.

  5. Meeting report: batch-to-batch variability in estrogenic activity in commercial animal diets--importance and approaches for laboratory animal research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heindel, Jerrold J; vom Saal, Frederick S

    2008-03-01

    We report information from two workshops sponsored by the National Institutes of Health that were held to a) assess whether dietary estrogens could significantly impact end points in experimental animals, and b) involve program participants and feed manufacturers to address the problems associated with measuring and eliminating batch-to-batch variability in rodent diets that may lead to conflicting findings in animal experiments within and between laboratories. Data were presented at the workshops showing that there is significant batch-to-batch variability in estrogenic content of commercial animal diets, and that this variability results in differences in experimental outcomes. A combination of methods were proposed to determine levels of total estrogenic activity and levels of specific estrogenic constituents in soy-containing, casein-containing, and other soy-free rodent diets. Workshop participants recommended that researchers pay greater attention to the type of diet being used in animal studies and choose a diet whose estrogenic activity (or lack thereof) is appropriate for the experimental model and end points of interest. Information about levels of specific phytoestrogens, as well as estrogenic activity caused by other contaminants and measured by bioassay, should be disclosed in scientific publications. This will require laboratory animal diet manufacturers to provide investigators with information regarding the phytoestrogen content and other estrogenic compounds in commercial diets used in animal research.

  6. Kinetics of sugars consumption and ethanol inhibition in carob pulp fermentation by Saccharomyces cerevisiae in batch and fed-batch cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima-Costa, Maria Emília; Tavares, Catarina; Raposo, Sara; Rodrigues, Brígida; Peinado, José M

    2012-05-01

    The waste materials from the carob processing industry are a potential resource for second-generation bioethanol production. These by-products are small carob kibbles with a high content of soluble sugars (45-50%). Batch and fed-batch Saccharomyces cerevisiae fermentations of high density sugar from carob pods were analyzed in terms of the kinetics of sugars consumption and ethanol inhibition. In all the batch runs, 90-95% of the total sugar was consumed and transformed into ethanol with a yield close to the theoretical maximum (0.47-0.50 g/g), and a final ethanol concentration of 100-110 g/l. In fed-batch runs, fresh carob extract was added when glucose had been consumed. This addition and the subsequent decrease of ethanol concentrations by dilution increased the final ethanol production up to 130 g/l. It seems that invertase activity and yeast tolerance to ethanol are the main factors to be controlled in carob fermentations. The efficiency of highly concentrated carob fermentation makes it a very promising process for use in a second-generation ethanol biorefinery.

  7. An Empirical State Error Covariance Matrix for Batch State Estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frisbee, Joseph H., Jr.

    2011-01-01

    state estimate, regardless as to the source of the uncertainty. Also, in its most straight forward form, the technique only requires supplemental calculations to be added to existing batch algorithms. The generation of this direct, empirical form of the state error covariance matrix is independent of the dimensionality of the observations. Mixed degrees of freedom for an observation set are allowed. As is the case with any simple, empirical sample variance problems, the presented approach offers an opportunity (at least in the case of weighted least squares) to investigate confidence interval estimates for the error covariance matrix elements. The diagonal or variance terms of the error covariance matrix have a particularly simple form to associate with either a multiple degree of freedom chi-square distribution (more approximate) or with a gamma distribution (less approximate). The off diagonal or covariance terms of the matrix are less clear in their statistical behavior. However, the off diagonal covariance matrix elements still lend themselves to standard confidence interval error analysis. The distributional forms associated with the off diagonal terms are more varied and, perhaps, more approximate than those associated with the diagonal terms. Using a simple weighted least squares sample problem, results obtained through use of the proposed technique are presented. The example consists of a simple, two observer, triangulation problem with range only measurements. Variations of this problem reflect an ideal case (perfect knowledge of the range errors) and a mismodeled case (incorrect knowledge of the range errors).

  8. Dose and batch-dependent hepatobiliary toxicity of 10 nm silver nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcella De Maglie

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs are widely used because of their antimicrobial properties in medical devices and in a variety of consumer products. The extensive use of AgNPs raises concerns about their potential toxicity, although it is still difficult to draw definite conclusions about their toxicity based on published data. Our preliminary studies performed to compare the effect of the AgNPs size (10-40-100 nm on toxicity, demonstrated that the smallest AgNPs determine the most severe toxicological effects. In order to best investigate the impact of physicochemical characteristics of 10 nm AgNPs on toxicity, we compare three different batches of 10 nm AgNPs slightly different in size distribution (Batch A: 8.8±1.7 nm; Batch B: 9.4±1.7 nm; Batch C: 10.0±1.8 nm. Mice were intravenously treated with two doses (5 and 10 mg/kg of the 3 AgNPs. 24 hours after the treatment, mice were euthanized and underwent complete necropsy. Tissues were collected for histopathological examination and total silver content was determined in tissues by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS. All batches induced severe hepatobiliary lesions, i.e. marked hepatocellular necrosis and massive hemorrhage of the gall bladder. The toxicity was dose-dependent and interestingly, the toxic effects were more severe in mice treated with batches A and B that contained smaller AgNPs. Since the total silver mass concentration was similar, the observed batch-dependent toxicity suggest that even subtle differences in size may contribute to relevant changes in the toxicological outcomes, confirming the fundamental involvement of physicochemical features with respect to toxicity.

  9. Batch and semi-continuous microalgal TAG production in lab-scale and outdoor photobioreactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benvenuti, Giulia; Bosma, Rouke; Ji, Fang; Lamers, Packo; Barbosa, Maria J; Wijffels, René H

    2016-01-01

    Microalgal triglycerides (TAGs) represent a sustainable feedstock for food, chemical and biofuel industries. The operational strategy (batch, semi-continuous, continuous cultivations) has an impact on the TAG productivity. In this study, semi-continuous (i.e. with fixed harvesting frequency) and batch cultivations were compared on TAG production both at lab-scale and in outdoor cultivations. At lab-scale, the semi-continuous TAG productivity was highest for a cycle time of 2 days (SC1; 0.21 g L(-1) day(-1)) and similar to the maximum obtained with the batch (optimal harvest time; 0.23 g L(-1) day(-1)). Although TAG content was lower for SC1 (22 %) than for the batch (35 %), higher biomass productivities were obtained with SC1. Outdoors, semi-continuous cultivations were subjected to a lower degree of stress (i.e. higher amount of nitrogen present in the system relative to the given irradiance) compared to lab-scale. This yielded low and similar TAG contents (10-13 %) in the different semi-continuous runs that were outdone by the batch on both TAG content (15-25 %) and productivity (batch, 0.97-2.46 g m(-2) day(-1); semi-continuous, 0.35-0.85 g m(-2) day(-1)). The lab-scale experiments showed that semi-continuous strategies, besides leading to similar TAG productivities compared to the batch, could make TAG production cost effective by valorising also non-TAG compounds. However, optimization of outdoor semi-continuous cultivations is still required. For instance, the nitrogen supply and the harvest frequency should be adjusted on the total irradiance. Additionally, future research should focus on recovery metabolism upon nitrogen resupply.

  10. Algal Feedback and Removal Efficiency in a Sequencing Batch Reactor Algae Process (SBAR to Treat the Antibiotic Cefradine.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianqiu Chen

    Full Text Available Many previous studies focused on the removal capability for contaminants when the algae grown in an unexposed, unpolluted environment and ignored whether the feedback of algae to the toxic stress influenced the removal capability in a subsequent treatment batch. The present research investigated and compared algal feedback and removal efficiency in a sequencing batch reactor algae process (SBAR to remove cefradine. Three varied pollution load conditions (10, 30 and 60 mg/L were considered. Compared with the algal characteristics in the first treatment batch at 10 and 30 mg/L, higher algal growth inhibition rates were observed in the second treatment batch (11.23% to 20.81%. In contrast, algae produced more photosynthetic pigments in response to cefradine in the second treatment batch. A better removal efficiency (76.02% was obtained during 96 h when the alga treated the antibiotic at 60 mg/L in the first treatment batch and at 30 mg/L in the second treatment batch. Additionally, the removal rate per unit algal density was also improved when the alga treated the antibiotic at 30 or 60 mg/L in the first treatment batch, respectively and at 30 mg/L in the second treatment batch. Our result indicated that the green algae were also able to adapt to varied pollution loads in different treatment batches.

