WorldWideScience

Sample records for batch reactor quarterly

  1. Analysis of Adiabatic Batch Reactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erald Gjonaj

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available A mixture of acetic anhydride is reacted with excess water in an adiabatic batch reactor to form an exothermic reaction. The concentration of acetic anhydride and the temperature inside the adiabatic batch reactor are calculated with an initial temperature of 20°C, an initial temperature of 30°C, and with a cooling jacket maintaining the temperature at a constant of 20°C. The graphs of the three different scenarios show that the highest temperatures will cause the reaction to occur faster.

  2. 40 CFR 63.1406 - Reactor batch process vent provisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... megagram of product or less for non-solvent-based resin production. (2) The owner or operator of a reactor... 40 Protection of Environment 11 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Reactor batch process vent provisions... § 63.1406 Reactor batch process vent provisions. (a) Emission standards. Owners or operators of reactor...

  3. Evaluation of sequencing batch reactor performance for petrochemical wastewater treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Mina Salari; Seyed Ahmad Ataei; Fereshteh Bakhtiyari

    2017-01-01

    Sequencing batch reactor (SBR) technology has found many applications in industrial wastewater treatment in recent years. The aim of this study was to determine the optimal time for a cycle of the sequencing batch reactor (SBR) and evaluate the performance of a SBR for petrochemical wastewater treatment in that cycle time. The reactor was operated with a suspended biomass configuration under aerobic conditions. Carbon removal and operating parameters such as pH, temperature and dissolved oxyg...

  4. APPLICATION OF MODEL PREDICTIVE CONTROL TO BATCH POLYMERIZATION REACTOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.M. Ghasem

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available The absence of a stable operational state in polymerization reactors that operates in batches is factor that determine the need of a special control system. In this study, advanced control methodology is implemented for controlling the operation of a batch polymerization reactor for polystyrene production utilizingmodel predictive control. By utilizing a model of the polymerization process, the necessary operational conditions were determined for producing the polymer within the desired characteristics. The maincontrol objective is to bring the reactor temperature to its target temperature as rapidly as possible with minimal temperature overshoot. Control performance for the proposed method is encouraging. It has been observed that temperature overshoot can be minimized by the proposed method with the use of both reactor and jacket energy balance for reactor temperature control.

  5. Biological Treatment of Dairy Wastewater by Sequencing Batch Reactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Mohseni-Bandpi, H Bazari

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available A bench scale aerobic Sequencing Batch Reactor (SBR was investigated to treat the wastewater from an industrial milk factory. The reactor was constructed from plexi glass material and its volume was 22.5 L. The reactor was supplied with oxygen by fine bubble air diffuser. The reactor was fed with milk factory and synthetic wastewater under different operational conditions. The COD removal efficiency was achieved more than 90%, whereas COD concentration varied from 400 to 2500 mg/l. The optimum dissolved oxygen in the reactor was 2 to 3 mg/l and MLVSS was around 3000 mg/l. Easy operation, low cost and minimal sludge bulking condition make the SBR system an interesting option for the biological medium strength industrial wastewater treatment. The study demonstrated the capability of aerobic SBR for COD removal from dairy industrial wastewater.

  6. 40 CFR 63.1407 - Non-reactor batch process vent provisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 11 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Non-reactor batch process vent... § 63.1407 Non-reactor batch process vent provisions. (a) Emission standards. (1) Owners or operators of non-reactor batch process vents located at new or existing affected sources with 0.25 tons per year (0...

  7. Continuous Heterogeneous Photocatalysis in Serial Micro-Batch Reactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pieber, Bartholomäus; Shalom, Menny; Antonietti, Markus; Seeberger, Peter H; Gilmore, Kerry

    2018-01-29

    Solid reagents, leaching catalysts, and heterogeneous photocatalysts are commonly employed in batch processes but are ill-suited for continuous-flow chemistry. Heterogeneous catalysts for thermal reactions are typically used in packed-bed reactors, which cannot be penetrated by light and thus are not suitable for photocatalytic reactions involving solids. We demonstrate that serial micro-batch reactors (SMBRs) allow for the continuous utilization of solid materials together with liquids and gases in flow. This technology was utilized to develop selective and efficient fluorination reactions using a modified graphitic carbon nitride heterogeneous catalyst instead of costly homogeneous metal polypyridyl complexes. The merger of this inexpensive, recyclable catalyst and the SMBR approach enables sustainable and scalable photocatalysis. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Fault Diagnosis of Batch Reactor Using Machine Learning Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sujatha Subramanian

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Fault diagnosis of a batch reactor gives the early detection of fault and minimizes the risk of thermal runaway. It provides superior performance and helps to improve safety and consistency. It has become more vital in this technical era. In this paper, support vector machine (SVM is used to estimate the heat release (Qr of the batch reactor both normal and faulty conditions. The signature of the residual, which is obtained from the difference between nominal and estimated faulty Qr values, characterizes the different natures of faults occurring in the batch reactor. Appropriate statistical and geometric features are extracted from the residual signature and the total numbers of features are reduced using SVM attribute selection filter and principle component analysis (PCA techniques. artificial neural network (ANN classifiers like multilayer perceptron (MLP, radial basis function (RBF, and Bayes net are used to classify the different types of faults from the reduced features. It is observed from the result of the comparative study that the proposed method for fault diagnosis with limited number of features extracted from only one estimated parameter (Qr shows that it is more efficient and fast for diagnosing the typical faults.

  9. Evaluation of sequencing batch reactor performance for petrochemical wastewater treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mina Salari

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Sequencing batch reactor (SBR technology has found many applications in industrial wastewater treatment in recent years. The aim of this study was to determine the optimal time for a cycle of the sequencing batch reactor (SBR and evaluate the performance of a SBR for petrochemical wastewater treatment in that cycle time. The reactor was operated with a suspended biomass configuration under aerobic conditions. Carbon removal and operating parameters such as pH, temperature and dissolved oxygen (DO were monitored during the wastewater treatment. The SBR was run at different cycle times and amongst the cycle times tested, the best performance was obtained with a 7 h cycle time composed of a fill time of 15min, reaction of 6 h, settling of 30 min, and withdrawal of 15 min. The SBR with the determined cycle time was used to study the treatment of wastewater with various organic loading rates (12.88 gr COD/L.d, 18.02 gr COD/L.d and 31.39 gr COD/L.d. The SBR performance was evaluated by chemical oxygen demand (COD, total solids (TS total suspended solids (TSS removal efficiencies. During the shock loading tests, the maximum COD, TS and TSS removal efficiencies were 84%, 67% and 92%, respectively.

  10. EFFECT OF DYE CONCENTRATION ON SEQUENCING BATCH REACTOR PERFORMANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Vaigan ، M. R. Alavi Moghaddam ، H. Hashemi

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Reactive dyes have been identified as problematic compounds in textile industries wastewater as they are water soluble and cannot be easily removed by conventional aerobic biological treatment systems. The treatability of a reactive dye (Brill Blue KN-R by sequencing batch reactor and the influence of the dye concentration on system performance were investigated in this study. Brill Blue KN-R is one of the main dyes that are used in textile industries in Iran. Four cylindrical Plexiglas reactors were run for 36 days (5 days for acclimatization of sludge and 31 days for normal operation at different initial dye concentrations. The dye concentrations were adjusted to be 20, 25, 30 and 40 mg/L in the reactors R1, R2, R3 and R4, respectively. In all reactors, effective volume, influent wastewater flowrate and sludge retention time were 5.5 L, 3.0 L/d and 10 d, respectively. According to the obtained data, average dye removal efficiencies of R1, R2, R3 and R4 were 57% ± 2, 50.18% ± 3, 44.97% ± 3 and 30.98% ± 3, respectively. The average COD removal efficiencies of all reactors were 97% ± 1, 97.12% ± 1, 96.93% ± 1 and 97.22% ± 1, respectively. The dye removal efficiency was decreased by increasing the dye concentration with the correlation coefficient of 0.997.

  11. Treatment of Laboratory Wastewater by Sequence Batch reactor technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imtiaz, N.; Butt, M.; Khan, R.A.; Saeed, M.T.; Irfan, M.

    2012-01-01

    These studies were conducted on the characterization and treatment of sewage mixed with waste -water of research and testing laboratory (PCSIR Laboratories Lahore). In this study all the parameters COD, BOD and TSS etc of influent (untreated waste-water) and effluent (treated waste-water) were characterized using the standard methods of examination for water and waste-water. All the results of the analyzed waste-water parameters were above the National Environmental Quality Standards (NEQS) set at National level. Treatment of waste-water was carried out by conventional sequencing batch reactor technique (SBR) using aeration and settling technique in the same treatment reactor at laboratory scale. The results of COD after treatment were reduced from (90-95 %), BOD (95-97 %) and TSS (96-99 %) and the reclaimed effluent quality was suitable for gardening purposes. (author)

  12. Sequencing batch-reactor control using Gaussian-process models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocijan, Juš; Hvala, Nadja

    2013-06-01

    This paper presents a Gaussian-process (GP) model for the design of sequencing batch-reactor (SBR) control for wastewater treatment. The GP model is a probabilistic, nonparametric model with uncertainty predictions. In the case of SBR control, it is used for the on-line optimisation of the batch-phases duration. The control algorithm follows the course of the indirect process variables (pH, redox potential and dissolved oxygen concentration) and recognises the characteristic patterns in their time profile. The control algorithm uses GP-based regression to smooth the signals and GP-based classification for the pattern recognition. When tested on the signals from an SBR laboratory pilot plant, the control algorithm provided a satisfactory agreement between the proposed completion times and the actual termination times of the biodegradation processes. In a set of tested batches the final ammonia and nitrate concentrations were below 1 and 0.5 mg L(-1), respectively, while the aeration time was shortened considerably. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Aerobic granulation in a sequencing batch airlift reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beun, J J; van Loosdrecht, M C M; Heijnen, J J

    2002-02-01

    Aerobic granular sludge was cultivated in an intensely mixed sequencing batch airlift reactor (SBAR). A COD loading of 2.5 kg Acetate-COD/(m3 d) was applied. Granules developed in the reactor within one week after inoculation with suspended activated sludge from a conventional wastewater treatment plant. Selection of the dense granules from the biomass mixture occurs because of the differences in settling velocities between granules (fast settling biomass), and filaments and flocs (slow settling biomass). At 'steady state' the granules had an average diameter of 2.5 mm, a biomass density of 60g VSS/I of granules, and a settling rate of > 10 m/h. The biomass consisted of both heterotrophic and nitrifying bacteria. The reactor was operated over a long period during which the granular sludge proved to remain stable. The performance of the intermittently fed SBAR was compared to that of the continuously fed biofilm airlift suspension reactor (BASR). The most importance difference was that the density of the granules in the SBAR was much higher than the density of the biofilms in the BASR. It is discussed that this could be due to the fact that the SBAR is intermittently fed, while the BASR is continuously fed.

  14. Reactor safety research programs. Quarterly progress report, January 1--March 31, 1977

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romano, A.J. (comp.)

    1977-05-01

    The projects reported each quarter are the following: Gas Reactor Safety Evaluation, THOR Code Development, SSC Code Development, LMFBR and LWR Safety Experiments, Fast Reactor Safety Code Validation, Technical Coordination of Structural Integrity, and Fast Reactor Safety Reliability Assessment.

  15. Degradation of formaldehyde in anaerobic sequencing batch biofilm reactor (ASBBR)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pereira, N.S. [Laboratorio de Processos Biologicos (LPB), Departamento de Hidraulica e Saneamento, Escola de Engenharia de Sao Carlos (EESC), Universidade de Sao Paulo - USP, Engenharia Ambiental, Bloco 4-F, Av. Joao Dagnone, 1100 Santa Angelina, 13.563-120 Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil); Zaiat, M. [Laboratorio de Processos Biologicos (LPB), Departamento de Hidraulica e Saneamento, Escola de Engenharia de Sao Carlos (EESC), Universidade de Sao Paulo - USP, Engenharia Ambiental, Bloco 4-F, Av. Joao Dagnone, 1100 Santa Angelina, 13.563-120 Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil)], E-mail: zaiat@sc.usp.br

    2009-04-30

    The present study evaluated the degradation of formaldehyde in a bench-scale anaerobic sequencing batch reactor, which contained biomass immobilized in polyurethane foam matrices. The reactor was operated for 212 days at 35 deg. C with 8 h sequential cycles, under different affluent formaldehyde concentrations ranging from 31.6 to 1104.4 mg/L (formaldehyde loading rates from 0.08 to 2.78 kg/m{sup 3} day). The results indicate excellent reactor stability and over 99% efficiency in formaldehyde removal, with average effluent formaldehyde concentration of 3.6 {+-} 1.7 mg/L. Formaldehyde degradation rates increased from 204.9 to 698.3 mg/L h as the initial concentration of formaldehyde was increased from around 100 to around 1100 mg/L. However, accumulation of organic matter was observed in the effluent (chemical oxygen demand (COD) values above 500 mg/L) due to the presence of non-degraded organic acids, especially acetic and propionic acids. This observation poses an important question regarding the anaerobic route of formaldehyde degradation, which might differ substantially from that reported in the literature. The anaerobic degradation pathway can be associated with the formation of long-chain oligomers from formaldehyde. Such long- or short-chain polymers are probably the precursors of organic acid formation by means of acidogenic anaerobic microorganisms.

  16. Biological Treatment of Leachate using Sequencing Batch Reactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WDMC Perera

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE TA Abstract   In Sri Lanka municipal solid waste is generally disposed in poorly managed open dumps which lack liner systems and leachate collection systems. Rain water percolates through the waste layers to produce leachate which drains in to ground water and finally to nearby water bodies, degrading the quality of water. Leachate thus has become a major environmental concern in municipal waste management and treatment of leachate is a major challenge for the existing and proposed landfill sites.   The study was conducted to assess the feasibility of the usage of the Sequencing Batch Reactor in the treatment of the landfill leachate up to the proposed levels in the draft report of “Proposed Sri Lankan standard for landfill leachate to be disposed to the inland waters". Leachate collected from the open dumpsite at Meethotamulla, Western Province, Sri Lanka was used for leachate characterization.   SBR was constructed with a 10-liter working volume operated in an 18 hour cycle mode and each cycle consists of 15hours of aerobic, 2h settle and 0.5 h of fill/decant stages. The Dissolved Oxygen level within the SBR was maintained at 2 mg/l through the aerobic stage. Infeed was diluted with water during the acclimatization period and a leachate to water ratio of 55:45 was maintained. The removal efficiencies for different parameters were; COD (90.5%, BOD (92.6%, TS (92.1%, Conductivity (83.9%, Alkalinity (97.4%, Hardness (82.2%, Mg (80.5%, Fe (94.2%, Zn (63.4%, Cr (31.69%, Pb (99.6%, Sulphate (98.9%, and Phosphorus (71.4% respectively. In addition Ni and Cd were removed completely during a single SBR cycle. Thus the dilution of leachate in the dumpsites using municipal wastewater, groundwater or rainwater was identified as the most cost effective dilution methods. The effluent from the Sequencing batch reactor is proposed to be further treated using a constructed wetland before releasing to surface water.

  17. Treatment of winery wastewater by an anaerobic sequencing batch reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruíz, C; Torrijos, M; Sousbie, P; Lebrato Martínez, J; Moletta, R; Delgenès, J P

    2002-01-01

    Treatment of winery wastewater was investigated using an anaerobic sequencing batch reactor (ASBR). Biogas production rate was monitored and permitted the automation of the bioreactor by a simple control system. The reactor was operated at an organic loading rate (ORL) around 8.6 gCOD/L.d with soluble chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal efficiency greater than 98%, hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 2.2 d and a specific organic loading rate (SOLR) of 0.96 gCOD/gVSS.d. The kinetics of COD and VFA removal were investigated for winery wastewater and for simple compounds such as ethanol, which is a major component of winery effluent, and acetate, which is the main volatile fatty acid (VFA) produced. The comparison of the profiles obtained with the 3 substrates shows that, overall, the acidification of the organic matter and the methanisation of the VFA follow zero order reactions, in the operating conditions of our study. The effect on the gas production rate resulted in two level periods separated by a sharp break when the acidification stage was finished and only the breaking down of the VFA continued.

  18. Virtual Sensors for Biodiesel Production in a Batch Reactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Betty Y. López-Zapata

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Fossil fuel combustion produces around 98% of coal emissions. Therefore, liquid and gaseous biofuels have become more attractive due to their environmental benefits. The biodiesel production process requires measurements that help to control and supervise the variables involved in the process. The measurements provide valuable information about the operation conditions and give estimations about the critical variables of the process. The information from measurements is essential for monitoring the state of a process and verifying if it has an optimal performance. The objective of this study was the conception of a virtual sensor based on the Extended Kalman Filter (EKF and the model of a batch biodiesel reactor for estimating concentrations of triglycerides (TG, diglycerides (DG, monoglycerides (MG, methyl ester (E, alcohol (A, and glycerol (GL in real-time through measurement of the temperature and pH. Estimation of the TG, DG, MG, E, A, and Gl through this method eliminates the need for additional sensors and allows the use of different types of control. For the performance analysis of the virtual sensor, the data obtained from the EKF are compared with experimental data reported in the literature, with the mean square error of the estimate then being calculated. In addition, the results of this approach can be implemented in a real system, since it only uses measurements available in a reactor such as temperature and pH.

  19. Photocatalytic reactors for treating water pollution with solar illumination. I: a simplified analysis for batch reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sagawe, G.; Bahnemann, D. [Inst. fuer Technische Chemie, Univ. Hannover, Hannover (Germany); Brandi, R.J.; Cassano, A.E. [INTEC (Univ. Nacional del Litoral and CONICET), Santa Fe (Argentina)

    2003-07-01

    Usual applications of photocatalytic reactors for treating wastewater exhibit the difficulty of handling fluids having varying composition and/or concentrations; thus, a detailed kinetic representation may not be possible. When the catalyst activation is obtained employing solar illumination an additional complexity always coexists: solar fluxes are permanently changing with time. For comparing different reacting systems under similar operating conditions and to provide approximate estimations for scaling up purposes, simplified models may be useful. For these approximations the model parameters should be restricted as much as possible to initial physical and boundary conditions such as: initial concentrations (expressed as such or as TOC measurements), flow rate or reactor volume, irradiated reactor area, incident radiation fluxes and a fairly simple experimental observation such as the photonic efficiency. A combination of a new concept: the ''actual observed photonic efficiency'' with ideal reactor models and empirical kinetic rate expressions can be used to provide rather simple working equations that can be efficiently used to describe the performance of practical reactors. In this paper, the method has been developed for the case of a photocatalytic batch reactor (PBR). (orig.)

  20. Sequencing Batch Reactor Biodegradation of Hydrolyzed GB as Sole Carbon Source

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Harvey, Steven

    2002-01-01

    ... % in aqueous sodium hydroxide yielding primarily o-isopropyl methylphosphonic acid (IMPA). This hydrolysate was diluted and fed as sole carbon source to activated sludge in an aerobic sequencing batch reactor...

  1. Kinetics and Product Selectivity (Yield) of Second Order Competitive Consecutive Reactions in Fed-Batch Reactor and Plug Flow Reactor

    OpenAIRE

    Selvamony, Subash Chandra Bose

    2013-01-01

    This literature compares the performance of second order competitive consecutive reaction in Fed-Batch Reactor with that in continuous Plug Flow Reactor. In a kinetic sense, this simulation study aims to develop a case for continuous Plug Flow Reactor in pharmaceutical, fine chemical, and related other chemical industries. MATLAB is used to find solutions for the differential equations. The simulation results show that, for certain cases of nonelementary scenario, product selectivity is highe...

  2. Performance of sequencing batch biofilm and sequencing batch reactors in simultaneous p-nitrophenol and nitrogen removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goh, Chin-Ping; Seng, Chye-Eng; Sujari, Amat Ngilmi Ahmad; Lim, Poh-Eng

    2009-06-01

    The objective of this study is to evaluate the performance of sequencing batch biofilm reactors (SBBRs) and sequencing batch reactor (SBR) in the simultaneous removal of p-nitrophenol (PNP) and ammoniacal nitrogen. SBBRs involved the use of polyurethane sponge cubes and polyethylene rings, respectively, as carrier materials. The results demonstrate that complete removal of PNP was achievable for the SBR and SBBRs up to the PNP concentration of 350 mg/l (loading rate of 0.368 kg/m3 d). At this loading rate, the average ammoniacal nitrogen removal efficiency for the SBR and SBBR (with polyethylene rings) was reduced to 86% and 96%, respectively. However, the SBBR (with polyurethane sponge cubes) still managed to achieve an almost 100% ammoniacal nitrogen removal. Based on the results, the performance of the SBBRs was better than that of SBR in PNP and ammoniacal nitrogen removal. The results of the gas chromatography mass spectroscopy, high-performance liquid chromatography and ultraviolet-visible analyses indicate that complete mineralization of PNP was achieved in all of the reactors.

  3. Generation of OH Radical by Ultrasonic Irradiation in Batch and Circulatory Reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Yu; Shimizu, Sayaka; Yamamoto, Takuya; Komarov, Sergey

    2018-03-01

    Ultrasonic technology has been widely investigated in the past as one of the advance oxidation processes to treat wastewater, in this process acoustic cavitation causes generation of OH radical, which play a vital role in improving the treatment efficiency. In this study, OH radical formation rate was measured in batch and circulatory reactor by using Weissler reaction at various ultrasound output power. It is found that the generation rate in batch reactor is higher than that in circulatory reactor at the same output power. The generation rate tended to be slower when output power exceeds 137W. The optimum condition for circulatory reactor was found to be 137W output and 4L/min flow rate. Results of aluminum foil erosion test revealed a strong dependence of cavitation zone length on the ultrasound output power. This is assumed to be one of the reasons why the generation rate of HO radicals becomes slower at higher output power in circulatory reactor.

  4. Study on membrane reactors for biodiesel production by phase behaviors of canola oil methanolysis in batch reactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Li-Hua; Yen, Shih-Yang; Su, Li-Sheng; Chen, Junghui

    2010-09-01

    In comparison with the general stirring batch reactor, the membrane reactor has been reported to have higher molar ratios of methanol to oil but ultralow catalyst concentration in the biodiesel production. In this research, the methanolysis of canola oil is conducted in a stirring batch reactor in the presence of NaOH as a catalyst. Based on the investigation of the effects of operating conditions, including methanol to oil molar ration, catalyst concentrations and temperatures, the time course of the reaction path for the reactant composition in the ternary phase diagram of oil-FAME-MeOH offers an effective way to understand the operation of membrane reactors in the biodiesel production. The results show that increasing the residence time of the whole reactant system within the two-phase zone is good for the separation operation through the membranes. (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Continuous fill intermittent decant type sequencing batch reactor application to upgrade the UASB treated sewage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Abid Ali; Gaur, Rubia Zahid; Diamantis, Vasileios; Lew, Beni; Mehrotra, Indu; Kazmi, A A

    2013-05-01

    The performance of continuous flow intermittent decant type sequencing batch (CFID) reactor treating the effluent of an UASB reactor treating domestic wastewater and operated at 8 h hydraulic retention time (HRT) was investigated. The CFID was operated at three different HRTs (22, 8 and 6 h) and three different dissolved oxygen (DO) patterns (UASB systems, with a final effluent quality that comply with receiving water and effluent reuse criteria.

  6. Kinetics of anaerobic digestion of labaneh whey in a batch reactor

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SAM

    2014-04-16

    Apr 16, 2014 ... In this work, anaerobic digestion of labanah whey was carried out in a 100 L batch reactor (RE-BIOMAS) at temperature of 30-40°C and pH 6 - 7. During the experiments, the biogas production and chemical oxygen demand (COD) concentration were recorded with time. During fermentation of labaneh ...

  7. Kinetic study of COS with tertiary alkanolamine solutions 1. Experiments in an intensely stirred batch reactor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Littel, R.J.; Littel, R.J.; Versteeg, Geert; van Swaaij, Willibrordus Petrus Maria

    1992-01-01

    The reaction between COS and various tertiary alkanolamines in aqueous solutions has been studied in an intensely stirred batch reactor. Experiments for TEA, DMMEA, and DEMEA were carried out at 303 K the reaction between COS and aqueous MDEA has been studied at temperaturm ranging from 293 to 323

  8. Kinetic Study of COS with Tertiary Alkanolamine Solutions. 1. Experiments in an Intensely Stirred Batch Reactor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Littel, Rob J.; Versteeg, Geert F.; Swaaij, Wim P.M. van

    1992-01-01

    The reaction between COS and various tertiary alkanolamines in aqueous solutions has been studied in an intensely stirred batch reactor. Experiments for TEA, DMMEA, and DEMEA were carried out at 303 K; the reaction between COS and aqueous MDEA has been studied at temperatures ranging from 293 to 323

  9. Psychrophilic anaerobic digestion of swine manure slurry in sequencing batch reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Masse, D.I. [Agriculture Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada). Food Research Branch; Droste, R.L. [Ottawa Univ., ON (Canada). Dept. of Civil Engineering

    1993-12-31

    This work presents preliminary results of an ongoing laboratory study to evaluate the feasibility of psychrophilic anaerobic digestion in sequencing batch reactors (SBR) for stabilizing, deodorizing and adding value to swine manure. Preliminary results show that the process is feasible. (author). 14 refs., 7 tabs.

  10. Kinetics of anaerobic digestion of labaneh whey in a batch reactor ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this work, anaerobic digestion of labanah whey was carried out in a 100 L batch reactor (RE-BIOMAS) at temperature of 30-40°C and pH 6 - 7. During the experiments, the biogas production and chemical oxygen demand (COD) concentration were recorded with time. During fermentation of labaneh whey, the pH drops ...

  11. Role of Moving Bed Biofilm Reactor and Sequencing Batch Reactor in Biological Degradation of Formaldehyde Wastewater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Ayati

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays formaldehyde is used as raw material in many industries. It has also disinfection applications in some public places. Due to its toxicity for microorganisms, chemical or anaerobic biological methods are applied for treating wastewater containing formaldehyde.In this research, formaldehyde removal efficiencies of aerobic biological treatment systems including moving bed biofilm (MMBR and sequencing batch reactors (SBR were investigated. During all experiments, the efficiency of SBR was more than MBBR, but the difference was not significant statistically. According to the results, the best efficiencies were obtained for influent formaldehyde COD of 200 mg/L in MBBR and SBR which were 93% and 99.4%, respectively. The systems were also capable to treat higher formaldehyde concentrations (up to 2500 mg/L with lower removal efficiency. The reaction kinetics followed the Stover-Kincannon second order model. The gram-positive and gram-negative bacillus and coccus as well as the gram-positive binary bacillus were found to be the most dominant species. The results of 13C-NMR analysis have shown that formaldehyde and urea were converted into N-{[(aminocarbonyl amino] methyl}urea and the residual formaldehyde was polymerized at room temperature.

  12. Simulation of kefiran production of Lactobacillus kefiranofaciens JCM6985 in fed-batch reactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamas Cheirsilp

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Kinetics of kefiran production by Lactobacillus kefiranofaciens JCM6985 has been investigated. A mathematical model taking into account the mechanism of exopolysaccharides production has been developed. Experiments were carried out in batch mode in order to obtain kinetic model parameters that were further applied to simulate fed-batch processes. A simplification of parameter fitting was also introduced for complicated model. The fed-batch mode allows more flexibility in the control of the substrate concentration as well as product concentration in the culture medium. Based on the batch mathematical model, a fed-batch model was developed and simulations were done. Simulation study in fed-batch reactor resulted that substrate concentration should be controlled at 20 g L-1 to soften the product inhibition and also to stimulate utilization of substrate and its hydrolysate. From simulation results of different feeding techniques, it was found that constant feeding at 0.01 L h-1 was most practically effective feeding profile for exopolysaccharides production in fed-batch mode.

  13. Biomass characteristics in three sequencing batch reactors treating a wastewater containing synthetic organic chemicals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Z.Q.; Ferraina, R.A.; Ericson, J.F.

    2005-01-01

    The physical and biochemical characteristics of the biomass in three lab-scale sequencing batch reactors (SBR) treating a synthetic wastewater at a 20-day target solids retention time (SRT) were investigated. The synthetic wastewater feed contained biogenic compounds and 22 organic priming...... compounds, chosen to represent a wide variety of chemical structures with different N, P and S functional groups. At a two-day hydraulic retention time (HRT), the oxidation-reduction potential (ORP) cycled between -100 (anoxic) and 100mV (aerobic) in the anoxic/aerobic SBR, while it remained in a range...... of 126 +/- 18 and 249 +/- 18 mV in the aerobic sequencing batch biofilm reactor (SBBR) and the aerobic SBR reactor, respectively. A granular activated sludge with excellent settleability (SVI = 98 +/- 31 L mg(-1)) developed only in the anoxic/aerobic SBR, compared to a bulky sludge with poor settling...

  14. A BATCH REACTOR CONSTRUCTION FOR OBTAINING BIODIESEL FROM OIL Ricinus communis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yolimar Fernández

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available A batch reactor was constructed to obtain biodiesel from 5 liters of extracted from the seed of Ricinus communis. The reactor is made of stainless steel, 29cm length, 15.24 cm of inner diameter and a conical base of 20cm long, wall thickness of 0.2 cm, 1000 W tubular resistance and 110 volt motor. It is extracted and compared with the respective norms the physical and chemical properties of crude oil. Preliminary tests catalyzed transesterification of the oil with NaOH to verify the feasibility of the reaction and define the performed operational conditions. Obtained biodiesel was characterized and compared with references. The results showed that it is possible to obtain the biofuel in the batch reactor with a conversion 88%, confirming its application in transesterification reactions in a basic medium.

  15. Prediction of acid hydrolysis of lignocellulosic materials in batch and plug flow reactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaramillo, Oscar Johnny; Gómez-García, Miguel Ángel; Fontalvo, Javier

    2013-08-01

    This study unifies contradictory conclusions reported in literature on acid hydrolysis of lignocellulosic materials, using batch and plug flow reactors, regarding the influence of the initial liquid ratio of acid aqueous solution to solid lignocellulosic material on sugar yield and concentration. The proposed model takes into account the volume change of the reaction media during the hydrolysis process. An error lower than 8% was found between predictions, using a single set of kinetic parameters for several liquid to solid ratios, and reported experimental data for batch and plug flow reactors. For low liquid-solid ratios, the poor wetting and the acid neutralization, due to the ash presented in the solid, will both reduce the sugar yield. Also, this study shows that both reactors are basically equivalent in terms of the influence of the liquid to solid ratio on xylose and glucose yield. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Bagasse hydrolyzates from Agave tequilana as substrates for succinic acid production by Actinobacillus succinogenes in batch and repeated batch reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corona-González, Rosa Isela; Varela-Almanza, Karla María; Arriola-Guevara, Enrique; Martínez-Gómez, Álvaro de Jesús; Pelayo-Ortiz, Carlos; Toriz, Guillermo

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this work was to obtain fermentable sugars by enzymatic or acid hydrolyses of Agave tequilana Weber bagasse in order to produce succinic acid with Actinobacillus succinogenes. Hydrolyses were carried out with mineral acids (sulfuric and hydrochloric acids) or a commercial cellulolytic enzyme, and were optimized statistically by a response surface methodology, having as factors the concentration of acid/enzyme and time of hydrolysis. The concentration of sugars obtained at optimal conditions for each hydrolysis were 21.7, 22.4y 19.8g/L for H2SO4, HCl and the enzymatic preparation respectively. Concerning succinic acid production, the enzymatic hydrolyzates resulted in the highest yield (0.446g/g) and productivity (0.57g/Lh) using A. succinogenes in a batch reactor system. Repeated batch fermentation with immobilized A. succinogenes in agar and with the enzymatic hydrolyzates resulted in a maximum concentration of succinic acid of 33.6g/L from 87.2g/L monosaccharides after 5 cycles in 40h, obtaining a productivity of 1.32g/Lh. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  17. quarters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Grigoryeva

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Are there many words combining both space and time? A quarter is one of such rare words: it means both a part of the city space and a period of the year. A regular city has parts bordered by four streets. For example, Chita is a city with an absolutely orthogonal historical center. This Utopian city was designed by Decembrists in the depth of Siberian ore-mines (120. The 130 Quarter in Irkutsk is irregular from its inception because of its triangular form. Located between two roads, the forked quarter was initially bordered by flows along the west-east axis – the main direction of the country. That is why it appreciated the gift for the 350 anniversary of its transit existence – a promenade for an unhurried flow of pedestrians. The quarter manages this flow quite well, while overcoming the difficulties of new existence and gathering myths (102. Arousing many expectations, the “Irkutsk’s Quarters” project continues the theme that was begun by the 130 Quarter and involved regeneration, revival and search for Genius Loci and the key to each single quarter (74. Beaded on the trading axis, these shabby and unfriendly quarters full of rubbish should be transformed for the good of inhabitants, guests and the small business. The triptych by Lidin, Rappaport and Nevlyutov is about happiness of urbanship and cities for people, too (58. The City Community Forum was also devoted to the urban theme (114. Going through the last quarter of the year, we hope that Irkutsk will keep to the right policy, so that in the near future the wooden downtown quarters will become its pride, and the design, construction and investment complexes will join in desire to increase the number of comfortable and lively quarters in our city. The Baikal Beam will get one more landmark: the Smart School (22 for Irkutsk’s children, including orphans, will be built in several years on the bank of Chertugeevsky Bay.

  18. Experimental investigation of pyrolysis of rice straw using bench-scale auger, batch and fluidized bed reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nam, Hyungseok; Capareda, Sergio C.; Ashwath, Nanjappa; Kongkasawan, Jinjuta

    2015-01-01

    Energy conversion efficiencies of three pyrolysis reactors (bench-scale auger, batch, and fluidized bed) were investigated using rice straw as the feedstock at a temperature of 500 °C. The highest bio-oil yield of 43% was obtained from the fluidized bed reactor, while the maximum bio-char yield of 48% was obtained from the batch reactor. Similar bio-oil yields were obtained from the auger and batch type reactors. The GCMS and FTIR were used to evaluate the liquid products from all reactors. The best quality bio-oil and bio-char from the batch reactor was determined to have a heating value of 31 MJ/kg and 19 MJ/kg, respectively. The highest alkali mineral was found in the bio-char produced from the auger reactor. The energy conversion efficiencies of the three reactors indicated that the majority of the energy (50–64%) was in the bio-char products from the auger and batch reactors, while the bio-oil from the fluidized bed reactor contained the highest energy (47%). A Sankey diagram has been produced to show the flows of product energy from each pyrolysis process. The result will help determine which conversion process would be optimal for producing specific products of bio-char, bio-oil, and gas depending on the needs. - Highlights: • Pyrolysis products from auger, batch, and fluidized bed reactor were examined. • O/C ratios of bio-oils stayed in specific ranges depending on the process reactors. • The largest quantity of bio-oil from fluidized, while the best quality from batch. • The highest alkali concentration of 37 g/kg included in the auger based bio-char. • Sankey diagram was used to understand the energy distribution from reactors.

  19. Low-biodegradable composite chemical wastewater treatment by biofilm configured sequencing batch reactor (SBBR).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohan, S Venkata; Rao, N Chandrasekhara; Sarma, P N

    2007-06-01

    Biofilm configured system with sequencing/periodic discontinuous batch mode operation was evaluated for the treatment of low-biodegradable composite chemical wastewater (low BOD/COD ratio approximately 0.3, high sulfate content: 1.75 g/l) in aerobic metabolic function. Reactor was operated under anoxic-aerobic-anoxic microenvironment conditions with a total cycle period of 24 h [fill: 15 min; reaction: 23 h (aeration along with recirculation); settle: 30 min; decant: 15 min] and the performance of the system was studied at organic loading rates (OLR) of 0.92, 1.50, 3.07 and 4.76 kg COD/cum-day. Substrate utilization showed a steady increase with increase in OLR and system performance sustained at higher loading rates. Maximum non-cumulative substrate utilization was observed after 4h of the cycle operation. Sulfate removal efficiency of 20% was observed due to the induced anoxic conditions prevailing during the sequence phase operation of the reactor and the existing internal anoxic zones in the biofilm matrix. Biofilm configured sequencing batch reactor (SBR) showed comparatively higher efficiency to the corresponding suspended growth and granular activated carbon (GAC) configured systems studied with same wastewater. Periodic discontinuous batch mode operation of the biofilm reactors results in a more even distribution of the biomass throughout the reactor and was able to treat large shock loads than the continuous flow process. Biofilm configured system coupled with periodic discontinuous batch mode operation imposes regular variations in the substrate concentration on biofilm organisms. As a result, organisms throughout the film achieve maximum growth rates resulting in improved reaction potential leading to stable and robust system which is well suited for treating highly variable wastes.

  20. Elimination of water pathogens with solar radiation using an automated sequential batch CPC reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polo-López, M I; Fernández-Ibáñez, P; Ubomba-Jaswa, E; Navntoft, C; García-Fernández, I; Dunlop, P S M; Schmid, M; Byrne, J A; McGuigan, K G

    2011-11-30

    Solar disinfection (SODIS) of water is a well-known, effective treatment process which is practiced at household level in many developing countries. However, this process is limited by the small volume treated and there is no indication of treatment efficacy for the user. Low cost glass tube reactors, together with compound parabolic collector (CPC) technology, have been shown to significantly increase the efficiency of solar disinfection. However, these reactors still require user input to control each batch SODIS process and there is no feedback that the process is complete. Automatic operation of the batch SODIS process, controlled by UVA-radiation sensors, can provide information on the status of the process, can ensure the required UVA dose to achieve complete disinfection is received and reduces user work-load through automatic sequential batch processing. In this work, an enhanced CPC photo-reactor with a concentration factor of 1.89 was developed. The apparatus was automated to achieve exposure to a pre-determined UVA dose. Treated water was automatically dispensed into a reservoir tank. The reactor was tested using Escherichia coli as a model pathogen in natural well water. A 6-log inactivation of E. coli was achieved following exposure to the minimum uninterrupted lethal UVA dose. The enhanced reactor decreased the exposure time required to achieve the lethal UVA dose, in comparison to a CPC system with a concentration factor of 1.0. Doubling the lethal UVA dose prevented the need for a period of post-exposure dark inactivation and reduced the overall treatment time. Using this reactor, SODIS can be automatically carried out at an affordable cost, with reduced exposure time and minimal user input. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Elimination of water pathogens with solar radiation using an automated sequential batch CPC reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Polo-Lopez, M.I., E-mail: mpolo@psa.es [Plataforma Solar de Almeria - CIEMAT, PO Box 22, 04200 Tabernas, Almeria (Spain); Fernandez-Ibanez, P., E-mail: pilar.fernandez@psa.es [Plataforma Solar de Almeria - CIEMAT, PO Box 22, 04200 Tabernas, Almeria (Spain); Ubomba-Jaswa, E., E-mail: euniceubombajaswa@yahoo.com [Natural Resources and the Environment, CSIR, PO Box 395, Pretoria (South Africa); Navntoft, C., E-mail: christian.navntoft@solarmate.com.ar [Instituto de Investigacion e Ingenieria Ambiental, Universidad Nacional de San Martin (3iA-UNSAM), Peatonal Belgrano 3563, B1650ANQ San Martin (Argentina); Universidad Tecnologica Nacional - Facultad Regional Buenos Aires - Departamento de Ingenieria Civil - Laboratorio de Estudios sobre Energia Solar, (UTN-FRBA-LESES), Mozart 2300, (1407) Ciudad Autonoma de Buenos Aires, Republica Argentina (Argentina); Garcia-Fernandez, I., E-mail: irene.garcia@psa.es [Plataforma Solar de Almeria - CIEMAT, PO Box 22, 04200 Tabernas, Almeria (Spain); Dunlop, P.S.M., E-mail: psm.dunlop@ulster.ac.uk [Department of Physiology and Medical Physics, Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland, Dublin 2 (Ireland); Schmid, M. [Department of Physiology and Medical Physics, Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland, Dublin 2 (Ireland); Byrne, J.A., E-mail: j.byrne@ulster.ac.uk [Department of Physiology and Medical Physics, Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland, Dublin 2 (Ireland); and others

    2011-11-30

    Solar disinfection (SODIS) of water is a well-known, effective treatment process which is practiced at household level in many developing countries. However, this process is limited by the small volume treated and there is no indication of treatment efficacy for the user. Low cost glass tube reactors, together with compound parabolic collector (CPC) technology, have been shown to significantly increase the efficiency of solar disinfection. However, these reactors still require user input to control each batch SODIS process and there is no feedback that the process is complete. Automatic operation of the batch SODIS process, controlled by UVA-radiation sensors, can provide information on the status of the process, can ensure the required UVA dose to achieve complete disinfection is received and reduces user work-load through automatic sequential batch processing. In this work, an enhanced CPC photo-reactor with a concentration factor of 1.89 was developed. The apparatus was automated to achieve exposure to a pre-determined UVA dose. Treated water was automatically dispensed into a reservoir tank. The reactor was tested using Escherichia coli as a model pathogen in natural well water. A 6-log inactivation of E. coli was achieved following exposure to the minimum uninterrupted lethal UVA dose. The enhanced reactor decreased the exposure time required to achieve the lethal UVA dose, in comparison to a CPC system with a concentration factor of 1.0. Doubling the lethal UVA dose prevented the need for a period of post-exposure dark inactivation and reduced the overall treatment time. Using this reactor, SODIS can be automatically carried out at an affordable cost, with reduced exposure time and minimal user input.

  2. Elimination of water pathogens with solar radiation using an automated sequential batch CPC reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polo-López, M.I.; Fernández-Ibáñez, P.; Ubomba-Jaswa, E.; Navntoft, C.; García-Fernández, I.; Dunlop, P.S.M.; Schmid, M.; Byrne, J.A.

    2011-01-01

    Solar disinfection (SODIS) of water is a well-known, effective treatment process which is practiced at household level in many developing countries. However, this process is limited by the small volume treated and there is no indication of treatment efficacy for the user. Low cost glass tube reactors, together with compound parabolic collector (CPC) technology, have been shown to significantly increase the efficiency of solar disinfection. However, these reactors still require user input to control each batch SODIS process and there is no feedback that the process is complete. Automatic operation of the batch SODIS process, controlled by UVA-radiation sensors, can provide information on the status of the process, can ensure the required UVA dose to achieve complete disinfection is received and reduces user work-load through automatic sequential batch processing. In this work, an enhanced CPC photo-reactor with a concentration factor of 1.89 was developed. The apparatus was automated to achieve exposure to a pre-determined UVA dose. Treated water was automatically dispensed into a reservoir tank. The reactor was tested using Escherichia coli as a model pathogen in natural well water. A 6-log inactivation of E. coli was achieved following exposure to the minimum uninterrupted lethal UVA dose. The enhanced reactor decreased the exposure time required to achieve the lethal UVA dose, in comparison to a CPC system with a concentration factor of 1.0. Doubling the lethal UVA dose prevented the need for a period of post-exposure dark inactivation and reduced the overall treatment time. Using this reactor, SODIS can be automatically carried out at an affordable cost, with reduced exposure time and minimal user input.

  3. Effect of long-term idle periods on the performance of sequencing batch reactors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morgenroth, Eberhard Friedrich; Obermayer, A.; Arnold, E.

    2000-01-01

    Sludge storage can be used as an effective control handle to adjust plant capacity to large influent variations. The sequencing batch reactor (SBR) technology is well suited for temporary sludge storage because reactors can easily be switched off individually and operated in an idle mode....... In this study experimental results on the effect of long term (weeks) idle periods on nitrogen removal are presented. The SBRs were operated with idle times ranging from 6 to 20 days. Batch experiments were performed where sludge was stored without the addition of any substrate for 7 weeks. In the SBRs......, repeated long-term idle phases had only a minor effect on ammonia oxidation. The nitrite oxidation process was more sensitive to long idle phases resulting in temporary nitrite accumulation in the SBRs. Quantitative gene probe analyses demonstrated that the decay of ammonia oxidizers was slower than...

  4. Supercritical Water Gasification of Biomass in a Ceramic Reactor: Long-Time Batch Experiments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Castello, Daniele; Rolli, Birgit; Kruse, Andrea

    2017-01-01

    Supercritical water gasification (SCWG) is an emerging technology for the valorization of (wet) biomass into a valuable fuel gas composed of hydrogen and/or methane. The harsh temperature and pressure conditions involved in SCWG (T > 375 ◦C, p > 22 MPa) are definitely a challenge for the manufact......Supercritical water gasification (SCWG) is an emerging technology for the valorization of (wet) biomass into a valuable fuel gas composed of hydrogen and/or methane. The harsh temperature and pressure conditions involved in SCWG (T > 375 ◦C, p > 22 MPa) are definitely a challenge...... effect of the material can influence the gas yield and composition. In this work, a research reactor featuring an internal alumina inlay was utilized to conduct long-time (16 h) batch tests with real biomasses and model compounds. The same experiments were also conducted in batch reactors made...

  5. Effect of internal recirculation velocity in an anaerobic sequencing batch reactor (ASBR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Z. Maurina

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the effect of different internal recirculation velocities on the mixture and shear stress on the flocs in an anaerobic sequencing batch reactor (ASBR. Thus, simulations are performed using a computational fluid dynamics (CFD tool to evaluate this dependency. The analysis of velocities and turbulent kinetic energy indicates that the highest flow evaluated (0.003 m³/s results in better mixing within the reactor. However, care must be taken with the recycling pipe size, in order to maintain the shear stress inside the range of optimal values.

  6. Supercritical Water Gasification of Biomass in a Ceramic Reactor: Long-Time Batch Experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele Castello

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Supercritical water gasification (SCWG is an emerging technology for the valorization of (wet biomass into a valuable fuel gas composed of hydrogen and/or methane. The harsh temperature and pressure conditions involved in SCWG (T > 375 °C, p > 22 MPa are definitely a challenge for the manufacturing of the reactors. Metal surfaces are indeed subject to corrosion under hydrothermal conditions, and expensive special alloys are needed to overcome such drawbacks. A ceramic reactor could be a potential solution to this issue. Finding a suitable material is, however, complex because the catalytic effect of the material can influence the gas yield and composition. In this work, a research reactor featuring an internal alumina inlay was utilized to conduct long-time (16 h batch tests with real biomasses and model compounds. The same experiments were also conducted in batch reactors made of stainless steel and Inconel 625. The results show that the three devices have similar performance patterns in terms of gas production, although in the ceramic reactor higher yields of C2+ hydrocarbons were obtained. The SEM observation of the reacted alumina surface revealed a good resistance of such material to supercritical conditions, even though some intergranular corrosion was observed.

  7. Biodegradation of Jet Fuel-4 (JP-4) in Sequencing Batch Reactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-06-01

    Specific Objectives of This Proposal Are: 1. To assess the ability of C. resinae , P. chrysosporium and selected bacterial consortia to degrade individual...chemical components of JP-4. 2. To develop a sequencing batch reactor that utilizes C. resinae to degrade chemical components of JP-4 in contaminated...Angeles Air Force Base. The study of the effectiveness of the two fungal systems (P. chrysosporium and and C. resinae ) is still in progress. Initial

  8. ANAEROBIC-AEROBIC TREATMENT OF TEXTILE WASTEWATER IN A SEQUENCING BATCH REACTOR

    OpenAIRE

    IBTISSAM KANBOUCHI; SALAH SOUABI; ABDESSADEK CHTAINI; MOULAY ABDELAZIZ ABOULHASSAN

    2014-01-01

    In this work, the treatment of synthetic textile wastewater using sequential batch reactor (SBR) was studied. This in order to predict the effectiveness of biological treatment on wastewater containing dyes while minimizing the aeration cost. Laboratory tests were performed on synthetic wastewater containing filtered urban wastewater (source of bacteria) and dyes solutions. This promotes the biomass development in the mixture, capable of degrading organic matter properly. The results indicate...

  9. Reactor Safety Research Programs Quarterly Report October - December 1981

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edler, S. K.

    1982-03-01

    This document summarizes the work performed by Pacific Northwest laboratory (PNL) from October 1 through December 31, 1981, for the Division of Accident Evaluation, U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). Evaluations of nondestructive examination (NDE) techniques and instrumentation are reported; areas of investigation include demonstrating the feasibility of determining the strength of structural graphite, evaluating the feasibility of detecting and analyzing flaw growth in reactor pressure boundary systems, examining NDE reliability and probabilistic fracture mechanics, and assessing the integrity of pressurized water reactor (PWR) steam generator tubes where serviceinduced degradation has been indicated. Experimental data and analytical models are being provided to aid in decision-making regarding pipe-to-pipe impacts following postulated breaks in high-energy fluid system piping. Core thermal models are being developed to provide better digital codes to compute the behavior of full-scale reactor systems under postulated accident conditions. Fuel assemblies and analytical support are being provided for experimental programs at other facilities. These programs include loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA) simulation tests at the NRU reactor, Chalk River, Canada; fuel rod deformation, severe fuel damage, and post accident coolability tests for the ESSOR reactor Super Sara Test Program, lspra, Italy; the instrumented fuel assembly irradiation program at Halden, Norway; and experimental programs at the Power Burst Facility, Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL), Idaho Falls, Idaho. These programs will provide data for computer modeling of reactor system and fuel performance during various abnormal operating conditions.

  10. Reactor Safety Research Programs Quarterly Report July - September 1981

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edler, S. K.

    1982-01-01

    This document summarizes the work performed by Pacific Northwest laboratory (PNL) from July 1 through September 30, 1981, for the Division of Accident Evaluation, U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). Evaluations of nondestructive examination (NDE) techniques and instrumentation are reported; areas of investigation include demonstrating the feasibility of determining the strength of structural graphite, evaluating the feasibility of detecting and analyzing flaw growth in reactor pressure boundary systems, examining NDE reliability and probabilistic fracture mechanics, and assessing the integrity of pressurized water reactor (PWR} steam generator tubes where service-induced degradation has been indicated. Experimental data and analytical models are being provided to aid in decision-making regarding pipe-to-pipe impacts following postulated breaks in high-energy fluid system piping. Core thermal models are being developed to provide better digital codes to compute the behavior of full-scale reactor systems under postulated accident conditions. Fuel assemblies and analytical support are being provided for experimental programs at other facilities. These programs include loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA) simulation tests at the NRU reactor, Chalk River, Canada; fuel rod deformation, severe fuel damage, and postaccident coolability tests for the ESSOR reactor Super Sara Test Program, lspra, Italy; the instrumented fuel assembly irradiation program at Halden, Norway; and experimental programs at the Power Burst Facility, Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL), Idaho Falls, Idaho. These programs will provide data for computer modeling of reactor system and fuel performance during various abnormal operating conditions.

  11. Reactor Safety Research Programs Quarterly Report April -June 1980

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edler, S. K.

    1980-11-01

    This document summarizes the work performed by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) from April 1 through June 30, 1980, for the Division of Reactor Safety Research within the Nuclear Regulatory Commission {NRC). Evaluations of nondestructive examination (NDE) techniques and instrumentation are reported; areas of investigation include demonstrating the feasibility of determining structural graphite strength, evaluating the feasibility of detecting and analyzing flaw growth in reactor pressure boundary systems, examining NDE reliability and probabilistic fracture mechanics, and assessing the remaining integrity of pressurized water reactor (PWR) steam generator tubes where service-induced degradation has been indicated. Test assemblies and analytical support are being provided for experimental programs at other facilities. These programs include loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA) simulation tests at the NRU reactor, Chalk River, Canada; fuel rod deformation and postaccident coolability tests for the ESSOR Test Reactor Program, Ispra, Italy; blowdown and reflood tests in the test facility at Cadarache, France; the instrumented fuel assembly irradiation program at Halden, Norway; and experimental programs at the Power Burst Facility, Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). These programs will provide data for computer modeling of reactor system and fuel performance during various abnormal operating conditions.

  12. A KINETIC MODEL FOR H2O2/UV PROCESS IN A COMPLETELY MIXED BATCH REACTOR. (R825370C076)

    Science.gov (United States)

    A dynamic kinetic model for the advanced oxidation process (AOP) using hydrogen peroxide and ultraviolet irradiation (H2O2/UV) in a completely mixed batch reactor (CMBR) is developed. The model includes the known elementary chemical and photochemical reac...

  13. The Effect of Organic Loading Rate on Milk WastewaterTreatment Using Sequencing Batch Reactor (SBR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hooman Hajiabadi

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available In this study, four aerobic sequencing batch reactors (SBRs were operated under the same conditions for the treatment of milk wastewater at different organic loading rates (OLRs. Cylindrical Plexiglas reactors were run for 56 days (including 21 days of acclimatization and 35 days of data gathering. Effective volume, influent wastewater flowrate, and sludge retention time (SRT of reactors were 5.5 L, 3.5 L/d, and 10 d, respectively. The average COD removal efficiency for the reactors R1, R2, R3, and R4 with influent OLRave values of 633, 929, 1915, and 3261 gCOD/m3d were 95, 96, 95, and 82 percent, respectively. The average effluent suspended solid (SS for all reactors was lower than 44 mg/L. Also, except for R4 with an average effluent turbidity of 270 NTU, other reactors met the Iranian wastewater emission standard (50 NTU. In addition, the average sludge volume index of reactors R1 to R3 was found to be lower than 67 mL/g. According to the results, the overall variation of COD removal efficiency versus influent OLR shows a decreasing rate with a correlation factor of 0.8 (R2.

  14. Simulation and calibration of a full-scale sequencing batch reactor for wastewater treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. C. Oselame

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to apply the main mathematical models used in activated sludge reactors, the Activated Sludge Model No. 1 (ASM1 and its variations (ASM2d and ASM3, to predict the behavior of a full-scale sequencing batch reactor (SBR used for the treatment of domestic wastewater employing the software ASIM®. Two cycles were studied, the step-feed cycle and conventional filling. Samples were taken from the raw influent, from the reactor and from the treated wastewater, and these data were used to calibrate the models. The ASM1 model was the best model to represent the cycle with only an input, while model ASM3 was the best for simulating the scaled filling cycle. This work presents calibrated parameters for the two kinds of filling. The results of these simulations indicate that the calibration process succeeded and can be used as a model for future studies.

  15. Ethanol production potential from fermented rice noodle wastewater treatment using entrapped yeast cell sequencing batch reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siripattanakul-Ratpukdi, Sumana

    2012-03-01

    Fermented rice noodle production generates a large volume of starch-based wastewater. This study investigated the treatment of the fermented rice noodle wastewater using entrapped cell sequencing batch reactor (ECSBR) compared to traditional sequencing batch reactor (SBR). The yeast cells were applied because of their potential to convert reducing sugar in the wastewater to ethanol. In present study, preliminary treatment by acid hydrolysis was performed. A yeast culture, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, with calcium alginate cell entrapment was used. Optimum yeast cell loading in batch experiment and fermented rice noodle treatment performances using ECSBR and SBR systems were examined. In the first part, it was found that the cell loadings (0.6-2.7 × 108 cells/mL) did not play an important role in this study. Treatment reactions followed the second-order kinetics with the treatment efficiencies of 92-95%. In the second part, the result showed that ECSBR performed better than SBR in both treatment efficiency and system stability perspectives. ECSBR maintained glucose removal of 82.5 ± 10% for 5-cycle treatment while glucose removal by SBR declined from 96 to 40% within the 5-cycle treatment. Scanning electron microscopic images supported the treatment results. A number of yeast cells entrapped and attached onto the matrix grew in the entrapment matrix.

  16. Reactor safety research programs. Quarterly report, January-March 1982

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edler, S.K. (ed.)

    1982-07-01

    This document summarizes work performed by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) from January 1 through March 31, 1982, for the Division of Accident Evaluation and the Division of Engineering Technology, US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). Evaluations of nondestructive examination (NDE) techniques and instrumentation are reported; areas of investigation include demonstrating the feasibility of determining the strength of structural graphite, evaluating the feasibility of detecting and analyzing flaw growth in reactor pressure boundary systems, examining NDE reliability and probabilistic fracture mechanics, and assessing the integrity of pressurized water reactor (PWR) steam generator tubes where service-induced degradation has been indicated. Experimental data and analytical models are being provided to aid in decision-making regarding pipe-to-pipe impacts following postulated breaks in high-energy fluid system piping. Core thermal models are being developed to provide better digital codes to compute the behavior of full-scale reactor systems under postulated accident conditions. Fuel assemblies and analytical support are being provided for experimental programs at other facilities.

  17. Reactor safety research programs. Quarterly report, April-June 1982

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edler, S.K. (ed.)

    1982-11-01

    This document summarizes work performed by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) from April 1 through June 30, 1982, for the Division of Accident Evaluation and the Division of Engineering Technology, US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). Evaluations of nondestructive examination (NDE) techniques and instrumentation are reported; areas of investigation include demonstrating the feasibility of determining the strength of structural graphite, evaluating the feasibility of detecting and analyzing flaw growth in reactor pressure boundary systems, examining NDE reliability and probabilistic fracture mechanics, and assessing the integrity of pressurized water reactor (PWR) steam generator tubes where service-induced degradation has been indicated. Experimental data and analytical models are being provided to aid in decision-making regarding pipe-to-pipe impacts following postulated breaks in high-energy fluid system piping. Core thermal models are being developed to provide better digital codes to compute the behavior of full-scale reactor systems under postulated accident conditions. Fuel assemblies and analytical support are being provided for experimental programs at other facilities.

  18. Operational conditions for successful partial nitrification in a sequencing batch reactor (SBR) based on process kinetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaoguang; Kim, Mingu; Nakhla, George

    2017-03-01

    The objective of this study is to analyze the factors affecting the performance of partial nitrification in a sequencing batch reactor (SBR) using kinetic models. During the 4-month operation, dissolved oxygen (DO) and influent ammonia concentration were selected as operating variables to evaluate nitrite accumulation. Stable partial nitrification was observed with two conditions, influent ammonia concentration of 190 mg N/L and a DO of 0.6-3.0 mg/L as well as influent ammonia concentration of 100 mg N/L and a DO of 0.15-2.0 mg/L with intermittent aeration. At a DO of 0.6-3.0 mg O 2 /L and influent ammonia concentration of 90 mg N/L, nitrite-oxidizing bacteria growth was not suppressed. Kinetic parameters were determined or estimated with batch tests and model simulation. The kinetic model predicted the SBR performance well.

  19. Effect of inoculum-substrate ratio on acclimatization of pharmaceutical effluent in an anaerobic batch reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muruganandam, B; Saravanane, R; Lavanya, M; Sivacoumar, R

    2008-07-01

    Anaerobic treatment has gained tremendous success over the past two decades for treatment of industrial effluents. Over the past 30 years, the popularity of anaerobic wastewater treatment has increased as public utilities and industries have utilized its considerable benefits. Low biomass production, row nutrient requirements and the energy production in terms of methane yield are the significant advantages over aerobic treatment process. Due to the disadvantages reported in the earlier investigations, during the past decade, anaerobic biotechnology now seems to become a stable process technology in respect of generating a high quality effluent. The objective of the present experimental study was to compare the biodegradability of recalcitrant effluent (pharmaceutical effluent) for various inoculum-substrate ratios. The batch experiments were conducted over 6 months to get effect of ratio of inoculum-substrate on the acclimatization of pharmaceutical effluent. The tests were carried out in batch reactors, serum bottles, of volume 2000 mL and plastic canes of 10000 mL. Each inoculum was filled with a cow dung, sewage and phosphate buffer. The batch was made-up of diluted cow dung at various proportions of water and cow dung, i.e., 1:1 and 1:2 (one part of cow dung and one part of water by weight for 1:1). The bottles were incubated at ambient temperature (32 degrees C-35 degrees C). The bottles were closed tightly so that the anaerobic condition is maintained. The samples were collected and biodegradability was measured once in four days. The bottles were carefully stirred before gas measurement. The substrate was added to a mixture of inoculum and phosphate nutrients. The variations in pH, conductivity, alkalinity, COD, TS, TVS, VSS, and VFA were measured for batch process. The biogas productivity was calculated for various batches of inoculum-substrate addition and conclusions were drawn for expressing the biodegradability of pharmaceutical effluent on

  20. Anaerobic sequencing batch reactor in pilot scale for treatment of tofu industry wastewater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahayu, Suparni Setyowati; Purwanto, Budiyono

    2015-12-01

    The small industry of tofu production process releases the waste water without being processed first, and the wastewater is directly discharged into water. In this study, Anaerobic Sequencing Batch Reactor in Pilot Scale for Treatment of Tofu Industry was developed through an anaerobic process to produce biogas as one kind of environmentally friendly renewable energy which can be developed into the countryside. The purpose of this study was to examine the fundamental characteristics of organic matter elimination of industrial wastewater with small tofu effective method and utilize anaerobic active sludge with Anaerobic Sequencing Bath Reactor (ASBR) to get rural biogas as an energy source. The first factor is the amount of the active sludge concentration which functions as the decomposers of organic matter and controlling selectivity allowance to degrade organic matter. The second factor is that HRT is the average period required substrate to react with the bacteria in the Anaerobic Sequencing Bath Reactor (ASBR).The results of processing the waste of tofu production industry using ASBR reactor with active sludge additions as starter generates cumulative volume of 5814.4 mL at HRT 5 days so that in this study it is obtained the conversion 0.16 L of CH4/g COD and produce biogas containing of CH4: 81.23% and CO2: 16.12%. The wastewater treatment of tofu production using ASBR reactor is able to produce renewable energy that has economic value as well as environmentally friendly by nature.

  1. Isolation and characterization of isopimaric acid-degrading bacteria from a sequencing batch reactor.

    OpenAIRE

    Wilson, A E; Moore, E R; Mohn, W W

    1996-01-01

    We isolated two aerobic, gram-negative bacteria which grew on the diterpene resin acid isopimaric acid (IpA) as the sole carbon source and electron donor. The source of the isolates was a sequencing batch reactor treating a high-strength process stream from a paper mill. The isolates, IpA-1 and IpA-2, also grew on pimaric and dehydroabietic acids, and IpA-1 grew on abietic acid. Both strains used fatty acids, but neither strain used camphor, sitosterol, or betulin. Strain IpA-1 grew anaerobic...

  2. Microbial population dynamics during sludge granulation in an A/O/A sequencing batch reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Qiulai; Zhou, Jun; Wang, Hongyu; Zhang, Jing; Wei, Li

    2016-08-01

    The evolution of the bacterial population during formation of denitrifying phosphorus removal granular sludge was investigated using high-throughput pyrosequencing. As a result, mature granules with a compact structure were obtained in an anaerobic/aerobic/anoxic (A/O/A) sequencing batch reactor under an organic loading rate as low as 0.3kg COD/(m(3)·d). Rod-shaped microbes were observed to cover with the outer surface of granules. Besides, reliable COD and simultaneous nitrogen and phosphorus removal efficiencies were achieved over the whole operation period. MiSeq pyrosequencing analysis illustrated that both the microbial diversity and richness increased sharply during the granulation process, whereas they stayed stable after the presence of granules. Some microorganisms seemed to contribute to the formation of granules, and some were identified as functional bacterial groups responsible for constructing the biological reactor. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Crystal agglomeration of europium oxalate in reaction crystallization using double-jet semi-batch reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Woo-Sik; Kim, Woon-Soo; Kim, Kwang-Seok; Kim, Joon-Soo; Ward, Michael D.

    2004-01-01

    The particle agglomeration of europium oxalate was investigated in a double-jet semi-batch reactor over a wide range of operating variables, including the agitation speed, reactant feed rate, and reactant concentration. The size of the agglomerates was directly dictated by the particle collision and supersaturation promoting agglomeration and the fluid shear force inhibiting agglomeration. Thus, with a longer feeding time and higher feed concentration for the reaction crystallization, the mean particle size increased, while the corresponding total particle population decreased due to the enhanced chance of particle agglomeration, resulting from a longer residence time and higher supersaturation in the reactor. Agitation was found to exhibit a rather complicated influence on particle agglomeration. Although both particle collision and turbulent fluid shear were promoted by an increase in the mixing intensity, the crystal agglomeration of europium oxalate was maximized at around 500 rpm of agitation speed due to an optimized balance between particle aggregation and breakage

  4. Algal Feedback and Removal Efficiency in a Sequencing Batch Reactor Algae Process (SBAR to Treat the Antibiotic Cefradine.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianqiu Chen

    Full Text Available Many previous studies focused on the removal capability for contaminants when the algae grown in an unexposed, unpolluted environment and ignored whether the feedback of algae to the toxic stress influenced the removal capability in a subsequent treatment batch. The present research investigated and compared algal feedback and removal efficiency in a sequencing batch reactor algae process (SBAR to remove cefradine. Three varied pollution load conditions (10, 30 and 60 mg/L were considered. Compared with the algal characteristics in the first treatment batch at 10 and 30 mg/L, higher algal growth inhibition rates were observed in the second treatment batch (11.23% to 20.81%. In contrast, algae produced more photosynthetic pigments in response to cefradine in the second treatment batch. A better removal efficiency (76.02% was obtained during 96 h when the alga treated the antibiotic at 60 mg/L in the first treatment batch and at 30 mg/L in the second treatment batch. Additionally, the removal rate per unit algal density was also improved when the alga treated the antibiotic at 30 or 60 mg/L in the first treatment batch, respectively and at 30 mg/L in the second treatment batch. Our result indicated that the green algae were also able to adapt to varied pollution loads in different treatment batches.

