WorldWideScience

Sample records for batch moving bed

  1. Role of Moving Bed Biofilm Reactor and Sequencing Batch Reactor in Biological Degradation of Formaldehyde Wastewater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Ayati

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays formaldehyde is used as raw material in many industries. It has also disinfection applications in some public places. Due to its toxicity for microorganisms, chemical or anaerobic biological methods are applied for treating wastewater containing formaldehyde.In this research, formaldehyde removal efficiencies of aerobic biological treatment systems including moving bed biofilm (MMBR and sequencing batch reactors (SBR were investigated. During all experiments, the efficiency of SBR was more than MBBR, but the difference was not significant statistically. According to the results, the best efficiencies were obtained for influent formaldehyde COD of 200 mg/L in MBBR and SBR which were 93% and 99.4%, respectively. The systems were also capable to treat higher formaldehyde concentrations (up to 2500 mg/L with lower removal efficiency. The reaction kinetics followed the Stover-Kincannon second order model. The gram-positive and gram-negative bacillus and coccus as well as the gram-positive binary bacillus were found to be the most dominant species. The results of 13C-NMR analysis have shown that formaldehyde and urea were converted into N-{[(aminocarbonyl amino] methyl}urea and the residual formaldehyde was polymerized at room temperature.

  2. Nitrogen removal in moving bed sequencing batch reactor using polyurethane foam cubes of various sizes as carrier materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Jun-Wei; Seng, Chye-Eng; Lim, Poh-Eng; Ng, Si-Ling; Sujari, Amat-Ngilmi Ahmad

    2011-11-01

    The performance of moving bed sequencing batch reactors (MBSBRs) added with 8 % (v/v) of polyurethane (PU) foam cubes as carrier media in nitrogen removal was investigated in treating low COD/N wastewater. The results indicate that MBSBR with 8-mL cubes achieved the highest total nitrogen (TN) removal efficiency of 37% during the aeration period, followed by 31%, 24% and 19 % for MBSBRs with 27-, 64- and 125-mL cubes, respectively. The increased TN removal in MBSBRs was mainly due to simultaneous nitrification and denitrification (SND) process which was verified by batch studies. The relatively lower TN removal in MBSBR with larger PU foam cubes was attributed to the observation that larger PU foam cubes were not fully attached by biomass. Higher concentrations of 8-mL PU foam cubes in batch reactors yielded higher TN removal. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Evaluation of moving-bed biofilm sequencing batch reactor (MBSBR) in operating A2O process with emphasis on biological removal of nutrients existing in wastewater

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seyedsalehi, M.; Jaafari, J.; Hélix-Nielsen, Claus

    2018-01-01

    In this study, the performance of moving-bed biofilm sequencing batch reactor in operating the anaerobic/anoxic/oxic (A2O) process for treatment of wastewaters containing nitrogen and phosphorous was evaluated. For this purpose, a pilot system with two bench-scale sequencing batch reactors with a...

  4. Novel Simulated moving bed technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Purdue University

    2003-12-30

    Cellulose and hemicellulose from plants and other biomass can be hydrolyzed to produce sugars (i.e. glucose and xylose). Once these sugars are separated from other impurities, they can serve as feedstock in fermentation to produce ethanol (as fuels), lactic acid, or other valuable chemicals. The need for producing fuels and chemicals from renewable biomass has become abundantly clear over the last decade. However, the cost of producing fermentable sugars from biomass hydrolyzate using existing technology is relatively high and has been a major obstacle. The objective of this project is to develop an efficient and economical simulated moving bed (SMB) process to recover fermentable sugars from biomass hydrolyzate. Sulfuric acid can hydrolyze the cellulose and hemicellulose in biomass to sugars, but this process can generate byproducts such as acetic acid, and can lead to further degradation of the xylose to furfural and glucose to hydroxymethyl furfural (HMF). Also, lignin and other compounds in the biomass will degrade to various phenolic compounds. If the concentrations of these compounds exceed certain threshold levels, they will be toxic to the downstream fermentation, and will severely limit the usefulness of the derived sugars. Standard post-hydrolysis processing involves neutralization of sulfuric acid, usually with lime (calcium hydroxide). A study by Wooley et al.showed that the limed hydrolyzate gave a low ethanol yield in fermentation test (20% of theoretical yield compared to 77% of theoretical yield from fermentation of pure sugars). They showed that instead of adding lime, an ion exclusion chromatography process could be used to remove acids, as well as to isolate the sugars from the biomass hydrolyzate. In this project, we investigated the feasibility of developing an economical SMB process based on (1) a polymeric adsorbent, Dowex99, which was used by Wooley et al., (2) a second polymeric adsorbent, poly-4-vinyl pyridine (or PVP in short, Reilly

  5. DEGRADATION OF AROMATIC COMPOUNDS USING MOVING BED BIOFILM REACTORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Ayati, H. Ganjidoust, M. Mir Fattah

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available For biological treatment of water, there are many different biofilm systems in use. Examples of them are trickling filters, rotating biological contactors, fixed media submerged biofilters, granular media biofilters and fluidized bed reactors. They all have their advantages and disadvantages. Hence, the Moving Bed Biofilm Reactor process was developed in Norway in the late 1980s and early 1990s to adopt the best features of the activated sludge process as well as those of the biofilter processes, without including the worst. Two cylindrical moving bed biofilm reactors were used in this study working in upflow stream conditions. Experiments have been done in aerobic batch flow regime. Laboratory experiments were conducted at room temperature (23–28C and synthetic wastewater comprising a composition of phenol and hydroquinone in each reactor as the main organic constituents, plus balanced nutrients and alkalinity were used to feed the reactor. The ratio of influent to effluent COD was determined at different retention times. The results indicated that the removal efficiency of each selected compound is affected by the detention time. At low phenol and hydroquinone concentration (from 700 to 1000 mg/L maximum removal efficiency (over 80 % was obtained. By further increasing in COD loading rate up to 3000 mg/L, a decrease in COD removal rate was occurred. In the reactor containing pyrogallol in COD of 1500 mg/L, the removal rate decreased to 10 percent because of its toxicity for microorganisms.

  6. CIRCULATING MOVING BED COMBUSTION PROOF OF CONCEPT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jukkola, Glen

    2010-06-30

    Circulating Moving Bed (CMB) combustion technology has its roots in traditional circulating fluidized bed technology and involves a novel method of solid fuel combustion and heat transfer. CMB technology represents a step change in improved performance and cost relative to conventional PC and FBC boilers. The CMB heat exchanger preheats the energy cycle working fluid, steam or air, to the high temperature levels required in systems for advanced power generation. Unique features of the CMB are the reduction of the heat transfer surfaces by about 60% as a result of the enhanced heat transfer rates, flexibility of operation, and about 30% lower cost over existing technology. The CMB Phase I project ran from July 2001 through March 2003. Its objective was to continue development of the CMB technology with a series of proof of concept tests. The tests were conducted at a scale that provided design data for scale up to a demonstration plant. These objectives were met by conducting a series of experiments in ALSTOM Power’s Multi-use Test Facility (MTF). The MTF was modified to operate under CMB conditions of commercial interest. The objective of the tests were to evaluate gas-to-solids heat transfer in the upper furnace, assess agglomeration in the high temperature CMB bubbling bed, and evaluate solids-to-tube heat transfer in the moving bed heat exchanger. The Phase I program results showed that there are still some significant technical uncertainties that needed to be resolved before the technology can be confidently scaled up for a successful demonstration plant design. Work remained in three primary areas: • scale up of gas to solid heat transfer • high temperature finned surface design • the overall requirements of mechanical and process design. The CMB Phase II workscope built upon the results of Phase I and specifically addressed the remaining technical uncertainties. It included a scaled MTF heat transfer test to provide the necessary data to scale up gas

  7. Advanced sorbent development progam; development of sorbents for moving-bed and fluidized-bed applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ayala, R.E.; Venkataramani, V.S.

    1998-01-01

    a market plan for large-scale fabrication of sorbents were developed. As an optional task, long-term bench-scale tests of the best moving-bed sorbents were conducted. Starting from thermodynamic calculations, several metal oxides were identified for potential use as hot gas cleanup sorbents using constructed phase stability diagrams and laboratory screening of various mixed-metal oxide formulations. Modified zinc titanates and other proprietary metal oxide formulations were evaluated at the bench scale and many of them found to be acceptable for operation in the target desulfurization temperature range of 370 C (700 F) to 538 C (1000 F) and regeneration temperatures up to 760 C (1400 F). Further work is still needed to reduce the batch-to-batch repeatability in the fabrication of modified zinc titanates for larger scale applications. The information presented in this Volume 1 report contains the results of moving-bed sorbent develop-ment at General Electrics Corporate Research and Development (GE-CRD). A separate Volume 2 report contains the results of the subcontract on fluidized-bed sorbent development at the Institute of Gas Technology (IGT)

  8. ADVANCED SORBENT DEVELOPMENT PROGRAM DEVELOPMENT OF SORBENTS FOR MOVING-BED AND FLUIDIZED-BED APPLICATIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R.E Ayala; V.S. Venkataramani; Javad Abbasian; Rachid B. Slimane; Brett E. Williams; Minoo K. Zarnegar; James R. Wangerow; Andy H. Hill

    2000-03-31

    assessment and a market plan for large-scale fabrication of sorbents were developed. As an optional task, long-term bench-scale tests of the best moving-bed sorbents were conducted. Starting from thermodynamic calculations, several metal oxides were identified for potential use as hot gas cleanup sorbents using constructed phase stability diagrams and laboratory screening of various mixed-metal oxide formulations. Modified zinc titanates and other proprietary metal oxide formulations were evaluated at the bench scale and many of them found to be acceptable for operation in the target desulfurization temperature range of 370 C (700 F) to 538 C (1000 F) and regeneration temperatures up to 760 C (1400 F). Further work is still needed to reduce the batch-to-batch repeatability in the fabrication of modified zinc titanates for larger scale applications. The information presented in this Volume 1 report contains the results of moving-bed sorbent development at General Electric's Corporate Research and Development (GE-CRD). A separate Volume 2 report contains the results of the subcontract on fluidized-bed sorbent development at the Institute of Gas Technology (IGT).

  9. BIODEGRADATION OF AROMATIC AMINE COMPOUNDS USING MOVING BED BIOFILM REACTORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Delnavaz ، B. Ayati ، H. Ganjidoust

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Three moving bed biofilm reactors were used to treat synthesized wastewater of aromatic amine compounds including aniline, para-diaminobenzene and para-aminophenol that are found in many industrial wastewaters. The reactors with cylindrical shape had an internal diameter and an effective depth of 10 and 60 cm, respectively. The reactors were filled with light expanded clay aggregate as carriers and operated in an aerobic batch and continuous conditions. Evaluation of the reactors' efficiency was done at different retention time of 8, 24, 48 and 72 h with an influent COD from 100 to 3500 mg/L (filling ratio of 50%. The maximum obtained removal efficiencies were 90% (influent COD=2000 mg/L, 87% (influent COD=1000 mg/L and 75% (influent COD=750 mg/L for aniline, para-diaminobenzene and para-aminophenol, respectively. In the study of decrease in filling ratio from 50 to 30 percent, 6% decrease for both para-diaminobenzene and para-aminophenol and 7% increase for aniline degradation were obtained. The removal efficiency was decreased to about 10% after 15 days of continuous loading for each of the above three substrates. In the shock loading test, initially the COD removal rate was decreased in all reactors, but after about 10 days, it has been approached to the previous values. Finally, biodegradability of aromatic amines has been proved by nuclear magnetic resonance system.

  10. Nutrients removal using moving beds with aeration cycles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin Martin, A.; Foresti, E.; Garcia-Encina, P. A.

    2009-01-01

    Moving Bed Biofilm Reactors (MBBR) are based on the biomass growth over a media that moves into the reactor due to aeration, mechanical agitation or recirculation. These reactors have been gaining popularity and they are employed in hundreds of plants everywhere with different treatment purposes (organic matter removal, nitrification/denitrification), both for urban and industrial wastewater. (Author)

  11. Heat transfer in a fixed bed and mass transfer in a counter-current moving bed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dellaretti, F. O.

    The behavior of gas-solid reactors known as compact-fixed and moving beds, is analyzed from a theoretical viewpoint. For a compact fixed-bed the solution of the energy balance equations is obtained for the cases of a uniform temperature inside the solid pellets (i.e., the Biot number is zero) and for the case in which there are temperature gradients within the pellets (Bi 0). For short contact times, beds with Bi 0 have gas- and solid- temperatures which are greater than the temperatures within beds with Bi = 0. For long times, the situation is reversed. For a compact-moving bed the solution of the mass balance equations is obtained for the cases of a feed-solid with an oscillating concentration. For both types of beds there is an equivalence between mass transfer and energy transfer so that the solutions can be interchanged with suitable definitions of dimensionless variables.

  12. Making decisive decisions on simulating moving bed designs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bussmann, P.; Boon, F.; Vroon, R.

    2012-01-01

    The working of an simulating moving bed (SMB) is still poorly understood. Although the SMB is used in food, petrochemical, and pharmaceutical industries, the operation is suboptimal and more widely applicable. Determining the design (CAPEX) and operating parameters (OPEX) of SMB processes remains a

  13. Mixing and scale affect moving bed biofilm reactor (MBBR) performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kamstra, Andries; Blom, Ewout; Terjesen, Bendik Fyhn

    2017-01-01

    Moving Bed Biofilm Reactors (MBBR) are used increasingly in closed systems for farming of fish. Scaling, i.e. design of units of increasing size, is an important issue in general bio-reactor design since mixing behaviour will differ between small and large scale. Research is mostly performed on

  14. Moving from batch towards continuous organic‐chemical pharmaceutical production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cervera Padrell, Albert Emili

    alkylation reaction was achieved using a filter reactor coupled with a side‐entry tubular reactor, using real‐time in‐line near‐infrared (NIR) spectroscopy for monitoring the reaction and ensuring the right product quality. A subsequent hydrolysis of the alkoxide product was performed in continuous mode......Pharmaceutical ingredients have traditionally been produced in batches using multipurpose stirred vessels. Reactions and separations have typically been tailored to fit these units, facing multiple limitations when transferring synthetic routes from the laboratory to industrial scale. Scaling up...... thus resulted in many cases in low reaction yields and separation efficiencies. These limitations were however compensated by a relatively fast process implementation. For the pharmaceutical industry this meant that new drug products could be exclusively marketed for a longer time period, resulting...

  15. A batch and fixed bed column study for fluorescein removal using chitosan modified by epichlorohydrin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, P M O; Francisco, J E; Cajé, J C M; Cassella, R J; Pacheco, W F

    2018-01-02

    This study evaluates the feasibility of commercial chitosan (CQ) and modified chitosan (MQ) by epichlorohydrin to be used as a solid phase to remove fluorescein (FSC) from aqueous solutions by two different approaches: in batch and on a fixed column bed. For the batch study, all parameters that influence sorption capacity were evaluated, such as: pH, mass, ionic strength, temperature and time of contact. In the optimized condition, 75% removal was obtained for FSC using CQ, while the modification allowed an increase up to 99%, as well as an increase in the stability of the polymer. In the fixed column bed study, the influence of all the parameters was evaluated through breakthrough curves, and the thermodynamics parameters of each approach were obtained. The results of these studies demonstrate that the modification with epichlorohydrin enhanced the sorptive properties (from 35% to 95% in fixed bed experiments) and the polymer stability (making it insoluble), making it suitable to be used in wastewater treatment.

  16. Biodegradation of benzotriazoles and hydroxy-benzothiazole in wastewater by activated sludge and moving bed biofilm reactor systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mazioti, Aikaterini A.; Stasinakis, Athanasios S.; Pantazi, Ypapanti

    2015-01-01

    Two laboratory scale fully aerated continuous flow wastewater treatment systems were used to compare the removal of five benzotriazoles and one benzothiazole by suspended and attached growth biomass. The Activated Sludge system was operated under low organic loading conditions. The Moving Bed Bio...... biomass grown in different bioreactors of MBBR systems were also observed. Batch experiments showed that micropollutants biodegradation by both types of biomass is co-metabolic....

  17. Glucose isomerization in simulated moving bed reactor by Glucose isomerase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Alberto Borges da Silva

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Studies were carried out on the production of high-fructose syrup by Simulated Moving Bed (SMB technology. A mathematical model and numerical methodology were used to predict the behavior and performance of the simulated moving bed reactors and to verify some important aspects for application of this technology in the isomerization process. The developed algorithm used the strategy that considered equivalences between simulated moving bed reactors and true moving bed reactors. The kinetic parameters of the enzymatic reaction were obtained experimentally using discontinuous reactors by the Lineweaver-Burk technique. Mass transfer effects in the reaction conversion using the immobilized enzyme glucose isomerase were investigated. In the SMB reactive system, the operational variable flow rate of feed stream was evaluated to determine its influence on system performance. Results showed that there were some flow rate values at which greater purities could be obtained.Neste trabalho a tecnologia de Leito Móvel Simulado (LMS reativo é aplicada no processo de isomerização da glicose visando à produção de xarope concentrado de frutose. É apresentada a modelagem matemática e uma metodologia numérica para predizer o comportamento e o desempenho de unidades reativas de leito móvel simulado para verificar alguns aspectos importantes para o emprego desta tecnologia no processo de isomerização. O algoritmo desenvolvido utiliza a abordagem que considera as equivalências entre as unidades reativas de leito móvel simulado e leito móvel verdadeiro. Parâmetros cinéticos da reação enzimática são obtidos experimentalmente usando reatores em batelada pela técnica Lineweaver-Burk. Efeitos da transferência de massa na conversão de reação usando a enzima imobilizada glicose isomerase são verificados. No sistema reativo de LMS, a variável operacional vazão da corrente de alimentação é avaliada para conhecer o efeito de sua influência no

  18. Modeling stationary and moving pebbles in a pebble bed reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, Xiang; Montgomery, Trent; Zhang, Sijun

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • The stationary and moving pebbles in a PBR are numerically studied by DEM. • The packing structure of stationary pebbles is simulated by a filling process. • The packing structural properties are obtained and analyzed. • The dynamic behavior of pebbles is predicted and discussed. - Abstract: This paper presents a numerical study of the stationary and moving pebbles in a pebble bed reactor (PBR) by means of discrete element method (DEM). The packing structure of stationary pebbles is simulated by a filling process that terminates with the settling of the pebbles into a PBR. The packing structural properties are obtained and analyzed. Subsequently, when the outlet of the PBR is opened during the operation of the PBR, the stationary pebbles start to flow downward and are removed at the bottom of the PBR. The dynamic behavior of pebbles is predicted and discussed. Our results indicate the DEM can offer both macroscopic and microscopic information for PBR design calculations and safety assessment

  19. A model for the thermodynamic analysis in a batch type fluidized bed dryer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Özahi, Emrah; Demir, Hacımurat

    2013-01-01

    An original model for thermodynamic analysis of a batch type fluidized bed dryer is proposed herein considering two separate systems comprised of drying air medium as a control volume and particles to be dried as a control mass. By means of the proposed model, energetic and exergetic analyses of a drying column of a batch type fluidized bed dryer are carried out as an original contribution to literature since there is no such like model in which the analyses are performed considering two separate systems. The energetic efficiencies evaluated by means of the proposed model using the data in literature are compared with those in literature and a good conformity is satisfied with an acceptable error margin of ±9%. A new correlation is also developed with a mean deviation of ±10% in order to evaluate the energetic efficiency for not only corn drying process but also drying processes of other particles at inlet air temperature of 50 °C. Effects of air mass flow rate, mass of particle and ambient temperature on energetic and exergetic efficiencies are analyzed and some concluding remarks are highlighted for further studies. - Highlights: • Energetic and exergetic analyses of a batch type fluidized bed dryer are developed. • An original model is proposed for thermodynamic analyses in a fluidized bed dryer. • The proposed model is compared with the data in literature with an accuracy of ±9%. • Effect of air mass flow rate is more significant than that of ambient temperature. • Effect of mass of particle is more significant than that of ambient temperature

  20. Treatment of Medical Wastewater by Moving Bed Bioreactor System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaser Ibrahim Jasem

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The hospital wastewater is considered as a complex mixture, populated with microbial and a variety of toxic substances. The performance of EEC USA moving bed biofilm reactor (MBBR with polyethylene media as biofilm support carrier, packaged wastewater treatment plant with a capacity of 250 m3/day was evaluated for treating the wastewater from Al- Batul hospital of Baquba city in Iraq in terms of the organic matter and suspended solid removal, along with nitrification and microbial growth for medical wastewater. The test results showed that the average removal efficiency of biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5, chemical oxygen demand (COD, and total suspended solid (TSS were 79.5%, 74.5%, and 78%, respectively. The system offers good nitrification with the efficiency of 79%. The system shows a weak formation of biomass on carriers, only 1.93 g TSS/m2 of media, corresponding to 32% of the suspended biomass in the reactor.

  1. Down-flow moving-bed gasifier with catalyst recycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halow, John S.

    1999-01-01

    The gasification of coal and other carbonaceous materials by an endothermic gasification reaction is achieved in the presence of a catalyst in a down-flow, moving-bed gasifier. Catalyst is removed along with ash from the gasifier and is then sufficiently heated in a riser/burner by the combustion of residual carbon in the ash to volatilize the catalyst. This volatilized catalyst is returned to the gasifier where it uniformly contacts and condenses on the carbonaceous material. Also, the hot gaseous combustion products resulting from the combustion of the carbon in the ash along with excess air are introduced into the gasifier for providing heat energy used in the endothermic reaction.

  2. Adsorption of trihalomethanes by humin: Batch and fixed bed column studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunha, G da C; Romão, L P C; Santos, M C; Araújo, B R; Navickiene, S; de Pádua, V L

    2010-05-01

    The objective of the present work was to assess the performance of batch and fixed bed column systems, using humin in natura and immobilized on sodium silicate, respectively, for the adsorption of the principal trihalomethanes (THMs) found in water supply systems. Kinetically, adsorption of THMs by humin follows a pseudo-second order reaction, with more than 50% removal in the first 5min for all compounds studied, and equilibrium described by the Freundlich model reached in 240min. The THM adsorption results were significant at phumin for removal of THMs. Copyright 2009. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  3. Exergy optimization in a steady moving bed heat exchanger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soria-Verdugo, A; Almendros-Ibáñez, J A; Ruiz-Rivas, U; Santana, D

    2009-04-01

    This work provides an energy and exergy optimization analysis of a moving bed heat exchanger (MBHE). The exchanger is studied as a cross-flow heat exchanger where one of the phases is a moving granular medium. The optimal MBHE dimensions and the optimal particle diameter are obtained for a range of incoming fluid flow rates. The analyses are carried out over operation data of the exchanger obtained in two ways: a numerical simulation of the steady-state problem and an analytical solution of the simplified equations, neglecting the conduction terms. The numerical simulation considers, for the solid, the convection heat transfer to the fluid and the diffusion term in both directions, and for the fluid only the convection heat transfer to the solid. The results are compared with a well-known analytical solution (neglecting conduction effects) for the temperature distribution in the exchanger. Next, the analytical solution is used to derive an expression for the exergy destruction. The optimal length of the MBHE depends mainly on the flow rate and does not depend on particle diameter unless they become very small (thus increasing sharply the pressure drop). The exergy optimal length is always smaller than the thermal one, although the difference is itself small.

  4. Uptake of Cd(II Using Natural Zeolite: Batch and Continuous Fixed-Bed Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luna M. LMarashdeh

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Uptake of Cd(II ions by natural phillipsite tuff was investigated both in shake-flask and fixed-bed columns. Equilibrium uptake, qe, was found to best fit Langmuir adsorption isotherm with a maximum value of 25.78 mg/g. Percent removal of Cd ions was close to 100% from initial metal ion concentrations in the range 50 - 75 mg/L at 5.0 g zeolite/L. Also, qe was found to vary exponentially with zeolite dose. Break points as high as 350 minutes were obtained from bed treatment at favorable conditions of a low solution flow rate and high bed depth. In batch experiments, equilibrium pH increased to < 8.0 excluding chemical precipitation as part of the removal while in fixed-beds the final pH exceeded 9.0. It is suggested that a sieve action of zeolite porous structure plays a role as an uptake mechanism in addition to the ion exchange.

  5. Fructose Production by Inulinase Covalently Immobilized on Sepabeads in Batch and Fluidized Bed Bioreactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriele Iorio

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The present work is an experimental study of the performance of a recently designed immobilized enzyme: inulinase from Aspergillus sp. covalently immobilized on Sepabeads. The aim of the work is to test the new biocatalyst in conditions of industrial interest and to assess the feasibility of the process in a fluidized bed bioreactor (FBBR. The catalyst was first tested in a batch reactor at standard conditions and in various sets of conditions of interest for the process. Once the response of the catalyst to different operating conditions was tested and the operational stability assessed, one of the sets of conditions tested in batch was chosen for tests in FBBR. Prior to reaction tests, preliminary fluidization tests were realized in order to define an operating range of admissible flow rates. As a result, the FBR was run at different feed flow rates in a closed cycle configuration and its performance was compared to that of the batch system. The FBBR proved to be performing and suitable for scale up to large fructose production.

  6. Nitrification in moving bed and fixed bed biofilters treating effluent water from a large commercial outdoor rainbow trout RAS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Suhr, Karin; Pedersen, Per Bovbjerg

    2010-01-01

    The nitrification performance of two fixed bed (FB) biofilters and two moving bed (MB) biofilters was evaluated. They received the same cold (8 degrees C) influent water from a commercial outdoor RAS facility producing rainbow trout (average density 32 kg m(-3)). The filters were constructed as f...

  7. Kinetic study of heavy metal ions removal by ion exchange in batch conical air spouted bed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.M. Zewail

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Spouted bed contactor is a hybrid of fixed and fluidized bed contactors, which retains the advantages of each with good hydrodynamic conditions. The aim of the present study is to investigate the performance of a batch conical air spouted vessel for heavy metal removal by strong cation exchange resins (AMBERJET 1200 Na. The effect of various parameters such as type of heavy metal ions (Ni+2 and Pb+2, contact time, superficial air velocity and initial heavy metal ion concentration on % heavy metal ion removal has been investigated. It has been found that under optimum conditions 98% and 99% removal of Ni+2 and Pb+2 were achieved respectively. Several kinetic models were used to test the experimental data and to examine the controlling mechanism of the sorption process. The present results of Ni+2 and Pb+2 well fit pseudo second order kinetic model with a high correlation coefficient. Both film diffusion and intra-particle diffusion contribute to the ion exchange process. The present study revealed that spouted bed vessel may provide an effective alternative for conducting ion exchange reactions.

  8. Synthesis of Biodiesel in Batch and Packed-Bed Reactors Using Powdered and Granular Sugar Catalyst

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janaun, J.; Lim, P. M.; Balan, W. S.; Yaser, A. Z.; Chong, K. P.

    2017-06-01

    Increasing world production of palm oil warrants effective utilization of its waste. In particular, conversion of waste cooking oil into biodiesel has obtained global interest because of renewable energy need and reduction of CO2 emission. In this study, oleic acid used as a model compound for waste cooking oil conversion using esterification reaction catalysed by sugar catalyst (SC) in powdered (P-SC) and granular (G-SC) forms. The catalysts were synthesized via incomplete carbonization of D-glucose followed by functionalization with concentrated sulphuric acid. Catalysts characterizations were done for their physical and chemical properties using modern tools. Batch and packed-bed reactor systems were used to evaluate the reactivity of the catalysts. The results showed that G-SC had slightly higher total acidity and more porous than P-SC. The experimental conditions for batch reaction were temperature of 60°C, molar ratio of 1:20 (Oleic Acid:Methanol) and 2 wt. catalyst with respect to oleic acid. The results showed the maximum oleic acid conversion using G-SC and P-SC were 52 and 48, respectively. Whereas, the continuous reaction with varying feed flow rate as a function of retention time was studied by using 3 g of P-SC in 60 °C and 1:20 molar ratio in a packed-bed reactor. The results showed that a longer retention time which was 6.48 min and feed flow rate 1.38 ml/min, achieved higher average conversion of 9.9 and decreased with further increasing flow rate. G-SC showed a better average conversion of 10.8 at lowest feed flow rate of 1.38 ml/min in continuous reaction experiments. In a broader perspective, large scale continuous biodiesel production is feasible using granular over powdered catalyst mainly due to it lower pressure drop.

  9. Experimental investigation of pyrolysis of rice straw using bench-scale auger, batch and fluidized bed reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nam, Hyungseok; Capareda, Sergio C.; Ashwath, Nanjappa; Kongkasawan, Jinjuta

    2015-01-01

    Energy conversion efficiencies of three pyrolysis reactors (bench-scale auger, batch, and fluidized bed) were investigated using rice straw as the feedstock at a temperature of 500 °C. The highest bio-oil yield of 43% was obtained from the fluidized bed reactor, while the maximum bio-char yield of 48% was obtained from the batch reactor. Similar bio-oil yields were obtained from the auger and batch type reactors. The GCMS and FTIR were used to evaluate the liquid products from all reactors. The best quality bio-oil and bio-char from the batch reactor was determined to have a heating value of 31 MJ/kg and 19 MJ/kg, respectively. The highest alkali mineral was found in the bio-char produced from the auger reactor. The energy conversion efficiencies of the three reactors indicated that the majority of the energy (50–64%) was in the bio-char products from the auger and batch reactors, while the bio-oil from the fluidized bed reactor contained the highest energy (47%). A Sankey diagram has been produced to show the flows of product energy from each pyrolysis process. The result will help determine which conversion process would be optimal for producing specific products of bio-char, bio-oil, and gas depending on the needs. - Highlights: • Pyrolysis products from auger, batch, and fluidized bed reactor were examined. • O/C ratios of bio-oils stayed in specific ranges depending on the process reactors. • The largest quantity of bio-oil from fluidized, while the best quality from batch. • The highest alkali concentration of 37 g/kg included in the auger based bio-char. • Sankey diagram was used to understand the energy distribution from reactors.

  10. Adsorption of cationic dye onto fly ash-based geopolymer: Batch and fixed bed column studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El Alouani Marouane

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Cationic dye adsorption from aqueous solution onto synthesized geopolymer was investigated by batch and fixed bed column experiments. The geopolymer material was elaborated by alkali solution and fly ash supplied by Jorf Lasfar power plant of Morocco. Physical and chemical characteristics of samples were determined by FX, DRX, SEM, 29Si MAS NMR and Zeta potential methods. The Brunauer, Emmett and Teller (BET technique is used to determine the surface area. The Barrett-Joyner-Halenda (BJH method was performed to obtain pore size distribution curves and average pore diameter. Kinetics data were analyzed using pseudo-first-order, pseudo-second-order and intraparticle diffusion models. To predict the breakthrough curves and determine the main fixed bed column parameters, three kinetic models; Tomas, Bohart–Adams and Yoon-Nelson models are applied to fitting the experimental data. The kinetic study showed that the pseudo-second-order can be used to describe the methylene blue (MB adsorption process on the geopolymer matrix. The kinetic models of the adsorption in dynamic column are suitable to describe the continuous adsorption process of dyestuff by the geopolymer. The results of this study indicated that geopolymer derived from fly ash can be used as a low cost effective adsorbent for cationic dye removal from industrial aqueous effluent.

  11. The Kaldnes Moving Bed biofilm technology for treatment of industrial wastewater; Tecnologia Kaldnes Moving Bed biofilm (KMT) para la depuracion de aguas residuales industriales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rasmussen, V.; Garcia Carrion, M.; Farre Solsona, C.

    2004-07-01

    The Kaldnes Moving bed biofilm technology is a biofilm process which is very suitable for treatment of industrial wastewaters. Biofilm processes have several acknowledged advantages compared to suspended biomass processes, e. g. resistance to toxicity and load variations. Traditionally biofilm processes have been known to clog at high loads and hence have not been suited for industrial effluents: however, the Kaldnes Moving Bed biofilm process has overcome this problem. This article describes how the process has been used as pre-treatment up front of activated sludge at a dairy in USA, and as sole treatment at pharmaceutical industry in Sweden. (Author)

  12. Optimization of startup and shutdown operation of simulated moving bed chromatographic processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Suzhou; Kawajiri, Yoshiaki; Raisch, Jörg; Seidel-Morgenstern, Andreas

    2011-06-24

    This paper presents new multistage optimal startup and shutdown strategies for simulated moving bed (SMB) chromatographic processes. The proposed concept allows to adjust transient operating conditions stage-wise, and provides capability to improve transient performance and to fulfill product quality specifications simultaneously. A specially tailored decomposition algorithm is developed to ensure computational tractability of the resulting dynamic optimization problems. By examining the transient operation of a literature separation example characterized by nonlinear competitive isotherm, the feasibility of the solution approach is demonstrated, and the performance of the conventional and multistage optimal transient regimes is evaluated systematically. The quantitative results clearly show that the optimal operating policies not only allow to significantly reduce both duration of the transient phase and desorbent consumption, but also enable on-spec production even during startup and shutdown periods. With the aid of the developed transient procedures, short-term separation campaigns with small batch sizes can be performed more flexibly and efficiently by SMB chromatography. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Experimental purification of paclitaxel from a complex mixture of taxanes using a simulated moving bed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Cremasco

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available A laboratory-scale simulated moving bed (SMB was designed and tested for the separation of paclitaxel, a powerful anti-cancer agent known as Taxol@, from impurities of a plant tissue culture (PTC broth. The innovative strategy of a pseudo-binary model, where mixtures A and B were treated as single solutes A and B, was used in the linear standing wave analysis to fix the SMB operating parameters for a multicomponent and complex system. Linear standing wave design was used to specify the zone flow rates and the switching time for the laboratory-scale SMB unit, with two steps of separation. The SMB consists of four packed columns, where each column is 12.5 cm in length and 1.5 cm in diameter. Two sequential separation steps were used to recover paclitaxel from a small feed batch (less than one liter. Placlitaxel was recovered from the complex plant tissue culture broth in 82% yield and 72% purity.

  14. Decolourization of remazol black-5 textile dyes using moving bed bio-film reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratiwi, R.; Notodarmojo, S.; Helmy, Q.

    2018-01-01

    The desizing and dyeing processes in the textile industries produces wastewaster containing high concentration of organic matter and colour, so it needs treatment before released to environment. In this research, removal of azo dye (Remazol Black 5/RB 5) and organic as COD was performed using Moving Bed Biofilm Reactor (MBBR). MBBR is biological treatment process with attached growth media system that can increase removal of organic matter in textile wastewater. The effectiveness of ozonation as pre-treatment process to increase the removal efficiency in MBBR was studied. The results showed that in MBBR batch system with detention time of 1 hour, pre-treatment with ozonation prior to MBBR process able to increase the colour removal efficiency of up to 86.74%. While on the reactor without ozone pre-treatment, the colour removal efficiency of up to 68.6% was achieved. From the continuous reactor experiments found that both colour and COD removal efficiency depends on time detention of RB-5 dyes in the system. The higher of detention time, the higher of colour and COD removal efficiency. It was found that optimum removal of colour and COD was achieved in 24 hour detention time with its efficiency of 96.9% and 89.13%, respectively.

  15. Nitrification performance and robustness of fixed and moving bed biofilters having identical carrier elements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Lars-Flemming; Oosterveld, Remko; Pedersen, Per Bovbjerg

    2015-01-01

    This study compared moving bed (MB) and fixed bed (FB) biofilter performance. The experimental recir-culating aquaculture system had four equal biofilters in parallel. Each of the two replicated FB biofilters(with heavy elements) and the two MB biofilters (with neutral elements) had 200 l carrier...

  16. Evaluation of ADCP apparent bed load velocity in a large sand-bed river: Moving versus stationary boat conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamieson, E.C.; Rennie, C.D.; Jacobson, R.B.; Townsend, R.D.

    2011-01-01

    Detailed mapping of bathymetry and apparent bed load velocity using a boat-mounted acoustic Doppler current profiler (ADCP) was carried out along a 388-m section of the lower Missouri River near Columbia, Missouri. Sampling transects (moving boat) were completed at 5- and 20-m spacing along the study section. Stationary (fixed-boat) measurements were made by maintaining constant boat position over a target point where the position of the boat did not deviate more than 3 m in any direction. For each transect and stationary measurement, apparent bed load velocity (vb) was estimated using ADCP bottom tracking data and high precision real-time kinematic (RTK) global positioning system (GPS). The principal objectives of this research are to (1) determine whether boat motion introduces a bias in apparent bed load velocity measurements; and (2) evaluate the reliability of ADCP bed velocity measurements for a range of sediment transport environments. Results indicate that both high transport (vb>0.6 m/s) and moving-boat conditions (for both high and low transport environments) increase the relative variability in estimates of mean bed velocity. Despite this, the spatially dense single-transect measurements were capable of producing detailed bed velocity maps that correspond closely with the expected pattern of sediment transport over large dunes. ?? 2011 American Society of Civil Engineers.

  17. Circulating moving bed system for CO.sub.2 separation, and method of same

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elliott, Jeannine Elizabeth; Copeland, Robert James

    2016-12-27

    A circulating moving bed and process for separating a carbon dioxide from a gas stream is disclosed. The circulating moving bed can include an adsorption reactor and a desorption reactor, and a sorbent that moves through the two reactors. The sorbent can enter the adsorptive reactor and one end and move to an exit point distal to its entry point, while a CO.sub.2 feed stream can enter near the distal point and move countercurrently through the sorbent to exit at a position near the entry point of the sorbent. The sorbent can adsorb the CO.sub.2 by concentration swing adsorption and adsorptive displacement. The sorbent can then transfer to a regeneration reactor and can move countercurrently against a flow of steam through the regeneration reactor. The sorbent can be regenerated and the carbon dioxide recaptured by desorbing the carbon dioxide from the sorbent using concentration swing desorption and desorptive displacement with steam.