  11. SLUDGE BATCH 6/TANK 40 SIMULANT CHEMICAL PROCESS CELL SIMULATIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koopman, David

    2010-04-28

    Phase III simulant flowsheet testing was completed using the latest composition estimates for SB6/Tank 40 feed to DWPF. The goals of the testing were to determine reasonable operating conditions and assumptions for the startup of SB6 processing in the DWPF. Testing covered the region from 102-159% of the current DWPF stoichiometric acid equation. Nitrite ion concentration was reduced to 90 mg/kg in the SRAT product of the lowest acid run. The 159% acid run reached 60% of the DWPF Sludge Receipt and Adjustment Tank (SRAT) limit of 0.65 lb H2/hr, and then sporadically exceeded the DWPF Slurry Mix Evaporator (SME) limit of 0.223 lb H2/hr. Hydrogen generation rates peaked at 112% of the SME limit, but higher than targeted wt% total solids levels may have been partially responsible for rates seen. A stoichiometric factor of 120% met both objectives. A processing window for SB6 exists from 102% to something close to 159% based on the simulant results. An initial recommendation for SB6 processing is at 115-120% of the current DWPF stoichiometric acid equation. The addition of simulated Actinide Removal Process (ARP) and Modular Caustic Side Solvent Extraction Unit (MCU) streams to the SRAT cycle had no apparent impact on the preferred stoichiometric factor. Hydrogen generation occurred continuously after acid addition in three of the four tests. The three runs at 120%, 118.4% with ARP/MCU, and 159% stoichiometry were all still producing around 0.1 lb hydrogen/hr at DWPF scale after 36 hours of boiling in the SRAT. The 120% acid run reached 23% of the SRAT limit and 37% of the SME limit. Conversely, nitrous oxide generation was subdued compared to previous sludge batches, staying below 29 lb/hr in all four tests or about a fourth as much as in comparable SB4 testing. Two processing issues, identified during SB6 Phase II flowsheet testing and qualification simulant testing, were monitored during Phase III. Mercury material balance closure was impacted by acid stoichiometry

  12. Campylobacter carcass contamination throughout the slaughter process of Campylobacter-positive broiler batches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seliwiorstow, Tomasz; Baré, Julie; Van Damme, Inge; Uyttendaele, Mieke; De Zutter, Lieven

    2015-02-02

    Campylobacter contamination on broiler carcasses of Campylobacter colonized flocks was quantified at seven sampling sites throughout the slaughter process. For this purpose, in four slaughterhouses samples were collected from twelve Campylobacter positive batches. Broilers from all visits carried high numbers of campylobacters in their caeca (≥7.9log10cfu/g). Campylobacter counts on feathers (up to 6.8log10cfu/g), positively associated with the breast skin contamination of incoming birds and carcasses after plucking, were identified as an additional source of carcass contamination. A high variability in Campylobacter carcass contamination on breast skin samples within batches and between batches in the same slaughterhouse and between slaughterhouses was observed. In slaughterhouses A, B, C and D Campylobacter counts exceeded a limit of 1000cfu/g on 50%, 56%, 78% and 11% of carcasses after chilling, respectively. This finding indicates that certain slaughterhouses are able to better control Campylobacter contamination than others. Overall, the present study focuses on the descriptive analysis of Campylobacter counts in different slaughterhouses, different batches within a slaughterhouse and within a batch at several sampling locations.

  13. Self-tuning GMV control of glucose concentration in fed-batch baker's yeast production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hitit, Zeynep Yilmazer; Boyacioglu, Havva; Ozyurt, Baran; Ertunc, Suna; Hapoglu, Hale; Akay, Bulent

    2014-04-01

    A detailed system identification procedure and self-tuning generalized minimum variance (STGMV) control of glucose concentration during the aerobic fed-batch yeast growth were realized. In order to determine the best values of the forgetting factor (λ), initial value of the covariance matrix (α), and order of the Auto-Regressive Moving Average with eXogenous (ARMAX) model (n a, n b), transient response data obtained from the real process wereutilized. Glucose flow rate was adjusted according to the STGMV control algorithm coded in Visual Basic in an online computer connected to the system. Conventional PID algorithm was also implemented for the control of the glucose concentration in aerobic fed-batch yeast cultivation. Controller performances were examined by evaluating the integrals of squared errors (ISEs) at constant and random set point profiles. Also, batch cultivation was performed, and microorganism concentration at the end of the batch run was compared with the fed-batch cultivation case. From the system identification step, the best parameter estimation was accomplished with the values λ = 0.9, α = 1,000 and n a = 3, n b = 2. Theoretical control studies show that the STGMV control system was successful at both constant and random glucose concentration set profiles. In addition, random effects given to the set point, STGMV control algorithm were performed successfully in experimental study.

  14. Stage 2 Process Performance Qualification (PPQ): a Scientific Approach to Determine the Number of PPQ Batches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pazhayattil, Ajay; Alsmeyer, Daniel; Chen, Shu; Hye, Maksuda; Ingram, Marzena; Sanghvi, Pradeep

    2016-08-01

    The approach documented in this article reviews data from earlier process validation lifecycle stages with a described statistical model to provide the "best estimate" on the number of process performance qualification (PPQ) batches that should generate sufficient information to make a scientific and risk-based decision on product robustness. This approach is based upon estimation of a statistical confidence from the current product knowledge (Stage 1), historical variability for similar products/processes (batch-to-batch), and label claim specifications such as strength. The analysis is to determine the confidence level with the measurements of the product quality attributes and to compare them with the specifications. The projected minimum number of PPQ batches required will vary depending on the product, process understanding, and attributes, which are critical input parameters for the current statistical model. This new approach considers the critical finished product CQAs (assay, dissolution, and content uniformity), primarily because assay/content uniformity and dissolution as well as strength are the components of the label claim. The key CQAs determine the number of PPQ batches. This approach will ensure that sufficient scientific data is generated to demonstrate process robustness as desired by the 2011 FDA guidance.

  15. Comparison of monometal and multimetal adsorption in Mississippi River alluvial wetland sediment: batch and column experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Dong Cheol; Yu, Kewei; DeLaune, Ronald D

    2008-12-01

    Monometal and multimetal adsorption of selected heavy metals in a sediment from a coastal Louisiana forested swamp used for wastewater treatment was studied. Results from the batch experiments show that the maximum adsorption capacities of the metals by the sediment were in the order of Pb>Hg>Cr>CdCuZn>As based on monometal adsorption isotherm, and Hg>Cr>CuCd approximately Pb>As approximately Zn based on multimetal adsorption isotherm, respectively. Batch experimental data best fit the Langmuir model rather than the Freundlich isotherms. In the column experiments, the maximum adsorption capacities of the metals were in the order of Pb>Hg>Cr>Cd>Cu>Zn>As in monometal conditions, and Hg>Cr>Pb>CuZn approximately Cd>As in multimetal conditions. The metals became more mobile in multimetal than in monometal conditions. Results from both the batch and column experiments show that competitive adsorption among metals increases the mobility of these metals. Particularly, in this study, Pb in multimetal conditions lost it adsorption capacity most significantly. In both monometal and multimetal conditions, the maximum adsorption capacity of the metals in the column experiments was higher than that in the batch experiment indicating other metal retention mechanisms rather than adsorption may be involved. Therefore, both column and batch experiments are needed for estimating retention capacities and removal efficiencies of metals in sediments.

  16. Parallel-Batch Scheduling and Transportation Coordination with Waiting Time Constraint

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hua Gong

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses a parallel-batch scheduling problem that incorporates transportation of raw materials or semifinished products before processing with waiting time constraint. The orders located at the different suppliers are transported by some vehicles to a manufacturing facility for further processing. One vehicle can load only one order in one shipment. Each order arriving at the facility must be processed in the limited waiting time. The orders are processed in batches on a parallel-batch machine, where a batch contains several orders and the processing time of the batch is the largest processing time of the orders in it. The goal is to find a schedule to minimize the sum of the total flow time and the production cost. We prove that the general problem is NP-hard in the strong sense. We also demonstrate that the problem with equal processing times on the machine is NP-hard. Furthermore, a dynamic programming algorithm in pseudopolynomial time is provided to prove its ordinarily NP-hardness. An optimal algorithm in polynomial time is presented to solve a special case with equal processing times and equal transportation times for each order.

  17. Batch process monitoring based on multiple-phase online sorting principal component analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Zhaomin; Yan, Xuefeng; Jiang, Qingchao

    2016-09-01

    Existing phase-based batch or fed-batch process monitoring strategies generally have two problems: (1) phase number, which is difficult to determine, and (2) uneven length feature of data. In this study, a multiple-phase online sorting principal component analysis modeling strategy (MPOSPCA) is proposed to monitor multiple-phase batch processes online. Based on all batches of off-line normal data, a new multiple-phase partition algorithm is proposed, where k-means and a defined average Euclidean radius are employed to determine the multiple-phase data set and phase number. Principal component analysis is then applied to build the model in each phase, and all the components are retained. In online monitoring, the Euclidean distance is used to select the monitoring model. All the components undergo online sorting through a parameter defined by Bayesian inference (BI). The first several components are retained to calculate the T(2) statistics. Finally, the respective probability indices of [Formula: see text] is obtained using BI as the moving average strategy. The feasibility and effectiveness of MPOSPCA are demonstrated through a simple numerical example and the fed-batch penicillin fermentation process.