  5. Algal Feedback and Removal Efficiency in a Sequencing Batch Reactor Algae Process (SBAR) to Treat the Antibiotic Cefradine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jianqiu; Zheng, Fengzhu; Guo, Ruixin

    2015-01-01

    Many previous studies focused on the removal capability for contaminants when the algae grown in an unexposed, unpolluted environment and ignored whether the feedback of algae to the toxic stress influenced the removal capability in a subsequent treatment batch. The present research investigated and compared algal feedback and removal efficiency in a sequencing batch reactor algae process (SBAR) to remove cefradine. Three varied pollution load conditions (10, 30 and 60 mg/L) were considered. Compared with the algal characteristics in the first treatment batch at 10 and 30 mg/L, higher algal growth inhibition rates were observed in the second treatment batch (11.23% to 20.81%). In contrast, algae produced more photosynthetic pigments in response to cefradine in the second treatment batch. A better removal efficiency (76.02%) was obtained during 96 h when the alga treated the antibiotic at 60 mg/L in the first treatment batch and at 30 mg/L in the second treatment batch. Additionally, the removal rate per unit algal density was also improved when the alga treated the antibiotic at 30 or 60 mg/L in the first treatment batch, respectively and at 30 mg/L in the second treatment batch. Our result indicated that the green algae were also able to adapt to varied pollution loads in different treatment batches. PMID:26177093

  6. Galacto-oligosaccharide production with immobilized ß-galactosidase in a packed-bed reactor vs. free ß-galactosidase in a batch reactor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Warmerdam, A.; Benjamins, E.; Leeuw de, T.F.; Broekhuis, T.A.; Boom, R.M.; Janssen, A.E.M.

    2014-01-01

    We report here that the usage of immobilized enzyme in a continuous packed bed reactor (PBR) can be a good alternative for GOS production instead of the traditional use of free enzyme in a batch reactor. The carbohydrate composition of the product of the PBR with immobilized enzyme was comparable to

  7. Parameterized data-driven fuzzy model based optimal control of a semi-batch reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamesh, Reddi; Rani, K Yamuna

    2016-09-01

    A parameterized data-driven fuzzy (PDDF) model structure is proposed for semi-batch processes, and its application for optimal control is illustrated. The orthonormally parameterized input trajectories, initial states and process parameters are the inputs to the model, which predicts the output trajectories in terms of Fourier coefficients. Fuzzy rules are formulated based on the signs of a linear data-driven model, while the defuzzification step incorporates a linear regression model to shift the domain from input to output domain. The fuzzy model is employed to formulate an optimal control problem for single rate as well as multi-rate systems. Simulation study on a multivariable semi-batch reactor system reveals that the proposed PDDF modeling approach is capable of capturing the nonlinear and time-varying behavior inherent in the semi-batch system fairly accurately, and the results of operating trajectory optimization using the proposed model are found to be comparable to the results obtained using the exact first principles model, and are also found to be comparable to or better than parameterized data-driven artificial neural network model based optimization results. Copyright © 2016 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Model-based optimization of a sequencing batch reactor for biological nitrogen removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, S M; Araújo, O Q F; Coelho, M A Z

    2008-05-01

    An optimal operating mode for a sequencing batch reactor was determined via a model-based optimization. Synthetic wastewater containing mainly organic matter (as glucose) and nitrogen (as ammonium chloride) was treated without any addition of an external carbon source to accomplish denitrification step. A simplified model was used to describe process dynamics, comprised of six ordinary differential equations and an empirical correlation for oxygen consumption rate. Batch cycle time was the chosen objective function to be minimized for a fixed volume of waste to be treated. Furthermore, as SBR operation is divided in two major phases - aerobic and anoxic, to achieve total pollutants removal within minimum time, these phases can be repeatedly alternated. To ensure availability of organic matter necessary for denitrification, these two phases were combined with feed steps. Different feed strategies were tested using one, two or three feed steps. A successive quadratic programming algorithm was used, and maximum values for final COD, nitrate and ammonium concentrations, as well as maximum feed pump flow rate were some the process constraints. One step feed strategy was indicated by the optimization leading to a batch cycle time of 5h.

  9. The influence of pH adjustment on kinetics parameters in tapioca wastewater treatment using aerobic sequencing batch reactor system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulyani, Happy; Budianto, Gregorius Prima Indra; Margono, Kaavessina, Mujtahid

    2018-02-01

    The present investigation deals with the aerobic sequencing batch reactor system of tapioca wastewater treatment with varying pH influent conditions. This project was carried out to evaluate the effect of pH on kinetics parameters of system. It was done by operating aerobic sequencing batch reactor system during 8 hours in many tapioca wastewater conditions (pH 4.91, pH 7, pH 8). The Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) and Mixed Liquor Volatile Suspended Solids (MLVSS) of the aerobic sequencing batch reactor system effluent at steady state condition were determined at interval time of two hours to generate data for substrate inhibition kinetics parameters. Values of the kinetics constants were determined using Monod and Andrews models. There was no inhibition constant (Ki) detected in all process variation of aerobic sequencing batch reactor system for tapioca wastewater treatment in this study. Furthermore, pH 8 was selected as the preferred aerobic sequencing batch reactor system condition in those ranging pH investigated due to its achievement of values of kinetics parameters such µmax = 0.010457/hour and Ks = 255.0664 mg/L COD.

  10. Predictive functional control of temperature in a pharmaceutical hybrid nonlinear batch reactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Štampar Simon

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available These days, in times of recession, we are forced by competitiveness and the optimization of production to lower the costs of the temperature control in pharmaceutical batch reactors and increase the quantity and quality of the produced pharmaceutical product (active pharmaceutical substances. Therefore, a control algorithm is needed which provides us rapid and precise temperature control. This paper deals with the development of a control algorithm, where two predictive functional controllers are connected in a cascade for heating and cooling the content of the hybrid batch reactor. The algorithm has to be designed to cope with the constraints and the mixed discrete and continuous nature of the process of heating and cooling. The main goal of the control law is to achieve rapid and exact tracking of the reference temperature, good disturbance rejection and, in particular, a small number of heating and cooling medium switchings. The simulation results of the proposed algorithm give us much better performance compared to a conventional cascade PI algorithm.

  11. Treatment of opium alkaloid containing wastewater in sequencing batch reactor (SBR)-Effect of gamma irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bural, Cavit B.; Demirer, Goksel N. [Middle East Technical University, Department of Environmental Engineering, 06531 Ankara (Turkey); Kantoglu, Omer [Turkish Atomic Energy Authority, Saraykoy Nuclear Research and Training Center, 06982, Kazan, Ankara (Turkey); Dilek, Filiz B., E-mail: fdilek@metu.edu.t [Middle East Technical University, Department of Environmental Engineering, 06531 Ankara (Turkey)

    2010-04-15

    Aerobic biological treatment of opium alkaloid containing wastewater as well as the effect of gamma irradiation as pre-treatment was investigated. Biodegradability of raw wastewater was assessed in aerobic batch reactors and was found highly biodegradable (83-90% degradation). The effect of irradiation (40 and 140 kGy) on biodegradability was also evaluated in terms of BOD{sub 5}/COD values and results revealed that irradiation imparted no further enhancement in the biodegradability. Despite the highly biodegradable nature of wastewater, further experiments in sequencing batch reactors (SBR) revealed that the treatment operation was not possible due to sludge settleability problem observed beyond an influent COD value of 2000 mg dm{sup -3}. Possible reasons for this problem were investigated, and the high molecular weight, large size and aromatic structure of the organic pollutants present in wastewater was thought to contribute to poor settleability. Initial efforts to solve this problem by modifying the operational conditions, such as SRT reduction, failed. However, further operational modifications including addition of phosphate buffer cured the settleability problem and influent COD was increased up to 5000 mg dm{sup -3}. Significant COD removal efficiencies (>70%) were obtained in both SBRs fed with original and irradiated wastewaters (by 40 kGy). However, pre-irradiated wastewater provided complete thebain removal and a better settling sludge, which was thought due to degradation of complex structure by radiation application. Degradation of the structure was observed by GC/MS analyses and enhancement in filterability tests.

  12. Treatment of opium alkaloid containing wastewater in sequencing batch reactor (SBR)-Effect of gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bural, Cavit B.; Demirer, Goksel N.; Kantoglu, Omer; Dilek, Filiz B.

    2010-01-01

    Aerobic biological treatment of opium alkaloid containing wastewater as well as the effect of gamma irradiation as pre-treatment was investigated. Biodegradability of raw wastewater was assessed in aerobic batch reactors and was found highly biodegradable (83-90% degradation). The effect of irradiation (40 and 140 kGy) on biodegradability was also evaluated in terms of BOD 5 /COD values and results revealed that irradiation imparted no further enhancement in the biodegradability. Despite the highly biodegradable nature of wastewater, further experiments in sequencing batch reactors (SBR) revealed that the treatment operation was not possible due to sludge settleability problem observed beyond an influent COD value of 2000 mg dm -3 . Possible reasons for this problem were investigated, and the high molecular weight, large size and aromatic structure of the organic pollutants present in wastewater was thought to contribute to poor settleability. Initial efforts to solve this problem by modifying the operational conditions, such as SRT reduction, failed. However, further operational modifications including addition of phosphate buffer cured the settleability problem and influent COD was increased up to 5000 mg dm -3 . Significant COD removal efficiencies (>70%) were obtained in both SBRs fed with original and irradiated wastewaters (by 40 kGy). However, pre-irradiated wastewater provided complete thebain removal and a better settling sludge, which was thought due to degradation of complex structure by radiation application. Degradation of the structure was observed by GC/MS analyses and enhancement in filterability tests.

  13. REMOVAL OF REACTIVE BLUE 19 BY ADDING POLYALUMINUM CHLORIDE TO SEQUENCING BATCH REACTOR SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    1Sh. Mehrali, *1M. R. Alavi Moghaddam, 2S. H. Hashemi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this study was to evaluate Reactive Blue 19 dye removal efficiency in aerobic sequencing batch reactor (SBR process by adding polyaluminum chloride (PACl. PACl was added to the reactors in concentrations of 0, 1, 5, 15 and 30 mg-Al/L (SBR1 to SBR5 after filling periods. Initial dye concentrations were selected to be 40 mg/L for all reactors. The averages of dye removal efficiencies were more than 57% in all reactors. The maximum and minimum dye removal efficiencies were 71.7% ± 13.6 and 57.7% ± 34.3 in SBR3 and SBR4, respectively. According to the obtained results, PACl had not any significant effects on the COD removal efficiency. The MLSS and MLVSS concentration of SBRs had an increasing rate during whole operation time and reached from 2500 mg/L (1st day to 4900 mg/L (39th day. The maximum increasing rate was 50% in SBR5.

  14. Effect of redox conditions on pharmaceutical loss during biological wastewater treatment using sequencing batch reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stadler, Lauren B., E-mail: lstadler@umich.edu [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Michigan, 1351 Beal Avenue, EWRE, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Su, Lijuan, E-mail: lijuansu@buffalo.edu [Department of Chemistry, University at Buffalo, State University of New York, Buffalo, NY 14260 (United States); Moline, Christopher J., E-mail: christopher.moline@hdrinc.com [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Michigan, 1351 Beal Avenue, EWRE, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Ernstoff, Alexi S., E-mail: alexer@dtu.dk [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Michigan, 1351 Beal Avenue, EWRE, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Aga, Diana S., E-mail: dianaaga@buffalo.edu [Department of Chemistry, University at Buffalo, State University of New York, Buffalo, NY 14260 (United States); Love, Nancy G., E-mail: nglove@umich.edu [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Michigan, 1351 Beal Avenue, EWRE, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States)

    2015-01-23

    Highlights: • Pharmaceutical fate was studied in SBRs operated at different redox conditions. • Stable carbon oxidation and nitrification occurred under microaerobic conditions. • Losses of atenolol and trimethoprim were highest under fully aerobic conditions. • Loss of sulfamethoxazole was highest under microaerobic conditions. • Deconjugation occurred during treatment to form sulfamethoxazole and desvenlafaxine. - Abstract: We lack a clear understanding of how wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) process parameters, such as redox environment, impact pharmaceutical fate. WWTPs increasingly install more advanced aeration control systems to save energy and achieve better nutrient removal performance. The impact of redox condition, and specifically the use of microaerobic (low dissolved oxygen) treatment, is poorly understood. In this study, the fate of a mixture of pharmaceuticals and several of their transformation products present in the primary effluent of a local WWTP was assessed in sequencing batch reactors operated under different redox conditions: fully aerobic, anoxic/aerobic, and microaerobic (DO concentration ≈0.3 mg/L). Among the pharmaceuticals that were tracked during this study (atenolol, trimethoprim, sulfamethoxazole, desvenlafaxine, venlafaxine, and phenytoin), overall loss varied between them and between redox environments. Losses of atenolol and trimethoprim were highest in the aerobic reactor; sulfamethoxazole loss was highest in the microaerobic reactors; and phenytoin was recalcitrant in all reactors. Transformation products of sulfamethoxazole and desvenlafaxine resulted in the reformation of their parent compounds during treatment. The results suggest that transformation products must be accounted for when assessing removal efficiencies and that redox environment influences the degree of pharmaceutical loss.

  15. Biological nutrient removal from municipal wastewater in sequencing batch biofilm reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arnz, P.

    2001-07-01

    Enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR) has only been put into practice in activated sludge systems. In recent years, the Sequencing Batch Biofilm Reactor (SBBR) has emerged as an alternative allowing EBPR to be achieved in a biofilm reactor. High efficiency of phosphate removal was demonstrated in a SBBR fed with synthetic wastewater containing acetate. The aim of this study was to investigate EBPR from municipal wastewater in semi full-scale and laboratory-scale SBBRs. The focus of the investigation in the semi full-scale reactor was on determination of achievable reaction rates and effluent concentrations under varying influent conditions throughout all seasons of a year. Interactions between nitrogen and phosphorus removal and the influence of backwashing on the reactor performance was examined. Summing up, it can be stated that the SBBR proved to be an attractive alternative to activated sludge systems. Phosphorus elimination efficiency was comparable to common systems but biomass sedimentation problems were avoided. In order to further exploit the potential of the SBBR and to achieve reactor performances superior to those of existing systems designing a special biofilm carrier material may allow to increase the phenomenon of simultaneous nitrification/denitrification while maintaining EBPR activity. (orig.) [German] Die vermehrte biologische Phosphorelimination (Bio-P) aus Abwasser wurde bisher nur in Belebtschlammsystemen praktiziert. In den letzten Jahren konnte jedoch gezeigt werden, dass sich durch die Anwendung des Sequencing Batch Biofilm Reactor (SBBR) - Verfahrens auch in Biofilmreaktoren Bio-P verwirklichen laesst. Versuche in Laboranlagen haben ergeben, dass sich eine weitgehende Phosphorelimination aufrecht erhalten laesst, wenn die Reaktoren mit einem ideal zusammengesetzten, synthetischen Abwasser beschickt werden. Ziel dieser Arbeit war es, Bio-P aus kommunalem Abwasser in SBBR-Versuchsanlagen im halbtechnischen und im Labormassstab zu

  16. Bioaugmentation of a sequencing batch reactor with Pseudomonas putida ONBA-17, and its impact on reactor bacterial communities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Fangbo; Ali, Shinawar Waseem; Guan Libo; Li Shunpeng; Zhou Shan

    2010-01-01

    This study demonstrates the feasibility of using Pseudomonasputida ONBA-17 to bioaugment a sequencing batch reactor (SBR) treating o-nitrobenzaldehyde (ONBA) synthetic wastewater. To monitor its survival, the strain was chromosomally marked with gfp gene. After a transient adaptation, almost 100% degradation of ONBA was obtained within 8 days as compared with 23.47% of the non-inoculated control. The bioaugmented reactor has a better chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal performance (96.28%) than that (79.26%) of the control. The bioaugmentation not only enhanced the removal capability of target compound, but shortened system start-up time. After the increase in ONBA load, performance fluctuation of two reactors was observed, and the final treating effects of them were comparable. What is more, denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) analysis of 16S rRNA genes via a combination of pattern comparison and sequence phylogenetic analysis was performed to uncover changes in sludge microbial communities. Only the members of alpha, beta and gamma subdivisions of Proteobacteria were identified. To isolate ONBA-degrading relevant microorganisms, spread plate was used and four bacterial strains were obtained. Subsequent systematic studies on these bacteria characterized their traits which to some extent explained why such bacteria could be kept in the system. This study will help future research in better understanding of the bioreactor bioaugmentation.

  17. Kinetic study on the effect of temperature on biogas production using a lab scale batch reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deepanraj, B; Sivasubramanian, V; Jayaraj, S

    2015-11-01

    In the present study, biogas production from food waste through anaerobic digestion was carried out in a 2l laboratory-scale batch reactor operating at different temperatures with a hydraulic retention time of 30 days. The reactors were operated with a solid concentration of 7.5% of total solids and pH 7. The food wastes used in this experiment were subjected to characterization studies before and after digestion. Modified Gompertz model and Logistic model were used for kinetic study of biogas production. The kinetic parameters, biogas yield potential of the substrate (B), the maximum biogas production rate (Rb) and the duration of lag phase (λ), coefficient of determination (R(2)) and root mean square error (RMSE) were estimated in each case. The effect of temperature on biogas production was evaluated experimentally and compared with the results of kinetic study. The results demonstrated that the reactor with operating temperature of 50°C achieved maximum cumulative biogas production of 7556ml with better biodegradation efficiency. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Performance of a sequencing batch biofilm reactor for the treatment of pre-oxidized sulfamethoxazole solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, Oscar; Esplugas, Marc; Sans, Carme; Torres, Alicia; Esplugas, Santiago

    2009-05-01

    A combined strategy of a photo-Fenton pretreatment followed by a Sequencing Batch Biofilm Reactor (SBBR) was evaluated for total C and N removal from a synthetic wastewater containing exclusively 200 mg L(-1) of the antibiotic Sulfamethoxazole (SMX). Photo-Fenton reaction was optimized at the minimum reagent doses in order to improve the biocompatibility of effluents with the subsequent biological reactor. Consequently, the pretreatment was performed with two different initial H(2)O(2) concentrations (300 and 400 mg L(-1)) and 10 mg L(-1) of Fe(2+). The pre-treated effluents with the antibiotic intermediates as sole carbon source were used as feed for the biological reactor. The SBBR was operated under aerobic conditions to mineralize the organic carbon, and the Hydraulic Retention Time (HRT) was optimized down to 8h reaching a removal of 75.7% of the initial Total Organic Carbon (TOC). The total denitrification of the NO(3)(-) generated along the chemical-biological treatment was achieved by means of the inclusion of a 24-h anoxic stage in the SBBR strategy. In addition, the Activated Sludge Model No. 1 (ASM1) was successfully used to complete the N balance determining the N fate in the SBBR. The characterization and the good performance of the SBBR allow presenting the assessed combination as an efficient way for the treatment of wastewaters contaminated with biorecalcitrant pharmaceuticals as the SMX.

  19. INFLUENCE OF INTERFACIAL FORCES ON THE MIXTURE PREDICTION OF AN ANAEROBIC SEQUENCING BATCH REACTOR (ASBR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. M. Rosa

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available AbstractIn the operation of bioreactors, the fluid movement promotes mixing between sludge and substrate. The dynamics of this system are complex, and the interaction between the phases is difficult to evaluate accurately. In this work, Computational Fluid Dynamics is applied to simulate a pilot-scale anaerobic sequencing batch reactor, using a three-dimensional, transient and multiphase modeling. Several correlations were applied to estimate the interfacial forces. Results indicate that the use of different coefficients for the drag and lift forces strongly affects the predicted turbulent kinetic energy, and thus the mixture estimation in the bioreactor. The use of the drag as the only interfacial force provided an average turbulent kinetic energy close to the value found using a more complete model. However, the absence of lift and virtual mass forces had a significant impact on the resulting turbulence distribution.

  20. Effect of redox conditions on pharmaceutical loss during biological wastewater treatment using sequencing batch reactors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stadler, Lauren B.; Su, Lijuan; Moline, Christopher J.

    2015-01-01

    condition, and specifically the use of microaerobic (low dissolved oxygen) treatment, is poorly understood. In this study, the fate of a mixture of pharmaceuticals and several of their transformation products present in the primary effluent of a local WWTP was assessed in sequencing batch reactors operated......We lack a clear understanding of how wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) process parameters, such as redox environment, impact pharmaceutical fate. WWTPs increasingly install more advanced aeration control systems to save energy and achieve better nutrient removal performance. The impact of redox...... of their parent compounds during treatment. The results suggest that transformation products must be accounted for when assessing removal efficiencies and that redox environment influences the degree of pharmaceutical loss....

  1. ANAEROBIC-AEROBIC TREATMENT OF TEXTILE WASTEWATER IN A SEQUENCING BATCH REACTOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IBTISSAM KANBOUCHI

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In this work, the treatment of synthetic textile wastewater using sequential batch reactor (SBR was studied. This in order to predict the effectiveness of biological treatment on wastewater containing dyes while minimizing the aeration cost. Laboratory tests were performed on synthetic wastewater containing filtered urban wastewater (source of bacteria and dyes solutions. This promotes the biomass development in the mixture, capable of degrading organic matter properly. The results indicate that the increasing of anaerobic phase (16 hours allows removal of 77 % and 80 % of COD and colour, respectively. The sludge age did not affect markedly dyes biodegradability. However, the biodegradability is strongly influenced by the dyes concentration. Indeed, for the lowest dyes contents, improved biodegradability was observed, while it decreases when the dyes concentration increases.

  2. Design of Mixed Batch Reactor and Column Studies at Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Weimin [Stanford Univ., CA (United States); Criddle, Craig S. [Stanford Univ., CA (United States)

    2015-11-16

    We (the Stanford research team) were invited as external collaborators to contribute expertise in environmental engineering and field research at the ORNL IFRC, Oak Ridge, TN, for projects carried out at the Argonne National Laboratory and funded by US DOE. Specifically, we assisted in the design of batch and column reactors using ORNL IFRC materials to ensure the experiments were relevant to field conditions. During the funded research period, we characterized ORNL IFRC groundwater and sediments in batch microcosm and column experiments conducted at ANL, and we communicated with ANL team members through email and conference calls and face-to-face meetings at the annual ERSP PI meeting and national meetings. Microcosm test results demonstrated that U(VI) in sediments was reduced to U(IV) when amended with ethanol. The reduced products were not uraninite but unknown U(IV) complexes associated with Fe. Fe(III) in solid phase was only partially reduced. Due to budget reductions at ANL, Stanford contributions ended in 2011.

  3. Design of Mixed Batch Reactor and Column Studies at Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Weimin; Criddle, Craig S.

    2015-01-01

    We (the Stanford research team) were invited as external collaborators to contribute expertise in environmental engineering and field research at the ORNL IFRC, Oak Ridge, TN, for projects carried out at the Argonne National Laboratory and funded by US DOE. Specifically, we assisted in the design of batch and column reactors using ORNL IFRC materials to ensure the experiments were relevant to field conditions. During the funded research period, we characterized ORNL IFRC groundwater and sediments in batch microcosm and column experiments conducted at ANL, and we communicated with ANL team members through email and conference calls and face-to-face meetings at the annual ERSP PI meeting and national meetings. Microcosm test results demonstrated that U(VI) in sediments was reduced to U(IV) when amended with ethanol. The reduced products were not uraninite but unknown U(IV) complexes associated with Fe. Fe(III) in solid phase was only partially reduced. Due to budget reductions at ANL, Stanford contributions ended in 2011.

  4. Synthesis of Biodiesel in Batch and Packed-Bed Reactors Using Powdered and Granular Sugar Catalyst

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janaun, J.; Lim, P. M.; Balan, W. S.; Yaser, A. Z.; Chong, K. P.

    2017-06-01

    Increasing world production of palm oil warrants effective utilization of its waste. In particular, conversion of waste cooking oil into biodiesel has obtained global interest because of renewable energy need and reduction of CO2 emission. In this study, oleic acid used as a model compound for waste cooking oil conversion using esterification reaction catalysed by sugar catalyst (SC) in powdered (P-SC) and granular (G-SC) forms. The catalysts were synthesized via incomplete carbonization of D-glucose followed by functionalization with concentrated sulphuric acid. Catalysts characterizations were done for their physical and chemical properties using modern tools. Batch and packed-bed reactor systems were used to evaluate the reactivity of the catalysts. The results showed that G-SC had slightly higher total acidity and more porous than P-SC. The experimental conditions for batch reaction were temperature of 60°C, molar ratio of 1:20 (Oleic Acid:Methanol) and 2 wt. catalyst with respect to oleic acid. The results showed the maximum oleic acid conversion using G-SC and P-SC were 52 and 48, respectively. Whereas, the continuous reaction with varying feed flow rate as a function of retention time was studied by using 3 g of P-SC in 60 °C and 1:20 molar ratio in a packed-bed reactor. The results showed that a longer retention time which was 6.48 min and feed flow rate 1.38 ml/min, achieved higher average conversion of 9.9 and decreased with further increasing flow rate. G-SC showed a better average conversion of 10.8 at lowest feed flow rate of 1.38 ml/min in continuous reaction experiments. In a broader perspective, large scale continuous biodiesel production is feasible using granular over powdered catalyst mainly due to it lower pressure drop.

  5. Hydrothermal gasification of glucose and starch in a batch and continuous reactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazuhiro Kumabe

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available A batch reactor was used for the gasification of glucose and starch as carbohydrate model compounds. The effects of H2O in various states (low-pressure hot compressed water (LP-HCW, 300 °C and 10 MPa, high-pressure hot compressed water (HP-HCW, 360 °C and 20 MPa, high-temperature steam (HTS, 400 °C and 10 MPa, and supercritical water (SCW, 400 °C and 25 MPa, as well as reaction time (10, 30, and 60 min, sample concentration (10, 20, and 30 wt%, and catalyst (mixture of Ca(OH2 and Na2CO3 on gas production were investigated in the hydrothermal gasification. In addition, using a continuous reactor, the hydrothermal gasification of glucose was examined with LP-HCW (200 °C and 5 MPa, HP-HCW (200 °C and 25 MPa, HTS (600 °C, 5 MPa, and SCW (600 °C, 25 MPa in order to study the productions of gases and tar, and the mass balance. The reaction temperature affected gasification considerably, but pressure had little effect. In the batch experiments, the characteristics of the produced gases were almost identical after a reaction time of 10 min, and addition of Ca(OH2 and Na2CO3 as catalysts in a molar ratio of 7:3 led to selective production of H2 in the SCW gasification of 10 wt% glucose for 30 min. In a continuous experiment under the SCW conditions, the conversion efficiency of glucose to gas was 26% and the composition of the produced gas was 29 vol% CO, 23 vol% H2, and 16 vol% CH4. Under the hydrothermal conditions, glucose was mainly converted to char and suspended components of high-molecular-weight compounds such as fat, whereas starch was mainly converted to gas and liquid.

  6. Evaluation of moving-bed biofilm sequencing batch reactor (MBSBR) in operating A2O process with emphasis on biological removal of nutrients existing in wastewater

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seyedsalehi, M.; Jaafari, J.; Hélix-Nielsen, Claus

    2018-01-01

    In this study, the performance of moving-bed biofilm sequencing batch reactor in operating the anaerobic/anoxic/oxic (A2O) process for treatment of wastewaters containing nitrogen and phosphorous was evaluated. For this purpose, a pilot system with two bench-scale sequencing batch reactors with a...

  7. Nitrogen removal in moving bed sequencing batch reactor using polyurethane foam cubes of various sizes as carrier materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Jun-Wei; Seng, Chye-Eng; Lim, Poh-Eng; Ng, Si-Ling; Sujari, Amat-Ngilmi Ahmad

    2011-11-01

    The performance of moving bed sequencing batch reactors (MBSBRs) added with 8 % (v/v) of polyurethane (PU) foam cubes as carrier media in nitrogen removal was investigated in treating low COD/N wastewater. The results indicate that MBSBR with 8-mL cubes achieved the highest total nitrogen (TN) removal efficiency of 37% during the aeration period, followed by 31%, 24% and 19 % for MBSBRs with 27-, 64- and 125-mL cubes, respectively. The increased TN removal in MBSBRs was mainly due to simultaneous nitrification and denitrification (SND) process which was verified by batch studies. The relatively lower TN removal in MBSBR with larger PU foam cubes was attributed to the observation that larger PU foam cubes were not fully attached by biomass. Higher concentrations of 8-mL PU foam cubes in batch reactors yielded higher TN removal. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Acid mine drainage neutralization in a pilot sequencing batch reactor using limestone from a paper and pulp industry

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Vadapalli, VRK

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Technology Acid mine drainage neutralization in a pilot sequencing batch reactor using limestone from a paper and pulp industry V.R.K. Vadapallia∗, J.N. Zvimbab, M. Mathyeb, H. Fischerc and L. Bologoc aSustainable Resources and Environment...

  9. Biological Nitrogen Removal in a Photosequencing Batch Reactor with an Algal-Nitrifying Bacterial Consortium and Anammox Granules

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Manser, Nathan D.; Wang, Meng; Ergas, Sarina J.; Mihelcic, James R.; Mulder, Arnold; van de Vossenberg, Jack; van Lier, J.B.; Van Der Steen, Peter

    2016-01-01

    This study demonstrates the feasibility of combining microalgae, ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB), and Anammox in a photosequencing batch reactor. Alternating light and dark periods were applied to achieve biological nitrogen removal without mechanical aeration or external electron donor

  10. Treatment of dairy effluents in an aerobic granular sludge sequencing batch reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarzenbeck, N; Borges, J M; Wilderer, P A

    2005-03-01

    Aerobic granular sludge can successfully be cultivated in a sequencing batch reactor (SBR) treating dairy wastewater. Attention has to be paid to the fact that suspended solids are always present in the effluent of aerobic granular sludge reactors, making a post-treatment step necessary. Sufficient post-treatment can be achieved through a sedimentation process with a hydraulic retention time of 15-30 min. After complete granulation and the separation of biomass from the effluent, removal efficiencies of 90% CODtotal, 80% Ntotal and 67% Ptotal can be achieved at a volumetric exchange ratio of 50% and a cycle duration of 8 h. Effluent values stabilize at around 125 mg l-1 CODdissolved. The maximum applicable loading rate is nevertheless limited, as the stability of aerobic granules very much depends on the presence of distinct feast and famine conditions and the degradation of real wastewaters shows slower kinetics compared with synthetic wastewaters. As loading rate and volumetric exchange ratio are coupled in an SBR system, the potential of granular sludge for improving process efficiency is also limited.

  11. Effects of the antimicrobial tylosin on the microbial community structure of an anaerobic sequencing batch reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimada, Toshio; Li, Xu; Zilles, Julie L; Morgenroth, Eberhard; Raskin, Lutgarde

    2011-02-01

    The effects of the antimicrobial tylosin on a methanogenic microbial community were studied in a glucose-fed laboratory-scale anaerobic sequencing batch reactor (ASBR) exposed to stepwise increases of tylosin (0, 1.67, and 167 mg/L). The microbial community structure was determined using quantitative fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and phylogenetic analyses of bacterial 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene clone libraries of biomass samples. During the periods without tylosin addition and with an influent tylosin concentration of 1.67 mg/L, 16S rRNA gene sequences related to Syntrophobacter were detected and the relative abundance of Methanosaeta species was high. During the highest tylosin dose of 167 mg/L, 16S rRNA gene sequences related to Syntrophobacter species were not detected and the relative abundance of Methanosaeta decreased considerably. Throughout the experimental period, Propionibacteriaceae and high GC Gram-positive bacteria were present, based on 16S rRNA gene sequences and FISH analyses, respectively. The accumulation of propionate and subsequent reactor failure after long-term exposure to tylosin are attributed to the direct inhibition of propionate-oxidizing syntrophic bacteria closely related to Syntrophobacter and the indirect inhibition of Methanosaeta by high propionate concentrations and low pH. © 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Nutrient Removal of Grey Water from Wet Market Using Sequencing Batch Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Omar Danial; Mohd Razman Salim; Salmiati

    2016-01-01

    Fresh water scarcity has become an important issue in this world today. Water reuse is known as one of the strategies to overcome this problem. Grey water is one of the sources of reused water. Several researches were carried out on water reuse, but limited attention was focused on reusing grey water from wet market, which contains high nutrient and organic matters. This study was carried out on nutrient removal from grey water using sequencing batch reactor (SBR). The grey water sample was taken from a wet market (Pasar Peladang, Skudai). About 1L of grey water was fed into the reactor with a total volume of 4L. Anoxic-aerobic phase were divided with a ratio of 30 % - 70 % of total time respectively. Mixing was maintained at 30 rpm during the start of each cycle until settling phase to achieve uniform condition. Influent and effluent were set for 30 minutes. The SBR was operated with 3 cycles/ day, temperature 30 degree Celsius, cycle time 8 hours and hydraulic retention time (HRT) 1.2 days. Aeration at 35 L/ min was induced for ammonia conversion and assisting nitrification.. The results show that the bacteria growing in alternating anoxic/ aerobic systems could remove organic substrates and nutrient. The COD, Total Nitrogen and Total Phosphorus removal efficiencies were maximum at the levels of 94 %, 88 % and 70 % respectively. Anaerobic-Aerobic-Anoxic phase was proposed to increase the removal percentage. (author)

  13. [Factors of the rapid startup for nitrosation in sequencing batch reactor].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Dong; Tao, Xiao-Xiao; Li, Zhan; Wang, Jun-An; Zhang, Jie

    2011-08-01

    The approach and factors for realizing the rapid startup of nitrosation were researched at the low level of dissolved oxygen (DO) in sequencing batch reactor (SBR). The main parameters of the reactor were controlled as follows: DO were 0.15-0.40 mg/L, pH values kept from 7.52 to 8.30, temperature maintained at 22.3-27.1 degrees C, and time of aeration was 8 hours. The purpose of rapid startup for nitrosation was achieved after 57 cycles (36 d) with the alternative influent of high and low ammonium wastewater (the mean values were 245.28 mg/L and 58.08 mg/L respectively) in a SBR, and the nitrosation rate was even 100%. Factors of accumulation of nitrite were investigated and the effects of DO and pH were analyzed during the startup for nitrosation. The results showed that it could improve the efficiency of nitrosation when DO concentration was increased appropriately. The activity of nitrite oxidizing bacteria (NOB) was recovered gradually when DO was higher than 0.72 mg/L. The key factor of controlling nitrosation reaction was the concentration of free ammonia (FA), while the final factor was the concentration of DO. pH was a desired controlling parameter to show the end of nitrification in a SBR cycle, while DO concentration did not indicate the finishing of SBR nitrification accurately because it increased rapidly before ammonia nitrogen was oxidized absolutely.

  14. Aerobic Sludge Granulation in a Full-Scale Sequencing Batch Reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jun; Ding, Li-Bin; Cai, Ang; Huang, Guo-Xian; Horn, Harald

    2014-01-01

    Aerobic granulation of activated sludge was successfully achieved in a full-scale sequencing batch reactor (SBR) with 50,000 m3 d−1 for treating a town's wastewater. After operation for 337 days, in this full-scale SBR, aerobic granules with an average SVI30 of 47.1 mL g−1, diameter of 0.5 mm, and settling velocity of 42 m h−1 were obtained. Compared to an anaerobic/oxic plug flow (A/O) reactor and an oxidation ditch (OD) being operated in this wastewater treatment plant, the sludge from full-scale SBR has more compact structure and excellent settling ability. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) analysis indicated that Flavobacterium sp., uncultured beta proteobacterium, uncultured Aquabacterium sp., and uncultured Leptothrix sp. were just dominant in SBR, whereas uncultured bacteroidetes were only found in A/O and OD. Three kinds of sludge had a high content of protein in extracellular polymeric substances (EPS). X-ray fluorescence (XRF) analysis revealed that metal ions and some inorganics from raw wastewater precipitated in sludge acted as core to enhance granulation. Raw wastewater characteristics had a positive effect on the granule formation, but the SBR mode operating with periodic feast-famine, shorter settling time, and no return sludge pump played a crucial role in aerobic sludge granulation. PMID:24822190

  15. Treatment of a Slaughterhouse Wastewater using Sequencing Batch Reactors at a Shortened Operating Cycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suwadi Saikomon

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This laboratory-scale study employed sequencing batch reactor (SBR technology to investigate the effect of two operational parameters [i.e. solids retention time (SRT and anoxic time ratios] regarding the treatment of a slaughterhouse wastewater. Results indicated that organic matter removal, expressed as chemical oxygen demand (COD, was very high, consistently exceeding the 95 % level. In addition, the total nitrogen (TN removal ranged between 82 and 94 %, while total phosphorus (TP removal fluctuated between 88 and 94 %. In general, the reactors exhibited a high degree of operational stability during treatment. Although the investigated range of the two operational parameters appeared to have a minimal effect on the process performance (expressed as % carbon or nutrient removal, the corresponding COD and TN specific consumption rates were noticeably affected by the variation in the anoxic time ratios. Furthermore, the operating cycle length of 8 h employed in this study resulted in improved performance, in terms of nitrogen removal, compared to other studies conducted at longer operating cycles.

  16. Aerobic Sludge Granulation in a Full-Scale Sequencing Batch Reactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Li

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aerobic granulation of activated sludge was successfully achieved in a full-scale sequencing batch reactor (SBR with 50,000 m3 d−1 for treating a town’s wastewater. After operation for 337 days, in this full-scale SBR, aerobic granules with an average SVI30 of 47.1 mL g−1, diameter of 0.5 mm, and settling velocity of 42 m h−1 were obtained. Compared to an anaerobic/oxic plug flow (A/O reactor and an oxidation ditch (OD being operated in this wastewater treatment plant, the sludge from full-scale SBR has more compact structure and excellent settling ability. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE analysis indicated that Flavobacterium sp., uncultured beta proteobacterium, uncultured Aquabacterium sp., and uncultured Leptothrix sp. were just dominant in SBR, whereas uncultured bacteroidetes were only found in A/O and OD. Three kinds of sludge had a high content of protein in extracellular polymeric substances (EPS. X-ray fluorescence (XRF analysis revealed that metal ions and some inorganics from raw wastewater precipitated in sludge acted as core to enhance granulation. Raw wastewater characteristics had a positive effect on the granule formation, but the SBR mode operating with periodic feast-famine, shorter settling time, and no return sludge pump played a crucial role in aerobic sludge granulation.

  17. Aerobic sludge granulation in a full-scale sequencing batch reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jun; Ding, Li-Bin; Cai, Ang; Huang, Guo-Xian; Horn, Harald

    2014-01-01

    Aerobic granulation of activated sludge was successfully achieved in a full-scale sequencing batch reactor (SBR) with 50,000 m(3) d(-1) for treating a town's wastewater. After operation for 337 days, in this full-scale SBR, aerobic granules with an average SVI30 of 47.1 mL g(-1), diameter of 0.5 mm, and settling velocity of 42 m h(-1) were obtained. Compared to an anaerobic/oxic plug flow (A/O) reactor and an oxidation ditch (OD) being operated in this wastewater treatment plant, the sludge from full-scale SBR has more compact structure and excellent settling ability. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) analysis indicated that Flavobacterium sp., uncultured beta proteobacterium, uncultured Aquabacterium sp., and uncultured Leptothrix sp. were just dominant in SBR, whereas uncultured bacteroidetes were only found in A/O and OD. Three kinds of sludge had a high content of protein in extracellular polymeric substances (EPS). X-ray fluorescence (XRF) analysis revealed that metal ions and some inorganics from raw wastewater precipitated in sludge acted as core to enhance granulation. Raw wastewater characteristics had a positive effect on the granule formation, but the SBR mode operating with periodic feast-famine, shorter settling time, and no return sludge pump played a crucial role in aerobic sludge granulation.

  18. Microbial Aggregate and Functional Community Distribution in a Sequencing Batch Reactor with Anammox Granules

    KAUST Repository

    Sun, Shan

    2013-05-01

    Anammox (anaerobic ammonium oxidation) process is a one-step conversion of ammonia into nitrogen gas with nitrite as an electron acceptor. It has been developed as a sustainable technology for ammonia removal from wastewater in the last decade. For wastewater treatment, anammox biomass was widely developed as microbial aggregate where the conditions for enrichment of anammox community must be delicately controlled and growth of other bacteria especially NOB should be suppressed to enhance nitrogen removal efficiency. Little is known about the distribution of microbial aggregates in anammox process. Thus the objective of our study was to assess whether segregation of biomass occurs in granular anammox system. In this study, a laboratory-scale sequential batch reactor (SBR) was successfully operated for a period of 80 days with granular anammox biomass. Temporal and spatial distribution of microbial aggregates was studied by particle characterization system and the distribution of functional microbial communities was studied with qPCR and 16s rRNA amplicon pyrosequencing. Our study revealed the spatial and temporal distribution of biomass aggregates based on their sizes and density. Granules (>200 μm) preferentially accumulated in the bottom of the reactor while floccules (30-200 μm) were relatively rich at the top layer. The average density of aggregate was higher at the bottom than the density of those at the top layer. Degranulation caused by lack of hydrodynamic shear force in the top layer was considered responsible for this phenomenon. NOB was relatively rich in the top layer while percentage of anammox population was higher at the bottom, and anammox bacteria population gradually increased over a period of time. NOB growth was supposed to be associated with the increase of floccules based on the concurrent occurrence. Thus, segregation of biomass can be utilized to develop an effective strategy to enrich anammox and wash out NOB by shortening the settling

  19. Design and fabrication of a fixed-bed batch type pyrolysis reactor for pilot scale pyrolytic oil production in Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aziz, Mohammad Abdul; Al-khulaidi, Rami Ali; Rashid, MM; Islam, M. R.; Rashid, MAN

    2017-03-01

    In this research, a development and performance test of a fixed-bed batch type pyrolysis reactor for pilot scale pyrolysis oil production was successfully completed. The characteristics of the pyrolysis oil were compared to other experimental results. A solid horizontal condenser, a burner for furnace heating and a reactor shield were designed. Due to the pilot scale pyrolytic oil production encountered numerous problems during the plant’s operation. This fixed-bed batch type pyrolysis reactor method will demonstrate the energy saving concept of solid waste tire by creating energy stability. From this experiment, product yields (wt. %) for liquid or pyrolytic oil were 49%, char 38.3 % and pyrolytic gas 12.7% with an operation running time of 185 minutes.

  20. Biodegradation of p-nitrophenol by aerobic granules in a sequencing batch reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Shan; Zhuang, Wei-Qin; Wu, Bing; Tay, Stephen Tiong-Lee; Tay, Joo-Hwa

    2006-04-01

    In this study, aerobic granules to treat wastewater containing p-nitrophenol (PNP) were successfully developed in a sequencing batch reactor (SBR) using activated sludge as inoculum. A key step was the conditioning of the activated sludge seed to enrich for biomass with improved settleability and higher PNP degradation activity by implementing progressive decreases in settling time and stepwise increases in PNP concentration. The aerobic granules were cultivated at a PNP loading rate of 0.6 kg/ m3 x day, with glucose to boost the growth of PNP-degrading biomass. The granules had a clearly defined shape and appearance, settled significantly faster than activated sludge, and were capable of nearly complete PNP removal. The granules had specific PNP degradation rates that increased with PNP concentration from 0 to 40.1 mg of PNP/L, peaked at 19.3 mg of PNP/(g of VSS) x h (VSS = volatile suspended solids), and declined with further increases in PNP concentration as substrate inhibition effects became significant. Batch incubation experiments show that the PNP-degrading granules could also degrade other phenolic compounds, such as hydroquinone, p-nitrocatechol, phenol, 2,4-dichlorophenol, and 2,6-dichlorophenol. The PNP-degrading granules contained diverse microbial morphotypes, and PNP-degrading bacteria accounted for 49% of the total culturable heterotrophic bacteria. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis analysis of 16S rRNA gene fragments showed a gradual temporal shift in microbial community succession as the granules developed from the activated sludge seed. Specific oxygen utilization rates at 100 mg/L PNP were found to increase with the evolution of smaller granules to large granules, suggesting that the granulation process can enhance metabolic efficiency toward biodegradation of PNP. The results in this study demonstrate that it is possible to use aerobic granules for PNP biodegradation and broadens the benefits of using the SBR to target treatment of toxic

  1. Biodegradation of high concentrations of phenol by baker’s yeast in anaerobic sequencing batch reactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Asghar Najafpoor

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Phenol, as a pure substance, is used in many fields because of its disinfectant, germicidal, local anesthetic, and peptizing properties. Aqueous solutions of phenol are produced as waste in industries and discharged into the environment. Therefore, elevated concentrations of phenol may be found in air or water because of industrial discharge or the use of phenolic products. Method: The strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae used in this project were natural strains previously purchased from Razavy company. They were grown at 30°C on Petri plates containing yeast extract glucose (YGC and then purified by being spread onto new plates, and isolated colonies were obtained. These colonies provided the basis of selection. Prepared strains were applied in anaerobic sequencing batch reactors (ASBRs as first seed. The experiment conditions were optimized using response surface methodology (RSM. After the determined runs were performed using Design-Expert software, data were analyzed using mentioned software as well. Results: This study evaluated the capability of baker’s yeast to remove phenol in high concentrations. The tested strains showed excellent tolerance to phenol toxicity at concentrations up to 6100 mg/L. Study of the batch degradation process showed that the phenol removal rate could exceed 99.9% in 24 hours at a concentration of 1000 mg/L. The results showed catechol is the first intermediate product of phenol degradation. In survey results of the Design–Expert software, R2 and Adeq precision were 0.97 and 25.65, respectively. Conclusion: The results demonstrated that ASBR performs robustly under variable influent concentrations of inhibitory compounds. The high removal performance despite the high phenol concentration may be a result of reactor operating strategies. Based on the progressive increase of inlet phenol concentration, allowing for an enhanced biomass acclimation in a short time, results at the microbiological levels

  2. Coexistence of nitrifying, anammox and denitrifying bacteria in a sequencing batch reactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michela eLangone

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Elevated nitrogen removal efficiencies from ammonium-rich wastewaters have been demonstrated by several applications, that combine nitritation and anammox processes. Denitrification will occur simultaneously when organic carbon is also present. In this study, the activity of aerobic ammonia oxidizing, anammox and denitrifying bacteria in a full scale Sequencing Batch Reactor, treating digester supernatants, was studied by means of batch-assays. AOB and anammox activities were maximum at pH of 8.0 and 7.8-8.0, rispectively. Short term effect of nitrite on anammox activity was studied, showing nitrite up to 42 mg/L did not result in inhibition. Both denitrification via nitrate and nitrite were measured. To reduce nitrite-oxidizing activity, high of NH3 – N (1.9-10 mg N-NH3/L and low nitrite (3-8 mg TNN/L are required conditions during the whole SBR cycle.Molecular analysis showed the nitritation-anammox sludge harbored a high microbial diversity, where each microorganism has a specific role. Using ammonia monooxygenase α –subunit (amoA gene as a marker, our analyses suggested different macro- and micro-environments in the reactor strongly affect the AOB community, allowing the development of different AOB species, such as N. europaea/eutropha and N. oligotropha groups, which improve the stability of nitritation process. A specific PCR primer set, used to target the 16S rRNA gene of anammox bacteria, confirmed the presence of the Ca. Brocadia fulgida type, able to grow in precence of organic matter and to tolerate high nitrite concentrations. The diversity of denitrifiers was assessed by using dissimilatory nitrite reductase (nirS gene-based analyses, who showed denitifiers were related to different betaproteobacterial genera, such as Thauera, Pseudomonas, Dechloromonas and Aromatoleum, able to assist in forming microbial aggregates. Concerning possible secondary processes, no n-damo bacteria were found while NOB from the genus of Nitrobacter

  3. Operational stability of naringinase PVA lens-shaped microparticles in batch stirred reactors and mini packed bed reactors-one step closer to industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunes, Mário A P; Rosa, M Emilia; Fernandes, Pedro C B; Ribeiro, Maria H L

    2014-07-01

    The immobilization of naringinase in PVA lens-shaped particles, a cheap and biocompatible hydrogel was shown to provide an effective biocatalyst for naringin hydrolysis, an appealing reaction in the food and pharmaceutical industries. The present work addresses the operational stability and scale-up of the bioconversion system, in various types of reactors, namely shaken microtiter plates (volume ⩽ 2 mL), batch stirred tank reactors (volume reactor (PBR, 6.8 mL). Consecutive batch runs were performed with the shaken/stirred vessels, with reproducible and encouraging results, related to operational stability. The PBR was used to establish the feasibility for continuous operation, running continuously for 54 days at 45°C. The biocatalyst activity remained constant for 40 days of continuous operation. The averaged specific productivity was 9.07 mmol h(-1) g enzyme(-1) and the half-life of 48 days. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Selenite reduction and ammoniacal nitrogen removal in an aerobic granular sludge sequencing batch reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nancharaiah, Y V; Sarvajith, M; Lens, P N L

    2017-12-14

    Simultaneous removal of selenite and ammonium by aerobic granular sludge was investigated to develop an improved biological treatment process for selenium rich wastewaters. Aerobic granules not previously exposed to selenite were able to remove selenite by converting it to elemental selenium (Se(0)) and simultaneously remove ammonium under different conditions in batch experiments. To achieve sustainable selenite and ammonium removal, an aerobic granular sludge reactor was operated in fill-and-draw mode with a cycle of anaerobic (8 h) and aeration (15 h) phases. Almost complete removal of different initial concentrations of selenite up to 100 μM was achieved in the anaerobic phase. Ammonium removal was severely inhibited when the granules were initially exposed to 1.27 mg L -1 selenite, but ammonium and total nitrogen removal efficiencies gradually improved to 100 and 98%, respectively, under selenite-reducing conditions. Selenite loading shifted ammonium removal occurring mainly during the anaerobic phase to both the anaerobic and aeration phases. Selenite was removed from the aqueous phase by converting it to nanoparticulate Se(0), which was entrapped in the granular sludge. Scanning electron microscop-energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction analysis confirmed the formation of Se(0) nanospheres and their retention in the granular sludge. The effluent Se ranged from 0.02 to 0.25 mg Se L -1 , while treating up to 12.7 mg L -1 selenite, which is lower as compared to previous studies on selenite removal using activated sludge or anaerobic granular sludge. This study shows that aerobic granular sludge reactors are not only capable of removing toxic selenite, but offer improved treatment of Se-rich wastewaters. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Preparation of Biodiesel from Microalgae and Palm Oil by Direct Transesterification in a Batch Microwave Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marwan; Suhendrayatna; Indarti, E

    2015-01-01

    The present work was aimed to study the so-called direct transesterification of microalgae lipids to biodiesel in a batch microwave reactor. As a comparison, preparation of palm oil to biodiesel by alkaline catalyzed ethanolysis was also carried out. Palm oil biodiesel was recovered close to an equilibrium conversion (94-96% yield) under microwave heating for at least 6 min, while the conventional method required more than 45 minutes reaching the same yield. A very short reaction time suggests the benefit of microwave effect over conventional heating method in making biodiesel. FTIR analysis revealed the presence of fatty acid ethyl esters with no undesired chemical groups or compounds formed due to local heat generated by microwave effect, thus the conversion only followed transesterification route. Oil containing microalgae of Chlorella sp. isolated from the local brackish water pond was used as a potential source of biodiesel. High yield of biodiesel (above 0.6 g/g of dried algae) was also attainable for the direct transesterification of microalgae in the microwave reactor. Effect of water content of the algae biomass became insignificant at 11.9%(w/w) or less, related to the algae biomass dried for longer than 6 h. Fast transesterification of the algal oil towards equilibrium conversion was obtained at reaction time of 6 min, and at longer times the biodiesel yield remains unchanged. FAME profile indicates unsaturated fatty acids as major constituents. It was shown that microwave irradiation contributes not only to enhance the transeseterification, but also to assist effective release of fatty acid containing molecules (e.g. triacylglycerol, free fatty acids and phospholipids) from algal cells. (paper)

  6. Removal of artificial sweeteners and their effects on microbial communities in sequencing batch reactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shaoli; Geng, Jinju; Wu, Gang; Gao, Xingsheng; Fu, Yingying; Ren, Hongqiang

    2018-02-21

    Concern is growing over contamination of the environment with artificial sweeteners (ASWs) because of their widespread existence in wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). To evaluate ASWs removal and the effect on activated sludge, acesulfame (ACE), sucralose (SUC), cyclamate (CYC) and saccharin (SAC) were introduced individually or in mixture to sequencing batch reactors (SBRs) in environmentally relevant concentrations (100 ppb) for 100 days. Comparisons between ACE removal in a full-scale WWTP and in lab-scale SBRs were conducted. Results showed that CYC and SAC were completely removed, whereas SUC was persistent. However, ACE removal in lab-scale SBRs was significantly greater than in the full-scale WWTP. In SBRs, chemical oxygen demand (COD), ammonia nitrogen (NH 4 + -N) and total nitrogen (TN) removal appeared unchanged after adding ASWs (p > 0.05). Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) concentrations and triphenyl tetrazolium chloride-dehydrogenase activity (TTC-DHA) declined significantly (p < 0.05). The mixed ASWs had more evident effects than the individual ASWs. Microbial community analyses revealed that Proteobacteria decreased obviously, while Bacteroidetes, Chloroflexi and Actinobacteria were enriched with the addition of ASWs. Redundancy Analysis (RDA) indicated ACE had a greater impact on activated sludge than the other ASWs.

  7. Strategies for oxidation of PAHs in aged contaminated soil by batch reactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peluffo, Marina; Rosso, Janina A; Morelli, Irma S; Mora, Verónica C

    2018-04-30

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) are neutral, nonpolar and hydrophobic molecules that tend to sorb onto soil organic matter. Chemical oxidation is a good choice to avoid the limitations of bioremediation. To evaluate the efficiency of different types of oxidation (permanganate, hydrogen peroxide, and persulfate) and activation (heat, alkaline, and iron), batch reactors were prepared. The soil was contaminated with phenanthrene and pyrene (1200 ± 200 and 2800 ± 100mg per kg of dry soil, respectively) and aged for fifteen months. Treatments were prepared with 10g of contaminated dry soil and 20ml of water and incubated at room temperature for 7 days. Analyses of phenanthrene and pyrene concentrations, soil pH and electric conductivity were performed. Counts of heterotrophic cultivable bacteria on R2A medium and PAH-degraders were carried out after 7 days of treatment. The persulfate treatment at room temperature, without the addition of activators, achieved better results than treatments with the same doses of permanganate or hydrogen peroxide. All the strategies to improve persulfate treatments yielded higher degradation of pyrene than the biological control, as expected from the structural description of this compound by Clar's model. The thermal activation of persulfate (65°C for 6h) led to the degradation of more than 90% of both PAHs after 7 days of treatment. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Effect of some operational parameters on textile dye biodegradation in a sequential batch reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lourenço, N D; Novais, J M; Pinheiro, H M

    2001-08-23

    The combination of anaerobic and aerobic periods in the operation cycle of a Sequencing Batch Reactor (SBR) was chosen to study biological color removal from simulated textile effluents containing reactive, sulfonated, monoazo and diazo dyes, respectively, Remazol Brilliant Violet 5R and Remazol Black B. 90% color removal was obtained for the violet dye in a 24-h cycle with a Sludge Retention Time (SRT) of 15 days and an aerated reaction phase of 10 h. For the black dye only 75% color removal was achieved with the same operational conditions and no improvement was observed with the increase of the SRT to 20 days. For the violet dye a reduction of the color removal values from 90 to 75% was observed with the increase of the aerated reaction phase from 10 to 12 h. However, this increase did not promote the aerobic biodegradation of the produced aromatic amines. Abiotic tests were performed with sterilized SBR samples and no color removal was observed in cell-free supernatants. However color removal values of 30 and 12% were observed in the presence of sterilized cells and supernatants with violet and black dye, respectively and could be attributed to the presence of active reducing principles in the sterilized samples.

  9. Treatment of Rural Wastewater Using a Spiral Fiber Based Salinity-Persistent Sequencing Batch Biofilm Reactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying-Xin Zhao

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Differing from municipal wastewater, rural wastewater in salinization areas is characterized with arbitrary discharge and high concentration of salt, COD, nitrogen and phosphorus, which would cause severe deterioration of rivers and lakes. To overcome the limits of traditional biological processes, a spiral fiber based salinity-persistent Sequencing Biofilm Batch Reactor (SBBR was developed and investigated with synthetic rural wastewater (COD = 500 mg/L, NH4+-N = 50 mg/L, TP = 6 mg/L under different salinity (0.0–10.0 g/L of NaCl. Results indicated that a quick start-up could be achieved in 15 days, along with sufficient biomass up to 7275 mg/L. During operating period, the removal of COD, NH4+-N, TN was almost not disturbed by salt varying from 0.0 to 10.0 g/L with stable efficiency reaching 92%, 82% and 80%, respectively. Although TP could be removed at high efficiency of 90% in low salinity conditions (from 0.0 to 5.0 g/L of NaCl, it was seriously inhibited due to nitrite accumulation and reduction of Phosphorus Accumulating Organisms (PAOs after addition of 10.0 g/L of salt. The behavior proposed in this study will provide theoretical foundation and guidance for application of SBBR in saline rural wastewater treatment.

  10. Production optimization for concentration and volume-limited fed-batch reactors in biochemical processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ping; Liu, Xinggao; Zhang, Zeyin; Wang, Yalin; Yang, Chunhua; Gui, Weihua

    2018-03-01

    Since a very slight violation of constraint could cause process safety and product quality problems in biochemical processes, an adaptive approach of fed-batch reactor production optimization that can strictly satisfy constraints over the entire operating time is presented. In this approach, an improved smooth function is proposed such that the inequality constraints can be transformed into smooth constraints. Based on this, only an auxiliary state is needed to monitor violations in the augmented performance index. Combined with control variable parameterization (CVP), the dynamic optimization is executed and constraint violations are examined by calculating the sensitivities of states to ensure that the inequality constraints are satisfied everywhere inside the time interval. Three biochemical production optimization problems, including the manufacturing of ethanol, penicillin and protein, are tested as illustrations. Meanwhile, comparisons with pure penalty CVP method, famous dynamic optimization toolbox DOTcvp and literature results are carried out. Research results show that the proposed method achieves better performances in terms of optimization accuracy and computation cost.

  11. Reduction of excess sludge production in sequencing batch reactor through incorporation of chlorine dioxide oxidation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Guanghua; Sui Jun; Shen Huishan; Liang Shukun; He Xiangming; Zhang Minju; Xie Yizhong; Li Lingyun; Hu Yongyou

    2011-01-01

    In this study, chlorine dioxide (ClO 2 ) instead of chlorine (Cl 2 ) was proposed to minimize the formation of chlorine-based by-products and was incorporated into a sequencing batch reactor (SBR) for excess sludge reduction. The results showed that the sludge disintegrability of ClO 2 was excellent. The waste activated sludge at an initial concentration of 15 g MLSS/L was rapidly reduced by 36% using ClO 2 doses of 10 mg ClO 2 /g dry sludge which was much lower than that obtained using Cl 2 based on similar sludge reduction efficiency. Maximum sludge disintegration was achieved at 10 mg ClO 2 /g dry sludge for 40 min. ClO 2 oxidation can be successfully incorporated into a SBR for excess sludge reduction without significantly harming the bioreactor performance. The incorporation of ClO 2 oxidation resulted in a 58% reduction in excess sludge production, and the quality of the effluent was not significantly affected.

  12. Aerobic granulation strategy for bioaugmentation of a sequencing batch reactor (SBR) treating high strength pyridine wastewater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Xiaodong; Chen, Yan [Jiangsu Key Laboratory for Chemical Pollution Control and Resources Reuse, School of Environmental and Biological Engineering, Nanjing University of Science and Technology, Nanjing 210094, Jiangsu Province (China); Zhang, Xin [Jiangsu Key Laboratory for Chemical Pollution Control and Resources Reuse, School of Environmental and Biological Engineering, Nanjing University of Science and Technology, Nanjing 210094, Jiangsu Province (China); Suzhou Institute of Architectural Design Co., Ltd, Suzhou 215021, Jiangsu Province (China); Jiang, Xinbai; Wu, Shijing [Jiangsu Key Laboratory for Chemical Pollution Control and Resources Reuse, School of Environmental and Biological Engineering, Nanjing University of Science and Technology, Nanjing 210094, Jiangsu Province (China); Shen, Jinyou, E-mail: shenjinyou@mail.njust.edu.cn [Jiangsu Key Laboratory for Chemical Pollution Control and Resources Reuse, School of Environmental and Biological Engineering, Nanjing University of Science and Technology, Nanjing 210094, Jiangsu Province (China); Sun, Xiuyun; Li, Jiansheng; Lu, Lude [Jiangsu Key Laboratory for Chemical Pollution Control and Resources Reuse, School of Environmental and Biological Engineering, Nanjing University of Science and Technology, Nanjing 210094, Jiangsu Province (China); Wang, Lianjun, E-mail: wanglj@mail.njust.edu.cn [Jiangsu Key Laboratory for Chemical Pollution Control and Resources Reuse, School of Environmental and Biological Engineering, Nanjing University of Science and Technology, Nanjing 210094, Jiangsu Province (China)

    2015-09-15

    Abstract: Aerobic granules were successfully cultivated in a sequencing batch reactor (SBR), using a single bacterial strain Rhizobium sp. NJUST18 as the inoculum. NJUST18 presented as both a good pyridine degrader and an efficient autoaggregator. Stable granules with diameter of 0.5–1 mm, sludge volume index of 25.6 ± 3.6 mL g{sup −1} and settling velocity of 37.2 ± 2.7 m h{sup −1}, were formed in SBR following 120-day cultivation. These granules exhibited excellent pyridine degradation performance, with maximum volumetric degradation rate (V{sub max}) varied between 1164.5 mg L{sup −1} h{sup −1} and 1867.4 mg L{sup −1} h{sup −1}. High-throughput sequencing analysis exhibited a large shift in microbial community structure, since the SBR was operated under open condition. Paracoccus and Comamonas were found to be the most predominant species in the aerobic granule system after the system had stabilized. The initially inoculated Rhizobium sp. lost its dominance during aerobic granulation. However, the inoculation of Rhizobium sp. played a key role in the start-up process of this bioaugmentation system. This study demonstrated that, in addition to the hydraulic selection pressure during settling and effluent discharge, the selection of aggregating bacterial inocula is equally important for the formation of the aerobic granule.

  13. Accelerating Aerobic Sludge Granulation by Adding Dry Sewage Sludge Micropowder in Sequencing Batch Reactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jun; Liu, Jun; Wang, Danjun; Chen, Tao; Ma, Ting; Wang, Zhihong; Zhuo, Weilong

    2015-01-01

    Micropowder (20–250 µm) made from ground dry waste sludge from a municipal sewage treatment plant was added in a sequencing batch reactor (R2), which was fed by synthetic wastewater with acetate as carbon source. Compared with the traditional SBR (R1), aerobic sludge granulation time was shortened 15 days in R2. Furthermore, filamentous bacteria in bulking sludge were controlled to accelerate aerobic granulation and form large granules. Correspondingly, the SVI decreased from 225 mL/g to 37 mL/g. X-ray Fluorescence (XRF) analysis demonstrated that Al and Si from the micropowder were accumulated in granules. A mechanism hypotheses for the acceleration of aerobic granulation by adding dry sludge micropowder is proposed: added micropowder acts as nuclei to induce bacterial attachment; dissolved matters from the micropowder increase abruptly the organic load for starved sludge to control overgrown filamentous bacteria as a framework for aggregation; increased friction from the movement of micropowder forces the filaments which extend outwards to shrink for shaping granules. PMID:26308025

  14. Anaerobic co-digestion of food waste and landfill leachate in single-phase batch reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liao, Xiaofeng; Zhu, Shuangyan; Zhong, Delai; Zhu, Jingping; Liao, Li

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Anaerobic co-digestion strategy for food waste treatment at OLR 41.8 g VS/L. • A certain amount of raw leachate effectively relieved acidic inhibition. • The study showed that food waste was completely degraded. - Abstract: In order to investigate the effect of raw leachate on anaerobic digestion of food waste, co-digestions of food waste with raw leachate were carried out. A series of single-phase batch mesophilic (35 ± 1 °C) anaerobic digestions were performed at a food waste concentration of 41.8 g VS/L. The results showed that inhibition of biogas production by volatile fatty acids (VFA) occurred without raw leachate addition. A certain amount of raw leachate in the reactors effectively relieved acidic inhibition caused by VFA accumulation, and the system maintained stable with methane yield of 369–466 mL/g VS. Total ammonia nitrogen introduced into the digestion systems with initial 2000–3000 mgNH 4 –N/L not only replenished nitrogen for bacterial growth, but also formed a buffer system with VFA to maintain a delicate biochemical balance between the acidogenic and methanogenic microorganisms. UV spectroscopy and fluorescence excitation–emission matrix spectroscopy data showed that food waste was completely degraded. We concluded that using raw leachate for supplement water addition and pH modifier on anaerobic digestion of food waste was effective. An appropriate fraction of leachate could stimulate methanogenic activity and enhance biogas production

  15. Aerobic granulation strategy for bioaugmentation of a sequencing batch reactor (SBR) treating high strength pyridine wastewater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Xiaodong; Chen, Yan; Zhang, Xin; Jiang, Xinbai; Wu, Shijing; Shen, Jinyou; Sun, Xiuyun; Li, Jiansheng; Lu, Lude; Wang, Lianjun

    2015-01-01

    Abstract: Aerobic granules were successfully cultivated in a sequencing batch reactor (SBR), using a single bacterial strain Rhizobium sp. NJUST18 as the inoculum. NJUST18 presented as both a good pyridine degrader and an efficient autoaggregator. Stable granules with diameter of 0.5–1 mm, sludge volume index of 25.6 ± 3.6 mL g −1 and settling velocity of 37.2 ± 2.7 m h −1 , were formed in SBR following 120-day cultivation. These granules exhibited excellent pyridine degradation performance, with maximum volumetric degradation rate (V max ) varied between 1164.5 mg L −1 h −1 and 1867.4 mg L −1 h −1 . High-throughput sequencing analysis exhibited a large shift in microbial community structure, since the SBR was operated under open condition. Paracoccus and Comamonas were found to be the most predominant species in the aerobic granule system after the system had stabilized. The initially inoculated Rhizobium sp. lost its dominance during aerobic granulation. However, the inoculation of Rhizobium sp. played a key role in the start-up process of this bioaugmentation system. This study demonstrated that, in addition to the hydraulic selection pressure during settling and effluent discharge, the selection of aggregating bacterial inocula is equally important for the formation of the aerobic granule

  16. Use of Sequencing Batch Reactors (SBRs in Treatment of Wood Fiber Wastewater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Ganjidoust, B Ayati

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Wood fiber industries are producing large amounts of wastewater, which are discharged into the environment everyday. This type of wastewater with high pollution potential in suspended solids, COD and color, are required to be treated before entering to the receiving environment. North part of Iran is covered by huge land of forests. Several pulp and paper industries are located in the area. One of these industries is Iran Wood Fiber Company in which many researches have been done in both laboratory and pilot scale by the main author in recent years. One of the studies was to investigate the Sequencing Batch Reactors (SBRs efficiency for treating the wastewater. Considering parameters such as influent COD, detention time, nutrient concentration, and their effects on COD, turbidity and total solids removal efficiency of the system, four serial SBRs in laboratory scale were investigated. The results of the system with 10 hours detention time, 1000-2500 mg/L COD and 100:5.1:1 C/N/P had the best efficiency with 92, 84, 52 percent removal for COD, turbidity and total solids, respectively. Pilot scale plant studies using SBRs were also done in the company. The results indicated good removal efficiencies that also discussed in this paper.