  18. Design and fabrication of a fixed-bed batch type pyrolysis reactor for pilot scale pyrolytic oil production in Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aziz, Mohammad Abdul; Al-khulaidi, Rami Ali; Rashid, MM; Islam, M. R.; Rashid, MAN

    2017-03-01

    In this research, a development and performance test of a fixed-bed batch type pyrolysis reactor for pilot scale pyrolysis oil production was successfully completed. The characteristics of the pyrolysis oil were compared to other experimental results. A solid horizontal condenser, a burner for furnace heating and a reactor shield were designed. Due to the pilot scale pyrolytic oil production encountered numerous problems during the plant’s operation. This fixed-bed batch type pyrolysis reactor method will demonstrate the energy saving concept of solid waste tire by creating energy stability. From this experiment, product yields (wt. %) for liquid or pyrolytic oil were 49%, char 38.3 % and pyrolytic gas 12.7% with an operation running time of 185 minutes.

  19. Transformation products of clindamycin in moving bed biofilm reactor (MBBR)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ooi, Gordon Tze Hoong; Escola Casas, Monica; Andersen, Henrik Rasmus

    2017-01-01

    Clindamycin is widely prescribed for its ability to treat a number of common bacterial infections. Thus, clindamycin enters wastewater via human excretion or disposal of unused medication and widespread detection of pharmaceuticals in rivers proves the insufficiency of conventional wastewater...... applied in the effluent of conventional wastewater treatment plants to remove clindamycin. First, a batch experiment was executed with a high initial concentration of clindamycin to identify the transformation products. It was shown that clindamycin can be removed from wastewater by MBBR and the treatment.......0161 h-1) which again has a much higher biological activity for removal of clindamycin than of the suspended bacteria (biofilm-free control). Clindamycin sulfoxide was the main transformation product which was found in concentrations exceeding 10% of the initial clindamycin concentration after 1 day...

  20. Effect of HCO3- concentration on anammox nitrogen removal rate in a moving bed biofilm reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zekker, Ivar; Rikmann, Ergo; Tenno, Toomas; Vabamäe, Priit; Kroon, Kristel; Loorits, Liis; Saluste, Alar; Tenno, Taavo

    2012-01-01

    Anammox biomass enriched in a moving bed biofilm reactor (MBBR) fed by actual sewage sludge reject water and synthetically added NO2- was used to study the total nitrogen (TN) removal rate of the anammox process depending on bicarbonate (HCO3-) concentration. MBBR performance resulted in the maximum TN removal rate of 1100 g N m(-3) d(-1) when the optimum HCO3- concentration (910 mg L(-1)) was used. The average reaction ratio of NO2- removal, NO3- production and NH4+ removal were 1.18/0.20/1. When the HCO3- concentration was increased to 1760mg L(-1) the TN removal rate diminished to 270 g N m(-3) d(-1). The process recovered from bicarbonate inhibition within 1 week. The batch tests performed with biomass taken from the MBBR showed that for the HCO3- concentration of 615 mg L(-1) the TN removal rate was 3.3 mg N L(-1) h(-1), whereas for both lower (120 mg L(-1)) and higher (5750 mg L(-1)) HCO3- concentrations the TN removal rates were 2.3 (+/- 0.15) and 1.6 (+/- 0.12) mg N L(-1) d(-1), respectively. PCR and DGGE analyses resulted in the detection of uncultured Planctomycetales bacterium clone P4 and, surprisingly, low-oxygen-tolerant aerobic ammonia oxidizers. The ability of anammox bacteria for mixotrophy was established by diminished amounts of nitrate produced when comparing the experiments with an organic carbon source and an inorganic carbon source.

  1. Continuous separation of protein loaded nanoparticles by simulated moving bed chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satzer, Peter; Wellhoefer, Martin; Jungbauer, Alois

    2014-07-04

    For scale up and efficient production of protein loaded nanoparticles continuous separation by size exclusion chromatography in simulated moving bed (SMB) mode helps do reduce unbound protein concentration and increase yields for perfectly covered particles. Silica nanoparticles were loaded with an excess of beta casein or bovine serum albumin (BSA) and the loaded particles purified by size exclusion chromatography using Sephacryl300 as stationary phase in a four zone SMB. We determined our working points for the SMB from batch separations and the triangle theory described by Mazzotti et al. with an SMB setup of one Sephacryl300 26/70mm column per zone with switch times of 5min for BSA and 7min for beta casein. In the case of BSA the Raffinate contained loaded nanoparticles of 63% purity with 98% recovery and the extract was essentially particle free (95% purity). We showed that the low purity of the Raffinate was only due to BSA multimers present in the used protein solution. In the case of beta casein where no multimers are present we achieved 89% purity and 90% recovery of loaded nanoparticles in the Raffinate and an extract free of particles (92% purity). Using a tangential flow filtration unit with 5kDa cutoff membrane we proved that the extract can be concentrated for recycling of protein and buffer. The calculated space-time-yield for loaded nanoparticles was 0.25g of loaded nanoparticles per hour and liter of used resin. This proves that the presented process is suitable for large scale production for industrial purposes. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Fixed (slow moving) bed updraft gasification of agricultural residues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vigouroux, Rolando Zanzi [Royal Institute of Technology (KTH), Stockholm (Sweden). Dept. of Chemical Engineering and Technology], E-mail: rolando@ket.kth.se; Escalona, Ronoldy Faxas [University of Oriente, Santiago de Cuba (Cuba). Fac. of Mechanical Engineering], E-mail: faxas@fim.uo.edu.cu

    2009-07-01

    Birch, in form of pellets has been gasified in updraft fixed-bed gasifier using air as oxidation agent. The main objectives were to study the effect of the treatment conditions on the distribution of the products and the composition of product gas. The influence of the air flow rates on the composition of the producer gas has been studied. The amount of the biomass used in the experiments was varied between 1 and 4 kg and the flow rate of the air was varied from 1.1 to 2.6 m3/h. Increased airflow rates favored higher temperatures. Excessively high airflow rates resulted in fast consumption of the biomass and it also favored combustion over gasification and thus formation of lower amounts of combustible products. High airflow rates caused also higher yields of tars, due to the shorter residence time of the tar-rich gas in the gasifier and thus unfavorable conditions for tar cracking. (author)

  3. Enhanced removal of sulfonamide antibiotics by KOH-activated anthracite coal: Batch and fixed-bed studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zuo, Linzi; Ai, Jing; Fu, Heyun; Chen, Wei; Zheng, Shourong; Xu, Zhaoyi; Zhu, Dongqiang

    2016-01-01

    The presence of sulfonamide antibiotics in aquatic environments poses potential risks to human health and ecosystems. In the present study, a highly porous activated carbon was prepared by KOH activation of an anthracite coal (Anth-KOH), and its adsorption properties toward two sulfonamides (sulfamethoxazole and sulfapyridine) and three smaller-sized monoaromatics (phenol, 4-nitrophenol and 1,3-dinitrobenzene) were examined in both batch and fixed-bed adsorption experiments to probe the interplay between adsorbate molecular size and adsorbent pore structure. A commercial powder microporous activated carbon (PAC) and a commercial mesoporous carbon (CMK-3) possessing distinct pore properties were included as comparative adsorbents. Among the three adsorbents Anth-KOH exhibited the largest adsorption capacities for all test adsorbates (especially the two sulfonamides) in both batch mode and fixed-bed mode. After being normalized by the adsorbent surface area, the batch adsorption isotherms of sulfonamides on PAC and Anth-KOH were displaced upward relative to the isotherms on CMK-3, likely due to the micropore-filling effect facilitated by the microporosity of adsorbents. In the fixed-bed mode, the surface area-normalized adsorption capacities of Anth-KOH for sulfonamides were close to that of CMK-3, and higher than that of PAC. The irregular, closed micropores of PAC might impede the diffusion of the relatively large-sized sulfonamide molecules and in turn led to lowered fixed-bed adsorption capacities. The overall superior adsorption of sulfonamides on Anth-KOH can be attributed to its large specific surface area (2514 m 2 /g), high pore volume (1.23 cm 3 /g) and large micropore sizes (centered at 2.0 nm). These findings imply that KOH-activated anthracite coal is a promising adsorbent for the removal of sulfonamide antibiotics from aqueous solution. - Highlights: • A high efficiency adsorbent for sulfonamide removal is prepared from anthracite. • Effects of

  4. Enhanced removal of sulfonamide antibiotics by KOH-activated anthracite coal: Batch and fixed-bed studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuo, Linzi; Ai, Jing; Fu, Heyun; Chen, Wei; Zheng, Shourong; Xu, Zhaoyi; Zhu, Dongqiang

    2016-04-01

    The presence of sulfonamide antibiotics in aquatic environments poses potential risks to human health and ecosystems. In the present study, a highly porous activated carbon was prepared by KOH activation of an anthracite coal (Anth-KOH), and its adsorption properties toward two sulfonamides (sulfamethoxazole and sulfapyridine) and three smaller-sized monoaromatics (phenol, 4-nitrophenol and 1,3-dinitrobenzene) were examined in both batch and fixed-bed adsorption experiments to probe the interplay between adsorbate molecular size and adsorbent pore structure. A commercial powder microporous activated carbon (PAC) and a commercial mesoporous carbon (CMK-3) possessing distinct pore properties were included as comparative adsorbents. Among the three adsorbents Anth-KOH exhibited the largest adsorption capacities for all test adsorbates (especially the two sulfonamides) in both batch mode and fixed-bed mode. After being normalized by the adsorbent surface area, the batch adsorption isotherms of sulfonamides on PAC and Anth-KOH were displaced upward relative to the isotherms on CMK-3, likely due to the micropore-filling effect facilitated by the microporosity of adsorbents. In the fixed-bed mode, the surface area-normalized adsorption capacities of Anth-KOH for sulfonamides were close to that of CMK-3, and higher than that of PAC. The irregular, closed micropores of PAC might impede the diffusion of the relatively large-sized sulfonamide molecules and in turn led to lowered fixed-bed adsorption capacities. The overall superior adsorption of sulfonamides on Anth-KOH can be attributed to its large specific surface area (2514 m(2)/g), high pore volume (1.23 cm(3)/g) and large micropore sizes (centered at 2.0 nm). These findings imply that KOH-activated anthracite coal is a promising adsorbent for the removal of sulfonamide antibiotics from aqueous solution. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Continuous processing of recombinant proteins: Integration of inclusion body solubilization and refolding using simulated moving bed size exclusion chromatography with buffer recycling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wellhoefer, Martin; Sprinzl, Wolfgang; Hahn, Rainer; Jungbauer, Alois

    2013-12-06

    An integrated process which combines continuous inclusion body dissolution with NaOH and continuous matrix-assisted refolding based on closed-loop simulated moving bed size exclusion chromatography was designed and experimentally evaluated at laboratory scale. Inclusion bodies from N(pro) fusion pep6His and N(pro) fusion MCP1 from high cell density fermentation were continuously dissolved with NaOH, filtered and mixed with concentrated refolding buffer prior to refolding by size exclusion chromatography (SEC). This process enabled an isocratic operation of the simulated moving bed (SMB) system with a closed-loop set-up with refolding buffer as the desorbent buffer and buffer recycling by concentrating the raffinate using tangential flow filtration. With this continuous refolding process, we increased the refolding and cleavage yield of both model proteins by 10% compared to batch dilution refolding. Furthermore, more than 99% of the refolding buffer of the raffinate could be recycled which reduced the buffer consumption significantly. Based on the actual refolding data, we compared throughput, productivity, and buffer consumption between two batch dilution refolding processes - one using urea for IB dissolution, the other one using NaOH for IB dissolution - and our continuous refolding process. The higher complexity of the continuous refolding process was rewarded with higher throughput and productivity as well as significantly lower buffer consumption compared to the batch dilution refolding processes. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Improvement of poly-γ-glutamic acid biosynthesis in a moving bed biofilm reactor by Bacillus subtilis NX-2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yongxiang; Tang, Bao; Xu, Zongqi; Liu, Kun; Xu, Zheng; Feng, Xiaohai; Xu, Hong

    2016-10-01

    The production of poly-γ-glutamic acid (γ-PGA) by Bacillus subtilis NX-2 using a moving bed biofilm reactor (MBBR) system was tested for the first time in this study. Polypropylene TL-2 was chosen as a suitable carrier, and γ-PGA concentration of 42.7±0.86g/L and productivity of 0.59±0.06g/(Lh) were obtained in batch fermentation. After application of the strategy of dissolved oxygen (DO)-stat feeding, higher γ-PGA concentration and productivity were achieved than with glucose feedback feeding. Finally, the repeated fed-batch cultures implemented in the MBBR system showed high stability, and the maximal γ-PGA concentration and productivity of 74.2g/L and 1.24g/(Lh) were achieved, respectively. In addition, the promotion of oxygen transfer by an MBBR carrier was well explained by a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulation. These results suggest that an MBBR system could be applied to large-scale γ-PGA production. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. High Temperature Flue Gas Desulfurization In Moving Beds With Regenerable Copper Based Sorbents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cengiz, P.A.; Ho, K.K.; Abbasian, J.; Lau, F.S.

    2002-09-20

    The objective of this study was to develop new and improved regenerable copper based sorbent for high temperature flue gas desulfurization in a moving bed application. The targeted areas of sorbent improvement included higher effective capacity, strength and long-term durability for improved process control and economic utilization of the sorbent.

  8. Tetrafluoride uranium pilot plant in operation at IEA, using the moving bed process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franca Junior, J.M.

    1975-01-01

    A UF 4 pilot plant, in operation at IEA, using the moving bed process is reported. UO 3 obtained from the thermal decomposition of ADU is used as a starting material in this pilot plant. The type of equipment and the process are both described. Ammonia gas (NH 3 ) was used in the reduction operation and anhydrous hydrofluoric acid (HF) in the hydrofluorination step

  9. Gasification of solid waste — potential and application of co-current moving bed gasifiers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groeneveld, M.J.; van Swaaij, Willibrordus Petrus Maria

    1979-01-01

    A review is given of gasification processes for solid fuels with special emphasis on waste gasification. Although the co-current moving bed gasifier has not been under consideration for a long time, it offers interesting possibilities for waste gasification. Some operational data are given. Two

  10. A moving-bed gasifier with internal recycle of pyrolysis gas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Susanto, H.; Beenackers, A.A C M

    A co-current moving bed gasifier with internal recycle and separate combustion of pyrolysis gas has been developed with the aim of producing a design suitable for scaling-up downdraft gasifiers while maintaining a low tar content in the producer gas. Using wood chips with a moisture content of 7-9

  11. Simulated Moving Bed Chromatography: Separation and Recovery of Sugars and Ionic Liquid from Biomass Hydrolysates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caes, Benjamin R.; Van Oosbree, Thomas R.; Lu, Fachuang; Ralph, John; Maravelias, Christos T.

    2015-01-01

    Simulated moving bed chromatography, a continuous separation method, enables the nearly quantitative recovery of sugar products and ionic liquid solvent from chemical hydrolysates of biomass. The ensuing sugars support microbial growth, and the residual lignin from the process is intact. PMID:23939991

  12. Time and speed of fruit drying on batch fluid-beds

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Drying of particles (pieces) in a fluidized bed affords better quality of end products, especially for better product structure and its shorter reconstitution time. Fluid-bed drying of different fruit particles has been investigated. Starting water content varies from grape berries 81·5% and peach 87·7% to apricot 86·9%.

  13. Batch and fixed-bed adsorption of tartrazine azo-dye onto activated carbon prepared from apricot stones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albroomi, H. I.; Elsayed, M. A.; Baraka, A.; Abdelmaged, M. A.

    2017-07-01

    This work describes the potential of utilizing prepared activated carbon from apricot stones as an efficient adsorbent material for tartrazine (TZ) azo-dye removal in a batch and dynamic adsorption system. The results revealed that activated carbons with well-developed surface area (774 m2/g) and pore volume (1.26 cm3/g) can be manufactured from apricot stones by H3PO4 activation. In batch experiments, effects of the parameters such as initial dye concentration and temperature on the removal of the dye were studied. Equilibrium was achieved in 120 min. Adsorption capacity was found to be dependent on the initial concentration of dye solution, and maximum adsorption was found to be 76 mg/g at 100 mg/L of TZ. The adsorption capacity at equilibrium ( q e) increased from 22.6 to 76 mg/g with an increase in the initial dye concentrations from 25 to 100 mg/L. The thermodynamic parameters such as change in free energy (Δ G 0), enthalpy (Δ H 0) and entropy (Δ S 0) were determined and the positive value of (Δ H) 78.1 (K J mol-1) revealed that adsorption efficiency increased with an increase in the process temperature. In fixed-bed column experiments, the effect of selected operating parameters such as bed depth, flow rate and initial dye concentration on the adsorption capacity was evaluated. Increase in bed height of adsorption columns leads to an extension of breakthrough point as well as the exhaustion time of adsorbent. However, the maximum adsorption capacities decrease with increases of flow rate. The breakthrough data fitted well to bed depth service time and Thomas models with high coefficient of determination, R 2 ≥ 94.

  14. Speedy standing wave design, optimization, and scaling rules of simulated moving bed systems with linear isotherms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weeden, George S; Wang, Nien-Hwa Linda

    2017-04-14

    Simulated Moving Bed (SMB) systems with linear adsorption isotherms have been used for many different separations, including large-scale sugar separations. While SMBs are much more efficient than batch operations, they are not widely used for large-scale production because there are two key barriers. The methods for design, optimization, and scale-up are complex for non-ideal systems. The Speedy Standing Wave Design (SSWD) is developed here to reduce these barriers. The productivity (P R ) and the solvent efficiency (F/D) are explicitly related to seven material properties and 13 design parameters. For diffusion-controlled systems, the maximum P R or F/D is controlled by two key dimensionless material properties, the selectivity (α) and the effective diffusivity ratio (η), and two key dimensionless design parameters, the ratios of step time/diffusion time and pressure-limited convection time/diffusion time. The optimum column configuration for maximum P R or F/D is controlled by the weighted diffusivity ratio (η/α 2 ). In general, high α and low η/α 2 favor high P R and F/D. The productivity is proportional to the ratio of the feed concentration to the diffusion time. Small particles and high diffusivities favor high productivity, but do not affect solvent efficiency. Simple scaling rules are derived from the two key dimensionless design parameters. The separation of acetic acid from glucose in biomass hydrolysate is used as an example to show how the productivity and the solvent efficiency are affected by the key dimensionless material and design parameters. Ten design parameters are optimized for maximum P R or minimum cost in one minute on a laptop computer. If the material properties are the same for different particle sizes and the dimensionless groups are kept constant, then lab-scale testing consumes less materials and can be done four times faster using particles with half the particle size. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Treatment of synthetic refinery wastewater in anoxic-aerobic sequential moving bed reactors and sulphur recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallick, Subrat Kumar; Chakraborty, Saswati

    2017-11-10

    Objective of the present study was to simultaneously biodegrade synthetic petroleum refinery wastewater containing phenol (750 mg/L), sulphide (750 mg/L), hydrocarbon (as emulsified diesel of 300 mg/L), ammonia-nitrogen (350 mg/L) at pH >9 in anoxic-aerobic sequential moving bed reactors. The optimum mixing speed of anoxic reactor was observed at 20 rpm and beyond that, removal rate remained constant. In anoxic reactor the minimum hydraulic retention time was observed to be 2 days for complete removal of sulphide, 40-50% removal of phenol and total hydrocarbons and 52% of sulphur recovery. The optimum HRT of aerobic moving bed reactor was observed as 16 h (total HRT of 64 h for anoxic and aerobic reactors) for complete removals of phenol, total hydrocarbons, COD (chemical oxygen demand) and ammonia-nitrogen with nitrification.

  16. Influence of thermophoresis on particle removal in a moving granular bed filter and heat exchanger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rudnick, S.N.; First, M.W.; Price, J.M.

    1981-01-01

    Bench-scale investigations were made to determine the influence of thermophoresis on particle removal in a moving granular bed filter. A continuous flow of 2-mm diameter ceramic granules at ambient temperature entered the top of the filter and moved slowly downward under the influence of gravity countercurrent to the gas stream. At an inlet gas temperature of 240 0 C, gas mass velocity of 0.12 kg/(s.m 2 ), and granule velocities up to 0.015 cm/s, clean bed collection efficiency for a submicrometer sodium chloride aerosol was found to increase the more the gas was cooled, indicating that thermophoretic forces were playing a measurable role in particle collection

  17. Municipal wastewater treatment by moving-bed-biofilm reactor with diatomaceous earth as carriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yaping; Cao, Dawen; Liu, Lu; Jin, Wei

    2006-04-01

    This study was conducted to examine the feasibility of using a moving-bed-biofilm reactor with internal circulation through aeration for the treatment of municipal wastewater. The attached film was a mixed-microorganism consortium, which used composite-refined-diatomaceous earth as novel biomass carriers to form a diatomaceous-earth-moving-bed-biofilm-reactor (DEMBBR) process. The startup of laboratory-scale, continuous-flow reactor was successfully achieved without seeding activated sludge. The DEMBBR process removed chemical oxygen demand, total phosphorus, ammonium-nitrogen, and turbidity at the highest rate of 88.5, 83, 92.3, and 96.7%, respectively, with a hydraulic retention time of only 2.5 hours. The DEMBBR was less affected by interruption and adverse operation conditions than the conventional-activated-sludge reactor. Thus, the DEMBBR could be proposed to be a cost-effective, small-wastewater-treatment-process unit.

  18. Batch statistical process control of a fluid bed granulation process using in-line spatial filter velocimetry and product temperature measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burggraeve, A; Van den Kerkhof, T; Hellings, M; Remon, J P; Vervaet, C; De Beer, T

    2011-04-18

    Fluid bed granulation is a batch process, which is characterized by the processing of raw materials for a predefined period of time, consisting of a fixed spraying phase and a subsequent drying period. The present study shows the multivariate statistical modeling and control of a fluid bed granulation process based on in-line particle size distribution (PSD) measurements (using spatial filter velocimetry) combined with continuous product temperature registration using a partial least squares (PLS) approach. Via the continuous in-line monitoring of the PSD and product temperature during granulation of various reference batches, a statistical batch model was developed allowing the real-time evaluation and acceptance or rejection of future batches. Continuously monitored PSD and product temperature process data of 10 reference batches (X-data) were used to develop a reference batch PLS model, regressing the X-data versus the batch process time (Y-data). Two PLS components captured 98.8% of the variation in the X-data block. Score control charts in which the average batch trajectory and upper and lower control limits are displayed were developed. Next, these control charts were used to monitor 4 new test batches in real-time and to immediately detect any deviations from the expected batch trajectory. By real-time evaluation of new batches using the developed control charts and by computation of contribution plots of deviating process behavior at a certain time point, batch losses or reprocessing can be prevented. Immediately after batch completion, all PSD and product temperature information (i.e., a batch progress fingerprint) was used to estimate some granule properties (density and flowability) at an early stage, which can improve batch release time. Individual PLS models relating the computed scores (X) of the reference PLS model (based on the 10 reference batches) and the density, respectively, flowabililty as Y-matrix, were developed. The scores of the 4 test

  19. Microbial Community Composition and Dynamics of Moving Bed Biofilm Reactor Systems Treating Municipal Sewage

    OpenAIRE

    Biswas, Kristi; Turner, Susan J.

    2012-01-01

    Moving bed biofilm reactor (MBBR) systems are increasingly used for municipal and industrial wastewater treatment, yet in contrast to activated sludge (AS) systems, little is known about their constituent microbial communities. This study investigated the community composition of two municipal MBBR wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) in Wellington, New Zealand. Monthly samples comprising biofilm and suspended biomass were collected over a 12-month period. Bacterial and archaeal community comp...

  20. Development of methanogenic consortia in fluidized-bed batches using sepiolite of different particle size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, J M; Rodríguez, F; Valle, L; Muñoz, M A; Moriñigo, M A; Borrego, J J

    1996-09-01

    The addition of support materials, such as sepiolite, to fluidized-bed anaerobic digesters enhances the methane production by increasing the colonization by syntrophic microbiota. However, the efficiency in the methanogenesis depends on the particle size of the support material, the highest level of methane production being obtained by the smaller particle size sepiolite. Because of the porosity and physico-chemical characteristics of these support materials, the anaerobic microbial consortia formed quickly (after one week of incubation). The predominant methanogenic bacteria present in the active granules, detected both by immunofluorescence using specific antibodies and by scanning electron microscopy, were acetoclastic methanogens, mainly Methanosarcina and Methanosaeta.

  1. Dynamic model development and validation for a nitrifying moving bed biofilter: Effect of temperature and influent load on the performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sin, Gürkan; Weijma, Jan; Spanjers, Henri

    2008-01-01

    A mathematical model with adequate complexity integrating hydraulics, biofilm and microbial conversion processes is successfully developed for a continuously moving bed biofilter performing tertiary nitrification. The model was calibrated and validated using data from Nether Stowey pilot plant...

  2. Application of bioplastic moving bed biofilm carriers for the removal of synthetic pollutants from wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Accinelli, Cesare; Saccà, Maria Ludovica; Mencarelli, Mariangela; Vicari, Alberto

    2012-09-01

    In this series of laboratory experiments, the feasibility of using moving bed biofilm carriers (MBBC) manufactured from existing bioplastic-based products for the removal of bisphenol A, oseltamivir, and atrazine from wastewater was evaluated. After 10-d incubation, cumulative evolution of (14)CO(2) from control (no MBBC) wastewater spiked with (14)C-labeled bisphenol A, oseltamivir or atrazine, accounted for approximately 18%, 7% and 3.5% of the total added radioactivity, respectively. When wastewater samples were incubated with freely moving carriers, greater removal of the three chemicals was observed. More specifically, cumulative (14)CO(2) evolution of the three xenobiotics increased of 34%, 49%, and 66%, with respect to the control, respectively. Removal efficiency of MBBC was significantly increased by inoculating these bioplastic carriers with bioremediation bacterial strains. Results from this study suggest that the concept behind the moving bed biofilm reactor technology can also be extended to biodegradable carriers inoculated with bioremediation microorganisms. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Frailty and adverse outcomes: impact of multiple bed moves for older inpatients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranasinghe, Champa; Fleury, Aisling; Peel, Nancye M; Hubbard, Ruth E

    2017-02-01

    A consequence of pressure on hospitals to accommodate care needs of older patients is "boarding" or out-lying from their home ward. This may have greater adverse effects on older inpatients who are frail. A retrospective matched cohort study was conducted in an outer metropolitan general hospital. Randomly selected patients hospitalized between July 2012 and June 2013 under the care of an Older Person Evaluation Review and Assessment (OPERA) team (n = 300) were age and sex matched with patients under the care of general physicians (n = 300). Frequency of boarding and number of bed moves were recorded for all patients. For patients who had three or more moves, adverse outcomes were compared between the two groups. A higher proportion of OPERA patients (n = 143; 47.7%) were out-lied from medical wards compared with 94 (31.3%) General Medicine patients (p falls during admission (p = 0.03), compared with General Medicine patients. OPERA patients were also more at risk of adverse outcomes such as increased dependence, discharge to residential care or death (p = 0.023). Compared with age- and sex-matched General Medicine patients, OPERA patients were more likely to undergo multiple bed moves and out-lying, which may have contributed to negative outcomes for these patients.

  4. Galacto-oligosaccharide production with immobilized ß-galactosidase in a packed-bed reactor vs. free ß-galactosidase in a batch reactor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Warmerdam, A.; Benjamins, E.; Leeuw de, T.F.; Broekhuis, T.A.; Boom, R.M.; Janssen, A.E.M.

    2014-01-01

    We report here that the usage of immobilized enzyme in a continuous packed bed reactor (PBR) can be a good alternative for GOS production instead of the traditional use of free enzyme in a batch reactor. The carbohydrate composition of the product of the PBR with immobilized enzyme was comparable to

  5. Design and assembling of a moving bed column to operate with ion exchange resin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franca Junior, J.M.; Abrao, A.

    1976-01-01

    A new moving bed column specially designed to operate with ion exchange resins in such peculiar situations where there is gas evolution is reported. The second part reports the use of the column in the preparation of nuclear grade ammonium uranyl tricarbonate (AUTC), from crude uranyl nitrate solution. Uranium-VI is binded into a strong cationic ion exchanger and then eluted with (NH 4 ) 2 CO 3 . The final product is crystallized from the eluate by simply cooling down the temperature to 5 0 or by addition of ethanol. Loading of resin with uranyl ion, its elution with ammonium carbonate and the crystallization of AUTC is described [pt

  6. The use of moving bed bio-reactor to laundry wastewater treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Bering Sławomira; Mazur Jacek; Tarnowski Krzysztof; Janus Magdalena; Mozia Sylwia; Morawski Antoni Waldemar

    2017-01-01

    Large laboratory scale biological treatment test of industrial real wastewater, generated in industrial big laundry, has been conducted in the period of May 2016–August 2016. The research aimed at selection of laundry wastewater treatment technology included tests of two-stage Moving Bed Bio Reactor (MBBR), with two reactors filled with carriers Kaldnes K5 (specific area – 800 m2/m3), have been realized in aerobic condition. Operating on site, in the laundry, reactors have been fed real waste...

  7. A fast and accurate numerical method for solving simulated moving bed (SMB) chromatographic separation problems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lim, Young-il; Jørgensen, Sten Bay

    2003-01-01

    numerical solutions are obtained. Stable solutions are guaranteed if the Courant-Friedrichs-Lewy (CFL) condition is satisfied. The boundary condition and recycle flow treatments are much simpler than for the time integrator in the framework of the method of lines. Applying the CE/SE method for SMB......Solving simulated moving bed (SMB) chromatography models requires fast and accurate numerical techniques, since their system size computed is large due to multi-columns and multi-components, in addition the axial solution profiles contain steep moving fronts. The space-time conservation element....../solution element (CE/SE) method addressed in this study enforces both local and global flux conservation in space and time, and uses a simple stencil structure (two points at the previous time level and one point at the present time level) on staggered space-time grids. Thus, accurate and computationally efficient...

  8. Adsorption equilibrium and kinetics of Immunoglobulin G on a mixed-mode adsorbent in batch and packed bed configuration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Pedro Ferreira; Loureiro, José Miguel; Rodrigues, Alírio E

    2017-11-17

    It is commonly accepted that efficient protein separation and purification to the desired level of purity is one bottleneck in pharmaceutical industries. MabDirect MM is a new type of mixed mode adsorbent, especially designed to operate in expanded bed adsorption (EBA) mode. In this study, equilibrium and kinetics experiments were carried out for the adsorption of Human Immunoglobulin G (hIgG) protein on this new adsorbent. The effects of ionic strength and pH are assessed. Langmuir isotherms parameters are obtained along with the estimation of the effective pore diffusion coefficient (D pe ) by fitting the batch adsorption kinetics experiments with the pore diffusion model. The maximum adsorption of the IgG protein on the MabDirect MM adsorbent, 149.7±7.1mg·g dry -1 , was observed from a pH 5.0 buffer solution without salt addition. Adding salt to the buffer solution, and/or increasing pH, decreases the adsorption capacity which is 4.7±0.4mg·g dry -1 for pH 7.0 with 0.4M NaCl in solution. Regarding the D pe estimation, a value of 15.4×10 -6 cm 2 ·min -1 was obtained for a pH 5.0 solution without salt. Increasing the salt concentration and/or the pH value will decrease the effective pore diffusion, the lowest D pe (0.16×10 -6 cm 2 ·min -1 ) value being observed for an IgG solution at pH 7.0 with 0.4M NaCl. Fixed bed experiments were conducted with the purpose to validate the equilibrium and kinetic parameters obtained in batch. For a feed concentration of 0.5 g·L -1 of IgG in pH 5.0 buffer solution with 0.4M NaCl, a dynamic binding capacity at 10% of breakthrough of 5.3mg·g wet -1 (15.4mg IgG ·mL resin -1 ) was obtained, representing 62% of the saturation capacity. As far as the authors know, this study is the first one concerning the adsorption of hIgG on this type of mixed mode chromatography adsorbent. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Cow bones char as a green sorbent for fluorides removal from aqueous solutions: batch and fixed-bed studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nigri, Elbert M; Cechinel, Maria Alice P; Mayer, Diego A; Mazur, Luciana P; Loureiro, José M; Rocha, Sônia D F; Vilar, Vítor J P

    2017-01-01

    Cow bone char was investigated as sorbent for the defluoridation of aqueous solutions. The cow bone char was characterized in terms of its morphology, chemical composition, and functional groups present on the bone char surface using different analytical techniques: SEM, EDS, N 2 -BET method, and FTIR. Batch equilibrium studies were performed for the bone chars prepared using different procedures. The highest sorption capacities for fluoride were obtained for the acid washed (q = 6.2 ± 0.5 mg/g) and Al-doped (q = 6.4 ± 0.3 mg/g) bone chars. Langmuir and Freundlich models fitted well the equilibrium sorption data. Fluoride removal rate in batch system is fast in the first 5 h, decreasing after this time until achieving equilibrium due to pore diffusion. The presence of carbonate and bicarbonate ions in the aqueous solution contributes to a decrease of the fluoride sorption capacity of the bone char by 79 and 31 %, respectively. Regeneration of the F-loaded bone char using 0.5 M NaOH solution leads to a sorption capacity for fluoride of 3.1 mg/g in the second loading cycle. Fluoride breakthrough curve obtained in a fixed-bed column presents an asymmetrical S-shaped form, with a slow approach of C/C 0  → 1.0 due to pore diffusion phenomena. Considering the guideline value for drinking water of 1.5 mg F - /L, as recommended by World Health Organization, the service cycle for fluoride removal was of 71.0 h ([F - ] feed  ∼ 9 mg/L; flow rate = 1 mL/min; m sorbent  = 12.6 g). A mass transfer model considering the pore diffusion was able to satisfactorily describe the experimental data obtained in batch and continuous systems.

  10. A REVIEW ON SEWAGE TREATMENT AND POLISHING USING MOVING BED BIOREACTOR (MBBR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JAMAL ALI KAWAN

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Effluent treatment and polishing using moving bed bioreactors (MBBRs are advanced technique in biological treatment operations become increasing widely and popular use all over the world to treat various types of effluents with very different operating status. It is a combination of two separate processes suspended and attached growth systems for the treatment in order to minimize the concentrations of the contaminated parameters at the required level for reuse or final destination. The MBBR has been proved to be effective in great removing biochemical oxygen demand (BOD and chemical oxygen demand (COD with nutrients (N and P from the effluent stream simultaneously. It provides additional capacity of wastewater treatment technology with high treatment efficiency; low capital, operational, maintenance and replacement cost; single reliable and robust operation procedure. This process can be used for new sewage treatment works or for modifying (upgrading existing wastewater treatment plants as it is efficient, compact and easy to operate. The efficiency of MBBR depends on the filling percent of biofilm carriers to be provided inside the tank, surface area of the biocarrier, diffused aeration supply and the organic loading. The aim of this paper is reviewing the sewage treatment and polishing using moving bed bioreactor MBB technology as an alternative and successful method. It presents the advantages of the MBBR compared to conventional waste water treatment. The review also includes many relevant researches carried out at the laboratory andpilot scales plants that could improve these systems by enhancing performance and reducing costs.

  11. Coalesced chitosan activated carbon composite for batch and fixed-bed adsorption of cationic and anionic dyes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auta, M; Hameed, B H

    2013-05-01

    A renewable waste tea activated carbon (WTAC) was coalesced with chitosan to form composite adsorbent used for waste water treatment. Adsorptive capacities of crosslinked chitosan beads (CCB) and its composite (WTAC-CCB) for Methylene blue dye (MB) and Acid blue 29 (AB29) were evaluated through batch and fixed-bed studies. Langmuir, Freundlich and Temkin adsorption isotherms were tested for the adsorption process and the experimental data were best fitted by Langmuir model and least by Freundlich model; the suitability of fitness was adjudged by the Chi-square (χ(2)) and Marquadt's percent standard deviation error functions. Judging by the values of χ(2), pseudo-second-order reaction model best described the adsorption process than pseudo-first-order kinetic model for MB/AB29 on both adsorbents. After five cycles of adsorbents desorption test, more than 50% WTAC-CCB adsorption efficiency was retained while CCB had adsorption efficiency. The results of this study revealed that WTAC-CCB composite is a promising adsorbent for treatment of anionic and cationic dyes in effluent wastewaters. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Nonlinear model predictive control applied to the separation of praziquantel in simulated moving bed chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade Neto, A S; Secchi, A R; Souza, M B; Barreto, A G

    2016-10-28

    An adaptive nonlinear model predictive control of a simulated moving bed unit for the enantioseparation of praziquantel is presented. A first principle model was applied at the proposed purity control scheme. The main concern about this kind of model in a control framework is in regard to the computational effort to solve it; however, a fast enough solution was achieved. In order to evaluate the controller's performance, several cases were simulated, including external pumps and switching valve malfunctions. The problem of plant-model mismatch was also investigated, and for that reason a parameter estimation step was introduced in the control strategy. In every studied scenario, the controller was able to maintain the purity levels at their set points, which were set to 99% and 98.6% for extract and raffinate, respectively. Additionally, fast responses and smooth actuation were achieved. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Power partial-discard strategy to obtain improved performance for simulated moving bed chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Ji-Woo; Kim, Kyung-Min; Yoon, Tae-Ung; Kim, Seung-Ik; Jung, Tae-Sung; Han, Sang-Sup; Bae, Youn-Sang

    2017-12-22

    A novel power partial-discard (PPD) strategy was developed as a variant of the partial-discard (PD) operation to further improve the separation performance of the simulated moving bed (SMB) process. The PPD operation varied the flow rates of discard streams by introducing a new variable, the discard amount (DA) as well as varying the reported variable, discard length (DL), while the conventional PD used fixed discard flow rates. The PPD operations showed significantly improved purities in spite of losses in recoveries. Remarkably, the PPD operation could provide more enhanced purity for a given recovery or more enhanced recovery for a given purity than the PD operation. The two variables, DA and DL, in the PPD operation played a key role in achieving the desired purity and recovery. The PPD operations will be useful for attaining high-purity products with reasonable recoveries. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Biomass Torrefaction Process Review and Moving Bed Torrefaction System Model Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaya Shakar Tumuluru; Shahab Sokhansanj; Christopher T. Wright

    2010-08-01

    Torrefaction is currently developing as an important preprocessing step to improve the quality of biomass in terms of physical properties, and proximate and ultimate composition. Torrefaction is a slow heating of biomass in an inert or reduced environment to a maximum temperature of 300°C. Torrefaction can also be defined as a group of products resulting from the partially controlled and isothermal pyrolysis of biomass occurring in a temperature range of 200–230ºC and 270–280ºC. Thus, the process can also be called a mild pyrolysis as it occurs at the lower temperature range of the pyrolysis process. At the end of the torrefaction process, a solid uniform product with lower moisture content and higher energy content than raw biomass is produced. Most of the smoke-producing compounds and other volatiles are removed during torrefaction, producing a final product that will have a lower mass but a higher heating value. An important aspect of research is to establish a degree of torrefaction where gains in heating value offset the loss of mass. There is a lack of literature on torrefaction reactor designs and a design sheet for estimating the dimensions of the torrefier based on capacity. This study includes a) conducting a detailed review on the torrefaction of biomass in terms of understanding the process, product properties, off-gas compositions, and methods used, and b) to design a moving bed torrefier, taking into account the basic fundamental heat and mass transfer calculations. Specific objectives include calculating the dimensions like diameter and height of the moving packed bed for different capacities, designing the heat loads and gas flow rates, and developing an interactive excel sheet where the user can define design specifications. In this report, 25–1000 kg/hr are used in equations for the design of the torrefier, examples of calculations, and specifications for the torrefier.