  18. Decolouration of industrial metal-complex dyes in successive batches by active cultures of Trametes pubescens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susana Rodríguez-Couto

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The decolouration of the metal-complex dyes Bemaplex Navy M-T (150 mg/L and Bezaktiv Blue BA (150 mg/L in nine successive batches by immobilised cultures of the white-rot fungus Trametes pubescens was studied. Two different types of immobilisation supports were used: the commercial carriers Kaldnes™ K1 (synthetic supports and sunflower-seed shells (SS (natural supports. Bemaplex showed more resistance to degradation by T. pubescens cultures than Bezaktiv, especially in the K1 cultures. Thus, SS cultures led to decolouration percentages higher than 59% for Bemaplex in all the batches save for the last two and higher than 50% for Bezaktiv in all the batches except for the 2nd and 9th ones. K1 cultures showed decolouration percentages for Bemaplex higher than 42% in batches 1, 3, 4, 5 and 7 and for Bezaktiv higher than 70% in all the batches save for the last one. Dye decolouration was mainly due to enzyme action (biodegradation.

  19. Investigation of the degradation kinetics of gramineous silages in In-Sacco batch experiments; Untersuchungen zur Abbaukinetik von Grassilagen in In-Sacco-Batch Versuchen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Demmig, Claudia [Rostock Univ. (Germany). Professur fuer Abfall- und Stoffstromwirtschaft; Hoeppner, Frank; Banemann, Dirk; Nelles, Michael

    2011-07-01

    In an ''In-Sacco-Batch-Fermentation-Test'' the kinetic of the decomposition of structural substances of grassilage with and without adding of enzymes were opposed. Therefore grass was ensiled in lab scale and after 90 days of ensiling time the grass silage was fermented in an ''In-Sacco-Batch-Fermentation-Test''. In the first 10 trial days you can find a significantly higher decomposition of the structural substances NDF and ADF within the enzyme treated grass silage. The results show that enzyme mixtures accelerated the degradation of plant fibres. As a result the space-time-ratio is positive influenced, this means, substrates will be implemented faster and the hydraulic retention time in biogas plants becomes shorter. (orig.)

  20. Cryptanalysis of RSA with Special Exposed Least Significant Bits of the Private Key%私钥低比特特定泄露下的RSA密码分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王世雄; 屈龙江; 李超; 付绍静

    2015-01-01

    基于Coppersmith方法,RSA密码分析取得了许多新结果,其中包括部分私钥泄露攻击与低解密指数攻击.现实中侧信道攻击能够泄露私钥的部分比特位,而部分私钥泄露攻击正是通过泄露的这些比特位来实现对RSA密码的破解.低解密指数攻击则是在解密指数取值较小的条件下来破解RSA,Boneh和Durfee给出了至今最好的结果.针对私钥最低几位比特泄露的攻击,是一类重要的部分私钥泄露攻击,并且和低解密指数攻击紧密相关.基于Coppersmith方法在模多项式方程求小值解的应用,以及线性化模方程的技巧,本文给出了新的针对私钥最低几位比特泄露的攻击结果.其中线性化模方程的技巧,来源于Herrmann和May对于Boneh和Durfee的低解密指数攻击结果的简化证明.注意到目前针对私钥最低几位比特泄露的攻击只关注所泄露比特的位数,而本文还关注所泄露比特的取值.当所泄露比特的取值满足一定的条件时,本文的结果改进了Ernst等人的攻击结果.另外Ernst等人只考虑了加密指数与RSA模基本相等的特殊情况,本文进一步研究了加密指数小于RSA模的一般情况.

  1. Rescheduling to Minimize Total Completion Time Under a Limit Time Disruption for the Parallel Batch

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Xiao-yan; MU Yun-dong; GUO Xiao; HAO Yun

    2015-01-01

    In the rescheduling on a single machine, a set of the original jobs has already been scheduled, in order to make a given objective function is optimal. The decision maker needs to insert the new jobs into the existing schedule without excessively disrupting it. A batching machine is a machine that can handle up to some jobs simultaneously. In this paper, we consider the total completion time under a limit on the sequence disruptions for parallel batching based on rescheduling. For the parallel batching problem based on rescheduling, we research the properties of feasible schedules and optimal schedules on the total completion time under a limit on the maximum time disruptions or total time disruptions, in which the jobs are sequenced in SPT order, and give out the pseudo-polynomial time algorithms on the number of jobs and the processing time of jobs by applying the dynamic programming method.

  2. 6 Batch Injection and Slipped Beam Tune Measurements in Fermilab?s Main Injector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scott, D.J.; Capista, D.; Kourbanis, I.; Seiya, K.; Yan, M.-J.; /Fermilab

    2012-05-01

    During NOVA operations it is planned to run the Fermilab Recycler in a 12 batch slip stacking mode. In preparation for this, measurements of the tune during a six batch injection and then as the beam is decelerated by changing the RF frequency have been carried out in the Main Injector. The coherent tune shifts due to the changing beam intensity were measured and compared well with the theoretically expected tune shift. The tune shifts due to changing RF frequency, required for slip stacking, also compare well with the linear theory, although some nonlinear affects are apparent at large frequency changes. These results give us confidence that the expected tunes shifts during 12 batch slip stacking Recycler operations can be accommodated.

  3. Optimal selection of intermediate storage tank capacity in a periodic batch/semicontinuous process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karimi, I.A.; Reklaitis, G.V.

    1983-07-01

    Batch/semicontinuous chemical plants are usually designed either by assuming infinite intermediate storage or by assuming that the units themselves act as storage vessels, while the storage vessels are sized by rules of thumb or experience. In this paper, the case of an intermediate storage vessel which links one upstream batch/semicontinuous unit to one downstream batch/semicontinuous unit is analyzed. The units are assumed to operate with fixed cycle times and capacities. Expressions for determining the minimum storage tank capacity necessary to decouple the two units are derived from a mathematical model of the periodic process. Effects of the relative starting times of the two units on the required storage capacity are determined, thus suggesting the optimum process timings to minimize the same. Application of the results is illustrated by an example.

  4. Actinoplanes utahensis ZJB-08196 fed-batch fermentation at elevated osmolality for enhancing acarbose production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ya-Jun; Liu, Li-Ling; Wang, Yuan-Shan; Xue, Ya-Ping; Zheng, Yu-Guo; Shen, Yin-Chu

    2012-01-01

    Acarbose, a potent α-glucosidase inhibitor, is as an oral anti-diabetic drug for treatment of the type two, noninsulin-dependent diabetes. Actinoplanes utahensis ZJB-08196, an osmosis-resistant actinomycete, had a broad osmolality optimum between 309 mOsm kg(-1) and 719 mOsm kg(-1). Utilizing this unique feature, an fed-batch culture process under preferential osmolality was constructed through intermittently feeding broths with feed medium consisting of 14.0 g l(-1) maltose, 6.0 g l(-1) glucose and 9.0 g l(-1) soybean meal, at 48 h, 72 h, 96 h and 120 h. This intermittent fed-batch culture produced a peak acarbose titer of 4878 mg l(-1), increased by 15.9% over the batch culture.

  5. Functional Unfold Principal Component Regression Methodology for Analysis of Industrial Batch Process Data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mears, Lisa; Nørregaard, Rasmus; Sin, Gürkan;

    2016-01-01

    process operating at Novozymes A/S. Following the FUPCR methodology, the final product concentration could be predicted with an average prediction error of 7.4%. Multiple iterations of preprocessing were applied by implementing the methodology to identify the best data handling methods for the model....... It is shown that application of functional data analysis and the choice of variance scaling method have the greatest impact on the prediction accuracy. Considering the vast amount of batch process data continuously generated in industry, this methodology can potentially contribute as a tool to identify......This work proposes a methodology utilizing functional unfold principal component regression (FUPCR), for application to industrial batch process data as a process modeling and optimization tool. The methodology is applied to an industrial fermentation dataset, containing 30 batches of a production...