  17. Modeling Lab-sized Anaerobic Fluidized Bed Reactor (AFBR) for Palm Oil Mill Effluent (POME) treatment: from Batch to Continuous Reactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mufti Azis, Muhammad; Sudibyo, Hanifrahmawan; Budhijanto, Wiratni

    2018-03-01

    Indonesia is aiming to produce 30 million tones/year of crude palm oil (CPO) by 2020. As a result, 90 million tones/year of POME will be produced. POME is highly polluting wastewater which may cause severe environmental problem due to its high chemical oxygen demand (COD) and biochemical oxygen demand (BOD). Due to the limitation of open pond treatment, the use of AFBR has been considered as a potential technology to treat POME. This study aims to develop mathematical models of lab-sized Anaerobic Fluidized Bed Reactor (AFBR) in batch and continuous processes. In addition, the AFBR also utilized natural zeolite as an immobilized media for microbes. To initiate the biomass growth, biodiesel waste has been used as an inoculum. In the first part of this study, a batch AFBR was operated to evaluate the COD, VFA, and CH4 concentrations. By comparing the batch results with and without zeolite, it showed that the addition of 17 g/gSCOD zeolite gave larger COD decrease within 20 days of operation. In order to elucidate the mechanism, parameter estimations of 12 kinetic parameters were proposed to describe the batch reactor performance. The model in general could describe the batch experimental data well. In the second part of this study, the kinetic parameters obtained from batch reactor were used to simulate the performance of double column AFBR where the acidogenic and methanogenic biomass were separated. The simulation showed that a relatively long residence time (Hydraulic Residence Time, HRT) was required to treat POME using the proposed double column AFBR. Sensitivity analyses was conducted and revealed that μm1 appeared to be the most sensitive parameter to reduce the HRT of double column AFBR.

  18. Sliding mode control of dissolved oxygen in an integrated nitrogen removal process in a sequencing batch reactor (SBR).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz, C; Young, H; Antileo, C; Bornhardt, C

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a sliding mode controller (SMC) for dissolved oxygen (DO) in an integrated nitrogen removal process carried out in a suspended biomass sequencing batch reactor (SBR). The SMC performance was compared against an auto-tuning PI controller with parameters adjusted at the beginning of the batch cycle. A method for cancelling the slow DO sensor dynamics was implemented by using a first order model of the sensor. Tests in a lab-scale reactor showed that the SMC offers a better disturbance rejection capability than the auto-tuning PI controller, furthermore providing reasonable performance in a wide range of operation. Thus, SMC becomes an effective robust nonlinear tool to the DO control in this process, being also simple from a computational point of view, allowing its implementation in devices such as industrial programmable logic controllers (PLCs).

  19. MODELING OF MIXED LIQUOR VOLATILE SUSPENDED SOLIDS AND PERFORMANCE EVALUATION FOR A SEQUENCING BATCH REACTOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.A. Mirbagheri

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study examined carbon, nitrogen and phosphorous removal from municipal wastewater in a sequencing batch reactor and biokinetic coefficients were evaluated according to results of BOD and COD. Furthermore, the MLVSS in the aeration reactor was modeled by using multilayer perceptron and radial basis function artificial neural networks (MLPANN and RBFANN. The experiments were performed so that the cell retention time, filling time and intensity of aeration were (5, 10 and 15 d, (1, 2 and 3 h and (weak, medium and strong respectively. The result indicated that with cell retention time of 15 d, filling time of 1 h, aeration time of 6 h and settling time of 3 h the HRT is optimized at 10 h. The BOD5, COD, TP, TN and NH4  N removal efficiencies were 97.13%, 94.58%, 94.27%, 89.7% and 92.75% respectively. The yield coefficient (Y, decay coefficient (Kd, maximum specific growth rate (K and saturation constant (Ks were 6.22 mgVSS/mgCOD, 0.002 1/d, 0.029 1/d and 20 mg COD/L according to COD experimental data. The values of the biokinetic coefficients were found to be as follows: Y = 10.45 mgVSS/mgBOD, Kd = 0.01 1/d, 0.014 1/d and 3.38 mgBOD/L according to BOD5 experimental data. The training procedures for simulation of MLVSS were highly collaborated for both RBFANN and MLPANN. The train and test models for both MLPANN and RBFANN demonstrated perfectly matched results between the experimental and the simulated values of MLVSS. The values of RMSE for train and test (verification models obtained by MLPANN were 31.82 and 40.25 mg/L respectively, and the value of R2 was 0.99 for both models. The values of RMSE for train and test models obtained by RBFANN were 69.04 and 43.87 mg/L respectively, and the value of R2 was 0.99 for both models. It was observed that the MLPANN has stronger approximation and generalization ability than the RBFANN with regard to our experimental data for MLVSS.

  20. Autotrophic nitrogen removal in sequencing batch biofilm reactors at different oxygen supply modes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wantawin, C; Juateea, J; Noophan, P L; Munakata-Marr, J

    2008-01-01

    Conventional nitrification-denitrification treatment is a common way to treat nitrogen in wastewater, but this process is costly for low COD/N wastewaters due to the addition of air and external carbon-source. However, ammonia may alternatively be converted to dinitrogen gas by autotrophic bacteria utilizing aerobically autotrophically produced nitrite as an electron acceptor under anoxic conditions. Lab-scale sequencing batch biofilm reactors (SBBRs) inoculated with normal nitrifying sludge were employed to study the potential of an oxygen-limited autotrophic nitrification-denitrification process initiated with typical nitrifying sludge for treating a synthetic ammonia wastewater devoid of organic carbon in one step. The ring-laced fibrous carrier (length 0.32 m, surface area 3.4 m2/m) was fixed vertically in a 3 L reactor. Two different air supply modes were applied:continuous aeration to control dissolved oxygen at 1.5 mg/L and intermittent aeration. High nitrogen removals of more than 50% were obtained in both SBBRs. At an ammonia loading of 0.882 gm N/m2-day [hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 24 hr], the SBBR continuously aerated to 1.5 mg DO/L had slightly higher nitrogen removal (64%) than the intermittently alternated SBBR (55%). The main form of residual nitrogen in the effluent was ammonia, at concentrations of 25 mg/L and 37 mg N/L in continuous and intermittent aeration SBBRs, respectively. Ammonia was completely consumed when ammonia loading was reduced to 0.441 gm N/m2-day [HRT extended to 48 hr]. The competitive use of nitrite by aerobic nitrite oxidizing bacteria (ANOB) with anaerobic ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (anammox bacteria) during the expanded aeration period under low remaining ammonia concentration resulted in higher nitrate production and lower nitrogen loss in the continuous aeration SBBR than in the intermittent aeration SBBR. The nitrogen removal efficiencies in SBBRs with continuous and alternating aerated were 80% and 86% respectively

  1. State observers for a biological wastewater nitrogen removal process in a sequential batch reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boaventura, K M; Roqueiro, N; Coelho, M A; Araújo, O Q

    2001-08-01

    Biological removal of nitrogen is a two-step process: aerobic autotrophic microorganisms oxidize ammoniacal nitrogen to nitrate, and the nitrate is further reduced to elementary nitrogen by heterotrophic microorganisms under anoxic condition with concomitant organic carbon removal. Several state variables are involved which render process monitoring a demanding task, as in most biotechnological processes, measurement of primary variables such as microorganism, carbon and nitrogen concentrations is either difficult or expensive. An alternative is to use a process model of reduced order for on-line inference of state variables based on secondary process measurements, e.g. pH and redox potential. In this work, two modeling approaches were investigated: a generic reduced order model based on the generally accepted IAWQ No. 1 Model [M. Henze, C.P.L., Grady, W., Gujer, G.V.R., Marais, T., Matsuo, Water Res. 21 (5) (1987) 505-515]-generic model (GM), and a reduced order model specially validated with the data acquired from a benchscale sequential batch reactor (SBR) specific model (SM). Model inaccuracies and measurement errors were compensated for with a Kalman filter structure to develop two state observers: one built with GM, the generic observer (GO), and another based on SM, the specific observer (SO). State variables estimated by GM, SM, GO and SO were compared to experimental data from the SBR unit. GM gave the worst performance while SM predictions presented some model to data mismatch. GO and SO, on the other hand, were both in very good agreement with experimental data showing that filters add robustness against model errors, which reduces the modeling effort while assuring adequate inference of process variables.

  2. Biological removal of cyanide compounds from electroplating wastewater (EPWW) by sequencing batch reactor (SBR) system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sirianuntapiboon, Suntud; Chairattanawan, Kanidta; Rarunroeng, Methinee

    2008-01-01

    Biological treatment system especially, sequencing batch reactor (SBR) system could not be applied to treat the raw electroplating wastewater (EPWW) due to the low organic matter concentration of 10 ± 3 mg-BOD 5 /L and toxic of high cyanide concentration of 23.0 ± 2.2 mg-CN/L. However, EPWW could be used as the nitrogen source for the bio-sludge of SBR system. And 10% of EPWW (the final cyanide concentration of 2.3 ± 0.2 mg/L) was most suitable to supplement into the wastewater as the nitrogen source. SBR system showed the highest COD, BOD 5 , TKN and cyanide removal efficiencies of 79 ± 2%, 85 ± 3%, 49.0 ± 2.1% and 97.7 ± 0.7%, respectively with 4-times diluted Thai-rice noodle wastewater (TRNWW) containing 10% EPWW and 138 mg/L NH 4 Cl (BOD 5 : TN of 100:10) at SRT of 72 ± 13 days (under organic and cyanide loadings of 0.40 kg-BOD 5 /m 3 d and 0.0023 kg-CN/m 3 d, respectively). However, the effluent ammonia was still high of 22.6 ± 0.4 mg-N/L while the effluent nitrate and nitrite was only 9.9 ± 0.4 and 1.2 ± 0.9 mg-N/L, respectively. And SVI and effluent SS of the system were higher than 95 and 75 mg/L, respectively

  3. Short-term Influence of Drilling Fluid on Ciliates from Activated Sludge in Sequencing Batch Reactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babko, Roman; Kuzmina, Tatiana; Łagód, Grzegorz; Jaromin-Gleń, Katarzyna; Danko, Yaroslav; Pawłowska, Małgorzata; Pawłowski, Artur

    2017-01-01

    Spent drilling muds are the liquid residues of rock drilling operations. Due to a high concentration of suspended solids and potentially detrimental chemical properties, they can negatively affect microorganisms participating in wastewater treatment processes. We evaluated the addition of a potassium-polymer drilling fluid (DF) to activated sludge in laboratory sequencing batch reactors (SBRs) for municipal wastewater treatment. Ciliate assemblage, the most dynamic component of eukaryotes in activated sludge, and which is highly sensitive to changes in the system, was evaluated. The average ciliate abundance dropped by about 51% (SBR 2; 1% DF added) and 33% (SBR 3; 3% DF added) in comparison to the control (SBR 1; wastewater only). A decrease in the total number of ciliate species during the experiment was observed, from 25 to 24 in SBR 2 and from 17 to 13 in SBR 3. Moreover, a drop in the number of dominant (>100 individuals mL) ciliate species was observed during the experiment-from eight in the control to five in SBR 2 and four in SBR 3-signaling noticeable changes in the quantitative structure of ciliate species. The species analyzed showed different responses to DF addition. The most sensitive was , which is bacteriovorus. In contrast, two predators, and , showed no reaction to DF addition. Our results indicate that addition of potassium-polymer DF, in doses of 1 to 3% of the treated wastewater volume, had no toxic effects on ciliates, but qualitative and quantitative changes in their community were observed. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  4. Application of Forward Osmosis Membrane in a Sequential Batch Reactor for Water Reuse

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Qingyu

    2011-07-01

    Forward osmosis (FO) is a novel membrane process that potentially can be used as an energy-saving alternative to conventional membrane processes. The objective of this study is to investigate the performance of a FO membrane to draw water from wastewater using seawater as draw solution. A study on a novel osmotic sequential batch reactor (OsSBR) was explored. In this system, a plate and frame FO cell including two flat-sheet FO membranes was submerged in a bioreactor treating the wastewater. We found it feasible to treat the wastewater by the OsSBR process. The DOC removal rate was 98.55%. Total nitrogen removal was 62.4% with nitrate, nitrite and ammonium removals of 58.4%, 96.2% and 88.4% respectively. Phosphate removal was almost 100%. In this OsSBR system, the 15-hour average flux for a virgin membrane with air scouring is 3.103 LMH. After operation of 3 months, the average flux of a fouled membrane is 2.390 LMH with air scouring (23% flux decline). Air scouring can help to remove the loose foulants on the active layer, thus helping to maintain the flux. Cleaning of the FO membrane fouled in the active layer was probably not effective under the conditions of immersing the membrane in the bioreactor. LC-OCD results show that the FO membrane has a very good performance in rejecting biopolymers, humics and building blocks, but a limited ability in rejecting low molecular weight neutrals.

  5. Isolation and characterization of isopimaric acid-degrading bacteria from a sequencing batch reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, A E; Moore, E R; Mohn, W W

    1996-09-01

    We isolated two aerobic, gram-negative bacteria which grew on the diterpene resin acid isopimaric acid (IpA) as the sole carbon source and electron donor. The source of the isolates was a sequencing batch reactor treating a high-strength process stream from a paper mill. The isolates, IpA-1 and IpA-2, also grew on pimaric and dehydroabietic acids, and IpA-1 grew on abietic acid. Both strains used fatty acids, but neither strain used camphor, sitosterol, or betulin. Strain IpA-1 grew anaerobically with nitrate as an electron acceptor. Strains IpA-1 and IpA-2 had growth yields of 0.19 and 0.23 g of protein per g of IpA, respectively. During growth, both strains transformed IpA carbon to approximately equal amounts of biomass, carbon dioxide, and dissolved organic carbon. In both strains, growth on IpA induced an enzymatic system which caused cell suspensions to transform all four of the above resin acids. Cell suspensions of IpA-1 and IpA-2 removed IpA at rates of 0.56 and 0.13 mumol mg of protein-1 h-1, respectively. Cultures and cell suspensions of both strains failed to completely consume pimaric acid and yielded small amounts of an apparent metabolite from this acid. Cultures and cell suspensions of both strains yielded large amounts of three apparent metabolites from dehydroabietic acid. Analysis of 16S rDNA sequences indicated that the isolates are distinct members of the genus Pseudomonas sensu stricto.

  6. Biogas Production from Brewer’s Yeast Using an Anaerobic Sequencing Batch Reactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregor Drago Zupančič

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Renewable energy sources are becoming increasingly important in the beverage and food industries. In the brewing industry, a significant percentage of the used raw materials finishes the process as secondary resource or waste. The research on the anaerobic digestion of brewer’s yeast has been scarce until recent years. One of the reasons for this is its use as a secondary resource in the food industry and as cattle feed. Additionally, market value of brewer’s yeast is higher than its energy value. Due to the increase of energy prices, brewer’s yeast has become of interest as energy substrate despite its difficult degradability in anaerobic conditions. The anaerobic co-digestion of brewer’s yeast and anaerobically treated brewery wastewater was studied using a pilot-scale anaerobic sequencing batch reactor (ASBR seeded with granular biomass. The experiments showed very good and stable operation with an organic loading rate of up to 8.0 kg/(m3·day, and with a maximum achieved organic loading rate of 13.6 kg/(m3·day in a single cycle. A specific biogas productivity of over 0.430 m3/kg of the total chemical oxygen demand (COD inserted, and total COD removal efficiencies of over 90 % were achieved. This study suggests that the brewer’s yeast can be successfully digested in an ASBR without adverse effects on the biogas production from brewer’s yeast/wastewater mixtures of up to 8 % (by volume. By using the brewer’s yeast in the ASBR process, the biogas production from brewery wastewater could be increased by 50 %.

  7. Some properties of a sequencing batch reactor system for removal of vat dyes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirianuntapiboon, Suntud; Chairattanawan, Kanidta; Jungphungsukpanich, Sawanya

    2006-07-01

    Bio-sludge from a wastewater treatment plant could be used as an adsorbent of vat dye from textile wastewater. Resting bio-sludge gave a higher adsorption capacity than dead bio-sludge. The resting bio-sludge from a textile wastewater treatment plant gave relatively high COD, BOD5 and dye adsorption capacity of 364.4 +/- 4.3, 178.0 +/- 9.0 and 50.5 +/- 1.3 mg/g of bio-sludge, respectively, in synthetic textile wastewater containing 40 mg/l Vat Yellow 1. Another advantage of the bio-sludge was that, after washing with 0.1 N NaOH solution, it was reusable without any activity loss. Through treatment with a sequencing batch reactor (SBR) system, both organic and dye in STIWW could be removed. The maximum dye (Vat Yellow 1), COD, BOD5 and TKN removal efficiencies of the SBR system under an MLSS of 2000 mg/l and an HRT of three days were 98.5 +/- 1.0%, 96.9 +/- 0.7%, 98.6 +/- 0.1% and 93.4 +/- 1.3%, respectively. Although, the dye and organic removal efficiencies of the SBR system with real textile wastewater were quite low, they could be increased by adding organic matters, especially glucose. The dye, COD, BOD5 and TKN removal efficiencies of the SBR system with glucose (0.89 g/l) supplemented textile industrial wastewater were 75.12 +/- 1.2%, 70.61 +/- 3.4%, 96.7 +/- 0.0%, and 63.2 +/- 1.1%, respectively.

  8. Diversity and dynamics of dominant and rare bacterial taxa in replicate sequencing batch reactors operated under different solids retention time

    KAUST Repository

    Bagchi, Samik

    2014-10-19

    In this study, 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing was applied in order to provide a better insight on the diversity and dynamics of total, dominant, and rare bacterial taxa in replicate lab-scale sequencing batch reactors (SBRs) operated at different solids retention time (SRT). Rank-abundance curves showed few dominant operational taxonomic units (OTUs) and a long tail of rare OTUs in all reactors. Results revealed that there was no detectable effect of SRT (2 vs. 10 days) on Shannon diversity index and OTU richness of both dominant and rare taxa. Nonmetric multidimensional scaling analysis showed that the total, dominant, and rare bacterial taxa were highly dynamic during the entire period of stable reactor performance. Also, the rare taxa were more dynamic than the dominant taxa despite expected low invasion rates because of the use of sterile synthetic media.

  9. Biological hydrogen production in an anaerobic sequencing batch reactor: pH and cyclic duration effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Wen-Hsing [Department of Environmental Engineering, National Ilan University, I-Lan 260 (China); Sung, Shihwu [Department of Civil, Construction and Environmental Engineering, Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa 50011-3232 (United States); Chen, Shen-Yi [Department of Safety, Health and Environmental Engineering, National Kaohsiung First University of Science and Technology, Kaohsiung 811 (China)

    2009-01-15

    An anaerobic sequencing batch reactor (ASBR) was used to evaluate biological hydrogen production from carbohydrate-rich organic wastes. The goal of the proposed project was to investigate the effects of pH (4.9, 5.5, 6.1, and 6.7), and cyclic duration (4, 6, and 8 h) on hydrogen production. With the ASBR operated at 16-h HRT, 25 g COD/L, and 4-h cyclic duration, the results showed that the maximum hydrogen yield of 2.53 mol H{sub 2}/mol sucrose{sub consumed} appeared at pH 4.9. The carbohydrate removal efficiency declined to 56% at pH 4.9, which indirectly resulted in the reduction of total volatile fatty acid production. Acetate fermentation was the dominant metabolic pathway at pH 4.9. The concentration of mixed liquor volatile suspended solid (MLVSS) also showed a decrease from nearly 15,000 mg/L between pHs 6.1 and 6.7 to 6000 mg/L at pH 4.9. Investigation of the effect of cyclic duration found that hydrogen yield reached the maximum of 1.86 mol H{sub 2}/mol sucrose{sub consumed} at 4-h cyclic duration while ASBR was operating at 16-h HRT, 15 g COD/L, and pH 4.9. The experimental results showed that MLVSS concentration increased from 6200 mg/L at 4-h cyclic duration to 8500 mg/L at 8-h cyclic duration. However, there was no significant change in effluent volatile suspended solid concentration. The results of butyrate to acetate ratio showed that using this ratio to correlate the performance of hydrogen production is not appropriate due to the growth of homoacetogens. In ASBR, the operation is subject to four different phases of each cycle, and only the complete mix condition can be achieved at react phase. The pH and cyclic duration under the unique operations profoundly impact fermentative hydrogen production. (author)

  10. Removal of fluoxetine and its effects in the performance of an aerobic granular sludge sequential batch reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreira, Irina S.; Amorim, Catarina L. [CBQF – Centro de Biotecnologia e Química Fina – Laboratório Associado, Escola Superior de Biotecnologia, Universidade Católica Portuguesa/Porto, Rua Dr. António Bernardino Almeida, 4200-072 Porto (Portugal); Ribeiro, Ana R. [CBQF – Centro de Biotecnologia e Química Fina – Laboratório Associado, Escola Superior de Biotecnologia, Universidade Católica Portuguesa/Porto, Rua Dr. António Bernardino Almeida, 4200-072 Porto (Portugal); Centro de Química Medicinal da Universidade do Porto (CEQUIMED-UP), Rua de Jorge Viterbo Ferreira 228, 4050-313 Porto (Portugal); CESPU, Instituto de Investigação e Formação Avançada em Ciências e Tecnologias da Saúde, Rua Central de Gandra 1317, 4585-116 Gandra PRD (Portugal); Mesquita, Raquel B.R. [CBQF – Centro de Biotecnologia e Química Fina – Laboratório Associado, Escola Superior de Biotecnologia, Universidade Católica Portuguesa/Porto, Rua Dr. António Bernardino Almeida, 4200-072 Porto (Portugal); Laboratory of Hydrobiology, Institute of Biomedical Sciences Abel Salazar (ICBAS) and Institute of Marine Research (CIIMAR), Universidade do Porto, Rua de Jorge Viterbo Ferreira 228, 4050-313 Porto (Portugal); and others

    2015-04-28

    Highlights: • Enantioselective removal of fluoxetine by aerobic granular sludge was evaluated. • Sorption of fluoxetine to aerobic granules occurred. • Bacterial community gradually changed during operation of sequential batch reactor. • Main biological processes occurring within the granules were preserved. • Overall performance of the reactor was recovered after initial fluoxetine shock loads. - Abstract: Fluoxetine (FLX) is a chiral fluorinated pharmaceutical mainly indicated for treatment of depression and is one of the most distributed drugs. There is a clear evidence of environmental contamination with this drug. Aerobic granular sludge sequencing batch reactors constitute a promising technology for wastewater treatment; however the removal of carbon and nutrients can be affected by micropollutants. In this study, the fate and effect of FLX on reactor performance and on microbial population were investigated. FLX adsorption/desorption to the aerobic granules was observed. FLX shock loads (≤4 μM) did not show a significant effect on the COD removal. Ammonium removal efficiency decreased in the beginning of first shock load, but after 20 days, ammonia oxidizing bacteria became adapted. The nitrite concentration in the effluent was practically null indicating that nitrite oxidizing bacteria was not inhibited, whereas, nitrate was accumulated in the effluent, indicating that denitrification was affected. Phosphate removal was affected at the beginning showing a gradual adaptation, and the effluent concentration was <0.04 mM after 70 days. A shift in microbial community occurred probably due to FLX exposure, which induced adaptation/restructuration of the microbial population. This contributed to the robustness of the reactor, which was able to adapt to the FLX load.

  11. Removal of fluoxetine and its effects in the performance of an aerobic granular sludge sequential batch reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moreira, Irina S.; Amorim, Catarina L.; Ribeiro, Ana R.; Mesquita, Raquel B.R.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Enantioselective removal of fluoxetine by aerobic granular sludge was evaluated. • Sorption of fluoxetine to aerobic granules occurred. • Bacterial community gradually changed during operation of sequential batch reactor. • Main biological processes occurring within the granules were preserved. • Overall performance of the reactor was recovered after initial fluoxetine shock loads. - Abstract: Fluoxetine (FLX) is a chiral fluorinated pharmaceutical mainly indicated for treatment of depression and is one of the most distributed drugs. There is a clear evidence of environmental contamination with this drug. Aerobic granular sludge sequencing batch reactors constitute a promising technology for wastewater treatment; however the removal of carbon and nutrients can be affected by micropollutants. In this study, the fate and effect of FLX on reactor performance and on microbial population were investigated. FLX adsorption/desorption to the aerobic granules was observed. FLX shock loads (≤4 μM) did not show a significant effect on the COD removal. Ammonium removal efficiency decreased in the beginning of first shock load, but after 20 days, ammonia oxidizing bacteria became adapted. The nitrite concentration in the effluent was practically null indicating that nitrite oxidizing bacteria was not inhibited, whereas, nitrate was accumulated in the effluent, indicating that denitrification was affected. Phosphate removal was affected at the beginning showing a gradual adaptation, and the effluent concentration was <0.04 mM after 70 days. A shift in microbial community occurred probably due to FLX exposure, which induced adaptation/restructuration of the microbial population. This contributed to the robustness of the reactor, which was able to adapt to the FLX load

  12. Fermentative hydrogen production from liquid swine manure with glucose supplement using an anaerobic sequencing batch reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xiao

    2009-12-01

    The idea of coupling renewable energy production and agricultural waste management inspired this thesis. The production of an important future fuel---hydrogen gas---from high strength waste stream-liquid swine manure---using anaerobic treatment processes makes the most sustainable sense for both wastewater utilization and energy generation. The objectives of this thesis were to develop a fermentation process for converting liquid swine manure to hydrogen and to maximize hydrogen productivity. Anaerobic sequencing batch reactor (ASBR) systems were constructed to carry out this fermentation process, and seed sludge obtained from a dairy manure anaerobic digester and pretreated by nutrient acclimation, heat and pH treatment was used as inoculum. High system stability was indicated by a short startup period of 12 days followed by stable hydrogen production, and successful sludge granulation occurred within 23 days of startup at a hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 24 hours. Operation at a progressively decreasing HRT from 24 to 8h gave rise to an increasing biogas production rate from 15.2-34.4L/d, while good linear relationships were observed between both total biogas and hydrogen production rates correlated to HRT, with R2 values of 0.993 and 0.997, respectively. The maximum hydrogen yield of 1.63 mol-H 2/mol-hexose-feed occurred at HRT of 16h, while the HRT of 12h was highly suggested to achieve both high production rate and efficient yield. Hexose utilization efficiencies over 98%, considerable hydrogen production rate up to 14.3 L/d and hydrogen percentage of off-gas up to 43% (i.e., a CO 2/H2 ratio of 1.2) with the absence of CH4 production throughout the whole course of experiment at a pH of 5.0 strongly validated the feasibility of the fermentative H2 production from liquid swine manure using an ASBR system. Ethanol as well as acetic, butyric and valeric acids were produced in the system accompanying the hydrogen production, with acetic acid being the dominant

  13. Validation of the tanks-in series with recycle model for mixing characterization in anchor-agitated batch reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dominguez Catasus, Judith; Abreu Diaz, Aida Mary; Mc Calla, Rogelio; Ortueta Milan, Marvic; Perez Machado, Esperanza; Borroto Portela, Jorge

    1998-01-01

    Presently work settles down the fitness of the tanks-in-series with recycle model for describing the blending in a 100 liters anchor-agitated batch reactor. This model is used to establish the relationship between the mixing-rate number and the Reynolds number The basic information needed was obtained from the curves that record the counting rate variations of the 99mT c with time, during the mixing process. The mixing-rate number shows a tendency to a constant value of 7,8 within the Reynolds range between 4,78x10 4 and 2,68x10 5

  14. Safety enhancement by transposition of the nitration of toluene from semi-batch reactor to continuous intensified heat exchanger reactor

    OpenAIRE

    Di Miceli Raimondi, Nathalie; Olivier Maget, Nelly; Gabas, Nadine; Cabassud, Michel; Gourdon, Christophe

    2015-01-01

    International audience; The behaviour of a continuous intensified heat exchanger (HEX) reactor in case of process failure is analysed and compared to the behaviour of a semi-continuous reactor. The nitration of toluene is considered as test reaction to identify the main failure scenarios that can lead to thermal runaway in both processes using the HAZOP method.No flow rate of process fluid and utility fluid in the continuous process. No stirring during feeding of the reactor followed by norma...

  15. Analysis of denitrifier community in a bioaugmented sequencing batch reactor for the treatment of coking wastewater containing pyridine and quinoline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bai, Yaohui; Xing, Rui; Wen, Donghui; Tang, Xiaoyan [Peking Univ., Beijing (CN). Key Lab. of Water and Sediment Sciences (Ministry of Education); Sun, Qinghua [Peking Univ., Beijing (CN). Key Lab. of Water and Sediment Sciences (Ministry of Education); Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Beijing (China). Inst. of Environmental Health and Related Product Safety

    2011-05-15

    The denitrifier community and associated nitrate and nitrite reduction in the bioaugmented and general sequencing batch reactors (SBRs) during the treatment of coking wastewater containing pyridine and quinoline were investigated. The efficiency and stability of nitrate and nitrite reduction in SBR was considerably improved after inoculation with four pyridine- or quinoline-degrading bacterial strains (including three denitrifying strains). Terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) based on the nosZ gene revealed that the structures of the denitrifier communities in bioaugmented and non-bioaugmented reactors were distinct and varied during the course of the experiment. Bioaugmentation protected indigenous denitrifiers from disruptions caused by pyridine and quinoline. Clone library analysis showed that one of the added denitrifiers comprised approximately 6% of the denitrifier population in the bioaugmented sludge. (orig.)

  16. SIMULATION INVESTIGATIONS TOWARDS THE DEVELOPMENT OF A BACTERIAL BIOPESTICIDE FED-BATCH REACTOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cunha C.C.F. da

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work, the growth of Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis, a bioinsecticide producer, is investigated. Experiments were carried out in batch mode in order to obtain kinetic model parameters that were further applied to simulate fed-batch processes. The fed-batch mode allows more flexibility in the control of the substrate concentration in the culture medium. Different techniques, such as constant feeding, "bang-bang" control and model based control (exponential feeding and singular control, were compared. For the techniques based on a model, combinations of models with and without a substrate inhibition parameter were used to represent the simulated process and the internal model of the feeding controller. Singular control based on the model with an inhibition parameter proved to be the most robust controller.

  17. A comparison of anaerobic 2, 4-dichlorophenoxy acetic acid degradation in single-fed and sequencing batch reactor systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elefsiniotis, P.; Wareham, D. G.; Fongsatitukul, P.

    2017-08-01

    This paper compares the practical limits of 2, 4-dichlorophenoxy acetic acid (2,4-D) degradation that can be obtained in two laboratory-scale anaerobic digestion systems; namely, a sequencing batch reactor (SBR) and a single-fed batch reactor (SFBR) system. The comparison involved synthesizing a decade of research conducted by the lead author and drawing summative conclusions about the ability of each system to accommodate industrial-strength concentrations of 2,4-D. In the main, 2 L liquid volume anaerobic SBRs were used with glucose as a supplemental carbon source for both acid-phase and two-phase conditions. Volatile fatty acids however were used as a supplemental carbon source for the methanogenic SBRs. The anaerobic SBRs were operated at an hydraulic retention time of 48 hours, while being subjected to increasing concentrations of 2,4-D. The SBRs were able to degrade between 130 and 180 mg/L of 2,4-D depending upon whether they were operated in the acid-phase or two-phase regime. The methanogenic-only phase did not achieve 2,4-D degradation however this was primarily attributed to difficulties with obtaining a sufficiently long SRT. For the two-phase SFBR system, 3.5 L liquid-volume digesters were used and no difficulty was experienced with degrading 100 % of the 2,4-D concentration applied (300 mg/L).

  18. Denitrifying capability and community dynamics of glycogen accumulating organisms during sludge granulation in an anaerobic-aerobic sequencing batch reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bin, Zhang; Bin, Xue; Zhigang, Qiu; Zhiqiang, Chen; Junwen, Li; Taishi, Gong; Wenci, Zou; Jingfeng, Wang

    2015-01-01

    Denitrifying capability of glycogen accumulating organisms (GAOs) has received great attention in environmental science and microbial ecology. Combining this ability with granule processes would be an interesting attempt. Here, a laboratory-scale sequencing batch reactor (SBR) was operated to enrich GAOs and enable sludge granulation. The results showed that the GAO granules were cultivated successfully and the granules had denitrifying capability. The batch experiments demonstrated that all NO3−-N could be removed or reduced, some amount of NO2−-N were accumulated in the reactor, and N2 was the main gaseous product. SEM analysis suggested that the granules were tightly packed with a large amount of tetrad-forming organisms (TFOs); filamentous bacteria served as the supporting structures for the granules. The microbial community structure of GAO granules was differed substantially from the inoculant conventional activated sludge. Most of the bacteria in the seed sludge grouped with members of Proteobacterium. FISH analysis confirmed that GAOs were the predominant members in the granules and were distributed evenly throughout the granular space. In contrast, PAOs were severely inhibited. Overall, cultivation of the GAO granules and utilizing their denitrifying capability can provide us with a new approach of nitrogen removal and saving more energy. PMID:26257096

  19. Treatment of opium alkaloid containing wastewater in sequencing batch reactor (SBR)—Effect of gamma irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bural, Cavit B.; Demirer, Goksel N.; Kantoglu, Omer; Dilek, Filiz B.

    2010-04-01

    Aerobic biological treatment of opium alkaloid containing wastewater as well as the effect of gamma irradiation as pre-treatment was investigated. Biodegradability of raw wastewater was assessed in aerobic batch reactors and was found highly biodegradable (83-90% degradation). The effect of irradiation (40 and 140 kGy) on biodegradability was also evaluated in terms of BOD 5/COD values and results revealed that irradiation imparted no further enhancement in the biodegradability. Despite the highly biodegradable nature of wastewater, further experiments in sequencing batch reactors (SBR) revealed that the treatment operation was not possible due to sludge settleability problem observed beyond an influent COD value of 2000 mg dm -3. Possible reasons for this problem were investigated, and the high molecular weight, large size and aromatic structure of the organic pollutants present in wastewater was thought to contribute to poor settleability. Initial efforts to solve this problem by modifying the operational conditions, such as SRT reduction, failed. However, further operational modifications including addition of phosphate buffer cured the settleability problem and influent COD was increased up to 5000 mg dm -3. Significant COD removal efficiencies (>70%) were obtained in both SBRs fed with original and irradiated wastewaters (by 40 kGy). However, pre-irradiated wastewater provided complete thebain removal and a better settling sludge, which was thought due to degradation of complex structure by radiation application. Degradation of the structure was observed by GC/MS analyses and enhancement in filterability tests.

  20. Effects of phosphate addition on methane fermentation in the batch and upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Sho; Shintani, Masaki; Sanchez, Zoe Kuizon; Kimura, Kohei; Numata, Mitsuru; Yamazoe, Atsushi; Kimbara, Kazuhide

    2015-12-01

    Ammonia inhibition of methane fermentation is one of the leading causes of failure of anaerobic digestion reactors. In a batch anaerobic digestion reactor with 429 mM NH3-N/L of ammonia, the addition of 25 mM phosphate resulted in an increase in methane production rate. Similar results were obtained with the addition of disodium phosphate in continuous anaerobic digestion using an upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor. While methane content and production rate decreased in the presence of more than 143 mM NH3-N/L of ammonium chloride in UASB, the addition of 5 mM disodium phosphate suppressed ammonia inhibition at 214 mM NH3-N/L of ammonium chloride. The addition prevented acetate/propionate accumulation, which might be one of the effects of the phosphate on the ammonia inhibition. The effects on the microbial community in the UASB reactor was also assessed, which was composed of Bacteria involved in hydrolysis, acidogenesis, acetogenesis, and dehydrogenation, as well as Archaea carrying out methanogenesis. The change in the microbial community was observed by ammonia inhibition and the addition of phosphate. The change indicates that the suppression of ammonia inhibition by disodium phosphate addition could stimulate the activity of methanogens, reduce shift in bacterial community, and enhance hydrogen-producing bacteria. The addition of phosphate will be an important treatment for future studies of methane fermentation.

  1. About the performance of Sphaerotilus natans to reduce hexavalent chromium in batch and continuous reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caravelli, Alejandro H.; Zaritzky, Noemi E.

    2009-01-01

    The hexavalent chromium biological reduction constitutes a safe and economical detoxification procedure of wastewaters containing Cr(VI). However, little research has been done to evaluate Cr(VI) tolerance and reduction capacity of microbial cultures under different growth conditions. The aims of this work were (a) to evaluate the capacity of Sphaerotilus natans to reduce Cr(VI) to Cr(III) in a continuous system limited in carbon and energy source or in nitrogen source, (b) to evaluate the toxic effect of Cr(VI) on this microorganism, (c) to carry out a complete analysis of Cr(VI) reduction by S. natans not only in continuous regime but also in batch system, and (d) to model the obtained results mathematically. S. natans exhibited great resistance to Cr(VI) (19-78 mg l -1 ) and optimal growth in continuous and batch systems using a mineral medium supplemented only with citric acid as organic substrate. In carbon- and energy-limited continuous systems, a maximum percentual decrease in Cr(VI) by 13% was reached for low influent Cr(VI) concentration (4.3-5.32 mgCr(VI) l -1 ); the efficiency of the process did not notoriously increase as the length of cellular residence time was increased from 4.16 to 50 h. A nitrogen-limited continuous operation with a cellular residence time of 28.5 h resulted in a Cr(VI) decrease of approximately 26-32%. In batch system, a mathematical model allowed to predict the Cr(VI) concentration as a function of time and the ratio between the initial Cr(VI) concentration and that of the biomass. High concentrations of initial Cr(VI) and biomass produced the highest performance of the process of Cr(VI) reduction reached in batch system, aspects which should be considered in detoxification strategies of wastewaters.

  2. The Effect of Initial Inoculum Source on the Microbial Community Structure and Dynamics in Laboratory-Scale Sequencing Batch Reactors

    KAUST Repository

    Hernandez, Susana

    2011-07-01

    Understanding the factors that shapes the microbial community assembly in activated sludge wastewater treatment processes provide a conceptual foundation for improving process performance. The aim of this study was to compare two major theories (deterministic theory and neutral theory) regarding the assembly of microorganisms in activated sludge: Six lab-scale activated sludge sequencing batch reactors were inoculated with activated sludge collected from three different sources (domestic, industrial, and sugar industry WWTP). Additionally, two reactors were seeded with equal proportion of sludge from the three WWTPs. Duplicate reactors were used for each sludge source (i.e. domestic, industrial, sugar and mix). Reactors were operated in parallel for 11 weeks under identical conditions. Bacterial diversity and community structure in the eight SBRs were assessed by 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing. The 16S rRNA gene sequences were analyzed using taxonomic and clustering analysis and by measuring diversity indices (Shannon-weaver and Chao1 indices). Cluster analysis revealed that the microbial community structure was dynamic and that replicate reactors evolved differently. Also the microbial community structure in the SBRs seeded with a different sludge did not converge after 11 weeks of operation under identical conditions. These results suggest that history and distribution of taxa in the source inoculum were stronger regulating factors in shaping bacterial community structure than environmental factors. This supports the neutral theory which states that the assembly of the local microbial community from the metacommunity is random and is regulated by the size and diversity of the metacommunity. Furthermore, sludge performance, measured by COD and ammonia removal, confirmed that broad-scale functions (e.g. COD removal) are not influenced by dynamics in the microbial composition, while specific functions (e.g. nitrification) are more susceptible to these changes.

  3. ANAMMOX-like performances for nitrogen removal from ammonium-sulfate-rich wastewater in an anaerobic sequencing batch reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prachakittikul, Pensiri; Wantawin, Chalermraj; Noophan, Pongsak Lek; Boonapatcharoen, Nimaradee

    2016-01-01

    Ammonium removal by the ANaerobic AMonium OXidation (ANAMMOX) process was observed through the Sulfate-Reducing Ammonium Oxidation (SRAO) process. The same concentration of ammonium (100 mg N L(-1)) was applied to two anaerobic sequencing batch reactors (AnSBRs) that were inoculated with the same activated sludge from the Vermicelli wastewater treatment process, while nitrite was fed in ANAMMOX and sulfate in SRAO reactors. In SRAO-AnSBR, in substrates that were fed with a ratio of NH4(+)/SO4(2-) at 1:0.4 ± 0.03, a hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 48 h and without sludge draining, the Ammonium Removal Rate (ARR) was 0.02 ± 0.01 kg N m(-3).d(-1). Adding specific ANAMMOX substrates to SRAO-AnSBR sludge in batch tests results in specific ammonium and nitrite removal rates of 0.198 and 0.139 g N g(-1) VSS.d, respectively, indicating that the ANAMMOX activity contributes to the removal of ammonium in the SRAO process using the nitrite that is produced from SRAO. Nevertheless, the inability of ANAMMOX to utilize sulfate to oxidize ammonium was also investigated in batch tests by augmenting enriched ANAMMOX culture in SRAO-AnSBR sludge and without nitrite supply. The time course of sulfate in a 24-hour cycle of SRAO-AnSBR showed an increase in sulfate after 6 h. For enriched SRAO culture, the uptake molar ratio of NH4(+)/SO4(2-) at 8 hours in a batch test was 1:0.82 lower than the value of 1:0.20 ± 0.09 as obtained in an SRAO-AnSBR effluent, while the stoichiometric ratio of 1:0.5 that includes the ANAMMOX reaction was in this range. After a longer operation of more than 2 years without sludge draining, the accumulation of sulfate and the reduction of ammonium removal were observed, probably due to the gradual increase in the sulfur denitrification rate and the competitive use of nitrite with ANAMMOX. The 16S rRNA gene PCR-DGGE (polymerase chain reaction-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis) and PCR cloning analyses resulted in the detection of the ANAMMOX

  4. Enhanced ammonia nitrogen removal using consistent ammonium exchange of modified zeolite and biological regeneration in a sequencing batch reactor process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Yun Xia; Ye, Zheng Fang; Wang, Yao Long; Ma, Ming Guang; Li, Yan Feng

    2011-01-01

    Utilizing preferential ion exchange of the modified zeolite, the zeo-sequencing batch reactor (SBR) is recommended for a new nitrogen removal process. In this study, natural zeolite was modified by sodium chloride to enhance sorption capacity for ammoniacal nitrogen. The untreated and treated zeolite was characterized by XPS and XRD techniques. The sorption isotherm tests showed that equilibrium sorption data were better represented by the Langmuir model than by the Freundlich model. Treatment of natural zeolite by sodium chloride increased the sorption capacity for ammoniacal nitrogen removal from aqueous solutions. As a result of the continuous bioregeneration of ammonium saturated zeolite-floc in the SBR, the nitrogen removal efficiency of the zeo-SBR was relatively ideal. Scanning electron microscopy results showed that microbes were abundant in the zeo-SBR process.

  5. Anaerobic co-digestion of sewage sludge and sugar beet pulp lixiviation in batch reactors: effect of temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montañés, Rocío; Solera, Rosario; Pérez, Montserrat

    2015-03-01

    The feasibility of anaerobic co-digestion of sewage sludge (SS) and sugar beet pulp lixiviation (SBPL) was assessed. Mesophilic and thermophilic batch assays of five different SS/SBPL ratios were used to investigate the effect of temperature, providing basic data on methane yield and reduction in total volatiles. Microbe concentrations (Eubacteria and methanogenic Archaea) were linked to traditional parameters, namely biogas production and removal of total volatile solids (TVS). The relationship between Eubacteria and Archaea was analysed. Given equal masses of organic matter, net methane generation was higher in the mesophilic range on the biochemical methane potential (BMP) test. Methane yield, TVS removal data and high levels of volatile fatty acids provided further evidence of the best behaviour of the mesophilic range. At the end of testing the microbial population under of the reactors consisted of Eubacteria and Archaea, with Eubacteria predominant in all cases. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Thermal and Fluid Dynamic Analysis within a Batch Micro-Reactor for Biodiesel Production from Waste Vegetable Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurizio Carlini

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Biofuels represent an alternative solution to petroleum-based fuels. In particular, biodiesel is very interesting, especially if it is produced from waste vegetable oil. Biodiesel can be used in diesel engines. The aim of this work is to implement a 2D numerical analysis in Comsol Multiphysics in order to verify an uniform temperature field within a non-isothermal batch mixed micro-reactor. An immersion heater system has been studied as a suitable solution to increase the temperature of WVO (Waste Vegetable Oil before the start of the transesterification reaction. Thus, the efficiency of the immersion heating system has been investigated. The results show that the temperature field is not uniform within the fluid domain, because of the convective flux with the external environment. These conditions could lead to a low overall conversion rate.

  7. Modeling and monitoring cyclic and linear volatile methylsiloxanes in a wastewater treatment plant using constant water level sequencing batch reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, De-Gao, E-mail: degaowang@dlmu.edu.cn; Du, Juan; Pei, Wei; Liu, Yongjun; Guo, Mingxing

    2015-04-15

    The fate of cyclic and linear volatile methylsiloxanes (VMSs) was evaluated in a wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) using constant water level sequencing batch reactors from Dalian, China. Influent, effluent, and sewage sludge samples were collected for seven consecutive days. The mean concentrations of cyclic VMSs (cVMSs) in influent and effluent samples are 1.05 μg L{sup −1} and 0.343 μg L{sup −1}; the total removal efficiency of VMSs is > 60%. Linear VMS (lVMS) concentration is under the quantification limitation in aquatic samples but is found in sludge samples with a value of 90 μg kg{sup −1}. High solid-water partition coefficients result in high VMS concentrations in sludge with the mean value of 5030 μg kg{sup −1}. No significant differences of the daily mass flows are found when comparing the concentration during the weekend and during working days. The estimated mass load of total cVMSs is 194 mg d{sup −1} 1000 inhabitants{sup −1} derived for the population. A mass balance model of the WWTP was developed and derived to simulate the fate of cVMSs. The removal by sorption on sludge increases, and the volatilization decreases with increasing hydrophobicity and decreasing volatility for cVMSs. Sensitivity analysis shows that the total suspended solid concentration in the effluent, mixed liquor suspended solid concentration, the sewage sludge flow rate, and the influent flow rate are the most influential parameters on the mass distribution of cVMSs in this WWTP. - Highlights: • A mass balance model for siloxanes was developed in sequencing batch reactor. • Total suspended solid in effluent has the most influence on removal efficiency. • Enhancement of suspended solid removal reduces the release to aquatic environment.

  8. Comparison of the effectivities of two-phase and single-phase anaerobic sequencing batch reactors during dairy wastewater treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goebloes, Sz.; Portoero, P.; Bordas, D.; Kalman, M.; Kiss, I. [Institute for Biotechnology, Bay Zoltan Foundation for Applied Research, H-6726 Szeged (Hungary)

    2008-05-15

    The performances of anaerobic sequencing batch reactors fed with two different substrates were studied. The substrates were raw acid whey and acid whey fermented with Kluyveromyces lactis in order to investigate the suitability of ethanol for biogas production. The organic loading rates (OLRs) during the experiment ranged from 1.6 to 12.8 g COD dm{sup -3} d{sup -1} and the corresponding decreasing hydraulic retention times from 40 to 5 days for both reactor systems. The efficiency of each system depended on the OLR: the highest COD removal rate was observed at the lowest OLR applied (about 100% in both systems), and at maximum OLR the COD removal efficiency was 68% for the reactors fed with the raw whey and 80% for those fed with the pre-fermented whey. Under the same high OLR conditions the methane yield was 0.122 dm{sup -3} CH{sub 4} g{sup -1} COD{sub degraded} for the anaerobic digesters fed with the untreated whey, and 0.197 dm{sup -3} CH{sub 4} g{sup -1} COD{sub degraded} for those fed with the pre-fermented whey. The digesters functioned without pH control. At the maximum OLR the pH in the reactors fed with the raw acid whey was 5.1, while in those fed with the pre-fermented whey it was 7.15. The results demonstrate that the use of the pre-fermented acid whey as substrate for anaerobic digestion without pH control is feasible, especially at high OLR levels. This substrate is preferable to the raw acid whey, because of the ethanol formed as a non-acidic fermentation product of the yeast. (author)

  9. Safe operation of a batch reactor: Safe storage of organic peroxides in supply vessels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steensma, M.; Steensma, Metske; Westerterp, K.R.

    1991-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the limits of safe operation for a cooled reactor, operated batchwise. As an example of a single-phase reaction, we studied the decomposition of t-butyl peroxypivalate, a well-known organic peroxide, undergoing self-heating at relatively low temperatures. If

  10. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved reactor licensees. Volume 14, No. 2, Part 2, Quarterly progress report, April--June 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-08-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (April--June 1995) and includes copies of letters, Notices, and Orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to reactor licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication.

  11. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved. Reactor licensees: Volume 14, No. 1, Part 1, Quarterly progress report January--March 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (January--March 1995) and includes copies of letters, Notices, and Orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to reactor licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication

  12. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved reactor licensees. Volume 14, No. 2, Part 2, Quarterly progress report, April--June 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-08-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (April--June 1995) and includes copies of letters, Notices, and Orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to reactor licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication

  13. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved reactor licensees. Quarterly progress report, October--December 1994, Volume 13, No. 4, Part 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-02-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (October--December 1994) and includes copies of letters Notices, and Orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to reactor licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication

  14. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved, reactor licensees. Quarterly progress report, July--September 1994; Volume 13, Number 3, Part 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-12-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (July--September 1994) and includes copies of letters, Notices, and Orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to reactor licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication

  15. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved reactor licensees. Quarterly progress report, October--December 1994, Volume 13, No. 4, Part 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-02-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (October--December 1994) and includes copies of letters Notices, and Orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to reactor licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication.

  16. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved reactor licensees. Volume 13, No. 1, Part 1: Quarterly progress report, January--March 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-06-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (January--March 1994) and includes copies of letters, Notices, and Orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to reactor licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to these described in this publication

  17. Runaway behavior and thermally safe operation of multiple liquid-liquid reactions in the semi-batch reactor. The nitric acid oxidation of 2-octanol.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Woezik, B.A.A.; Westerterp, K.R.

    2001-01-01

    The thermal runaway behavior of an exothermic, heterogeneous, multiple reaction system has been studied in a cooled semi-batch reactor. The nitric acid oxidation of 2-octanol has been used to this end. During this reaction, 2-octanone is formed, which can be further oxidized to unwanted carboxylic

  18. Co-digestion and model simulations of source separated municipal organic waste with cattle manure under batch and continuously stirred tank reactors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tsapekos, Panagiotis; Kougias, Panagiotis; Kuthiala, Sidhant

    2018-01-01

    This study investigates the co-digestion of source separated municipal organic waste (SSMOW), pretreated using a biopulper, and cattle manure both in batch and continuous stirred tank reactors. The optimum co-digestion feeding mixture was consisted of 90% SSMOW and 10% cattle manure on organic...

  19. Nitrate Removal from Wastewater through Biological Denitrification with OGA 24 in a Batch Reactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federico Rossi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Nitrates pollution of waters is a worldwide problem and its remediation is a big challenge from the technical and the scientific point of view. One of the most used and promising cleaning techniques is the biological treatment of wastewaters operated by denitrifying bacteria. In this paper we begin a thorough study of denitrifying performances of the bacterium Azospira sp. OGA 24, recently isolated from the highly polluted Sarno river in the south of Italy. Here, the kinetics of nitrates consumption operated by bacteria in a specifically devised batch bioreactor, in anoxic condition and with acetate as the organic substrate, has been characterized. Experimental data were then used in a simplified model of a real wastewater treatment plant to find that OGA 24 can clean water with efficiency up to 90%. The denitrifying performances of OGA 24 match the requirements of Italian laws and make the bacterium suitable for its employment in treatment plants.

  20. Enhancement of aerobic granulation by zero-valent iron in sequencing batch airlift reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kong, Qiang, E-mail: kongqiang0531@hotmail.com [College of Life Science, Shandong Normal University, 88 Wenhua Donglu, Jinan 250014, Shandong (China); Ngo, Huu Hao [School of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Technology Sydney, Broadway, NSW 2007 (Australia); Shu, Li [School of Engineering, Faculty of Science, Engineering and Built Environment, Deakin University, Geelong, Victoria 3216 (Australia); Fu, Rong-shu; Jiang, Chun-hui [College of Life Science, Shandong Normal University, 88 Wenhua Donglu, Jinan 250014, Shandong (China); Miao, Ming-sheng, E-mail: mingshengmiao@163.com [College of Life Science, Shandong Normal University, 88 Wenhua Donglu, Jinan 250014, Shandong (China)

    2014-08-30

    Highlights: • Zero-valent iron (ZVI) was used firstly to enhance the aerobic granulation. • ZVI significantly decreased the start-up time of the aerobic granulation. • ZVI had the function of enhancing organic material diversity identified by 3-D EEM. • ZVI could enhance the diversity of microbial community. - Abstract: This study elucidates the enhancement of aerobic granulation by zero-valent iron (ZVI). A reactor augmented with ZVI had a start-up time of aerobic granulation (43 days) that was notably less than that for a reactor without augmentation (64 days). The former reactor also had better removal efficiencies for chemical oxygen demand and ammonium. Moreover, the mature granules augmented with ZVI had better physical characteristics and produced more extracellular polymeric substances (especially of protein). Three-dimensional-excitation emission matrix fluorescence showed that ZVI enhanced organic material diversity. Additionally, ZVI enhanced the diversity of the microbial community. Fe{sup 2+} dissolution from ZVI helped reduce the start-up time of aerobic granulation and increased the extracellular polymeric substance content. Conclusively, the use of ZVI effectively enhanced aerobic granulation.

  1. Enhancement of aerobic granulation by zero-valent iron in sequencing batch airlift reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kong, Qiang; Ngo, Huu Hao; Shu, Li; Fu, Rong-shu; Jiang, Chun-hui; Miao, Ming-sheng

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Zero-valent iron (ZVI) was used firstly to enhance the aerobic granulation. • ZVI significantly decreased the start-up time of the aerobic granulation. • ZVI had the function of enhancing organic material diversity identified by 3-D EEM. • ZVI could enhance the diversity of microbial community. - Abstract: This study elucidates the enhancement of aerobic granulation by zero-valent iron (ZVI). A reactor augmented with ZVI had a start-up time of aerobic granulation (43 days) that was notably less than that for a reactor without augmentation (64 days). The former reactor also had better removal efficiencies for chemical oxygen demand and ammonium. Moreover, the mature granules augmented with ZVI had better physical characteristics and produced more extracellular polymeric substances (especially of protein). Three-dimensional-excitation emission matrix fluorescence showed that ZVI enhanced organic material diversity. Additionally, ZVI enhanced the diversity of the microbial community. Fe 2+ dissolution from ZVI helped reduce the start-up time of aerobic granulation and increased the extracellular polymeric substance content. Conclusively, the use of ZVI effectively enhanced aerobic granulation

  2. Application of a sequential batch reactor system for textile dyes degradation: comparison between azo and phthalocyanine dyes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrelkas, F; Pons, M N; Zahraa, O; Yaacoubi, A; Lakhal, E K

    2007-01-01

    Photocatalysis on supported TiO2 was combined with aerobic biological treatment in a sequential batch reactor to compare the degradation of two textile dyes: a blue azo dye (DR KBL CDG) and a green phthalocyanine dye (DR K4GN). Three reactors were run in parallel. SBR1 was used as a reference and was fed with urban wastewater only. SBR2 and SBR3 were fed with the same urban wastewater combined with pretreated (for SBR2) and non-pretreated (for SBR3) dye solution. For an azo dye concentration of 12 mg/L decolouration yields of 78 and 27% were achieved, respectively, in SBR2 and SBR3. For the phthalocyanine dye, the decolouration yields decreased to 24 and 15%, respectively. Concerning COD removal it decreases for both dyes with and without pretreatment, when the dye concentration increases. Although a detrimental effect on biomass could be observed, bacteria were able to cope with the inhibitory effect of the dyes.

  3. The stability of aerobic granular sludge treating municipal sludge deep dewatering filtrate in a bench scale sequencing batch reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Bei; Yang, Chang-Zhu; Pu, Wen-Hong; Yang, Jia-Kuan; Shi, Ya-Fei; Wang, Jing; Bai, Jun; Zhou, Xuan-Yue; Jiang, Guo-Sheng; Li, Chun-Yang; Liu, Fu-Biao

    2014-10-01

    Inoculated with mature aerobic granular sludge in a sequencing batch reactor, gradually increasing the proportion of municipal sludge deep dewatering filtrate in influent, aerobic granular sludge was domesticated after 84 days and maintained its structure during the operation. The domesticated AGS was yellowish-brown, dense and irregular spherical shape, average size was 1.49 mm, water content and specific density were 98.13% and 1.0114, the SVI and settling velocity were 40 ml/g and 46.5m/h. After 38 days, NO3(-)-N accumulated obviously in the reactor as lack of carbon sources. When adding 1-3g solid CH3COONa at 4.5 and 5.5h of each cycle from the 57th day, the removal rate of TN rose to above 90% after 20 days, where effective COD removal and denitrification were realized in a single bioreactor. Finally, the removal rates of COD, TP, TN and NH4(+)-N were higher than 95%, 88%, 96% and 99%. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Feasibility of bioengineered two-stages sequential batch reactor and filtration-adsorption process for complex agrochemical effluent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manekar, Pravin; Biswas, Rima; Urewar, Chaitali; Pal, Sukdeb; Nandy, Tapas

    2013-11-01

    In the present study, the feasibility of a bioengineered two-stages sequential batch reactor (BTSSBR) followed by filtration-adsorption process was investigated to treat the agrochemical effluent by overcoming factor affecting process stability such as microbial imbalance and substrate sensitivity. An air stripper stripped 90% of toxic ammonia, and combined with other streams for bio-oxidation and filtration-adsorption. The BTSSBR system achieved bio-oxidation at 6 days hydraulic retention time by fending off microbial imbalance and substrate sensitivity. The maximum reduction in COD and BOD by heterotrophic bacteria in the first reactor was 87% and 90%, respectively. Removal of toxic ammoniacal-nitrogen by autotrophic bacteria in a post-second stage bio-oxidation was 97%. The optimum filtration and adsorption of pollutants were achieved at a filtration rate of 10 and 9 m(3)m(-2)h(-1), respectively. The treatment scheme comprising air stripper, BTSSBR and filtration-adsorption process showed a great promise for treating the agrochemical effluent. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Photocatalytic degradation of bezacryl yellow in batch reactors--feasibility of the combination of photocatalysis and a biological treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khenniche, Lamia; Favier, Lidia; Bouzaza, Abdelkrim; Fourcade, Florence; Aissani, Farida; Amrane, Abdeltif

    2015-01-01

    A combined process coupling photocatalysis and a biological treatment was investigated for the removal of Bezacryl yellow (BZY), an industrial-use textile dye. Photocatalytic degradation experiments of BZY were carried out in two stirred reactors, operating in batch mode with internal or external irradiation. Two photocatalysts (TiO2P25 and TiO2PC500) were tested and the dye degradation was studied for different initial pollutant concentrations (10-117 mg L(-1)). A comparative study showed that the photocatalytic degradation led to the highest degradation and mineralization yields in a stirred reactor with internal irradiation in the presence of the P25 catalyst. Regardless of the photocatalyst, discoloration yields up to 99% were obtained for 10 and 20 mg L(-1) dye concentrations in the reactor with internal irradiation. Moreover, the first-order kinetic and Langmuir-Hinshelwood models were examined by using the nonlinear method for different initial concentrations and showed that the two models lead to completely different predicted kinetics suggesting that they were completely different.According to the BOD5/ Chemical oxygen demand (COD) ratio, the non-treated solution (20 mg L(-1) of BZY) was estimated as non-biodegradable. After photocatalytic pretreatment of bezacryl solution containing 20 mg/L of initial dye, the biodegradability test showed a BOD5/COD ratio of 0.5, which is above the limit of biodegradability (0.4). These results were promising regarding the feasibility of combining photocatalysis and biological mineralization for the removal of BZY.

  6. Aerobic granulation in a sequencing batch reactor (SBR) for industrial wastewater treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inizan, M; Freval, A; Cigana, J; Meinhold, J

    2005-01-01

    Aerobic granulation seems to be an a attractive process for COD removal from industrial wastewater, characterised by a high content of soluble organic compounds. In order to evaluate the practical aspects of the process, comparative experimental tests are performed on synthetic and on industrial wastewater, originating from pharmaceutical industry. Two pilot plants are operated as sequencing batch bubble columns. Focus was put on the feasibility of the process for high COD removal and on its operational procedure. For both wastewaters, a rapid formation of aerobic granules is observed along with a high COD removal rate. Granule characteristics are quite similar with respect to the two types of wastewater. It seems that filamentous bacteria are part of the granule structure and that phosphorus precipitation can play an important role in granule formation. For both wastewaters similar removal performances for dissolved biodegradable COD are observed (> 95%). However, a relatively high concentration of suspended solids in the outlet deteriorates the performance with regard to total COD removal. Biomass detachment seems to play a non-negligible role in the current set-up. After a stable operational phase the variation of the pharmaceutical wastewater caused a destabilisation and loss of the granules, despite the control for balanced nutrient supply. The first results with real industrial wastewater demonstrate the feasibility of this innovative process. However, special attention has to be paid to the critical aspects such as granule stability as well as the economic competitiveness, which both will need further investigation and evaluation.

  7. Denitrification performance of acclimated bio-floc in sequencing batch reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tao; Liu, Qingsong; Li, Hua; Dong, Hongbiao; Duan, Yafei; Zhang, Jiasong

    2018-01-01

    Bio-floc technology (BFT) is a new aquaculture models contain both aquaculture and water treatment. Nevertheless, there exists a universal phenomenon of nitrate accumulation in bio-floc system with zero water exchange. In this study, bio-floc was acclimated under 2 hours anaerobic conditions per day by sequencing batch method, which aims to enrichment culture denitrifying microorganisms. The results illustrated that NH4 +-N and NO2 --N concentration in effluent was remained below 0.5 mg/L and 0.1 mg/L respectively, coupled with NO3 --N below 57 mg/L during 240 days cultivation and acclimation. The nitrate concentration was far less than results reported in other bio-floc system with zero water exchange. After acclimation, the anaerobic denitrification performance of the bio-floc was tested and it exhibited high denitrification activity. Nitrate removal rate was approximately 100%, and special nitrate reduction rate was as high as 475.74 mg/(gVSS·d). This acclimation method made bio-floc could be used to nitrogen removal in aquaculture water treatment.