  15. Biomass Torrefaction Process Review and Moving Bed Torrefaction System Model Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaya Shakar Tumuluru; Shahab Sokhansanj; Christopher T. Wright; Richard D. Boardman

    2010-08-01

    Torrefaction is currently developing as an important preprocessing step to improve the quality of biomass in terms of physical properties, and proximate and ultimate composition. Torrefaction is a slow heating of biomass in an inert or reduced environment to a maximum temperature of 300 C. Torrefaction can also be defined as a group of products resulting from the partially controlled and isothermal pyrolysis of biomass occurring in a temperature range of 200-230 C and 270-280 C. Thus, the process can also be called a mild pyrolysis as it occurs at the lower temperature range of the pyrolysis process. At the end of the torrefaction process, a solid uniform product with lower moisture content and higher energy content than raw biomass is produced. Most of the smoke-producing compounds and other volatiles are removed during torrefaction, producing a final product that will have a lower mass but a higher heating value. An important aspect of research is to establish a degree of torrefaction where gains in heating value offset the loss of mass. There is a lack of literature on torrefaction reactor designs and a design sheet for estimating the dimensions of the torrefier based on capacity. This study includes (a) conducting a detailed review on the torrefaction of biomass in terms of understanding the process, product properties, off-gas compositions, and methods used, and (b) to design a moving bed torrefier, taking into account the basic fundamental heat and mass transfer calculations. Specific objectives include calculating the dimensions like diameter and height of the moving packed bed for different capacities, designing the heat loads and gas flow rates, and developing an interactive excel sheet where the user can define design specifications. In this report, 25-1000 kg/hr are used in equations for the design of the torrefier, examples of calculations, and specifications for the torrefier.

  16. Effects of a malfunctional column on conventional and FeedCol-simulated moving bed chromatography performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Ji-Yeon; Oh, Donghoon; Lee, Chang-Ha

    2015-07-17

    The effects of a malfunctional column on the performance of a simulated moving bed (SMB) process were studied experimentally and theoretically. The experimental results of conventional four-zone SMB (2-2-2-2 configuration) and FeedCol operation (2-2-2-2 configuration with one feed column) with one malfunctional column were compared with simulation results of the corresponding SMB processes with a normal column configuration. The malfunctional column in SMB processes significantly deteriorated raffinate purity. However, the extract purity was equivalent or slightly improved compared with the corresponding normal SMB operation because the complete separation zone of the malfunctional column moved to a lower flow rate range in zones II and III. With the malfunctional column configuration, FeedCol operation gave better experimental performance (up to 7%) than conventional SMB operation because controlling product purity with FeedCol operation was more flexible through the use of two additional operating variables, injection time and injection length. Thus, compared with conventional SMB separation, extract with equivalent or slightly better purity could be produced from FeedCol operation even with a malfunctional column, while minimizing the decrease in raffinate purity (less than 2%). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Successional development of biofilms in moving bed biofilm reactor (MBBR) systems treating municipal wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswas, Kristi; Taylor, Michael W; Turner, Susan J

    2014-02-01

    Biofilm-based technologies, such as moving bed biofilm reactor (MBBR) systems, are widely used to treat wastewater. Biofilm development is important for MBBR systems as much of the microbial biomass is retained within reactors as biofilm on suspended carriers. Little is known about this process of biofilm development and the microorganisms upon which MBBRs rely. We documented successional changes in microbial communities as biofilms established in two full-scale MBBR systems treating municipal wastewater over two seasons. 16S rRNA gene-targeted pyrosequencing and clone libraries were used to describe microbial communities. These data indicate a successional process that commences with the establishment of an aerobic community dominated by Gammaproteobacteria (up to 52 % of sequences). Over time, this community shifts towards dominance by putatively anaerobic organisms including Deltaproteobacteria and Clostridiales. Significant differences were observed between the two wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs), mostly due to a large number of sequences (up to 55 %) representing Epsilonproteobacteria (mostly Arcobacter) at one site. Archaea in young biofilms included several lineages of Euryarchaeota and Crenarchaeota. In contrast, the mature biofilm consisted entirely of Methanosarcinaceae (Euryarchaeota). This study provides new insights into the community structure of developing biofilms at full-scale WWTPs and provides the basis for optimizing MBBR start-up and operational parameters.

  18. Microbial community composition and dynamics of moving bed biofilm reactor systems treating municipal sewage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswas, Kristi; Turner, Susan J

    2012-02-01

    Moving bed biofilm reactor (MBBR) systems are increasingly used for municipal and industrial wastewater treatment, yet in contrast to activated sludge (AS) systems, little is known about their constituent microbial communities. This study investigated the community composition of two municipal MBBR wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) in Wellington, New Zealand. Monthly samples comprising biofilm and suspended biomass were collected over a 12-month period. Bacterial and archaeal community composition was determined using a full-cycle community approach, including analysis of 16S rRNA gene libraries, fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and automated ribosomal intergenic spacer analysis (ARISA). Differences in microbial community structure and abundance were observed between the two WWTPs and between biofilm and suspended biomass. Biofilms from both plants were dominated by Clostridia and sulfate-reducing members of the Deltaproteobacteria (SRBs). FISH analyses indicated morphological differences in the Deltaproteobacteria detected at the two plants and also revealed distinctive clustering between SRBs and members of the Methanosarcinales, which were the only Archaea detected and were present in low abundance (suspended communities from both plants were diverse and dominated by aerobic members of the Gammaproteobacteria and Betaproteobacteria. This study represents the first detailed analysis of microbial communities in full-scale MBBR systems and indicates that this process selects for distinctive biofilm and planktonic communities, both of which differ from those found in conventional AS systems.

  19. Impact of fine mesh sieve primary treatment on nitrogen removal in moving bed biofilm reactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusten, B; Razafimanantsoa, V A; Andriamiarinjaka, M A; Otis, C L; Sahu, A K; Bilstad, T

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this project was to investigate the effect of selective particle removal during primary treatment on nitrogen removal in moving bed biofilm reactors (MBBRs). Two small MBBR pilot plants were operated in parallel, where one train treated 2 mm screened municipal wastewater and the other train treated wastewater that had passed through a Salsnes Filter SF1000 rotating belt sieve (RBS) with a 33 µs sieve cloth. The SF1000 was operated without a filter mat on the belt. The tests confirmed that, for the wastewater characteristics at the test plant, Salsnes Filter primary treatment with a 33 µs RBS and no filter mat produced a primary effluent that was close to optimum. Removal of organic matter with the 33 µs sieve had no negative effect on the denitrification process. Nitrification rates improved by 10-15% in the train with 33 µs RBS primary treatment. Mass balance calculations showed that without RBS primary treatment, the oxygen demand in the biological system was 36% higher. Other studies have shown that the sludge produced by RBS primary treatment is beneficial for biogas production and will also significantly improve sludge dewatering of the combined primary and biological sludge.

  20. Valorisation of waste tyre by pyrolysis in a moving bed reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aylon, E.; Fernandez-Colino, A.; Murillo, R.; Navarro, M.V.; Garcia, T.; Mastral, A.M.

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this work is to assess the behaviour of a moving bed reactor, based on a screw transporter design, in waste tyre pyrolysis under several experimental conditions. Waste tyre represents a significant problem in developed countries and it is necessary to develop new technology that could easily process big amounts of this potentially raw material. In this work, the influence of the main pyrolysis process variables (temperature, solid residence time, mass flow rate and inert gas flow) has been studied by a thorough analysis of product yields and properties. It has been found that regardless the process operational parameters, a total waste tyre devolatilisation is achieved, producing a pyrolytic carbon black with a volatile matter content under 5 wt.%. In addition, it has been proven that, in the range studied, the most influencing process variables are temperature and solid mass flow rate, mainly because both variables modify the gas residence time inside the reactor. In addition, it has been found that the modification of these variables affects to the chemical properties of the products. This fact is mainly associated to the different cracking reaction of the primary pyrolysis products.

  1. Removal of ozonation products of pharmaceuticals in laboratory Moving Bed Biofilm Reactors (MBBRs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Taliawy, Haitham; Casas, Monica Escola; Bester, Kai

    2018-04-05

    The major pathway of pharmaceuticals from urban applications to urban surface waters is via wastewater treatment plants. Ozonation is able to remove pharmaceuticals from wastewater effluents. However, during that reaction, ozonation products are formed. Some ozonation products were found to be persistent and have adverse effect on the environment. Moving bed bio reactors (MBBRs) were tested for the removal of the ozonation products of macrolide antibiotics and diclofenac at two different concentration levels 1 μg/L and 10 μg/L in laboratory reactors. It was found that the MBBRs are capable of degrading these compounds without back-transformation into the parent compounds. However, reaction rate constants and the degradation kinetics varied for different compounds and different concentrations. Depending on compound and conditions, the degradation reaction kinetics was found to follow either i) zero order ii) first order or iii) lag phase succeeded by first order. The study has proven that MBBRs have the potential to be efficient in polishing post ozonation treatment. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. [Complete nitritation process in an biofilm moving bed system by controlling pH].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Pin; Li, Xiao-Ming; Yang, Qi; Zhang, Shao-Qiang; Zeng, Guang-Ming; Zhang, Yu; Yi, Long-Sheng

    2007-08-01

    Complete nitritation process in an biofilm moving bed system was started-up by inoculating nitrobacteria and controlling pH, and the effects of nitrogen loading rate (NLR) and hydraulic retention time (HRT) on the stability of the system were investigated. The results showed that the system could achieve complete nitritation after 10 day's acclimation by controlling pH within the range of 7.7 - 8.2, under the conditions of temperature (30 +/- 1) degrees C, DO 1.5 - 2.0 mg/L, HRT 24 h,ammonia concentration 150 mg/L. Conversion rate of ammonia was above 96% and nitritation rate (NO2(-) -N/NO(x)(-) -N) was more than 95%. In addition, the system remained complete nitritation when NLR increased from 0.15 kg/(m3 x d) to 0.24 kg/(m3 x d), and conversion rate of ammonia was still above 90%, nitritation rate maintained at 96%, but the type of nitrification turned from completely nitritation to completely nitrification under the condition of over aeration by extended HRT under low NLR. However, it could be resumed by shortened HRT.

  3. Nickel removal from nickel plating waste water using a biologically active moving-bed sand filter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pümpel, Thomas; Macaskie, Lynne E; Finlay, John A; Diels, Ludo; Tsezos, Marios

    2003-12-01

    Efficient removal of dissolved nickel was observed in a biologically active moving-bed 'MERESAFIN' sand filter treating rinsing water from an electroless nickel plating plant. Although nickel is fully soluble in this waste water, its passage through the sand filter promoted rapid removal of approximately 1 mg Ni/l. The speciation of Ni in the waste water was modelled; the most probable precipitates forming under the conditions in the filter were predicted using PHREEQC. Analyses of the Ni-containing biosludge using chemical, electron microscopical and X-ray spectroscopic techniques confirmed crystallisation of nickel phosphate as arupite (Ni3(PO4)2 x 8H2O), together with hydroxyapatite within the bacterial biofilm on the filter sand grains. Biosorption contributed less than 1% of the overall sequestered nickel. Metabolising bacteria are essential for the process; the definitive role of specific components of the mixed population is undefined but the increase in pH promoted by metabolic activity of some microbial components is likely to promote nickel desolubilisation by others.

  4. Start-up and bacterial community compositions of partial nitrification in moving bed biofilm reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Tao; Mao, Yan-Jun; Shi, Yan-Ping; Quan, Xie

    2017-03-01

    Partial nitrification (PN) has been considered as one of the promising processes for pretreatment of ammonium-rich wastewater. In this study, a kind of novel carriers with enhanced hydrophilicity and electrophilicity was implemented in a moving bed biofilm reactor (MBBR) to start up PN process. Results indicated that biofilm formation rate was higher on modified carriers. In comparison with the reactor filled with traditional carriers (start-up period of 21 days), it took only 14 days to start up PN successfully with ammonia removal efficiency and nitrite accumulation rate of 90 and 91%, respectively, in the reactor filled with modified carriers. Evident changes of spatial distributions and community structures had been detected during the start-up. Free-floating cells existed in planktonic sludge, while these microorganisms trended to form flocs in the biofilm. High-throughput pyrosequencing results indicated that Nitrosomonas was the predominant ammonia-oxidizing bacterium (AOB) in the PN system, while Comamonas might also play a vital role for nitrogen oxidation. Additionally, some other bacteria such as Ferruginibacter, Ottowia, Saprospiraceae, and Rhizobacter were selected to establish stable footholds. This study would be potentially significant for better understanding the microbial features and developing efficient strategies accordingly for MBBR-based PN operation.

  5. Membrane distillation combined with an anaerobic moving bed biofilm reactor for treating municipal wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyun-Chul; Shin, Jaewon; Won, Seyeon; Lee, Jung-Yeol; Maeng, Sung Kyu; Song, Kyung Guen

    2015-03-15

    A fermentative strategy with an anaerobic moving bed biofilm reactor (AMBBR) was used for the treatment of domestic wastewater. The feasibility of using a membrane separation technique for post-treatment of anaerobic bio-effluent was evaluated with emphasis on employing a membrane distillation (MD). Three different hydrophobic 0.2 μm membranes made of polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE), polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF), and polypropylene (PP) were examined in this study. The initial permeate flux of the membranes ranged from 2.5 to 6.3 L m(-2) h(-1) when treating AMBBR effluent at a temperature difference between the feed and permeate streams of 20 °C, with the permeate flux increasing in the order PP membrane gradually decreased to 84% of the initial flux after the 45 h run for distillation, while a flux decline in MD with either the PVDF or PP membrane was not found under the identical distillation conditions. During long-term distillation with the PVDF membrane, total phosphorus was completely rejected and >98% rejection of dissolved organic carbon was also achieved. The characterization of wastewater effluent organic matter (EfOM) using an innovative suite of analytical tools verified that almost all of the EfOM was rejected via the PVDF MD treatment. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. The use of moving bed bio-reactor to laundry wastewater treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bering Sławomira

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Large laboratory scale biological treatment test of industrial real wastewater, generated in industrial big laundry, has been conducted in the period of May 2016–August 2016. The research aimed at selection of laundry wastewater treatment technology included tests of two-stage Moving Bed Bio Reactor (MBBR, with two reactors filled with carriers Kaldnes K5 (specific area – 800 m2/m3, have been realized in aerobic condition. Operating on site, in the laundry, reactors have been fed real wastewater from laundry retention tank. To the laundry wastewater, contained mainly surfactants and impurities originating from washed fabrics, a solution of urea to supplement nitrogen content and a solution of acid to correct pH have been added. Daily flow of raw wastewater Qd was equal to 0.6–0.8 m3/d. The values of determined wastewater quality indicators showed that substantial decrease of pollutants content have been reached: BOD5 by 94.7–98.1%, COD by 86.9–93.5%, the sum of anionic and nonionic surfactants by 98.7–99.8%. The quality of the purified wastewater, after star-up period, meets the legal requirements regarding the standards for wastewater discharged to the environment.

  7. The use of moving bed bio-reactor to laundry wastewater treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bering, Sławomira; Mazur, Jacek; Tarnowski, Krzysztof; Janus, Magdalena; Mozia, Sylwia; Waldemar Morawski, Antoni

    2017-11-01

    Large laboratory scale biological treatment test of industrial real wastewater, generated in industrial big laundry, has been conducted in the period of May 2016-August 2016. The research aimed at selection of laundry wastewater treatment technology included tests of two-stage Moving Bed Bio Reactor (MBBR), with two reactors filled with carriers Kaldnes K5 (specific area - 800 m2/m3), have been realized in aerobic condition. Operating on site, in the laundry, reactors have been fed real wastewater from laundry retention tank. To the laundry wastewater, contained mainly surfactants and impurities originating from washed fabrics, a solution of urea to supplement nitrogen content and a solution of acid to correct pH have been added. Daily flow of raw wastewater Qd was equal to 0.6-0.8 m3/d. The values of determined wastewater quality indicators showed that substantial decrease of pollutants content have been reached: BOD5 by 94.7-98.1%, COD by 86.9-93.5%, the sum of anionic and nonionic surfactants by 98.7-99.8%. The quality of the purified wastewater, after star-up period, meets the legal requirements regarding the standards for wastewater discharged to the environment.

  8. The application of moving bed bio-reactor (MBBR) in commercial laundry wastewater treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bering, Sławomira; Mazur, Jacek; Tarnowski, Krzysztof; Janus, Magdalena; Mozia, Sylwia; Morawski, Antoni Waldemar

    2018-06-15

    Large, laboratory scale biological treatment tests of real industrial wastewater, generated in a large industrial laundry facility, was conducted from October 2014 to January 2015. This research sought to develop laundry wastewater treatment technology which included tests of a two-stage Moving Bed Bio Reactor (MBBR); this had two reactors, was filled with carriers Kaldnes K5 (specific area - 800 m 2 /m 3 ) and were realized in aerobic condition. Operating on site, in the laundry, reactors were fed actual wastewater from the laundry retention tank. The laundry wastewater contained mainly surfactants and impurities originating from washed fabrics; a solution of urea to supplement nitrogen content and a solution of acid to correct pH were added. The daily flow of raw wastewater Qd varied from 0.6-1.0 m 3 /d. Wastewater quality indicators showed that the reduction of pollutants was obtained: BOD 5 by 95-98%, COD by 89-94%, the sum of anionic and nonionic surfactants by 85-96%. The quality of the purified wastewater after the start-up period met legal requirements regarding the standards for wastewater discharged into the environment. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Modeling Lab-sized Anaerobic Fluidized Bed Reactor (AFBR) for Palm Oil Mill Effluent (POME) treatment: from Batch to Continuous Reactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mufti Azis, Muhammad; Sudibyo, Hanifrahmawan; Budhijanto, Wiratni

    2018-03-01

    Indonesia is aiming to produce 30 million tones/year of crude palm oil (CPO) by 2020. As a result, 90 million tones/year of POME will be produced. POME is highly polluting wastewater which may cause severe environmental problem due to its high chemical oxygen demand (COD) and biochemical oxygen demand (BOD). Due to the limitation of open pond treatment, the use of AFBR has been considered as a potential technology to treat POME. This study aims to develop mathematical models of lab-sized Anaerobic Fluidized Bed Reactor (AFBR) in batch and continuous processes. In addition, the AFBR also utilized natural zeolite as an immobilized media for microbes. To initiate the biomass growth, biodiesel waste has been used as an inoculum. In the first part of this study, a batch AFBR was operated to evaluate the COD, VFA, and CH4 concentrations. By comparing the batch results with and without zeolite, it showed that the addition of 17 g/gSCOD zeolite gave larger COD decrease within 20 days of operation. In order to elucidate the mechanism, parameter estimations of 12 kinetic parameters were proposed to describe the batch reactor performance. The model in general could describe the batch experimental data well. In the second part of this study, the kinetic parameters obtained from batch reactor were used to simulate the performance of double column AFBR where the acidogenic and methanogenic biomass were separated. The simulation showed that a relatively long residence time (Hydraulic Residence Time, HRT) was required to treat POME using the proposed double column AFBR. Sensitivity analyses was conducted and revealed that μm1 appeared to be the most sensitive parameter to reduce the HRT of double column AFBR.

  10. Batch and fixed bed adsorption of levofloxacin on granular activated carbon from date (Phoenix dactylifera L.) stones by KOH chemical activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darweesh, Teeba M; Ahmed, Muthanna J

    2017-03-01

    Granular activated carbon (KAC) was prepared from abundant Phoenix dactylifera L. stones by microwave- assisted KOH activation. The characteristics of KAC were tested by pore analyses, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Fourier transforms infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The adsorption behavior of levofloxacin (LEV) antibiotic on KAC with surface area of 817m 2 /g and pore volume of 0.638cm 3 /g were analyzed using batch and fixed bed systems. The equilibrium data collected by batch experiments were well fitted with Langmuir compared to Freundlich and Temkin isotherms. The effect of flow rate (0.5-1.5ml/min), bed height (15-25cm), and initial LEV concentration (75-225mg/l) on the behavior of breakthrough curves was explained. The fixed bed analysis showed the better correlation of breakthrough data by both Thomas and Yoon-Nelson models. High LEV adsorption capacity of 100.3mg/g was reported on KAC, thus being an efficient adsorbent for antibiotic pollutants to protect ecological systems. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Three column intermittent simulated moving bed chromatography: 1. Process description and comparative assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jermann, Simon; Mazzotti, Marco

    2014-09-26

    The three column intermittent simulated moving bed (3C-ISMB) process is a new type of multi-column chromatographic process for binary separations and can be regarded as a modification of the I-SMB process commercialized by Nippon Rensui Corporation. In contrast to conventional I-SMB, this enables the use of only three instead of four columns without compromising product purity and throughput. The novel mode of operation is characterized by intermittent feeding and product withdrawal as well as by partial recycling of the weakly retained component from section III to section I. Due to the smaller number of columns with respect to conventional I-SMB, higher internal flow rates can be applied without violating pressure drop constraints. Therefore, the application of 3C-ISMB allows for a higher throughput whilst using a smaller number of columns. As a result, we expect that the productivity given in terms of throughput per unit time and unit volume of stationary phase can be significantly increased. In this contribution, we describe the new process concept in detail and analyze its cyclic steady state behavior through an extensive simulation study. The latter shows that 3C-ISMB can be easily designed by Triangle Theory even under highly non-linear conditions. The simple process design is an important advantage to other advanced SMB-like processes. Moreover, the simulation study demonstrates the superior performance of 3C-ISMB, namely productivity increases by roughly 60% with respect to conventional I-SMB without significantly sacrificing solvent consumption. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Treatment of pesticide wastewater by moving-bed biofilm reactor combined with Fenton-coagulation pretreatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Sheng; Sun Dezhi; Chung, J.-S.

    2007-01-01

    In order to treat pesticide wastewater having high chemical oxygen demand (COD) value and poor biodegradability, Fenton-coagulation process was first used to reduce COD and improve biodegradability and then was followed by biological treatment. Optimal experimental conditions for the Fenton process were determined to be Fe 2+ concentration of 40 mmol/L and H 2 O 2 dose of 97 mmol/L at initial pH 3. The interaction mechanism of organophosphorous pesticide and hydroxyl radicals was suggested to be the breakage of the P=S double bond and formation of sulfate ions and various organic intermediates, followed by formation of phosphate and consequent oxidation of intermediates. For the subsequent biological treatment, 3.2 g/L Ca(OH) 2 was added to adjust the pH and further coagulate the pollutants. The COD value could be evidently decreased from 33,700 to 9300 mg/L and the ratio of biological oxygen demand (BOD 5 ) to COD of the wastewater was enhanced to over 0.47 by Fenton oxidation and coagulation. The pre-treated wastewater was then subjected to biological oxidation by using moving-bed biofilm reactor (MBBR) inside which tube chip type bio-carriers were fluidized upon air bubbling. Higher than 85% of COD removal efficiency could be achieved when the bio-carrier volume fraction was kept more than 20% by feeding the pretreated wastewater containing 3000 mg/L of inlet COD at one day of hydraulic retention time (HRT), but a noticeable decrease in the COD removal efficiency when the carrier volume was decreased down to 10%, only 72% was observed. With the improvement of biodegradability by using Fenton pretreatment, also due to the high concentration of biomass and high biofilm activity using the fluidizing bio-carriers, high removal efficiency and stable operation could be achieved in the biological process even at a high COD loading of 37.5 gCOD/(m 2 carrier day)

  13. Gaseous emissions from sewage sludge combustion in a moving bed combustor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batistella, Luciane; Silva, Valdemar; Suzin, Renato C; Virmond, Elaine; Althoff, Chrtistine A; Moreira, Regina F P M; José, Humberto J

    2015-12-01

    Substantial increase in sewage sludge generation in recent years requires suitable destination for this residue. This study evaluated the gaseous emissions generated during combustion of an aerobic sewage sludge in a pilot scale moving bed reactor. To utilize the heat generated during combustion, the exhaust gas was applied to the raw sludge drying process. The gaseous emissions were analyzed both after the combustion and drying steps. The results of the sewage sludge characterization showed the energy potential of this residue (LHV equal to 14.5 MJ kg(-1), db) and low concentration of metals, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDD) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDF). The concentration of CO, NOx, BTEX (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylenes) emitted from the sludge combustion process were lower than the legal limits. The overall sludge combustion and drying process showed low emissions of PCDD/PCDF (0.42 ng I-TEQ N m(-3)). BTEX and PAH emissions were not detected. Even with the high nitrogen concentration in the raw feed (5.88% db), the sludge combustion process presented NOx emissions below the legal limit, which results from the combination of appropriate feed rate (A/F ratio), excess air, and mainly the low temperature kept inside the combustion chamber. It was found that the level of CO emissions from the overall sludge process depends on the dryer operating conditions, such as the oxygen content and the drying temperature, which have to be controlled throughout the process in order to achieve low CO levels. The aerobic sewage sludge combustion process generated high SO2 concentration due to the high sulfur content (0.67 wt%, db) and low calcium concentration (22.99 g kg(-1)) found in the sludge. The high concentration of SO2 in the flue gas (4776.77 mg N m(-3)) is the main factor inhibiting PCDD/PCDF formation. Further changes are needed in the pilot plant scheme to reduce SO2 and particulate matter emissions

  14. A design and study of the effects of selectivity on binary separation in a four-zone simulated moving bed for systems with linear isotherms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A. Cremasco

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available The simulated moving bed (SMB is potentially an economical method for the separation and purification of natural products because it is a continuous processes and can achieve higher productivity, higher product recovery, and higher purity than batch chromatographic processes. Despite the advantages of SMB, one of the challenges is to specify its zone flow rates and switching time. In this case it is possible to use the standing wave analysis. In this method, in a binary system, when certain concentration waves are confined to specific zones, high product purity and yield can be assured. Appropriate zone flow rates, zone lengths and step time are chosen to achieve standing waves. In this study the effects of selectivity on yield, throughput, solvent consumption, port switching time, and product purity for a binary system are analyzed. The results show that for a given selectivity the maximum throughput decreases with increasing yield, while solvent consumption and port switching time increase with increasing yield. To achieve the same purity and yield, a system with higher selectivity has a higher throughput and lower solvent consumption.

  15. Batch top-spray fluid bed coating: Scale-up insight using dynamic heat- and mass-transfer modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hede, Peter Dybdahl; Bach, P.; Jensen, Anker Degn

    2009-01-01

    volumes. In each control volume, dynamic heat and mass balances were set up allowing the simulation of the contents of water vapour, water on core particles and deposited coating mass as well as fluidisation gas, particle and chamber wall temperature. The model was used to test different scale....../3). Results show good agreement between simulated and experimental outlet fluidisation air temperature and humidity as well as bed temperature. Simulations reveal that vertical temperature and humidity gradients increase significantly with increasing scale and that in fluid beds as the simulated 900kg (RICA......-TEC Anhydro) production-scale, the gradients become too large to use the simple combined drying force/relative droplet size scale-up approach without also increasing the inlet fluidisation air temperature significantly. Instead, scale-up in terms of combinations of the viscous Stokes theory with simulated...

  16. Catalytic wet air oxidation of bisphenol A solution in a batch-recycle trickle-bed reactor over titanate nanotube-based catalysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, Renata; Erjavec, Boštjan; Senila, Marin; Pintar, Albin

    2014-10-01

    Catalytic wet air oxidation (CWAO) is classified as an advanced oxidation process, which proved to be highly efficient for the removal of emerging organic pollutant bisphenol A (BPA) from water. In this study, BPA was successfully removed in a batch-recycle trickle-bed reactor over bare titanate nanotube-based catalysts at very short space time of 0.6 min gCAT g(-1). The as-prepared titanate nanotubes, which underwent heat treatment at 600 °C, showed high activity for the removal of aqueous BPA. Liquid-phase recycling (5- or 10-fold recycle) enabled complete BPA conversion already at 200 °C, together with high conversion of total organic carbon (TOC), i.e., 73 and 98 %, respectively. The catalyst was chemically stable in the given range of operating conditions for 189 h on stream.

  17. Review on Biomass Torrefaction Process and Product Properties and Design of Moving Bed Torrefaction System Model Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaya Shankar Tumuluru; Christopher T. Wright; Shahab Sokhansanj

    2011-08-01

    A Review on Torrefaction Process and Design of Moving Bed Torrefaction System for Biomass Processing Jaya Shankar Tumuluru1, Shahab Sokhansanj2 and Christopher T. Wright1 Idaho National Laboratory Biofuels and Renewable Energy Technologies Department Idaho Falls, Idaho 83415 Oak Ridge National Laboratory Bioenergy Resource and Engineering Systems Group Oak Ridge, TN 37831 Abstract Torrefaction is currently developing as an important preprocessing step to improve the quality of biomass in terms of physical properties, and proximate and ultimate composition. Torrefaction is a slow heating of biomass in an inert or reduced environment to a maximum temperature of 300 C. Torrefaction can also be defined as a group of products resulting from the partially controlled and isothermal pyrolysis of biomass occurring in a temperature range of 200-230 C and 270-280 C. Thus, the process can also be called a mild pyrolysis as it occurs at the lower temperature range of the pyrolysis process. At the end of the torrefaction process, a solid uniform product with lower moisture content and higher energy content than raw biomass is produced. Most of the smoke-producing compounds and other volatiles are removed during torrefaction, which produces a final product that will have a lower mass but a higher heating value. There is a lack of literature on the design aspects of torrefaction reactor and a design sheet for estimating the dimensions of the torrefier based on capacity. This study includes (a) conducting a detailed review on the torrefaction of biomass in terms of understanding the process, product properties, off-gas compositions, and methods used, and (b) to design a moving bed torrefier, taking into account the basic fundamental heat and mass transfer calculations. Specific objectives include calculating the dimensions like diameter and height of the moving packed bed torrefier for different capacities ranging from 25-1000 kg/hr, designing the heat loads and gas flow rates, and

  18. ADSORPTION OF MANGANESE FROM ACID MINE DRAINAGE EFFLUENTS USING BONE CHAR: CONTINUOUS FIXED BED COLUMN AND BATCH DESORPTION STUDIES

    OpenAIRE

    Sicupira, D. C.; Tolentino Silva, T.; Ladeira, A. C. Q.; Mansur, M. B.

    2015-01-01

    AbstractIn the present study, continuous fixed bed column runs were carried out in an attempt to evaluate the feasibility of using bone char for the removal of manganese from acid mine drainage (AMD). Tests using a laboratory solution of pure manganese at typical concentration levels were also performed for comparison purposes. The following operating variables were evaluated: column height, flow rate, and initial pH. Significant variations in resistance to the mass transfer of manganese into...

  19. Biodegradation of 4-bromophenol by Arthrobacter chlorophenolicus A6 in batch shake flasks and in a continuously operated packed bed reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahoo, Naresh Kumar; Pakshirajan, Kannan; Ghosh, Pranab Kumar

    2014-04-01

    The present study investigated growth and biodegradation of 4-bromophenol (4-BP) by Arthrobacter chlorophenolicus A6 in batch shake flasks as well as in a continuously operated packed bed reactor (PBR). Batch growth kinetics of A. chlorophenolicus A6 in presence of 4-BP followed substrate inhibition kinetics with the estimated biokinetic parameters value of μ max = 0.246 h(-1), K i = 111 mg L(-1), K s  = 30.77 mg L(-1) and K = 100 mg L(-1). In addition, variations in the observed and theoretical biomass yield coefficient and maintenance energy of the culture were investigated at different initial 4-BP concentration. Results indicates that the toxicity tolerance and the biomass yield of A. chlorophenolicus A6 towards 4-BP was found to be poor as the organism utilized the substrate mainly for its metabolic maintenance energy. Further, 4-BP biodegradation performance by the microorganism was evaluated in a continuously operated PBR by varying the influent concentration and hydraulic retention time in the ranges 400-1,200 mg L(-1) and 24-7.5 h, respectively. Complete removal of 4-BP was achieved in the PBR up to a loading rate of 2,276 mg L(-1) day(-1).

  20. ADSORPTION OF MANGANESE FROM ACID MINE DRAINAGE EFFLUENTS USING BONE CHAR: CONTINUOUS FIXED BED COLUMN AND BATCH DESORPTION STUDIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. C. Sicupira

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available AbstractIn the present study, continuous fixed bed column runs were carried out in an attempt to evaluate the feasibility of using bone char for the removal of manganese from acid mine drainage (AMD. Tests using a laboratory solution of pure manganese at typical concentration levels were also performed for comparison purposes. The following operating variables were evaluated: column height, flow rate, and initial pH. Significant variations in resistance to the mass transfer of manganese into the bone char were identified using the Thomas model. A significant effect of the bed height could only be observed in tests using the laboratory solution. No significant change in the breakthrough volume could be observed with different flow rates. By increasing the initial pH from 2.96 to 5.50, the breakthrough volume was also increased. The maximum manganese loading capacity in continuous tests using bone char for AMD effluents was 6.03 mg g-1, as compared to 26.74 mg g-1 when using the laboratory solution. The present study also performed desorption tests, using solutions of HCl, H2SO4, and water, aimed at the reuse of the adsorbent; however, no promising results were obtained due to low desorption levels associated with a relatively high mass loss. Despite the desorption results, the removal of manganese from AMD effluents using bone char as an adsorbent is technically feasible and attends to environmental legislation. It is interesting to note that the use of bone char for manganese removal may avoid the need for pH corrections of effluents after treatment. Moreover, bone char can also serve to remove fluoride ions and other metals, thus representing an interesting alternative material for the treatment of AMD effluents.

