WorldWideScience

Sample records for batch reaction-separation systems

  1. Computer aided design, analysis and experimental investigation of membrane assisted batch reaction-separation systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mitkowski, Piotr Tomasz; Buchaly, Carsten; Kreis, Peter;

    2009-01-01

    Membrane assisted batch reaction operation offers an interesting option for equilibrium limited reaction systems in chemical and biochemical manufacturing by selective removal of one of the products and thereby increasing the product yield. The design of such hybrid systems need to take into acco...... and separation functionalities and to design/analyse the hybrid scheme. The generated hybrid scheme has been validated through experiments involving an esterification reaction....

  2. A Systematic Approach for the Design and Analysis of Reaction-Separation Systems with Recycle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gani, Rafiqul; Jimenez, Edgar Ramirez

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents a methodology for a systematic model-based analysis and the results obtained from it for an integrated design and analysis of reaction-separation systems with recycle. The methodology (systematic approach) consists of three stages where stage 1 identifies the limiting values o...

  3. Multiphase surfactant-assisted reaction-separation system in a microchannel reactor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Salah ALJBOUR; Tomohiko TAGAWA; Mohammad MATOUQ; Hiroshi YAMADA

    2009-01-01

    The Lewis acid-catalyzed addition of tri-methylsilyl cyanide to p-chlorobenzaldehyde in a micro-channel reactor was investigated. The microchannel was integrated to promote both reaction and separation of the biphase system. FeF3 and Cu(triflate)2 were used as water-stable Lewis acid catalysts. Sodium dodecyl sulfate was incorporated in the organic-aqueous system to enhance the reactivity and to manipulate the multiphase flow inside the microchannel. It was found that the dynamics and the kinetics of the multiphase reaction were affected by the new micellar system. Parallel multiphase flow inside the microchannel was obtained, allowing for continuous and acceptable phase separation. Enhanced selectivity was achieved by operating at lower conversion values.

  4. Batching System for Superior Service

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-01-01

    Veridian's Portable Batch System (PBS) was the recipient of the 1997 NASA Space Act Award for outstanding software. A batch system is a set of processes for managing queues and jobs. Without a batch system, it is difficult to manage the workload of a computer system. By bundling the enterprise's computing resources, the PBS technology offers users a single coherent interface, resulting in efficient management of the batch services. Users choose which information to package into "containers" for system-wide use. PBS also provides detailed system usage data, a procedure not easily executed without this software. PBS operates on networked, multi-platform UNIX environments. Veridian's new version, PBS Pro,TM has additional features and enhancements, including support for additional operating systems. Veridian distributes the original version of PBS as Open Source software via the PBS website. Customers can register and download the software at no cost. PBS Pro is also available via the web and offers additional features such as increased stability, reliability, and fault tolerance.A company using PBS can expect a significant increase in the effective management of its computing resources. Tangible benefits include increased utilization of costly resources and enhanced understanding of computational requirements and user needs.

  5. Batch and Fed-Batch Fermentation System on Ethanol Production from Whey using Kluyveromyces marxianus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Hadiyanto

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays reserve of fossil fuel has gradually depleted. This condition forces many researchers to  find energy alternatives which is renewable and sustainable in the future. Ethanol derived from cheese industrial waste (whey using fermentation process can be a new perspective in order to secure both energy and environment. The aim of this study was  to compare the operation modes (batch and fed-batch of fermentation system on ethanol production from whey using Kluyveromyces marxianus. The result showed that the fermentation process for ethanol production by fed-batch system was higher at some point of parameters compared with batch system. Growth rate and ethanol yield (YP/S of fed-batch fermentation were 0.122/h and 0.21 gP/gS respectively; growth rate and ethanol yield (YP/S of batch fermentation were 0.107/h, and 0.12 g ethanol/g substrate, respectively. Based on the data of biomass and ethanol concentrations, the fermentation process for ethanol production by fed-batch system were higher at some point of parameters compared to batch system. Periodic substrate addition performed on fed-batch system leads the yeast growth in low substrate concentrations and consequently  increasing their activity and ethanol productivity. Keywords: batch; ethanol; fed-batch; fermentation;Kluyveromyces marxianus, whey

  6. PBSNG—Batch System for Farm Architecture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    J.Fromm; K.Genser; 等

    2001-01-01

    FBSNG [1] is a redesigned version of Farm Batch System (FBS[1]),which was developed as a batch process management system for off-line Run II data processing at FNAL.FBSNG is designed for UNIX computer farms and is capable of managing up to 1000 nodes in a single farm.FBSNG allows users to start arrays of parallel processes on one or more farm computers,It uses a simplified abstract resource counting method for load balancing between computers.The resource counting approach allows FBSNG to be a simple and flexible tool for farm resource management.FBSNG scheduler features include guaranteed and controllable” fair-share” scheduling.FBSNG is easily portable across different flavors of UNIX.The system has been successfully used at Fermilab as well as by off-site collaborators for several years on farms of different sizes and different platforms for off-line data processing,Monte-Carlo data generation and other tasks.

  7. Accuracy Enhancement of Electrotechnical System for Bulk Material Batching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bukreev Victor G.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In the paper an automatic system for batching and mixing the components of combined feed is considered. A novel algorithm has been proposed for the batching error correction caused by mass of the material column dropping into the batching bin. The proposed algorithm has been validated in a simulation model and in an experimental facility.

  8. Batch Private Keys Generation for RSA in Security Communication Systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Yun; CHEN Xin

    2005-01-01

    RSA public key cryptosystem is extensively used in information security systems.However, key generation for RSA cryptosystem requires multiplicative inversion over finite field, which has higher computational complexity, compared with either multiplication in common sense or modular multiplication over finite field. In order to improve the performance of key generation, we propose a batch private keys generation method in this paper. The method derives efficiency from cutting down multiplicative inversions over finite field. Theoretical analysis shows that the speed of batch private keys generation for s users is faster than that of s times solo private key generation. It is suitable for applications in those systems with large amount of users.

  9. CONVERSION OF PINEAPPLE JUICE WASTE INTO LACTIC ACID IN BATCH AND FED – BATCH FERMENTATION SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah Mochamad Busairi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Pineapple juice waste contains valuable components, which are mainly sucrose, glucose, and fructose. Recently, lactic acid has been considered to be an important raw material for the production of biodegradable lactide polymer. The fermentation experiments were carried out in a 3 litres fermentor (Biostat B Model under anaerobic condition with stirring speed of 50 rpm, temperature at 40oC, and pH of 6.00. Effect of feed concentration on lactic acid production, bacterial growth, substrate utilisation and productivity was studied. The results obtained from fed- batch culture fermentation showed that the maximum lactic acid productivity was 0.44 g/L.h for feed concentration of 90 g/L at 48 hours. Whereas the lactic acid productivity obtained from fed-batch culture was twice and half fold higher than that of batch culture productivity.  Buangan jus nanas mengandung komponen yang berharga terutama sukrosa, glukosa, dan fruktosa. Asam laktat adalah bahan baku yang terbaru dan penting untuk dibuat sebagai polimer laktat yang dapat terdegradasi oleh lingkungan. Percobaan dilakukan pada fermentor 3 liter (Model Biostat B di bawah kondisi anaerob dengan kecepatan pengadukan 50 rpm, temperatur 40oC, dan pH 6,00. Pengaruh konsentrasi umpan terhadap produksi asam laktat, pertumbuhan mikroba, pengggunaan substrat dan produktivitas telah dipelajari. Hasil yang didapatkan pada fermentasi dengan menggunakan sistem fed-batch menunjukkan bahwa produktivitas asam laktat maksimum adalah 0.44 g/L,jam dengan konsentrasi umpan, 90 g/L pada waktu 48 jam. Bahkan produktivitas asam laktat yang didapat pada kultur fed-batch lebih tinggi 2,5 kali dari pada proses menggunakan sistem batch

  10. Persistence of Escherichia coli in batch and continuous vermicomposting systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hénault-Ethier, Louise; Martin, Vincent J J; Gélinas, Yves

    2016-10-01

    Vermicomposting is a biooxidation process in which epigeicearthworms act in synergy with microbial populations to degrade organic matter. Vermicomposting does not go through a thermophilic stage as required by North American legislations for pathogen eradication. We examined the survival of a Green Fluorescent Protein (GFP) labeled Escherichia coli MG1655 as a model for the survival of pathogenic bacteria in both small-scale batch and medium-scale continuously-operated systems to discern the influence of the earthworm Eisenia fetida, nutrient content and the indigenous vermicompost microbial community on pathogen abundance. In batch systems, the microbial community had the greatest influence on the rapid decline of E. coli populations, and the effect of earthworms was only visible in microbially-impoverishedvermicomposts. No significant earthworm density-dependent relationship was observed on E. coli survival under continuous operation. E. coli numbers decreased below the US EPA compost sanitation guidelines of 10(3)Colony Forming Units (CFU)/g (dry weight) within 18-21days for both the small-scale batch and medium-scale continuous systems, but it took up to 51days without earthworms and with an impoverished microbial community to reach the legal limit. Nutrient replenishment (i.e. organic carbon) provided by continuous feed input did not appear to extend E. coli survival. In fact, longer survival of E. coli was noticed in treatments where less total and labile sugars were available, suggesting that sugars may support potentially antagonist bacteria in the vermicompost. Total N, pH and humidity did not appear to affect E. coli survival. Several opportunistic human pathogens may be found in vermicompost, and their populations are likely kept in check by antagonists.

  11. A CATASTROPHIC-CUM-RESTORATIVE QUEUING SYSTEM WITH CORRELATED BATCH ARRIVALS AND VARIABLE CAPACITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rakesh Kumar

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we study a catastrophic-cum-restorative queuing system with correlated batch arrivals and service in batches of variable sizes. We perform the transient analysis of the queuing model. We obtain the Laplace Transform of the probability generating function of system size. Finally, some particular cases of the model have been derived and discussed. Keywords: Queue length, Catastrophes, Correlated batch arrivals, Broadband services, Variable service capacity, and Restoration.

  12. Ship Lock as General Queuing System with Batch Arrivals and Batch Service

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoran Radmilović

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available The real lock operations with ships and barge convoys areconsidered dependent on the transport technologies applied, ormore precisely, the kinds of ships/convoys requiring thelockage. The fleet can be divided as follows: (1 groups of singleships, (2 pushed and pulled tows of barges and (3 differentcombinations of previous systems (1 and (2. The groups ofships and tows passing through the lock have extremely stochasticcharacteristics thus forming various arrivals and setvicetime patterns. It means that uniform navigation or strongscheduling between locks and lock operations are not possibleeven though highly sophisticated equipment is at disposal.Therefore, in this paper an analytical method was developedusing bulk queuing systems for the analysis and planning oflock requirements supporting it with numerical example. Thedeveloped methodology can be applied to determine the meanqueue length of ships - convoys at lock anchorage, withoutblocking behaviour between upstream and downstream navigationfor single-lane traffic.

  13. Efficient estimation of the maximum metabolic productivity of batch systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    St. John, Peter C.; Crowley, Michael F.; Bomble, Yannick J.

    2017-01-31

    Production of chemicals from engineered organisms in a batch culture involves an inherent trade-off between productivity, yield, and titer. Existing strategies for strain design typically focus on designing mutations that achieve the highest yield possible while maintaining growth viability. While these methods are computationally tractable, an optimum productivity could be achieved by a dynamic strategy in which the intracellular division of resources is permitted to change with time. New methods for the design and implementation of dynamic microbial processes, both computational and experimental, have therefore been explored to maximize productivity. However, solving for the optimal metabolic behavior under the assumption that all fluxes in the cell are free to vary is a challenging numerical task. Previous studies have therefore typically focused on simpler strategies that are more feasible to implement in practice, such as the time-dependent control of a single flux or control variable.

  14. An order-picking operations system for managing the batching activities in a warehouse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Cathy H. Y.; Choy, K. L.; Ho, G. T. S.; Lee, C. K. M.

    2014-06-01

    Nowadays, customer orders with high product variety in small quantities are often received and requested for timely delivery. However, the order-picking process is a labour-intensive and costly activity to handle those small orders separately. In such cases, small orders are often grouped into batches so that two or more orders can be served at once to increase the picking efficiency and thus reduce the travel distance. In this paper, an order-picking operations system (OPOS) is proposed to assist the formulation of an order-picking plan and batch-handling sequence. The study integrates a mathematical model and fuzzy logic technique to divide the receiving orders into batches and prioritise the batch-handling sequence for picking, respectively. Through the proposed system, the order-picking process can be managed as batches with common picking locations to minimise the travel distance, and the batch-picking sequence can be determined as well. To demonstrate the use of the system, a case study in a third-party logistics warehouse is presented, and the result shows that both the order-picking activity and labour utilisation can be better organised.

  15. The Removal of Uranium onto Nanoscale Zero-Valent Iron Particles in Anoxic Batch Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard A. Crane

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The removal of uranium (U onto nanoscale zero-valent iron particles has been studied for uranium-bearing mine water and synthetic uranyl solutions in the presence and absence of dissolved oxygen. The work has been conducted in order to investigate the differential nanoparticle corrosion behaviour and associated mechanisms of U removal behaviour in conditions representative of near-surface and deep groundwater systems. Batch systems were analysed over a 28-day reaction period during which the liquid and nanoparticulate solids were periodically analysed to determine chemical evolution of the solutions and particulates. Analysis of aqueous samples using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry recorded near-total U removal after 1 hour of reaction in all systems studied. However, in the latter stages of the reaction (after 48 hours, significant rerelease of uranium was recorded for the mine water batch system with dissolved O2 present. In contrast, less than 2% uranium rerelease was recorded for the anoxic batch system. Concurrent analysis of extracted nanoparticle solids using X-ray diffraction recorded significantly slower corrosion of the nanoparticles in the anoxic batch system, with residual metallic iron maintained until after 28 days of reaction compared to only 7 days of reaction in systems with dissolved O2 present. Results provide clear evidence that the corrosion lifespan and associated U6+ removal efficacy of nanoscale zero-valent iron replace enhanced in the absence of dissolved oxygen.

  16. Modelling and pathway identification involving the transport mechanism of a complex metabolic system in batch culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Jinlong; Zhang, Xu; Zhu, Xi; Feng, Enmin; Yin, Hongchao; Xiu, Zhilong

    2014-06-01

    The bio-dissimilation of glycerol to 1,3-propanediol (1,3-PD) by Klebsiella pneumoniae (K. pneumoniae) can be characterized by a complex metabolic system of interactions among biochemical fluxes, metabolic compounds, key enzymes and genetic regulation. In this paper, in consideration of the fact that the transport ways of 1,3-PD and glycerol with different weights across cell membrane are still unclear in batch culture, we consider 121 possible metabolic pathways and establish a novel mathematical model which is represented by a complex metabolic system. Taking into account the difficulty in accurately measuring the concentration of intracellular substances and the absence of equilibrium point for the metabolic system of batch culture, the novel approach used here is to define quantitatively biological robustness of the intracellular substance concentrations for the overall process of batch culture. To determine the most possible metabolic pathway, we take the defined biological robustness as cost function and establish an identification model, in which 1452 system parameters and 484 pathway parameters are involved. Simultaneously, the identification model is subject to the metabolic system, continuous state constraints and parameter constraints. As such, solving the identification model by a serial program is a very complicated task. We propose a parallel migration particle swarm optimization algorithm (MPSO) capable of solving the identification model in conjunction with the constraint transcription and smoothing approximation techniques. Numerical results show that the most possible metabolic pathway and the corresponding metabolic system can reasonably describe the process of batch culture.

  17. Modelling, Design, Operability and Analysis of Reaction-Separation Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jimenez, Edgar Ramirez

    2006-01-01

    opførsel er essentiel for bedste valg af operationsstrategi kontrolstruktur. Denne modelbaserede metode har vist sit potentiale for mere komplekse RSE processer til at identificere de vigtigste problemer fra det integrerede design og kontrolproblem. Bemærk at identifikationen af de vigtige design og...

  18. Batch process. Batch plant scheduling using an intelligent system developing tool (G2); Interijento system kaihatsu tsuru ( G2 ) wo mochiita bacchi puranto sukejuringu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fukuoka, H. [Itochu Technology Science Co. Ltd. (Japan)

    1997-09-05

    G2 is used in many industrial fields as a tool capable of forming in a comparatively short period of time various kinds of high-degree intelligent system including a scheduling system. This paper introduces G2, and then describes a batch scheduling system. The software techniques provided by G2 include the techniques concerning a real time system, an expert system, a graphic user interface, and object-oriented security network. G2 has a striking feature that it is a developing tool adapted to enable these software techniques to be utilized in a united environment. A program developed by G2 has a feature that it can be operated as it is without changing the source program at all even when the program is used in a machine of another OS. The paper introduces a beer production scheduling system as an actual example. 3 figs.

  19. CONWIP card setting in a flow-shop system with a batch production machine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcello Braglia

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an analytical technique to determine the optimum number of cards to control material release in a CONWIP system. The work focuses on the card setting problem for a flow-shop system characterised by the presence of a batch processing machine (e.g. a kiln for long heat treatment. To control production, two different static approaches are developed: the first one is used when the bottleneck coincides with the batch processing machine and the second one is proposed when the bottleneck is another machine of the flow shop. In both contexts, by means of the appropriate model, one can optimize the performance of the flow-shop by maximizing the throughput and keeping the work in process at a minimum level. Numerical examples are also included in the paper to confirm the validity of the models and to demonstrate their practical utility.

  20. Optimality of affine control system of several species in competition on a Sequential Batch Reactor

    OpenAIRE

    J. C. Rodriguez; Ramirez, Hector; Gajardo, Pedro; Rapaport, Alain

    2014-01-01

    International audience; In this paper we analyze the optimalty of affine control system of several species in competition for a single substrate on a Sequential Batch Reactors (SBR), with the objective being to reach a given (low) level of the substrate. We allow controls to be bounded measurable functions of time plus possible impulses. A suitable modification of the dynamics leads to a slightly different optimal control problem, without impulsive controls, for which we apply different optim...

  1. Tabu Search Heuristics for the Order Batching Problem in Manual Order Picking Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Sebastian Henn; Gerhard Wäscher

    2010-01-01

    In manual order picking systems, order pickers walk or ride through a distribution warehouse in order to collect items requested by (internal or external) customers. In order to perform these operations efficiently, it is usually required that customer orders are combined into (more substantial) picking orders of limited size. The Order Batching Problem considered in this paper deals with the question of how a given set of customer orders should be combined such that the total length of all t...

  2. Metaheuristics for Order Batching and Sequencing in Manual Order Picking Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Sebastian Henn; Verena Schmid

    2011-01-01

    Order picking deals with the retrieval of articles from their storage locations in order to satisfy customer requests. A major issue in manual order picking systems concerns of the transformation and consolidation of customer orders into picking orders (order batching). In practice, customer orders have to be completed by certain due dates in order to avoid delay in the shipment to customers or in production. The composition of the picking orders, their processing times and the sequence accor...

  3. Testing SLURM open source batch system for a Tierl/Tier2 HEP computing facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donvito, Giacinto; Salomoni, Davide; Italiano, Alessandro

    2014-06-01

    In this work the testing activities that were carried on to verify if the SLURM batch system could be used as the production batch system of a typical Tier1/Tier2 HEP computing center are shown. SLURM (Simple Linux Utility for Resource Management) is an Open Source batch system developed mainly by the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, SchedMD, Linux NetworX, Hewlett-Packard, and Groupe Bull. Testing was focused both on verifying the functionalities of the batch system and the performance that SLURM is able to offer. We first describe our initial set of requirements. Functionally, we started configuring SLURM so that it replicates all the scheduling policies already used in production in the computing centers involved in the test, i.e. INFN-Bari and the INFN-Tier1 at CNAF, Bologna. Currently, the INFN-Tier1 is using IBM LSF (Load Sharing Facility), while INFN-Bari, an LHC Tier2 for both CMS and Alice, is using Torque as resource manager and MAUI as scheduler. We show how we configured SLURM in order to enable several scheduling functionalities such as Hierarchical FairShare, Quality of Service, user-based and group-based priority, limits on the number of jobs per user/group/queue, job age scheduling, job size scheduling, and scheduling of consumable resources. We then show how different job typologies, like serial, MPI, multi-thread, whole-node and interactive jobs can be managed. Tests on the use of ACLs on queues or in general other resources are then described. A peculiar SLURM feature we also verified is triggers on event, useful to configure specific actions on each possible event in the batch system. We also tested highly available configurations for the master node. This feature is of paramount importance since a mandatory requirement in our scenarios is to have a working farm cluster even in case of hardware failure of the server(s) hosting the batch system. Among our requirements there is also the possibility to deal with pre-execution and post

  4. Design and Analysis of Integrated Predictive Iterative Learning Control for Batch Process Based on Two-dimensional System Theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen Chen; Zhihua Xiong; Yisheng Zhong

    2014-01-01

    Based on the two-dimensional (2D) system theory, an integrated predictive iterative learning control (2D-IPILC) strategy for batch processes is presented. First, the output response and the error transition model predictions along the batch index can be calculated analytically due to the 2D Roesser model of the batch process. Then, an integrated framework of combining iterative learning control (ILC) and model predictive control (MPC) is formed reasonably. The output of feedforward ILC is estimated on the basis of the predefined process 2D model. By min-imizing a quadratic objective function, the feedback MPC is introduced to obtain better control performance for tracking problem of batch processes. Simulations on a typical batch reactor demonstrate that the satisfactory tracking performance as wel as faster convergence speed can be achieved than traditional proportion type (P-type) ILC despite the model error and disturbances.

  5. Experience with a distributed control system toolkit in a batch application; Erfahrungen mit einem Prozessleitsystem Toolkit in einer Batch-Anwendung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eisenbach, B. [Bayer AG, Leverkusen (Germany); Hennecke, H. [Lang und Peitler Automation GmbH, Leverkusen (Germany)

    1999-07-01

    At Bayer AG structured automation solutions have been implemented for years on Simatic S5 systems using a software specially developed for this purpose. Due to the benefits gained during implementation and especially during commissioning as well as due to the uniform documentation, this structure was transferred to the new Siemens distributed control system PCS7 in form of the Bayer S7 ToolKit. The S7 ToolKit has been applied successfully in various projects. The following article describes the application of the Bayer S7 ToolKit with regard to basic functions and batch applications. (orig.) [German] Bei der Bayer AG wird seit Jahren eine strukturierte Automatisierung bei Simatic S5-Projekten mit einem eigens dafuer entwickelten Softwaresystem realisiert. Durch die positiven Erfahrungen sowohl in der Projektierung, der vereinfachten Inbetriebnahme und der einheitlichen Dokumentation wurde diese Struktur auch auf das neue Siemens-Prozessleitsystem PCS7 in Form des S7 ToolKits uebetragen. In einer Reihe von Projekten wurde das Bayer S7 ToolKit schon angewendet. Im folgenden wird ueber den Einsatz des ToolKits in Verbindung mit Grundfunktions-Fahrweisen und einer Batch-Anwendung berichtet. (orig.)

  6. INVESTIGATION OF INTERMITTENT CHLORINATION SYSTEM IN BIOLOGICAL EXCESS SLUDGE REDUCTION BY SEQUENCING BATCH REACTORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Takdastan ، N. Mehrdadi ، A. A. Azimi ، A. Torabian ، G. Nabi Bidhendi

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The excessive biological sludge production is one of the disadvantages of aerobic wastewater treatment processes such as sequencing batch reactors. To solve the problem of excess sludge production, oxidizing some of the sludge by chlorine, thus reducing the biomass coefficient as well as the sewage sludge disposal may be a suitable idea. In this study, two sequencing batch reactors, each with 20 L volume and controlled by on-line system were used. After providing the steady state conditions in the reactors, sampling and testing of parameters were done during 8 months. The results showed that during the solid retention time of 10 days the kinetic coefficient of Y and Kd were 0.58 mg biomass/mg COD and 0.058/day, respectively. At the next stage, different concentrations of chlorine were used in the reactors intermittently. Results showed that 15 mg chlorine/gMLSS in the reactor was able to reduce the yield coefficient from 0.58 to 0.3 mg biomass/mg COD. In other words, the biological excess sludge was reduced about 48%. But the soluble chemical oxygen demand increased slightly in the effluent and the removal percentage decreased from 95% in the blank reactor to 55% in the test reactor.

  7. Algae for controlled ecological life support system diet characterization of cyanobacteria 'spirulina' in batch cultures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tadros, M. G.

    1990-01-01

    Spirulina sp. is a bioregenerative photosynthetic and edible alga for space craft crews in a Closed Ecological Life Support System (CLESS). It was characterized for growth rate and biomass yield in batch cultures, under various environmental conditions. The cell characteristics were identified for one strain of Spirulina: S. maxima. Fast growth rate and high yield were obtained. The partitioning of the assimulatory products (proteins, carbohydrates, lipids) were manipulated by varying the environmental conditions. Experiments with Spirulina demonstrated that under stress conditions carbohydrate increased at the expense of protein. In other experiments, where the growth media were sufficient in nutrients and incubated under optimum growth conditions, the total proteins were increased up to almost 70 percent of the organic weight. In other words, the nutritional quality of the alga could be manipulated by growth conditions. These results support the feasibility of considering Spirulina as a subsystem in CELSS because of the ease with which its nutrient content can be manipulated.

  8. Temperature control of bench-scaled batch reactor equipped with a monofluid heating/cooling system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teng, Hai-peng; Song, Yi-ming

    2014-04-01

    An advanced control concept, Predictive Functional Control (PFC), is applied for temperature control of a bench-scaled batch reactor equipped with monofluid heating/cooling system. First principles process models are developed. Based on achieved models, significant process variables, which are difficult or impossible to measure online, are estimated from easily measured variables, and cascade PFC control strategy has been projected and implemented in Matlab R14. The dynamics of individual subunits is explicitly taken into consideration by internal model in the control algorithms, and model uncertainty, various process disturbances are compensated by modification of internal model. The experimental results present an excellent capability of tracking the set point, and the success of PFC technique as a process control paradigm is illustratively demonstrated.

  9. Ethanol Production from Whey by Kluyveromyces marxianus in Batch Fermentation System: Kinetics Parameters Estimation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dessy Ariyanti

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Whey is the liquid remaining after milk has been curdled and strained. It is a by-product of the manufacture of cheese or casein and has several commercial uses. In environmental point of view, whey is kind of waste which has high pollution level due to it’s contain high organic compound with BOD and COD value 50 and 80 g/L respectively. On the other side, whey also contain an amount of lactose (4.5%-5%; lactose can be used as carbon source and raw material for producing ethanol via fermentation using yeast strain Kluyveromyces marxianus. The objective of this research is to investigate the ethanol production kinetics from crude whey through fermentation using Kluyveromyces marxianus and to predict the model kinetics parameter. The yeast was able to metabolize most of the lactose within 16 h to give 8.64 g/L ethanol, 4.43 g/L biomass, and remain the 3.122 g/L residual lactose. From the results presented it also can be concluded that common kinetic model for microbial growth, substrate consumption, and product formation is a good alternative to describe an experimental batch fermentation of Kluyveromyces marxianus grown on a medium composed of whey. The model was found to be capable of reflecting all batch culture phases to a certain degree of accuracy, giving the parameter value: μmax, Ks, YX/S, α, β : 0.32, 10.52, 0.095, 1.52, and 0.11 respectively. © 2013 BCREC UNDIP. All rights reserved(Selected Paper from International Conference on Chemical and Material Engineering (ICCME 2012Received: 27th September 2012; Revised: 29th November 2012; Accepted: 7th December 2012[How to Cite: D. Ariyanti, H. Hadiyanto, (2013. Ethanol Production from Whey by Kluyveromyces marxianus in Batch Fermentation System: Kinetics Parameters Estimation. Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering & Catalysis, 7 (3: 179-184. (doi:10.9767/bcrec.7.3.4044.179-184][Permalink/DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.9767/bcrec.7.3.4044.179-184 ] View in  |

  10. Nitrous Oxide Production in a Sequence Batch Reactor Wastewater Treatment System Using Synthetic Wastewater

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MAO Jian; JIANG Xiao-Qin; YANG Lin-Zhang; ZHANG Jian; QIAO Qing-Yun; HE Chen-Da; YIN Shi-Xue

    2006-01-01

    The rate of nitrous oxide emission from a laboratory sequence batch reactor (SBR) wastewater treatment system using synthetic wastewater was measured under controlled conditions. The SBR was operated in the mode of 4 h for aeration, 3.5 h for stirring without aeration, 0.5 h for settling and drainage, and 4 h of idle. The sludge was acclimated by running the system to achieve a stable running state as indicated by rhythmic changes of total N, dissolved oxygen,chemical oxygen demand, NO2-, NO3-, NH4+, pH, and N2O. Under the present experimental conditions measured nitrous oxide emitted from the off-gas in the aerobic and anaerobic phases, respectively, accounted for 8.6%-16.1% and 0-0.05%of N removed, indicating that the aerobic phase was the main source of N2O emission from the system. N2O dissolved in discharged water was considerable in term of concentration. Thus, measures to be developed for the purpose of reducing N2O emission from the system should be effective in the aeration phase.

  11. A batch system for HEP applications on a distributed IaaS cloud

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gable, I.; Agarwal, A.; Anderson, M.; Armstrong, P.; Fransham, K.; Leavett-Brown, D. Harris C.; Paterson, M.; Penfold-Brown, D.; Sobie, R. J.; Vliet, M.; Charbonneau, A.; Impey, R.; Podaima, W.

    2011-12-01

    The emergence of academic and commercial Infrastructure-as-a-Service (IaaS) clouds is opening access to new resources for the HEP community. In this paper we will describe a system we have developed for creating a single dynamic batch environment spanning multiple IaaS clouds of different types (e.g. Nimbus, OpenNebula, Amazon EC2). A HEP user interacting with the system submits a job description file with a pointer to their VM image. VM images can either be created by users directly or provided to the users. We have created a new software component called Cloud Scheduler that detects waiting jobs and boots the user VM required on any one of the available cloud resources. As the user VMs appear, they are attached to the job queues of a central Condor job scheduler, the job scheduler then submits the jobs to the VMs. The number of VMs available to the user is expanded and contracted dynamically depending on the number of user jobs. We present the motivation and design of the system with particular emphasis on Cloud Scheduler. We show that the system provides the ability to exploit academic and commercial cloud sites in a transparent fashion.

  12. Nisin production of Lactococcus lactis N8 with hemin-stimulated cell respiration in fed-batch fermentation system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kördikanlıoğlu, Burcu; Şimşek, Ömer; Saris, Per E J

    2015-01-01

    In this study, nisin production of Lactococcus lactis N8 was optimized by independent variables of glucose, hemin and oxygen concentrations in fed-batch fermentation in which respiration of cells was stimulated with hemin. Response surface model was able to explain the changes of the nisin production of L. lactis N8 in fed-batch fermentation system with high fidelity (R(2) 98%) and insignificant lack of fit. Accordingly, the equation developed indicated the optimum parameters for glucose, hemin, and dissolved oxygen were 8 g L(-1) h(-1) , 3 μg mL(-1) and 40%, respectively. While 1711 IU mL(-1) nisin was produced by L. lactis N8 in control fed-batch fermentation, 5410 IU mL(-1) nisin production was achieved within the relevant optimum parameters where the respiration of cell was stimulated with hemin. Accordingly, nisin production was enhanced 3.1 fold in fed-batch fermentation using hemin. In conclusion the nisin production of L. lactis N8 was enhanced extensively as a result of increasing the biomass by stimulating the cell respiration with adding the hemin in the fed-batch fermentation.

  13. Shortcut Procedure for Inverted Batch Distillation Column (Ⅰ) Multicomponent Ideal System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Inverted batch distillation colunm(stripper) is opposed to a conventional batch distillation column(rectifier). It has a storage vessel at the top and products leave the column at the bottom. The batch stripper is favourable to separate mixtures with a small amount of light components by removing the heavy components as bottom products. In this paper, we are presenting a shortcut procedure based on our earlier work for design and simulation of the inverted batch distillation column, which is equivalent to the Fenske-Underwood-Gilliland procedure for continuous distillation. Given a separation task, we propose to compute the minimum number of stages(Nbmin)and the minimum reboil ratio(Rbmin) required in a batch stripper,which are the stages and reboil ratio required in a hypothetical inverted batch distillation colnmn operating in total reboil ratio or having an infinite number of stages,respectively. Then, it is shown that the performance of inverted batch columns with a finite number of stages and reboil ratios could be correlated in Gilliland coordinates with the minimum stages Nbmin and the minimum reboil ratio Rbmin.

  14. Modelling of Batch Process Operations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2011-01-01

    Here a batch cooling crystalliser is modelled and simulated as is a batch distillation system. In the batch crystalliser four operational modes of the crystalliser are considered, namely: initial cooling, nucleation, crystal growth and product removal. A model generation procedure is shown...

  15. Changing the batch system in a Tier 1 computing center: why and how

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chierici, Andrea; Dal Pra, Stefano

    2014-06-01

    At the Italian Tierl Center at CNAF we are evaluating the possibility to change the current production batch system. This activity is motivated mainly because we are looking for a more flexible licensing model as well as to avoid vendor lock-in. We performed a technology tracking exercise and among many possible solutions we chose to evaluate Grid Engine as an alternative because its adoption is increasing in the HEPiX community and because it's supported by the EMI middleware that we currently use on our computing farm. Another INFN site evaluated Slurm and we will compare our results in order to understand pros and cons of the two solutions. We will present the results of our evaluation of Grid Engine, in order to understand if it can fit the requirements of a Tier 1 center, compared to the solution we adopted long ago. We performed a survey and a critical re-evaluation of our farming infrastructure: many production softwares (accounting and monitoring on top of all) rely on our current solution and changing it required us to write new wrappers and adapt the infrastructure to the new system. We believe the results of this investigation can be very useful to other Tier-ls and Tier-2s centers in a similar situation, where the effort of switching may appear too hard to stand. We will provide guidelines in order to understand how difficult this operation can be and how long the change may take.

  16. Metaheuristics for the Order Batching Problem in Manual Order Picking Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Henn

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available In manual order picking systems, order pickers walk or drive through a distribution warehouse in order to collect items which are requested by (internal or external customers. In order to perform these operations efficiently, it is usually required that customer orders are combined into (more substantial picking orders of limited size. The Order Batching Problem considered in this paper deals with the question of how a given set of customer orders should be combined such that the total length of all tours is minimized which are necessary to collect all items. The authors introduce two metaheuristic approaches for the solution of this problem: the first one is based on Iterated Local Search; the second on Ant Colony Optimization. In a series of extensive numerical experiments, the newly developed approaches are benchmarked against classic solution methods. It is demonstrated that the proposed methods are not only superior to existing methods but provide solutions which may allow distribution warehouses to be operated significantly more efficiently.

  17. THE DEVELOPMENT AND EXPERIMENTAL TESTING OF A FUZZY CONTROL SYSTEM FOR BATCH DISTILLATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.M.Frattini Fileti

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available The present work describes the development and implementation of fuzzy control algorithms in order to control on-line the overhead product composition of a batch distillation column. Firstly, the influence of design parameters was evaluated through computational simulations and then the algorithms were experimentally tested by monitoring a pilot column. Binary mixtures of n-hexane/n-heptane were distilled. Temperature measurements and vapor-liquid equilibrium data are the basis for the inference of overhead and bottom compositions. Two different operational strategies were used for the experimental runs: constant overhead product composition and previously determined set-point trajectory. Using the first strategy, the performance of the fuzzy controllers is compared to the performance of conventional feedback digital controllers. Experimental results show that fuzzy control presents a better performance than the conventional digital feedback control and also that fuzzy controllers were able to deal successfully with variable set-point strategy, albeit using constant design parameter values. Under conventional control, the average reflux rate implemented was higher than the average reflux rate implemented with fuzzy algorithms. Consequently, the process becomes less time- and energy-consuming under fuzzy control. Since fuzzy methodology is a promising new way of looking at process control problems and their solutions, the results of this work could provide control system designers with a better evaluation of the potential worth of fuzzy control.

  18. Repeated batch cell-immobilized system for the biotechnological production of xylitol as a renewable green sweetener.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarrouh, Boutros; da Silva, Silvio Silvério

    2013-04-01

    The present paper studies the biotechnological production of xylitol using sugarcane bagasse hydrolysate in a repeated batch fermentation system with immobilized cells of Candida guilliermondii FTI20037. Immobilized cell system is considered as an attractive alternative to reuse the well-grown and adapted yeast cells in a new fresh fermentation media, without the need of the inoculum stage. In this work, seven repeated batches were performed in a fluidized bed bioreactor using immobilized cells in calcium alginate beads. According to the obtained results it was observed that the immobilized cells of C. guilliermondii can be reused for six successive batches maintaining an average xylitol yield (Y(p/s)) of 0.7 g/L and a volumetric productivity (Q(p)) of 0.42 g/Lh at the end of 432 h of fermentation. On the other hand, in the seventh batch (504 h), a decrease of 44 % in the final concentration of xylitol was observed. This reduction can be explained by the possible diffusion and accumulation of insoluble substances, found in the hemicellulosic hydrolysate, in the interior of the immobilization support resulting in substrate mass transfer limitations.

  19. A general paradigm to model reaction-based biogeochemical processes in batch systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Yilin; Yeh, Gour-Tsyh; Burgos, William D.

    2003-04-01

    This paper presents the development and illustration of a numerical model of reaction-based geochemical and biochemical processes with mixed equilibrium and kinetic reactions. The objective is to provide a general paradigm for modeling reactive chemicals in batch systems, with expectations that it is applicable to reactive chemical transport problems. The unique aspects of the paradigm are to simultaneously (1) facilitate the segregation (isolation) of linearly independent kinetic reactions and thus enable the formulation and parameterization of individual rates one reaction by one reaction when linearly dependent kinetic reactions are absent, (2) enable the inclusion of virtually any type of equilibrium expressions and kinetic rates users want to specify, (3) reduce problem stiffness by eliminating all fast reactions from the set of ordinary differential equations governing the evolution of kinetic variables, (4) perform systematic operations to remove redundant fast reactions and irrelevant kinetic reactions, (5) systematically define chemical components and explicitly enforce mass conservation, (6) accomplish automation in decoupling fast reactions from slow reactions, and (7) increase the robustness of numerical integration of the governing equations with species switching schemes. None of the existing models to our knowledge has included these scopes simultaneously. This model (BIOGEOCHEM) is a general computer code to simulate biogeochemical processes in batch systems from a reaction-based mechanistic standpoint, and is designed to be easily coupled with transport models. To make the model applicable to a wide range of problems, programmed reaction types include aqueous complexation, adsorption-desorption, ion-exchange, oxidation-reduction, precipitation-dissolution, acid-base reactions, and microbial mediated reactions. In addition, user-specified reaction types can be programmed into the model. Any reaction can be treated as fast/equilibrium or slow

  20. Batch-mode Reinforcement Learning for improved hydro-environmental systems management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castelletti, A.; Galelli, S.; Restelli, M.; Soncini-Sessa, R.

    2010-12-01

    Despite the great progresses made in the last decades, the optimal management of hydro-environmental systems still remains a very active and challenging research area. The combination of multiple, often conflicting interests, high non-linearities of the physical processes and the management objectives, strong uncertainties in the inputs, and high dimensional state makes the problem challenging and intriguing. Stochastic Dynamic Programming (SDP) is one of the most suitable methods for designing (Pareto) optimal management policies preserving the original problem complexity. However, it suffers from a dual curse, which, de facto, prevents its practical application to even reasonably complex water systems. (i) Computational requirement grows exponentially with state and control dimension (Bellman's curse of dimensionality), so that SDP can not be used with water systems where the state vector includes more than few (2-3) units. (ii) An explicit model of each system's component is required (curse of modelling) to anticipate the effects of the system transitions, i.e. any information included into the SDP framework can only be either a state variable described by a dynamic model or a stochastic disturbance, independent in time, with the associated pdf. Any exogenous information that could effectively improve the system operation cannot be explicitly considered in taking the management decision, unless a dynamic model is identified for each additional information, thus adding to the problem complexity through the curse of dimensionality (additional state variables). To mitigate this dual curse, the combined use of batch-mode Reinforcement Learning (bRL) and Dynamic Model Reduction (DMR) techniques is explored in this study. bRL overcomes the curse of modelling by replacing explicit modelling with an external simulator and/or historical observations. The curse of dimensionality is averted using a functional approximation of the SDP value function based on proper non

  1. Evaluation of degree of readsorption of radionuclides during sequential extraction in soil: comparison between batch and dynamic extraction systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Roongrat; Hansen, Elo Harald; Hou, Xiaolin

    Sequential extraction techniques have been widely used to fractionate metals in solid samples (soils, sediments, solid wastes, etc.) due to their leachability. The results are useful for obtaining information about bioavailability, potential mobility and transport of element in natural environments...... developed in our laboratory for heavy metal fractionation has shown the reduction of readsorption problem in comparison with the batch techniques. Moreover, the system shows many advantages over the batch system such as speed of extraction, simple procedure, fully automatic, less risk of contamination....... However, the techniques have an important problem with redistribution as a result of readsorption of dissolved analytes onto the remaining solids phases during extraction. Many authors have demonstrated the readsorption problem and inaccuracy from it. In our previous work, a dynamic extraction system...

  2. [Development of a batched image delete system for multi-vender picture archiving and communication system environment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Kenji; Amano, Masafumi; Yuasa, Masao; Yamamoto, Yuichiro; Tada, Akihisa; Harada, Masafumi

    2014-01-01

    A picture archiving and communication system (PACS) for multi-vendor imaging servers is useful, since it can provide a variety of image-processing services. However, to delete an image file in the PACS, it is necessary to delete not only the image but all its associated images that are stored in multiple servers: this is a lengthy and painstaking process. To reduce this workload, we have developed a system consisting of a computer program with a graphical user interface that can delete the target image and all related images by means of batch processing. The developed system creates an extensible markup language (XML)-format file that describes the operation for deleting an image and forwards the XML file to the main server. Using a Windows file-sharing system (SMB/CIFS), each server shares the XML file and deletes the images in its own database in response to the instructions described in the XML file. We can also rigorously manage information concerning the deleted images using the information that is output from the main server to external storage. We also discuss the degree of load reduction in our system compared with that of ordinary systems.

  3. Heat transfer system safety: Comparing the effectiveness of batch venting and a light-ends removal kit (LERK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Ian Wright

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Heat transfer fluids (HTF should be analysed at least once per year to determine the extent of thermal degradation. Under normal operating conditions, mineral-based HTFs will thermally degrade and the bonds between hydrocarbons break to form shorter-chain hydrocarbons known as “light-ends”. These light-ends accumulate in a HTF system and present a future potential fire risk. Light-ends can be removed from a HTF system via a batch vent or installation of a temporary or permanently installed light-ends removal kit (LERK. Data was collected prior to and following batch venting or installation of a LERK. The main study parameter was closed flash temperature as open flash temperature and fire point did not change considerably. Analysis showed that both methods increased closed flash temperature in excess of 130 °C three months after the intervention, so both methods were deemed effective. Data showed that the percentage change achieved with the LERK, compared to batch venting, was 2-fold higher at three months and 10-fold higher at 6 months. The duration of effect was longer with the LERK with closed flash temperature being stable and consistently above 130 °C for 50 months after being permanently installed. This case highlights the effectiveness of a permanently fitted LERK which is effective for the longer-term control of closed flash temperature. However, mobile LERKs could be an option for manufacturers looking to manage closed flash temperature on a shorter-term basis or as an alternative to batch venting.

  4. Asymptotic Modelling of Crystallisation in Two Layers Systems. Application to Methane Hydrate Formation in Batch Reactor.

    OpenAIRE

    Cournil, Michel; Herri, Jean-Michel

    2002-01-01

    6 pages; This paper proposes to re-visit the problem of gas-liquid crystallization in the framework of a two-layer model and with the help of data coming from experiments on methane hydrate crystallization in a semi-batch reactor. Preliminary quantitative discussion of the order of magnitude of different effects makes possible realistic simplifications in the theoretical models. In particular, the role of the interfacial film is clearly defined. As previous authors did, we use a formulation i...

  5. Bioethanol production from starchy biomass by direct fermentation using saccharomyces diastaticus in batch free and immobilized cell systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kilonzo, P.M.; Margaritis, A. [University of Western Ontario, London, ON (Canada). Dept. of Chemical and Biochemical Engineering; Yu, J.; Ye, Q. [East China Univ. of Science and Technology, Shanghai (China). Biochemical Engineering Research Inst. and State Key Lab

    2006-07-01

    The feasibility of using amylolytic yeasts for the direct fermentation of starchy biomass to ethanol was discussed. Although amylolytic yeasts such as Saccharomycopsis, Lipomyces, and Schwaniomyces secrete both {alpha}-amylase and glucoamylase enzymes that synergistically enhance starch degradation, they are not suitable for industrial bio-ethanol production because of low tolerance for ethanol and slow fermentation rate. For that reason, this study examined the direct ethanol fermentation of soluble starch or dextrin with the amylolytic yeast Saccharomyces diastaticus in batch free and immobilized cells systems. Saccharomyces diastaticus secretes glucoamylase and can therefore assimilate and ferment starch and starch-like biomass. The main focus of the study was on parameters leading to higher ethanol yields from high concentration of dextrin and soluble starch using batch cultures. A natural attachment method was proposed in which polyurethane foam sheets were used as the carrier for amylolytic yeasts immobilization in ethanol fermentations. The support was chosen because it was inexpensive, autoclavable, pliable and could be tailored to suit process requirements regarding net surface charge, shape and size. It was found that Saccharomyces diastaticus was very efficient in terms of fermentation of high initial concentrations of dextrin or soluble starch. Higher concentrations of ethanol were produced. In batch fermentations, the cells fermented high dextrin concentrations more efficiently. In particular, in batch fermentation, more than 92 g-L of ethanol was produced from 240 g-L of dextrin, at conversion efficiency of 90 per cent. The conversion efficiency decreased to 60 per cent but a higher final ethanol concentration of 147 g/L was attained with a medium containing 500 g/L of dextrin. In an immobilized cell bioreactor, Saccharomyces diastaticus produced 83 g/L of ethanol from 240 g/L of dextrin, corresponding to ethanol volumetric productivity of 9.1 g

  6. REMOVAL OF REACTIVE BLUE 19 BY ADDING POLYALUMINUM CHLORIDE TO SEQUENCING BATCH REACTOR SYSTEM

    OpenAIRE

    1Sh. Mehrali, *1M. R. Alavi Moghaddam, 2S. H. Hashemi

    2010-01-01

    The main objective of this study was to evaluate Reactive Blue 19 dye removal efficiency in aerobic sequencing batch reactor (SBR) process by adding polyaluminum chloride (PACl). PACl was added to the reactors in concentrations of 0, 1, 5, 15 and 30 mg-Al/L (SBR1 to SBR5) after filling periods. Initial dye concentrations were selected to be 40 mg/L for all reactors. The averages of dye removal efficiencies were more than 57% in all reactors. The maximum and minimum dye removal efficiencies we...

  7. TIME-TEMPERATURE-TRANSFORMATION DIAGRAMS FOR THE SLUDGE BATCH 3 - FRIT 418 GLASS SYSTEM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Billings, A; Tommy Edwards, T

    2009-03-03

    As a part of the Waste Acceptance Product Specifications (WAPS) for Vitrified High-Level Waste Forms defined by the Department of Energy - Office of Environmental Management, the phase stability must be determined for each of the projected high-level waste (HLW) types at the Savannah River Site (SRS). Specifically, WAPS 1.4.1 requires the glass transition temperature (Tg) to be defined and time-temperature-transformation (TTT) diagrams to be developed. The Tg of a glass is an indicator of the approximate temperature where the supercooled liquid converts to a solid on cooling or conversely, where the solid begins to behave as a viscoelastic solid on heating. A TTT diagram identifies the crystalline phases that can form as a function of time and temperature for a given waste type or more specifically, the borosilicate glass waste form. In order to assess durability, the Product Consistency Test (PCT) was used and the durability results compared to the Environmental Assessment (EA) glass. The measurement of glass transition temperature and the development of TTT diagrams have already been performed for the seven Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) projected compositions as defined in the Waste Form Compliance Plan (WCP). These measurements were performed before DWPF start-up and the results were incorporated in Volume 7 of the Waste Form Qualification Report (WQR). Additional information exists for other projected compositions, but overall these compositions did not consider some of the processing scenarios now envisioned for DWPF to accelerate throughput. Changes in DWPF processing strategy have required this WAPS specification to be revisited to ensure that the resulting phases have been bounded. Frit 418 was primarily used to process HLW Sludge Batch 3 (SB3) at 38% waste loading (WL) through the DWPF. The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) fabricated a cache of glass from reagent grade oxides to simulate the SB3-Frit 418 system at a 38 wt % WL for glass

  8. Differential responses of gut microbiota to the same prebiotic formula in oligotrophic and eutrophic batch fermentation systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Wenmin; Xue, Zhengsheng; Zhang, Qianpeng; Feng, Zhou; Bridgewater, Laura; Wang, Linghua; Zhao, Liping; Pang, Xiaoyan

    2015-08-25

    The same prebiotics have produced inconsistent effects on microbiota when evaluated in different batch fermentation studies. To understand the reasons behind these discrepancies, we compared impact of one prebiotic formula on the same inoculated fecal microbiota in two frequently used batch systems: phosphate-buffered saline (PBS, oligotrophic) and basal culture medium (BCM, eutrophic). The microbiota was monitored using 454 pyrosequencing. Negative controls (no prebiotic) of both systems showed significant shifts in the microbiota during fermentation, although their pH remained relatively stable, especially in BCM, with increases in Bilophila and Escherichia/Shigella but a decrease in Faecalibacterium. We identified prebiotic responders via redundancy analysis by including both baseline and negative controls. The key positive and negative responders in the two systems were very different, with only 8 consistently modulated OTUs (7 of the 28 positive responders and 1 of the 35 negative responders). Moreover, some OTUs within the same genus responded to the prebiotic in opposite ways. Therefore, to obtain a complete in vitro evaluation of the modulatory effects of a prebiotic on microbiota, it is necessary to use both oligotrophic and eutrophic systems, compare treatment groups with both baseline and negative controls, and analyze the microbiota changes down to the OTU level.

  9. Acid Mine Drainage Treatment by Perlite Nanomineral, Batch and Continuous Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shabani, Kumars Seifpanahi; Ardejani, Faramarz Doulati; Badii, Khshayar; Olya, Mohammad Ebrahim

    2014-03-01

    In this paper the adsorption activity of perlite nanoparticles for removal of Cu2+, Fe2+ and Mn2+ ions at Iran Sarcheshmeh copper acid mine drainage was discussed. Thus, raw perlite that provided from internal resource was modified and prepared via particles size reduction to nano scale and characterized by X-ray diffraction, X-ray fluorescence, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, Fourier transforms infrared and BET specific surface area analysis. The results of acid mine drainage show that pH of acid mine drainage is 5.1 and Cu2+, Fe2+ and Mn2+ ions are 10.5, 4.1 and 8.3 ppm, respectively. Firstly in the batch system the influence of adsorbent dose and temperature parameters were considered and then isothermal and kinetic models were investigated. According to the results the Langmuir isotherm and pseudo-second order kinetic model showed better correlation with the experimental data than other isotherm and kinetic models. Obtained thermodynamic parameters such as ΔG°, ΔH° and ΔS° show that the Cu2+, Fe2+ and Mn2+ ions adsorption from acid mine drainage is spontaneous and endothermic. Finally, perlite nanoparticles adsorbent was packed inside a glass column and used for the removal of heavy metals in 1, 3, 5 ml/min acid mine drainage flow rates, the breakthrough curves show that the column was saturated at 180, 240 and 315 min for different flow rates, respectively. According to the obtained results, this abundant, locally available and cheap silicate mineral showed a great efficiency for the removal of heavy metal pollutants from acid mine drainage and can be utilized for much volume of acid mine drainage or industrial scale. W pracy omówiono zdolności adsorpcyjne nano-cząsteczek perlitu wykorzystywanych o usuwania jonów Cu2+, Fe2+ i Mn2+ z kwaśnych wód kopalniach w kopalni miedzi w Sarcheshmeh w Iranie. Surowy perlit pozyskiwany ze źródeł własnych został zmodyfikowany i odpowiednio spreparowany poprzez zre-dukowanie cz

  10. Batch process. Application of CAE technique to a batch process; Bacchi purosesu eno CAE gijutsu no tenkai

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Y.; Nakai, K.; Oba, S. [Aspentic Japan Co. Ltd. (Japan)

    1997-09-05

    This paper introduces recent topics of the application of the CAE technique to a batch process. A batch distillation modeling tool (BATCHFRAC) is aimed at modeling a distillation tower and a batch reactor for a batch process for fine chemical products, and is provided as an expanded additional function for ASPEN FLUS batch distillation. A batch process designing system (BATCH PLUS) is a comprehensive batch process simulator for efficiently carrying out the designing, the development or the analysis of a complicated recipe-based batch process concerning medical treatment, biotechnology and agriculture. A batch process information control system (Batch/21) is provided as a system having an expanded and additional function for a batch process of InfoPlus/21, an information control system which enables the observation, management and controlling of a process. 4 figs.

  11. Batch By Batch Longitudinal Emittance Blowup MD

    CERN Document Server

    Mastoridis, T; Butterworth, A; Jaussi, M; Molendijk, J

    2012-01-01

    The transverse bunch emittance increases significantly at 450 GeV from the time of injection till the ramp due to IBS. By selectively blowing up the longitudinal emittance of the incoming batch at each injection, it should be possible to reduce the transverse emittance growth rates due to IBS. An MD was conducted on April 22nd 2012 to test the feasibility and performance of the batch-by-batch longitudinal emittance blowup. There were three main goals during the MD. First, to test the developed hardware, firmware, and software for the batch-by-batch blowup. Then, to measure the transverse emittance growth rates of blown-up and "witness" batches to quantify any improvement, and finally to test the ALLInjectSequencer class, which deals with the complicated gymnastics of introducing or masking the new batch to various RF loops.

  12. High bioethanol titre from Manihot glaziovii through fed-batch simultaneous saccharification and fermentation in Automatic Gas Potential Test System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moshi, Anselm P; Crespo, Carla F; Badshah, Malik; Hosea, Kenneth M M; Mshandete, Anthony Manoni; Mattiasson, Bo

    2014-03-01

    A process for the production of high bioethanol titre was established through fed-batch and simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (FB-SSF) of wild, non-edible cassava Manihot glaziovii. FB-SSF allowed fermentation of up to 390g/L of starch-derived glucose achieving high bioethanol concentration of up to 190g/L (24% v/v) with yields of around 94% of the theoretical value. The wild cassava M. glaziovii starch is hydrolysable with a low dosage of amylolytic enzymes (0.1-0.15% v/w, Termamyl® and AMG®). The Automatic Gas Potential Test System (AMPTS) was adapted to yeast ethanol fermentation and demonstrated to be an accurate, reliable and flexible device for studying the kinetics of yeast in SSF and FB-SSF. The bioethanol derived stoichiometrically from the CO2 registered in the AMPTS software correlated positively with samples analysed by HPLC (R(2)=0.99).

  13. Batch efficiency

    CERN Document Server

    Schwickerath, U; Uria, C; CERN. Geneva. IT Department

    2010-01-01

    A frequent source of concern for resource providers is the efficient use of computing resources in their centers. This has a direct impact on requests for new resources. There are two different but strongly correlated aspects to be considered: while users are mostly interested in a good turn-around time for their jobs, resource providers are mostly interested in a high and efficient usage of their available resources. Both things, the box usage and the efficiency of individual user jobs, need to be closely monitored so that the sources of the inefficiencies can be identified. At CERN, the Lemon monitoring system is used for both purposes. Examples of such sources are poorly written user code, inefficient access to mass storage systems, and dedication of resources to specific user groups. As a first step for improvements CERN has launched a project to develop a scheduler add-on that allows careful overloading of worker nodes that run idle jobs.

  14. Batch efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwickerath, Ulrich; Silva, Ricardo; Uria, Christian, E-mail: Ulrich.Schwickerath@cern.c, E-mail: Ricardo.Silva@cern.c [CERN IT, 1211 Geneve 23 (Switzerland)

    2010-04-01

    A frequent source of concern for resource providers is the efficient use of computing resources in their centers. This has a direct impact on requests for new resources. There are two different but strongly correlated aspects to be considered: while users are mostly interested in a good turn-around time for their jobs, resource providers are mostly interested in a high and efficient usage of their available resources. Both things, the box usage and the efficiency of individual user jobs, need to be closely monitored so that the sources of the inefficiencies can be identified. At CERN, the Lemon monitoring system is used for both purposes. Examples of such sources are poorly written user code, inefficient access to mass storage systems, and dedication of resources to specific user groups. As a first step for improvements CERN has launched a project to develop a scheduler add-on that allows careful overloading of worker nodes that run idle jobs.

  15. Batch and semi-continuous anaerobic digestion of food waste in a dual solid-liquid system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Cunsheng; Su, Haijia; Tan, Tianwei

    2013-10-01

    To avoid the inhibition from both of waste oil and high concentrations of cationic elements, anaerobic digestion of food waste in a dual solid-liquid (ADSL) system was examined in this present paper. Results from batch test indicated that a higher methane yield could be obtained in the ADSL system. The methane yield of food solid waste (FSW), food liquid waste (FLW) and raw food waste (RFW) were 643, 659 and 581 mL/g-VS, respectively. In semi-continuous anaerobic digestion, the optimum organic loading rates (OLR) for FSW, FLW and RFW were 9, 4 and 7 g-VS/L/d, respectively. The total methane production of RFW and ADSL systems, based on 1 kg-VS(RFW), were 405 and 460 L, respectively, indicating that the methane production increased by 13.6% in the ADSL system. The optimum C/N ratio, redistribution of metal element and lower content of waste oil in FSW explain the higher methane production.

  16. SLURRY MIX EVAPORATOR BATCH ACCEPTABILITY AND TEST CASES OF THE PRODUCT COMPOSITION CONTROL SYSTEM WITH THORIUM AS A REPORTABLE ELEMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edwards, T.

    2010-10-07

    The Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF), which is operated by Savannah River Remediation, LLC (SRR), has recently begun processing Sludge Batch 6 (SB6) by combining it with Frit 418 at a nominal waste loading (WL) of 36%. A unique feature of the SB6/Frit 418 glass system, as compared to the previous glass systems processed in DWPF, is that thorium will be a reportable element (i.e., concentrations of elemental thorium in the final glass product greater than 0.5 weight percent (wt%)) for the resulting wasteform. Several activities were initiated based upon this unique aspect of SB6. One of these was an investigation into the impact of thorium on the models utilized in DWPF's Product Composition and Control System (PCCS). While the PCCS is described in more detail below, for now note that it is utilized by Waste Solidification Engineering (WSE) to evaluate the acceptability of each batch of material in the Slurry Mix Evaporator (SME) before this material is passed on to the melter. The evaluation employs models that predict properties associated with processability and product quality from the composition of vitrified samples of the SME material. The investigation of the impact of thorium on these models was conducted by Peeler and Edwards [1] and led to a recommendation that DWPF can process the SB6/Frit 418 glass system with ThO{sub 2} concentrations up to 1.8 wt% in glass. Questions also arose regarding the handling of thorium in the SME batch acceptability process as documented by Brown, Postles, and Edwards [2]. Specifically, that document is the technical bases of PCCS, and while Peeler and Edwards confirmed the reliability of the models, there is a need to confirm that the current implementation of DWPF's PCCS appropriately handles thorium as a reportable element. Realization of this need led to a Technical Task Request (TTR) prepared by Bricker [3] that identified some specific SME-related activities that the Savannah River National Laboratory

  17. Data-driven batch schuduling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bent, John [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Denehy, Tim [GOOGLE; Arpaci - Dusseau, Remzi [UNIV OF WISCONSIN; Livny, Miron [UNIV OF WISCONSIN; Arpaci - Dusseau, Andrea C [NON LANL

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we develop data-driven strategies for batch computing schedulers. Current CPU-centric batch schedulers ignore the data needs within workloads and execute them by linking them transparently and directly to their needed data. When scheduled on remote computational resources, this elegant solution of direct data access can incur an order of magnitude performance penalty for data-intensive workloads. Adding data-awareness to batch schedulers allows a careful coordination of data and CPU allocation thereby reducing the cost of remote execution. We offer here new techniques by which batch schedulers can become data-driven. Such systems can use our analytical predictive models to select one of the four data-driven scheduling policies that we have created. Through simulation, we demonstrate the accuracy of our predictive models and show how they can reduce time to completion for some workloads by as much as 80%.

  18. Batch system for study of Cr(VI) Bio sorption by dried waste activated sludge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farzadkia, M.; Gholami, M.; Darvishi Cheshmeh Soltani, R.; Yaghmaeian, K.; Shams Khorramabadi, G.

    2009-07-01

    Activated sludge from wastewater treatment systems contains both bacteria and protozoa. The cell wall of bacteria essentially consists of various compounds, such as carboxyl, acidic polysaccharides,lipids, amino acids and other components. (Author)

  19. Pro Spring Batch

    CERN Document Server

    Minella, Michael T

    2011-01-01

    Since its release, Spring Framework has transformed virtually every aspect of Java development including web applications, security, aspect-oriented programming, persistence, and messaging. Spring Batch, one of its newer additions, now brings the same familiar Spring idioms to batch processing. Spring Batch addresses the needs of any batch process, from the complex calculations performed in the biggest financial institutions to simple data migrations that occur with many software development projects. Pro Spring Batch is intended to answer three questions: *What? What is batch processing? What

  20. Robust optimization for nonlinear time-delay dynamical system of dha regulon with cost sensitivity constraint in batch culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Jinlong; Zhang, Xu; Liu, Chongyang; Chang, Liang; Xie, Jun; Feng, Enmin; Yin, Hongchao; Xiu, Zhilong

    2016-09-01

    Time-delay dynamical systems, which depend on both the current state of the system and the state at delayed times, have been an active area of research in many real-world applications. In this paper, we consider a nonlinear time-delay dynamical system of dha-regulonwith unknown time-delays in batch culture of glycerol bioconversion to 1,3-propanediol induced by Klebsiella pneumonia. Some important properties and strong positive invariance are discussed. Because of the difficulty in accurately measuring the concentrations of intracellular substances and the absence of equilibrium points for the time-delay system, a quantitative biological robustness for the concentrations of intracellular substances is defined by penalizing a weighted sum of the expectation and variance of the relative deviation between system outputs before and after the time-delays are perturbed. Our goal is to determine optimal values of the time-delays. To this end, we formulate an optimization problem in which the time delays are decision variables and the cost function is to minimize the biological robustness. This optimization problem is subject to the time-delay system, parameter constraints, continuous state inequality constraints for ensuring that the concentrations of extracellular and intracellular substances lie within specified limits, a quality constraint to reflect operational requirements and a cost sensitivity constraint for ensuring that an acceptable level of the system performance is achieved. It is approximated as a sequence of nonlinear programming sub-problems through the application of constraint transcription and local smoothing approximation techniques. Due to the highly complex nature of this optimization problem, the computational cost is high. Thus, a parallel algorithm is proposed to solve these nonlinear programming sub-problems based on the filled function method. Finally, it is observed that the obtained optimal estimates for the time-delays are highly satisfactory

  1. Systematic classification of unseeded batch crystallization systems for achievable shape and size analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acevedo, David; Nagy, Zoltan K.

    2014-05-01

    The purpose of the current work is to develop a systematic classification scheme for crystallization systems considering simultaneous size and shape variations, and to study the effect of temperature profiles on the achievable final shape of crystals for various crystallization systems. A classification method is proposed based on the simultaneous consideration of the effect of temperature profiles on nucleation and growth rates of two different characteristic crystal dimensions. Hence the approach provides direct indication of the extent in which crystal shape may be controlled for a particular system class by manipulating the supersaturation. A multidimensional population balance model (PBM) was implemented for unseeded crystallization processes of four different compounds. The effect between the nucleation and growth mechanisms on the final aspect ratio (AR) was investigated and it was shown that for nucleation dominated systems the AR is independent of the supersaturation profile. The simulation results confirmed experimentally also show that most crystallization systems tend to achieve an equilibrium shape hence the variation in the aspect ratio that can be achieved by manipulating the supersaturation is limited, in particular when nucleation is also taken into account as a competing phenomenon.