  8. Effect of fermented wastewaters from butter production on phosphates removal in a sequencing batch reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janczukowicz, Wojciech; Rodziewicz, Joanna; Thornton, Arthur; Czaplicka, Kamila

    2012-09-01

    This study determined the potential for fermented wastewaters from butter production plant to act as a carbon source to facilitate phosphates removal. Synthetic dairy wastewaters were treated using SBR, with doses of fermented wastewaters. An increase in the fermented wastewater doses were found to improve the effluent quality in respect of phosphates and nitrates. The lowest concentrations of phosphate and nitrates, respectively 0.10 ± 0.04 mg PO(4)-PL(-1) and 1.03 ± 0.22 mg NO(3)-NL(-1), were noted in the effluent from the reactor fed with fermented wastewaters in a dose of 0.25 L d(-1) per 0.45 L d(-1) of wastewaters fed to the reactor. In the case of the two highest doses, an increase in effluent COD was stated. The higher effectiveness resulted from the fact that the introduction of fermented wastewaters caused an increase in the easily-available carbon compounds content and the predominance of acetic acid amongst VFAs available to dephosphatating and denitrifying bacteria. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Long-term evaluation of a sequential batch reactor (SBR) treating dairy wastewater for carbon removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez, Soledad; Ferrari, Adrián; Benítez, Alejandra; Travers, Dayana; Menes, Javier; Etchebehere, Claudia; Canetti, Rafael

    2007-01-01

    Many dairy industries have been using SBR wastewater treatment plants because they allow optimal working condition to be reached. However, to take advantage of SBR capabilities, strong process automation is needed. The aim of this work is to study the factors that influence SBR performance to improve modelling and control. To better understand the whole process we studied the kinetic modelling, the carbon removal mechanism and the relation between reactor performance, aerobic heterotrophic activity and bacterial population dynamics (by terminal restriction fragment length polymorphisms of 16S rDNA, T-RFLP). The heterotrophic activity values presented high variability during some periods; however, this was not reflected on the reactor performance. As sludge health indicator, the average activity in a period was better than individual values. Although all the carbon removal mechanisms are still unclear for this process, they seemed to be influenced by non-respirometric ways (storage, biosorption, accumulation, etc.). The variability of heterotrophic activity could be correlated with the bacterial population diversity over time. Despite the high variability of the activity, a simple kinetic model (pseudo ASM1) based on apparent constant parameters was developed and calibrated. Such modellisation provided a good tool for control purposes.

  10. LWR (light water reactor) pressure vessel irradiation surveillance dosimetry. Quarterly progress report, January-March 1980

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guthrie, G.L.; McElroy, W.N.

    1980-12-01

    The report describes progress made in the Light Water Reactor Pressure Vessel Irradiation Surveillance Dosimetry Program during the reporting period. The primary objective of the multi-laboratory program is to prepare an updated and improved set of dosimetry, damage correlation, and associated reactor analysis ASTM Standards for LWR-PV irradiation surveillance programs. Supporting this objective are a series of analytical and experimental validation and calibration studies in 'Standard, Reference, and Controlled Environment Benchmark Fields', reactor 'Test Regions', and operating power reactor 'Surveillance Positions'

  11. Comparative study between chemostat and batch reactors to quantify membrane permeability changes on bacteria exposed to silver nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anaya, Nelson M.; Faghihzadeh, Fatemeh [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Rhode Island, 1 Lippitt Rd., Bliss Hall 203, Kingston, RI 02881 (United States); Ganji, Nasim; Bothun, Geoff [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Rhode Island, 16 Greenhouse Rd., Crawford Hall, Kingston, RI 02881 (United States); Oyanedel-Craver, Vinka, E-mail: craver@uri.edu [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Rhode Island, 1 Lippitt Rd., Bliss Hall 203, Kingston, RI 02881 (United States)

    2016-09-15

    Continuous and batch reactors were used to assess the effect of the exposure of casein-coated silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) on Escherichia coli (E. coli). Additionally, E. coli membrane extracts, membrane permeability and Langmuir film balance assays were used to determine integrity and changes in lipid composition in response to AgNPs exposure. Results showed that batch conditions were not appropriate for the tests due to the production of exopolymeric substances (EPS) during the growth phase. After 5 h of contact between AgNPs and the used growth media containing EPS, the nanoparticles increased in size from 86 nm to 282 nm reducing the stability and thus limiting cell-nanoparticle interactions. AgNPs reduced E. coli growth by 20% at 1 mg/L, in terms of Optical Density 670 (OD670), while no effect was detected at 15 mg/L. At 50 mg/L of AgNPs was not possible to perform the test due to aggregation and sedimentation of the nanoparticles. Membrane extract assays showed that at 1 mg/L AgNPs had a greater change in area (− 4.4cm{sup 2}) on bacteria compared to 15 mg/L (− 4.0cm{sup 2}). This area increment suggested that membrane disruption caused by AgNPs had a stabilizing/rigidifying effect where the cells responded by shifting their lipid composition to more unsaturated lipids to counteract membrane rigidification. In chemostats, the constant inflow of fresh media and aeration resulted in less AgNPs aggregation, thus increased the AgNPs-bacteria interactions, in comparison to batch conditions. AgNPs at 1 mg/L, 15 mg/L, and 50 mg/L inhibited the growth (OD670 reduction) by 0%, 11% and 16.3%, respectively. Membrane extracts exposed to 1 mg/L, 15 mg/L, and 50 mg/L of AgNPs required greater changes in area by − 0.5 cm{sup 2}, 2.7 cm{sup 2} and 3.6 cm{sup 2}, respectively, indicating that the bacterial membranes were disrupted and bacteria responded by synthesizing lipids that stabilize or strengthen membranes. This study showed that the chemostat is more

  12. Nitrous oxide production from sequencing batch reactor sludge under nitrifying conditions: effect of nitrite concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Youkui; Wang, Shuying; Wang, Sai; Peng, Yongzhen

    2012-01-01

    Nitrous oxide (N2O), a greenhouse gas which contributes to the destruction of the stratospheric ozone layer, can be emitted from nitrifying processes during wastewater treatment. The pathway of N2O production was studied using a lab-scale nitrifying reactor. Allylthiourea was used to inhibit NH4+ oxidation and provide information on processes that happen under nitrifying condition. Our study confirmed that besides heterotrophic bacteria, ammonium-oxidizing bacteria could perform denitrification processes, during which NO2- was the electron acceptor and NH4+ was the electron donor, with N2 and N2O as final products. The relative contribution of the heterotrophic denitrification process to total N2O emissions varied from 46.1% to 60.4% depending on NO2(-)-N addition. Correspondingly, 21.8% to 51.5% of total N2O emissions can be attributed to nitrifier denitrification. Little N2O is emitted during the NO2- oxidation process.

  13. Pyrolysis of biomass and refuse-derived fuel performance in laboratory scale batch reactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kluska Jacek

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The results of pyrolysis of pine chips and refuse derived fuel fractions are presented. The experiments were carried out in a pilot pyrolysis reactor. The feedstock was analyzed by an elemental analyzer and the X-ray fluorescence spectrometer to determine the elemental composition. To find out optimum conditions for pyrolysis and mass loss as a function of temperature the thermogravimetric analysis was applied. Gases from the thermogravimetric analysis were directed to the infrared spectrometer using gas-flow cuvette to online analysis of gas composition. Chemical composition of the produced gas was measured using gas chromatography with a thermal conductivity detector and a flame ionization detector. The product analysis also took into account the mass balance of individual products.

  14. Bioleaching of uranium in batch stirred tank reactor: Process optimization using Box–Behnken design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eisapour, M.; Keshtkar, A.; Moosavian, M.A.; Rashidi, A.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► High amount of uranium recovery achieved using Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans. ► ANOVA shows individual variables and their squares are statistically significant. ► The model can accurately predict the behavior of uranium recovery. ► The model shows that pulp density has the greatest effect on uranium recovery. - Abstract: To design industrial reactors, it is important to identify and optimize the effective parameters of the process. Therefore, in this study, a three-level Box–Behnken factorial design was employed combining with a response surface methodology to optimize pulp density, agitation speed and aeration rate in uranium bioleaching in a stirred tank reactor using a pure native culture of Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans. A mathematical model was then developed by applying the least squares method using the software Minitab Version 16.1.0. The second order model represents the uranium recovery as a function of pulp density, agitation speed and aeration rate. An analysis of variance was carried out to investigate the effects of individual variables and their combined interactive effects on uranium recovery. The results showed that the linear and quadratic terms of variables were statistically significant whilst the interaction terms were statistically insignificant. The model estimated that a maximum uranium extraction (99.99%) could be obtained when the pulp density, agitation speed and aeration rate were set at optimized values of 5.8% w/v, 510 rpm and 250 l/h, respectively. A confirmatory test at the optimum conditions resulted in a uranium recovery of 95%, indicating a marginal error of 4.99%. Furthermore, control tests were performed to demonstrate the effect of A. ferrooxidans in uranium bioleaching process and showed that the addition of this microorganism greatly increases the uranium recovery

  15. Physiological changes of Candida tropicalis population degrading phenol in fed batch reactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliska Komarkova

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Candida tropicalis can use phenol as the sole carbon and energy source. Experiments regarding phenol degradations from the water phase were carried out. The fermentor was operated as a fed-batch system with oxistat control. Under conditions of nutrient limitation and an excess of oxygen the respiration activity of cells was suppressed and some color metabolites (black-brown started to be formed. An accumulation of these products inhibited the cell growth under aerobic conditions. Another impact was a decrease of the phenol hydroxylase activity as the key enzyme of the phenol degradation pathway at the end of the cell respiration activity. This decrease is linked with the above mentioned product inhibition. The cell death studied by fluorescent probe proceeded very slowly after the loss of the respiration activity. The starvation stress induced an increase of the endogenous respiration rate at the expense of phenol oxidation.Candida tropicalis pode utilizar fenol como única fonte de carbono e de energia. O fermentador foi operado em um sistema ''batelada-alimentada'' e controle oxidativo. Em condições limitantes de nutrientes e excesso de oxigênio a atividade respiratória das células foi suprimida e o calor do metabolismo pode ser formado. Uma acumulação desses produtos inibiu o crescimento das células em condições aeróbicas. Outro impacto foi um decréscimo da atividade fenol hidroxilase como enzima chave da degradação do fenol no final da atividade respirométrica. Essa redução está relacionada com os fatos acima mencionados. A morte da célula estudada por sonda de fluorescência ocorreu lentamente após a perda da atividade respiratória. O ''stress'' celular induziu um aumento na taxa de respiração endógena devido à oxidação fenólica.

  16. Photocatalytic Oxidation of Azo Dyes and Oxalic Acid in Batch Reactors and CSTR: Introduction of Photon Absorption by Dyes to Kinetic Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Grčić

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The possibilities of treating industrial effluents and water purification by advanced oxidation processes have been extensively studied; photocatalysis has emerged as a feasible alternative solution. In order to apply the photocatalytic treatment on a larger scale, relevant modeling approaches are necessary. The scope of this work was to investigate the applicability of recently published kinetic models in different reactor systems (batch and CSTR under UVA or UVC irradiation and in combination with two types of TiO2 catalyst, AEROXIDE® P25 and PC-500 for degradation of azo dyes (C.I. Reactive Violet 2, and C.I. Mordant Yellow 10, oxalic acid and their mixtures. The influences of reactor geometry and irradiation intensities on pollutant oxidation efficiency were examined. The effect of photon absorption by dyes in water matrix was thoroughly studied. Relevant kinetic models were introduced to the mass balance for particular reactor system. Resulting models were sufficient for description of pollutant degradation in batch reactors and CSTR. Experimental results showed 1.15 times higher mineralization extents achieved after 7 cycles in CSTR than in batch photoreactor of similar geometry within the equivalent time-span. The application of CSTR in-series could simplify the photocatalytic water treatment on a larger scale.

  17. The effect of pH and operation mode for COD removal of slaughterhouse wastewater with Anaerobic Batch Reactor (ABR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Octoviane Dyan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Disposal of industrial wastes in large quantities was not in accordance with today's standards of waste into environmental issues that must be overcome with proper treatment. Similarly, the abattoir wastewater that contains too high organic compounds and suspended solids. The amount of liquid waste disposal Slaughterhouse (SW with high volume also causes pollution. The research aim to resolve this problem by lowering the levels of BOD-COD to comply with effluent quality standard. Anaerobic process is the right process for slaughterhouse wastewater treatment because of high content of organic compounds that can be utilized by anaerobic bacteria as a growth medium. Some research has been conducted among abattoir wastewater treatment using anaerobic reactors such as ABR, UASB and ASBR. Our research focuses on the search for the optimum results decline effluent COD levels to match the quality standards limbah and cow rumen fluid with biodigester ABR (Anaerobic Batch Reactor. The variables used were PH of 6, 7, and 8, as well as the concentration ratio of COD: N is 400:7; 450:7, and 500:7. COD value is set by the addition of N derived from urea [CO(NH2 2]. COD levels will be measured daily by water displacement technique. The research’s result for 20 days seen that optimum PH for biogas production was PH 7,719 ml. The optimum PH for COD removal is PH 6, 72.39 %. The operation mode COD:N for biogas production and COD removal is 500:7, with the production value is 601 ml and COD removal value is 63.85 %. The research’s conclusion, the PH optimum for biogas production was PH 7, then the optimum PH for COD removal is PH 6. The optimum operation mode COD:N for biogas production and COD removal was 500:7

  18. Effects of phenol on physicochemical properties and treatment performances of partial nitrifying granules in sequencing batch reactors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingming Gao

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This study attempts to investigate the effect of phenol on physicochemical properties and treatment performances of partial nitrifying granules (PNGs. Two sequencing batch reactors (SBRs fed with synthetic ammonium wastewaters were operated in absence (R1 or presence (R2 of phenol. The PNGs in R1 maintained excellent partial nitrification performance and relatively stable physicochemical properties, and exhibited compact and regular shaped structure with a cocci-dominant surface. However, as phenol concentration was stepwise increased from 0 to 300 mg/L in R2, filamentous bacteria appeared and gradually dominated within granules, which in turn resulted in settleability deterioration. Most notably, granules in R2 got easier to agglomerate in the reactor walls and then been washed out with effluent, leading to significant biomass loss, frequent outflow pipe blockage, and eventual system failure. The extracellular polymeric substances (EPS contents including proteins and polysaccharides in R2 reached 1.8 and 1.7 times of that in R1, respectively, indicating that the presence of phenol played an important role on EPS production. Removal efficiency of ammonium and phenol remained high, but dropped sharply when phenol concentration reached 300 mg/L. Moreover, the failed maintenance of partial nitrification was observed due to the revival of nitrite oxidizing bacteria (NOB within granules after phenol exposure, which was confirmed by quantitative fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH analysis. Overall this study demonstrates that phenol had negative effects on PNGs, and pretreatment to eliminate phenolic substances is recommended when using PNGs for wastewater treatment.

  19. Performance and microbial community dynamics of electricity-assisted sequencing batch reactor (SBR) for treatment of saline petrochemical wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jiaxin; Shi, Shengnan; Ji, Xiangyu; Jiang, Bei; Xue, Lanlan; Li, Meidi; Tan, Liang

    2017-07-01

    High-salinity wastewater is often difficult to treat by common biological technologies due to salinity stress on the bacterial community. Electricity-assisted anaerobic technologies have significantly enhanced the treatment performance by alleviating the impact of salinity stress on the bacterial community, but electricity-assisted aerobic technologies have less been reported. Herein, a novel bio-electrochemistry system has been designed and operated in which a pair of stainless iron mesh-graphite plate electrodes were installed into a sequencing batch reactor (SBR, designated as S1) to strengthen the performance of saline petrochemical wastewater under aerobic conditions. The removal efficiency of phenol and chemical oxygen demand (COD) in S1 were 94.1 and 91.2%, respectively, on day 45, which was clearly higher than the removal efficiency of a single SBR (S2) and an electrochemical reactor (S3), indicating that a coupling effect existed between the electrochemical process and biodegradation. A certain amount of salinity (≤8000 mg/L) could enhance the treatment performance in S1 but weaken that in S2. Illumina sequencing revealed that microbial communities in S1 on days 45 and 91 were richer and more diverse than in S2, which suggests that electrical stimulation could enhance the diversity and richness of the microbial community, and reduce the negative effect of salinity on the microorganisms and enrich some salt-adapted microorganisms, thus improve the ability of S1 to respond to salinity stress. This novel bio-electrochemistry system was shown to be an alternative technology for the high saline petrochemical wastewater.

  20. Batch leachate treatment using stirred electrocoagulation reactor with variation of residence time and stirring rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sitorus, I. S.; Astono, W.; Iswanto, B.

    2018-01-01

    This study aims to reduce pollutant levels of the leachate by electrocoagulation method using a stirred electrocoagulation reactor as the electrochemical water treatment. The release of active coagulants as metallic ions took place in the anode, while in the cathode, the electrolysis reaction in the form of hydrogen gas dischargeoccurred. The source of wastewater is Waste Water Treatment Plant inlet III of Bantar Gebang, Bekasi. Some parameters were analyzed in this research, i.e., Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD), Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD), NH3, NO3 -, NO2 -, N-total, and organic substances as well as the microorganism growth before and after electrocoagulation, with variations of detention time (seconds) of 10, 20, 120, 600 and rapid mixing conditions (rpm) of 60, 100 and 200. The results show that the greater the rapid mixing speed and the detention time of electrolysis, the higher the removal of contaminants in liquid waste. The optimum condition of electrocoagulation was encountered at 200 rpm rapid mixing with 600 seconds of processing time. The removal efficiencies of electrocoagulation method for each parameter are TSS of 46.80%, BOD5 of 71.33%, COD of 73.77%, Pb of 62.5%,and NH3-N of 57.92%,whereas the pH value has been increased from 8.03 to 8.95. The electrocoagulation method can reduce levels of pollutants, complying with the environmental standards.

  1. Enhanced biological nutrient removal in sequencing batch reactors operated as static/oxic/anoxic (SOA) process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Dechao; Chen, Hongbo; Li, Xiaoming; Yang, Qi; Zeng, Tianjing; Luo, Kun; Zeng, Guangming

    2013-09-01

    An innovative static/oxic/anoxic (SOA) activated sludge process characterized by static phase as a substitute for conventional anaerobic stage was developed to enhance biological nutrient removal (BNR) with influent ammonia of 20 and 40 mg/L in R1 and R2 reactors, respectively. The results demonstrated that static phase could function as conventional anaerobic stage. In R1 lower influent ammonia concentration facilitated more polyphosphate accumulating organisms (PAOs) growth, but secondary phosphorus release occurred due to NOx(-) depletion during post-anoxic period. In R2, however, denitrifying phosphorus removal proceeded with sufficient NOx(-). Both R1 and R2 saw simultaneous nitrification-denitrification. Glycogen was utilized to drive post-denitrification with denitrification rates in excess of typical endogenous decay rates. The anoxic stirring duration could be shortened from 3 to 1.5h to avoid secondary phosphorus release in R1 and little adverse impact was found on nutrients removal in R2. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Using Sulfate-Amended Sediment Slurry Batch Reactors to Evaluate Mercury Methylation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harmon, S.M.

    2003-01-01

    In the methylated form, mercury represents a concern to public health primarily through the consumption of contaminated fish tissue. Research conducted on the methylation of mercury strongly suggests the process is microbial in nature and facilitated principally by sulfate-reducing bacteria. This study addressed the potential for mercury methylation by varying sulfate treatments and wetland-based soil in microbial slurry reactors with available inorganic mercury. Under anoxic laboratory conditions conducive to growth of naturally occurring sulfate-reducing bacteria in the soil, it was possible to evaluate how various sulfate additions influenced the methylation of inorganic mercury added to overlying water. Treatments included sulfate amendments ranging FR-om 25 to 500 mg/L (0.26 to 5.2 mM) above the soil's natural sulfate level. This study also provided an assessment of mercury methylation relative to sulfate-reducing bacterial population growth and subsequent sulfide production. Mercury methylation in sulfate treatments did not exceed that of the non-amended control during a 35-day incubation. However, increases in methylmercury concentration were linked to bacterial growth and sulfate reduction. A time lag in methylation in the highest treatment correlated with an equivalent lag in bacterial growth

  3. Effect of florfenicol on performance and microbial community of a sequencing batch biofilm reactor treating mariculture wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Feng; Li, Zhiwei; Chang, Qingbo; Gao, Mengchun; She, Zonglian; Wu, Juan; Jin, Chunji; Zheng, Dong; Guo, Liang; Zhao, Yangguo; Wang, Sen

    2018-02-01

    The effects of florfenicol (FF) on the performance, microbial activity and microbial community of a sequencing batch biofilm reactor (SBBR) were evaluated in treating mariculture wastewater. The chemical oxygen demand (COD) and nitrogen removal were inhibited at high FF concentrations. The specific oxygen utilization rate (SOUR), specific ammonium oxidation rate (SAOR), specific nitrite oxidation rate (SNOR) and specific nitrate reduction rate (SNRR) were decreased with an increase in the FF concentration from 0 to 35 mg/L. The chemical compositions of loosely bound extracellular polymeric substances (LB-EPS) and tightly bound EPS (TB-EPS) could be affected with an increase in the FF concentration. The high-throughput sequencing indicated some obvious variations in the microbial community at different FF concentrations. The relative abundance of Nitrosomonas and Nitrospira showed a decreasing tendency with an increase in the FF concentration, suggesting that FF could affect the nitrification process of SBBR. Some genera capable of reducing nitrate to nitrogen gas could be inhibited by the addition of FF in the influent, such as Azospirillum and Hyphomicrobium.

  4. Modeling of kinetics of Cr(VI) sorption onto grape stalk waste in a stirred batch reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Escudero, Carlos; Fiol, Nuria; Poch, Jordi; Villaescusa, Isabel

    2009-01-01

    Recently, Cr(VI) removal by grape stalks has been postulated to follow two mechanisms, adsorption and reduction to trivalent chromium. Nevertheless, the rate at which both processes take place and the possible simultaneity of both processes has not been investigated. In this work, kinetics of Cr(VI) sorption onto grape stalk waste has been studied. Experiments were carried out at different temperatures but at a constant pH (3 ± 0.1) in a stirred batch reactor. Results showed that three steps take place in the process of Cr(VI) sorption onto grape stalk waste: Cr(VI) sorption, Cr(VI) reduction to Cr(III) and the adsorption of the formed Cr(III). Taking into account the evidences above mentioned, a model has been developed to predict Cr(VI) sorption on grape stalks on the basis of (i) irreversible reduction of Cr(VI) to Cr(III) reaction, whose reaction rate is assumed to be proportional to the Cr(VI) concentration in solution and (ii) adsorption and desorption of Cr(VI) and formed Cr(III) assuming that all the processes follow Langmuir type kinetics. The proposed model fits successfully the kinetic data obtained at different temperatures and describes the kinetics profile of total, hexavalent and trivalent chromium. The proposed model would be helpful for researchers in the field of Cr(VI) biosorption to design and predict the performance of sorption processes.

  5. Modeling of kinetics of Cr(VI) sorption onto grape stalk waste in a stirred batch reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Escudero, Carlos, E-mail: u1058115@correu.udg.edu [Department of Chemical Engineering, Escola Politecnica Superior, Universitat de Girona, Avda. Lluis Santalo s/n, 17002 Girona (Spain); Fiol, Nuria, E-mail: nuria.fiol@udg.edu [Department of Chemical Engineering, Escola Politecnica Superior, Universitat de Girona, Avda. Lluis Santalo s/n, 17002 Girona (Spain); Poch, Jordi, E-mail: Jordi.poch@udg.edu [Department of Applied Mathematics, Escola Politecnica Superior, Universitat de Girona, Avda. Lluis Santalo s/n, 17002 Girona (Spain); Villaescusa, Isabel [Department of Chemical Engineering, Escola Politecnica Superior, Universitat de Girona, Avda. Lluis Santalo s/n, 17002 Girona (Spain)

    2009-10-15

    Recently, Cr(VI) removal by grape stalks has been postulated to follow two mechanisms, adsorption and reduction to trivalent chromium. Nevertheless, the rate at which both processes take place and the possible simultaneity of both processes has not been investigated. In this work, kinetics of Cr(VI) sorption onto grape stalk waste has been studied. Experiments were carried out at different temperatures but at a constant pH (3 {+-} 0.1) in a stirred batch reactor. Results showed that three steps take place in the process of Cr(VI) sorption onto grape stalk waste: Cr(VI) sorption, Cr(VI) reduction to Cr(III) and the adsorption of the formed Cr(III). Taking into account the evidences above mentioned, a model has been developed to predict Cr(VI) sorption on grape stalks on the basis of (i) irreversible reduction of Cr(VI) to Cr(III) reaction, whose reaction rate is assumed to be proportional to the Cr(VI) concentration in solution and (ii) adsorption and desorption of Cr(VI) and formed Cr(III) assuming that all the processes follow Langmuir type kinetics. The proposed model fits successfully the kinetic data obtained at different temperatures and describes the kinetics profile of total, hexavalent and trivalent chromium. The proposed model would be helpful for researchers in the field of Cr(VI) biosorption to design and predict the performance of sorption processes.

  6. Modeling of kinetics of Cr(VI) sorption onto grape stalk waste in a stirred batch reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escudero, Carlos; Fiol, Nuria; Poch, Jordi; Villaescusa, Isabel

    2009-10-15

    Recently, Cr(VI) removal by grape stalks has been postulated to follow two mechanisms, adsorption and reduction to trivalent chromium. Nevertheless, the rate at which both processes take place and the possible simultaneity of both processes has not been investigated. In this work, kinetics of Cr(VI) sorption onto grape stalk waste has been studied. Experiments were carried out at different temperatures but at a constant pH (3+/-0.1) in a stirred batch reactor. Results showed that three steps take place in the process of Cr(VI) sorption onto grape stalk waste: Cr(VI) sorption, Cr(VI) reduction to Cr(III) and the adsorption of the formed Cr(III). Taking into account the evidences above mentioned, a model has been developed to predict Cr(VI) sorption on grape stalks on the basis of (i) irreversible reduction of Cr(VI) to Cr(III) reaction, whose reaction rate is assumed to be proportional to the Cr(VI) concentration in solution and (ii) adsorption and desorption of Cr(VI) and formed Cr(III) assuming that all the processes follow Langmuir type kinetics. The proposed model fits successfully the kinetic data obtained at different temperatures and describes the kinetics profile of total, hexavalent and trivalent chromium. The proposed model would be helpful for researchers in the field of Cr(VI) biosorption to design and predict the performance of sorption processes.

  7. Treatment of a simulated textile wastewater in a sequencing batch reactor (SBR) with addition of a low-cost adsorbent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Sílvia C R; Boaventura, Rui A R

    2015-06-30

    Color removal from textile wastewaters, at a low-cost and consistent technology, is even today a challenge. Simultaneous biological treatment and adsorption is a known alternative to the treatment of wastewaters containing biodegradable and non-biodegradable contaminants. The present work aims at evaluating the treatability of a simulated textile wastewater by simultaneously combining biological treatment and adsorption in a SBR (sequencing batch reactor), but using a low-cost adsorbent, instead of a commercial one. The selected adsorbent was a metal hydroxide sludge (WS) from an electroplating industry. Direct Blue 85 dye (DB) was used in the preparation of the synthetic wastewater. Firstly, adsorption kinetics and equilibrium were studied, in respect to many factors (temperature, pH, WS dosage and presence of salts and dyeing auxiliary chemicals in the aqueous media). At 25 °C and pH 4, 7 and 10, maximum DB adsorption capacities in aqueous solution were 600, 339 and 98.7 mg/g, respectively. These values are quite considerable, compared to other reported in literature, but proved to be significantly reduced by the presence of dyeing auxiliary chemicals in the wastewater. The simulated textile wastewater treatment in SBR led to BOD5 removals of 53-79%, but color removal was rather limited (10-18%). The performance was significantly enhanced by the addition of WS, with BOD5 removals above 91% and average color removals of 60-69%. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Alkaline cyanide degradation by Pseudomonas pseudoalcaligenes CECT5344 in a batch reactor. Influence of pH

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huertas, M.J.; Saez, L.P.; Roldan, M.D.; Luque-Almagro, V.M.; Martinez-Luque, M.; Blasco, R.; Castillo, F.; Moreno-Vivian, C.; Garcia-Garcia, I.

    2010-01-01

    Water containing cyanide was biologically detoxified with the bacterial strain Pseudomonas pseudoalcaligenes CECT5344 in a batch reactor. Volatilization of toxic hydrogen cyanide (HCN) was avoided by using an alkaline medium for the treatment. The operational procedure was optimized to assess cyanide biodegradation at variable pH values and dissolved oxygen concentrations. Using an initial pH of 10 without subsequent adjustment allowed total cyanide to be consumed at a mean rate of approximately 2.81 mg CN - L -1 O.D. -1 h -1 ; however, these conditions posed a high risk of HCN formation. Cyanide consumption was found to be pH-dependent. Thus, no bacterial growth was observed with a controlled pH of 10; on the other hand, pH 9.5 allowed up to 2.31 mg CN - L -1 O.D. -1 h -1 to be converted. The combination of a high pH and a low dissolved oxygen saturation (10%) minimized the release of HCN. This study contributes new basic knowledge about this biological treatment, which constitutes an effective alternative to available physico-chemical methods for the purification of wastewater containing cyanide or cyano-metal complexes.

  9. Minimizing N2O emissions and carbon footprint on a full-scale activated sludge sequencing batch reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Caballero, A; Aymerich, I; Marques, Ricardo; Poch, M; Pijuan, M

    2015-03-15

    A continuous, on-line quantification of the nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions from a full-scale sequencing batch reactor (SBR) placed in a municipal wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) was performed in this study. In general, N2O emissions from the biological wastewater treatment system were 97.1 ± 6.9 g N2O-N/Kg [Formula: see text] consumed or 6.8% of the influent [Formula: see text] load. In the WWTP of this study, N2O emissions accounted for over 60% of the total carbon footprint of the facility, on average. Different cycle configurations were implemented in the SBR aiming at reaching acceptable effluent values. Each cycle configuration consisted of sequences of aerated and non-aerated phases of different time length being controlled by the ammonium set-point fixed. Cycles with long aerated phases showed the largest N2O emissions, with the consequent increase in carbon footprint. Cycle configurations with intermittent aeration (aerated phases up to 20-30 min followed by short anoxic phases) were proven to effectively reduce N2O emissions, without compromising nitrification performance or increasing electricity consumption. This is the first study in which a successful operational strategy for N2O mitigation is identified at full-scale. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Landfill leachate treatment using powdered activated carbon augmented sequencing batch reactor (SBR) process: Optimization by response surface methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aziz, Shuokr Qarani; Aziz, Hamidi Abdul; Yusoff, Mohd Suffian; Bashir, Mohammed J.K.

    2011-01-01

    In this study, landfill leachate was treated by using the sequencing batch reactor (SBR) process. Two types of the SBR, namely non-powdered activated carbon and powdered activated carbon (PAC-SBR) were used. The influence of aeration rate and contact time on SBR and PAC-SBR performances was investigated. Removal efficiencies of chemical oxygen demand (COD), colour, ammoniacal nitrogen (NH 3 -N), total dissolved salts (TDS), and sludge volume index (SVI) were monitored throughout the experiments. Response surface methodology (RSM) was applied for experimental design, analysis and optimization. Based on the results, the PAC-SBR displayed superior performance in term of removal efficiencies when compared to SBR. At the optimum conditions of aeration rate of 1 L/min and contact time of 5.5 h the PAC-SBR achieved 64.1%, 71.2%, 81.4%, and 1.33% removal of COD, colour, NH 3 -N, and TDS, respectively. The SVI value of PAC-SBR was 122.2 mL/g at optimum conditions.

  11. Landfill leachate treatment using powdered activated carbon augmented sequencing batch reactor (SBR) process: Optimization by response surface methodology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aziz, Shuokr Qarani [School of Civil Engineering, Universiti Sains Malaysia (USM), 14300 Nibong Tebal, Penang (Malaysia); Aziz, Hamidi Abdul, E-mail: cehamidi@eng.usm.my [School of Civil Engineering, Universiti Sains Malaysia (USM), 14300 Nibong Tebal, Penang (Malaysia); Yusoff, Mohd Suffian; Bashir, Mohammed J.K. [School of Civil Engineering, Universiti Sains Malaysia (USM), 14300 Nibong Tebal, Penang (Malaysia)

    2011-05-15

    In this study, landfill leachate was treated by using the sequencing batch reactor (SBR) process. Two types of the SBR, namely non-powdered activated carbon and powdered activated carbon (PAC-SBR) were used. The influence of aeration rate and contact time on SBR and PAC-SBR performances was investigated. Removal efficiencies of chemical oxygen demand (COD), colour, ammoniacal nitrogen (NH{sub 3}-N), total dissolved salts (TDS), and sludge volume index (SVI) were monitored throughout the experiments. Response surface methodology (RSM) was applied for experimental design, analysis and optimization. Based on the results, the PAC-SBR displayed superior performance in term of removal efficiencies when compared to SBR. At the optimum conditions of aeration rate of 1 L/min and contact time of 5.5 h the PAC-SBR achieved 64.1%, 71.2%, 81.4%, and 1.33% removal of COD, colour, NH{sub 3}-N, and TDS, respectively. The SVI value of PAC-SBR was 122.2 mL/g at optimum conditions.

  12. Biological phosphorus and nitrogen removal in sequencing batch reactors: effects of cycle length, dissolved oxygen concentration and influent particulate matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginige, Maneesha P; Kayaalp, Ahmet S; Cheng, Ka Yu; Wylie, Jason; Kaksonen, Anna H

    2013-01-01

    Removal of phosphorus (P) and nitrogen (N) from municipal wastewaters is required to mitigate eutrophication of receiving water bodies. While most treatment plants achieve good N removal using influent carbon (C), the use of influent C to facilitate enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR) is poorly explored. A number of operational parameters can facilitate optimum use of influent C and this study investigated the effects of cycle length, dissolved oxygen (DO) concentration during aerobic period and influent solids on biological P and N removal in sequencing batch reactors (SRBs) using municipal wastewaters. Increasing cycle length from 3 to 6 h increased P removal efficiency, which was attributed to larger portion of N being removed via nitrite pathway and more biodegradable organic C becoming available for EBPR. Further increasing cycle length from 6 to 8 h decreased P removal efficiencies as the demand for biodegradable organic C for denitrification increased as a result of complete nitrification. Decreasing DO concentration in the aerobic period from 2 to 0.8 mg L(-1) increased P removal efficiency but decreased nitrification rates possibly due to oxygen limitation. Further, sedimented wastewater was proved to be a better influent stream than non-sedimented wastewater possibility due to the detrimental effect of particulate matter on biological nutrient removal.

  13. Effects of antibiotic resistance genes on the performance and stability of different microbial aggregates in a granular sequencing batch reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zou, Wenci; Xue, Bin; Zhi, Weijia; Zhao, Tianyu; Yang, Dong; Qiu, Zhigang; Shen, Zhiqiang; Li, Junwen; Zhang, Bin; Wang, Jingfeng

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • The inoculation of donor strain undermined treatment efficiencies of bioreactor. • The presence of RP4 plasmid affected the activity of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria. • Granular sludge shortened the residence time of RP4 in sludge. • Granular sludge system could reduce the ecological risk from ARGs. - Abstract: Antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) have emerged as key factors in wastewater environmental contaminants and continue to pose a challenge for wastewater treatment processes. With the aim of investigating the performance of granular sludge system when treating wastewater containing a considerable amount of ARGs, a lab-scale granular sequencing batch reactor (GSBR) where flocculent and granular sludge coexisted was designed. The results showed that after inoculation of donor strain NH 4 + -N purification efficiency diminished from 94.7% to 32.8% and recovered to 95.2% after 10 days. Meanwhile, RP4 plasmid had varying effects on different forms of microbial aggregates. As the size of aggregates increased, the abundance of RP4 in sludge decreased. The residence time of RP4 in granules with particle size exceeding 0.9 mm (14 days) was far shorter than that in flocculent sludge (26 days). Therefore, our studies conclude that with increasing number of ARGs being detected in wastewater, the use of granular sludge system in wastewater treatment processes will allow the reduction of ARGs transmissions and lessen potential ecological threats.

  14. Effects of antibiotic resistance genes on the performance and stability of different microbial aggregates in a granular sequencing batch reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zou, Wenci; Xue, Bin; Zhi, Weijia; Zhao, Tianyu; Yang, Dong; Qiu, Zhigang; Shen, Zhiqiang; Li, Junwen; Zhang, Bin, E-mail: tjzhangbin@sohu.com; Wang, Jingfeng, E-mail: jingfengwang@hotmail.com

    2016-03-05

    Highlights: • The inoculation of donor strain undermined treatment efficiencies of bioreactor. • The presence of RP4 plasmid affected the activity of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria. • Granular sludge shortened the residence time of RP4 in sludge. • Granular sludge system could reduce the ecological risk from ARGs. - Abstract: Antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) have emerged as key factors in wastewater environmental contaminants and continue to pose a challenge for wastewater treatment processes. With the aim of investigating the performance of granular sludge system when treating wastewater containing a considerable amount of ARGs, a lab-scale granular sequencing batch reactor (GSBR) where flocculent and granular sludge coexisted was designed. The results showed that after inoculation of donor strain NH{sub 4}{sup +}-N purification efficiency diminished from 94.7% to 32.8% and recovered to 95.2% after 10 days. Meanwhile, RP4 plasmid had varying effects on different forms of microbial aggregates. As the size of aggregates increased, the abundance of RP4 in sludge decreased. The residence time of RP4 in granules with particle size exceeding 0.9 mm (14 days) was far shorter than that in flocculent sludge (26 days). Therefore, our studies conclude that with increasing number of ARGs being detected in wastewater, the use of granular sludge system in wastewater treatment processes will allow the reduction of ARGs transmissions and lessen potential ecological threats.

  15. Simultaneous ammonium and nitrate removal by a modified intermittently aerated sequencing batch reactor (SBR with multiple filling events

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hajsardar Mehdi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Optimized methods for simultaneous removal of nitrate, nitrite and ammonium are important features of nutrient removal. Nitrogen removal efficiency in an intermittently aerated sequencing batch reactor (IA-SBR with multiple filling events was studied. No external carbon source was added and three filling events were considered. Oxidationreduction potential (ORP and pH curve at solids retention time (SRT of 20 d were analyzed. Effects of three organic loading rates (OLR, 0.67, 1.0 and 1.5 kgCOD/m3d, and three nitrogen loading rates (NLR, 0.054, 0.1 and 0.15 kgN/m3d, on nitrogen removal were studied. Nitrate Apex in pH curve and Nitrate Knee in ORP profile indicated that the end of denitrification would be achieved sooner. The kinetic coefficients of endogenous decay (kd and yield (Y were identified to evaluate heterotrophic specific denitrification rate (SDNRb. In period 2 at NLR of 0.054 kgN/m3d and considering 2 anoxic and 3 aerobic phases, nitrogen removal efficiency was 91.43%.

  16. Biomineralization of azo dye bearing wastewater in periodic discontinuous batch reactor: Effect of microaerophilic conditions on treatment efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naresh Kumar, A; Nagendranatha Reddy, C; Venkata Mohan, S

    2015-01-01

    The present study illustrates the influence of microaerophilic condition on periodic discontinuous batch reactor (PDBR) operation in treating azo dye containing wastewater. The process performance was evaluated with the function of various dye load operations (50-750 mg/l) by keeping the organic load (1.6 kg COD/m(3)-day) constant. Initially, lower dye operation (50mg dye/l) resulted in higher dye [45 mg dye/l (90%)] and COD [SDR: 1.29 kg COD/m(3)-day (92%)] removal efficiencies. Higher dye load operation (750 mg dye/l) also showed non-inhibitory performance with respect to dye [600 mg dye/l (80%)] and COD [1.25 kg COD/m(3)-day (80%)] removal efficiencies. Increment in dye load showed increment in azo reductase and dehydrogenase activities (39.6 U; 4.96 μg/ml; 750 mg/l). UV-Vis spectroscopy (200-800 nm), FTIR and (1)H NMR studies revealed the disappearance of azo bond (-NN-). First derivative cyclic voltammogram supported the involvement of various membrane bound redox shuttlers, viz., cytochrome-C, cytochrome-bc1 and flavoproteins (FAD (H)). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Simultaneous removal of aniline, nitrogen and phosphorus in aniline-containing wastewater treatment by using sequencing batch reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yu; Wang, Hongyu; Shang, Yu; Yang, Kai

    2016-05-01

    The high removal efficiencies of traditional biological aniline-degrading systems always lead to accumulation of ammonium. In this study, simultaneous removal of aniline, nitrogen and phosphorus in a single sequencing batch reactor was achieved by using anaerobic/aerobic/anoxic (A/O/A) operational process. The removal efficiencies of COD, NH4(+)-N, TN, TP were over 95.80%, 83.03%, 87.13%, 90.95%, respectively in most cases with 250mgL(-1) of initial aniline at 6h cycle when DO was 5.5±0.5mgL(-1). Aniline was able to be completely degraded when initial concentrations were less than 750mgL(-1). When DO increased, the removal rate of NH4(+)-N and TP slightly increased along with the moderate decrease of removal efficiencies of TN. The variation of HRT had obvious influence on removal performance of pollutants. The system showed high removal efficiencies of aniline, COD and nutrients during the variation of operating conditions, which might contribute to disposal of aniline-rich industrial wastewater. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Mass transfer kinetics of biosorption of nitrogenous matter from palm oil mill effluent by aerobic granules in sequencing batch reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulazzaky, Mohamad Ali; Nuid, Maria; Aris, Azmi; Muda, Khalida

    2017-07-13

    Understanding of mass transfer kinetics is important for biosorption of nitrogen compounds from palm oil mill effluent (POME) to gain a mechanistic insight into future biological processes for the treatment of high organic loading wastewater. In this study, the rates of global and sequential mass transfer were determined using the modified mass transfer factor equations for the experiments to remove nitrogen by aerobic granular sludge accumulation in a sequencing batch reactor (SBR). The maximum efficiencies as high as 97% for the experiment run at [k L a] g value of 1421.8 h -1 and 96% for the experiment run at [k L a] g value of 9.6 × 10 37  h -1 were verified before and after the addition of Serratia marcescens SA30, respectively. The resistance of mass transfer could be dependent on external mass transfer that controls the transport of nitrogen molecule along the experimental period of 256 days. The increase in [k L a] g value leading to increased performance of the SBR was verified to contribute to the future applications of the SBR because this phenomenon provides new insight into the dynamic response of biological processes to treat POME.

  19. Individual and combined effects of organic, toxic, and hydraulic shocks on sequencing batch reactor in treating petroleum refinery wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizzouri, Nashwan Sh; Shaaban, Md Ghazaly

    2013-04-15

    This study analyzes the effects of toxic, hydraulic, and organic shocks on the performance of a lab-scale sequencing batch reactor (SBR) with a capacity of 5L. Petroleum refinery wastewater (PRWW) was treated with an organic loading rate (OLR) of approximately 0.3 kg chemical oxygen demand (COD)/kg MLSSd at 12.8h hydraulic retention time (HRT). A considerable variation in the COD was observed for organic, toxic, hydraulic, and combined shocks, and the worst values observed were 68.9, 77.1, 70.2, and 57.8%, respectively. Improved control of toxic shock loads of 10 and 20mg/L of chromium (VI) was identified. The system was adversely affected by the organic shock when a shock load thrice the normal value was used, and this behavior was repeated when the hydraulic shock was 4.8h HRT. The empirical recovery period was greater than the theoretical period because of the inhibitory effects of phenols, sulfides, high oil, and grease in the PRWW. The system recovery rates from the shocks were in the following order: toxic, organic, hydraulic, and combined shocks. System failure occurred when the combined shocks of organic and hydraulic were applied. The system was resumed by replacing the PRWW with glucose, and the OLR was reduced to half its initial value. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Alkaline cyanide degradation by Pseudomonas pseudoalcaligenes CECT5344 in a batch reactor. Influence of pH

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huertas, M.J., E-mail: mjhuertas@us.es [Instituto de Bioquimica Vegetal y Fotosintesis, CSIC-Universidad de Sevilla Avda Americo Vespucio, 49, 41092 Sevilla (Spain); Saez, L.P.; Roldan, M.D.; Luque-Almagro, V.M.; Martinez-Luque, M. [Departamento de Bioquimica y Biologia Molecular, Edificio Severo Ochoa, 1a Planta, Campus de Rabanales, Universidad de Cordoba, 14071 Cordoba (Spain); Blasco, R. [Departamento de Bioquimica y Biologia Molecular y Genetica, Facultad de Veterinaria, Universidad de Extremadura, 11071 Caceres (Spain); Castillo, F.; Moreno-Vivian, C. [Departamento de Bioquimica y Biologia Molecular, Edificio Severo Ochoa, 1a Planta, Campus de Rabanales, Universidad de Cordoba, 14071 Cordoba (Spain); Garcia-Garcia, I. [Departamento de Ingenieria Quimica, Edificio Marie Curie, Campus de Rabanales, Universidad de Cordoba, 14071 Cordoba (Spain)

    2010-07-15

    Water containing cyanide was biologically detoxified with the bacterial strain Pseudomonas pseudoalcaligenes CECT5344 in a batch reactor. Volatilization of toxic hydrogen cyanide (HCN) was avoided by using an alkaline medium for the treatment. The operational procedure was optimized to assess cyanide biodegradation at variable pH values and dissolved oxygen concentrations. Using an initial pH of 10 without subsequent adjustment allowed total cyanide to be consumed at a mean rate of approximately 2.81 mg CN{sup -} L{sup -1} O.D.{sup -1} h{sup -1}; however, these conditions posed a high risk of HCN formation. Cyanide consumption was found to be pH-dependent. Thus, no bacterial growth was observed with a controlled pH of 10; on the other hand, pH 9.5 allowed up to 2.31 mg CN{sup -} L{sup -1} O.D.{sup -1} h{sup -1} to be converted. The combination of a high pH and a low dissolved oxygen saturation (10%) minimized the release of HCN. This study contributes new basic knowledge about this biological treatment, which constitutes an effective alternative to available physico-chemical methods for the purification of wastewater containing cyanide or cyano-metal complexes.

  1. Cultivation and characteristics of partial nitrification granular sludge in a sequencing batch reactor inoculated with heterotrophic granules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jianfang; Qian, Feiyue; Liu, Xiaopeng; Liu, Wenru; Wang, Shuyong; Shen, Yaoliang

    2016-11-01

    The aim of this study was to develop a simple operation strategy for the cultivation of partial nitrification granules (PNGs) treating an autotrophic medium. For this strategy, aerobic granular sludge adapted to high concentration organics removal was seeded in a sequencing batch reactor (SBR) with a height/diameter ratio of 3.8, and the ratio of organics to the ammonia nitrogen-loading rate (C/N ratio) in the influent was employed as the main control parameter to start up the partial nitrification process. After 86 days of operation, the nitrite accumulation rate reached 1.44 kg/(m 3  day) in the SBR, and the removal efficiency of ammonia nitrogen (NH 4 + -N) was over 95 %. The PNGs showed a dense and compact structure, with an excellent settling ability, a typical extracellular polymeric substance (EPS) composition, and a high ammonia oxidation activity. The high-throughput pyrosequencing results indicated that the microbial community structure in the granules was significantly influenced by the C/N ratio, and ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB), including the r-strategist Nitrosomonas and k-strategist Nitrosospira genre, which accounted for approximately 40 % of the total biomass at the end of operation. The effective suppression of nitrite-oxidizing bacteria (NOB) growth was attributed to oxygen competition on the granular surface among functional bacteria, as well as the high free ammonia or free nitrous acid concentrations during the aeration period.

  2. Palm oil mill effluent and municipal wastewater co-treatment by zeolite augmented sequencing batch reactors: Turbidity removal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farraji, Hossein; Zaman, Nastaein Qamaruz; Aziz, Hamidi Abdul; Sa'at, Siti Kamariah Md

    2017-10-01

    Palm oil mill effluent (POME) is the largest wastewater in Malaysia. Of the 60 million tons of POME produced annually, 2.4-3 million tons are total solids. Turbidity is caused by suspended solids, and 75% of total suspended solids are organic matter. Coagulation and flocculation are popular treatments for turbidity removal. Traditional commercial treatments do not meet discharge standards. This study evaluated natural zeolite and municipal wastewater (MWW)-augmented sequencing batch reactor as a microbiological digestion method for the decontamination of POME in response surface methodology. Aeration, contact time, and MWW/POME ratio were selected as response factors for turbidity removal. Results indicated that turbidity removal varied from 96.7% (MWW/POME ratio=50 %, aeration flow=0.5 L/min, and contact time=12) to 99.31% (MWW/POME ratio=80%, aeration flow 4L/min, and contact time 12 h). This study is the first to present MWW augmentation as a suitable microorganism supplier for turbidity biodegradation in high-strength agroindustrial wastewater.

  3. Advanced reactor safety research quarterly report, October-December 1982. Volume 24

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1984-04-01

    This report describes progress in a number of activities dealing with current safety issues relevant to both light water reactors (LWRs) and breeder reactors. The work includes a broad range of experiments to simulate accidental conditions to provide the required data base to understand important accident sequences and to serve as a basis for development and verification of the complex computer simulation models and codes used in accident analysis and licensing reviews. Such a program must include the development of analytical models, verified by experiment, which can be used to predict reactor and safety system performance under a broad variety of abnormal conditions. Current major emphasis is focused on providing information to NRC relevant to (1) its deliberations and decisions dealing with severe LWR accidents and (2) its safety evaluation of the proposed Clinch River Breeder Reactor.

  4. Oak Ridge reactor shutdown maintenance and surveillance quarterly report, July, August, and September 1989

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamrick, T.P.; Coleman, G.H.; Laughlin, D.L.

    1990-06-01

    The Department of Energy ordered the Oak Ridge Reactor to be placed in permanent shutdown on July 14, 1987. Maintenance activities, both mechanical and instrument, were essentially routine in nature. Shutdown activities are discussed for this reporting period

  5. High flux isotope reactor quarterly report April, May, and June of 1976

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCord, R. V.; Corbett, B. L.

    1976-11-01

    Despite four end-of-cycle shutdowns during the reporting period, the reactor operated 95.6 percent of the time. This increased the on-stream time for the year to 95.3 percent. A test of the reactor bay in-leakage determined that an exhaust flow rate of 3,050 cfm is required to maintain a vacuum of 0.1 in. of water in this area.

  6. Reactor-safety research programs. Quarterly report, October-December 1982. Volume 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edler, S.K. (ed.)

    1983-04-01

    Evaluations of nondestructive examination (NDE) techniques and instrumentation are reported; areas of investigation include demonstrating the feasibility of determining the strength of structural graphite, evaluating the feasibility of detecting and analyzing flaw growth in reactor pressure boundary systems, examining NDE reliability and probabilistic fracture mechanics, and assessing the integrity of pressurized-water-reactor steam-generator tubes where service-induced degradation has been indicated. Experimental data and analytical models are being provided to aid in decision making regarding pipe-to-pipe impacts following postulated breaks in high-energy fluid system piping. Core thermal models being developed to provide better digital codes to compute the bahavior of full-scale reactor systems under postulated accident conditions. Fuel assemblies and analytical support are being provided for experimental programs at other facilities.

  7. Advanced reactor safety research. Quarterly report, April-June 1982. Volume 22

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1983-10-01

    Overall objective of this work is to provide NRC a comprehensive data base essential to (1) defining key safety issues, (2) understanding risk-significant accident sequences, (3) developing and verifying models used in safety assessments, and (4) assuring the public that power reactor systems will not be licensed and placed in commercial service in the United States without appropriate consideration being given to their effects on health and safety. This report describes progress in a number of activities dealing with current safety issues relevant to both light water and breeder reactors. The work includes a broad range of experiments to simulate accidental conditions to provide the required data base to understand important accident sequences and to serve as a basis for development and verification of the complex computer simulation models and codes used in accident analysis and licensing reviews. Such a program must include the development of analytical models, verified by experiment, which can be used to predict reactor and safety system performance under a broad variety of abnormal conditions. Current major emphasis is focused on providing information to NRC relevant to (1) its deliberations and decisions dealing with severe LWR accidents, and (2) its safety evaluation of the proposed Clinch River Breeder Reactor.

  8. Effects of the addition of an organic polymer on the hydrolysis of sodium tetrahydroborate in batch reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferreira, M.J.F.; Pinto, A.M.F.R. [Centro de Estudos de Fenomenos de Transporte, Departamento de Engenharia Quimica, Faculdade de Engenharia da Universidade do Porto, Rua Dr. Roberto Frias s/n, 4200-465 Porto (Portugal); Fernandes, V.R.; Rangel, C.M. [Laboratorio Nacional de Energia e Geologia - LNEG, Fuel Cells and Hydrogen Unit, Estrada do Paco do Lumiar 22, 1649-038 Lisboa (Portugal); Gales, L. [Instituto de Biologia Molecular e Celular, Universidade do Porto, Rua do Campo Alegre 823, 4150-180 Porto and Instituto de Ciencias Biomedicas Abel Salazar, Largo Prof. Abel Salazar 2, 4099-003 Porto (Portugal)

    2010-10-15

    An experimental study is presented both on the generation and storage of molecular hydrogen (H{sub 2}) by small additions of an organic polymer -carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) - to sodium borohydride (NaBH{sub 4}) through the alkaline hydrolysis, in the presence of a powdered nickel-ruthenium based catalyst reused from 274 to 282 times. The experiments were performed at 45 C in two batch reactors with internal volumes of 0.229 L and 0.369 L, made of stainless-steel with bottom conical shape, positioned vertically. The results showed that working at moderate pressures, up to 2.7 MPa, increases slightly the H{sub 2} dissolution in the liquid phase, enhanced by the changing of the polarity of the remained solution inside the reactor: a value of 0.182 for dimensionless H{sub 2} solubility in the liquid phase with 0.25 wt% CMC was found, at 45 C, based on Henry's law. As a consequence, sodium tetrahydroxoborate, NaB(OH){sub 4} by-product was produced in the presence of CMC additive, showing the absence of crystalline water in its crystal structure (NaB(OH){sub 4} presents structural water, with boron atoms linked to four hydroxyl groups). This new finding never reported to form at < 50 C, has a positive impact in recyclability costs of NaBO{sub 2} back to NaBH{sub 4} due to the elimination of two energy consuming steps in the metaborate dehydration kinetics. In fact our system of compressed hydrogen, shows that both H{sub 2} generation rates and yields and hydrogen storage capacities can be augmented, the latter to reach {approx} 6 wt%, by adding small amounts of an organic polymer (CMC) to the classic NaBH{sub 4} hydrolysis, performed with stoichiometric amount of water. The eventual success of this new route will depend upon developing a advantageous method of converting borates into tetrahydroborate and also finding materials (chemicals) which enhance the solubility of H{sub 2

  9. Treatment of a simulated textile wastewater in a sequencing batch reactor (SBR) with addition of a low-cost adsorbent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Sílvia C.R., E-mail: scrs@fe.up.pt; Boaventura, Rui A.R.

    2015-06-30

    Highlights: • Treating textile dyeing effluents by SBR coupled with waste sludge adsorption. • Metal hydroxide sludge: a good adsorbent for a direct textile dye. • Good adsorption capacities were found with the low-cost adsorbent. • Adsorbent performance considerably reduced by auxiliary products. • Color removal complies with discharge limits. - Abstract: Color removal from textile wastewaters, at a low-cost and consistent technology, is even today a challenge. Simultaneous biological treatment and adsorption is a known alternative to the treatment of wastewaters containing biodegradable and non-biodegradable contaminants. The present work aims at evaluating the treatability of a simulated textile wastewater by simultaneously combining biological treatment and adsorption in a SBR (sequencing batch reactor), but using a low-cost adsorbent, instead of a commercial one. The selected adsorbent was a metal hydroxide sludge (WS) from an electroplating industry. Direct Blue 85 dye (DB) was used in the preparation of the synthetic wastewater. Firstly, adsorption kinetics and equilibrium were studied, in respect to many factors (temperature, pH, WS dosage and presence of salts and dyeing auxiliary chemicals in the aqueous media). At 25 °C and pH 4, 7 and 10, maximum DB adsorption capacities in aqueous solution were 600, 339 and 98.7 mg/g, respectively. These values are quite considerable, compared to other reported in literature, but proved to be significantly reduced by the presence of dyeing auxiliary chemicals in the wastewater. The simulated textile wastewater treatment in SBR led to BOD{sub 5} removals of 53–79%, but color removal was rather limited (10–18%). The performance was significantly enhanced by the addition of WS, with BOD{sub 5} removals above 91% and average color removals of 60–69%.

  10. Individual and combined effects of organic, toxic, and hydraulic shocks on sequencing batch reactor in treating petroleum refinery wastewater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mizzouri, Nashwan Sh., E-mail: nashwan_mizzouri@yahoo.com [Department of Civil Engineering, University of Malaya, Lembah Pantai, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Department of Civil Engineering, University of Duhok, Kurdistan (Iraq); Shaaban, Md Ghazaly [Department of Civil Engineering, University of Malaya, Lembah Pantai, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia)

    2013-04-15

    Highlights: ► This research focuses on the combined impact of shock loads on the PRWW treatment. ► System failure resulted when combined shock of organic and hydraulic was applied. ► Recovery was achieved by replacing glucose with PRWW and OLR was decreased to half. ► Worst COD removals were 68.9, and 57.8% for organic, and combined shocks. -- Abstract: This study analyzes the effects of toxic, hydraulic, and organic shocks on the performance of a lab-scale sequencing batch reactor (SBR) with a capacity of 5 L. Petroleum refinery wastewater (PRWW) was treated with an organic loading rate (OLR) of approximately 0.3 kg chemical oxygen demand (COD)/kg MLSS d at 12.8 h hydraulic retention time (HRT). A considerable variation in the COD was observed for organic, toxic, hydraulic, and combined shocks, and the worst values observed were 68.9, 77.1, 70.2, and 57.8%, respectively. Improved control of toxic shock loads of 10 and 20 mg/L of chromium (VI) was identified. The system was adversely affected by the organic shock when a shock load thrice the normal value was used, and this behavior was repeated when the hydraulic shock was 4.8 h HRT. The empirical recovery period was greater than the theoretical period because of the inhibitory effects of phenols, sulfides, high oil, and grease in the PRWW. The system recovery rates from the shocks were in the following order: toxic, organic, hydraulic, and combined shocks. System failure occurred when the combined shocks of organic and hydraulic were applied. The system was resumed by replacing the PRWW with glucose, and the OLR was reduced to half its initial value.

  11. Sulfamethoxazole and COD increase abundance of sulfonamide resistance genes and change bacterial community structures within sequencing batch reactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Xueping; Pang, Weihai; Dou, Chunling; Yin, Daqiang

    2017-05-01

    The abundant microbial community in biological treatment processes in wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) may potentially enhance the horizontal gene transfer of antibiotic resistance genes with the presence of antibiotics. A lab-scale sequencing batch reactor was designed to investigate response of sulfonamide resistance genes (sulI, sulII) and bacterial communities to various concentrations of sulfamethoxazole (SMX) and chemical oxygen demand (COD) of wastewater. The SMX concentrations (0.001 mg/L, 0.1 mg/L and 10 mg/L) decreased with treatment time and higher SMX level was more difficult to remove. The presence of SMX also significantly reduced the removal efficiency of ammonia nitrogen, affecting the normal function of WWTPs. All three concentrations of SMX raised both sulI and sulII genes with higher concentrations exhibiting greater increases. The abundance of sul genes was positive correlated with treatment time and followed the second-order reaction kinetic model. Interestingly, these two genes have rather similar activity. SulI and sulII gene abundance also performed similar response to COD. Simpson index and Shannon-Weiner index did not show changes in the microbial community diversity. However, the 16S rRNA gene cloning and sequencing results showed the bacterial community structures varied during different stages. The results demonstrated that influent antibiotics into WWTPs may facilitate selection of ARGs and affect the wastewater conventional treatment as well as the bacteria community structures. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Effects of COD/N ratio on soluble microbial products in effluent from sequencing batch reactors and subsequent membrane fouling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ly, Quang Viet; Nghiem, Long D; Sibag, Mark; Maqbool, Tahir; Hur, Jin

    2018-05-01

    The relative ratios of chemical oxygen demand (COD) to nitrogen (N) in wastewater are known to have profound effects on the characteristics of soluble microbial products (SMP) from activated sludge. In this study, the changes in the SMP characteristics upon different COD/N ratios and the subsequent effects on ultrafiltration (UF) membrane fouling potentials were examined in sequencing batch reactors (SBR) using excitation emission matrix-parallel factor analysis (EEM-PARAFAC) and size exclusion chromatography (SEC). Three unique fluorescent components were identified from the SMP samples in the bioreactors operated at the COD/N ratios of 100/10 (N rich), 100/5 (N medium), and 100/2 (N deficient). The tryptophan-like component (C1) was the most depleted at the N medium condition. Fulvic-like (C2) and humic-like (C3) components were more abundant with N rich wastewater. Greater abundances of large size biopolymer (BP) and low molecular weight neutrals (LMWN) were found under the N deficient and N rich conditions, respectively. SMPs from various COD/N exhibited a greater degree on membrane fouling following the order of 100/2 > 100/10 > 100/5. C1 and C2 had close associations with reversible and irreversible fouling, respectively, while the reversible fouling potential of C3 depended on the COD/N ratios. No significant impact of COD/N ratio was observed on the relative contributions of SMP size fractions to either reversible or irreversible fouling potential. However, the COD/N ratios likely altered the BP foulants' composition with greater contribution of proteinaceous substances to reversible fouling under the N deficient condition than at other N richer conditions. The opposite trend was observed for irreversible fouling. Our results provided further insight into changes in different SMP constitutes and their membrane fouling in response to microbial activities under different COD/N ratios. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Treatment of arsenic contaminated water in a batch reactor by using Ralstonia eutropha MTCC 2487 and granular activated carbon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mondal, P.; Majumder, C.B.; Mohanty, B.

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents the observations on the bio-removal of arsenic from contaminated water by using Ralstonia eutropha MTCC 2487 and activated carbon in a batch reactor. The effects of agitation time, pH, type of granular activated carbon (GAC) and initial arsenic concentration (As o ) on the % removal of arsenic have been discussed. Under the experimental conditions, optimum removal was obtained at the pH of 6-7 with agitation time of 100 h. The % removal of As(T) increased initially with the increase in As o and after attaining the maximum removal (∼86%) at the As o value of around 15 ppm, it started to decrease. Simultaneous adsorption bioaccumulation (SABA) was observed, when fresh GAC was used as supporting media for bacterial immobilization. In case of SABA, the % removal of As(III) was almost similar (only ∼1% more) to the additive values of individual removal of As(III) obtained by only adsorption and only bio-adsorption. However, for As(V) the % removal was less (∼8%) than the additive value of the individual % removals obtained by only adsorption and bio-adsorption. Percentage removal of Fe, Mn, Cu and Zn were 65.17%, 72.76%, 98.6% and 99.31%, respectively. Maximum regeneration (∼99.4%) of the used bio-adsorbent was achieved by the treatment with 5NH 2 SO 4 followed by 1N NaOH and 30% H 2 O 2 in HNO 3 . The fitness of the isotherms to predict the specific uptake for bio-adsorption/accumulation process has been found to decrease in the following order: Temkin isotherm > Langmuir isotherm > Freundlich isotherm. For the adsorption process with fresh GAC the corresponding order is Freundlich isotherm > Langmuir isotherm > Temkin isotherm for As(V) and As(T). However, for As(III) it was Langmuir > Temkin > Freundlich

  14. Spectrometric characterization of effluent organic matter of a sequencing batch reactor operated at three sludge retention times.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esparza-Soto, M; Núñez-Hernández, S; Fall, C

    2011-12-01

    Effluent organic matter (EfOM) from activated sludge systems is composed primarily of influent refractory compounds, residual degradable substrate, intermediate products and soluble microbial products (SMPs). Depending on operational conditions (hydraulic and sludge retention time (SRT)), the quantity and quality of EfOM significantly changes. The main objective of this research was to quantify and characterize the EfOM of a lab-scale activated sludge sequencing batch reactor (SBR), which was operated at three SRTs and fed glucose, an easily biodegradable substrate. EfOM was followed with two direct-quantification methods (chemical oxygen demand (COD) and dissolved organic carbon (DOC)), three spectrometric methods (ultraviolet absorbance at 254 nm (UVA(254)), excitation-emission matrix (EEM) fluorescence and parallel factor analysis (PARAFAC)) and three organic matter (OM) indices (specific UVA(254) (SUVA), SUVA-COD, COD/DOC ratio). The significant increment of UVA(254) and OM indices after treatment indicated an accumulation of refractory high-molecular-weight humic-like compounds in the EfOM, which demonstrated that EfOM was composed mainly by SMPs and not glucose. On the other hand, as the SRT increased, the amount of EfOM decreased, but SUVA, SUVA-COD and fluorescence intensity increased; these trends indicated the accumulation of SMPs of increased molecular weight and aromaticity. Increasing SRT in the SBRs reduced the amount of EfOM, but increased its aromaticity and reactivity. Visual analysis of EfOM EEMs showed two protein- and one humic-like peak, which were attributed to SMPs generated within the SBRs. PARAFAC determined that a two-component model best represented EfOM EEMs. The two-components from PARAFAC were mathematically correlated to the visually identified protein- and humic-like SMPs peaks. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Acid mine drainage neutralization in a pilot sequencing batch reactor using limestone from a paper and pulp industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vadapalli, V R K; Zvimba, J N; Mathye, M; Fischer, H; Bologo, L

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the implications of using two grades of limestone from a paper and pulp industry for neutralization of acid mine drainage (AMD) in a pilot sequencing batch reactor (SBR). In this regard, two grades of calcium carbonate were used to neutralize AMD in a SBR with a hydraulic retention time (including settling) of 100 min and a sludge retention time of 360 min, by simultaneously monitoring the Fe(II) removal kinetics and overall assessment of the AMD after treatment. The Fe(II) kinetics removal and overall AMD treatment were observed to be highly dependent on the limestone grade used, with Fe(II) completely removed to levels lower than 50 mg/L in cycle 1 after 30 min using high quality or pure paper and pulp limestone. On the contrary, the other grade limestone, namely waste limestone, could only achieve a similar Fe(II) removal efficiency after four cycles. It was also noticed that suspended solids concentration plays a significant role in Fe(II) removal kinetics. In this regard, using pure limestone from the paper and pulp industry will have advantages compared with waste limestone for AMD neutralization. It has significant process impacts for the SBR configuration as it allows one cycle treatment resulting in a significant reduction of the feed stock, with subsequent generation of less sludge during AMD neutralization. However, the use of waste calcium carbonate from the paper and pulp industry as a feed stock during AMD neutralization can achieve significant cost savings as it is cheaper than the pure limestone and can achieve the same removal efficiency after four cycles.