  1. Synthesis of zeolites coal ash in surfactant modified in application and removal of orange 8 acid solution: study in batch, fixed bed column and evaluation ecotoxicological

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magdalena, Carina Pitwak

    2015-01-01

    In this study, synthesized zeolitic material from coal ash and modified cationic surfactant was used for removing the acid dye Orange 8 (AL8) by adsorption process using moving bed and fixed-bed column. The raw material and adsorbents were characterized by different techniques, such as X-ray diffraction, X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy, among others. The adsorption of AL8 was performed by moving bed in order to optimize the results when they are launched in a fixed bed. The effects of adsorption on zeolite AL8 were compared: (1) Effect of counterions Br - and Cl - surfactant used in the modification of the zeolite; (2) effect of type of coal ash used as raw material in the synthesis of zeolites (fly and bottom). The following adsorbents were used in the study: fly and bottom zeolite modified by surfactant hexadecyltrimethylammonium bromide (ZLMS-Br-Br and ZPMS-Br) and fly zeolite modified by surfactant hexadecyltrimethylammonium chloride (ZLMS-Cl). The pseudo-second-order kinetic described the adsorption of the dye on all adsorbents. The equilibrium time was reached 40, 60 and 120 min for ZLMS-Br, ZLMS-Cl and ZPMS-Br, respectively. The adsorption equilibrium was analyzed by the equations of the models of linear and nonlinear isotherms of Langmuir, Freundlich, Temkin and Dubinin- Radushkevivh (DR) and the criterion of best fit was evaluated using the error functions.The DR model was adjusted better to the experimental data for the system AL8 / ZLMS-Br, the Freundlich model for AL8 / ZLMS-Cl and Langmuir for AL8 / ZPMS. According to the Langmuir maximum adsorption capacity was 4.67, 1.48 and 1.38 mg g -1 for ZLMS-Br, ZLMS-Cl and ZPMS-Br, in order. In studies employing fixed bed columns, the effects of inlet concentration (20- 30 mg L -1 ), flow rate (4.0 -5.3 mL min -1 ) and the bed height (5, 5 - 6.5 cm) above the breakthrough curves characteristics in the adsorption system were determined. The Adams-Bohart, Thomas, Yoon-Nelson models were applied to experimental

  2. Continuous processing of recombinant proteins: integration of refolding and purification using simulated moving bed size-exclusion chromatography with buffer recycling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wellhoefer, Martin; Sprinzl, Wolfgang; Hahn, Rainer; Jungbauer, Alois

    2014-04-11

    Continuous processing of recombinant proteins was accomplished by combining continuous matrix-assisted refolding and purification by tandem simulated moving bed (SMB) size-exclusion chromatography (SEC). Recombinant proteins, N(pro) fusion proteins from inclusion bodies were dissolved with NaOH and refolded in the SMB system with a closed-loop set-up with refolding buffer as the desorbent buffer and buffer recycling of the refolding buffer of the raffinate by tangential flow filtration. For further purification of the refolded proteins, a second SMB operation also based on SEC was added. The whole system could be operated isocratically with refolding buffer as the desorbent buffer, and buffer recycling could also be applied in the purification step. Thus, a significant reduction in buffer consumption was achieved. The system was evaluated with two proteins, the N(pro) fusion pep6His and N(pro) fusion MCP-1. Refolding solution, which contained residual N(pro) fusion peptide, the cleaved autoprotease N(pro), and the cleaved target peptide was used as feed solution. Full separation of the cleaved target peptide from residual proteins was achieved at a purity and recovery in the raffinate and extract, respectively, of approximately 100%. In addition, more than 99% of the refolding buffer of the raffinate was recycled. A comparison of throughput, productivity, and buffer consumption of the integrated continuous process with two batch processes demonstrated that up to 60-fold higher throughput, up to 180-fold higher productivity, and at least 28-fold lower buffer consumption can be obtained by the integrated continuous process, which compensates for the higher complexity. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Comparison between moving bed-membrane bioreactor (MB-MBR) and membrane bioreactor (MBR) systems: influence of wastewater salinity variation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Trapani, Daniele; Di Bella, Gaetano; Mannina, Giorgio; Torregrossa, Michele; Viviani, Gaspare

    2014-06-01

    Two pilot plant systems were investigated for the treatment of wastewater subject to a gradual increase of salinity. In particular, a membrane bioreactor (MBR) and a moving bed biofilm membrane bioreactor (MB-MBR) were analyzed. Carbon and ammonium removal, kinetic constants and membranes fouling rates have been assessed. Both plants showed very high efficiency in terms of carbon and ammonium removal and the gradual salinity increase led to a good acclimation of the biomass, as confirmed by the respirometric tests. Significant biofilm detachments from carriers were experienced, which contributed to increase the irreversible superficial cake deposition. However, this aspect prevented the pore fouling tendency in the membrane module of MB-MBR system. On the contrary, the MBR pilot, even showing a lower irreversible cake deposition, was characterized by a higher pore fouling tendency. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Amino-functionalized mesoporous MCM-41 silica as an efficient adsorbent for water treatment: batch and fixed-bed column adsorption of the nitrate anion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebrahimi-Gatkash, Mehdi; Younesi, Habibollah; Shahbazi, Afsaneh; Heidari, Ava

    2017-07-01

    In the present study, amino-functionalized Mobil Composite Material No. 41 (MCM-41) was used as an adsorbent to remove nitrate anions from aqueous solutions. Mono-, di- and tri-amino functioned silicas (N-MCM-41, NN-MCM-41 and NNN-MCM-41) were prepared by post-synthesis grafting method. The samples were characterized by means of X-ray powder diffraction, FTIR spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis, scanning electron microscopy and nitrogen adsorption-desorption. The effects of pH, initial concentration of anions, and adsorbent loading were examined in batch adsorption system. Results of adsorption experiments showed that the adsorption capacity increased with increasing adsorbent loading and initial anion concentration. It was found that the Langmuir mathematical model indicated better fit to the experimental data than the Freundlich. According to the constants of the Langmuir equation, the maximum adsorption capacity for nitrate anion by N-MCM-41, NN-MCM-41 and NNN-MCM-41 was found to be 31.68, 38.58 and 36.81 mg/g, respectively. The adsorption kinetics were investigated with pseudo-first-order and pseudo-second-order model. Adsorption followed the pseudo-second-order rate kinetics. The coefficients of determination for pseudo-second-order kinetic model are >0.99. For continuous adsorption experiments, NNN-MCM-41 adsorbent was used for the removal of nitrate anion from solutions. Breakthrough curves were investigated at different bed heights, flow rates and initial nitrate anion concentrations. The Thomas and Yan models were utilized to calculate the kinetic parameters and to predict the breakthrough curves of different bed height. Results from this study illustrated the potential utility of these adsorbents for nitrate removal from water solution.

  5. Drying of immobilized yeast cells in a spouted bed dryer with a moving draft tube

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragan Povrenović

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Brewery yeast cells immobilized in Ca-alginate were dried in a laboratory scale spouted bed with a draft tube.The experiment was conducted under variable temperatures and air flow rates. The temperature and air velocity at the bottom of the column have been varied in the range from 30 to 60 °C and from 6 to 10 m/s in a duration of 60 min. The moisture of dryied particles was in the interval of 10.00 to 21.00 g/g, while the water activity was in the range of 0.40 to 0.45 what ensures the preservation of immobilized yeast as a starter and provides the biological activity of dried particles. A rehidration process of dryied particles proved that dried particles could completely restore their original shape and starting volume, while the mechanical resistance is somewhat reduced. The cells preserved in this way completely restore their catalytical activity after the rehidration.

  6. Amine-functionalized magnetic bamboo-based activated carbon adsorptive removal of ciprofloxacin and norfloxacin: A batch and fixed-bed column study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Xiaoming; Hu, Fengping; Zhang, Tao; Qiu, Fengxian; Dai, Hongling

    2018-02-01

    Amine-functionalized magnetic bamboo-based activated carbon (AFM-BAC) derived from bamboo products wastes were employed for effective adsorption of fluoroquinolone antibiotics ciprofloxacin (CIP) and norfloxacin (NOR) through batch processing. The effects of factors on the adsorption of both antibiotics were studied. The studies of various factors influencing the adsorption behavior indicated that the maximum adsorption capacities for two antibiotics adsorption were observed in weakly acidic condition and the adsorption amounts of two antibiotics increased with the increase of zwitterionic form, implying the importance of zwitterionic form, and the adsorption process is spontaneous and endothermic. The result of date indicated that adsorption of both two antibiotics onto the AFM-BAC better fits Langmuir isotherm model. The saturated magnetization of AFM-BAC reached 8.55 emu g -1 . A fixed-bed column adsorption with a bench-scale was carried out. Desorption and regeneration experiments showed that the AFM-BAC for both antibiotics could remain above 80% after five consecutive recycling cycles. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. A new device to select carriers for biomass immobilization and application in an aerobic/anaerobic fixed-bed sequencing batch biofilm reactor for nitrogen removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarti, A; Lamon, A W; Ono, A; Foresti, E

    2016-12-01

    This study proposes a new approach to selecting a biofilm carrier for immobilization using dissolved oxygen (DO) microsensors to measure the thickness of aerobic and anaerobic layers in biofilm. The biofilm carriers tested were polyurethane foam, mineral coal (MC), basaltic gravel, and low-density polyethylene. Development of layers in the biofilm carrier surface was evaluated using a flow cell device, and DO profiles were conducted to determine the size of the layers (aerobic and anaerobic). MC was the biofilm carrier selected due to allowing the development of larger aerobic and anaerobic layers in the biofilm (896 and 1,058 μm, respectively). This ability is supposed to improve simultaneous nitrogen removal by nitrification and denitrification biological processes. Thus, as a biofilm carrier, MC was used in a fixed-bed sequencing batch biofilm reactor (FB-SBBR) for treatment of wastewater with a high ammonia concentration (100-400 mgNH 4 + -N L -1 ). The FB-SBBR (15.0 L) was filled with matrices of the carrier and operated under alternating aeration and non-aeration periods of 6 h each. At a mean nitrogen loading rate of 0.55 ± 0.10 kgNH 4 + -N m -3 d -1 , the reactor attained a mean nitrification efficiency of 95 ± 9% with nitrite as the main product (aerobic period). Mean denitrification efficiency during the anoxic period was 72 ± 13%.

  8. Upgrading of a wastewater treatment plant with a hybrid moving bed biofilm reactor (MBBR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luigi Falletti

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The wastewater treatment plant of Porto Tolle (RO, Italy was originally projected for 2200 person equivalent (p.e. and it was made of a pumping station, an activated sludge oxidation tank (395 m3, a settler (315 m3, and two sludge drying beds. Other units were not yet in use in 2008: a fine screen, a sand and grit removal unit, a new settler (570 m3, a disinfection tank and a sludge thickener. Effective hydraulic load was 245% higher, organic load was 46% lower and nitrogen load was 39% higher than project values. Moreover, higher pollutant loads and more strict emission limits for nitrogen were expected. So the plant was upgraded: the old settler was divided into a sector of 180 m3 that was converted into a predenitrification tank, and a sector of 100 m3 that was converted into a hybrid MBBR tank filled with 50% AnoxKaldnesTM K3 carriers; the new settler was connected to the hybrid MBBR, and the other units were started. Biofilm growth was observed two months after plant restarting, its concentration reached 1.1 gTS/m2 (0.26 kgTS/m3, while activated sludge concentration was 2.0–2.8 kgTSS/m3 in all the period of study. The upgraded plant treats 1587 m3/d wastewater with 57 kgCOD/d, 23 kgBOD/d and 13.3 kgN/d, and has a significant residual capacity; the effluent respects all emission limits.

  9. Advantages and applications of moving bed technology in urban and industrial waste waters; Ventajas y aplicaciones de la tecnologia de lecho movil en aguas residuales urbanas e industriales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larrea Urcola, A.; Zalakain Bengoa, G.; Larrea Ucola, L.; Abad Alba, A.

    2004-07-01

    Moving bed technology is a new biological treatment by activated sludge where the biomass grows attached to a inert media (plastic) that moves free along the reactor. The main advantages of this technology are the reduction of the reactor volume, simplicity of operation and the easiest way for the upgrading of plants. Results of different industrial applications are shown together with the latest researches lines that combine organic matter and nitrogen removal. (Author) 12 refs.

  10. Multi-objective optimization for the economic production of d-psicose using simulated moving bed chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, N; Håkansson, E; Wahler, S; Panke, S; Bechtold, M

    2015-06-12

    The biocatalytic production of rare carbohydrates from available sugar sources rapidly gains interest as a route to acquire industrial amounts of rare sugars for food and fine chemical applications. Here we present a multi-objective optimization procedure for a simulated moving bed (SMB) process for the production of the rare sugar d-psicose from enzymatically produced mixtures with its epimer d-fructose. First, model parameters were determined using the inverse method and experimentally validated on a 2-2-2-2 lab-scale SMB plant. The obtained experimental purities (PUs) were in excellent agreement with the simulated data derived from a transport-dispersive true-moving bed model demonstrating the feasibility of the proposed design. In the second part the performance of the separation was investigated in a multi-objective optimization study addressing the cost-contributing performance parameters productivity (PR) and desorbent requirement (DR) as a function of temperature. While rare sugar SMB operation under conditions of low desorbent consumption was found to be widely unaffected by temperature, SMB operation focusing on increased PR significantly benefited from high temperatures, with possible productivities increasing from 3.4kg(Lday)(-1) at 20°C to 5kg(Lday)(-1) at 70°C, indicating that decreased selectivity at higher temperatures could be fully compensated for by the higher mass transfer rates, as they translate into reduced switch times and hence higher PR. A DR/PR Pareto optimization suggested a similar but even more pronounced trend also under relaxed PU requirements, with the PR increasing from 4.3kg(Lday)(-1) to a maximum of 7.8kg(Lday)(-1) for SMB operation at 50°C when the PU of the non-product stream was reduced from 99.5% to 90%. Based on the in silico optimization results experimental SMB runs were performed yielding considerable PRs of 1.9 (30°C), 2.4 (50°C) and 2.6kg(Lday)(-1) (70°C) with rather low DR (27L per kg of rare sugar produced) on a

  11. Modeling integrated fixed-film activated sludge and moving-bed biofilm reactor systems I: mathematical treatment and model development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boltz, Joshua P; Johnson, Bruce R; Daigger, Glen T; Sandino, Julian

    2009-06-01

    A mathematical model for integrated fixed-film activated sludge (IFAS) and moving-bed biofilm reactor wastewater treatment processes was developed. The model is based on theoretical considerations that include simultaneous diffusion and Monod-type reaction kinetics inside the biofilm, competition between aerobic autotrophic nitrifiers, non-methanol-degrading facultative heterotrophs, methanol-degrading heterotrophs, slowly biodegradable chemical oxygen demand, and inert biomass for substrate (when appropriate) and space inside the biofilm; and biofilm and suspended biomass compartments, which compete for both the electron donor and electron acceptor. The model assumes identical reaction kinetics for bacteria within suspended biomass and biofilm. Analytical solutions to a 1-dimensional biofilm (assuming both zero- and first-order kinetics) applied to describe substrate flux across the biofilm surface are integrated with a revised and expanded matrix similar to that presented as the International Water Association (London, United Kingdom) Activated Sludge Model Number 2d (ASM2d) stoichiometric and kinetic matrix. The steady-state mathematical model describes a continuous-flow stirred-tank reactor.

  12. Removal of pharmaceuticals in conventionally treated wastewater by a polishing moving bed biofilm reactor (MBBR) with intermittent feeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Kai; Ooi, Gordon T H; Litty, Klaus; Sundmark, Kim; Kaarsholm, Kamilla M S; Sund, Christina; Kragelund, Caroline; Christensson, Magnus; Bester, Kai; Andersen, Henrik R

    2017-07-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that aerobic moving bed biofilm reactors (MBBRs) remove pharmaceuticals better than activated sludge. Thus we used a MBBR system to polish the effluent of an activated sludge wastewater treatment plant. To overcome that effluent contains insufficient organic matter to sustain enough biomass, the biofilm was intermittently fed with raw wastewater. The capacity of pharmaceutical degradation was investigated by spiking pharmaceuticals. Actual removal during treatment was assessed by sampling the inlets and outlets of reactors. The removal of the majority of pharmaceuticals was enhanced through the intermittent feeding of the MBBR. First-order rate constants for pharmaceutical removal, normalised to biomass, were significantly higher compared to other studies on activated sludge and suspended biofilms, especially for diclofenac, metoprolol and atenolol. Due to the intermittently feeding, degradation of diclofenac occurred with a half-life of only 2.1h and was thus much faster than any hitherto described wastewater bioreactor treatment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Start-up of membrane bioreactor and hybrid moving bed biofilm reactor-membrane bioreactor: kinetic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leyva-Díaz, J C; Poyatos, J M

    2015-01-01

    A hybrid moving bed biofilm reactor-membrane bioreactor (hybrid MBBR-MBR) system was studied as an alternative solution to conventional activated sludge processes and membrane bioreactors. This paper shows the results obtained from three laboratory-scale wastewater treatment plants working in parallel in the start-up and steady states. The first wastewater treatment plant was a MBR, the second one was a hybrid MBBR-MBR system containing carriers both in anoxic and aerobic zones of the bioreactor (hybrid MBBR-MBRa), and the last one was a hybrid MBBR-MBR system which contained carriers only in the aerobic zone (hybrid MBBR-MBRb). The reactors operated with a hydraulic retention time of 30.40 h. A kinetic study for characterizing heterotrophic biomass was carried out and organic matter and nutrients removals were evaluated. The heterotrophic biomass of the hybrid MBBR-MBRb showed the best kinetic performance in the steady state, with yield coefficient for heterotrophic biomass=0.30246 mg volatile suspended solids per mg chemical oxygen demand, maximum specific growth rate for heterotrophic biomass=0.00308 h(-1) and half-saturation coefficient for organic matter=3.54908 mg O2 L(-1). The removal of organic matter was supported by the kinetic study of heterotrophic biomass.

  14. An integrated mathematical model for chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal in moving bed biofilm reactors (MBBR) including predation and hydrolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Revilla, Marta; Galán, Berta; Viguri, Javier R

    2016-07-01

    An integrated mathematical model is proposed for modelling a moving bed biofilm reactor (MBBR) for removal of chemical oxygen demand (COD) under aerobic conditions. The composite model combines the following: (i) a one-dimensional biofilm model, (ii) a bulk liquid model, and (iii) biological processes in the bulk liquid and biofilm considering the interactions among autotrophic, heterotrophic and predator microorganisms. Depending on the values for the soluble biodegradable COD loading rate (SCLR), the model takes into account a) the hydrolysis of slowly biodegradable compounds in the bulk liquid, and b) the growth of predator microorganisms in the bulk liquid and in the biofilm. The integration of the model and the SCLR allows a general description of the behaviour of COD removal by the MBBR under various conditions. The model is applied for two in-series MBBR wastewater plant from an integrated cellulose and viscose production and accurately describes the experimental concentrations of COD, total suspended solids (TSS), nitrogen and phosphorous obtained during 14 months working at different SCLRs and nutrient dosages. The representation of the microorganism group distribution in the biofilm and in the bulk liquid allow for verification of the presence of predator microorganisms in the second reactor under some operational conditions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Numerical modeling of the vertical hydrofluorination zone in the moving bed furnace for the production of UF{sub 4}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jourde, J.; Patisson, F.; Ablitzer, D. [Ecole des Mines, Nancy (France). Lab. de Science et Genie des Materiaux Metalliques; Houzelot, J.L. [Ecole des Mines, Nancy (France). Lab. des Sciences du Genie Chimique

    1996-12-31

    Uranium tetrafluoride UF{sub 4} is produced in the moving bed furnace, a reactor in which solid- and gas counterflow. Due to the highly exothermic nature of the chemical reactions involved, the-reactor operation requires a careful temperature control. To provide operators with an appropriate tool for the predictive simulation, optimization and control of the process an overall numerical model of the furnace has been developed. This article describes the part of the model concerning the vertical hydrofluorination zone. The differential equations representing the mass, energy and momentum balances are solved using the finite volume method. The physicochemical parameters necessary for the calculation are detailed. The rate of the main reaction, the hydrofluorination of UO{sub 2}, has been determined with the aid of a specific kinetic model. The computed parameters, namely the temperature and solid and gas compositions, are visualized in the form of isovalue maps. The initial results reveal the influence of a thermodynamic limitation of the reaction at temperatures higher than 650 K. (author)

  16. Intermittent simulated moving bed chromatography: 3. Separation of Tröger's base enantiomers under nonlinear conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katsuo, Shigeharu; Langel, Christian; Sandré, Anne-Laure; Mazzotti, Marco

    2011-12-30

    One of the modified simulated moving bed (SMB) processes, the intermittent SMB (I-SMB) process, has been recently analyzed theoretically [1] and its superior performance compared to the conventional SMB process has been demonstrated at a rather low total feed concentration through experiments and simulations [2]. This work shows that the I-SMB process outperforms the conventional SMB process also at high feed concentration where the species are clearly subject to a nonlinear adsorption isotherm. In the case of the separation of the Tröger's base's enantiomers in ethanol on ChiralPak AD, the two processes operated in a six-column 1-2-2-1 configuration (one column in sections 1 and 4 and two columns in sections 2 and 3) and in a four-column 1-1-1-1 configuration (one column in each section) are compared at high feed concentration through both experiments and simulations. Even under nonlinear conditions the four column I-SMB process can successfully separate the two enantiomers achieving purity levels as high as the two six column processes and exhibiting better productivity. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Sequencing treatment of industrial wastewater with ultraviolet/H2O2 advanced oxidation and moving bed bioreactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Mehdi Mehrabani Ardekani

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: The main purpose of this study was to determine the efficiency of a sequencing treatment including ultraviolet (UV/H 2 O 2 oxidation followed by a moving bed bioreactor (MBBR. Materials and Methods: Effect of solution pH, reaction time, and H 2 O 2 concentration were investigated for an industrial wastewater sample. The effluent of the advanced oxidation processes unit was introduced to the MBBR operated for three hydraulic retention times of 4, 8, and 12 h. Results: The optimum condition for industrial wastewater treatment via advanced oxidation was solution pH: 7, H 2 O 2 dose: 1000 mg/L and 90 min reaction time. These conditions led to 74.68% chemical oxygen demand (COD removal and 66.15% biochemical oxygen demand (BOD 5 removal from presedimentation step effluent that initially had COD and BOD 5 contents of 4,400 and 1,950 mg/L, respectively. Conclusion: Combination of UV/H 2 O 2 advanced oxidation with MBBR could result in effluents that meet water quality standards for discharge to receiving waters.

  18. Kinetic analysis of phenol, thiocyanate and ammonia-nitrogen removals in an anaerobic-anoxic-aerobic moving bed bioreactor system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahariah, Biju Prava; Chakraborty, Saswati

    2011-06-15

    A simulated wastewater containing phenol (2500 mg/L), thiocyanate and ammonia-nitrogen (500 mg/L) was treated in an anaerobic (R1)-anoxic (R2)-aerobic (R3) moving bed biofilm reactor system at different hydraulic retention time (HRT) intervals (total HRT 3-8 days, R1: 1.5-4 days; R2: 0.75-2 days and R3: 0.75-2 days) and feed thiocyanate (SCN(-)) concentrations (110-600 mg/L) to determine substrate removal kinetics. In R1, phenol and COD reduction and specific methanogenic activity were inhibited due to the increase of SCN(-) in feed. Bhatia et al. model having inbuilt provision of process inhibition described the kinetics of COD and phenol utilization with maximum utilization rates of 0.398 day(-1) and 0.486 day(-1), respectively. In R2 and R3 modified Stover-Kincannon model was suitable to describe substrate utilization. In R2 respective maximum SCN(-), phenol, COD and NO(3)(-)-N utilization rates were 0.23, 5.28, 37.7 and 11.82 g/L day, respectively. In aerobic reactor R3, COD, SCN(-) and NH(4)(+)-N removal rates were, respectively, 10.53, 1.89, and 2.17 g/L day. The minimum total HRT of three-stage system was recommended as 4 days. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Simulation assessment of continuous simulating moving bed chromatography process with partial feed and new strategy with partial feed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Khan

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Partial Feed simulating moving bed (SMB has proved to be more efficient in binary separation performance (purity, recovery, productivity because of its two additional degrees of freedom, namely feed length and feed time, as compared to classical SMB process. The binary separation of dextran T6 and fructose with linear isotherm is modeled with Aspen Chromatography simulator in a four zone SMB with one column per zone for both normal-feed and Partial Feed. Increase in number of feed length and feed time in the cycle plays a very important role in the separation performance with Partial Feed. In addition, the effect of mode of operation (early or late introduction of increase in number of feed length in the cycle on product purity and recovery is also investigated. Furthermore, the binary separation system is designed with the safety margin method and the optimum operating parameters for simulation are calculated with triangle theory. Finally, a new strategy with Partial Feed is developed, showing improved separation performance relative to the basic four-zone SMB with regard to extract stream purity and recovery. The results of the proposed study can served as a useful summary of Partial Feed operation.

  20. Technical, hygiene, economic, and life cycle assessment of full-scale moving bed biofilm reactors for wastewater treatment in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Anju; Kamble, Sheetal Jaisingh; Sawant, Megha; Chakravarthy, Yogita; Kazmi, Absar; Aymerich, Enrique; Starkl, Markus; Ghangrekar, Makarand; Philip, Ligy

    2018-01-01

    Moving bed biofilm reactor (MBBR) is a highly effective biological treatment process applied to treat both urban and industrial wastewaters in developing countries. The present study investigated the technical performance of ten full-scale MBBR systems located across India. The biochemical oxygen demand, chemical oxygen demand, total suspended solid, pathogens, and nutrient removal efficiencies were low as compared to the values claimed in literature. Plant 1 was considered for evaluation of environmental impacts using life cycle assessment approach. CML 2 baseline 2000 methodology was adopted, in which 11 impact categories were considered. The life cycle impact assessment results revealed that the main environmental hot spot of this system was energy consumption. Additionally, two scenarios were compared: scenario 1 (direct discharge of treated effluent, i.e., no reuse) and scenario 2 (effluent reuse and tap water replacement). The results showed that scenario 2 significantly reduce the environmental impact in all the categories ultimately decreasing the environmental burden. Moreover, significant economic and environmental benefits can be obtained in scenario 2 by replacing the freshwater demand for non-potable uses. To enhance the performance of wastewater treatment plant (WWTP), there is a need to optimize energy consumption and increase wastewater collection efficiency to maximize the operating capacity of plant and minimize overall environmental footprint. It was concluded that MBBR can be a good alternative for upgrading and optimizing existing municipal wastewater treatment plants with appropriate tertiary treatment. Graphical abstract ᅟ.

  1. KMT moving bed biofilm reactor (KMT MBBR) experience of a pilot plant in Spain. Proceso KMT de biomasa fija sobre lecho movil. Experiencias en planta piloto en Espaa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montoya Aranda, A.; Rodrigo Alonso, J.C.

    1994-01-01

    It describes the experiments carried out by INFILCO ESPAOLA, S.A. in a pilot plant using the KMT Moving Bed Biofilm Reactor process involving a fixed biomass on a moveable bed. This is an innovative process for treating both industrial and urban waste waters with or without the elimination of nutrients. The experimental findings demonstrate the need for a minimum amount of space for the biologial reagent (in comparison with that required for active sludge EDARs). They also show the ease with which existing EDARs can be adapted with very little civil engineering work by increasing either the design capacity or the elimination of nutrients. 10 refs.

  2. Estimation of particle velocity in moving beds based on a flow model for bulk solids. Ryudo model ni motozuita idoso no ryushi sokudo no suisan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takahashi, H. (Muroran Inst. of Tech., Hokkaido (Japan)); Honda, Y. (Snow Brand Milk Products Co. Ltd., Sapporo (Japan))

    1992-11-10

    Based on a particle flow model (stress-shear strain velocity relational expression) which takes account of the bulk volume expansion effect during shearing deformation of particles, a new estimation method for particle velocity distribution and stress distribution is proposed. The method is applied to a crossflow moving bed and to a moving bed for comparison with the experimental values to examine its validity. The method is further extended to predict the velocity profile and stress profile of moving beds in a vertical tube (countercurrent and concurrent) accompanying gas flow. It is indicated that the bulk volume expansion effect differs according to dimensions. The velocity distribution and the stress distribution of flows in a vertical tube are greatly influenced by the nature of the flow, i.e. whether it is a counterflow or a concurrent flow, and the frictional force of solids on a wall surface increases markedly in a concurrent flow, which induces considerable lag of particle velocity. The parameter which is contained in the model and indicates the bulk volume expansion effect is a function of the particle velocity, and it is almost unaffected by the flow rate of gas moving. 7 refs., 10 figs.

  3. Upgrading of the Mirmohana Wastewater Treatment Plant in Kish Island, Iran, using a moving bed biofilm reactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Ahmadi

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background and purpose: The performance of full-scale moving bed biofilm reactor (MBBR was evaluated as an alternative for upgrading of Kish Island Mirmohana wastewater treatment plant. In this study activated sludge process upgrade to MBBR process and different operating parameters were compared. Materials and Methods: Effect of upgrading on different parameters such as organic loading rate (OLR, mixed liquor suspended solid (MLSS, mixed liquor volatile suspended solid, sludge retention time (SRT, sludge volume index (SVI, hydraulic loading rate (HLR, also removal efficiency of chemical oxygen demand, biochemical oxygen demand and total suspended solid were investigated. Results: The study results show that with increasing the average flow influent (625.97 ± 38.6-1335.3 ± 102.06 m3/d and reducing of aeration tank volume (300-150 m3, OLR (0.29 ± 0.1-1.82 ± 0.15, MLSS (1291.14 ± 463.43 mg/L-7382.85 ± 272.42 mg/L, SRT (12.5 ± 4.2 d-28.79 ± 3.84 d, SVI (54.94 ± 15.82-51.2 ± 9.31, HLR (13.85 ± 0.85-29.45 ± 2.25 m/d, and hydraulic retention time (4.61 ± 0.27-2.17 ± 0.17 h were changed. Effluent concentrations under this operation condition were below the guidelines for irrigation water. Conclusion: Hence, MBBR process is a good alternative for upgrading wastewater plants especially when they have inadequacy space or need modification that will require a large investment.

  4. Moving-bed: a stable and rapidly recovering process; El sistema de biomasa fija sobre lecho movil: un proceso estable y de rapida recuperacion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Velasco Munguira, A.; Jorda Llona, J. R.; Farre Solsona, C.; Cortacans Torre, J. A.

    2005-07-01

    A moving-bed biofilm process is presented for the treatment of soft drink factory outlet. Once the system has been stabilized regarding oxygen, nutrient addition and pH control, the process goes on up to a 95% and over 98% reduction of COD and BOD, respectively, rapidly recovering from toxic shacks. Sludge production is larger than expected due to a higher yield of bacteria growing on a sugar-rich influent. (Author) 4 refs.

  5. Sludge granulation in an UASB-moving bed biofilm hybrid reactor for efficient organic matter removal and nitrogen removal in biofilm reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterjee, Pritha; Ghangrekar, M M; Rao, Surampalli

    2018-02-01

    A hybrid upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB)-moving bed biofilm (MBB) and rope bed biofilm (RBB) reactor was designed for treatment of sewage. Possibility of enhancing granulation in an UASB reactor using moving media to improve sludge retention was explored while treating low-strength wastewater. The presence of moving media in the top portion of the UASB reactor allowed a high solid retention time even at very short hydraulic retention times and helped in maintaining selection pressure in the sludge bed to promote formation of different sized sludge granules with an average settling velocity of 67 m/h. These granules were also found to contain plenty of extracellular polymeric substance (EPS) such as 58 mg of polysaccharides (PS) per gram of volatile suspended solids (VSS) and protein (PN) content of 37 mg/g VSS. Enriched sludge of nitrogen-removing bacteria forming a porous biofilm on the media in RBB was also observed in a concentration of around 894 g/m 2 . The nitrogen removing sludge also had a high EPS content of around 22 mg PS/g VSS and 28 mg PN/g VSS. This hybrid UASB-MBB-RBB reactor with enhanced anaerobic granular sludge treating both carbonaceous and nitrogenous matter may be a sustainable solution for decentralized sewage treatment.

  6. Operational stability of naringinase PVA lens-shaped microparticles in batch stirred reactors and mini packed bed reactors-one step closer to industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunes, Mário A P; Rosa, M Emilia; Fernandes, Pedro C B; Ribeiro, Maria H L

    2014-07-01

    The immobilization of naringinase in PVA lens-shaped particles, a cheap and biocompatible hydrogel was shown to provide an effective biocatalyst for naringin hydrolysis, an appealing reaction in the food and pharmaceutical industries. The present work addresses the operational stability and scale-up of the bioconversion system, in various types of reactors, namely shaken microtiter plates (volume ⩽ 2 mL), batch stirred tank reactors (volume reactor (PBR, 6.8 mL). Consecutive batch runs were performed with the shaken/stirred vessels, with reproducible and encouraging results, related to operational stability. The PBR was used to establish the feasibility for continuous operation, running continuously for 54 days at 45°C. The biocatalyst activity remained constant for 40 days of continuous operation. The averaged specific productivity was 9.07 mmol h(-1) g enzyme(-1) and the half-life of 48 days. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Bioremediation of Congo red dye in immobilized batch and continuous packed bed bioreactor by Brevibacillus parabrevis using coconut shell bio-char.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu Talha, Md; Goswami, Mandavi; Giri, B S; Sharma, Anjaney; Rai, B N; Singh, R S

    2018-03-01

    In the present study, bacterial species capable of degrading colour waste were isolated from the water bodies located near the carpet cluster in the Bhadohi district of U.P., India. Among the isolated species best one was selected on the basis of its capability to degrade Congo red in batch experiments using NaCl-Yeast as the nutrient media and further it was identified as Brevibacillus parabrevis using 16S rDNA sequencing. The process parameters were optimized for maximum degradation in batch experiments and found out to be: Inoculum size: 3 ml, Temperature: 30 °C, Time: 6 days leading to a removal of 95.71% of dye sample. The experiment showed that bacteria immobilized with coconut shell biochar in continuous mode showed much better degradation than batch study without immobilization. The kinetics parameters μ max , Ks, and μ max K s were found to be 0.461 per day, 39.44 mg/day, and 0.0117 L/mg/day using Monod model. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Fundamental aspects related to batch and fixed-bed sulfate sorption by the macroporous type 1 strong base ion exchange resin Purolite A500.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guimarães, Damaris; Leão, Versiane A

    2014-12-01

    Acid mine drainage is a natural process occurring when sulfide minerals such as pyrite are exposed to water and oxygen. The bacterially catalyzed oxidation of pyrite is particularly common in coal mining operations and usually results in a low-pH water polluted with toxic metals and sulfate. Although high sulfate concentrations can be reduced by gypsum precipitation, removing lower concentrations (below 1200 mg/L) remains a challenge. Therefore, this work sought to investigate the application of ion exchange resins for sulfate sorption. The macroporous type 1 strong base IX resin Purolite A500 was selected for bath and fixed-bed sorption experiments using synthetic sulfate solutions. Equilibrium experiments showed that sulfate loading on the resin can be described by the Langmuir isotherm with a maximum uptake of 59 mg mL-resin(-1). The enthalpy of sorption was determined as +2.83 kJ mol(-1), implying an endothermic physisorption process that occurred with decreasing entropy (-15.5 J mol(-1).K(-1)). Fixed-bed experiments were performed at different bed depths, flow rates, and initial sulfate concentrations. The Miura and Hashimoto model predicted a maximum bed loading of 25-30 g L-bed(-1) and indicated that both film diffusion (3.2 × 10(-3) cm s(-1) to 22.6 × 10(-3) cm s(-1)) and surface diffusion (1.46 × 10(-7) cm(2) s(-1) to 5.64 × 10(-7) cm(2) s(-1)) resistances control the sorption process. It was shown that IX resins are an alternative for the removal of sulfate from mine waters; they ensure very low residual concentrations, particularly in effluents where the sulfate concentration is below the gypsum solubility threshold. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Combination of upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor and partial nitritation/anammox moving bed biofilm reactor (MBBR) for municipal wastewater treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malovanyy, Andriy; Yang, Jingjing; Trela, Jozef; Plaza, Elzbieta

    2015-03-01

    In this study the combination of an upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor and a deammonification moving bed biofilm reactor (MBBR) for mainstream wastewater treatment was tested. The competition between aerobic ammonium oxidizing bacteria (AOB) and nitrite oxidizing bacteria (NOB) was studied during a 5months period of transition from reject water to mainstream wastewater followed by a 16months period of mainstream wastewater treatment. The decrease of influent ammonium concentration led to a wash-out of suspended biomass which had a major contribution to nitrite production. Influence of a dissolved oxygen concentration and a transient anoxia mechanism of NOB suppression were studied. It was shown that anoxic phase duration has no effect on NOB metabolism recovery and oxygen diffusion rather than affinities of AOB and NOB to oxygen determine the rate of nitrogen conversion in a biofilm system. Anammox activity remained on the level comparable to reject water treatment systems. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Separation of ethylene glycol and sodium salt of serine by use of a simulated moving-bed adsorber; Giji idoso ni yoru ethylene glycol to serine no Na en no bunri

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seto, T.; Hirata, K.; Odagiri, M.; Imanari, M. [Mitsubishi Chemical Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    1998-05-10

    Separation of ethylene glycol and sodium salt of serine is important in the processing of serine by the Strecker method using glycol aldehyde produced from ethylene glycol. The separations were successfully carried out using a simulated moving-bed four-zone type adsorber which was composed of a sodium salt of strongly acidic cation exchange resin. The moving-bed adsorber used was slightly different from a conventional one in the manner of setting up Raffinate 2. Separation of this type was simulated by calculations using an analytical solution of steady state rate equation concerning the adsorption and desorption of the ingredients and the moving bed. The condition needed for separation in the four-zone type with Raffinate 2 was discriminated, being generally coincident with the conventional condition of {beta} value. 13 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  11. Moving bed filter for absorbing hydrogen sulphide from biogas. Filtro de lecho movil para absorber el sulphidrico del biogas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bou, J.

    1994-01-01

    The main aim of this demonstration project is the absorption of hydrogen sulphide from the biogas-produced in a sewage plant-through a practical system which does not require constant attention, nor significant labour for the loading and unloading of the iron oxides; and the use of the biogas, when it has been purified, in thermal and cogeneration engine applications. The demonstration installation comprises a filter with a movable bed, of pyramid/trunk shape, with a square base, having a capacity of 1,000 litres, plus the two items needed for working with it: a lower and an upper hopper, for the loading and unloading of iron-oxide agglomerates. The purified biogas is used in a cogeneration unit comprising four TOTEM-FIAT sets generating 12.5 kWh of electrical power and 36.78 thermal kW each. Completing the project is a system which receives and stores the data from the range of variables monitored. The results obtained-the H[sub 2] content at the outlet from the lower filter at 300 ppm, sulphur absorption of 30% by wight in the iron oxide agglomerates, agglomerates replacement cost of 0.77 pesetas; m''3 , and 2.47-year-pay-back- confirm the viability of the process, and resure the application of this system in other sewage treatment plants. (Author)

  12. Automatic endpoint determination for batch tea dryers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Temple, S.J.; Boxtel, van A.J.B.

    2001-01-01

    A laboratory batch fluid-bed dryer was developed for handling small samples of tea for experimental batch manufacture, and this dryer required a means of stopping drying when the process was complete. A control system was devised which requires only the initial weight of the sample to be entered

  13. Advanced treatment of biologically pretreated coal gasification wastewater using a novel anoxic moving bed biofilm reactor (ANMBBR)-biological aerated filter (BAF) system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuang, Haifeng; Han, Hongjun; Jia, Shengyong; Zhao, Qian; Hou, Baolin

    2014-04-01

    A novel system integrating anoxic moving bed biofilm reactor (ANMBBR) and biological aerated filter (BAF) with short-cut biological nitrogen removal (SBNR) process was investigated as advanced treatment of real biologically pretreated coal gasification wastewater (CGW). The results showed the system had efficient capacity of degradation of pollutants especially nitrogen removal. The best performance was obtained at hydraulic residence times of 12h and nitrite recycling ratios of 200%. The removal efficiencies of COD, total organic carbon, NH4(+)-N, total phenols and total nitrogen (TN) were 74.6%, 70.0%, 85.0%, 92.7% and 72.3%, the corresponding effluent concentrations were 35.1, 18.0, 4.8, 2.2 and 13.6mg/L, respectively. Compared with traditional A(2)/O process, the system had high performance of NH4(+)-N and TN removal, especially under the high toxic loading. Moreover, ANMBBR played a key role in eliminating toxicity and degrading refractory compounds, which was beneficial to improve biodegradability of raw wastewater for SBNR process. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Rapid production of metallurgical coke by use of a simulated moving bed reactor. Mogi idoso wo mochiita kyusoku shoon ni yoru cokes no jinsoku seizo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miura, K.; Hayashi, J.; Sano, N. (Kyoto University, Kyoto (Japan). Research Laboratory of CArbonaceous Resources Conversion); Hashimoto, K. (Kyoto University, Kyoto (Japan). Faculty of Engineering); Iwakiri, H. (Kobe Steel, Ltd., Kobe (Japan))

    1992-12-20

    An experiment to manufacture coke with rapid temperature raising was carried out using an equipment simulating a vertical moving bed coke oven. Two kinds of trial manufacturing patterns were tested: Pattern A to raise coal temperature rapidly to about 450[degree]C, which is held for about 20 minutes, and then raised again to 800[degree]C at a rate of about 5[degree]C/min, and pattern B to raise the temperature from about 300[degree]C to 800[degree]C at a rate of about 5[degree]C/min. An experiment on test samples from heavy caking coal (PDH coal) and light caking coal (OP coal) revealed the following results: The PDH coal applied with the pattern A produced in about two hours a coke with quality equivalent to or better than practically used coke; the temperature raising pattern B resulted in no full lump formation even with the PDH coal; according to the temperature raising pattern A, manufacturing coke from the OP coal is impossible; however, if the PDH coal or pitch is mixed with the OP coal, coke may be manufactured. 6 refs., 11 figs., 2 tabs.