  6. Neuro-estimator based GMC control of a batch reactive distillation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prakash, K J Jithin; Patle, Dipesh S; Jana, Amiya K

    2011-07-01

    In this paper, an artificial neural network (ANN)-based nonlinear control algorithm is proposed for a simulated batch reactive distillation (RD) column. In the homogeneously catalyzed reactive process, an esterification reaction takes place for the production of ethyl acetate. The fundamental model has been derived incorporating the reaction term in the model structure of the nonreactive distillation process. The process operation is simulated at the startup phase under total reflux conditions. The open-loop process dynamics is also addressed running the batch process at the production phase under partial reflux conditions. In this study, a neuro-estimator based generic model controller (GMC), which consists of an ANN-based state predictor and the GMC law, has been synthesized. Finally, this proposed control law has been tested on the representative batch reactive distillation comparing with a gain-scheduled proportional integral (GSPI) controller and with its ideal performance (ideal GMC).

  7. Operation parameters of a small scale batch distillation column for hydrous ethanol fuel (HEF production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. D. Mayer

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Batch distillation applied to hydrous ethanol fuel (HEF production on a small scale still requires operating conditions that ensure optimal top product quality and productivity. The aim of this study is to statistically validate a batch still through the employment of response surface methodology (RSM. Operational and productivity parameters were formulated in order to guarantee quality compliance with the legal requirements for the top product concentration, besides providing support information to control the production of HEF on a small scale. The reboiler control and dephlegmator temperatures maintained within the range of 97.5 to 99.5°C and 60 to 70°C, respectively, combined with a variable reflux ratio, was satisfactory in obtaining a top product concentration, in accordance with legal regulations, as well as high productivity. The results of this study may contribute to the assembly of a simple and low-cost batch distillation control system.

  8. Fuzzy logic feedback control for fed-batch enzymatic hydrolysis of lignocellulosic biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tai, Chao; Voltan, Diego S; Keshwani, Deepak R; Meyer, George E; Kuhar, Pankaj S

    2016-06-01

    A fuzzy logic feedback control system was developed for process monitoring and feeding control in fed-batch enzymatic hydrolysis of a lignocellulosic biomass, dilute acid-pretreated corn stover. Digested glucose from hydrolysis reaction was assigned as input while doser feeding time and speed of pretreated biomass were responses from fuzzy logic control system. Membership functions for these three variables and rule-base were created based on batch hydrolysis data. The system response was first tested in LabVIEW environment then the performance was evaluated through real-time hydrolysis reaction. The feeding operations were determined timely by fuzzy logic control system and efficient responses were shown to plateau phases during hydrolysis. Feeding of proper amount of cellulose and maintaining solids content was well balanced. Fuzzy logic proved to be a robust and effective online feeding control tool for fed-batch enzymatic hydrolysis.

  9. Design of batch operations: Systematic methodology for generation and analysis of sustainable alternatives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carvalho, Ana; Matos, Henrique A.; Gani, Rafiqul

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to present a new methodology that is able to generate, screen and identify sustainable alternatives to continuous chemical processes as well as processes operating in the batch mode. The methodology generates the sustainable (design) alternatives by locating...... processes are described, highlighting the main differences between them. Through two case studies, the application of the methodology, to obtain sustainable design alternatives for batch plants, is highlighted....... the operational, environmental, economical and safety related problems inherent in the process (batch or continuous). Alternatives that are more sustainable, compared to a reference, are generated and evaluated by addressing one or more of the identified problems. A decomposition technique as well as a set...

  10. Waste heat recovery at the glass industry with the intervention of batch and cullet preheating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dolianitis Ioannis

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A promising option to reduce the specific energy consumption and CO2 emissions at a conventional natural gas fired container glass furnace deals with the advanced utilization of the exhaust gases downstream the air regenerators by means of batch and cullet preheating. A 3-dimensional computational model that simulates this process using mass and heat transfer equations inside a preheater has been developed. A case study for an efficient small-sized container glass furnace is presented dealing with the investigation of the impact of different operating and design configurations on specific energy consumption, CO2 emissions, flue gas energy recovery, batch temperature and preheater efficiency. In specific, the effect of various parameters is studied, including the preheater’s dimensions, flue gas temperature, batch moisture content, glass pull, combustion air excess and cullet fraction. Expected energy savings margin is estimated to 12-15%.

  11. Fed-batch bioreactor process with recombinant Saccharomyces cerevisiae growing on cheese whey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Rech

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain W303 was transformed with two yeast integrative plasmids containing Kluyveromyces lactis LAC4 and LAC12 genes that codify beta-galactosidase and lactose permease respectively. The BLR030 recombinant strain was selected due to its growth and beta-galactosidase production capacity. Different culture media based on deproteinized cheese whey (DCW were tested and the best composition (containing DCW, supplemented with yeast extract 1 %, and peptone 3 % (w/v was chosen for bioreactor experiments. Batch, and fed-batch cultures with linear ascending feeding for 25 (FB25, 35 (FB35, and 50 (FB50 hours, were performed. FB35 and FB50 produced the highest beta-galactosidase specific activities (around 1,800 U/g cells, and also the best productivities (180 U/L.h. Results show the potential use of fed-batch cultures of recombinant S. cerevisiae on industrial applications using supplemented whey as substrate.

  12. Optimization of cyclosporin A production by Beauveria nivea in continuous fed-batch fermentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong Huijun

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available To develop the effective control method for fed-batch culture of cyclosporin A production, we chose fructose, L-valine and (NH42HPO4 as feeding nutrients and compared their productivities in relation to different concentrations. The feeding rate of three kinds of feeding materials was controlled to maintain the suitable residual concentration. The fed-batch fermentation results indicated that the optimal concentrations of fructose, L-valine and (NH42HPO4 were about 20 g/L, 0.5 g/L and 0.6 g/L for cyclosporin A production, respectively. The cultivation of Beauveria nivea could produce cyclosporin A up to 6.2 g/L for 240 hrs through a continuous feeding-rate-controlled-batch process under the optimal feeding conditions.

  13. A high-yielding, generic fed-batch process for recombinant antibody production of GS-engineered cell lines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fan, Li; Zhao, Liang; Sun, Yating;

    2009-01-01

    An animal component-free and chemically defined fed-batch process for GS-engineered cell lines producing recombinant antibodies has been developed. The fed-batch process relied on supplying sufficient nutrients to match their consumption, simultaneously minimizing the accumulation of byproducts....... This generic and high-yielding fed-batch process would shorten development time, and ensure process stability, thereby facilitating the manufacture of therapeutic antibodies by GS-engineered cell lines....

  14. Batch effect confounding leads to strong bias in performance estimates obtained by cross-validation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charlotte Soneson

    Full Text Available With the large amount of biological data that is currently publicly available, many investigators combine multiple data sets to increase the sample size and potentially also the power of their analyses. However, technical differences ("batch effects" as well as differences in sample composition between the data sets may significantly affect the ability to draw generalizable conclusions from such studies.The current study focuses on the construction of classifiers, and the use of cross-validation to estimate their performance. In particular, we investigate the impact of batch effects and differences in sample composition between batches on the accuracy of the classification performance estimate obtained via cross-validation. The focus on estimation bias is a main difference compared to previous studies, which have mostly focused on the predictive performance and how it relates to the presence of batch effects.We work on simulated data sets. To have realistic intensity distributions, we use real gene expression data as the basis for our simulation. Random samples from this expression matrix are selected and assigned to group 1 (e.g., 'control' or group 2 (e.g., 'treated'. We introduce batch effects and select some features to be differentially expressed between the two groups. We consider several scenarios for our study, most importantly different levels of confounding between groups and batch effects.We focus on well-known classifiers: logistic regression, Support Vector Machines (SVM, k-nearest neighbors (kNN and Random Forests (RF. Feature selection is performed with the Wilcoxon test or the lasso. Parameter tuning and feature selection, as well as the estimation of the prediction performance of each classifier, is performed within a nested cross-validation scheme. The estimated classification performance is then compared to what is obtained when applying the classifier to independent data.

  15. Study of a sequencing batch reactor performance in soft drink wastewater treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Javier Cuba Terán

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available A sequencing batch aerobic reactor in pilot scale was constructed and operated with intermittent aeration in Wastewater Treatment Lab of Faculdade de Ciências e Tecnologia de Unesp at Presidente Prudente city. Research was conducted in order to improve reactor’s performance in organic matter and nitrogen removal by means of the application of different aeration times. In 12 and 14 hours long batch tests, with 6 and 8 hours of aeration, more than 96% of organic matter was removed by the third hour in both cases, in the other hand, nitrification showed 50 and 55% of removal at the end of every cycle. Tough showing nitrate removal, denitrification requires more research to be done in order to obtain more accurate data related with best cycle time for both pollutants removal.Key-words: sequencing batchs, aerobic treatment, industrial wastewater.A sequencing batch aerobic reactor in pilot scale was constructed and operated with intermittent aeration in Wastewater Treatment Lab of Faculdade de Ciências e Tecnologia de Unesp at Presidente Prudente city. Research was conducted in order to improve reactor’s performance in organic matter and nitrogen removal by means of the application of different aeration times. In 12 and 14 hours long batch tests, with 6 and 8 hours of aeration, more than 96% of organic matter was removed by the third hour in both cases, in the other hand, nitrification showed 50 and 55% of removal at the end of every cycle. Tough showing nitrate removal, denitrification requires more research to be done in order to obtain more accurate data related with best cycle time for both pollutants removal.Key-words: sequencing batchs, aerobic treatment, industrial wastewater.