  16. Application of magnetic OMS-2 in sequencing batch reactor for treating dye wastewater as a modulator of microbial community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Fei; Yu, Yang; Xu, Aihua; Xia, Dongsheng; Sun, Youmin; Cai, Zhengqing; Liu, Wen; Fu, Jie

    2017-10-15

    The potential and mechanism of synthesized magnetic octahedral molecular sieve (Fe 3 O 4 @OMS-2) nanoparticles in enhancing the aerobic microbial ability of sequencing batch reactor (SBR) for treating dye wastewater have been revealed in this study. The addition of Fe 3 O 4 @OMS-2 of 0.25g/L enhanced the decolorization of SBRs with an operation cycle of 24h by more than 20%. The 16S rRNA gene high-throughput sequencing indicated Fe 3 O 4 @OMS-2 increased the microbial richness and diversity of SBRs, and more importantly, promoted the potential dye-degrading bacteria. After a series of enriching and screening, four bacterial strains with the considerable decolorizing ability were isolated from SBRs, designating Alcaligenes faecalis FP-G1, Bacillus aryabhattai FP-F1, Escherichia fergusonii FP-D1 and Rhodococcus ruber FP-E1, respectively. The growth and decolorization of these pure strains were promoted in the presence of Fe 3 O 4 @OMS-2, which agrees with the result of high-throughput sequencing. Monitoring dissolved Fe/Mn ions and investigating the change of oxidation states of Fe/Mn species discovered OMS-2 composition played the critical role in modulating the microbial community. The significant enhancement of Mn-oxidizing/-reducing bacteria suggested microbial Mn redox may be the key action mechanism of Fe 3 O 4 @OMS-2, which can provide numerous benefits for the microbial community and decolorization of SBRs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Light-Water-Reactor Safety Research Program: quarterly report, July--September 1976

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1976-12-01

    The report summarizes the Argonne National Laboratory work performed during July, August, and September 1976 on water-reactor-safety heat-transfer and flow problems. The following research and development areas are covered: (1) loss-of-coolant accident research: heat transfer and fluid dynamics; (2) transient fuel response and fission-product release program; (3) mechanical properties of zircaloy containing oxygen; and (4) steam-explosion studies.

  18. Nuclear reactor safety. Quarterly progress report, October 1--December 31, 1977

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jackson, J.F.; Stevenson, M.G.

    1978-02-01

    Progress in reactor safety research is summarized. LWR studies include TRAC code development for thermal-hydraulic analysis of accidents, containment systems evaluation, and safety experiments. LMFBR studies include SIMMER code development and applications, modeling of core disruptive accidents, and safety test facilities studies. HTGR safety studies cover fission product release and transport, structural evaluation, phenomena modeling, systems analysis, and accident delineation. GCFR studies are focussed on core disruptive testing

  19. Microbial succession within an anaerobic sequencing batch biofilm reactor (ASBBR treating cane vinasse at 55ºC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Magdalena Ferreira Ribas

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to investigate the anaerobic biomass formation capable of treating vinasse from the production of sugar cane alcohol, which was evolved within an anaerobic sequencing batch biofilm reactor (ASBBR as immobilized biomass on cubes of polyurethane foam at the temperature of 55ºC. The reactor was inoculated with mesophilic granular sludge originally treating poultry slaughterhouse wastewater. The evolution of the biofilm in the polyurethane foam matrices was assessed during seven experimental phases which were thus characterized by the changes in the organic matter concentrations as COD (1.0 to 20.0 g/L. Biomass characterization proceeded with the examination of sludge samples under optical and scanning electron microscopy. The reactor showed high microbial morphological diversity along the trial. The predominance of Methanosaeta-like cells was observed up to the organic load of 2.5 gCOD/L.d. On the other hand, Methanosarcinalike microorganisms were the predominant archaeal population within the foam matrices at high organic loading ratios above 3.3 gCOD/L.d. This was suggested to be associated to a higher specific rate of acetate consumption by the later organisms.Este trabalho investigou a formação de um biofilme anaeróbio capaz de tratar vinhaça da produção de álcool de cana-de-açúcar, que evoluiu dentro de um reator operado em bateladas seqüenciais com biofilme (ASBBR tendo a biomassa imobilizada em cubos de espuma de poliuretano na temperatura de 55ºC. O reator foi inoculado com lodo granular mesofílico tratando água residuária de abatedouro de aves. A evolução do biofilme nas matrizes de espuma de poliuretano foi observada durante sete fases experimentais que foram caracterizadas por mudanças nas concentrações de matéria orgânica como DQO (1,0 a 20,0 g/L. A caracterização da biomassa foi feita por exames de amostras do lodo em microscopia ótica e eletrônica de varredura. O reator apresentou

  20. Optimization of Removal Efficiency and Minimum Contact Time for Cadmium and Zinc Removal onto Iron-modified Zeolite in a Two-stage Batch Sorption Reactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ugrina

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In highly congested industrial sites where significant volumes of effluents have to be treated in the minimum contact time, the application of a multi-stage batch reactor is suggested. To achieve better balance between capacity utilization and cost efficiency in design optimization, a two-stage batch reactor is usually the optimal solution. Thus, in this paper, a two-stage batch sorption design approach was applied to the experimental data of cadmium and zinc uptake onto iron-modified zeolite. The optimization approach involves the application of the Vermeulen’s approximation model and mass balance equation to kinetic data. A design analysis method was developed to optimize the removal efficiency and minimum total contact time by combining the time required in the two-stages, in order to achieve the maximum percentage of cadmium and zinc removal using a fixed mass of zeolite. The benefits and limitations of the two-stage design approach have been investigated and discussed

  1. Biogenic Hydrogen Conversion of De-Oiled Jatropha Waste via Anaerobic Sequencing Batch Reactor Operation: Process Performance, Microbial Insights, and CO2 Reduction Efficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gopalakrishnan Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We report the semicontinuous, direct (anaerobic sequencing batch reactor operation hydrogen fermentation of de-oiled jatropha waste (DJW. The effect of hydraulic retention time (HRT was studied and results show that the stable and peak hydrogen production rate of 1.48 L/L*d and hydrogen yield of 8.7 mL H2/g volatile solid added were attained when the reactor was operated at HRT 2 days (d with a DJW concentration of 200 g/L, temperature 55°C, and pH 6.5. Reduced HRT enhanced the production performance until 1.75 d. Further reduction has lowered the process efficiency in terms of biogas production and hydrogen gas content. The effluent from hydrogen fermentor was utilized for methane fermentation in batch reactors using pig slurry and cow dung as seed sources. The results revealed that pig slurry was a feasible seed source for methane generation. Peak methane production rate of 0.43 L CH4/L*d and methane yield of 20.5 mL CH4/g COD were observed at substrate concentration of 10 g COD/L, temperature 30°C, and pH 7.0. PCR-DGGE analysis revealed that combination of celluloytic and fermentative bacteria were present in the hydrogen producing ASBR.

  2. Kinetic modeling and microbial assessment by fluorescent in situ hybridization in anaerobic sequencing batch biofilm reactors treating sulfate-rich wastewater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. J. Silva

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports the results of applying anaerobic sequencing batch biofilm reactors (AnSBBR for treating sulfate-rich wastewater. The reactor was filled with polyurethane foam matrices or with eucalyptus charcoal, used as the support for biomass attachment. Synthetic wastewater was prepared with two ratios between chemical oxygen demand (COD and sulfate concentration (COD/SO4(2- of 0.4 and 3.2. For a COD/SO4(2- ratio of 3.2, the AnSBBR performance was influenced by the support material used; the average levels of organic matter removal were 67% and 81% in the reactors filled with polyurethane foam and charcoal, respectively, and both support materials were associated with similar levels of sulfate reduction (above 90%. In both reactors, sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB represented more than 65% of the bacterial community. The kinetic model indicated equilibrium between complete- and incomplete-oxidizing SRB in the reactor filled with polyurethane foam and predominantly incomplete-oxidizing SRB in the reactor filled with charcoal. Methanogenic activity seems to have been the determining factor to explain the better performance of the reactor filled with charcoal to remove organic matter at a COD/SO4(2- ratio of 3.2. For a COD/SO4(2- ratio of 0.4, low values of sulfate reduction (around 32% and low reaction rates were observed as a result of the small SRB population (about 20% of the bacterial community. Although the support material did not affect overall performance for this condition, different degradation pathways were observed; incomplete oxidation of organic matter by SRB was the main kinetic pathway and methanogenesis was negligible in both reactors.

  3. Treatment of mature landfill leachate by internal micro-electrolysis integrated with coagulation: A comparative study on a novel sequencing batch reactor based on zero valent iron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ying, Diwen; Peng, Juan; Xu, Xinyan; Li, Kan; Wang, Yalin; Jia, Jinping

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Specifically-designed SIME reactor for treatment of mature landfill leachate. ► Excellent removal efficiencies of COD (86.1%), color (95.3%), and HA (81.8%). ► Combination effect of IME without aeration and IME with aeration. ► Optimal pH of 5, Fe/C of 1:1, gas flow rate of 80 L h −1 , and H 2 O 2 of 100 mg L −1 . - Abstract: A comparative study of treating mature landfill leachate with various treatment processes was conducted to investigate whether the method of combined processes of internal micro-electrolysis (IME) without aeration and IME with full aeration in one reactor was an efficient treatment for mature landfill leachate. A specifically designed novel sequencing batch internal micro-electrolysis reactor (SIME) with the latest automation technology was employed in the experiment. Experimental data showed that combined processes obtained a high COD removal efficiency of 73.7 ± 1.3%, which was 15.2% and 24.8% higher than that of the IME with and without aeration, respectively. The SIME reactor also exhibited a COD removal efficiency of 86.1 ± 3.8% to mature landfill leachate in the continuous operation, which is much higher (p 2 O 2 , were optimized. All results show that the SIME reactor is a promising and efficient technology in treating mature landfill leachate.

  4. Application of response surface methodology to study the biological removal of nitrogen from effluent of cattle slaughterhouse in a sequencing batch reactor

    OpenAIRE

    Lima,Adriana N. de; Gomes,Benedito M.; Gomes,Simone D.; Carvalho,Karina Q. de; Christ,Divair

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficiency of a sequencing batch reactor (SBR) on biological removal of nitrogen from cattle slaughterhouse wastewater by nitrification/denitrification processes. The effects of initial concentration of ammoniacal nitrogen were investigated at 100; 150 and 200 mg L-1 and air flow rate at 0.125; 0.375 and 0.625 L min¹ Lreactor-1 on the nitrogen compounds removal, by a Central Composite Rotational Design (CCRD) configuration. There were variations from ...

  5. Characterization of immobilized biomass by amplified rDNA restriction analysis (ARDRA in an anaerobic sequencing-batch biofilm reactor (ASBBR for the treatment of industrial wastewater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arnaldo Sarti

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The performance of an anaerobic sequencing-batch biofilm reactor (ASBBR- laboratory scale- 14L containing biomass immobilized on coal was evaluated for the removal of elevated concentrations of sulfate (between 200 and 3,000 mg SO4-2·L-1 from industrial wastewater effluents. The ASBBR was shown to be efficient for removal of organic material (between 90% and 45% and sulfate (between 95% and 85%. The microbiota adhering to the support medium was analyzed by amplified ribosomal DNA restriction analysis (ARDRA. The ARDRA profiles for the Bacteria and Archaea domains proved to be sensitive for the determination of microbial diversity and were consistent with the physical-chemical monitoring analysis of the reactor. At 3,000 mg SO4-2·L-1, there was a reduction in the microbial diversity of both domains and also in the removal efficiencies of organic material and sulfate.

  6. Artificial neural network modelling in biological removal of organic carbon and nitrogen for the treatment of slaughterhouse wastewater in a batch reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kundu, Pradyut; Debsarkar, Anupam; Mukherjee, Somnath; Kumar, Sunil

    2014-01-01

    Wastewater containing high concentration of oxygen-demanding carbonaceous organics and nitrogenous materials (chemical oxygen demand (COD) and total Kjeldahl nitrogen (TKN)) as nutrients emanated from small- to large-scale slaughterhouse units cause depletion of dissolved oxygen in water bodies and attributes to the threat of eutrophication. Biological treatment of wastewater is a useful tool through ages for the treatment of wastewater owing to its cost-effectiveness, reliability along with its innocuous output features. This paper deals with the treatment of slaughter house wastewater by conducting a laboratory scale batch reactor with different input characterized samples, and the experimental results were explored for the formulation of feed-forward back-propagation artificial neural network (ANN) to predict the combined removal of COD and TKN. The ANN modelling was carried out using neural network tool box of MATLAB (version 7.0), with the Levenberg-Marquardt training algorithm. Various trials were examined for the training of the ANN model using the number of neurons in the hidden layer varying from 2 to 30. The mean square error function and regression analysis were also applied for performance analysis of the ANN model. All the input data were logged-in after carrying out detailed experiment in the laboratory with a view to examine the performance of the batch reactor for the treatment of slaughterhouse wastewater. The experimental results were used for testing and validating the ANN model.

  7. Potential roles of acyl homoserine lactone based quorum sensing in sequencing batch nitrifying biofilm reactors with or without the addition of organic carbon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yuepeng; Guan, Yuntao; Wang, Dan; Liang, Kai; Wu, Guangxue

    2018-03-07

    Two lab-scale nitrifying sequencing batch biofilm reactors, with (SBBR_CN) or without the addition of organics (SBBR_N), were operated to investigate potential roles of acyl homoserine lactone (AHL) based quorum sensing. AHLs of N-[(RS)-3-Hydroxybutyryl]-L-homoserine lactone, N-hexanoyl-L-homoserine lactone (C 6 -HSL) and N-octanoyl-L-homoserine lactone (C 8 -HSL) were detected in both reactors. C 6 -HSL and C 8 -HSL were also detected in batch experiments, especially with stimulated nitrite oxidizing bacteria activities. Quorum sensing affected biofilm formation mainly through the regulation of extracellular protein production. By the metagenomics analysis, many identified genera and species could participate in quorum sensing, quorum quenching and extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) production. A high quorum quenching activity was obtained in SBBR_CN, whereas a high quorum sensing activity in SBBR_N. Nitrosomonas-like ammonia oxidizing bacteria, Nitrospira-like nitrite oxidizing bacteria and Comammox harbored genes for AHL synthesis and EPS production. Possible relationships among AHLs synthesis, biofilm formation and nitrifiers activity were proposed. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. QUARTERLY PROGRESS REPORT JANUARY, FEBRUARY, MARCH, 1968 REACTOR FUELS AND MATERIALS DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMS FOR FUELS AND MATERIALS BRANCH OF USAEC DIVISION OF REACTOR DEVELOPMENT AND TECHNOLOGY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cadwell, J. J.; de Halas, D. R.; Nightingale, R. E.; Worlton, D. C.

    1968-06-01

    Progress is reported in these areas: nuclear graphite; fuel development for gas-cooled reactors; HTGR graphite studies; nuclear ceramics; fast-reactor nitrides research; non-destructive testing; metallic fuels; basic swelling studies; ATR gas and water loop operation and maintenance; reactor fuels and materials; fast reactor dosimetry and damage analysis; and irradiation damage to reactor metals.

  9. Biogas production from wheat straw in batch and UASB reactors: the roles of pretreatment and seaweed hydrolysate as a co-substrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nkemka, Valentine Nkongndem; Murto, Marika

    2013-01-01

    This research evaluated biogas production in batch and UASB reactors from pilot-scale acid catalysed steam pretreated and enzymatic hydrolysed wheat straw. The results showed that the pretreatment was efficient and, a sugar yield of 95% was obtained. The pretreatment improved the methane yield (0.28 m(3)/kg VS(added)) by 57% compared to untreated straw. Treatment of the straw hydrolysate with nutrient supplementation in a UASB reactor resulted in a high methane production rate, 2.70 m(3)/m(3).d at a sustainable OLR of 10.4 kg COD/m(3).d and with a COD reduction of 94%. Alternatively, co-digestion of the straw and seaweed hydrolysates in a UASB reactor also maintained a stable anaerobic process and can thus reduce the cost of nutrients addition. We have shown that biogas production from wheat straw can be competitive by pretreatment, high methane production rate in UASB reactors and also by co-digestion with seaweed hydrolysate. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Treatment of mature landfill leachate by internal micro-electrolysis integrated with coagulation: a comparative study on a novel sequencing batch reactor based on zero valent iron.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ying, Diwen; Peng, Juan; Xu, Xinyan; Li, Kan; Wang, Yalin; Jia, Jinping

    2012-08-30

    A comparative study of treating mature landfill leachate with various treatment processes was conducted to investigate whether the method of combined processes of internal micro-electrolysis (IME) without aeration and IME with full aeration in one reactor was an efficient treatment for mature landfill leachate. A specifically designed novel sequencing batch internal micro-electrolysis reactor (SIME) with the latest automation technology was employed in the experiment. Experimental data showed that combined processes obtained a high COD removal efficiency of 73.7 ± 1.3%, which was 15.2% and 24.8% higher than that of the IME with and without aeration, respectively. The SIME reactor also exhibited a COD removal efficiency of 86.1 ± 3.8% to mature landfill leachate in the continuous operation, which is much higher (p<0.05) than that of conventional treatments of electrolysis (22.8-47.0%), coagulation-sedimentation (18.5-22.2%), and the Fenton process (19.9-40.2%), respectively. The innovative concept behind this excellent performance is a combination effect of reductive and oxidative processes of the IME, and the integration electro-coagulation. Optimal operating parameters, including the initial pH, Fe/C mass ratio, air flow rate, and addition of H(2)O(2), were optimized. All results show that the SIME reactor is a promising and efficient technology in treating mature landfill leachate. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Investigation of tetrafluoromethane as a plasma gas in a very high pressure/low current dc batch reactor by means of 3D MHD modelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lebouvier, A; Iwarere, S A; Ramjugernath, D; Fulcheri, L

    2013-01-01

    This paper deals with 3D MHD modelling of the behaviour of a tetrafluoromethane (CF 4 ) plasma arc in a batch reactor under peculiar conditions of low current (0.35 A) and very high pressure (50 atm). The first part of the manuscript presents results for a horizontal configuration of the reactor, as is undertaken experimentally. The model has led to the understanding of the instabilities observed experimentally for such unusual operating conditions. The curved shape of the arc and the sliding of the anodic arc root along the electrode have been revealed to be the source of the experimental instabilities. The latter part of the manuscript investigates the effect of two vertical configurations of the reactor; with a cathode at the top and cathode at the bottom to overcome the instabilities. In these reactor configurations, the arc is much more stable and stays centred in the middle of the electrodes. These configurations are more suitable for the stability of the arc discharge, but have to be verified experimentally. (paper)

  12. Investigation of tetrafluoromethane as a plasma gas in a very high pressure/low current dc batch reactor by means of 3D MHD modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebouvier, A.; Iwarere, S. A.; Ramjugernath, D.; Fulcheri, L.

    2013-09-01

    This paper deals with 3D MHD modelling of the behaviour of a tetrafluoromethane (CF4) plasma arc in a batch reactor under peculiar conditions of low current (0.35 A) and very high pressure (50 atm). The first part of the manuscript presents results for a horizontal configuration of the reactor, as is undertaken experimentally. The model has led to the understanding of the instabilities observed experimentally for such unusual operating conditions. The curved shape of the arc and the sliding of the anodic arc root along the electrode have been revealed to be the source of the experimental instabilities. The latter part of the manuscript investigates the effect of two vertical configurations of the reactor; with a cathode at the top and cathode at the bottom to overcome the instabilities. In these reactor configurations, the arc is much more stable and stays centred in the middle of the electrodes. These configurations are more suitable for the stability of the arc discharge, but have to be verified experimentally.

  13. Investigation on the removal of natural and synthetic estrogens using biofilms in continuous flow biofilm reactors and batch experiments analysed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pieper, Christina; Rotard, Wolfgang

    2011-01-01

    The degradation of the natural estrogen 17β-estradiol and the synthetic steroid hormone 17α-ethinylestradiol, two estrogens already detected in surface waters at low concentration levels, was investigated using continuous flow biofilm reactors and batch experiments. Biofilms in continuous flow experiments were created by natural organisms from river systems of the national park Unteres Odertal, Germany, whereas batch experiments were performed with isolated bacterial strains derived from biofilms. The analytical method, including solid phase extraction, silylation of analytes and measurement with GC/MS, was optimised for the target compounds 17β-estradiol, 17α-ethinylestradiol and the possible metabolites estrone and estriol. The performance characteristics of the analytical method, namely recovery, standard deviations, method detection limits (MDL) and method quantification limits (MQL), were evaluated for accurate interpretation of degradation experiments. Continuous flow biofilm reactors were operated with two different nutrient media under dosage of estradiol and ethinylestradiol. Both estrogens were rapidly degraded within several hours; the metabolite estrone (from estradiol as well as from ethinylestradiol) was detected in significant amounts and was further decomposed. In additional batch experiments using isolated bacterial strains from the natural biofilms to decompose estradiol and ethinylestradiol, different metabolisms of isolates were explored. Five of the 15 isolated bacterial strains tested degraded estradiol and ethinylestradiol with different degradation rates. The results suggest that biofilms from national park Unteres Odertal possess a high capability to aerobically decompose natural and also synthetic estrogens so that these microorganisms could provide enhanced removal of pollutants in municipal water treatment plants. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Inactivation of bacterial contaminants in drinking water using a novel batch-process TiO2-assisted solar photocatalytic disinfection (SPC-DIS) reactor for use in developing countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McGuigan, K. G.; Duffy, E. F.; Al Touati, F.; Kehoe, S. C.; McLoughlin, O. A.; Gill, L. W.; Gernjak, W.; Oller, I.; Maldonado, M. I.; Malato, S.; Reed, R. H.

    2004-07-01

    The technical feasibility and performance of photocatalytic TiO2 coatings in batch-process solar disinfection (SODIS) reactors to improve potability of drinking water in developing countries have been studied. Borosilicate glass and PET plastic SODIS reactor fitted with flexible plastic inserts coated with TiO2 powder were shown to be 20% and 25% more effective, respectively, than standard SODIS reactors for the inactivation of E. coli K12 . Approximately 550J is required per litre of water to produce each 1-long-unit reduction in bacterial population within SPC-DIS reactors of the design described in this study. (Author) 14 refs.

  15. Treatment of low-strength wastewater using immobilized biomass in a sequencing batch external loop reactor: influence of the medium superficial velocity on the stability and performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camargo E.F.M.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available An anaerobic sequencing batch bioreactor with external circulation of the liquid phase wherein the biomass was immobilized on a polyurethane foam matrix was analyzed, focussing on the influence of the liquid superficial velocity on the reactor's stability and efficiency. Eight-hour cycles were carried out at 30ºC treating glucose-based synthetic wastewater around 500 mgDQO/L. The performance of the reactor was assessed without circulation and with circulating liquid superficial velocity between 0.034 and 0.188 cm/s. The reactor attained operating stability and a high organic matter removal was achieved when liquid was circulated. A first order model was used to evaluate the influence of the liquid superficial velocity (vS, resulting in an increase in the apparent first order parameter when vS increased from 0.034 to 0.094 cm/s. The parameter value remained unchangeable when 0.188 cm/s was applied, indicating that beyond this value no improvement on liquid mass transfer was observed. Moreover, the necessary time to reach the final removal efficiency decreased when liquid circulation was applied, indicating that a 3-hour cycle could be enough.

  16. Fe(II) oxidation during acid mine drainage neutralization in a pilot-scale sequencing batch reactor

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Zvimba, JN

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available @csir.co.za; MMathye@csir.co.za; VVadapalli@geoscience.org.za; LBologo@csir.co.za; HSwanepoel@csir.co.za ABSTRACT This study investigated Fe(II) oxidation during acid mine drainage (AMD) neutralization using CaCO3 in a pilot scale Sequencing Batch... decanting from the Witwatersrand’s Western Basin. Treatment of AMD using CaCO3 and Ca(OH)2 is a widely used approach in South Africa (Vadapalli et al 2008). Moreover, the CSIR has developed an integrated CaCO3/Ca(OH)2 neutralization process capable...

  17. PEMBUATAN BAHAN BAKU SPREADS KAYA KAROTEN DARI MINYAK SAWIT MERAH MELALUI INTERESTERIFIKASI ENZIMATIK MENGGUNAKAN REAKTOR BATCH [Preparation of Red Palm Oil Based-Spreads Stock Rich in Carotene Through Enzymatic Interesterification in Batch-type Reactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nur Wulandari1,2

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Enzymatic interesterification of red palm oil (a mixture of red palm olein/RPO and red palm stearin/RPS in 1:1 weight ratio and coconut oil (CNO blends of varying proportions using a non-specific immobilized Candida antartica lipase (Novozyme 435 was studied for the preparation of spread stock. The interesterification reaction was held in a batch-type reactor. Two substrate blends were chosen for the production of spread stock i.e. 77.5:22,5 and 82.5:17.5 (RPO/RPS:CNO, by weight through enzymatic interesterification in three different reaction times (2, 4, and 6 hours. The interesterification reactions were conducted at 60°C, 200 rpm agitation speed and 10% of Novozyme 435. The interesterified products were evaluated for their physical characteristics (slip melting point or SMP and solid fat content or SFC and chemical characteristics (carotene retention, moisture content, and free fatty acid/FFA content. All of the interesterified products had lower SFC and SMP as compared to the initial blends. The SMP and SFC increased in longer reaction times. The SMP ranged from 30.8°C to 34.9°C. The carotene retention ranged from 74.80% to 81.08%, while the moisture content and FFA content increased in longer reaction times. The interesterified products had desirable physical properties for possible use as a spread stock rich in carotene.

  18. Performance and microbial population dynamics during stable operation and reactivation after extended idle conditions in an aerobic granular sequencing batch reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Qiulai; Zhang, Wei; Zhang, Shilu; Zou, Zhuocheng; Wang, Hongyu

    2017-08-01

    The evolution of removal performance and bacterial population dynamics of an aerobic granular sequencing batch reactor were investigated during stable operation and reactivation after prolonged storage. The system was run for a period of 130days including the stable condition phase, storage period and the subsequent reactivation process. Excellent removal performance was obtained during the stable operation period, which was decayed by the extended idle conditions. The removal efficiencies for both carbon and nitrogen decayed while phosphorus removal remained unaffected. Both granules structure and physical properties could be fully restored. Microbial populations shifted sharply and the storage perturbations irreversibly altered the microbial communities at different levels. Extracellular polymeric substances (especially protein) and key groups were identified as contributors for storage and re-startup of the aerobic granular system. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Catalytic wet air oxidation of bisphenol A solution in a batch-recycle trickle-bed reactor over titanate nanotube-based catalysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, Renata; Erjavec, Boštjan; Senila, Marin; Pintar, Albin

    2014-10-01

    Catalytic wet air oxidation (CWAO) is classified as an advanced oxidation process, which proved to be highly efficient for the removal of emerging organic pollutant bisphenol A (BPA) from water. In this study, BPA was successfully removed in a batch-recycle trickle-bed reactor over bare titanate nanotube-based catalysts at very short space time of 0.6 min gCAT g(-1). The as-prepared titanate nanotubes, which underwent heat treatment at 600 °C, showed high activity for the removal of aqueous BPA. Liquid-phase recycling (5- or 10-fold recycle) enabled complete BPA conversion already at 200 °C, together with high conversion of total organic carbon (TOC), i.e., 73 and 98 %, respectively. The catalyst was chemically stable in the given range of operating conditions for 189 h on stream.

  20. Biodegradation of 4-bromophenol by Arthrobacter chlorophenolicus A6 in batch shake flasks and in a continuously operated packed bed reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahoo, Naresh Kumar; Pakshirajan, Kannan; Ghosh, Pranab Kumar

    2014-04-01

    The present study investigated growth and biodegradation of 4-bromophenol (4-BP) by Arthrobacter chlorophenolicus A6 in batch shake flasks as well as in a continuously operated packed bed reactor (PBR). Batch growth kinetics of A. chlorophenolicus A6 in presence of 4-BP followed substrate inhibition kinetics with the estimated biokinetic parameters value of μ max = 0.246 h(-1), K i = 111 mg L(-1), K s  = 30.77 mg L(-1) and K = 100 mg L(-1). In addition, variations in the observed and theoretical biomass yield coefficient and maintenance energy of the culture were investigated at different initial 4-BP concentration. Results indicates that the toxicity tolerance and the biomass yield of A. chlorophenolicus A6 towards 4-BP was found to be poor as the organism utilized the substrate mainly for its metabolic maintenance energy. Further, 4-BP biodegradation performance by the microorganism was evaluated in a continuously operated PBR by varying the influent concentration and hydraulic retention time in the ranges 400-1,200 mg L(-1) and 24-7.5 h, respectively. Complete removal of 4-BP was achieved in the PBR up to a loading rate of 2,276 mg L(-1) day(-1).

  1. Notifiable events in systems for fission of nuclear fuels - nuclear power plants and research reactors with maximum output exceeding 50 kW of thermal normal rating - in the Federal Republic of Germany. Quarterly report, 2nd quarter of 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    There were 32 notifiable events in nuclear power plants in Germany in the second quarter of 1996. The report lists and characterises all the 32 events notified in the reporting period. The events did not involve any radioactivity release exceeding the maximum permissible limits during this period, so that there were no radiation hazards to the population or the environment. One event was classified at level 1 of the INES event scale (Anomaly). Research reactor operators in Germany reported 5 notifiable events in the reporting period. The report lists and characterises these events. These events did not involve any radioactivity release exceeding the maximum permissible limits during this period, so that there were no radiation hazards to the population or the environment. All events notified were classified into the lowest categories of safety significance of the official event scales (N, or below scale). (orig./DG) [de

  2. Correlation between microbial diversity and toxicity of sludge treating synthetic wastewater containing 4-chlorophenol in sequencing batch reactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jianguo; Chen, Xiurong; Bao, Linlin; Bao, Zheng; He, Yixuan; Zhang, Yuying; Li, Jiahui

    2016-06-01

    The relationship between microbial diversity and sludge toxicity in the biotreatment of refractory wastewater was investigated. Synthetic wastewater containing 4-chlorophenol (4-CP) was treated by an activated sludge using a sequencing batch bioreactor (SBR). At the end of a single SBR cycle, a stable operation stage was reached when the 4-CP was not detected both in aqueous and sludge phases and the effluent COD was maintained at approximately 70 mg L(-1) for the blank and control sludge groups. Then, the diversity of the microorganisms and the sludge toxicity were measured. The results showed that the Microtox acute toxicity of the control sludge was higher than those of the blank sludge. The difference analysis of the microbial diversity between the blank and control sludge indicated that the sludge toxicity was closely related to microbial diversity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Comparison of the bacterial community composition in the granular and the suspended phase of sequencing batch reactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szabó, Enikö; Liébana, Raquel; Hermansson, Malte; Modin, Oskar; Persson, Frank; Wilén, Britt-Marie

    2017-09-05

    Granulation of activated sludge is an increasingly important area within the field of wastewater treatment. Granulation is usually achieved by high hydraulic selection pressure, which results in the wash-out of slow settling particles. The effect of the harsh wash-out conditions on the granular sludge ecosystem is not yet fully understood, but different bacterial groups may be affected to varying degrees. In this study, we used high-throughput amplicon sequencing to follow the community composition in granular sludge reactors for 12 weeks, both in the granular phase and the suspended phase (effluent). The microbiome of the washed out biomass was similar but not identical to the microbiome of the granular biomass. Certain taxa (e.g. Flavobacterium spp. and Bdellovibrio spp.) had significantly (p biomass and in the effluent did not predict temporal variation of the taxa in the reactors, but it did appear to predict the spatial location of the taxa in the granules.

  4. Tratamiento del Colorante Azo Rojo Directo 23 mediante Reactores Discontinuos Secuenciados Anaerobios/Aerobios Treatment of Direct Red 23 Azo Dye by Anaerobic/Aerobic Sequencing Batch Reactors

    OpenAIRE

    Fernanda Morales-Guzmán; Rosa M Melgoza-Alemán

    2009-01-01

    Se evaluó el tratamiento del colorante azo Rojo Directo 23 mediante un proceso anaerobio/aerobio integrado en un sólo reactor. Se utilizaron dos reactores: uno de lecho expandido con carbón activado granular como mediador redox y otro conteniendo la biomasa suspendida, ambos operados en discontinuo. Se evaluó la eficiencia del proceso mediante la reducción y transformación del colorante a aminas aromáticas totales en la fase anaerobia y la degradación de éstas en la fase aerobia. La eliminaci...

  5. Application of biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) biosensor for optimization of biological carbon and nitrogen removal from synthetic wastewater in a sequencing batch reactor system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, J D; Barford, J P; Lindawati; Renneberg, R

    2004-03-15

    A bench scale reactor using a sequencing batch reactor process was used to evaluate the applicability of biosensors for the process optimization of biological carbon and nitrogen removal. A commercial biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) biosensor with a novel microbial membrane was used to determine the duration of each phase by measuring samples in real time in an SBR cycle with filling/anoxic-anaerobic/aerobic/sludge wasting/settling/withdrawal periods. Possible strategies to increase the efficiency for the biological removal of carbon and nitrogen from synthetic wastewater have been developed. The results show that application of a BOD biosensor enables estimation of organic carbon, in real time, allowing the optimization or reduction the SBR cycle time. Some typical consumption patterns for organic carbon in the non-aeration phase of a typical SBR operation were identified. The rate of decrease of BOD measured using a sensor BOD, was the highest in the initial glucose breakdown period and during denitrification. It then slowed down until a 'quiescent period' was observed, which may be considered as the commencement of the aeration period. Monitoring the BOD curve with a BOD biosensor allowed the reduction of the SBR cycle time, which leads to an increase in the removal efficiency. By reducing the cycle time from 8 to 4 h cycle, the removal efficiencies of nitrate, glucose, and phosphorus in a given time interval, were increased to nearly double, while the removal of nitrogen ammonium was increased by one-third.

  6. Methodology of Supervision by Analysis of Thermal Flux for Thermal Conduction of a Batch Chemical Reactor Equipped with a Monofluid Heating/Cooling System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghania Henini

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We present the thermal behavior of a batch reactor to jacket equipped with a monofluid heating/cooling system. Heating and cooling are provided respectively by an electrical resistance and two plate heat exchangers. The control of the temperature of the reaction is based on the supervision system. This strategy of management of the thermal devices is based on the usage of the thermal flux as manipulated variable. The modulation of the monofluid temperature by acting on the heating power or on the opening degrees of an air-to-open valve that delivers the monofluid to heat exchanger. The study shows that the application of this method for the conduct of the pilot reactor gives good results in simulation and that taking into account the dynamics of the various apparatuses greatly improves ride quality of conduct. In addition thermal control of an exothermic reaction (mononitration shows that the consideration of heat generated in the model representation improve the results by elimination any overshooting of the set-point temperature.

  7. A new device to select carriers for biomass immobilization and application in an aerobic/anaerobic fixed-bed sequencing batch biofilm reactor for nitrogen removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarti, A; Lamon, A W; Ono, A; Foresti, E

    2016-12-01

    This study proposes a new approach to selecting a biofilm carrier for immobilization using dissolved oxygen (DO) microsensors to measure the thickness of aerobic and anaerobic layers in biofilm. The biofilm carriers tested were polyurethane foam, mineral coal (MC), basaltic gravel, and low-density polyethylene. Development of layers in the biofilm carrier surface was evaluated using a flow cell device, and DO profiles were conducted to determine the size of the layers (aerobic and anaerobic). MC was the biofilm carrier selected due to allowing the development of larger aerobic and anaerobic layers in the biofilm (896 and 1,058 μm, respectively). This ability is supposed to improve simultaneous nitrogen removal by nitrification and denitrification biological processes. Thus, as a biofilm carrier, MC was used in a fixed-bed sequencing batch biofilm reactor (FB-SBBR) for treatment of wastewater with a high ammonia concentration (100-400 mgNH 4 + -N L -1 ). The FB-SBBR (15.0 L) was filled with matrices of the carrier and operated under alternating aeration and non-aeration periods of 6 h each. At a mean nitrogen loading rate of 0.55 ± 0.10 kgNH 4 + -N m -3 d -1 , the reactor attained a mean nitrification efficiency of 95 ± 9% with nitrite as the main product (aerobic period). Mean denitrification efficiency during the anoxic period was 72 ± 13%.

  8. Study of the Effect of SRT on Microbial Diversity in Laboratory-scale Sequencing Batch Reactors Using Acclimated and Non-Acclimated Seed

    KAUST Repository

    Tellez, Berenice

    2011-07-07

    Solids Retention Time (SRT) is an important design parameter in activated sludge wastewater treatment systems. In this study, the effect of SRT on the bacterial community structure and diversity was examined in replicate lab-scale activated sludge sequencing batch reactors were operated for a period of 8 weeks and seeded with acclimated or non-acclimated sludge. Four SBRs (acclimated) were set up as duplicates and operated at an SRT of 2 days, and another set of four SBRs (non-acclimated) were operated at an SRT of 10 days. To characterize the microbial community in the SBRs, 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing was used to measure biodiversity and to assess the reproducibility and stability of the bacterial community structure in replicate reactors. Diversity results showed that SBRs operated at an SRT of 10 days are more diverse than SBRs operated at an SRT of 2 days. This suggests that engineering decision could enhance diversity in activated sludge systems. Cluster analysis based on phylogenetic information revealed that the bacterial community structure was not stable and replicated SBRs evolved differently.

  9. Covalent immobilization of catalase onto spacer-arm attached modified florisil: characterization and application to batch and plug-flow type reactor systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alptekin, Ozlem; Tükel, S Seyhan; Yildirim, Deniz; Alagöz, Dilek

    2011-12-10

    Catalase was covalently immobilized onto florisil via glutaraldehyde (GA) and glutaraldehyde+6-amino hexanoic acid (6-AHA) (as a spacer arm). Immobilizations of catalase onto modified supports were optimized to improve the efficiency of the overall immobilization procedures. The V(max) values of catalase immobilized via glutaraldehyde (CIG) and catalase immobilized via glutaraldehyde+6-amino hexanoic acid (CIG-6-AHA) were about 0.6 and 3.4% of free catalase, respectively. The usage of 6-AHA as a spacer arm caused about 40 folds increase in catalytic efficiency of CIG-6-AHA (8.3 × 10⁵ M⁻¹ s⁻¹) as compared to that of CIG (2.1 × 10⁴ M⁻¹ s⁻¹). CIG and CIG-6-AHA retained 67 and 35% of their initial activities at 5 °C and 71 and 18% of their initial activities, respectively at room temperature at the end of 6 days. Operational stabilities of CIG and CIG-6-AHA were investigated in batch and plug-flow type reactors. The highest total amount of decomposed hydrogen peroxide (TAD-H₂O₂) was determined as 219.5 μmol for CIG-6-AHA in plug-flow type reactor. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Treatment of mature landfill leachate by internal micro-electrolysis integrated with coagulation: A comparative study on a novel sequencing batch reactor based on zero valent iron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ying, Diwen [School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, 800 Dongchuan Road, Shanghai, 200240 (China); Peng, Juan [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Carnegie Mellon University, 5000 Forbes Avenue, Pittsburgh, PA 15213 (United States); Xu, Xinyan; Li, Kan; Wang, Yalin [School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, 800 Dongchuan Road, Shanghai, 200240 (China); Jia, Jinping, E-mail: jpjia@sjtu.edu.cn [School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, 800 Dongchuan Road, Shanghai, 200240 (China)

    2012-08-30

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Specifically-designed SIME reactor for treatment of mature landfill leachate. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Excellent removal efficiencies of COD (86.1%), color (95.3%), and HA (81.8%). Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Combination effect of IME without aeration and IME with aeration. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Optimal pH of 5, Fe/C of 1:1, gas flow rate of 80 L h{sup -1}, and H{sub 2}O{sub 2} of 100 mg L{sup -1}. - Abstract: A comparative study of treating mature landfill leachate with various treatment processes was conducted to investigate whether the method of combined processes of internal micro-electrolysis (IME) without aeration and IME with full aeration in one reactor was an efficient treatment for mature landfill leachate. A specifically designed novel sequencing batch internal micro-electrolysis reactor (SIME) with the latest automation technology was employed in the experiment. Experimental data showed that combined processes obtained a high COD removal efficiency of 73.7 {+-} 1.3%, which was 15.2% and 24.8% higher than that of the IME with and without aeration, respectively. The SIME reactor also exhibited a COD removal efficiency of 86.1 {+-} 3.8% to mature landfill leachate in the continuous operation, which is much higher (p < 0.05) than that of conventional treatments of electrolysis (22.8-47.0%), coagulation-sedimentation (18.5-22.2%), and the Fenton process (19.9-40.2%), respectively. The innovative concept behind this excellent performance is a combination effect of reductive and oxidative processes of the IME, and the integration electro-coagulation. Optimal operating parameters, including the initial pH, Fe/C mass ratio, air flow rate, and addition of H{sub 2}O{sub 2}, were optimized. All results show that the SIME reactor is a promising and efficient technology in treating mature landfill leachate.

  11. Nitrifying granules cultivation in a sequencing batch reactor at a low organics-to-total nitrogen ratio in wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cydzik-Kwiatkowska, A; Wojnowska-Baryła, I

    2011-05-01

    It is possible to cultivate aerobic granular sludge at a low organic loading rate and organics-to-total nitrogen (COD/N) ratio in wastewater in the reactor with typical geometry (height/diameter = 2.1, superficial air velocity = 6 mm/s). The noted nitrification efficiency was very high (99%). At the highest applied ammonia load (0.3 ± 0.002 mg NH (4) (+) -N g total suspended solids (TSS)(-1) day(-1), COD/N = 1), the dominating oxidized form of nitrogen was nitrite. Despite a constant aeration in the reactor, denitrification occurred in the structure of granules. Applied molecular techniques allowed the changes in the ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) community in granular sludge to be tracked. The major factor influencing AOB number and species composition was ammonia load. At the ammonia load of 0.3 ± 0.002 mg NH (4) (+) -N g TSS(-1) day(-1), a highly diverse AOB community covering bacteria belonging to both the Nitrosospira and Nitrosomonas genera accounted for ca. 40% of the total bacteria in the biomass.

  12. Digester performance and microbial community changes in thermophilic and mesophilic sequencing batch reactors fed with the fine sieved fraction of municipal sewage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghasimi, Dara S M; Tao, Yu; de Kreuk, Merle; Abbas, Ben; Zandvoort, Marcel H; van Lier, Jules B

    2015-12-15

    This study investigates the start-up and operation of bench-scale mesophilic (35 °C) and thermophilic (55 °C) anaerobic sequencing batch reactor (SBR) digesters treating the fine sieved fraction (FSF) from raw municipal sewage. FSF was sequestered from raw municipal wastewater, in the Netherlands, using a rotating belt filter equipped with a 350 micron mesh. For the given wastewater, the major component of FSF was toilet paper, which is estimated to be 10-14 kg per year per average person in the western European countries. A seven months adaptation time was allowed for the thermophilic and mesophilic digesters in order to adapt to FSF as the sole substrate with varying dry solids content of 10-25%. Different SBR cycle durations (14, 9 and 2 days) were applied for both temperature conditions to study methane production rates, volatile fatty acids (VFAs) dynamics, lag phases, as well as changes in microbial communities. The prevailing sludge in the two digesters consisted of very different bacterial and archaeal communities, with OP9 lineage and Methanothermobacter being pre-dominant in the thermophilic digester and Bacteroides and Methanosaeta dominating the mesophilic one. Eventually, decreasing the SBR cycle period, thus increasing the FSF load, resulted in improved digester performances, particularly with regard to the thermophilic digester, i.e. shortened lag phases following the batch feedings, and reduced VFA peaks. Over time, the thermophilic digester outperformed the mesophilic one with 15% increased volatile solids (VS) destruction, irrespective to lower species diversity found at high temperature. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Competitive adsorption and desorption of strontium and cobalt on acid soils measured in batch and in stirred flow-through reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Limousin, G. [CEA - Section d' Application des Traceurs, 38 054 Grenoble Cedex (France)]|[Laboratoire des Transferts en Hydrologie et Environnement, BP 53, 38 041 Grenoble Cedex, (France); Szenknect, S.; Barthes, V. [CEA - Section d' Application des Traceurs, 38 054 Grenoble Cedex (France); Gaudet, J.P. [Laboratoire des Transferts en Hydrologie et Environnement, BP 53, 38 041 Grenoble Cedex (France)

    2005-07-01

    Full text of publication follows: In order to investigate adsorption and desorption processes of contaminants, an acid mineral soil (pH = 4.75; organic carbon: 3.8 g.kg{sup -1}) and an acid organic soil (pH = 4.65; organic carbon: 65.5 g.kg{sup -1}) were tested. Amounts and kinetics of adsorption and desorption of strontium and cobalt were measured in batch and in stirred flow-through reactor. The stirred flow-through method is particularly appropriate to study desorption because an open flow flushes continuously the soil after adsorption. This method is also useful to study reaction kinetics because one can adjust the mean residence time or even close the circuit before desorption stage. The adsorption isotherms of these cations are non-linear for a wide range of concentration (from 10{sup -8} M to 10{sup -1} M). The organic soil presents higher saturating concentrations and retains about 5 times more cobalt than the mineral soil at any concentration. However, the organic soil does not significantly retain more strontium than the mineral soil at low concentrations. Cobalt is more retained than strontium in the organic soil, whereas the adsorption isotherms of strontium and cobalt are identical in the mineral soil (when the concentrations are expressed in mol.L-1 in liquid phase and in mol.kg{sup -1} in solid phase). Adsorption kinetics were measured in batch using 10{sup -4} M solutions. A fast adsorption stage (half-reaction time: 10 mn) was observed, followed by a slow stage (half-reaction time: 10 h). The equilibrium is not reached after 78 days even if adsorption is mainly completed after 2 h. These reaction times seem independent from the cation (strontium or cobalt) and are not affected by the presence of a competing cation (cobalt and strontium together). The same reaction times were observed for higher concentrations (10{sup -3} M) or very low concentrations of radio-cobalt (10{sup -10} M). So, the kinetics seem to be independent from the initial

  14. Evaluation of a sequencing batch reactor sewage treatment rig for investigating the fate of radioactively labelled pharmaceuticals: Case study of propranolol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popple, T; Williams, J B; May, E; Mills, G A; Oliver, R

    2016-01-01

    Pharmaceuticals are frequently detected in the aquatic environment, and have potentially damaging effects. Effluents from sewage treatment plants (STPs) are major sources of these substances. The use of sequencing batch reactor (SBR) STPs, involving cycling between aerobic and anoxic conditions to promote nitrification and denitrification, is increasing but these have yet to be understood in terms of removal of pharmaceutical residues. This study reports on the development of a laboratory rig to simulate a SBR. The rig was used to investigate the fate of radiolabelled propranolol. This is a commonly prescribed beta blocker, but with unresolved fate in STPs. The SBR rig (4.5 L) was operated on an 8 h batch cycle with settled sewage. Effective treatment was demonstrated, with clearly distinct treatment phases and evidence of nitrogen removal. Radiolabelled (14)C-propranolol was dosed into both single (closed) and continuous (flow-through) simulations over 13 SBR cycles. Radioactivity in CO2 off-gas, biomass and liquid was monitored, along with the characteristics of the sewage. This allowed apparent rate constants and coefficients for biodegradation and solid:water partitioning to be determined. Extrapolation from off-gas radioactivity measurements in the single dose 4-d study suggested that propranolol fell outside the definitions of being readily biodegradable (DegT50 = 9.1 d; 60% biodegradation at 12.0 d). During continuous dosing, 63-72% of propranolol was removed in the rig, but less than 4% of dose recovered as (14)CO2, suggesting that biodegradation was a minor process (Kbiol(M) L kg d(-1) = 22-49) and that adsorption onto solids dominated, giving rise to accumulations within biomass during the 17 d solid retention time in the SBR. Estimations of adsorption isotherm coefficients were different depending on which of three generally accepted denominators representing sorption sites was used (mixed liquor suspended solids, reactor COD or mass of waste

  15. Nitrogen and phosphorus treatment of marine wastewater by a laboratory-scale sequencing batch reactor with eco-friendly marine high-efficiency sediment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Seonghyeon; Kim, Jinsoo; Kim, Sungchul; Lee, Sang-Seob

    2017-06-22

    We screened and identified a NH 3 -N-removing bacterial strain, Bacillus sp. KGN1, and a [Formula: see text] removing strain, Vibrio sp. KGP1, from 960 indigenous marine isolates from seawater and marine sediment from Tongyeong, South Korea. We developed eco-friendly high-efficiency marine sludge (eco-HEMS), and inoculated these marine bacterial strains into the marine sediment. A laboratory-scale sequencing batch reactor (SBR) system using the eco-HEMS for marine wastewater from land-based fish farms improved the treatment performance as indicated by 88.2% removal efficiency (RE) of total nitrogen (initial: 5.6 mg/L) and 90.6% RE of total phosphorus (initial: 1.2 mg/L) under the optimal operation conditions (food and microorganism (F/M) ratio, 0.35 g SCOD Cr /g mixed liquor volatile suspended solids (MLVSS)·d; dissolved oxygen (DO) 1.0 ± 0.2 mg/L; hydraulic retention time (HRT), 6.6 h; solids retention time (SRT), 12 d). The following kinetic parameters were obtained: cell yield (Y), 0.29 g MLVSS/g SCOD Cr ; specific growth rate (µ), 0.06 d -1 ; specific nitrification rate (SNR), 0.49 mg NH 3 -N/g MLVSS·h; specific denitrification rate (SDNR), 0.005 mg [Formula: see text]/g MLVSS·h; specific phosphorus uptake rate (SPUR), 0.12 mg [Formula: see text]/g MLVSS·h. The nitrogen- and phosphorus-removing bacterial strains comprised 18.4% of distribution rate in the microbial community of eco-HEMS under the optimal operation conditions. Therefore, eco-HEMS effectively removed nitrogen and phosphorus from highly saline marine wastewater from land-based fish farms with improving SNR, SDNR, and SPUR values in more diverse microbial communities. DO: dissolved oxygen; Eco-HEMS: eco-friendly high efficiency marine sludge; F/M: food and microorganism ratio; HRT: hydraulic retention time; ML(V)SS: mixed liquor (volatile) suspended solids; NCBI: National Center for Biotechnology Information; ND: not determined; qPCR: quantitative real-time polymerase

  16. 1st quarterly report 1977

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-06-01

    The present report describes the activities carried out in the 1st quarter of 1977 at the Gesellschaft fuer Kernforschung in Karlsruhe or on its behalf in the framework of the fast breeder project (PSB). The problems and main results of the partial projects fuel rod development, materials testing, reactor physics, reactor safety and reactor technology are presented. (RW) [de

  17. Feasibility Study of Supercritical Light Water Cooled Fast Reactors for Actinide Burning and Electric Power Production, 3rd Quarterly Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mac Donald, Philip Elsworth

    2002-06-01

    The use of light water at supercritical pressures as the coolant in a nuclear reactor offers the potential for considerable plant simplification and consequent capital and O&M cost reduction compared with current light water reactor (LWR) designs. Also, given the thermodynamic conditions of the coolant at the core outlet (i.e. temperature and pressure beyond the water critical point), very high thermal efficiencies of the power conversion cycle are possible (i.e. up to about 45%). Because no change of phase occurs in the core, the need for steam separators and dryers as well as for BWR-type re-circulation pumps is eliminated, which, for a given reactor power, results in a substantially shorter reactor vessel and smaller containment building than the current BWRs. Furthermore, in a direct cycle the steam generators are not needed.

  18. Effects of high-concentration influent suspended solids on aerobic granulation in pilot-scale sequencing batch reactors treating real domestic wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cetin, Ender; Karakas, Emre; Dulekgurgen, Ebru; Ovez, Suleyman; Kolukirik, Mustafa; Yilmaz, Gulsum

    2017-12-13

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of high-influent-concentration suspended solids (SS) on the cultivation, structure and long-term stability of aerobic granular sludge (AGS). Cultivation and long-term stability of AGS were monitored in two pilot-scale sequencing batch reactors fed with raw (R1) and settled (R2) domestic wastewater, representing high and medium SS content, respectively. The real domestic wastewater had high chemical oxygen demand (COD) content (1100 ± 270 mg COD L -1 ). Aerobic granular sludge was cultivated in 44 days (R1) and 25 days (R2) under the conditions of high settling velocity (18 m h -1 ) and high organic loading rate (OLR) (2.1-2.4 kg COD m 3 day). The AGS in both reactors had similar structural properties during long-term operation and remained structurally and functionally stable during the last five months of operation. Comparative evaluation of the results indicated that the high influent SS content of the real domestic wastewater had a positive influence on maintaining significantly lower SVI 30 and relatively lower effluent SS concentration. Moreover, a higher influent SS content resulted in smaller mature granules during the stable period. Microbial community analyses helped to understand the aerobic granular sludge structure and showed that the sludge retention time and OLR affected the granular sludge population. The high influent SS increased biomass detachment from the granular sludge surface and caused wash-out of some bacteria colonizing the exterior of the granular sludge. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Comparison of three combined sequencing batch reactor followed by enhanced Fenton process for an azo dye degradation: Bio-decolorization kinetics study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Azizi, A., E-mail: armina_84@yahoo.com [Civil and Environmental Engineering Department, Amirkabir University of Technology, Hafez Ave., Tehran15875-4413 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Alavi Moghaddam, M.R., E-mail: alavim@yahoo.com [Civil and Environmental Engineering Department, Amirkabir University of Technology, Hafez Ave., Tehran15875-4413 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Maknoon, R., E-mail: rmaknoon@yahoo.com [Civil and Environmental Engineering Department, Amirkabir University of Technology, Hafez Ave., Tehran15875-4413 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Kowsari, E., E-mail: kowsarie@aut.ac.ir [Department of Chemistry, Amirkabir University of Technology, Hafez Ave., Tehran 15875-4413 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2015-12-15

    Highlights: • Three combined advanced SBR and enhanced Fenton process as post treatment was compared. • Higher biomass concentration, dye, COD and metabolites removal was presented together. • Pseudo zero and pseudo first-order bio-decolorization kinetics were observed in all SBRs. • High reduction of AR18 to intermediate metabolites was monitored by HPLC. - Abstract: The purpose of this research was to compare three combined sequencing batch reactor (SBR) – Fenton processes as post-treatment for the treatment of azo dye Acid Red 18 (AR18). Three combined treatment systems (CTS1, CTS2 and CTS3) were operated to investigate the biomass concentration, COD removal, AR18 dye decolorization and kinetics study. The MLSS concentration of CTS2 reached 7200 mg/L due to the use of external feeding in the SBR reactor of CTS2. The COD concentration remained 273 mg/L and 95 mg/L (initial COD = 3270 mg/L) at the end of alternating anaerobic–aerobic SBR with external feeding (An-A MSBR) and CTS2, respectively, resulting in almost 65% of Fenton process efficiency. The dye concentration of 500 mg/L was finally reduced to less than 10 mg/L in all systems indicating almost complete AR18 decolorization, which was also confirmed by UV–vis analysis. The dye was removed following two successive parts as parts 1 and 2 with pseudo zero-order and pseudo first-order kinetics, respectively, in all CTSs. Higher intermediate metabolites degradation was obtained using HPLC analysis in CTS2. Accordingly, a combined treatment system can be proposed as an appropriate and environmentally-friendly system for the treatment of the azo dye AR18 in wastewater.

  20. Nitrogen removal from slaughterhouse wastewater through partial nitrification followed by denitrification in intermittently aerated sequencing batch reactors at 11 degreeC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Min; Henry, Liam Garry; Liu, Rui; Huang, Xiaoming

    2014-01-01

    This study is aimed to examine the removal of nitrogen from high strength slaughterhouse wastewater at 11 degreeC via partial nitrification followed by denitrification (PND), using the intermittently aerated sequencing batch reactor (IASBR) technology. The slaughterhouse wastewater contained chemical oxygen demand (COD) of 6068 mg/L, total nitrogen (TN) of 571 mg/L, total phosphorus (TP) of 51 mg/L and suspended solids of 1.8 g/L, on average. The laboratory-scale IASBR reactors had a working volume of 8 L and was operated at an average organic loading rate of 0.61 g COD/(L-d). At the cycle duration of 12 h, COD was efficiently removed under three aeration rates of 0.4, 0.6 and 0.8 L air/min. Among the three aeration rates, the optimum aeration rate was 0.6 L air/min with removals of COD, TN, and TP of 98%, 98%, and 96%, respectively. The treated wastewater met the Irish emission standards. The microbial community analysis by fluorescence in situ hybridization shows 12 +/- 0.4% of ammonium oxidizing bacteria, and 7.2 - 0.4% of nitrite oxidizing bacteria in the general bacteria (EUB) in the activated sludge at the aeration rate of 0.6 L air/min, leading to efficient partial nitrification. PND effectively removed nitrogen from slaughterhouse wastewater at 11degreeC, but PND efficiency was dependent on the aeration rate applied. PND efficiencies were up to 75.8%, 70.1% and only 25.4% at the aeration rates of 0.4, 0.6, and 0.8 L air/min.

  1. Progressing batch hydrolysis process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, John D.

    1986-01-01

    A progressive batch hydrolysis process for producing sugar from a lignocellulosic feedstock, comprising passing a stream of dilute acid serially through a plurality of percolation hydrolysis reactors charged with said feedstock, at a flow rate, temperature and pressure sufficient to substantially convert all the cellulose component of the feedstock to glucose; cooling said dilute acid stream containing glucose, after exiting the last percolation hydrolysis reactor, then feeding said dilute acid stream serially through a plurality of prehydrolysis percolation reactors, charged with said feedstock, at a flow rate, temperature and pressure sufficient to substantially convert all the hemicellulose component of said feedstock to glucose; and cooling the dilute acid stream containing glucose after it exits the last prehydrolysis reactor.

  2. Influence of the cycle length on the production of PHA and polyglucose from glycerol by bacterial enrichments in sequencing batch reactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moralejo-Gárate, Helena; Palmeiro-Sánchez, Tania; Kleerebezem, Robbert; Mosquera-Corral, Anuska; Campos, José Luis; van Loosdrecht, Mark C M

    2013-12-01

    PHA, a naturally occurring biopolymer produced by a wide range of microorganisms, is known for its applications as bioplastic. In recent years the use of agro-industrial wastewater as substrate for PHA production by bacterial enrichments has attracted considerable research attention. Crude glycerol as generated during biodiesel production is a waste stream that due to its high organic matter content and low price could be an interesting substrate for PHA production. Previously we have demonstrated that when glycerol is used as substrate in a feast-famine regime, PHA and polyglucose are simultaneously produced as storage polymers. The work described in this paper aimed at understanding the effect of the cycle length on the bacterial enrichment process with emphasis on the distribution of glycerol towards PHA and polyglucose. Two sequencing batch reactors where operated with the same hydraulic and biomass retention time. A short cycle length (6 h) favored polyglucose production over PHA, whereas at long cycle length (24 h) PHA was more favored. In both communities the same microorganism appeared dominating, suggesting a metabolic rather than a microbial competition response. Moreover, the presence of ammonium during polymer accumulation did not influence the maximum amount of PHA that was attained. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Effectiveness of solar disinfection using batch reactors with non-imaging aluminium reflectors under real conditions: Natural well-water and solar light.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navntoft, C; Ubomba-Jaswa, E; McGuigan, K G; Fernández-Ibáñez, P

    2008-12-11

    Inactivation kinetics are reported for suspensions of Escherichia coli in well-water using compound parabolic collector (CPC) mirrors to enhance the efficiency of solar disinfection (SODIS) for batch reactors under real, solar radiation (cloudy and cloudless) conditions. On clear days, the system with CPC reflectors achieved complete inactivation (more than 5-log unit reduction in bacterial population to below the detection limit of 4CFU/mL) one hour sooner than the system fitted with no CPC. On cloudy days, only systems fitted with CPCs achieved complete inactivation. Degradation of the mirrors under field conditions was also evaluated. The reflectivity of CPC systems that had been in use outdoors for at least 3 years deteriorated in a non-homogeneous fashion. Reflectivity values for these older systems were found to vary between 27% and 72% compared to uniform values of 87% for new CPC systems. The use of CPC has been proven to be a good technological enhancement to inactivate bacteria under real conditions in clear and cloudy days. A comparison between enhancing optics and thermal effect is also discussed.

  4. Bioaccumulation and toxicity assessment of irrigation water contaminated with boron (B) using duckweed (Lemna gibba L.) in a batch reactor system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Türker, Onur Can; Yakar, Anıl; Gür, Nurcan

    2017-02-15

    The present study assesses ability of Lemna gibba L. using a batch reactor approach to bioaccumulation boron (B) from irrigation waters which were collected from a stream in largest borax reserve all over the world. The important note that bioaccumulation of B from irrigation water was first analyzed for first time in a risk assessment study using a Lemna species exposed to various B concentrations. Boron toxicity was evaluated through plant growth and biomass production during phytoremediation process. The result from the present experiment indicated that L. gibba was capable of removing 19-63% B from irrigation water depending upon contaminated level or initial concentration. We also found that B was removed from aqueous solution following pseudo second order kinetic model and Langmuir isotherm model better fitted equilibrium obtained for B phytoremediation. Maximum B accumulation in L. gibba was determined as 2088mgkg -1 at average inflow B concentration 17.39mgL -1 at the end of the experiment. Conversely, maximum bioconcentration factor obtained at lowest inflow B concentrations were 232 for L. gibba. The present study suggested that L. gibba was very useful B accumulator, and thus L. gibba-based techniques could be a reasonable phytoremediation option to remove B directly from water sources contaminated with B. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Short-term Influence of Two Types of Drilling Fluids on Wastewater Treatment Rate and Eukaryotic Organisms of Activated Sludge in Sequencing Batch Reactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babko, Roman; Jaromin-Gleń, Katarzyna; Łagód, Grzegorz; Danko, Yaroslav; Kuzmina, Tatiana; Pawłowska, Małgorzata; Pawłowski, Artur

    2017-07-01

    This work presents the results of studies on the impact of spent drilling fluids cotreated with municipal wastewater on the rate of the wastewater treatment process and the structure of the community of eukaryotic organisms inhabiting an activated sludge. The studies were conducted under laboratory conditions in sequencing batch reactors. The effect of added polymer-potassium drilling fluid (DF1) and polymer drilling fluid (DF2) at dosages of 1 and 3% of wastewater volume on the rate of removal of total suspended solids, turbidity, chemical oxygen demand, and the content of total and ammonium nitrogen were analyzed, taking into account the values of these parameters measured at the end of each operating cycle. In addition to the impacts on the aforementioned physicochemical indices, the influence of drilling fluid on the biomass of various groups of eukaryotes in activated sludge was analyzed. The impact of the drilling fluid was highly dependent on its type and dosage. A noticeable slowdown in the rate of the wastewater treatment process and a negative effect on the organisms were observed after the addition of DF2. This effect intensified after an increase in fluid dose. However, no statistically significant negative changes were observed after the introduction of DF1. Conversely, the removal rate of some of the analyzed pollutant increased. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  6. Development of partial nitrification as a first step of nitrite shunt process in a Sequential Batch Reactor (SBR) using Ammonium Oxidizing Bacteria (AOB) controlled by mixing regime.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soliman, Moomen; Eldyasti, Ahmed

    2016-12-01

    Shortcut biological nitrogen removal is a non-conventional way of removing nitrogen from wastewater using two processes either nitrite shunt or deammonification. In the nitrite shunt process, the ammonia oxidation step stops at the nitrite stage, which is known as partial nitrification, then nitrite is directly reduced to nitrogen gas. Effective partial nitrification could be achieved by accumulating Ammonia Oxidizing Bacteria (AOB) and inhibiting Nitrite Oxidizing Bacteria (NOB). In this research, a novel control strategy has been developed to control the DO using the variable mixing regime in a suspended growth system using a Sequential Batch Reactor (SBR) in order to achieve a stable ammonia removal efficiency (ARE) and nitrite accumulation rate (NAR) at a high nitrogen loading rate (NLR). The new controlled SBR system has been successfully running at NLR up to 1.2kg/(m 3 .day) and achieved an ARE of 98.6±2.8% and NAR of 93.0±0.7%. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Investigation into the nitrate removal efficiency and microbial communities in a sequencing batch reactor treating reverse osmosis concentrate produced by a coking wastewater treatment plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Enchao; Wang, Rongchang; Jin, Xuewen; Lu, Shuguang; Qiu, Zhaofu; Zhang, Xiang

    2017-07-19

    In this study, a biological denitrifying process using a sequencing batch reactor (SBR) was employed to treat reverse osmosis (RO) concentrate with high conductivity produced from a coking wastewater plant. From the results, the average removal efficiencies for chemical oxygen demand, total nitrogen, and nitrate were 79.5%, 90.5%, and 93.1%, respectively. Different microbial communities were identified after sequencing the V1-V3 region of the 16S rRNA gene using the MiSeq platform, and the major bacterial phyla in the SBR system were Proteobacteria and Bacteroidetes. The main microorganisms responsible for denitrification were from the genera Hyphomicrobium, Thauera, Methyloversatilis, and Rhodobacter. Quantitative real-time PCR was used to quantify the absolute levels of denitrifying genes, including narG, nirS, nirK, and nosZ, during the start-up and stable operation of the SBR. The abundances of narG, nirK, and nosZ were lower during stable operation than those in the start-up period. The abundance of nirS at a concentration of 10 4 -10 5 copies/ng in DNA was much higher than that of nirK, making it the dominant functional gene responsible for nitrite reduction. The higher nitrate removal efficiency suggests that biological denitrification using SBR is an effective technique for treating RO concentrate produced from coking wastewater plants.