  15. High-performance strategy of a simulated moving bed chromatography by simultaneous control of product and feed streams under maximum allowable pressure drop.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Ji-Yeon; Kim, Kyung-Min; Lee, Chang-Ha

    2016-11-04

    In this study, a novel operating strategy was developed to improve the separation performance of simulated moving bed (SMB) chromatography by the simultaneous control of product outlet streams and feed inlet stream (SimCon). The SimCon operation can achieve a high separation performance without exceeding the maximum allowable pressure drop in an SMB system. The SimCon operation consisted of three steps within a single switching period: the initial, middle, and last steps. The extract port and feed-inlet port were closed at the initial step, but the raffinate port was closed at the last step. Therefore, in the SimCon strategy, we introduce two additional operating variables in a switching period, namely the middle time and middle length. In the SimCon operation, the middle step is a key factor to achieving a good separation performance because concentration profiles can be well controlled by two new middle-step variables. The SimCon operation showed outstanding results compared with those of the corresponding conventional SMB and other stream-control strategies in terms of purity, recovery, productivity, and eluent consumption. Because the SimCon operation can be operated with smaller flow and pressure fluctuations than other flow-rate-control strategies and improves the column efficiency, it is expected that the strategy can be practically adapted to real SMB processes with a good separation performance. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Moving-Bed Process for Residue Hydrotreating Procédé à lit mobile pour l'hydrotraitement des résidus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Euzen J. P.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available A lot of chemical, petrochemical or refining processes require contact between three phases : a liquid feed, a gaseous reactant and a solid catalyst. Frequently, the catalyst activity is reduced by poisoning of active sites or coke deposits. This is especially the case with the processes used in heavy residual oils hydrotreating. As the catalyst life is reduced, the substitution or regeneration of the inactive catalyst is frequently necessary. Various solutions, such, as fixed beds used with swing reactors, fluidized beds, or moving beds with down flow of the catalyst and co-current or counter-current of the feed, can be proposed to perform this task with a minimum of time and production losses. A theoretical comparison between the performances of the various technologies has been made by means of a detailed simulation of the behaviour of each of these catalytic beds over a long period. Of course, in the models, some assumptions are necessary, like the ideal fluid and solids flows. Nevertheless, the problem remains complex because hydrodynamic, kinetic, catalyst deactivation, or thermal effects occur simultaneously, within the particules and/or in the bed as a whole. Various pilot plant data are of course used in order to build the kinetic part of the models. This comparison shows a marked advantage for the moving bed with counter-current flow between feed and catalyst owing to the systematic optimum use of the catalyst potential. Consequently, a series of experiments was made on various sized cold mockups designed to simulate counter-current movind beds. These experiments were necessary to demonstrate the feasability of the process, to specify the relations among gas and liquid superficial velocities, particles and fluids properties, and hydrodynamic regimes, and to develop the scale-up rules. The main goal is to secure a uniform distribution of the two fluids through out the whole bed of catalyst, and at the same time a regular progression of

  17. Standing wave design and optimization of a simulated moving bed chromatography for separation of xylobiose and xylose under the constraints on product concentration and pressure drop.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chung-Gi; Choi, Jae-Hwan; Park, Chanhun; Wang, Nien-Hwa Linda; Mun, Sungyong

    2017-12-08

    The feasibility of a simulated moving bed (SMB) technology for the continuous separation of high-purity xylobiose (X2) from the output of a β-xylosidase X1→X2 reaction has recently been confirmed. To ensure high economical efficiency of the X2 production method based on the use of xylose (X1) as a starting material, it is essential to accomplish the comprehensive optimization of the X2-separation SMB process in such a way that its X2 productivity can be maximized while maintaining the X2 product concentration from the SMB as high as possible in consideration of a subsequent lyophilization step. To address this issue, a suitable SMB optimization tool for the aforementioned task was prepared based on standing wave design theory. The prepared tool was then used to optimize the SMB operation parameters, column configuration, total column number, adsorbent particle size, and X2 yield while meeting the constraints on X2 purity, X2 product concentration, and pressure drop. The results showed that the use of a larger particle size caused the productivity to be limited by the constraint on X2 product concentration, and a maximum productivity was attained by choosing the particle size such that the effect of the X2-concentration limiting factor could be balanced with that of pressure-drop limiting factor. If the target level of X2 product concentration was elevated, higher productivity could be achieved by decreasing particle size, raising the level of X2 yield, and increasing the column number in the zones containing the front and rear of X2 solute band. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Performance and design considerations for an anaerobic moving bed biofilm reactor treating brewery wastewater: Impact of surface area loading rate and temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    di Biase, A; Devlin, T R; Kowalski, M S; Oleszkiewicz, J A

    2017-06-05

    Three 4 L anaerobic moving bed biofilm reactors (AMBBR) treated brewery wastewater with AC920 media providing 680 m 2 protected surface area per m 3 of media. Different hydraulic retention times (HRT; 24, 18, 12, 10, 8 and 6 h) at 40% media fill and 35 °C, as well as different temperatures (15, 25 and 35 °C) at 50% media fill and 18 h HRT were examined. Best performance at 35 °C and 40% media fill was observed when HRT was 18 h, which corresponded with 92% removal of soluble COD (sCOD). Organic loading rates (OLR) above 24 kg-COD m -3 d -1 decreased performance below 80% sCOD removal at 35 °C and 40% media fill. The reason was confirmed to be that surface area loading rates (SALR) above 50 g-sCOD m -2 d -1 caused excessive biofilm thickness that filled up internal channels of the media, leading to mass transfer limitations. Temperature had a very significant impact on process performance with 50% media fill and 18 h HRT. Biomass concentrations were significantly higher at lower temperatures. At 15 °C the mass of volatile solids (VS) was more than three times higher than at 35 °C for the same OLR. Biofilms acclimated to 25 °C and 15 °C achieved removal of 80% sCOD at SALR of 10 g-sCOD m -2 d -1 and 1.0 g-sCOD m -2 d -1 , respectively. Even though biomass concentrations were higher at lower temperature, biofilm acclimated to 25 °C and 15 °C performed significantly slower than that acclimated to 35 °C. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Uneven batch data alignment with application to the control of batch end-product quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Jian; Marjanovic, Ognjen; Lennox, Barry

    2014-03-01

    Batch processes are commonly characterized by uneven trajectories due to the existence of batch-to-batch variations. The batch end-product quality is usually measured at the end of these uneven trajectories. It is necessary to align the time differences for both the measured trajectories and the batch end-product quality in order to implement statistical process monitoring and control schemes. Apart from synchronizing trajectories with variable lengths using an indicator variable or dynamic time warping, this paper proposes a novel approach to align uneven batch data by identifying short-window PCA&PLS models at first and then applying these identified models to extend shorter trajectories and predict future batch end-product quality. Furthermore, uneven batch data can also be aligned to be a specified batch length using moving window estimation. The proposed approach and its application to the control of batch end-product quality are demonstrated with a simulated example of fed-batch fermentation for penicillin production. Copyright © 2013 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Comparison of biomass from integrated fixed-film activated sludge (IFAS), moving bed biofilm reactor (MBBR) and membrane bioreactor (MBR) treating recalcitrant organics: Importance of attached biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chunkai; Shi, Yijing; Xue, Jinkai; Zhang, Yanyan; Gamal El-Din, Mohamed; Liu, Yang

    2017-03-15

    This study compared microbial characteristics and oil sands process-affected water (OSPW) treatment performance of five types of microbial biomass (MBBR-biofilm, IFAS-biofilm, IFAS-floc, MBR-aerobic-floc, and MBR-anoxic-floc) cultivated from three types of bioreactors (MBBR, IFAS, and MBR) in batch experiments. Chemical oxygen demand (COD), ammonium, acid extractable fraction (AEF), and naphthenic acids (NAs) removals efficiencies were distinctly different between suspended and attached bacterial aggregates and between aerobic and anoxic suspended flocs. MBR-aerobic-floc and MBR-anoxic-floc demonstrated COD removal efficiencies higher than microbial aggregates obtained from MBBR and IFAS, MBBR and IFAS biofilm had higher AEF removal efficiencies than those obtained using flocs. MBBR-biofilm demonstrated the most efficient NAs removal from OSPW. NAs degradation efficiency was highly dependent on the carbon number and NA cyclization number according to UPLC/HRMS analysis. Mono- and di-oxidized NAs were the dominant oxy-NA species in OSPW samples. Microbial analysis with quantitative polymerase chain reaction (q-PCR) indicated that the bacterial 16S rRNA gene abundance was significantly higher in the batch bioreactors with suspended flocs than in those with biofilm, the NSR gene abundance in the MBR-anoxic bioreactor was significantly lower than that in aerobic batch bioreactors, and denitrifiers were more abundant in the suspended phase of the activated sludge flocs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Pro Spring Batch

    CERN Document Server

    Minella, Michael T

    2011-01-01

    Since its release, Spring Framework has transformed virtually every aspect of Java development including web applications, security, aspect-oriented programming, persistence, and messaging. Spring Batch, one of its newer additions, now brings the same familiar Spring idioms to batch processing. Spring Batch addresses the needs of any batch process, from the complex calculations performed in the biggest financial institutions to simple data migrations that occur with many software development projects. Pro Spring Batch is intended to answer three questions: *What? What is batch processing? What

  2. The Safety of Hospital Beds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gervais, Pierre; Pooler, Charlotte; Merryweather, Andrew; Doig, Alexa K.; Bloswick, Donald

    2015-01-01

    To explore the safety of the standard and the low hospital bed, we report on a microanalysis of 15 patients’ ability to ingress, move about the bed, and egress. The 15 participants were purposefully selected with various disabilities. Bed conditions were randomized with side rails up or down and one low bed with side rails down. We explored the patients’ use of the side rails, bed height, ability to lift their legs onto the mattress, and ability to turn, egress, and walk back to the chair. The standard bed was too high for some participants, both for ingress and egress. Side rails were used by most participants when entering, turning in bed, and exiting. We recommend that side rails be reconsidered as a means to facilitate in-bed movement, ingress, and egress. Furthermore, single deck height settings for all patients are not optimal. Low beds as a safety measure must be re-evaluated. PMID:28462302

  3. Adaptation to the KMT Fixed Biomass on Moving Bed process in the waste water treatment plant in Tafalla and Olite, Navarra, Spain; Adaptacion al proceso KMT de Biomasa Fija sobre Lecho Movil en la EDAR de Tafalla y Olite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cortacans, J. A.; Rodrigo, J. C.; Garcia Gamuza, J.

    2001-07-01

    This article describes the remodeling carried out on the Tafalla and Olite waste water treatment plant in 2000to enable it to cope with a larger flow and load without having to construct new treatment lines. This was made possible by adapting the existing conventional active sludge process to the KMT Fixed Biomass on Moving Bed process. The article also shows how the final two-stage design was verified by means of pilot plant trials. These experiments tested the technical viability of installing a first high-load reactor prior to the existing primary decantation as a way of dealing with the seasonal effluents from the wine-cellars in the region and of obtaining partial nitrification in the last biological tank of the second stage during the rest of the year. (Author) 7 refs.

  4. Correlation of voidage and stress of granular materials in a packed moving bed accompanied with gas flow; Gasu nagare wo tomonau funtai idoso ni okeru kugekiritsu to funtaiatsu no kankei ni tsuite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tomoyasu, Yoshitada. [Sanzou Energy Engineering Corp., Okayama (Japan); Yoshino, Fumio.; Iwata, Hiroshi.; Kawazoe, Hiromitsu. [Tottori University, Tottori (Japan). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

    1999-03-10

    The flow characteristics of granular materials and gas in a vertical packed moving bed, called a [stand pipe], furnished at the bottom of the fluidized bed are investigated theoretically and experimentally. A correlation equation of axial stress {sigma}{sub z} and voidage {epsilon} of granular materials in the stand pipe is proposed through investigations of the continuity equation, the momentum balance equation, Ergun's equation for gas pressure loss and the gas pressure distribution data measured experimentally in the axial direction. Regarding the relation of the axial stress and the voidage, it was recogniged that : 1. The absolute value of d{sigma}{sub z}/d{epsilon} is large at the voidage near the minimum fluidizing condition, and at the voidage in the dense packed condition, and an inflection point of {sigma}{sub z} exists in range between the both conditions ; 2. It seems to be the wall-friction-effect of stand pipe that the absolute value of d{sigma}{sub z}/d{epsilon} is larger at the inlet of stand pipe, and ; 3. The stress is also a function of the particle diameter. The gas flow rate, axial stress distribution of granular materials, gas pressure distribution and voidage distribution in the axial direction of the stand pipe can be calculated from relating equations. (author)

  5. Spring batch essentials

    CERN Document Server

    Rao, P Raja Malleswara

    2015-01-01

    If you are a Java developer with basic knowledge of Spring and some experience in the development of enterprise applications, and want to learn about batch application development in detail, then this book is ideal for you. This book will be perfect as your next step towards building simple yet powerful batch applications on a Java-based platform.

  6. SPS batch spacing optimisation

    CERN Document Server

    Velotti, F M; Carlier, E; Goddard, B; Kain, V; Kotzian, G

    2017-01-01

    Until 2015, the LHC filling schemes used the batch spac-ing as specified in the LHC design report. The maximumnumber of bunches injectable in the LHC directly dependson the batch spacing at injection in the SPS and hence onthe MKP rise time.As part of the LHC Injectors Upgrade project for LHCheavy ions, a reduction of the batch spacing is needed. In thisdirection, studies to approach the MKP design rise time of150ns(2-98%) have been carried out. These measurementsgave clear indications that such optimisation, and beyond,could be done also for higher injection momentum beams,where the additional slower MKP (MKP-L) is needed.After the successful results from 2015 SPS batch spacingoptimisation for the Pb-Pb run [1], the same concept wasthought to be used also for proton beams. In fact, thanksto the SPS transverse feed back, it was already observedthat lower batch spacing than the design one (225ns) couldbe achieved. For the 2016 p-Pb run, a batch spacing of200nsfor the proton beam with100nsbunch spacing wasreque...

  7. ADM1 applications for a hybrid up-flow anaerobic sludge-filter bed reactor performance and for a batch thermophilic anaerobic digestion of thermally pretreated waste activated sludge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    lván Ramirez

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Los procesos de la digestión anaerobia comprenden una red completa de reacciones bioquimicas y fisicoquímicas, secuenciales y paralelas. Los digestores anaerobios a menudo exhiben importantes problemas de estabilidad que sólo pueden ser evitados a través de apropiadas estrategias de control. Tales estrategias requieren, en general, para su implementación, del desarrollo de modelos matemáticos cuya finalidad es el de permitirnos mejor comprensión y optimización de los procesos de la digestión anaerobia, describiendo estas reacciones de una manera estructurada. Este trabajo revisa el modelo ADMI de la IWAy discute dos aplicaciones del modelo: la digestión anaerobia de las aguas residuales vinazas de las destilerias de vino corno sustrato en un reactor hibrido (UASFB y la digestión anaerobia termófila en batch de lodos activados con pre-tratamiento térmico. Las predicciones del modelo, usando los parámetros establecidos en este estudio, concuerdan bien con los resultados de las mediciones en las diferentes condiciones ensayadas. Los modelos resultantes explicaron la evolución dinámica de las principales variables, tanto en la fase liquida corno la fase gaseosa.

  8. Batch-to-batch model improvement for cooling crystallization

    OpenAIRE

    Forgione , Marco; Birpoutsoukis , Georgios; Bombois , Xavier; Mesbah , Ali; Daudey , Peter; Van Den Hof , Paul

    2015-01-01

    International audience; Two batch-to-batch model update strategies for model-based control of batch cooling crystallization are presented. In Iterative Learning Control, a nominal process model is adjusted by a non-parametric, additive correction term which depends on the difference between the measured output and the model prediction in the previous batch. In Iterative Identification Control, the uncertain model parameters are iteratively estimated using the measured batch data. Due to the d...

  9. Plant cell culture using a novel bioreactor: the magnetically stabilized fluidized bed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bramble, J L; Graves, D J; Brodelius, P

    1990-01-01

    A novel bioreactor using magnetically stabilized fluidized bed (MSFB) technology has been developed that has certain advantages for cultivating cells continuously. In this system, the cells are protected from shear and are constrained to move through the fermenter in lock-step fashion by being immobilized in calcium alginate beads. The MSFB permits good mass transfer, minimizes particle collisions, and allows for the production of cells while maintaining a controlled cell residence time. Details of the experimental system are described. In addition, the experimental performance of an MSFB used to grow plant cells in batch mode is compared to the results obtained in shake flask culture.

  10. Modelling and dynamic simulation of a pilot-scale moving bed bioreactor for the treatment of municipal wastewater: model concepts and the use of respirometry for the estimation of kinetic parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plattes, M; Fiorelli, D; Gillé, S; Girard, C; Henry, E; Minette, F; O'Nagy, O; Schosseler, P M

    2007-01-01

    A model for the simulation of a moving bed bioreactor (MBBR) used for the treatment of municipal wastewater is proposed. The model includes attachment of particulates to the biofilm and detachment of biofilm into the bulk liquid. The growth kinetics are modelled with the activated sludge model no. 1 (ASM1). Respirometry was used for the estimation of kinetic parameters. The resulting respirograms featured the typical endogenous and exogenous respiration phases and the respirogram shapes were as expected from analogous respirometry with activated sludge. The estimated parameter set was used for modelling and simulation of the pilot-scale MBBR. The main proportion of biomass in the MBBR was found to be attached as biofilm on the carrier elements (4.1 -4.6 g dm-3) and only a small amount was suspended in the bulk liquid (0.15gdm(-3)). Attachment and detachment rates were estimated to be 4.8-7.5g m(-2) d(-1) 1for attachment and 6.5-7.5g m(-2) d(-1) for detachment. The biofilm age was estimated to be 1.8-2.7d. The model was used to predict effluent quality parameters and a good fit of the simulated data to the measured data originating from a four-days-long measurement campaign was obtained.

  11. Heuristics for batching and sequencing in batch processing machines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuda Basnet

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we discuss the “batch processing” problem, where there are multiple jobs to be processed in flow shops. These jobs can however be formed into batches and the number of jobs in a batch is limited by the capacity of the processing machines to accommodate the jobs. The processing time required by a batch in a machine is determined by the greatest processing time of the jobs included in the batch. Thus, the batch processing problem is a mix of batching and sequencing – the jobs need to be grouped into distinct batches, the batches then need to be sequenced through the flow shop. We apply certain newly developed heuristics to the problem and present computational results. The contributions of this paper are deriving a lower bound, and the heuristics developed and tested in this paper.

  12. Prunus dulcis, Batch

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2010-06-07

    Jun 7, 2010 ... almond (Prunus dulcis, Batch) genotypes as revealed by PCR analysis. Yavar Sharafi1*, Jafar Hajilou1, Seyed AbolGhasem Mohammadi2, Mohammad Reza Dadpour1 and Sadollah Eskandari3. 1Department of Horticulture, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Tabriz, Tabriz, 5166614766, Iran.

  13. Comparative Batch and Column Evaluation of Thermal and Wet ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    batch adsorption experiments and continous flow (fixed bed) column experiment to study the mechanism of dye removal by the commercial ... compared with those obtained for thermal regeneration method (qmax = 61.73mgg-1) and wet oxidative method (qmax .... Carbon hardness was determined using a wet attrition test ...

  14. Optimal design and experimental validation of a simulated moving bed chromatography for continuous recovery of formic acid in a model mixture of three organic acids from Actinobacillus bacteria fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Chanhun; Nam, Hee-Geun; Lee, Ki Bong; Mun, Sungyong

    2014-10-24

    The economically-efficient separation of formic acid from acetic acid and succinic acid has been a key issue in the production of formic acid with the Actinobacillus bacteria fermentation. To address this issue, an optimal three-zone simulated moving bed (SMB) chromatography for continuous separation of formic acid from acetic acid and succinic acid was developed in this study. As a first step for this task, the adsorption isotherm and mass-transfer parameters of each organic acid on the qualified adsorbent (Amberchrom-CG300C) were determined through a series of multiple frontal experiments. The determined parameters were then used in optimizing the SMB process for the considered separation. During such optimization, the additional investigation for selecting a proper SMB port configuration, which could be more advantageous for attaining better process performances, was carried out between two possible configurations. It was found that if the properly selected port configuration was adopted in the SMB of interest, the throughout and the formic-acid product concentration could be increased by 82% and 181% respectively. Finally, the optimized SMB process based on the properly selected port configuration was tested experimentally using a self-assembled SMB unit with three zones. The SMB experimental results and the relevant computer simulation verified that the developed process in this study was successful in continuous recovery of formic acid from a ternary organic-acid mixture of interest with high throughput, high purity, high yield, and high product concentration. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Treatment of a simulated textile wastewater containing the Reactive Orange 16 azo dye by a combination of ozonation and moving-bed biofilm reactor: evaluating the performance, toxicity, and oxidation by-products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, Francine D; Bassin, João Paulo; Dezotti, Márcia

    2017-03-01

    In this study, an aqueous solution containing the azo dye Reactive Orange 16 (RO16) was subjected to two sequential treatment processes, namely: ozonation and biological treatment in a moving-bed biofilm reactor (MBBR). The most appropriate ozonation pretreatment conditions for the biological process and the toxicity of the by-products resulting from RO16 ozone oxidation were evaluated. The results showed that more than 97 % of color removal from the dye solutions with RO16 concentrations ranging from 25 to 100 mg/L was observed in 5 min of ozone exposure. However, the maximum total organic carbon removal achieved by ozonation was only 48 %, indicating partial mineralization of the dye. Eleven intermediate organic compounds resulting from ozone treatment of RO16 solution were identified by LC/MS analyses at different contact times. The toxicity of the dye-containing solution decreased after 2 min of ozonation, but increased at longer contact times. The results further demonstrated that the ozonolysis products did not affect the performance of the subsequent MBBR, which achieved an average chemical oxygen demand (COD) and ammonium removal of 93 ± 1 and 97 ± 2 %, respectively. A second MBBR system fed with non-ozonated dye-containing wastewater was run in parallel for comparison purposes. This reactor also showed an appreciable COD (90 ± 1 %) and ammonium removal (97 ± 2 %), but was not effective in removing color, which remained practically invariable over the system. The use of short ozonation times (5 min) and a compact MBBR has shown to be effective for the treatment of the simulated textile wastewater containing the RO16 azo dye.

  16. Modelling of Batch Process Operations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abdul Samad, Noor Asma Fazli; Cameron, Ian; Gani, Rafiqul

    2011-01-01

    Here a batch cooling crystalliser is modelled and simulated as is a batch distillation system. In the batch crystalliser four operational modes of the crystalliser are considered, namely: initial cooling, nucleation, crystal growth and product removal. A model generation procedure is shown that s...

  17. Progressing batch hydrolysis process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, John D.

    1986-01-01

    A progressive batch hydrolysis process for producing sugar from a lignocellulosic feedstock, comprising passing a stream of dilute acid serially through a plurality of percolation hydrolysis reactors charged with said feedstock, at a flow rate, temperature and pressure sufficient to substantially convert all the cellulose component of the feedstock to glucose; cooling said dilute acid stream containing glucose, after exiting the last percolation hydrolysis reactor, then feeding said dilute acid stream serially through a plurality of prehydrolysis percolation reactors, charged with said feedstock, at a flow rate, temperature and pressure sufficient to substantially convert all the hemicellulose component of said feedstock to glucose; and cooling the dilute acid stream containing glucose after it exits the last prehydrolysis reactor.

  18. Continuous bind-and-elute protein A capture chromatography: Optimization under process scale column constraints and comparison to batch operation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaltenbrunner, Oliver; Diaz, Luis; Hu, Xiaochun; Shearer, Michael

    2016-07-08

    Recently, continuous downstream processing has become a topic of discussion and analysis at conferences while no industrial applications of continuous downstream processing for biopharmaceutical manufacturing have been reported. There is significant potential to increase the productivity of a Protein A capture step by converting the operation to simulated moving bed (SMB) mode. In this mode, shorter columns are operated at higher process flow and corresponding short residence times. The ability to significantly shorten the product residence time during loading without appreciable capacity loss can dramatically increase productivity of the capture step and consequently reduce the amount of Protein A resin required in the process. Previous studies have not considered the physical limitations of how short columns can be packed and the flow rate limitations due to pressure drop of stacked columns. In this study, we are evaluating the process behavior of a continuous Protein A capture column cycling operation under the known pressure drop constraints of a compressible media. The results are compared to the same resin operated under traditional batch operating conditions. We analyze the optimum system design point for a range of feed concentrations, bed heights, and load residence times and determine achievable productivity for any feed concentration and any column bed height. © 2016 American Institute of Chemical Engineers Biotechnol. Prog., 32:938-948, 2016. © 2016 American Institute of Chemical Engineers.

  19. The Safety of Hospital Beds: Ingress, Egress, and In-Bed Mobility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morse, Janice M; Gervais, Pierre; Pooler, Charlotte; Merryweather, Andrew; Doig, Alexa K; Bloswick, Donald

    2015-01-01

    To explore the safety of the standard and the low hospital bed, we report on a microanalysis of 15 patients' ability to ingress, move about the bed, and egress. The 15 participants were purposefully selected with various disabilities. Bed conditions were randomized with side rails up or down and one low bed with side rails down. We explored the patients' use of the side rails, bed height, ability to lift their legs onto the mattress, and ability to turn, egress, and walk back to the chair. The standard bed was too high for some participants, both for ingress and egress. Side rails were used by most participants when entering, turning in bed, and exiting. We recommend that side rails be reconsidered as a means to facilitate in-bed movement, ingress, and egress. Furthermore, single deck height settings for all patients are not optimal. Low beds as a safety measure must be re-evaluated.

  20. Bed care for patients in palliative settings: considering risks to caregivers and bed surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fragala, Guy

    2015-02-01

    Ensuring patients are comfortable in bed is key to effective palliative care, but when moving and positioning patients in bed, health professionals face an occupational risk of injury. The turning and positioning (TAP) system is a new method of moving patients in bed, that evidence has shown to reduce the risk of injury to caregivers. Providing the correct bed surface is another aspect of bed care essential to the comfort of the palliative patient, and to aid wound prevention and treatment. It is important to take a patient-centred approach when considering the most appropriate bed surface patients. This article provides an overview and discussion of these two aspects of bed care for palliative patients.

  1. Control and Optimization of Batch Chemical Processes

    OpenAIRE

    Rohani, Sohrab; Chhabra, Raj; Bonvin, Dominique; François, Grégory

    2017-01-01

    A batch process is characterized by the repetition of time-varying operations of finite duration. Due to the repetition, there are two independent “time” variables, namely, the run time during a batch and the batch index. Accordingly, the control and optimization objectives can be defined for a given batch or over several batches. This chapter describes the various control and optimization strategies available for the operation of batch processes. These include online and run-to-run control o...

  2. Data-driven batch schuduling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bent, John [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Denehy, Tim [GOOGLE; Arpaci - Dusseau, Remzi [UNIV OF WISCONSIN; Livny, Miron [UNIV OF WISCONSIN; Arpaci - Dusseau, Andrea C [NON LANL

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we develop data-driven strategies for batch computing schedulers. Current CPU-centric batch schedulers ignore the data needs within workloads and execute them by linking them transparently and directly to their needed data. When scheduled on remote computational resources, this elegant solution of direct data access can incur an order of magnitude performance penalty for data-intensive workloads. Adding data-awareness to batch schedulers allows a careful coordination of data and CPU allocation thereby reducing the cost of remote execution. We offer here new techniques by which batch schedulers can become data-driven. Such systems can use our analytical predictive models to select one of the four data-driven scheduling policies that we have created. Through simulation, we demonstrate the accuracy of our predictive models and show how they can reduce time to completion for some workloads by as much as 80%.

  3. Adaptive Batch Mode Active Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, Shayok; Balasubramanian, Vineeth; Panchanathan, Sethuraman

    2015-08-01

    Active learning techniques have gained popularity to reduce human effort in labeling data instances for inducing a classifier. When faced with large amounts of unlabeled data, such algorithms automatically identify the exemplar and representative instances to be selected for manual annotation. More recently, there have been attempts toward a batch mode form of active learning, where a batch of data points is simultaneously selected from an unlabeled set. Real-world applications require adaptive approaches for batch selection in active learning, depending on the complexity of the data stream in question. However, the existing work in this field has primarily focused on static or heuristic batch size selection. In this paper, we propose two novel optimization-based frameworks for adaptive batch mode active learning (BMAL), where the batch size as well as the selection criteria are combined in a single formulation. We exploit gradient-descent-based optimization strategies as well as properties of submodular functions to derive the adaptive BMAL algorithms. The solution procedures have the same computational complexity as existing state-of-the-art static BMAL techniques. Our empirical results on the widely used VidTIMIT and the mobile biometric (MOBIO) data sets portray the efficacy of the proposed frameworks and also certify the potential of these approaches in being used for real-world biometric recognition applications.

  4. BatchJS: Implementing Batches in JavaScript

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D. Kasemier

    2014-01-01

    htmlabstractNone of our popular programming languages know how to handle distribution well. Yet our programs interact more and more with each other and our data resorts in databases and web services. Batches are a new addition to languages that can finally bring native support for distribution to

  5. Analysis of Adiabatic Batch Reactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erald Gjonaj

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available A mixture of acetic anhydride is reacted with excess water in an adiabatic batch reactor to form an exothermic reaction. The concentration of acetic anhydride and the temperature inside the adiabatic batch reactor are calculated with an initial temperature of 20°C, an initial temperature of 30°C, and with a cooling jacket maintaining the temperature at a constant of 20°C. The graphs of the three different scenarios show that the highest temperatures will cause the reaction to occur faster.

  6. Continuous Heterogeneous Photocatalysis in Serial Micro-Batch Reactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pieber, Bartholomäus; Shalom, Menny; Antonietti, Markus; Seeberger, Peter H; Gilmore, Kerry

    2018-01-29

    Solid reagents, leaching catalysts, and heterogeneous photocatalysts are commonly employed in batch processes but are ill-suited for continuous-flow chemistry. Heterogeneous catalysts for thermal reactions are typically used in packed-bed reactors, which cannot be penetrated by light and thus are not suitable for photocatalytic reactions involving solids. We demonstrate that serial micro-batch reactors (SMBRs) allow for the continuous utilization of solid materials together with liquids and gases in flow. This technology was utilized to develop selective and efficient fluorination reactions using a modified graphitic carbon nitride heterogeneous catalyst instead of costly homogeneous metal polypyridyl complexes. The merger of this inexpensive, recyclable catalyst and the SMBR approach enables sustainable and scalable photocatalysis. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. NDA BATCH 2002-02

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory

    2009-12-09

    QC sample results (daily background checks, 20-gram and 100-gram SGS drum checks) were within acceptable criteria established by WIPP's Quality Assurance Objectives for TRU Waste Characterization. Replicate runs were performed on 5 drums with IDs LL85101099TRU, LL85801147TRU, LL85801109TRU, LL85300999TRU and LL85500979TRU. All replicate measurement results are identical at the 95% confidence level as established by WIPP criteria. Note that the batch covered 5 weeks of SGS measurements from 23-Jan-2002 through 22-Feb-2002. Data packet for SGS Batch 2002-02 generated using gamma spectroscopy with the Pu Facility SGS unit is technically reasonable. All QC samples are in compliance with established control limits. The batch data packet has been reviewed for correctness, completeness, consistency and compliance with WIPP's Quality Assurance Objectives and determined to be acceptable. An Expert Review was performed on the data packet between 28-Feb-02 and 09-Jul-02 to check for potential U-235, Np-237 and Am-241 interferences and address drum cases where specific scan segments showed Se gamma ray transmissions for the 136-keV gamma to be below 0.1 %. Two drums in the batch showed Pu-238 at a relative mass ratio more than 2% of all the Pu isotopes.

  8. Moving beds represented by immersed boundaries: numerical experiments using large eddy simulation Los movimientos de fondo representados por fronteras inmersas: experimentos numéricos usando las simulaciones de gran escala

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Eduardo Alamy Filho

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The Immerse Boundary Method (IBM was used to evaluate the sediment transport over deformable beds. Large Eddy Simulation (LES procedures were used for the mathematical treatment of turbulence, and the advection-diffusion equation was used to calculate sediment concentration. The Finite Differences Method with staggered grid was applied for the numerical solution of the governing equations (filtered Navier-Stokes, Continuity and advection-diffusion equations. Spatial derivatives were discretized using second order centered differences. A second order explicit Adams-Bashforth scheme was used for the time evolution in the advection-diffusion equation, while a fourth order Adams-Bashforth scheme was used for the filtered Navier-Stokes equations. The numerical simulation reproduced flow structures like large eddies after the dune crests and counter-rotative vortices, which are important in sediment transport. Resuspension fluxes and sedimentation (dependent on particle concentration were calculated using equations proposed in this study. The deformations of the bed caused by erosion and deposition may be well followed through the present procedures, showing that this methodology is adequate to evaluate bed modifications and sediment transport in alluvial flows.Se utilizó el método de fronteras inmersas para evaluar el transporte de sedimentos en lechos deformables. Los procedimientos de la simulación de gran escala fueron utilizados para el tratamiento matemático de la turbulencia, y se utilizó la ecuación de advección-difusión para calcular la concentración de sedimentos. Se aplicó el método de diferencias finitas con malla desplazada para la solución numérica de las ecuaciones básicas (Navier-Stokes filtrado, continuidad y las ecuaciones de advección-difusión. Las derivadas espaciales fueron discretizadas mediante diferencias de segundo orden centrado. Se utilizó un esquema explícito de Adams-Bashforth de segundo orden para la

  9. Clinical physiology of bed rest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenleaf, John E.

    1993-01-01

    Maintenance of optimal health in humans requires the proper balance between exercise, rest, and sleep as well as time in the upright position. About one-third of a lifetime is spent sleeping; and it is no coincidence that sleeping is performed in the horizontal position, the position in which gravitational influence on the body is minimal. Although enforced bed rest is necessary for the treatment of some ailments, in some cases it has probably been used unwisely. In addition to the lower hydrostatic pressure with the normally dependent regions of the cardiovascular system, body fuid compartments during bed rest in the horizontal body position, and virtual elimination of compression on the long bones of the skeletal system during bed rest (hypogravia), there is often reduction in energy metabolism due to the relative confinement (hypodynamia) and alteration of ambulatory circadian variations in metabolism, body temperature, and many hormonal systems. If patients are also moved to unfamiliar surroundings, they probably experience some feelings of anxiety and some sociopsychological problems. Adaptive physiological responses during bed rest are normal for that environment. They are attempts by the body to reduce unnecessary energy expenditure, to optimize its function, and to enhance its survival potential. Many of the deconditioning responses begin within the first day or two of bed rest; these early responses have prompted physicians to insist upon early resumption of the upright posture and ambulation of bedridden patients.

  10. NGBAuth - Next Generation Batch Authentication for long running batch jobs.

    CERN Document Server

    Juto, Zakarias

    2015-01-01

    This document describes the prototyping of a new solution for the CERN batch authentication of long running jobs. While the job submission requires valid user credentials, these have to be renewed due to long queuing and execution times. Described within is a new system which will guarantee a similar level of security as the old LSFAuth while simplifying the implementation and the overall architecture. The new system is being built on solid, streamlined and tested components (notably OpenSSL) and a priority has been to make it more generic in order to facilitate the evolution of the current system such as for the expected migration from LSF to Condor as backend batch system.

  11. On the relation between free volume and powder pressure with the gas stream in the powder moving-bed; Gasu nagare wo tomonau kotai idoso ni okeru kukanritsu to ryutaiatsu no kankei ni tsuite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tomoyasu, Suminao; Yoshino, Akio; Iwata, Hiroshi; Kawazoe, Hiromitsu

    1999-04-05

    On the stand pipe with gas stream equipped the bottom in fluidized bed from powder and equation of continuity of the gas, equation of momentum balance considering frictional force of wall surface and equation of pressure loss of the gas by relative speed and test data on the axial gas pressure distribution besides with stand pipe axial direction powder pressure {sigma}{sub z} relational expression of free volume {epsilon} it asks ask. According to this result, (1) d{sigma}{sub z}/d{epsilon} is increased in free volume or big part in the stand pipe entrance, and it once lowers in the middle, and in addition, it increases in the downward again. That is to say, the inflection point of the powder pressure does the right and presence in the. intermediate. (2) There is mainly the high possibility by the effect of the frictional force of stand pipe wall surface on d{sigma}{sub z}/d{epsilon} increasing in the stand pipe inlet vicinity. (3) The powder pressure is not only free volume but also function of the powder particle diameter too. And, this powder ratio and free volume also showed that the distribution of amount of gas which flow and axial gas pressure, powder pressure, free volume, etc. was obtained the stand pipe from relational expression of particle size and other theoretical formula. (translated by NEDO)

  12. PROOF on a Batch System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Behrenhoff, W; Ehrenfeld, W; Samson, J; Stadie, H

    2011-01-01

    The 'parallel ROOT facility' (PROOF) from the ROOT framework provides a mechanism to distribute the load of interactive and non-interactive ROOT sessions on a set of worker nodes optimising the overall execution time. While PROOF is designed to work on a dedicated PROOF cluster, the benefits of PROOF can also be used on top of another batch scheduling system with the help of temporary per user PROOF clusters. We will present a lightweight tool which starts a temporary PROOF cluster on a SGE based batch cluster or, via a plugin mechanism, e.g. on a set of bare desktops via ssh. Further, we will present the result of benchmarks which compare the data throughput for different data storage back ends available at the German National Analysis Facility (NAF) at DESY.