  16. SU-E-T-386: Evaluation of EBT3 Film Response in Different Batches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Escarcia, F [Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Mexico Df, DF (Mexico); Herrera, J; Garcia, O [Instituto Nacional de Neurologia y Neurocirugia, Mexico Df, DF (Mexico)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To investigate the uniformity of film response of EBT3 film of two different film batches. It has been reported that the response of the EBT film family is not homogenous between film batches. The later may have an impact in the dosimetry of small radiotherapy beams. Methods: A solid water phantom was used for dosimetric measurements. EBT3 film irradiation was performed with a 6 MV photon beam at 5 cm depth with a SAD of 100 cm. All irradiations were performed perpendicularly to the film plane covering the dose range 1 to 10 Gy. Three square field sizes were used to analyze the film response energy dependence: 10, 5 and 1 cm{sup 2}. Two batches of film EBT3 were used #A03181302 (B1) and #03031403 (B2). Film read out was carrying out with an Epson Perfection V750-Pro flatbed scanner in transmission mode with a spatial resolution of 72 dpi, with all post-processing and colour management options turned off, using 48 bits RGB colour depth. The scans were analyzed with the red channel. Results: The results shown that there were differences between the film response for each batch. The differences between batches for 1 Gy were 2%, 6% and 12% for 10, 5 and 1 cm2 square field sizes, respectively. The differences found for 10 Gy were 13%, 14% and 13% for 10, 5 and 1 cm{sup 2} square field sizes, respectively. It can be observed that the dependence with field size dismissed for higher doses. The later may be due to film response saturation at 10 Gy. Conclusion: The EBT3 film -as its predecessors-, it suffer for inter-batch variability in the film response. Further research is required to assess the possible impact in small beam dosimetry.

  17. Batching alternatives for Phase I retrieval wastes to be processed in WRAP Module 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mayancsik, B.A. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States)

    1994-10-13

    During the next two decades, the transuranic (TRU) waste now stored in the 200 Area burial trenches and storage buildings is to be retrieved, processed in the Waste Receiving and Processing (WRAP) Module 1 facility, and shipped to a final disposal facility. The purpose of this document is to identify the criteria that can be used to batch suspect TRU waste, currently in retrievable storage, for processing through the WRAP Module 1 facility. These criteria are then used to generate a batch plan for Phase 1 Retrieval operations, which will retrieve the waste located in Trench 4C-04 of the 200 West Area burial ground. The reasons for batching wastes for processing in WRAP Module 1 include reducing the exposure of workers and the environment to hazardous material and ionizing radiation; maximizing the efficiency of the retrieval, processing, and disposal processes by reducing costs, time, and space throughout the process; reducing analytical sampling and analysis; and reducing the amount of cleanup and decontamination between process runs. The criteria selected for batching the drums of retrieved waste entering WRAP Module 1 are based on the available records for the wastes sent to storage as well as knowledge of the processes that generated these wastes. The batching criteria identified in this document include the following: waste generator; type of process used to generate or package the waste; physical waste form; content of hazardous/dangerous chemicals in the waste; radiochemical type and quantity of waste; drum weight; and special waste types. These criteria were applied to the waste drums currently stored in Trench 4C-04. At least one batching scheme is shown for each of the criteria listed above.

  18. A multilevel model to address batch effects in copy number estimation using SNP arrays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scharpf, Robert B; Ruczinski, Ingo; Carvalho, Benilton; Doan, Betty; Chakravarti, Aravinda; Irizarry, Rafael A

    2011-01-01

    Submicroscopic changes in chromosomal DNA copy number dosage are common and have been implicated in many heritable diseases and cancers. Recent high-throughput technologies have a resolution that permits the detection of segmental changes in DNA copy number that span thousands of base pairs in the genome. Genomewide association studies (GWAS) may simultaneously screen for copy number phenotype and single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) phenotype associations as part of the analytic strategy. However, genomewide array analyses are particularly susceptible to batch effects as the logistics of preparing DNA and processing thousands of arrays often involves multiple laboratories and technicians, or changes over calendar time to the reagents and laboratory equipment. Failure to adjust for batch effects can lead to incorrect inference and requires inefficient post hoc quality control procedures to exclude regions that are associated with batch. Our work extends previous model-based approaches for copy number estimation by explicitly modeling batch and using shrinkage to improve locus-specific estimates of copy number uncertainty. Key features of this approach include the use of biallelic genotype calls from experimental data to estimate batch-specific and locus-specific parameters of background and signal without the requirement of training data. We illustrate these ideas using a study of bipolar disease and a study of chromosome 21 trisomy. The former has batch effects that dominate much of the observed variation in the quantile-normalized intensities, while the latter illustrates the robustness of our approach to a data set in which approximately 27% of the samples have altered copy number. Locus-specific estimates of copy number can be plotted on the copy number scale to investigate mosaicism and guide the choice of appropriate downstream approaches for smoothing the copy number as a function of physical position. The software is open source and implemented in the R

  19. Fed-batch cultivation of Desmodesmus sp. in anaerobic digestion wastewater for improved nutrient removal and biodiesel production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Fang; Zhou, Yuguang; Pang, Aiping; Ning, Li; Rodgers, Kibet; Liu, Ying; Dong, Renjie

    2015-05-01

    Desmodesmus sp. was used in anaerobically digested wastewater (ADW) for nutrients removal and the biodiesel production was measured and compared using fed-batch cultivation was investigated and compared with batch cultivation. The Desmodesmus sp. was able to remove 236.143, 268.238 and 6.427 mg/L of TN, NH4-N and PO4-P respectively after 40 d of fed-batch cultivation, while in batch cultivation the quantities of TN, NH4-N and PO4-P removed were 33.331, 37.227 and 1.323 mg/L. Biomass production of Desmodesmus sp. was also enhanced in fed-batch cultivation, when ADW loading was carried out every 2 days; the biomass concentration peaked at 1.039 g/L, which was three times higher than that obtained in batch cultivation (0.385 g/L). The highest lipid production (261.8 mg/L) was also recorded in fed-batch cultivation as compared to batch cultivation (83.3 mg/L). Fed-batch cultivation of Desmodesmus sp. could provide effective control of nutrients limitation and/or ammonia inhibition on microalgae cultivation.

  20. Biodiesel and FAME synthesis assisted by microwaves: Homogeneous batch and flow processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. Hernando; P. Leton; M.P. Matia; J.L. Novella; J. Alvarez-Builla [Universidad de Alcala, Madrid (Spain). Planta Piloto de Quimica Fina

    2007-07-15

    Fatty acids methyl esters (FAME) have been prepared under microwave irradiation, using homogeneous catalysis, either in batch or in a flow system. The quality of the biodiesel obtained has been confirmed by GC analysis of the isolated product. While the initial experiments have been performed in a small scale laboratory batch reactor, the best experiment has been straightforward converted into a stop-flow process, by the use of a microwave flow system. Compared with conventional heating methods, the process using microwaves irradiation proved to be a faster method for alcoholysis of triglycerides with methanol, leading to high yields of FAME. Short communication. 19 refs., 2 tabs.

  1. Batch Mode Reinforcement Learning based on the Synthesis of Artificial Trajectories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonteneau, Raphael; Murphy, Susan A; Wehenkel, Louis; Ernst, Damien

    2013-09-01

    In this paper, we consider the batch mode reinforcement learning setting, where the central problem is to learn from a sample of trajectories a policy that satisfies or optimizes a performance criterion. We focus on the continuous state space case for which usual resolution schemes rely on function approximators either to represent the underlying control problem or to represent its value function. As an alternative to the use of function approximators, we rely on the synthesis of "artificial trajectories" from the given sample of trajectories, and show that this idea opens new avenues for designing and analyzing algorithms for batch mode reinforcement learning.

  2. Results of initial analyses of the salt (macro) batch 9 tank 21H qualification samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peters, T. B. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2015-10-01

    Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) analyzed samples from Tank 21H in support of qualification of Interim Salt Disposition Project (ISDP) Salt (Macro) Batch 9 for processing through the Actinide Removal Process (ARP) and the Modular Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction Unit (MCU). This document reports the initial results of the analyses of samples of Tank 21H. Analysis of the Tank 21H Salt (Macro) Batch 9 composite sample indicates that the material does not display any unusual characteristics or observations, such as floating solids, the presence of large amount of solids, or unusual colors. Further results on the chemistry and other tests will be issued in the future.