  8. The mechanism of enhanced wastewater nitrogen removal by photo-sequencing batch reactors based on comprehensive analysis of system dynamics within a cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Jianfeng; Liang, Junyu; Wang, Liang; Markou, Giorgos

    2018-03-31

    To understand the mechanism of enhanced nitrogen removal by photo-sequencing batch reactors (photo-SBRs), which incorporated microalgal photosynthetic oxygenation into the aerobic phases of a conventional cycle, this study performed comprehensive analysis of one-cycle dynamics. Under a low aeration intensity (about 0.02 vvm), a photo-SBR, illuminated with light at 92.27 μ·mol·m -2 ·s -1 , could remove 99.45% COD, 99.93% NH 4 + -N, 90.39% TN, and 95.17% TP, while the control SBR could only remove 98.36% COD, 83.51% NH 4 + -N, 78.96% TN, and 97.75% TP, for a synthetic domestic sewage. The specific oxygen production rate (SOPR) of microalgae in the photo-SBR could reach 6.63 fmol O 2 ·cell -1 ·h -1 . One-cycle dynamics shows that the enhanced nitrogen removal by photo-SBRs is related to photosynthetic oxygenation, resulting in strengthened nitrification, instead of direct nutrient uptake by microalgae. A too high light or aeration intensity could deteriorate anoxic conditions and thus adversely affect the removal of TN and TP in photo-SBRs. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Impacts of composite wastewater on a Pampean stream (Argentina) and phytoremediation alternative with Spirodela intermedia Koch (Lemnaceae) growing in batch reactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basílico, Gabriel; de Cabo, Laura; Faggi, Ana

    2013-01-30

    Poultry slaughterhouses are producing increasing amounts of solid organic by-products and waste in Argentina. The objectives of this study are to assess the impacts of wastewater, mainly composed of poultry slaughterhouse effluent, on a Pampean stream and to evaluate the convenience of phytoremediation alternative with Spirodela intermedia. Impacts over La Choza stream (Buenos Aires, Argentina) were evaluated by means of physical and chemical characterization of the water upstream and downstream input. Nutrients and total suspended solids increased downstream of the open channel outlet. A bioassay was performed in order to evaluate the role of S. intermedia in wastewater treatment. Two treatments were performed in batch reactors during 144 h (6 days), with (treatment A) and without (treatment B) the addition of S. intermedia. Water samples were taken at 8, 24, 48, 96 and 144 h after the start of the assay for the determination of ammonium, nitrite, nitrate, soluble reactive phosphorus and total phosphorus. Since removal rates of ammonium and total phosphorus were significantly higher in treatment A than in treatment B and the nitrification process was highly increased in treatment A, then the species could be used for the phytoremediation of composite wastewater. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Long-term effects of cupric oxide nanoparticles (CuO NPs) on the performance, microbial community and enzymatic activity of activated sludge in a sequencing batch reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Sen; Li, Zhiwei; Gao, Mengchun; She, Zonglian; Ma, Bingrui; Guo, Liang; Zheng, Dong; Zhao, Yangguo; Jin, Chunji; Wang, Xuejiao; Gao, Feng

    2017-02-01

    The long-term effects of cupric oxide nanoparticles (CuO NPs) on the performance, microbial activity and microbial community of activated sludge were investigated in a sequencing batch reactor (SBR). The SBR performance had no evident change at 0-10 mg/L CuO NPs, whereas the CuO NPs concentration at 30-60 mg/L affected the COD, NH 4 + -N and soluble orthophosphate (SOP) removal, nitrogen and phosphorus removal rate and microbial enzymatic activity of activated sludge. Some CuO NPs might be absorbed on the surface of activated sludge or penetrate the microbial cytomembrane into the microbial cell interior of activated sludge. Compared to 0 mg/L CuO NPs, the reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release increased by 43.6% and 56.4% at 60 mg/L CuO NPs, respectively. The variations of ROS production and LDH release demonstrated that CuO NPs could induce the toxicity towards the microorganisms and destroy the integrity of microbial cytomembrane in the activated sludge. High throughput sequencing of 16S rDNA indicated that CuO NPs could evidently impact on the microbial richness, diversity and composition of activated sludge in the SBR. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Biodegradation of industrial-strength 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid wastewaters in the presence of glucose in aerobic and anaerobic sequencing batch reactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elefsiniotis, Panagiotis; Wareham, David G

    2013-01-01

    This research explored the biodegradability of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) in two laboratory-scale sequencing batch reactors (SBRs) that operated under aerobic and anaerobic conditions. The potential limit of 2,4-D degradation was investigated at a hydraulic retention time of 48 h, using glucose as a supplemental substrate and increasing feed concentrations of 2,4-D; namely 100 to 700 mg/L (i.e. industrial strength) for the aerobic system and 100 to 300 mg/L for the anaerobic SBR. The results revealed that 100 mg/L of 2,4-D was completely degraded following an acclimation period of 29 d (aerobic SBR) and 70 d (anaerobic SBR). The aerobic system achieved total 2,4-D removal at feed concentrations up to 600 mg/L which appeared to be a practical limit, since a further increase to 700 mg/L impaired glucose degradation while 2,4-D biodegradation was non-existent. In all cases, glucose was consumed before the onset of 2,4-D degradation. In the anaerobic SBR, 2,4-D degradation was limited to 120 mg/L.

  12. Operation optimization of a photo-sequencing batch reactor for wastewater treatment: Study on influencing factors and impact on symbiotic microbial ecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Jianfeng; Liang, Junyu; Wang, Liang; Markou, Giorgos; Jia, Qilong

    2018-03-01

    Wastewater treatment technology with better energy efficiency and recyclability is in urgent demand. Photo-Sequencing batch reactor (SBR), which introduces microalgae into conventional SBR, is considered to have more potential for resource recycling. In this study, a photo-SBR was evaluated through the manipulation of several key operational parameters, i.e., aeration strength, light supply intensity and time per cycle, and solid retention time (SRT). The algal-bacterial symbiotic system had the potential of removing COD, NH 4 + -N and TN with limited aeration, representing the advantage of energy-saving by low aeration requirement. Maintaining appropriate proportion of microalgae in the symbiotic system is critical for good system performance. Introducing microalgae into conventional SBR has obvious impact on the original microbial ecology. When the concentration of microalgae is too high (>4.60 mg Chl/L), the inhibition on certain phyla of bacteria, e.g., Bacteroidetes and Actinobacteria, would become prominent and not conducive to the stable operation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Characterization of dissolved organic matter during landfill leachate treatment by sequencing batch reactor, aeration corrosive cell-Fenton, and granular activated carbon in series

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bu Lin; Wang Kun; Zhao Qingliang; Wei Liangliang; Zhang Jing; Yang Junchen

    2010-01-01

    Landfill leachate is generally characterized as a complex recalcitrant wastewater containing high concentration of dissolved organic matter (DOM). A combination of sequencing batch reactor (SBR) + aeration corrosive cell-Fenton (ACF) + granular activated carbon (GAC) adsorption in series was proposed for the purpose of removing pollutants in the leachate. Fractionation was also performed to investigate the composition changes and characteristics of the leachate DOM in each treatment process. Experimental results showed that organic matter, in terms of chemical oxygen demand (COD), 5-day biological oxygen demand (BOD 5 ), and dissolved organic carbon (DOC), was reduced by 97.2%, 99.1%, and 98.7%, respectively. To differentiate the DOM portions, leachates were separated into five fractions by XAD-8 and XAD-4 resins: hydrophobic acid (HPO-A), hydrophobic neutral (HPO-N), transphilic acid (TPI-A), transphilic neutral (TPI-N), and hydrophilic fraction (HPI). The predominant fraction in the raw leachate was HPO-A (36% of DOC), while the dominant fraction in the final effluent was HPI (53% of DOC). Accordingly, macromolecules were degraded to simpler ones in a relatively narrow range below 1000 Da. Spectral and chromatographic analyses also showed that most humic-like substances in all fractions were effectively removed during the treatments and led to a simultaneous decrease in aromaticity.

  14. Photo-removal of sulfamethoxazole (SMX) by photolytic and photocatalytic processes in a batch reactor under UV-C radiation ({lambda}{sub max} = 254 nm)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nasuhoglu, Deniz; Yargeau, Viviane [Department of Chemical Engineering, McGill University, 3610 University Street, Montreal, Quebec, H3A 2B2 (Canada); Berk, Dimitrios, E-mail: dimitrios.berk@mcgill.ca [Department of Chemical Engineering, McGill University, 3610 University Street, Montreal, Quebec, H3A 2B2 (Canada)

    2011-02-15

    In this study, photolytic and photocatalytic removal of the antibiotic sulfamethoxazole (SMX) under UVC radiation ({lambda} = 254 nm) was investigated. The light intensity distribution inside the batch photoreactor was characterized by azoxybenzene actinometry. The intensity of incident radiation was found to be a strong function of position inside the reactor. 12 mg L{sup -1} of SMX was completely removed within 10 min of irradiation under UVC photolysis, compared to 30 min under TiO{sub 2} photocatalysis. COD measurement was used as an indication of the mineralization efficiency of both processes and higher COD removal with photocatalysis was shown. After 6 h of reaction with photolysis and photocatalysis, 24% and 87% removal of COD was observed, respectively. Two of the intermediate photo-products were identified as sulfanilic acid and 3-amino-5-methylisoxazole by direct comparison of the HPLC chromatograms of standards to those of treated solutions. Ecotoxicity of treated and untreated solutions of SMX towards Daphnia magna was also investigated. It was found that a 3:1 ratio of sample to standard freshwater and a high initial concentration of 60 mg L{sup -1} of SMX were used to obtain reliable and reproducible results. The photo-products formed during photocatalytic and photolytic processes were shown to be generally more toxic than the parent compound.

  15. A novel TiO{sub 2}-assisted solar photocatalytic batch-process disinfection reactor for the treatment of biological and chemical contaminants in domestic drinking water in developing countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duffy, E.F.; Al Touati, F. [Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland, Dublin (Ireland). Dept. of Chemistry and Physics; Kehoe, S.C. [Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland, Dublin (IE). Dept. of Surgery] (and others)

    2004-11-01

    The technical feasibility and performance of photocatalytic TiO{sub 2} coatings in batch-process solar disinfection (SODIS) reactors to improve potability of drinking water in developing countries have been studied. Borosilicate glass and PET plastic SODIS reactors fitted with flexible plastic inserts coated with TiO{sub 2} powder were shown to be 20% and 25% more effective, respectively, than standard SODIS reactors for the inactivation of E. coli K12. Isopropanol at 100 ppm concentration levels was observed to be completely photodegraded after 24 h continuous exposure to 100 mW/cm{sup 2} simulated sunlight in a similar solar photocatalytic disinfector (SPC-DIS) reactor. The technique for producing the TiO{sub 2}-coated plastic inserts is described and demonstrated to be an appropriate and affordable technology for developing countries. (Author)

  16. Enzyme kinetic modelling and analytical solution of nonlinear rate equation in the transformation of D-methionine into L-methionine in batch reactor using the new homotopy perturbation method

    OpenAIRE

    Sivasamy, Pavithra; Ganapathy, Jansi Rani Palaniyandi; Thinakaran, Iswarya; Lakshmanan, Rajendran

    2016-01-01

    A mathematical model of biotransformation of D-methionine into L-methionine in the cascade of the enzymes such as, D-amino acid oxidase (D-AAO), L-phenylalanine dehydrogenase (L-PheDH) and formate dehydrogenase (FDH) is discussed. The model is based on a system of coupled nonlinear reaction equations under non steady-state conditions for biochemical reactions occurring in the batch reactor that describes the substrate and product concentration within the catalyst. Simple analytical expression...

  17. Quarterly technical report on water reactor safety programs sponsored by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission's Division of Reactor Safety Research, July--September 1975

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-02-01

    Light water reactor safety activities performed during July through September 1975 are summarized. The isothermal blowdown test series of the Semiscale Mod-1 test program has provided data for evaluation of break flow phenomena and analyses of piping flow regimes and pump performance. In the LOFT Program, measurement uncertainties were evaluated. The Thermal Fuels Behavior Program completed two power-cooling-mismatch tests on PWR-type fuel rods to investigate critical heat flux characteristics. Model development and verification efforts of the Reactor Behavior Program included development of the SPLEN1 computer code, subroutines for the FRAP-T code, verification of RELAP4, and results of the Halden Recycle Plutonium Experiment

  18. Using continuous UV extinction measurements to monitor and control the aerated phase of sequencing batch reactors; Einsatz der kontinuierlichen UV-Extinktionsmessung fuer die Ueberwachung und Regelung der Belueftungsphase in SBR-Anlagen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nicolet, L.; Rott, U. [Stuttgart Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Siedlungswasserbau, Wasserguete- und Abfallwirtschaft; Bardeck, S. [Optek-Danulat GmbH (Germany)

    1999-07-01

    The work describes the measurement of UV extinction - expressed as the spectral absorption coefficient SAC - at a randomly chosen wave length as a technique for monitoring organic load in effluents from sequencing batch reactors (SBR) at municipal and industrial waste water treatment plants. Further described is to what extent the continuous determination of the SAC can be used in practice for the control of the aerated phase of sequencing batch reactors. By this means, process stabilization and optimization can be achieved and operating reliability can be enhanced. (orig.) [German] Inhalt dieses Beitrages ist es, die Messung der UV-Extinktion - ausgedrueckt durch den spektralen Absorptionskoeffizient (SAK) - bei einer frei gewaehlten Wellenlaenge als Verfahren fuer die Ueberwachung der organischen Belastung in den Ablaeufen von SBR-Anlagen (Sequencing-Batch-Reactor) in der kommunalen und industriellen Abwasserreinigung vorzustellen. Weiterhin soll dargestellt werden, in wieweit die kontinuierliche Bestimmung des SAK in der Praxis fuer die Regelung der beluefteten Phase von SBR-Anlagen eingesetzt werden kann. Hiermit kann eine Prozessstabilisierung und -optimierung der Anlagen erreicht sowie die Betriebssicherheit erhoeht werden. (orig.)

  19. Characterization of porosity via secondary reactor. Quarterly technical progress report, 1 October 1992--31 December 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calo, J.M.

    1992-12-31

    In this quarterly technical Progress report, we summarize the progress which has been achieved with the development of the small angle scattering capability to be used in the current project. In particular, the following was accomplished during the reporting period. The parameter estimation code, MARQFIT, has been tested and is fully operational. The code has been applied to small angle neutron scattering (SANS) data on coals swollen with deuterated solvents. Application of the FPPS model to these data indicated that the large sphere distribution apparently requires a mean greater than 1000{Angstrom}. This was attributed to the influence of interparticle voids. Specific surface areas were also estimated for these coals. Application of this model to the coal chars used in the current project will not be subject to the same effects.

  20. Combined sift and methanation in a fluidized-bed reactor. Quarterly progress report, 1 July 1980-30 September 1980

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Streeter, R.C.

    1980-10-01

    Four bench-scale reactor tests were completed. One test employed the older life-test apparatus to evaluate two samples of a Ru/Ni-on-titania catalyst from Johnson Matthey. The remaining three bench-scale tests were conducted using the newer bench-scale reactor with feed gas H/sub 2//CO ratios of 2/1 and 1/1. The tests at H/sub 2//CO = 2/1 (no steam) completed a series designed to show the effect of temperature on carbon formation potential. The results were inconclusive, however, due to one temperature upset and occasional plugging of the reactor tubes with carbon deposits. Nevertheless, the data did indicate that the catalysts were able to remain active for longer periods of time at the higher temperatures despite significant carbon buildup. The bench-scale test at H/sub 2//CO = 1/1 was carried out at 950/sup 0/F in the absence of steam. Not surprisingly, therefore, significant carbon deposition was again experienced. This series of tests will be continued to examine the effect of increasing steam concentrations on carbon formation potential. A 5-day PEDU test (Test SM-4) was conducted using the UCI catalyst. The catalyst showed very high activity in steady-state periods of 36 hours at H/sub 2//CO = 1/1 (without steam) and 39 hours at H/sub 2//CO = 1/1 (with a steam/gas ratio of 0.2). Most importantly, the carbon content of the catalyst did not increase throughout the course of the test. The only drawback was that the catalyst tended to compact in a hard layer on the inner walls of the distributor, interfering with temperature control near the reactor inlet.

  1. Performance evaluation of a granular activated carbon-sequencing batch biofilm reactor pilot plant system used in treating real wastewater from recycled paper industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhamad, Mohd Hafizuddin; Sheikh Abdullah, Siti Rozaimah; Mohamad, Abu Bakar; Rahman, Rakmi Abdul; Kadhum, Abdul Amir Hasan

    2012-01-01

    A pilot scale granular activated carbon-sequencing batch biofilm reactor with a capacity of 2.2 m3 was operated for over three months to evaluate its performance treating real recycled paper industry wastewater under different operational conditions. In this study, dissolved air floatation (DAF) and clarifier effluents were used as influent sources of the pilot plant. During the course of the study, the reactor was able to biodegrade the contaminants in the incoming recycled paper mill wastewater in terms of chemical oxygen demand (COD), adsorbable organic halides (AOX; specifically 2,4-dichlorophenol (2,4-DCP)) and ammoniacal nitrogen (NH3-N) removal efficiencies at varying hydraulic retention times (HRTs) of 1-3 days, aeration rates (ARs) of 2.1-3.4 m3/min and influent feed concentration of 40-950 mg COD/l. Percentages of COD, 2,4-DCP and NH3-N removals increased with increasing HRT, resulting in more than 90% COD, 2,4-DCP and NH3-N removals at HRT values above two days. Degradation of COD, 2,4-DCP and NH3-N were seriously affected by variation of ARs, which resulted in significant decrease of COD, 2,4-DCP and NH3-N removals by decreasing ARs from 3.4 m3/min to 2.1 m3/min, varying in the ranges of 24-80%, 6-96% and 5-42%, respectively. In comparison to the clarifier effluent, the treatment performance of DAF effluent, containing high COD concentration, resulted in a higher COD removal of 82%. The use of diluted DAF effluent did not improve significantly the COD removal. Higher NH3-N removal efficiency of almost 100% was observed during operation after maintenance shutdown compared to normal operation, even at the same HRT of one day due to the higher dissolved oxygen concentrations (1-7 mg/l), while no significant difference in COD removal efficiency was observed.

  2. Sequencing Batch Reactor (SBR) for the removal of Hg{sup 2+} and Cd{sup 2+} from synthetic petrochemical factory wastewater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malakahmad, Amirhossein, E-mail: amirhossein@petronas.com.my [Faculty of Energy and Environmental Studies, Islamic Azad University, Science and Research branch, Hesarak, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Civil Engineering Department, Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS, Tronoh, Perak (Malaysia); Hasani, Amirhesam [Faculty of Energy and Environmental Studies, Islamic Azad University, Science and Research branch, Hesarak, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Eisakhani, Mahdieh [School of Social, Development and the Environment, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia); Isa, Mohamed Hasnain [Civil Engineering Department, Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS, Tronoh, Perak (Malaysia)

    2011-07-15

    Highlights: {yields} We assessed SBR performances to treat synthetic wastewater containing Hg{sup 2+} and Cd{sup 2+}. {yields} SBR was able to remove 76-90% of Hg{sup 2+} and 96-98% of Cd{sup 2+}. {yields} COD removal efficiency and MLVSS was affected by Hg{sup 2+} and Cd{sup 2+} concentrations. {yields} Removal was not only biological process but also by biosorption process of sludge. - Abstract: Petrochemical factories which manufacture vinyl chloride monomer and poly vinyl chloride (PVC) are among the largest industries which produce wastewater contains mercury and cadmium. The objective of this research is to evaluate the performance of a lab-scale Sequencing Batch Reactor (SBR) to treat a synthetic petrochemical wastewater containing mercury and cadmium. After acclimatization of the system which lasted 60 days, the SBR was introduced to mercury and cadmium in low concentrations which then was increased gradually to 9.03 {+-} 0.02 mg/L Hg and 15.52 {+-} 0.02 mg/L Cd until day 110. The SBR performance was assessed by measuring Chemical Oxygen Demand, Total and Volatile Suspended Solids as well as Sludge Volume Index. At maximum concentrations of the heavy metals, the SBR was able to remove 76-90% of Hg{sup 2+} and 96-98% of Cd{sup 2+}. The COD removal efficiency and MLVSS (microorganism population) in the SBR was affected by mercury and cadmium concentrations in influent. Different species of microorganisms such as Rhodospirilium-like bacteria, Gomphonema-like algae, and sulfate reducing-like bacteria were identified in the system. While COD removal efficiency and MLVSS concentration declined during addition of heavy metals, the appreciable performance of SBR in removal of Hg{sup 2+} and Cd{sup 2+} implies that the removal in SBR was not only a biological process, but also by the biosorption process of the sludge.

  3. Estimation of autotrophic maximum specific growth rate constant--experience from the long-term operation of a laboratory-scale sequencing batch reactor system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Yu-min; Makinia, Jacek; Pagilla, Krishna R

    2008-04-01

    The autotrophic maximum specific growth rate constant, muA,max, is the critical parameter for design and performance of nitrifying activated sludge systems. In literature reviews (i.e., Henze et al., 1987; Metcalf and Eddy, 1991), a wide range of muA,max values have been reported (0.25 to 3.0 days(-1)); however, recent data from several wastewater treatment plants across North America revealed that the estimated muA,max values remained in the narrow range 0.85 to 1.05 days(-1). In this study, long-term operation of a laboratory-scale sequencing batch reactor system was investigated for estimating this coefficient according to the low food-to-microorganism ratio bioassay and simulation methods, as recommended in the Water Environment Research Foundation (Alexandria, Virginia) report (Melcer et al., 2003). The estimated muA,max values using steady-state model calculations for four operating periods ranged from 0.83 to 0.99 day(-1). The International Water Association (London, United Kingdom) Activated Sludge Model No. 1 (ASM1) dynamic model simulations revealed that a single value of muA,max (1.2 days(-1)) could be used, despite variations in the measured specific nitrification rates. However, the average muA,max was gradually decreasing during the activated sludge chlorination tests, until it reached the value of 0.48 day(-1) at the dose of 5 mg chlorine/(g mixed liquor suspended solids x d). Significant discrepancies between the predicted XA/YA ratios were observed. In some cases, the ASM1 predictions were approximately two times higher than the steady-state model predictions. This implies that estimating this ratio from a complex activated sludge model and using it in simple steady-state model calculations should be accepted with great caution and requires further investigation.

  4. Long-term effects of CuO nanoparticles on the surface physicochemical properties of biofilms in a sequencing batch biofilm reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Jun; You, Guoxiang; Xu, Yi; Wang, Chao; Wang, Peifang; Miao, Lingzhan; Li, Yi; Ao, Yanhui; Lv, Bowen; Yang, Yangyang

    2016-11-01

    In this study, we examined the long-term effects of copper oxide nanoparticles (CuO NPs) on the production and properties of EPS and the resulting variations in surface physicochemical characteristics of biofilms in a sequencing batch biofilm reactor. After exposure to 50 mg/L CuO NPs for 45 days, the protein (PRO) and polysaccharide (PS) contents in loosely bound EPS (LB-EPS) decreased as the production of LB-EPS decreased from 34.4 to 30 mg TOC/g EPS. However, the production of tightly bound EPS (TB-EPS) increased by 16.47 % as the PRO and PS contents increased. The content of humic-like substances (HS) increased significantly, becoming the predominant constituent in EPS with the presence of 50 mg/L CuO NPs. Furthermore, the results of three-dimensional excitation-emission fluorescence spectra confirmed the various changes in terms of the LB-EPS and TB-EPS contents after exposure to CuO NPs. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy showed that the -OH and -NH 2 groups of proteins in EPS were involved in the reaction with CuO NPs. Moreover, the chronic exposure to CuO NPs induced a negative impact on the flocculating efficiency of EPS and on the hydrophobicity and aggregation ability of microbial cells. The PRO/PS ratios of different EPS fractions were consistent with their hydrophobicities (R 2 >0.98) and bioflocculating efficiencies (R 2 >0.95); however, there was no correlation with aggregation ability. Additionally, the presence of bovine serum albumin (BSA) prevented the physical contact between CuO NPs and EPS as a result of NP aggregation and electrostatic repulsion.

  5. Nitrogen removal via the nitrite pathway during wastewater co-treatment with ammonia-rich landfill leachates in a sequencing batch reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fudala-Ksiazek, S; Luczkiewicz, A; Fitobor, K; Olanczuk-Neyman, K

    2014-06-01

    The biological treatment of ammonia-rich landfill leachates due to an inadequate C to N ratio requires expensive supplementation of carbon from an external carbon source. In an effort to reduce treatment costs, the objective of the study was to determine the feasibility of nitrogen removal via the nitrite pathway during landfill leachate co-treatment with municipal wastewater. Initially, the laboratory-scale sequencing batch reactor (SBR) was inoculated with nitrifying activated sludge and fed only raw municipal wastewater (RWW) during a start-up period of 9 weeks. Then, in the co-treatment period, consisting of the next 17 weeks, the system was fed a mixture of RWW and an increasing quantity of landfill leachates (from 1 to 10% by volume). The results indicate that landfill leachate addition of up to 10% (by volume) influenced the effluent quality, except for BOD5. During the experiment, a positive correlation (r(2) = 0.908) between ammonia load in the influent and nitrite in the effluent was observed, suggesting that the second step of nitrification was partially inhibited. The partial nitrification (PN) was also confirmed by fluorescence in situ hybridisation (FISH) analysis of nitrifying bacteria. Nitrogen removal via the nitrite pathway was observed when the oxygen concentration ranged from 0.5 to 1.5 mg O2/dm(3) and free ammonia (FA) ranged from 2.01 to 35.86 mg N-NH3/dm(3) in the aerobic phase. Increasing ammonia load in wastewater influent was also correlated with an increasing amount of total nitrogen (TN) in the effluent, which suggested insufficient amounts of assimilable organic carbon to complete denitrification. Because nitrogen removal via the nitrite pathway is beneficial for carbon-limited and highly ammonia-loaded mixtures, obtaining PN can lead to a reduction in the external carbon source needed to support denitrification.

  6. Long-term exposure of bacterial and protozoan communities to TiO2 nanoparticles in an aerobic-sequencing batch reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Supha, Chitpisud; Boonto, Yuphada; Jindakaraked, Manee; Ananpattarachai, Jirapat; Kajitvichyanukul, Puangrat

    2015-06-01

    Titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanopowders at different concentrations (0-50 mg L-1) were injected into an aerobic-sequencing batch reactor (SBR) to investigate the effects of long-term exposure to nanoparticles on bacterial and protozoan communities. The detection of nanoparticles in the bioflocs was analyzed by scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy. The SBR wastewater experiments were conducted under the influence of ultraviolet light with photocatalytic TiO2. The intrusion of TiO2 nanoparticles was found both on the surface and inside of the bioflocs. The change of microbial population in terms of mixed liquor-suspended solids and the sludge volume index was monitored. The TiO2 nanoparticles tentatively exerted an adverse effect on the microbial population, causing the reduction of microorganisms (both bacteria and protozoa) in the SBR. The respiration inhibition rate of the bacteria was increased, and the viability of the microbial population was reduced at the high concentration (50 mg L-1) of TiO2. The decreasing number of protozoa in the presence of TiO2 nanoparticles during 20 days of treatment with 0.5 and 1.0 mg L-1 TiO2 is clearly demonstrated. The measured chemical oxygen demand (COD) in the effluent tends to increase with a long-term operation. The increase of COD in the system suggests a decrease in the efficiency of the wastewater treatment plant. However, the SBR can effectively remove the TiO2 nanoparticles (up to 50 mg L-1) from the effluent.

  7. Combined coagulation-flocculation and sequencing batch reactor with phosphorus adjustment for the treatment of high-strength landfill leachate: experimental kinetics and chemical oxygen demand fractionation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Fadel, M; Matar, F; Hashisho, J

    2013-05-01

    The treatability of high-strength landfill leachate is challenging and relatively limited. This study examines the feasibility of treating high-strength landfill leachate (chemical oxygen demand [COD]: 7,760-11,770 mg/L, biochemical oxygen demand [BOD5]: 2,760-3,569 mg/L, total nitrogen [TN] = 980-1,160 mg/L) using a sequencing batch reactor (SBR) preceded by a coagulation-flocculation process with phosphorus nutritional balance under various mixing and aeration patterns. Simulations were also conducted to define kinetic parameters and COD fractionation. Removal efficiencies reached 89% for BOD5, 60% for COD, and 72% for TN, similar to and better than reported studies, albeit with a relatively lower hydraulic retention time (HRT) and solid retention time (SRT). The coupled experimental and simulation results contribute in filling a gap toward managing high-strength landfill leachate and providing guidelines for corresponding SBR applications. The treatability of high-strength landfill leachate, which is challenging and relatively limited, was demonstrated using a combined coagulation-flocculation with SBR technology and nutrient balance adjustment. The most suitable coagulant, kinetic design parameters, and COD fractionation were defined using coupled experimental and simulation results contributing in filling a gap toward managing high-strength leachate by providing guidelines for corresponding SBR applications and anticipating potential constraints related to the non-biodegradable COD fraction. In this context, while the combined coagulation-flocculation and SBR process improved removal efficiencies, posttreatment may be required for high-strength leachate, depending on discharge standards and ultimate usage of the treated leachate.

  8. Performance of the auxotrophic Saccharomyces cerevisiae BY4741 as host for the production of IL-1β in aerated fed-batch reactor: role of ACA supplementation, strain viability, and maintenance energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zueco Jesus

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Saccharomyces cerevisiae BY4741 is an auxotrophic commonly used strain. In this work it has been used as host for the expression and secretion of human interleukin-1β (IL1β, using the cell wall protein Pir4 as fusion partner. To achieve high cell density and, consequently, high product yield, BY4741 [PIR4-IL1β] was cultured in an aerated fed-batch reactor, using a defined mineral medium supplemented with casamino acids as ACA (auxotrophy-complementing amino acid source. Also the S. cerevisiae mutant BY4741 Δyca1 [PIR4-IL1β], carrying the deletion of the YCA1 gene coding for a caspase-like protein involved in the apoptotic response, was cultured in aerated fed-batch reactor and compared to the parental strain, to test the effect of this mutation on strain robustness. Viability of the producer strains was examined during the runs and a mathematical model, which took into consideration the viable biomass present in the reactor and the glucose consumption for both growth and maintenance, was developed to describe and explain the time-course evolution of the process for both, the BY4741 parental and the BY4741 Δyca1 mutant strain. Results Our results show that the concentrations of ACA in the feeding solution, corresponding to those routinely used in the literature, are limiting for the growth of S. cerevisiae BY4741 [PIR4-IL1β] in fed-batch reactor. Even in the presence of a proper ACA supplementation, S. cerevisiae BY4741 [PIR4-IL1β] did not achieve a high cell density. The Δyca1 deletion did not have a beneficial effect on the overall performance of the strain, but it had a clear effect on its viability, which was not impaired during fed-batch operations, as shown by the kd value (0.0045 h-1, negligible if compared to that of the parental strain (0.028 h-1. However, independently of their robustness, both the parental and the Δyca1 mutant ceased to grow early during fed-batch runs, both strains using most of the

  9. Microbial dynamics and properties of aerobic granules developed in a laboratory-scale sequencing batch reactor with an intermediate filamentous bulking stage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aqeel, H; Basuvaraj, M; Hall, M; Neufeld, J D; Liss, S N

    2016-01-01

    Aerobic granules offer enhanced biological nutrient removal and are compact and dense structures resulting in efficient settling properties. Granule instability, however, is still a challenge as understanding of the drivers of instability is poorly understood. In this study, transient instability of aerobic granules, associated with filamentous outgrowth, was observed in laboratory-scale sequencing batch reactors (SBRs). The transient phase was followed by the formation of stable granules. Loosely bound, dispersed, and pinpoint seed flocs gradually turned into granular flocs within 60 days of SBR operation. In stage 1, the granular flocs were compact in structure and typically 0.2 mm in diameter, with excellent settling properties. Filaments appeared and dominated by stage 2, resulting in poor settleability. By stage 3, the SBRs were selected for larger granules and better settling structures, which included filaments that became enmeshed within the granule, eventually forming structures 2-5 mm in diameter. Corresponding changes in sludge volume index were observed that reflected changes in settleability. The protein-to-polysaccharide ratio in the extracted extracellular polymeric substance (EPS) from stage 1 and stage 3 granules was higher (2.8 and 5.7, respectively), as compared to stage 2 filamentous bulking (1.5). Confocal laser scanning microscopic (CLSM) imaging of the biomass samples, coupled with molecule-specific fluorescent staining, confirmed that protein was predominant in stage 1 and stage 3 granules. During stage 2 bulking, there was a decrease in live cells; dead cells predominated. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) fingerprint results indicated a shift in bacterial community composition during granulation, which was confirmed by 16S rRNA gene sequencing. In particular, Janthinobacterium (known denitrifier and producer of antimicrobial pigment) and Auxenochlorella protothecoides (mixotrophic green algae) were predominant during stage

  10. Plasmid-mediated bioaugmentation of sequencing batch reactors for enhancement of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid removal in wastewater using plasmid pJP4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsutsui, Hirofumi; Anami, Yasutaka; Matsuda, Masami; Hashimoto, Kurumi; Inoue, Daisuke; Sei, Kazunari; Soda, Satoshi; Ike, Michihiko

    2013-06-01

    Plasmid-mediated bioaugmentation was demonstrated using sequencing batch reactors (SBRs) for enhancing 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) removal by introducing Cupriavidus necator JMP134 and Escherichia coli HB101 harboring 2,4-D-degrading plasmid pJP4. C. necator JMP134(pJP4) can mineralize and grow on 2,4-D, while E. coli HB101(pJP4) cannot assimilate 2,4-D because it lacks the chromosomal genes to degrade the intermediates. The SBR with C. necator JMP134(pJP4) showed 100 % removal against 200 mg/l of 2,4-D just after its introduction, after which 2,4-D removal dropped to 0 % on day 7 with the decline in viability of the introduced strain. The SBR with E. coli HB101(pJP4) showed low 2,4-D removal, i.e., below 10 %, until day 7. Transconjugant strains of Pseudomonas and Achromobacter isolated on day 7 could not grow on 2,4-D. Both SBRs started removing 2,4-D at 100 % after day 16 with the appearance of 2,4-D-degrading transconjugants belonging to Achromobacter, Burkholderia, Cupriavidus, and Pandoraea. After the influent 2,4-D concentration was increased to 500 mg/l on day 65, the SBR with E. coli HB101(pJP4) maintained stable 2,4-D removal of more than 95 %. Although the SBR with C. necator JMP134(pJP4) showed a temporal depression of 2,4-D removal of 65 % on day 76, almost 100 % removal was achieved thereafter. During this period, transconjugants isolated from both SBRs were mainly Achromobacter with high 2,4-D-degrading capability. In conclusion, plasmid-mediated bioaugmentation can enhance the degradation capability of activated sludge regardless of the survival of introduced strains and their 2,4-D degradation capacity.

  11. Quarterly technical progress report on water reactor safety programs sponsored by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission's Division of Reactor Safety Research, October--December 1976

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferguson, J.B.

    1977-04-01

    Light water reactor safety research performed October through December 1976 is discussed. An analysis to determine the effect of emergency core coolant (ECC) injection location and pump speed on system response characteristics was performed. An analysis to evaluate the capability of commonly used critical heat flux (CHF) correlations to calculate the time of the first CHF in the Semiscale core during a loss-of-coolant experiment (LOCE) was performed. A test program and study to determine the effect thermocouples mounted on the outside fuel rod surfaces would have on the departure from nucleate boiling (DNB) phenomena in the LOFT core during steady state operation were completed. A correlation for use in predicting DNB heat fluxes in the LOFT core was developed. Tests of an experimental transit time flowmeter were completed. A nuclear test was performed to obtain fuel rod behavior data from four PWR-type rods during film boiling operation representative of PWR conditions. Preliminary results from the postirradiation examination of Test IE-1 fuel rods are given. Results of Irradiation Effects Tests IE-2 and IE-3 are given. Gap Conductance Test GC 2-1 was performed to evaluate the effects of fuel density, initial gap width, and fill gas composition on the pellet-cladding gap conductance

  12. Treatability of cheese whey for single-cell protein production in nonsterile systems: Part I. Optimal condition for lactic acid fermentation using a microaerobic sequencing batch reactor (microaerobic SBR) with immobilized Lactobacillus plantarum TISTR 2265 and microbial communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monkoondee, Sarawut; Kuntiya, Ampin; Chaiyaso, Thanongsak; Leksawasdi, Noppol; Techapun, Charin; Kawee-Ai, Arthitaya; Seesuriyachan, Phisit

    2016-05-18

    Cheese whey contains a high organic content and causes serious problems if it is released into the environment when untreated. This study aimed to investigate the optimum condition of lactic acid production using the microaerobic sequencing batch reactor (microaerobic SBR) in a nonsterile system. The high production of lactic acid was achieved by immobilized Lactobacillus plantarum TISTR 2265 to generate an acidic pH condition below 4.5 and then to support single-cell protein (SCP) production in the second aerobic sequencing batch reactor (aerobic SBR). A hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 4 days and a whey concentration of 80% feeding gave a high lactic acid yield of 12.58 g/L, chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal of 62.38%, and lactose utilization of 61.54%. The microbial communities in the nonsterile system were dominated by members of lactic acid bacteria, and it was shown that the inoculum remained in the system up to 330 days.

  13. 40 CFR Table 1 to Subpart H of... - Batch Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Batch Processes 1 Table 1 to Subpart H... Subpart H of Part 63—Batch Processes Monitoring Frequency for Equipment Other than Connectors Operating time (% of year) Equivalent continuous process monitoring frequency time in use Monthly Quarterly...

  14. Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toyama, Masahiro; Kasai, Shigeo.

    1978-01-01

    Purpose: To provide a lmfbr type reactor wherein effusion of coolants through a loop contact portion is reduced even when fuel assemblies float up, and misloading of reactor core constituting elements is prevented thereby improving the reactor safety. Constitution: The reactor core constituents are secured in the reactor by utilizing the differential pressure between the high-pressure cooling chamber and low-pressure cooling chamber. A resistance port is formed at the upper part of a connecting pipe, and which is connect the low-pressure cooling chamber and the lower surface of the reactor core constituent. This resistance part is formed such that the internal sectional area of the connecting pipe is made larger stepwise toward the upper part, and the cylinder is formed larger so that it profiles the inner surface of the connecting pipe. (Aizawa, K.)

  15. Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikeda, Masaomi; Kashimura, Kazuo; Inoue, Kazuyuki; Nishioka, Kazuya.

    1979-01-01

    Purpose: To facilitate the construction of a reactor containment building, whereby the inspections of the outer wall of a reactor container after the completion of the construction of the reactor building can be easily carried out. Constitution: In a reactor accommodated in a container encircled by a building wall, a space is provided between the container and the building wall encircling the container, and a metal wall is provided in the space so that it is fitted in the building wall in an attachable or detatchable manner. (Aizawa, K.)

  16. Influência da glicose sobre o consumo de fenol por Aspergillus niger an 400 em reatores em batelada The influence of glucose on the phenol consumption by Aspergillus niger an 400 in batch reactors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly de Araújo Rodrigues

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Aspergillus niger AN 400 foi inoculado em reatores em batelada para remoção de fenol de meio sintético, na presença e ausência de glicose. O experimento possuía: 5 reatores de controle (grupo 1 com meio contento apenas fenol; 5 reatores (grupo 2 inoculados com fungos e com meio com fenol e sem glicose; e 5 reatores (grupo 3 inoculados com fungos e com meio com fenol e glicose (5 g/L. Os reatores foram agitados a 200 rpm, a 30°C, durante 5 dias. A concentração média inicial de fenol foi de 323 mg/L e a de matéria orgânica, de 696 mg DQO/L, meio sem glicose, e 6058 mg DQO/L, meio com glicose. Os reatores do grupo 2 removeram 48% de fenol e 21% de DQO, enquanto que os reatores do grupo 3, 100% de fenol e 93% de matéria orgânica. Não houve redução significativa de fenol e de DQO nos reatores de controle. A assimilação foi a via principal de remoção de fenol.Batch reactors were inoculated with Aspergillus niger AN 400 to remove phenol from synthetic media with and without glucose. The experiment was set by: five blank reactors (group 1 with media containing only phenol; five reactors (group 2 inoculated with fungi and with media containing only phenol; and five reactors (group 3 inoculated with fungi and with media containing phenol and glucose (5 g/L. These reactors were kept at 30°C under stirring of 200 rpm during 5 days. The mean initial concentrations of phenol and COD were 323 mg/L and 696 mg COD/L for the media without glucose, and 6058 mg COD/L for the media containing glucose. The reactors of group 2 removed 48% of phenol and 21% of COD, while the reactors of group 3 removed 100% of phenol and 93% of COD. There was no significant reduction of phenol and COD in the blank reactors. The assimilation was the main pathway of phenol removal.

  17. Microbial Population Dynamics and Ecosystem Functions of Anoxic/Aerobic Granular Sludge in Sequencing Batch Reactors Operated at Different Organic Loading Rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szabó, Enikö; Liébana, Raquel; Hermansson, Malte; Modin, Oskar; Persson, Frank; Wilén, Britt-Marie

    2017-01-01

    The granular sludge process is an effective, low-footprint alternative to conventional activated sludge wastewater treatment. The architecture of the microbial granules allows the co-existence of different functional groups, e.g., nitrifying and denitrifying communities, which permits compact reactor design. However, little is known about the factors influencing community assembly in granular sludge, such as the effects of reactor operation strategies and influent wastewater composition. Here, we analyze the development of the microbiomes in parallel laboratory-scale anoxic/aerobic granular sludge reactors operated at low (0.9 kg m -3 d -1 ), moderate (1.9 kg m -3 d -1 ) and high (3.7 kg m -3 d -1 ) organic loading rates (OLRs) and the same ammonium loading rate (0.2 kg NH 4 -N m -3 d -1 ) for 84 days. Complete removal of organic carbon and ammonium was achieved in all three reactors after start-up, while the nitrogen removal (denitrification) efficiency increased with the OLR: 0% at low, 38% at moderate, and 66% at high loading rate. The bacterial communities at different loading rates diverged rapidly after start-up and showed less than 50% similarity after 6 days, and below 40% similarity after 84 days. The three reactor microbiomes were dominated by different genera (mainly Meganema, Thauera, Paracoccus , and Zoogloea ), but these genera have similar ecosystem functions of EPS production, denitrification and polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) storage. Many less abundant but persistent taxa were also detected within these functional groups. The bacterial communities were functionally redundant irrespective of the loading rate applied. At steady-state reactor operation, the identity of the core community members was rather stable, but their relative abundances changed considerably over time. Furthermore, nitrifying bacteria were low in relative abundance and diversity in all reactors, despite their large contribution to nitrogen turnover. The results suggest that the OLR

  18. NST Quarterly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    NST Quarterly reports current development in nuclear science and technology in Malaysia. It keeps readers informed on the progress of research, services, application of nuclear science and technology, and other technical news. It highlights MINT activities and also announces coming events

  19. Enzyme kinetic modelling and analytical solution of nonlinear rate equation in the transformation of D-methionine into L-methionine in batch reactor using the new homotopy perturbation method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavithra Sivasamy

    Full Text Available A mathematical model of biotransformation of D-methionine into L-methionine in the cascade of the enzymes such as, D-amino acid oxidase (D-AAO, L-phenylalanine dehydrogenase (L-PheDH and formate dehydrogenase (FDH is discussed. The model is based on a system of coupled nonlinear reaction equations under non steady-state conditions for biochemical reactions occurring in the batch reactor that describes the substrate and product concentration within the catalyst. Simple analytical expressions for the concentration of substrate and product have been derived for all values of reaction parameters using the new homotopy perturbation method (NHPM. Enzyme reaction rate in terms of concentration and kinetic parameters are also reported. The analytical results are also compared with experimental and numerical ones and a good agreement is obtained. The graphical procedure for estimating the kinetic parameters is also reported.

  20. Performance evaluation of the sulfur-redox-reaction-activated up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket and down-flow hanging sponge anaerobic/anoxic sequencing batch reactor system for municipal sewage treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatamoto, Masashi; Ohtsuki, Kota; Maharjan, Namita; Ono, Shinya; Dehama, Kazuya; Sakamoto, Kenichi; Takahashi, Masanobu; Yamaguchi, Takashi

    2016-03-01

    A sulfur-redox-reaction-activated up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) and down-flow hanging sponge (DHS) system, combined with an anaerobic/anoxic sequencing batch reactor (A2SBR), has been used for municipal sewage treatment for over 2 years. The present system achieved a removal rate of 95±14% for BOD, 74±22% for total nitrogen, and 78±25% for total phosphorus, including low water temperature conditions. Sludge conversion rates during the operational period were 0.016 and 0.218 g-VSS g-COD-removed(-1) for the UASB, and DHS, respectively, which are similar to a conventional UASB-DHS system, which is not used of sulfur-redox-reaction, for sewage treatment. Using the sulfur-redox reaction made advanced treatment of municipal wastewater with minimal sludge generation possible, even in winter. Furthermore, the occurrence of a unique phenomenon, known as the anaerobic sulfur oxidation reaction, was confirmed in the UASB reactor under the winter season. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  1. Fusion Power Program. Quarterly progress report, January-March 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-08-01

    This quarterly report summarizes the Argonne National Laboratory work performed for the Office of Fusion Energy during the January-March 1979 quarter in the following research and development areas: materials; energy storage and transfer; tritium containment, recovery and control; advanced reactor design; atomic data; reactor safety; fusion-fission hybrid systems; alternate applications of fusion energy; and other work related to fusion power.

  2. First quarter 2005 sales data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-04-01

    This press release brings information on the AREVA group sales data. First quarter 2005 sales for the group were 2,496 millions of euros, up 3,6% year-on-year from 2,41 millions. The change in foreign exchange rates between the two periods show a negative impact of 22 millions euros, which is much lower than in the first quarter of 2004. It analyzes also in more details the situation of the front end, the reactors and service division, the back end division, the transmission and distribution division and the connectors division. (A.L.B.)

  3. Pro Spring Batch

    CERN Document Server

    Minella, Michael T

    2011-01-01

    Since its release, Spring Framework has transformed virtually every aspect of Java development including web applications, security, aspect-oriented programming, persistence, and messaging. Spring Batch, one of its newer additions, now brings the same familiar Spring idioms to batch processing. Spring Batch addresses the needs of any batch process, from the complex calculations performed in the biggest financial institutions to simple data migrations that occur with many software development projects. Pro Spring Batch is intended to answer three questions: *What? What is batch processing? What

  4. Ion-exchange reactions on clay minerals coupled with advection/dispersion processes. Application to Na+/Ca2+ exchange on vermiculite: Reactive-transport modeling, batch and stirred flow-through reactor experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tertre, E.; Hubert, F.; Bruzac, S.; Pacreau, M.; Ferrage, E.; Prêt, D.

    2013-07-01

    The present study aims at testing the validity of using an Na+/Ca2+ ion-exchange model, derived from batch data to interpret experimental Ca2+-for-Na+ exchange breakthrough curves obtained on vermiculite (a common swelling clay mineral in surface environments). The ion-exchange model was constructed considering the multi-site nature of the vermiculite surface as well as the exchange of all aqueous species (Mg2+ derived from the dissolution of the solid and H+). The proposed ion-exchange model was then coupled with a transport model, and the predicted breakthrough curves were compared with the experimental ones obtained using a well stirred flow-through reactor. For a given solute residence time in the reactor (typically 50 min), our thermodynamic model based on instantaneous equilibrium was found to accurately reproduce several of the experimental breakthrough curves, depending on the Na+ and Ca2+ concentrations of the influents pumped through the reactor. However the model failed to reproduce experimental breakthrough curves obtained at high flow rates and low chemical gradient between the exchanger phase and the solution. An alternative model based on a hybrid equilibrium/kinetic approach was thus used and allowed predicting experimental data. Based on these results, we show that a simple parameter can be used to differentiate between thermodynamic and kinetic control of the exchange reaction with water flow. The results of this study are relevant for natural systems where two aquatic environments having contrasted chemistries interact. Indeed, the question regarding the attainment of a full equilibrium in such a system during the contact time of the aqueous phase with the particle/colloid remains most often open. In this context, we show that when a river (a flow of fresh water) encounters marine colloids, a systematic full equilibrium can be assumed (i.e., the absence of kinetic effects) when the residence time of the solute in 1 m3 of the system is ⩾6200 h.

  5. Feasibility Study of Supercritical Light Water Cooled Reactors for Electric Power Production, Progress Report for Work Through September 2003, 2nd Annual/8th Quarterly Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Philip E. MacDonald

    2003-09-01

    The supercritical water-cooled reactor (SCWR) is one of the six reactor technologies selected for research and development under the Generation-IV program. SCWRs are promising advanced nuclear systems because of their high thermal efficiency (i.e., about 45% vs. about 33% efficiency for current Light Water Reactors, LWRs) and considerable plant simplification. SCWRs are basically LWRs operating at higher pressure and temperatures with a direct once-through cycle. Operation above the critical pressure eliminates coolant boiling, so the coolant remains single-phase throughout the system. Thus the need for recirculation and jet pumps, a pressurizer, steam generators, steam separators and dryers is eliminated. The main mission of the SCWR is generation of low-cost electricity. It is built upon two proven technologies, LWRs, which are the most commonly deployed power generating reactors in the world, and supercritical fossil-fired boilers, a large number of which is also in use around the world.

  6. Feasibility Study of Supercritical Light Water Cooled Fast Reactors for Actinide Burning and Electric Power Production Progress Report for Year 1, Quarter 2 (January - March 2002)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mac Donald, Philip Elsworth; Buongiorno, Jacopo; Davis, Cliff Bybee; Weaver, Kevan Dean

    2002-03-01

    The use of light water at supercritical pressures as the coolant in a nuclear reactor offers the potential for considerable plant simplification and consequent capital and O&M cost reduction compared with current light water reactor (LWR) designs. Also, given the thermodynamic conditions of the coolant at the core outlet (i.e. temperature and pressure beyond the water critical point), very high thermal efficiencies of the power conversion cycle are possible (i.e. up to about 45%). Because no change of phase occurs in the core, the need for steam separators and dryers as well as for BWR-type re-circulation pumps is eliminated, which, for a given reactor power, results in a substantially shorter reactor vessel and smaller containment building than the current BWRs. Furthermore, in a direct cycle the steam generators are not needed.

  7. Anaerobic treatment of palm oil mill effluent in batch reactor with digested biodiesel waste as starter and natural zeolite for microbial immobilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setyowati, Paulina Adina Hari; Halim, Lenny; Mellyanawaty, Melly; Sudibyo, Hanifrahmawan; Budhijanto, Wiratni

    2017-05-01

    Palm oil mill effluent (POME) is the wastewater discharged from sludge separation, sterilization, and clarification process of palm oil industries. Each ton of palm oil produces about half ton of high organic load wastewater. Up to now, POME treatment is done in lagoon, leaving major problems in land requirement and greenhouse gasses release. The increasing of palm oil production provokes the urgency of appropriate technology application in treating POME to prevent the greenhouse gasses emission while exploit POME as renewable energy source. The purposes of this study were firstly to test the effectiveness of using the digested biodiesel waste as the inoculum and secondly to evaluate the effectiveness of natural zeolite addition in minimizing the inhibitory effect in digesting POME. It was expected that the oil-degrading bacteria in the inoculum would shorten the adaptation period in digesting POME. Furthermore, the consortium formation of anaerobic bacteria accelerated by natural zeolite powder addition would increase the microbial resistance to the inhibitors contained in the POME. The batch digesters, containing 0 (control); 17; 38; and 63 g natural zeolite/g sCOD substrate were observed for 43 days. The result showed that zeolite addition did not give significant effect on sCOD reduction (97.3-98.6% of initial sCOD). Moreover, addition of immobilization media up to 17 g natural zeolite/g stimulated the acidification and biogas production up to 10% higher than control. The purity of methane produced with various amount of immobilization media did not differ for each variation, i.e. 50-54% v/v methane. The increasing amount of natural zeolite up to 63 g/g sCOD did not significantly enhance biogas product rate nor methane content.

  8. Tratamento de água com hidrocarbonetos aromáticos por uso de reator em bateladas sequenciais com inoculo fúngico Treatment of water with aromatic hydrocarbons by use of sequential batch reactor with fungi inoculum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly Rodrigues

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Um reator em batelada, aerado, com biomassa imobilizada de Aspergillus niger AN400 foi operado durante 10 ciclos de 7 dias para remover benzeno (200 mg.L-1, tolueno (200 mg.L-1 e xileno (50 mg.L-1 - BTX - e de nutrientes de meio basal. O reator era alimentado semanalmente com 4 L do meio e glicose - 1 g.L-1, na Fase I, e 0,5 g.L-1, na Fase II. Os BTX foram detectados até o quarto dia de operação, em todos os ciclos. As melhores eficiências médias de remoção foram na Fase I: 75%de matéria orgânica solúvel, 80% de ortofosfato e 77% de amônia. O reator pode ser uma alternativa viável para tratamento de águas poluídas com BTX, porém há a necessidade de estudar o comportamento do reator durante período de operação mais longo e com ciclos reacionais mais curtos, bem como da identificação dos metabólitos produzidos.A batch reactor with air and immobilized biomass of Aspergillus niger AN400 was operated during 10 cycles of 7 days to remove benzene (200 mg.L-1, toluene (200 mg.L-1, and xylene (50 mg.L-1 - BTX - and nutrients from basal medium. The reactor was weekly fed with 4 L of the medium and glucose - 1 g.L-1 (Phase I and 0.5 g.L-1 (Phase II. The BTX had been detected until the fourth day of operation in all cycles. The best efficiencies of removal had been in Phase I: 75% of soluble organic matter, 80% of orthophosphate and 77% of ammonia. The reactor can be a viable alternative for the contaminated water treatment with BTX. However it has the necessity to study behavior of the reactor during longer period of operation and with shorter reaction cycles, as well as the identification of the produced metabolites.

  9. Methyl Esters Selectivity of Transesterification Reaction with Homogenous Alkaline Catalyst to Produce Biodiesel in Batch, Plug Flow, and Continuous Stirred Tank Reactors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. F. Nasir

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Selectivity concept is essential in establishing the best operating conditions for attaining maximum production of the desired product. For complex reaction such as biodiesel fuel synthesis, kinetic studies of transesterification reaction have revealed the mechanism of the reaction and rate constants. The objectives of this research are to develop the kinetic parameters for determination of methyl esters and glycerol selectivity, evaluate the significance of the reverse reaction in transesterification reaction, and examine the influence of reaction characteristics (reaction temperature, methanol to oil molar ratio, and the amount of catalyst on selectivity. For this study, published reaction rate constants of transesterification reaction were used to develop mathematical expressions for selectivities. In order to examine the base case and reversible transesterification, two calculation schemes (Case  1 and Case  2 were established. An enhanced selectivity was found in the base case of transesterification reaction. The selectivity was greatly improved at optimum reaction temperature (60°C, molar ratio (9 : 1, catalyst concentration (1.5 wt.%, and low free fatty acid feedstock. Further research might explore the application of selectivity for specifying reactor configurations.

  10. Third quarter 2005 sales figures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    With manufacturing facilities in over 40 countries and a sales network in over 100, AREVA offers customers technological solutions for nuclear power generation and electricity transmission and distribution. The group also provides interconnect systems to the telecommunications, computer and automotive markets. This document presents the sales figures of the group for the third quarter of 2005: sales revenues in the front end division, in the reactor and services division, in the back end division and in the transmission and distribution division

  11. ADM1 applications for a hybrid up-flow anaerobic sludge-filter bed reactor performance and for a batch thermophilic anaerobic digestion of thermally pretreated waste activated sludge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    lván Ramirez

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Los procesos de la digestión anaerobia comprenden una red completa de reacciones bioquimicas y fisicoquímicas, secuenciales y paralelas. Los digestores anaerobios a menudo exhiben importantes problemas de estabilidad que sólo pueden ser evitados a través de apropiadas estrategias de control. Tales estrategias requieren, en general, para su implementación, del desarrollo de modelos matemáticos cuya finalidad es el de permitirnos mejor comprensión y optimización de los procesos de la digestión anaerobia, describiendo estas reacciones de una manera estructurada. Este trabajo revisa el modelo ADMI de la IWAy discute dos aplicaciones del modelo: la digestión anaerobia de las aguas residuales vinazas de las destilerias de vino corno sustrato en un reactor hibrido (UASFB y la digestión anaerobia termófila en batch de lodos activados con pre-tratamiento térmico. Las predicciones del modelo, usando los parámetros establecidos en este estudio, concuerdan bien con los resultados de las mediciones en las diferentes condiciones ensayadas. Los modelos resultantes explicaron la evolución dinámica de las principales variables, tanto en la fase liquida corno la fase gaseosa.

  12. Recovery of resources for advanced life support space applications: effect of retention time on biodegradation of two crop residues in a fed-batch, continuous stirred tank reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strayer, R. F.; Finger, B. W.; Alazraki, M. P.; Cook, K.; Garland, J. L.

    2002-01-01

    Bioreactor retention time is a key process variable that will influence costs that are relevant to long distance space travel or long duration space habitation. However. little is known about the effects of this parameter on the microbiological treatment options that are being proposed for Advanced Life Support (ALS) systems. Two bioreactor studies were designed to examine this variable. In the first one, six retention times ranging from 1.3 to 21.3 days--were run in duplicate, 81 working-volume continuous stirred tank reactors (CSTR) that were fed ALS wheat residues. Ash-free dry weight loss, carbon mineralization, soluble TOC reduction, changes in fiber content (cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin), bacterial numbers, and mineral recoveries were monitored. At short retention times--1.33 days--biodegradation was poor (total: 16-20%, cellulose - 12%, hemicellulose - 28%) but soluble TOC was decreased by 75-80% and recovery of major crop inorganic nutrients was adequate, except for phosphorus. A high proportion of the total bacteria (ca. 83%) was actively respiring. At the longest retention time tested, 21.3 days, biodegradation was good (total: 55-60%, cellulose ca. 70%, hemicellulose - ca. 55%) and soluble TOC was decreased by 80%. Recovery of major nutrients, except phosphorus, remained adequate. A very low proportion of total bacteria was actively respiring (ca. 16%). The second bioreactor study used potato residue to determine if even shorter retention times could be used (range 0.25-2.0 days). Although overall biodegradation deteriorated, the degradation of soluble TOC continued to be ca. 75%. We conclude that if the goal of ALS bioprocessing is maximal degradation of crop residues, including cellulose, then retention times of 10 days or longer will be needed. If the goal is to provide inorganic nutrients with the smallest volume/weight bioreactor possible, then a retention time of 1 day (or less) is sufficient.

  13. Modelling and Simulation of the Batch Hydrolysis of Acetic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The kinetic modelling of the batch synthesis of acetic acid from acetic anhydride was investigated. The kinetic data of the reaction was obtained by conducting the hydrolysis reaction in a batch reactor. A dynamic model was formulated for this process and simulation was carried out using gPROMS® an advanced process ...

  14. Feasibility Study of Supercritical Light Water Cooled Fast Reactors for Actinide Burning and Electric Power Production, Progress Report for Work Through September 2002, 4th Quarterly Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mac Donald, Philip Elsworth

    2002-09-01

    The use of light water at supercritical pressures as the coolant in a nuclear reactor offers the potential for considerable plant simplification and consequent capital and O&M cost reduction compared with current light water reactor (LWR) designs. Also, given the thermodynamic conditions of the coolant at the core outlet (i.e. temperature and pressure beyond the water critical point), very high thermal efficiencies of the power conversion cycle are possible (i.e. up to about 45%). Because no change of phase occurs in the core, the need for steam separators and dryers as well as for BWR-type re-circulation pumps is eliminated, which, for a given reactor power, results in a substantially shorter reactor vessel and smaller containment building than the current BWRs. Furthermore, in a direct cycle the steam generators are not needed. If no additional moderator is added to the fuel rod lattice, it is possible to attain fast neutron energy spectrum conditions in a supercritical water-cooled reactor (SCWR). This type of core can make use of either fertile or fertile-free fuel and retain a hard spectrum to effectively burn plutonium and minor actinides from LWR spent fuel while efficiently generating electricity. One can also add moderation and design a thermal spectrum SCWR. The Generation IV Roadmap effort has identified the thermal spectrum SCWR (followed by the fast spectrum SCWR) as one of the advanced concepts that should be developed for future use. Therefore, the work in this NERI project is addressing both types of SCWRs.

  15. Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujibayashi, Toru.

    1976-01-01

    Object: To provide a boiling water reactor which can enhance a quake resisting strength and flatten power distribution. Structure: At least more than four fuel bundles, in which a plurality of fuel rods are arranged in lattice fashion which upper and lower portions are supported by tie-plates, are bundled and then covered by a square channel box. The control rod is movably arranged within a space formed by adjoining channel boxes. A spacer of trapezoidal section is disposed in the central portion on the side of the channel box over substantially full length in height direction, and a neutron instrumented tube is disposed in the central portion inside the channel box. Thus, where a horizontal load is exerted due to earthquake or the like, the spacers come into contact with each other to support the channel box and prevent it from abnormal vibrations. (Furukawa, Y.)

  16. Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, R.M.

    1976-01-01

    Disclosed is a neutronic reactor having a moderator, coolant tubes traversing the moderator from an inlet end to an outlet end, bodies of material fissionable by neutrons of thermal energy disposed within the coolant tubes, and means for circulating water through said coolant tubes characterized by the improved construction wherein the coolant tubes are constructed of aluminum having an outer diameter of 1.729 inches and a wall thickness of 0.059 inch, and the means for circulating a liquid coolant through the tubes includes a source of water at a pressure of approximately 350 pounds per square inch connected to the inlet end of the tubes, and said construction including a pressure reducing orifice disposed at the inlet ends of the tubes reducing the pressure of the water by approximately 150 pounds per square inch. 1 claim, 16 figures

  17. Spring batch essentials

    CERN Document Server

    Rao, P Raja Malleswara

    2015-01-01

    If you are a Java developer with basic knowledge of Spring and some experience in the development of enterprise applications, and want to learn about batch application development in detail, then this book is ideal for you. This book will be perfect as your next step towards building simple yet powerful batch applications on a Java-based platform.

  18. Tratamento de resíduos sólidos de centrais de abastecimento e feiras livres em reator anaeróbio de batelada Treatment of solid waste from supply centers and free markets in batch anaerobic reactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valderi D. Leite

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available Em feiras livres e centrais de abastecimento são produzidas quantidades bastante significativas de resíduos sólidos, com características favoráveis ao aproveitamento integral em processo de bioestabilização anaeróbia. O processo de bioestabilização é realizado em reatores anaeróbios de batelada (RAB, com tempo de detenção de sólidos variando de 250 a 300 dias originando, como produtos finais, o biogás, com cerca de 60% de gás metano, além de composto orgânico parcialmente bioestabilizado. Neste trabalho, foram utilizados resíduos sólidos orgânicos tipicamente vegetais, advindos de centrais de abastecimento, feiras livres e lodo de esgoto sanitário. O sistema experimental utilizado era constituído basicamente por um reator anaeróbio de batelada, com capacidade unitária de 2200 litros, além de outros dispositivos complementares. O sistema experimental foi instalado e monitorado na Estação Experimental de Tratamento Biológico de Esgoto Sanitário, situada no Bairro do Tambor, na cidade de Campina Grande, Estado da Paraíba, no período de janeiro a setembro de 2001. No processo de monitoração foram realizadas caracterizações sistemáticas das frações sólidas, líquidas e gasosas. Após análise dos dados, ficou evidenciada a viabilidade desta alternativa de tratamento, restando ser investigada ainda a viabilidade econômica, quando comparada com outras alternativas tecnológicas de tratamento de resíduos sólidos orgânicos.Significant quantity of organic solid waste with favorable characteristics for integral utilization in anaerobic biostabilization is produced in free markets and supply centers. The process is conducted in anaerobic batch reactors (ABR, with detention time of solids varying from 250 to 300 days, producing biogas with about 60% of methane, besides the partially biostabilized organic compost as the final product. In this study, the organic solid waste used was typically of vegetables

  19. Characterisation of biodegradation is waste waters from the canning industry in sequencing batch reactors; Caracterizacion de la biodegradacion de las aguas residuales de la industria conservera, en reactores discontinuo secuenciales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rancano, A.