  13. Acceptance Test Data for Candidate AGR-5/6/7 TRISO Particle Batches BWXT Coater Batches 93165 93172 Defective IPyC Fraction and Pyrocarbon Anisotropy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Helmreich, Grant W. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Hunn, John D. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Skitt, Darren J. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Dyer, John A. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Schumacher, Austin T. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2017-03-01

    Coated particle fuel batches J52O-16-93165, 93166, 93168, 93169, 93170, and 93172 were produced by Babcock and Wilcox Technologies (BWXT) for possible selection as fuel for the Advanced Gas Reactor Fuel Development and Qualification (AGR) Program’s AGR-5/6/7 irradiation test in the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) Advanced Test Reactor (ATR). Some of these batches may alternately be used as demonstration coated particle fuel for other experiments. Each batch was coated in a 150-mm-diameter production-scale fluidized-bed chemical vapor deposition (CVD) furnace. Tristructural isotropic (TRISO) coatings were deposited on 425-μm-nominal-diameter spherical kernels from BWXT lot J52R-16-69317 containing a mixture of 15.5%-enriched uranium carbide and uranium oxide (UCO). The TRISO coatings consisted of four consecutive CVD layers: a ~50% dense carbon buffer layer with 100-μm-nominal thickness, a dense inner pyrolytic carbon (IPyC) layer with 40-μm-nominal thickness, a silicon carbide (SiC) layer with 35-μm-nominal thickness, and a dense outer pyrolytic carbon (OPyC) layer with 40-μmnominal thickness. The TRISO-coated particle batches were sieved to upgrade the particles by removing over-sized and under-sized material, and the upgraded batches were designated by appending the letter A to the end of the batch number (e.g., 93165A).

  14. Application of a high density adsorbent in expanded bed adsorption ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The application of STREAMLINE Direct HST adsorbent in expanded bed adsorption of lipase from Burkholderia pseudomallei was explored in this study. Scouting of optimum binding and elution condition was performed in batch binding mode. The addition of 0.2 M salt in acetate buffer (pH 5) during adsorption has ...

  15. Cell Free Xanthan Gum Production Using Continuous Recycled Packed Fibrous-bed Bioreactor-membrane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosalam, S.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Although the xanthan gum has been produced as a commercial commodity, the biomass isolation and its recovery are still challenging. This study revealed the xanthan gum production by fermentation of Xanthomonas campestris DSMZ using glucose as a carbon source in an immobilised batch and a continuous recycled packed fibrous-bed bioreactor-membrane (CRPBFBM. The pure cotton fibre was used to immobilise the microbial cell biomass and to isolate from the liquid phase containing medium and xanthan gum. The cellulose acetate membrane with 0.45 µm was used to recover the xanthan gum. The batch fermentation showed that the immobilisation technique gave higher xanthan gum concentration at 20g/L than the free moving cell without immobilisation at 18g/L. The CRPBBM produced the highest xanthan gum concentration at 18.7 g/L at the dilution rate of 1.44 d-1. The highest production rate of CRPBFBM was 0.475 g/L-h. Further research needs to be conducted to ascertain the stability of the Xanthomonas Campestris DSMZ during a long period of continuous fermentation as well as up scaling the CRPBFBM.

  16. River Bed Sediment Classification Using ADCP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Description of physical aquatic habitat in rivers often includes data describing distributions of water depth, velocity and bed material type. Water depth and velocity in streams deeper than about 1 m may be continuously mapped using an acoustic Doppler current profiler from a moving boat. Herein ...

  17. Risk-based Methodology for Validation of Pharmaceutical Batch Processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiles, Frederick

    2013-01-01

    In January 2011, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration published new process validation guidance for pharmaceutical processes. The new guidance debunks the long-held industry notion that three consecutive validation batches or runs are all that are required to demonstrate that a process is operating in a validated state. Instead, the new guidance now emphasizes that the level of monitoring and testing performed during process performance qualification (PPQ) studies must be sufficient to demonstrate statistical confidence both within and between batches. In some cases, three qualification runs may not be enough. Nearly two years after the guidance was first published, little has been written defining a statistical methodology for determining the number of samples and qualification runs required to satisfy Stage 2 requirements of the new guidance. This article proposes using a combination of risk assessment, control charting, and capability statistics to define the monitoring and testing scheme required to show that a pharmaceutical batch process is operating in a validated state. In this methodology, an assessment of process risk is performed through application of a process failure mode, effects, and criticality analysis (PFMECA). The output of PFMECA is used to select appropriate levels of statistical confidence and coverage which, in turn, are used in capability calculations to determine when significant Stage 2 (PPQ) milestones have been met. The achievement of Stage 2 milestones signals the release of batches for commercial distribution and the reduction of monitoring and testing to commercial production levels. Individuals, moving range, and range/sigma charts are used in conjunction with capability statistics to demonstrate that the commercial process is operating in a state of statistical control. The new process validation guidance published by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration in January of 2011 indicates that the number of process validation batches

  18. Designing an Autonomous Integrated Downstream Sequence From a Batch Separation Process - An Industrial Case Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Löfgren, Anton; Andersson, Niklas; Sellberg, Anton; Nilsson, Bernt; Löfgren, Magnus; Wood, Susanne

    2017-12-16

    This work is a proof of concept of how a sequence of industrial batch separation steps together are used to form an integrated autonomous downstream process. The sequence in this case study consisted of an anion chromatography step, virus inactivation and finally a hydrophobic chromatography step. Moving from batch to integrated separation minimizes hold-up times, storage tanks, and required equipment. The conversion from batch to integrated mode is achieved by extracting operating points and separation data from batch chromatograms. The integrated separation process is realized on an ÄKTA Pure controlled by an open research software called Orbit, making it possible to operate complex process configurations including multiple steps. The results from this case study is the principle and method of the steps taken to automation, achieving a more continuous and efficient downstream process. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. 40 CFR 63.463 - Batch vapor and in-line cleaning machine standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    .... (3) Each cleaning machine shall have an automated parts handling system capable of moving parts or... of parts through removal of cleaned parts. (4) Each vapor cleaning machine shall be equipped with a...) and appendix A to this part. (2) Each owner or operator of a batch vapor cleaning machine with a...

  20. The role of velocity, pressure, and bed stress fluctuations in bed load transport over bed forms: numerical simulation downstream of a backward-facing step

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. W. Schmeeckle

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Bed load transport over ripples and dunes in rivers exhibits strong spatial and temporal variability due to the complex turbulence field caused by flow separation at bedform crests. A turbulence-resolving flow model downstream of a backward-facing step, coupled with a model integrating the equations of motion of individual sand grains, is used to investigate the physical interaction between bed load motion and turbulence downstream of separated flow. Large bed load transport events are found to correspond to low-frequency positive pressure fluctuations. Episodic penetration of fluid into the bed increases the bed stress and moves grains. Fluid penetration events are larger in magnitude near the point of reattachment than farther downstream. Models of bed load transport over ripples and dunes must incorporate the effects of these penetration events of high stress and sediment flux.

  1. The role of velocity, pressure, and bed stress fluctuations in bed load transport over bed forms: numerical simulation downstream of a backward-facing step

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmeeckle, M. W.

    2015-02-01

    Bed load transport over ripples and dunes in rivers exhibits strong spatial and temporal variability due to the complex turbulence field caused by flow separation at bedform crests. A turbulence-resolving flow model downstream of a backward-facing step, coupled with a model integrating the equations of motion of individual sand grains, is used to investigate the physical interaction between bed load motion and turbulence downstream of separated flow. Large bed load transport events are found to correspond to low-frequency positive pressure fluctuations. Episodic penetration of fluid into the bed increases the bed stress and moves grains. Fluid penetration events are larger in magnitude near the point of reattachment than farther downstream. Models of bed load transport over ripples and dunes must incorporate the effects of these penetration events of high stress and sediment flux.

  2. Natural gas in coal beds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kravtsov, A.I.; Voytov, G.I.

    1983-01-01

    The special importance is noted of the problem of computing and careful use of the energy raw material, coal, oil and natural gases. An examination is made of the mechanism for the formation of carboniferous gases in the beds with the use of the model of coal macromolecule. A schematic section is presented for the coal field and plan for vertical gas zonality. The change in chemical composition of the natural gases with depth is governed by the countermovement of the natural gases: from top to bottom the gases of the earth's atmosphere move, mainly oxygenand nitrogen, from bottom to top, the gases of metamorphic and deep origin. Constant isotope composition of the carbon in the fossil coals is noted. The distribution of the quanitity deltaC/sup 13/ of carbon in the fossil coals of the Donets basin is illustrated. The gas content of the coal beds and gas reserves are discussed. The flowsheet is shown for the unit for degasification of the coal bed before the cleaning face.

  3. Removal of micropollutants in Moving Bed Biofilm reactors (MBBRs)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Torresi, Elena

    of the fate of micropollutants in such systems under different operational conditions is still required. In this context, this PhD thesis investigated different optimization strategies using MBBRs towards the removal of 23 commonly detected micropollutants (i.e., pharmaceuticals) in municipal wastewater......, biotransformation of micropollutants and microbial community were evaluated in three-stage (S) and single-stage (U) MBBR configurations. The three-stage configuration produced a prolonged exposure of the biofilm to a gradient of organic carbon loading and complexity, leading to a significant differentiation....... The relationship between biodiversity and micropollutant biotransformation may depend on whether its biotransformation is catalysed by a narrow (i.e., performed by few species) or broad processes. It is likely that for highly redundant microbial processes (such as denitrification), micropollutant biotransformation...

  4. Moving a patient from bed to a wheelchair

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Martin BC, Gonzalez L, Aebersold M, eds. Clinical Nursing Skills: Basic to Advanced Skills . 9th ed. New York, ... basic needs. In: Timby BK, ed. Fundamentals of nursing skills and concepts . 10th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Wolters Kluwer ...

  5. Moving the patient in bed: effects on intracranial pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, P H; Ozuna, J; Lipe, H P

    1981-01-01

    Intracranial pressure (ICP) was measured in 20 patients before and after each of eight nursing care activities: turning the body to four positions, passive range of motion (arm extension and hip flexion), and rotation of the head to the right and to the left. Technically usable data was available for 18 patients. Mean ICP increased for at least five minutes in all patients after one of the four turns and in 88 percent after half the turns. Change in mean ICP with one of a pair of lateral or supine turns was strongly predictive of the direction of change (increase or decrease) of the other turn of the pair. Large increases in ICP occurred in the five patients for whom head rotation was done, while there was minimal change in ICP with both passive range of motion procedures. A cumulative increase in ICP occurred with activities spaced 15 minutes apart, regardless of the nature of the activity. No cumulative increase in ICP was found with procedures spaced at least one hour apart.

  6. Long Life Moving-Bed Zinc Titanate Sorbent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Copeland, Robert J.; Cesario, Mike; Feinberg, Daniel A.; Sibold, Jack; Windecker, Brian; Yang, Jing

    1997-01-01

    The objective of this work was to develop and test long-life sorbents for hot gas cleanup. Specifically, we measured the sulfur loading at space velocities typically used for absorption of H 2 S and regenerated the sorbent with diluted air for multiple cycles. Based on the experimental results, we prepared a conceptual design of the sorbent-fabrication system, and estimated the cost of sorbent production and of sulfur removal

  7. Family based dispatching with batch availability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Zee, D.J.

    2013-01-01

    Family based dispatching rules seek to lower set-up frequencies by grouping (batching) similar types of jobs for joint processing. Hence shop flow times may be improved, as less time is spent on set-ups. Motivated by an industrial project we study the control of machines with batch availability,

  8. Nucleation and crystal growth in batch crystallizers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janse, A.H.

    1977-01-01

    The aim of the present work is to gain knowledge of the mechanism of formation of the crystal size distribution in batch crystallizers in order to give directives for design and operation of batch crystallizers. The crystal size distribution is important for the separation of crystals and mother

  9. Supervision of Fed-Batch Fermentations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gregersen, Lars; Jørgensen, Sten Bay

    1999-01-01

    Process faults may be detected on-line using existing measurements based upon modelling that is entirely data driven. A multivariate statistical model is developed and used for fault diagnosis of an industrial fed-batch fermentation process. Data from several (25) batches are used to develop a mo...

  10. Importance of fragmentation on the steady state combustion of wood char in a bubbling fluidized bed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinho, Carlos [Universidade do Porto (CEFT/FEUP), Porto (Portugal). Faculdade de Engenharia. Centro de Estudos de Fenomenos de Transporte], E-mail: ctp@fe.up.pt

    2010-07-01

    A simple mathematical model for the analysis of the steady state behavior of a bubbling fluidized bed burner is presented, with the main intention of evaluating the importance of the primary fragmentation of fuel particles on the performance of this type of burners. This model has pedagogical advantages because of its simplicity and easiness of application to the analysis of realistic situations. The model is based upon the classical models used for the study of batch combustion processes in fluidized bed reactors. Experimental data from studies of fluidized bed combustion of portuguese vegetable chars are used to support the analysis of the performance of a 1 m diameter fluidized bed combustor. (author)

  11. Fluid-bed combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hunt, G.; Schoebotham, N.

    1981-02-01

    In Energy Equipment Company's two-stage fluidized bed system, partial combustion in a fluidized bed is followed by burn-off of the generated gases above the bed. The system can be retrofitted to existing boilers, and can burn small, high ash coal efficiently. It has advantages when used as a hot gas generator for process drying. Tests on a boiler at a Cadbury Schweppes plant are reported.

  12. LSF usage for batch at CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    Schwickerath, Ulrich

    2007-01-01

    Contributed poster to the CHEP07. Original abstract: LSF 7, the latest version of Platform's batch workload management system, addresses many issues which limited the ability of LSF 6.1 to support large scale batch farms, such as the lxbatch service at CERN. In this paper we will present the status of the evaluation and deployment of LSF 7 at CERN, including issues concerning the integration of LSF 7 with the gLite grid middleware suite and, in particular, the steps taken to endure an efficient reporting of the local batch system status and usage to the Grid Information System

  13. Multi-objective optimization of glycopeptide antibiotic production in batch and fed batch processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maiti, Soumen K.; Eliasson Lantz, Anna; Bhushan, Mani

    2011-01-01

    as pareto optimal solutions. These solutions gives flexibility in evaluating the trade-offs and selecting the most suitable operating policy. Here, ε-constraint approach was used to generate the pareto solutions for two objectives: product concentration and product per unit cost of media, for batch and fed...... batch operations using process model for Amycolatopsis balhimycina, a glycopeptide antibiotic producer. This resulted in a set of several pareto optimal solutions with the two objectives ranging from (0.75gl−1, 3.97g$-1) to (0.44gl−1, 5.19g$-1) for batch and from (1.5gl−1, 5.46g$-1) to (1.1gl−1, 6.34g......$-1) for fed batch operations. One pareto solution each for batch and for fed batch mode was experimentally validated....

  14. Fluidized bed incinerator development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ziegler, D.L.; Johnson, A.J.

    1976-01-01

    A fluidized bed incinerator is being developed for burning rad contaminated solid and liquid waste materials. In situ neutralization of acid gases by the bed material, catalytic afterburning, and gas filtration are used to produce a clean flue gas without the use of aqueous scrubbing

  15. Design and Construction of a Batch Oven for Investigation of Industrial Continuous

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stenby, Mette; Nielsen, Brian; Risum, Jørgen

    2011-01-01

    A new batch oven has been designed and build to model baking processes as seen in large scale tunnel ovens. In order to simulate the conditions found in tunnel ovens a number of critical parameters are controllable: The temperature, the humidity and the air velocity. The band movement is simulated...... by moving the two air ducts above and below the products; in this way it is possible to keep the baking tray steady for continuous measurements of the product weight. During baking the shape and colour of the product can be monitored visually through a window. The simultaneous measuring of mass and visual...... aspects is a unique feature of this batch oven. Initial experiments of reproducing tunnel oven baking in the batch oven have shown good results, based on comparisons of weight loss, dry matter content and surface colour. The measured quality parameters did not differ significantly. Even though a few...

  16. Investigation of flow mechanisms in conical models of fluidized beds and transfer of the results to high-temperature-coating beds. A study on the coating of nuclear fuel particles in fluidized beds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalthoff, B.; Gyarmati, E.; Nickel, H.

    The different states of movement of the fluid-solid particle system as occurring in coating of nuclear particle fuel in conical fluidized beds determine the transfer of momentum, heat and mass in the fluidized bed. To know the flow characteristics, therefore, is essential for the understanding of the complex processes which take place during coating. As experimental studies in actual coaters initially were impossible due to the high temperature levels of up to 2000 0 C, information on characteristic behavior of the fluidized bed was obtained from geometrically similar model beds. Based on principles in the mechanics of similarity the fluid-solid particle system was selected. Hence, results obtained in model tests could be correlated to hot fluidized beds by means of a dimensionless characteristic number describing the fluid-solid system. A second combination of characteristic numbers allows the characterization of the three states of a fluidizing regime, i.e., spouting, bubbling, and slugging. For examining the model test results in hot beds, a measuring device was developed applicable to both cold model beds and actual fluidized bed coaters; pressure oscillations originating in the beds could be made visible by means of electronics and their frequency measured. Coating experiments with different batches and at different temperature levels rendered this frequency to decrease with increase in bed height. Thus the frequency is an important index for the momentary state of fluidization of the fluid-solid particle system. (U.S.)

  17. Planets Move in Circles !

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The orbits of planets, or any other bodies moving under an inverse square law force, can be understood with fresh insight using the idea of velocity space. Surprisingly, a particle moving on an ellipse or even a hyperbola still moves on a circle in this space. Other aspects of orbits such as conservation laws are discussed.

  18. Combined Estimation and Optimal Control of Batch Membrane Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Jelemenský

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we deal with the model-based time-optimal operation of a batch diafiltration process in the presence of membrane fouling. Membrane fouling poses one of the major problems in the field of membrane processes. We model the fouling behavior and estimate its parameters using various methods. Least-squares, least-squares with a moving horizon, recursive least-squares methods and the extended Kalman filter are applied and discussed for the estimation of the fouling behavior on-line during the process run. Model-based optimal non-linear control coupled with parameter estimation is applied in a simulation case study to show the benefits of the proposed approach.

  19. 40 CFR 63.1321 - Batch process vents provisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... the reference control technology requirements for Group 1 batch process vents in § 63.1322, the.... Owners or operators of all Group 2 batch process vents shall comply with the applicable reference control....1323 is not required. (2) For batch process vents and aggregate batch vent streams, the control...

  20. Ethanol effect on batch and fed-batch Arthrospira platensis growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezerra, Raquel P; Matsudo, Marcelo C; Pérez Mora, Lina S; Sato, Sunao; de Carvalho, João C Monteiro

    2014-04-01

    The ability of Arthrospira platensis to use ethanol as a carbon and energy source was investigated by batch process and fed-batch process. A. platensis was cultivated under the effect of a single addition (batch process) and a daily pulse feeding (fed-batch process) of pure ethanol, at different concentrations, to evaluate cell concentration (X) and specific growth rate (μ). A marked increase was observed in the cell concentration of A. platensis in runs with ethanol addition when compared to control cultures without ethanol addition. The fed-batch process using an ethanol concentration of 38 mg L(-1) days(-1) reached the maximum cell concentration of 2,393 ± 241 mg L(-1), about 1.5-fold that obtained in the control culture. In all experiments, the maximum specific growth rate was observed in the early exponential phase of cell growth. In the fed-batch process, μ decreased more slowly than in the batch process and control culture, resulting in the highest final cell concentration. Ethanol can be used as a feasible carbon and energy source for A. platensis growth via a fed-batch process.

  1. Energy efficiency of batch and semi-batch (CCRO) reverse osmosis desalination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warsinger, David M; Tow, Emily W; Nayar, Kishor G; Maswadeh, Laith A; Lienhard V, John H

    2016-12-01

    As reverse osmosis (RO) desalination capacity increases worldwide, the need to reduce its specific energy consumption becomes more urgent. In addition to the incremental changes attainable with improved components such as membranes and pumps, more significant reduction of energy consumption can be achieved through time-varying RO processes including semi-batch processes such as closed-circuit reverse osmosis (CCRO) and fully-batch processes that have not yet been commercialized or modelled in detail. In this study, numerical models of the energy consumption of batch RO (BRO), CCRO, and the standard continuous RO process are detailed. Two new energy-efficient configurations of batch RO are analyzed. Batch systems use significantly less energy than continuous RO over a wide range of recovery ratios and source water salinities. Relative to continuous RO, models predict that CCRO and batch RO demonstrate up to 37% and 64% energy savings, respectively, for brackish water desalination at high water recovery. For batch RO and CCRO, the primary reductions in energy use stem from atmospheric pressure brine discharge and reduced streamwise variation in driving pressure. Fully-batch systems further reduce energy consumption by not mixing streams of different concentrations, which CCRO does. These results demonstrate that time-varying processes can significantly raise RO energy efficiency. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Model Penjadwalan Batch Multi Item dengan Dependent Processing Time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sukoyo Sukoyo

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates a development of single machine batch scheduling for multi items with dependent processing time. The batch scheduling problem is to determine simultaneously number of batch (N, which item and its size allocated for each batch, and processing sequences of resulting batches. We use total actual flow time as the objective of schedule performance. The multi item batch scheduling problem could be formulated into a biner-integer nonlinear programming model because the number of batch should be in integer value, the allocation of items to resulting batch need binary values, and also there are some non-linearity on objective function and constraint due to the dependent processing time. By applying relaxation on the decision variable of number of batch (N as parameter, a heuristic procedure could be applied to find solution of the single machine batch scheduling problem for multi items.

  3. Bed rest during pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Belizán JM, Bergel E. Bed rest in singleton pregnancies for preventing preterm birth. Cochrane Database ... and Gynecology, Loma Linda University School of Medicine, Loma Linda Center for Fertility, ...

  4. Enuresis (Bed-Wetting)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Symptoms of enuresis Enuresis is when an older child (age 7 or older) wets the bed at night ... feel guilt and embarrassment. It’s true that your child should take responsibility for bedwetting. He or she could do this ...

  5. Particle fuel bed tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horn, F.L.; Powell, J.R.; Savino, J.M.

    1985-01-01

    Gas-cooled reactors, using packed beds of small diameter coated fuel particles have been proposed for compact, high-power systems. The particulate fuel used in the tests was 800 microns in diameter, consisting of a thoria kernel coated with 200 microns of pyrocarbon. Typically, the bed of fuel particles was contained in a ceramic cylinder with porous metallic frits at each end. A dc voltage was applied to the metallic frits and the resulting electric current heated the bed. Heat was removed by passing coolant (helium or hydrogen) through the bed. Candidate frit materials, rhenium, nickel, zirconium carbide, and zirconium oxide were unaffected, while tungsten and tungsten-rhenium lost weight and strength. Zirconium-carbide particles were tested at 2000 K in H 2 for 12 hours with no visible reaction or weight loss

  6. Systematic Methodology for Reproducible Optimizing Batch Operation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonné, Dennis; Jørgensen, Sten Bay

    2006-01-01

    contribution furthermore presents how the asymptotic convergence of Iterative Learning Control is combined with the closed-loop performance of Model Predictive Control to form a robust and asymptotically stable optimal controller for ensuring reliable and reproducible operation of batch processes....... This controller may also be used for Optimizing control. The modeling and control performance is demonstrated on a fed-batch protein cultivation example. The presented methodologies lend themselves directly for application as Process Analytical Technologies (PAT).......This contribution presents a systematic methodology for rapid acquirement of discrete-time state space model representations of batch processes based on their historical operation data. These state space models are parsimoniously parameterized as a set of local, interdependent models. The present...

  7. Fuzzy batch controller for granular materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zamyatin Nikolaj

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper focuses on batch control of granular materials in production of building materials from fluorine anhydrite. Batching equipment is intended for smooth operation and timely feeding of supply hoppers at a required level. Level sensors and a controller of an asynchronous screw drive motor are used to control filling of the hopper with industrial anhydrite binders. The controller generates a required frequency and ensures required productivity of a feed conveyor. Mamdani-type fuzzy inference is proposed for controlling the speed of the screw that feeds mixture components. As related to production of building materials based on fluoride anhydrite, this method is used for the first time. A fuzzy controller is proven to be effective in controlling the filling level of the supply hopper. In addition, the authors determined optimal parameters of the batching process to ensure smooth operation and production of fluorine anhydrite materials of specified properties that can compete with gypsum-based products.

  8. Innovative rock bed construction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cook, J.

    1983-06-01

    A general discussion of the use of rock beds for heating and cooling thermal storage is particularized for design and construction in Phoenix, Arizona. The rock bed parameters for three two-story condominium apartments constructed in 1982 are discussed, including sizing criteria and original construction details. A revised construction method using gabions that are self-supporting chain link cylinders provided a much more economical construction method as well as other advantages of speed and structural flexibility.

  9. Control of Batch Processes Based on Hierarchical Petri Nets

    OpenAIRE

    YAJIMA, Tomoyuki; ITO, Takashi; HASHIZUME, Susumu; KURIMOTO, Hidekazu; ONOGI, Katsuaki

    2004-01-01

    A batch process is a typical concurrent system in which multiple interacting tasks are carried out in parallel on several batches at the same time. A major difficulty in designing a batch control system is the lack of modeling techniques. This paper aims at developing a method of constructing batch control system models in a hierarchical manner and operating batch processes using the constructed models. For this purpose, it first defines process and plant specifications described by partial l...

  10. Comparison of the mesophilic and thermophilic anaerobic digestion of spent cow bedding in leach-bed reactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riggio, S; Hernandéz-Shek, M A; Torrijos, M; Vives, G; Esposito, G; van Hullebusch, E D; Steyer, J P; Escudié, R

    2017-06-01

    Anaerobic digestion of spent cow bedding in batch leach-bed reactors (LBRs) was compared in mesophilic and thermophilic conditions for the first time. Results show that the use of thermophilic conditions enhanced only the degradation kinetics of easily-degradable matter during the first days of the digestion, whereas similar methane yields (80% of the Biomethane Potential) were reached after 42days at both temperatures. Therefore, the anaerobic digestion in LBRs of spent cow bedding, a substrate rich in slowly-degradable compounds, was not improved in term of methane production considering the overall digestion time. Moreover, the high initial biogas production rate in thermophilic reactors was found to significantly reduce the energetic performance of the cogeneration unit at industrial scale, leading to a 5.9% decrease in the annual electricity production when compared to a mesophilic one. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Biomass pyrolysis in a fluidized bed reactor. Part 2: experimental validation of model results

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, X.; Kersten, Sascha R.A.; Prins, W.; van Swaaij, Willibrordus Petrus Maria

    2005-01-01

    Various types of cylindrical biomass particles (pine, beech, bamboo, demolition wood) have been pyrolyzed in a batch-wise operated fluid bed laboratory setup. Conversion times, product yields, and product compositions were measured as a function of the particle size (0.7−17 mm), the vapor's

  12. Mathematical modelling of MSW incineration on a travelling bed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Y B; Goh, Y R; Zakaria, R; Nasserzadeh, V; Swithenbank, J

    2002-01-01

    The rising popularity of incineration of municipal solid waste (MSW) calls for detailed mathematical modelling and understanding of the incineration process. In this paper, governing equations for mass, momentum and heat transfer for both solid and gaseous phases in a moving bed in a solid-waste incineration furnace are described and relevant sub-models are presented. The burning rates of volatile hydrocarbons in the moving bed of solids are limited not only by the reaction kinetics but also the mixing of the volatile fuels with the under-fire air. The mixing rate is averaged across a computation cell and correlated to a number of parameters including local void fraction of the bed, gas velocity and a length scale comparable to the particle size in the bed. A correlation equation is also included to calculate the mixing in the freeboard area immediately next to the bed surface. A small-scale fixed bed waste incinerator was built and test runs were made in which total mass loss from the bed, temperature and gas composition at different locations along the bed height were measured. A 2-D bed-modelling program (FLIC) was developed which incorporates the various sub-process models and solves the governing equations for both gases and solids. Thermal and chemical processes are mainly confined within a layer about 5-9 times in thickness of the averaged particle size in the burning bed. For a large part of the burning process, the total mass loss rate was constant until the solid waste was totally dried out and a period of highly rising CO emission followed. The maximum bed temperature was around 1200 K. The whole burning process ended within 60 min. Big fluctuations in species concentration were observed due to channelling and subsequent 'catastrophic' changes in the local bed conditions. Reasonably good agreement between modelling and measurements has been achieved. Yet the modelling work is complicated by the channelling phenomenon in the bed. Numerical simulations

  13. Monitoring of batch processes using spectroscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gurden, S. P.; Westerhuis, J. A.; Smilde, A. K.

    2002-01-01

    There is an increasing need for new techniques for the understanding, monitoring and the control of batch processes. Spectroscopy is now becoming established as a means of obtaining real-time, high-quality chemical information at frequent time intervals and across a wide range of industrial

  14. Exploring the Transition From Batch to Online

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Anker Helms

    2010-01-01

    The transition from using computers in batch mode with punch cards, paper tape, piles of print, and lengthy response times to online mode by way of the video display terminal took place in most organizations in the 1970s and 1980s. The video display terminal was a significant forerunner...

  15. Moving Field Guides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassie Meador; Mark Twery; Meagan. Leatherbury

    2011-01-01

    The Moving Field Guides (MFG) project is a creative take on site interpretation. Moving Field Guides provide an example of how scientific and artistic endeavors work in parallel. Both begin with keen observations that produce information that must be analyzed, understood, and interpreted. That interpretation then needs to be communicated to others to complete the...

  16. Cell retention by encapsulation for the cultivation of Jurkat cells in fixed and fluidized bed reactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaiser, P; Werner, M; Jérôme, V; Hübner, H; Buchholz, R; Freitag, R

    2014-12-01

    Jurkat cells are accepted model cells for primary human T lymphocytes, for example, in medical research. Their growth to tissue-like cell densities (up to 100 × 10(6)  cells/mLcapsule ) in semi-permeable (molecular weight cut off jurkat cells. Biotechnol Prog 29(4): 986-993]. Herein, we demonstrate that encapsulation can be used to retain the cells in continuously operated bioreactors, which opens new possibilities for research, for example, the use of Jurkat cells in pulse response experiments under steady state conditions. Two reactor concepts are presented, a fluidized and a fixed bed reactor. A direct comparison of the growth kinetics in batch and repeated batch spinner cultivations, that is, under conditions where both encapsulated and non-encapsulated cells can be cultivated under otherwise identical conditions, showed that maximum specific growth rates were higher for the encapsulated than for the non-encapsulated cells. In the subsequent batch and repeated batch bioreactor experiments (only encapsulated cells), growth rates were similar, with the exception of the fixed bed batch reactor, where growth kinetics were significantly slower. Concomitantly, a significant fraction of the cells towards the bottom of the bed were no longer metabolically active, though apparently not dead. In the repeated batch fluidized bed reactor cellular division could be maintained for more than two weeks, albeit with a specific growth rate below the maximum one, leading to final cell densities of approximately 180 × 10(6)  cell/gcapsule . At the same time, the cell cycle distribution of the cells was shifted to the S and G2/M phases. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Embodied affectivity: on moving and being moved.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuchs, Thomas; Koch, Sabine C

    2014-01-01

    There is a growing body of research indicating that bodily sensation and behavior strongly influences one's emotional reaction toward certain situations or objects. On this background, a framework model of embodied affectivity is suggested: we regard emotions as resulting from the circular interaction between affective qualities or affordances in the environment and the subject's bodily resonance, be it in the form of sensations, postures, expressive movements or movement tendencies. Motion and emotion are thus intrinsically connected: one is moved by movement (perception; impression; affection) and moved to move (action; expression; e-motion). Through its resonance, the body functions as a medium of emotional perception: it colors or charges self-experience and the environment with affective valences while it remains itself in the background of one's own awareness. This model is then applied to emotional social understanding or interaffectivity which is regarded as an intertwinement of two cycles of embodied affectivity, thus continuously modifying each partner's affective affordances and bodily resonance. We conclude with considerations of how embodied affectivity is altered in psychopathology and can be addressed in psychotherapy of the embodied self.

  18. Embodied affectivity: On moving and being moved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas eFuchs

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available There is a growing body of research indicating that bodily sensation and behaviour strongly influences one’s emotional reaction towards certain situations or objects. On this background, a framework model of embodied affectivity is suggested: we regard emotions as resulting from the circular interaction between affective qualities or affordances in the environment and the subject’s bodily resonance, be it in the form of sensations, postures, expressive movements or movement tendencies. Motion and emotion are thus intrinsically connected: one is moved by movement (perception; impression; affection and moved to move (action; expression; e-motion. Through its resonance, the body functions as a medium of emotional perception: it colours or charges self-experience and the environment with affective valences while it remains itself in the background of one’s own awareness. This model is then applied to emotional social understanding or interaffectivity which is regarded as an intertwinement of two cycles of embodied affectivity, thus continuously modifying each partner’s affective affordances and bodily resonance. We conclude with considerations of how embodied affectivity is altered in psychopathology and can be addressed in psychotherapy of the embodied self.

  19. Monte Carlo simulation on kinetics of batch and semi-batch free radical polymerization

    KAUST Repository

    Shao, Jing

    2015-10-27

    Based on Monte Carlo simulation technology, we proposed a hybrid routine which combines reaction mechanism together with coarse-grained molecular simulation to study the kinetics of free radical polymerization. By comparing with previous experimental and simulation studies, we showed the capability of our Monte Carlo scheme on representing polymerization kinetics in batch and semi-batch processes. Various kinetics information, such as instant monomer conversion, molecular weight, and polydispersity etc. are readily calculated from Monte Carlo simulation. The kinetic constants such as polymerization rate k p is determined in the simulation without of “steady-state” hypothesis. We explored the mechanism for the variation of polymerization kinetics those observed in previous studies, as well as polymerization-induced phase separation. Our Monte Carlo simulation scheme is versatile on studying polymerization kinetics in batch and semi-batch processes.

  20. Bed bug deterrence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haynes Kenneth F

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A recent study in BMC Biology has determined that the immature stage of the bed bug (the nymph signals its reproductive status to adult males using pheromones and thus avoids the trauma associated with copulation in this species. The success of this nymphal strategy of deterrence is instructive. Against the background of increasing problems with bed bugs, this research raises the question whether pheromones might be used to control them. See research article http://www.biomedcentral.com/1741-7007/8/121

  1. Batch and fed-batch production of butyric acid by Clostridium butyricum ZJUCB

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Guo-qing; Kong, Qing; Chen, Qi-he; Ruan, Hui

    2005-01-01

    The production of butyric acid by Clostridium butyricum ZJUCB at various pH values was investigated. In order to study the effect of pH on cell growth, butyric acid biosynthesis and reducing sugar consumption, different cultivation pH values ranging from 6.0 to 7.5 were evaluated in 5-L bioreactor. In controlled pH batch fermentation, the optimum pH for cell growth and butyric acid production was 6.5 with a cell yield of 3.65 g/L and butyric acid yield of 12.25 g/L. Based on these results, this study then compared batch and fed-batch fermentation of butyric acid production at pH 6.5. Maximum value (16.74 g/L) of butyric acid concentration was obtained in fed-batch fermentation compared to 12.25 g/L in batch fermentation. It was concluded that cultivation under fed-batch fermentation mode could enhance butyric acid production significantly (P<0.01) by C. butyricum ZJUCB. PMID:16252341

  2. Modelling and synthesis of pharmaceutical processes: moving from batch to continuous

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Papadakis, Emmanouil

    Research in pharmaceutical process development has gained a lot of interest over the last years. Long development times, increasing R&D costs, increasing competition, and short patent duration are some of the driving forces for the increased research efforts in the field. Increased process...... understanding of the pharmaceutical process has resulted in major improvements in the field. Process systems engineering (PSE) approaches, which have been successfully applied in the design, analysis and optimization of chemical and petrochemical processes, might be also important for the improvement...... of pharmaceutical processes by providing systematic and structured solutions for the stages of the pharmaceutical process development. In this PhD thesis, the objective is to systematize the pharmaceutical process development in order to enhance process understanding by creating a data-rich environment...

  3. Time and speed of fruit drying on batch fluid-beds

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The heat treatment of fruit is a very important and crucial process, where the nutritional quality of fruit can change, and so also the process of rehydration which is connected with fruit quality. The appearance of the fruit can affect customers as well. It is important to produce dried fruit that is shelf-stable, microbiologically safe, ...

  4. Time and speed of fruit drying on batch fluid-beds

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    generally used. Keywords. Dried fruit; fluidization; rehydration; exponential drying model. 1. Introduction. Dried fruits are often used in very wide variety of products such as muesli, candy bars, children's food etc. The heat treatment of fruit is a very important and crucial process, where the nutritional quality of fruit can change, ...

  5. Compressor Has No Moving Macroscopic Parts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasser, Max

    1995-01-01

    Compressor containing no moving macroscopic parts functions by alternating piston and valve actions of successive beds of magnetic particles. Fabricated easily because no need for precisely fitting parts rotating or sliding on each other. Also no need for lubricant fluid contaminating fluid to be compressed. Compressor operates continuously, eliminating troublesome on/off cycling of other compressors, and decreasing consumption of energy. Phased cells push fluid from bottom to top, adding increments of pressure. Each cell contains magnetic powder particles loose when electromagnet coil deenergized, but tightly packed when coil energized.

  6. Bed Prism Spectacles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Jair Lúcio Prados

    2018-01-01

    We only became aware of the existence of bed prism spectacles when a student brought them to the classroom and asked us about how they work. The device proved to be a fertile source of curiosity among the students, and, to be properly understood, it required us to develop a comparison between reflection in a typical mirror and total internal…

  7. Practice Hospital Bed Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the mattress end Subscribe: FDA Consumer Health Information "Hospital beds are found in nearly all patient care settings or environments," says Joan Ferlo Todd, RN, a senior nurse-consultant at the Food and Drug Administration’s (FDA) Center for Devices and Radiological Health (CDRH). " ...