  2. BatchJobs and BatchExperiments: Abstraction Mechanisms for Using R in Batch Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernd Bischl

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Empirical analysis of statistical algorithms often demands time-consuming experiments. We present two R packages which greatly simplify working in batch computing environments. The package BatchJobs implements the basic objects and procedures to control any batch cluster from within R. It is structured around cluster versions of the well-known higher order functions Map, Reduce and Filter from functional programming. Computations are performed asynchronously and all job states are persistently stored in a database, which can be queried at any point in time. The second package, BatchExperiments, is tailored for the still very general scenario of analyzing arbitrary algorithms on problem instances. It extends package BatchJobs by letting the user define an array of jobs of the kind apply algorithm A to problem instance P and store results. It is possible to associate statistical designs with parameters of problems and algorithms and therefore to systematically study their influence on the results. The packages main features are: (a Convenient usage: All relevant batch system operations are either handled internally or mapped to simple R functions. (b Portability: Both packages use a clear and well-defined interface to the batch system which makes them applicable in most high-performance computing environments. (c Reproducibility: Every computational part has an associated seed to ensure reproducibility even when the underlying batch system changes. (d Abstraction and good software design: The code layers for algorithms, experiment definitions and execution are cleanly separated and enable the writing of readable and maintainable code.

  3. Time-limited polling systems with batch arrivals and phase-type service times

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Al Hanbali, A.M.; Haan, de R.; Boucherie, R.J.; Ommeren, van J.K.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we develop a general framework to analyze polling systems with either the autonomous-server or the time-limited service discipline. According to the autonomous-server discipline, the server continues servicing a queue for a certain period of time. According to the time-limited service

  4. Batch process. Changes and problems of a batch process; Bacchi prosesu no hensen to kadai

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niwa, T. [Asahi Engineering (Japan)

    1997-09-05

    One of the characteristics of the manufacture of fine chemical products is multikind production. The life cycles of chemical industrial products have become shorter, and the difference between these life cycles and those of the manufacturing facility has become larger. The use of an FMS (Flexible Manufacturing System) has been demanded as the measure for solving the problems, and the advantages of a batch process have begun to be reconsidered. This paper describes the history of the development of a batch process, and then explains the problems of a batch process. The paper mentions the process control techniques, production information control systems, production support systems, training systems and process simulation systems as the main techniques supporting the development of a batch process. The paper mentions the modeling and standardizing of a batch process, systematic batch process designing methods and the modeling of a production control information system as the problems of a batch process. 8 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  5. Biofouling characteristics and identification of preponderant bacteria at different nutrient levels in batch tests of a recirculating cooling water system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Fang; Zhao, Chao-Cheng; Xia, Lu; Yang, Fei; Chang, Xin; Wang, Yong-Qiang

    2011-01-01

    Understanding the influence of nutrient levels on biofouling control is an important requirement for management strategies in a recirculating cooling water system. Nutrient limitation may be one way to control biofouling development without increasing biocide dosing. Therefore, this study was carried out to investigate the effects of nutrient levels on biofouling characteristics and to identify the preponderant bacteria in the batch tests with a simulated cooling water system. The biofouling characteristics were assessed by varying the biofoulant mass and the bacteria respiratory activity, which was estimated by measuring oxygen uptake rates. According to the results obtained in nutrient factor experiments, the biofouling could be better controlled at carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus concentrations of 30 mg N/L, 8 mg N/L and 1.0 mg P/L, respectively. Increasing carbon concentrations shortened the biofouling initial growth period and resulted in higher biofoulant mass. The preponderant bacteria strains involved in biofouling under two culture conditions were identified by applying both physiological and biochemical tests and further molecular biology techniques with phylogenetic affiliation analysis. Enterobacter (family Enterobacteriaceae), Staphylococcus (family Micrococcaceae), Bacillus (family Bacillaceae), Proteus (family Enterobacteriaceae), Neisseria (family Neisseriaceae) and Pseudomonas (family Pseudomonadaceae) were dominant in the conditions of lower carbon concentration (30 mg/L). Enterobacter are autotrophs, but the other five bacteria are all heterotrophs. In the conditions of higher carbon concentration (70 mg/L), Klebsiella (family Enterobacteriaceae), Enterobacter and Microbacterium (family Microbacteriaceae) were dominant; Enterobacter and Microbacterium are heterotrophs.

  6. On-line controlling system for nitrogen and phosphorus removal of municipal wastewater in a sequencing batch reactor (SBR)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jun LI; Yongjiong NI; Yongzhen PENG; Guowei GU; Jingen LU; Su WEI; Guobiao CHENG; Changjin OU

    2008-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to establish an on-line controlling system for nitrogen and phosphorus removal synchronously of municipal wastewater in a sequencing batch reactor (SBR). The SBR for municipal wastewater treatment was operated in sequences: filling, anaerobic, oxic, anoxic, oxic, settling and discharge. The reactor was equipped with on-line monitoring sensors for dissolved oxygen (DO), oxidation-reduction potential (ORP) and pH. The variation of DO, ORP and pH is relevant to each phase of biological process for nitrogen and phosphorus removal in this SBR. The characteristic points of DO, ORP and pH can be used to judge and control the stages of process that include: phosphate release by the turning points of ORP and pH; nitrification by the ammonia valley of pH and ammonia elbows of DO and ORP; denitrification by the nitrate knee of ORP and nitrate apex ofpH; phosphate uptake by the turning point ofpH; and residual organic carbon oxida-tion by the carbon elbows of DO and ORP. The controlling system can operate automatically for nitrogen and phosphorus efficiently removal.

  7. Effects of CeO2 nanoparticles on system performance and bacterial community dynamics in a sequencing batch reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Guanglei; Neo, Sin-Yi; Ting, Yen-Peng

    2016-01-01

    The effects of CeO2 nanoparticles (NPs) on the system performance and the bacterial community dynamics in a sequencing batch reactor (SBR) were investigated, along with the fate and removal of CeO2 NPs within the SBR. Significant impact was observed on nitrification; NH4+-N removal efficiency decreased from almost 100% to around 70% after 6 days of continuous exposure to 1.0 mg/L of CeO2 NPs, followed by a gradual recovery until a stable value of around 90% after 20 days. Additionally, CeO2 NPs also led to a significant increase in the protein content in the soluble microbial products, showing the disruptive effects of CeO2 NPs on the extracellular polymeric substance matrix and related activated sludge structure. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis analysis showed remarkable changes in the bacterial community structure in the activated sludge after exposure to CeO2 NPs. CeO2 NPs were effectively removed in the SBR mainly via sorption onto the sludge. However, the removal efficiency decreased from 95 to 80% over 30 days. Mass balance evaluation showed that up to 50% of the NPs were accumulated within the activated sludge and were removed with the waste sludge.

  8. Simultaneous removal of nutrients from milking parlor wastewater using an AO2 sequencing batch reactor (SBR) system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xiao; Zhu, Jun

    2015-01-01

    The feasibility of using a lab-scale, anaerobic-aerobic-anoxic-aerobic sequencing batch reactor ((AO)2 SBR) to simultaneously remove biological organics, nitrogen and phosphorus from dairy milking parlor wastewater was investigated in this study. Three hydraulic retention times (HRT = 2.1, 2.7, and 3.5 days) and three mixing-to-process time ratios (TM/TP = 0.43, 0.57, and 0.68) were evaluated as two controlling factors using a 3 × 3 experimental design to determine the optimal combination. Results showed that the HRT of 2.7 days with TM/TP = 0.57 was the best to achieve simultaneous nutrients removal for the influent with initial soluble chemical oxygen demand (SCOD) of about 2000 mg L(-1) (only 0.55 mg L(-1) NH4-N, < 0.1 mg L(-1) nitrate, and 0.14 mg L(-1) soluble phosphorus in the effluent). Good correlations between pH and ORP, and ORP and DO, were also obtained with correlation coefficients all higher than or equal to 0.975. These relationships could be used to develop real-time control strategies to optimize the duration of each operating phase in the (AO)2 SBR system to save energy and enhance treatment efficiency.

  9. Cu2+ removal and recovery by Spi SORB: batch stirred and up-flow packed bed columnar reactor systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vannela, Raveender; Verma, Sanjay Kumar

    2006-06-01

    The biosorption of Cu(2+) by free and poly acrylamide gel (PAG) immobilized Spirulina platensis (SpiSORB) was characterized under batch and continuous packed bed columnar reaction systems. The biosorption of Cu(2+) was shown to be highest at pH of 6.0 for both types of biomass. The PAG immobilization process did not interfere with the Cu(2+) binding sites present on biomass leading to cent percent (ca. 250 mg g(-1) of dry biomass) retention of biosorption as compared to free cells. Transmission electron microscopy on Cu(2+) localization revealed that majority of metal is being sequestered by the cell wall only. The infrared spectrum of metal treated S. platensis biomass indicated the possible involvement of amide, amino, and carboxyl groups in metal binding. Up-flow packed bed columnar reactor containing 2.0 g of PAG immobilized S. platensis shown a maximum of 143-fold volume reduction factor at the residence time of 4.6 min for Cu(2+) alone and found to decrease dramatically when Zn(2+ )is present in a bimetallic solution.

  10. Conveyance Systems and Vegetative Growth in Peach (Prunuspersica (l. Batch high low Tropical Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Gómez

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Fruit trees known as deciduous species are native to the northern temperate zones that are well adapted to environmental conditions in regions of high Colombian Andean tropics, especially in the highlands boyacense where approximately 80% of the planted area. Conveyance systems (pruning of fruit plants are management practices which apply technical criteria for productivity in temperate climates producing countries. It is known in Boyacá, except traditional open vessel driving and other forms of effects, which is why the study was to evaluate six different types of driving on the vegetative growth of two peach varieties. We measured plant height, stem diameter, length of primary branches, percentage of lignification, and canopy projection based on each form (treatment. Was observed that the different types of pruning positively influenced with respect to the absolute control in the vegetative growth of the plants and the lignification of the primary branches, with the highest incidence in the range Rubidoux. The results also showed that the more a tree height growth and lignification of primary branches was husito.

  11. Case Study on Lean Manufacturing System Implementation in Batch Printing Industry Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tang Saihong

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Lean Manufacturing is a popular tool to be implemented in printing industry fields for the purpose of achieving the successful production goals and it is a well-organized method used to eliminate the waste or non-value added activities. Lean Manufacturing consists of several tools like 5S, TPM, Kanban, Kaizen and others. In this paper, the researcher is focus on TPM (Total Productive Maintenance. TPM is a concept used for maintaining plants and equipment with the involvement of all employees in the company in order to increase the overall equipment effectiveness (OEE. In this paper, the researcher will identify the problem faced in company’s production line and then implement lean tools in order to improve the productivity. Afterward, the researcher will carry out time study on company’s production line. The purpose of time study is to getting the result for OEE and the time taken for producing one piece of product. The researcher is then designed and suggested one-piece flow system to the management with showing the result on simulation that getting improvement in productivity. The result was simulated by using Flexsim and shows that 7.59 seconds was saved in producing one piece of calendar. At the end, the result shows that OEE increase from 34.3% to 60% and the company total save around 6 hours per month by implement one-piece flow. At last, by verifying the distribution of collected data, the researcher will perform Anderson Darling Normality test to ensure the distribution of data are normal.

  12. Detection of protozoan hosts for Legionella pneumophila in engineered water systems by using a biofilm batch test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valster, Rinske M; Wullings, Bart A; van der Kooij, Dick

    2010-11-01

    Legionella pneumophila proliferates in aquatic habitats within free-living protozoa, 17 species of which have been identified as hosts by using in vitro experiments. The present study aimed at identifying protozoan hosts for L. pneumophila by using a biofilm batch test (BBT). Samples (600 ml) collected from 21 engineered freshwater systems, with added polyethylene cylinders to promote biofilm formation, were inoculated with L. pneumophila and subsequently incubated at 37°C for 20 days. Growth of L. pneumophila was observed in 16 of 18 water types when the host protozoan Hartmannella vermiformis was added. Twelve of the tested water types supported growth of L. pneumophila or indigenous Legionella anisa without added H. vermiformis. In 12 of 19 BBT flasks H. vermiformis was indicated as a host, based on the ratio between maximum concentrations of L. pneumophila and H. vermiformis, determined with quantitative PCR (Q-PCR), and the composition of clone libraries of partial 18S rRNA gene fragments. Analyses of 609 eukaryotic clones from the BBTs revealed that 68 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) showed the highest similarity to free-living protozoa. Forty percent of the sequences clustering with protozoa showed ≥99.5% similarity to H. vermiformis. None of the other protozoa serving as hosts in in vitro studies were detected in the BBTs. In several tests with growth of L. pneumophila, the protozoa Diphylleia rotans, Echinamoeba thermarum, and Neoparamoeba sp. were identified as candidate hosts. In vitro studies are needed to confirm their role as hosts for L. pneumophila. Unidentified protozoa were implicated as hosts for uncultured Legionella spp. grown in BBT flasks at 15°C.

  13. A sequencing batch reactor system for high-level biological nitrogen and phosphorus removal from abattoir wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemaire, Romain; Yuan, Zhiguo; Bernet, Nicolas; Marcos, Marcelino; Yilmaz, Gulsum; Keller, Jürg

    2009-06-01

    A sequencing batch reactor (SBR) system is demonstrated to biologically remove nitrogen, phosphorus and chemical oxygen demand (COD) to very low levels from abattoir wastewater. Each 6 h cycle contained three anoxic/anaerobic and aerobic sub-cycles with wastewater fed at the beginning of each anoxic/anaerobic period. The step-feed strategy was applied to avoid high-level build-up of nitrate or nitrite during nitrification, and therefore to facilitate the creation of anaerobic conditions required for biological phosphorus removal. A high degree removal of total phosphorus (>98%), total nitrogen (>97%) and total COD (>95%) was consistently and reliably achieved after a 3-month start-up period. The concentrations of total phosphate and inorganic nitrogen in the effluent were consistently lower than 0.2 mg P l(-1) and 8 mg N l(-1), respectively. Fluorescence in situ hybridization revealed that the sludge was enriched in Accumulibacter spp. (20-40%), a known polyphosphate accumulating organism, whereas the known glycogen accumulating organisms were almost absent. The SBR received two streams of abattoir wastewater, namely the effluent from a full-scale anaerobic pond (75%) and the effluent from a lab-scale high-rate pre-fermentor (25%), both receiving raw abattoir wastewater as feed. The pond effluent contained approximately 250 mg N l(-1) total nitrogen and 40 mg P l(-1) of total phosphorus, but relatively low levels of soluble COD (around 500 mg l(-1)). The high-rate lab-scale pre-fermentor, operated at 37 degrees C and with a sludge retention time of 1 day, proved to be a cheap and effective method for providing supplementary volatile fatty acids allowing for high-degree of biological nutrient removal from abattoir wastewater.

  14. Detection of protozoan hosts for Legionella pneumophila in engineered water systems by using a biofilm batch test

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Valster, R.M.; Wullings, B.A.; Kooij, van der D.

    2010-01-01

    Legionella pneumophila proliferates in aquatic habitats within free-living protozoa, 17 species of which have been identified as hosts by using in vitro experiments. The present study aimed at identifying protozoan hosts for L. pneumophila by using a biofilm batch test (BBT). Samples (600 ml) collec

  15. An integrated model of scheduling, batch delivery and supplier selection in a make-to-order manufacturing system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Mahdavi Mazdeh

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes a supply chain, which consists of a manufacturer, a retailer and several suppliers in which the retailer orders jobs to the manufacturer and the suppliers provide the requiring parts. The manufacturer schedules and processes the orders and dispatches them to the retailer either individually or collectively in batches. The manufacturer incurs a penalty cost for each tardy job and a transportation cost for every delivered batch and therefore, searches for a schedule that yields minimum number of tardy jobs and batches. Moreover, the manufacturer tries to optimize its supplying cost through locating the suppliers that offer appropriate release times and costs for manufacturing parts. Since the release times of parts directly affect scheduling of orders, in this research, we develop an integrated mathematical model for the manufacturer that incorporates suppliers' selection issue into the scheduling and batching decisions. Furthermore, we present a heuristic algorithm (greedy algorithm and also a local search to quickly determine the optimal or near-optimal solutions. The computational analysis shows the importance of the integrated model and also the superiority and effectiveness of the heuristic algorithms.

  16. Time programmed feed of semi-batch reactors with non-linear radical copolymerizations: an experimental study of the system styrene+divinylbenzene using SEC/MALLS

    OpenAIRE

    Gonçalves, Miguel; Dias, Rolando; Costa, Mário Rui

    2007-01-01

    The radical crosslinking copolymerization of mono and divinyl monomers was experimentally studied with a 2.5 dm3 semi-batch reactor using styrene + divinylbenzene as a model system. The analysis of products was carried out by SEC with a MALLS detector. The influence of the feed policy of divinylbenzene on the time evolution of the copolymer molecular weights and z-average mean square radius of gyration was assessed. A detailed kinetic model, in the absence of intramolecular reactions but taki...

  17. Determination of model parameters for zinc (II) ion biosorption onto powdered waste sludge (PWS) in a fed-batch system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kargi, Fikret; Cikla, Sinem

    2007-12-01

    Biosorption of zinc (II) ions onto pre-treated powdered waste sludge (PWS) was investigated using a completely mixed tank operating in fed-batch mode instead of an adsorption column. Experiments with variable feed flow rate (0.05-0.5 L h(-1)), feed Zn(II) ion concentrations (37.5-275 mg L(-1)) and amount of adsorbent (1-6 g PWS) were performed using fed-batch operation at pH 5 and room temperature (20-25 degrees C). Break-through curves describing variations of aqueous (effluent) zinc ion concentrations with time were determined for different operating conditions. Percent zinc removal from the aqueous phase decreased, but the biosorbed (solid phase) zinc ion concentration increased with increasing feed flow rate and zinc concentration. A modified Bohart-Adams equation was used to determine the biosorption capacity of PWS (q'(s)) and the rate constant (K) for zinc ion biosorption. Biosorption capacity (q'(s)=57.7 g Zn kg(-1) PWS) of PWS in fed-batch operation was found to be comparable with powdered activated carbon (PAC) in column operations. However, the adsorption rate constant (K=9.17 m(3) kg(-1) h(-1)) in fed-batch operation was an order of magnitude larger than those obtained in adsorption columns because of elimination of mass transfer limitations encountered in the column operations. Therefore, a completely mixed tank operated in fed-batch mode was proven to be more advantageous as compared to adsorption columns due to better contact between the phases yielding faster adsorption rates.

  18. Automatic flow-batch system for cold vapor atomic absorption spectroscopy determination of mercury in honey from Argentina using online sample treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domínguez, Marina A; Grünhut, Marcos; Pistonesi, Marcelo F; Di Nezio, María S; Centurión, María E

    2012-05-16

    An automatic flow-batch system that includes two borosilicate glass chambers to perform sample digestion and cold vapor atomic absorption spectroscopy determination of mercury in honey samples was designed. The sample digestion was performed by using a low-cost halogen lamp to obtain the optimum temperature. Optimization of the digestion procedure was done using a Box-Behnken experimental design. A linear response was observed from 2.30 to 11.20 μg Hg L(-1). The relative standard deviation was 3.20% (n = 11, 6.81 μg Hg L(-1)), the sample throughput was 4 sample h(-1), and the detection limit was 0.68 μg Hg L(-1). The obtained results with the flow-batch method are in good agreement with those obtained with the reference method. The flow-batch system is simple, allows the use of both chambers simultaneously, is seen as a promising methodology for achieving green chemistry goals, and is a good proposal to improving the quality control of honey.

  19. Automatic endpoint determination for batch tea dryers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Temple, S.J.; Boxtel, van A.J.B.

    2001-01-01

    A laboratory batch fluid-bed dryer was developed for handling small samples of tea for experimental batch manufacture, and this dryer required a means of stopping drying when the process was complete. A control system was devised which requires only the initial weight of the sample to be entered int

  20. Spring batch essentials

    CERN Document Server

    Rao, P Raja Malleswara

    2015-01-01

    If you are a Java developer with basic knowledge of Spring and some experience in the development of enterprise applications, and want to learn about batch application development in detail, then this book is ideal for you. This book will be perfect as your next step towards building simple yet powerful batch applications on a Java-based platform.

  1. NGBAuth - Next Generation Batch Authentication for long running batch jobs.

    CERN Document Server

    Juto, Zakarias

    2015-01-01

    This document describes the prototyping of a new solution for the CERN batch authentication of long running jobs. While the job submission requires valid user credentials, these have to be renewed due to long queuing and execution times. Described within is a new system which will guarantee a similar level of security as the old LSFAuth while simplifying the implementation and the overall architecture. The new system is being built on solid, streamlined and tested components (notably OpenSSL) and a priority has been to make it more generic in order to facilitate the evolution of the current system such as for the expected migration from LSF to Condor as backend batch system.

  2. On-line Scheduling Of Multi-Server Batch Operations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Zee, D.J.; van Harten, A.; Schuur, P.C.

    1999-01-01

    Batching jobs in a manufacturing system is a very common policy in most industries. Main reasons for batching are avoidance of setups and/or facilitation of material handling. Good examples of batch-wise production systems are ovens found in aircraft industry and in semiconductor manufacturing. Thes

  3. Improved production of human type II procollagen in the yeast Pichia pastoris in shake flasks by a wireless-controlled fed-batch system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myllyharju Johanna

    2008-03-01

    system offers a flexible, simple, and low-cost solution for initial optimization of the production in shake flasks which can be performed in parallel. By this way the fed-batch strategy can be applied from the early screening steps also in laboratories which do not have access to high-cost and complicated bioreactor systems.

  4. Batch process. Flexible paint production system using movable tanks; Idoso wo mochiita toryo no flexible seisan system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamashita, S. [Kansai Paint Co. Ltd., Hiratsuka, Kanagawa (Japan). Central Lab.

    1997-09-05

    In the paint manufacturing industry, there are many kinds of product depending on the use, and there are few kinds of paint which can be manufactured by a large facility capable of producing several tens of kL of paint. An average working ratio of facility in this industry is limited to between 60 to 70%, and the ratio of the personnel expense to the cost has recently increased. The changing to an FMS (Flexible Manufacturing System) for increasing the working ratio of the facility and the changing of the system to greatly improve the operation efficiency have been demanded. The concrete means for these requirements include changing the facility to a pipeless one. The paint manufacturing facility comprises four sections, i.e. a premixing section, dispersing section, mixing section and canning section. If the mixing tank is made movable and the equipment on the preceding and succeeding stages of the mixing tank is made pipeless, the facility can be changed to the one not substantially restricted by the quality of products from the dispersing section to the filtration section which can be formed. However, the drawbacks of this system include the following: a failure, if it occurs, influences the whole production line; learning the system operating method requires much time, causing many initial failure occur; and great expansion of the facility is difficult. 2 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  5. LSF usage for batch at CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    Schwickerath, Ulrich

    2007-01-01

    Contributed poster to the CHEP07. Original abstract: LSF 7, the latest version of Platform's batch workload management system, addresses many issues which limited the ability of LSF 6.1 to support large scale batch farms, such as the lxbatch service at CERN. In this paper we will present the status of the evaluation and deployment of LSF 7 at CERN, including issues concerning the integration of LSF 7 with the gLite grid middleware suite and, in particular, the steps taken to endure an efficient reporting of the local batch system status and usage to the Grid Information System

  6. Operation of a Batch Stripping Distillation Column

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    A stripping batch distillation column is preferred when the amount of the light component in the feed is small and the products are to be recovered at high purity. The operation modes of a batch stripping are believed to be the same as those of a rectifier. However, the control system of a stripper is different. In this paper, we explore three different control methods with Hysys (Hyprotech Ltd. 1997) for a batch stripper. The main difference is the control scheme for reboiler liquid level: (a) controlled by reflux flow; (b) controlled by reboiler heat duty; (c) controlled by bottom product flow. The main characteristics of operating a batch stripper with different control scheme are presented in this paper. Guidelines are provided for the startup of a batch stripper, the effects of somecontrol tuning parameters on the column performance are discussed.

  7. Screening and assessment of performance and molecule quality attributes of industrial cell lines across different fed-batch systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouiller, Yolande; Bielser, Jean-Marc; Brühlmann, David; Jordan, Martin; Broly, Hervé; Stettler, Matthieu

    2016-01-01

    The major challenge in the selection process of recombinant cell lines for the production of biologics is the choice, early in development, of a clonal cell line presenting a high productivity and optimal cell growth. Most importantly, the selected candidate needs to generate a product quality profile which is adequate with respect to safety and efficacy and which is preserved across cell culture scales. We developed a high-throughput screening and selection strategy of recombinant cell lines, based on their productivity in shaking 96-deepwell plates operated in fed-batch mode, which enables the identification of cell lines maintaining their high productivity at larger scales. Twelve recombinant cell lines expressing the same antibody with different productivities were selected out of 470 clonal cell lines in 96-deepwell plate fed-batch culture. They were tested under the same conditions in 50 mL vented shake tubes, microscale and lab-scale bioreactors in order to confirm the maintenance of their performance at larger scales. The use of a feeding protocol and culture conditions which are essentially the same across the different scales was essential to maintain productivity and product quality profiles across scales. Compared to currently used approaches, this strategy has the advantage of speeding up the selection process and increases the number of screened clones for getting high-producing recombinant cell lines at manufacturing scale with the desired performance and quality.

  8. 电解铝用阳极沥青配料系统改造与应用%Improvement and application of pitch batching system for anode production

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪东; 卫镇东

    2012-01-01

    The problems exited in the pitch batching system in Yankuang Croup Keao Company Electrolytic Aluminium Plant were analyzed. In the original system, two-loop feeding system was adopted, which can switch in each time between the original system and standby system, and could be helpful to stabilize the anode production.%针对充矿集团原铝用阳极沥青配料系统事故率高和出现问题解决时间长的情况,进行了深入探讨和研究,在原系统基础上进行双回路改造,实现了一用一备及瞬时切换,既解决了因事故影响阳极生产的问题,又给事故处理提供了充足时间,大大稳定了生阳极生产.

  9. 乙醇-乙酸乙酯体系的间歇萃取精馏研究%Study on Batch Extractive Distillation of Ethanol- Ethyl Acetate System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张剑锋; 袁旭宏; 黄海明; 陈红; 叶余原; 尤玉静; 熊双喜

    2014-01-01

    In the conventional batch extractive distillation experimental device, the batch extractive distillation process of ethanol- ethyl acetate system by using N,N-dimethy formamide and dimethy sulphoxide as extracting agents was studied. Effects of total reflux time, extractant, azeotrope composition, volume ratio of solvent to mixture ,adding salt, adding alkali and other factors on the extractive distillation separation of ethanol- ethyl acetate system were investigated, then the best extractive distillation conditions were obtained .%在常规的间歇萃取精馏实验装置中,研究了以 N,N-二甲基酰胺(DMF)和二甲亚砜(DMSO)作萃取剂;在间歇萃取精馏塔中分离乙醇-乙酸乙酯体系的过程。对全回流时间、不同萃取剂、恒沸物组成、溶剂和混合物的体积比、加盐及加碱等因素考察,分析萃取精馏分离乙醇-乙酸乙酯共沸体系的影响,从而得出最佳的萃取条件。

  10. Hybrid Batch Bayesian Optimization

    CERN Document Server

    Azimi, Javad; Fern, Xiaoli

    2012-01-01

    Bayesian Optimization aims at optimizing an unknown non-convex/concave function that is costly to evaluate. We are interested in application scenarios where concurrent function evaluations are possible. Under such a setting, BO could choose to either sequentially evaluate the function, one input at a time and wait for the output of the function before making the next selection, or evaluate the function at a batch of multiple inputs at once. These two different settings are commonly referred to as the sequential and batch settings of Bayesian Optimization. In general, the sequential setting leads to better optimization performance as each function evaluation is selected with more information, whereas the batch setting has an advantage in terms of the total experimental time (the number of iterations). In this work, our goal is to combine the strength of both settings. Specifically, we systematically analyze Bayesian optimization using Gaussian process as the posterior estimator and provide a hybrid algorithm t...

  11. Heuristics for batching and sequencing in batch processing machines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuda Basnet

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we discuss the “batch processing” problem, where there are multiple jobs to be processed in flow shops. These jobs can however be formed into batches and the number of jobs in a batch is limited by the capacity of the processing machines to accommodate the jobs. The processing time required by a batch in a machine is determined by the greatest processing time of the jobs included in the batch. Thus, the batch processing problem is a mix of batching and sequencing – the jobs need to be grouped into distinct batches, the batches then need to be sequenced through the flow shop. We apply certain newly developed heuristics to the problem and present computational results. The contributions of this paper are deriving a lower bound, and the heuristics developed and tested in this paper.

  12. 甲醇-丙酮体系的间歇萃取精馏研究%Study on batch extractive distillation for methanol-acetone system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王益辉; 袁旭宏; 黄海明; 陈红; 叶余原; 尤玉静; 熊双喜

    2014-01-01

    The methanol-acetone azeotrope was separated by batch extractive distillation with distilled water as extracting agent. The effect of factors of extractant, total reflux time, azeotrope composition, volume ratio of sol-vent and compound, saline and alkaline on batch extractive distillation azeotrope system was investigated. The best extraction conditions were obtained.%在常规的间歇萃取精馏实验装置中,研究了以蒸馏水为萃取剂间歇萃取精馏分离甲醇-丙酮共沸物的过程。考察了萃取剂、全回流时间、共沸物组成、溶剂与混合物的体积比、加盐、加碱等因素对萃取精馏分离甲醇-丙酮共沸体系的影响,从而得出最佳的萃取条件。

  13. Application oriented batch fabrication and system level integration of thermal-piezoresistive and piezoelectric M/NEMS resonators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehdizadeh, Emad

    Today micro- and nano-electromechanical (MEMS and NEMS) resonant sensors are integral to numerous industrial, environmental, and biomedical applications. Traditionally capacitive and piezoelectric have been the primary options for transduction of high frequency resonant structures. When direct contact with the surrounding environment is needed, however, capacitive resonators are not suitable candidates due to their low Qs and vulnerability to contaminants. Recent developments in the field of high frequency thermally actuated MEMS resonators with piezoresistive detection have enabled a great deal of opportunities for realization of more robust, reliable and sensitive sensing platforms. Such monolithic structures can be conveniently implemented at micro and nanoscale without any fabrication challenges or the need for material integration. Self-sustained oscillation capability and design flexibility for sensory applications are among other unique properties that thermal-piezoresistive transduction offers. The objective of the present research is to explore the untapped potentials of thermal-piezoresistive transduction for expanding the horizons of the field of N/MEMS resonant sensors. Moreover, a new class of piezoelectric MEMS resonant structures capable of operating in liquid media is developed and its potential as a direct real-time chemical and biological sensor is investigated. Low-cost batch fabrication of nanoelectromechanical devices and controllable feature size reduction of such will be among other topics being addressed in the current study. In particular, the crystalline structure of silicon will be exploited to realize nanowires with smooth surface and any length and cross-sectional dimensions using only conventional microfabrication processes.

  14. An anoxic-aerobic system for simultaneous biodegradation of phenol and ammonia in a sequencing batch reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qifeng; Singh, Vijay P; Fu, Zhimin; Wang, Jing; Hu, La

    2017-03-24

    A laboratory-scale sequencing batch reactor (SBR) was investigated to treat artificial pretreated coal gasification wastewater that was mainly contained of ammonia and phenol. The efficiency of SBR fed with increasing phenol concentrations (from 150 to 300 mg l(-1)) and the relationship among phenol, nitrogen removal, and the microbial community structure were evaluated. When the phenol feeding concentration was increased to about 300 mg l(-1), the removal efficiency was above 99.0%, demonstrating the robustness of phenol removal capacity. The study showed that most phenol was degraded in anoxic stage. The average removal efficiencies of ammonia and total nitrogen were 98.4 and 81.9%, respectively, with average NH4(+)-N concentration of 107.5 mg l(-1) and COD/N 7.5. Low temperature caused sludge loss that led to the decreased performance. Increasing the temperature could not recover the performance effectively. The data from bacterial analysis revealed that Delftia, Hydrogenophaga, and unclassified Xanthomonadaceae played a significant role in phenol degradation before the temperature increase, while uncultured Syntrophococcus sp. and unclassified Rhodocyclaceae were responsible for phenol degradation after the temperature increase. These results imply that the SBR holds potential for the simultaneous removal of phenolic compounds and nitrogen through aerobic ammonia oxidation and anoxic denitrification with phenol as the co-organic carbon source.

  15. Contamination level of four priority phthalates in North Indian wastewater treatment plants and their fate in sequencing batch reactor systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gani, Khalid Muzamil; Rajpal, Ankur; Kazmi, Absar Ahmad

    2016-03-01

    The contamination level of four phthalates in untreated and treated wastewater of fifteen wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) and their fate in a full scale sequencing batch reactor (SBR) based WWTP was evaluated in this study. The four phthalates were diethyl phthalate (DEP), dibutyl phthalate (DBP), benzylbutyl phthalate (BBP) and diethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP). All compounds were present in untreated wastewater with DEHP being present in the highest mean concentration of 28.4 ± 5.3 μg L(-1). The concentration was in the range of 7.3 μg L(-1) (BBP) to 28.4 μg L(-1) (DEHP) in untreated wastewater and 1.3 μg L(-1) (DBP) to 2.6 μg L(-1) (DEHP) in treated wastewater. The nutrient removal process and advance tertiary treatment based WWTPs showed the highest phthalate removal efficiencies of 87% and 93%, respectively. The correlation between phthalate removal and conventional performance of WWTPs was positive. Fate analysis of these phthalates in a SBR based WWTP showed that total removal of the sum of phthalates in a primary settling tank and SBR was 84% out of which 55% is removed by biodegradation and 29% was removed by sorption to primary and secondary sludge. The percentage removal of four phthalates in primary settling tanks was 18%. Comparison of the diluted effluent DEHP concentration with its environmental quality standards showed that the dilution in an effluent receiving water body can reduce the DEHP emissions to acceptable values.

  16. Batch-oriented software appliances

    CERN Document Server

    Murri, Riccardo

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents AppPot, a system for creating Linux software appliances. AppPot can be run as a regular batch or grid job and executed in user space, and requires no special virtualization support in the infrastructure. The main design goal of AppPot is to bring the benefits of a virtualization-based IaaS cloud to existing batch-oriented computing infrastructures. In particular, AppPot addresses the application deployment and configuration on large heterogeneous computing infrastructures: users are enabled to prepare their own customized virtual appliance for providing a safe execution environment for their applications. These appliances can then be executed on virtually any computing infrastructure being in a private or public cloud as well as any batch-controlled computing clusters the user may have access to. We give an overview of AppPot and its features, the technology that makes it possible, and report on experiences running it in production use within the Swiss National Grid infrastructure SMSCG.

  17. Energy efficiency of batch and semi-batch (CCRO) reverse osmosis desalination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warsinger, David M; Tow, Emily W; Nayar, Kishor G; Maswadeh, Laith A; Lienhard V, John H

    2016-12-01

    As reverse osmosis (RO) desalination capacity increases worldwide, the need to reduce its specific energy consumption becomes more urgent. In addition to the incremental changes attainable with improved components such as membranes and pumps, more significant reduction of energy consumption can be achieved through time-varying RO processes including semi-batch processes such as closed-circuit reverse osmosis (CCRO) and fully-batch processes that have not yet been commercialized or modelled in detail. In this study, numerical models of the energy consumption of batch RO (BRO), CCRO, and the standard continuous RO process are detailed. Two new energy-efficient configurations of batch RO are analyzed. Batch systems use significantly less energy than continuous RO over a wide range of recovery ratios and source water salinities. Relative to continuous RO, models predict that CCRO and batch RO demonstrate up to 37% and 64% energy savings, respectively, for brackish water desalination at high water recovery. For batch RO and CCRO, the primary reductions in energy use stem from atmospheric pressure brine discharge and reduced streamwise variation in driving pressure. Fully-batch systems further reduce energy consumption by not mixing streams of different concentrations, which CCRO does. These results demonstrate that time-varying processes can significantly raise RO energy efficiency.

  18. Parametric and energy consumption optimization of Basic Red 2 removal by electrocoagulation/egg shell adsorption coupling using response surface methodology in a batch system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Carvalho, Helder Pereira; Huang, Jiguo; Zhao, Meixia; Liu, Gang; Yang, Xinyu; Dong, Lili; Liu, Xingjuan

    2016-01-01

    In this study, response surface methodology (RSM) model was applied for optimization of Basic Red 2 (BR2) removal using electrocoagulation/eggshell (ES) coupling process in a batch system. Central composite design was used to evaluate the effects and interactions of process parameters including current density, reaction time, initial pH and ES dosage on the BR2 removal efficiency and energy consumption. The analysis of variance revealed high R(2) values (≥85%) indicating that the predictions of RSM models are adequately applicable for both responses. The optimum conditions when the dye removal efficiency of 93.18% and energy consumption of 0.840 kWh/kg were observed were 11.40 mA/cm(2) current density, 5 min and 3 s reaction time, 6.5 initial pH and 10.91 g/L ES dosage.

  19. In vitro growth of Curcuma longa L. in response to five mineral elements and plant density in fed-batch culture systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Hawaz, Rabia F; Bridges, William C; Adelberg, Jeffrey W

    2015-01-01

    Plant density was varied with P, Ca, Mg, and KNO3 in a multifactor experiment to improve Curcuma longa L. micropropagation, biomass and microrhizome development in fed-batch liquid culture. The experiment had two paired D-optimal designs, testing sucrose fed-batch and nutrient sucrose fed-batch techniques. When sucrose became depleted, volume was restored to 5% m/v sucrose in 200 ml of modified liquid MS medium by adding sucrose solutions. Similarly, nutrient sucrose fed-batch was restored to set points with double concentration of treatments' macronutrient and MS micronutrient solutions, along with sucrose solutions. Changes in the amounts of water and sucrose supplementations were driven by the interaction of P and KNO3 concentrations. Increasing P from 1.25 to 6.25 mM increased both multiplication and biomass. The multiplication ratio was greatest in the nutrient sucrose fed-batch technique with the highest level of P, 6 buds/vessel, and the lowest level of Ca and KNO3. The highest density (18 buds/vessel) produced the highest fresh biomass at the highest concentrations of KNO3 and P with nutrient sucrose fed-batch, and moderate Ca and Mg concentrations. However, maximal rhizome dry biomass required highest P, sucrose fed-batch, and a moderate plant density. Different media formulations and fed-batch techniques were identified to maximize the propagation and storage organ responses. A single experimental design was used to optimize these dual purposes.

  20. Dynamic Batch Bayesian Optimization

    CERN Document Server

    Azimi, Javad; Fern, Xiaoli

    2011-01-01

    Bayesian optimization (BO) algorithms try to optimize an unknown function that is expensive to evaluate using minimum number of evaluations/experiments. Most of the proposed algorithms in BO are sequential, where only one experiment is selected at each iteration. This method can be time inefficient when each experiment takes a long time and more than one experiment can be ran concurrently. On the other hand, requesting a fix-sized batch of experiments at each iteration causes performance inefficiency in BO compared to the sequential policies. In this paper, we present an algorithm that asks a batch of experiments at each time step t where the batch size p_t is dynamically determined in each step. Our algorithm is based on the observation that the sequence of experiments selected by the sequential policy can sometimes be almost independent from each other. Our algorithm identifies such scenarios and request those experiments at the same time without degrading the performance. We evaluate our proposed method us...

  1. Production of oleic acid ethyl ester catalyzed by crude rice bran (Oryza sativa lipase in a modified fed-batch system: problem and its solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indro Prastowo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A fed-batch system was modified for the enzymatic production of Oleic Acid Ethyl Ester (OAEE using rice bran (Oryza sativa lipase by retaining the substrate molar ratio (ethanol/oleic acid at 2.05: 1 during the reaction. It resulted in an increase in the ester conversion up to 76.8% in the first 6 h of the reaction, and then followed by a decrease from 76.8% to 22.9% in 6 h later. Meanwhile, the production of water in the reaction system also showed a similar trend to the trend of ester production. The water was hypothesized to lead lipase to reverse the reaction which resulted in a decrease in both (water and esters in the last 6 h of the reaction. In order to overcome the problem, zeolite powders (25 and 50 mg/ml were added into the reaction system at 5 h of the reaction. As the result, final ester conversions increased drastically up to 90 - 95.7% (1.17 – 1.24 times. The addition also proved a hypothesis that the water was involved in reducing the ester conversion in the last 6 h of the reaction. Thus, the combination was effective to produce the high final ester conversion.

  2. A Batch Feeder for Inhomogeneous Bulk Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vislov, I. S.; Kladiev, S. N.; Slobodyan, S. M.; Bogdan, A. M.

    2016-04-01

    The work includes the mechanical analysis of mechanical feeders and batchers that find application in various technological processes and industrial fields. Feeders are usually classified according to their design features into two groups: conveyor-type feeders and non-conveyor feeders. Batchers are used to batch solid bulk materials. Less frequently, they are used for liquids. In terms of a batching method, they are divided into volumetric and weighting batchers. Weighting batchers do not provide for sufficient batching accuracy. Automatic weighting batchers include a mass controlling sensor and systems for automatic material feed and automatic mass discharge control. In terms of operating principle, batchers are divided into gravitational batchers and batchers with forced feed of material using conveyors and pumps. Improved consumption of raw materials, decreased loss of materials, ease of use in automatic control systems of industrial facilities allows increasing the quality of technological processes and improve labor conditions. The batch feeder suggested by the authors is a volumetric batcher that has no comparable counterparts among conveyor-type feeders and allows solving the problem of targeted feeding of bulk material batches increasing reliability and hermeticity of the device.

  3. Sojourn time distributions in a Markovian G-queue with batch arrival and batch removal

    OpenAIRE

    1999-01-01

    We consider a single server Markovian queue with two types of customers; positive and negative, where positive customers arrive in batches and arrivals of negative customers remove positive customers in batches. Only positive customers form a queue and negative customers just reduce the system congestion by removing positive ones upon their arrivals. We derive the LSTs of sojourn time distributions for a single server Markovian queue with positive customers and negative custom...

  4. Methodology of Supervision by Analysis of Thermal Flux for Thermal Conduction of a Batch Chemical Reactor Equipped with a Monofluid Heating/Cooling System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghania Henini

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We present the thermal behavior of a batch reactor to jacket equipped with a monofluid heating/cooling system. Heating and cooling are provided respectively by an electrical resistance and two plate heat exchangers. The control of the temperature of the reaction is based on the supervision system. This strategy of management of the thermal devices is based on the usage of the thermal flux as manipulated variable. The modulation of the monofluid temperature by acting on the heating power or on the opening degrees of an air-to-open valve that delivers the monofluid to heat exchanger. The study shows that the application of this method for the conduct of the pilot reactor gives good results in simulation and that taking into account the dynamics of the various apparatuses greatly improves ride quality of conduct. In addition thermal control of an exothermic reaction (mononitration shows that the consideration of heat generated in the model representation improve the results by elimination any overshooting of the set-point temperature.

  5. Viral and bacterial production in the North Water: in situ measurements, batch-culture experiments and characterization and distribution of a virus host system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Middelboe, Mathias; Nielsen, Torkel G.; Bjørnsen, Peter K.

    Growth and viral lysis of bacterioplankton at subzero temperatures were measured in the North Water polynya in July 1998. In situ measurements of bacterial carbon consumption in surface waters ranged from 15 to 63 μg C l -1 d -1 in the eastern and 6 to 7 μg C l -1 d -1 in the northern part of the polynya. Both bacterial abundance and activity appeared to increase in response to the decay of the phytoplankton bloom that developed in the North Water. Organic carbon was the limiting substrate for bacteria in the polynya since addition of glucose, but not inorganic nutrients, to batch cultures increased both the carrying capacity of the substrate and the growth rate of the bacteria. Bacterial growth rates ranged from 0.11 to 0.40 d -1, corresponding to bacterial generation times of 1.7-6.3 d. The in situ viral production rate was estimated both from the frequency of visibly infected cells and from the rate of viral production in batch cultures; it ranged from 0.04 to 0.52 d -1 and from 0.25 to 0.47 d -1, respectively. From 6% to 28% of bacterial production was found to be lost due to viral lysis. The average virus-bacteria ratio was 5.1±3.1, with the abundance of viruses being correlated positively with bacterial production. A Pseudoalteromonas sp. bacterial host and an infective virus were isolated from the polynya; characteristics and distribution of the virus-host system were examined. The Pseudoalteromonas sp. showed psychrotolerant growth and sustained significant production of viruses at 0°C. The virus-host system was found throughout the polynya. Overall the results suggested that a large amount of organic carbon released during the development and breakdown of the spring phytoplankton bloom was consumed by planktonic bacteria and that the microbial food web was an important and dynamic component of the planktonic food web in the North Water.

  6. Productivity and selective accumulation of carotenoids of the novel extremophile microalga Chlamydomonas acidophila grown with different carbon sources in batch systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuaresma, María; Casal, Carlos; Forján, Eduardo; Vílchez, Carlos

    2011-01-01

    Cultivation of extremophile microorganisms has attracted interest due to their ability to accumulate high-value compounds. Chlamydomonas acidophila is an acidophile green microalga isolated by our group from Tinto River, an acidic river that flows down from the mining area in Huelva, Spain. This microalga accumulates high concentrations of lutein, a very well-known natural antioxidant. The aim of this study is to assess use of different carbon sources (CO(2), glucose, glycerol, starch, urea, and glycine) for efficient growth of and carotenoid production by C. acidophila. Our results reveal that growth of the microalga on different carbon sources resulted in different algal biomass productivities, urea being as efficient as CO(2) when used as sole carbon source (~20 g dry biomass m(-2) day(-1)). Mixotrophic growth on glucose was also efficient in terms of biomass production (~14 g dry biomass m(-2) day(-1)). In terms of carotenoid accumulation, mixotrophic growth on urea resulted in even higher productivity of carotenoids (mainly lutein, probably via α-carotene) than obtained with photoautotrophic cultures (70% versus 65% relative abundance of lutein, respectively). The accumulated lutein concentrations of C. acidophila reported in this work (about 10 g/kg dry weight, produced in batch systems) are among the highest reported for a microalga. Glycerol and glycine seem to enhance β-carotene biosynthesis, and when glycine is used as carbon source, zeaxanthin becomes the most accumulated carotenoid in the microalga. Strategies for production of lutein and zeaxanthin are suggested based on the obtained results.

  7. Dynamic Fractional Resource Scheduling vs. Batch Scheduling

    CERN Document Server

    Casanova, Henri; Vivien, Frédéric

    2011-01-01

    We propose a novel job scheduling approach for homogeneous cluster computing platforms. Its key feature is the use of virtual machine technology to share fractional node resources in a precise and controlled manner. Other VM-based scheduling approaches have focused primarily on technical issues or on extensions to existing batch scheduling systems, while we take a more aggressive approach and seek to find heuristics that maximize an objective metric correlated with job performance. We derive absolute performance bounds and develop algorithms for the online, non-clairvoyant version of our scheduling problem. We further evaluate these algorithms in simulation against both synthetic and real-world HPC workloads and compare our algorithms to standard batch scheduling approaches. We find that our approach improves over batch scheduling by orders of magnitude in terms of job stretch, while leading to comparable or better resource utilization. Our results demonstrate that virtualization technology coupled with light...

  8. 一种批量抽取动态Web信息系%Batch Extraction Information System from Dynamic Web

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马龙; 张春涛; 杨德仁

    2011-01-01

    针对从Web页面获取信息的广泛需求,分析了从中提取信息的关键技术如URL地址、HTML页面和HtmlParse解析库;以从Google Map中获取企业黄页信息为例,根据从中自动提取数据的技术和步骤,设计和实现了该系统原型,并指出的相关问题及其解决办法.%In order to respond some extensive requirements for getting information from Web pages, some key techniques such as URL, HTML page and HtmlParse API, were analyzed. Getting yellow page information from Google maps was taken as an example, and according to related techniques and steps of abstracting information from it, the system prototype was designed and implemented. Some related problems were presented, and its corresponding solution were discussed too.

  9. PREDICTIVE CONTROL OF A BATCH POLYMERIZATION SYSTEM USING A FEEDFORWARD NEURAL NETWORK WITH ONLINE ADAPTATION BY GENETIC ALGORITHM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Cancelier

    Full Text Available Abstract This study used a predictive controller based on an empirical nonlinear model comprising a three-layer feedforward neural network for temperature control of the suspension polymerization process. In addition to the offline training technique, an algorithm was also analyzed for online adaptation of its parameters. For the offline training, the network was statically trained and the genetic algorithm technique was used in combination with the least squares method. For online training, the network was trained on a recurring basis and only the technique of genetic algorithms was used. In this case, only the weights and bias of the output layer neuron were modified, starting from the parameters obtained from the offline training. From the experimental results obtained in a pilot plant, a good performance was observed for the proposed control system, with superior performance for the control algorithm with online adaptation of the model, particularly with respect to the presence of off-set for the case of the fixed parameters model.

  10. Computer Simulation of Batch Grinding Process Based on Simulink 5.0

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Xia; YANG Ying-jie; DENG Hui-yong; HUANG Guang-yao

    2005-01-01

    How to use Simulink software in grinding system was studied. The method of designing batch grinding subsystem and the steps of building batch grinding blockset were introduced. Based on batch grinding population balance model, batch grinding was simulated with Simulink. The results show that the simulation system designed with Simulink explain reasonably the impersonal rule of batch grinding. On the basis of batch grinding simulation, the computer simulation of mineral processing system with Simulink of grinding and classification, comminution, etc, can be properly explored.

  11. Batch process. Optimum designing and operation of a batch process; Bacchi purosesu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hasebe, S. [Kyoto Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1997-09-05

    Since the control of a batch process becomes dynamic, it becomes necessary to handle the process differently from a continuous process in terms of the designing, operating and controlling of the process. This paper describes the characteristics and the problems to be solved of a batch process from three points of view, the designing, operation and controlling of the process. A major problem of a batch process is the designing difficulty. In a batch process, the amount of products capable of being manufactured per unit time by each apparatus and that by the whole plant structured by combining apparatuses are different, and therefore the time and apparatus capacity are wasted in some cases. The actual designing of a batch process involves various factors, such as the seasonal fluctuation of demand for products, the possibility of expanding the apparatuses in the future and the easiness of controlling the process, and the shipment of products during consecutive holidays and periodic maintenance, which are not included in the formulation of mathematical programming problems. Regarding the optimum operation of a batch process and the controlling of the same, descriptions of forming of a dynamic optimum operation pattern and verification of the sequence control system are given. 9 refs., 4 figs.

  12. Estimation of autotrophic maximum specific growth rate constant--experience from the long-term operation of a laboratory-scale sequencing batch reactor system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Yu-min; Makinia, Jacek; Pagilla, Krishna R

    2008-04-01

    The autotrophic maximum specific growth rate constant, muA,max, is the critical parameter for design and performance of nitrifying activated sludge systems. In literature reviews (i.e., Henze et al., 1987; Metcalf and Eddy, 1991), a wide range of muA,max values have been reported (0.25 to 3.0 days(-1)); however, recent data from several wastewater treatment plants across North America revealed that the estimated muA,max values remained in the narrow range 0.85 to 1.05 days(-1). In this study, long-term operation of a laboratory-scale sequencing batch reactor system was investigated for estimating this coefficient according to the low food-to-microorganism ratio bioassay and simulation methods, as recommended in the Water Environment Research Foundation (Alexandria, Virginia) report (Melcer et al., 2003). The estimated muA,max values using steady-state model calculations for four operating periods ranged from 0.83 to 0.99 day(-1). The International Water Association (London, United Kingdom) Activated Sludge Model No. 1 (ASM1) dynamic model simulations revealed that a single value of muA,max (1.2 days(-1)) could be used, despite variations in the measured specific nitrification rates. However, the average muA,max was gradually decreasing during the activated sludge chlorination tests, until it reached the value of 0.48 day(-1) at the dose of 5 mg chlorine/(g mixed liquor suspended solids x d). Significant discrepancies between the predicted XA/YA ratios were observed. In some cases, the ASM1 predictions were approximately two times higher than the steady-state model predictions. This implies that estimating this ratio from a complex activated sludge model and using it in simple steady-state model calculations should be accepted with great caution and requires further investigation.

  13. Adaptive scheduling of batch servers in flow shops

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Zee, D.J.

    2002-01-01

    Batch servicing is a common way of benefiting from economies of scale in manufacturing operations. Good examples of production systems that allow for batch processing are ovens found in the aircraft industry and in semiconductor manufacturing. In this paper we study the issue of dynamic scheduling o

  14. Growth and nitrogen removal capacity of Desmodesmus communis and of a natural microalgae consortium in a batch culture system in view of urban wastewater treatment: part I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samorì, Giulia; Samorì, Chiara; Guerrini, Franca; Pistocchi, Rossella

    2013-02-01

    The microalgal biomass applications strongly depend on cell composition and the production of low cost products such as biofuels appears to be economically convenient only in conjunction with wastewater treatment. As a preliminary study, in view of the development of a wastewater treatment pilot plant for nutrient removal and algal biomass production, a biological wastewater system was carried out on a laboratory scale growing a newly isolated freshwater algal strain, Desmodesmus communis, and a natural consortium of microalgae in effluents generated by a local wastewater reclamation facility. Batch cultures were operated by using D. communis under different growth conditions to better understand the effects of CO₂, nutrient concentration and light intensity on the biomass productivity and biochemical composition. The results were compared with those obtained using a natural algal consortium. D. communis showed a great vitality in the wastewater effluents with a biomass productivity of 0.138-0.227 g L⁻¹ d⁻¹ in the primary effluent enriched with CO₂, higher biomass productivity compared with the one achieved by the algal consortium (0.078 g L⁻¹ d⁻¹). D. communis cultures reached also a better nutrient removal efficiency compared with the algal consortium culture, with almost 100% for ammonia and phosphorous at any N/P ratio characterizing the wastewater nutrient composition. Biomass composition was richer in polysaccharides and total fatty acids as the ammonia concentration in the water decreased. In view of a future application of this algal biomass, due to the low total fatty acids content of 1.4-9.3 wt% and the high C/N ratio of 7.6-39.3, anaerobic digestion appeared to be the most appropriate biofuel conversion process.

  15. 基于神经网络的SBBR系统建模方法%Modeling based on neural network for sequencing batch biofilm reactor system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卿晓霞; 梁汉超; 周健; 余建平

    2012-01-01

    It is difficult to build the model of sequencing batch biofilm reactor. This problem has been studied and solved by using the neural network technique. The 7-12-3 back-propagation neural network technique is developed for the system with excluding abnormal data according to pauta criterion,adjusting the network connection weights by training samples,monitoring the training process timely with test samples and the LM algorithm. The model output result being compared with actually measured data,the coefficient of COD is 0.857,ammonia is 0.918,and phosphate is 0.942, meeting the modeling requirement of sewage treatment process.%针对序批式生物膜系统难以构建水质模型的问题,采用神经网络技术进行建模方法研究.根据拉伊达准则剔除异常数据,并用训练样本调整网络连接权值,用检验样本实时动态监控训练过程,用LM算法构建了一个7-12-3结构的BP神经网络模型.将模型输出结果与实测数据进行比较,其相关系数分别为ROOD=0.857,RNH4+-N=0.918,RPO43--P=0.942,能够满足污水处理过程建模的要求.

  16. VB-based Hospital Storeroom Inventory Management System Data Batch Entry Design%基于VB的医院药库进销存管理系统数据批量录入方法设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张金兵

    2011-01-01

    在进销存管理系统中数据批量录入是经常要做的工作,如何减轻操作人员的工作量,是软件设计时必须要考虑的一个因素,本文以基于VB环境下的医院药库进销存管理系统设计为例,介绍了如何实现数据批量录入的方法。%In Invoicing management system data batch input is often the work to be done,how to reduce the workload of operators,is the software design must be considered a factor,based on the VB environment of hospital pharmacy Invoicing management system as an example,introduces how to realize the data batch input method.

  17. Look-ahead strategies for controlling batch operations in industry : basic insights in rule construction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Zee, D.J.; Sullivan, W.A.; Ahmad, M.M.; Fichtner, D.; Sauer, W.; Weigert, G.; Zerna, T.

    2002-01-01

    Batching jobs in a manufacturing system is a very common policy in most industries. Main reasons for batching are avoidance of set ups and/or facilitation of material handling. Examples of batch-wise production systems are ovens found in aircraft industry and in semiconductor manufacturing. Starting

  18. Batch Model for Batched Timestamps Data Analysis with Application to the SSA Disability Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, Qingqi; Yuan, Ao; Che, Xuan; Huynh, Minh; Zhou, Chunxiao

    2016-01-01

    The Office of Disability Adjudication and Review (ODAR) is responsible for holding hearings, issuing decisions, and reviewing appeals as part of the Social Security Administration’s disability determining process. In order to control and process cases, the ODAR has established a Case Processing and Management System (CPMS) to record management information since December 2003. The CPMS provides a detailed case status history for each case. Due to the large number of appeal requests and limited resources, the number of pending claims at ODAR was over one million cases by March 31, 2015. Our National Institutes of Health (NIH) team collaborated with SSA and developed a Case Status Change Model (CSCM) project to meet the ODAR’s urgent need of reducing backlogs and improve hearings and appeals process. One of the key issues in our CSCM project is to estimate the expected service time and its variation for each case status code. The challenge is that the systems recorded job departure times may not be the true job finished times. As the CPMS timestamps data of case status codes showed apparent batch patterns, we proposed a batch model and applied the constrained least squares method to estimate the mean service times and the variances. We also proposed a batch search algorithm to determine the optimal batch partition, as no batch partition was given in the real data. Simulation studies were conducted to evaluate the performance of the proposed methods. Finally, we applied the method to analyze a real CPMS data from ODAR/SSA.

  19. An Microassembly System for Batch Bonding of MEMS Sensors%用于MEMS传感器批量制造的微装配系统

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    荣伟彬; 谢晖; 孙立宁

    2006-01-01

    Batch microassembly of MEMS sensors is limited by the manual manipulation required specially trained technicians. To reduce the production costs and simultaneously obtain high production quality, a flexible microassembly system for automated anodic bonding of MEMS sensors is developed. The system consists of a set of autonomous modules that can adapt their structures and functions to various sizes of MEMS sensors, including positioning stages, a microscopy imaging system, a flexible micromanipulator, a heater, a fixture, a supply station and auxiliary systems. Optomechatronic design is essential to the develo pment of integrated systems due to the basic importance of microscope optics to microassembly. Major methodology issues in optomechatronic design of this system are introduced. A wavelet-based microscopic focus measure and a control scheme with a modified Smith predicator to decrease the inherent time delay of vision system are presented. A smart force sensor with one dimension is employed to sense and control the interactive force. To perform manipulations automatically, a control system, including a task planning level and a real-time execution level, is developed. The productivity of the flexible microassembly system is validated by further experiment.%手工操作限制了MEMS传感器的批量生产.为了降低生产成本,同时提高传感器的产品质量,研制了柔性自动阳极键合系统.该系统包括一系列功能模块,包括精密定位系统、显微视觉子系统、柔性微操作手、加热系统、键合夹具、物流系统以及其它的附属系统.通过模块重构和调整,可实现不同尺寸规格传感器的键合.基于显微视觉以及微装配系统的特性,提出了基于小波变换的自动调焦清晰度评价函数,同时提出了基于改进史密斯预估器的用于克服视觉延迟的伺服控制结构.集成一维微力传感器的微操作手可实现高精度和无损操作.为了实现自动化操作,

  20. On the track of fish batches in three distribution networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Randrup, Maria; Wu, Haiping; Jørgensen, Bo M.

    2012-01-01

    Three fish products sampled in retail shops were traced back to their origin and fish from the same batch were tracked forward towards the retailer, thereby simulating a recall situation. The resulting distribution networks were very complex, but to the extent that companies were willing to provide...... the necessary information, it was possible to locate the end destinations of the fish batches. The batch sizes and the number of companies involved clearly rose when batch joining occurred. Thus, a fault in a small batch can potentially have widespread implications. The study also underlines the importance...... of discovering a fault as early as possible in order to minimise the costs of a recall. The localisation of distributed products during a recall operation can be facilitated by a well-constructed traceability system....

  1. System Design of Batch Processing Modes in Processing-Assembly Enterprise with Transit Time Considered%考虑运输时间的加工装配型企业批量加工模式系统设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾国柱; 孔继利

    2013-01-01

    在考虑相邻工序间运输时间的基础上,设计加工装配型企业批量加工模式系统的算法流程,并完成系统的开发.该系统可生成不同移动方式下的零件加工和搬运甘特图,能够计算生产周期、零件搬运次数、每次零件的搬运数量、开始搬运和完成搬运时间、开始加工和结束加工时间等详细信息.利用系统提供的生产周期,决策者可以决定一批新进入系统的零件是否在不需要生产系统进行单元重构的情况下,就可以满足订单交货期的要求.以系统提供的部分数据为基础,建立0-1规划模型来求解相邻工序间搬运零件所需的最少搬运设备数量.%With transit time of the in-between processes considered, a detailed algorithm procedure for the system design of batch processing modes in processing-assembly enterprise is presented. With this algorithm procedure, a software system is developed. The software system is able to generate a Gantt chart of processing and handling a batch of parts based on three kinds of transfer modes. Meanwhile, it is capable of yielding useful information, such as production cycle, the number of times that a batch of parts are handled , the number of parts for each handling process, start time and end time of handling (including the earliest and latest) , start time and end time of processing, and so on. The decision-makers can effectively decide whether the existing production system can produce goods whose delivery time can meet customer's requirement by using the information of production cycle without cell reconstruction for the production system. Furthermore, decision-makers can schedule the processing tasks of the batch parts, together with another batch. We finally construct a 0 - 1 programming model according to the system data. This model can obtain a solution with the least number of material movements for the in-between processes.

  2. Batch Scheduling a Fresh Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardo, Nicholas P.; Woodrow, Thomas (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    The Network Queueing System (NQS) was designed to schedule jobs based on limits within queues. As systems obtain more memory, the number of queues increased to take advantage of the added memory resource. The problem now becomes too many queues. Having a large number of queues provides users with the capability to gain an unfair advantage over other users by tailoring their job to fit in an empty queue. Additionally, the large number of queues becomes confusing to the user community. The High Speed Processors group at the Numerical Aerodynamics Simulation (NAS) Facility at NASA Ames Research Center developed a new approach to batch job scheduling. This new method reduces the number of queues required by eliminating the need for queues based on resource limits. The scheduler examines each request for necessary resources before initiating the job. Also additional user limits at the complex level were added to provide a fairness to all users. Additional tools which include user job reordering are under development to work with the new scheduler. This paper discusses the objectives, design and implementation results of this new scheduler

  3. BATCH-GE: Batch analysis of Next-Generation Sequencing data for genome editing assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boel, Annekatrien; Steyaert, Woutert; De Rocker, Nina; Menten, Björn; Callewaert, Bert; De Paepe, Anne; Coucke, Paul; Willaert, Andy

    2016-07-27

    Targeted mutagenesis by the CRISPR/Cas9 system is currently revolutionizing genetics. The ease of this technique has enabled genome engineering in-vitro and in a range of model organisms and has pushed experimental dimensions to unprecedented proportions. Due to its tremendous progress in terms of speed, read length, throughput and cost, Next-Generation Sequencing (NGS) has been increasingly used for the analysis of CRISPR/Cas9 genome editing experiments. However, the current tools for genome editing assessment lack flexibility and fall short in the analysis of large amounts of NGS data. Therefore, we designed BATCH-GE, an easy-to-use bioinformatics tool for batch analysis of NGS-generated genome editing data, available from https://github.com/WouterSteyaert/BATCH-GE.git. BATCH-GE detects and reports indel mutations and other precise genome editing events and calculates the corresponding mutagenesis efficiencies for a large number of samples in parallel. Furthermore, this new tool provides flexibility by allowing the user to adapt a number of input variables. The performance of BATCH-GE was evaluated in two genome editing experiments, aiming to generate knock-out and knock-in zebrafish mutants. This tool will not only contribute to the evaluation of CRISPR/Cas9-based experiments, but will be of use in any genome editing experiment and has the ability to analyze data from every organism with a sequenced genome.

  4. Sojourn time distributions in a Markovian G-queue with batch arrival and batch removal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Woo Shin

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available We consider a single server Markovian queue with two types of customers; positive and negative, where positive customers arrive in batches and arrivals of negative customers remove positive customers in batches. Only positive customers form a queue and negative customers just reduce the system congestion by removing positive ones upon their arrivals. We derive the LSTs of sojourn time distributions for a single server Markovian queue with positive customers and negative customers by using the first passage time arguments for Markov chains.