    2004-07-01

    The municipality of Archena (Murcia. Spain) has one of the most important industrial development in Iberian Peninsula, with excellent perspectives for growth during next years. This progressive industrialization has an adverse effect: an increase of wastewater spill, strongly polluted, to sewerage. For that reason, Archena municipality and Ondagua company awarded as municipal drinking water supplier and WWTP operator, have prepared a study about possibility to treat industrial effluents by sequential biological reactors (SBR), with high treatment yield and high stability degree. This study will be give to industries in Archena, to help the ma as a recommendation for installing most efficient treatment procedures, at low cost, in order to guarantee sustainable development and Segura river conservation along Ricote Valley. (Author) 22 refs.

  20. Impacts of CuO nanoparticles on nitrogen removal in sequencing batch biofilm reactors after short-term and long-term exposure and the functions of natural organic matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Jun; You, Guoxiang; Xu, Yi; Wang, Chao; Wang, Peifang; Miao, Lingzhan; Ao, Yanhui; Li, Yi; Lv, Bowen; Yang, Yangyang

    2016-11-01

    The impacts of CuO nanoparticle (NP) exposure on total nitrogen (TN) removal in a sequencing batch biofilm reactor (SBBR) as well as the effects of natural organic matter (NOM) in wastewater were studied. Short-term exposure (8 h) to 1 and 50 mg/L CuO NPs induced negligible influence on the nitrogen removal efficiency, and biofilms could recover from the slight damage caused by the prolonged exposure (45 days) to 1 mg/L CuO NPs. On the other hand, long-term exposure to 50 mg/L CuO NPs notably decreased the nitrogen removal efficiencies to 47.74 and 59.04 % in the absence and presence of bovine serum albumin (BSA), much lower than those in the control (75.43 %), mainly as the suppressed denitrification process. Analysis of key enzyme activities showed that the activities of nitrite reductase and nitrate reductase were obviously reduced with 50 mg/L CuO NP exposure. Further studies revealed that the inhibited nitrite/nitrate reductase was related to the variations of microenvironment pH and decrease of nirS and nirK by microelectrode and fluorescent quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis. In addition, the presence of BSA mitigated the toxicity of CuO NPs due to the enhanced particle size and Cu 2+ release, electrostatic repulsion, and surface coating of CuO NPs, which indicated that lower inhibition effects of CuO NPs in NOM-rich wastewater is of importance when evaluating the environmental risk of NPs to wastewater treatment plants.

  1. Advanced Proliferation Resistant, Lower Cost, Uranium-Thorium Dioxide Fuels for Light Water Reactors (Progress report for work through June 2002, 12th quarterly report)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mac Donald, Philip Elsworth

    2002-01-01

    The overall objective of this NERI project is to evaluate the potential advantages and disadvantages of an optimized thorium-uranium dioxide (ThO2/UO2) fuel design for light water reactors (LWRs). The project is led by the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL), with the collaboration of three universities, the University of Florida, Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), and Purdue University; Argonne National Laboratory; and all of the Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) fuel vendors in the United States (Framatome, Siemens, and Westinghouse). In addition, a number of researchers at the Korean Atomic Energy Research Institute and Professor Kwangheon Park at Kyunghee University are active collaborators with Korean Ministry of Science and Technology funding. The project has been organized into five tasks: Task 1 consists of fuel cycle neutronics and economics analysis to determine the economic viability of various ThO2/UO2 fuel designs in PWRs; Task 2 will determine whether or not ThO2/UO2 fuel can be manufactured economically; Task 3 will evaluate the behavior of ThO2/UO2 fuel during normal, off-normal, and accident conditions and compare the results with the results of previous UO2 fuel evaluations and U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) licensing standards; Task 4 will determine the long-term stability of ThO2/UO2 high-level waste; and Task 5 consists of the Korean work on core design, fuel performance analysis, and xenon diffusivity measurements

  2. Advanced Proliferation Resistant, Lower Cost, Uranium-Thorium Dioxide Fuels for Light Water Reactors (Progress report for work through June 2002, 12th quarterly report)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mac Donald, Philip Elsworth

    2002-09-01

    The overall objective of this NERI project is to evaluate the potential advantages and disadvantages of an optimized thorium-uranium dioxide (ThO2/UO2) fuel design for light water reactors (LWRs). The project is led by the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL), with the collaboration of three universities, the University of Florida, Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), and Purdue University; Argonne National Laboratory; and all of the Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) fuel vendors in the United States (Framatome, Siemens, and Westinghouse). In addition, a number of researchers at the Korean Atomic Energy Research Institute and Professor Kwangheon Park at Kyunghee University are active collaborators with Korean Ministry of Science and Technology funding. The project has been organized into five tasks: · Task 1 consists of fuel cycle neutronics and economics analysis to determine the economic viability of various ThO2/UO2 fuel designs in PWRs, · Task 2 will determine whether or not ThO2/UO2 fuel can be manufactured economically, · Task 3 will evaluate the behavior of ThO2/UO2 fuel during normal, off-normal, and accident conditions and compare the results with the results of previous UO2 fuel evaluations and U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) licensing standards, · Task 4 will determine the long-term stability of ThO2/UO2 high-level waste, and · Task 5 consists of the Korean work on core design, fuel performance analysis, and xenon diffusivity measurements.

  3. SPS batch spacing optimisation

    CERN Document Server

    Velotti, F M; Carlier, E; Goddard, B; Kain, V; Kotzian, G

    2017-01-01

    Until 2015, the LHC filling schemes used the batch spac-ing as specified in the LHC design report. The maximumnumber of bunches injectable in the LHC directly dependson the batch spacing at injection in the SPS and hence onthe MKP rise time.As part of the LHC Injectors Upgrade project for LHCheavy ions, a reduction of the batch spacing is needed. In thisdirection, studies to approach the MKP design rise time of150ns(2-98%) have been carried out. These measurementsgave clear indications that such optimisation, and beyond,could be done also for higher injection momentum beams,where the additional slower MKP (MKP-L) is needed.After the successful results from 2015 SPS batch spacingoptimisation for the Pb-Pb run [1], the same concept wasthought to be used also for proton beams. In fact, thanksto the SPS transverse feed back, it was already observedthat lower batch spacing than the design one (225ns) couldbe achieved. For the 2016 p-Pb run, a batch spacing of200nsfor the proton beam with100nsbunch spacing wasreque...

  4. Final report on LDRD project : biodiesel production from vegetable oils using slit-channel reactors.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalu, E. Eric (FAMU-FSU College of Engineering, Tallahassee, FL); Chen, Ken Shuang

    2008-01-01

    This report documents work done for a late-start LDRD project, which was carried out during the last quarter of FY07. The objective of this project was to experimentally explore the feasibility of converting vegetable (e.g., soybean) oils to biodiesel by employing slit-channel reactors and solid catalysts. We first designed and fabricated several slit-channel reactors with varying channel depths, and employed them to investigate the improved performance of slit-channel reactors over traditional batch reactors using a NaOH liquid catalyst. We then evaluated the effectiveness of several solid catalysts, including CaO, ZnO, MgO, ZrO{sub 2}, calcium gluconate, and heteropolyacid or HPA (Cs{sub 2.5}H{sub 0.5}PW{sub 12}O{sub 40}), for catalyzing the soybean oil-to-biodiesel transesterification reaction. We found that the slit-channel reactor performance improves as channel depth decreases, as expected; and the conversion efficiency of a slit-channel reactor is significantly higher when its channel is very shallow. We further confirmed CaO as having the highest catalytic activity among the solid catalysts tested, and we demonstrated for the first time calcium gluconate as a promising solid catalyst for converting soybean oil to biodiesel, based on our preliminary batch-mode conversion experiments.

  5. Batch-to-batch model improvement for cooling crystallization

    OpenAIRE

    Forgione , Marco; Birpoutsoukis , Georgios; Bombois , Xavier; Mesbah , Ali; Daudey , Peter; Van Den Hof , Paul

    2015-01-01

    International audience; Two batch-to-batch model update strategies for model-based control of batch cooling crystallization are presented. In Iterative Learning Control, a nominal process model is adjusted by a non-parametric, additive correction term which depends on the difference between the measured output and the model prediction in the previous batch. In Iterative Identification Control, the uncertain model parameters are iteratively estimated using the measured batch data. Due to the d...

  6. Heuristics for batching and sequencing in batch processing machines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuda Basnet

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we discuss the “batch processing” problem, where there are multiple jobs to be processed in flow shops. These jobs can however be formed into batches and the number of jobs in a batch is limited by the capacity of the processing machines to accommodate the jobs. The processing time required by a batch in a machine is determined by the greatest processing time of the jobs included in the batch. Thus, the batch processing problem is a mix of batching and sequencing – the jobs need to be grouped into distinct batches, the batches then need to be sequenced through the flow shop. We apply certain newly developed heuristics to the problem and present computational results. The contributions of this paper are deriving a lower bound, and the heuristics developed and tested in this paper.

  7. Prunus dulcis, Batch

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2010-06-07

    Jun 7, 2010 ... almond (Prunus dulcis, Batch) genotypes as revealed by PCR analysis. Yavar Sharafi1*, Jafar Hajilou1, Seyed AbolGhasem Mohammadi2, Mohammad Reza Dadpour1 and Sadollah Eskandari3. 1Department of Horticulture, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Tabriz, Tabriz, 5166614766, Iran.

  8. Quarterly coal report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Young, P.

    1996-05-01

    The Quarterly Coal Report (QCR) provides comprehensive information about U.S. coal production, distribution, exports, imports, receipts, prices, consumption, and stocks to a wide audience, including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. Coke production, consumption, distribution, imports, and exports data are also provided. The data presented in the QCR are collected and published by the Energy Information Administration (EIA) to fulfill data collection and dissemination responsibilities as specified in the Federal Energy Administration Act of 1974 (Public Law 93-275), as amended. This report presents detailed quarterly data for October through December 1995 and aggregated quarterly historical data for 1987 through the third quarter of 1995. Appendix A displays, from 1987 on, detailed quarterly historical coal imports data, as specified in Section 202 of the Energy Policy and Conservation Amendments Act of 1985 (Public Law 99-58). Appendix B gives selected quarterly tables converted to metric tons.

  9. Modelling of Batch Process Operations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abdul Samad, Noor Asma Fazli; Cameron, Ian; Gani, Rafiqul

    2011-01-01

    Here a batch cooling crystalliser is modelled and simulated as is a batch distillation system. In the batch crystalliser four operational modes of the crystalliser are considered, namely: initial cooling, nucleation, crystal growth and product removal. A model generation procedure is shown that s...

  10. Kinetic study of batch and fed-batch enzymatic saccharification of pretreated substrate and subsequent fermentation to ethanol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gupta Rishi

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Enzymatic hydrolysis, the rate limiting step in the process development for biofuel, is always hampered by its low sugar concentration. High solid enzymatic saccharification could solve this problem but has several other drawbacks such as low rate of reaction. In the present study we have attempted to enhance the concentration of sugars in enzymatic hydrolysate of delignified Prosopis juliflora, using a fed-batch enzymatic hydrolysis approach. Results The enzymatic hydrolysis was carried out at elevated solid loading up to 20% (w/v and a comparison kinetics of batch and fed-batch enzymatic hydrolysis was carried out using kinetic regimes. Under batch mode, the actual sugar concentration values at 20% initial substrate consistency were found deviated from the predicted values and the maximum sugar concentration obtained was 80.78 g/L. Fed-batch strategy was implemented to enhance the final sugar concentration to 127 g/L. The batch and fed-batch enzymatic hydrolysates were fermented with Saccharomyces cerevisiae and ethanol production of 34.78 g/L and 52.83 g/L, respectively, were achieved. Furthermore, model simulations showed that higher insoluble solids in the feed resulted in both smaller reactor volume and shorter residence time. Conclusion Fed-batch enzymatic hydrolysis is an efficient procedure for enhancing the sugar concentration in the hydrolysate. Restricting the process to suitable kinetic regimes could result in higher conversion rates.

  11. Following an Optimal Batch Bioreactor Operations Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ibarra-Junquera, V.; Jørgensen, Sten Bay; Virgen-Ortíz, J.J.

    2012-01-01

    -batch reactor for biomass production is studied using a differential geometry approach. The maximization problem is solved by handling both the optimal filling policy and substrate concentration in the inlet stream. In order to follow the OBBOM, a master–slave synchronization is used. The OBBOM is considered...... as the master system which includes the optimal cultivation trajectory for the feed flow rate and the substrate concentration. The “real” bioreactor, the one with unknown dynamics and perturbations, is considered as the slave system. Finally, the controller is designed such that the real bioreactor...

  12. A general framework for the synthesis and operational design of batch processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Papaeconomou, Eirini; Gani, Rafiqul; Jørgensen, Sten Bay

    2002-01-01

    , which is the sequence of batch operations performed in order to achieve a specific objective. Important features of the methodology are a set of rule-based algorithms that provide the operational model of the units. Such an algorithm is highlighted, together with the associated rules......The objective of this paper is to present a general problem formulation and a general methodology for the synthesis of batch operations and the operational design of individual batch processes, such as mixing, reaction and separation. The general methodology described supplies the batch routes......, for the operational design of batch reactors. A case study involving the feasible operation of a batch reactor with multiple desirable and undesirable reactions and operational constraints is presented. Application results including verification of the generated operational sequences (alternatives) through dynamic...

  13. A General framework for the Synthesis and Operational Design of Batch Processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    , which is the sequence of batch operations performed in order to achieve a specific objective. Important features of the methodology are a set of rule-based algorithms that provide the operational model of the units. Such an algorithm is highlighted, together with the associated rules......The objective of this paper is to present a general problem formulation and a general methodlogy for the synthesis of batch operations and the operational design of individual batch processes, such as mixing, reaction and separation. The general methodology described supplies the batch routes......, for the operational design of batch reactors. A case study involving the feasible operation of a batch reactor with multiple desirable and undesirable reactions and operational constraints is presented. Application results including verification of the generated operational sequences (alternatives) through dynamic...

  14. Acclimation of denitrifying activated sludge to a single vs. complex external carbon source during a start-up of sequencing batch reactors treating ammonium-rich anaerobic sludge digester liquors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czerwionka, Krzysztof; Luczkiewicz, Aneta; Majtacz, Joanna; Kowal, Przemyslaw; Jankowska, Katarzyna; Ciesielski, Slawomir; Pagilla, Krishna; Makinia, Jacek

    2014-11-01

    In this study, denitrification of ammonium-reach anaerobic sludge digester liquor was investigated during start-up periods of two laboratory-scale "fill-and-draw" reactors. One reactor was fed with a single carbon source (ethanol), whereas the other reactor was fed with a complex carbon source (fusel oil). During two acclimation experiments, the structure of microbial community involved in denitrification was analyzed using 16S rDNA polymerase chain reaction-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis fingerprints and fluorescent in situ hybridization. The characteristics of the mixed liquor were additionally supported by regular measurements of nitrate uptake rates. The addition of fusel oil and ethanol resulted in a significant enhancement of the denitrification rate and efficiency combined with the increasing volumetric addition of sludge digester liquor up to 15 % of the reactor volume. The microbiological analyses revealed that the addition of sludge digester liquor as well as both external carbon sources (fusel oil and ethanol) did not affect the structure of microbial communities in a severe way. In both reactors, Curvibacter sp. and Azoarcus sp. were found as the most abundant representatives of denitrifiers.

  15. Aircraft Nuclear Propulsion Project Quarterly Progress Report for Period Ending December 31, 1956

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NA, NA [ORNL

    1957-03-12

    This quarterly progress report of the Aircraft Nuclear Propulsion Project at ORNL records the technical progress of research on circulating-fuel reactors and other ANP research at the Laboratory. The report is divided into five major parts: 1) Aircraft Reactor Engineering, 2) Chemistry, and 3) Metallurgy, 4) Heat Transfer and Physical Properties, Radiation Damage, and Fuel Recovery and Reprocessing, and 5) Reactor Shielding.

  16. Operation of Finnish nuclear power plants. Quarterly report, 1st quarter 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sillanpaeae, T.

    1996-09-01

    Quarterly Reports on the operation of Finnish nuclear power plants describe events and observations relating to nuclear and radiation safety which the Finnish Centre for Radiation and Nuclear Safety (STUK) considers safety significant. Safety improvements at the plants are also described. The report also includes a summary of the radiation safety of plant personnel and of the environment and tabulated data on the plants' production and load factors. In the first quarter of 1996, the Finnish nuclear power plant units were in power operation except for a brief break in production due to a reactor scram at TVO II. The load factor average of all plant units was 100.5 %. Events in the first quarter of 1996 were classified level 0 on the International Nuclear Event Scale (INES)

  17. Operation of Finnish nuclear power plants. Quarterly report, 2nd quarter 1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tossavainen, K.

    1997-12-01

    Quarterly Reports on the operation of Finnish nuclear power plants describe events and observations relating to nuclear and radiation safety which STUK - Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority considers safety significant. Safety improvements at the plants are also described. The Report also includes a summary of the radiation safety of plant personnel and of the environment and tabulated data on the plants' production and load factors. The Finnish nuclear power plant units were in power operation in the second quarter of 1997, except for the annual maintenance outages of Olkiluoto plant units and the Midsummer outage at Olkiluoto 2 due to reduced demand for electricity. There were also brief interruptions in power operation at the Olkiluoto plant units due to three reactor scrams. All plant units are undergoing long-term test operation at upgraded reactor power level which has been approved by STUK The load factor average of all plant units was 88.7 %. One event in the second quarter of 1997 was classified level 1 on the INES. The event in question was a scram at Olkiluoto 1 which was caused by erroneous opening of switches. Other events in this quarter were level 0. Occupational doses and radioactive releases off-site were below authorized limits. Radioactive substances were measurable in samples collected around the plants in such quantities only as have no bearing on the radiation exposure of the population. (orig.)

  18. Atlantic Richfield Hanford Company process technology and process development. Quarterly report, July 1976--September 1976

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1976-11-01

    This quarterly report is the second in a series intended to provide information on research and engineering activities being performed to improve the processing of irradiated reactor fuels, the production of plutonium, and the management of resultant chemical wastes.

  19. EMSL Quarterly Highlights Report: 1st Quarter, FY08

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Showalter, Mary Ann

    2008-01-28

    The EMSL Quarterly Highlights Report covers the science, staff and user recognition, and publication activities that occurred during the 1st quarter (October 2007 - December 2007) of Fiscal Year 2008.

  20. EMSL Quarterly Highlights Report: 1st Quarter, Fiscal Year 2009

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Showalter, Mary Ann; Kathmann, Loel E.; Manke, Kristin L.

    2009-02-02

    The EMSL Quarterly Highlights Report covers the science, staff and user recognition, and publication activities that occurred during the 1st quarter (October 2008 - December 2008) of Fiscal Year 2009.

  1. EMSL Quarterly Highlights Report: FY 2008, 3rd Quarter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Showalter, Mary Ann

    2008-09-16

    The EMSL Quarterly Highlights Report covers the science, staff and user recognition, and publication activities that occurred during the 1st quarter (October 2007 - December 2007) of Fiscal Year 2008.

  2. Remoção de sulfato de águas residuárias industriais em reator anaeróbio de leito fixo operado em bateladas sequenciais Sulfate removal from industrial wastewaters in fixed film anaerobic sequential batch reactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arnaldo Sarti

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se o potencial de uso reator anaeróbio operado em bateladas seqüenciais com biomassa imobilizada (ASBBR, em escala piloto, no tratamento de água residuária industrial contendo elevadas concentrações de sulfato. O ASBBR, com volume total de 1.2 m³, foi preenchido com carvão mineral como meio suporte para imobilização da biomassa (leito fixo. Foram aplicadas cargas de 0,15; 0,30; 0,65; 1,30 e 1,90 kg SO4-2/ciclo (ou batelada com duração de 48 h, correspondendo, respectivamente, às concentrações de sulfato no afluente de 0,25; 0,50; 1,0; 2,0 e 3,0 gSO4-2.l-1. Utilizou-se etanol como doador de elétrons para a redução do sulfato. O reator foi operado à temperatura ambiente (29±8ºC, tendo sido obtidas eficiências médias na redução de sulfato entre 88 e 92% em 92 ciclos (275 dias. Os resultados obtidos permitem concluir que o uso de reatores ASBBR constitui-se em alternativa eficiente para a remoção de sulfatos de águas residuárias com características semelhantes às utilizadas neste trabalho.The potential use of an anaerobic sequencing batch biofilm reactor (ASBBR in pilot-scale for the treatment of a sulfate-rich industrial wastewater was evaluated. The pilot 1.2 m³ ASBBR reactor was filled with mineral coal for biomass immobilization (fixed film. The sulfate loading rates applied were 0.15; 0.30; 0.65; 1.30 and 1.90 kg SO4-2/cycle (or batch. Each cycle lasted 48 h. The influent concentrations were, respectively, 0.25; 0.50; 1.0; 2.0 and 3.0 gSO4-2.l-1. Ethanol was used as electron donor for sulfate reduction. The reactor operated at ambient temperature (29±8ºC, and the mean efficiencies of sulfate removal were in the range 88 to 92% in the 92 run cycles. The total operating period comprised 275 days. Based on the results obtained in this research, it could be concluded that the ASBBR can be an efficient alternative for the removal of sulfate from other industrial wastewaters with similar characteristics.

  3. Second quarterly report 1976

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-11-01

    The report describes activities carried out in the framework of the Fast Breeder Project at Karlsruhe Nuclear Research Centre or on its behalf. There are contributions to the following issues: fuel rod development, materials analysis and development, corrosion tests and coolant analyses, physical experiments, reactor theory, the safety of fast reactors, instrumentation and signal processing for core monitoring, environmental effects, sodium technology experiments, thermo- and fluid-dynamic studies in gases, studies on the layout of gas-cooled breeder reactors, studies on the layout of sodium-cooled breeder reactors. (HR) [de

  4. South African Crime Quarterly

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    South African Crime Quarterly is an inter-disciplinary peer-reviewed journal that promotes professional discourse and the publication of research on the subjects of crime, criminal justice, crime prevention, and related matters including state and non-state responses to crime and violence. South Africa is the primary focus for ...

  5. English Leadership Quarterly, 1993.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strickland, James, Ed.

    1993-01-01

    These four issues of the English Leadership Quarterly represent those published during 1993. Articles in number 1 deal with parent involvement and participation, and include: "Opening the Doors to Open House" (Jolene A. Borgese); "Parent/Teacher Conferences: Avoiding the Collision Course" (Robert Perrin); "Expanding Human…

  6. Quarterly fiscal policy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kendrick, D.A.; Amman, H.M.

    2014-01-01

    Monetary policy is altered once a month. Fiscal policy is altered once a year. As a potential improvement this article examines the use of feedback control rules for fiscal policy that is altered quarterly. Following the work of Blinder and Orszag, modifications are discussed in Congressional

  7. From Fed-batch to Continuous Enzymatic Biodiesel Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Price, Jason Anthony; Nordblad, Mathias; Woodley, John M.

    2015-01-01

    In this this paper, we use mechanistic modelling to guide the development of acontinuous enzymatic process that is performed as a fed-batch operation. In this workwe use the enzymatic biodiesel process as a case study. A mechanistic model developedin our previous work was used to determine...... measured components (triglycerides, diglycerides, monoglycerides, free fatty acid and fatty acid methyl esters(biodiesel)) much better than using fed-batch data alone given the smaller residuals. We also observe a reduction in the correlation between the parameters.The model was then used to predict that 5...... reactors are required (with a combined residence time of 30 hours) to reach a final biodiesel concentration within 2 % of the95.6 mass % achieved in a fed-batch operation, for 24 hours....

  8. Control and Optimization of Batch Chemical Processes

    OpenAIRE

    Rohani, Sohrab; Chhabra, Raj; Bonvin, Dominique; François, Grégory

    2017-01-01

    A batch process is characterized by the repetition of time-varying operations of finite duration. Due to the repetition, there are two independent “time” variables, namely, the run time during a batch and the batch index. Accordingly, the control and optimization objectives can be defined for a given batch or over several batches. This chapter describes the various control and optimization strategies available for the operation of batch processes. These include online and run-to-run control o...

  9. Data-driven batch schuduling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bent, John [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Denehy, Tim [GOOGLE; Arpaci - Dusseau, Remzi [UNIV OF WISCONSIN; Livny, Miron [UNIV OF WISCONSIN; Arpaci - Dusseau, Andrea C [NON LANL

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we develop data-driven strategies for batch computing schedulers. Current CPU-centric batch schedulers ignore the data needs within workloads and execute them by linking them transparently and directly to their needed data. When scheduled on remote computational resources, this elegant solution of direct data access can incur an order of magnitude performance penalty for data-intensive workloads. Adding data-awareness to batch schedulers allows a careful coordination of data and CPU allocation thereby reducing the cost of remote execution. We offer here new techniques by which batch schedulers can become data-driven. Such systems can use our analytical predictive models to select one of the four data-driven scheduling policies that we have created. Through simulation, we demonstrate the accuracy of our predictive models and show how they can reduce time to completion for some workloads by as much as 80%.

  10. Batch Cultivation Model for Biopolymer Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. E. Torres-Cerna

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a mathematical model to evaluate the kinetics of two different Pseudomonas putida strains, wild and mutant-type for the microbial production of polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs. Model parameters were estimated to represent adequately experimental data from the batch reactor using the differential evolution algorithm. Based on the mathematical model with the best-fit parameter values, simulations suggested that the high production of PHA by the mutant strain can be attributed not only to the higher production of PHA but also to a reduction in the consumption rate of the substrates of approximately 66 %. Remarkably, the cell growth rate value is higher for the wild type than the mutant type, suggesting that the PHA increase is not only to an increase in the production rate but also to the metabolism of the cells. This mathematical model advances comprehension of the PHA production capacity by P. putida paving the road towards environmentally friendly plastics.

  11. Adaptive Batch Mode Active Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, Shayok; Balasubramanian, Vineeth; Panchanathan, Sethuraman

    2015-08-01

    Active learning techniques have gained popularity to reduce human effort in labeling data instances for inducing a classifier. When faced with large amounts of unlabeled data, such algorithms automatically identify the exemplar and representative instances to be selected for manual annotation. More recently, there have been attempts toward a batch mode form of active learning, where a batch of data points is simultaneously selected from an unlabeled set. Real-world applications require adaptive approaches for batch selection in active learning, depending on the complexity of the data stream in question. However, the existing work in this field has primarily focused on static or heuristic batch size selection. In this paper, we propose two novel optimization-based frameworks for adaptive batch mode active learning (BMAL), where the batch size as well as the selection criteria are combined in a single formulation. We exploit gradient-descent-based optimization strategies as well as properties of submodular functions to derive the adaptive BMAL algorithms. The solution procedures have the same computational complexity as existing state-of-the-art static BMAL techniques. Our empirical results on the widely used VidTIMIT and the mobile biometric (MOBIO) data sets portray the efficacy of the proposed frameworks and also certify the potential of these approaches in being used for real-world biometric recognition applications.

  12. Automated handling for SAF batch furnace and chemistry analysis operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bowen, W.W.; Sherrell, D.L.; Wiemers, M.J.

    1981-01-01

    The Secure Automated Fabrication Program is developing a remotely operated breeder reactor fuel pin fabrication line. The equipment will be installed in the Fuels and Materials Examination Facility being constructed at Hanford, Washington. Production is scheduled to start in mid-1986. The application of small pneumatically operated industrial robots for loading and unloading product into and out of batch furnaces and for distribution and handling of chemistry samples is described

  13. EDF - Quarterly Financial Information

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trivi, Carole; Boissezon, Carine de; Hidra, Kader

    2014-01-01

    EDF's sales in the first quarter of 2014 were euro 21.2 billion, down 3.9% from the first quarter of 2013. At constant scope and exchange rates, sales were down 4.2% due to mild weather conditions, which impacted sales of electricity in France, gas sales abroad and trading activities in Europe. UK sales were nonetheless sustained by B2B sales due to higher realised wholesale market prices. In Italy, sales growth was driven by an increase in electricity volumes sold. The first quarter of 2014 also saw the strengthening of the Group's financial structure with the second phase of its multi-annual hybrid funding programme (nearly euro 4 billion equivalent) as well as the issue of two 100-year bonds in dollars and sterling aimed at significantly lengthening average debt maturity. 2014 outlook and 2014-2018 vision: - EDF Group has confirmed its financial objectives for 2014; - Group EBITDA excluding Edison: organic growth of at least 3%; - Edison EBITDA: recurring EBITDA target of euro 1 billion and at least euro 600 million in 2014 before effects of gas contract re-negotiations; - Net financial debt / EBITDA: between 2x and 2.5x; - Pay-out ratio of net income excluding non-recurring items post-hybrid: 55% to 65%. The Group has reaffirmed its goal of achieving positive cash flow after dividends, excluding Linky, in 2018

  14. Operation of Finnish nuclear power plants. Quarterly report, 3rd quarter 1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tossavainen, K.

    1998-04-01

    Quarterly reports on the operation of Finnish nuclear power plants describe events and observations relating to nuclear and radiation safety that the Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority of Finland (STUK) considers safety significant. Safety improvements at the plants are also described. The Report also includes a summary of the radiation safety of plant personnel and of the environment and tabulated data on the plants' production and load factors. The Finnish nuclear power plant units were in power operation in the third quarter of 1997, except for the annual maintenance outages of Loviisa plant units which lasted well over a month in all. There was also a brief interruption in electricity generation at Olkiluoto 1 for repairs and at Olkiluoto 2 due to a disturbance at the turbine plant. All plant units were in long-term test operation at upgraded reactor power level approved by STUK. The load factor average of all plant units was 87.6 %. One event in the third quarter was classified level 1 on the International Nuclear Event Scale (INES). It was noted at Loviisa 2 that one of four pressurized water tanks in the plant unit's emergency cooling system had been inoperable for a year. Other events in this quarter were INES level 0. Occupational doses and radioactive releases off-site were below authorized limits. Radioactive substances were measurable in samples collected around the plants in such quantities only as have no bearing on the radiation exposure of the population. (orig.)

  15. BatchJS: Implementing Batches in JavaScript

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D. Kasemier

    2014-01-01

    htmlabstractNone of our popular programming languages know how to handle distribution well. Yet our programs interact more and more with each other and our data resorts in databases and web services. Batches are a new addition to languages that can finally bring native support for distribution to

  16. Notifiable events in systems for fission of nuclear fuels - nuclear power plants and research reactors whose maximum output exceeds 50 kW of thermal rating - in the Federal Republic of Germany. Quarterly report on the 2nd quarter of 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    The report presents the survey of notifiable events in nuclear power plants and research reactors in the Federal Republic of Germany that occurred in the given reporting period. The survey lists notifiable events both according to the German classification system of safety significance, S (immediate notification), E (prompt notification), as well as events classified under the INES system, (level 1 and higher), and notifiable events that have been re-classified after review. (orig.) [de

  17. Fuel performance improvement program. Quarterly/annual progress report, October 1977--September 1978

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crouthamel, C.E.

    1978-10-01

    This quarterly/annual report reviews and summarizes the activities performed in support of the Fuel Performance Improvement Program (FPIP) during Fiscal Year 1978 with emphasis on those activities that transpired during the quarter ending September 30, 1978. Significant progress has been made in achieving the primary objectives of the program, i.e., to demonstrate commercially viable fuel concepts with improved fuel - cladding interaction (FCI) behavior. This includes out-of-reactor experiments to support the fuel concepts being evaluated, initiation of instrumented test rod experiments in the Halden Boiling Water Reactor (HBWR), and fabrication of the first series of demonstration rods for irradiation in the Big Rock Point Reactor

  18. Remoção de macronutrientes de efluente da indústria de castanha de caju por uso de reator aeróbio em batelada com inóculo fúngico Removal of macronutrients from effluent of a cashew nut industry by using a batch aerobic reactor with fungal inoculums

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Santos da Silva Lopes

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Foi estudada a eficiência da remoção de nitrogênio e fósforo do efluente de indústria de castanha de caju, por uso de reator aeróbio em batelada com inóculo de Aspergillus niger AN400. O reator recebeu 5 L de água residuária, acrescida de glicose, na concentração de 1 g.L-1 (Etapa I e de 5 g.L-1 (Etapa II . Cada etapa teve seis ciclos operacionais, cada um com tempo de reação total de sete dias. Os valores de pH dos efluentes na Etapa I variaram de 6,4 a 8,7 e na Etapa II , de 3,1 a 7,0. Durante a Etapa II , o reator alcançou bons resultados para remoção de nutrientes sem acúmulo de sua concentração no meio: 49% de fósforo total, 60% de ortofosfato, 79% de amônia, 78% de nitrato e 90% de nitrito, indicando que a menor liberação de nutrientes pelos micro-organismos ocorreu na presença de concentração elevada de glicose.It was studied the removal efficiency of nitrogen and phosphorus from effluent of a cashew nut industry by using an aerobic reactor operated in repetitive batch, inoculated with Aspergillus niger AN400. The reactor was fed with 5 L of wastewater, supplemented with glucose in the concentration of 1 g.L-1 (Phase I and 5 g.L-1 (Phase II . Each phase had six operational cycles, with total reaction time of seven days per cycle. The pH values of the effluents in Phase I varied from 6.4 to 8.7 and in Phase II , it varied from 3.1 to 7.0. The reactor achieved good results of removal without nutrients accumulated in the medium, during Phase II : 49% to total phosphorus, 60% to orthophosphate, 79% to ammonia, 78% to nitrate, and 90% to nitrite, indicating that the lesser release of nutrients by microorganisms occurred in the presence of higher glucose concentration.

  19. Tratamento de esgoto sanitário em reator híbrido em bateladas sequenciais: eficiência e estabilidade na remoção de matéria orgânica e nutrientes (N, P Sewage treatment in a sequencing batch hybrid reactor: efficiency and stability in organic matter and nutrient (N, P removal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Gonzaga Lamego Neto

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho apresenta os resultados de estudo sobre o comportamento de um reator híbrido, operado em bateladas sequenciais, na remoção conjunta de matéria carbonácea, nitrogênio e fósforo de esgoto sanitário. Operado em ciclos de 8 horas de duração, o reator possuía em seu interior um suporte fixo com rede de nylon. Foram testadas cargas compreendidas entre 0,39 e 1,35 kgDQO.m-3.dia-1, 42 e 60 gN-NH4-.m-3.dia e 51 e 70 gP-PO4-.m-3.dia. O reator funcionou como um sistema estável e apresentou boas condições de depuração. A remoção da matéria carbonácea mostrou-se elevada, com eficiências médias de 92% de DBO5 e 80% de DQO. A remoção de nutrientes variou entre 59 e 71% para nitrogênio total e entre 45 e 67% para fósforo total. Tanto no lodo em suspensão, quanto no biofilme, foi observada a ocorrência de bactérias oxidadoras de amônio e micro-organismos responsáveis pela desnitrificação e remoção biológica de fósforo.This paper presents the results about the behavior of a sequencing batch hybrid reactor on combined removal of carbonaceous matter, nitrogen and phosphorus from sewage. Operated in 8-hour cycles, the reactor had a nylon net fixed inside. Loads between 0.39 and 1.35 kg COD.m-3.day-1, 42 and 60 gN-NH4-m-3.day-1 and 51 and 70 gP-PO4-m-3.day-1 were tested. The reactor operated as a stable system and showed good depuration conditions. The carbonaceous matter removal was high, with 92 and 80% efficiencies average to BOD5 and COD, respectively. The nutrients removal varied between 59 and 71% for total nitrogen and between 45 and 67% for total phosphorus. In both, sludge in suspension and the biofilm, occurrence of ammonium-oxidizing bacteria and microorganisms responsible for denitrification and biological phosphorus removal was observed.

  20. Nuclear Reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hogerton, John

    1964-01-01

    This pamphlet describes how reactors work; discusses reactor design; describes research, teaching, and materials testing reactors; production reactors; reactors for electric power generation; reactors for supply heat; reactors for propulsion; reactors for space; reactor safety; and reactors of tomorrow. The appendix discusses characteristics of U.S. civilian power reactor concepts and lists some of the U.S. reactor power projects, with location, type, capacity, owner, and startup date.

  1. Fossil fuel furnace reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parkinson, William J.

    1987-01-01

    A fossil fuel furnace reactor is provided for simulating a continuous processing plant with a batch reactor. An internal reaction vessel contains a batch of shale oil, with the vessel having a relatively thin wall thickness for a heat transfer rate effective to simulate a process temperature history in the selected continuous processing plant. A heater jacket is disposed about the reactor vessel and defines a number of independent controllable temperature zones axially spaced along the reaction vessel. Each temperature zone can be energized to simulate a time-temperature history of process material through the continuous plant. A pressure vessel contains both the heater jacket and the reaction vessel at an operating pressure functionally selected to simulate the continuous processing plant. The process yield from the oil shale may be used as feedback information to software simulating operation of the continuous plant to provide operating parameters, i.e., temperature profiles, ambient atmosphere, operating pressure, material feed rates, etc., for simulation in the batch reactor.

  2. Acceptance Test Data for Candidate AGR-5/6/7 TRISO Particle Batches BWXT Coater Batches 93165 93172 Defective IPyC Fraction and Pyrocarbon Anisotropy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Helmreich, Grant W. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Hunn, John D. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Skitt, Darren J. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Dyer, John A. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Schumacher, Austin T. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2017-03-01

    Coated particle fuel batches J52O-16-93165, 93166, 93168, 93169, 93170, and 93172 were produced by Babcock and Wilcox Technologies (BWXT) for possible selection as fuel for the Advanced Gas Reactor Fuel Development and Qualification (AGR) Program’s AGR-5/6/7 irradiation test in the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) Advanced Test Reactor (ATR). Some of these batches may alternately be used as demonstration coated particle fuel for other experiments. Each batch was coated in a 150-mm-diameter production-scale fluidized-bed chemical vapor deposition (CVD) furnace. Tristructural isotropic (TRISO) coatings were deposited on 425-μm-nominal-diameter spherical kernels from BWXT lot J52R-16-69317 containing a mixture of 15.5%-enriched uranium carbide and uranium oxide (UCO). The TRISO coatings consisted of four consecutive CVD layers: a ~50% dense carbon buffer layer with 100-μm-nominal thickness, a dense inner pyrolytic carbon (IPyC) layer with 40-μm-nominal thickness, a silicon carbide (SiC) layer with 35-μm-nominal thickness, and a dense outer pyrolytic carbon (OPyC) layer with 40-μmnominal thickness. The TRISO-coated particle batches were sieved to upgrade the particles by removing over-sized and under-sized material, and the upgraded batches were designated by appending the letter A to the end of the batch number (e.g., 93165A).

  3. NDA BATCH 2002-02

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory

    2009-12-09

    QC sample results (daily background checks, 20-gram and 100-gram SGS drum checks) were within acceptable criteria established by WIPP's Quality Assurance Objectives for TRU Waste Characterization. Replicate runs were performed on 5 drums with IDs LL85101099TRU, LL85801147TRU, LL85801109TRU, LL85300999TRU and LL85500979TRU. All replicate measurement results are identical at the 95% confidence level as established by WIPP criteria. Note that the batch covered 5 weeks of SGS measurements from 23-Jan-2002 through 22-Feb-2002. Data packet for SGS Batch 2002-02 generated using gamma spectroscopy with the Pu Facility SGS unit is technically reasonable. All QC samples are in compliance with established control limits. The batch data packet has been reviewed for correctness, completeness, consistency and compliance with WIPP's Quality Assurance Objectives and determined to be acceptable. An Expert Review was performed on the data packet between 28-Feb-02 and 09-Jul-02 to check for potential U-235, Np-237 and Am-241 interferences and address drum cases where specific scan segments showed Se gamma ray transmissions for the 136-keV gamma to be below 0.1 %. Two drums in the batch showed Pu-238 at a relative mass ratio more than 2% of all the Pu isotopes.

  4. Batch chemical microreactors: Reversible, in-situ UHV sealing of a microcavity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Monkowski, Adam; Johansson, Martin; Nielsen, Jane Hvolbæk

    2009-01-01

    We propose a new type of microreactor to study heterogeneous catalytic systems. The proposed device operates using a batch reactor scheme, in which catalyst and reactant are introduced in one step and analyzed in a subsequent step. This differs from a flow microreactor in which reaction and analy......We propose a new type of microreactor to study heterogeneous catalytic systems. The proposed device operates using a batch reactor scheme, in which catalyst and reactant are introduced in one step and analyzed in a subsequent step. This differs from a flow microreactor in which reaction...

  5. THE EFFECT OF THE ADDITION OF INVERT SUGAR ON THE PRODUCTION OF CEPHALOSPORIN C IN A FED-BATCH BIOREACTOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.S. Silva

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available Cephalosporin C, a b -lactam antibiotic, is the starting molecule for industrial production of semi-synthetic cephalosporins. The bioprocess for its production is carried out in batch stirred and aerated tank reactors utilizing strains of the filamentous fungus Cephalosporium acremonium. In this work a comparison was made between the processes of production of cephalosporin C in a conventional batch bioreactor, with synthetic medium containing glucose and sucrose, and in a fed-batch reactor at several flowrates of supplementary medium containing invert sucrose. In general, the fed-batch process was shown to be more efficient than the conventional batch one, and the process in which the lowest supplementation flowrate was used presented an antibiotic production significantly higher than those obtained under the other conditions.

  6. NRC quarterly [status] report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    This report covers the third quarter of calendar year 1987. The NRC licensing activity during the period of this report included the issuance of a full-power license for Beaver Valley 2 on August 14, 1987, and operating license restricted to five percent power for South Texas Unit 1 on August 21, 1987. Additional licensing delay for Shoreham is projected due to complex litigation. Also, licensing delay may occur for Comanche Peak Unit 1, because the duration of the hearing is uncertain. Although a license authorizing fuel loading and precriticality testing for Seabrook Unit 1 has been issued, there is a projected delay for low-power licensing. Full-power licensing for Seabrook Unit 1 will be delayed due to offsite emergency preparedness issues. The length of the delay is not known at this time. With the exception of Seabrook and Shoreham, regulatory delays in this report are not impacted by the schedules for resolving off-site emergency preparedness issues

  7. Archives: South African Crime Quarterly

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 1 - 29 of 29 ... Archives: South African Crime Quarterly. Journal Home > Archives: South African Crime Quarterly. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register · Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives. 1 - 29 of 29 ...

  8. NGBAuth - Next Generation Batch Authentication for long running batch jobs.

    CERN Document Server

    Juto, Zakarias

    2015-01-01

    This document describes the prototyping of a new solution for the CERN batch authentication of long running jobs. While the job submission requires valid user credentials, these have to be renewed due to long queuing and execution times. Described within is a new system which will guarantee a similar level of security as the old LSFAuth while simplifying the implementation and the overall architecture. The new system is being built on solid, streamlined and tested components (notably OpenSSL) and a priority has been to make it more generic in order to facilitate the evolution of the current system such as for the expected migration from LSF to Condor as backend batch system.

  9. Ethology in animal quarters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyerson, B J

    1986-01-01

    This contribution will be concerned with the interaction between environment, adaptability optimization and behaviour. Animal laboratory experiments demand repeated measurements under identical environmental conditions. This is a prerequisite for the conventional statistical methodology used in order to clarify causal relationships involved in various biological functions. The understanding of biological functions is a necessary fundament for knowledge to prevent illness and to achieve a palliative or specific therapy. It is reasonable to assume that the routines in the quarters are very artificial, considering an animal's normal living conditions. The experimental situation as well as animal maintenance involves a process of adaptation. Adaptability depends on type of animal, degree of domestification etc. However, even with respect to choice of suitable species, strain and genetic manipulation, the process of adaptation becomes an important variable for ethical and practical points of view. The more emphasis on constancy, the more do we run the risk of increasing the span between normal and laboratory conditions and subsequently increase the factor and problem of adaptation. This vicious circle should be broken rather by finding optimal conditions than by a middle course determined by experimental requirements, economical frames and general notions about what may be good for the animal. Optimization must involve an understanding of how the experiment and the way of maintenance of the animal in the animal quarters influence adaptability. This understanding requires a systematic exploring of what physio-chemical and psychological factors are of importance. We will probably never be able to control the variability in the degree of adaptation.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  10. Quarterly Progress Report (April 1 to June 30, 1950)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brookhaven National Laboratory

    1950-07-01

    This is the second of a series of Quarterly Progress Reports. While most of the departments have summarized their work or used a form comparable to abstracts, the Chemistry Department has given both abstracts and complete reports on its work. The major part of the progress in the Reactor Science and Engineering Department is being presented simultaneously in a separate classified report. There are reports from the following departments: (1) physics department; (2) instrumentation and health physics department; (3) accelerator project; (4) chemistry department; (5) reactor science and engineering department; (6) biology department; and (7) medical department.

  11. PROOF on a Batch System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Behrenhoff, W; Ehrenfeld, W; Samson, J; Stadie, H

    2011-01-01

    The 'parallel ROOT facility' (PROOF) from the ROOT framework provides a mechanism to distribute the load of interactive and non-interactive ROOT sessions on a set of worker nodes optimising the overall execution time. While PROOF is designed to work on a dedicated PROOF cluster, the benefits of PROOF can also be used on top of another batch scheduling system with the help of temporary per user PROOF clusters. We will present a lightweight tool which starts a temporary PROOF cluster on a SGE based batch cluster or, via a plugin mechanism, e.g. on a set of bare desktops via ssh. Further, we will present the result of benchmarks which compare the data throughput for different data storage back ends available at the German National Analysis Facility (NAF) at DESY.

  12. Remoção biológica de fósforo em reatores em bateladas sequenciais com diferentes tempos de retenção de sólidos Biological phosphorus removal in sequencing batch reactors with different solid retention times

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Israel Nunes Henrique

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Nos últimos anos, tem surgido a necessidade de se projetarem sistemas de tratamento de águas residuárias que, além de remover carga orgânica, sejam capazes de remover nutrientes, particularmente nitrogênio e fósforo. Este trabalho avaliou a remoção biológica de fósforo em sistemas de lodo ativado, tratando esgoto doméstico por meio de reatores em bateladas sequenciais (RBS, monitorado com diferentes tempos de retenção celular (TRC: 20, 5 e 3 dias. Esses experimentos foram avaliados em escala de bancada com o uso da respirometria, utilizando-se acetato como fonte de carbono orgânico. Os resultados mostraram satisfatória remoção de fósforo total nos três experimentos, com valores médios entre 79 a 82%, sendo que o sistema RBS que operou com TRC de cinco dias obteve resultados melhores.In recent years, there has been an increasing need to design wastewater treatment systems that are capable of removing both organic material and nutrients, notably nitrogen and phosphorus. This study evaluated biological phosphorus removal by activated sludge systems fed with domestic sewage and operating as sequencing batch reactors (SBR with different solids retention times (SRT namely 20, 5 and 3 days. This was supported by respirometry experiments at bench scale using acetate as the source of organic carbon. The results showed satisfactory total phosphorus removal efficiencies mean values between 79-82% for the three regimes with the best removal efficiency occurring in the SBR operating with a five-day SRT.

  13. Small propulsion reactor design based on particle bed reactor concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ludewig, H.; Lazareth, O.; Mughabghab, S.; Perkins, K.; Powell, J.R.

    1989-01-01

    In this paper Particle Bed Reactor (PBR) designs are discussed which use 233 U and /sup 242m/Am as fissile materials. A constant total power of 100MW is assumed for all reactors in this study. Three broad aspects of these reactors is discussed. First, possible reactor designs are developed, second physics calculations are outlined and discussed and third mass estimates of the various candidates reactors are made. It is concluded that reactors with a specific mass of 1 kg/MW can be envisioned of 233 U is used and approximately a quarter of this value can be achieved if /sup 242m/Am is used. If this power level is increased by increasing the power density lower specific mass values are achievable. The limit will be determined by uncertainties in the thermal-hydraulic analysis. 5 refs., 5 figs., 6 tabs

  14. Optimal control of batch emulsion polymerization of vinyl chloride

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Damslora, Andre Johan

    1998-12-31

    The highly exothermic polymerization of vinyl chloride (VC) is carried out in large vessels where the heat removal represents a major limitation of the production rate. Many emulsion polymerization reactors are operated in such a way that a substantial part of the heat transfer capacity is left unused for a significant part of the total batch time. To increase the reaction rate so that it matches the heat removal capacity during the course of the reaction, this thesis proposes the use of a sufficiently flexible initiator system to obtain a reaction rate which is high throughout the reaction and real-time optimization to compute the addition policy for the initiator. This optimization based approach provides a basis for an interplay between design and control and between production and research. A simple model is developed for predicting the polymerization rate. The model is highly nonlinear and open-loop unstable and may serve as an interesting case for comparison of nonlinear control strategies. The model is fitted to data obtained in a laboratory scale reactor. Finally, the thesis discusses optimal control of the emulsion polymerization reactor. Reduction of the batch cycle time is of major economic importance, as long as the quality parameters are within their specifications. The control parameterization had a major influence on the performance. A differentiable spline parameterization was applied and the optimization is illustrated in a number of cases. The best performance is obtained when the reactor temperature is obtained when the optimization is combined with some form of closed-loop control of the reactor temperature. 112 refs., 48 figs., 4 tabs.

  15. Joint Force Quarterly. Issue 41, 2nd Quarter, April 2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-04-01

    operating in the Pacific, Exercise Panamax ’05 (4th Combat Camera Squadron/Rick Sforza); Marines securing area along Amazon River , Exercise UNITAS ’04...companies participated, a million more people would be actively looking for threats. Aguas de Amazonas , a subsidiary of Suez Environnement, a...9 Richard B. Myers, “A Word from the Chair- man,” Joint Force Quarterly 37 (2d Quarter 2005), 5. 10 Wald, 26. 11 “Suez—Aguas de Amazonas Water for

  16. Short-term energy outlook: Quarterly projections. Second quarter 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-05-02

    The Energy Information Administration (EIA) prepares quarterly, short-term energy supply, demand, and price projections for publication in February, May, August, and November in the Short-Term Energy Outlook (Outlook). An annual supplement analyzes the performance of previous forecasts, compares recent projections with those of other forecasting services, and discusses current topics related to the short-term energy markets. (See Short-Term Energy Outlook Annual Supplement, DOE/EIA-0202.) The forecast period for this issue of the Outlook extends from the second quarter of 1995 through the fourth quarter of 1996. Values for the first quarter of 1995, however, are preliminary EIA estimates (for example, some monthly values for petroleum supply and disposition are derived in part from weekly data reported in the Weekly Petroleum Status Report) or are calculated from model simulations using the latest exogenous information available (for example, electricity sales and generation are simulated using actual weather data). The historical energy data, compiled into the second quarter 1995 version of the Short-Term Integrated Forecasting System (STIFS) database, are mostly EIA data regularly published in the Monthly Energy Review, Petroleum Supply Monthly, and other EIA publications. Minor discrepancies between the data in these publications and the historical data in this Outlook are due to independent rounding. The STIFS database is archived quarterly and is available from the National Technical Information Service.

  17. Nitrogen Removal From Dairy Manure Wastewater Using Sequencing Batch Reactors

    OpenAIRE

    Whichard, David P

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to characterize a flushed dairy manure wastewater and to develop the kinetic and stoichiometric parameters associated with nitrogen removal from the wastewater, as well as to demonstrate experimental and simulated nitrogen removal from the wastewater. The characterization showed that all the wastewaters had carbon to nitrogen ratios large enough for biological nitrogen removal. Analysis of carbon to phosphorus ratios showed that enough carbon is available fo...

  18. Biological Treatment of Wastewater by Sequencing Batch Reactors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsvetko Prokopov

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In the present paper the operation of wastewater treatment plant (WWTP in the town of Hisarya which includes a biological stage with aeration basins of cyclic type (SBR-method was studied. The values of the standard indicators of input and output water from the wastewater treatment plant were evaluated. Moreover, the reached effects due to the biological treatment of the wastewater in terms of the COD (95.7%, BOD5 (96.6%, total nitrogen (81.3%, total phosphorus (53.7% and suspended solids (95.7% were established. It was concluded that the indexes of the treated water were significantly below the emission limits specified in the discharge permit

  19. NST Quarterly - issue April 2002

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    NST Quarterly reports current development in Nuclear Science and Technology in Malaysia. In this issue it highlights MINT activity in radiocarbon dating and discusses the topic - Radiation energy technologies are finding new niches in the marketplace

  20. NST Quarterly. July 1996 issue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    NST Quarterly reports current development in Nuclear Science and Technology in Malaysia. In this issue it highlights MINT activities in in-vitro mutagenesis of ornamental plants, soil erosion studies and animal feed production from agricultural waste

  1. NST Quarterly - January 1998 issue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    NST Quarterly reports current development in Nuclear Science and Technology in Malaysia. In this issue it highlights MINT activities in proposal of national networking for biotechnology culture collection centre (NNBCCC)

  2. Batch studies on nitrate removal from potable water | Darbi | Water SA

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A sulphur / limestone autotrophic denitrification process was used to achieve the biological removal of nitrate from groundwater. The feasibility of the system was evaluated under anaerobic conditions using laboratory-scale batch reactors. The optimum sulphur / limestone ratio was determined to be 1:1 (wt/wt). Different ...

  3. Moving from batch towards continuous organic‐chemical pharmaceutical production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cervera Padrell, Albert Emili

    alkylation reaction was achieved using a filter reactor coupled with a side‐entry tubular reactor, using real‐time in‐line near‐infrared (NIR) spectroscopy for monitoring the reaction and ensuring the right product quality. A subsequent hydrolysis of the alkoxide product was performed in continuous mode......Pharmaceutical ingredients have traditionally been produced in batches using multipurpose stirred vessels. Reactions and separations have typically been tailored to fit these units, facing multiple limitations when transferring synthetic routes from the laboratory to industrial scale. Scaling up...... thus resulted in many cases in low reaction yields and separation efficiencies. These limitations were however compensated by a relatively fast process implementation. For the pharmaceutical industry this meant that new drug products could be exclusively marketed for a longer time period, resulting...

  4. Cell engineering of Escherichia coli allows high cell density accumulation without fed-batch process control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bäcklund, Emma; Markland, Katrin; Larsson, Gen

    2008-01-01

    A set of mutations in the phosphoenolpyruvate:carbohydrate phosphotransferase system (PTS) was used to create Escherichia coli strains with a reduced uptake rate of glucose. This allows a growth restriction, which is controlled on cellular rather than reactor level, which is typical of the fed-batch cultivation concept. Batch growth of the engineered strains resulted in cell accumulation profiles corresponding to a growth rate of 0.78, 0.38 and 0.25 h(-1), respectively. The performance of the mutants in batch cultivation was compared to fed-batch cultivation of the wild type cell using restricted glucose feed to arrive at the corresponding growth profiles. Results show that the acetate production, oxygen consumption and product formation were similar, when a recombinant product was induced from the lacUV5 promoter. Ten times more cells could be produced in batch cultivation using the mutants without the growth detrimental production of acetic acid. This allows high cell density production without the establishment of elaborate fed-batch control equipment. The technique is suggested as a versatile tool in high throughput multiparallel protein production but also for increasing the number of experiments performed during process development while keeping conditions similar to the large-scale fed-batch performance.

  5. Quarterly environmental data summary for fourth quarter 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-31

    The Quarterly Environmental Data Summary (QEDS) for the fourth quarter of 1997 is prepared in support of the Weldon Spring Site Remedial Action Project Federal Facilities Agreement. The data presented constitute the QEDS. The data were received from the contract laboratories, verified by the Weldon Spring Site verification group and, except for air monitoring data and site KPA generated data (uranium analyses), merged into the data base during the fourth quarter of 1997. Air monitoring data presented are the most recent complete sets of quarterly data. Air data are not stored in the data base and KPA data are not merged into the regular data base. Significant data, defined as data values that have exceeded defined ``above normal`` level 2 values, are discussed in this letter for Environmental Monitoring Plan (EMP) generated data only. Above normal level 2 values are based, in ES and H procedures, on historical high values, DOE Derived Concentration Guides (DCGs), NPDES limits and other guidelines. The procedures also establish actions to be taken in response to such data. Data received and verified during the fourth quarter were within a permissible range of variability except for those which are detailed.

  6. Short-term energy outlook: Quarterly projections, fourth quarter 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-10-14

    The Energy Information Administration (EIA) prepares quarterly short-term energy supply, demand, and price projections for printed publication in January, April, July, and October in the Short-Term Energy Outlook. The details of these projections, as well as monthly updates on or about the 6th of each interim month, are available on the internet at: www.eia.doe.gov/emeu/steo/pub/contents.html. The forecast period for this issue of the Outlook extends from the fourth quarter of 1997 through the fourth quarter of 1998. Values for the fourth quarter of 1997, however, are preliminary EIA estimates (for example, some monthly values for petroleum supply and disposition are derived in part from weekly data reported in EIA`s Weekly Petroleum Status Report) or are calculated from model simulations that use the latest exogenous information available (for example, electricity sales and generation are simulated by using actual weather data). The historical energy data, compiled in the fourth quarter 1997 version of the Short-Term Integrated Forecasting System (STIFS) database, are mostly EIA data regularly published in the Monthly Energy Review, Petroleum Supply Monthly, and other EIA publications. Minor discrepancies between the data in these publications and the historical data in this Outlook are due to independent rounding. The STIFS model is driven principally by three sets of assumptions or inputs: estimates of key macroeconomic variables, world oil price assumptions, and assumptions about the severity of weather. 19 tabs.

  7. Quarterly coal report, July--September 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-02-01

    The Quarterly Coal Report (QCR) provides comprehensive information about US coal production, distribution, exports, imports, receipts, prices, consumption, and stocks. Coke production consumption, distribution, imports, and exports data are also provided. This report presents detailed quarterly data for July through September 1997 and aggregated quarterly historical data for 1991 through the second quarter of 1997. Appendix A displays, from 1991 on, detailed quarterly historical coal imports data. 72 tabs.

  8. Short-term energy outlook. Quarterly projections, first quarter 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-02-01

    The Energy Information Administration (EIA) prepares quarterly, short-term energy supply, demand, and price projections for publication in February, May, August, and November in the Short-Term Energy Outlook (Outlook). The forecast period for this issue of the Outlook extends from the first quarter of 1995 through the fourth quarter of 1996. Values for the fourth quarter of 1994, however, are preliminary EIA estimates or are calculated from model simulations using the latest exogenous information available (for example, electricity sales and generation are simulated using actual weather data). The historical energy data, compiled into the first quarter 1995 version of the Short-Term Integrated Forecasting System (STIFS) database, are mostly EIA data regularly published in the Monthly Energy Review, Petroleum Supply Monthly, and other EIA publications. Minor discrepancies between the data in these publications and the historical data in this Outlook are due to independent rounding. The STIFS database is archived quarterly and is available from the National Technical Information Service. The cases are produced using the Short-Term Integrated Forecasting System (STIFS). The STIFS model is driven principally by three sets of assumptions or inputs: estimates of key macroeconomic variables, world oil price assumptions, and assumptions about the severity of weather. Macroeconomic estimates are produced by DRI/McGraw-Hill but are adjusted by EIA to reflect EIA assumptions about the world price of crude oil, energy product prices, and other assumptions which may affect the macroeconomic outlook. The EIA model is available on computer tape from the National Technical Information Service

  9. Fast breeder reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waltar, A.E.; Reynolds, A.B.

    1981-01-01

    This book describes the major design features of fast breeder reactors and the methods used for their design and analysis. The foremost objective of this book is to fulfill the need for a textbook on Fast Breeder Reactor (FBR) technology at the graduate level or the advanced undergraduate level. It is assumed that the reader has an introductory understanding of reactor theory, heat transfer, and fluid mechanics. The book is expected to be used most widely for a one-semester general course on fast breeder reactors, with the extent of material covered to vary according to the interest of the instructor. The book could also be used effectively for a two-quarter or a two-semester course. In addition, the book could serve as a text for a course on fast reactor safety since many topics other than those appearing in the safety chapters relate to FBR safety. Methodology in fast reactor design and analysis, together with physical descriptions of systems, is emphasized in this text more than numerical results. Analytical and design results continue to change with the ongoing evolution of FBR design whereas many design methods have remained fundamentally unchanged for a considerable time

  10. PREMOR: a point reactor exposure model computer code for survey analysis of power plant performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vondy, D.R.

    1979-10-01

    The PREMOR computer code was written to exploit a simple, two-group point nuclear reactor power plant model for survey analysis. Up to thirteen actinides, fourteen fission products, and one lumped absorber nuclide density are followed over a reactor history. Successive feed batches are accounted for with provision for from one to twenty batches resident. The effect of exposure of each of the batches to the same neutron flux is determined

  11. PREMOR: a point reactor exposure model computer code for survey analysis of power plant performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vondy, D.R.

    1979-10-01

    The PREMOR computer code was written to exploit a simple, two-group point nuclear reactor power plant model for survey analysis. Up to thirteen actinides, fourteen fission products, and one lumped absorber nuclide density are followed over a reactor history. Successive feed batches are accounted for with provision for from one to twenty batches resident. The effect of exposure of each of the batches to the same neutron flux is determined.

  12. Fuzzy Modeling to Evaluate the Effect of Temperature on Batch Transesterification of Jatropha Curcas for Biodiesel Production

    OpenAIRE

    Vipan Kumar Sohpal; Amarpal Singh; Apurba Dey

    2011-01-01

    Biodiesel is an alternative source of fuel that can be synthesized from edible, non-edible and waste oils through transesterification. Firstly Transesterification reaction of Jatropha Curcas oil with butanol in the ratio of 1:25 investigated by using of sodium hydroxide catalyst with mixing intensity of 250 rpm in isothermal batch reactor. Secondly the fuzzy model of the temperature is developed. Performance was evaluated by comparing fuzzy model with the batch kinetic data. Fuzzy models were...

  13. Short-term energy outlook, Quarterly projections. Third quarter 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1993-08-04

    The Energy Information Administration (EIA) prepares quarterly, short-term energy supply, demand, and price projections for publication in February, May, August, and November in the Short-Term Energy Outlook (Outlook). An annual supplement analyzes the performance of previous forecasts, compares recent cases with those of other forecasting services, and discusses current topics related to the short-term energy markets. (See Short-Term Energy Outlook Annual Supplement, DOE/EIA-0202.) The forecast period for this issue of the Outlook extends from the third quarter of 1993 through the fourth quarter of 1994. Values for the second quarter of 1993, however, are preliminary EIA estimates (for example, some monthly values for petroleum supply and disposition are derived in part from weekly data reported in the Weekly Petroleum Status Report) or are calculated from model simulations using the latest exogenous information available (for example, electricity sales and generation are simulated using actual weather data). The historical energy data are EIA data published in the Monthly Energy Review, Petroleum Supply Monthly, and other EIA publications. Minor discrepancies between the data in these publications and the historical data in this Outlook are due to independent rounding.

  14. Applied Meteorology Unit (AMU) Quarterly Report First Quarter FY-04

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauman, William; Wheeler, Mark; Labert, Winifred; Jonathan Case; Short, David

    2004-01-01

    This report summarizes the Applied Meteorology Unit (AMU) activities for the First Quarter of Fiscal Year 2004 (October - December 2003). Tasks reviewed are: (1) Objective Lightning Probability Forecast, (2) Mesonet Temperature and Wind Climatology, (3) Severe Weather Forecast Decision Aid and (4) Anvil Transparency Relationship to Radar Reflectivity

  15. Short-term energy outlook, quarterly projections, first quarter 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-01-01

    The forecast period for this issue of the Outlook extends from the first quarter of 1998 through the fourth quarter of 1999. Values for the fourth quarter of 1997, however, are preliminary EIA estimates (for example, some monthly values for petroleum supply and disposition are derived in part from weekly data reported in EIA`s Weekly Petroleum Status Report) or are calculated from model simulations that use the latest exogenous information available (for example, electricity sales and generation are simulated by using actual weather data). The historical energy data, compiled in the first quarter 1998 version of the Short-Term Integrated Forecasting System (STIFS) database, are mostly EIA data regularly published in the Monthly Energy Review, Petroleum Supply Monthly, and other EIA publications. Minor discrepancies between the data in these publications and the historical data in this Outlook are due to independent rounding. The STIFS model is driven principally by three sets of assumptions or inputs: estimates of key macroeconomic variables, world oil price assumptions, and assumptions about the severity of weather. Macroeconomic estimates are adjusted by EIA to reflect EIA assumptions which may affect the macroeconomic outlook. By varying the assumptions, alternative cases are produced by using the STIFS model. 24 figs., 19 tabs.