  8. Diffusion model for fluidized-bed drying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoglio, M A; Streng, W H; Carstensen, J T

    1975-11-01

    A sucrose-lactose-starch granulation was used to study particulate motion and attrition in a fluid bed dryer. There is some classification of material in the dryer as drying proceeds; fine particles are dried faster and become less dense, and the less dry but denser large particles show some (although not great) accumulation tendencies in the lower central area. Unlike countercurrent rotary drying, fluid bed drying cannot be accounted for by water diffusion inside the granule as the rate-limiting step. In its place, a model of external water vapor diffusion is proposed and is supported by vapor-concentration curves and by the linear dependence of the rate constants on the linear air velocities. The dried granulation exhibits the same trend as does countercurrent dried material in that larger particles have higher moisture contents than do smaller particles. Quantitative relationships between content of moisture and size were developed and are supported by experimental data. The granulation, upon storage, does not equilibrate, indicating that this type of water distribution is a problem in batch process granulations as well as in the earlier reported case of granulations for continuous production.

  9. BATCHING PRINCIPLE OF RATING POINT ACCRUAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Safontsev

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyzes characteristics of the postindustrial educational system, including the credit competence assessment, academic loads, and module-rating discipline structure. The employers’ judgments, reflected in the survey outcomes, make it possible to single out the most significant competencies for students to master. Such findings are regarded as a foundation for developing the assignment modules, integrating the problematic, testing and projecting tasks, designed to master necessary competences; their effectiveness is estimated by using the criteria of behavioral psychology. The paper demonstrates the sequences of monitoring assessment of students’ academic achievements, and recommends the batching principle of rating point accrual, based on criterion-oriented evaluation standards, reflecting students’ competence levels. The authors identify the basic competence indicators: interest in the subject, reflections on the test results, and inner motivation for project activities. The complex of batching equations is given for developing the training cards of academic disciplines, and guaranteeing the effectiveness of education system.

  10. Optimal operation of batch membrane processes

    CERN Document Server

    Paulen, Radoslav

    2016-01-01

    This study concentrates on a general optimization of a particular class of membrane separation processes: those involving batch diafiltration. Existing practices are explained and operational improvements based on optimal control theory are suggested. The first part of the book introduces the theory of membrane processes, optimal control and dynamic optimization. Separation problems are defined and mathematical models of batch membrane processes derived. The control theory focuses on problems of dynamic optimization from a chemical-engineering point of view. Analytical and numerical methods that can be exploited to treat problems of optimal control for membrane processes are described. The second part of the text builds on this theoretical basis to establish solutions for membrane models of increasing complexity. Each chapter starts with a derivation of optimal operation and continues with case studies exemplifying various aspects of the control problems under consideration. The authors work their way from th...

  11. Validation of fluid bed granulation utilizing artificial neural network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behzadi, Sharareh Salar; Klocker, Johanna; Hüttlin, Herbert; Wolschann, Peter; Viernstein, Helmut

    2005-03-03

    Three innovative components (an annular gap spray system, a booster bottom and an outlet filter) have been developed by Innojet Technologies to improve fluid bed technology and to reduce the common interference factors (clogging of nozzles and outlet filters, spray loss, spray drying and fluidized bed heterogeneity). In a fluid bed granulator, three conventional components have been replaced with these innovative components. Validation of the modified fluid bed granulator has been conducted using a generalized regression neural network (GRNN). Under different operating conditions (by variation of inlet air temperature, liquid-binder spray rate, atomizing air pressure, air velocity, amount and concentration of binder solution and batch size), sucrose was granulated and the properties of size, size distribution, flow rate, repose angle and bulk and tapped volumes of granules were measured. To confirm the method's validity, the trained network has been used to predict new granulation parameters as well as granule properties. These forecasts were then compared with the corresponding experimental results. Good correlation has been obtained between the predicted and the experimental data. From these findings, we conclude that the GRNN may serve as a reliable method to validate the modified fluid bed apparatus.

  12. Actuated bed for a closed loop anti-snoring therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crivelli, Francesco; Wilhelm, Elisabeth; van Sluijs, Rachel; Riener, Robert

    2017-07-01

    Snoring is a very common often underestimated sleep disorder, which is caused by a partial blockage of the upper airways. It can easily be treated by changing the sleeping posture of the snorer. However, conventional approaches are often perceived as uncomfortable. In order to increase uptake we propose to use an actuated bed, which is equipped with microphones and controlled in closed loop. The inclination of the part of the bed which is supporting the trunk is increased to open the upper airways, whenever snoring sounds are detected. During snoring-free periods the bed goes back to its original position to allow the user to move freely. The principle has successfully been applied in a proof of concept test. During this test night the bed was able to stop the snorer from snoring in four out of five occasions.

  13. Batch calculations in CalcHEP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pukhov, A.

    2003-01-01

    CalcHEP is a clone of the CompHEP project which is developed by the author outside of the CompHEP group. CompHEP/CalcHEP are packages for automatic calculations of elementary particle decay and collision properties in the lowest order of perturbation theory. The main idea prescribed into the packages is to make available passing on from the Lagrangian to the final distributions effectively with a high level of automation. According to this, the packages were created as a menu driven user friendly programs for calculations in the interactive mode. From the other side, long-time calculations should be done in the non-interactive regime. Thus, from the beginning CompHEP has a problem of batch calculations. In CompHEP 33.23 the batch session was realized by mean of interactive menu which allows to the user to formulate the task for batch. After that the not-interactive session was launched. This way is too restricted, not flexible, and leads to doubling in programming. In this article I discuss another approach how one can force an interactive program to work in non-interactive mode. This approach was realized in CalcHEP 2.1 disposed on http://theory.sinp.msu.ru/~pukhov/calchep.html

  14. Pollution prevention applications in batch manufacturing operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sykes, Derek W.; O'Shaughnessy, James

    2004-02-01

    Older, "low-tech" batch manufacturing operations are often fertile grounds for gains resulting from pollution prevention techniques. This paper presents a pollution prevention technique utilized for wastewater discharge permit compliance purposes at a batch manufacturer of detergents, deodorants, and floor-care products. This manufacturer generated industrial wastewater as a result of equipment rinses required after each product batch changeover. After investing a significant amount of capital on end of pip-line wastewater treatment technology designed to address existing discharge limits, this manufacturer chose to investigate alternate, low-cost approaches to address anticipated new permit limits. Mass balances using spreadsheets and readily available formulation and production data were conducted on over 300 products to determine how each individual product contributed to the total wastewater pollutant load. These mass balances indicated that 22 products accounted for over 55% of the wastewater pollutant. Laboratory tests were conducted to determine whether these same products could accept their individual changeover rinse water as make-up water in formulations without sacrificing product quality. This changeover reuse technique was then implement at the plant scale for selected products. Significant reductions in wastewater volume (25%) and wastewater pollutant loading (85+%) were realized as a direct result of this approach.

  15. PARALLEL MOVING MECHANICAL SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florian Ion Tiberius Petrescu

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 Moving mechanical systems parallel structures are solid, fast, and accurate. Between parallel systems it is to be noticed Stewart platforms, as the oldest systems, fast, solid and precise. The work outlines a few main elements of Stewart platforms. Begin with the geometry platform, kinematic elements of it, and presented then and a few items of dynamics. Dynamic primary element on it means the determination mechanism kinetic energy of the entire Stewart platforms. It is then in a record tail cinematic mobile by a method dot matrix of rotation. If a structural mottoelement consists of two moving elements which translates relative, drive train and especially dynamic it is more convenient to represent the mottoelement as a single moving components. We have thus seven moving parts (the six motoelements or feet to which is added mobile platform 7 and one fixed.

  16. Simultaneous heat and mass transfer in packed bed brying of seeds having a mucilage coating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. M. Prado

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available The simultaneous heat and mass transfer between fluid phase and seeds having a mucilaginous coating was studied during packed bed drying. To describe the process, a two-phase model approach was employed, in which the effects of bed shrinkage and nonconstant physical properties were considered. The model took into account bed contraction by employing moving coordinates. Equations relating shrinkage and structural parameters of the packed bed with moisture content, required in the drying model, were developed from experimental results in thick-layer bed drying. The model verification was based on a comparison between experimental and predicted data on moisture content and temperature along the bed. Parametric studies showed that the application of correlations capable of incorporating changes in bed properties gives better data simulation. By experimental-theoretical analysis, the importance of shrinkage for a more accurate interpretation of heat and mass transfer phenomena in the drying of porous media composed of mucilaginous seeds is corroborated.

  17. The Moving image

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Lennard Højbjerg

    2014-01-01

    Every day we are presented with bodily expressions in audiovisual media – by anchors, journalists and characters in films for instance. This article explores how body language in the moving image has been and can be approached in a scholarly manner.......Every day we are presented with bodily expressions in audiovisual media – by anchors, journalists and characters in films for instance. This article explores how body language in the moving image has been and can be approached in a scholarly manner....

  18. Batch-batch stable microbial community in the traditional fermentation process of huyumei broad bean pastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Linjiang; Fan, Zihao; Kuai, Hui; Li, Qi

    2017-09-01

    During natural fermentation processes, a characteristic microbial community structure (MCS) is naturally formed, and it is interesting to know about its batch-batch stability. This issue was explored in a traditional semi-solid-state fermentation process of huyumei, a Chinese broad bean paste product. The results showed that this MCS mainly contained four aerobic Bacillus species (8 log CFU per g), including B. subtilis, B. amyloliquefaciens, B. methylotrophicus, and B. tequilensis, and the facultative anaerobe B. cereus with a low concentration (4 log CFU per g), besides a very small amount of the yeast Zygosaccharomyces rouxii (2 log CFU per g). The dynamic change of the MCS in the brine fermentation process showed that the abundance of dominant species varied within a small range, and in the beginning of process the growth of lactic acid bacteria was inhibited and Staphylococcus spp. lost its viability. Also, the MCS and its dynamic change were proved to be highly reproducible among seven batches of fermentation. Therefore, the MCS naturally and stably forms between different batches of the traditional semi-solid-state fermentation of huyumei. Revealing microbial community structure and its batch-batch stability is helpful for understanding the mechanisms of community formation and flavour production in a traditional fermentation. This issue in a traditional semi-solid-state fermentation of huyumei broad bean paste was firstly explored. This fermentation process was revealed to be dominated by a high concentration of four aerobic species of Bacillus, a low concentration of B. cereus and a small amount of Zygosaccharomyces rouxii. Lactic acid bacteria and Staphylococcus spp. lost its viability at the beginning of fermentation. Such the community structure was proved to be highly reproducible among seven batches. © 2017 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  19. 40 CFR 63.1408 - Aggregate batch vent stream provisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 11 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Aggregate batch vent stream provisions... § 63.1408 Aggregate batch vent stream provisions. (a) Emission standards. Owners or operators of aggregate batch vent streams at a new or existing affected source shall comply with either paragraph (a)(1...

  20. 7 CFR 58.728 - Cooking the batch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cooking the batch. 58.728 Section 58.728 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... Procedures § 58.728 Cooking the batch. Each batch of cheese within the cooker, including the optional...

  1. Fate of 17β-estradiol and 17α-ethinylestradiol in batch and column studies simulating managed aquifer recharge

    KAUST Repository

    Maeng, Sungkyu

    2013-11-01

    Laboratory-scale batch and soil columns experiments were conducted to investigate the attenuation of estrogens (17β-estradiol and 17α-ethinylestradiol) during managed aquifer recharge. The role of microbial activity in the removal of selected estrogens was evaluated by comparing the results from biotic and abiotic batch experiments. Moreover, batch experiments were carried out using the sand media prepared over different acclimation periods to investigate the impact of acclimation periods on the removal of selected estrogens. Batch studies showed that adsorption was the dominant removal mechanism in the removal of 17β-estradiol and 17α-ethinylestradiol. 17β-estradiol and 17α-ethinylestradiol were attenuated by 99% and 96%, respectively, in batch experiments under oxic conditions. Redox conditions did not show any significant effect on the attenuation of 17β-estradiol. However, the net estrogenicity of 17β-estradiol remaining was lower under oxic conditions (130 ng estradiol-equivalents/L) than anoxic conditions (970 ng estradiol-equivalents/L) . Column studies operated at 17 h of empty bed contact time also demonstrated that removal mechanism of 17α-ethinylestradiol was more dependent on adsorption than biodegradation. © IWA Publishing 2013.

  2. VA National Bed Control System

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — The VA National Bed Control System records the levels of operating, unavailable and authorized beds at each VAMC, and it tracks requests for changes in these levels....

  3. Semiautomated, Reproducible Batch Processing of Soy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thoerne, Mary; Byford, Ivan W.; Chastain, Jack W.; Swango, Beverly E.

    2005-01-01

    A computer-controlled apparatus processes batches of soybeans into one or more of a variety of food products, under conditions that can be chosen by the user and reproduced from batch to batch. Examples of products include soy milk, tofu, okara (an insoluble protein and fiber byproduct of soy milk), and whey. Most processing steps take place without intervention by the user. This apparatus was developed for use in research on processing of soy. It is also a prototype of other soy-processing apparatuses for research, industrial, and home use. Prior soy-processing equipment includes household devices that automatically produce soy milk but do not automatically produce tofu. The designs of prior soy-processing equipment require users to manually transfer intermediate solid soy products and to press them manually and, hence, under conditions that are not consistent from batch to batch. Prior designs do not afford choices of processing conditions: Users cannot use previously developed soy-processing equipment to investigate the effects of variations of techniques used to produce soy milk (e.g., cold grinding, hot grinding, and pre-cook blanching) and of such process parameters as cooking times and temperatures, grinding times, soaking times and temperatures, rinsing conditions, and sizes of particles generated by grinding. In contrast, the present apparatus is amenable to such investigations. The apparatus (see figure) includes a processing tank and a jacketed holding or coagulation tank. The processing tank can be capped by either of two different heads and can contain either of two different insertable mesh baskets. The first head includes a grinding blade and heating elements. The second head includes an automated press piston. One mesh basket, designated the okara basket, has oblong holes with a size equivalent to about 40 mesh [40 openings per inch (.16 openings per centimeter)]. The second mesh basket, designated the tofu basket, has holes of 70 mesh [70 openings

  4. Fluid-dynamic behavior of flaxseed fluidized and spouted bed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elza Brandão Santana

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Processing of particles in a moving bed, such as a fluidized bed or a spouting bed, is commonly used in the operations of drying, coating, and granulation of particulate systems. This process has applications in the chemical, pharmaceutical and, presently, agronomical industries, especially for seed treatment/coating. This research aimed to analyze the fluid-dynamic behavior of fluidized and spouting beds with different air temperatures and loads of flaxseeds (Linum usitatissimum L., with estimates of the fluid-dynamic parameters correlated to each process. The parameters were compared with the values obtained from classical correlations in the literature, with indications of associated percentages of deviation. Influence of fluid dynamics on the physiological quality of seeds was assessed by germination tests and the germination speed index. An analysis of the results indicated that seed processing was adequate for processing in dynamically active beds; however, temperatures above 50ºC in both beds caused significant reductions in the physiological quality of the seeds. Processing in a fluidized bed presented a smaller reduction of the physiological properties of the flaxseed.

  5. Influência do tipo de material suporte no desempenho de reatores biológicos de leito móvel na remoção de carbono e nitrificação de esgoto sanitário The influence of material support kind on the biological moving bed reactors performance used for the carbon removal and nitrification of sewage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delmira Beatriz Wolff

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho foi mostrada a influência do tipo de material suporte: P4 (plástico reciclado rugoso, diâmetro médio de 2,31 mm, densidade de 900 kg.m-3, superfície específica potencial de 2.596 m².m-3sup e P5 (polietileno, pouco rugoso, forma cilíndrica, diâmetro médio de 10 mm, densidade de 880 kg.m-3, superfície específica potencial de 3.075m².m-³sup utilizados em dois reatores biológicos de leito móvel, fluxo contínuo, na remoção de carbono e nitrificação de esgoto sanitário, os quais foram divididos em duas fases, de acordo com a idade do lodo (IL: fase A: IL de 10 dias e fase B: IL de 3 dias. Foram aplicadas cargas orgânicas superficiais médias de 4,0 kgDQO.m-2.d-1 (P4 e de 4,1 kgDQO.m-2.d-1 (P5; e cargas superficiais de nitrogênio de 0,63 kgN.m-2.d-1 (P5 e de 0,66 kgN.m-2.d-1 (P5. Para o material P4, a remoção média foi de 87% de carbono e 83% de nitrogênio (fase A e 80% de carbono e 77% de nitrogênio (fase B. Para o P5, remoção de 63% de carbono e 55% de nitrogênio (Fase A e 59% de carbono e de nitrogênio (fase B. Com base nos resultados obtidos, verificou-se que a remoção de carbono e nitrogênio não foi influenciada pela idade do lodo, mas pelo tipo de material suporte (forma ou características de superfície e superfície disponível para o crescimento da biomassa.This paper presented the influence of material support kind: P4 (rugous recycled plastic, medium diameter of 2.31 mm, density of 900 kg.m-3, specific surface potential of 2,596 m².m-3sup and P5 (polietilene, cilindric shape, medium diameter of 10 mm, density of 880 kg.m-3, specific surface potential of 3,075m².m-3sup used in two continuous flux biological moving bed reactors using different material support to remove nitrogen and carbon from sewage, which was divided in two phases according to sludge retention time (SRT: phase A: SRT of 10 days and phase B: SRT of 3 days. The organic loading rates applied were 4.0 kgCOD.m-2.d-1 (P4 and

  6. Nail bed onychomatricoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lei; Gao, Tianwen; Wang, Gang

    2014-10-01

    Onychomatricoma is a rare tumor originating from the nail matrix, and, in rare conditions, from the ventral aspect of the proximal nailfold. Here we report a rare case of a 51-year-old man presenting with melanonychia mainly involving the distal nail plate. Histopathologic examination showed typical findings of onychomatricoma mainly involving the nail bed, while the nail matrix was largely uninvolved. We also identified fungal infection in a focal area of the distal nail plate. Our findings indicate that onychomatricoma can develop in the surrounding epithelial tissue of the nail unit, including the nail bed, and suggest that fungal infection may represent a secondary phenomenon of onychomatricoma. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Geomechanics of bedded salt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serata, S.; Milnor, S.W.

    1979-01-01

    Creep data from the literature search is reinterpreted by SGI, resulting in a better understanding of the temperature and stress state dependence of the octahedral creep rate and the octahedral shear strength. The concept of a transition strength between the elastic and the plastic states is in agreement with the data. The elastic and rheological properties of salt are described, and a set of constitutive equations is presented. The dependence of material properties on parameters such as temperature is considered. Findings on the permeability of salt are summarized, and the in-situ behavior of openings in bedded salt is described based on extensive engineering experience. A stress measuring system utilizing a finite element computer code is discussed. Geological factors affecting the stability of salt openings are considered, and the Stress Control Technique for designing stable openings in bedded salt formations is explained

  8. Batch and bulk removal of hazardous dye, indigo carmine from wastewater through adsorption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mittal, Alok; Mittal, Jyoti; Kurup, Lisha

    2006-01-01

    An inexpensive adsorption method has been developed for the removal of indigo carmine, a highly toxic indigoid class of dye from wastewater. Waste materials-bottom ash, a power plant waste and de-oiled soya, an agricultural waste have been used as adsorbents. Attempts have been made through batch and bulk removal of the dye and both the adsorbents have been found to exhibit good efficiency to adsorb indigo carmine. Under batch technique effect of temperature, pH, concentration, dosage of adsorbents, sieve size of adsorbents, etc. have been observed. The dye uptake on to both the adsorbents is found to validate Langmuir and Freundlich adsorption isotherms models. Different thermodynamic parameters, like Gibb's free energy, enthalpy and entropy of the on-going adsorption process have also been evaluated. Batch technique has also been employed for the kinetic measurements and the adsorption follows a first order rate kinetics for both the adsorbents. The kinetic investigations also reveal for both the adsorbents film diffusion and particle diffusion mechanisms are operative in the lower and higher concentration ranges, respectively. Under the bulk removal, indigo carmine has been adsorbed through the column beds of bottom ash and de-oiled soya and more than 90% of the dye material has been recovered by eluting dilute NaOH solution through exhausted columns

  9. Batch and bulk removal of hazardous dye, indigo carmine from wastewater through adsorption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mittal, Alok [Department of Applied Chemistry, Maulana Azad National Institute of Technology, Bhopal 462 007 (India)]. E-mail: aljymittal@yahoo.co.in; Mittal, Jyoti [Department of Applied Chemistry, Maulana Azad National Institute of Technology, Bhopal 462 007 (India); Kurup, Lisha [Department of Applied Chemistry, Maulana Azad National Institute of Technology, Bhopal 462 007 (India)

    2006-09-01

    An inexpensive adsorption method has been developed for the removal of indigo carmine, a highly toxic indigoid class of dye from wastewater. Waste materials-bottom ash, a power plant waste and de-oiled soya, an agricultural waste have been used as adsorbents. Attempts have been made through batch and bulk removal of the dye and both the adsorbents have been found to exhibit good efficiency to adsorb indigo carmine. Under batch technique effect of temperature, pH, concentration, dosage of adsorbents, sieve size of adsorbents, etc. have been observed. The dye uptake on to both the adsorbents is found to validate Langmuir and Freundlich adsorption isotherms models. Different thermodynamic parameters, like Gibb's free energy, enthalpy and entropy of the on-going adsorption process have also been evaluated. Batch technique has also been employed for the kinetic measurements and the adsorption follows a first order rate kinetics for both the adsorbents. The kinetic investigations also reveal for both the adsorbents film diffusion and particle diffusion mechanisms are operative in the lower and higher concentration ranges, respectively. Under the bulk removal, indigo carmine has been adsorbed through the column beds of bottom ash and de-oiled soya and more than 90% of the dye material has been recovered by eluting dilute NaOH solution through exhausted columns.

  10. Batch and bulk removal of hazardous dye, indigo carmine from wastewater through adsorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mittal, Alok; Mittal, Jyoti; Kurup, Lisha

    2006-09-01

    An inexpensive adsorption method has been developed for the removal of indigo carmine, a highly toxic indigoid class of dye from wastewater. Waste materials--bottom ash, a power plant waste and de-oiled soya, an agricultural waste--have been used as adsorbents. Attempts have been made through batch and bulk removal of the dye and both the adsorbents have been found to exhibit good efficiency to adsorb indigo carmine. Under batch technique effect of temperature, pH, concentration, dosage of adsorbents, sieve size of adsorbents, etc. have been observed. The dye uptake on to both the adsorbents is found to validate Langmuir and Freundlich adsorption isotherms models. Different thermodynamic parameters, like Gibb's free energy, enthalpy and entropy of the on-going adsorption process have also been evaluated. Batch technique has also been employed for the kinetic measurements and the adsorption follows a first order rate kinetics for both the adsorbents. The kinetic investigations also reveal for both the adsorbents film diffusion and particle diffusion mechanisms are operative in the lower and higher concentration ranges, respectively. Under the bulk removal, indigo carmine has been adsorbed through the column beds of bottom ash and de-oiled soya and more than 90% of the dye material has been recovered by eluting dilute NaOH solution through exhausted columns.

  11. Removal of geosmin and 2-methylisoborneol during managed aquifer recharge: Batch and column studies

    KAUST Repository

    Maeng, Sungkyu

    2012-06-01

    Managed aquifer recharge is a robust barrier in the multi-barrier approach to supply safe drinking water. The removal performance of gesomin and 2-methylisoborneol through managed aquifer recharge was investigated using batch and column experiments. Batch experiments were carried out to investigate the removal of geosmin and 2-methylisoborneol (MIB) in the presence of different types of biodegradable organic matter using different types of water. Five different types of water spiked with 70-293 ng/L of geosmin and MIB were used in batch reactors, and complete removal of geosmin and MIB (down to the detection limit) was achieved in all cases. Soil column studies showed that biodegradation contributed to the removal of geosmin and MIB by 23 and 31%, respectively (empty bed contact time: 17 hours). The removal of geosmin and MIB appeared to be influenced more by microbial activity than the initial concentrations of geosmin and MIB. Adsorption was found to be the dominant mechanism (major role) followed by biodegradation (minor role) for geosmin and MIB removals during soil passage. Managed aquifer charge can therefore be used as a robust barrier to remove taste and odor (T&O) causing compounds.© IWA Publishing 2012.

  12. CONVERSION OF PINEAPPLE JUICE WASTE INTO LACTIC ACID IN BATCH AND FED – BATCH FERMENTATION SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah Mochamad Busairi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Pineapple juice waste contains valuable components, which are mainly sucrose, glucose, and fructose. Recently, lactic acid has been considered to be an important raw material for the production of biodegradable lactide polymer. The fermentation experiments were carried out in a 3 litres fermentor (Biostat B Model under anaerobic condition with stirring speed of 50 rpm, temperature at 40oC, and pH of 6.00. Effect of feed concentration on lactic acid production, bacterial growth, substrate utilisation and productivity was studied. The results obtained from fed- batch culture fermentation showed that the maximum lactic acid productivity was 0.44 g/L.h for feed concentration of 90 g/L at 48 hours. Whereas the lactic acid productivity obtained from fed-batch culture was twice and half fold higher than that of batch culture productivity.  Buangan jus nanas mengandung komponen yang berharga terutama sukrosa, glukosa, dan fruktosa. Asam laktat adalah bahan baku yang terbaru dan penting untuk dibuat sebagai polimer laktat yang dapat terdegradasi oleh lingkungan. Percobaan dilakukan pada fermentor 3 liter (Model Biostat B di bawah kondisi anaerob dengan kecepatan pengadukan 50 rpm, temperatur 40oC, dan pH 6,00. Pengaruh konsentrasi umpan terhadap produksi asam laktat, pertumbuhan mikroba, pengggunaan substrat dan produktivitas telah dipelajari. Hasil yang didapatkan pada fermentasi dengan menggunakan sistem fed-batch menunjukkan bahwa produktivitas asam laktat maksimum adalah 0.44 g/L,jam dengan konsentrasi umpan, 90 g/L pada waktu 48 jam. Bahkan produktivitas asam laktat yang didapat pada kultur fed-batch lebih tinggi 2,5 kali dari pada proses menggunakan sistem batch

  13. MOVES regional level sensitivity analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    The MOVES Regional Level Sensitivity Analysis was conducted to increase understanding of the operations of the MOVES Model in regional emissions analysis and to highlight the following: : the relative sensitivity of selected MOVES Model input paramet...

  14. Following an Optimal Batch Bioreactor Operations Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ibarra-Junquera, V.; Jørgensen, Sten Bay; Virgen-Ortíz, J.J.

    2012-01-01

    -batch reactor for biomass production is studied using a differential geometry approach. The maximization problem is solved by handling both the optimal filling policy and substrate concentration in the inlet stream. In order to follow the OBBOM, a master–slave synchronization is used. The OBBOM is considered...... as the master system which includes the optimal cultivation trajectory for the feed flow rate and the substrate concentration. The “real” bioreactor, the one with unknown dynamics and perturbations, is considered as the slave system. Finally, the controller is designed such that the real bioreactor...

  15. Contactless mass moving system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, X.

    1992-01-01

    This patent describes a process for moving an article at a velocity in excess of 10 Kilometers per second. It comprises providing a contactless, mass transfer system comprised of a chamber formed by alternating sections of superconductive material and electromagnetic coils, and means for cooling the chamber; providing a magnetized object which has a weight of at least about 1 gram and a magnetic field strength of at least about 1 Gauss; disposing the magnetized object within the chamber; delivering asynchronous direct current pulses to the chamber while the magnetized object is disposed within the chamber; whereby the magnetized object is caused to move within the chamber

  16. SPOUTED BED DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS FOR COATED NUCLEAR FUEL PARTICLES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marshall, Douglas W.

    2017-07-01

    High Temperature Gas Cooled Reactors (HTGRs) are fueled with tristructural isotropic (TRISO) coated nuclear fuel particles embedded in a carbon-graphite fuel body. TRISO coatings consist of four layers of pyrolytic carbon and silicon carbide that are deposited on uranium ceramic fuel kernels (350µm – 500µm diameters) in a concatenated series of batch depositions. Each layer has dedicated functions such that the finished fuel particle has its own integral containment to minimize and control the release of fission products into the fuel body and reactor core. The TRISO coatings are the primary containment structure in the HTGR reactor and must have very high uniformity and integrity. To ensure high quality TRISO coatings, the four layers are deposited by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) using high purity precursors and are applied in a concatenated succession of batch operations before the finished product is unloaded from the coating furnace. These depositions take place at temperatures ranging from 1230°C to 1550°C and use three different gas compositions, while the fuel particle diameters double, their density drops from 11.1 g/cm3 to 3.0 g/cm3, and the bed volume increases more than 8-fold. All this is accomplished without the aid of sight ports or internal instrumentation that could cause chemical contamination within the layers or mechanical damage to thin layers in the early stages of each layer deposition. The converging section of the furnace retort was specifically designed to prevent bed stagnation that would lead to unacceptably high defect fractions and facilitate bed circulation to avoid large variability in coating layer dimensions and properties. The gas injection nozzle was designed to protect precursor gases from becoming overheated prior to injection, to induce bed spouting and preclude bed stagnation in the bottom of the retort. Furthermore, the retort and injection nozzle designs minimize buildup of pyrocarbon and silicon carbide on the

  17. Biogas recirculation for simultaneous calcium removal and biogas purification within an expanded granular sludge bed system treating leachate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Jinghuan; Lu, Xueqin; Liu, Jianyong; Qian, Guangren; Lu, Yongsheng

    2014-12-01

    Biogas, generated from an expanded granular sludge bed (EGSB) reactor treating municipal solid waste (MSW) leachate, was recirculated for calcium removal from the leachate via a carbonation process with simultaneous biogas purification. Batch trials were performed to optimize the solution pH and imported biogas (CO2) for CaCO3 precipitation. With applicable pH of 10-11 obtained, continuous trials achieved final calcium concentrations of 181-375 mg/L (removal efficiencies≈92.8-96.5%) in the leachate and methane contents of 87.1-91.4% (purification efficiencies≈65.4-82.2%) in the biogas. Calcium-balance study indicates that 23-986 mg Ca/d was released from the bio-system under the carbonized condition where CaCO3 precipitating was moved outside the bioreactor, whereas 7918-9517 mg Ca/d was trapped into the system for the controlled one. These findings demonstrate that carbonation removal of calcium by biogas recirculation could be a promising alternative to pretreat calcium-rich MSW leachate and synergistically to improve methane content. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Moving in Circles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Gunvor

    2008-01-01

    The article examines the development of African diaspora history during the last fifty years. It outlines the move from a focus on African survivals to a focus on deep rooted cultural principles and back again to a revived interest in concrete cultural transfers from Africa to the Americas. This ...

  19. Avoiding moving obstacles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aivar, M.P.; Brenner, E.; Smeets, J.B.J.

    2008-01-01

    To successfully move our hand to a target, we must consider how to get there without hitting surrounding objects. In a dynamic environment this involves being able to respond quickly when our relationship with surrounding objects changes. People adjust their hand movements with a latency of about

  20. And Still They Moved

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 3; Issue 10. And Still they Moved - An Important Statement about some Rock Masses. Ramesh Chander. General Article Volume 3 Issue 10 October 1998 pp 41-48. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:

  1. Making Images That Move

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rennie, Richard

    2015-01-01

    The history of the moving image (the cinema) is well documented in books and on the Internet. This article offers a number of activities that can easily be carried out in a science class. They make use of the phenomenon of "Persistence of Vision." The activities presented herein demonstrate the functionality of the phenakistoscope, the…

  2. Indexing Moving Points

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agarwal, Pankaj K.; Arge, Lars Allan; Erickson, Jeff

    2003-01-01

    We propose three indexing schemes for storing a set S of N points in the plane, each moving along a linear trajectory, so that any query of the following form can be answered quickly: Given a rectangle R and a real value t, report all K points of S that lie inside R at time t. We first present an...

  3. Understanding and predicting bed humidity in fluidized bed granulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Xinhui; Cunningham, John; Winstead, Denita

    2008-04-01

    Bed humidity is a critical parameter that needs to be controlled in a fluidized bed granulation to ensure reliability. To predict and control the bed humidity during the fluidized bed granulation process, a simple model based on the mass conservation of moisture was developed. The moisture mass balance model quantitatively simulates the effects of spray rate, binder solution concentration, airflow rate, inlet air temperature, and dew point on the bed humidity. The model was validated by a series of granulations performed in different scale granulators including Glatt GPCG-1, GPCG-15, and GPCG-60. Good agreement was observed between the theoretical prediction and the measured loss on drying (LOD). The model developed in the current work enables us to choose the appropriate parameters for the fluidized bed granulation and can be used as a valuable tool in process scaling-up. 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc

  4. Coal Bed Methane Primer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dan Arthur; Bruce Langhus; Jon Seekins

    2005-05-25

    During the second half of the 1990's Coal Bed Methane (CBM) production increased dramatically nationwide to represent a significant new source of income and natural gas for many independent and established producers. Matching these soaring production rates during this period was a heightened public awareness of environmental concerns. These concerns left unexplained and under-addressed have created a significant growth in public involvement generating literally thousands of unfocused project comments for various regional NEPA efforts resulting in the delayed development of public and fee lands. The accelerating interest in CBM development coupled to the growth in public involvement has prompted the conceptualization of this project for the development of a CBM Primer. The Primer is designed to serve as a summary document, which introduces and encapsulates information pertinent to the development of Coal Bed Methane (CBM), including focused discussions of coal deposits, methane as a natural formed gas, split mineral estates, development techniques, operational issues, producing methods, applicable regulatory frameworks, land and resource management, mitigation measures, preparation of project plans, data availability, Indian Trust issues and relevant environmental technologies. An important aspect of gaining access to federal, state, tribal, or fee lands involves education of a broad array of stakeholders, including land and mineral owners, regulators, conservationists, tribal governments, special interest groups, and numerous others that could be impacted by the development of coal bed methane. Perhaps the most crucial aspect of successfully developing CBM resources is stakeholder education. Currently, an inconsistent picture of CBM exists. There is a significant lack of understanding on the parts of nearly all stakeholders, including industry, government, special interest groups, and land owners. It is envisioned the Primer would being used by a variety of

  5. Bed Rest Muscular Atrophy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenleaf, John E.

    2000-01-01

    A major debilitating response from prolonged bed rest (BR) is muscle atrophy, defined as a "decrease in size of a part of tissue after full development has been attained: a wasting away of tissue as from disuse, old age, injury or disease". Part of the complicated mechanism for the dizziness, increased body instability, and exaggerated gait in patients who arise immediately after BR may be a result of not only foot pain, but also of muscular atrophy and associated reduction in lower limb strength. Also, there seems to be a close association between muscle atrophy and bone atrophy. A discussion of many facets of the total BR homeostatic syndrome has been published. The old adage that use determines form which promotes function of bone (Wolff's law) also applies to those people exposed to prolonged BR (without exercise training) in whom muscle atrophy is a consistent finding. An extreme case involved a 16-year-old boy who was ordered to bed by his mother in 1932: after 50 years in bed he had "a lily-white frame with limbs as thin as the legs of a ladder-back chair". These findings emphasize the close relationship between muscle atrophy and bone atrophy. In addition to loss of muscle mass during deconditioning, there is a significant loss of muscle strength and a decrease in protein synthesis. Because the decreases in force (strength) are proportionately greater than those in fiber size or muscle cross-sectional area, other contributory factors must be involved; muscle fiber dehydration may be important.

  6. Particle bed reactor modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sapyta, Joe; Reid, Hank; Walton, Lew

    The topics are presented in viewgraph form and include the following: particle bed reactor (PBR) core cross section; PBR bleed cycle; fuel and moderator flow paths; PBR modeling requirements; characteristics of PBR and nuclear thermal propulsion (NTP) modeling; challenges for PBR and NTP modeling; thermal hydraulic computer codes; capabilities for PBR/reactor application; thermal/hydralic codes; limitations; physical correlations; comparison of predicted friction factor and experimental data; frit pressure drop testing; cold frit mask factor; decay heat flow rate; startup transient simulation; and philosophy of systems modeling.

  7. A numerical model of the deep-bed drying of extruded fish feed and its experimental validation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haubjerg, Anders Fjeldbo; Veje, Christian; Jørgensen, Bo Nørregaard

    A deep bed drying model for the description of moisture and temperature on an individual pellet level has been developed. Experimental validation is carried out in a special designed lab batch dryer, based on recordings of average moisture content and pellet surface temperature, on the air exhaus...

  8. DNA binding during expanded bed adsorption and factors affecting adsorbent aggregation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arpanaei, Ayyoob; Mathiasen, N.; Hobley, Timothy John

    2008-01-01

    DNA-induced aggregation and contraction of expanded bed adsorption chromatography beds have been examined using strong anion exchanger Q HyperZ and calf thymus DNA in buffers containing added NaCl. Two batches of adsorbent with different ionic capacities were used allowing the effects of different...... tolerance of anion exchangers when binding DNA. However, more importantly. with the adsorbents examined here. attempts to reduce bed aggregation by feedstock conditioning with added salt may increase DNA binding leading to a reduction in expanded bed adsorption performance compromising protein capture...... ligand densities to be examined. Very high dynamic binding capacities at 10% breakthrough were found in the absence of added salt. However, the highest binding capacities (similar to 10 and similar to 19mg DNA ml(-1) gel) were found in buffers containing added salt at concentrations of either 0.25 or 0...

  9. TCR moves to MCR

    CERN Multimedia

    Peter Sollander, AB/OP/TI

    2005-01-01

    The monitoring of CERN's technical infrastructure has moved from the Technical Control Room in building 212 to the Meyrin Control Room (MCR) in building 354 (see map) and from the TS/CSE group to AB/OP. The operation's team as well as the services provided remain the same as before and you can still reach the operator on shift by calling 72201. Peter Sollander, AB/OP/TI

  10. Luxury consumption moves East

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khan, Omera

    2015-01-01

    Purpose – The literature contains relatively little prescriptive guidance for establishing supply chain strategies in the luxury fashion marketplace. The focus has been on fashion rather than luxury fashion and the purpose of this paper is to identify and explore the critical supply chain success...... novel insights to transformations in global supply chain strategy as luxury consumption is moving towards the east, which creates new challenges and demands for European manufacturers to respond, to sustaining a competitive advantage....