  5. BATCHING PRINCIPLE OF RATING POINT ACCRUAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Safontsev

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyzes characteristics of the postindustrial educational system, including the credit competence assessment, academic loads, and module-rating discipline structure. The employers’ judgments, reflected in the survey outcomes, make it possible to single out the most significant competencies for students to master. Such findings are regarded as a foundation for developing the assignment modules, integrating the problematic, testing and projecting tasks, designed to master necessary competences; their effectiveness is estimated by using the criteria of behavioral psychology. The paper demonstrates the sequences of monitoring assessment of students’ academic achievements, and recommends the batching principle of rating point accrual, based on criterion-oriented evaluation standards, reflecting students’ competence levels. The authors identify the basic competence indicators: interest in the subject, reflections on the test results, and inner motivation for project activities. The complex of batching equations is given for developing the training cards of academic disciplines, and guaranteeing the effectiveness of education system.

  6. From batch to continuous extractive distillation using thermodynamic insight: class 1.0-2 case B

    OpenAIRE

    Shen,Weifeng; Benyounes, Hassiba; Gerbaud, Vincent

    2011-01-01

    A systematic feasibility analysis is presented for the separation azeotropic mixtures by batch and continuous extractive distillation. Based on batch feasibility knowledge, batch and continuous separation feasibility is studied under reflux ratio and entrainer flow-rate for the ternary system chloroform-vinyl acetate-butyl acetate, which belongs to the class 1.0-2 separating maximum boiling temperature azeotropes using a heavy entrainer. How information on feasibility of batch mode could be e...

  7. Algorithms for On-line Order Batching in an Order-Picking Warehouse

    OpenAIRE

    Sebastian Henn

    2009-01-01

    In manual order picking systems, order pickers walk or ride through a distribution warehouse in order to collect items required by (internal or external) customers. Order batching consists of combining these – indivisible – customer orders into picking orders. With respect to order batching, two problem types can be distinguished: In off-line (static) batching all customer orders are known in advance. In on-line (dynamic) batching customer orders become available dynamically over time. This r...

  8. A Visualized E-Kanban System for Small-Batch JIT Production%一种实现小批量准时化生产的可视化电子看板系统

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金青; 张忠; 潘雪涛; 王晓宇; 葛冰

    2011-01-01

    It is well known that the traditional kanban system is not suitable to multi-product and small-batch production. To solve this problem, a new solution called visualization kanban technique is proposed such that just-in-time (JIT) strategy can be applied to the multi-product and small-batch production. As an industrial case problem, this technique is applied to an electronic product production process. For this production process, the new kanban operation flow chart is designed and it works well. The system frame-work , the key technique and the suitable environment condition are proposed too. Compared with the tradi-tional kanban system, the visualization kanban system has been demonstrated to be more efficient and ap-plicable to multi-product and small-batch production.%针对传统看板方式不适用于多品种、小批量订单生产的诸多问题,提出了一种新的、基于可视化电子看板技术的解决方案,使得准时化生产方式能成功运用于多品种、小批量订单的市场环境。以电子产品的生产场景为例,采用过程分析的方法,进行了新看板运行流程的设计,提出了可视化电子看板系统的结构、关键技术和适用环境条件。

  9. BatchJS: Implementing Batches in JavaScript

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kasemier, D.

    2014-01-01

    None of our popular programming languages know how to handle distribution well. Yet our programs interact more and more with each other and our data resorts in databases and web services. Batches are a new addition to languages that can finally bring native support for distribution to our favourite

  10. Analysis of Adiabatic Batch Reactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erald Gjonaj

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available A mixture of acetic anhydride is reacted with excess water in an adiabatic batch reactor to form an exothermic reaction. The concentration of acetic anhydride and the temperature inside the adiabatic batch reactor are calculated with an initial temperature of 20°C, an initial temperature of 30°C, and with a cooling jacket maintaining the temperature at a constant of 20°C. The graphs of the three different scenarios show that the highest temperatures will cause the reaction to occur faster.

  11. Comparative study of four fed-batch propagation systems of beer yeast Estudio comparativo de cuatro sistemas de propagación de levadura cervecera por lote alimentado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caicedo L.

    1998-06-01

    Full Text Available Beer yeast was propagated using batch culture, and a mathematical model was fitted to the resulting data. Intermittent, continuousintermittent, and high-density fed-batch techniques were used. The highest cell yield was found using the high density technique. Simulation also unveiled an effect of the feeding technique on cellular growth rate and yield. The high density technique increased the stoichiometric factor Yx/s.Se realizó la propagación por lotes de levadura cervecera y con base en estos resultados se ajustó un modelo matemático. Se llevaron a cabo cuatro fermentaciones con diferentes técnicas de alimentación y se confrontaron los resultados mediante simulación. Las técnicas estudiadas fueron alimentación puntual, alimentación continua-puntual y de alta densidad. La mayor concentración celular y factor de propagación se presentó con el cultivo de alta densidad. La simulación demostró que la alimentación continua o puntual afecta el comportamiento celular, ya sea sobre la velocidad específica y/o el factor estequiométrico Yx/s . Se encontró que la técnica de alta densidad aumenta el factor estequiométrico Yx/s.

  12. Image Data Processing System (IDAPS) user manual, S-056 experiment. Volume 1: System description. Volume 2: Batch IDAPS. Volume 3: Interactive IDAPS

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-01-01

    Image data processing system (IDAPS) developed to satisfy the image processing requirements of the Skylab S-056 experiment is described. The S-056 experiment was designed to obtain high-resolution photographs of the sun in the far ultraviolet, or soft X-ray, portion of the electromagnetic spectrum. Thirty-five thousand photographs were obtained by the three flights of the program; and, faced with such a massive volume of imagery, the designers of the experiment decided to develop a computer-based system which would reduce the image processing workload. The purpose of the IDAPS User Manual is to give the IDAPS user the necessary information and instructions to effectively utilize the system.

  13. Universal Batch Steganalysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-30

    social networking sites (see the next subsection for details). We have used them as cover images and simulated ‘guilty’ actors and images using...are not easy to use, particularly not with social networking sites that re-compress uploaded images. If the assumption is incorrect, our results will...scripts to crawl images from social networking sites , were written by Ker. The experiments were performed on computer systems in both Prague and

  14. Physicochemical Characteristics of Transferon™ Batches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medina-Rivero, Emilio; Vallejo-Castillo, Luis; Vázquez-Leyva, Said; Pérez-Sánchez, Gilberto; Favari, Liliana; Velasco-Velázquez, Marco; Estrada-Parra, Sergio; Pavón, Lenin; Pérez-Tapia, Sonia Mayra

    2016-01-01

    Transferon, a biotherapeutic agent that has been used for the past 2 decades for diseases with an inflammatory component, has been approved by regulatory authorities in Mexico (COFEPRIS) for the treatment of patients with herpes infection. The active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) of Transferon is based on polydispersion of peptides that have been extracted from lysed human leukocytes by a dialysis process and a subsequent ultrafiltration step to select molecules below 10 kDa. To physicochemically characterize the drug product, we developed chromatographic methods and an SDS-PAGE approach to analyze the composition and the overall variability of Transferon. Reversed-phase chromatographic profiles of peptide populations demonstrated batch-to-batch consistency from 10 representative batches that harbored 4 primary peaks with a relative standard deviation (RSD) of less than 7%. Aminogram profiles exhibited 17 proteinogenic amino acids and showed that glycine was the most abundant amino acid, with a relative content of approximately 18%. Further, based on their electrophoretic migration, the peptide populations exhibited a molecular mass of about 10 kDa. Finally, we determined the Transferon fingerprint using a mass spectrometry tool. Because each batch was produced from independent pooled buffy coat samples from healthy donors, supplied by a local blood bank, our results support the consistency of the production of Transferon and reveal its peptide identity with regard to its physicochemical attributes.

  15. NDA BATCH 2002-02

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory

    2009-12-09

    QC sample results (daily background checks, 20-gram and 100-gram SGS drum checks) were within acceptable criteria established by WIPP's Quality Assurance Objectives for TRU Waste Characterization. Replicate runs were performed on 5 drums with IDs LL85101099TRU, LL85801147TRU, LL85801109TRU, LL85300999TRU and LL85500979TRU. All replicate measurement results are identical at the 95% confidence level as established by WIPP criteria. Note that the batch covered 5 weeks of SGS measurements from 23-Jan-2002 through 22-Feb-2002. Data packet for SGS Batch 2002-02 generated using gamma spectroscopy with the Pu Facility SGS unit is technically reasonable. All QC samples are in compliance with established control limits. The batch data packet has been reviewed for correctness, completeness, consistency and compliance with WIPP's Quality Assurance Objectives and determined to be acceptable. An Expert Review was performed on the data packet between 28-Feb-02 and 09-Jul-02 to check for potential U-235, Np-237 and Am-241 interferences and address drum cases where specific scan segments showed Se gamma ray transmissions for the 136-keV gamma to be below 0.1 %. Two drums in the batch showed Pu-238 at a relative mass ratio more than 2% of all the Pu isotopes.

  16. Physicochemical Characteristics of Transferon™ Batches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilio Medina-Rivero

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Transferon, a biotherapeutic agent that has been used for the past 2 decades for diseases with an inflammatory component, has been approved by regulatory authorities in Mexico (COFEPRIS for the treatment of patients with herpes infection. The active pharmaceutical ingredient (API of Transferon is based on polydispersion of peptides that have been extracted from lysed human leukocytes by a dialysis process and a subsequent ultrafiltration step to select molecules below 10 kDa. To physicochemically characterize the drug product, we developed chromatographic methods and an SDS-PAGE approach to analyze the composition and the overall variability of Transferon. Reversed-phase chromatographic profiles of peptide populations demonstrated batch-to-batch consistency from 10 representative batches that harbored 4 primary peaks with a relative standard deviation (RSD of less than 7%. Aminogram profiles exhibited 17 proteinogenic amino acids and showed that glycine was the most abundant amino acid, with a relative content of approximately 18%. Further, based on their electrophoretic migration, the peptide populations exhibited a molecular mass of about 10 kDa. Finally, we determined the Transferon fingerprint using a mass spectrometry tool. Because each batch was produced from independent pooled buffy coat samples from healthy donors, supplied by a local blood bank, our results support the consistency of the production of Transferon and reveal its peptide identity with regard to its physicochemical attributes.

  17. Physicochemical Characteristics of Transferon™ Batches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Sánchez, Gilberto; Favari, Liliana; Estrada-Parra, Sergio

    2016-01-01

    Transferon, a biotherapeutic agent that has been used for the past 2 decades for diseases with an inflammatory component, has been approved by regulatory authorities in Mexico (COFEPRIS) for the treatment of patients with herpes infection. The active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) of Transferon is based on polydispersion of peptides that have been extracted from lysed human leukocytes by a dialysis process and a subsequent ultrafiltration step to select molecules below 10 kDa. To physicochemically characterize the drug product, we developed chromatographic methods and an SDS-PAGE approach to analyze the composition and the overall variability of Transferon. Reversed-phase chromatographic profiles of peptide populations demonstrated batch-to-batch consistency from 10 representative batches that harbored 4 primary peaks with a relative standard deviation (RSD) of less than 7%. Aminogram profiles exhibited 17 proteinogenic amino acids and showed that glycine was the most abundant amino acid, with a relative content of approximately 18%. Further, based on their electrophoretic migration, the peptide populations exhibited a molecular mass of about 10 kDa. Finally, we determined the Transferon fingerprint using a mass spectrometry tool. Because each batch was produced from independent pooled buffy coat samples from healthy donors, supplied by a local blood bank, our results support the consistency of the production of Transferon and reveal its peptide identity with regard to its physicochemical attributes. PMID:27525277

  18. Batch process. Batch process used in a beer brewery; Biru kojo no bacchi purosesu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kihara, K. [Kirin Engneering Co. Ltd. (Japan)

    1997-09-05

    In a beer brewing process, there is a system in which unit operation of chemical engineering is combined with the techniques of food and fermentation engineering in order to brew beer meeting the quality concept. This paper introduces the characteristics of a batch system used in the brewing of beer and the control method for the brewing of beer. The characteristics of the batch system used in a beer brewing process are the following three. In order to minimize the quality variation ascribed to the raw materials and the process, the materials are blended in various parts of the system. In the saccharification step which determines the quality of beer, two methods, i.e. a batch method and a continuous method are used, and beer brewing companies employ a saccharification system meeting the condition for attaining a desired quality of their own products. Two mashing systems are operated at different cycles shifted by half cycle from each other, not starting both at a time, so as to level the peaks of the utilities, whereby the operation of the utility-related facility is optimized. 1 ref., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  19. Shortcut Algorithm for Simulation of Batch Extractive Distillation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Huixiong; XU Shimin; HU Hui; XIAO Bin

    2007-01-01

    The batch extractive distillation (BED) process has the advantages of both batch and extractive distillation. It is one of the most promising means for the separation of azeotropic and close-boiling point systems. However, so far this process has not been applied in industry due to its over-complexity. A new shortcut model was proposed to simulate the operation of the batch extractive distillation operations. This algorithm is based on the assumption that the batch extractive distillation column can be considered as a continuous extractive distillation column with changing feed at anytime. Namely, the whole batch process is simulated as a succession of a finite number of steady states of short duration, in which holdup is considered as constant mole. For each period of time the batch extractive distillation process is solved through the algorithm for continuous extractive distillation. Finally, the practical implementation of the shortcut model is discussed and data from the lab-oratory and literature are presented. It is found that this model has better adaptability, more satisfactory accuracy and less calculative load than previous rigorous model. Hence the algorithm for simulating BED is verified.

  20. NDA Batch 2002-13

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hollister, R

    2009-09-17

    QC sample results (daily background check drum and 100-gram SGS check drum) were within acceptance criteria established by WIPP's Quality Assurance Objectives for TRU Waste Characterization. Replicate runs were performed on drum LL85501243TRU. Replicate measurement results are identical at the 95% confidence level as established by WIPP criteria. HWM NCAR No. 02-1000168 issued on 17-Oct-2002 regarding a partially dislodged Cd sheet filter on the HPGe coaxial detector. This physical geometry occurred on 01-Oct-2002 and was not corrected until 10-Oct-2002, during which period is inclusive of the present batch run of drums. Per discussions among the Independent Technical Reviewer, Expert Reviewer and the Technical QA Supervisor, as well as in consultation with John Fleissner, Technical Point of Contact from Canberra, the analytical results are technically reliable. All QC standard runs during this period were in control. Data packet for SGS Batch 2002-13 generated using passive gamma-ray spectroscopy with the Pu Facility SGS unit is technically reasonable. All QC samples are in compliance with establiShed control limits. The batch data packet has been reviewed for correctness, completeness, consistency and compliance with WIPP's Quality Assurance Objectives and determined to be acceptable.

  1. 间歇结晶过程的分批优化%Batch-to-batch Optimization of Batch Crystallization Processes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Woranee Paengjuntuek; Paisan Kittisupakorn; Amornchai Arpornwichanop

    2008-01-01

    It is the fact that several process parameters are either unknown or uncertain. Therefore, an optimal control profile calculated with developed process models with respect to such process parameters may not give an optimal performance when implemented to real processes. This study proposes a batch-to-batch optimization strat-egy for the estimation of uncertain kinetic parameters in a batch crystallization process of potassium sulfate produc-tion. The knowledge of a crystal size distribution of the product at the end of batch operation is used in the proposedmethodology. The updated kinetic parameters are applied for determining an optimal operating temperature policy for the next batch run.

  2. Removal of Acid Black 1 and Basic Red 2 from aqueous solutions by electrocoagulation/Moringa oleifera seed adsorption coupling in a batch system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Carvalho, Helder Pereira; Huang, Jiguo; Ni, Jiaheng; Zhao, Meixia; Yang, Xinyu; Wang, Xiansheng

    2015-01-01

    The removal of Acid Black 1 (AB1) and Basic Red 2 (BR2) from aqueous solutions via an electrocoagulation (EC)/Moringa oleifera seeds (MOS) adsorption coupling process by using aluminum and stainless steel electrode in a batch reactor is described in this study. The influences of the operational parameters, i.e. current density, MOS dosage, and dye initial concentration, on degree of color removal were studied, and the unit energy demand, the unit electrode material demand, and the charge loading were calculated and discussed. The amounts of adsorbent and energy consumption were considered as main criteria of process evaluation, and ideal conditions were chosen. The addition of an appropriate MOS dosage (0.6 g/L for AB1 and 5 g/L for BR2) resulted in faster decolorization of dyes especially at lower current densities and was simultaneously accompanied by a significant reduction in contact time compared to the conventional simple EC process. The coupling process achieved degree of removals above 99.3% and 94% for AB1 and BR2, respectively. The EC/MOS coupling technique could be recommended to replace the conventional simple EC because of its high degree of removal, short contact time, and low energy consumption.

  3. Bioaccumulation and toxicity assessment of irrigation water contaminated with boron (B) using duckweed (Lemna gibba L.) in a batch reactor system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Türker, Onur Can; Yakar, Anıl; Gür, Nurcan

    2017-02-15

    The present study assesses ability of Lemna gibba L. using a batch reactor approach to bioaccumulation boron (B) from irrigation waters which were collected from a stream in largest borax reserve all over the world. The important note that bioaccumulation of B from irrigation water was first analyzed for first time in a risk assessment study using a Lemna species exposed to various B concentrations. Boron toxicity was evaluated through plant growth and biomass production during phytoremediation process. The result from the present experiment indicated that L. gibba was capable of removing 19-63% B from irrigation water depending upon contaminated level or initial concentration. We also found that B was removed from aqueous solution following pseudo second order kinetic model and Langmuir isotherm model better fitted equilibrium obtained for B phytoremediation. Maximum B accumulation in L. gibba was determined as 2088mgkg(-1) at average inflow B concentration 17.39mgL(-1) at the end of the experiment. Conversely, maximum bioconcentration factor obtained at lowest inflow B concentrations were 232 for L. gibba. The present study suggested that L. gibba was very useful B accumulator, and thus L. gibba-based techniques could be a reasonable phytoremediation option to remove B directly from water sources contaminated with B.

  4. The Batch Extractive Distillation for Ethernol-water System%乙醇-水体系的间歇萃取精馏

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁旭宏; 熊双喜

    2012-01-01

    In order to make the recyclation of the ethernol in discarded liquid come true, the text carried some experiment researches on the main processes of the batch extractive distillation for the solution in which the ethernol' s content is lower. Such as the temperature of the kettle,the salt' s content in salt-solution,the ratio of circum-fluence and so on. Some satisfactory results on the relations between the main parameteras and the prduct' s pure are got, which offeree the valuable experimentation accordance for the recyclation of the ethernol in discarded liquid.%为了实现对废液中的乙醇回收再利用,对乙醇含量较低的乙醇水溶液的间歇萃取精馏过程中的塔釜加热温度、混合溶液的浓度、回流比等进行了实验研究.得出了主要参数和产品纯度影响因素之间的—些关系.结果满意,为废液中乙醇的回收提供了有价值的实验依据.

  5. Optimization of the heterologous production of a Rhizopus oryzae lipase in Pichia pastoris system using mixed substrates on controlled fed-batch bioprocess.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnau, Carolina; Ramon, Ramon; Casas, Carles; Valero, Francisco

    2010-05-05

    In this work a systematic study of the influence of methanol set-point and sorbitol feeding rate in fed-batch operation with a Pichia pastoris Mut(s) strain producing Rhizopus oryzae lipase is presented. Different experiments were made at a constant methanol set-point of 0.5, 2 and 4gl(-1), controlled by a predictive algorithm at two different sorbitol feeding rates to assure a constant specific growth rate of 0.01 and 0.02h(-1), by means of a pre-programmed exponential feeding rate strategy. Lipolytic activity, yields, productivity and specific productivity, but also specific growth, consumption and production rates were analyzed showing that the best values were reached when the methanol set-point was 2gl(-1) with a low influence of the constant specific growth rate tested. The sorbitol addition as a co-substrate during the induction phase avoids the severe decrease of the specific production rate obtained when methanol was used as a sole carbon source and it permits to achieve higher ROL production.

  6. 中小型批次加工企业ERP系统物料管理模块设计%Batch processing for small and medium enterprises ERP system Material Management Module Design

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    夏德洲

    2015-01-01

    中小型批次加工企业物料管理ERP系统采用"指挥型"的信息系统设计理念,企业的管理层可根据制定的各种规则,指挥和监控企业日常业务的运营,使物料管理变"事后录入"为"事前确定",有效帮助企业提高管理水平,明确事件责任.%Batch processing of small and medium enterprises ERP materials management system using "command type" of information systems design, enterprise management according to various rule-making, directing and monitoring business daily business operations, so that the material management change "afterwards Input"to" pre-determined ", effectively help enterprises improve their management level,specifically responsible for the incidents.

  7. 多线程微机控制配料系统软件的设计与实现%Design and Implementation of Software for Mircrocomputer Controlled Batching System Based on Multi-Threading

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑家辉; 万东梅

    2011-01-01

    In the computer control ingredients system, working principle and computer control theory of the dual-scale batching system are discussed. A flow chart of software design and implementation of multi-threading control program code are given. This method is now applied to the feed production and played a crucial role in improving production speed and productivity.%讨论了在微机控制配料系统中,双秤配料系统的工作原理与计算机控制原理,并给出了软件设计流程图及实现多线程控制的程序代码.该方法目前已经应用到饲料加工生产中,对提高生产速度和生产率起到了至关重要的作用.

  8. A batch fabricated biomimetic dry adhesive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Northen, Michael T.; Turner, Kimberly L.

    2005-08-01

    The fine hair adhesive system found in nature is capable of reversibly adhering to just about any surface. This dry adhesive, best demonstrated in the pad of the gecko, makes use of a multilevel conformal structure to greatly increase inelastic surface contact, enhancing short range interactions and producing significant amounts of attractive forces. Recent work has attempted to reproduce and test the terminal submicrometre 'hairs' of the system. Here we report the first batch fabricated multi-scale conformal system to mimic nature's dry adhesive. The approach makes use of massively parallel MEMS processing technology to produce 20-150 µm platforms, supported by single slender pillars, and coated with ~2 µm long, ~200 nm diameter, organic looking polymer nanorods, or 'organorods'. To characterize the structures a new mesoscale nanoindenter adhesion test technique has been developed. Experiments indicate significantly improved adhesion with the multiscale system. Additional processing caused a hydrophilic to hydrophobic transformation of the surface and testing indicated further improvement in adhesion.

  9. Formation of Star-Like and Core-Shell AuAg Nanoparticles during Two- and Three-Step Preparation in Batch and in Microfluidic Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Michael Köhler

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Regular dendrit-like metal nanoparticles and core-shell nanoparticles were formed by the reduction of mixtures of tetrachloroaurate and silver nitrate solutions with ascorbic acid at room temperature in two- and three-step procedures. The formation of these particles was found in batch experiments as well as in micro flow-through processes using static micromixers. The characteristic diameters of 4-branched star particles were in the range between 60 and 100 nm. The typical particles consist of four metal cores which are embedded in a common shell. Additionally, particles with five and more metallic cores were formed, to some extent, and aggregates of the 4-branched particles also were formed. Larger aggregates and network-like structures of connected star particles were formed after sedimentation. The properties of the formed particles are dependent on the educt concentrations as well as on the order of mixing steps and on the time interval between them. Obviously, the relation of nucleation and particle growth in relation to the concentrations of metal ions determines the composition and the properties of formed nanoparticles. So, star-like particles are observed in case of nucleation of Au in absence of silver ions but with silver deposition after short nucleation time. Spherical core shell particles are formed in case of silver salt addition after complete reduction of tetrachloroaurate in flow-through experiments with sufficient residence time between both mixing steps. Polymer layers are always found in the form of a second outer shell even if the polymer solutions are added in an early stage of particle formation.

  10. Enhancing toxic protein expression in Escherichia coli fed-batch culture using kinetic parameters: Human granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor as a model system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khasa, Yogender Pal; Khushoo, Amardeep; Mukherjee, Krishna Jyoti

    2013-03-01

    The kinetics of recombinant human granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (hGM-CSF) expression was studied under the strong T7 promoter in continuous culture of Escherichia coli using complex medium to design an optimum feeding strategy for high cell density cultivation. Continuous culture studies were done at different dilution rates and the growth and product formation profiles were monitored post-induction. Recombinant protein expression was in the form of inclusion bodies with a maximum specific product formation rate (q(p)) of 63.5 mg g(-1) DCW h(-1) at a dilution rate (D) of 0.3 h(-1). The maximum volumetric product concentration achieved at this dilution rate was 474 mg l(-1), which translated a ~1.4 and ~1.75 folds increase than the values obtained at dilution rates of 0.2 h(-1) and 0.4 h(-1) respectively. The specific product yield (Y(P/x)) peaked at 138 mg g(-1) DCW, demonstrating a ~1.6 folds increase in the values obtained at other dilution rates. A drop in q(p) was observed within 5-6 h of induction at all the dilution rates, possibly due to protein toxicity and metabolic stress associated with protein expression. The data from the continuous culture studies allowed us to design an optimal feeding strategy and induction time in fed-batch cultures which resulted in a maximum product concentration of 3.95 g l(-1) with a specific hGM-CSF yield (Y(P/x)) of 107 mg g(-1) DCW.

  11. Stochastic growth logistic model with aftereffect for batch fermentation process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosli, Norhayati; Ayoubi, Tawfiqullah [Faculty of Industrial Sciences and Technology, Universiti Malaysia Pahang, Lebuhraya Tun Razak, 26300 Gambang, Pahang (Malaysia); Bahar, Arifah; Rahman, Haliza Abdul [Department of Mathematical Sciences, Faculty of Science, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 Johor Bahru, Johor (Malaysia); Salleh, Madihah Md [Department of Biotechnology Industry, Faculty of Biosciences and Bioengineering, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 Johor Bahru, Johor (Malaysia)

    2014-06-19

    In this paper, the stochastic growth logistic model with aftereffect for the cell growth of C. acetobutylicum P262 and Luedeking-Piret equations for solvent production in batch fermentation system is introduced. The parameters values of the mathematical models are estimated via Levenberg-Marquardt optimization method of non-linear least squares. We apply Milstein scheme for solving the stochastic models numerically. The effciency of mathematical models is measured by comparing the simulated result and the experimental data of the microbial growth and solvent production in batch system. Low values of Root Mean-Square Error (RMSE) of stochastic models with aftereffect indicate good fits.

  12. Stochastic growth logistic model with aftereffect for batch fermentation process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosli, Norhayati; Ayoubi, Tawfiqullah; Bahar, Arifah; Rahman, Haliza Abdul; Salleh, Madihah Md

    2014-06-01

    In this paper, the stochastic growth logistic model with aftereffect for the cell growth of C. acetobutylicum P262 and Luedeking-Piret equations for solvent production in batch fermentation system is introduced. The parameters values of the mathematical models are estimated via Levenberg-Marquardt optimization method of non-linear least squares. We apply Milstein scheme for solving the stochastic models numerically. The effciency of mathematical models is measured by comparing the simulated result and the experimental data of the microbial growth and solvent production in batch system. Low values of Root Mean-Square Error (RMSE) of stochastic models with aftereffect indicate good fits.

  13. In-situ transesterification of seeds of invasive Chinese tallow trees (Triadica sebifera L.) in a microwave batch system (GREEN(3)) using hexane as co-solvent: Biodiesel production and process optimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barekati-Goudarzi, Mohamad; Boldor, Dorin; Nde, Divine B

    2016-02-01

    In-situ transesterification (simultaneous extraction and transesterification) of Chinese tallow tree seeds into methyl esters using a batch microwave system was investigated in this study. A high degree of oil extraction and efficient conversion of oil to biodiesel were found in the proposed range. The process was further optimized in terms of product yields and conversion rates using Doehlert optimization methodology. Based on the experimental results and statistical analysis, the optimal production yield conditions for this process were determined as: catalyst concentration of 1.74wt.%, solvent ratio about 3 (v/w), reaction time of 20min and temperature of 58.1°C. H(+)NMR was used to calculate reaction conversion. All methyl esters produced using this method met ASTM biodiesel quality specifications.

  14. Batch extractive distillation for separation of ether-isopropanol-water azeotropic system%异丙醚-异丙醇-水三元共沸物的分离

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶青; 黄路; 陆叶倩; 杜广耀

    2011-01-01

    以乙二醇为溶剂,对异丙醚-异丙醇-水三元共沸物采用间歇萃取精馏进行分离研究,考察了在溶剂不同进料速率、回流比、进料温度等条件下的分离情况,找到了实验条件下分离此三元共沸物的最佳条件。最佳条件为:溶剂进料位置为塔顶,回流比为2,溶剂进料速率在分离异丙醚和分离异丙醇两个阶段分别为11.4 g/min和8.08g/min,溶剂进料温度分别为70.0℃和100.0℃。在此条件下,异丙醚产品质量分数可达0.95,收率为0.985;异丙醇产品质量分数可达0.97,收率为0.968。%Batch extractive distillation for ether-isopropanol-water mixture was studied by using glycol as the extractant. The influence of solvent feeding rate, reflux ratio and solvent feeding temperature was investigated. Under the optimal operation conditions: solvent feeding location at the column top. Reflux ratio was 2, solvent feeding rate 11.4g/min in the step of isopropyl ether collection and 8.08 g/min in the step of isopropanol collection, solvent feeding temperature 70.0 ℃ in the step of isopropyl ether collection and 100.0 ℃ in the step of isopropanol collection, the mass fraction of isopropyl ether at the column top could reach 0.95 and its yield was 0.985, the mass fraction of isopropanol at the column top could reach 0.97 and its yield was 0.968.

  15. Performance evaluation of a granular activated carbon-sequencing batch biofilm reactor pilot plant system used in treating real wastewater from recycled paper industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhamad, Mohd Hafizuddin; Sheikh Abdullah, Siti Rozaimah; Mohamad, Abu Bakar; Rahman, Rakmi Abdul; Kadhum, Abdul Amir Hasan

    2012-01-01

    A pilot scale granular activated carbon-sequencing batch biofilm reactor with a capacity of 2.2 m3 was operated for over three months to evaluate its performance treating real recycled paper industry wastewater under different operational conditions. In this study, dissolved air floatation (DAF) and clarifier effluents were used as influent sources of the pilot plant. During the course of the study, the reactor was able to biodegrade the contaminants in the incoming recycled paper mill wastewater in terms of chemical oxygen demand (COD), adsorbable organic halides (AOX; specifically 2,4-dichlorophenol (2,4-DCP)) and ammoniacal nitrogen (NH3-N) removal efficiencies at varying hydraulic retention times (HRTs) of 1-3 days, aeration rates (ARs) of 2.1-3.4 m3/min and influent feed concentration of 40-950 mg COD/l. Percentages of COD, 2,4-DCP and NH3-N removals increased with increasing HRT, resulting in more than 90% COD, 2,4-DCP and NH3-N removals at HRT values above two days. Degradation of COD, 2,4-DCP and NH3-N were seriously affected by variation of ARs, which resulted in significant decrease of COD, 2,4-DCP and NH3-N removals by decreasing ARs from 3.4 m3/min to 2.1 m3/min, varying in the ranges of 24-80%, 6-96% and 5-42%, respectively. In comparison to the clarifier effluent, the treatment performance of DAF effluent, containing high COD concentration, resulted in a higher COD removal of 82%. The use of diluted DAF effluent did not improve significantly the COD removal. Higher NH3-N removal efficiency of almost 100% was observed during operation after maintenance shutdown compared to normal operation, even at the same HRT of one day due to the higher dissolved oxygen concentrations (1-7 mg/l), while no significant difference in COD removal efficiency was observed.

  16. 新一代玻璃熔制系统及其配合料制备技术简介%Introduction on the Preparation of Glass Batch for Next Generation Glass Melting System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林健; 隋鑫

    2011-01-01

    新一代玻璃熔制系统(NGMS)是一种基于高效传热方式的分段式玻璃熔化新技术系统,是未来玻璃工业面对节能减排需求的一个关键技术.分段式熔化、飞行熔化、浸没燃烧等新技术的出现,需要玻璃配合料的制备技术与之相匹配,才能真正达到高效节能减排之目的.系统介绍了NGMS中的几种玻璃熔制技术新理念及与之相适应的配合料制备新要求,为玻璃熔制技术的革新、实现玻璃工业生产的高效节能减排提出了一些建设性意见.%Next generation glass melting system (NGMS) is a new kind of glass melting technology based on the efficient heat transfer mode. It would be a key technology for saving energy and reducing emission in the future glass industry. For the purpose of maximum energy saving and emission reduction, the preparation of glass batch should meet the requirements of NGMS. Several kinds of NGMS technology, such as segmented glass melting, in -flight melting, submerged combustion, were introduced. The adjustment of glass batch to meet the requirements of NGMS was also discussed. Some of the constructive suggestions on the innovation of glass melting technology for energy saving and emission reduction in glass industry were put forward.

  17. Economic efficiency analysis of different strategies to control post-weaning multi-systemic wasting syndrome and porcine circovirus type 2 subclinical infection in 3-weekly batch system farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alarcon, Pablo; Rushton, Jonathan; Nathues, Heiko; Wieland, Barbara

    2013-06-01

    The study assessed the economic efficiency of different strategies for the control of post-weaning multi-systemic wasting syndrome (PMWS) and porcine circovirus type 2 subclinical infection (PCV2SI), which have a major economic impact on the pig farming industry worldwide. The control strategies investigated consisted on the combination of up to 5 different control measures. The control measures considered were: (1) PCV2 vaccination of piglets (vac); (2) ensuring age adjusted diet for growers (diets); (3) reduction of stocking density (stock); (4) improvement of biosecurity measures (bios); and (5) total depopulation and repopulation of the farm for the elimination of other major pathogens (DPRP). A model was developed to simulate 5 years production of a pig farm with a 3-weekly batch system and with 100 sows. A PMWS/PCV2SI disease and economic model, based on PMWS severity scores, was linked to the production model in order to assess disease losses. This PMWS severity scores depends on the combination post-weaning mortality, PMWS morbidity in younger pigs and proportion of PCV2 infected pigs observed on farms. The economic analysis investigated eleven different farm scenarios, depending on the number of risk factors present before the intervention. For each strategy, an investment appraisal assessed the extra costs and benefits of reducing a given PMWS severity score to the average score of a slightly affected farm. The net present value obtained for each strategy was then multiplied by the corresponding probability of success to obtain an expected value. A stochastic simulation was performed to account for uncertainty and variability. For moderately affected farms PCV2 vaccination alone was the most cost-efficient strategy, but for highly affected farms it was either PCV2 vaccination alone or in combination with biosecurity measures, with the marginal profitability between 'vac' and 'vac+bios' being small. Other strategies such as 'diets', 'vac+diets' and 'bios

  18. Development of Production Control in Small Batch Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Németh Péter

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Our aim with this paper is to develop a new performance measurement and control system for small batch production in the automotive industry. For this reason, we present our previous research results for warehouse performance measurement and adopt its methodology to production control. The proposed method is based on artificial intelligence (neural networks.

  19. Automatic Endpoint Determination for Batch Tea Dryers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Temple, S.J.; Boxtel, van A.J.B.

    2000-01-01

    Agricultural Engineering and Physics, Wageningen University, Bomenweg 4, Wageningen, 6703 HD, The Netherlands Abstract: A laboratory batch fluid-bed dryer was developed for handling small samples of tea for experimental batch manufacture, and this dryer required a means of stopping drying when the p

  20. Supervision of Fed-Batch Fermentations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gregersen, Lars; Jørgensen, Sten Bay

    1999-01-01

    Process faults may be detected on-line using existing measurements based upon modelling that is entirely data driven. A multivariate statistical model is developed and used for fault diagnosis of an industrial fed-batch fermentation process. Data from several (25) batches are used to develop a mo...

  1. Following an Optimal Batch Bioreactor Operations Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ibarra-Junquera, V.; Jørgensen, Sten Bay; Virgen-Ortíz, J.J.;

    2012-01-01

    The problem of following an optimal batch operation model for a bioreactor in the presence of uncertainties is studied. The optimal batch bioreactor operation model (OBBOM) refers to the bioreactor trajectory for nominal cultivation to be optimal. A multiple-variable dynamic optimization of fed-b...

  2. Family based dispatching with batch availability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Zee, D.J.

    2013-01-01

    Family based dispatching rules seek to lower set-up frequencies by grouping (batching) similar types of jobs for joint processing. Hence shop flow times may be improved, as less time is spent on set-ups. Motivated by an industrial project we study the control of machines with batch availability, i.e

  3. Norton's theorem for batch routing queueing networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bause, Falko; Boucherie, Richard J.; Buchholz, Peter

    2001-01-01

    This paper shows that the aggregation and decomposition result known as Norton’s theorem for queueing networks can be extended to a general class of batch routing queueing networks with product-form solution that allows for multiple components to simultaneously release and receive (batches of) custo

  4. Note: A dual temperature closed loop batch reactor for determining the partitioning of trace gases within CO{sub 2}-water systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warr, Oliver, E-mail: oliver.warr@earth.ox.ac.uk; Ballentine, Christopher J. [Department of Earth Sciences, University of Oxford, South Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3AN (United Kingdom); Rochelle, Christopher A. [British Geological Survey, Environmental Science Centre, Nicker Hill, Keyworth, Nottingham NG12 5GG (United Kingdom); Masters, Andrew J. [School of Chemical Engineering and Analytical Science, University of Manchester, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom)

    2016-01-15

    An experimental approach is presented which can be used to determine partitioning of trace gases within CO{sub 2}-water systems. The key advantages of this system are (1) The system can be isolated with no external exchange, making it ideal for experiments with conservative tracers. (2) Both phases can be sampled concurrently to give an accurate composition at each phase at any given time. (3) Use of a lower temperature flow loop outside of the reactor removes contamination and facilitates sampling. (4) Rapid equilibration at given pressure/temperature conditions is significantly aided by stirring and circulating the water phase using a magnetic stirrer and high-pressure liquid chromatography pump, respectively.

  5. Consequence Identification for Maloperation in Batch Process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张玉良; 张贝克; 马昕; 曹柳林; 吴重光

    2013-01-01

    Batch processes are important in chemical industry, in which operators usually play a major role and hazards may arise by their inadvertent acts. In this paper, based on hazard and operability study and concept of qualitative simulation, an automatic method for adverse consequence identification for potential maloperation is proposed. The qualitative model for production process is expressed by a novel directed graph. Possible operation deviations from normal operating procedure are identified systematically by using a group of guidewords. The pro-posed algorithm is used for qualitative simulation of batch processes to identify the effects of maloperations. The method is illustrated with a simple batch process and a batch reaction process. The results show that batch processes can be simulated qualitatively and hazards can be identified for operating procedures including maloperations. After analysis for possible plant maloperations, some measures can be taken to avoid maloperations or reduce losses re-sulted from maloperations.

  6. Treatability of cheese whey for single-cell protein production in nonsterile systems: Part II. The application of aerobic sequencing batch reactor (aerobic SBR) to produce high biomass of Dioszegia sp. TISTR 5792.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monkoondee, Sarawut; Kuntiya, Ampin; Chaiyaso, Thanongsak; Leksawasdi, Noppol; Techapun, Charin; Kawee-Ai, Arthitaya; Seesuriyachan, Phisit

    2016-07-03

    This study aimed to investigate the efficiency of an aerobic sequencing batch reactor (aerobic SBR) in a nonsterile system using the application of an experimental design via central composite design (CCD). The acidic whey obtained from lactic acid fermentation by immobilized Lactobacillus plantarum sp. TISTR 2265 was fed into the bioreactor of the aerobic SBR in an appropriate ratio between acidic whey and cheese whey to produce an acidic environment below 4.5 and then was used to support the growth of Dioszegia sp. TISTR 5792 by inhibiting bacterial contamination. At the optimal condition for a high yield of biomass production, the system was run with a hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 4 days, a solid retention time (SRT) of 8.22 days, and an acidic whey concentration of 80% feeding. The chemical oxygen demand (COD) decreased from 25,230 mg/L to 6,928 mg/L, which represented a COD removal of 72.15%. The yield of biomass production and lactose utilization by Dioszegia sp. TISTR 5792 were 13.14 g/L and 33.36%, respectively, with a long run of up to 180 cycles and the pH values of effluent were rose up to 8.32 without any pH adjustment.

  7. Studies with an immobilized metal affinity chromatography cassette system involving binuclear triazacyclononane-derived ligands: automation of batch adsorption measurements with tagged recombinant proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petzold, Martin; Coghlan, Campbell J; Hearn, Milton T W

    2014-07-18

    This study describes the determination of the adsorption isotherms and binding kinetics of tagged recombinant proteins using a recently developed IMAC cassette system and employing automated robotic liquid handling procedures for IMAC resin screening. These results confirm that these new IMAC resins, generated from a variety of different metal-charged binuclear 1,4,7-triaza-cyclononane (tacn) ligands, interact with recombinant proteins containing a novel N-terminal metal binding tag, NT1A, with static binding capacities similar to those obtained with conventional hexa-His tagged proteins, but with significantly increased association constants. In addition, higher kinetic binding rates were observed with these new IMAC systems, an attribute that can be positively exploited to increase process productivity. The results from this investigation demonstrate that enhancements in binding capacities and affinities were achieved with these new IMAC resins and chosen NT1A tagged protein. Further, differences in the binding performances of the bis(tacn) xylenyl-bridged ligands were consistent with the distance between the metal binding centres of the two tacn moieties, the flexibility of the ligand and the potential contribution from the aromatic ring of the xylenyl group to undergo π/π stacking interactions with the tagged proteins.

  8. 柔性生产系统配料区多自动导航小车调度优化%Scheduling optimization for muiti-AGVs in batching area of flexible production system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱琳; 范秀敏; 何其昌

    2012-01-01

    To solve the multiple Automated Guided Vehicles(AGVs)scheduling problem in a batching area for materi- als transportation, a mathematical model was built and an improved genetic algorithm was proposed to minimize ma- terial handling time for materials supplement in a batching area of flexible production system. The combination method of integer coding and multi-parameter coding was used in the algorithm. To solve the problem of illegal solu- tions were easily produced by the conventional crossovers and mutations, a sectional type of crossover method and mutating method were used, and method of expansion on chromosome in discrete random population was also used to initialize the population generation. From the optimization results, this multi-AGVs task allocation and scheduling scheme could be obtained. Through the example of heavy machine assembly workshop and the comparison between this improved genetic algorithm and branch and barrier algorithm as well as conventional genetic algorithm, the feasi- bility and effectiveness of the method were proved.%为解决配料区物料运输多自动导航小车的调度问题,以自动导航小车给柔性生产系统配料区补料搬运时间最短为目标建立数学模型,提出了一种改进的遗传算法进行自动导航小车的任务分配和任务排序优化。算法采用了整数编码和多参数编码相结合的方式,同时为避免常规交叉变异算子易出现非法解的状况,采用了对离散随机种群中染色体进行扩展的初始种群生成方法和分段式交叉变异算子,优化结果给出了多自动导航小车的任务分配方案。通过某重型机械公司的装配车间内多自动导航小车调度的优化实例,并与分支定界算法和未改进的遗传算法进行结果对比,验证了该方法的有效性和可行性。

  9. On a Batch Arrival Queuing System Equipped with a Stand-by Server during Vacation Periods or the Repairs Times of the Main Server

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rehab F. Khalaf

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We study a queuing system which is equipped with a stand-by server in addition to the main server. The stand-by server provides service to customers only during the period of absence of the main server when either the main server is on a vacation or it is in the state of repairs due to a sudden failure from time to time. The service times, vacation times, and repair times are assumed to follow general arbitrary distributions while the stand-by service times follow exponential distribution. Supplementary variables technique has been used to obtain steady state results in explicit and closed form in terms of the probability generating functions for the number of customers in the queue, the average number of customers, and the average waiting time in the queue while the MathCad software has been used to illustrate the numerical results in this work.

  10. Antipathogenic activity of probiotics against Salmonella Typhimurium and Clostridium difficile in anaerobic batch culture systems: is it due to synergies in probiotic mixtures or the specificity of single strains?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tejero-Sariñena, Sandra; Barlow, Janine; Costabile, Adele; Gibson, Glenn R; Rowland, Ian

    2013-12-01

    Probiotics are currently being investigated for prevention of infections caused by enteric pathogens. The aim of this in vitro study was to evaluate the influence of three single probiotics: Lactobacillus casei NCIMB 30185 (PXN 37), Lactobacillus acidophilus NCIMB 30184 (PXN 35), Bifidobacterium breve NCIMB 30180 (PXN 25) and a probiotic mixture containing the above strains plus twelve other strains belonging to the Lactobacillus, Bifidobacterium, Lactococcus, Streptococcus and Bacillus genera on the survival of Salmonella Typhimurium and Clostridium difficile using pH-controlled anaerobic batch cultures containing mixed faecal bacteria. Changes in relevant bacterial groups and effects of probiotic addition on survival of the two pathogens were assessed over 24 h. Quantitative analysis of bacterial populations revealed that there was a significant increase in lactobacilli and/or bifidobacteria numbers, depending on probiotic addition, compared with the control (no added probiotic). There was also a significant reduction in S. Typhimurium and C. difficile numbers in the presence of certain probiotics compared with controls. Of the probiotic treatments, two single strains namely L. casei NCIMB 30185 (PXN 37), and B. breve NCIMB 30180 (PXN 25) were the most potent in reducing the numbers of S. Typhimurium and C. difficile. In addition, the supplementation with probiotics into the systems influenced some fermentations parameters. Acetate was found in the largest concentrations in all vessels and lactate and formate were generally detected in higher amounts in vessels with probiotic addition compared to controls.

  11. Green method based on a flow-batch analyzer system for the simultaneous determination of ciprofloxacin and dexamethasone in pharmaceuticals using a chemometric approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razuc, Mariela F; Grünhut, Marcos; Saidman, Elbio; Garrido, Mariano; Fernández Band, Beatriz

    2013-10-15

    A green FBA method with UV detection was developed for simultaneous determination of ciprofloxacin (CIP) and dexamethasone (DEX) in ophthalmic and otic preparations. A lab-made mixing detection chamber (MDC) was designed and coupled to the spectrophotometer in order to perform the mixing of solutions and the detection in the same receptacle. Only water was used as solvent and no previous separation of the components was required. Both analytes have a strong absorption between 190 and 370 nm in aqueous medium, at pH 7. However, the spectrum of DEX is embedded in the CIP spectrum. Thus, while CIP was analyzed using univariate calibration, DEX analysis was carried out comparing partial least squares (PLS-1) and multiple linear regression (MLR). The latest required a previous variable selection step, which was performed using the genetic algorithm (GA) and the successive projections algorithm (SPA). The FBA system made it possible to automatically prepare the calibration and validation sets. The statistical parameters, in terms of relative errors of calibration and prediction, were acceptable for the determination of both CIP and DEX. Also, a comparative study of chemometric models was carried out. Commercial samples were analyzed and the obtained results are in close agreement with HPLC pharmacopeia methods. The joint interval test for the slope and the intercept was used to test for the presence of bias. There were no statistical differences between the proposed method and the reference method (α=0.05). The sample throughput was 10h(-1). The combination of automation and chemometric tools allows us to develop an environmental friendly method for the quality control of CIP and DEX in pharmaceuticals.

  12. Systematic Methodology for Reproducible Optimizing Batch Operation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonné, Dennis; Jørgensen, Sten Bay

    2006-01-01

    This contribution presents a systematic methodology for rapid acquirement of discrete-time state space model representations of batch processes based on their historical operation data. These state space models are parsimoniously parameterized as a set of local, interdependent models. The present....... This controller may also be used for Optimizing control. The modeling and control performance is demonstrated on a fed-batch protein cultivation example. The presented methodologies lend themselves directly for application as Process Analytical Technologies (PAT).......This contribution presents a systematic methodology for rapid acquirement of discrete-time state space model representations of batch processes based on their historical operation data. These state space models are parsimoniously parameterized as a set of local, interdependent models. The present...... contribution furthermore presents how the asymptotic convergence of Iterative Learning Control is combined with the closed-loop performance of Model Predictive Control to form a robust and asymptotically stable optimal controller for ensuring reliable and reproducible operation of batch processes...

  13. Master-Batch Sector Develops Rapidly

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wu Lifeng

    2007-01-01

    @@ Plastic industry promotes the development of the master-batch sector The plastic processing industry in China has developed rapidly. The output is increasing rapidly and the quality is improving constantly.

  14. Batch Extractive Distillation with Light Entrainer

    OpenAIRE

    Varga, Viktoria; Rev, Endre; Gerbaud, Vincent; Fonyo, Zsolt; Joulia, Xavier

    2006-01-01

    Use of a light entrainer in batch extractive distillation is justified when the mixture boils at a high temperature, or when an appropriate heavy or intermediate entrainer cannot be found. Feasibility of batch extractive distillation with light entrainer for separating minimum and maximum boiling azeotropes and close boiling mixtures is studied in this article. Our test mixtures are: ethanol/water (minimum boiling azeotrope) with methanol, water/ethylene diamine (maximum boiling azeotro...

  15. Batch extractive distillation with light entrainer

    OpenAIRE

    Varga, Viktoria; Rev, Endre; Gerbaud, Vincent; Lelkes, Zoltan; Fonyo, Zsolt; Joulia, Xavier

    2006-01-01

    Use of a light entrainer in batch extractive distillation is justified when the mixture boils at a high temperature, or when an appropriate heavy or intermediate entrainer cannot be found. Feasibility of batch extractive distillation with light entrainer for separating minimum and maximum boiling azeotropes and close boiling mixtures is studied in this article. Our test mixtures are: ethanol / water (minimum boiling azeotrope) with methanol, water / ethylene diamine (maximum boiling azeotrope...

  16. Social Practice Assessment Index System Construction of the Financial Professional Third-batch Students%金融专业三本学生社会实践考核指标体系构建

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王蕾

    2015-01-01

    Perfecting the evaluation index system of social practice is the necessary condition to strengthen incentive con-straints and guarantee social practice smoothly. There exists many problems in the current evaluation index, such as excessive reliance on students' practice written materials, neglecting practice process, narrow evaluation object, evaluation index lack of operability and narrow, etc. Based on the existing defects of assessment index, we should aim at the third-batch students and professional characteristics to build the basic principles of evaluation index, design concrete evaluation index and evaluation criterion, and put forward reform measures from aspects of constructing the practice base, and increasing more practice money.%完善社会实践考核指标体系是强化激励约束、保障社会实践顺利进行的必要条件。现行的考核指标存在着过度依赖学生实习书面材料、忽视实习过程、评价对象狭隘、评价指标缺乏可操作性等诸多问题。基于现行考核指标的缺陷,应针对金融三本学生及其专业特点构建评价指标需要遵循的基本原则,设计具体的评价指标及其评价标准,提出从建设实习基地、增加实习经费等方面的改革措施。

  17. Cold-walled UHV/CVD batch reactor for the growth of Si1_x/Gex layers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Erik Vilain; Christensen, Carsten; Andersen, C.R.;

    1997-01-01

    A novel cold-walled, lamp-heated, ultrahigh vacuum chemical vapor deposition (UHV/CVD) batch system for the growth of SiGe layers is presented. This system combines the batch capability of the standard UHV/CVD furnace with the temperature processing available in rapid thermal processing (Rm) equi...

  18. 27 CFR 19.748 - Dump/batch records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Dump/batch records. 19.748... OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Records and Reports Processing Account § 19.748 Dump/batch records. (a) Format of dump/batch records. Proprietor's dump/batch records shall contain,...

  19. 21 CFR 211.188 - Batch production and control records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Batch production and control records. 211.188... Reports § 211.188 Batch production and control records. Batch production and control records shall be... production and control of each batch. These records shall include: (a) An accurate reproduction of...

  20. APPLICATION OF MODEL PREDICTIVE CONTROL TO BATCH POLYMERIZATION REACTOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.M. Ghasem

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available The absence of a stable operational state in polymerization reactors that operates in batches is factor that determine the need of a special control system. In this study, advanced control methodology is implemented for controlling the operation of a batch polymerization reactor for polystyrene production utilizingmodel predictive control. By utilizing a model of the polymerization process, the necessary operational conditions were determined for producing the polymer within the desired characteristics. The maincontrol objective is to bring the reactor temperature to its target temperature as rapidly as possible with minimal temperature overshoot. Control performance for the proposed method is encouraging. It has been observed that temperature overshoot can be minimized by the proposed method with the use of both reactor and jacket energy balance for reactor temperature control.

  1. Sorting Olive Batches for the Milling Process Using Image Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Aguilera Puerto

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The quality of virgin olive oil obtained in the milling process is directly bound to the characteristics of the olives. Hence, the correct classification of the different incoming olive batches is crucial to reach the maximum quality of the oil. The aim of this work is to provide an automatic inspection system, based on computer vision, and to classify automatically different batches of olives entering the milling process. The classification is based on the differentiation between ground and tree olives. For this purpose, three different species have been studied (Picudo, Picual and Hojiblanco. The samples have been obtained by picking the olives directly from the tree or from the ground. The feature vector of the samples has been obtained on the basis of the olive image histograms. Moreover, different image preprocessing has been employed, and two classification techniques have been used: these are discriminant analysis and neural networks. The proposed methodology has been validated successfully, obtaining good classification results.

  2. Method to incorporate energy integration considerations in multiproduct batch processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corominas, J.; Espuna, A.; Puigjaner, L. (Universidad Politecnica de Cataluna, Barcelona (Spain))

    Systemization of an energy saving grass-root design and retrofitting technology based on process integration is a subject of increasing interest in plants running under the batch mode of operation. In this work, the solution to the product changeover problem is studied in order to achieve a feasible and optimized heat exchange network design for multiproduct batch plants. A new methodology is presented which is based on: (a) the campaign-mode of plant operation; and (b) the study of energy integration for each campaign. The concept of Macronetwork is also introduced. Algorithms to obtain the best feasible matches and energy targets are presented and results of test-case studies are discussed to illustrate this methodology. (author)

  3. Transient and Stationary Losses in a Finite-Buffer Queue with Batch Arrivals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzej Chydzinski

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We present an analysis of the number of losses, caused by the buffer overflows, in a finite-buffer queue with batch arrivals and autocorrelated interarrival times. Using the batch Markovian arrival process, the formulas for the average number of losses in a finite time interval and the stationary loss ratio are shown. In addition, several numerical examples are presented, including illustrations of the dependence of the number of losses on the average batch size, buffer size, system load, autocorrelation structure, and time.

  4. Model Penjadwalan Batch Multi Item dengan Dependent Processing Time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sukoyo Sukoyo

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates a development of single machine batch scheduling for multi items with dependent processing time. The batch scheduling problem is to determine simultaneously number of batch (N, which item and its size allocated for each batch, and processing sequences of resulting batches. We use total actual flow time as the objective of schedule performance. The multi item batch scheduling problem could be formulated into a biner-integer nonlinear programming model because the number of batch should be in integer value, the allocation of items to resulting batch need binary values, and also there are some non-linearity on objective function and constraint due to the dependent processing time. By applying relaxation on the decision variable of number of batch (N as parameter, a heuristic procedure could be applied to find solution of the single machine batch scheduling problem for multi items.

  5. Exploring the Transition From Batch to Online

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Anker Helms

    2010-01-01

    of the truly interactive use of computers known today. The transition invoked changes in a number of areas: technological, such as hybrid forms between batch and online; organisational such as decentralization; and personal as users and developers alike had to adopt new technology, shape new organizational...... structures, and acquire new skills. This work-in-progress paper extends an earlier study of the transition from batch to online, based on oral history interviews with (ex)-employees in two large Danish Service Bureaus. The paper takes the next step by ana-lyzing a particular genre: the commercial computer...

  6. Batch management system tracing the cigarette accessories’smallest packaging unit%可追溯辅料最小包装单元的批次管理系统

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陆海龙; 许小双; 王宏铝; 章志华; 汪欢文

    2014-01-01

    根据烟草行业特征和要求,设计了行业内首个可追溯全供应链绝大部分辅料最小包装单元的批次管理业务模型。通过采用面向服务的设计方法,将批次管理功能抽象成各种批次服务,并选择所需要的批次管理技术组件来进行设计,分别开发和部署了批次管理信息平台、批次条码管理子系统和手持设备应用程序及对应条码打印机和手持终端。应用效果表明:该模型可实现辅料最小颗粒度的全生命周期数字化管理,并支持精确的质量跟踪与追溯和生产机台投料防差错,对提高企业卷烟产品质量具有重要意义。%In view of the characteristics and requirements of the tobacco industry,the first batch manage-ment business model of the tobacco industry that could trace most of the cigarette accessories’smallest packaging unit of the whole supply chain was designed.By using the service-oriented design methods,it ab-stracted the batch management function into various batch services and selected the batch management technology components needed to design.It finally developed a batch management information platform, batch bar code management subsystem and handheld applications,and deployed the corresponding bar code printers and handheld devices.Application showed that the model achieved the full life cycle digital man-agement of accessories’smallest particle size and supported precise quality tracing and production machine feeding error protection,all of which were of great significance in improving cigarette product quality.

  7. Proposta de utilização do sistema Period Batch Control para redução de lead time em uma empresa de bens de capital Lead time reduction in a capital goods company by means of the implementation of Period Batch Control system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maico Roris Severino

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do presente trabalho é apresentar uma proposta para a utilização do sistema PBC (Period Batch Control, assim como de dois pré-requisitos, a saber: mudança na pol��tica de controle da qualidade e criação de uma célula virtual, para reduzir o lead time em uma empresa de bens de capital. O método de pesquisa utilizado é o estudo de caso. Resultados previstos de tal implantação indicam que a empresa estudada poderá obter vantagens significativas com a adoção do PBC como, por exemplo, redução de 46,42% no lead time do produto estudado, diminuição de custos de WIP (Work In Process em aproximadamente 50% e redução de 31% no tempo improdutivo. Esses resultados promissores podem ser alcançados também por empresas com características semelhantes que sigam a proposta apresentada neste artigo. Academicamente, o presente trabalho contribui para aumentar a divulgação do sistema PBC, assunto carente de pesquisas no Brasil.The goal of this work is to present a proposal for the use of the PBC (Period Batch Control, as well as two prerequisites, namely, to change the policy of quality control and creation of a virtual cell, to reduce the lead time in a company which produces capital goods. Case study research is the methodology used in this paper. Expected results of this implementation indicate that the company can obtain significant benefits by the adoption of PBC, such as 46.42% lead time reduction, reduction on WIP (Work In Process costs in approximately 51.56% and unproductive time in 31%. These promising results can be achieved by companies with similar characteristics. Academically, this work contribute to increase the dissemination of the PBC, a subject in need of research in Brazil.

  8. FRIT DEVELOPMENT FOR SLUDGE BATCH 6

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fox, K.; Edwards, T.; Zamecnik, J.

    2010-05-13

    The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) evaluated a large number of Sludge Batch 6 (SB6) composition projections to support frit optimization for SB6 vitrification at the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF). The evaluations discussed in this report occurred over a period of about 4 months, and included about 40 composition projections, developed by both Savannah River Remediation (SRR) and SRNL. Paper study assessments were used to evaluate the sludge composition projections with arrays of potential frit compositions using the predictive models in the DWPF Product Composition Control System (PCCS). Both nominal sludge compositions and sludge compositions with anticipated compositional variation were considered. The model predictions were used to identify candidate frit compositions for each SB6 projection and to provide some guidance to SRR on washing and blending strategies for SB6 preparation. This report presents a chronological review of this process and summarizes the findings at each stage. Following initial feedback from this work, the number of washes in Tank 51 was reduced to increase the projected sodium concentration in SB6. Analyses of predicted frit performance before and after a potential decant of Tank 40 showed that the post-decant SB6 composition would be difficult to process with any frit composition and that this scenario should be avoided. Based on the most recent SB6 projections (February 2010 SB6 composition projections developed at SRNL using the measured SB6 qualification sample composition and the revised Tank Farm washing plan), Frit 418 appears to be viable for SB6 processing at a target waste loading of 36%. A Nominal Stage PCCS Measurement Acceptability Region (MAR) assessment gave projected operating windows of 25-41% waste loading, limited by predictions of nepheline crystallization. The projected operating window is reduced to 25-38% waste loading when anticipated compositional variation is considered, again limited by

  9. 考虑初始操作温度影响的间歇放热反应系统动态柔性分析%The Dynamic Flexibility of Batch Exothermic Reaction System: Take into Account the Effect of the Initial Operational Temperature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    It is shown in this article that by changing the initial operation condition of the batch processes, the dynamic performance of the system can be varied largely, especially for the initial operational temperature of the exothermic reaction. The initial operation condition is often ignored in the designing batch processes for flexibility against disturbances or parameter variations. When the initial condition is not rigid as in the case of a batch reactor, where the initial reaction temperature is quite arbitrary, optimization can also be applied to determine the "best" initial condition to use. Problems for dynamic flexibility analysis of exothermic reaction including initial temperature and process operation can be formulated as dynamic optimization problems. Formulations are derived when the initial conditions are considered or not. When the initial conditions are considered, the initial condition can be transferred into control variables in the first optimal step. The solution of the dynamic optimization is on the basis of Rugge-Kutta integration algorithm and decomposition search algorithm. This method, as illustrated and tested with two highly nonlinear process problems, enables the determination of the optimal level. The dynamic performance is improved by the proposed method in the two exothermic reaction examples.

  10. Monte Carlo simulation on kinetics of batch and semi-batch free radical polymerization

    KAUST Repository

    Shao, Jing

    2015-10-27

    Based on Monte Carlo simulation technology, we proposed a hybrid routine which combines reaction mechanism together with coarse-grained molecular simulation to study the kinetics of free radical polymerization. By comparing with previous experimental and simulation studies, we showed the capability of our Monte Carlo scheme on representing polymerization kinetics in batch and semi-batch processes. Various kinetics information, such as instant monomer conversion, molecular weight, and polydispersity etc. are readily calculated from Monte Carlo simulation. The kinetic constants such as polymerization rate k p is determined in the simulation without of “steady-state” hypothesis. We explored the mechanism for the variation of polymerization kinetics those observed in previous studies, as well as polymerization-induced phase separation. Our Monte Carlo simulation scheme is versatile on studying polymerization kinetics in batch and semi-batch processes.

  11. Batch and fed-batch fermentation of Bacillus thuringiensis using starch industry wastewater as fermentation substrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vu, Khanh Dang; Tyagi, Rajeshwar Dayal; Valéro, José R; Surampalli, Rao Y

    2010-08-01

    Bacillus thuringiensis var. kurstaki biopesticide was produced in batch and fed-batch fermentation modes using starch industry wastewater as sole substrate. Fed-batch fermentation with two intermittent feeds (at 10 and 20 h) during the fermentation of 72 h gave the maximum delta-endotoxin concentration (1,672.6 mg/L) and entomotoxicity (Tx) (18.5 x 10(6) SBU/mL) in fermented broth which were significantly higher than maximum delta-endotoxin concentration (511.0 mg/L) and Tx (15.8 x 10(6) SBU/mL) obtained in batch process. However, fed-batch fermentation with three intermittent feeds (at 10, 20 and 34 h) of the fermentation resulted in the formation of asporogenous variant (Spo-) from 36 h to the end of fermentation (72 h) which resulted in a significant decrease in spore and delta-endotoxin concentration and finally the Tx value. Tx of suspended pellets (27.4 x 10(6) SBU/mL) obtained in fed-batch fermentation with two feeds was the highest value as compared to other cases.

  12. Batch and fed-batch production of butyric acid by Clostridium butyricum ZJUCB

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HE Guo-qing; KONG Qing; CHEN Qi-he; RUAN Hui

    2005-01-01

    The production of butyric acid by Clostridium butyricum ZJUCB at various pH values was investigated. In order to study the effect of pH on cell growth, butyric acid biosynthesis and reducing sugar consumption, different cultivation pH values ranging from 6.0 to 7.5 were evaluated in 5-L bioreactor. In controlled pH batch fermentation, the optimum pH for cell growth and butyric acid production was 6.5 with a cell yield of 3.65 g/L and butyric acid yield of 12.25 g/L. Based on these results, this study then compared batch and fed-batch fermentation of butyric acid production at pH 6.5. Maximum value (16.74 g/L) of butyric acid concentration was obtained in fed-batch fermentation compared to 12.25 g/L in batch fermentation. It was concluded that cultivation under fed-batch fermentation mode could enhance butyric acid production significantly (P<0.01) by C. butyricum ZJUCB.

  13. Using Forensics to Untangle Batch Effects in TCGA Data - TCGA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehan Akbani, Ph.D., and colleagues at the University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center developed a tool called MBatch to detect, diagnose, and correct batch effects in TCGA data. Read more about batch effects in this Case Study.