  3. Results Of Initial Analyses Of The Salt (Macro) Batch 9 Tank 21H Qualification Samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peters, T. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2015-10-08

    Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) analyzed samples from Tank 21H in support of qualification of Interim Salt Disposition Project (ISDP) Salt (Macro) Batch 9 for processing through the Actinide Removal Process (ARP) and the Modular Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction Unit (MCU). This document reports the initial results of the analyses of samples of Tank 21H. Analysis of the Tank 21H Salt (Macro) Batch 9 composite sample indicates that the material does not display any unusual characteristics. Further results on the chemistry and other tests will be issued in the future.

  4. A Combination of Varying Column Pressure and Total Reflux—Total Efflux in Batch Distillation Operation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANGWeijiang; QUHongmei; 等

    2002-01-01

    A novel operation of batch distillation-combination of varying colum pressure and total reflux-total efflux is studied experimentally. In the operation, the product is accumulated at the top of the column under total reflux and then drained off completely, and the column pressure is varying in the whole process. This process has been industrialized successfully with large profits. The conventional mode of batch distillation is improved by this method effectively: the separation eficiency and the yield of product are increased greatly, the operation time is shortened and the production cost is cut down. Moreover, the amount of condensation water is decreased and the over-high reboiler temperature is lowered.

  5. Ethanol production by anaerobic thermophilic bacteria: kinetics in fed-batch cultures of Clostridium thermohydrosulfuricum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toukourou, F.; Donaduzzi, L.; Miclo, A.; Germain, P. (Lab. of Industrial Microbiology, ENSAIA-INPL, Vandoeuvre les Nancy (FR))

    1989-06-01

    Fed-batch fermentations of Clostridium thermohydrosulfuricum are carried out using a medium rich in nitrogen source and with glucose as growth limiting factor. The ethanol/lactate yield increases as the specific growth rate and specific rate of consumption of glucose diminish. Under the experimental conditions chosen here this yield attained 3.66 moles. mole/sup -1/ with a maximal ethanol concentration of 12 g.1/sup -1/. In batch fermentation, the maximum concentration of ethanol did not exceed 8 g.1/sup -1/ independent of the concentration in glucose or nitrogen source applied. (author).

  6. An industrial batch dryer simulation tool based on the concept of the characteristic drying curve

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kærn, Martin Ryhl; Elmegaard, Brian; Schneider, P.

    2013-01-01

    In this study an industrial batch dryer simulation tool is presented. The numerical model behind the scene is developed using the simulation software Engineering Equation Solver (EES) and compared to measurements from a batch dryer facility in Denmark producing insulation boards. In the constant...... content in the material to be invariant in the airflow direction. In the falling-rate period, the concept of the Characteristic Drying Curve (CDC) is used as proposed by Langrish et al. (1991), but modified to account for a possible end-drying rate. Using the CDC both hygroscopic and non...

  7. A comparison of batch and single wafer high dose arsenic ion implantation techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Irwin, R.B.; Filo, A.J.; Kannan, V.C.; Feygenson, A.; Prematta, R.J.

    1989-04-01

    High dose, low energy (4x10/sup 15/ cm/sup -2/ at 15 keV) arsenic ion implantation into silicon was performed in batch and single wafer mode using medium and high current ion implanters. An investigation of implanted and annealed samples by Rutherford backscattering (RBS), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), thermal wave technique, and sheet resistance mapping showed little to no difference of arsenic profiles and residual damage between batch and single wafer implantation conditions when the sample temperature during implantation was kept below 120/sup 0/C. (orig.).

  8. A comparison of batch and single wafer high dose arsenic ion implantation techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irwin, R. B.; Filo, A. J.; Kannan, V. C.; Feygenson, A.; Prematta, R. J.

    1989-04-01

    High dose, low energy (4×10 15 cm -2 at 15 keV) arsenic ion implantation into silicon was performed in batch and single wafer mode using medium and high current ion implanters. An investigation of implanted and annealed samples by Rutherford backscattering (RBS), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), thermal wave technique, and sheet resistance mapping showed little to no difference of arsenic profiles and residual damage between batch and single wafer implantation conditions when the sample temperature during implantation was kept below 120° C.

  9. Sensor combination and chemometric variable selection for online monitoring of Streptomyces coelicolor fed-batch cultivations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ödman, Peter; Johansen, C.L.; Olsson, L.

    2010-01-01

    Fed-batch cultivations of Streptomyces coelicolor, producing the antibiotic actinorhodin, were monitored online by multiwavelength fluorescence spectroscopy and off-gas analysis. Partial least squares (PLS), locally weighted regression, and multilinear PLS (N-PLS) models were built for prediction...

  10. Comparison of normalization algorithms for cross-batch color segmentation of histopathological images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Ryan A; Kothari, Sonal; Wang, May D

    2014-01-01

    Automated processing of digital histopathology slides has the potential to streamline patient care and provide new tools for cancer classification and grading. Before automatic analysis is possible, quality control procedures are applied to ensure that each image can be read consistently. One important quality control step is color normalization of the slide image, which adjusts for color variances (batch-effects) caused by differences in stain preparation and image acquisition equipment. Color batch-effects affect color-based features and reduce the performance of supervised color segmentation algorithms on images acquired separately. To identify an optimal normalization technique for histopathological color segmentation applications, five color normalization algorithms were compared in this study using 204 images from four image batches. Among the normalization methods, two global color normalization methods normalized colors from all stain simultaneously and three stain color normalization methods normalized colors from individual stains extracted using color deconvolution. Stain color normalization methods performed significantly better than global color normalization methods in 11 of 12 cross-batch experiments (pnormalization method using k-means clustering was found to be the best choice because of high stain segmentation accuracy and low computational complexity.

  11. Batch distillation column low-order models for quality program control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Betlem, B.H.L.

    2000-01-01

    For batch distillation, the dynamic composition behaviour can be described by the dominant time constant and the bottom exhaustion. Its magnitude is determined by the change of the composition distribution and is maximal when the inflection point of the molar fraction profile is located in the middl

  12. Development of fed-batch profiles for efficient biosynthesis of catechol-O-methyltransferase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.M. Espírito Santo

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT, EC 2.1.1.6 plays a crucial role in dopamine metabolism which has intimately linked this enzyme to some neurodegenerative diseases, such as Parkinson's disease. In recent years, in the attempt of developing new therapeutic strategies for Parkinson's disease, there has been a growing interest in the search for effective COMT inhibitors. In order to do so, large amounts of COMT in an active form are needed, and the best way to achieve this is by up-scaling its production through biotechnological processes. In this work, a fed-batch process for the biosynthesis of the soluble isoform of COMT in Escherichia coli is proposed. This final process was selected through the evaluation of the effect of different dissolved oxygen concentrations, carbon and nitrogen source concentrations and feeding profiles on enzymatic production and cell viability, while controlling various parameters (pH, temperature, starting time of the feeding and induction phases and carbon source concentration during the process. After several batch and fed-batch experiments, a final specific COMT activity of 442.34 nmol/h/mg with approximately 80% of viable cells at the end of the fermentation were achieved. Overall, the results described herein provide a great improvement on hSCOMT production in recombinant bacteria and provide a new and viable option for the use of a fed-batch fermentation with a constant feeding profile to the large scale production of this enzyme.

  13. Sensitivity Analyses of Site Selection for a Concrete Batch Plant at the Savannah River Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harris, S.P.

    2001-07-10

    A site selection study was conducted to evaluate locations for an onsite concrete batch plant to support the construction of the proposed surplus plutonium disposition facilities at the Savannah River site. Presented in this report is a sensitivity analysis that demonstrates the robustness of the site evaluations.

  14. Dynamic Job Assignment Heuristics For Multi-server Batch Operations : A Cost-based Approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zee, D.J. van der; Harten, A. van; Schuur, P.C.

    1996-01-01

    In many industries production facilities are used which process products in a batch-wise manner. Guided by research in aircraft industry, where the process of hardening synthetic aircraft parts was studied, we evaluate a new control strategy for these type of systems. Given the availability of infor

  15. The economic order decision with continuous dynamic pricing and batch supply

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Berg, A.H.J.; Herings, P.J.J.; Peters, H.J.M.