  16. Short-term energy outlook: Quarterly projections, Third quarter 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-08-01

    The Energy Information Administration (EIA) prepares quarterly, short-term energy supply, demand, and price projections for publication in February, May, August, and November in the Short-Term Energy Outlook (Outlook). An annual supplement analyzes the performance of previous forecasts, compares recent cases with those of other forecasting services, and discusses current topics related to the short-term energy markets. (See Short-Term Energy Outlook Annual Supplement, DOE/EIA-0202.) The principal users of the Outlook are managers and energy analysts in private industry and government. The forecast period for this issue of the Outlook extends from the third quarter of 1992 through the fourth quarter of 1993. Values for the second quarter of 1992, however, are preliminary EIA estimates (for example, some monthly values for petroleum supply and disposition are derived in part from weekly data reported in the Weekly Petroleum Status Report) or are calculated from model simulations using the latest exogenous information available (for example, electricity sales and generation are simulated using actual weather data). The historical energy data are EIA data published in the Monthly Energy Review, Petroleum Supply Monthly, and other EIA publications. Minor discrepancies between the data in these publications and the historical data in this Outlook are due to independent rounding

  17. Quarterly coal report, April--June 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-11-01

    The Quarterly Coal Report (QCR) provides comprehensive information about US coal production, distribution, exports, imports, receipts, prices, consumption, and stocks to a wide audience. Coke production, consumption, distribution, imports, and exports data are also provided. This report presents detailed quarterly data for April through June 1997 and aggregated quarterly historical data for 1991 through the first quarter of 1997. Appendix A displays, from 1991 on, detailed quarterly historical coal imports data. Appendix B gives selected quarterly tables converted to metric tons. To provide a complete picture of coal supply and demand in the US, historical information has been integrated in this report. 8 figs., 73 tabs.

  18. Nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barre, Bertrand

    2015-10-01

    After some remarks on the nuclear fuel, on the chain reaction control, on fuel loading and unloading, this article proposes descriptions of the design, principles and operations of different types of nuclear reactors as well as comments on their presence and use in different countries: pressurized water reactors (design of the primary and secondary circuits, volume and chemistry control, backup injection circuits), boiling water reactors, heavy water reactors, graphite and boiling water reactors, graphite-gas reactors, fast breeder reactors, and fourth generation reactors (definition, fast breeding). For these last ones, six concepts are presented: sodium-cooled fast reactor, lead-cooled fast reactor, gas-cooled fast reactor, high temperature gas-cooled reactor, supercritical water-cooled reactor, and molten salt reactor

  19. Family based dispatching with batch availability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Zee, D.J.

    2013-01-01

    Family based dispatching rules seek to lower set-up frequencies by grouping (batching) similar types of jobs for joint processing. Hence shop flow times may be improved, as less time is spent on set-ups. Motivated by an industrial project we study the control of machines with batch availability,

  20. Nucleation and crystal growth in batch crystallizers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janse, A.H.

    1977-01-01

    The aim of the present work is to gain knowledge of the mechanism of formation of the crystal size distribution in batch crystallizers in order to give directives for design and operation of batch crystallizers. The crystal size distribution is important for the separation of crystals and mother

  1. Automatic endpoint determination for batch tea dryers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Temple, S.J.; Boxtel, van A.J.B.

    2001-01-01

    A laboratory batch fluid-bed dryer was developed for handling small samples of tea for experimental batch manufacture, and this dryer required a means of stopping drying when the process was complete. A control system was devised which requires only the initial weight of the sample to be entered

  2. Supervision of Fed-Batch Fermentations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gregersen, Lars; Jørgensen, Sten Bay

    1999-01-01

    Process faults may be detected on-line using existing measurements based upon modelling that is entirely data driven. A multivariate statistical model is developed and used for fault diagnosis of an industrial fed-batch fermentation process. Data from several (25) batches are used to develop a mo...

  3. South African Crime Quarterly: Submissions

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Author Guidelines. SACQ is a quarterly journal published by the Crime and Justice Programme of the Institute for Security Studies. The journal is published in hard copy and is available on our website: www.issafrica.org. The journal is widely read nationally and internationally by criminal justice practitioners, researchers ...

  4. South African Crime Quarterly 56

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Edited by Chandré Gould and Andrew Faull

    We are very pleased to announce that the Institute for Security Studies (ISS) has partnered with the University of Cape Town (UCT) as co-custodians of the South African Crime Quarterly (SACQ). We believe that the UCT. Centre of Criminology's commitment to advancing policy-relevant research and analysis on public ...

  5. NST Quarterly - issue October 2001

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    NST Quarterly reports current development in Nuclear Science and Technology in Malaysia. In this issue it reviews GM technology and GMOs - genetically modified organisms. The topics discussed includes the implication of GM in practice, the controversy and the prospect of GM technology. Radioactive pig - something like a ball or plug which cleanses the inner walls of the pipeline, also briefly presented

  6. NST Quarterly - April 2000 issue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    NST Quarterly reports current development in Nuclear Science and Technology in Malaysia. In this issue it highlights MINT activities in genetic engineering. The articles summarized the improvement of orchids and tulips through genetic engineering and generating new varieties for the floriculture industry. It also reported, MINT won gold and silver at the International Invention 2000, 12-16 April 2000, Geneva

  7. Analysis and modelling of the energy consumption of chemical batch plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bieler, P.S.

    2004-07-01

    This report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) describes two different approaches for the energy analysis and modelling of chemical batch plants. A top-down model consisting of a linear equation based on the specific energy consumption per ton of production output and the base consumption of the plant is postulated. The model is shown to be applicable to single and multi-product batches for batch plants with constant production mix and multi-purpose batch plants in which only similar chemicals are produced. For multipurpose batch plants with highly varying production processes and changing production mix, the top-down model produced inaccurate results. A bottom-up model is postulated for such plants. The results obtained are discussed that show that the electricity consumption for infrastructure equipment was significant and responsible for about 50% of total electricity consumption. The specific energy consumption for the different buildings was related to the degree of automation and the production processes. Analyses of the results of modelling are presented. More detailed analyses of the energy consumption of this apparatus group show that about 30 to 40% of steam energy is lost and thus a large potential for optimisation exists. Various potentials for making savings, ranging from elimination of reflux conditions to the development of a new heating/cooling-system for a generic batch reactor, are identified.

  8. Quarterly, Bi-annual and Annual Reports

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Quarterly, Bi-annual and Annual Reports are periodic reports issued for public release. For the deep set fishery these reports are issued quarterly and anually....

  9. Nigerian Quarterly Journal of Hospital Medicine: Submissions

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nigerian Quarterly Journal of Hospital Medicine: Submissions. Journal Home > About the Journal > Nigerian Quarterly Journal of Hospital Medicine: Submissions. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  10. Archives: Nigerian Quarterly Journal of Hospital Medicine

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 1 - 50 of 50 ... Archives: Nigerian Quarterly Journal of Hospital Medicine. Journal Home > Archives: Nigerian Quarterly Journal of Hospital Medicine. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  11. Areva revenue and data for the first quarter of 2008

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    First quarter 2008 revenue was up 12.1% year-on-year, to 2.769 billion euros. Like-for-like (at constant exchange rates and consolidation scope), growth came to 14.5%. Foreign exchange had a negative impact of 2.5%, or -69 million euros, mainly due to currency translation tied to the US dollar drop compared with the euro. The consolidation scope had a positive impact of +0.7% or 18 million euros, chiefly as a result of the consolidation of VEI Distribution (specializing in medium voltage distribution) and Passoni and Villa (world leader in the manufacture of high voltage bushings) in the Transmission and Distribution division. The main growth engines for first quarter revenue were the Reactors and Services division and the Back End division, with growth of 29.7% (+36.8% LFL1) and 13.8% (+14.1% LFL1) respectively. Outside France, revenue rose to 1.857 billion euros, compared with 1.753 billion euros in the first quarter of 2007. This represents 67% of total revenue. As a reminder, the group points out that: - revenue can vary significantly from one quarter to the next in the nuclear businesses, and quarterly operations should therefore not be taken as a reliable basis for annual projections; - the foreign exchange impact mentioned in this release comes from the translation of subsidiary accounts into the group's unit of account, and primarily reflects the US dollar in relation to the euro. AREVA also points out that its foreign exchange hedging policy for commercial operations aims to shield profitability from fluctuations in exchange rates in relation to the euro

  12. Quarterly coal report, July--September 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-02-01

    The Quarterly Coal Report (QCR) provides comprehensive information about US coal production, distribution, exports, imports, receipts, prices, consumption, and stocks to a wide audience, including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. Coke production, consumption, distribution, imports, and exports data are also provided. This report presents detailed quarterly data for July through September 1998 and aggregated quarterly historical data for 1992 through the second quarter of 1998. 58 tabs.

  13. Uneven batch data alignment with application to the control of batch end-product quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Jian; Marjanovic, Ognjen; Lennox, Barry

    2014-03-01

    Batch processes are commonly characterized by uneven trajectories due to the existence of batch-to-batch variations. The batch end-product quality is usually measured at the end of these uneven trajectories. It is necessary to align the time differences for both the measured trajectories and the batch end-product quality in order to implement statistical process monitoring and control schemes. Apart from synchronizing trajectories with variable lengths using an indicator variable or dynamic time warping, this paper proposes a novel approach to align uneven batch data by identifying short-window PCA&PLS models at first and then applying these identified models to extend shorter trajectories and predict future batch end-product quality. Furthermore, uneven batch data can also be aligned to be a specified batch length using moving window estimation. The proposed approach and its application to the control of batch end-product quality are demonstrated with a simulated example of fed-batch fermentation for penicillin production. Copyright © 2013 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. 3rd quarterly report 1976 of the Fast Breeder Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-12-01

    The report describes activities which were performed within the framework of the Fast Breeder Project at the Gesellschaft fuer Kernforschung mbH Karlsruhe (GfK) or on behalf of the GfK during the third quarter. It contains contributions on the following subjects: Fuel rod development, material studies and development, corrosion tests and coolant analyses, physical experiments, reactor theory, safety of fast breeders, instrumentation and signal processing for core monitoring, environmental impacts, sodium technology tests, thermo- and fluid-dynamic tests in gas, tests concerning gas-cooled breeders. (HR) [de

  15. Nuclear Rocket Program quarterly progress report: Fourth quarter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    1965-12-31

    This document summarizes the progress of the ANL Nuclear Rocket Study during the fourth quarter of Calendar Year 1965. It is intended as a report of the status of the rocket program in the period following the publication of ANL-7111 (December 1965). The present document is one of a series of program reports which are issued on a regular quarterly basis. During the period of time encompassed by the present document, a major portion of the ANL nuclear rocket effort, as well as primary program emphasis, was placed upon the development of fuel elements and fuel-element systems. Concentration on these aspects of the rocket development effort reflects a general recognition on the part of ANL and the sponsoring agency that the solution of the problem of fuel-element fabrication constitutes the most critical phase of the program.

  16. Quarterly financial reports | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Quarterly Financial Report for the period ending 31 December 2011 · Quarterly Financial Report for the period ending 30 September 2011 · Quarterly Financial Report for the period ending 30 June 2011 · Summary of Expense Reductions to Accommodate Budget 2012 Appropriation Reduction (PDF) · What we do · Funding ...

  17. 32 CFR 643.127 - Quarters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Additional Authority of Commanders § 643.127 Quarters. The assignment and rental of quarters to civilian employees and other nonmilitary personnel will be accomplished in accordance with AR 210-50. Responsibility of the Corps of Engineers for the establishment of rental rates for quarters rented to civilian and...

  18. 10 CFR 34.29 - Quarterly inventory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Quarterly inventory. 34.29 Section 34.29 Energy NUCLEAR... RADIOGRAPHIC OPERATIONS Equipment § 34.29 Quarterly inventory. (a) Each licensee shall conduct a quarterly physical inventory to account for all sealed sources and for devices containing depleted uranium received...

  19. Effect of the addition of zero valent iron (Fe0) on the batch biological sulphate reduction using grass cellulose as carbon source

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mulopo, J

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available , a scarce commodity. The aim of the study presented here was to investigate the effect of zero valent iron (Fe0) on the biological removal of sulphate from AMD in batch reactors. The performance of the reactors was assessed by means of sulphate...

  20. Joint Force Quarterly. Issue 77, 2nd Quarter 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-04-01

    Keystone course at National Defense University (DOD/Daniel Hinton) 52 JPME Today / Writing Faculty Papers for JPME JFQ 77, 2nd Quarter 2015 issue...Special Purpose, Embodied, Conversational Intelligence with Environmental Sensors ( SPECIES ) agent. His agent-based sys- tem builds on existing...assess human states, to include whether or not the human is being truthful. Derrick’s prototype SPECIES agent was built to interview potential

  1. Joint Force Quarterly. Issue 76, 1st Quarter 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    a car, the doctors, sales - men, lawyers, pilots, military officers (my father was enlisted in the Army), police, firefighters, and store managers...effective, as demonstrated by regular changes in JFQ 76, 1st Quarter 2015 Duvall and Renfro 67 arms sales policies to Taiwan, it is the two approaches...pandemic commonly known as Swine Flu, which had not appeared in society in equal magnitude since 1918, spread from the state of Veracruz , Mexico, to

  2. Joint Force Quarterly. Issue 57, 2nd Quarter 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    d quarter 2010 / JFQ 35 LOVINS fatalities in Afghanistan in 2009. Should that conflict follow an Iraq-like profile , its casualty rates could rise...Middle Eastern terrorism. It had been hoped that the invasion of Iraq would produce a domino supported violent antigovernment terrorists in Colombia ...products (all pharmaceutical ) against chemical, biological, and radiological attacks. 22 Available at <www.dhs.gov/xabout/laws/ gc_1219263961449.shtm#1

  3. Applied Meteorology Unit (AMU) Quarterly Report Fourth Quarter FY-04

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauman, William; Wheeler, Mark; Lambert, Winifred; Case, Jonathan; Short, David

    2004-01-01

    This report summarizes the Applied Meteorology Unit (A MU) activities for the fourth quarter of Fiscal Year 2004 (July -Sept 2004). Tasks covered are: (1) Objective Lightning Probability Forecast: Phase I, (2) Severe Weather Forecast Decision Aid, (3) Hail Index, (4) Shuttle Ascent Camera Cloud Obstruction Forecast, (5) Advanced Regional Prediction System (ARPS) Optimization and Training Extension and (5) User Control Interface for ARPS Data Analysis System (ADAS) Data Ingest.

  4. H Reactor

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The H Reactor was the first reactor to be built at Hanford after World War II.It became operational in October of 1949, and represented the fourth nuclear reactor on...

  5. LSF usage for batch at CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    Schwickerath, Ulrich

    2007-01-01

    Contributed poster to the CHEP07. Original abstract: LSF 7, the latest version of Platform's batch workload management system, addresses many issues which limited the ability of LSF 6.1 to support large scale batch farms, such as the lxbatch service at CERN. In this paper we will present the status of the evaluation and deployment of LSF 7 at CERN, including issues concerning the integration of LSF 7 with the gLite grid middleware suite and, in particular, the steps taken to endure an efficient reporting of the local batch system status and usage to the Grid Information System

  6. Quarterly coal report, October--December 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-05-01

    The Quarterly Coal Report (QCR) provides comprehensive information about US coal production, distribution, exports, imports, receipts, prices, consumption, and stocks to a wide audience, including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. Coke production, consumption, distribution, imports, and exports data are also provided. This report presents detailed quarterly data for October through December 1996 and aggregated quarterly historical data for 1990 through the third quarter of 1996. Appendix A displays, from 1988 on, detailed quarterly historical coal imports data. To provide a complete picture of coal supply and demand in the US, historical information has been integrated in this report. 8 figs., 72 tabs.

  7. Quarterly coal report, October--December 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-07-01

    The Quarterly Coal Report (QCR) provides comprehensive information about US coal production, distribution, exports, imports, receipts, prices, consumption, and stocks to a wide audience, including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. Coke production, consumption, distribution, imports, and exports data are also provided. This report presents detailed quarterly data for October through December 1998 and aggregated quarterly historical data for 1992 through the third quarter of 1998. Appendix A displays, from 1992 on, detailed quarterly historical coal imports data. 58 tabs.

  8. Quarterly coal report, April--June, 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-11-01

    The Quarterly Coal Report (QCR) provides comprehensive information about US coal production, distribution, exports, imports, receipts, prices, consumption, and stocks to a wide audience, including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. Coke production, consumption, distribution, imports, and exports data are also provided. This report presents detailed quarterly data for April through June 1998 and aggregated quarterly historical data for 1992 through the first quarter of 1998. Appendix A displays, from 1992 on, detailed quarterly historical coal imports data. 58 tabs.

  9. NST Quarterly - January 1997 issue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    NST Quarterly reports current development in Nuclear Science and Technology in Malaysia. In this issue it highlights MINT activities in local heat shrinkable copolymer and electron beam technology for purification of flue gases. It announces an International Nuclear Conference themed ' a new era in nuclear science and technology - the challenge of the 21 century ' will be held in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia from 29 to 30 Sept 1997

  10. 3. quarter 2006 sales revenue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-10-01

    This document presents the sales revenue of the 3. quarter 2006 for the Group AREVA. The sales revenues for the first nine months of 2006 are up by 8,1% to 7,556 millions euros; the nuclear operations are up by 5,2% reflecting strong performance in the front end division; the transmission and distribution division is up by 14%. (A.L.B.)

  11. Status of the first batch of niobium resonator production for the New Delhi booster linac

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Potukuchi, P. N.

    1999-01-01

    This paper reports the status and details of the costs of construction of niobium superconducting resonant cavities for a linear accelerator, presently being built as a booster for the 15 UD tandem Pelletron accelerator at the Nuclear Science Centre, New Delhi. The linear accelerator will have three cryostat modules, each holding eight quarter-wave resonators. Construction of a batch of ten resonators for the linac started at Argonne National Laboratory in May 1997. For production, all fabrication and all electron beam welding is being done through commercial vendors. Details of construction and present status of the project are presented

  12. Kinetic behavior of nitrification in the post-treatment of poultry wastewater in a sequential batch reactor Comportamento cinético da nitrificação em um reator em bateladas sequenciais usado no pós-tratamento de efluente avícola

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana B. R. Mees

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available A sequential batch reactor with suspended biomass and useful volume of 5 L was used in the removal of nutrients and organic matter in workbench scale under optimal conditions obtained by central composite rotational design (CCRD, with cycle time (CT of 16 h (10.15 h, aerobic phase, and 4.35 h, anoxic phase and carbon: nitrogen ratio (COD/NO2--N+NO3--N equal to 6. Complete cycles (20, nitrification followed by denitrification, were evaluated to investigate the kinetic behavior of degradation of organic (COD and nitrogenated (NH4+-N, NO2--N and NO3--N matter present in the effluent from a bird slaughterhouse and industrial processing facility, as well as to evaluate the stability of the reactor using Shewhart control charts of individual measures. The results indicate means total inorganic nitrogen (NH4+-N+NO2- -N+NO3--N removal of 84.32±1.59% and organic matter (COD of 53.65±8.48% in the complete process (nitrification-denitrification with the process under statistical control. The nitrifying activity during the aerobic phase estimated from the determination of the kinetic parameters had mean K1 and K2 values of 0.00381±0.00043 min-1 and 0.00381±0.00043 min-1, respectively. The evaluation of the kinetic behavior of the conversion of nitrogen indicated a possible reduction of CT in the anoxic phase, since removals of NO2--N and NO3--N higher than 90% were obtained with only 1 h of denitrification.Um reator em bateladas sequenciais com biomassa em suspensão e volume útil de 5L, aplicado para remoção de nutrientes e matéria orgânica, foi operado em escala de bancada, nas condições ótimas obtidas a partir de um delineamento composto central rotacional (DCCR, tempo de ciclo (TC de 16 h (10h15 fase aeróbia e 4h35 fase anóxica e relação carbono:nitrogênio (DQO/N-NO2-+N-NO3- de 6. Avaliaram-se 20 ciclos completos, nitrificação seguida de desnitrificação, com o objetivo de efetuar o estudo do comportamento cinético de degrada

  13. Novel oscillatory flow reactors for biotechnological applications

    OpenAIRE

    Reis, N.

    2006-01-01

    Tese de Doutoramento em Engenharia Química e Biológica This thesis explores the biotechnological applications of two novel scale-down oscillatory flow reactors (OFRs). A micro-bioreactor (working mostly in batch) and a continuous meso-reactor systems were developed based on a 4.4 mm internal diameter tube with smooth periodic constrictions (SPC), both operating under oscillatory flow mixing (OFM). The first part is dedicated to the flow characterisation in the novel SPC geom...

  14. Multi-objective optimization of glycopeptide antibiotic production in batch and fed batch processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maiti, Soumen K.; Eliasson Lantz, Anna; Bhushan, Mani

    2011-01-01

    as pareto optimal solutions. These solutions gives flexibility in evaluating the trade-offs and selecting the most suitable operating policy. Here, ε-constraint approach was used to generate the pareto solutions for two objectives: product concentration and product per unit cost of media, for batch and fed...... batch operations using process model for Amycolatopsis balhimycina, a glycopeptide antibiotic producer. This resulted in a set of several pareto optimal solutions with the two objectives ranging from (0.75gl−1, 3.97g$-1) to (0.44gl−1, 5.19g$-1) for batch and from (1.5gl−1, 5.46g$-1) to (1.1gl−1, 6.34g......$-1) for fed batch operations. One pareto solution each for batch and for fed batch mode was experimentally validated....

  15. Nonylphenol polyethoxylate degradation in aqueous waste by the use of batch and continuous biofilm bioreactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Gioia, Diana; Sciubba, Luigi; Bertin, Lorenzo; Barberio, Claudia; Salvadori, Laura; Frassinetti, Stefania; Fava, Fabio

    2009-07-01

    An aerobic bacterial consortium (Consortium A) was recently obtained from textile wastewater and was capable of degrading 4-nonylphenol and nonylphenol polyethoxylates (NPnEOs). In the perspective of developing a biotechnological process for the treatment of effluents from activated sludge plants fed with NPnEO contaminated wastewater, the capability of Consortium A of biodegrading an industrial mixture of NPnEOs in the physiological condition of immobilized cells was investigated. Two identically configured packed bed reactors were developed by immobilizing the consortium on silica beads or granular activated carbon. Both reactors were tested in batch and continuous mode by feeding them with water supplemented with NPnEOs. The two reactors were monitored through chemical, microbiological and molecular integrated methodology. Active biofilms were generated on both immobilization supports. Both reactors displayed comparable NPnEO mineralization under batch and continuous conditions. FISH analyses evidenced that the biofilms evolved with time by changing the reactor operation mode and the organic load. Taken together, the data collected in this study provide a preliminary strong indication on the feasibility of Consortium A-based biofilm technology for the decontamination of NPnEO containing effluents.

  16. Integrated Bacillus sp. immobilized cell reactor and Synechocystis sp. algal reactor for the treatment of tannery wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekaran, G; Karthikeyan, S; Nagalakshmi, C; Mandal, A B

    2013-01-01

    The wastewater discharged from leather industries lack biodegradability due to the presence of xenobiotic compounds. The primary clarification and aerobic treatment in Bacillus sp. immobilized Chemo Autotrophic Activated Carbon Oxidation (CAACO) reactor removed considerable amount of pollution parameters. The residual untreated organics in the wastewater was further treated in algal batch reactor inoculated with Synechocystis sp. Sodium nitrate, K(2)HPO(4), MgSO(4).7H(2)O, NH(4)Cl, CaCl(2)·2H(2)O, FeCl(3) (anhydrous), and thiamine hydrochloride, rice husk based activated carbon (RHAC), immobilization of Bacillus sp. in mesoporous activated carbon, sand filter of dimensions diameter, 6 cm and height, 30 cm; and the CAACO reactor of dimensions diameter, 5.5 cm and height, 30 cm with total volume 720 ml, and working volume of 356 ml. In the present investigation, the CAACO treated tannery wastewater was applied to Synechocystis sp. inoculated algal batch reactor of hydraulic residence time 24 h. The BOD(5), COD, and TOC of treated wastewater from algal batch reactor were 20 ± 7, 167 ± 29, and 78 ± 16 mg/l respectively. The integrated CAACO system and Algal batch reactor was operated for 30 days and they accomplished a cumulative removal of BOD(5),COD, TOC, VFA and sulphide as 98 %, 95 %, 93 %, 86 %, and 100 %, respectively. The biokinetic constants for the growth of algae in the batch reactor were specific growth rate, 0.095(day(-1)) and yield coefficient, 3.15 mg of algal biomass/mg of COD destructed. The degradation of xenobiotic compounds in the algal batch reactor was confirmed through HPLC and FT-IR techniques. The integrated CAACO-Algal reactor system established a credible reduction in pollution parameters in the tannery wastewater. The removal mechanism is mainly due to co-metabolism between algae and bacterial species and the organics were completely metabolized rather than by adsorption.

  17. Applied Meteorology Unit (AMU) Quarterly Report - Fourth Quarter FY-09

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauman, William; Crawford, Winifred; Barrett, Joe; Watson, Leela; Wheeler, Mark

    2009-01-01

    This report summarizes the Applied Meteorology Unit (AMU) activities for the fourth quarter of Fiscal Year 2009 (July - September 2009). Tasks reports include: (1) Peak Wind Tool for User Launch Commit Criteria (LCC), (2) Objective Lightning Probability Tool. Phase III, (3) Peak Wind Tool for General Forecasting. Phase II, (4) Update and Maintain Advanced Regional Prediction System (ARPS) Data Analysis System (ADAS), (5) Verify MesoNAM Performance (6) develop a Graphical User Interface to update selected parameters for the Hybrid Single-Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory (HYSPLlT)

  18. Short-term energy outlook, quarterly projections, second quarter 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-04-01

    The Energy Information Administration (EIA) prepares quarterly short-term energy supply, demand, and price projections. The details of these projections, as well as monthly updates, are available on the Internet at: www.eia.doe.gov/emeu/steo/pub/contents.html. The paper discusses outlook assumptions; US energy prices; world oil supply and the oil production cutback agreement of March 1998; international oil demand and supply; world oil stocks, capacity, and net trade; US oil demand and supply; US natural gas demand and supply; US coal demand and supply; US electricity demand and supply; US renewable energy demand; and US energy demand and supply sensitivities. 29 figs., 19 tabs.

  19. Applied Meteorology Unit (AMU) Quarterly Report. First Quarter FY-05

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauman, William; Wheeler, Mark; Lambert, Winifred; Case, Jonathan; Short, David

    2005-01-01

    This report summarizes the Applied Meteorology Unit (AMU) activities for the first quarter of Fiscal Year 2005 (October - December 2005). Tasks reviewed include: (1) Objective Lightning Probability Forecast: Phase I, (2) Severe Weather Forecast Decision Aid, (3) Hail Index, (4) Stable Low Cloud Evaluation, (5) Shuttle Ascent Camera Cloud Obstruction Forecast, (6) Range Standardization and Automation (RSA) and Legacy Wind Sensor Evaluation, (7) Advanced Regional Prediction System (ARPS) Optimization and Training Extension, and (8) User Control Interface for ARPS Data Analysis System (ADAS) Data Ingest

  20. Applied Meteorology Unit (AMU) Quarterly Report Third Quarter FY-08

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauman, William; Crawford, Winifred; Barrett, Joe; Watson, Leela; Dreher, Joseph

    2008-01-01

    This report summarizes the Applied Meteorology Unit (AMU) activities for the third quarter of Fiscal Year 2008 (April - June 2008). Tasks reported on are: Peak Wind Tool for User Launch Commit Criteria (LCC), Anvil Forecast Tool in AWIPS Phase II, Completion of the Edward Air Force Base (EAFB) Statistical Guidance Wind Tool, Volume Averaged Height Integ rated Radar Reflectivity (VAHIRR), Impact of Local Sensors, Radar Scan Strategies for the PAFB WSR-74C Replacement, VAHIRR Cost Benefit Analysis, and WRF Wind Sensitivity Study at Edwards Air Force Base

  1. H-division quarterly report, October--December 1977

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-01-01

    The Theoretical EOS Group develops theoretical techniques for describing material properties under extreme conditions and constructs equation-of-state (EOS) tables for specific applications. Work this quarter concentrated on a Li equation of state, equation of state for equilibrium plasma, improved ion corrections to the Thomas--Fermi--Kirzhnitz theory, and theoretical estimates of high-pressure melting in metals. The Experimental Physics Group investigates properties of materials at extreme conditions of pressure and temperature, and develops new experimental techniques. Effort this quarter concerned the following: parabolic projectile distortion in the two-state light-gas gun, construction of a ballistic range for long-rod penetrators, thermodynamics and sound velocities in liquid metals, isobaric expansion measurements in Pt, and calculation of the velocity--mass profile of a jet produced by a shaped charge. Code development was concentrated on the PELE code, a multimaterial, multiphase, explicit finite-difference Eulerian code for pool suppression dynamics of a hypothetical loss-of-coolant accident in a nuclear reactor. Activities of the Fluid Dynamics Group were directed toward development of a code to compute the equations of state and transport properties of liquid metals (e.g. Li) and partially ionized dense plasmas, jet stability in the Li reactor system, and the study and problem application of fluid dynamic turbulence theory. 19 figures, 5 tables

  2. First quarter 2005 sales data; Chiffre d'affaires du 1. trimestre 2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-04-15

    This press release brings information on the AREVA group sales data. First quarter 2005 sales for the group were 2,496 millions of euros, up 3,6% year-on-year from 2,41 millions. The change in foreign exchange rates between the two periods show a negative impact of 22 millions euros, which is much lower than in the first quarter of 2004. It analyzes also in more details the situation of the front end, the reactors and service division, the back end division, the transmission and distribution division and the connectors division. (A.L.B.)

  3. Oscillatory flow chemical reactors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slavnić Danijela S.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Global market competition, increase in energy and other production costs, demands for high quality products and reduction of waste are forcing pharmaceutical, fine chemicals and biochemical industries, to search for radical solutions. One of the most effective ways to improve the overall production (cost reduction and better control of reactions is a transition from batch to continuous processes. However, the reactions of interests for the mentioned industry sectors are often slow, thus continuous tubular reactors would be impractically long for flow regimes which provide sufficient heat and mass transfer and narrow residence time distribution. The oscillatory flow reactors (OFR are newer type of tube reactors which can offer solution by providing continuous operation with approximately plug flow pattern, low shear stress rates and enhanced mass and heat transfer. These benefits are the result of very good mixing in OFR achieved by vortex generation. OFR consists of cylindrical tube containing equally spaced orifice baffles. Fluid oscillations are superimposed on a net (laminar flow. Eddies are generated when oscillating fluid collides with baffles and passes through orifices. Generation and propagation of vortices create uniform mixing in each reactor cavity (between baffles, providing an overall flow pattern which is close to plug flow. Oscillations can be created by direct action of a piston or a diaphragm on fluid (or alternatively on baffles. This article provides an overview of oscillatory flow reactor technology, its operating principles and basic design and scale - up characteristics. Further, the article reviews the key research findings in heat and mass transfer, shear stress, residence time distribution in OFR, presenting their advantages over the conventional reactors. Finally, relevant process intensification examples from pharmaceutical, polymer and biofuels industries are presented.

  4. Quarterly coal report, January--March 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-08-01

    This Quarterly Coal Report (QCR) provides comprehensive information about U.S. coal production, distribution, exports, imports, receipts, prices, consumption, and stocks to a wide audience,including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. Coke production, consumption, distribution, imports, and exports data are also provided. The data presented in the QCR are collected and published by the Energy Information Administration (EIA) to fulfill data collection and dissemination responsibilities as specified in the Federal Energy Administration Act of 1974 (Public Law 93-275), as amended. This report presents detailed quarterly data for January through March 1997 and aggregated quarterly historical data for 1991 through the fourth quarter of 1996. Appendix A displays, from 1988 on, detailed quarterly historical coal imports data, as specified in Section 202 of the Energy Policy and Conservation Amendments Act of 1985 (Public Law 99-58). Appendix B gives selected quarterly tables converted to metric tons.

  5. Quarterly coal report, October--December 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-05-01

    The Quarterly Coal Report (QCR) provides comprehensive information about US coal production, distribution, exports, imports, receipts, prices, consumption, and stocks to a wide audience, including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. Coke production, consumption, distribution, imports, and exports data are also provided. The data presented in the QCR are collected and published by the Energy Information Administration (EIA) to fulfill data collection and dissemination responsibilities. This report presents detailed quarterly data for october through December 1997 and aggregated quarterly historical data for 1991 through the third quarter of 1997. Appendix A displays, from 1991 on, detailed quarterly historical coal imports data, as specified in Section 202 of the energy Policy and Conservation Amendments Act of 1985 (Public Law 99-58). Appendix B gives selected quarterly tables converted to metric tons. To provide a complete picture of coal supply and demand in the US, historical information has been integrated in this report. 8 figs., 73 tabs.

  6. Quarterly coal report, October--December 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-05-23

    The Quarterly Coal Report (QCR) provides comprehensive information about US coal production, distribution, exports, imports, receipts, prices, consumption, and stocks to a wide audience, including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. Coke production, consumption, distribution, imports, and exports data are also provided. The data presented in the QCR are collected and published by the Energy Information Administration (EIA) to fulfill data collection and dissemination responsibilities as specified in the Federal Energy Administration Act of 1974 (Public Law 93-275), as amended. This report presents detailed quarterly data for October through December 1994 and aggregated quarterly historical data for 1986 through the third quarter of 1994. Appendix A displays, from 1986 on, detailed quarterly historical coal imports data, as specified in Section 202 of the Energy Policy and Conservation Amendments Act of 1985 (Public Law 99-58). Appendix B gives selected quarterly tables converted to metric tons.

  7. Quarterly coal report, January--March 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-08-24

    The Quarterly Coal Report (QCR) provides comprehensive information about US coal production, distribution, exports, imports, receipts, prices, consumption, and stocks to a wide audience, including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. Coke production, consumption, distribution, imports, and exports data are also provided. The data presented in the QCR are collected and published by the Energy Information Administration (EIA) to fulfill data collection and dissemination responsibilities as specified in the Federal Energy Administration Act of 1974 (Public Law 93-275), as amended. This report presents detailed quarterly data for January through March 1995 and aggregated quarterly historical data for 1987 through the fourth quarter of 1994. Appendix A displays, from 1987 on, detailed quarterly historical coal imports data, as specified in Section 202 of the Energy Policy and Conservation Amendments Act of 1985 (Public Law 99-58). Appendix B gives selected quarterly tables converted to metric tons.

  8. Quarterly coal report, January--March 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-08-24

    The Quarterly Coal Report (QCR) provides comprehensive information about US coal production, distribution, exports, imports, receipts, prices, consumption, and stocks to a wide audience, including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. Coke production, consumption, distribution, imports, and exports data are also provided. The data presented in the QCR are collected and published by the Energy Information Administration (EIA) to fulfill data collection and dissemination responsibilities as specified in the Federal Energy Administration Act of 1974 (Public Law 93-275), as amended. This report presents detailed quarterly data for January through March 1994 and aggregated quarterly historical data for 1986 through the fourth quarter of 1993. Appendix A displays, from 1986 on, detailed quarterly historical coal imports data, as specified in Section 202 of the Energy Policy and Conservation Amendments Act of 1985 (Public Law 99-58). Appendix B gives selected quarterly tables converted to metric tons.

  9. 40 CFR 63.1321 - Batch process vents provisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... the reference control technology requirements for Group 1 batch process vents in § 63.1322, the.... Owners or operators of all Group 2 batch process vents shall comply with the applicable reference control....1323 is not required. (2) For batch process vents and aggregate batch vent streams, the control...

  10. Reactor shutdown: nuclear power plant performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1982-01-01

    The article essentially looks at the performance of nine of Sweden's nuclear reactors. A table lists the percentage of time for the first three quarters of 1981 that the reactors were operating, and the number of hours out of service for planned or other reasons. In particular, one station - Ringhals 3 - was out of action because of a damaged tube in the associated steam generator. The same fault occurred with another reactor - Ringhals 4 - before this was brought into service. The reasons for the failure and its importance are briefly discussed. (G.P.)

  11. Reactor Physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ait Abderrahim, A

    2001-04-01

    The Reactor Physics and MYRRHA Department of SCK-CEN offers expertise in various areas of reactor physics, in particular in neutronics calculations, reactor dosimetry, reactor operation, reactor safety and control and non-destructive analysis of reactor fuel. This expertise is applied in the Department's own research projects in the VENUS critical facility, in the BR1 reactor and in the MYRRHA project (this project aims at designing a prototype Accelerator Driven System). Available expertise is also used in programmes external to the Department such as the reactor pressure steel vessel programme, the BR2 reactor dosimetry, and the preparation and interpretation of irradiation experiments by means of neutron and gamma calculations. The activities of the Fuzzy Logic and Intelligent Technologies in Nuclear Science programme cover several domains outside the department. Progress and achievements in these topical areas in 2000 are summarised.

  12. Reactor Physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ait Abderrahim, A.

    2001-01-01

    The Reactor Physics and MYRRHA Department of SCK-CEN offers expertise in various areas of reactor physics, in particular in neutronics calculations, reactor dosimetry, reactor operation, reactor safety and control and non-destructive analysis of reactor fuel. This expertise is applied in the Department's own research projects in the VENUS critical facility, in the BR1 reactor and in the MYRRHA project (this project aims at designing a prototype Accelerator Driven System). Available expertise is also used in programmes external to the Department such as the reactor pressure steel vessel programme, the BR2 reactor dosimetry, and the preparation and interpretation of irradiation experiments by means of neutron and gamma calculations. The activities of the Fuzzy Logic and Intelligent Technologies in Nuclear Science programme cover several domains outside the department. Progress and achievements in these topical areas in 2000 are summarised

  13. Reactor Physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ait Abderrahim, A

    2002-04-01

    SCK-CEN's Reactor Physics and MYRRHA Department offers expertise in various areas of reactor physics, in particular in neutron and gamma calculations, reactor dosimetry, reactor operation and control, reactor code benchmarking and reactor safety calculations. This expertise is applied in the Department's own research projects in the VENUS critical facility, in the BR1 reactor and in the MYRRHA project (this project aims at designing a prototype Accelerator Driven System). Available expertise is also used in programmes external to the Department such as the reactor pressure steel vessel programme, the BR2 materials testing reactor dosimetry, and the preparation and interpretation of irradiation experiments by means of neutron and gamma calculations. The activities of the Fuzzy Logic and Intelligent Technologies in Nuclear Science programme cover several domains outside the department. Progress and achievements in these topical areas in 2001 are summarised.

  14. Ethanol effect on batch and fed-batch Arthrospira platensis growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezerra, Raquel P; Matsudo, Marcelo C; Pérez Mora, Lina S; Sato, Sunao; de Carvalho, João C Monteiro

    2014-04-01

    The ability of Arthrospira platensis to use ethanol as a carbon and energy source was investigated by batch process and fed-batch process. A. platensis was cultivated under the effect of a single addition (batch process) and a daily pulse feeding (fed-batch process) of pure ethanol, at different concentrations, to evaluate cell concentration (X) and specific growth rate (μ). A marked increase was observed in the cell concentration of A. platensis in runs with ethanol addition when compared to control cultures without ethanol addition. The fed-batch process using an ethanol concentration of 38 mg L(-1) days(-1) reached the maximum cell concentration of 2,393 ± 241 mg L(-1), about 1.5-fold that obtained in the control culture. In all experiments, the maximum specific growth rate was observed in the early exponential phase of cell growth. In the fed-batch process, μ decreased more slowly than in the batch process and control culture, resulting in the highest final cell concentration. Ethanol can be used as a feasible carbon and energy source for A. platensis growth via a fed-batch process.

  15. Energy efficiency of batch and semi-batch (CCRO) reverse osmosis desalination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warsinger, David M; Tow, Emily W; Nayar, Kishor G; Maswadeh, Laith A; Lienhard V, John H

    2016-12-01

    As reverse osmosis (RO) desalination capacity increases worldwide, the need to reduce its specific energy consumption becomes more urgent. In addition to the incremental changes attainable with improved components such as membranes and pumps, more significant reduction of energy consumption can be achieved through time-varying RO processes including semi-batch processes such as closed-circuit reverse osmosis (CCRO) and fully-batch processes that have not yet been commercialized or modelled in detail. In this study, numerical models of the energy consumption of batch RO (BRO), CCRO, and the standard continuous RO process are detailed. Two new energy-efficient configurations of batch RO are analyzed. Batch systems use significantly less energy than continuous RO over a wide range of recovery ratios and source water salinities. Relative to continuous RO, models predict that CCRO and batch RO demonstrate up to 37% and 64% energy savings, respectively, for brackish water desalination at high water recovery. For batch RO and CCRO, the primary reductions in energy use stem from atmospheric pressure brine discharge and reduced streamwise variation in driving pressure. Fully-batch systems further reduce energy consumption by not mixing streams of different concentrations, which CCRO does. These results demonstrate that time-varying processes can significantly raise RO energy efficiency. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Quarterly coal report, April--June 1990

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-11-02

    The Quarterly Coal Report provides comprehensive information about US coal production, exports, imports, receipts, consumption, and stocks to a wide audience, including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. This issue presents detailed quarterly data for April 1990 through June 1990, aggregated quarterly historical data for 1982 through the second quarter of 1990, and aggregated annual historical data for 1960 through 1989 and projected data for selected years from 1995 through 2010. To provide a complete picture of coal supply and demand in the United States, historical information and forecasts have been integrated in this report. 7 figs., 37 tabs.

  17. Model Penjadwalan Batch Multi Item dengan Dependent Processing Time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sukoyo Sukoyo

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates a development of single machine batch scheduling for multi items with dependent processing time. The batch scheduling problem is to determine simultaneously number of batch (N, which item and its size allocated for each batch, and processing sequences of resulting batches. We use total actual flow time as the objective of schedule performance. The multi item batch scheduling problem could be formulated into a biner-integer nonlinear programming model because the number of batch should be in integer value, the allocation of items to resulting batch need binary values, and also there are some non-linearity on objective function and constraint due to the dependent processing time. By applying relaxation on the decision variable of number of batch (N as parameter, a heuristic procedure could be applied to find solution of the single machine batch scheduling problem for multi items.

  18. Reactor safeguards

    CERN Document Server

    Russell, Charles R

    1962-01-01

    Reactor Safeguards provides information for all who are interested in the subject of reactor safeguards. Much of the material is descriptive although some sections are written for the engineer or physicist directly concerned with hazards analysis or site selection problems. The book opens with an introductory chapter on radiation hazards, the construction of nuclear reactors, safety issues, and the operation of nuclear reactors. This is followed by separate chapters that discuss radioactive materials, reactor kinetics, control and safety systems, containment, safety features for water reactor

  19. Reactor operation

    CERN Document Server

    Shaw, J

    2013-01-01

    Reactor Operation covers the theoretical aspects and design information of nuclear reactors. This book is composed of nine chapters that also consider their control, calibration, and experimentation.The opening chapters present the general problems of reactor operation and the principles of reactor control and operation. The succeeding chapters deal with the instrumentation, start-up, pre-commissioning, and physical experiments of nuclear reactors. The remaining chapters are devoted to the control rod calibrations and temperature coefficient measurements in the reactor. These chapters also exp

  20. Systematic Methodology for Reproducible Optimizing Batch Operation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonné, Dennis; Jørgensen, Sten Bay

    2006-01-01

    contribution furthermore presents how the asymptotic convergence of Iterative Learning Control is combined with the closed-loop performance of Model Predictive Control to form a robust and asymptotically stable optimal controller for ensuring reliable and reproducible operation of batch processes....... This controller may also be used for Optimizing control. The modeling and control performance is demonstrated on a fed-batch protein cultivation example. The presented methodologies lend themselves directly for application as Process Analytical Technologies (PAT).......This contribution presents a systematic methodology for rapid acquirement of discrete-time state space model representations of batch processes based on their historical operation data. These state space models are parsimoniously parameterized as a set of local, interdependent models. The present...

  1. Fuzzy batch controller for granular materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zamyatin Nikolaj

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper focuses on batch control of granular materials in production of building materials from fluorine anhydrite. Batching equipment is intended for smooth operation and timely feeding of supply hoppers at a required level. Level sensors and a controller of an asynchronous screw drive motor are used to control filling of the hopper with industrial anhydrite binders. The controller generates a required frequency and ensures required productivity of a feed conveyor. Mamdani-type fuzzy inference is proposed for controlling the speed of the screw that feeds mixture components. As related to production of building materials based on fluoride anhydrite, this method is used for the first time. A fuzzy controller is proven to be effective in controlling the filling level of the supply hopper. In addition, the authors determined optimal parameters of the batching process to ensure smooth operation and production of fluorine anhydrite materials of specified properties that can compete with gypsum-based products.

  2. Applied Meteorology Unit (AMU) Quarterly Report - Fourth Quarter FY-10

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauman, William; Crawford, Winifred; Barrett, Joe; Watson, Leela; Wheeler, Mark

    2010-01-01

    Three AMU tasks were completed in this Quarter, each resulting in a forecast tool now being used in operations and a final report documenting how the work was done. AMU personnel completed the following tasks (1) Phase II of the Peak Wind Tool for General Forecasting task by delivering an improved wind forecasting tool to operations and providing training on its use; (2) a graphical user interface (GUI) she updated with new scripts to complete the ADAS Update and Maintainability task, and delivered the scripts to the Spaceflight Meteorology Group on Johnson Space Center, Texas and National Weather Service in Melbourne, Fla.; and (3) the Verify MesoNAM Performance task after we created and delivered a GUI that forecasters will use to determine the performance of the operational MesoNAM weather model forecast.

  3. Control of Batch Processes Based on Hierarchical Petri Nets

    OpenAIRE

    YAJIMA, Tomoyuki; ITO, Takashi; HASHIZUME, Susumu; KURIMOTO, Hidekazu; ONOGI, Katsuaki

    2004-01-01

    A batch process is a typical concurrent system in which multiple interacting tasks are carried out in parallel on several batches at the same time. A major difficulty in designing a batch control system is the lack of modeling techniques. This paper aims at developing a method of constructing batch control system models in a hierarchical manner and operating batch processes using the constructed models. For this purpose, it first defines process and plant specifications described by partial l...

  4. Improving the throughput of batch photochemical reactions using flow: Dual photoredox and nickel catalysis in flow for C(sp2)C(sp3) cross-coupling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdiaj, Irini; Alcázar, Jesús

    2017-12-01

    We report herein the transfer of dual photoredox and nickel catalysis for C(sp 2 )C(sp 3 ) cross coupling form batch to flow. This new procedure clearly improves the scalability of the previous batch reaction by the reactor's size and operating time reduction, and allows the preparation of interesting compounds for drug discovery in multigram amounts. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. List of reports on reactor safety research from BMFT, CEA, EPRI, JSTA and USNRC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-10-01

    The list pursues the following order: Country of origin, problem area concerned, according to the Reactor Safety Research Programm of the BMFT, reporting organization. The list of reports appears quarterly. (orig./HP) [de

  6. Quarterly coal report, January--March 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-08-20

    The United States produced 242 million short tons of coal in the first quarter of 1993, a decrease of 6 percent (14 million short tons) from the amount produced during the first quarter of 1992. The decrease was due to a decline in production east of the Mississippi River. All major coal-producing States in this region had lower coal production levels led by West Virginia, which produced 5 million short tons less coal. The principal reasons for the overall drop in coal output compared to a year earlier were: A decrease in demand for US coal in foreign markets; a slower rate of producer/distributor stock build-up; and a drawn-down of electric utility coal stocks. Distribution of US coal in the first quarter of 1993 was 10 million short tons lower than in the first quarter of 1992, with 5 million short tons less distributed to both electric utilities and overseas markets. The average price of coal delivered to electric utilities during the first quarter of 1993 was $28.65 per short ton, the lowest value since the first quarter of 1980. Coal consumption in the first quarter of 1993 was 230 million short tons, 4 percent higher than in the first quarter of 1992, due primarily to a 5-percent increase in consumption at electric utility plants. Total consumer stocks, at 153 million short tons, and electric utility stocks, at 144 million short tons, were at their lowest quarterly level since the end of 1989. US. coal exports totaled 19 million short tons, 6 million short tons less than in the first quarter of 1992, and the lowest quarterly level since 1988. The decline was primarily due to a 1-million-short-ton drop in exports to each of the following destinations: Italy, France, Belgium and Luxembourg, and Canada.

  7. Quarterly coal report, January--March 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    The United States produced 242 million short tons of coal in the first quarter of 1993, a decrease of 6 percent (14 million short tons) from the amount produced during the first quarter of 1992. The decrease was due to a decline in production east of the Mississippi River. All major coal-producing States in this region had lower coal production levels led by West Virginia, which produced 5 million short tons less coal. The principal reasons for the overall drop in coal output compared to a year earlier were: A decrease in demand for US coal in foreign markets; a slower rate of producer/distributor stock build-up; and a drawn-down of electric utility coal stocks. Distribution of US coal in the first quarter of 1993 was 10 million short tons lower than in the first quarter of 1992, with 5 million short tons less distributed to both electric utilities and overseas markets. The average price of coal delivered to electric utilities during the first quarter of 1993 was $28.65 per short ton, the lowest value since the first quarter of 1980. Coal consumption in the first quarter of 1993 was 230 million short tons, 4 percent higher than in the first quarter of 1992, due primarily to a 5-percent increase in consumption at electric utility plants. Total consumer stocks, at 153 million short tons, and electric utility stocks, at 144 million short tons, were at their lowest quarterly level since the end of 1989. US. coal exports totaled 19 million short tons, 6 million short tons less than in the first quarter of 1992, and the lowest quarterly level since 1988. The decline was primarily due to a 1-million-short-ton drop in exports to each of the following destinations: Italy, France, Belgium and Luxembourg, and Canada

  8. Research Reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martens, Frederick H. [Argonne National Laboratory; Jacobson, Norman H.

    1968-09-01

    This booklet discusses research reactors - reactors designed to provide a source of neutrons and/or gamma radiation for research, or to aid in the investigation of the effects of radiation on any type of material.

  9. Nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Middleton, J.E.

    1977-01-01

    Reference is made to water cooled reactors and in particular to the cooling system of steam generating heavy water reactors (SGHWR). A two-coolant circuit is described for the latter. Full constructural details are given. (U.K.)

  10. Reactor Neutrinos

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Soo-Bong; Lasserre, Thierry; Wang, Yifang

    2013-01-01

    We review the status and the results of reactor neutrino experiments. Short-baseline experiments have provided the measurement of the reactor neutrino spectrum, and their interest has been recently revived by the discovery of the reactor antineutrino anomaly, a discrepancy between the reactor neutrino flux state of the art prediction and the measurements at baselines shorter than one kilometer. Middle and long-baseline oscillation experiments at Daya Bay, Double Chooz, and RENO provided very ...

  11. BOILING REACTORS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Untermyer, S.

    1962-04-10

    A boiling reactor having a reactivity which is reduced by an increase in the volume of vaporized coolant therein is described. In this system unvaporized liquid coolant is extracted from the reactor, heat is extracted therefrom, and it is returned to the reactor as sub-cooled liquid coolant. This reduces a portion of the coolant which includes vaporized coolant within the core assembly thereby enhancing the power output of the assembly and rendering the reactor substantially self-regulating. (AEC)

  12. Trend chart: wind power. Third quarter 2016

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reynaud, Didier

    2016-11-01

    This publication presents the wind energy situation of continental France and overseas territories during the third quarter 2016: total connected load, new connected facilities, regional distribution of wind power production, evolution of quarterly production, distribution of facilities versus power, evolution forecasts of the French wind power park, projects in progress, detailed regional results, methodology used

  13. Trend chart: wind power. Second quarter 2016

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reynaud, Didier

    2016-08-01

    This publication presents the wind energy situation of continental France and overseas territories during the second quarter 2016: total connected load, new connected facilities, regional distribution of wind power production, evolution of quarterly production, distribution of facilities versus power, evolution forecasts of the French wind power park, projects in progress, detailed regional results, methodology used

  14. Trend chart: biogas. First quarter 2016

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cavaud, Denis

    2016-05-01

    This publication presents the biogas industry situation of continental France and overseas territories during the first quarter 2016: total connected load of biogas power plants, new connected facilities, regional distribution of facilities, evolution of quarterly production, distribution of facilities versus power and type, evolution forecasts of biogas power generation, detailed regional results, biomethane injection in natural gas distribution systems, methodology used

  15. Trend chart: wind power. First quarter 2017

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2017-05-01

    This publication presents the wind energy situation of continental France and overseas territories during the first quarter 2017: total connected load, new connected facilities, regional distribution of wind power production, evolution of quarterly production, distribution of facilities versus power, evolution forecasts of the French wind power park, projects in progress, detailed regional results, methodology used

  16. Trend chart: wind power. First quarter 2016

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reynaud, Didier

    2016-05-01

    This publication presents the wind energy situation of continental France and overseas territories during the first quarter 2016: total connected load, new connected facilities, regional distribution of wind power production, evolution of quarterly production, distribution of facilities versus power, evolution forecasts of the French wind power park, projects in progress, detailed regional results, methodology used

  17. Trend chart: wind power. Third quarter 2015

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reynaud, Didier

    2015-11-01

    This publication presents the wind energy situation of continental France and overseas territories during the third quarter 2015: total connected load, new connected facilities, regional distribution of wind power production, evolution of quarterly production, distribution of facilities versus power, evolution forecasts of the French wind power park, projects in progress, detailed regional results, methodology used

  18. Trend chart: wind power. Forth quarter 2015

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reynaud, Didier

    2016-02-01

    This publication presents the wind energy situation of continental France and overseas territories during the forth quarter 2015: total connected load, new connected facilities, regional distribution of wind power production, evolution of quarterly production, distribution of facilities versus power, evolution forecasts of the French wind power park, projects in progress, detailed regional results, methodology used

  19. Trend chart: biogas. Forth quarter 2016

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cavaud, Denis

    2017-02-01

    This publication presents the biogas industry situation of continental France and overseas territories during the forth quarter 2016: total connected load of biogas power plants, new connected facilities, regional distribution of facilities, evolution of quarterly production, distribution of facilities versus power and type, evolution forecasts of biogas power generation, detailed regional results, biomethane injection in natural gas distribution systems, methodology used

  20. Trend chart: wind power. Forth quarter 2016

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coltier, Yves

    2017-02-01

    This publication presents the wind energy situation of continental France and overseas territories during the forth quarter 2016: total connected load, new connected facilities, regional distribution of wind power production, evolution of quarterly production, distribution of facilities versus power, evolution forecasts of the French wind power park, projects in progress, detailed regional results, methodology used

  1. Trend chart: biogas. Second quarter 2016

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cavaud, Denis

    2016-08-01

    This publication presents the biogas industry situation of continental France and overseas territories during the Second quarter 2016: total connected load of biogas power plants, new connected facilities, regional distribution of facilities, evolution of quarterly production, distribution of facilities versus power and type, evolution forecasts of biogas power generation, detailed regional results, biomethane injection in natural gas distribution systems, methodology used

  2. Trend chart: biogas. Third quarter 2016

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cavaud, Denis

    2016-11-01

    This publication presents the biogas industry situation of continental France and overseas territories during the third quarter 2016: total connected load of biogas power plants, new connected facilities, regional distribution of facilities, evolution of quarterly production, distribution of facilities versus power and type, evolution forecasts of biogas power generation, detailed regional results, biomethane injection in natural gas distribution systems, methodology used

  3. Trend chart: wind power. Fourth quarter 2017

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moreau, Sylvain

    2018-02-01

    This publication presents the wind energy situation of continental France and overseas territories during the fourth quarter 2017: total connected load, new connected facilities, regional distribution of wind power production, evolution of quarterly production, distribution of facilities versus power, evolution forecasts of the French wind power park, projects in progress, detailed regional results, revision of results

  4. Trend chart: wind power. Third quarter 2017

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2017-11-01

    This publication presents the wind energy situation of continental France and overseas territories during the third quarter 2017: total connected load, new connected facilities, regional distribution of wind power production, evolution of quarterly production, distribution of facilities versus power, evolution forecasts of the French wind power park, projects in progress, detailed regional results, revision of results

  5. Trend chart: wind power. Second quarter 2017

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2017-08-01

    This publication presents the wind energy situation of continental France and overseas territories during the second quarter 2017: total connected load, new connected facilities, regional distribution of wind power production, evolution of quarterly production, distribution of facilities versus power, evolution forecasts of the French wind power park, projects in progress, detailed regional results, revision of results

  6. Nigerian Quarterly Journal of Hospital Medicine

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nigerian Quarterly Journal of Hospital Medicine is published quarterly and the contents include articles in Medicine, Dentistry, Pharmaceutical and Basic Medical Sciences with emphasis on health problems and solutions relating to developing countries. The readership are in - Libraries, Teaching Hospitals, Universities, ...

  7. Reactor vessel

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Makkee, M.; Kapteijn, F.; Moulijn, J.A.

    1999-01-01

    A reactor vessel (1) comprises a reactor body (2) through which channels (3) are provided whose surface comprises longitudinal inwardly directed parts (4) and is provided with a catalyst (6), as well as buffer bodies (8, 12) connected to the channels (3) on both sides of the reactor body (2) and

  8. Weldon Spring Site Remedial Action Project quarterly environmental data summary (QEDS) for fourth quarter 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-02-01

    This report contains the Quarterly Environmental Data Summary (QEDS) for the fourth quarter of 1998 in support of the Weldon Spring Site Remedial Action Project Federal Facilities Agreement. The data, except for air monitoring data and site KPA generated data (uranium analyses) were received from the contract laboratories, verified by the Weldon Spring Site verification group, and merged into the database during the fourth quarter of 1998. KPA results for on-site total uranium analyses performed during fourth quarter 1998 are included. Air monitoring data presented are the most recent complete sets of quarterly data.

  9. Idaho National Laboratory Quarterly Occurrence Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitchell, Lisbeth Ann [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-11-01

    This report is published quarterly by the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) Quality and Performance Management Organization. The Department of Energy (DOE) Occurrence Reporting and Processing System (ORPS), as prescribed in DOE Order 232.2, “Occurrence Reporting and Processing of Operations Information,” requires a quarterly analysis of events, both reportable and not reportable, for the previous 12 months. This report is the analysis of 85 reportable events (18 from the 4th Qtr FY-15 and 67 from the prior three reporting quarters), as well as 25 other issue reports (including events found to be not reportable and Significant Category A and B conditions) identified at INL during the past 12 months (8 from this quarter and 17 from the prior three quarters).

  10. Monitoring of batch processes using spectroscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gurden, S. P.; Westerhuis, J. A.; Smilde, A. K.

    2002-01-01

    There is an increasing need for new techniques for the understanding, monitoring and the control of batch processes. Spectroscopy is now becoming established as a means of obtaining real-time, high-quality chemical information at frequent time intervals and across a wide range of industrial

  11. Exploring the Transition From Batch to Online

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Anker Helms

    2010-01-01

    The transition from using computers in batch mode with punch cards, paper tape, piles of print, and lengthy response times to online mode by way of the video display terminal took place in most organizations in the 1970s and 1980s. The video display terminal was a significant forerunner...

  12. Nuclear power reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-11-01

    After an introduction and general explanation of nuclear power the following reactor types are described: magnox thermal reactor; advanced gas-cooled reactor (AGR); pressurised water reactor (PWR); fast reactors (sodium cooled); boiling water reactor (BWR); CANDU thermal reactor; steam generating heavy water reactor (SGHWR); high temperature reactor (HTR); Leningrad (RMBK) type water-cooled graphite moderated reactor. (U.K.)

  13. Reactor physics and reactor computations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ronen, Y.; Elias, E.

    1994-01-01

    Mathematical methods and computer calculations for nuclear and thermonuclear reactor kinetics, reactor physics, neutron transport theory, core lattice parameters, waste treatment by transmutation, breeding, nuclear and thermonuclear fuels are the main interests of the conference

  14. Research reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merchie, Francois

    2015-10-01

    This article proposes an overview of research reactors, i.e. nuclear reactors of less than 100 MW. Generally, these reactors are used as neutron generators for basic research in matter sciences and for technological research as a support to power reactors. The author proposes an overview of the general design of research reactors in terms of core size, of number of fissions, of neutron flow, of neutron space distribution. He outlines that this design is a compromise between a compact enough core, a sufficient experiment volume, and high enough power densities without affecting neutron performance or its experimental use. The author evokes the safety framework (same regulations as for power reactors, more constraining measures after Fukushima, international bodies). He presents the main characteristics and operation of the two families which represent almost all research reactors; firstly, heavy water reactors (photos, drawings and figures illustrate different examples); and secondly light water moderated and cooled reactors with a distinction between open core pool reactors like Melusine and Triton, pool reactors with containment, experimental fast breeder reactors (Rapsodie, the Russian BOR 60, the Chinese CEFR). The author describes the main uses of research reactors: basic research, applied and technological research, safety tests, production of radio-isotopes for medicine and industry, analysis of elements present under the form of traces at very low concentrations, non destructive testing, doping of silicon mono-crystalline ingots. The author then discusses the relationship between research reactors and non proliferation, and finally evokes perspectives (decrease of the number of research reactors in the world, the Jules Horowitz project)

  15. First quarter 2006: sales up by 13.3% to euros 2,476 million

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-04-01

    The AREVA group's first quarter 2006 sales was euros 2,476 million, compared with euros 2,186 million for the same period in 2005, representing 13.3% growth in terms of reported data. Organic growth was 13.0%. Nuclear operations posted sales of euros 1,660 million, up 11.5% (up 11.6% like-for-like), and buoyant business volume marked by: net growth for the Front End Division (+20.4%), with 60% coming from volume-product mix effects and 40% from favorable price effects, especially for uranium supply and enrichment services; the contribution from the OL3 (Finland), Ling Ao-Phase II (China) and Flamanville 3 EPR (France) reactor projects, which boosted the Reactors and Services Division's sales by 13.2%; a slight decrease in the Back End Division (-2.5%). The Transmission and Distribution Division posted sales of euros 817 million, representing strong organic growth (up 16.6%), consistent with the increase in orders recorded in 2005. Orders booked in the first quarter of 2006 were up by 15.4% like-for-like (up 25.4% in reported data) compared with the first quarter of 2005. For 2006, the Group expects net growth in sales, like-for-like, although not at the particularly high levels of the first quarter

  16. Reactor container

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ichiki, Tadaharu; Nagatomi, Shozo.

    1976-01-01

    Object: To provide a jet and missile protective wall of a configuration being inflated toward the center of a reactor container on the inside of a body of the reactor container disposed within a biological shield wall to thereby increase safety of the reactor container. Structure: A jet and missile protective wall comprised of curved surfaces internally formed with a plurality of arch inflations filled with concrete between inner and outer iron plates and shape steel beam is provided between a reactor container surrounded by a biological shield wall and a thermal shield wall surrounding the reactor pressure vessel, and an adiabatic heat insulating material is filled in space therebetween. (Yoshino, Y.)

  17. Bulk Shielding Facility quarterly report, July, August, and September of 1976

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hurt, III, S. S.; Lance, E. D.; Thomas, J. R.

    1977-06-01

    The BSR operated at an average power level of 1637 kW for 50.05 percent of the time during July, August, and September. Water-quality control in both the reactor primary and secondary cooling systems was satisfactory. The BSR was operated at low and variable power during this quarter for 27.327 hours as part of the training programs for nuclear reactor operator trainees from Memphis State University. The PCA was also used in the above-mentioned training programs and was operated on six occasions when the Oak Ridge Associated Universities or Memphis State University students actively participated in training laboratories.

  18. Third quarter 2005 sales figures; Chiffre d'affaires du 3. trimestre 2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    With manufacturing facilities in over 40 countries and a sales network in over 100, AREVA offers customers technological solutions for nuclear power generation and electricity transmission and distribution. The group also provides interconnect systems to the telecommunications, computer and automotive markets. This document presents the sales figures of the group for the third quarter of 2005: sales revenues in the front end division, in the reactor and services division, in the back end division and in the transmission and distribution division.

  19. SEMI-BATCH OPERATED CONSTRUCTED WETLANDS PLANTED WITH PHRAGMITES AUSTRALIS FOR TREATMENT OF DYEING WASTEWATER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SOON-AN ONG

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective of present study is to evaluate the using of constructed wetland under semi-batch operation for the treatment of azo dye Acid Orange 7 (AO7 containing wastewater. The emergent plant selected in our study was Phragmites australis. Toxic signs were observed at the Phragmites australis after the addition of AO7 into the wetland reactors but it can adapt to the wastewater as shown in the increase of stem as the operation continue. Our result shows that the artificial aeration and the presence of Phragmites australis had a significant impact on the removal of organic matters, AO7, aromatic amines and NH4-N. The COD removal efficiency in the aerated and non-aerated wetland reactors was 95 and 62%, respectively. The NH4-N removal efficiency in the aerated wetland reactor (86% was significantly higher than the non-aerated wetland reactor (14 %. All wetland reactors show high removal efficiency of AO7 (> 94% but only the aerated wetland reactor perform better in the removal of aromatic amines.

  20. Monte Carlo simulation on kinetics of batch and semi-batch free radical polymerization

    KAUST Repository

    Shao, Jing

    2015-10-27

    Based on Monte Carlo simulation technology, we proposed a hybrid routine which combines reaction mechanism together with coarse-grained molecular simulation to study the kinetics of free radical polymerization. By comparing with previous experimental and simulation studies, we showed the capability of our Monte Carlo scheme on representing polymerization kinetics in batch and semi-batch processes. Various kinetics information, such as instant monomer conversion, molecular weight, and polydispersity etc. are readily calculated from Monte Carlo simulation. The kinetic constants such as polymerization rate k p is determined in the simulation without of “steady-state” hypothesis. We explored the mechanism for the variation of polymerization kinetics those observed in previous studies, as well as polymerization-induced phase separation. Our Monte Carlo simulation scheme is versatile on studying polymerization kinetics in batch and semi-batch processes.