  14. Optimal operation of batch membrane processes

    CERN Document Server

    Paulen, Radoslav

    2016-01-01

    This study concentrates on a general optimization of a particular class of membrane separation processes: those involving batch diafiltration. Existing practices are explained and operational improvements based on optimal control theory are suggested. The first part of the book introduces the theory of membrane processes, optimal control and dynamic optimization. Separation problems are defined and mathematical models of batch membrane processes derived. The control theory focuses on problems of dynamic optimization from a chemical-engineering point of view. Analytical and numerical methods that can be exploited to treat problems of optimal control for membrane processes are described. The second part of the text builds on this theoretical basis to establish solutions for membrane models of increasing complexity. Each chapter starts with a derivation of optimal operation and continues with case studies exemplifying various aspects of the control problems under consideration. The authors work their way from th...

  15. Batch Processing of CMOS Compatible Feedthroughs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, F.E.; Heschel, M.; Hansen, Ole

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents a technique for batch fabrication of electrical feedthroughs in CMOS wafers. The presented process is designed with specific attention on industrial applicability. The electrical feedthroughs are processed entirely by low temperature, CMOS compatible processes. Hence, the proc......This paper presents a technique for batch fabrication of electrical feedthroughs in CMOS wafers. The presented process is designed with specific attention on industrial applicability. The electrical feedthroughs are processed entirely by low temperature, CMOS compatible processes. Hence....... The feedthrough technology employs a simple solution to the well-known CMOS compatibility issue of KOH by protecting the CMOS side of the wafer using sputter deposited TiW/Au. The fabricated feedthroughs exhibit excellent electrical performance having a serial resistance of 40 mOmega and a parasitic capacitance...

  16. Batch Computed Tomography Analysis of Projectiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-01

    resolution. 2.2 CT Image Analysis An algorithm was developed in Matlab † that performed image analysis on each individual cross-sectional image of the...be obtained with a minimum number of descriptor parameters, effectively reducing † Matlab (matrix...single core of an Intel Xeon X5650 processor operating at 2.67 GHz. To batch process the (210) projectiles, a Matlab script was written to parallelize

  17. Isopropyl alcohol recovery by heteroazeotropic batch distillation

    OpenAIRE

    Van Baelen, Guy; Vreysen, Steven; Gerbaud, Vincent; Rodriguez-Donis, Ivonne; Geens, Jeroen; Janssens, Bart

    2010-01-01

    Solvent recovery is becoming a major issue in the pharmaceutical and specialty chemical industries. Solvent recovery by conventional batch distillation is limited by the frequent presence of azeotropes in the used solvent mixtures. Most distillation processes for the separation of azeotropic or difficult zeotropic mixtures involve the addition of an entrainer (homogeneous and heterogeneous azeotropic distillation or extractive distillation). In this study the recovery of IPA (isopropyl alc...

  18. Capacitated max -Batching with Interval Graph Compatibilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nonner, Tim

    We consider the problem of partitioning interval graphs into cliques of bounded size. Each interval has a weight, and the weight of a clique is the maximum weight of any interval in the clique. This natural graph problem can be interpreted as a batch scheduling problem. Solving a long-standing open problem, we show NP-hardness, even if the bound on the clique sizes is constant. Moreover, we give a PTAS based on a novel dynamic programming technique for this case.

  19. Analysis and modelling of the energy consumption of chemical batch plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bieler, P.S.

    2004-07-01

    This report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) describes two different approaches for the energy analysis and modelling of chemical batch plants. A top-down model consisting of a linear equation based on the specific energy consumption per ton of production output and the base consumption of the plant is postulated. The model is shown to be applicable to single and multi-product batches for batch plants with constant production mix and multi-purpose batch plants in which only similar chemicals are produced. For multipurpose batch plants with highly varying production processes and changing production mix, the top-down model produced inaccurate results. A bottom-up model is postulated for such plants. The results obtained are discussed that show that the electricity consumption for infrastructure equipment was significant and responsible for about 50% of total electricity consumption. The specific energy consumption for the different buildings was related to the degree of automation and the production processes. Analyses of the results of modelling are presented. More detailed analyses of the energy consumption of this apparatus group show that about 30 to 40% of steam energy is lost and thus a large potential for optimisation exists. Various potentials for making savings, ranging from elimination of reflux conditions to the development of a new heating/cooling-system for a generic batch reactor, are identified.

  20. Increased efficiency of batch-processed melt-textured YBCO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litzkendorf, D.; Habisreuther, T.; Bierlich, J.; Surzhenko, O.; Zeisberger, M.; Kracunovska, S.; Gawalek, W.

    2005-02-01

    Results on an established batch process preparing melt-textured YBCO in high quality and quantity will be reported. We used a standard composition Y1.5Ba2Cu3O7-X+1 wt% CeO2 without further doping to fabricate single-domain YBCO monoliths in different sizes and shapes (cylindrical, quadratic) as well as rectangular multi-seeded YBCO monoliths. Up to 2-3 kg melt-textured YBCO blocks are grown reproducibly in one box furnace run. Top seeding by self-made SmBCO was improved and rationalized. Optimization of oxygen annealing treatment leads to macro-crack free YBCO monoliths. Each YBCO monolith was characterized by integral levitation force and field mapping. In a single-domain quadratic monolith with an edge length of 38 mm a maximum induction of 1.44 T at 77 K and a distance of 0.5 mm was frozen. The reproducibility of the batch process is guaranteed. Mean maximum induction from 1.1 to 1.2 T at 77 K per batch was reached. A trapped magnetic field of 2.5 T was achieved between two single-domain monoliths in a gap of 1.5 mm at 77 K. Depending on the application function, elements with different sizes, designs and more or less complex geometry are constructed in several working steps by cutting, machining, bonding and passivation. Selected function elements were checked with field mapping at 77 K. Results of our function elements in HTSC reluctance motors using single-domain material are shown. We will report on a fly-wheel system and a system to levitate persons.

  1. Secure Batch Verification Protocol for RSA Signature Scheme

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIAZongpu; LIQingchao; LIZichen

    2005-01-01

    Harn, in 1998, proposed an efficient batch verification scheme for multiple RSA digital signatures.However, the scheme has a weakness, that is a signer can generate multiple signatures which can pass the batch verification scheme, but every one of these multiple signatures is not a valid signature. To avoid this disadvantage, we propose an improved batch verification scheme.

  2. Fuzzy logic feedback control for fed-batch enzymatic hydrolysis of lignocellulosic biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tai, Chao; Voltan, Diego S; Keshwani, Deepak R; Meyer, George E; Kuhar, Pankaj S

    2016-06-01

    A fuzzy logic feedback control system was developed for process monitoring and feeding control in fed-batch enzymatic hydrolysis of a lignocellulosic biomass, dilute acid-pretreated corn stover. Digested glucose from hydrolysis reaction was assigned as input while doser feeding time and speed of pretreated biomass were responses from fuzzy logic control system. Membership functions for these three variables and rule-base were created based on batch hydrolysis data. The system response was first tested in LabVIEW environment then the performance was evaluated through real-time hydrolysis reaction. The feeding operations were determined timely by fuzzy logic control system and efficient responses were shown to plateau phases during hydrolysis. Feeding of proper amount of cellulose and maintaining solids content was well balanced. Fuzzy logic proved to be a robust and effective online feeding control tool for fed-batch enzymatic hydrolysis.

  3. Self-tuning GMV control of glucose concentration in fed-batch baker's yeast production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hitit, Zeynep Yilmazer; Boyacioglu, Havva; Ozyurt, Baran; Ertunc, Suna; Hapoglu, Hale; Akay, Bulent

    2014-04-01

    A detailed system identification procedure and self-tuning generalized minimum variance (STGMV) control of glucose concentration during the aerobic fed-batch yeast growth were realized. In order to determine the best values of the forgetting factor (λ), initial value of the covariance matrix (α), and order of the Auto-Regressive Moving Average with eXogenous (ARMAX) model (n a, n b), transient response data obtained from the real process wereutilized. Glucose flow rate was adjusted according to the STGMV control algorithm coded in Visual Basic in an online computer connected to the system. Conventional PID algorithm was also implemented for the control of the glucose concentration in aerobic fed-batch yeast cultivation. Controller performances were examined by evaluating the integrals of squared errors (ISEs) at constant and random set point profiles. Also, batch cultivation was performed, and microorganism concentration at the end of the batch run was compared with the fed-batch cultivation case. From the system identification step, the best parameter estimation was accomplished with the values λ = 0.9, α = 1,000 and n a = 3, n b = 2. Theoretical control studies show that the STGMV control system was successful at both constant and random glucose concentration set profiles. In addition, random effects given to the set point, STGMV control algorithm were performed successfully in experimental study.

  4. Optimal Synthesis of Batch Distillation Systems Based on a General Disjunctive Dynamic Optimization Model%基于广义析取动态优化模型综合间歇精馏系统

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邹雄; 王兵; 张毅; 董宏光; 姚平经; 王金渠

    2015-01-01

    基于数学规划技术提出间歇精馏过程设计与操作同步优化方法.首先,在原状态空间超级结构基础上嵌入时间维度,形成状态-时-空间超级结构,扩大间歇精馏过程优化空间.其次,将广义析取规划的思想引入间歇精馏动态优化模型,增加模型的直观性和可扩展性,并通过逻辑与析取约束,对方程进行合理分类,有效降低冗余方程导致的计算复杂度.新的优化策略采用严格模型,去除了恒摩尔流等简化假设,通过综合权衡设备投资、公用工程费用和操作周期等因素,一步获得最佳的间歇精馏塔型配置、结构参数和决策变量的动态控制方案.最后,以不同条件下苯-甲苯二元物系的间歇精馏分离为例展示了其有效性.%A systematic method based on mathematical programming techniques was proposed to optimize the design and operation of batch distillation processes. State-Time-Space (STS) superstructure was constructed by adding a time component into the original State-Space superstructure, which extends the scope of batch distillation optimization. A batch distillation General Disjunctive Dynamic Optimization (GDDO) model was proposed with logic and disjunctive constraints, and the frame work was straightforward and extendable. All equations were reasonably classified by these constraints to reduce the computational complexity caused by redundant equations. Moreover, a rigorous model without constant molar overflow hypothesis was adopted. By considering the trade-offs between capital investments, utility costs and operating cycles, a simultaneous optimization strategy is developed to capture the optimal column configuration, design parameters and operation conditions in one step. A case study of benzene and toluene separation was presented to illustrate the effectiveness of this proposed approach.

  5. Multi-objective optimization of glycopeptide antibiotic production in batch and fed batch processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maiti, Soumen K.; Eliasson Lantz, Anna; Bhushan, Mani

    2011-01-01

    Fermentation optimization involves potentially conflicting multiple objectives such as product concentration and production media cost. Simultaneous optimization of these objectives would result in a multiobjective optimization problem, which is characterized by a set of multiple solutions, knows...... as pareto optimal solutions. These solutions gives flexibility in evaluating the trade-offs and selecting the most suitable operating policy. Here, ε-constraint approach was used to generate the pareto solutions for two objectives: product concentration and product per unit cost of media, for batch and fed...... batch operations using process model for Amycolatopsis balhimycina, a glycopeptide antibiotic producer. This resulted in a set of several pareto optimal solutions with the two objectives ranging from (0.75gl−1, 3.97g$-1) to (0.44gl−1, 5.19g$-1) for batch and from (1.5gl−1, 5.46g$-1) to (1.1gl−1, 6.34g...

  6. SLUDGE BATCH VARIABILITY STUDY WITH FRIT 418

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, F.; Edwards, T.

    2010-11-29

    The Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) initiated processing Sludge Batch 6 (SB6) in the summer of 2010. In support of processing, the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) provided a recommendation to utilize Frit 418 to process SB6. This recommendation was based on assessments of the compositional projections for SB6 available at the time from the Liquid Waste Organization (LWO) and SRNL (using a model-based approach). To support qualification of SB6, SRNL executed a variability study to assess the applicability of the current durability models for SB6. The durability models were assessed over the expected Frit 418-SB6 composition range. Seventeen glasses were selected for the variability study based on the sludge projections used in the frit recommendation. Five of the glasses are based on the centroid of the compositional region, spanning a waste loading (WL) range of 32 to 40%. The remaining twelve glasses are extreme vertices (EVs) of the sludge region of interest for SB6 combined with Frit 418 and are all at 36% WL. These glasses were fabricated and characterized using chemical composition analysis, X-ray diffraction (XRD) and the Product Consistency Test (PCT). After initiating the SB6 variability study, the measured composition of the SB6 Tank 51 qualification glass produced at the SRNL Shielded Cells Facility indicated that thorium was present in the glass at an appreciable concentration (1.03 wt%), which made it a reportable element for SB6. This concentration of ThO{sub 2} resulted in a second phase of experimental studies. Five glasses were formulated that were based on the centroid of the new sludge compositional region combined with Frit 418, spanning a WL range of 32 to 40%. These glasses were fabricated and characterized using chemical composition analysis and the PCT. Based on the measured PCT response, all of the glasses (with and without thorium) were acceptable with respect to the Environmental Assessment (EA) reference glass

  7. SLUDGE BATCH 7B GLASS VARIABILITY STUDY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, F.; Edwards, T.

    2011-10-25

    The Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) is preparing to initiate processing Sludge Batch 7b (SB7b). In support of the upcoming processing, the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) provided a recommendation to utilize Frits 418 with a 6% Na{sub 2}O addition (26 wt% Na{sub 2}O in sludge) and 702 with a 4% Na{sub 2}O addition (24 wt% Na{sub 2}O in sludge) to process SB7b. This recommendation was based on assessments of the compositional projections for SB7b available at the time from the Savannah River Remediation (SRR). To support qualification of SB7b, SRNL executed a variability study to assess the applicability of the current durability models for SB7b. The durability models were assessed over the expected composition range of SB7b, including potential caustic additions, combined with Frits 702 and 418 over a 32-40% waste loading (WL) range. Thirty four glasses were selected based on Frits 418 and 702 coupled with the sludge projections with an additional 4-6% Na{sub 2}O to reflect the potential caustic addition. Six of these glasses, based on average nominal sludge compositions including the appropriate caustic addition, were developed for both Frit 418 and Frit 702 at 32, 36 and 40% WL to provide coverage in the center of the anticipated SB7b glass region. All glasses were fabricated and characterized using chemical composition analysis, X-ray diffraction (XRD) and the Product Consistency Test (PCT). To comply with the DWPF Glass Product Control Program, a total of thirty four glasses were fabricated to assess the applicability of the current DWPF PCCS durability models. Based on the measured PCT response, all of the glasses were acceptable with respect to the Environmental Assessment (EA) benchmark glass regardless of thermal history. The NL[B] values of the SB7b variability study glasses were less than 1.99 g/L as compared to 16.695 g/L for EA. A small number of the D-optimally selected 'outer layer' extreme vertices (EV) glasses were not

  8. A comparative study of sequencing batch reactor and moving-bed sequencing batch reactor for piggery wastewater treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwannate Sombatsompop

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This research aims to comparatively study the efficiency of piggery wastewater treatment by the moving-bed sequencing batch reactor (moving-bed SBR system with held medium, and the conventional sequencing batch reactor (SBR system, by varying the organic load from 0.59 to 2.36 kgCOD/m3.d. The COD treatment efficiency of the SBR and moving-bed SBR was higher than 60% at an organic load of 0.59 kgCOD/m3.d and higher than 80% at the organic loads of 1.18-2.36 kgCOD/m3.d. The BOD removal efficiency was greater than 90% at high organic loads of 1.18-2.36 kgCOD/m3.d. The moving-bed SBR gave TKN removal efficiency of 86-93%, whereas the SBR system exhibited the removal efficiency of 75-87% at all organic loads. The amount of effluent suspended solids for SBR systems exceeded the piggery wastewater limit of 200 mg/L at the organic load of 2.36 kgCOD/m3.d while that for the moving-bed SBR system did not. When the organic load was increased, the moving-bed SBR system yielded better treatment efficiency than that of the SBR system. The wastewater treated by the moving-bed SBR system met the criteria of wastewater standard for pig farms at all organic loads, while that treated by the SBR system was not satisfactory at a high organic load of 2.36 kgCOD/m3.d.

  9. Modelling and synthesis of pharmaceutical processes: moving from batch to continuous

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Papadakis, Emmanouil

    understanding of the pharmaceutical process has resulted in major improvements in the field. Process systems engineering (PSE) approaches, which have been successfully applied in the design, analysis and optimization of chemical and petrochemical processes, might be also important for the improvement...... selection are analysed. The objective of the reaction analysis section is to collect reaction data and by using model-based methods to investigate possibilities of reaction improvement by evaluating the reaction conditions, the operating mode, the solvent role, and the reactor design. In the third section...... as a motivating example. The second case study focuses on the application of the developed solvent selection methodology for solvent swap problems. The third case study focused on multiphase reaction systems and improvements through the combination of reaction-separation. Finally, model-based analysis...

  10. Biodiesel and FAME synthesis assisted by microwaves: Homogeneous batch and flow processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. Hernando; P. Leton; M.P. Matia; J.L. Novella; J. Alvarez-Builla [Universidad de Alcala, Madrid (Spain). Planta Piloto de Quimica Fina

    2007-07-15

    Fatty acids methyl esters (FAME) have been prepared under microwave irradiation, using homogeneous catalysis, either in batch or in a flow system. The quality of the biodiesel obtained has been confirmed by GC analysis of the isolated product. While the initial experiments have been performed in a small scale laboratory batch reactor, the best experiment has been straightforward converted into a stop-flow process, by the use of a microwave flow system. Compared with conventional heating methods, the process using microwaves irradiation proved to be a faster method for alcoholysis of triglycerides with methanol, leading to high yields of FAME. Short communication. 19 refs., 2 tabs.

  11. Transfer of Campylobacter from a Positive Batch to Broiler Carcasses of a Subsequently Slaughtered Negative Batch: A Quantitative Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seliwiorstow, Tomasz; Baré, Julie; Van Damme, Inge; Gisbert Algaba, Ignacio; Uyttendaele, Mieke; De Zutter, Lieven

    2016-06-01

    The present study was conducted to quantify Campylobacter cross-contamination from a positive batch of broiler chicken carcasses to a negative batch at selected processing steps and to evaluate the duration of this cross-contamination. During each of nine visits conducted in three broiler slaughterhouses, Campylobacter levels were determined on broiler carcasses originating from Campylobacter-negative batches processed immediately after Campylobacter-positive batches. Data were collected after four steps during the slaughter process (scalding, plucking, evisceration, and washing) at 1, 10, and 20 min after the start of the slaughter of the batches. Campylobacter levels in ceca of birds from Campylobacter-positive batches ranged from 5.62 to 9.82 log CFU/g. When the preceding positive batch was colonized at a low level, no (enumerable) carcass contamination was found in a subsequent negative batch. However, when Campylobacter levels were high in the positive batch, Campylobacter was found on carcasses of the subsequent negative batch but at levels significantly lower than those found on carcasses from the preceding positive batch. The scalding and the evisceration process contributed the least (< 1.5 log CFU/g) and the most (up to 4 log CFU/ g), respectively, to the Campylobacter transmission from a positive batch to a negative batch. Additionally, the number of Campylobacter cells transferred from positive to negative batches decreased over the first 20 min of sampling time. However, the reduction was slower than previously estimated in risk assessment studies, suggesting that pathogen transfer during crosscontamination is a complex process.

  12. Batch and semi-continuous microalgal TAG production in lab-scale and outdoor photobioreactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benvenuti, Giulia; Bosma, Rouke; Ji, Fang; Lamers, Packo; Barbosa, Maria J; Wijffels, René H

    2016-01-01

    Microalgal triglycerides (TAGs) represent a sustainable feedstock for food, chemical and biofuel industries. The operational strategy (batch, semi-continuous, continuous cultivations) has an impact on the TAG productivity. In this study, semi-continuous (i.e. with fixed harvesting frequency) and batch cultivations were compared on TAG production both at lab-scale and in outdoor cultivations. At lab-scale, the semi-continuous TAG productivity was highest for a cycle time of 2 days (SC1; 0.21 g L(-1) day(-1)) and similar to the maximum obtained with the batch (optimal harvest time; 0.23 g L(-1) day(-1)). Although TAG content was lower for SC1 (22 %) than for the batch (35 %), higher biomass productivities were obtained with SC1. Outdoors, semi-continuous cultivations were subjected to a lower degree of stress (i.e. higher amount of nitrogen present in the system relative to the given irradiance) compared to lab-scale. This yielded low and similar TAG contents (10-13 %) in the different semi-continuous runs that were outdone by the batch on both TAG content (15-25 %) and productivity (batch, 0.97-2.46 g m(-2) day(-1); semi-continuous, 0.35-0.85 g m(-2) day(-1)). The lab-scale experiments showed that semi-continuous strategies, besides leading to similar TAG productivities compared to the batch, could make TAG production cost effective by valorising also non-TAG compounds. However, optimization of outdoor semi-continuous cultivations is still required. For instance, the nitrogen supply and the harvest frequency should be adjusted on the total irradiance. Additionally, future research should focus on recovery metabolism upon nitrogen resupply.

  13. Hadoop distributed batch processing for Gaia: a success story

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riello, Marco

    2015-12-01

    The DPAC Cambridge Data Processing Centre (DPCI) is responsible for the photometric calibration of the Gaia data including the low resolution spectra. The large data volume produced by Gaia (~26 billion transits/year), the complexity of its data stream and the self-calibrating approach pose unique challenges for scalability, reliability and robustness of both the software pipelines and the operations infrastructure. DPCI has been the first in DPAC to realise the potential of Hadoop and Map/Reduce and to adopt them as the core technologies for its infrastructure. This has proven a winning choice allowing DPCI unmatched processing throughput and reliability within DPAC to the point that other DPCs have started following our footsteps. In this talk we will present the software infrastructure developed to build the distributed and scalable batch data processing system that is currently used in production at DPCI and the excellent results in terms of performance of the system.

  14. Hydrothermal liquefaction of biomass: developments from batch to continuous process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, Douglas C; Biller, Patrick; Ross, Andrew B; Schmidt, Andrew J; Jones, Susanne B

    2015-02-01

    This review describes the recent results in hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL) of biomass in continuous-flow processing systems. Although much has been published about batch reactor tests of biomass HTL, there is only limited information yet available on continuous-flow tests, which can provide a more reasonable basis for process design and scale-up for commercialization. High-moisture biomass feedstocks are the most likely to be used in HTL. These materials are described and results of their processing are discussed. Engineered systems for HTL are described; however, they are of limited size and do not yet approach a demonstration scale of operation. With the results available, process models have been developed, and mass and energy balances determined. From these models, process costs have been calculated and provide some optimism as to the commercial likelihood of the technology.

  15. Simulated annealing and joint manufacturing batch-sizing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarker Ruhul

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available We address an important problem of a manufacturing system. The system procures raw materials from outside suppliers in a lot and processes them to produce finished goods. It proposes an ordering policy for raw materials to meet the requirements of a production facility. In return, this facility has to deliver finished products demanded by external buyers at fixed time intervals. First, a general cost model is developed considering both raw materials and finished products. Then this model is used to develop a simulated annealing approach to determining an optimal ordering policy for procurement of raw materials and also for the manufacturing batch size to minimize the total cost for meeting customer demands in time. The solutions obtained were compared with those of traditional approaches. Numerical examples are presented. .

  16. Hydrothermal liquefaction of biomass: Developments from batch to continuous process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elliott, Douglas C.; Biller, Patrick; Ross, Andrew; Schmidt, Andrew J.; Jones, Susanne B.

    2015-02-01

    This review describes the recent results in hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL) of biomass in continuous-flow processing systems. Although much has been published about batch reactor tests of biomass HTL, there is only limited information yet available on continuous-flow tests, which can provide a more reasonable basis for process design and scale-up for commercialization. High-moisture biomass feedstocks are the most likely to be used in HTL. These materials are described and results of their processing are discussed. Engineered systems for HTL are described however they are of limited size and do not yet approach a demonstration scale of operation. With the results available process models have been developed and mass and energy balances determined. From these models process costs have been calculated and provide some optimism as to the commercial likelihood of the technology.

  17. Bagasse hydrolyzates from Agave tequilana as substrates for succinic acid production by Actinobacillus succinogenes in batch and repeated batch reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corona-González, Rosa Isela; Varela-Almanza, Karla María; Arriola-Guevara, Enrique; Martínez-Gómez, Álvaro de Jesús; Pelayo-Ortiz, Carlos; Toriz, Guillermo

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this work was to obtain fermentable sugars by enzymatic or acid hydrolyses of Agave tequilana Weber bagasse in order to produce succinic acid with Actinobacillus succinogenes. Hydrolyses were carried out with mineral acids (sulfuric and hydrochloric acids) or a commercial cellulolytic enzyme, and were optimized statistically by a response surface methodology, having as factors the concentration of acid/enzyme and time of hydrolysis. The concentration of sugars obtained at optimal conditions for each hydrolysis were 21.7, 22.4y 19.8g/L for H2SO4, HCl and the enzymatic preparation respectively. Concerning succinic acid production, the enzymatic hydrolyzates resulted in the highest yield (0.446g/g) and productivity (0.57g/Lh) using A. succinogenes in a batch reactor system. Repeated batch fermentation with immobilized A. succinogenes in agar and with the enzymatic hydrolyzates resulted in a maximum concentration of succinic acid of 33.6g/L from 87.2g/L monosaccharides after 5 cycles in 40h, obtaining a productivity of 1.32g/Lh.

  18. Adaptive quality prediction of batch processes based on PLS model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Chun-fu; ZHANG Jie; WANG Gui-zeng

    2006-01-01

    There are usually no on-line product quality measurements in batch and semi-batch processes,which make the process control task very difficult.In this paper,a model for predicting the end-product quality from the available on-line process variables at the early stage of a batch is developed using partial least squares (PLS)method.Furthermore,some available mid-course quality measurements are used to rectify the final prediction results.To deal with the problem that the process may change with time,recursive PLS (RPLS) algorithm is used to update the model based on the new batch data and the old model parameters after each batch.An application to a simulated batch MMA polymerization process demonstrates the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  19. Melting Properties of Loose and Granulated Glass Batch

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Jing; DENG Zhenglu; XIE Jun; CHENG Jinshu; HAN Jianjun; ZHOU Xuedong

    2014-01-01

    The physical properties, the pre-reacting performance and melting properties of the loose glass batch and the granulated glass batch were investigated, respectively. The experimental results showed that compacted glass batch could reduce dust, use ultra-fine powder, and improve heat transfer efficiency. When loose glass batch was compressed into granular, the thermal conductivity was increased from 0.273 W/m•℃to 0.430 W/m•℃, the activation energy Ea of pre-reacting decreased from 178.77 kJ/mol to 143.30 kJ/mol. Using the pre-reacted granular glass batch can significantly reduce the melting time, increase the batch melting rate, and decrease the heat consumption of 1kg molten glass from 3591.24 to 3277.03kJ/kg.

  20. TANK 50 BATCH 0 SALTSTONE FORMULATION CONFIRMATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Langton, C.

    2006-06-05

    Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) personnel were requested to confirm the Tank 50 Batch 0 grout formulation per Technical Task Request, SSF-TTR-2006-0001 (task 1 of 2) [1]. Earlier Batch 0 formulation testing used a Tank 50 sample collected in September 2005 and is described elsewhere [2]. The current testing was performed using a sample of Tank 50 waste collected in May 2006. This work was performed according to the Technical Task and Quality Assurance Plan (TT/QAP), WSRC-RP-2006-00594 [3]. The salt solution collected from Tank 50 in May 2006 contained approximately 3 weight percent more solids than the sample collected in September 2005. The insoluble solids took longer to settle in the new sample which was interpreted as indicating finer particles in the current sample. The saltstone formulation developed for the September 2005 Tank 50 Batch 0 sample was confirmed for the May 2006 sample with one minor exception. Saltstone prepared with the Tank 50 sample collected in May 2006 required 1.5 times more Daratard 17 set retarding admixture than the saltstone prepared with the September In addition, a sample prepared with lower shear mixing (stirring with a spatula) had a higher plastic viscosity (57 cP) than samples made with higher shear mixing in a blender (23cP). The static gel times of the saltstone slurries made with low shear mixing were also shorter ({approx}32 minutes) than those for comparable samples made in the blender ({approx}47 minutes). The addition of the various waste streams (ETP, HEU-HCAN, and GPE-HCAN) to Tank 50 from September 2005 to May 2006 has increased the amount of set retarder, Daratard 17, required for processing saltstone slurries through the Saltstone facility. If these streams are continued to be added to Tank 50, the quantity of admixtures required to maintain the same processing conditions for the Saltstone facility will probably change and additional testing is recommended to reconfirm the Tank 50 Saltstone formulation.

  1. ENGINEERING CONTRACT ON FY-2 BATCH 2 SATELLITES SIGNED

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SunQing

    2004-01-01

    The signing ceremony of the Engineering Contract on FY-2 Batch 2 (FY-2 02) Satellites was held in Beijing by Commission of Science, Technology and Industry for National Defense (COSTIND) on August 31, 2004. The contract on the development and manufacture of FY-2 batch 2 satellites and the contract on the launch, test and control of FY-2 Batch 2 satellites were signed by China Meteorological Administration (CMA),

  2. Batching, Scheduling, Disjunctive graph, Local search, Simulated Annealing, Wafer fabrication

    OpenAIRE

    Yugma, Claude; Dauzere-Peres, Stephane; Artigues, Christian; Derreumaux, Alexandre; Sibille, Olivier

    2011-01-01

    Abstract This paper proposes an efficient heuristic algorithm for solving a complex batching and scheduling problem in a diffusion area of a semiconductor plant. Diffusion is frequently bottleneck in the plant and also one of the most complex areas in terms of number of machines, constraints to satisfy and the large number of lots to manage. The purpose of this study is to investigate an approach to group lots in batches and to schedule these batches on machines. The proble...

  3. 异丙醚-异丙醇-水三元共沸物的Aspen Plus分离模拟%Simulation of Batch Extractive Distillation on Separation Ether-Isopropanol-Water Azeotropic System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄路; 叶青

    2010-01-01

    以乙二醇为溶剂,使用Aspen Plus化工模拟软件中的BatchFrac模块,基于UNIFAC模型,对异丙醚-异丙醇-水三元共沸物的间歇萃取精馏过程进行间歇萃取精馏模拟,研究了不同操作参数(如溶剂比、回流比、溶剂进料位置、溶剂进料温度等)对整个精馏过程的影响,对各工艺参数进行了分析与优化.结果表明,对于处理量为100 kmol的异丙醚-异丙醇-水溶液,精馏塔具有16块塔板时,溶剂进料位置在第3块塔板,溶剂进料温度为60℃,异丙醚收集阶段回流比为5,溶剂比为1.72∶1,异丙醇收集阶段回流比为5,溶剂比为0.63∶1,塔顶异丙醚质量分数可达0.996,异丙醇质量分数可达0.978.

  4. Operation parameters of a small scale batch distillation column for hydrous ethanol fuel (HEF production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. D. Mayer

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Batch distillation applied to hydrous ethanol fuel (HEF production on a small scale still requires operating conditions that ensure optimal top product quality and productivity. The aim of this study is to statistically validate a batch still through the employment of response surface methodology (RSM. Operational and productivity parameters were formulated in order to guarantee quality compliance with the legal requirements for the top product concentration, besides providing support information to control the production of HEF on a small scale. The reboiler control and dephlegmator temperatures maintained within the range of 97.5 to 99.5°C and 60 to 70°C, respectively, combined with a variable reflux ratio, was satisfactory in obtaining a top product concentration, in accordance with legal regulations, as well as high productivity. The results of this study may contribute to the assembly of a simple and low-cost batch distillation control system.

  5. Dissipation of hydrological tracers and the herbicide S-metolachlor in batch and continuous-flow wetlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maillard, Elodie; Lange, Jens; Schreiber, Steffi; Dollinger, Jeanne; Herbstritt, Barbara; Millet, Maurice; Imfeld, Gwenaël

    2016-02-01

    Pesticide dissipation in wetland systems with regard to hydrological conditions and operational modes is poorly known. Here, we investigated in artificial wetlands the impact of batch versus continuous-flow modes on the dissipation of the chiral herbicide S-metolachlor (S-MET) and hydrological tracers (bromide, uranine and sulforhodamine B). The wetlands received water contaminated with the commercial formulation Mercantor Gold(®) (960 g L(-1) of S-MET, 87% of the S-enantiomer). The tracer mass budget revealed that plant uptake, sorption, photo- and presumably biodegradation were prominent under batch mode (i.e. characterized by alternating oxic-anoxic conditions), in agreement with large dissipation of S-MET (90%) under batch mode. Degradation was the main dissipation pathway of S-MET in the wetlands. The degradate metolachlor oxanilic acid (MOXA) mainly formed under batch mode, whereas metolachlor ethanesulfonic acid (MESA) prevailed under continuous-flow mode, suggesting distinct degradation pathways in each wetland. R-enantiomer was preferentially degraded under batch mode, which indicated enantioselective biodegradation. The release of MESA and MOXA by the wetlands as well as the potential persistence of S-MET compared to R-MET under both oxic and anoxic conditions may be relevant for groundwater and ecotoxicological risk assessment. This study shows the effect of batch versus continuous modes on pollutant dissipation in wetlands, and that alternate biogeochemical conditions under batch mode enhance S-MET biodegradation.

  6. Reducing variance in batch partitioning measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mariner, Paul E.

    2010-08-11

    The partitioning experiment is commonly performed with little or no attention to reducing measurement variance. Batch test procedures such as those used to measure K{sub d} values (e.g., ASTM D 4646 and EPA402 -R-99-004A) do not explain how to evaluate measurement uncertainty nor how to minimize measurement variance. In fact, ASTM D 4646 prescribes a sorbent:water ratio that prevents variance minimization. Consequently, the variance of a set of partitioning measurements can be extreme and even absurd. Such data sets, which are commonplace, hamper probabilistic modeling efforts. An error-savvy design requires adjustment of the solution:sorbent ratio so that approximately half of the sorbate partitions to the sorbent. Results of Monte Carlo simulations indicate that this simple step can markedly improve the precision and statistical characterization of partitioning uncertainty.

  7. Reactive Scheduling in Multipurpose Batch Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayani, A.; Shaik, Munawar A.

    2010-10-01

    Scheduling is an important operation in process industries for improving resource utilization resulting in direct economic benefits. It has a two-fold objective of fulfilling customer orders within the specified time as well as maximizing the plant profit. Unexpected disturbances such as machine breakdown, arrival of rush orders and cancellation of orders affect the schedule of the plant. Reactive scheduling is generation of a new schedule which has minimum deviation from the original schedule in spite of the occurrence of unexpected events in the plant operation. Recently, Shaik & Floudas (2009) proposed a novel unified model for short-term scheduling of multipurpose batch plants using unit-specific event-based continuous time representation. In this paper, we extend the model of Shaik & Floudas (2009) to handle reactive scheduling.

  8. An Erlang Loss Queue with Time-Phased Batch Arrivals as a Model for Traffic Control in Communication Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moon Ho Lee

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available A multiserver queueing model that does not have a buffer but has batch arrival of customers is considered. In contrast to the standard batch arrival, in which the entire batch arrives at the system during a single epoch, we assume that the customers of a batch (flow arrive individually in exponentially distributed times. The service time is exponentially distributed. Flows arrive according to a stationary Poisson arrival process. The flow size distribution is geometric. The number of flows that can be simultaneously admitted to the system is under control. The loss of any customer from an admitted flow, with a fixed probability, implies termination of the flow arrival. Analysis of the sojourn time and loss probability of an arbitrary flow is performed.

  9. Biological Treatment of Leachate using Sequencing Batch Reactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WDMC Perera

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE TA Abstract   In Sri Lanka municipal solid waste is generally disposed in poorly managed open dumps which lack liner systems and leachate collection systems. Rain water percolates through the waste layers to produce leachate which drains in to ground water and finally to nearby water bodies, degrading the quality of water. Leachate thus has become a major environmental concern in municipal waste management and treatment of leachate is a major challenge for the existing and proposed landfill sites.   The study was conducted to assess the feasibility of the usage of the Sequencing Batch Reactor in the treatment of the landfill leachate up to the proposed levels in the draft report of “Proposed Sri Lankan standard for landfill leachate to be disposed to the inland waters". Leachate collected from the open dumpsite at Meethotamulla, Western Province, Sri Lanka was used for leachate characterization.   SBR was constructed with a 10-liter working volume operated in an 18 hour cycle mode and each cycle consists of 15hours of aerobic, 2h settle and 0.5 h of fill/decant stages. The Dissolved Oxygen level within the SBR was maintained at 2 mg/l through the aerobic stage. Infeed was diluted with water during the acclimatization period and a leachate to water ratio of 55:45 was maintained. The removal efficiencies for different parameters were; COD (90.5%, BOD (92.6%, TS (92.1%, Conductivity (83.9%, Alkalinity (97.4%, Hardness (82.2%, Mg (80.5%, Fe (94.2%, Zn (63.4%, Cr (31.69%, Pb (99.6%, Sulphate (98.9%, and Phosphorus (71.4% respectively. In addition Ni and Cd were removed completely during a single SBR cycle. Thus the dilution of leachate in the dumpsites using municipal wastewater, groundwater or rainwater was identified as the most cost effective dilution methods. The effluent from the Sequencing batch reactor is proposed to be further treated using a constructed wetland before releasing to surface water.

  10. Dynamic Job Assignment Heuristics For Multi-server Batch Operations : A Cost-based Approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zee, D.J. van der; Harten, A. van; Schuur, P.C.

    1996-01-01

    In many industries production facilities are used which process products in a batch-wise manner. Guided by research in aircraft industry, where the process of hardening synthetic aircraft parts was studied, we evaluate a new control strategy for these type of systems. Given the availability of infor

  11. Determining The Optimal Order Picking Batch Size In Single Aisle Warehouses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T. Le-Duc (Tho); M.B.M. de Koster (René)

    2002-01-01

    textabstractThis work aims at investigating the influence of picking batch size to average time in system of orders in a one-aisle warehouse under the assumption that order arrivals follow a Poisson process and items are uniformly distributed over the aisle's length. We model this problem as an M

  12. Integration of Generic Multi-dimensional Model and Operational Policies for Batch Cooling Crystallization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abdul Samad, Noor Asma Fazli; Singh, Ravendra; Sin, Gürkan

    2011-01-01

    A generic multi-dimensional modeling framework for studying batch cooling crystallization processes under generated operational policies is presented. The generic nature of the modeling allows the study of a wide range of chemical systems under different operational scenarios, enabling thereby, t...

  13. Batch Metadata Editing - Dspace 1.6: a workshop/tutorial to inform and build skills

    OpenAIRE

    Hayes, Leonie; Lewis, Stuart; Newton-Wade, Vanessa

    2010-01-01

    A new feature of the DSpace 1.6 Software is "Batch Metadata Editing". It gives Repository staff the ability to export metadata and change it easily for re-upload into the system. Once you try this "Data Entry" will never be the same.

  14. Batch chemical microreactors: Reversible, in-situ UHV sealing of a microcavity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Monkowski, Adam; Johansson, Martin; Nielsen, Jane Hvolbæk

    2009-01-01

    We propose a new type of microreactor to study heterogeneous catalytic systems. The proposed device operates using a batch reactor scheme, in which catalyst and reactant are introduced in one step and analyzed in a subsequent step. This differs from a flow microreactor in which reaction and analy...

  15. Based Accuload Type Batch Controller Oil Pipe-line Metering System Proportional to Reconcile%基于Accuload型批量控制器的油品管道在线式比例调和计量系统

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐斌; 芮晶磊

    2016-01-01

    Due to the limited refining facility process in petrochemical industry, the environmental protection against the use of refined products , or comprehensive considerations of both technical and economic factors etc, the product after primary processing and the second processing can not completely meet the operating requirements from the market, or considering both economic and environmental factors, usually to meet the market quality requirements by blending technology, such as adding auxiliary chemical fuels such as ethanol etc.Therefore, the article mainly introduces the principle of the finished product batch controller based piping on-line ritio blending technology, the blending purpose, the blending method used in the petrochemical enterprises.%石油化工行业由于炼油装置工艺局限,成品油使用环境保护。或为达到最佳经济效益,经过炼油厂加工所得到的成油不能完全符合市场需求;或考虑经济环保因素,一般通过油品调合的方式来满足市场上对油品质量要求[2],如添加乙醇等辅助化学燃料等。因此,本文重点介绍了石油化工企业的基于批量控制器的油品管道在线式比例调合技术的原理、调合目的、调和方法。

  16. A novel derivation of a within-batch sampling plan based on a Poisson-gamma model characterising low microbial counts in foods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gonzalez-Barron, U.; Zwietering, M.H.; Butler, F.

    2013-01-01

    This study proposes a novel step-wise methodology for the derivation of a sampling plan by variables for food production systems characterised by relatively low concentrations of the inspected microorganism. After representing the universe of contaminated batches by modelling the between-batch and w

  17. Dynamic Simulation of Batch Photocatalytic Reactor (BPR) for Wastewater Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutta, Suman

    2012-08-01

    Reactive dyes discharged from dyehouse causes a serious environmental problem. UV/TiO2 photocatalysis has been employed effectively for these organic dyes removal from dye-house effluent. This process produces less amount of non-toxic final product. In this paper a photocatalytic reactor has been designed for Reactive red 198 (RR198) removal from aqueous solution. The reactor is operating in batch mode. After each batch, TiO2 catalyst has been separated and recycled in the next batch. Mathematical model equation of this batch photocatalytic reactor (BPR) has been developed considering Langmuir-Hinshelwood kinetics. Simulation of BPR has been carried out using fourth order Runge-Kutta (RK) method and fifth order RK method (Butcher method). This simulation results can be used to develop an automatic photocatlytic reactor for industrial wastewater treatment. Catalyst activity decay and its effect on each batch have been incorporated in this model.

  18. Optimal control of batch emulsion polymerization of vinyl chloride

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Damslora, Andre Johan

    1998-12-31

    The highly exothermic polymerization of vinyl chloride (VC) is carried out in large vessels where the heat removal represents a major limitation of the production rate. Many emulsion polymerization reactors are operated in such a way that a substantial part of the heat transfer capacity is left unused for a significant part of the total batch time. To increase the reaction rate so that it matches the heat removal capacity during the course of the reaction, this thesis proposes the use of a sufficiently flexible initiator system to obtain a reaction rate which is high throughout the reaction and real-time optimization to compute the addition policy for the initiator. This optimization based approach provides a basis for an interplay between design and control and between production and research. A simple model is developed for predicting the polymerization rate. The model is highly nonlinear and open-loop unstable and may serve as an interesting case for comparison of nonlinear control strategies. The model is fitted to data obtained in a laboratory scale reactor. Finally, the thesis discusses optimal control of the emulsion polymerization reactor. Reduction of the batch cycle time is of major economic importance, as long as the quality parameters are within their specifications. The control parameterization had a major influence on the performance. A differentiable spline parameterization was applied and the optimization is illustrated in a number of cases. The best performance is obtained when the reactor temperature is obtained when the optimization is combined with some form of closed-loop control of the reactor temperature. 112 refs., 48 figs., 4 tabs.

  19. Batch Delivery Scheduling with Multiple Decentralized Manufacturers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shi Li

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses an integrated decision on production scheduling and delivery operations, which is one of the most important issues in supply chain scheduling. We study a model in which a set of jobs ordered by only one customer and a set of decentralized manufacturers located at different locations are considered. Specifically, each job must be assigned to one of the decentralized manufacturers to process on its single machine facility. Then, the job is delivered to the customer directly in batch without intermediate inventory. The objective is to find a joint schedule of production and distribution to optimize the customer service level and delivery cost. In our work, we discuss this problem considering two different situations in terms of the customer service level. In the first one, the customer service is measured by the maximum arrival time, while the customer service is measured by the total arrival time in the second one. For each situation, we develop a dynamic programming algorithm to solve, respectively. Moreover, we identify a special case for the latter situation by introducing its corresponding solutions.

  20. Biodenitrification in Sequencing Batch Reactors. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silverstein, J. [Colorado Univ., Boulder, CO (United States). Dept. of Civil, Environmental, and Architectural Engineering

    1996-01-23

    One plan for stabilization of the Solar Pond waters and sludges at Rocky Flats Plant (RFP), is evaporation and cement solidification of the salts to stabilize heavy metals and radionuclides for land disposal as low-level mixed waste. It has been reported that nitrate (NO{sub 3}{sub {minus}}) salts may interfere with cement stabilization of heavy metals and radionuclides. Therefore, biological nitrate removal (denitrification) may be an important pretreatment for the Solar Pond wastewaters at RFP, improving the stability of the cement final waste form, reducing the requirement for cement (or pozzolan) additives and reducing the volume of cemented low-level mixed waste requiring ultimate disposal. A laboratory investigation of the performance of the Sequencing Batch Reactor (SBR) activated sludge process developed for nitrate removal from a synthetic brine typical of the high-nitrate and high-salinity wastewaters in the Solar Ponds at Rocky Flats Plant was carried out at the Environmental Engineering labs at the University of Colorado, Boulder, between May 1, 1994 and October 1, 1995.

  1. Experimental Verification of Dynamic Operation of Continuous and Multivessel Batch Distillation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wittgens, Bernd

    1999-07-01

    This thesis presents a rigorous model based on first principles for dynamic simulation of the composition dynamics of a staged high-purity continuous distillation columns and experiments performed to verify it. The thesis also demonstrates the importance of tray hydraulics to obtain good agreement between simulation and experiment and derives analytic expressions for dynamic time constants for use in simplified and vapour dynamics. A newly developed multivessel batch distillation column consisting of a reboiler, intermediate vessels and a condenser vessel provides a generalization of previously proposed batch distillation schemes. The total reflux operation of this column was presented previously and the present thesis proposes a simple feedback control strategy for its operation based on temperature measurements. The feasibility of this strategy is demonstrated by simulations and verified by laboratory experiments. It is concluded that the multivessel column can be easily operated with simple temperature controllers, where the holdups are only controlled indirectly. For a given set of temperature setpoints, the final product compositions are independent of the initial feed composition. When the multivessel batch distillation column is compared to a conventional batch column, both operated under feedback control, it is found that the energy required to separate a multicomponent mixture into highly pure products is much less for the multivessel system. This system is also the simplest one to operate.

  2. Kinetic study of batch and fed-batch enzymatic saccharification of pretreated substrate and subsequent fermentation to ethanol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gupta Rishi

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Enzymatic hydrolysis, the rate limiting step in the process development for biofuel, is always hampered by its low sugar concentration. High solid enzymatic saccharification could solve this problem but has several other drawbacks such as low rate of reaction. In the present study we have attempted to enhance the concentration of sugars in enzymatic hydrolysate of delignified Prosopis juliflora, using a fed-batch enzymatic hydrolysis approach. Results The enzymatic hydrolysis was carried out at elevated solid loading up to 20% (w/v and a comparison kinetics of batch and fed-batch enzymatic hydrolysis was carried out using kinetic regimes. Under batch mode, the actual sugar concentration values at 20% initial substrate consistency were found deviated from the predicted values and the maximum sugar concentration obtained was 80.78 g/L. Fed-batch strategy was implemented to enhance the final sugar concentration to 127 g/L. The batch and fed-batch enzymatic hydrolysates were fermented with Saccharomyces cerevisiae and ethanol production of 34.78 g/L and 52.83 g/L, respectively, were achieved. Furthermore, model simulations showed that higher insoluble solids in the feed resulted in both smaller reactor volume and shorter residence time. Conclusion Fed-batch enzymatic hydrolysis is an efficient procedure for enhancing the sugar concentration in the hydrolysate. Restricting the process to suitable kinetic regimes could result in higher conversion rates.

  3. Glucoamylase production in batch, chemostat and fed-batch cultivations by an industrial strain of Aspergillus niger

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Henrik; Beyer, Michael; Nielsen, Jens

    2000-01-01

    The Aspergillus niger strain BO-1 was grown in batch, continuous (chemostat) and fed-batch cultivations in order to study the production of the extracellular enzyme glucoamylase under different growth conditions. In the pH range 2.5-6.0, the specific glucoamylase productivity and the specific...

  4. A comparative study of the physical and chemical properties of nano-sized ZnO particles from multiple batches of three commercial products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yin, Hong [Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation, Manufacturing Flagship (Australia); Coleman, Victoria A. [National Measurement Institute Australia, Nanometrology Section (Australia); Casey, Phil S., E-mail: Phil.Casey@csiro.au [Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation, Manufacturing Flagship (Australia); Angel, Brad [Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation, Land and Water Flagship (Australia); Catchpoole, Heather J. [National Measurement Institute Australia, Nanometrology Section (Australia); Waddington, Lynne [Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation, Manufacturing Flagship (Australia); McCall, Maxine J. [Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation, Food and Nutrition Flagship (Australia)

    2015-02-15

    Given the broad commercial applications for ZnO nanomaterials, accurate attribution of physicochemical characteristics that induce toxic effects is particularly important. We report on the physicochemical properties of three commercial nano-ZnO products: Z-COTE and Z-COTE HP1 from BASF, and Nanosun from Micronisers, and, for reference, “bulk” ZnO from Sigma-Aldrich. Z-COTE, Nanosun and “bulk” consist of uncoated particles with different sizes, while Z-COTE HP1 consists of nanoparticles with a hydrophobic coating. Specific batches of these ZnO products were included in the OECD Sponsorship Programme to test manufactured nanomaterials. In order to identify properties potentially susceptible to variations between production runs, three additional batches of Z-COTE and Nanosun and two additional batches of Z-COTE HP1 were also investigated here. In general, all products showed little variation between batches for properties measured from powdered samples, but batch variations in the amount of surface coating were evident for the coated Z-COTE HP1. Properties measured with samples dispersed in liquids (agglomeration, photocatalytic activity, dissolution) were highly dependent on dispersion protocols, and this made it difficult to differentiate between differences due to dispersion and due to batches. However, batch-sensitive properties did appear to be present in Z-COTE and Z-COTE HP1 (photocatalytic activity), and Nanosun (dissolution). Intra-batch time and/or storage-dependent changes in the applied surface coating, noted specifically for the OECD batch of Z-COTE HP1, highlight the need for best practice when storing and accessing stocks of nano products. Awareness of inter-batch and intra-batch variability is essential for commercial applications and for nanotoxicological studies aimed at identifying links between physicochemical properties and any adverse effects in biological systems.

  5. Estimation of Kinetic Parameters for Enzyme Catalysed Batch Bioreactor for the Production of Ethanol from Corn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. R. Yelebe

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses the challenge of estimating various kinetic parameters for the design of an optimized enzyme catalysed batch bioreactor of high efficiency and yield. Mathematical models were developed to describe the batch reaction time in relation to the substrate, enzyme and product concentration. The results obtained from the plots generated were: 35.50gmol/l.hr for the velocity of reaction of the enzymes (Vmax, 0.10049hr-1 for the maximum specific growth rate (µmax 826.45gmol/l for the Michaelis-Menten constant (Km, 0.005402577 for maintenance coefficient (Ms, 10.104kgCx/kgCs for yield of cell weight per unit weight of substrate (Ycx/CS, 0.05436kgCp/kgCs for yield of product weight per unit weight of substrate utilized (Ycp/CS and 0.01416 for endogenous decay coefficient (Kd for the design of the batch biochemical reactor. Hence, they are useful parameters for predicting the most appropriate batch reaction conditions and the efficiency of the bioreactor. The mathematical model predictions showed that it can be considered as a good complimentary tool to real system since the simulation results of the mathematical model agrees with experimental data reported in literature.

  6. A New Batch Verifying Scheme for Identifying Illegal Signatures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Adrian Atanasiu

    2013-01-01

    The concept of batch verifying multiple digital signatures is to find a method by which multiple digital signatures can be verified simultaneously in a lower time complexity than separately verifying all the signatures.In this article,we analyze the complexity of the batch verifying schemes defined by Li,Hwang and Chen in 2010,and propose a new batch verifying multiple digital signature scheme,in two variants:one for RSA-by completing the Harn's schema with an identifying illegal signatures algorithm,and the other adapted for a modified Elliptic Curve Digital Signature Algorithm protocol.

  7. Preparative chromatography with supercritical fluids. Comparison of simulated moving bed and batch processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peper, Stephanie; Johannsen, Monika; Brunner, Gerd

    2007-12-28

    Preparative chromatography is a key technology for the separation of fine chemicals in production scale. Most of the published studies are carried out using liquid solvents as mobile phase. However, the used organic solvents can often be replaced by supercritical fluids. A reduction or renouncement of organic solvents does not only correspond to the trend of the so-called green chemistry--a sustainable, environmentally friendly production of chemical products. But a changeover to chromatography with supercritical fluids can also be reasonable under economic criteria. In this contribution a comparison between the Batch-supercritical fluid chromatography (Batch-SFC) process and the simulated moving bed (SMB)-SFC process is presented. Because of the minor importance of solvent consumption and solvent recovery in SFC, the separation systems were optimized primarily in terms of their specific productivity. For three of the four investigated model systems, the specific productivity of the SMB process is significantly higher than the productivity of the Batch process. Due to the fact, that the process with the higher specific productivity is not inevitably the more economical process, supplementary the costs of the process were considered. Therefore the comparison of the two processes was done from an economic point of view considering the minimum product price that has to be realized to fulfill the defined economic aim. It was found that although the optimized specific productivities of the SMB process were significantly higher than the productivities of the Batch process, the Batch process is the more profitable process for the investigated production rate range between 0.4 and 5t/a.

  8. About the performance of Sphaerotilus natans to reduce hexavalent chromium in batch and continuous reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caravelli, Alejandro H., E-mail: alejandrocaravelli@hotmail.com [Centro de Investigacion y Desarrollo en Criotecnologia de Alimentos (CIDCA), CCT - CONICET - La Plata. Fac., Ciencias Exactas, Universidad Nacional de La Plata, 47 y 116 La Plata (1900) (Argentina); Zaritzky, Noemi E., E-mail: zaritzky@ing.unlp.edu.ar [Centro de Investigacion y Desarrollo en Criotecnologia de Alimentos (CIDCA), CCT - CONICET - La Plata. Fac., Ciencias Exactas, Universidad Nacional de La Plata, 47 y 116 La Plata (1900) (Argentina); Fac. de Ingenieria, Universidad Nacional de La Plata, 48 y 115 La Plata (1900) (Argentina)

    2009-09-15

    The hexavalent chromium biological reduction constitutes a safe and economical detoxification procedure of wastewaters containing Cr(VI). However, little research has been done to evaluate Cr(VI) tolerance and reduction capacity of microbial cultures under different growth conditions. The aims of this work were (a) to evaluate the capacity of Sphaerotilus natans to reduce Cr(VI) to Cr(III) in a continuous system limited in carbon and energy source or in nitrogen source, (b) to evaluate the toxic effect of Cr(VI) on this microorganism, (c) to carry out a complete analysis of Cr(VI) reduction by S. natans not only in continuous regime but also in batch system, and (d) to model the obtained results mathematically. S. natans exhibited great resistance to Cr(VI) (19-78 mg l{sup -1}) and optimal growth in continuous and batch systems using a mineral medium supplemented only with citric acid as organic substrate. In carbon- and energy-limited continuous systems, a maximum percentual decrease in Cr(VI) by 13% was reached for low influent Cr(VI) concentration (4.3-5.32 mgCr(VI) l{sup -1}); the efficiency of the process did not notoriously increase as the length of cellular residence time was increased from 4.16 to 50 h. A nitrogen-limited continuous operation with a cellular residence time of 28.5 h resulted in a Cr(VI) decrease of approximately 26-32%. In batch system, a mathematical model allowed to predict the Cr(VI) concentration as a function of time and the ratio between the initial Cr(VI) concentration and that of the biomass. High concentrations of initial Cr(VI) and biomass produced the highest performance of the process of Cr(VI) reduction reached in batch system, aspects which should be considered in detoxification strategies of wastewaters.

  9. Numerical modeling of batch formation in waste incineration plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Obroučka Karel

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is a mathematical description of algorithm for controlled assembly of incinerated batch of waste. The basis for formation of batch is selected parameters of incinerated waste as its calorific value or content of pollutants or the combination of both. The numerical model will allow, based on selected criteria, to compile batch of wastes which continuously follows the previous batch, which is a prerequisite for optimized operation of incinerator. The model was prepared as for waste storage in containers, as well as for waste storage in continuously refilled boxes. The mathematical model was developed into the computer program and its functionality was verified either by practical measurements or by numerical simulations. The proposed model can be used in incinerators for hazardous and municipal waste.

  10. Optimal control of a fed-batch fermentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dekkers, R.M.

    1984-01-01

    The common cultivation of bakers' yeast is an aerobic fed-batch fermentation under sugar-limited growth. The ultimate objective of on-line computer control is to optimize the process through maximizing the productivity of biomass formation while minimizing the consumption of raw materials for the product. Results obtained on the optimal control of a fed-batch fermentation are given. The aspects to be considered are instrumentation, state estimation, optimization and process control.

  11. Differences of silicon photodiode spectral reflectance among the same batch

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    A.L.Mu(n)oz Zurita; J.Campos Acosta; A.Pons Aglio; A.Shcherbakov

    2008-01-01

    Photodiode's reflectance plays an important role regarding the relation between responsivity and the incident flux. In this work we analyze how the spectral reflectance changes among photodiodes from the same manufacturer and batch and how the reflectance of three standard photodiodes has drifted during six years. The results show that the reflectance changes from diode to diode within the same batch and also show th.at the reflectance ofphotodiodes changes on time. This ageing is spectrally dependent.

  12. Polynomial Batch Codes for Efficient IT-PIR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henry Ryan

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Private information retrieval (PIR is a way for clients to query a remote database without the database holder learning the clients’ query terms or the responses they generate. Compelling applications for PIR are abound in the cryptographic and privacy research literature, yet existing PIR techniques are notoriously inefficient. Consequently, no such PIRbased application to date has seen real-world at-scale deployment. This paper proposes new “batch coding” techniques to help address PIR’s efficiency problem. The new techniques exploit the connection between ramp secret sharing schemes and efficient information-theoretically secure PIR (IT-PIR protocols. This connection was previously observed by Henry, Huang, and Goldberg (NDSS 2013, who used ramp schemes to construct efficient “batch queries” with which clients can fetch several database records for the same cost as fetching a single record using a standard, non-batch query. The new techniques in this paper generalize and extend those of Henry et al. to construct “batch codes” with which clients can fetch several records for only a fraction the cost of fetching a single record using a standard non-batch query over an unencoded database. The batch codes are highly tuneable, providing a means to trade off (i lower server-side computation cost, (ii lower server-side storage cost, and/or (iii lower uni- or bi-directional communication cost, in exchange for a comparatively modest decrease in resilience to Byzantine database servers.

  13. Batch process monitoring based on multilevel ICA-PCA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhi-qiang GE; Zhi-huan SONG

    2008-01-01

    In this paper,we describe a new batch process monitoring method based on multilevel independent component analysis and principal component analysis (MLICA-PCA).Unlike the conventional multi-way principal component analysis (MPCA) method,MLICA-PCA provides a separated interpretation for multilevel batch process data.Batch process data are partitioned into two levels:the within-batch level and the between-batch level.In each level,the Gaussian and non-Ganssian components of process information can be separately extracted.I2,T2 and SPE statistics are individually built and monitored.The new method facilitates fault diagnosis.Since the two variation levels arc decomposed,the variables responsible for faults in each level can be identified and interpreted more easily.A case study of the Dupont benchmark process showed that the proposed method was more efficient and interpretable in fault detection and diagnosis,compared to the alternative batch process monitoring method.

  14. [Characteristic of Particulate Emissions from Concrete Batching in Beijing].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Yi-feng; Zhou, Zhen; Zhong, Lian-hong; Yan, Jing; Qu, Song; Huang, Yu-hu; Tian, He- zhong; Pan, Tao

    2016-01-15

    With the economic development and population growth in Beijing, there is a strong need for construction and housing, which leads to the increase of the construction areas. Meanwhile, as a local provided material, the production of concrete has been raised. In the process of concrete production by concrete batching, there are numerous particulates emitted, which have large effect on the atmospheric environment, however, systematic study about the tempo-spatial characteristics of pollutant emission from concrete batching is still rare. In this study, we estimated the emission of particulates from concrete batching from 1991 to 2012 using emission factor method, analyzed the tempo-spatial characteristics of pollutant emission, established the uncertainty range by adopting Monte-Carlo method, and predicted the future emission in 2020 based on the relative environmental and economical policies. The results showed that: (1) the emissions of particulates from concrete batching showed a trend of "first increase and then decrease", reaching the maximum in 2005, and then decreased due to stricter emission standard and enhanced environmental management. (2) according to spatial distribution, the emission of particulates from concrete batch mainly concentrated in the urban area with more human activities, and the area between the fifth ring and the sixth ring contributed the most. (3) through scenarios analysis, for further reducing the emission from concrete batching in 2020, more stricter standard for green production as well as powerful supervision is needed.

  15. Fed-batch versus batch cultures of Yarrowia lipolytica for γ-decalactone production from methyl ricinoleate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Nelma; Teixeira, José A; Belo, Isabel

    2012-04-01

    Constant medium feeding rate and intermittent fed-batch fermentation strategies were investigated aiming to increase the yields of γ-decalactone production by Yarrowia lipolytica, using methyl ricinoleate as substrate and ricinoleic acid source. The accumulation of another compound, 3-hydroxy-γ-decalactone, was also analyzed since it derives from the direct precursor of γ-decalactone thereby providing information about the enzymatic activities of the pathway. Both strategies were compared with the traditional batch mode in terms of overall productivity and yield in respect to the substrate. Although the productivity of γ-decalactone was considerably higher in the batch mode (168 mg l(-1) h(-1)), substrate conversion to lactone (73 mg γ-decalactone g(-1)) was greater in the intermittent fed-batch giving 6.8 g γ-decalactone l(-1). This last strategy therefore has potential for γ-decalactone production at an industrial level.

  16. A Batch Arrival Retrial Queue with Two Phases of Service and Bernoulli Vacation Schedule

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gautam Choudhury; Kandarpa Deka

    2013-01-01

    We consider an MX/G/1 queueing system with two phases of heterogeneous service and Bernoulli vacation schedule which operate under a linear retrial policy.In addition,each individual customer is subject to a control admission policy upon the arrival.This model generalizes both the classical M/G/1 retrial queue with arrivals in batches and a two phase batch arrival queue with a single vacation under Bernoulli vacation schedule.We will carry out an extensive stationary analysis of the system,including existence of the stationary regime,embedded Markov chain,steady state distribution of the server state and number of customer in the retrial group,stochastic decomposition and calculation of the first moment.

  17. Batch and High Cell Density Fed-Batch Culture Productions of an Organophosphorus Hydrolase

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    0.02 g H3BO3, 0.01 g NaMoO4@ 2H2O , and 0.01 g CuSO4 . Fed-Batch Fermentations were carried out in the same Bio-Flow 3000 unit fitted with 10 L...per L): 3.0 g nitrilotriacetic acid, 6.0 MgSO4@7H2O, 1.0 g NaCl, 1.0 g MnSO4@H2O, 0.5 g FeSO4@7H20, 0.1 CaCl2@ 2H2O , 0.1 CoCl2@6H2O, 0.1 g ZnSO4@7H2O

  18. SULFATE SOLUBILITY LIMIT VERIFICATION FOR DWPF SLUDGE BATCH 7A

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Billings, A.