    2014-01-01

    We study an infinite horizon model, where a seller orders his product in batches of fixed size. A sales strategy determines both the order moments and the sales path between these moments. Under some natural conditions on the seller’s revenue function, the strategy that maximizes the seller’s time-d

  16. Effects of plants and essential oils on ruminal in vitro batch culture methane production and fermentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    In this study, plants (14) and essential oils (EO; 88) from plants that are naturalized to, or can be successfully grown in North America were evaluated in a batch culture in vitro screening experiments with ruminal fluid as potential anti-methanogenic additives for ruminant diets. Essential oils we...

  17. Observation and mathematical description of the acceleration phenomenon in batch respirograms associated with ammonium oxidation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guisasola, A.; Chandran, K.; Smets, Barth F.;

    2006-01-01

    Two-step nitrification models are generally calibrated using short-term respirometric batch experiments. Important discrepancies appear between model predictions and experimental observations just after the pulse addition since a fast transient in the OUR profile is experimentally observed. Accel...

  18. Experimental Verification of Dynamic Operation of Continuous and Multivessel Batch Distillation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wittgens, Bernd

    1999-07-01

    This thesis presents a rigorous model based on first principles for dynamic simulation of the composition dynamics of a staged high-purity continuous distillation columns and experiments performed to verify it. The thesis also demonstrates the importance of tray hydraulics to obtain good agreement between simulation and experiment and derives analytic expressions for dynamic time constants for use in simplified and vapour dynamics. A newly developed multivessel batch distillation column consisting of a reboiler, intermediate vessels and a condenser vessel provides a generalization of previously proposed batch distillation schemes. The total reflux operation of this column was presented previously and the present thesis proposes a simple feedback control strategy for its operation based on temperature measurements. The feasibility of this strategy is demonstrated by simulations and verified by laboratory experiments. It is concluded that the multivessel column can be easily operated with simple temperature controllers, where the holdups are only controlled indirectly. For a given set of temperature setpoints, the final product compositions are independent of the initial feed composition. When the multivessel batch distillation column is compared to a conventional batch column, both operated under feedback control, it is found that the energy required to separate a multicomponent mixture into highly pure products is much less for the multivessel system. This system is also the simplest one to operate.

  19. Variability of Biological Degradation of Aromatic Hydrocarbons in an Aerobic Aquifer Determined by Laboratory Batch Experiments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Per Henning; Christensen, Thomas Højlund

    1994-01-01

    The biological aerobic degradation of 7 aromatic hydrocarbons (benzene, toluene, o-xylene, p-dichlorobenzene, o-dichlorobenzene, naphthalene and biphenyl) was studied for 149 days in replicate laboratory batch experiments with groundwater and sediment from 8 localities representing a 15 m × 30 m...

  20. The Effects of Batch Reactor Extraction on Antioxidant Activity from Scurulla atropurpurea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siti I. Rahmawati

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: The main active compounds of benalu teh’s include alkaloids and flavonoids, therefore antioxidant of it has big potential to develop. In the context of extraction, the traditional (boiling in the water until one-third remain extraction require a long extraction time and result in low yields of extraction also antioxidant activities. Approach: Batch reactor is extraction at high temperature under applied pressure to keep the solvent under liquid phase, by this technology we hope to obtain better results. Optimum extraction conditions of benalu teh need to be discovered to obtain the antioxidant inside it. Benalu teh was extracted using traditional and batch reactor with different solvents (water, 30, 50, 70 and 99% ethanol at different temperatures (40-180°C for different time periods (10-20 min under additional pressure 0.2 MPa. Results: The best extraction condition by batch reactor extraction was 30% ethanol solvent at temperature 100°C for 10 min. Conclusion: Batch reactor extraction gave a better result than traditional extraction on extract yield, radical scavenging activities and total phenolic compound compared with the traditional extraction.

  1. Psychrophilic anaerobic digestion of swine manure slurry in sequencing batch reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Masse, D.I. [Agriculture Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada). Food Research Branch; Droste, R.L. [Ottawa Univ., ON (Canada). Dept. of Civil Engineering

    1993-12-31

    This work presents preliminary results of an ongoing laboratory study to evaluate the feasibility of psychrophilic anaerobic digestion in sequencing batch reactors (SBR) for stabilizing, deodorizing and adding value to swine manure. Preliminary results show that the process is feasible. (author). 14 refs., 7 tabs.

  2. The Removal of Uranium onto Nanoscale Zero-Valent Iron Particles in Anoxic Batch Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard A. Crane

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The removal of uranium (U onto nanoscale zero-valent iron particles has been studied for uranium-bearing mine water and synthetic uranyl solutions in the presence and absence of dissolved oxygen. The work has been conducted in order to investigate the differential nanoparticle corrosion behaviour and associated mechanisms of U removal behaviour in conditions representative of near-surface and deep groundwater systems. Batch systems were analysed over a 28-day reaction period during which the liquid and nanoparticulate solids were periodically analysed to determine chemical evolution of the solutions and particulates. Analysis of aqueous samples using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry recorded near-total U removal after 1 hour of reaction in all systems studied. However, in the latter stages of the reaction (after 48 hours, significant rerelease of uranium was recorded for the mine water batch system with dissolved O2 present. In contrast, less than 2% uranium rerelease was recorded for the anoxic batch system. Concurrent analysis of extracted nanoparticle solids using X-ray diffraction recorded significantly slower corrosion of the nanoparticles in the anoxic batch system, with residual metallic iron maintained until after 28 days of reaction compared to only 7 days of reaction in systems with dissolved O2 present. Results provide clear evidence that the corrosion lifespan and associated U6+ removal efficacy of nanoscale zero-valent iron replace enhanced in the absence of dissolved oxygen.

  3. 40 CFR 63.491 - Batch front-end process vents-recordkeeping requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...)(2). (3) When using a flare to comply with § 63.487(a)(1): (i) The flare design (i.e., steam-assisted... process vents and § 63.490(e) for aggregate batch vent streams; (ii) For a boiler or process heater, a description of the location at which the vent stream is introduced into the boiler or process heater;...

  4. Real-World Experimentation Comparing Time-Sharing and Batch Processing in Teaching Computer Science,

    Science.gov (United States)

    effectiveness of time-sharing and batch processing in teaching computer science . The experimental design was centered on direct, ’real world’ comparison...ALGOL). The experimental sample involved all introductory computer science courses with a total population of 415 cadets. The results generally

  5. Recursive Gaussian Process Regression Model for Adaptive Quality Monitoring in Batch Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Le Zhou

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In chemical batch processes with slow responses and a long duration, it is time-consuming and expensive to obtain sufficient normal data for statistical analysis. With the persistent accumulation of the newly evolving data, the modelling becomes adequate gradually and the subsequent batches will change slightly owing to the slow time-varying behavior. To efficiently make use of the small amount of initial data and the newly evolving data sets, an adaptive monitoring scheme based on the recursive Gaussian process (RGP model is designed in this paper. Based on the initial data, a Gaussian process model and the corresponding SPE statistic are constructed at first. When the new batches of data are included, a strategy based on the RGP model is used to choose the proper data for model updating. The performance of the proposed method is finally demonstrated by a penicillin fermentation batch process and the result indicates that the proposed monitoring scheme is effective for adaptive modelling and online monitoring.

  6. Determining The Optimal Order Picking Batch Size In Single Aisle Warehouses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T. Le-Duc (Tho); M.B.M. de Koster (René)

    2002-01-01

    textabstractThis work aims at investigating the influence of picking batch size to average time in system of orders in a one-aisle warehouse under the assumption that order arrivals follow a Poisson process and items are uniformly distributed over the aisle's length. We model this problem as an M

  7. Cold Pad-Batch dyeing method for cotton fabric dyeing with reactive dyes using ultrasonic energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khatri, Zeeshan; Memon, Muhammad Hanif; Khatri, Awais; Tanwari, Anwaruddin

    2011-11-01

    Reactive dyes are vastly used in dyeing and printing of cotton fibre. These dyes have a distinctive reactive nature due to active groups which form covalent bonds with -OH groups of cotton through substitution and/or addition mechanism. Among many methods used for dyeing cotton with reactive dyes, the Cold Pad Batch (CPB) method is relatively more environment friendly due to high dye fixation and non requirement of thermal energy. The dyed fabric production rate is low due to requirement of at least twelve hours batching time for dye fixation. The proposed CPB method for dyeing cotton involves ultrasonic energy resulting into a one third decrease in batching time. The dyeing of cotton fibre was carried out with CI reactive red 195 and CI reactive black 5 by conventional and ultrasonic (US) method. The study showed that the use of ultrasonic energy not only shortens the batching time but the alkalis concentrations can considerably be reduced. In this case, the colour strength (K/S) and dye fixation (%F) also enhances without any adverse effect on colour fastness of the dyed fabric. The appearance of dyed fibre surface using scanning electron microscope (SEM) showed relative straightening of fibre convolutions and significant swelling of the fibre upon ultrasonic application. The total colour difference values ΔE (CMC) for the proposed method, were found within close proximity to the conventionally dyed sample.