    2011-04-19

    During processing at the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF), high sulfate concentrations in the feed are a concern to DWPF as it can lead to the formation of a detrimental, sulfate-rich, molten salt phase on the surface of the glass melt pool. To avoid these issues, a sulfate concentration limit was implemented into the Product Composition Control System (PCCS). Related to SB7a frit development efforts, the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) assessed the viability of using the current 0.6 wt % SO{sub 4}{sup 2-} limit set for SB6 (in glass) and the possibility of increasing the SO{sub 4}{sup 2-} solubility limit in PCCS to account for anticipated sulfur concentrations, targeted waste loadings, and inclusion of secondary streams (e.g., Actinide Removal Process (ARP)) with two recommended frits (Frit 418 and Frit 702) for SB7a processing. For a nominal SB7a blend with a 63 inch SB6 heel remaining in Tank 40 (projection SB7a-63), a 0.60 wt% SO{sub 4}{sup 2-} in glass limit was determined for waste loadings of 34 wt% up to 40 wt% with Frit 418 based on crucible melts with batched chemicals. SRNL also examined the inclusion of ARP for the same blending scenario (SB7a-63-ARP) with Frit 418 and at least a 0.6 wt% SO{sub 4}{sup 2-} level, and waste loadings of 34 wt% to 40 wt% were also acceptable. When a visible yellow and/or white sulfate salt layer was visible on the surface of any cooled glass, it was assumed to have surpassed the solubility limit of SO{sub 4}{sup 2-} for that particular composition. All of the glasses fabricated at these concentrations did not exhibit a sulfate rich salt layer on the surface of the glass melt and retained the majority of the batched SO{sub 4}{sup 2-}. At higher levels of SO{sub 4}{sup 2-} 'spiked' into the projected sludge compositions over the aforementioned interval of waste loadings, with Frit 418, low viscosity sulfur layers were observed on the surface of glass melts which confirm exceeding the solubility

  19. Role of Moving Bed Biofilm Reactor and Sequencing Batch Reactor in Biological Degradation of Formaldehyde Wastewater

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    Nowadays formaldehyde is used as raw material in many industries. It has also disinfection applications in some public places. Due to its toxicity for microorganisms, chemical or anaerobic biological methods are applied for treating wastewater containing formaldehyde.In this research, formaldehyde removal efficiencies of aerobic biological treatment systems including moving bed biofilm (MMBR) and sequencing batch reactors (SBR) were investigated. During all experiments, the efficiency of SBR ...

  20. Biodegradation of Jet Fuel-4 (JP-4) in Sequencing Batch Reactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-06-01

    Specific Objectives of This Proposal Are: 1. To assess the ability of C. resinae , P. chrysosporium and selected bacterial consortia to degrade individual...chemical components of JP-4. 2. To develop a sequencing batch reactor that utilizes C. resinae to degrade chemical components of JP-4 in contaminated...Angeles Air Force Base. The study of the effectiveness of the two fungal systems (P. chrysosporium and and C. resinae ) is still in progress. Initial

  1. Biomass characteristics in three sequencing batch reactors treating a wastewater containing synthetic organic chemicals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Z.Q.; Ferraina, R.A.; Ericson, J.F.

    2005-01-01

    The physical and biochemical characteristics of the biomass in three lab-scale sequencing batch reactors (SBR) treating a synthetic wastewater at a 20-day target solids retention time (SRT) were investigated. The synthetic wastewater feed contained biogenic compounds and 22 organic priming....../aerobic cycles might facilitate the formation of granular sludge with good settleability, and retain comparable removal of nitrogen and synthetic organic compounds. Hence, the practice of anoxic/aerobic cycling should be considered in wastewater treatment systems whenever possible....

  2. A study on clavulanic acid production by Streptomyces clavuligerus in batch, fed-batch and continuous processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. B. Neto

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Clavulanic acid (CA is a potent inhibitor of beta-lactamases, enzymes that are responsible for the hydrolysis of beta-lactam antibiotics. It is a secondary metabolite produced by the filamentous aerobic bacterium Streptomyces clavuligerus in submerged cultivations. In the present work clavulanic acid production in batch, fed-batch and continuous bioreactors was studied with the objective of increasing productivity. The operating conditions: temperature, aeration and agitation, were the same in all cases, 28º C, 0.5 vvm and 800 rpm, respectively. The CA concentration obtained in the fed-batch culture, 404 mg L-1, was ca twice the value obtained in the batch culture, 194 mg L-1, while 293 mg L-1 was obtained in the continuous culture. The highest productivity was obtained in the continuous cultivation, 10.6 mg L-1 h-1, as compared with 8.8 mg L-1 h-1 in the fed-batch process and 3.5 mg L-1 h-1 in the batch process, suggesting that continuous culture of Streptomyces clavuligerus is a promising strategy for clavulanic acid production.

  3. Butanol production by immobilised Clostridium acetobutylicum in repeated batch, fed-batch, and continuous modes of fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolejš, Igor; Krasňan, Vladimír; Stloukal, Radek; Rosenberg, Michal; Rebroš, Martin

    2014-10-01

    Clostridium acetobutylicum immobilised in polyvinylalcohol, lens-shaped hydrogel capsules (LentiKats(®)) was studied for production of butanol and other products of acetone-butanol-ethanol fermentation. After optimising the immobilisation protocol for anaerobic bacteria, continuous, repeated batch, and fed-batch fermentations in repeated batch mode were performed. Using glucose as a substrate, butanol productivity of 0.41 g/L/h and solvent productivity of 0.63 g/L/h were observed at a dilution rate of 0.05 h(-1) during continuous fermentation with a concentrated substrate (60 g/L). Through the process of repeated batch fermentation, the duration of fermentation was reduced from 27.8h (free-cell fermentation) to 3.3h (immobilised cells) with a solvent productivity of 0.77 g/L/h (butanol 0.57 g/L/h). The highest butanol and solvent productivities of 1.21 and 1.91 g/L/h were observed during fed-batch fermentation operated in repeated batch mode with yields of butanol (0.15 g/g) and solvents (0.24 g/g), respectively, produced per gram of glucose.

  4. Virtual Sensors for Biodiesel Production in a Batch Reactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Betty Y. López-Zapata

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Fossil fuel combustion produces around 98% of coal emissions. Therefore, liquid and gaseous biofuels have become more attractive due to their environmental benefits. The biodiesel production process requires measurements that help to control and supervise the variables involved in the process. The measurements provide valuable information about the operation conditions and give estimations about the critical variables of the process. The information from measurements is essential for monitoring the state of a process and verifying if it has an optimal performance. The objective of this study was the conception of a virtual sensor based on the Extended Kalman Filter (EKF and the model of a batch biodiesel reactor for estimating concentrations of triglycerides (TG, diglycerides (DG, monoglycerides (MG, methyl ester (E, alcohol (A, and glycerol (GL in real-time through measurement of the temperature and pH. Estimation of the TG, DG, MG, E, A, and Gl through this method eliminates the need for additional sensors and allows the use of different types of control. For the performance analysis of the virtual sensor, the data obtained from the EKF are compared with experimental data reported in the literature, with the mean square error of the estimate then being calculated. In addition, the results of this approach can be implemented in a real system, since it only uses measurements available in a reactor such as temperature and pH.

  5. Feasibility of Batch Reactive Distillation with Equilibrium-Limited Consecutive Reactions in Rectifier, Stripper, or Middle-Vessel Column

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Lukács

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A general overall feasibility methodology of batch reactive distillation of multireaction systems is developed to study all the possible configurations of batch reactive distillation. The general model equations are derived for multireaction system with any number of chemical equilibrium-limited reactions and for any number of components. The present methodology is demonstrated with the detailed study of the transesterification of dimethyl carbonate in two reversible cascade reactions in batch reactive distillation process. Pure methanol is produced as distillate, and pure diethyl carbonate is produced at the bottom simultaneously in middle-vessel column; in each section, continuous feeding of ethanol is necessary. The results of feasibility study are successfully validated by rigorous simulations.

  6. Just-in-Time Smoothing Through Batching

    OpenAIRE

    Wieslaw Kubiak; Mesut Yavuz

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents two methods to solve the production smoothing problem in mixed-model just-in-time (JIT) systems with large setup and processing time variability between different models the systems produce. The problem is motivated by production planning at a leading U.S. automotive pressure hose manufacturer. One method finds all Pareto-optimal solutions that minimize total production rate variation of models and work in process (WIP), and maximize system utilization and responsiveness. ...

  7. Supply Chain Batching Problem with Identical Orders and Lifespan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shanlin Li

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In the real world, there are a large number of supply chains that involve the short lifespan products. In this paper, we consider an integrated production and distribution batch scheduling problem on a single machine for the orders with a short lifespan, because it may be cheaper or faster to process and distribute orders in a batch than to process and distribute them individually. Assume that the orders have the identical processing time and come from the same location, and the batch setup time is a constant. The problem is to choose the number of batches and batch sizes to minimize the total delivery time without violating the order lifespan. We first give a backward dynamic programming algorithm, but it is not an actually polynomial-time algorithm. Then we propose a constant time partial dynamic programming algorithm by doing further research into the recursion formula in the algorithm. Further, using the difference characteristics of the optimal value function, a specific calculating formula to solve the problem with the setup time being integer times of the processing time is obtained.

  8. Experimental optimization of a real time fed-batch fermentation process using Markov decision process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saucedo, V M; Karim, M N

    1997-07-20

    This article describes a methodology that implements a Markov decision process (MDP) optimization technique in a real time fed-batch experiment. Biological systems can be better modeled under the stochastic framework and MDP is shown to be a suitable technique for their optimization. A nonlinear input/output model is used to calculate the probability transitions. All elements of the MDP are identified according to physical parameters. Finally, this study compares the results obtained when optimizing ethanol production using the infinite horizon problem, with total expected discount policy, to previous experimental results aimed at optimizing ethanol production using a recombinant Escherichia coli fed-batch cultivation. (c) 1997 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Biotechnol Bioeng 55: 317-327, 1997.

  9. Fed-Batch Biomolecule Production by Bacillus subtilis: A State of the Art Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Öztürk, Sibel; Çalık, Pınar; Özdamar, Tunçer H

    2016-04-01

    Bacillus subtilis is a highly promising production system for various biomolecules. This review begins with the algorithm of fed-batch operations (FBOs) and then illustrates the approaches to design the initial production medium and/or feed stream. Additionally, the feeding strategies developed with or without feedback control for fed-batch B. subtilis fermentations were compiled with a special emphasis on recombinant protein (r-protein) production. For biomolecule production by wild-type B. subtilis, due to the different intracellular production patterns, no consensus exists on the FBO strategy that gives the maximum productivity, whereas for r-protein production appropriate feeding strategies vary depending on the promoter used. Thus, we conclude that the B. subtilis community is still seeking an approved strong promoter and generalized FBO strategies.

  10. A novel model-based control strategy for aerobic filamentous fungal fed-batch fermentation processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mears, Lisa; Stocks, Stuart M.; Albaek, Mads O.

    2017-01-01

    in a batch in a defined process time. In order to achieve this goal, it is important to maximize both the product concentration, and also the total final mass in the fed-batch system. To this end, we describe the development of a control strategy which aims to achieve maximum tank fill, while avoiding oxygen...... limited conditions. This requires a two stage approach: (i) calculation of the tank start fill; and (ii) on-line control in order to maximize fill subject to oxygen transfer limitations. First, a mechanistic model was applied off-line in order to determine the appropriate start fill for processes...... with four different sets of process operating conditions for the stirrer speed, headspace pressure, and aeration rate. The start fills were tested with eight pilot scale experiments using a reference process operation. An on-line control strategy was then developed, utilizing the mechanistic model which...

  11. On-line Batch Process Monitoring with Improved Multi-way Independent Component Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO Hui; LI Hongguang

    2013-01-01

    In the past decades,on-line monitoring of batch processes using multi-way independent component analysis (MICA) has received considerable attention in both academia and industry.This paper focuses on two troublesome issues concerning selecting dominant independent components without a standard criterion and determining the control limits of monitoring statistics in the presence of non-Gaussian distribution.To optimize the number of key independent components,we introduce a novel concept of system deviation,which is able to evaluate the reconstructed observations with different independent components.The monitored statistics are transformed to Gaussian distribution data by means of Box-Cox transformation,which helps readily determine the control limits.The proposed method is applied to on-line monitoring of a fed-batch penicillin fermentation simulator,and the experimental results indicate the advantages of the improved MICA monitoring compared to the conventional methods.

  12. Ethanol production potential from fermented rice noodle wastewater treatment using entrapped yeast cell sequencing batch reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siripattanakul-Ratpukdi, Sumana

    2012-03-01

    Fermented rice noodle production generates a large volume of starch-based wastewater. This study investigated the treatment of the fermented rice noodle wastewater using entrapped cell sequencing batch reactor (ECSBR) compared to traditional sequencing batch reactor (SBR). The yeast cells were applied because of their potential to convert reducing sugar in the wastewater to ethanol. In present study, preliminary treatment by acid hydrolysis was performed. A yeast culture, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, with calcium alginate cell entrapment was used. Optimum yeast cell loading in batch experiment and fermented rice noodle treatment performances using ECSBR and SBR systems were examined. In the first part, it was found that the cell loadings (0.6-2.7 × 108 cells/mL) did not play an important role in this study. Treatment reactions followed the second-order kinetics with the treatment efficiencies of 92-95%. In the second part, the result showed that ECSBR performed better than SBR in both treatment efficiency and system stability perspectives. ECSBR maintained glucose removal of 82.5 ± 10% for 5-cycle treatment while glucose removal by SBR declined from 96 to 40% within the 5-cycle treatment. Scanning electron microscopic images supported the treatment results. A number of yeast cells entrapped and attached onto the matrix grew in the entrapment matrix.

  13. MELT RATE FURNACE TESTING FOR SLUDGE BATCH 5 FRIT OPTIMIZATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, D; Fox, K; Pickenheim, B; Stone, M

    2008-10-03

    Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) was requested to provide the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) with a frit composition for Sludge Batch 5 (SB5) to optimize processing. A series of experiments were designed for testing in the Melt Rate Furnace (MRF). This dry fed tool can be used to quickly determine relative melt rates for a large number of candidate frit compositions and lead to a selection for further testing. Simulated Sludge Receipt and Adjustment Tank (SRAT) product was made according to the most recent SB5 sludge projections and a series of tests were conducted with frits that covered a range of boron and alkali ratios. Several frits with relatively large projected operating windows indicated melt rates that would not severely impact production. As seen with previous MRF testing, increasing the boron concentration had positive impacts on melt rate on the SB5 system. However, there appears to be maximum values for both boron and sodium above which the there is a negative effect on melt rate. Based on these data and compositional trends, Frit 418 and a specially designed frit (Frit 550) have been selected for additional melt rate testing. Frit 418 and Frit 550 will be run in the Slurry Fed Melt Rate Furnace (SMRF), which is capable of distinguishing rheological properties not detected by the MRF. Frit 418 will be used initially for SB5 processing in DWPF (given its robustness to compositional uncertainty). The Frit 418-SB5 system will provide a baseline from which potential melt rate advantages of Frit 550 can be gauged. The data from SMRF testing will be used to determine whether Frit 550 should be recommended for implementation in DWPF.

  14. [Task 1.] Biodenitrification of low nitrate solar pond waters using sequencing batch reactors. [Task 2.] Solidification/stabilization of high strength and biodenitrified heavy metal sludges with a Portland cement/flyash system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Figueroa, L.; Cook, N.E.; Siegrist, R.L.; Mosher, J.; Terry, S.; Canonico, S.

    1995-09-22

    Process wastewater and sludges were accumulated on site in solar evaporation ponds during operations at the Department of Energy's Rocky Flats Plant (DOE/RF). Because of the extensive use of nitric acid in the processing of actinide metals, the process wastewater has high concentrations of nitrate. Solar pond waters at DOE/RF contain 300-60,000 mg NO{sub 3}{sup {minus}}/L. Additionally, the pond waters contain varying concentrations of many other aqueous constituents, including heavy metals, alkali salts, carbonates, and low level radioactivity. Solids, both from chemical precipitation and soil material deposition, are also present. Options for ultimate disposal of the pond waters are currently being evaluated and include stabilization and solidification (S/S) by cementation. Removal of nitrates can enhance a wastes amenability to S/S, or can be a unit operation in another treatment scheme. Nitrate removal is also a concern for other sources of pollution at DOE/RF, including contaminated groundwater collected by interceptor trench systems. Finally, nitrate pollution is a problem at many other DOE facilities where actinide metals were processed. The primary objective of this investigation was to optimize biological denitrification of solar pond waters with nitrate concentrations of 300--2,100 mg NO{sub 3}{sup {minus}}/L to below the drinking water standard of 45 mg NO{sub 3}{sup {minus}}/L (10 mg N/L). The effect of pH upon process stability and denitrification rate was determined. In addition, the effect Cr(VI) on denitrification and fate of Cr(VI) in the presence of denitrifying bacteria was evaluated.

  15. From Fed-batch to Continuous Enzymatic Biodiesel Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2015-01-01

    In this this paper, we use mechanistic modelling to guide the development of acontinuous enzymatic process that is performed as a fed-batch operation. In this workwe use the enzymatic biodiesel process as a case study. A mechanistic model developedin our previous work was used to determine...... measured components (triglycerides, diglycerides, monoglycerides, free fatty acid and fatty acid methyl esters(biodiesel)) much better than using fed-batch data alone given the smaller residuals. We also observe a reduction in the correlation between the parameters.The model was then used to predict that 5...... reactors are required (with a combined residence time of 30 hours) to reach a final biodiesel concentration within 2 % of the95.6 mass % achieved in a fed-batch operation, for 24 hours....

  16. Run-to-run product quality control of batch processes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIA Li; SHI Ji-ping; CHENG Da-shuai; CHIU Min-sen

    2009-01-01

    Batch processes have been increasingly used in the production of low volume and high value added products.Consequently,optimization control in batch processes is crucial in order to derive the maximum benefit.In this paper,a run-to-run product quality control based on iterative learning optimization control is developed.Moreover,a rigorous theorem is proposed and proven in this paper,which states that the tracking error under the optimal iterative learning control (ILC) law can converge to zero.In this paper,a typical nonlinear batch continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR) is considered,and the results show that the performance of trajectory tracking is gradually improved by the ILC.

  17. Application of gain scheduling to the control of batch bioreactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardello, Ralph; San, Ka-Yiu

    1987-01-01

    The implementation of control algorithms to batch bioreactors is often complicated by the inherent variations in process dynamics during the course of fermentation. Such a wide operating range may render the performance of fixed gain PID controllers unsatisfactory. In this work, a detailed study on the control of batch fermentation is performed. Furthermore, a simple batch controller design is proposed which incorporates the concept of gain-scheduling, a subclass of adaptive control, with oxygen uptake rate as an auxiliary variable. The control of oxygen tension in the biorector is used as a vehicle to convey the proposed idea, analysis and results. Simulation experiments indicate significant improvement in controller performance can be achieved by the proposed approach even in the presence of measurement noise.

  18. Batch Statistical Process Monitoring Approach to a Cocrystallization Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarraguça, Mafalda C; Ribeiro, Paulo R S; Santos, Adenilson O Dos; Lopes, João A

    2015-12-01

    Cocrystals are defined as crystalline structures composed of two or more compounds that are solid at room temperature held together by noncovalent bonds. Their main advantages are the increase of solubility, bioavailability, permeability, stability, and at the same time retaining active pharmaceutical ingredient bioactivity. The cocrystallization between furosemide and nicotinamide by solvent evaporation was monitored on-line using near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) as a process analytical technology tool. The near-infrared spectra were analyzed using principal component analysis. Batch statistical process monitoring was used to create control charts to perceive the process trajectory and define control limits. Normal and non-normal operating condition batches were performed and monitored with NIRS. The use of NIRS associated with batch statistical process models allowed the detection of abnormal variations in critical process parameters, like the amount of solvent or amount of initial components present in the cocrystallization.

  19. Batch variation between branchial cell cultures: An analysis of variance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Heinz Johs. Max; Grosell, M.; Kristensen, L.

    2003-01-01

    We present in detail how a statistical analysis of variance (ANOVA) is used to sort out the effect of an unexpected batch-to-batch variation between cell cultures. Two separate cultures of rainbow trout branchial cells were grown on permeable filtersupports ("inserts"). They were supposed...... and introducing the observed difference between batches as one of the factors in an expanded three-dimensional ANOVA, we were able to overcome an otherwisecrucial lack of sufficiently reproducible duplicate values. We could thereby show that the effect of changing the apical medium was much more marked when...... the radioactive lipid precursors were added on the apical, rather than on the basolateral, side. Theinsert cell cultures were obviously polarized. We argue that it is not reasonable to reject troublesome experimental results, when we do not know a priori that something went wrong. The ANOVA is a very useful...

  20. 间歇过程的故障分析和互锁控制器综合的集成%Integration of Fault Analysis and Interlock Controller Synthesis for Batch Processes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Susumu Hashizume; Tomoyuki Yajima; Yukiko Kuwashita; Katsuaki Onogi

    2008-01-01

    Integration amongst various decision-making processes, such as planning, design, and operation is nec-essary to dynamic and flexible batch production. To achieve a batch production integration, utilization of common models used for various decision-making processes is an effective approach. From this point of view, a batch sys-tem common model as described by a Petri net is proposed. In this article, a fault diagnosis technique for batch processes is presented using information about fault propagation and the possibilities of integration of fault analysis and controller synthesis are discussed on the basis of the Petri net based common models.

  1. Batch-related sterile endophthalmitis following intravitreal injection of bevacizumab

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morteza Entezari

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: To report a series of patients with sterile endophthalmitis after intravitreal bevacizumab (IVB injection from 2 different batches of bevacizumab. Materials and Methods: Records of 11 eyes with severe inflammation after IVB injections from two different batches (7 eyes from one and 4 from the other on two separate days were evaluated. Fifteen eyes of 15 patients in one day were treated with one batch and 18 eyes of 17 patients were treated another day using another batch injected for different retinal diseases. Each batch was opened on the day of injection. We used commercially available bevacizumab (100 mg/4 ml kept at 4°C. Severe cases with hypopyon were admitted to the ward and underwent anterior chamber and vitreous tap for direct smear and culture. Results: Pain, redness and decreased vision began after 11-17 days. All had anterior chamber and vitreous reactions and 5 had hypopyon. Antibiotics and corticosteroids were initiated immediately, but the antibiotics were discontinued after negative culture results. Visual acuity returned to pre-injection levels in 10 eyes after 1 month and only in one eye pars plana vitrectomy was performed. Mean VA at the time of presentation with inflammation (1.76 ± 0.78 logMAR decreased significantly (P = 0.008 compared to the initial mean corrected VA (1.18 ± 0.55 logMAR; however, final mean corrected VA (1.02 ± 0.48 logMAR improved in comparison with the baseline but not to a significant level (P = 0.159. Conclusions: We report a cluster of sterile endophthalmitis following intravitreal injection of bevacizumab from the same batch of bevacizumab that has a favorable prognosis.

  2. Brunovsky Normal Form of Monod Kinetics Models and Growth Rate Control of a Fed-batch Cultivation Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavlov Y.

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available A mathematical methodology that gives assistance to design of fed-batch stabilization and control is presented. The methodology is based both on Utility theory and optimal Control theory. The Utility theory deals with the expressed subjective preferences and allows for the expert preferences to be taken in consideration in complex biotechnological systems as criteria for control and optimization. The Control theory is used for parameters stabilization of a fed-batch cultivation process. The control is written based on information of the growth rate. The simulations show good efficiency of the control laws.

  3. MD2013: Tune shift along the batch at flat top

    CERN Document Server

    Carver, Lee Robert; Buffat, Xavier; Giovannozzi, Massimo; Iadarola, Giovanni; Metral, Elias; Salvant, Benoit; CERN. Geneva. ATS Department

    2017-01-01

    A series of tests were performed that led to a measurement of the tune shift along a 96 bunch batch with 25ns spacing at at top. The measurements demonstrated the ability of the transverse damper (ADT) to excite single bunches with minimal pulse leakage to neighbouring bunches (with 25ns bunch spacing). The processes were tested and refined with tests at injection and end of fill (EOF) before carrying out the excitation at at top before a physics fill. The tune shift along the batch was shown to be less than ≈4x10-4 for both beams, both planes.

  4. MD2013: Tune shift along the batch at flat top

    CERN Document Server

    Carver, Lee Robert; Buffat, Xavier; Giovannozzi, Massimo; Iadarola, Giovanni; Metral, Elias; Salvant, Benoit; CERN. Geneva. ATS Department

    2017-01-01

    A series of tests were performed that led to a measurement of the tune shift along a 96 bunch batch with 25ns spacing at flat top. The measurements demonstrated the ability of the transverse damper (ADT) to excite single bunches with minimal pulse leakage to neighbouring bunches (with 25ns bunch spacing). The processes were tested and refined with tests at injection and end of fill (EOF) before carrying out the excitation at flat top before a physics fill. The tune shift along the batch was shown to be less than ≈4x10-4 for both beams, both planes.

  5. Analysis and modelling of the energy requirements of batch processes; Analyse und Modellierung des Energiebedarfes in Batch-Prozessen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bieler, P.S.

    2002-07-01

    This intermediate report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) presents the results of a project aiming to model the energy consumption of multi-product, multi-purpose batch production plants. The utilities investigated were electricity, brine and steam. Both top-down and bottom-up approaches are described, whereby top-down was used for the buildings where the batch process apparatus was installed. Modelling showed that for batch-plants at the building level, the product mix can be too variable and the diversity of products and processes too great for simple modelling. Further results obtained by comparing six different production plants that could be modelled are discussed. The several models developed are described and their wider applicability is discussed. Also, the results of comparisons made between modelled and actual values are presented. Recommendations for further work are made.

  6. A Study of a Direct Interface of the Novice User To a Complex Batch Processed Computer Application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Link, Albert D.

    A research study investigated the validity of directly interfacing an uninitiated user with a complex, computerized batch processing system via a conversational, interactive language. A control group conducted mediated searches of the Educational Resources Information Center's (ERIC) files by consulting with an information specialist. Members of…

  7. Fructose Production by Inulinase Covalently Immobilized on Sepabeads in Batch and Fluidized Bed Bioreactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriele Iorio

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The present work is an experimental study of the performance of a recently designed immobilized enzyme: inulinase from Aspergillus sp. covalently immobilized on Sepabeads. The aim of the work is to test the new biocatalyst in conditions of industrial interest and to assess the feasibility of the process in a fluidized bed bioreactor (FBBR. The catalyst was first tested in a batch reactor at standard conditions and in various sets of conditions of interest for the process. Once the response of the catalyst to different operating conditions was tested and the operational stability assessed, one of the sets of conditions tested in batch was chosen for tests in FBBR. Prior to reaction tests, preliminary fluidization tests were realized in order to define an operating range of admissible flow rates. As a result, the FBR was run at different feed flow rates in a closed cycle configuration and its performance was compared to that of the batch system. The FBBR proved to be performing and suitable for scale up to large fructose production.

  8. MODELING CST ION EXCHANGE FOR CESIUM REMOVAL FROM SCIX BATCHES 1 - 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, F.

    2011-04-25

    The objective of this work is, through modeling, to predict the performance of Crystalline Silicotitinate (CST) for the removal of cesium from Small Column Ion Exchange (SCIX) Batches 1-4 (as proposed in Revision 16 of the Liquid Waste System Plan). The scope of this task is specified in Technical Task Request (TTR) 'SCIX Feed Modeling', HLE-TTR-2011-003, which specified using the Zheng, Anthony, Miller (ZAM) code to predict CST isotherms for six given SCIX feed compositions and the VErsatile Reaction and SEparation simulator for Liquid Chromatography (VERSE-LC) code to predict ion-exchange column behavior. The six SCIX feed compositions provided in the TTR represent SCIX Batches 1-4 and Batches 1 and 2 without caustic addition. The study also investigated the sensitivity in column performance to: (1) Flow rates of 5, 10, and 20 gpm with 10 gpm as the nominal flow; and (2) Temperatures of 25, 35, and 45 C with 35 C as the nominal temperature. The isotherms and column predictions presented in this report reflect the expected performance of engineered CST IE-911. This form of CST was used in experiments conducted at the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) that formed the basis for estimating model parameters (Hamm et al., 2002). As has been done previously, the engineered resin capacity is estimated to be 68% of the capacity of particulate CST without binder.

  9. Chromium (III) recovery from waste acid solution by ion exchange processing using Amberlite IR-120 resin: batch and continuous ion exchange modelling

    OpenAIRE

    Alguacil,Francisco José; Alonso Gámez, Manuel; Lozano, Kuis Javier

    2004-01-01

    The use of ion exchange technology was studied to remove chromium (III) from acidic waste solution by Amberlite IR-120 resin. Batch and column experimental tests were conducted to provide data for theoretical models and verify the system performance of the adsorption process. Results of batch equilibrium tests indicated that Langmuir isotherm describes well the adsorption process, whereas experimental data also provide evidence that, under the present experimental conditions, chro...

  10. Modeling of batch processes using explicitly time-dependent artificial neural networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganesh, Botla; Kumar, Vadlagattu Varun; Rani, Kalipatnapu Yamuna

    2014-05-01

    A neural network architecture incorporating time dependency explicitly, proposed recently, for modeling nonlinear nonstationary dynamic systems is further developed in this paper, and three alternate configurations are proposed to represent the dynamics of batch chemical processes. The first configuration consists of L subnets, each having M inputs representing the past samples of process inputs and output; each subnet has a hidden layer with polynomial activation function; the outputs of the hidden layer are combined and acted upon by an explicitly time-dependent modulation function. The outputs of all the subnets are summed to obtain the output prediction. In the second configuration, additional weights are incorporated to obtain a more generalized model. In the third configuration, the subnets are eliminated by incorporating an additional hidden layer consisting of L nodes. Backpropagation learning algorithm is formulated for each of the proposed neural network configuration to determine the weights, the polynomial coefficients, and the modulation function parameters. The modeling capability of the proposed neural network configuration is evaluated by employing it to represent the dynamics of a batch reactor in which a consecutive reaction takes place. The results show that all the three time-varying neural networks configurations are able to represent the batch reactor dynamics accurately, and it is found that the third configuration is exhibiting comparable or better performance over the other two configurations while requiring much smaller number of parameters. The modeling ability of the third configuration is further validated by applying to modeling a semibatch polymerization reactor challenge problem. This paper illustrates that the proposed approach can be applied to represent dynamics of any batch/semibatch process.

  11. Lipid production in batch and fed-batch cultures of Rhodosporidium toruloides from 5 and 6 carbon carbohydrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wiebe Marilyn G

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Microbial lipids are a potential source of bio- or renewable diesel and the red yeast Rhodosporidium toruloides is interesting not only because it can accumulate over 50% of its dry biomass as lipid, but also because it utilises both five and six carbon carbohydrates, which are present in plant biomass hydrolysates. Methods R. toruloides was grown in batch and fed-batch cultures in 0.5 L bioreactors at pH 4 in chemically defined, nitrogen restricted (C/N 40 to 100 media containing glucose, xylose, arabinose, or all three carbohydrates as carbon source. Lipid was extracted from the biomass using chloroform-methanol, measured gravimetrically and analysed by GC. Results Lipid production was most efficient with glucose (up to 25 g lipid L−1, 48 to 75% lipid in the biomass, at up to 0.21 g lipid L−1 h−1 as the sole carbon source, but high lipid concentrations were also produced from xylose (36 to 45% lipid in biomass. Lipid production was low (15–19% lipid in biomass with arabinose as sole carbon source and was lower than expected (30% lipid in biomass when glucose, xylose and arabinose were provided simultaneously. The presence of arabinose and/or xylose in the medium increased the proportion of palmitic and linoleic acid and reduced the proportion of oleic acid in the fatty acids, compared to glucose-grown cells. High cell densities were obtained in both batch (37 g L−1, with 49% lipid in the biomass and fed-batch (35 to 47 g L−1, with 50 to 75% lipid in the biomass cultures. The highest proportion of lipid in the biomass was observed in cultures given nitrogen during the batch phase but none with the feed. However, carbohydrate consumption was incomplete when the feed did not contain nitrogen and the highest total lipid and best substrate consumption were observed in cultures which received a constant low nitrogen supply. Conclusions Lipid production in R. toruloides was lower from arabinose and mixed

  12. Biological phosphorus removal inhibition by roxarsone in batch culture systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Qingfeng; Liu, Li; Hu, Zhenhu; Chen, Guowei

    2013-06-01

    Roxarsone has been extensively used in the feed of animals, which is usually excreted unchanged in the manure and eventually enter into animal wastewater, challenging the biological phosphorus removal processes. Knowledge of its inhibition effect is key for guiding treatment of roxarsone-contaminated wastewater, and is unfortunately keeping unclear. We study the inhibition of roxarsone on biological phosphorus removal processes for roxarsone-contaminated wastewater treatment, in terms of the removal and rates of chemical oxygen demand (COD), phosphate. Results showed that presence of roxarsone considerably limited the COD removals, especially at roxarsone concentration exceeding 40 mg L(-1). Additionally, roxarsone inhibited both phosphorus release and uptake processes, consistent with the phosphate profiles during the biological phosphorus removal processes; whereas, roxarsone is more toxic to phosphorus uptake process, than release function. The results indicated that it is roxarsone itself, rather than the inorganic arsenics, inhibit biological phosphorus removal processes within both aerobic and anaerobic roxarsone-contaminated wastewater treatment.

  13. The second batch of environmental standard qualified list released

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    The Ministry of Environmental Protection released the second batch of enterprises list that basically meet environment standards recently. Total 41 enterprises from 10 provinces and autonomous regions of Inner Mongolia, Jiangsu, Jiangxi, Sichuan, Gansu and so on are included in the list.

  14. A fixed-size batch service queue with vacations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ho Woo Lee

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with batch service queues with vacations in which customers arrive according to a Poisson process. Decomposition method is used to derive the queue length distributions both for single and multiple vacation cases. The authors look at other decomposition techniques and discuss some related open problems.

  15. Optimal parametric sensitivity control for a fed-batch reactor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stigter, J.D.; Keesman, K.J.

    2001-01-01

    The paper presents a method to derive an optimal parametric sensitivity controller for optimal estimation of a set of parameters in an experiment. The method is demonstrated for a fed batch bio-reactor case study for optimal estimation of the saturation constant Ks and, albeit intuitively, the param

  16. Optimal parametric sensitivity control of a fed-batch reactor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stigter, J.D.; Keesman, K.J.

    2004-01-01

    The paper presents an optimal parametric sensitivity controller for estimation of a set of parameters in an experiment. The method is demonstrated for a fed-batch bioreactor case study for optimal estimation of the half-saturation constant KS and the parameter combination µmaxX/Y in which µmax is th

  17. Many-body approach to the dynamics of batch learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, K. Y. Michael; Li, S.; Tong, Y. W.

    2000-09-01

    Using the cavity method and diagrammatic methods, we model the dynamics of batch learning of restricted sets of examples, widely applicable to general learning cost functions, and fully taking into account the temporal correlations introduced by the recycling of the examples. The approach is illustrated using the Adaline rule learning teacher-generated or random examples.

  18. Spatial and interannual variability in Baltic sprat batch fecundity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haslob, H.; Tomkiewicz, Jonna; Hinrichsen, H.H.;

    2011-01-01

    in the central Baltic Sea, namely the Bornholm Basin, Gdansk Deep and Southern Gotland Basin. Environmental parameters such as hydrography, fish condition and stock density were tested in order to investigate the observed variability in sprat fecundity. Absolute batch fecundity was found to be positively related...

  19. Perancangan Sistem Pengaduk Pada Bioreaktor Batch Untuk Meningkatkan Produksi Biogas

    OpenAIRE

    Candrika Widiartanti Yuwono; Totok Soehartanto

    2013-01-01

    Proses anaerob merupakan proses fermentasi dimana memiliki proses yang berlangsung cukup lama. Dan pada bioreaktor anaerob sistem batch, diduga terdapat indikasi pada penurunan jumlah produksi biogas, yang disebabkan karena tejadi pengendapan atau pemisahan antara limbah cair dengan padatannya. Untuk itu muncul upaya untuk melakukan sistem pengadukan agar terjadi homogenitas dan bisa menyerupai seperti kondisi awal, sehingga diharapkan dapat memperpanjang masa produksi biogas. Adapun pengaduk...

  20. Batch cooling crystallization and pressure filtration of sulphathiazole

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Häkkinen, Antti; Pöllänen, Kati; Karjalainen, Milja

    2005-01-01

    crystal suspensions obtained through an unseeded batch-cooling-crystallization process was studied. Sulphathiazole, which is an antibiotic agent with multiple polymorphic forms, was produced by performing laboratory-scale cooling crystallization experiments from five different mixtures of water and propan...

  1. Time-dependent solution for the manufacturing line with unreliable machine and batched arrivals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kempa, W. M.; Paprocka, I.; Grabowik, C.; Kalinowski, K.

    2015-11-01

    Time-dependent queue-size distribution in a finite-buffer manufacturing line with unreliable machine is investigated. Successive jobs arrive in batches (groups) with sizes being generally distributed random variables, and are being processed individually with exponential service times. Applying the approach based on the memory less property of exponential distribution and the total probability law, a system of integral equations for the transient queue- size distribution conditioned by the initial level of buffer saturation is derived. The solution of the corresponding system written for Laplace transforms is found via linear-algebraic approach.

  2. Tc-99 Adsorption on Selected Activated Carbons - Batch Testing Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mattigod, Shas V.; Wellman, Dawn M.; Golovich, Elizabeth C.; Cordova, Elsa A.; Smith, Ronald M.

    2010-12-01

    CH2M HILL Plateau Remediation Company (CHPRC) is currently developing a 200-West Area groundwater pump-and-treat system as the remedial action selected under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act Record of Decision for Operable Unit (OU) 200-ZP-1. This report documents the results of treatability tests Pacific Northwest National Laboratory researchers conducted to quantify the ability of selected activated carbon products (or carbons) to adsorb technetium-99 (Tc-99) from 200-West Area groundwater. The Tc-99 adsorption performance of seven activated carbons (J177601 Calgon Fitrasorb 400, J177606 Siemens AC1230AWC, J177609 Carbon Resources CR-1240-AW, J177611 General Carbon GC20X50, J177612 Norit GAC830, J177613 Norit GAC830, and J177617 Nucon LW1230) were evaluated using water from well 299-W19-36. Four of the best performing carbons (J177606 Siemens AC1230AWC, J177609 Carbon Resources CR-1240-AW, J177611 General Carbon GC20X50, and J177613 Norit GAC830) were selected for batch isotherm testing. The batch isotherm tests on four of the selected carbons indicated that under lower nitrate concentration conditions (382 mg/L), Kd values ranged from 6,000 to 20,000 mL/g. In comparison. Under higher nitrate (750 mg/L) conditions, there was a measureable decrease in Tc-99 adsorption with Kd values ranging from 3,000 to 7,000 mL/g. The adsorption data fit both the Langmuir and the Freundlich equations. Supplemental tests were conducted using the two carbons that demonstrated the highest adsorption capacity to resolve the issue of the best fit isotherm. These tests indicated that Langmuir isotherms provided the best fit for Tc-99 adsorption under low nitrate concentration conditions. At the design basis concentration of Tc 0.865 µg/L(14,700 pCi/L), the predicted Kd values from using Langmuir isotherm constants were 5,980 mL/g and 6,870 mL/g for for the two carbons. These Kd values did not meet the target Kd value of 9,000 mL/g. Tests

  3. Fed-batch culture of Escherichia coli for L-valine production based on in silico flux response analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jin Hwan; Kim, Tae Yong; Lee, Kwang Ho; Lee, Sang Yup

    2011-04-01

    We have previously reported the development of a 100% genetically defined engineered Escherichia coli strain capable of producing L-valine from glucose with a high yield of 0.38 g L-valine per gram glucose (0.58 mol L-valine per mol glucose) by batch culture. Here we report a systems biological strategy of employing flux response analysis in bioprocess development using L-valine production by fed-batch culture as an example. Through the systems-level analysis, the source of ATP was found to be important for efficient L-valine production. There existed a trade-off between L-valine production and biomass formation, which was optimized for the most efficient L-valine production. Furthermore, acetic acid feeding strategy was optimized based on flux response analysis. The final fed-batch cultivation strategy allowed production of 32.3 g/L L-valine, the highest concentration reported for E. coli. This approach of employing systems-level analysis of metabolic fluxes in developing fed-batch cultivation strategy would also be applicable in developing strategies for the efficient production of other bioproducts.

  4. Batch Covariance Relaxation (BCR) Adaptive Processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-08-01

    IR&D Final Report 7263-001F, March 15, 1980. [2] Hestenes, M. R. and Steifel, E., "Methods of Conjugate Gradients for Solving Linear Systems," Journal ...Wilkinson, J. H., "Notes on the Solution of Algebraic Linear Simultaneous Equations," Quarterly Journal of Mechanics and Applied Mathematics, pp. 149-173...00 0 In F- P0 -a -- -~e -2 - - -4 - o 0 p.. to I ~ a I I PzN N oin g I ’ l g 1 C 0I ~ Nw c gL Il* . a* . * p. 4r I-in a a4i * Csea OCI I2e Co , lk. lX

  5. Uranium Adsorption on Ion-Exchange Resins - Batch Testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mattigod, Shas V.; Golovich, Elizabeth C.; Wellman, Dawn M.; Cordova, Elsa A.; Smith, Ronald M.

    2010-12-01

    The uranium adsorption performance of five resins (Dowex 1, Dowex 21K 16-30 [fresh], Dowex 21K 16-30 [regenerated], Purofine PFA600/4740, and ResinTech SIR-1200) were tested using unspiked, nitrate-spiked, and nitrate-spiked/pH adjusted source water from well 299-W19-36. These batch tests were conducted in support of a resin selection process in which the best resin to use for uranium treatment in the 200-West Area groundwater pump-and-treat system will be identified. The results from these tests are as follows: • The data from the high-nitrate (1331 mg/L) tests indicated that Dowex 1, Dowex 21K 16-30 (fresh), Purofine PFA600/4740, and ResinTech SIR-1200 all adsorbed uranium similarly well with Kd values ranging from ~15,000 to 95,000 ml/g. All four resins would be considered suitable for use in the treatment system based on uranium adsorption characteristics. • Lowering the pH of the high nitrate test conditions from 8.2 to 7.5 did not significantly change the uranium adsorption isotherms for the four tested resins. The Kd values for these four resins under high nitrate (1338 mg/L), lower pH (7.5) ranged from ~15,000 to 80,000 ml/g. • Higher nitrate concentrations greatly reduced the uranium adsorption on all four resins. Tests conducted with unspiked (no amendments; nitrate at 337 mg/L and pH at 8.2) source water yielded Kd values for Dowex 1, Dowex 21K 16-30 (fresh), Purofine PFA600/4740, and ResinTech SIR-1200 resins ranging from ~800,000 to >3,000,000 ml/g. These values are about two orders of magnitude higher than the Kd values noted from tests conducted using amended source water. • Compared to the fresh resin, the regenerated Dowex 21K 16-30 resin exhibited significantly lower uranium-adsorption performance under all test conditions. The calculated Kd values for the regenerated resin were typically an order of magnitude lower than the values calculated for the fresh resin. • Additional testing using laboratory columns is recommended to better

  6. Batch and fed-batch simultaneous saccharification and fermentation of primary sludge from pulp and paper mills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendes, Cátia Vanessa Teixeira; Rocha, Jorge Manuel Dos Santos; de Menezes, Fabrícia Farias; Carvalho, Maria da Graça Videira Sousa

    2016-09-26

    Primary sludge from a Portuguese pulp and paper mill, containing 60% of carbohydrates, and unbleached pulp (as reference material), with 93% of carbohydrates, were used to produce ethanol by simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF). SSF was performed in batch or fed-batch conditions without the need of a pretreatment. Cellic(®) CTec2 was the cellulolytic enzymatic complex used and Saccharomyces cerevisiae (baker's yeast or ATCC 26602 strain) or the thermotolerant yeast Kluyveromyces marxianus NCYC 1426 were employed. Primary sludge was successfully converted to ethanol and the best results in SSF efficiency were obtained with S. cerevisiae. An ethanol concentration of 22.7 g L(-1) was produced using a content of 50 g L(-1) of carbohydrates from primary sludge, in batch conditions, with a global conversion yield of 81% and a production rate of 0.94 g L(-1) h(-1). Fed-batch operation enabled higher solids content (total carbohydrate concentration of 200 g L(-1), equivalent to a consistency of 33%) and a reduction of three-quarters of cellulolytic enzyme load, leading to an ethanol concentration of 40.7 g L(-1), although with lower yield and productivity. Xylitol with a concentration up to 7 g L(-1) was also identified as by-product in the primary sludge bioconversion process.

  7. SLUDGE BATCH 5 VARIABILITY STUDY WITH FRIT 418

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raszewski, F; Tommy Edwards, T; David Peeler, D

    2008-09-29

    The Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) is preparing to initiate processing Sludge Batch 5 (SB5) in early FY 2009. In support of the upcoming processing, the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) provided a recommendation to utilize Frit 418 as a transitional frit to initiate processing of SB5. This recommendation was based on the results of assessments on the compositional projections for SB5 available at that time from both the Liquid Waste Organization (LWO) and SRNL (using a model-based approach). To support qualification of the Frit 418-SB5 system, SRNL executed a variability study to assess the acceptability of the Frit 418-SB5 glasses with respect to durability and the applicability of the current durability models. Twenty one glasses were selected for the variability study based on the available SB5 projections primarily spanning a waste loading (WL) range of 25-37%. In order to account for the addition of caustic to Tank 40, which occurred in July 2008, 3 wt% Na2O was added to the original Tank 40 heel projections. The addition of the Actinide Removal Process (ARP) stream to the blend composition was also included. Two of the glasses were fabricated at 25% and 28% WL in order to challenge the homogeneity constraint of the Product Composition Control System (PCCS) for SB5 coupled operations. These twenty one glasses were fabricated and characterized using chemical composition analysis, X-ray Diffraction (XRD) and the Product Consistency Test (PCT). The results of this study indicate that Frit 418 is a viable option for sludge-only and coupled operations. The addition of ARP did not have any negative impacts on the acceptability and predictability of the variability study glasses. Based on the measured PCT response, all of the glasses were acceptable as compared to the Environmental Assessment (EA) reference glass regardless of the thermal history and were also predictable using the current PCCS model for durability. The homogeneity constraint can

  8. A fully defined, fed-batch, recombinant NS0 culture process for monoclonal antibody production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermes, Paul A; Castro, Chris D

    2010-01-01

    To manufacture a glycoprotein, mammalian cells expressing the desired protein are often grown in fed-batch mode. Feeding an undefined, nonanimal hydrolysate helps the cells receive sufficient nutrition, but makes systems difficult to optimize. Even different lots of the same hydrolysate may have significant variability; furthermore, individual components may actually be detrimental to the cells. Switching to fully defined feeds could eliminate these issues. For monoclonal antibody (mAb) production by fed-batch NS0 cells, this article describes the replacement of a hydrolysate-based feed with a fully defined, animal-component-free feed system. The defined feed initially had 67 components, but additional experiments allowed a reduction to 25 components. The mAb titer is approximately 20% higher than in the undefined system, and the feed volume is circa 20% lower. The two systems generated antibodies with similar glycosylation profiles. Other benefits of the defined feed system include lower raw material costs, the ability to optimize key nutrient concentrations, greater confidence in raw material quality, and the elimination of potential, hydrolysate-associated endotoxin issues.

  9. MASS PRODUCTION OF THE BENEFICIAL NEMATODE STEINERNEMA CARPOCAPSAE UTILIZING A FED-BATCH CULTURING PROCESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonard D. Holmes

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The present study deals with the batch and fed-batch mass production of Steinernema carpocapsae. S. carpocapsae is an entomoparasitic nematode that is used as a biological control agent of soil-borne crop insect pests. The ability and efficiency of fed-batch culture process was successful through the utilization of the nematode’s bacterial symbiont Xenorhabdus nematophila. Results from the fed-batch process were compared to those obtain from the standard batch process. The fed-batch process successively improved the mass production process of S. carpocapsae employing liquid medium technology. Within the first week of the fed-batch process (day six, the nematode density obtained was 202,000 nematodes mL−1; whereas on day six, batch culture mode resulted in a nematode density of 23,000 nematodes mL−1. The fed-batch process was superior to that of batch production with a yield approximately 8.8-fold higher. In fed-batch process, the nematode yield was improved 88.6 % higher within a short amount of time compared to the batch process. Fed-batch seems to make the process more efficient and possibly economically viable.

  10. On the choice of batch mode in order to maximize throughput

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weeda, P.J.

    1990-01-01

    An analysis of serial process configurations consisting of three processes and two machines shows interesting relations between the choice of batch mode (or batch structure), utilization of capacities and maximum throughput.

  11. Microgrippers: A case study for batch-compatible integration of MEMS with nanostructures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sardan, Özlem; Alaca, B. Erdem; Yalcinkaya, Arda Deniz;

    2007-01-01

    A batch- compatible integration of micro- electro- mechanical systems ( MEMS) with nanoscale objects is demonstrated using the example of a gripping device with nanoscale end- effectors. The proposed nanofabrication technique is based on creating a certain number of nanowires/ ribbons on a planar...... surface, each with a known orientation, using self- assembled crack networks as a template. Since both the location and orientation of the nanowires/ ribbons are known, the gripping device can be lithographically transferred on to the substrate ensuring full integration of MEMS with nanoscale end...

  12. (Batch) Markovian arrival processes: the identifiability issue and other applied aspects

    OpenAIRE

    Rodríguez César, Joanna Virginia

    2015-01-01

    Mención Internacional en el título de doctor This dissertation is mainly motivated by the problem of statistical modeling via a specific point process, namely, the Batch Markovian arrival processes. Point processes arise in a wide range of situations of our daily activities, such as people arriving to a bank, claims of an insurance company or failures in a system. They are defined by the occurrence of an event at a specific time, where the event occurrences may be understood from different...

  13. A Case Study in Teaching Pipes-and-filters and Batch Sequential Software Architectures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Yu-shan; DING Jian-rui

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, a case study is carried out in comparison of pipes-and-filters architecture and batch sequential architecture. Concepts on a data flow system and the two mentioned architectures are presented. A Java template class design in implementing the "pipes" and "filters" in the pipes-and-filters architecture is given at the design level. Finally, this paper uses a concrete example to show how to use Java to implement the pipes- and-filters architecture. Using varied amount of data from text files, performance and memory usage of the two architectures are illustrated.

  14. Robustness of reinforced gradient-type iterative learning control for batch processes with Gaussian noise☆

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xuan Yang; Xiao'e Ruan

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, a reinforced gradient-type iterative learning control profile is proposed by making use of system matrices and a proper learning step to improve the tracking performance of batch processes disturbed by exter-nal Gaussian white noise. The robustness is analyzed and the range of the step is specified by means of statistical technique and matrix theory. Compared with the conventional one, the proposed algorithm is more efficient to resist external noise. Numerical simulations of an injection molding process il ustrate that the proposed scheme is feasible and effective.

  15. Nonlinear dynamic modeling of multicomponent batch distillation: a case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiménez L.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is to compare several of the commercial dynamic models for batch distillation available worldwide. In this context, BATCHFRAC(TM, CHEMCAD(TM BATCH, and HYSYS.Plant® software performances are compared to experimental data. The software can be used as soft sensors, playing the roll of ad-hoc observers or estimators for control objectives. Rigorous models were used as an alternative to predict the concentration profile and to specify the optimal switching time from products to slop cuts. The performance of a nonlinear model obtained using a novel identification algorithm was also studied. In addition, the strategy for continuous separation was revised with residue curve map analysis using Aspen SPLIT(TM.

  16. A new look at energy integration in multiproduct batch processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corominas, J.; Espuna, A.; Puigjaner, L. (Univ. Politecnica de Catalunya (Spain). Chemical Engineering Dept.)

    1993-01-01

    Systematization of an energy saving grass-root design and retrofitting technology based on process integration is a subject of increasing interest in plants running under the batch mode of operation. In this work, the solution to the changeover product problem is studied in order to achieve a feasible and optimized heat exchange network design for multiproduct batch plants. A new methodology is presented which is based on: (a) the campaign-mode of plant operation, (b) the study of energy integration for each campaign. The concept of Macronetwork is also introduced. This includes the heat exchanger network of all campaigns in an overall design, and contemplates the common matches between networks of campaigns of different products. Algorithms to obtain the best feasible matches and energy targets are presented and results of test-case studies are discussed to illustrate this methodology. (author)

  17. Characteristics of anoxic phosphors removal in sequence batch reactor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Ya-yi; PAN Mian-li; Yan Min; PENG Yong-zhen; WANG Shu-ying

    2007-01-01

    The characteristics of anaerobic phosphorus release and anoxic phosphorus uptake was investigated in sequencing batch reactors using denitrifying phosphorus removing bacteria (DPB) sludge. The lab-scale experiments were accomplished under conditions of various nitrite concentrations (5.5, 9.5, and 15 mg/L) and mixed liquor suspended solids (MLSS) (1844, 3231, and 6730 mg/L). The results obtained confirmed that nitrite, MLSS, and pH were key factors, which had a significant impact on anaerobic phosphorus release and anoxic phosphorus uptake in the biological phosphorous removal process. The nitrites were able to successfully act as electron acceptors for phosphorous uptake at a limited concentration between 5.5 and 9.5 mg/L. The denitrification and dephosphorous were inhibited when the nitrite concentration reached 15 mg/L. This observation indicated that the nitrite would not inhibit phosphorus uptake before it exceeded a threshold concentration. It was assumed that an increase of MLSS concentration from 1844 mg/L to 6730 mg/L led to the increase of denitrification and anoxic P-uptake rate. On the contrary, the average P uptake/N denitrifying reduced from 2.10 to 1.57 mg PO43--P/mg NO3--N. Therefore, it could be concluded that increasing MLSS of the DEPHANOX system might shorten the reaction time of phosphorus release and anoxic phosphorus uptake. However, excessive MLSS might reduce the specific denitrifying rate. Meanwhile, a rapid pH increase occurred at the beginning of the anoxic conditions as a result of denitrification and anoxic phosphate uptake. Anaerobic P release rate increased with an increase in pH. Moreover, when pH exceeded a relatively high value of 8.0, the dissolved P concentration decreased in the liquid phase, because of chemical precipitation. This observation suggested that pH should be strictly controlled below 8.0 to avoid chemical precipitation if the biological denitrifying phosphorus removal capability is to be studied accurately.

  18. Aerobic Granulation in Sequencing Batch Reactor (SBR Treating Saline Wastewater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ensieh Taheri

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE AR-SA MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 Background and Objectives: Aerobic sludge granulation is an advanced phenomenonin which its mechanisms have not been understood. Granulation can be a promising and novel biological wastewater treatment technology to eliminate organic and inorganic materials in future. High salinity is a parameter which leads to plasmolisatian and reduction of the cell activity. This could be a problem for biological treatment of the saline wastewater. Aerobic granule was formed and investigated during this study. Materials and Methods: This study is an intervention study on the treatment of wastewater with 500-10000 mg/L concentration of NaCl by sequencing batch reactor. Asynthesized wastewater including nutrient required for microorganism's growth was prepared. Input and output pH and EC were measured. Range of pH and DO varied between 7-8, and 2-5 mg/L, respectively. SEM technology was used to identify graduals properties.Results: In terms of color, granules divided into two groups of light brown and black. Granule ranged in 3-7mm with the sediment velocity of 0.9-1.35 m/s and density of 32-60 g/L.Properties of granules were varied. Filamentous bacteria and fungi were dominant in some granules. However non filamentous bacteria were dominant in others. EDX analysis indicated the presence of Ca and PO4.Conclusion: Granules with non filamentous bacterial were compact and settled faster. Presence of different concentrations of salinity leaded to plasmolysis of the bacterial cells and increased concentrations of EPS  in the system as a result  of which granulation accelerated. /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso

  19. MACROSCOPIC KINETIC MODELS OF GLYCEROL BATCH FERMENTATION WITH OSMOTOLERANT YEAST

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    l introductionGlycerol production by fermentation has beenwidely investigated to meet the great commercialdemand in last decades and osmotolerant yeast wasthe microorganism studied most. To analyze thefermentation process more efficiently, a kinetic modelshould be established but little works about it werereported because of its complicated metabolism ofglycerol [1-3]. Batch fermentation experiment showedthat low glucose concentration in the latterfermentation stage resulted in decrease in both glucoseconsu...

  20. On-line Scheduling Algorithm for Penicillin Fed-batch Fermentation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XUE Yao-feng; YUAN Jing-qi

    2005-01-01

    An on-line scheduling algorithm to maximize gross profit of penicillin fed-batch fermentation is proposed. According to the on-line classification method, fed-batch fermentation batches are classified into three categories. Using the scheduling strategy, the optimal termination sequence of batches is obtained. Pseudo on-line simulations for testing the proposed algorithm with the data from industrial scale penicillin fermentation are carried out.

  1. Fault Diagnosis of Batch Reactor Using Machine Learning Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sujatha Subramanian

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Fault diagnosis of a batch reactor gives the early detection of fault and minimizes the risk of thermal runaway. It provides superior performance and helps to improve safety and consistency. It has become more vital in this technical era. In this paper, support vector machine (SVM is used to estimate the heat release (Qr of the batch reactor both normal and faulty conditions. The signature of the residual, which is obtained from the difference between nominal and estimated faulty Qr values, characterizes the different natures of faults occurring in the batch reactor. Appropriate statistical and geometric features are extracted from the residual signature and the total numbers of features are reduced using SVM attribute selection filter and principle component analysis (PCA techniques. artificial neural network (ANN classifiers like multilayer perceptron (MLP, radial basis function (RBF, and Bayes net are used to classify the different types of faults from the reduced features. It is observed from the result of the comparative study that the proposed method for fault diagnosis with limited number of features extracted from only one estimated parameter (Qr shows that it is more efficient and fast for diagnosing the typical faults.

  2. Treatment of slaughterhouse wastewater in anaerobic sequencing batch reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Masse, D. I.; Masse, L. [Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, Lennoxville, PQ (Canada)

    2000-09-01

    Slaughterhouse waste water was treated in anaerobic sequencing batch reactors operated at 30 degrees C. Two of the batch reactors were seeded with anaerobic granular sludge from a milk processing plant reactor; two others received anaerobic non-granulated sludge from a municipal waste water treatment plant. Influent total chemical oxygen demand was reduced by 90 to 96 per cent at organic loading rates ranging from 2.07 kg to 4.93 kg per cubic meter. Reactors seeded with municipal sludge performed slightly better than those containing sludge from the milk processing plant. The difference was particularly noticeable during start-up, but the differences between the two sludges were reduced with time. The reactors produced a biogas containing 75 per cent methane. About 90.5 per cent of the chemical oxygen demand removed was methanized; volatile suspended solids accumulation was determined at 0.068 kg per kg of chemical oxygen demand removed. The high degree of methanization suggests that most of the soluble and suspended organic material in slaughterhouse waste water was degraded during the treatment in the anaerobic sequencing batch reactors. 30 refs., 1 tab., 6 figs.

  3. Perancangan Sistem Pengaduk Pada Bioreaktor Batch Untuk Meningkatkan Produksi Biogas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Candrika Widiartanti Yuwono

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Proses anaerob merupakan proses fermentasi dimana memiliki proses yang berlangsung cukup lama. Dan pada bioreaktor anaerob sistem batch, diduga terdapat indikasi pada penurunan jumlah produksi biogas, yang disebabkan karena tejadi pengendapan atau pemisahan antara limbah cair dengan padatannya. Untuk itu muncul upaya untuk melakukan sistem pengadukan agar terjadi homogenitas dan bisa menyerupai seperti kondisi awal, sehingga diharapkan dapat memperpanjang masa produksi biogas. Adapun pengadukan merupakan salah satu faktor yang berpengaruh pada kehidupan mikroba. Dan pada penelitian ini akan dilakukan perancangan sistem pengaduk yang digerakkan oleh sebuah motor dimana menggunakan timer dan pengatur kecepatan. Desain disesuaikan dengan substrat yang digunakan yaitu limbah cair tahu dan eceng gondok, yang mengalami pengendapan sehingga pada pengaduk memiliki blade yang diletakkan di dasar dalam bioreaktor. Sistem pengadukan dilakukan pada saat nilai pH yang diamati tiap harinya mengalami penurunan, yaitu pada hari ke–24 pH bernilai 6,49. Dan pada pengukuran berikutnya ditunjukkan dengan pH bernilai 6,89. Pengadukan dilakukan secara pelan dengan putaran 170 rpm selama 2 x 1 menit. Hasil daripada jumlah produksi biogas yang dihasilkan bisa dibandingkan antara bioreaktor batch tidak berpengaduk dengan bioreaktor batch berpengaduk, dimana berturut-turut memiliki jumlah volume 467 mL (25 hari dan 873 mL (31 hari.

  4. Fed-batch production of tetanus toxin by Clostridium tetani.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fratelli, Fernando; Siquini, Tatiana Joly; de Abreu, Marcelo Estima; Higashi, Hisako Gondo; Converti, Attilio; de Carvalho, João Carlos Monteiro

    2010-01-01

    This study deals with the effects of the initial nitrogen source (NZ Case TT) level and the protocol of glucose addition during the fed-batch production of tetanus toxin by Clostridium tetani. An increase in the initial concentration of NZ Case TT (NZ(0)) accelerated cell growth, increased the consumption of the nitrogen source as well as the final yield of tetanus toxin, which achieved the highest values (50-60 L(f)/mL) for NZ(0) > or = 50 g/L. The addition of glucose at fixed times (16, 56, and 88 h) ensured a toxin yield ( approximately 60 L(f)/mL) about 33% higher than those of fed-batch runs with addition at fixed concentration ( approximately 45 L(f)/mL) and about 300% higher than those obtained in reference batch runs nowadays used at industrial scale. The results of this work promise to substantially improve the present production of tetanus toxin and may be adopted for human vaccine production after detoxification and purification.

  5. Cobalt (II) removal from aqueous solutions by natural hemp fibers: Batch and fixed-bed column studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tofan, Lavinia; Teodosiu, Carmen; Paduraru, Carmen; Wenkert, Rodica

    2013-11-01

    Natural hemp fibers were explored as sorbent for the removal of Co(II) ions from aqueous solutions in batch and dynamic conditions. The batch Co(II) sorption capacity increased up to pH 5, reached the maximum (7.5-7.8 mg/g) over the initial pH of 4.5-5. As the initial concentration of metal ion increased (in the range of 25-200 mg/L), the cobalt uptake was enhanced, but the Co(II) removal efficiency decreased. The batch sorption of Co(II) on the tested hemp follows a pseudo-second order model, which relies on the assumption that the chemisorptions may be the rate-controlling step. The Langmuir model better described the Co(II) sorption process on the natural hemp fibers in comparison with the Freundlich model. This finding complies with the results of fixed-bed studies which emphasize that the optimal solution for describing the behavior of the investigated hemp bed column is provided by the Thomas model. The sorption capacity of the hemp fibers column (15.44 mg/g) performed better than that of the Co(II)-hemp batch system (13.58 mg/g). The possibility to use hemp fibers as an alternative in the Co(II) wastewater treatment should be studied under pilot scale applications, so as to complete the studies concerning the removal efficiencies with technical and economic factors that influence process scale-up.

  6. Batch-processed melt-textured YBCO with improved quality for motor and bearing applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gawalek, W.; Habisreuther, T.; Zeisberger, M.; Litzkendorf, D.; Surzhenko, O.; Kracunovska, S.; Prikhna, T. A.; Oswald, B.; Kovalev, L. K.; Canders, W.

    2004-10-01

    Results on an established batch process preparing melt-textured YBCO of high quality and in large quantities are reported. We used a standard composition Y1.5Ba2Cu3O7-x+1 wt % CeO2 without further doping to fabricate single domain YBCO monoliths in different sizes and shapes (cylindrical, quadratic) as well as rectangular multi-seeded YBCO monoliths. Up to 2-3 kg of melt-textured YBCO blocks were grown, reproducible in one box furnace run. Top seeding by a self-made SmBCO was improved and rationalized. Optimization of an oxygen annealing treatment led to macro-crack free YBCO monoliths. Each YBCO monolith was characterized by integral levitation force and field mapping. In a single domain, a quadratic monolith with a edge length of 38 mm, a maximum induction of 1.44 T at 77 K and a distance of 0.5 mm was frozen. The reproducibility of the batch process is guaranteed. Mean maximum induction from 1.1 to 1.2 T at 77 K per batch was reached. A trapped magnetic field of 2.5 T was achieved between two single domain monoliths in a gap of 1.5 mm at 77 K. Depending on the application, function elements with different sizes, designs and more or less complex geometry are constructed in several working steps by cutting, machining, bonding and passivation. Selected function elements were checked with field mapping at 77 K. The results of our function elements in HTSC reluctance motors with an output power of up to 200 kW using single domain material are shown. We report on a fly wheel system DYNASTORE and a system to levitate people.

  7. Polynomial Transfer Lot Sizing Techniques for Batch Processing on Consecutive Machines

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-09-01

    batch, while still specifying sizable batches? Goldratt , the developer of OPT (Optimized Production Technology) [7; 12, pp. 692-715; 101, answered this...and Jeffrey L Rummel, Batching to Minimize Flow Times on One Machine, Management Science, 33, #6, 1987, pp. 784-799. [71 Goldratt , Eliyahu and Robert

  8. A General framework for the Synthesis and Operational Design of Batch Processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    The objective of this paper is to present a general problem formulation and a general methodlogy for the synthesis of batch operations and the operational design of individual batch processes, such as mixing, reaction and separation. The general methodology described supplies the batch routes...

  9. A general framework for the synthesis and operational design of batch processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Papaeconomou, Eirini; Gani, Rafiqul; Jørgensen, Sten Bay

    2002-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to present a general problem formulation and a general methodology for the synthesis of batch operations and the operational design of individual batch processes, such as mixing, reaction and separation. The general methodology described supplies the batch routes...

  10. Data Driven Modeling for Monitoring and Control of Industrial Fed-Batch Cultivations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonné, Dennis; Alvarez, María Antonieta; Jørgensen, Sten Bay

    2014-01-01

    time within the batch and the batch number. The model set is parsimoniously parametrized as a set of local, interdependent models which are estimated from data for as few as half a dozen batches. On the basis of state space models transformed from the acquired input–output model set, the asymptotic...

  11. Growth and nutrient removal in free and immobilized green algae in batch and semi-continuous cultures treating real wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Marin, Alejandro; Mendoza-Espinosa, Leopoldo G; Stephenson, Tom

    2010-01-01

    Two species of microalgae growing as immobilized and free-cells were compared to test its ability to remove N and P in batch cultures of urban wastewater. The best microalgae-cell growth configuration was selected to be tested in bioreactor operated in semi-continuous mode. Scenedesmus obliquus showed a higher N and P uptake rate in urban wastewater than Chlorella vulgaris. When tested in semi-continuous mode and with the re-calcification of beads, S. obliquus was more effective in removing N and P for longer periods (181 h) than batch cultures; fecal coliforms removal was good (95%) although the final concentration was still unsuitable for discharge to natural water bodies. Protein and lipids content analysis suggest that, from a practical point of view, immobilized systems could facilitate the separation of the biomass from the treated wastewater although in terms of nutritional value of the biomass, immobilized systems do not represent an advantage over free-cell systems.

  12. Repeated-batch operation of surface-aerated fermentor for bioethanol production from the hydrolysate of seaweed Sargassum sagamianum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeon, Ji-Hyeon; Lee, Sang-Eun; Choi, Woon Yong; Kang, Do Hyung; Lee, Hyoen-Yong; Jung, Kyung-Hwan

    2011-03-01

    In this study, we investigated the feasibility of sustainable long-term bioethanol production from the hydrolysate of a brown seaweed, Sargassum sagamianum. Because the hydrolysate was prepared as a liquid solution using a hightemperature liquefying system, a repeated-batch operation was utilized as the operational strategy for bioethanol production. Additionally, we used surface aeration to improve bioethanol production from the hydrolysate containing C5 monosaccharides such as xylose. In this study, the C5 monosaccharide-utilizable yeast strain Pichia stipitis was used for bioethanol production. Therefore, based on this repeated-batch flask culture, we designed a surface-aerated repeated-batch fermentor culture, in which the aeration was finely controlled at 100 ml/min and delivered into the headspace of a 2.5-l fermentor. When the medium was replaced every 48 h, bioethanol was continuously produced for 200 h under repeated-batch fermentor culture, where the level of bioethanol production was about 9~10 (g/l). Additionally, the bioethanol yield based on the reducing sugar was about 0.386, which was the average value throughout four consecutive cultures and was about 74.5% of the theoretical value. In addition, the bioethanol yield based on quantitative TLC analyses of glucose and xylose was about 0.431, which was the average value throughout four consecutive cultures and was about 84.3% of theoretical value. Consequently, throughout this repeated-batch operation, we demonstrated that it was actually feasible to produce bioethanol from the hydrolysate of seaweed S. sagamianum. In addition, the approach described here is a practical strategy for commercial bioethanol production from seaweed, particularly for finely controlling aeration through surface aeration.

  13. Elimination of water pathogens with solar radiation using an automated sequential batch CPC reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Polo-Lopez, M.I., E-mail: mpolo@psa.es [Plataforma Solar de Almeria - CIEMAT, PO Box 22, 04200 Tabernas, Almeria (Spain); Fernandez-Ibanez, P., E-mail: pilar.fernandez@psa.es [Plataforma Solar de Almeria - CIEMAT, PO Box 22, 04200 Tabernas, Almeria (Spain); Ubomba-Jaswa, E., E-mail: euniceubombajaswa@yahoo.com [Natural Resources and the Environment, CSIR, PO Box 395, Pretoria (South Africa); Navntoft, C., E-mail: christian.navntoft@solarmate.com.ar [Instituto de Investigacion e Ingenieria Ambiental, Universidad Nacional de San Martin (3iA-UNSAM), Peatonal Belgrano 3563, B1650ANQ San Martin (Argentina); Universidad Tecnologica Nacional - Facultad Regional Buenos Aires - Departamento de Ingenieria Civil - Laboratorio de Estudios sobre Energia Solar, (UTN-FRBA-LESES), Mozart 2300, (1407) Ciudad Autonoma de Buenos Aires, Republica Argentina (Argentina); Garcia-Fernandez, I., E-mail: irene.garcia@psa.es [Plataforma Solar de Almeria - CIEMAT, PO Box 22, 04200 Tabernas, Almeria (Spain); Dunlop, P.S.M., E-mail: psm.dunlop@ulster.ac.uk [Department of Physiology and Medical Physics, Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland, Dublin 2 (Ireland); Schmid, M. [Department of Physiology and Medical Physics, Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland, Dublin 2 (Ireland); Byrne, J.A., E-mail: j.byrne@ulster.ac.uk [Department of Physiology and Medical Physics, Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland, Dublin 2 (Ireland); and others

    2011-11-30

    Solar disinfection (SODIS) of water is a well-known, effective treatment process which is practiced at household level in many developing countries. However, this process is limited by the small volume treated and there is no indication of treatment efficacy for the user. Low cost glass tube reactors, together with compound parabolic collector (CPC) technology, have been shown to significantly increase the efficiency of solar disinfection. However, these reactors still require user input to control each batch SODIS process and there is no feedback that the process is complete. Automatic operation of the batch SODIS process, controlled by UVA-radiation sensors, can provide information on the status of the process, can ensure the required UVA dose to achieve complete disinfection is received and reduces user work-load through automatic sequential batch processing. In this work, an enhanced CPC photo-reactor with a concentration factor of 1.89 was developed. The apparatus was automated to achieve exposure to a pre-determined UVA dose. Treated water was automatically dispensed into a reservoir tank. The reactor was tested using Escherichia coli as a model pathogen in natural well water. A 6-log inactivation of E. coli was achieved following exposure to the minimum uninterrupted lethal UVA dose. The enhanced reactor decreased the exposure time required to achieve the lethal UVA dose, in comparison to a CPC system with a concentration factor of 1.0. Doubling the lethal UVA dose prevented the need for a period of post-exposure dark inactivation and reduced the overall treatment time. Using this reactor, SODIS can be automatically carried out at an affordable cost, with reduced exposure time and minimal user input.

  14. Elimination of water pathogens with solar radiation using an automated sequential batch CPC reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polo-López, M I; Fernández-Ibáñez, P; Ubomba-Jaswa, E; Navntoft, C; García-Fernández, I; Dunlop, P S M; Schmid, M; Byrne, J A; McGuigan, K G

    2011-11-30

    Solar disinfection (SODIS) of water is a well-known, effective treatment process which is practiced at household level in many developing countries. However, this process is limited by the small volume treated and there is no indication of treatment efficacy for the user. Low cost glass tube reactors, together with compound parabolic collector (CPC) technology, have been shown to significantly increase the efficiency of solar disinfection. However, these reactors still require user input to control each batch SODIS process and there is no feedback that the process is complete. Automatic operation of the batch SODIS process, controlled by UVA-radiation sensors, can provide information on the status of the process, can ensure the required UVA dose to achieve complete disinfection is received and reduces user work-load through automatic sequential batch processing. In this work, an enhanced CPC photo-reactor with a concentration factor of 1.89 was developed. The apparatus was automated to achieve exposure to a pre-determined UVA dose. Treated water was automatically dispensed into a reservoir tank. The reactor was tested using Escherichia coli as a model pathogen in natural well water. A 6-log inactivation of E. coli was achieved following exposure to the minimum uninterrupted lethal UVA dose. The enhanced reactor decreased the exposure time required to achieve the lethal UVA dose, in comparison to a CPC system with a concentration factor of 1.0. Doubling the lethal UVA dose prevented the need for a period of post-exposure dark inactivation and reduced the overall treatment time. Using this reactor, SODIS can be automatically carried out at an affordable cost, with reduced exposure time and minimal user input.

  15. Reconfirmation of frit 803 based on the January 2016 sludge batch 9 reprojection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, F. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Edwards, T. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2016-02-10

    On January 11, 2016, Savannah River Remediation (SRR) provided the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) with a Sludge Batch 9 (SB9) reprojection that was developed from the analyzed composition of a Tank 51 sample. This sample was collected after field washing had been completed in Tank 51 to support the alternate reductant task. Based on this reprojection, Frit 803 is still a viable option for the processing of SB9 under sludge-only operations and coupled (Actinide Removal Process (ARP) product with and without monosodium titanate (MST)) operations. The maximum projected volumes of ARP product that can be transferred from the Precipitate Reactor Feed Tank (PRFT) per Sludge Receipt and Adjustment Tank (SRAT) batch and the resulting Na2O concentrations in the SRAT for coupled operations were determined. The Na2O concentrations in the SRAT resulting from the maximum projected ARP product transfer volumes are consistent with those from the previous assessments that were based on the August 2015 projections. Regardless of the presence or absence of MST in the ARP product, the contribution of Na2O to the resulting glass will be similar at the same waste loading (WL). These projected volumes of ARP product are not anticipated to be an issue for SB9. The actual transfer volumes from the PRFT to the SRAT are determined based upon the analyzed Na2O concentrations in the PRFT samples, which has resulted in larger transfer volumes than those allowed by the projections for Sludge Batch 8 (SB8). An operating window of 32-40% WL around the nominal WL of 36% is achievable for both sludge-only and coupled operations; however, each of the glass systems studied does become limited by waste form affecting constraints (durability) at higher volumes of ARP product and WLs of 41-42%.

  16. Enumeration Verification System (EVS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — EVS is a batch application that processes for federal, state, local and foreign government agencies, private companies and internal SSA customers and systems. Each...

  17. Screening of static culture and comparison of batch and continuous culture for the textile dye biological decolorization by Phanerochaete chrysosporium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Urra

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available The production of manganese dependent peroxidase (MnP by Phanerochaete chrysosporium and the level of decolorization of 13 dyes were evaluated using static and agitated batch cultures and continuous cultures. A screening carried out under static conditions showed that the oxidative system has a certain affinity for azoic structures. For concentrations of 100 mg l-1 of Acid Black 1, Reactive Black 5, Reactive Orange 16 and Acid Red 27, decolorization percentages higher than 90% were obtained. In batch cultures with Acid Black 1 and Reactive Black 5 a significant increment in primary post-metabolism biomass was observed. For these last two dyes, it was possible to explore the response of the continuous system during 32 to 47 days, with concentrations between 25 to 400 mg l-1, obtaining decolorization percentages greater than 70% for 400 mg l-1.

  18. Decolorization of azo dyes under batch anaerobic and sequential anaerobic/aerobic conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Işik, Mustafa; Sponza, Delia Teresa

    2004-01-01

    Batch anaerobic and sequential anaerobic upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB)/aerobic continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR) were used to determine the color and COD removals under anaerobic/aerobic conditions. Two azo dyes namely "Reactive Black 5 (RB 5)," "Congo Red (CR)," and glucose as a carbon source were used for synthetic wastewater. The course of the decolorization process approximates to first order and zero order kinetics with respect to dye concentration for RB 5 and Congo Red azo dyes, respectively, in batch conditions. The decolorization kinetic constant (K0) values increased from 3.6 to 11.8 mg(L h)(-1) as increases in dye concentrations from 200 to 3200 mg L(-1) for CR. Increases in dye concentrations from 0 to 3200 mg L(-1) reduce the decolorization rate constant (k1) values from 0.0141 to 0.0019 h(-1) in batch studies performed with RB 5. Decolorization was achieved effectively under test conditions but ultimate decolorization of azo dyes was not observed at all dye concentrations in batch assay conditions. Dye concentrations of 100 mg L(-1) and 3000 mg L(-1) of glucose-COD containing basal medium were used for continuous studies. The effect of organic loadings and HRT, on the color removal efficiencies and methane gas productions were monitored. 94.1-45.4% COD and 79-73% color removal efficiencies were obtained at an organic system during decolorization of Reactive Black 5. 92.3-77.0% COD and 95.3-92.2% decolorization efficiencies were achieved at a organic loading rate of 1.03-6.65 kg (m3 day)(-1) and a HRT of 3.54-0.49 for Congo Red treatment. The results of this study showed that, although decolorization continued, COD removal efficiencies and methane gas production were depressed at high organic loadings under anaerobic conditions. Furthermore, VFA accumulation, alkalinity consumption, and methane gas percentage were monitored at organic loading as high as 2.49-4.74 kg (m3 day)(-1) and 24.60-30.62 kg (m3 day)(-1), respectively, through the

  19. REAL WASTE TESTING OF SLUDGE BATCH 5 MELTER FEED RHEOLOGY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reboul, S.; Stone, M.

    2010-03-17

    Clogging of the melter feed loop at the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) has reduced the throughput of Sludge Batch 5 (SB5) processing. After completing a data review, DWPF attributed the clogging to the rheological properties of the Slurry Mix Evaporator (SME) project. The yield stress of the SB5 melter feed material was expected to be high, based on the relatively high pH of the SME product and the rheological results of a previous Chemical Process Cell (CPC) demonstration performed at the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL).

  20. Modelling of the temperature-phased batch anaerobic digestion of raw sludge from an urban wastewater treatment plant

    OpenAIRE

    Riau, Víctor; Rubia, M. Ángeles de la; Pérez, Montserrat; Martín, Antonio; Borja Padilla, Rafael

    2012-01-01

    The disposal of excess sludge from wastewater treatment plants is a serious problem that needs to be addressed. Temperature-phased anaerobic digestion (TPAD) which combines thermophilic and mesophilic processes in one, brings together the advantages of both systems. The aim of the present work was to develop a simple kinetic model to describe the TPAD of sewage sludge in batch completely stirred tank reactors (CSTRs) and to determine the kinetic parameters of both thermophilic and mesophilic ...

  1. 分批精馏过渡段放持液操作方式%The Operation of Draining Column Holdup for Slop Cut Withdrawal in Batch Distillation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张雪梅; 何杰; 张卫江; 张志刚; 简春贵; 杨志才

    2006-01-01

    The new mode of operation for slop cut withdrawal in batch distillation, i.e., draining column liquid holdup at the end of slop cut period, was proposed. And the stopping criterion for the operation was investigated. Experiments were carried out with isopropanol-n-propanol binary system and isopropanol-n-propanol-n-butanol ternary system in a distillation column with a liquid collector installed between the reboiler and the column section. Experimental results in a φ 45mm batch column show that the proposed policy can overcome the flywheel effect caused by column liquid holdup and thus cut down operation time and energy consumption 31%-61%.

  2. Biodegradation of 4-nitrophenol in a two-phase sequencing batch reactor: concept demonstration, kinetics and modelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomei, M Concetta; Annesini, M Cristina; Rita, Sara; Daugulis, Andrew J

    2008-10-01

    The objectives of this work were to demonstrate the potential of a two-phase sequencing batch reactor in degrading xenobiotics and to evaluate the kinetic parameters leading to a mathematical model of the system. 4-Nitrophenol (4NP), a typical representative of substituted phenols, was selected as the target xenobiotic; this compound has never been remediated in a two-phase bioreactor before. Partition tests were conducted to determine the most appropriate partitioning solvent, and among the three investigated solvents (1-undecanol, 2-undecanone and oleyl alcohol), 2-undecanone was chosen because of its favourable partition coefficient and its negligible emulsion-forming tendencies. Moreover, the selected solvent showed satisfactory biocompatibility characteristics with respect to the biomass, with only minor effects on the intrinsic microbial kinetics. Kinetic tests were then performed in a sequencing batch reactor (2-l volume) operated in both conventional one- and two-phase configurations, with the two-phase system showing a significant improvement in the process kinetics in terms of reduced inhibition and increased maximum removal rate. The obtained kinetic parameters suggest that the two-phase sequencing batch system may find full-scale application, as the maximum removal rate k(max) (approximately 3 mg 4NP mgVSS(-1) day(-1)) is of the same order of magnitude of heterotrophic bacteria operating in wastewater treatment plants.

  3. Fed-Batch Production of Bacterial Ghosts Using Dielectric Spectroscopy for Dynamic Process Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Meitz

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The Bacterial Ghost (BG platform technology evolved from a microbiological expression system incorporating the ϕX174 lysis gene E. E-lysis generates empty but structurally intact cell envelopes (BGs from Gram-negative bacteria which have been suggested as candidate vaccines, immunotherapeutic agents or drug delivery vehicles. E-lysis is a highly dynamic and complex biological process that puts exceptional demands towards process understanding and control. The development of a both economic and robust fed-batch production process for BGs required a toolset capable of dealing with rapidly changing concentrations of viable biomass during the E-lysis phase. This challenge was addressed using a transfer function combining dielectric spectroscopy and soft-sensor based biomass estimation for monitoring the rapid decline of viable biomass during the E-lysis phase. The transfer function was implemented to a feed-controller, which followed the permittivity signal closely and was capable of maintaining a constant specific substrate uptake rate during lysis phase. With the described toolset, we were able to increase the yield of BG production processes by a factor of 8–10 when compared to currently used batch procedures reaching lysis efficiencies >98%. This provides elevated potentials for commercial application of the Bacterial Ghost platform technology.

  4. FRIT OPTIMIZATION FOR SLUDGE BATCH PROCESSING AT THE DEFENSE WASTE PROCESSING FACILITY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fox, K.

    2009-01-28

    The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) Frit Development Team recommends that the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) utilize Frit 418 for initial processing of high level waste (HLW) Sludge Batch 5 (SB5). The extended SB5 preparation time and need for DWPF feed have necessitated the use of a frit that is already included on the DWPF procurement specification. Frit 418 has been used previously in vitrification of Sludge Batches 3 and 4. Paper study assessments predict that Frit 418 will form an acceptable glass when combined with SB5 over a range of waste loadings (WLs), typically 30-41% based on nominal projected SB5 compositions. Frit 418 has a relatively high degree of robustness with regard to variation in the projected SB5 composition, particularly when the Na{sub 2}O concentration is varied. The acceptability (chemical durability) and model applicability of the Frit 418-SB5 system will be verified experimentally through a variability study, to be documented separately. Frit 418 has not been designed to provide an optimal melt rate with SB5, but is recommended for initial processing of SB5 until experimental testing to optimize a frit composition for melt rate can be completed. Melt rate performance can not be predicted at this time and must be determined experimentally. Note that melt rate testing may either identify an improved frit for SB5 processing (one which produces an acceptable glass at a faster rate than Frit 418) or confirm that Frit 418 is the best option.

  5. Alkylation of benzene using batch and continuous fixed-bed reactors.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nenoff, Tina Maria; Buelna Quijada, Genoveva (Universidad Autonoma de Tamaulipas, Tamaulipas, Mexico)

    2004-09-01

    Alkylation reactions of benzene with propylene using heterogeneous catalysts H{sup +}-{beta} zeolite, MCM-22, and ZSM-5 were studied for their affinity for cumene production. This work focused on the gas-phase reaction using different crystalline catalysts at several temperatures and amounts of reactants using both batch and continuous fixed-bed reactors. The properties of baseline commercial H{sup +}-{beta} catalysts versus versions modified with Ga, La, and Pt were studied. Quantitative analysis of product mixture was performed by gas chromatography. For the batch reactor, {beta}-zeolite produced the highest cumene yield and selectivity of 72% and 92%, respectively, at 225 C. At this temperature, a benzene:propylene dilution of 7:1 molar ratio was the optimum. For the continuous system, cumene production is favored at lower space velocities, higher benzene-to-propylene ratio, and temperatures close to 225 C. Ga modification of the H{sup +}-{beta} zeolite significantly enhanced cumene yield in the continuous fixed-bed reactor at 225 C, from 27% of the unmodified {beta}-zeolite to 36% for the Ga-modified one. The life span of modified {beta}-catalysts was studied in the fixed-bed reactor for the first eight hours of reaction.

  6. Determination of the subcooled liquid solubilities of PAHs in partitioning batch experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lihua Liu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Subcooled liquid solubility is the water solubility for a hypothetical state of liquid. It is an important parameter for multicomponent nonaqueous phase liquids (NAPLs containing polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs, which can exist as liquids even though most of the solutes are solid in their pure form at ambient temperature. So far, subcooled liquid solubilities were estimated from the solid water solubility and fugacity ratio of the solid and (subcooled liquid phase, but rarely derived from experimental data. In our study, partitioning batch experiments were performed to determine the subcooled liquid solubility of PAHs in NAPL-water system. For selected PAH, a series of batch experiments were carried out at increased mole fractions of the target component in the NAPL and at a constant NAPL/water volume ratio. The equilibrium aqueous PAH concentrations were measured with HPLC and/or GC-MS. The subcooled liquid solubility was derived by extrapolation of the experimental equilibrium aqueous concentration to a mole fraction of unity. With the derived subcooled liquid solubility, the fugacity ratio and enthalpy of fusion of the solute were also estimated. Our results show a good agreement between the experimentally determined and published data.

  7. Contaminant removal in septage treatment with vertical flow constructed wetlands operated under batch flow conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jong, Valerie Siaw Wee; Tang, Fu Ee

    2016-01-01

    Individual septic tanks are the most common means of on-site sanitation in Malaysia, but they result in a significant volume of septage. A two-staged vertical flow constructed wetlands (VFCWs) system for the treatment of septage was constructed and studied in Sarawak, Malaysia. Raw septage was treated in the first stage wetlands, and the resulting percolate was fed onto the second stage wetlands for further treatment. Here, the effects of a batch loading regime on the contaminant removal efficiency at the second stage wetlands, which included palm kernel shell within their filter substrate, are presented. The batch loading regime with pond:rest (P:R) period of 1:1, 2:2 and 3:3 (day:day) was studied. The improvement of the effluent redox condition was evident with P:R = 3:3, resulting in excellent organic matters (chemical oxygen demand and biochemical oxygen demand) and nitrogen reduction. The bed operated with P:R = 1:1 experienced constant clogging, with a water layer observed on the bed surface. For the P:R = 3:3 regime, the dissolved oxygen profile was not found to decay drastically after 24 hours of ponding, suggesting that the biodegradation mainly occurred during the first day. The study results indicate that a suitable application regime with an adequate rest period is important in VFCWs to ensure efficient operation.

  8. Simultaneous Nitrogen and Phosphorus Removal by Denitrifying Dephosphatation in a (AO)2 Sequencing Batch Reactor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Yan-ping; PENG Yong-zhen; WANG Shu-ying; WANG Shao-po

    2005-01-01

    A 24 L working volume reactor was used for the research on simultaneous phosphorus (P) and nitrogen (N) removal by denitrifying dephosphatation in an anaerobic-oxid-anoxic-oxid sequencing batch reactor ((AO)2SBR) system. The durations of each phase are: anaerobic 1.5 h, aerobic 2.5 h, anoxic 1.5 h, post-aerobic 0.5 h, settling 1.0 h, fill 0.5 h. The successful removal of nitrogen and phosphorus is achieved in a stable (AO)2SBR. The effluent P concentrations is below 1 mg/L, and the COD,TN and P average removal efficiency is 88.9%, 77.5% and 88.7%, respectively. The batch experiment results show that the durations of aerobic and anoxic phase influence the P removal efficiency. Some feature points are found on the DO, ORP and pH curves to demonstrate the complete of phosphate release and phosphate uptake. These feature points can be used for the control of (AO)2 SBR.

  9. Fed-Batch Production of Bacterial Ghosts Using Dielectric Spectroscopy for Dynamic Process Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meitz, Andrea; Sagmeister, Patrick; Lubitz, Werner; Herwig, Christoph; Langemann, Timo

    2016-03-24

    The Bacterial Ghost (BG) platform technology evolved from a microbiological expression system incorporating the ϕX174 lysis gene E. E-lysis generates empty but structurally intact cell envelopes (BGs) from Gram-negative bacteria which have been suggested as candidate vaccines, immunotherapeutic agents or drug delivery vehicles. E-lysis is a highly dynamic and complex biological process that puts exceptional demands towards process understanding and control. The development of a both economic and robust fed-batch production process for BGs required a toolset capable of dealing with rapidly changing concentrations of viable biomass during the E-lysis phase. This challenge was addressed using a transfer function combining dielectric spectroscopy and soft-sensor based biomass estimation for monitoring the rapid decline of viable biomass during the E-lysis phase. The transfer function was implemented to a feed-controller, which followed the permittivity signal closely and was capable of maintaining a constant specific substrate uptake rate during lysis phase. With the described toolset, we were able to increase the yield of BG production processes by a factor of 8-10 when compared to currently used batch procedures reaching lysis efficiencies >98%. This provides elevated potentials for commercial application of the Bacterial Ghost platform technology.

  10. The sequencing batch reactor as an excellent configuration to treat wastewater from the petrochemical industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caluwé, Michel; Daens, Dominique; Blust, Ronny; Geuens, Luc; Dries, Jan

    2017-02-01

    In the present study, the influence of a changing feeding pattern from continuous to pulse feeding on the characteristics of activated sludge was investigated with a wastewater from the petrochemical industry from the harbour of Antwerp. Continuous seed sludge, adapted to the industrial wastewater, was used to start up three laboratory-scale sequencing batch reactors. After an adaptation period from the shift to pulse feeding, the effect of an increasing organic loading rate (OLR) and volume exchange ratio (VER) were investigated one after another. Remarkable changes of the specific oxygen uptake rate (sOUR), microscopic structure, sludge volume index (SVI), SVI30/SVI5 ratio, and settling rate were observed during adaptation. sOUR increased two to five times and treatment time decreased 43.9% in 15 days. Stabilization of the SVI occurred after a period of 20 days and improved significantly from 300 mL·g(-1) to 80 mL·g(-1). Triplication of the OLR and VER had no negative influence on sludge settling and effluent quality. Adaptation time of the microorganisms to a new feeding pattern, OLR and VER was relatively short and sludge characteristics related to aerobic granular sludge were obtained. This study indicates significant potential of the batch activated sludge system for the treatment of this industrial petrochemical wastewater.

  11. Development of a Batch Fabrication Process for Chemical Nanosensors: Recent Advancements at NASA Glenn Research Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biaggi-Labiosa, Azlin M.

    2014-01-01

    A major objective in aerospace sensor development is to produce sensors that are small in size, easy to batch fabricate and low in cost, and have low power consumption. Chemical sensors involving nanostructured materials can provide these characteristics as well as the potential for the development of sensor systems with unique properties and improved performance. However, the fabrication and processing of nanostructures for sensor applications currently is limited by the ability to control their location on the sensor platform, which in turn hinders the progress for batch fabrication. This presentation will discuss the following: the development of a novel room temperature methane (CH4) sensor fabricated using porous tin oxide (SnO2) nanorods as the sensing material, the advantages of using nanomaterials in sensor designs, the challenges encountered with the integration of nanostructures into microsensordevices, and the different methods that have been attempted to address these challenges. An approach for the mass production of sensors with nanostructures using a method developed by our group at the NASA Glenn Research Center to control the alignment of nanostructures onto a sensor platform will also be described.

  12. Scale-up from batch to flow-through wet milling process for injectable depot formulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehocký, Róbert; Pěček, Daniel; Štěpánek, František

    2016-12-01

    Injectable depot formulations are aimed at providing long-term sustained release of a drug into systemic circulation, thus reducing plasma level fluctuations and improving patient compliance. The particle size distribution of the formulation in the form of suspension is a key parameter that controls the release rate. In this work, the process of wet stirred media milling (ball milling) of a poorly water-soluble substance has been investigated with two main aims: (i) to determine the parametric sensitivity of milling kinetics; and (ii) to develop scale-up methodology for process transfer from batch to flow-through arrangement. Ball milling experiments were performed in two types of ball mills, a batch mill with a 30ml maximum working volume, and a flow-through mill with a 250ml maximum working volume. Milling parameters were investigated in detail by methodologies of QbD to map the parametric space. Specifically, the effects of ball size, ball fill level, and rpm on the particle breakage kinetics were systematically investigated at both mills, with an additional parameter (flow-rate) in the case of the flow-through mill. The breakage rate was found to follow power-law kinetics with respect to dimensionless time, with an asymptotic d50 particle size in the range of 200-300nm. In the case of the flow-through mill, the number of theoretical passes through the mill was found to be an important scale-up parameter.

  13. Comparison of laboratory batch and flow-through microcosm bioassays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clément, Bernard J P; Delhaye, Hélène L; Triffault-Bouchet, Gaëlle G

    2014-10-01

    Since 1997, we have been developing a protocol for ecotoxicological bioassays in 2-L laboratory microcosms and have applied it to the study of various pollutants and ecotoxicological risk assessment scenarios in the area of urban facilities and transport infrastructures. The effects on five different organisms (micro-algae, duckweeds, daphnids, amphipods, chironomids) are assessed using biological responses such as growth, emergence (chironomids), reproduction (daphnids) and survival, with a duration of exposure of 3 weeks. This bioassay has mainly been used as a batch bioassay, i.e., the water was not renewed during the test. A flow-through microcosm bioassay has been developed recently, with the assumption that conditions for the biota should be improved, variability reduced, and the range of exposure patterns enlarged (e.g., the possibility of maintaining constant exposure in the water column). This paper compares the results obtained in batch and flow-through microcosm bioassays, using cadmium as a model toxicant. As expected, the stabilization of physico-chemical parameters, increased organism fitness and reduced variability were observed in the flow-through microcosm bioassay.

  14. Treatemnt of Wastewater with Modified Sequencing Batch Biofilm Reactor Technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡龙兴; 刘宇陆

    2002-01-01

    This paper describes the removel of COD and nitrogen from wastewater with modified sequencing batch biofilm reactor,The strategy of simultaneous feeding and draining was explored.The results show that introduction of a new batch of wastewater and withdrawal of the purifeid water can be conducted simultaneously with the maximum volumetric exchange rate of about 70%,Application of this feeding and draining mode leads to the reduction of the cycle time,the increase of the utilization of the reactor volume and the simplification of the reactor structure.The treatment of a synthetic wastewater containing COD and nitrogen was investigated.The operation mode of F(D)-O(i.e.,simultaneous feeding and draining followed by the aerobic condition)was adopted.It was found that COD was degraded very fast in the initial reaction period of time,then reduced slowly and the ammonia nitrogen and nitrate nitrogen concentrations decreased and increased with time respectively,while the nitrite nitrogen level increased first and then reduced.The relationship between the COD or ammonia nitrogen loading and its removal rate was examined,and the removal of COD,ammonia nitrogen and total nitrogen could exceed 95%,90%and 80% respectively,The fact that nitrogen could e removed more completely under constant aeration(aerobic condition)of the SBBR operation mode is very interesting and could be explained in several respects.

  15. Transfer bonding technology for batch fabrication of SMA microactuators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grund, T.; Guerre, R.; Despont, M.; Kohl, M.

    2008-05-01

    Currently, the broad market introduction of shape memory alloy (SMA) microactuators and sensors is hampered by technological barriers, since batch fabrication methods common to electronics industry are not available. The present study intends to overcome these barriers by introducing a wafer scale transfer process that allows the selective transfer of heat-treated and micromachined shape memory alloy (SMA) film or foil microactuators to randomly selected receiving sites on a target substrate. The technology relies on a temporary adhesive bonding layer between SMA film/foil and an auxiliary substrate, which can be removed by laser ablation. The transfer technology was tested for microactuators of a cold-rolled NiTi foil of 20 μm thickness, which were heat-treated in free-standing condition, then micromachined on an auxiliary substrate of glass, and finally selectively transferred to different target substrates of a polymer. For demonstration, the new technology was used for batch-fabrication of SMA-actuated polymer microvalves.

  16. Batch Attribute-Based Encryption for Secure Clouds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Yang

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Cloud storage is widely used by organizations due to its advantage of allowing universal access with low cost. Attribute-based encryption (ABE is a kind of public key encryption suitable for cloud storage. The secret key of each user and the ciphertext are associated with an access policy and an attribute set, respectively; in addition to holding a secret key, one can decrypt a ciphertext only if the associated attributes match the predetermined access policy, which allows one to enforce fine-grained access control on outsourced files. One issue in existing ABE schemes is that they are designed for the users of a single organization. When one wants to share the data with the users of different organizations, the owner needs to encrypt the messages to the receivers of one organization and then repeats this process for another organization. This situation is deteriorated with more and more mobile devices using cloud services, as the ABE encryption process is time consuming and may exhaust the power supplies of the mobile devices quickly. In this paper, we propose a batch attribute-based encryption (BABE approach to address this problem in a provably-secure way. With our approach, the data owner can outsource data in batches to the users of different organizations simultaneously. The data owner is allowed to decide the receiving organizations and the attributes required for decryption. Theoretical and experimental analyses show that our approach is more efficient than traditional encryption implementations in computation and communication.

  17. Factors affecting biological denitrifying dephosphatation in anaerobic/anoxic/aerobic sequencing batch reactor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    This study was conducted to verify and discuss the denitrifying dephosphatation under different levels of nitrate concentration and retention time of anoxic/aerobic process in a Sequencing Batch Reactor ( SBR ).The results of tests demonstrated that there were two kinds of phosphorus-accumulating organisms (PAOs) in the biological excess phosphorus removal (BEPR) system. One was non-DNPAOs that could only use oxygen as terminal electron acceptors, the other was denitrifying PAOs (DNPAOs) that could use both nitrate and oxygen as terminal electron acceptors. Phosphorus uptake efficiency could be attained under anoxic period ranging from 28.7%-96.7% in an anacrobic/anoxic/aerobic system. Experimental results showed that nitrate concentration and retention time of anoxic/aerobic process were the key factors affecting the course of denitrifying dephosphatation.

  18. 利用PHPExcel类实现Excel数据批量操作%Excel Data Batch Processing Using PHPExcel Class

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡必波

    2015-01-01

    Based on Excel table of the campus one-stop service system, this paper mainly introduces the interactive examples of batch data import and export of Excel table with PHPExcel class, and summarizes some methods, techniques and notes of PHPExcel class. For the actual project, the batch data operation of Excel table has signed and guiding significance.%以校园一站式服务系统导出的Excel表为计算基础,主要介绍使用PHPExcel类对Excel表进行数据批量导入导出的交互实例,并通过实例分析总结PHPExcel类使用的一些方法、技巧,以及注意事项。对于实际项目中EXCEL表的批量数据操作有借签和指导意义。

  19. Ethanol production from Sorghum bicolor using both separate and simultaneous saccharification and fermentation in batch and fed batch systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mehmood, Sajid; Gulfraz, M.; Rana, N. F.;

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this work was to find the best combination of different experimental conditions during pre-treatment, enzymatic saccharification, detoxification of inhibitors and fermentation of Sorghum bicolor straw for ethanol production. The optimization of pre-treatment using different...

  20. Intact cell mass spectrometry as a progress tracking tool for batch and fed-batch fermentation processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helmel, Michaela; Marchetti-Deschmann, Martina; Raus, Martin; Posch, Andreas E; Herwig, Christoph; Šebela, Marek; Allmaier, Günter

    2015-02-01

    Penicillin production during a fermentation process using industrial strains of Penicillium chrysogenum is a research topic permanently discussed since the accidental discovery of the antibiotic. Intact cell mass spectrometry (ICMS) can be a fast and novel monitoring tool for the fermentation progress during penicillin V production in a nearly real-time fashion. This method is already used for the characterization of microorganisms and the differentiation of fungal strains; therefore, the application of ICMS to samples directly harvested from a fermenter is a promising possibility to get fast information about the progress of fungal growth. After the optimization of the ICMS method to penicillin V fermentation broth samples, the obtained ICMS data were evaluated by hierarchical cluster analysis or an in-house software solution written especially for ICMS data comparison. Growth stages of a batch and fed-batch fermentation of Penicillium chrysogenum are differentiated by one of those statistical approaches. The application of two matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) instruments in the linear positive ion mode from different vendors demonstrated the universal applicability of the developed ICMS method. The base for a fast and easy-to-use method for monitoring the fermentation progress of P. chrysogenum is created with this ICMS method developed especially for fermentation broth samples.

  1. Modeling of Xanthophyllomyces dendrorhous growth on glucose and overflow metabolism in batch and fed-batch cultures for astaxanthin production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yuan-Shuai; Wu, Jian-Yong

    2008-12-01

    An astaxanthin-producing yeast Xanthophyllomyces dendrorhous ENM5 was cultivated in a liquid medium containing 50 g/L glucose as the major carbon source in stirred fermentors (1.5-L working volume) in fully aerobic conditions. Ethanol was produced during the exponential growth phase as a result of overflow metabolism or fermentative catabolism of glucose by yeast cells. After accumulating to a peak of 3.5 g/L, the ethanol was consumed by yeast cells as a carbon source when glucose in the culture was nearly exhausted. High initial glucose concentrations and ethanol accumulation in the culture had inhibitory effects on cell growth. Astaxanthin production was partially associated with cell growth. Based on these culture characteristics, we constructed a modified Monod kinetic model incorporating substrate (glucose) and product (ethanol) inhibition to describe the relationship of cell growth rate with glucose and ethanol concentrations. This kinetic model, coupled with the Luedeking-Piret equation for the astaxanthin production, gave satisfactory prediction of the biomass production, glucose consumption, ethanol formation and consumption, and astaxanthin production in batch cultures over 25-75 g/L glucose concentration ranges. The model was also applied to fed-batch cultures to predict the optimum feeding scheme (feeding glucose and corn steep liquor) for astaxanthin production, leading to a high volumetric yield (28.6 mg/L) and a high productivity (5.36 mg/L/day).

  2. Citric acid production from hydrolysate of pretreated straw cellulose by Yarrowia lipolytica SWJ-1b using batch and fed-batch cultivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaoyan; Lv, Jinshun; Zhang, Tong; Deng, Yuanfang

    2015-01-01

    In this study, crude cellulase produced by Trichoderma reesei Rut-30 was used to hydrolyze pretreated straw. After the compositions of the hydrolysate of pretreated straw were optimized, the study showed that natural components of pretreated straw without addition of any other components such as (NH4)2SO4, KH2PO4, or Mg(2+) were suitable for citric acid production by Yarrowia lipolytica SWJ-1b, and the optimal ventilatory capacity was 10.0 L/min/L medium. Batch and fed-batch production of citric acid from the hydrolysate of pretreated straw by Yarrowia lipolytica SWJ-1b has been investigated. In the batch cultivation, 25.4 g/L and 26.7 g/L citric acid were yields from glucose and hydrolysate of straw cellulose, respectively, while the cultivation time was 120 hr. In the three-cycle fed-batch cultivation, citric acid (CA) production was increased to 42.4 g/L and the cultivation time was extended to 240 hr. However, iso-citric acid (ICA) yield in fed-batch cultivation (4.0 g/L) was similar to that during the batch cultivation (3.9 g/L), and only 1.6 g/L of reducing sugar was left in the medium at the end of fed-batch cultivation, suggesting that most of the added carbon was used in the cultivation.

  3. Enhanced phenylpyruvic acid production with Proteus vulgaris in fed-batch and continuous fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coban, Hasan B; Demirci, Ali; Patterson, Paul H; Elias, Ryan J

    2016-01-01

    Phenylpyruvic acid is a deaminated form of phenylalanine and is used in various areas such as development of cheese and wine flavors, diagnosis of phenylketonuria, and to decrease excessive nitrogen accumulation in the manure of farm animals. However, reported phenylpyruvic acid fermentation studies in the literature have been usually performed at shake-flask scale with low production. In this study, phenylpyruvic acid production was evaluated in bench-top bioreactors by conducting fed-batch and continuous fermentation for the first time. As a result, maximum phenylpyruvic acid concentrations increased from 1350 mg/L (batch fermentation) to 2958 mg/L utilizing fed-batch fermentation. Furthermore, phenylpyruvic acid productivity was increased from 48 mg/L/hr (batch fermentation) to 104 and 259 mg/L/hr by conducting fed-batch and continuous fermentation, respectively. Overall, this study demonstrated that fed-batch and continuous fermentation significantly improved phenylpyruvic acid production in bench-scale bioreactor production.

  4. Optimal operation of batch processes via the tracking of active constraints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonvin, Dominique; Srinivasan, Bala

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents a new measurement-based optimization framework for batch processes whereby optimal operation can be achieved via the tracking of active constraints. It is shown that, under mild assumptions and to a first-order approximation, tracking the necessary conditions of optimality is equivalent to tracking active constraints (both during the batch and at the end of the batch). Thus the optimal input trajectories can be adjusted using measurements without the use of a model of the process. When only batch-end measurements are available, the proposed method leads itself to an efficient batch-to-batch optimization scheme. The approach is illustrated via the simulation of a semibatch reactor under uncertainty.

  5. General model for studying the feasibility of heterogeneous extractive batch distillation

    OpenAIRE

    Hegely, Laszlo; Gerbaud, Vincent; Lang, Peter

    2014-01-01

    International audience; By extending our former model for batch heteroazeotropic distillation, a general model is developed for the batch heterogeneous extractive distillation. An entrainer-rich and an entrainer-lean phase are present in the decanter, where the holdup of both phases can be reduced, kept constant, or increased, thanks to batch operation mode. Any fraction of both phases can be refluxed or withdrawn as distillate. The entrainer is fed continuously either onto one of the plates ...

  6. A novel derivation of a within-batch sampling plan based on a Poisson-gamma model characterising low microbial counts in foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzales-Barron, Ursula; Zwietering, Marcel H; Butler, Francis

    2013-02-01

    This study proposes a novel step-wise methodology for the derivation of a sampling plan by variables for food production systems characterised by relatively low concentrations of the inspected microorganism. After representing the universe of contaminated batches by modelling the between-batch and within-batch variability in microbial counts, a tolerance criterion defining batch acceptability (i.e., up to a tolerance percentage of the food units having microbial concentrations lower or equal to a critical concentration) is established to delineate a limiting quality contour that separates satisfactory from unsatisfactory batches. The problem consists then of finding the optimum decision criterion - arithmetic mean of the analytical results (microbiological limit, m(L)) and the sample size (n) - that satisfies a pre-defined level of confidence measured on the samples' mean distributions from all possible true within-batch distributions. This is approached by obtaining decision landscape curves representing collectively the conditional and joint producer's and consumer's risks at different microbiological limits along with confidence intervals representing uncertainty due to the propagated between-batch variability. Whilst the method requires a number of risk management decisions to be made such as the objective of the sampling plan (GMP-based or risk-based), the modality of derivation, the tolerance criterion or level of safety, and the statistical level of confidence, the proposed method can be used when past monitoring data are available so as to produce statistically-sound dynamic sampling plans with optimised efficiency and discriminatory power. For the illustration of Enterobacteriaceae concentrations on Irish sheep carcasses, a sampling regime of n=10 and m(L)=17.5CFU/cm(2) is recommended to ensure that the producer has at least a 90% confidence of accepting a satisfactory batch whilst the consumer at least a 97.5% confidence that a batch will not be

  7. The Misselhorn Cycle: Batch-Evaporation Process for Efficient Low-Temperature Waste Heat Recovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moritz Gleinser

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The concept of the Misselhorn cycle is introduced as a power cycle that aims for efficient waste heat recovery of temperature sources below 100 °C. The basic idea shows advantages over a standard Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC in overall efficiency and utilization of the heat source. The main characteristic of this cycle is the use of at least three parallel batch evaporators instead of continuous heat exchangers. The operational phases of the evaporators are shifted so that there is always one vaporizer in discharge mode. A transient MATLAB® model (The MathWorks: Natick, MA, USA is used to simulate the achievable performance of the Misselhorn cycle. The calculations of the thermodynamic states of the system are based on the heat flux, the equations for energy conservation and the equations of state found in the NIST Standard Reference Database 23 (Reference Fluid Thermodynamic and Transport Properties - REFPROP, National Institute of Standards and Technology: Gaithersburg, MD, USA. In the isochoric batch evaporation, the pressure and the corresponding boiling temperature rise over time. With a gradually increasing boiling temperature, no pinch point limitation occurs. Furthermore, the heat source medium is passed through the evaporators in serial order to obtain a quasi-counter flow setup. It could be shown that these features offer the possibility to gain both high thermal efficiencies and an enhanced utilization of the heat source at the same time. A basic model with a fixed estimated heat transfer coefficient promises a possible system exergy efficiency of 44.4%, which is an increase of over 60% compared to a basic ORC with a system exergy efficiency of only 26.8%.

  8. Reactive schedule modification in multipurpose batch chemical plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kanakamedala, K.B.; Reklaitis, G.V.; Venkatasubramanian, V. (Purdue Univ., West Lafayette, IN (United States). School of Chemical Engineering)

    1994-01-01

    A new scheme is described for reactive schedule modification in the face of unexpected deviations in processing times and unit availabilities of a multipurpose batch plant (MBP). Schedule modification is done using at least impact heuristic beam search which proceeds in two levels: creation of a decision tree which makes use of possible reroutings of the product that is causing a conflict, and heuristic pruning of the search space to contain the combinatorial complexity. The heuristic chooses a path among all possible reroutings for a product such that the impact of each decision on the rest of the schedule is kept as small as possible. This approach has been implemented and tested on a number of simulated deviations in a MBP case study with three products. The proposed least impact heuristic was found to perform better than the earliest finishing unit heuristic in all the cases considered.

  9. Hybrid modeling of xanthan gum bioproduction in batch bioreactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zabot, Giovani L; Mecca, Jaqueline; Mesomo, Michele; Silva, Marceli F; Prá, Valéria Dal; de Oliveira, Débora; Oliveira, J Vladimir; Castilhos, Fernanda; Treichel, Helen; Mazutti, Marcio A

    2011-10-01

    This work is focused on hybrid modeling of xanthan gum bioproduction process by Xanthomonas campestris pv. mangiferaeindicae. Experiments were carried out to evaluate the effects of stirred speed and superficial gas velocity on the kinetics of cell growth, lactose consumption and xanthan gum production in a batch bioreactor using cheese whey as substrate. A hybrid model was employed to simulate the bio-process making use of an artificial neural network (ANN) as a kinetic parameter estimator for the phenomenological model. The hybrid modeling of the process provided a satisfactory fitting quality of the experimental data, since this approach makes possible the incorporation of the effects of operational variables on model parameters. The applicability of the validated model was investigated, using the model as a process simulator to evaluate the effects of initial cell and lactose concentration in the xanthan gum production.

  10. Sample Results From Routine Salt Batch 7 Samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peters, T. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2016-01-14

    Strip Effluent Hold Tank (SEHT) and Decontaminated Salt Solution Hold Tank (DSSHT) samples from several of the “microbatches” of Integrated Salt Disposition Project (ISDP) Salt Batch (“Macrobatch”) 7B have been analyzed for 238Pu, 90Sr, 137Cs, cations (Inductively Coupled Plasma Emission Spectroscopy - ICPES), and anions (Ion Chromatography Anions - IC-A). The analytical results from the current microbatch samples are similar to those from previous macrobatch samples. The Actinide Removal Process (ARP) and the Modular Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction Unit (MCU) continue to show more than adequate Pu and Sr removal, and there is a distinct positive trend in Cs removal (increasing cesium decontamination), due to the use of the Next Generation Solvent (NGS). The bulk chemistry of the DSSHT and SEHT samples do not show any signs of unusual behavior.

  11. Minimum Amount of Slop Cut in Batch Distillation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    The pulse-control operation technique which alternates between total reflux operation and total efflux operation in batch distillation was studied along with the minimum amount of slop cut.Total reflux time was confirmed by dynamic simulation, and total efflux time was adopted by statistic method. For the mixture of hexane and cyclohexane and the traditional constant reflux ratio operation strategy, the amount of slop cut is 1.8-2.1 times of the minimum amount of slop cut; whereas for the pulse-control operation strategy, it is 1.2-1.4 times of the minimum amount of slop cut. So compared with the traditional constant reflux ratio operation, the pulse-control operation can decrease the amount of slop cut and operation time, and meanwhile, enhance separation efficiency and yield.

  12. CONSOLIDATING BATCH AND TRANSACTIONAL WORKLOADS USING DEPENDENCY STRUCTURE PRIORITIZATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.NIVETHITHA

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Organizations offer efficient services to their customers through cloud. These services can either be a batch or transactional workloads. To offer a real-time service, there comes a need to schedule these workloads in an efficient way. An idea to consolidate these workloads enables us to cut down the energy consumption and infrastructure cost. It will be harder to consolidate both these workloads due to the difference in their nature, performance goals and control mechanisms. The proposed work implements the concept of Dependency Structure Prioritization (DSP to assign priority to the job. This work tends to make effective resource utilization through reducing the number of job migration and missed deadline jobs by considering the deadline and the priority of the job as the most important evaluation factor.

  13. Study on the numerical simulation of batch sieving process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIAO Hong-guang; MA Jiao; ZHAO Yue-min; CHEN Lun-jian

    2006-01-01

    Screening was widely used in many sectors of industry. However, it is rather incomplete to the cognition of the sieving process for us due to the daedal separation process involving interactions of thousands of particulates. To address this problem, two dimensional numerical simulation of batch sieving process was performed by adopting advanced discrete element method (DEM), which is one of the highly nonlinear digitized dynamic simulative methods and can be used to reveal the quantitative change from particle dimension level. DEM simulation results show that the jam phenomena of sieve-plate apertures of the "blinding particles" in the screen feed can be demonstrated vividly and results also reveal that the velocity of particle moving on the screen plate will vary along with the screen length. This conclusion will be helpful to the design and operation of screen.

  14. Increased CPC batch size study for Tank 42 sludge in the Defense Waste Processing Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daniel, W.E.

    2000-01-06

    A series of experiments have been completed at TNX for the sludge-only REDOX adjusted flowsheet using Tank 42 sludge simulant in response to the Technical Task Request HLW/DWPT/TTR-980013 to increase CPC batch sizes. By increasing the initial SRAT batch size, a melter feed batch at greater waste solids concentration can be prepared and thus increase melter output per batch by about one canister. The increased throughput would allow DWPF to dispose of more waste in a given time period thus shortening the overall campaign.

  15. Lipase-catalysed transesterification of soya bean oil for biodiesel production during continuous batch operation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Wei; Xu, Yuanyuan; Liu, Dehua

    2003-10-01

    The effects of temperature, oil/alcohol molar ratio and by-product glycerol were studied during Lipozyme TL IM-catalysed continuous batch operation when short-chain alcohols were used as the acyl acceptor. In non-continuous batch operation, the optimal oil/alcohol ratio and temperature were 1:4 and 40-50 degrees C; however, during the continuous batch operation, the optimal oil/alcohol ratio and temperature were 1:1 and 30 degrees C; 95% of enzymic activity remained after 10 batches when isopropanol was adopted to remove by-product glycerol during repeated use of the lipase.

  16. Analysis of Mixing Characteristics of Batch Stirred Vessels Using the Networks-of-Zones Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Batch stirred vessels, being devoid of through flow, cannot be assessed by the classical response technique. However, visible inert tracers can be readily observed in a batch or semi-batch stirred vessel. Visible images of the mixing and dispersion of the tracer present a picture in both space and time of the mixing process. Axi-symmetric networks of backmixed zones were used in an image reconstruction approach to analytically characterize the mixing. Computer generated images were compared with experimental results. The qualitative agreement between the observed and calculated images suggests that the analysis of batch stirred reactors can be used to guide operational strategies to control internal concentration fields.

  17. Sludge Batch 2 (Marcobath 3) Flowsheet Studies with Simulants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koopman, D.C.

    2001-03-02

    Sludge-only process simulations of the Sludge Receipt and Adjustment Tank (SRAT) and the Slurry Mix Evaporator (SME) cycle were conducted for the two most likely scenarios for Sludge Batch 2 (Macrobatch 3). The two scenarios are a roughly 50:50 blend of Tank 8 and Tank 40 washed sludge and Tank 40 washed sludge by itself. The testing used new simulants of Tank 8 and Tank 40 washed sludge prepared at the University of South Carolina. The washing endpoint was about 0.5 moles sodium per liter supernate. This report summarizes both the simulant preparation and process simulation activities. The rheology work requested in the Task Plan will be documented in a separate report. Two scoping SRAT simulations were conducted for Tank 40 sludge. This was followed by a complete SRAT and SME simulation using Sludge Batch 1B acid stoichiometry (137.5 percent). Four scoping SRAT simulations were conducted for the Tank 8/40 blend. Three complete SRAT and SME simulations using blended sludge were then performed. One was at the recommended acid stoichiometry of 125 percent. The second used identical acid stoichiometry with HM levels of noble metals. The final run was at worst case noble metals and assumed complete transfer of the Formic Acid Feed Tank. Testing was completed without any major incidents. Hydrogen flow rates in excess of the design bases (0.65 lbs./hr for the SRAT and 0.23 lbs./hr for the SME) are marked in bold. Full details on the noble metals concentrations can be found in the body of the report.

  18. Bacterial communities in batch and continuous-flow wetlands treating the herbicide S-metolachlor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elsayed, O.F. [Laboratory of Hydrology and Geochemistry of Strasbourg (LHyGeS), UMR 7517 University of Strasbourg/ENGEES/CNRS (France); Génétique Moléculaire, Génomique, Microbiologie (GMGM), UMR 7156 University of Strasbourg/CNRS (France); Maillard, E. [Laboratory of Hydrology and Geochemistry of Strasbourg (LHyGeS), UMR 7517 University of Strasbourg/ENGEES/CNRS (France); Vuilleumier, S. [Génétique Moléculaire, Génomique, Microbiologie (GMGM), UMR 7156 University of Strasbourg/CNRS (France); Imfeld, G., E-mail: imfeld@unistra.fr [Laboratory of Hydrology and Geochemistry of Strasbourg (LHyGeS), UMR 7517 University of Strasbourg/ENGEES/CNRS (France)

    2014-11-15

    Knowledge of wetland bacterial communities in the context of pesticide contamination and hydrological regime is scarce. We investigated the bacterial composition in constructed wetlands receiving Mercantor Gold{sup ®} contaminated water (960 g L{sup −1} of the herbicide S-metolachlor, > 80% of the S-enantiomer) operated under continuous-flow or batch modes to evaluate the impact of the hydraulic regime. In the continuous-flow wetland, S-metolachlor mass removal was > 40%, whereas in the batch wetland, almost complete removal of S-metolachlor (93–97%) was observed. Detection of ethanesulfonic and oxanilic acid degradation products further indicated S-metolachlor biodegradation in the two wetlands. The dominant bacterial populations were characterised by terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) and 454 pyrosequencing. The bacterial profiles evolved during the first 35 days of the experiment, starting from a composition similar to that of inlet water, with the use of nitrate and to a lesser extent sulphate and manganese as terminal electron acceptors for microbial metabolism. Proteobacteria were the most abundant phylum, with Beta-, Alpha- and Gammaproteobacteria representing 26%, 19% and 17% respectively of total bacterial abundance. Bacterial composition in wetland water changed gradually over time in continuous-flow wetland and more abruptly in the batch wetland. Differences in overall bacterial water structure in the two systems were modest but significant (p = 0.008), and S-metolachlor, nitrate, and total inorganic carbon concentrations correlated with changes in the bacterial profiles. Together, the results highlight that bacterial composition profiles and their dynamics may be used as bioindicators of herbicide exposure and hydraulic disturbances in wetland systems. - Highlights: • We evaluated the bacterial composition in wetlands treating S-metolachlor • Hydraulic regime impacted biogeochemical processes and S-metolachlor removal

  19. Runaway behavior and thermally safe operation of multiple liquid–liquid reactions in the semi-batch reactor: The nitric acid oxidation of 2-octanol

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Woezik, van B.A.A.; Westerterp, K.R.

    2002-01-01

    The thermal runaway behavior of an exothermic, heterogeneous, multiple reaction system has been studied in a cooled semi-batch reactor. The nitric acid oxidation of 2-octanol has been used to this end. During this reaction, 2-octanone is formed, which can be further oxidized to unwanted carboxylic a

  20. Effect of redox conditions on pharmaceutical loss during biological wastewater treatment using sequencing batch reactors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stadler, Lauren B.; Su, Lijuan; Moline, Christopher J.;

    2015-01-01

    We lack a clear understanding of how wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) process parameters, such as redox environment, impact pharmaceutical fate. WWTPs increasingly install more advanced aeration control systems to save energy and achieve better nutrient removal performance. The impact of redox...... condition, and specifically the use of microaerobic (low dissolved oxygen) treatment, is poorly understood. In this study, the fate of a mixture of pharmaceuticals and several of their transformation products present in the primary effluent of a local WWTP was assessed in sequencing batch reactors operated...... and between redox environments. Losses of atenolol and trimethoprim were highest in the aerobic reactor; sulfamethoxazole loss was highest in the microaerobic reactors; and phenytoin was recalcitrant in all reactors. Transformation products of sulfamethoxazole and desvenlafaxine resulted in the reformation...

  1. A dynamic metabolic flux balance based model of fed-batch fermentation of Bordetella pertussis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budman, Hector; Patel, Nilesh; Tamer, Melih; Al-Gherwi, Walid

    2013-01-01

    A mathematical model based on a dynamic metabolic flux balance (DMFB) is developed for a process of fed-batch fermentation of Bordetella pertussis. The model is based on the maximization of growth rate at each time interval subject to stoichiometric constraints. The model is calibrated and verified with experimental data obtained in two different bioreactor experimental systems. It was found that the model calibration was mostly sensitive to the consumption or production rates of tyrosine and, for high supplementation rates, to the consumption rate of glutamate. Following this calibration the model correctly predicts biomass and by-products concentrations for different supplementation rates. Comparisons of model predictions to oxygen uptake and carbon emission rates measurements indicate that the TCA cycle is fully functional.

  2. Batch production of FAEE-biodiesel using a liquid lipase formulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Asbjørn Toftgaard; Nordblad, Mathias; Nielsen, Per Munk;

    2014-01-01

    The application of lipase catalysis to the production of biodiesel has received much interest during the past several years. Although most of the previous work has involved the use of immobilized enzyme, more recent work has indicated that liquid formulations of lipase can provide a highly...... competitive option for the conversion of oils and fats to biodiesel. This study investigates the impact of several process parameters on the production of fatty acid ethyl esters from rapeseed oil in a pure batch process on the liquid lipase formulation Callera™ Trans L. Oil conversion in excess of 98......% was achieved by combining a 50% stoichiometric excess of ethanol (1.5 equivalents) with 20% (w/w) water relative to the oil. The rate of reaction was directly proportional to the amount of lipase added in this system (500-2000 LU per gram oil). Addition of glycerol to the initial reaction mixture reduced...

  3. Mass Transfer and Kinetics Study of Heterogeneous Semi-Batch Precipitation of Magnesium Carbonate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Han, B.; Qu, H. Y.; Niemi, H.

    2014-01-01

    on the dissolution of Mg(OH)(2). In the researched system, the main driver of the precipitation kinetics was the mass transfer of CO2. Nesquehonite (MgCO3 center dot 3H(2)O), as needle-like crystals, was precipitated as the main product. Raman spectroscopy can serve as a potential tool to monitor the carbonation......Precipitation kinetics and mass transfer of magnesium carbonate (MgCO3) hydrates from a reaction of magnesium hydroxide (Mg(OH)(2)) and CO2 were analyzed. The effect of CO2 flow rate and mixing intensity on precipitation was investigated under ambient temperature and atmospheric pressure. Raman...... spectroscopy was used to determine the composition of the solids during semi-batch crystallization. The obtained spectra revealed the dissolution of Mg(OH)(2) and the formation of MgCO3. The precipitation rate increased with higher gas flow rate. The rotation speed of the stirrer had a significant effect...

  4. Water quality performance of a batch-type stormwater detention basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Middleton, John R; Barrett, Michael E

    2008-02-01

    The objective of this research was to modify an extended detention basin to provide batch treatment of stormwater runoff. An automated valve/controller was developed and placed on the outlet of a detention basin in Austin, Texas, which allowed the water quality volume to be retained in the basin for a preset length of time. The influent and effluent of the modified basin were monitored for total suspended solids (TSS), nutrients, chemical oxygen demand (COD), and total and dissolved metals. Statistically significant removal of total metals, COD, total nitrogen, total phosphorus, and TSS was observed, with a discharge event mean TSS concentration of 7 mg/L and a TSS removal efficiency of 91%. The modified basin has substantially better pollutant removal than conventional extended detention basins and is comparable with that of Austin sand filters, which are a common structural stormwater treatment system in the Austin area. The valve also can be used to isolate hazardous material spills.

  5. Removal performance and microbial communities in a sequencing batch reactor treating hypersaline phenol-laden wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yu; Wei, Li; Zhang, Huining; Yang, Kai; Wang, Hongyu

    2016-10-01

    Hypersaline phenol-rich wastewater is hard to be treated by traditional biological systems. In this work, a sequencing batch reactor was used to remove phenol from hypersaline wastewater. The removal performance was evaluated in response to the variations of operating parameters and the microbial diversity was investigated by 454 pyrosequencing. The results showed that the bioreactor had high removal efficiency of phenol and was able to keep stable with the increase of initial phenol concentration. DO, pH, and salinity also affected the phenol removal rate. The most abundant bacterial group was phylum Proteobacteria in the two working conditions, and class Gammaproteobacteria as well as Alphaproteobacteria was predominant subgroup. The abundance of bacterial clusters was notably different along with the variation of operation conditions, resulting in changes of phenol degradation rates. The high removal efficiency of phenol suggested that the reactor might be promising in treating phenol-laden industrial wastewater in high-salt condition.

  6. Decolorization of Orange Ⅱ using an anaerobic sequencing batch reactor with and without co-substrates

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Soon-An Ong; Eiichi Toorisaka; Makoto Hirata; Tadashi Hano

    2012-01-01

    We investigated the decolorization of Orange Ⅱ with and without the addition of co-substrates and nutrients under an anaerobic sequencing batch reactor (ASBR).The increase in COD concentrations from 900 to 1750 to 3730 mg/L in the system treating 100 mg/L of Orange H-containing wastewater enhanced color removal from 27% to 81% to 89%,respectively.In the absence of co-substrates and nutrients,more than 95% of decolorization was achieved by the acclimatized anaerobic microbes in the bioreactor treating 600 mg/L of Orange Ⅱ.The decrease in mixed liquor suspended solids concentration by endogenous lysis of biomass preserved a high reducing environment in the ASBR,which was important for the reduction of the Orange Ⅱ azo bond that caused decolorization.The maximum decolorization rate in the ASBR was approximately 0.17 g/hr in the absence of co-substrates and nutrients.

  7. PERFORMANCE INDICES TO DESIGN A MULTICOMPONENT BATCH DISTILLATION COLUMN USING A SHORTCUT METHOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Narvaes-Garcia

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available AbstractIn this paper, three quality or performance indices (Luyben's capacity factor, total annual costs, and annual profit were applied for the design of a batch distillation column working at variable reflux. This work used the Fenske-Underwood-Gilliland short-cut method to solve a problem of four components (benzene, toluene, ethyl-benzene, and ortho-xylene that needed to be separated and purified to a mole fraction of 0.97 or better. The performance of the system was evaluated using distillation columns with 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50 theoretical stages with a boil-up vapor flow set at 100 kmol/h. It was found that the annual profit was the best quality index, while the best case for variable reflux was the column with 50 stages. It was confirmed that the best case always required a reflux ratio close to the minimum.

  8. Effect of different salinity adaptation on the performance and microbial community in a sequencing batch reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yuanyuan; Park, Hee-Deung; Park, Jeong-Hoon; Zhang, Fushuang; Chen, Chen; Li, Xiangkun; Zhao, Dan; Zhao, Fangbo

    2016-09-01

    The performance and microbial community profiles in a sequencing batch reactor (SBR) treating saline wastewater were studied over 300days from 0wt% to 3.0wt% salinity. The experimental results indicated that the activated sludge had high sensitivity to salinity variations in terms of pollutants removal and sedimentation. At 2.0wt% salinity, the system retained a good performance, and 95% removal rate of chemical oxygen demand (COD), biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), NH4(+)-N and total phosphorus (TP) could be achieved. Operation before addition salinity revealed the optimal performance and the most microbial diversity indicated by 16S rRNA gene clone library. Sequence analyses illustrated that Candidate_division_TM7 (TM7) was predominant at 2.0 wt% salinity; however, Actinobacteria was more abundant at 3.0wt% salinity.