  8. Modelling and pathway identification involving the transport mechanism of a complex metabolic system in batch culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Jinlong; Zhang, Xu; Zhu, Xi; Feng, Enmin; Yin, Hongchao; Xiu, Zhilong

    2014-06-01

    The bio-dissimilation of glycerol to 1,3-propanediol (1,3-PD) by Klebsiella pneumoniae (K. pneumoniae) can be characterized by a complex metabolic system of interactions among biochemical fluxes, metabolic compounds, key enzymes and genetic regulation. In this paper, in consideration of the fact that the transport ways of 1,3-PD and glycerol with different weights across cell membrane are still unclear in batch culture, we consider 121 possible metabolic pathways and establish a novel mathematical model which is represented by a complex metabolic system. Taking into account the difficulty in accurately measuring the concentration of intracellular substances and the absence of equilibrium point for the metabolic system of batch culture, the novel approach used here is to define quantitatively biological robustness of the intracellular substance concentrations for the overall process of batch culture. To determine the most possible metabolic pathway, we take the defined biological robustness as cost function and establish an identification model, in which 1452 system parameters and 484 pathway parameters are involved. Simultaneously, the identification model is subject to the metabolic system, continuous state constraints and parameter constraints. As such, solving the identification model by a serial program is a very complicated task. We propose a parallel migration particle swarm optimization algorithm (MPSO) capable of solving the identification model in conjunction with the constraint transcription and smoothing approximation techniques. Numerical results show that the most possible metabolic pathway and the corresponding metabolic system can reasonably describe the process of batch culture.

  9. Integration of Generic Multi-dimensional Model and Operational Policies for Batch Cooling Crystallization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abdul Samad, Noor Asma Fazli; Singh, Ravendra; Sin, Gürkan

    2011-01-01

    A generic multi-dimensional modeling framework for studying batch cooling crystallization processes under generated operational policies is presented. The generic nature of the modeling allows the study of a wide range of chemical systems under different operational scenarios, enabling thereby, t...

  10. Batch Metadata Editing - Dspace 1.6: a workshop/tutorial to inform and build skills

    OpenAIRE

    Hayes, Leonie; Lewis, Stuart; Newton-Wade, Vanessa

    2010-01-01

    A new feature of the DSpace 1.6 Software is "Batch Metadata Editing". It gives Repository staff the ability to export metadata and change it easily for re-upload into the system. Once you try this "Data Entry" will never be the same.

  11. Batch crystallization of rhodopsin for structural dynamics using an X-ray free-electron laser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Wenting; Nogly, Przemyslaw; Rheinberger, Jan; Kick, Leonhard M.; Gati, Cornelius; Nelson, Garrett; Deupi, Xavier; Standfuss, Jörg; Schertler, Gebhard; Panneels, Valérie, E-mail: valerie.panneels@psi.ch [Paul Scherrer Institute, OFLC/103, 5232 Villigen-PSI (Switzerland)

    2015-06-27

    A new batch preparation method is presented for high-density micrometre-sized crystals of the G protein-coupled receptor rhodopsin for use in time-resolved serial femtosecond crystallography at an X-ray free-electron laser using a liquid jet. Rhodopsin is a membrane protein from the G protein-coupled receptor family. Together with its ligand retinal, it forms the visual pigment responsible for night vision. In order to perform ultrafast dynamics studies, a time-resolved serial femtosecond crystallography method is required owing to the nonreversible activation of rhodopsin. In such an approach, microcrystals in suspension are delivered into the X-ray pulses of an X-ray free-electron laser (XFEL) after a precise photoactivation delay. Here, a millilitre batch production of high-density microcrystals was developed by four methodical conversion steps starting from known vapour-diffusion crystallization protocols: (i) screening the low-salt crystallization conditions preferred for serial crystallography by vapour diffusion, (ii) optimization of batch crystallization, (iii) testing the crystal size and quality using second-harmonic generation (SHG) imaging and X-ray powder diffraction and (iv) production of millilitres of rhodopsin crystal suspension in batches for serial crystallography tests; these crystals diffracted at an XFEL at the Linac Coherent Light Source using a liquid-jet setup.

  12. APPROXIMATION SCHEMES FOR SCHEDULING A BATCHING MACHINE WITH NONIDENTICAL JOB SIZE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xianzhao ZHANG; Zengxia CAI; Yuzhong ZHANG; Zhigang CAO

    2007-01-01

    In this paper we study the problem of scheduling a batching machine with nonidentical job sizes. The jobs arrive simultaneously and have unit processing time. The goal is to minimize the total completion times. Having shown that the problem is NP-hard, we put forward three approximation schemes with worst case ratio 4, 2, and 3/2, respectively.

  13. Comparison of batch and continuous multi-column protein A capture processes by optimal design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baur, Daniel; Angarita, Monica; Müller-Späth, Thomas; Steinebach, Fabian; Morbidelli, Massimo

    2016-07-01

    Multi-column capture processes show several advantages compared to batch capture. It is however not evident how many columns one should use exactly. To investigate this issue, twin-column CaptureSMB, 3- and 4-column periodic counter-current chromatography (PCC) and single column batch capture are numerically optimized and compared in terms of process performance for capturing a monoclonal antibody using protein A chromatography. Optimization is carried out with respect to productivity and capacity utilization (amount of product loaded per cycle compared to the maximum amount possible), while keeping yield and purity constant. For a wide range of process parameters, all three multi-column processes show similar maximum capacity utilization and performed significantly better than batch. When maximizing productivity, the CaptureSMB process shows optimal performance, except at high feed titers, where batch chromatography can reach higher productivity values than the multi-column processes due to the complete decoupling of the loading and elution steps, albeit at a large cost in terms of capacity utilization. In terms of trade-off, i.e. how much the capacity utilization decreases with increasing productivity, CaptureSMB is optimal for low and high feed titers, whereas the 3-column process is optimal in an intermediate region. Using these findings, the most suitable process can be chosen for different production scenarios.

  14. Combined age and segregated kinetic model for industrial-scale penicillin fed-batch cultivation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, Z.F.; Lauwerijssen, M.J.C.; Yuan, J.Q.

    2005-01-01

    This paper proposes a cell age model forPenicillium chrysogenum fed-batch cultivation to supply a qualitative insight into morphology-associated dynamics. The average ages of the segregated cell populations, such as growing cells, non-growing cells and intact productive cells, were estimated by this

  15. Kinetics of color development of peanuts during dry roasting using a batch roaster

    Science.gov (United States)

    The kinetics of color development during peanut roasting were investigated at roasting temperatures from 149 to 204 °C which produced Hunter L color values of 25 to 65. Preliminary and equivalent roasting trials were conducted using a batch roaster simulating the parameters of an industrial continuo...

  16. Batch chemical microreactors: Reversible, in-situ UHV sealing of a microcavity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Monkowski, Adam; Johansson, Martin; Nielsen, Jane Hvolbæk

    2009-01-01

    We propose a new type of microreactor to study heterogeneous catalytic systems. The proposed device operates using a batch reactor scheme, in which catalyst and reactant are introduced in one step and analyzed in a subsequent step. This differs from a flow microreactor in which reaction and analy...

  17. 40 CFR 205.57-6 - Acceptance and rejection of batches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Acceptance and rejection of batches. 205.57-6 Section 205.57-6 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) NOISE ABATEMENT PROGRAMS TRANSPORTATION EQUIPMENT NOISE EMISSION CONTROLS Medium and Heavy Trucks §...

  18. 40 CFR 205.57-7 - Acceptance and rejection of batch sequence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Acceptance and rejection of batch sequence. 205.57-7 Section 205.57-7 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) NOISE ABATEMENT PROGRAMS TRANSPORTATION EQUIPMENT NOISE EMISSION CONTROLS Medium and Heavy Trucks §...

  19. 40 CFR 417.10 - Applicability; description of the soap manufacturing by batch kettle subcategory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Applicability; description of the soap... PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SOAP AND DETERGENT MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Soap Manufacturing by Batch Kettle Subcategory § 417.10 Applicability; description of the...

  20. Change in hyphal morphology of Aspergillus Oryzae during fed-batch cultivation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haack, Martin Brian; Olsson, Lisbeth; Hansen, K

    2006-01-01

    Industrial enzymes are often produced by filamentous fungi in fed-batch cultivations. During cultivation, the different morphological forms displayed by the fungi have an impact on the overall production. The morphology of a recombinant lipase producing Aspergillus oryzae strain was investigated...