  9. State estimation of a batch hydrogen production process using the photosynthetic bacteria Rhodobacter capsulatus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Obeid, Jamila; Magnin, Jean-Pierre [Grenoble University, LEPMI, UMR 5631 (CNRS-INPG-UJF), Laboratoire d' Electrochimie et de Physico chimie des Materiaux et Interfaces, BP 75, 38402 St. Martin d' Heres (France); Flaus, Jean-Marie; Adrot, Olivier [Grenoble University, G-SCOP UMR 272 (CNRS-INPG-UJF), Laboratoire des Sciences pour la Conception, l' Optimisation et la Production, 46, avenue Felix Viallet, 38031 Grenoble (France); Willison, John C. [Laboratoire de Chimie et Biologie des Metaux (UMR 5249 CEA-CNRS-UJF), iRTSV/LCBM, CEA-Grenoble, 38054 Grenoble (France)

    2010-10-15

    This paper addresses the problem of estimating the states of an anaerobic photosynthetic process used for biohydrogen production by the photosynthetic bacterium Rhodobacter capsulatus. The process is described by a non-linear, time-discrete model and the state estimation is solved using an observer based on the Moving-Horizon State Estimation Method (MHSE). This approach is based on the minimization of a criterion (a non-linear function), in this case, the difference between the estimated output and the measured output of the system over a considered time horizon, where the solution is computed by using a numerical interval method. The observer was successfully applied to hydrogen production by R. capsulatus strain B10 in a batch process. (author)

  10. Development of a new model for batch sedimentation and application to secondary settling tanks design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karamisheva, Ralica D; Islam, M A

    2005-01-01

    Assuming that settling takes place in two zones (a constant rate zone and a variable rate zone), a model using four parameters accounting for the nature of the water-suspension system has been proposed for describing batch sedimentation processes. The sludge volume index (SVI) has been expressed in terms of these parameters. Some disadvantages of the SVI application as a design parameter have been pointed out, and it has been shown that a relationship between zone settling velocity and sludge concentration is more consistent for describing the settling behavior and for design of settling tanks. The permissible overflow rate has been related to the technological parameters of secondary settling tank by simple working equations. The graphical representations of these equations could be used to optimize the design and operation of secondary settling tanks.

  11. Fuzzy Modeling to Evaluate the Effect of Temperature on Batch Transesterification of Jatropha Curcas for Biodiesel Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vipan Kumar Sohpal

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Biodiesel is an alternative source of fuel that can be synthesized from edible, non-edible and waste oils through transesterification. Firstly Transesterification reaction of Jatropha Curcas oil with butanol in the ratio of 1:25 investigated by using of sodium hydroxide catalyst with mixing intensity of 250 rpm in isothermal batch reactor. Secondly the fuzzy model of the temperature is developed. Performance was evaluated by comparing fuzzy model with the batch kinetic data. Fuzzy models were developed using adaptive neurofuzzy inference system (ANFIS. © 2011 BCREC UNDIP. All rights reserved(Received: 27th January 2011, Revised: 13rd February 2011; Accepted: 16th February 2011[How to Cite: V.K. Sohpal, A. Singh, A. Dey. (2011. Fuzzy Modeling to Evaluate the Effect of Temperature on Batch Transesterification of Jatropha Curcas for Biodiesel Production. Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering and Catalysis, 6(1: 31-38. doi:10.9767/bcrec.6.1.816.31-38][How to Link / DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.9767/bcrec.6.1.816.31-38 || or local:  http://ejournal.undip.ac.id/index.php/bcrec/article/view/816 ] | View in 

  12. Removal of arsenic(III) and arsenic(V) on chemically modified low-cost adsorbent: batch and column operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Palas; Mondal, Naba Kumar; Bhattacharya, Shreya; Das, Biswajit; Das, Kousik

    2013-03-01

    Batch and column operations were performed utilizing thioglycolated sugarcane carbon (TSCC), a low-cost adsorbent, to remove As(III) and As(V) from aqueous systems. Under optimized batch conditions, the TSCC could remove up to 92.7 and 91.4 % for As(III) and As(V), respectively. An artificial neural network model showed the validity of TSCC as a preferable adsorbent for arsenic [As(III) and As(V)] removal in batch studies. In column operations, removal efficiency increases with increase in influent arsenic concentration and adsorbent dose and decreases with increase in flow rate. At an adsorbent dose of 6.0 g, flow rate 3.0 mL min-1, and initial arsenic concentration 1,500 μg L-1, the arsenic uptake capacity of TSCC for As(III) and As(V) was found to be 85.01 and 83.82 μg g-1, respectively. The Thomas model was used to analyze the column experimental data. Results from the column operations indicated that the adsorption behavior of arsenic [As(III) and As(V)] fits exceptionally well with the Thomas model with high correlation coefficient and very low standard error. Examinations of scanning electron microscopy and FTIR spectroscopy reveal that high arsenic adsorption favors surface complexation on the adsorbent surface.

  13. Production of laccase by Coriolus versicolor and its application in decolorization of dyestuffs : (Ⅰ) Production of laccase by batch and repeated-batch processes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    The production of laccase by Coriolus versicolor wasstudied. The effect of cultivation conditions on laccase productionby Coriolus versicolor was examined to obtain optimal medium andcultivation conditions. Both batch and repeated-batch processeswere performed for laccase production. In repeated-batchfermentation with self-immobilized mycelia, total of 14 cycles wereperformed with laccase activity in the range between 3.4 and 14.8U/ml.

  14. Effect of using batch or semi-batch reactor on the chemical composition distribution of styrene-maleic anhydride-acrylonitrile terpolymers

    OpenAIRE

    Cunha, Regina de J. S.; Ailton S. Gomes

    1997-01-01

    Texto completo: acesso restrito. p.595-600 The influence of the reactor type on distribution of chemical composition of STY AN/MA terpolymers obtained by free-radical polymerization is shown. When a batch reactor was used we have obtained polymers with broad chemical composition distribution. However, if a semi-batch reactor with appropriate addition protocol was used it can be possible to synthesize terpolymers with homogeneous chemical composition.

  15. Aquifer recharge with reclaimed water in the Llobregat Delta. Laboratory batch experiments and field test site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobella, J.

    2010-05-01

    on the conditions to develop at the test site during artificial recharge. The data collected during the laboratory experiments and in the test site will be used to build and calibrate a numerical model of the physical-chemical-biochemical processes developing in the batches and of multicomponent reactive transport in the unsaturated/saturated zone in the test site area. 3. Field test site The infiltration site of Sant Vicenç dels Horts has been selected to assessing the biogeochemical processes occurring during SAT. The system consists of two ponds that have been built as compensatory measure for the reduction in natural recharge caused by the construction of the High Speed Train Line. The first pond acts as a decantation pond while the second one acts as an infiltration basin (Figure 1). Recharge water comes from the tertiary treatment plant of the El Prat de Llobregat WWTP and the river (?). The CUADLL (Lower Llobregat Aquifer End-Users Community) is now managing the system operation. Tasks that are currently being carried out at this Test Site aims at (i) improving the local experience on MAR through infiltration ponds operational aspects and (ii) monitoring the changes in water quality during the recharge processes (unsaturated and saturated zone). Special attention is being paid to the fate of emerging organic pollutants (pharmaceuticals, surfactants, pesticides, etc.). The yielding of the monitoring will be compared with the results from the laboratory batch experiments on the behaviour of selected emerging organic pollutants. To this end, observation wells have been constructed, pressure / temperature / electrical conductivity transducers have been installed and the vadose zone under the infiltration pond has been instrumented (tensiometers, water content probes and suction cups). In addition double ring and infiltration tests have been performed in order to forecast the infiltration capacity of the basin.

  16. Improving the batch-to-batch reproducibility of microbial cultures during recombinant protein production by regulation of the total carbon dioxide production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenzsch, Marco; Gnoth, Stefan; Kleinschmidt, Martin; Simutis, Rimvydas; Lübbert, Andreas

    2007-03-10

    Batch-to-batch reproducibility of fermentation processes performed during the manufacturing processes of biologics can be increased by operating the cultures at feed rate profiles that are robust against typically arising disturbances. Remaining randomly appearing deviations from the desired path should be suppressed automatically by manipulating the feed rate. With respect to the cells' physiology it is best guiding the cultivations along an optimal profile of the specific biomass growth rate mu(t). However, there are two problems that speak for further investigations: Upon severe disturbances that may happen during the fermentation, the biomass concentration X may significantly deviate from its desired value, then a fixed mu-profile leads to a diminished batch-to-batch reproducibility. Second, the specific growth rate cannot easily be estimated online to a favourably high accuracy, hence it is difficult to determine the deviations in mu from the desired profile. The alternative discussed here solves both problems by keeping the process at the corresponding total cumulative carbon dioxide production-profile: it is robust against distortions in X and the controlled variable can accurately be measured online during cultivations of all relevant sizes. As compared to the fermentation practice currently used in industry, the experimental results, presented at the example of a recombinant protein production with Escherichia coli cells, show that CPR-based corrections lead to a considerably improved batch-to-batch reproducibility.

  17. Adsorção de cromo (VI por carvão ativado granular de soluções diluídas utilizando um sistema batelada sob pH controlado Chromium (VI adsorption by GAC from diluted solutions in batch system and controlled ph

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Santos Souza

    2009-09-01

    solutions, and batch systems with controlled pH. The functional groups on the CAG surface was carried out by the Boehm method. In addition, effect of pH on the Cr(VI adsorption, adsorption equilibrium, and kinetic were studied under experimental conditions (pH = 6, MA = 6g, for 90min.. On the GAC surface, carboxylic groups were found to be in higher concentrations (MAS=0,43 mmol/gCAG, which increase the Cr(VI adsorption, principally in acidic pH values. The adsorption capacity is dependent on the pH of the solution, due to its influence on the surface properties of the CAG and different ionic forms of the Cr(VI solutions. The adsorption equilibrium data was adjusted satisfactorily by the Langmuir isotherm (R²=0,988, favorable type. From kinetics adsorption of 20 mg/L and 5 mg/L, the results were compatible with the national legislation (Res. nº 357/05. Therefore, the experimental system using (CAG was efficient in removing the Cr(VI from liquid streams containing low concentrations of the metal.

  18. ANALYSIS OF DWPF SLUDGE BATCH 7A (MACROBATCH 8) POUR STREAM SAMPLES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, F.

    2012-05-01

    The Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) began processing Sludge Batch 7a (SB7a), also referred to as Macrobatch 8 (MB8), in June 2011. SB7a is a blend of the heel of Tank 40 from Sludge Batch 6 (SB6) and the SB7a material that was transferred to Tank 40 from Tank 51. SB7a was processed using Frit 418. During processing of each sludge batch, the DWPF is required to take at least one glass sample to meet the objectives of the Glass Product Control Program (GPCP), which is governed by the DWPF Waste Compliance Plan, and to complete the necessary Production Records so that the final glass product may be disposed of at a Federal Repository. Three pour stream glass samples and two Melter Feed Tank (MFT) slurry samples were collected while processing SB7a. These additional samples were taken during SB7a to understand the impact of antifoam and the melter bubblers on glass redox chemistry. The samples were transferred to the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) where they were analyzed. The following conclusions were drawn from the analytical results provided in this report: (1) The sum of oxides for the official SB7a pour stream glass is within the Product Composition Control System (PCCS) limits (95-105 wt%). (2) The average calculated Waste Dilution Factor (WDF) for SB7a is 2.3. In general, the measured radionuclide content of the official SB7a pour stream glass is in good agreement with the calculated values from the Tank 40 dried sludge results from the SB7a Waste Acceptance Program Specification (WAPS) sample. (3) As in previous pour stream samples, ruthenium and rhodium inclusions were detected by Scanning Electron Microscopy-Electron Dispersive Spectroscopy (SEM-EDS) in the official SB7a pour stream sample. (4) The Product Consistency Test (PCT) results indicate that the official SB7a pour stream glass meets the waste acceptance criteria for durability with a normalized boron release of 0.64 g/L, which is an order of magnitude less than the Environmental

  19. Use of an anaerobic sequencing batch reactor for parameter estimation in modelling of anaerobic digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batstone, D J; Torrijos, M; Ruiz, C; Schmidt, J E

    2004-01-01

    The model structure in anaerobic digestion has been clarified following publication of the IWA Anaerobic Digestion Model No. 1 (ADM1). However, parameter values are not well known, and uncertainty and variability in the parameter values given is almost unknown. Additionally, platforms for identification of parameters, namely continuous-flow laboratory digesters, and batch tests suffer from disadvantages such as long run times, and difficulty in defining initial conditions, respectively. Anaerobic sequencing batch reactors (ASBRs) are sequenced into fill-react-settle-decant phases, and offer promising possibilities for estimation of parameters, as they are by nature, dynamic in behaviour, and allow repeatable behaviour to establish initial conditions, and evaluate parameters. In this study, we estimated parameters describing winery wastewater (most COD as ethanol) degradation using data from sequencing operation, and validated these parameters using unsequenced pulses of ethanol and acetate. The model used was the ADM1, with an extension for ethanol degradation. Parameter confidence spaces were found by non-linear, correlated analysis of the two main Monod parameters; maximum uptake rate (k(m)), and half saturation concentration (K(S)). These parameters could be estimated together using only the measured acetate concentration (20 points per cycle). From interpolating the single cycle acetate data to multiple cycles, we estimate that a practical "optimal" identifiability could be achieved after two cycles for the acetate parameters, and three cycles for the ethanol parameters. The parameters found performed well in the short term, and represented the pulses of acetate and ethanol (within 4 days of the winery-fed cycles) very well. The main discrepancy was poor prediction of pH dynamics, which could be due to an unidentified buffer with an overall influence the same as a weak base (possibly CaCO3). Based on this work, ASBR systems are effective for parameter

  20. Analysis Of The Sludge Batch 7b (Macrobatch 9) DWPF Pour Stream Glass Sample

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, F. C.; Crawford, C. L.; Pareizs, J. M.

    2013-11-18

    The Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) began processing Sludge Batch 7b (SB7b), also referred to as Macrobatch 9 (MB9), in January 2012. SB7b is a blend of the heel of Tank 40 from Sludge Batch 7a (SB7a) and the SB7b material that was transferred to Tank 40 from Tank 51. SB7b was processed using Frit 418. During processing of each sludge batch, the DWPF is required to take at least one glass sample to meet the objectives of the Glass Product Control Program (GPCP), which is governed by the DWPF Waste Form Compliance Plan, and to complete the necessary Production Records so that the final glass product may be disposed of at a Federal Repository. Two pour stream glass samples were collected while processing SB7b. The samples were transferred to the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) where one was analyzed and the other was archived. The following conclusions were drawn from the analytical results provided in this report: The sum of oxides for the official SB7b pour stream glass is within the Product Composition Control System (PCCS) limits (95-105 wt%); The average calculated Waste Dilution Factor (WDF) for SB7b is 2.3. In general, the measured radionuclide content of the official SB7b pour stream glass is in good agreement with the calculated values from the Tank 40 dried sludge results from the SB7b Waste Acceptance Program Specification (WAPS) sample; As in previous pour stream samples, ruthenium and rhodium inclusions were detected by Scanning Electron Microscopy-Electron Dispersive Spectroscopy (SEM-EDS) in the SB7b pour stream sample; The Product Consistency Test (PCT) results indicate that the official SB7b pour stream glass meets the waste acceptance criteria for durability with a normalized boron release of 0.8 g/L, which is an order of magnitude less than the Environmental Assessment (EA) glass; The measured density of the SB7b pour stream glass was 2.70 g/cm{sup 3}; The Fe{sup 2+}/ΣFe ratio of the SB7b pour stream samples was 0.07.

  1. Effects of Low-Molecular-Weight Organic Acids on the Dissolution of Hydroxyapatite Nanoparticles in Batch and Column Experiments: A Perspective from Phosphate Oxygen Isotope Fractionation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, D.; Jaisi, D. P.; Jin, Y.

    2015-12-01

    Hydroxyapatite nanoparticles (HANPs) are increasingly being advocated as an efficient and environment-friendly "green" phosphorus nanofertilizer attributed to their nanoscale dimension, large reactive surface area, and low leaching potential. However, knowledge of how naturally occurring low-molecular-weight organic acids (LMWOAs) that are secreted by plant roots mediate the dissolution of HANPs (releasing PO43- ion for plant growth) is nonexistent. Here three most commonly encountered LMWOAs (acetic acid, oxalic acid, and citric acid) at environmentally relevant concentration (1 mM) were evaluated for their effects on HANPs' dissolution in static batch and dynamic column systems. Particularly, phosphate oxygen isotope fractionation of HANPs during dissolution was examined to disentangle mechanisms controlling the evolution of O-isotopic composition of dissolved PO43- ion. Our results reveal that in batch experiments the dissolution of HANPs was fast but the overall dissolution efficiency of HANPs was limited (≤30%). In contrast, ~100% HANPs were dissolved in columns where LMWOAs were continuously injected. The limited dissolution of HANPs in static batch systems was due primarily to pH buffer effect (pH increased sharply when LMWOA was added in HANPs suspension), whereas in dynamic column systems the HANPs were continuously dissolved by low pH LMWOAs and leached away. Regardless of LMWOA type and experimental system, the isotopically light phosphate (P16O4) was preferentially released during dissolution and the O-isotopic composition of dissolved PO43- ion increased gradually with increasing dissolution due to equilibrium isotope effect between dissolved PO43- ion and HANPs. However, the overall magnitude of O-isotopic fractionation of dissolved PO43- ion was less in batch than in column systems, due to less mass transfer between dissolved PO43- ions and HANPs in batch relative to column experiments. Our findings provide new insights into bioavailability

  2. Role of batch depletion of broiler houses on the occurrence of Campylobacter spp. in chicken flocks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hald, Birthe; Rattenborg, Erik; Madsen, Mogens

    2001-01-01

    Aims: The effect of batch depletion of broiler houses for campylobacter occurrence in broiler flocks was estimated in 10 flocks, each comprising a separate female and male batch. Methods and Results: The chicks were sampled first bq; cloacal swabs in the broiler houses before the start of the dep...

  3. Procedures for Separations within Batches of Values, 1. The Orderly Tool Kit and Some Heuristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-03-01

    separations within batches of values, I. The orderly tool kit and some heuristics by Thu Hoang* and John W. Tukey** *Universite Rene Descartes ...separations with batches of values, . The orderly tool kit and heuristics Thu Hoang* and John W. Tukey** *Universite Rene Descartes Laboratoire de

  4. Fed-batch fermentation dealing with nitrogen limitation in microbial transglutaminase production by Streptoverticillium mobaraense

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhu, Y.; Rinzema, A.; Tramper, J.; Bruin, E. de; Bol, J.

    1998-01-01

    In the later stages of a batch fermentation for microbial transglutaminase production by Streptoverticillium mobaraense the availability of a nitrogen source accessible to the microorganism becomes critical. Fed-batch fermentation is investigated with the aim of avoiding this substrate limitation. W

  5. Leaching Behavior Of Mineral Processing Waste: Comparison Of Batch And Column Investigations

    Science.gov (United States)

    In this study, a comparison of laboratory batch and column experiments on metal release profile from a mineral processing waste (MPW) is presented. Batch (equilibrium) and column (dynamic) leaching tests were conducted on ground MPW at different liquid–solid ratios (LS) to determ...

  6. Batch fertility and larval parameters of the jaguar cichlid (Cichlasoma managuense spawned in the laboratory (ESP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Günther Nonell

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Batch fertility and larval parameters of 32 spawns of the jaguar guapote (Cichlasoma managuense in the laboratory were analyzed. Batch fertility was positively correlated with the female weight with spawns between about 3000 to 6000 larvae for females between 100 and 500 g wet weight. No significant correlation was found between larval parameters (fresh weight and % dry weight and female weight.

  7. A conditional likelihood approach for regression analysis using biomarkers measured with batch-specific error.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ming; Flanders, W Dana; Bostick, Roberd M; Long, Qi

    2012-12-20

    Measurement error is common in epidemiological and biomedical studies. When biomarkers are measured in batches or groups, measurement error is potentially correlated within each batch or group. In regression analysis, most existing methods are not applicable in the presence of batch-specific measurement error in predictors. We propose a robust conditional likelihood approach to account for batch-specific error in predictors when batch effect is additive and the predominant source of error, which requires no assumptions on the distribution of measurement error. Although a regression model with batch as a categorical covariable yields the same parameter estimates as the proposed conditional likelihood approach for linear regression, this result does not hold in general for all generalized linear models, in particular, logistic regression. Our simulation studies show that the conditional likelihood approach achieves better finite sample performance than the regression calibration approach or a naive approach without adjustment for measurement error. In the case of logistic regression, our proposed approach is shown to also outperform the regression approach with batch as a categorical covariate. In addition, we also examine a 'hybrid' approach combining the conditional likelihood method and the regression calibration method, which is shown in simulations to achieve good performance in the presence of both batch-specific and measurement-specific errors. We illustrate our method by using data from a colorectal adenoma study.

  8. Monitoring and Characterization of Crystal Nucleation and Growth during Batch Crystallization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kadam, S.S.

    2012-01-01

    Batch crystallization is commonly used in pharmaceutical, agrochemical, specialty and fine chemicals industry. The advantages of batch crystallization lie in its ease of operation and the relatively simple equipment that can be used. On the other hand a major disadvantage associated with it is the i

  9. Challenging Conventional Assumptions of Automated Information Retrieval with Real Users: Boolean Searching and Batch Retrieval Evaluations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hersh, William; Turpin, Andrew; Price, Susan; Kraemer, Dale; Olson, Daniel; Chan, Benjamin; Sacherek, Lynetta

    2001-01-01

    Describes research conducted at the TREC (Text Retrieval Conference) interactive track that compared Boolean and natural language searching, showing they achieved comparable results; and assessed the validity of batch-oriented retrieval evaluations, showing that the results from batch evaluations were not comparable to those obtained in…

  10. Inhibition of Sulfide Mineral Oxidation by Surface Coating Agents: Batch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, J.; Ji, M. K.; Yun, H. S.; Park, Y. T.; Gee, E. D.; Lee, W. R.; Jeon, B.-H.

    2012-04-01

    Mining activities and mineral industries have impacted on rapid oxidation of sulfide minerals such as pyrite (FeS2) which leads to Acid Mine Drainage (AMD) formation. Some of the abandoned mines discharge polluted water without proper environmental remediation treatments, largely because of financial constraints in treating AMD. Magnitude of the problem is considerable, especially in countries with a long history of mining. As metal sulfides become oxidized during mining activities, the aqueous environment becomes acid and rich in many metals, including iron, lead, mercury, arsenic and many others. The toxic heavy metals are responsible for the environmental deterioration of stream, groundwater and soils. Several strategies to remediate AMD contaminated sites have been proposed. Among the source inhibition and prevention technologies, microencapsulation (coating) has been considered as a promising technology. The encapsulation is based on inhibition of O2 diffusion by surface coating agent and is expected to control the oxidation of pyrite for a long time. Potential of several surface coating agents for preventing oxidation of metal sulfide minerals from both Young-Dong coal mine and Il-Gwang gold mine were examined by conducting batch experiments and field tests. Powdered pyrite as a standard sulfide mineral and rock samples from two mine outcrops were mixed with six coating agents (KH2PO4, MgO and KMnO4 as chemical agents, and apatite, cement and manganite as mineral agents) and incubated with oxidizing agents (H2O2 or NaClO). Batch experiments with Young-Dong coal mine samples showed least SO42- production in presence of KMnO4 (16% sulfate production compared to no surface coating agents) or cement (4%) within 8 days. In the case of Il-Gwang mine samples, least SO42- production was observed in presence of KH2PO4 (8%) or cement (2%) within 8 days. Field-scale pilot tests at Il-Gwang site also showed that addition of KH2PO4 decreased sulfate production from 200 to

  11. Batch and continuous extraction of bromelain enzyme by reversed micelles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Maria Frattini Fileti

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The main aim of this study was to optimize the conditions for bromelain extraction by reversed micelles from pineapple juice (Ananas comosus. The purification was carried out in batch extraction and a micro-column with pulsed caps for continuous extraction. The cationic micellar solution was made of BDBAC as a surfactant, isooctane as a solvent and hexanol as a co-solvent. For the batch process, a purification factor of 3 times at the best values of surfactant agent, co-solvent and salt concentrations, pH of the back and forward extractions were, 100 mM, 10% v/v, 1 M, 3.5 and 8, respectively. For the continuous operation, independent variables optimal point was determined: ratio between light phase flow rate and total flow rate equal to 0.67 and 1 second for the time interval between the pulses. This optimal point led to a productivity of 1.29 mL/min and a purification factor of 4.96.Este trabalho teve como objetivo principal otimizar as condições para extração da bromelina do suco do abacaxi (Ananas comosus por micelas reversas. A purificação foi feita usando o processo de extração em batelada e contínuo, este último em uma micro-coluna de campânulas pulsantes. A solução micelar catiônica foi preparada com o surfactante BDBAC, i-octano como solvente e hexanol como co-solvente. Na extração em batelada encontrou-se um fator de purificação de 3 vezes, e seus melhores valores de concentração do agente surfactante, co-solvente e sal, de pH da re-extração e extração, foram respectivamente iguais a: 100 mM, 10% v/v, 1 M, 3,5 e 8. Para a operação contínua, as variáveis independentes ótimas foram: 0,67 para a razão entre as taxas de fluxos da fase leve e a total e 1 s para o intervalo de tempo entre pulsos das campânulas. Este ponto ótimo leva a uma produtividade de 1,29 mL/min e a um fator de purificação igual a 4,96.

  12. Case-by-case risk assessment of broiler meat batches: An effective control strategy for Campylobacter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Bjarke Bak; Nauta, Maarten; Korsgaard, Helle;

    2013-01-01

    In 2006, the Danish government decided to take new measures to control Salmonella and Campylobacter in Danish and imported retail meat. The legal basis for these new measures was article 14 in the EU food law, which states that food shall not be placed on the market if it is unsafe, among others...... and the results of more than 3,000 batches of broiler meat tested since 2007. The risk was assessed for batches with one or more samples positive for Campylobacter (>100 cfu/g). Reductions in the number of positive batches from 2007 to 2010 were observed for both domestic (from 17% to 7%, p=0.01) and imported......, for reasons of contamination. This provision allows each member state to make a specific risk assessment of food batches, and decide whether a batch poses an unacceptable risk to the consumer or not. Here we present the basis for the risk assessment model on Campylobacter used in this new approach...

  13. Biosorption of heavy metals in a photo-rotating biological contactor--a batch process study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orandi, Sanaz; Lewis, David M

    2013-06-01

    Metal removal potential of indigenous mining microorganisms from acid mine drainage (AMD) has been well recognised in situ at mine sites. However, their removal capacity requires to be investigated for AMD treatment. In the reported study, the capacity of an indigenous AMD microbial consortium dominated with Klebsormidium sp., immobilised in a photo-rotating biological contactor (PRBC), was investigated for removing various elements from a multi-ion synthetic AMD. The synthetic AMD was composed of major (Cu, Mn, Mg, Zn, Ca, Na, Ni) and trace elements (Fe, Al, Cr, Co, Se, Ag, Mo) at initial concentrations of 2 to 100 mg/L and 0.005 to 1 mg/L, respectively. The PRBC was operated for two 7-day batch periods under pH conditions of 3 and 5. The maximum removal was observed after 3 and 6 days at pH 3 and 5, respectively. Daily water analysis data demonstrated the ability of the algal-microbial biofilm to remove an overall average of 25-40 % of the major elements at pH 3 in the order of Na > Cu > Ca > Mg > Mn > Ni > Zn, whereas a higher removal (35-50 %) was observed at pH 5 in the order of Cu > Mn > Mg > Ca > Ni > Zn > Na. The removal efficiency of the system for trace elements varied extensively between 3 and 80 % at the both pH conditions. The batch data results demonstrated the ability for indigenous AMD algal-microbial biofilm for removing a variety of elements from AMD in a PRBC. The work presents the potential for further development and scale-up to use PBRC inoculated with AMD microorganisms at mine sites for first or secondary AMD treatment.

  14. Simultaneous denitrifying phosphorus accumulation in a sequencing batch reactor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YUAN Linjiang; HAN Wei; WANG Lei; YANG Yongzhe; WANG Zhiying

    2007-01-01

    In order to achieve simultaneous nitrogen and phosphorus removal in the biological treatment process,denitrifying phosphorus accumulation(DNPA)and its affecting factors were studied in a sequencing batch reactor(SBR)with synthetic wastewater.The results showed that when acetate was used as the sole carbon resource in the influent.the sludge acclimatized under anaerobic/aerobic operation had good phosphorus removal ability.Denitrifying phosphorus accumulation was observed soon when fed with nitrate instead of aeration following the anaerobic stage,which is a vital premise to DNPA.If DNPA sludge is fed with nitrate prior to the anaerobic stage,the DNPA would weaken or even disappear.At the high concen tration of nitrate fed in the anoxic stage,the longer anoxic time needed,the better the DNPA was.Induced DNPA did not disappear even though an aerobic stage followed the anoxic stage,but the shorter the aerobic stage lasted,the higher the proportions of phosphorus removal via DNPA to total removal.

  15. Methods for batch fabrication of cold cathode vacuum switch tubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walker, Charles A. (Albuquerque, NM); Trowbridge, Frank R. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2011-05-10

    Methods are disclosed for batch fabrication of vacuum switch tubes that reduce manufacturing costs and improve tube to tube uniformity. The disclosed methods comprise creating a stacked assembly of layers containing a plurality of adjacently spaced switch tube sub-assemblies aligned and registered through common layers. The layers include trigger electrode layer, cathode layer including a metallic support/contact with graphite cathode inserts, trigger probe sub-assembly layer, ceramic (e.g. tube body) insulator layer, and metallic anode sub-assembly layer. Braze alloy layers are incorporated into the stacked assembly of layers, and can include active metal braze alloys or direct braze alloys, to eliminate costs associated with traditional metallization of the ceramic insulator layers. The entire stacked assembly is then heated to braze/join/bond the stack-up into a cohesive body, after which individual switch tubes are singulated by methods such as sawing. The inventive methods provide for simultaneously fabricating a plurality of devices as opposed to traditional methods that rely on skilled craftsman to essentially hand build individual devices.

  16. Biological hydrogen production measured in batch anaerobic respirometers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logan, Bruce E; Oh, Sang-Eun; Kim, In S; Van Ginkel, Steven

    2002-06-01

    The biological production of hydrogen from the fermentation of different substrates was examined in batch tests using heat-shocked mixed cultures with two techniques: an intermittent pressure release method (Owen method) and a continuous gas release method using a bubble measurement device (respirometric method). Under otherwise identical conditions, the respirometric method resulted in the production of 43% more hydrogen gas from glucose than the Owen method. The lower conversion of glucose to hydrogen using the Owen protocol may have been produced by repression of hydrogenase activity from high partial pressures in the gastight bottles, but this could not be proven using a thermodynamic/rate inhibition analysis. In the respirometric method, total pressure in the headspace never exceeded ambient pressure, and hydrogen typically composed as much as 62% of the headspace gas. High conversion efficiencies were consistently obtained with heat-shocked soils taken at different times and those stored for up to a month. Hydrogen gas composition was consistently in the range of 60-64% for glucose-grown cultures during logarithmic growth but declined in stationary cultures. Overall, hydrogen conversion efficiencies for glucose cultures were 23% based on the assumption of a maximum of 4 mol of hydrogen/ mol of glucose. Hydrogen conversion efficiencies were similar for sucrose (23%) and somewhat lower for molasses (15%) but were much lower for lactate (0.50%) and cellulose (0.075%).

  17. Degradation of formaldehyde in anaerobic sequencing batch biofilm reactor (ASBBR).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, N S; Zaiat, M

    2009-04-30

    The present study evaluated the degradation of formaldehyde in a bench-scale anaerobic sequencing batch reactor, which contained biomass immobilized in polyurethane foam matrices. The reactor was operated for 212 days at 35 degrees C with 8h sequential cycles, under different affluent formaldehyde concentrations ranging from 31.6 to 1104.4 mg/L (formaldehyde loading rates from 0.08 to 2.78 kg/m(3)day). The results indicate excellent reactor stability and over 99% efficiency in formaldehyde removal, with average effluent formaldehyde concentration of 3.6+/-1.7 mg/L. Formaldehyde degradation rates increased from 204.9 to 698.3mg/Lh as the initial concentration of formaldehyde was increased from around 100 to around 1100 mg/L. However, accumulation of organic matter was observed in the effluent (chemical oxygen demand (COD) values above 500 mg/L) due to the presence of non-degraded organic acids, especially acetic and propionic acids. This observation poses an important question regarding the anaerobic route of formaldehyde degradation, which might differ substantially from that reported in the literature. The anaerobic degradation pathway can be associated with the formation of long-chain oligomers from formaldehyde. Such long- or short-chain polymers are probably the precursors of organic acid formation by means of acidogenic anaerobic microorganisms.

  18. Sample Results from Routine Salt Batch 7 Samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peters, T. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States)

    2015-05-13

    Strip Effluent Hold Tank (SEHT) and Decontaminated Salt Solution Hold Tank (DSSHT) samples from several of the “microbatches” of Integrated Salt Disposition Project (ISDP) Salt Batch (“Macrobatch”) 7B have been analyzed for 238Pu, 90Sr, 137Cs, Inductively Coupled Plasma Emission Spectroscopy (ICPES), and Ion Chromatography Anions (IC-A). The results from the current microbatch samples are similar to those from earlier samples from this and previous macrobatches. The Actinide Removal Process (ARP) and the Modular Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction Unit (MCU) continue to show more than adequate Pu and Sr removal, and there is a distinct positive trend in Cs removal, due to the use of the Next Generation Solvent (NGS). The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) notes that historically, most measured Concentration Factor (CF) values during salt processing have been in the 12-14 range. However, recent processing gives CF values closer to 11. This observation does not indicate that the solvent performance is suffering, as the Decontamination Factor (DF) has still maintained consistently high values. Nevertheless, SRNL will continue to monitor for indications of process upsets. The bulk chemistry of the DSSHT and SEHT samples do not show any signs of unusual behavior.

  19. Batch Mode Active Learning for Regression With Expected Model Change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Wenbin; Zhang, Muhan; Zhang, Ya

    2016-04-20

    While active learning (AL) has been widely studied for classification problems, limited efforts have been done on AL for regression. In this paper, we introduce a new AL framework for regression, expected model change maximization (EMCM), which aims at choosing the unlabeled data instances that result in the maximum change of the current model once labeled. The model change is quantified as the difference between the current model parameters and the updated parameters after the inclusion of the newly selected examples. In light of the stochastic gradient descent learning rule, we approximate the change as the gradient of the loss function with respect to each single candidate instance. Under the EMCM framework, we propose novel AL algorithms for the linear and nonlinear regression models. In addition, by simulating the behavior of the sequential AL policy when applied for k iterations, we further extend the algorithms to batch mode AL to simultaneously choose a set of k most informative instances at each query time. Extensive experimental results on both UCI and StatLib benchmark data sets have demonstrated that the proposed algorithms are highly effective and efficient.

  20. Unusal pattern of product inhibition: batch acetic acid fermentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bar, R.; Gainer, J.L.; Kirwan, D.J.

    1987-04-20

    The limited tolerance of microorganisms to their metabolic products results in inhibited growth and product formation. The relationship between the specific growth rate, micro, and the concentration of an inhibitory product has been described by a number of mathematical models. In most cases, micro was found to be inversely proportional to the product concentration and invariably the rate of substrate utilization followed the same pattern. In this communication, the authors report a rather unusual case in which the formation rate of a product, acetic acid, increased with a decreasing growth rate of the microorganism, Acetobacter aceti. Apparently, a similar behavior was mentioned in a review report with respect to Clostridium thermocellum in a batch culture but was not published in the freely circulating literature. The fermentation of ethanol to acetic acid, C/sub 2/H/sub 5/OH + O/sub 2/ = CH/sub 3/COOH + H/sub 2/O is clearly one of the oldest known fermentations. Because of its association with the commercial production of vinegar it has been a subject of extensive but rather technically oriented studies. Suprisingly, the uncommon uncoupling between the inhibited microbial growth and the product formation appears to have been unnoticed. 13 references.

  1. Degradation of formaldehyde in anaerobic sequencing batch biofilm reactor (ASBBR)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pereira, N.S. [Laboratorio de Processos Biologicos (LPB), Departamento de Hidraulica e Saneamento, Escola de Engenharia de Sao Carlos (EESC), Universidade de Sao Paulo - USP, Engenharia Ambiental, Bloco 4-F, Av. Joao Dagnone, 1100 Santa Angelina, 13.563-120 Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil); Zaiat, M. [Laboratorio de Processos Biologicos (LPB), Departamento de Hidraulica e Saneamento, Escola de Engenharia de Sao Carlos (EESC), Universidade de Sao Paulo - USP, Engenharia Ambiental, Bloco 4-F, Av. Joao Dagnone, 1100 Santa Angelina, 13.563-120 Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil)], E-mail: zaiat@sc.usp.br

    2009-04-30

    The present study evaluated the degradation of formaldehyde in a bench-scale anaerobic sequencing batch reactor, which contained biomass immobilized in polyurethane foam matrices. The reactor was operated for 212 days at 35 deg. C with 8 h sequential cycles, under different affluent formaldehyde concentrations ranging from 31.6 to 1104.4 mg/L (formaldehyde loading rates from 0.08 to 2.78 kg/m{sup 3} day). The results indicate excellent reactor stability and over 99% efficiency in formaldehyde removal, with average effluent formaldehyde concentration of 3.6 {+-} 1.7 mg/L. Formaldehyde degradation rates increased from 204.9 to 698.3 mg/L h as the initial concentration of formaldehyde was increased from around 100 to around 1100 mg/L. However, accumulation of organic matter was observed in the effluent (chemical oxygen demand (COD) values above 500 mg/L) due to the presence of non-degraded organic acids, especially acetic and propionic acids. This observation poses an important question regarding the anaerobic route of formaldehyde degradation, which might differ substantially from that reported in the literature. The anaerobic degradation pathway can be associated with the formation of long-chain oligomers from formaldehyde. Such long- or short-chain polymers are probably the precursors of organic acid formation by means of acidogenic anaerobic microorganisms.

  2. Pembuatan Biodiesel Secara Batch Dengan Memanfaatkan Gelombang Mikro (Microwave

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rhesa Purnama Putra

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Biodiesel merupakan bioenergi atau bahan bakar nabati yang dibuat dari minyak nabati, baik minyak baru atau bekas penggorengan melalui proses transesterifikasi, esterifikasi, atau proses esterifikasi-transesterifikasi. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk membuat biodiesel dari minyak goreng secara batch melalui proses transesterifikasi dengan menggunakan radiasi mikrowave serta mempelajari berapa daya dan waktu optimal yang diperlukan untuk proses pembuatan biodiesel dengan radiasi microwave dengan katalis CaO, H2SO4, dan tanpa katalis. Dalam penelitian ini digunakan tiga variabel, yaitu daya (Watt;100,200,300,400, waktu (menit; 5,10,15,20 dan jenis katalis; CaO, H2SO4, dan tanpa katalis. Pada tahap persiapan menghitung volume minyak dan metanol yang akan dicampur. Kemudian mencampurnya didalam reaktor. Lalu mendinginkan campuran hingga terbentuk dua lapisan atas dan bawah dilanjutkan dengan melakukan pemisahan lapisan atas (biodiesel dari lapisan bawah (gliserol. Adapun pada tahap analisis, biodiesel hasil reaksi transesterfikasi dianalisa untuk mendapatkan data yield metil ester, densitas, viskositas, dan flash point. Dari penelitian diketahui bahwa hasil yang didapatkan masih belum dapat memenuhi standar biodiesel yang ditetapkan. Katalis CaO dapat memberikan hasil yang lebih baik dibandingkan dengan katalis H2SO4 dan tanpa katalis. Kondisi operasi untuk menghasilkan kualitas yield biodiesel terbaik yaitu pada daya 200 Watt selama 20 menit dengan menggunakan katalis CaO. Yield biodiesel terbesar didapatkan yield sebesar 60,11 %.

  3. Biodegradation of phenanthrene in an anaerobic batch reactor: growth kinetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.S. Nasrollahzadeh

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present research was to demonstrate the ability of mixed consortia of microorganisms to degrade high concentrations of phenanthrene (PHE as the sole carbon source. Batch experiments were carried out by the induction of mineral salt medium containing PHE to the seed culture and monitoring PHE biodegradation. The microbial propagation was conducted using PHE concentrations in the range of 20 to 100 mg/l. The microbial growth on PHE was defined based on Monod and modified Logistic rate models. The kinetic studies revealed that maximum specific growth rates (μm for PHE concentrations of 20, 50 and 100 mg/l were 0.12, 0.23 and 0.035 h-1, respectively. The doubling times for microbial population in PHE concentrations of 20, 50 and 100 mg/l were 13, 15 and 17.5 h, respectively. Also, maximum cell dry weight (xm of 54.23 mg/l was achieved, while the inhibition coefficient was 0.023 h-1. It was observed that the experimental data were well represented by the proposed models. It was also found that the biodegradation of PHE was successfully performed by the isolated strains.

  4. Batch liquid-liquid extraction of phenol from aqueous solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palma, M.S.A.; Shibata, C. [Department of Biochemical Pharmaceutical Technology, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo-SP (Brazil); Paiva, J.L. [Department of Chemical Engineering, Polytechnical School, University of Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo-SP (Brazil); Zilli, M. [Department of Chemical and Process Engineering, University of Genoa, Genoa (Italy); Converti, A.

    2010-01-15

    The aim of this work is the study of batch liquid-liquid extraction of phenol from aqueous solutions in a bench-scale well-mixed reactor. The influence of the ratio of phase volumes, temperature, and rotational speed on phenol removal (0.72-1.1 % w/w) was investigated using methyl isobutyl ketone as an extracting solvent. For this purpose, the ratio of phase volumes were set at 0.1 and 0.2, the temperature at 10, 20, and 30 C, and the rotational speed at 300, 400, and 500 rpm. A physical model based on the material balance of the phases as well as the equation of mass flux between the phases allowed the estimation of the overall coefficient of mass transfer coupled with the superficial area. Moreover, it proved to fit, satisfactorily well, the experimental data of residual phenol concentration in the organic phase versus time under all the conditions investigated. (Abstract Copyright [2010], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  5. Separation of Benzene and Cyclohexane by Batch Extractive Distillation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Jiao; ZHANG Weijiang; GUI Xia

    2007-01-01

    Azeotropic liquid mixture cannot be separated by conventional distillation. But extractive distillation or combination of the two can be valid for them. An experiment to separate benzene and cyclohexane by batch extractive distillation was carried out with N, N-dimethylformide (DMF), dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) and their mixture as extractive solvent. The effect of the operation parameterssuch as solvent flow rate and reflux ratio on the separation was studied under the same operating conditions. The results show that the separation effect was improved with the increase of solvent flow rate and the reflux ratio; all the three extractive solvents can separate benzene and cyclohexane, with DMF being the most efficient one, the mixture the second, and DMSO the least. In the experiment the best operation conditions are with DMF as extractive solvent, the solvent flow rate being 12.33 mL/min, and the reflux ratio being 6. As a result, we can get cyclohexane from the top of tower with the average product content being 86.98%, and its recovering ratio being 83.10%.

  6. Pretreatment of coking wastewater using anaerobic sequencing batch reactor (ASBR)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Bing; SUN Ying-lan; LI Yu-ying

    2005-01-01

    A laboratory-scale anaerobic sequencing batch reactor (ASBR) was used to pretreat coking wastewater. Inoculated anaerobic granular biomass was acclimated for 225 d to the coking wastewater, and then the biochemical methane potential (BMP)of the coking wastewater in the acclimated granular biomass was measured. At the same time, some fundamental technological factors, such as the filling time and the reacting time ratio (tf/tr), the mixing intensity and the intermittent mixing mode, that affect anaerobic pretreatment of coking wastewater with ASBR, were evaluated through orthogonal tests. The COD removal efficiency reached 38%~50% in the stable operation period with the organic loading rate of 0.37~0.54 kg COD/(m3.d) at the optimum conditions of tf/tr, the mixing intensity and the intermittent mixing mode. In addition, the biodegradability of coking wastewater distinctly increased after the pretreatment using ASBR. At the end of the experiment, the microorganism forms on the granulated sludge in the ASBR were observed using SEM (scanning electron microscope) and fluoroscope. The results showed that the dominant microorganism on the granular sludge was Methanosaeta instead of Methanosarcina dominated on the inoculated sludge.

  7. Changes of Resistance During Polyelectrolyte-enhanced Stirred Batch Ultrafiltration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU Xin-Sheng; Kwang-Ho CHOO

    2007-01-01

    The permeation flux or the resistance in the ultrafiltration process is mainly limited by osmotic pressure,and it may originate from various kinds of polymer interactions. However, the real origin of permeation resistance hasn't been clarified yet in the light of polymer solution nature. The removal of nitrate contamination by polyelectrolytes was carried out with stirred batch ultrafiltration. The polyelectrolyte concentrations both in permeate and retentate were analyzed with total organic carbon analyzer and permeate mass was acquired by electronic balance connected with computer. The total resistance was calculated and interpreted based on the osmotic pressures in three concentration regimes. In the dilute region, the resistance was proportional to polymer concentration; in the semidilute region, the resistance depended on polymer concentration in the parabolic relationship; in the highly concentrated solution regime, the osmotic pressure factor (OPF) would dominate the total resistance; and the deviation from OPF control could come from the electrostatic repulsion between the tightly compacted and charged polyelectrolyte particles at extremely concentrated solution regime. It was first found that dilute and semidilute concentration regions can be easily detected by plotting the log-log curves of the polymer concentration versus the ratio of the total resistance to polymer concentration. The new concept OPF was defined and did work well at highly concentrated regime.

  8. Kinetic Batch Soil Adsorption Studies of 2, 4-dinitroanisole (DNAN)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arthur, J.; Mark, N. W.; Taylor, S.; Brusseau, M. L.; Dontsova, K.

    2014-12-01

    Currently the explosive 2, 4, 6- trinitrotoluene (TNT) is used as a main ingredient in munitions; however the compound has failed to meet sensitivity requirements. The replacement compound being tested is 2, 4-dinitroanisole (DNAN). DNAN is less sensitive to shock, high temperatures, and has good detonation characteristics. However, DNAN is more soluble than TNT, which can influence transport and fate behavior and thus bioavailability and exposure potential. DNAN has been shown to have some human and environmental toxicity. The objective of this study was to investigate the environmental fate of DNAN in soil, with a specific focus on sorption processes. Batch experiments were conducted using 11 soils collected from military installations located across the United States. The soils were characterized for pH, specific surface area, electrical conductivity, cation exchange capacity, and organic carbon content. Adsorption kinetic data determined at room temperature were fitted using the first order kinetic equation. Adsorption isotherms were fitted with linear and Freundlich isotherm equations. The magnitudes of the linear adsorption coefficients ranged from 0.6 to 6 cm3/g. Results indicated that the adsorption of DNAN is strongly dependent on the amount of organic carbon present in the soil.

  9. [Growth and development kinetics of Bacillus thuringiensis in batch culture].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakharova, Z V; Ignatenko, Iu N; Schulz, F; Khovrychev, M P; Rabotnova, I L

    1985-01-01

    The kinetics of Bacillus thuringiensis growth and its assimilation of nutrient substances were studied under the conditions of batch cultivation in a complex medium containing yeast extract and in a chemically defined medium with amino acids. The growth of B. thuringiensis can be divided into five phases: exponential growth; decelerated growth; stationary phase when protein crystals are formed; stationary phase when spores are formed; lysis of sporangia releasing spores. The first phase may in turn be subdivided into three stages according to changes in the specific growth rate and substrate assimilation: a high specific growth rate and no glucose assimilation; an abrupt drop in mu and the beginning of intensive glucose assimilation from the medium; a new rise in the specific growth rate. As follows from the results of studying the kinetics of B. thuringiensis growth in a chemically defined medium, the above changes in the exponential growth phase are due to the fact that the culture assimilates yeast extract components in the complex medium or amino acids in the chemically defined medium during this phase, and then starts to assimilate glucose and ammonium in the following phases of growth.

  10. A BATCH ARRIVAL RETRIAL QUEUE WITH STARTING FAILURES, FEEDBACK AND ADMISSION CONTROL

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jinting WANG; Peng-Feng ZHOU

    2010-01-01

    This paper is concerned with the analysis of a feedback M[X]/G/1 retrial queue with starting failures and general retrial times.In a batch,each individual customer is subject to a control admission policy upon arrival.If the server is idle,one of the customers admitted to the system may start its service and the rest joins the retrial group,whereas all the admitted customers go to the retrial group when the server is unavailable upon arrival.An arriving customer(primary or retrial)must turn-on the server,which takes negligible time.If the server is started successfully(with a certain probability),the customer gets service immediately.Otherwise,the repair for the server commences immediately and the customer must leave for the orbit and make a retrial at a later time.It is assumed that the customers who find the server unavailable are queued in the orbit in accordance with an FCFS discipline and only the customer at the head of the queue is allowed for access to the server.The Markov chain underlying the considered queueing system is studied and the necessary and sufficient condition for the system to be stable is presented.Explicit formulae for the stationary distribution and some performance measures of the system in steady-state are obtained.Finally,some numerical examples are presented to illustrate the influence of the parameters on several performance characteristics.

  11. SLUDGE MASS REDUCTION: PRIMARY COMPOSITIONAL FACTORS THAT INFLUENCE MELT RATE FOR FUTURE SLUDGE BATCH PROJECTIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Newell, J; Miller, D; Stone, M; Pickenheim, B

    2008-08-28

    of the Frit 510 based system without Al-dissolution relative to the Frit 418 based system with Al-dissolution. Though the without aluminum dissolution scenario suggests a slightly higher melt rate with frit 510, several points must be taken into consideration: (1) The MRF does not have the ability to assess liquid feeds and, thus, rheology impacts. Instead, the MRF is a 'static' test bed in which a mass of dried melter feed (SRAT product plus frit) is placed in an 'isothermal' furnace for a period of time to assess melt rate. These conditions, although historically effective in terms of identifying candidate frits for specific sludge batches and mapping out melt rate versus waste loading trends, do not allow for assessments of the potential impact of feed rheology on melt rate. That is, if the rheological properties of the slurried melter feed resulted in the mounding of the feed in the melter (i.e., the melter feed was thick and did not flow across the cold cap), melt rate and/or melter operations (i.e., surges) could be negatively impacted. This could affect one or both flowsheets. (2) Waste throughput factors were not determined for Frit 510 and Frit 418 over multiple waste loadings. In order to provide insight into the mission life versus canister count question, one needs to define the maximum waste throughput for both flowsheets. Due to funding limitations, the melt rate testing only evaluated melt rate at a fixed waste loading. (3) DWPF will be processing SB5 through their facility in mid-November 2008. Insight into the over arching questions of melt rate, waste throughput, and mission life can be obtained directly from the facility. It is recommended that processing of SB5 through the facility be monitored closely and that data be used as input into the decision making process on whether to implement Al-dissolution for future sludge batches.

  12. Growth kinetics of Saccharomyces cerevisiae in batch and fed-batch cultivation using sugarcane molasses and glucose syrup from cassava starch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Win, S S; Impoolsup, A; Noomhorm, A

    1996-02-01

    Growth kinetics of Saccharomyces cerevisiae in glucose syrup from cassava starch and sugarcane molasses were studied using batch and fed-batch cultivation. The optimum temperature and pH required for growth were 30 degrees C and pH 5.5, respectively. In batch culture the productivity and overall cell yield were 0.31 g L-1 h-1 and 0.23 g cells g-1 sugar, respectively, on glucose syrup and 0.22 g L-1 h-1 and 0.18 g cells g-1 sugar, respectively, on molasses. In fed-batch cultivation, a productivity of 3.12 g L-1 h-1 and an overall cell yield of 0.52 g cells g-1 sugar were achieved in glucose syrup cultivation and a productivity of 2.33 g L-1 h-1 and an overall cell yield of 0.46 g cells g-1 sugar were achieved in molasses cultivation by controlling the reducing sugar concentration at its optimum level obtained from the fermentation model. By using an on-line ethanol sensor combined with a porous Teflon tubing method in automating the feeding of substrate in the fed-batch culture, a productivity of 2.15 g L-1 h-1 with a yield of 0.47 g cells g-1 sugar was achieved using glucose syrup as substrate when ethanol concentration was kept at a constant level by automatic control.

  13. A Single Dynamic Metabolic Model Can Describe mAb Producing CHO Cell Batch and Fed-Batch Cultures on Different Culture Media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robitaille, Julien; Chen, Jingkui; Jolicoeur, Mario

    2015-01-01

    CHO cell culture high productivity relies on optimized culture medium management under fed-batch or perfused chemostat strategies enabling high cell densities. In this work, a dynamic metabolic model for CHO cells was further developed, calibrated and challenged using datasets obtained under four different culture conditions, including two batch and two fed-batch cultures comparing two different culture media. The recombinant CHO-DXB11 cell line producing the EG2-hFc monoclonal antibody was studied. Quantification of extracellular substrates and metabolites concentration, viable cell density, monoclonal antibody concentration and intracellular concentration of metabolite intermediates of glycolysis, pentose-phosphate and TCA cycle, as well as of energetic nucleotides, were obtained for model calibration. Results suggest that a single model structure with a single set of kinetic parameter values is efficient at simulating viable cell behavior in all cases under study, estimating the time course of measured and non-measured intracellular and extracellular metabolites. Model simulations also allowed performing dynamic metabolic flux analysis, showing that the culture media and the fed-batch strategies tested had little impact on flux distribution. This work thus paves the way to an in silico platform allowing to assess the performance of different culture media and fed-batch strategies.

  14. Change in turnover capacity of crude recombinant dye-decolorizing peroxidase (rDyP) in batch and fed-batch decolorization of Remazol Brilliant Blue R.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakeri, M; Shoda, M

    2007-09-01

    Decolorization of the representative anthraquinone dye, Remazol Brilliant Blue R (RBBR) was assessed to determine the practical potential of crude recombinant dye-decolorizing peroxidase generated by Aspergillus oryzae (rDyP) in term of turnover capacity of rDyP. The turnover capacity, defined as the milligram of RBBR decolorized per unit of rDyP inactivated over the catalytic life time of rDyP, was quantified under condition by H(2)O(2) -mediated rDyP inactivation. In batch culture, equimolar batch addition of H(2)O(2) and RBBR yielded complete decolorization of RBBR by rDyP, with a turnover capacity of 4.75. In stepwise fed-batch addition of H(2)O(2), the turnover capacity increased to 5.76, and by increasing dye concentration, it reached 14.3. When H(2)O(2) was added in continuous fed-batch to minimize rDyP inactivation and 1.6 mM dye was added in stepwise fed-batch mode, the turnover capacity increased to 20.4. At this turnover capacity, 1 l of crude rDyP solution containing 5,000 U could decolorize up to 102 g RBBR in 650 min.

  15. The optimal manufacturing batch size with rework under time-varying demand process for a finite time horizon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musa, Sarah; Supadi, Siti Suzlin; Omar, Mohd

    2014-07-01

    Rework is one of the solutions to some of the main issues in reverse logistic and green supply chain as it reduces production cost and environmental problem. Many researchers focus on developing rework model, but to the knowledge of the author, none of them has developed a model for time-varying demand rate. In this paper, we extend previous works and develop multiple batch production system for time-varying demand rate with rework. In this model, the rework is done within the same production cycle.

  16. Benchmarking of the construct of dimensionless correlations regarding batch bubble columns with suspended solids: Performance of the Pressure Transform Approach

    CERN Document Server

    Hristov, Jordan

    2010-01-01

    Benchmark of dimensionless data correlations pertinent to batch bubble columns (BC) with suspended solids has been performed by the pressure transform approach (PTA). The main efforts have addressed the correct definition of dimensionless groups referring to the fact that solids dynamics and the bubble dynamics have different velocity and length scales. The correct definition of the initial set of variable in the classical dimensional analysis depends mainly on the experience of the investigator while the pressure transform approach (PTA) avoids errors at this initial stage. PTA addresses the physics of the phenomena occurring in complex systems involving many phases and allows straightforward definitions of dimensionless numbers.

  17. 基于参数优化批处理的TLS协议%Parameter Optimization-Based Batching TLS Protocol

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    齐芳; 贾维嘉; 鲍丰; 吴永东; 王国军

    2007-01-01

    TLS(transport layer security)协议的基本设计目标是为两个通信实体之间提供数据的保密性和完整性.由于在传输层安全握手协议中最耗费计算资源的步骤是服务器RSA解密运算,优化的批处理的RSA方法提出可以用于加速TLS会话的初始化.首先指出了以前的批处理方法由于要求多证书实现而实用性不强.然后提出了单一证书策略的方法,从而克服了这一问题.还提出结合用户对于因特网服务质量的要求优化了批处理参数.为了选择优化的批处理的参数,不仅考虑了服务器的性能,而且还考虑了客户可容忍的等待时间.通过分析并在阐述平均排队时间、批处理服务时间和系统稳定性的基础上提出了一种新颖的优化批处理调度算法,已部署在服务器上.最后通过分析和模拟两种方法验证了所提出方案的实用性和有效性.%The primary goal of the Transport Layer Security (TLS) protocol is to provide confidentiality and data integrity between two communicating entities. Since the most computationally expensive step in the TLS handshake protocol is the server's RSA decryption, it is introduced that optimal batch RSA can be used to speedup TLS session initialization. This paper first indicates that the previous batch method is impractical since it requires a multiple of certificates, then it proposes the unique certificate scheme to overcome the problem. It is also introduced that the batching parameter is optimized when integrating users' requirements for Internet Quality of Service (QoS). To select the optimal batching parameters, not only the server's performance but also the client's tolerable waiting time is considered. Based on the analysis of the mean queue time, batching service time and the stability of the system, a novel batch optimal scheduling algorithm which is deployed in a batching Web server is proposed. Finally, the proposed algorithm is evaluated to be practical and

  18. Biological nutrient removal from municipal wastewater in sequencing batch biofilm reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arnz, P.

    2001-07-01

    Enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR) has only been put into practice in activated sludge systems. In recent years, the Sequencing Batch Biofilm Reactor (SBBR) has emerged as an alternative allowing EBPR to be achieved in a biofilm reactor. High efficiency of phosphate removal was demonstrated in a SBBR fed with synthetic wastewater containing acetate. The aim of this study was to investigate EBPR from municipal wastewater in semi full-scale and laboratory-scale SBBRs. The focus of the investigation in the semi full-scale reactor was on determination of achievable reaction rates and effluent concentrations under varying influent conditions throughout all seasons of a year. Interactions between nitrogen and phosphorus removal and the influence of backwashing on the reactor performance was examined. Summing up, it can be stated that the SBBR proved to be an attractive alternative to activated sludge systems. Phosphorus elimination efficiency was comparable to common systems but biomass sedimentation problems were avoided. In order to further exploit the potential of the SBBR and to achieve reactor performances superior to those of existing systems designing a special biofilm carrier material may allow to increase the phenomenon of simultaneous nitrification/denitrification while maintaining EBPR activity. (orig.) [German] Die vermehrte biologische Phosphorelimination (Bio-P) aus Abwasser wurde bisher nur in Belebtschlammsystemen praktiziert. In den letzten Jahren konnte jedoch gezeigt werden, dass sich durch die Anwendung des Sequencing Batch Biofilm Reactor (SBBR) - Verfahrens auch in Biofilmreaktoren Bio-P verwirklichen laesst. Versuche in Laboranlagen haben ergeben, dass sich eine weitgehende Phosphorelimination aufrecht erhalten laesst, wenn die Reaktoren mit einem ideal zusammengesetzten, synthetischen Abwasser beschickt werden. Ziel dieser Arbeit war es, Bio-P aus kommunalem Abwasser in SBBR-Versuchsanlagen im halbtechnischen und im Labormassstab zu

  19. Statistical Review of Data from DWPF's Process Samples for Batches 19 Through 30

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edwards, T.B.

    1999-04-06

    The measurements derived from samples taken during the processing of batches 19 through 30 at the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) affords an opportunity for review and comparisons. This report has looked at some of the statistics from these data. Only the data reported by the DWPF lab (that is, the data provided by the lab as representative of the samples taken) are available for this analysis. In some cases, the sample results reported may be a subset of the sample results generated by the analytical procedures. A thorough assessment of the DWPF lab's analytical procedures would require the complete set of data. Thus, the statistics reported here, specifically, as they relate to analytical uncertainties, are limited to the reported data for these samples, A fell for the consistency of the incoming slurry is the estimation of the components of variation for the Sludge Receipt and Adjustment Tank (SRAT) receipts. In general, for all of the vessels, the data from batches after 21 show smaller batch-to-batch variation than the data from all the batches. The relative contributions of batch-to-batch versus residual, which includes analytical, are presented in these analyses.

  20. Simulation of kefiran production of Lactobacillus kefiranofaciens JCM6985 in fed-batch reactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamas Cheirsilp

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Kinetics of kefiran production by Lactobacillus kefiranofaciens JCM6985 has been investigated. A mathematical model taking into account the mechanism of exopolysaccharides production has been developed. Experiments were carried out in batch mode in order to obtain kinetic model parameters that were further applied to simulate fed-batch processes. A simplification of parameter fitting was also introduced for complicated model. The fed-batch mode allows more flexibility in the control of the substrate concentration as well as product concentration in the culture medium. Based on the batch mathematical model, a fed-batch model was developed and simulations were done. Simulation study in fed-batch reactor resulted that substrate concentration should be controlled at 20 g L-1 to soften the product inhibition and also to stimulate utilization of substrate and its hydrolysate. From simulation results of different feeding techniques, it was found that constant feeding at 0.01 L h-1 was most practically effective feeding profile for exopolysaccharides production in fed-batch mode.

  1. SLUDGE BATCH 6/TANK 51 SIMULANT CHEMICAL PROCESS CELL SIMULATIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koopman, David; Best, David

    2010-04-28

    Qualification simulant testing was completed to determine appropriate processing conditions and assumptions for the Sludge Batch 6 (SB6) Shielded Cells demonstration of the DWPF flowsheet using the qualification sample from Tank 51 for SB6 after SRNL washing. It was found that an acid addition window of 105-139% of the DWPF acid equation (100-133% of the Koopman minimum acid equation) gave acceptable Sludge Receipt and Adjustment Tank (SRAT) and Slurry Mix Evaporator (SME) results for nitrite destruction and hydrogen generation. Hydrogen generation occurred continuously after acid addition in three of the four tests. The three runs at 117%, 133%, and 150% stoichiometry (Koopman) were all still producing around 0.1 lb hydrogen/hr at DWPF scale after 42 hours of boiling in the SRAT. The 150% acid run reached 110% of the DWPF SRAT limit of 0.65 lb H{sub 2}/hr, and the 133% acid run reached 75% of the DWPF SME limit of 0.223 lb H{sub 2}/hr. Conversely, nitrous oxide generation was subdued compared to previous sludge batches, staying below 25 lb/hr in all four tests or about a fourth as much as in comparable SB4 testing. Two other processing issues were noted. First, incomplete mercury suspension impacted mercury stripping from the SRAT slurry. This led to higher SRAT product mercury concentrations than targeted (>0.45 wt% in the total solids). Associated with this issue was a general difficulty in quantifying the mass of mercury in the SRAT vessel as a function of time, especially as acid stoichiometry increased. About ten times more mercury was found after drying the 150% acid SME product to powder than was indicated by the SME product sample results. Significantly more mercury was also found in the 133% acid SME product samples than was found during the SRAT cycle sampling. It appears that mercury is segregating from the bulk slurry in the SRAT vessel, as mercury amalgam deposits for example, and is not being resuspended by the agitators. The second processing issue

  2. Minimizing and balancing setups in a serial production system

    OpenAIRE

    Detti, Paolo; Pranzo, Marco; Meloni, Carlo

    2007-01-01

    Abstract This paper addresses a problem arising in the coordination between two consecutive manufacturing departments of a production system, in which parts are processed in batches, and each batch is characterized by two distinct attributes. Due to limited interstage buffering between the two stages, the two departments have to follow the same batch sequence. In the first department, a setup occurs every time the first attribute of the new batch is different f...

  3. Batch phenol biodegradation study and application of factorial experimental design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Hellal

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A bacterium, Pseudomonas aeruginosa (ATTC27853, was investigated for its ability to grow and to degrade phenol as solecarbon source, in aerobic batch culture. The parameters which affect the substrate biodegradation such as the adaptation ofbacteria to phenol, the temperature, and the nature of the bacteria were investigated. The results show that for a range oftemperature of 30 to 40°C, the best degradation of phenol for a concentration of 100mg/l was observed at 30°C. The regenerationof the bacterium which allows the reactivation of its enzymatic activity, shows that the degradation of 100 mg/ l ofsubstrate at 30° C required approximately 50 hours with revivified bacteria, while it only starts after 72 hours for those norevivified. Adapted to increasing concentrations, allows the bacteria to degrade a substrate concentration of about 400mg/l in less than 350 hours.A second part was consisted in the determination of a substrate degradation model using the factorial experiment design,as a function of temperature (30-40°C and of the size of the inoculums (260.88 - 521.76mg/ l. The results were analyzedstatistically using the Student’s t-test, analysis of variance, and F-test. The value of R2 (0.99872 and adjusted R2 (0.9962close to 1.0, verifies the good correlation between the observed and the predicted values, and provides the excellent relationshipbetween the independent variables (factors and the response (the time of the phenol degradation. F-value found above200, indicates that the considered model is statistically significant.

  4. Configuration model of partial repairable spares under batch ordering policy based on inventory state

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ruan Minzhi; Luo Yi; Li Hua

    2014-01-01

    Rational planning of spares configuration project is an effective approach to improve equipment availability as well as reduce life cycle cost (LCC). With an analysis of various impacts on support system, the spares demand rate forecast model is constructed. According to systemic analysis method, spares support effectiveness evaluation indicators system is built, and then, initial spares configuration and optimization method is researched. To the issue of discarding and con-sumption for incomplete repairable items, its expected backorders function is approximated by Laplace demand distribution. Combining the (s-1, s) and (R, Q) inventory policy, the spares resup-ply model is established under the batch ordering policy based on inventory state, and the optimi-zation analysis flow for spares configuration is proposed. Through application on shipborne equipment spares configuration, the given scenarios are analyzed under two constraint targets:one is the support effectiveness, and the other is the spares cost. Analysis reveals that the result is consistent with practical regulation;therefore, the model’s correctness, method’s validity as well as optimization project’s rationality are proved to a certain extent.

  5. Aerobic granulation strategy for bioaugmentation of a sequencing batch reactor (SBR) treating high strength pyridine wastewater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Xiaodong; Chen, Yan [Jiangsu Key Laboratory for Chemical Pollution Control and Resources Reuse, School of Environmental and Biological Engineering, Nanjing University of Science and Technology, Nanjing 210094, Jiangsu Province (China); Zhang, Xin [Jiangsu Key Laboratory for Chemical Pollution Control and Resources Reuse, School of Environmental and Biological Engineering, Nanjing University of Science and Technology, Nanjing 210094, Jiangsu Province (China); Suzhou Institute of Architectural Design Co., Ltd, Suzhou 215021, Jiangsu Province (China); Jiang, Xinbai; Wu, Shijing [Jiangsu Key Laboratory for Chemical Pollution Control and Resources Reuse, School of Environmental and Biological Engineering, Nanjing University of Science and Technology, Nanjing 210094, Jiangsu Province (China); Shen, Jinyou, E-mail: shenjinyou@mail.njust.edu.cn [Jiangsu Key Laboratory for Chemical Pollution Control and Resources Reuse, School of Environmental and Biological Engineering, Nanjing University of Science and Technology, Nanjing 210094, Jiangsu Province (China); Sun, Xiuyun; Li, Jiansheng; Lu, Lude [Jiangsu Key Laboratory for Chemical Pollution Control and Resources Reuse, School of Environmental and Biological Engineering, Nanjing University of Science and Technology, Nanjing 210094, Jiangsu Province (China); Wang, Lianjun, E-mail: wanglj@mail.njust.edu.cn [Jiangsu Key Laboratory for Chemical Pollution Control and Resources Reuse, School of Environmental and Biological Engineering, Nanjing University of Science and Technology, Nanjing 210094, Jiangsu Province (China)

    2015-09-15

    Abstract: Aerobic granules were successfully cultivated in a sequencing batch reactor (SBR), using a single bacterial strain Rhizobium sp. NJUST18 as the inoculum. NJUST18 presented as both a good pyridine degrader and an efficient autoaggregator. Stable granules with diameter of 0.5–1 mm, sludge volume index of 25.6 ± 3.6 mL g{sup −1} and settling velocity of 37.2 ± 2.7 m h{sup −1}, were formed in SBR following 120-day cultivation. These granules exhibited excellent pyridine degradation performance, with maximum volumetric degradation rate (V{sub max}) varied between 1164.5 mg L{sup −1} h{sup −1} and 1867.4 mg L{sup −1} h{sup −1}. High-throughput sequencing analysis exhibited a large shift in microbial community structure, since the SBR was operated under open condition. Paracoccus and Comamonas were found to be the most predominant species in the aerobic granule system after the system had stabilized. The initially inoculated Rhizobium sp. lost its dominance during aerobic granulation. However, the inoculation of Rhizobium sp. played a key role in the start-up process of this bioaugmentation system. This study demonstrated that, in addition to the hydraulic selection pressure during settling and effluent discharge, the selection of aggregating bacterial inocula is equally important for the formation of the aerobic granule.

  6. Anaerobic co-digestion of food waste and landfill leachate in single-phase batch reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liao, Xiaofeng; Zhu, Shuangyan; Zhong, Delai; Zhu, Jingping, E-mail: jpzhuhust@163.com; Liao, Li, E-mail: liaoli2003@126.com

    2014-11-15

    Highlights: • Anaerobic co-digestion strategy for food waste treatment at OLR 41.8 g VS/L. • A certain amount of raw leachate effectively relieved acidic inhibition. • The study showed that food waste was completely degraded. - Abstract: In order to investigate the effect of raw leachate on anaerobic digestion of food waste, co-digestions of food waste with raw leachate were carried out. A series of single-phase batch mesophilic (35 ± 1 °C) anaerobic digestions were performed at a food waste concentration of 41.8 g VS/L. The results showed that inhibition of biogas production by volatile fatty acids (VFA) occurred without raw leachate addition. A certain amount of raw leachate in the reactors effectively relieved acidic inhibition caused by VFA accumulation, and the system maintained stable with methane yield of 369–466 mL/g VS. Total ammonia nitrogen introduced into the digestion systems with initial 2000–3000 mgNH{sub 4}–N/L not only replenished nitrogen for bacterial growth, but also formed a buffer system with VFA to maintain a delicate biochemical balance between the acidogenic and methanogenic microorganisms. UV spectroscopy and fluorescence excitation–emission matrix spectroscopy data showed that food waste was completely degraded. We concluded that using raw leachate for supplement water addition and pH modifier on anaerobic digestion of food waste was effective. An appropriate fraction of leachate could stimulate methanogenic activity and enhance biogas production.

  7. A fast-initiating ionically tagged ruthenium complex: a robust supported pre-catalyst for batch-process and continuous-flow olefin metathesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borré, Etienne; Rouen, Mathieu; Laurent, Isabelle; Magrez, Magaly; Caijo, Fréderic; Crévisy, Christophe; Solodenko, Wladimir; Toupet, Loic; Frankfurter, René; Vogt, Carla; Kirschning, Andreas; Mauduit, Marc

    2012-12-14

    In this study, a new pyridinium-tagged Ru complex was designed and anchored onto sulfonated silica, thereby forming a robust and highly active supported olefin-metathesis pre-catalyst for applications under batch and continuous-flow conditions. The involvement of an oxazine-benzylidene ligand allowed the reactivity of the formed Ru pre-catalyst to be efficiently controlled through both steric and electronic activation. The oxazine scaffold facilitated the introduction of the pyridinium tag, thereby affording the corresponding cationic pre-catalyst in good yield. Excellent activities in ring-closing (RCM), cross (CM), and enyne metathesis were observed with only 0.5 mol % loading of the pre-catalyst. When this powerful pre-catalyst was immobilized onto a silica-based cationic-exchange resin, a versatile catalytically active material for batch reactions was generated that also served as fixed-bed material for flow reactors. This system could be reused at 1 mol % loading to afford metathesis products in high purity with very low ruthenium contamination under batch conditions (below 5 ppm). Scavenging procedures for both batch and flow processes were conducted, which led to a lowering of the ruthenium content to as little as one tenth of the original values.

  8. Design and construction of a batch oven for investigation of industrial continuous baking processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stenby Andresen, Mette; Risum, Jørgen; Adler-Nissen, Jens

    2013-01-01

    of the baking was documented over a range of temperatures (160C to 190C). Practical Applications The purpose of this paper is to describe a new specially designed pilot scale batch oven. The batch oven is designed and constructed to imitate the baking processes in continuous tunnel ovens with forced convection......A new batch oven has been constructed to mimic industrial convection tunnel ovens for research and development of continuous baking processes. The process parameters (air flow, air temperature, air humidity, height of baking area and the baking band velocity) are therefore highly controllable...

  9. Research on payload adaptive batch steganography%负载自适应的批量隐写研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高瞻瞻; 汤光明; 代家铭

    2013-01-01

    In order to improve the security of batch steganography,this paper proposed a novel adaptive batch steganography system.First,it estimated embedding capacity of images under current steganalysis techniques by bringing ensemble classifier based on random forest into steganalysis,then distributed message bits to the images according to their embedding capacities.The new system could make full use of the images and improve batch steganography security further by dividing the message into groups.Experimental results show that the new security definition decreases the total detection error and running time,having a good balance between missed detection rate and false alarm rate.%为了进一步提高批量隐写的安全性,针对以往自适应批量隐写方案的不足设计了一种简单可靠的新方案.首先借助基于随机森林的集成分类器确定当前隐写分析技术下图像的隐写容量,在此基础上确定各个图像嵌入的信息量,方案最大程度地利用了载体资源,并通过对秘密信息进行分割分组进一步增强了安全性.实验结果表明,隐写容量计算中的安全判定方法准确性高,在保证低漏检率的同时避免了较高的虚警率,且运行时间更短.

  10. A batch assay to measure microbial hydrogen sulfide production from sulfur-containing solid wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Mei, E-mail: msun8@uncc.edu [Department of Civil, Construction, and Environmental Engineering, North Carolina State University, Campus Box 7908, Raleigh, NC (United States); Sun, Wenjie, E-mail: wsun@smu.edu [Department of Civil, Construction, and Environmental Engineering, North Carolina State University, Campus Box 7908, Raleigh, NC (United States); Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Southern Methodist University, PO Box 750340, Dallas, TX (United States); Barlaz, Morton A., E-mail: barlaz@ncsu.edu [Department of Civil, Construction, and Environmental Engineering, North Carolina State University, Campus Box 7908, Raleigh, NC (United States)

    2016-05-01

    Large volumes of sulfur-containing wastes enter municipal solid waste landfills each year. Under the anaerobic conditions that prevail in landfills, oxidized forms of sulfur, primarily sulfate, are converted to sulfide. Hydrogen sulfide (H{sub 2}S) is corrosive to landfill gas collection and treatment systems, and its presence in landfill gas often necessitates the installation of expensive removal systems. For landfill operators to understand the cost of managing sulfur-containing wastes, an estimate of the H{sub 2}S production potential is needed. The objective of this study was to develop and demonstrate a biochemical sulfide potential (BSP) test to measure the amount of H{sub 2}S produced by different types of sulfur-containing wastes in a relatively fast (30 days) and inexpensive (125 mL serum bottles) batch assay. This study confirmed the toxic effect of H{sub 2}S on both sulfate reduction and methane production in batch systems, and demonstrated that removing accumulated H{sub 2}S by base adsorption was effective for mitigating inhibition. H{sub 2}S production potentials of coal combustion fly ash, flue gas desulfurization residual, municipal solid waste combustion ash, and construction and demolition waste were determined in BSP assays. After 30 days of incubation, most of the sulfate in the wastes was converted to gaseous or aqueous phase sulfide, with BSPs ranging from 0.8 to 58.8 mL H{sub 2}S/g waste, depending on the chemical composition of the samples. Selected samples contained solid phase sulfide which contributed to the measured H{sub 2}S yield. A 60 day incubation in selected samples resulted in 39–86% additional sulfide production. H{sub 2}S production measured in BSP assays was compared with that measured in simulated landfill reactors and that calculated from chemical analyses. H{sub 2}S production in BSP assays and in reactors was lower than the stoichiometric values calculated from chemical composition for all wastes tested, demonstrating

  11. A batch assay to measure microbial hydrogen sulfide production from sulfur-containing solid wastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Mei; Sun, Wenjie; Barlaz, Morton A

    2016-05-01

    Large volumes of sulfur-containing wastes enter municipal solid waste landfills each year. Under the anaerobic conditions that prevail in landfills, oxidized forms of sulfur, primarily sulfate, are converted to sulfide. Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is corrosive to landfill gas collection and treatment systems, and its presence in landfill gas often necessitates the installation of expensive removal systems. For landfill operators to understand the cost of managing sulfur-containing wastes, an estimate of the H2S production potential is needed. The objective of this study was to develop and demonstrate a biochemical sulfide potential (BSP) test to measure the amount of H2S produced by different types of sulfur-containing wastes in a relatively fast (30days) and inexpensive (125mL serum bottles) batch assay. This study confirmed the toxic effect of H2S on both sulfate reduction and methane production in batch systems, and demonstrated that removing accumulated H2S by base adsorption was effective for mitigating inhibition. H2S production potentials of coal combustion fly ash, flue gas desulfurization residual, municipal solid waste combustion ash, and construction and demolition waste were determined in BSP assays. After 30days of incubation, most of the sulfate in the wastes was converted to gaseous or aqueous phase sulfide, with BSPs ranging from 0.8 to 58.8mLH2S/g waste, depending on the chemical composition of the samples. Selected samples contained solid phase sulfide which contributed to the measured H2S yield. A 60day incubation in selected samples resulted in 39-86% additional sulfide production. H2S production measured in BSP assays was compared with that measured in simulated landfill reactors and that calculated from chemical analyses. H2S production in BSP assays and in reactors was lower than the stoichiometric values calculated from chemical composition for all wastes tested, demonstrating the importance of assays to estimate the microbial sulfide production

  12. Tank 40 Final Sludge Batch 8 Chemical Characterization Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bannochie, Christopher J.

    2013-09-19

    A sample of Sludge Batch 8 (SB8) was pulled from Tank 40 in order to obtain radionuclide inventory analyses necessary for compliance with the Waste Acceptance Product Specifications (WAPS). The SB8 WAPS sample was also analyzed for chemical composition, including noble metals, and fissile constituents, and these results are reported here. These analyses along with the WAPS radionuclide analyses will help define the composition of the sludge in Tank 40 that is currently being fed to the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) as SB8. At SRNL, the 3-L Tank 40 SB8 sample was transferred from the shipping container into a 4-L high density polyethylene bottle and solids were allowed to settle. Supernate was then siphoned off and circulated through the shipping container to complete the transfer of the sample. Following thorough mixing of the 3-L sample, a 553 g sub-sample was removed. This sub-sample was then utilized for all subsequent slurry sample preparations. Eight separate aliquots of the slurry were digested, four with HNO{sub 3}/HCl (aqua regia) in sealed Teflon(r) vessels and four with NaOH/Na{sub 2}O{sub 2} (alkali or peroxide fusion) using Zr crucibles. Two Analytical Reference Glass - 1 (ARG-1) standards were digested along with a blank for each preparation. Each aqua regia digestion and blank was diluted to 1:100 mL with deionized water and submitted to Analytical Development (AD) for inductively coupled plasma - atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES) analysis, inductively coupled plasma - mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) analysis, atomic absorption spectroscopy (AA) for As and Se, and cold vapor atomic absorption spectroscopy (CV-AA) for Hg. Equivalent dilutions of the alkali fusion digestions and blank were submitted to AD for ICP-AES analysis. Tank 40 SB8 supernate was collected from a mixed slurry sample in the SRNL Shielded Cells and submitted to AD for ICP-AES, ion chromatography (IC), total base/free OH-/other base, total inorganic carbon/total organic

  13. CONVERTING FROM BATCH TO CONTINUOUS INTENSIFIED PROCESSING IN THE STT? REACTOR

    Science.gov (United States)

    The fluid dynamics, the physical dimensions and characteristics of the reaction zones of continuous process intensification reactors are often quite different from those of the batch reactors they replace. Understanding these differences is critical to the successful transit...

  14. An optimal campaign structure for multicomponent batch distillation with reversible reaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wajge, R.M.; Reklaitis, G.V. [Purdue Univ., West Lafayette, IN (United States). School of Chemical Engineering

    1998-05-01

    When resource utilization and/or minimization of waste is comparable in importance to the production rate, the design of the operation policy should encompass an entire campaign of batches rather than a single batch. This notion of campaign optimization is particularly relevant to batch distillation with reversible reaction which produces significant amounts of off-cuts. Reprocessing these off-cuts merely based on consideration of a single batch may lead not only to inefficient production rates but also to the inefficient utilization of reactants. A general strategy for deciding the campaign structure for such an operation is presented. The concept of distillation characteristic is introduced, and its exploitation is shown to result in a simple but effective reprocessing policy for off-cuts. The economic benefits of such a campaign structure are demonstrated with the help of a case study.

  15. Effects of CO2 enrichment and nutrients supply intermittency on batch cultures of Isochrysis galbana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picardo, Marta C; de Medeiros, José Luiz; Araújo, Ofélia de Queiroz F; Chaloub, Ricardo Moreira

    2013-09-01

    Aiming at enhanced performance to increase economic feasibility of microalgae based processes, Isochrysis galbana was grown in three modes of cultivation: batch, intermittent fed batch and semi-continuous. The batch mode was conducted under two regimes of aeration: conventional aeration and CO2 enriched aeration (5% v/v in air). Increased biomass productivity without significant impact on lipid accumulation was observed for CO2 enriched aeration relatively to cultivation aerated with air only. The intermittent fed batch cultivation policy was proven to be useful for lipid accumulation, increasing the lipid content by 19.8%. However, the semi-continuous mode resulted in higher productivity due to increased biomass concentration; the biomass productivity reached 0.51 g/(Ld). Fluorescence measurements were performed; the calculated low electron transport rate showed the need to increase the irradiance. The results showed that I. galbana can be grown in semi-continuous condition at high levels of biomass productivity.

  16. Batched Triangular Dense Linear Algebra Kernels for Very Small Matrix Sizes on GPUs

    KAUST Repository

    Charara, Ali

    2017-03-06

    Batched dense linear algebra kernels are becoming ubiquitous in scientific applications, ranging from tensor contractions in deep learning to data compression in hierarchical low-rank matrix approximation. Within a single API call, these kernels are capable of simultaneously launching up to thousands of similar matrix computations, removing the expensive overhead of multiple API calls while increasing the occupancy of the underlying hardware. A challenge is that for the existing hardware landscape (x86, GPUs, etc.), only a subset of the required batched operations is implemented by the vendors, with limited support for very small problem sizes. We describe the design and performance of a new class of batched triangular dense linear algebra kernels on very small data sizes using single and multiple GPUs. By deploying two-sided recursive formulations, stressing the register usage, maintaining data locality, reducing threads synchronization and fusing successive kernel calls, the new batched kernels outperform existing state-of-the-art implementations.

  17. Stormwater Pollution Prevention Plan TA-60 Asphalt Batch Plant Revision 2: January 2017

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sandoval, Leonard Frank [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-02-01

    The Stormwater Pollution Prevention Team (PPT) is applicable to operations at the Technical Area (TA)- 60 Asphalt Batch Plant (ABP) located on Eniwetok Drive/Sigma Mesa, in Los Alamos County, New Mexico at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL).

  18. MOFCOM announced supplement to the first batch of 2012 export quotas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    The Ministry of Commerce of China supplemented the first batch of rare earth export quotas, which were assigned to the companies that had passed the inspection of the Ministry of Environmental Protection.

  19. Enhanced methane production via repeated batch bioaugmentation pattern of enriched microbial consortia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zhiman; Guo, Rongbo; Xu, Xiaohui; Wang, Lin; Dai, Meng

    2016-09-01

    Using batch and repeated batch cultivations, this study investigated the effects of bioaugmentation with enriched microbial consortia (named as EMC) on methane production from effluents of hydrogen-producing stage of potato slurry, as well as on the indigenous bacterial community. The results demonstrated that the improved methane production and shift of the indigenous bacterial community structure were dependent on the EMC/sludge ratio and bioaugmentation patterns. The methane yield and production rate in repeated batch bioaugmentation pattern of EMC were, respectively, average 15% and 10% higher than in one-time bioaugmentation pattern of EMC. DNA-sequencing approach showed that the enhanced methane production in the repeated batch bioaugmentation pattern of EMC mainly resulted from the enriched iron-reducing bacteria and the persistence of the introduced Syntrophomonas, which led to a rapid degradation of individual VFAs to methane. The findings contributed to understanding the correlation between the bioaugmentation of microbial consortia, community shift, and methane production.

  20. A Novel Operation Policy for Dilute Component Separation Quasi-batch Distillation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗祎青; 袁希钢; 杨祖杰; 刘春江

    2005-01-01

    A new operation policy--quasi-batch distillation for recovering infinitesimal amounts species existing in a mixture is presented. In quasi-batch distillation operation, feed is introduced with a constant flow rate onto the feed stage of the column, and the flow rate of the distillate is the same as that of the feed, whereas the bottom product is withdrawn periodically. The behavior of quasi-batch distillation is simulated and analyzed through an example on heavy water separation. Comparing with continuous or batch distillation, the new operation policy is more reliable and efficient to achieve higher recovery of dilute component. This is especially suitable for separating small amount of precious species from large amount of raw material.

  1. Constrained Run-to-Run Optimization for Batch Process Based on Support Vector Regression Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    An iterative (run-to-run) optimization method was presented for batch processes under input constraints. Generally it is very difficult to acquire an accurate mechanistic model for a batch process. Because support vector machine is powerful for the problems characterized by small samples, nonlinearity, high dimension and local minima, support vector regression models were developed for the end-point optimization of batch processes. Since there is no analytical way to find the optimal trajectory, an iterative method was used to exploit the repetitive nature of batch processes to determine the optimal operating policy. The optimization algorithm is proved convergent. The numerical simulation shows that the method can improve the process performance through iterations.

  2. A cellular automata model for simulating fed-batch penicillin fermentation process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu Naigong; Ruan Xiaogang

    2006-01-01

    A cellular automata model to simulate penicillin fed-batch fermentation process(CAPFM)was established in this study,based on a morphologically structured dynamic penicillin production model,that is in turn based on the growth mechanism of penicillin producing microorganisms and the characteristics of penicillin fed-batch fermentation.CAPFM uses the three-dimensional cellular automata as a growth space,and a Moore-type neighborhood as the cellular neighborhood.The transition roles of CAPFM are designed based on mechanical and structural kinetic models of penicillin batch-fed fermentation processes.Every cell of CAPFM represents a single or specific number of penicillin producing microorganisms,and has various state.The simulation experimental results show that CAPFM replicates the evolutionary behavior of penicillin batch-fed fermentation processes described by the structured penicillin production kinetic model accordingly.

  3. The second batch of RE export quota in 2009 released/Brief News

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    @@ In accordance with"Regulation on Import and Export of Commodities of the People's Republic of China",the Ministry of Commerce released the second batch of RE export quota of common trade in 2009 on June 29.

  4. UNBOUNDED BATCH SCHEDULING WITH A COMMON DUE WINDOW ON A SINGLE MACHINE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hongluan ZHAO; Guojun LI

    2008-01-01

    The common due window scheduling problem with batching on a single machine is dealt with to minimize the total penalty of weighted earliness and tardiness. In this paper it is assumed that a job incurs no penalty as long as it is completed within the common due window. It is the first time for the due window scheduling to be extended to this situation so that jobs can be processed in batches. An unbounded version of batch scheduling is also considered. Hence, jobs, no matter how many there are, can be processed in a batch once the machine is free. For two cases that the location of due window is either a decision variable or a given parameter, polynomial algorithms are proposed based on several optimal properties.

  5. Analysis of selected problems of biomass combustion process in batch boilers - experimental and numerical approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szubel Mateusz

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available It is possible to list numerous groups of heating units that are used in households, such as boilers, stoves and units used as supporting heat sources, namely fireplaces. In each case, however, the same operational problems may be evoked [1]. To understand the causes of energy losses in a boiler system, a proper definition of significant elements of the unit’s heat balance is necessary. In the group of energy losses, the flue gas loss and the incomplete combustion loss are the most significant factors. The problem with the loss resulting from incomplete combustion, which is related to the presence of combustible substances in the exhaust, is especially significant in case of biomass boilers [2, 3]. The paper presents results of the research and the optimisation of the biomass combustion process in the 180 kW batch boiler. The studies described have been focused on the reduction of the pollutants emission, which was primarily realised by the modifications of the air feeding system. Results of the experiments and the CFD simulations have been compared and discussed. Both in case of the model as well as the experiment, positive influence of the modifications on the emission have been observed.

  6. Use of Sequencing Batch Reactors (SBRs in Treatment of Wood Fiber Wastewater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Ganjidoust, B Ayati

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Wood fiber industries are producing large amounts of wastewater, which are discharged into the environment everyday. This type of wastewater with high pollution potential in suspended solids, COD and color, are required to be treated before entering to the receiving environment. North part of Iran is covered by huge land of forests. Several pulp and paper industries are located in the area. One of these industries is Iran Wood Fiber Company in which many researches have been done in both laboratory and pilot scale by the main author in recent years. One of the studies was to investigate the Sequencing Batch Reactors (SBRs efficiency for treating the wastewater. Considering parameters such as influent COD, detention time, nutrient concentration, and their effects on COD, turbidity and total solids removal efficiency of the system, four serial SBRs in laboratory scale were investigated. The results of the system with 10 hours detention time, 1000-2500 mg/L COD and 100:5.1:1 C/N/P had the best efficiency with 92, 84, 52 percent removal for COD, turbidity and total solids, respectively. Pilot scale plant studies using SBRs were also done in the company. The results indicated good removal efficiencies that also discussed in this paper.

  7. Embedding constructed wetland in sequencing batch reactor for enhancing nutrients removal: A comparative evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ranbin; Zhao, Yaqian; Zhao, Jinhui; Xu, Lei; Sibille, Caroline

    2017-05-01

    In the present study, a novel green bio-sorption reactor (GBR) was firstly proposed and preliminarily investigated by embedding constructed wetland (CW) into the aeration tank of the conventional activated sludge (CAS). This integrated novel system owns the striking features of adding carriers of wetland substrate (i.e. the dewatered alum sludge in this case) in CAS for robust phosphorus adsorption and enriching the biomass. Meanwhile, the "green" feature of this GBR imparted aesthetic value of CW to the CAS system. The preliminary 3-month trial of GBR based on a sequencing batch reactor (GB-SBR) with diluted piggery wastewater demonstrated an average removal of 96%, 99% and 90% for BOD, TP and TN, respectively. The comparison with moving bed biofilm reactor (MBBR) and integrated fixed-film activated sludge (IFAS) reflected the advantages of GBR over purification performance, aesthetic value and potential carbon sink. Moreover, the carriers used in the GBR are dewatered alum sludge which is in line with the policy of "recycle, reuse and reduce". Overall, this GBR undoubtedly offered a more sustainable and economical solution for retrofitting the aging CAS.

  8. Role of Moving Bed Biofilm Reactor and Sequencing Batch Reactor in Biological Degradation of Formaldehyde Wastewater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Ayati

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays formaldehyde is used as raw material in many industries. It has also disinfection applications in some public places. Due to its toxicity for microorganisms, chemical or anaerobic biological methods are applied for treating wastewater containing formaldehyde.In this research, formaldehyde removal efficiencies of aerobic biological treatment systems including moving bed biofilm (MMBR and sequencing batch reactors (SBR were investigated. During all experiments, the efficiency of SBR was more than MBBR, but the difference was not significant statistically. According to the results, the best efficiencies were obtained for influent formaldehyde COD of 200 mg/L in MBBR and SBR which were 93% and 99.4%, respectively. The systems were also capable to treat higher formaldehyde concentrations (up to 2500 mg/L with lower removal efficiency. The reaction kinetics followed the Stover-Kincannon second order model. The gram-positive and gram-negative bacillus and coccus as well as the gram-positive binary bacillus were found to be the most dominant species. The results of 13C-NMR analysis have shown that formaldehyde and urea were converted into N-{[(aminocarbonyl amino] methyl}urea and the residual formaldehyde was polymerized at room temperature.

  9. Potential of biogas production with young bulls manure on batch biodigesters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa, Monica Sarolli S. de M.; Costa, Luiz A. de Mendonca [Universidade Estadual do Oeste do Parana (UNIOESTE), Cascavel, PR (Brazil)], E-mail: monicas@unioeste.br; Lucas Junior, Jorge de [Universidade Estadual Paulista (FCAV/UNESP), Jaboticabal, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Ciencias Agrarias e Veterinarias

    2008-07-01

    The feedlot system concerning the young bull model allows that animals gain weight in a shorter time since there is higher daily intake of protein when compared to fiber. This change on animals' diet alters particularly manure characteristics and thus interferes on performance of biological systems of treatment. This study aimed at evaluating the potential of biogas production using manure of young bulls that received two different diets on batch biodigesters under three temperatures, with and without inoculum use. The results showed that manure from animals that received more protein on diet (80% concentrate + 20% roughage) had greater reductions on volatile solids when submitted to anaerobic biodigestion. Although the speed of biogas production was superior on treatments with inoculum, it was observed negative effect on inoculum use. There was no effect on temperature during biogas production. Regarding diet effect, manure of animals fed on diet with more protein produced larger amounts of biogas per kg of total added solids (0.2543) when compared to those who received less protein on diet (65% concentrate + 35% roughage), which meant 0.1001 m{sup 3} biogas/kg/total solids. (author)

  10. Study of nitrogen and organics removal in sequencing batch reactor (SBR) using hybrid media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thuan, Tran-Hung; Chung, Yun-Chul; Ahn, Dae-Hee

    2003-03-01

    The removal of nitrogen and organics in a sequencing batch reactor (SBR) using hybrid media were investigated in this work. The hybrid media was made by the use of polyurethane foam (PU) cubes and powdered activated carbon (PAC). The function of activated carbon of hybrid media was to offer a suitable active site, which was able to absorb organic substances and ammonia, as well as that of PU was to provide an appropriated surface onto which biomass could be attached and grown. A laboratory-scale moving-bed sequencing batch reactor (SBR) was used for investigating the efficiency of hybrid media. The removal of nitrogen and organics for synthetic wastewater (COD; 490-1,627 mg/L, NH4(+)-N; 180-210 mg/L) were evaluated at different COD/N ratio and different anoxic phase conditions, respectively. The system was operated with the organic loading rate (OLR) of 0.1, 0.16, 0.24, and 0.28 kg COD/m3 day, respectively. Each mode based on OLR was divided as the periods of 45 days of operation time, except for third mode that was operated during 30 days. After acclimatization period, effluent total COD concentrations slightly decreased and the removal efficiency of organics increased to about 90% (COD; 70 mg/L) after 60 days and achieved 98% (COD; 30 mg/L) at the end of experiments. The organics reduction seemed to be less affected by shock loading since high organic loads did not affect the removal efficiency. The NIH4(+)-N concentrations in effluent showed almost lower than 1 mg/L and NO3(-)-N concentrations were high (150 mg/L) during a very low C/N ratio (C/N=2). Over 90% of T-N removal efficiency (T-N; 16 mg/L) was obtained during the last 20 days of the operation after controlling the COD/N ratio (C/N=7). The mixing condition and COD/N ratio at anoxic phase were determined as a main operating factors. In future, the optimal operating conditions of SBR system with hybrid media will be investigated from the view of maintaining a sufficient biomass to the hybrid media under

  11. Bicriteria Scheduling on a Series-Batching Machine to Minimize Makespan and Total Weighted Completion Time with Equal Length Job

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HE Cheng; LIN Hao; DOU Jun-mei; MU Yun-dong

    2014-01-01

    It is known that the problem of minimizing total weighted completion time on a series-batching machine is NP-hard. We consider a series-batching bicriteria scheduling problem of minimizing makespan and total weighted completion time with equal length job simultaneously. A batching machine can handle up to b jobs in a batch, where b is called the batch capacity of the machine. We study the unbounded model with b≥n, where n denotes the number of jobs. A dynamic programming algorithm is proposed to solve the unbounded model, which can find all Pareto optimal schedules in O(n3) time.

  12. COTS FPGA/SRAM Irradiations Using a Dedicated Testing Infrastructure for Characterization of Large Component Batches

    CERN Document Server

    Slawosz, Uznanski; Johannes, Walter; Andrea, Vilar-Villanueva

    2015-01-01

    This paper introduces a new testing platform for irradiation of large batches of COTS FPGA and SRAMs. The main objective is measurement of component radiation response and assessment of component-to-component variability within one batch. The first validation and test results using the testing platform are presented for 150nm TFT SRAM (Renesas) and different sizes of the 130nm ProASIC3 FPGA (Microsemi).

  13. STUDY ON MAXIMUM SPECIFIC SLUDGE ACIVITY OF DIFFERENT ANAEROBIC GRANULAR SLUDGE BY BATCH TESTS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The maximum specific sludge activity of granular sludge from large-scale UASB, IC and Biobed anaerobic reactors were investigated by batch tests. The limitation factors related to maximum specific sludge activity (diffusion, substrate sort, substrate concentration and granular size) were studied. The general principle and procedure for the precise measurement of maximum specific sludge activity were suggested. The potential capacity of loading rate of the IC and Biobed anaerobic reactors were analyzed and compared by use of the batch tests results.

  14. Batch Scheduling of Recurrent Applications for Energy Savings on Mobile Phones

    OpenAIRE

    Marina, Mahesh; Calder, Matthew

    2010-01-01

    Recurrent applications that mostly run in the background are a significant source of power consumption on battery-limited mobile phones. We highlight the pitfalls of scheduling such applications independently without awareness of each other's schedules. We illustrate the significant energy savings that can be achieved via batch scheduling of recurrent mobile phone applications. We then present our on-going work on developing a general batch scheduling framework for such applications and also ...

  15. Fed-batch pediocin production by Pediococcus acidilactici NRRL B-5627 on whey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez Guerra, Nelson; Bernárdez, Paula Fajardo; Agrasar, Ana Torrado; López Macías, Cristina; Castro, Lorenzo Pastrana

    2005-08-01

    Cell growth and pediocin production by Pediococcus acidilactici NRRL B-5627 on whey were compared by using batch fermentation and re-alkalized fed-batch fermentation. The batch fermentations were performed on DWG [DW (diluted whey) supplemented with 1% (w/v) glucose], DWYE [DW supplemented with 2% (w/v) yeast extract] and DWGYE (DW supplemented with 1% glucose plus 2% yeast extract) media. The fed-batch culture on DWYE medium was fed with a mixture of concentrated whey (48 g of total sugars/l) supplemented with 2% yeast extract and 400 g/l concentrated glucose. The re-alkalized fed-batch culture was characterized by higher biomass (6.57 g/l) and pediocin [517.6 BU (bacteriocin activity units)/ml] concentrations compared with the batch processes on MRS (de Man, Rogosa and Sharpe) broth (1.76 g/l and 493.2 BU/ml), DW (0.17 g/l and 57.7 BU/ml), DWG (0.14 g/l and 53.6 BU/ml), DWYE (1.43 g/l and 187.6 BU/ml) and DWGYE (1.28 g/l and 167.3 BU/ml) media. A mixed acid fermentation was observed during the growth of P. acidilactici NRRL B-5627 in the fed-batch culture on DWYE medium, and other products (acetic acid and ethanol) in addition to lactic acid accumulated in the medium. Mathematical models were set up to describe fed-batch production of biomass and pediocin by P. acidilactici. The models developed offer a better fit and a more realistic description of the experimental biomass and pediocin production data when compared with the logistic and Luedeking and Piret model.

  16. Fed-batch CHO cell culture for lab-scale antibody production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fan, Yuzhou; Ley, Daniel; Andersen, Mikael Rørdam

    2016-01-01

    Fed-batch culture is the most commonly used upstream process in industry today for recombinant monoclonal antibody production using Chinese hamster ovary cells. Developing and optimizing this process in the lab is crucial for establishing process knowledge, which enable rapid and predictable tech......-transfer to manufacturing scale. In this chapter, we will describe stepwise how to carry out fed-batch CHO cell culture for lab-scale antibody production....

  17. IMPROVING ENERGY EFFICIENCY OF SILICON CARBIDE CERAMICS PRODUCTION BY BATCH REGULATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dmitriy Zhukov

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses an energy-efficient method for producing SiC-based composites via doping with oxide eutectic compositions and batch granulometry regulation. The influence of batch granulometry on physico-mechanical properties of ceramics is studied, and fractions ratio is determined allowing us to obtain a dense material with improved strength and fracture toughness. Such ceramics shows excellent mechanical behavior and holds much promise as a structural and armor material.

  18. Actual waste demonstration of the nitric-glycolic flowsheet for sludge batch 9 qualification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Newell, D. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Pareizs, J. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Martino, C. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Reboul, S. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Coleman, C. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Edwards, T. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Johnson, F. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2017-03-09

    For each sludge batch that is processed in the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF), the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) performs qualification testing to demonstrate that the sludge batch is processable. Based on the results of this actual-waste qualification and previous simulant studies, SRNL recommends implementation of the nitric-glycolic acid flowsheet in DWPF. Other recommendations resulting from this demonstration are reported in section 5.0.

  19. New extractive configuration separating azeotropic mixture in semi-batch way

    OpenAIRE

    Stéger, Csaba; Rev, Endre; Horvath, Laszlo; Fonyo, Zsolt; Meyer, Michel; Lelkes, Zoltan

    2006-01-01

    A new variant of batch extractive distillation, the so-called inverse-fed batch extractive distillation is presented. The total amount of the entrainer is pre-loaded to the boiler, and the mixture charge to be separated is continuously fed to the column in this novel configuration. The feasibility study of conventional extractive distillation was extended and a thorough study was performed to separate a maximum boiling azeotrope with intermediate boiling entrainer. The new configuration was f...

  20. Heterogeneous batch distillation processes for waste solvent recovery in pharmaceutical industry

    OpenAIRE

    Rodriguez-Donis, Ivonne; Gerbaud, Vincent; Arias-Barreto, Alien; Joulia, Xavier

    2009-01-01

    A summary about our experiences in the introduction of heterogeneous entrainers in azeotropic and extractive batch distillation is presented in this work. Essential advantages of the application of heterogeneous entrainers are showed by rigorous simulation and experimental verification in a bench batch distillation column for separating several azeotropic mixtures such as acetonitrile – water, n hexane – ethyl acetate and chloroform – methanol, commonly found in pharmaceutical industry.

  1. OPTIMAL FEED STRATEGY FOR FED-BATCH GLYCEROL FERMENTATION DETERMINED BY MAXIMUM PRINCIPLE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    1 IntroductionGlycerol fed-batch fermentation is attractive tocommercial application since it can control theglucose concentration by changing the feed rate andget a high glycerol yield, therefore it is essential todevelop an optimal glucose feed strategy. For mostof fed-batch fermentation, optimization of feed ratewas based on Pontryagin's maximum principle [if.Since the term of feed rate appears linearly in theHamiltonian, the optimal feed rate profile usuallyconsists of ba,lg-bang intervals and singular ...

  2. Development of a simple model for batch and boundary information updation for a similar ship's block model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LEE Hyeon-deok; SON Myeong-jo; OH Min-jae; LEE Hyung-woo; KIM Tae-wan

    2012-01-01

    In early 2000,large domestic shipyards introduced shipbuilding 3D computer-aided design (CAD)to the hull production design process to define manufacturing and assembly information.The production design process accounts for most of the man-hours (M/H) of the entire design process and is closely connected to yard production because designs must take into account the production schedule of the shipyard,the current state of the dock needed to mount the ship's block,and supply information.Therefore,many shipyards are investigating the complete automation of the production design process to reduce the M/H for designers.However,these problems are still currently unresolved,and a clear direction is needed for research on the automatic design base of manufacturing rules,batches reflecting changed building specifications,batch updates of boundary information for hull members,and management of the hull model change history to automate the production design process.In this study,a process was developed to aid production design engineers in designing a new ship's hull block model from that of a similar ship previously built,based on AVEVA Marine.An automation system that uses the similar ship's hull block model is proposed to reduce M/H and human errors by the production design engineer.First,scheme files holding important information were constructed in a database to automatically update hull block model modifications.Second,for batch updates,the database's table,including building specifications and the referential integrity of a relational database were compared.In particular,this study focused on reflecting the frequent modification of building specifications and regeneration of boundary information of the adjacent panel due to changes in a specific panel.Third,the rollback function is proposed in which the database (DB) is used to return to the previously designed panels.

  3. Effect of Fed-Batch vs. Continuous Mode of Operation on Microbial Fuel Cell Performance Treating Biorefinery Wastewater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pannell, Tyler C.; Goud, R. Kannaiah; Schell, Daniel J.; Borole, Abhijeet P.

    2016-12-15

    Bioelectrochemical systems have been shown to treat low-value biorefinery streams while recovering energy, however, low current densities and anode conversion efficiencies (ACE) limit their application. A bioanode was developed via enrichment of electroactive biofilm under fed-batch and continuous feeding conditions using corn stover-derived waste stream. The continuously-fed MFC exhibited a current density of 5.8 +/- 0.06 A/m2 and an ACE of 39% +/- 4. The fed-batch MFC achieved a similar current density and an ACE of 19.2%, however, its performance dropped after 36 days of operation to 1.1 A/m2 and 0.5%, respectively. In comparison, the ACE of the continuously-fed MFC remained stable achieving an ACE of 30% +/- 3 after 48 days of operation. An MFC treating a biorefinery stream post fuel separation achieved a current density of 10.7 +/- 0.1 A/m2 and an ACE of 57% +/- 9 at an organic loading of 12.5 g COD/L-day. Characterization of the microbial communities indicate higher abundance of Firmicutes and Proteobacteria and lower abundance of Bacteriodetes and a higher level of Geobacter spp. (1.4% vs. 0.2%) in continuously-fed MFC vs. fed-batch MFC. The results demonstrate that limiting substrate to the equivalent maximum current that the anode can generate, maintains MFC performance over a long term for high strength wastewaters, such as those generated in the biorefinery.

  4. SULFATE SOLUBILITY LIMIT VERIFICATION FOR DWPF SLUDGE BATCH 7B

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fox, K.

    2011-10-03

    The objective of this study was to determine a sulfate solubility limit in glass for Sludge Batch 7b (SB7b). The SB7b composition projection provided by Savannah River Remediation (SRR) on May 25, 2011 was used as the basis for formulating glass compositions to determine the sulfate limit. Additions of Na{sub 2}O to the projected sludge composition were made by the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) due to uncertainty in the final concentration of Na{sub 2}O for SB7b, which is dependent on washing effectiveness and the potential need to add NaOH to ensure an acceptable projected operating window. Additions of 4, 6, and 8 wt % Na{sub 2}O were made to the nominal May 25, 2011 composition projection. An updated SB7b composition projection was received from SRR on August 4, 2011. Due to compositional similarities, no additional experimental work using the August 4, 2011 compositions was considered to be necessary for this study. Both Frit 418 and Frit 702 were included in this study. The targeted sulfate (SO{sub 4}{sup 2-}) concentrations of the study glasses were selected within the range of 0.6 to 0.9 wt % in glass. A total of 52 glass compositions were selected based on the compositional variables of Na{sub 2}O addition, Actinide Removal Process (ARP) stream addition, waste loading, frit composition, and sulfate concentration. The glasses were batched, melted, and characterized following SRNL procedures. Visual observations were recorded for each glass after it cooled and used as in indicator of sulfur retention. Representative samples of each of the glasses fabricated were subjected to chemical analysis to determine whether the targeted compositions were met, as well as to determine the quantity of sulfate that was retained after melting. In general, the measured composition data showed that there were only minor issues in meeting the targeted compositions for the study glasses, and the measured sulfate concentrations for each study glass were within 10% of

  5. pH-oscillations in the bromate–sulfite reaction in semibatch and in gel-fed batch reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poros, Eszter; Kurin-Csörgei, Krisztina; Szalai, István; Orbán, Miklós, E-mail: orbanm@chem.elte.hu [Department of Analytical Chemistry, Institute of Chemistry, L. Eötvös University, P.O. Box 32, H-1518 Budapest 112 (Hungary); Rábai, Gyula [Institute of Physical Chemistry, University of Debrecen, P.O. Box 7, H-4010 Debrecen (Hungary)

    2015-06-15

    The simplest bromate oxidation based pH-oscillator, the two component BrO{sub 3}{sup −}–SO{sub 3}{sup 2–} flow system was transformed to operate under semibatch and closed arrangements. The experimental preconditions of the pH-oscillations in semibatch configuration were predicted by model calculations. Using this information as guideline large amplitude (ΔpH∼3), long lasting (11–24 h) pH-oscillations accompanied with only a 20% increase of the volume in the reactor were measured when a mixture of Na{sub 2}SO{sub 3} and H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} was pumped into the solution of BrO{sub 3}{sup −} with a very low rate. Batch-like pH-oscillations, similar in amplitude and period time appeared when the sulfite supply was substituted by its dissolution from a gel layer prepared previously in the reactor in presence of high concentration of Na{sub 2}SO{sub 3}. The dissolution vs time curve and the pH-oscillations in the semibatch and closed systems were successfully simulated. Due to the simplicity in composition and in experimental technique, the semibatch and batch-like BrO{sub 3}{sup −}–SO{sub 3}{sup 2–} pH-oscillators may become superior to their CSTR (continuous flow stirred tank reactor) version in some present and future applications.

  6. pH-oscillations in the bromate-sulfite reaction in semibatch and in gel-fed batch reactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poros, Eszter; Kurin-Csörgei, Krisztina; Szalai, István; Rábai, Gyula; Orbán, Miklós

    2015-06-01

    The simplest bromate oxidation based pH-oscillator, the two component BrO3--SO32- flow system was transformed to operate under semibatch and closed arrangements. The experimental preconditions of the pH-oscillations in semibatch configuration were predicted by model calculations. Using this information as guideline large amplitude (ΔpH˜3), long lasting (11-24 h) pH-oscillations accompanied with only a 20% increase of the volume in the reactor were measured when a mixture of Na2SO3 and H2SO4 was pumped into the solution of BrO3- with a very low rate. Batch-like pH-oscillations, similar in amplitude and period time appeared when the sulfite supply was substituted by its dissolution from a gel layer prepared previously in the reactor in presence of high concentration of Na2SO3. The dissolution vs time curve and the pH-oscillations in the semibatch and closed systems were successfully simulated. Due to the simplicity in composition and in experimental technique, the semibatch and batch-like BrO3--SO32- pH-oscillators may become superior to their CSTR (continuous flow stirred tank reactor) version in some present and future applications.

  7. The effect of rhizosphere on growth of Sphingomonas chlorophenolica ATCC 39723 during pentachlorophenol (PCP biodegradation in batch culture and soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ken Killhan

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Studies on the influence of the rhizosphere on the growth of Sphingomonas chlorophenolica during Pentacholophenol (PCP degradation in batch culture and in soil were carried out. In batch culture, a basal minimal medium with or without rhizosphere exudates extracted from winter wheat was used. In soil systems, degradation experiments were performed in the presence and absence of plants. Measurements of PCP concentrations were made using high performance liquid chromatography analysis (HPLC. Bacterial analyses of S. chlorophenolica were carried out by plating on MSM medium. The results showed that the rhizosphere exudates stimulated the growth of the cells of S. chlorophenolica at concentrations of 50 and 80mg kg dry wt soil –1 as well as stimulating the ability of S. chlorophenolica to degrade PCP at a concentration of 80mg Kg dry wt soil -1. In addition, pentachlorophenol had an adverse effect on the growth of S. chlorophenolica. The introduction of S.chlorophenolica into the loamy soil with plants showed a faster degradation when compared to the inoculated soil without plants. There was a significant increase of S. chlorophenolica in the roots in comparison to those in the soil. This study showed that the presence of the inoculum S. chlorophenolica enhanced the PCP degradation in a loamy soil and it indicates the potential for a treatment process under a appropriate environmental conditions such as there present in soil systems.

  8. Model Integrasi Penjadwalan Produksi Batch dan Penjadwalan Perawatan dengan Kendala Due Date

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahedi .

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the integration model of batch production and preventive maintenance scheduling on a single machine producing an item to be delivered at a common due date. The machine is a deteriorating machine that requires preventive maintenance to ensure the availability of the machine at a desired service level. Decision variables of the model are the number of preventive maintenances, the schedule, length of production runs, as well as the number of batches, batch sizes and the production schedule of the resulting batches for each production run. The objective function of the model is to minimize the total cost consisting of inventory costs during parts processing, setup cost and cost of preventive maintenance. The results show three important points: First, the sequence of optimal batches always follows the SPT (short processing time. Second, variation of preventive maintenance unit cost does not influence the sequence of batches. Third, the first production run length from production starting time is smaller than the next production run length and this pattern continues until the due date. When in process inventory unit cost is increased, the pattern will continue until a specified cost limit, and beyond the limit the pattern will change to be the opposite pattern.

  9. On-line Batch Process Monitoring and Diagnosing Based on Fisher Discriminant Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Xu; SHAO Hui-he

    2006-01-01

    A new on-line batch process monitoring and diagnosing approach based on Fisher discriminant analysis (FDA) was proposed. This method does not need to predict the future observations of variables, so it is more sensitive to fault detection and stronger implement for monitoring. In order to improve the monitoring performance,the variables trajectories of batch process are separated into several blocks. The key to the proposed approach for on-line monitoring is to calculate the distance of block data that project to low-dimension Fisher space between new batch and reference batch. Comparing the distance with the predefine threshold, it can be considered whether the batch process is normal or abnormal. Fault diagnosis is performed based on the weights in fault direction calculated by FDA. The proposed method was applied to the simulation model of fed-batch penicillin fermentation and the results were compared with those obtained using MPCA. The simulation results clearly show that the on-line monitoring method based on FDA is more efficient than the MPCA.

  10. Improving cellulase productivity of Penicillium oxalicum RE-10 by repeated fed-batch fermentation strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Xiaolong; Song, Wenxia; Liu, Guodong; Li, Zhonghai; Yang, Piao; Qu, Yinbo

    2017-03-01

    Medium optimization and repeated fed-batch fermentation were performed to improve the cellulase productivity by P. oxalicum RE-10 in submerged fermentation. First, Plackett-Burman design (PBD) and central composite design (CCD) were used to optimize the medium for cellulase production. PBD demonstrated wheat bran and NaNO3 had significant influences on cellulase production. The CCD results showed the maximum filter paper activity (FPA) production of 8.61U/mL could be achieved in Erlenmeyer flasks. The maximal FPA reached 12.69U/mL by submerged batch fermentation in a 7.5-L stirred tank, 1.76-fold higher than that on the original medium. Then, the repeated fed-batch fermentation strategy was performed successfully for increasing the cellulase productivity from 105.75U/L/h in batch fermentation to 158.38U/L/h. The cellulase activity and the glucan conversion of delignined corn cob residue hydrolysis had no significant difference between the enzymes sampled from different cycles of the repeated fed-batch fermentation and that from batch culture.

  11. An LMI Method to Robust Iterative Learning Fault-tolerant Guaranteed Cost Control for Batch Processes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Limin; CHEN Xi; GAO Furong

    2013-01-01

    Based on an equivalent two-dimensional Fornasini-Marchsini model for a batch process in industry,a closed-loop robust iterative learning fault-tolerant guaranteed cost control scheme is proposed for batch processes with actuator failures.This paper introduces relevant concepts of the fault-tolerant guaranteed cost control and formulates the robust iterative learning reliable guaranteed cost controller (ILRGCC).A significant advantage is that the proposed ILRGCC design method can be used for on-line optimization against batch-to-batch process uncertainties to realize robust tracking of set-point trajectory in time and batch-to-batch sequences.For the convenience of implementation,only measured output errors of current and previous cycles are used to design a synthetic controller for iterative learning control,consisting of dynamic output feedback plus feed-forward control.The proposed controller can not only guarantee the closed-loop convergency along time and cycle sequences but also satisfy the H∞ performance level and a cost function with upper bounds for all admissible uncertainties and any actuator failures.Sufficient conditions for the controller solution are derived in terms of linear matrix inequalities (LMIs),and design procedures,which formulate a convex optimization problem with LMI constraints,are presented.An example of injection molding is given to illustrate the effectiveness and advantages of the ILRGCC design approach.

  12. A batch modelling approach to monitor a freeze-drying process using in-line Raman spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarraguça, Mafalda Cruz; De Beer, Thomas; Vervaet, Chris; Remon, Jean-Paul; Lopes, João Almeida

    2010-11-15

    Freeze-drying or lyophilisation is a batch wise industrial process used to remove water from solutions, hence stabilizing the solutes for distribution and storage. The objective of the present work was to outline a batch modelling approach to monitor a freeze-drying process in-line and in real-time using Raman spectroscopy. A 5% (w/v) D-mannitol solution was freeze-dried in this study as model. The monitoring of a freeze-drying process using Raman spectroscopy allows following the product behaviour and some process evolution aspects by detecting the changes of the solutes and solvent occurring during the process. Herewith, real-time solid-state characterization of the final product is also possible. The timely spectroscopic measurements allowed the differentiation between batches operated in normal process conditions and batches having deviations from the normal trajectory. Two strategies were employed to develop batch models: partial least squares (PLS) using the unfolded data and parallel factor analysis (PARAFAC). It was shown that both strategies were able to developed batch models using in-line Raman spectroscopy, allowing to monitor the evolution in real-time of new batches. However, the computational effort required to develop the PLS model and to evaluate new batches using this model is significant lower compared to the PARAFAC model. Moreover, PLS scores in the time mode can be computed for new batches, while using PARAFAC only the batch mode scores can be determined for new batches.

  13. Meeting report: batch-to-batch variability in estrogenic activity in commercial animal diets--importance and approaches for laboratory animal research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heindel, Jerrold J; vom Saal, Frederick S

    2008-03-01

    We report information from two workshops sponsored by the National Institutes of Health that were held to a) assess whether dietary estrogens could significantly impact end points in experimental animals, and b) involve program participants and feed manufacturers to address the problems associated with measuring and eliminating batch-to-batch variability in rodent diets that may lead to conflicting findings in animal experiments within and between laboratories. Data were presented at the workshops showing that there is significant batch-to-batch variability in estrogenic content of commercial animal diets, and that this variability results in differences in experimental outcomes. A combination of methods were proposed to determine levels of total estrogenic activity and levels of specific estrogenic constituents in soy-containing, casein-containing, and other soy-free rodent diets. Workshop participants recommended that researchers pay greater attention to the type of diet being used in animal studies and choose a diet whose estrogenic activity (or lack thereof) is appropriate for the experimental model and end points of interest. Information about levels of specific phytoestrogens, as well as estrogenic activity caused by other contaminants and measured by bioassay, should be disclosed in scientific publications. This will require laboratory animal diet manufacturers to provide investigators with information regarding the phytoestrogen content and other estrogenic compounds in commercial diets used in animal research.

  14. Kinetics of sugars consumption and ethanol inhibition in carob pulp fermentation by Saccharomyces cerevisiae in batch and fed-batch cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima-Costa, Maria Emília; Tavares, Catarina; Raposo, Sara; Rodrigues, Brígida; Peinado, José M

    2012-05-01

    The waste materials from the carob processing industry are a potential resource for second-generation bioethanol production. These by-products are small carob kibbles with a high content of soluble sugars (45-50%). Batch and fed-batch Saccharomyces cerevisiae fermentations of high density sugar from carob pods were analyzed in terms of the kinetics of sugars consumption and ethanol inhibition. In all the batch runs, 90-95% of the total sugar was consumed and transformed into ethanol with a yield close to the theoretical maximum (0.47-0.50 g/g), and a final ethanol concentration of 100-110 g/l. In fed-batch runs, fresh carob extract was added when glucose had been consumed. This addition and the subsequent decrease of ethanol concentrations by dilution increased the final ethanol production up to 130 g/l. It seems that invertase activity and yeast tolerance to ethanol are the main factors to be controlled in carob fermentations. The efficiency of highly concentrated carob fermentation makes it a very promising process for use in a second-generation ethanol biorefinery.

  15. PRELIMINARY FRIT DEVELOPMENT AND MELT RATE TESTING FOR SLUDGE BATCH 6 (SB6)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fox, K.; Miller, D.; Edwards, T.

    2009-07-21

    The Liquid Waste Organization (LWO) provided the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) with a Sludge Batch 6 (SB6) composition projection in March 2009. Based on this projection, frit development efforts were undertaken to gain insight into compositional effects on the predicted and measured properties of the glass waste form and to gain insight into frit components that may lead to improved melt rate for SB6-like compositions. A series of Sludge Batch 6 (SB6) based glasses was selected, fabricated and characterized in this study to better understand the ability of frit compositions to accommodate uncertainty in the projected SB6 composition. Acceptable glasses (compositions where the Product Composition Control System (PCCS) Measurement Acceptability Region (MAR) predicted acceptable properties, good chemical durability was measured, and no detrimental nepheline crystallization was observed) can be made using Frit 418 with SB6 over a range of Na{sub 2}O and Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} concentrations. However, the ability to accommodate variation in the sludge composition limits the ability to utilize alternative frits for potential improvements in melt rate. Frit 535, which may offer improvements in melt rate due to its increased B2O3 concentration, produced acceptable glasses with the baseline SB6 composition at waste loadings of 34 and 42%. However, the PCCS MAR results showed that it is not as robust as Frit 418 in accommodating variation in the sludge composition. Preliminary melt rate testing was completed in the Melt Rate Furnace (MRF) with four candidate frits for SB6. These four frits were selected to evaluate the impacts of B{sub 2}O{sub 3} and Na{sub 2}O concentrations in the frit relative to those of Frit 418, although they are not necessarily candidates for SB6 vitrification. Higher concentrations of B{sub 2}O{sub 3} in the frit relative to that of Frit 418 appeared to improve melt rate. However, when a higher concentration of B{sub 2}O{sub 3} was coupled

  16. THE SLUDGE BATCH 7A GLASS VARIABILITY STUDY WITH FRIT 418 AND FRIT 702

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peeler, D; Edwards, T

    2011-03-24

    The Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) is preparing to initiate processing of Sludge Batch 7a (SB7a) in May 2011. To support qualification of SB7a, the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) was requested to execute a variability study (VS) to assess the applicability of the current Product Composition Control System (PCCS) durability models for the Frit 418-SB7a compositional region of interest. The objective of this study was to demonstrate applicability of the current durability models to the SB7a compositional region of interest and acceptability of the SB7a glasses with respect to the Environmental Assessment (EA) glass in terms of durability as defined by the Product Consistency Test (PCT). To support programmatic objectives, twenty-eight SB7a glasses were selected based on the nominal sludge projections used to support the frit recommendation. Twenty-three of the SB7a VS glasses were based on the use of Frit 418, while 5 glasses were based on the use of Frit 702. Frit 702 was also identified as a viable candidate for SB7a, especially if SO{sub 4} concentrations are found to be higher than anticipated. Frit 702 has shown a higher SO{sub 4} retention capability as compared to Frit 418. With respect to acceptability, the PCT results of the SB7a-VS glasses are acceptable relative to the EA glass regardless of thermal history (quenched or canister centerline cooled) or compositional view (target or measured). More specifically, all of the SB7a glasses have normalized boron release values (NL [B]) less than 0.9 g/L as compared to the benchmark NL [B] value for EA of 16.695 g/L. With respect to the applicability of the current durability models to the SB7a VS compositional region of interest, all of the study glasses (based on target compositions) lie within the 95% confidence intervals of the model predictions. When model applicability is based on the measured compositions, all of the SB7a VS glasses are predictable with the exception of SB7aVS-02 and SB7

  17. An Empirical State Error Covariance Matrix for Batch State Estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frisbee, Joseph H., Jr.

    2011-01-01

    state estimate, regardless as to the source of the uncertainty. Also, in its most straight forward form, the technique only requires supplemental calculations to be added to existing batch algorithms. The generation of this direct, empirical form of the state error covariance matrix is independent of the dimensionality of the observations. Mixed degrees of freedom for an observation set are allowed. As is the case with any simple, empirical sample variance problems, the presented approach offers an opportunity (at least in the case of weighted least squares) to investigate confidence interval estimates for the error covariance matrix elements. The diagonal or variance terms of the error covariance matrix have a particularly simple form to associate with either a multiple degree of freedom chi-square distribution (more approximate) or with a gamma distribution (less approximate). The off diagonal or covariance terms of the matrix are less clear in their statistical behavior. However, the off diagonal covariance matrix elements still lend themselves to standard confidence interval error analysis. The distributional forms associated with the off diagonal terms are more varied and, perhaps, more approximate than those associated with the diagonal terms. Using a simple weighted least squares sample problem, results obtained through use of the proposed technique are presented. The example consists of a simple, two observer, triangulation problem with range only measurements. Variations of this problem reflect an ideal case (perfect knowledge of the range errors) and a mismodeled case (incorrect knowledge of the range errors).

  18. Simultaneous biodegradation of nitrogen-containing aromatic compounds in a sequencing batch bioreactor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Xing-yu; WANG Bao-jun; JIANG Cheng-ying; ZHAO Ke-xin; Harold L.Drake; LIU Shuang-Jiang

    2007-01-01

    Many nitrogen-containing aromatic compounds (NACs), such as nitrobenzene (NB), 4-nitrophenol (4-NP), aniline (AN), and 2,4-dinitrophenol (2,4-DNP), are environmentally hazardous, and their removal from contaminated water is one of the main challenges facing wastewater treatment plants. In this study, synthetic wastewater containing NB, 4-NP, 2,4-DNP, and AN at concentrations ranging from 50 to 180 mg/L was fed into a sequencing batch reactor (SBR). Analyses of the SBR system indicated that it simultaneously removed more than 99% of the NACs at loading rates of 0.36 kg NB/(m3·d), 0.3 kg 4-NP/(m3·d), 0.25 kg AN/(m3·d), and 0.1 kg 2,4-DNP/(m3·d). Bacterial groups of Bacteriodetes, Candidate division TM7, α-Proteobacteria, and β-Proteobacteria were dominant in the clone libraries of 16S rRNA genes retrieved from the microbial communities in the SBR system. "Cycle tests" designed to alter feeding and aeration parameters of the SBR system demonstrated that the resident microbial biome of the SBR system responded rapidly to changing conditions. Consumption of O2 was concomitant with the apparent mineralization of NACs. Aromatic ring-cleaving dioxygenase activities suggested that (1) AN and NB were degraded via catechol 2,3-dioxygenase; (2) 4-NP was degraded via 1,2,4-benzentriol 1,2-dioxygenase; and (3) 2,4-DNP was degraded via an unresolved pathway.

  19. Cannibalism in single-batch hybrid catfish production ponds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hybrid catfish are more efficiently harvested by seining than are Channel Catfish. Due to that, and their faster growth, hybrids are typically produced in “single-batch” production systems, either in intensively-aerated commercial ponds or in split-pond systems. In either production system, hybrids...

  20. Performance and microbial ecology of a nitritation sequencing batch reactor treating high-strength ammonia wastewater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wenjing; Dai, Xiaohu; Cao, Dawen; Wang, Sha; Hu, Xiaona; Liu, Wenru; Yang, Dianhai

    2016-01-01

    The partial nitrification (PN) performance and the microbial community variations were evaluated in a sequencing batch reactor (SBR) for 172 days, with the stepwise elevation of ammonium concentration. Free ammonia (FA) and low dissolved oxygen inhibition of nitrite-oxidized bacteria (NOB) were used to achieve nitritation in the SBR. During the 172 days operation, the nitrogen loading rate of the SBR was finally raised to 3.6 kg N/m3/d corresponding the influent ammonium of 1500 mg/L, with the ammonium removal efficiency and nitrite accumulation rate were 94.12% and 83.54%, respectively, indicating that the syntrophic inhibition of FA and low dissolved oxygen contributed substantially to the stable nitrite accumulation. The results of the 16S rRNA high-throughput sequencing revealed that Nitrospira, the only nitrite-oxidizing bacteria in the system, were successively inhibited and eliminated, and the SBR reactor was dominated finally by Nitrosomonas, the ammonium-oxidizing bacteria, which had a relative abundance of 83%, indicating that the Nitrosomonas played the primary roles on the establishment and maintaining of nitritation. Followed by Nitrosomonas, Anaerolineae (7.02%) and Saprospira (1.86%) were the other mainly genera in the biomass. PMID:27762325