  11. Lecture - "Move! Eat better"

    CERN Multimedia

    2012-01-01

    As part of the "Move! Eat better" campaign, Novae’s nutrition adviser, Irène Rolfo, will give a talk on the subject of everyday good nutrition. This will be held in the main building auditorium at 12:30 on Thursday, 20 September 2012. Don’t miss this informative event. For more information, go to http://cern.ch/bpmm            

  12. CERN Pension Fund move

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2007-01-01

    The CERN Pension Fund has moved to new offices on the 5th floor of Building 5. The Benefits Service of the Fund is now located in Offices 5-5-017 - 5-5-021 - 5-5-023. We remind you that the office hours are: Tuesday/Wednesday/Thursday from 10 am to 12 am and from 3 pm to 5 pm. The Fund would like to take this opportunity to warmly thank all the persons involved in the relocation.

  13. STUCTURE OF PULSED BED

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. A. Bokun

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The structure of pulsed layer is proposed which can be suggested as a state of particulates that is blown by intermittent gas flow with speed which has the force to start material moving. Layer during one cycle is in a suspension, falling down and immobile state resulting in changes of particles arrangement as well as ways of gas flowing through layer. Moreover, it allows carrying out effective interphase heat exchange even adamant real granulation.The process of formation of impact flows is considered aw well as their influence on formation of air bubbles in pulsed layer. At startup of air blast the balance between the force of hydro-dynamic resistance is broken, on one side, and forces of gravity, particles inertia and their links with walls on the other side. The layer is transferred in the state of pulsed pseudo-fluidization, and presents gas-disperse mixture, inside of which impulse of pressure increasing is spreading to all sides as pressure waves (compression. These waves are the sources of impact flows’ formation, the force of which is two times more than during the stationary flow.The waves of pressure are divided into weak and strong ones depending on movement velocity within gas-disperse system. Weak waves are moving with a sound speed and strong ones in active phase of pulsed layer are moving over the speed of sound limit within gas-disperse system. The peculiarity of strong wave is that parameters of system (pressure, density and others are changing in discrete steps.The article describes the regime of layer’s falling down in the passive stage of cycle, which begins after finishing of gas impulse action. And suspension layer of moving up granular material is transferred in the state of falling resulting in change of the layer structure.

  14. A moving experience !

    CERN Multimedia

    2005-01-01

    The Transport Service pulled out all the stops and, more specifically, its fleet of moving and lifting equipment for the Discovery Monday on 6 June - a truly moving experience for all the visitors who took part ! Visitors could play at being machine operator, twiddling the controls of a lift truck fitted with a jib to lift a dummy magnet into a wooden mock-up of a beam-line.They had to show even greater dexterity for this game of lucky dip...CERN-style.Those with a head for heights took to the skies 20 m above ground in a telescopic boom lift.Children were allowed to climb up into the operator's cabin - this is one of the cranes used to move the LHC magnets around. Warm thanks to all members of the Transport Service for their participation, especially B. Goicoechea, T. Ilkei, R. Bihery, S. Prodon, S. Pelletier, Y. Bernard, A.  Sallot, B. Pigeard, S. Guinchard, B. Bulot, J. Berrez, Y. Grandjean, A. Bouakkaz, M. Bois, F. Stach, T. Mazzarino and S. Fumey.

  15. Interactive and Batch Analysis at DESY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Künne, K.

    Besides the data taking and reconstruction the analysis of the Physics Data is a major part in Physics Computing. Currently a new structure, which should last for the next years (maybe the next millenium), is introduced in the computing for Physics Analysis at DESY, which closely follows a Client-Server-Model, and which is based on the Workgroup-Server-Concept (first introduced at CERN). The talk will give an overview about this new structure, which includes File-Servers, Workgroup-Servers, and Batch-Servers. Special emphasis will be given to the handling of different classes of data inside of such a distributed system. The important point here is to avoid unnecessary network traffic. Other key topics include management of that distributed system and load balancing issues. Also presented in this talk are experiences with that system and future developments.

  16. Batch Cultivation Model for Biopolymer Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. E. Torres-Cerna

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a mathematical model to evaluate the kinetics of two different Pseudomonas putida strains, wild and mutant-type for the microbial production of polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs. Model parameters were estimated to represent adequately experimental data from the batch reactor using the differential evolution algorithm. Based on the mathematical model with the best-fit parameter values, simulations suggested that the high production of PHA by the mutant strain can be attributed not only to the higher production of PHA but also to a reduction in the consumption rate of the substrates of approximately 66 %. Remarkably, the cell growth rate value is higher for the wild type than the mutant type, suggesting that the PHA increase is not only to an increase in the production rate but also to the metabolism of the cells. This mathematical model advances comprehension of the PHA production capacity by P. putida paving the road towards environmentally friendly plastics.

  17. Maximum thermodynamic efficiency problem in batch distillation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. C. Zavala-Loría

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available A dynamic batch distillation study of the non-ideal mixture Ethanol-Water is presented. The objective of the study was to calculate an average thermodynamic efficiency of the process under an optimal constant reflux policy and the objective function includes a given production time in order to obtain the desired product quality (measured as the average mole fraction of the accumulated product. An expression for computing the thermodynamic efficiency is presented. The simulation of the column uses a mathematical model considering the complete dynamics of the operation and the problem of optimal control resulting in a non-linear programming problem. A dynamic optimization technique based on a SQP method was used to solve the problem. The average thermodynamic efficiency for the separation process under the conditions presented was 37.95%.

  18. Optimizing Resource Utilization in Grid Batch Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gellrich, Andreas

    2012-01-01

    On Grid sites, the requirements of the computing tasks (jobs) to computing, storage, and network resources differ widely. For instance Monte Carlo production jobs are almost purely CPU-bound, whereas physics analysis jobs demand high data rates. In order to optimize the utilization of the compute node resources, jobs must be distributed intelligently over the nodes. Although the job resource requirements cannot be deduced directly, jobs are mapped to POSIX UID/GID according to the VO, VOMS group and role information contained in the VOMS proxy. The UID/GID then allows to distinguish jobs, if users are using VOMS proxies as planned by the VO management, e.g. ‘role=production’ for Monte Carlo jobs. It is possible to setup and configure batch systems (queuing system and scheduler) at Grid sites based on these considerations although scaling limits were observed with the scheduler MAUI. In tests these limitations could be overcome with a home-made scheduler.

  19. Isolating roughness scales of gravel-bed patches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertin, Stephane; Groom, Jane; Friedrich, Heide

    2017-08-01

    There is a growing consensus that gravel-bed roughness should be parameterized based on bed-surface topography, not only sediment size. One benefit is the possible identification of various spatial scales of surface roughness and evaluation of their respective contributions to flow resistance (and also to bedload transport). The absence of relationships between roughness at the different scales is apparent in previous work, which currently limits roughness parameterization from topography and application in flow modeling. This study examines the use of moving-window detrending on gravel-bed digital elevation models (DEMs) for isolating roughness scales and their respective signatures. A large data set of 35 water-worked gravel-bed patches from both the laboratory and the field was used for the analysis. The measured bed topography was separated into two distinct DEMs: one representing grains, the other representing small bedforms. For all DEMs, bed-elevation parameters measuring vertical roughness, imbrication, and spatial correlations were determined. Our results show distinct topographic signatures between grain and bedform DEMs. We show strong positive linear relationships between grain vertical roughness and the size of the bed-surface material. Surface sediment arrangement also determined bedform shape, with groupings of coarse sediment forming humps on the surface, and finer sediment sheltered in hollows. Patch-scale vertical roughness could not be estimated simply as the sum of grain and bedform vertical roughness. Instead, our results suggest weighted summation and the existence of universal weighting coefficients. Practical applications for studies on gravel-bed roughness and flow modeling using DEMs are discussed.

  20. Spatial and interannual variability in Baltic sprat batch fecundity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haslob, H.; Tomkiewicz, Jonna; Hinrichsen, H.H.

    2011-01-01

    and ambient temperature explained 70% of variability in absolute batch fecundity. Oxygen content and fish condition were not related to sprat batch fecundity. Additionally, a negative effect of stock size on sprat batch fecundity in the Bornholm Basin was revealed. The obtained data and results are important...... in the central Baltic Sea, namely the Bornholm Basin, Gdansk Deep and Southern Gotland Basin. Environmental parameters such as hydrography, fish condition and stock density were tested in order to investigate the observed variability in sprat fecundity. Absolute batch fecundity was found to be positively related...

  1. Sewage sludge irradiators: Batch and continuous flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lavale, D.S.; George, J.R.; Shah, M.R.; Rawat, K.P.

    1998-01-01

    The potential threat to the environment imposed by high pathogenic organism content in municipal wastewater, especially the sludge and the world-wide growing aspirations for a cleaner, salubrious environment have made it mandatory for the sewage and sludge to undergo treatment, prior to their ultimate disposal to mother nature. Incapabilities associated with the conventional wastewater treatments to mitigate the problem of microorganisms have made it necessary to look for other alternatives, radiation treatment being the most reliable, rapid and environmentally sustainable of them. To promote the use of radiation for the sludge hygienization, Department of Atomic Energy has endeavoured to set up an indigenous, Sludge Hygienization Research Irradiator (SHRI) in the city of Baroda. Designed for 18.5 PBq of 60 Co to disinfect the digested sludge, the irradiator has additional provision for treatment of effluent and raw sewage. From engineering standpoint, all the subsystems have been functioning satisfactorily since its commissioning in 1990. Prolonged studies, spanning over a period of six years, primarily focused on inactivation of microorganism revealed that 3 kGy dose of gamma radiation is adequate to make the sludge pathogen and odour-free. A dose of 1.6 kGy in raw sewage and 0.5 kGy in effluent reduced coliform counts down to the regulatory discharge limits. These observations reflect a possible cost-effective solution to the burgeoning problem of surface water pollution across the globe. In the past, sub 37 PBq 60 Co batch irradiators have been designed and commissioned successfully for the treatment of sludge. Characterized with low dose delivery rates they are well-suited for treating low volumes of sludge in batches. Some concepts of continuous flow 60 Co irradiators having larger activities, yet simple and economic in design, are presented in the paper

  2. Survey on batch-to-batch variation in spray paints: a collaborative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muehlethaler, Cyril; Massonnet, Geneviève; Deviterne, Marie; Bradley, Maureen; Herrero, Ana; de Lezana, Itxaso Diaz; Lauper, Sandrine; Dubois, Damien; Geyer-Lippmann, Jochen; Ketterer, Sonja; Milet, Stéphane; Bertrand, Magali; Langer, Wolfgang; Plage, Bernd; Gorzawski, Gabriele; Lamothe, Véronique; Marsh, Louissa; Turunen, Raija

    2013-06-10

    This study represents the most extensive analysis of batch-to-batch variations in spray paint samples to date. The survey was performed as a collaborative project of the ENFSI (European Network of Forensic Science Institutes) Paint and Glass Working Group (EPG) and involved 11 laboratories. Several studies have already shown that paint samples of similar color but from different manufacturers can usually be differentiated using an appropriate analytical sequence. The discrimination of paints from the same manufacturer and color (batch-to-batch variations) is of great interest and these data are seldom found in the literature. This survey concerns the analysis of batches from different color groups (white, papaya (special shade of orange), red and black) with a wide range of analytical techniques and leads to the following conclusions. Colored batch samples are more likely to be differentiated since their pigment composition is more complex (pigment mixtures, added pigments) and therefore subject to variations. These variations may occur during the paint production but may also occur when checking the paint shade in quality control processes. For these samples, techniques aimed at color/pigment(s) characterization (optical microscopy, microspectrophotometry (MSP), Raman spectroscopy) provide better discrimination than techniques aimed at the organic (binder) or inorganic composition (fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) or elemental analysis (SEM - scanning electron microscopy and XRF - X-ray fluorescence)). White samples contain mainly titanium dioxide as a pigment and the main differentiation is based on the binder composition (CH stretches) detected either by FTIR or Raman. The inorganic composition (elemental analysis) also provides some discrimination. Black samples contain mainly carbon black as a pigment and are problematic with most of the spectroscopic techniques. In this case, pyrolysis-GC/MS represents the best technique to detect differences

  3. Variability of Bed Drag on Cohesive Beds under Wave Action

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilgar Safak

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Drag force at the bed acting on water flow is a major control on water circulation and sediment transport. Bed drag has been thoroughly studied in sandy waters, but less so in muddy coastal waters. The variation of bed drag on a muddy shelf is investigated here using field observations of currents, waves, and sediment concentration collected during moderate wind and wave events. To estimate bottom shear stress and the bed drag coefficient, an indirect empirical method of logarithmic fitting to current velocity profiles (log-law, a bottom boundary layer model for combined wave-current flow, and a direct method that uses turbulent fluctuations of velocity are used. The overestimation by the log-law is significantly reduced by taking turbulence suppression due to sediment-induced stratification into account. The best agreement between the model and the direct estimates is obtained by using a hydraulic roughness of 10 - 4 m in the model. Direct estimate of bed drag on the muddy bed is found to have a decreasing trend with increasing current speed, and is estimated to be around 0.0025 in conditions where wave-induced flow is relatively weak. Bed drag shows an increase (up to fourfold with increasing wave energy. These findings can be used to test the bed drag parameterizations in hydrodynamic and sediment transport models and the skills of these models in predicting flows in muddy environments.

  4. Prediction of bed level variations in nonuniform sediment bed channel

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    B R Andharia

    2018-04-12

    Apr 12, 2018 ... have been undertaken for measurements of bed and water levels in an aggrading channel due to overloading of nonuniform sediments ..... 2.4 Thickness of active bed layer. The mixing zone of sediment remaining in contact with the flow is referred as active layer (ABL). The thickness and particle size ...

  5. Variability of bed drag on cohesive beds under wave action

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safak, Ilgar

    2016-01-01

    Drag force at the bed acting on water flow is a major control on water circulation and sediment transport. Bed drag has been thoroughly studied in sandy waters, but less so in muddy coastal waters. The variation of bed drag on a muddy shelf is investigated here using field observations of currents, waves, and sediment concentration collected during moderate wind and wave events. To estimate bottom shear stress and the bed drag coefficient, an indirect empirical method of logarithmic fitting to current velocity profiles (log-law), a bottom boundary layer model for combined wave-current flow, and a direct method that uses turbulent fluctuations of velocity are used. The overestimation by the log-law is significantly reduced by taking turbulence suppression due to sediment-induced stratification into account. The best agreement between the model and the direct estimates is obtained by using a hydraulic roughness of 10 -4">−4 m in the model. Direct estimate of bed drag on the muddy bed is found to have a decreasing trend with increasing current speed, and is estimated to be around 0.0025 in conditions where wave-induced flow is relatively weak. Bed drag shows an increase (up to fourfold) with increasing wave energy. These findings can be used to test the bed drag parameterizations in hydrodynamic and sediment transport models and the skills of these models in predicting flows in muddy environments.

  6. Simultaneous determination of devolatilization and char burnout times during fluidized bed combustion of coal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christofiedes, N.; Brown, R.C.

    1992-01-01

    In this paper, the authors investigate a method for simultaneous determination of devolatilization and char burnout times based on the analysis of CO 2 emissions from a fluidized bed combustor. The technique is non-intrusive and can be performed under realistic combustion conditions. The authors' method involves batching single-size coal samples in a fluidized bed combustor that is heated with propane gas or other fuel. Carbon dioxide profiles versus time for the batch tests are analyzed with a linear model to obtain characteristic time constants for coal devolatilization and char combustion which can be related to total devolatilization time and burnout time for a coal sample. The authors' approach does not require special sample preparation, can be performed in actual combustion equipment and employs standard boiler instrumentation

  7. Tracking channel bed resiliency in forested mountain catchments using high temporal resolution channel bed movement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Sarah E.; Conklin, Martha H.

    2018-01-01

    This study uses continuous-recording load cell pressure sensors in four, high-elevation (1500-1800 m), Sierra Nevada headwater streams to collect high-temporal-resolution, bedload-movement data for investigating the channel bed movement patterns within these streams for water years 2012-2014. Data show an annual pattern where channel bed material in the thalweg starts to build up in early fall, peaks around peak snow melt, and scours back to baseline levels during hydrograph drawdown and base flow. This pattern is punctuated by disturbance and recovery of channel bed material associated with short-term storm events. A conceptual model, linking sediment sources at the channel margins to patterns of channel bed fill and scour in the thalweg, is proposed building on the results of Martin et al. (2014). The material in the thalweg represents a balance between sediment supply from the channel margins and sporadic, conveyor-belt-like downstream transport in the thalweg. The conceptual model highlights not only the importance of production and transport rates but also that seasonal connectedness between the margins and thalweg is a key sediment control, determining the accumulation rate of sediment stores at the margins and the redistribution of sediment from margins to thalweg that feeds the conveyor belt. Disturbance and recovery cycles are observed at multiple temporal scales; but long term, the channel beds are stable, suggesting that the beds act as short-term storage for sediment but are in equilibrium interannually. The feasibility of use for these sensors in forested mountain stream environments is tested. Despite a high failure rate (50%), load cell pressure sensors show potential for high-temporal-resolution bedload measurements, allowing for the collection of channel bed movement data to move beyond time-integrated change measurements - where many of the subtleties of bedload movement patterns may be missed - to continuous and/or real-time measurements. This

  8. Continuous Ethanol Production Using Immobilized-Cell/Enzyme Biocatalysts in Fluidized-Bed Bioreactor (FBR)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nghiem, NP

    2003-11-16

    The immobilized-cell fluidized-bed bioreactor (FBR) was developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). Previous studies at ORNL using immobilized Zymomonas mobilis in FBR at both laboratory and demonstration scale (4-in-ID by 20-ft-tall) have shown that the system was more than 50 times as productive as industrial benchmarks (batch and fed-batch free cell fermentations for ethanol production from glucose). Economic analysis showed that a continuous process employing the FBR technology to produce ethanol from corn-derived glucose would offer savings of three to six cents per gallon of ethanol compared to a typical batch process. The application of the FBR technology for ethanol production was extended to investigate more complex feedstocks, which included starch and lignocellulosic-derived mixed sugars. Economic analysis and mathematical modeling of the reactor were included in the investigation. This report summarizes the results of these extensive studies.

  9. Bioprocess iterative batch-to-batch optimization based on hybrid parametric/nonparametric models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira, Ana P; Clemente, João J; Cunha, António E; Carrondo, Manuel J T; Oliveira, Rui

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents a novel method for iterative batch-to-batch dynamic optimization of bioprocesses. The relationship between process performance and control inputs is established by means of hybrid grey-box models combining parametric and nonparametric structures. The bioreactor dynamics are defined by material balance equations, whereas the cell population subsystem is represented by an adjustable mixture of nonparametric and parametric models. Thus optimizations are possible without detailed mechanistic knowledge concerning the biological system. A clustering technique is used to supervise the reliability of the nonparametric subsystem during the optimization. Whenever the nonparametric outputs are unreliable, the objective function is penalized. The technique was evaluated with three simulation case studies. The overall results suggest that the convergence to the optimal process performance may be achieved after a small number of batches. The model unreliability risk constraint along with sampling scheduling are crucial to minimize the experimental effort required to attain a given process performance. In general terms, it may be concluded that the proposed method broadens the application of the hybrid parametric/nonparametric modeling technique to "newer" processes with higher potential for optimization.

  10. Batch process. Batch process used in a beer brewery; Biru kojo no bacchi purosesu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kihara, K. [Kirin Engneering Co. Ltd. (Japan)

    1997-09-05

    In a beer brewing process, there is a system in which unit operation of chemical engineering is combined with the techniques of food and fermentation engineering in order to brew beer meeting the quality concept. This paper introduces the characteristics of a batch system used in the brewing of beer and the control method for the brewing of beer. The characteristics of the batch system used in a beer brewing process are the following three. In order to minimize the quality variation ascribed to the raw materials and the process, the materials are blended in various parts of the system. In the saccharification step which determines the quality of beer, two methods, i.e. a batch method and a continuous method are used, and beer brewing companies employ a saccharification system meeting the condition for attaining a desired quality of their own products. Two mashing systems are operated at different cycles shifted by half cycle from each other, not starting both at a time, so as to level the peaks of the utilities, whereby the operation of the utility-related facility is optimized. 1 ref., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  11. Effectiveness of Bed Bug Pesticides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Before EPA allows a bed bug claim on a label, the product must be supported by data showing it will kill bed bugs when applied according to the label. Also consider factors such as extent of infestation, site preparation, and insect life stages.

  12. Turning patients over in bed

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000426.htm Turning patients over in bed To use the sharing features on this page, ... Patient The following steps should be followed when turning a patient: If you can, raise the bed to a level that reduces back strain for ...

  13. Sense of moving

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Mark Schram; Grünbaum, Thor

    2017-01-01

    In this chapter, we assume the existence of a sense of “movement activity” that arises when a person actively moves a body part. This sense is usually supposed to be part of sense of agency (SoA). The purpose of the chapter is to determine whether the already existing experimental paradigms can b...... be used to study the sense of movement activity, i.e., the part of SoA related to actual movement. The bulk of the chapter is an argument to the effect that standard paradigms are ill equipped to study the sense of movement activity....

  14. CERN Pension Fund move

    CERN Document Server

    HR Department

    2007-01-01

    The CERN Pension Fund has moved to new offices at the 5th floor of Building 5. The Benefits Service of the Fund will henceforth receive you in the offices: 5-5-017 - 5-5-021 - 5-5-023. We remind you that the office hours are: Tuesday/Wednesday/Thursday from 10 am to 12 am and from 3 pm to 5 pm. The Fund would like to take this opportunity to warmly thank all the persons involved in the Removal.

  15. Improved monitoring of batch processes by incorporating external information

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ramaker, H. J.; van Sprang, E. N. M.; Gurden, S. P.; Westerhuis, J. A.; Smilde, A. K.

    2002-01-01

    In this paper an overview is given of statistical process monitoring with the emphasis on batch processes and the possible steps to take for improving this by incorporating external information. First, the general concept of statistical process monitoring of batches is explained. This concept has

  16. Using warping information for batch process monitoring and fault classification.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    González-Martínez, J.M.; Westerhuis, J.A.; Ferrer, A.

    2013-01-01

    This paper discusses how to use the warping information obtained after batch synchronization for process monitoring and fault classification. The warping information can be used for i) building unsupervised control charts or ii) fault classification when a rich faulty batches database is available.

  17. Modelling and Simulation of the Batch Hydrolysis of Acetic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The kinetic modelling of the batch synthesis of acetic acid from acetic anhydride was investigated. The kinetic data of the reaction was obtained by conducting the hydrolysis reaction in a batch reactor. A dynamic model was formulated for this process and simulation was carried out using gPROMS® an advanced process ...

  18. Adaptive scheduling of batch servers in flow shops

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Zee, D.J.

    Batch servicing is a common way of benefiting from economies of scale in manufacturing operations. Good examples of production systems that allow for batch processing are ovens found in the aircraft industry and in semiconductor manufacturing. In this paper we study the issue of dynamic scheduling

  19. Adaptive Scheduling Of Batch Servers In Flow Shops

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Zee, D.J.

    2001-01-01

    Batch servicing is a common way of benefiting from economies of scale in manufacturing operations. Good examples of production systems that allow for batch processing are ovens found in aircraft industry and in semiconductor manufacturing. In this paper we study the issue of dynamic scheduling of

  20. Solving a chemical batch scheduling problem by local search

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brucker, P.; Hurink, Johann L.

    1999-01-01

    A chemical batch scheduling problem is modelled in two different ways as a discrete optimization problem. Both models are used to solve the batch scheduling problem in a two-phase tabu search procedure. The method is tested on real-world data.

  1. 40 CFR 63.1406 - Reactor batch process vent provisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... megagram of product or less for non-solvent-based resin production. (2) The owner or operator of a reactor... 40 Protection of Environment 11 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Reactor batch process vent provisions... § 63.1406 Reactor batch process vent provisions. (a) Emission standards. Owners or operators of reactor...

  2. 40 CFR Table 1 to Subpart H of... - Batch Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Batch Processes 1 Table 1 to Subpart H... Subpart H of Part 63—Batch Processes Monitoring Frequency for Equipment Other than Connectors Operating time (% of year) Equivalent continuous process monitoring frequency time in use Monthly Quarterly...

  3. Communication and control in small batch part manufacturing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tiemersma, J.J.; Curtis, W.; Kals, H.J.J.

    1993-01-01

    This paper reports on the development of a real-time control network as an integrated part of a shop floor control system for small batch part manufacturing. The shop floor control system is called the production control system (PCS). The PCS aims at an improved control of small batch part

  4. Ready, set, move!

    CERN Document Server

    Anaïs Schaeffer

    2012-01-01

    This year, the CERN Medical Service is launching a new public health campaign. Advertised by the catchphrase “Move! & Eat Better”, the particular aim of the campaign is to encourage people at CERN to take more regular exercise, of whatever kind.   The CERN annual relay race is scheduled on 24 May this year. The CERN Medical Service will officially launch its “Move! & Eat Better” campaign at this popular sporting event. “We shall be on hand on the day of the race to strongly advocate regular physical activity,” explains Rachid Belkheir, one of the Medical Service doctors. "We really want to pitch our campaign and answer any questions people may have. Above all we want to set an example. So we are going to walk the same circuit as the runners to underline to people that they can easily incorporate movement into their daily routine.” An underlying concern has prompted this campaign: during their first few year...

  5. MOVES Model Review Work Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    The FACA MOVES Review Work Group was formed under the Mobile Sources Technical Review Subcommittee (MSTRS), and is charged to provide input to EPA via the MSTRS and the Clean Air Act Advisory Committee on specific issues regarding MOVES development.

  6. On the track of fish batches in three distribution networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Randrup, Maria; Wu, Haiping; Jørgensen, Bo M.

    2012-01-01

    the necessary information, it was possible to locate the end destinations of the fish batches. The batch sizes and the number of companies involved clearly rose when batch joining occurred. Thus, a fault in a small batch can potentially have widespread implications. The study also underlines the importance......Three fish products sampled in retail shops were traced back to their origin and fish from the same batch were tracked forward towards the retailer, thereby simulating a recall situation. The resulting distribution networks were very complex, but to the extent that companies were willing to provide...... of discovering a fault as early as possible in order to minimise the costs of a recall. The localisation of distributed products during a recall operation can be facilitated by a well-constructed traceability system....

  7. Experimental Investigation of NO Formation from Combustion of Wood and Straw in a Batch Combustor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Esben; Jensen, Lars Skaarup; Jensen, Anker

    1996-01-01

    The formation of NOx from combustion of biomass fuels has been investigated. Samples of wood and straw with an average nitrogen content of 0.04 and 0.4 % mass respectively were burned in a laboratory scale batch fixed bed reactor at 570 °C and 832 °C. The flue gas was analyzed for O2, NO, CO and CO......2. High oxygen concentrations in the feed gas resulted in significant non fuel-NOx formation. Despite the large volatile content in biomass, NO from char combustion can make up a significant fraction of the total NO formed. The net NO formation increases with increasing nitrogen content in the fuel...

  8. Test bed for a long pulse 160 KeV neutral beam-line

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becherer, R.; Bariaud, A.; Bottiglioni, F.; Bussac, J.P.; Desmons, M.; Fumelli, M.; Raimbault, P.; Sledziewski, Z.; Valckx, F.P.G.

    1983-01-01

    The development of 160 KeV neutral injectors with deuterium beams is required for JET - operation. A test bed has been constructed, allowing the operation and testing of quasi DC-neutral beams (10 sec) of 60 A in the energy range of 80 to 160 KeV. For deuterium operation the whole test bed will be moved into a concrete blockhouse for radiation protection. Different elements are described. (author)

  9. Scale-up of an electrical capacitance tomography sensor for imaging pharmaceutical fluidized beds and validation by computational fluid dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Haigang; Yang, Wuqiang

    2011-10-01

    The aim of this research is to apply electrical capacitance tomography (ECT) in pharmaceutical fluidized beds and scale up the application of ECT from a lab-scale fluidized bed to a production-scale fluidized bed. The objective is to optimize the design of the production-scale fluidized bed and to improve the operation efficiency of the fluidization processes. This is the first time that ECT has been scaled up to a production-scale fluidized bed of 1.0 m diameter and batch process capacity of 100 kg in a real industrial environment. With a large-scale fluidized bed in a real industrial environment, some key issues on the ECT sensor design must be addressed. To validate ECT measurement results, a two-phase flow model has been used to simulate the process in a lab-scale and pilot-scale fluidized bed. The key process parameters include solid concentration, average concentration profiles, the frequency spectrum of signal fluctuation obtained by the fast Fourier transfer (FFT) and multi-level wavelet decomposition in the time domain. The results show different hydrodynamic behaviour of fluidized beds of different scales. The time-averaged parameters from ECT and computational fluid dynamics are compared. Future work on the ECT sensor design for large-scale fluidized beds are given in the end of the paper.

  10. Kinetic study of batch and fed-batch enzymatic saccharification of pretreated substrate and subsequent fermentation to ethanol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gupta Rishi

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Enzymatic hydrolysis, the rate limiting step in the process development for biofuel, is always hampered by its low sugar concentration. High solid enzymatic saccharification could solve this problem but has several other drawbacks such as low rate of reaction. In the present study we have attempted to enhance the concentration of sugars in enzymatic hydrolysate of delignified Prosopis juliflora, using a fed-batch enzymatic hydrolysis approach. Results The enzymatic hydrolysis was carried out at elevated solid loading up to 20% (w/v and a comparison kinetics of batch and fed-batch enzymatic hydrolysis was carried out using kinetic regimes. Under batch mode, the actual sugar concentration values at 20% initial substrate consistency were found deviated from the predicted values and the maximum sugar concentration obtained was 80.78 g/L. Fed-batch strategy was implemented to enhance the final sugar concentration to 127 g/L. The batch and fed-batch enzymatic hydrolysates were fermented with Saccharomyces cerevisiae and ethanol production of 34.78 g/L and 52.83 g/L, respectively, were achieved. Furthermore, model simulations showed that higher insoluble solids in the feed resulted in both smaller reactor volume and shorter residence time. Conclusion Fed-batch enzymatic hydrolysis is an efficient procedure for enhancing the sugar concentration in the hydrolysate. Restricting the process to suitable kinetic regimes could result in higher conversion rates.

  11. Batch-to-batch quality consistency evaluation of botanical drug products using multivariate statistical analysis of the chromatographic fingerprint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Haoshu; Yu, Lawrence X; Qu, Haibin

    2013-06-01

    Botanical drug products have batch-to-batch quality variability due to botanical raw materials and the current manufacturing process. The rational evaluation and control of product quality consistency are essential to ensure the efficacy and safety. Chromatographic fingerprinting is an important and widely used tool to characterize the chemical composition of botanical drug products. Multivariate statistical analysis has showed its efficacy and applicability in the quality evaluation of many kinds of industrial products. In this paper, the combined use of multivariate statistical analysis and chromatographic fingerprinting is presented here to evaluate batch-to-batch quality consistency of botanical drug products. A typical botanical drug product in China, Shenmai injection, was selected as the example to demonstrate the feasibility of this approach. The high-performance liquid chromatographic fingerprint data of historical batches were collected from a traditional Chinese medicine manufacturing factory. Characteristic peaks were weighted by their variability among production batches. A principal component analysis model was established after outliers were modified or removed. Multivariate (Hotelling T(2) and DModX) control charts were finally successfully applied to evaluate the quality consistency. The results suggest useful applications for a combination of multivariate statistical analysis with chromatographic fingerprinting in batch-to-batch quality consistency evaluation for the manufacture of botanical drug products.

  12. Batch-to-batch learning for model-based control of process systems with application to cooling crystallization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Forgione, M.

    2014-01-01

    From an engineering perspective, the term process refers to a conversion of raw materials into intermediate or final products using chemical, physical, or biological operations. Industrial processes can be performed either in continuous or in batch mode. There exist for instance continuous and batch

  13. Glucoamylase production in batch, chemostat and fed-batch cultivations by an industrial strain of Aspergillus niger

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Henrik; Beyer, Michael; Nielsen, Jens

    2000-01-01

    The Aspergillus niger strain BO-1 was grown in batch, continuous (chemostat) and fed-batch cultivations in order to study the production of the extracellular enzyme glucoamylase under different growth conditions. In the pH range 2.5-6.0, the specific glucoamylase productivity and the specific...

  14. Batch Kd measurements of nuclides to estimate migration potential at the proposed Waste Isolation Pilot Plant in New Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serne, R.J.; Rai, D.; Mason, M.J.; Molecke, M.A.

    1977-01-01

    Laboratory measurements to determine the sorption distribution coefficients, Kd, of radionuclides present in, and potentially leached from, radioactive wastes, in contact with representative geologic media, have been conducted. The nuclides studied include Cs, Sr, Tc, Ru, Sb, Ce, Eu, Pu, Np, Cm, Am, U, and Pa. The crushed rock materials used were from the vicinity of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant, a project to isolate radioactive wastes in a bedded salt facility, near Carlsbad, New Mexico. Solutions used consist of salt brine and groundwater, specific to the WIPP site, plus distilled water, for laboratory intercomparisons. The batch Kd data reported, plus data from sorption and migration measurements being conducted or planned elsewhere, will be used to evaluate the potential for radionuclide migration from the bedded salt WIPP facility. The data can be used for transport modeling and for safety assessment determinations

  15. Mechanics of moving materials

    CERN Document Server

    Banichuk, Nikolay; Neittaanmäki, Pekka; Saksa, Tytti; Tuovinen, Tero

    2014-01-01

    This book deals with theoretical aspects of modelling the mechanical behaviour of manufacturing, processing, transportation or other systems in which the processed or supporting material is travelling through the system. Examples of such applications include paper making, transmission cables, band saws, printing presses, manufacturing of plastic films and sheets, and extrusion of aluminium foil, textiles and other materials.   The work focuses on out-of-plane dynamics and stability analysis for isotropic and orthotropic travelling elastic and viscoelastic materials, with and without fluid-structure interaction, using analytical and semi-analytical approaches.  Also topics such as fracturing and fatigue are discussed in the context of moving materials. The last part of the book deals with optimization problems involving physical constraints arising from the stability and fatigue analyses, including uncertainties in the parameters.   The book is intended for researchers and specialists in the field, providin...

  16. What moves us?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2015-01-01

    Katalog til udstillingen på Museum Jorn - What moves us? Le Corbusier & Asger Jorn - 12. sept. - 13. dec. 2015. Kataloget undersøger Le Corbusiers skifte fra en rationelt funderet tilgang til arkitekturen til en poetisk, materialistisk tilgang i efterkrigstiden. Den viser hans indflydelse på den...... yngre Asger Jorn og beskriver danskerens første beundring, som sidenhen forvandledes til skarp kritik. Kataloget, som er rigt illustreret med billeder af Le Corbusiers og Asger Jorns kunst og arkitektur, indeholder også genoptryk af originale tekster, samt bidrag i ord og billeder fra fremtrædende...... eksperter. Kataloget indeholder en række artikler af internationale skribenter under flg. overskrifter: Le Corbusier - kunstnerarkitekten i efterkrigstidens Europa Le Corbusier og Asger Jorn - David mod Goliat Gensyn med Le Corbusier - spor i dansk arkitektur og byrum...

  17. Moving Beyond Outsourcing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rai, Sudhanshu

    In this article I discuss the Indian outsourcing phenomena and ask the question now what? Using data from the Euro-India project I demonstrate that a small but significant part of the Indian IT entities are moving beyond outsourcing, to co-creation where Innovation and the desire to create new...... markets is the key driver. This does not imply that outsourcing will disappear but it does mean that firms will engage in globalization using innovative mix of business models and technical platforms. We discuss the implication of this slow transformation to co-creation of innovation for the global...... outsourcing industry. The key thesis of this paper is to discuss co-creation as a form of innovation and how such a form of innovation is likely to bring Indian companies rich dividends....

  18. Move! Eat better: news

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

    Are you curious to know whether you’re doing enough daily exercise…? Test yourself with a pedometer!   Through the Move! Eat better campaign, launched in May 2012, the CERN medical service is aiming to improve the health of members of the personnel by encouraging them to prioritise physical activity in conjunction with a balanced diet. Various successful activities have already taken place: relay race/Nordic walk, Bike2work, Zumba and fitness workshops, two conferences (“Physical activity for health” and “Good nutrition every day”), events in the restaurants, as well as posters and a website. Although everyone has got the message from our various communications that physical activity is good for your health, there is still a relevant question being asked: “What is the minimum amount of exercise recommended?” 10,000 steps per day is the ideal figure, which has been demonstrated as beneficial by scientific studies ...

  19. Nonylphenol polyethoxylate degradation in aqueous waste by the use of batch and continuous biofilm bioreactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Gioia, Diana; Sciubba, Luigi; Bertin, Lorenzo; Barberio, Claudia; Salvadori, Laura; Frassinetti, Stefania; Fava, Fabio

    2009-07-01

    An aerobic bacterial consortium (Consortium A) was recently obtained from textile wastewater and was capable of degrading 4-nonylphenol and nonylphenol polyethoxylates (NPnEOs). In the perspective of developing a biotechnological process for the treatment of effluents from activated sludge plants fed with NPnEO contaminated wastewater, the capability of Consortium A of biodegrading an industrial mixture of NPnEOs in the physiological condition of immobilized cells was investigated. Two identically configured packed bed reactors were developed by immobilizing the consortium on silica beads or granular activated carbon. Both reactors were tested in batch and continuous mode by feeding them with water supplemented with NPnEOs. The two reactors were monitored through chemical, microbiological and molecular integrated methodology. Active biofilms were generated on both immobilization supports. Both reactors displayed comparable NPnEO mineralization under batch and continuous conditions. FISH analyses evidenced that the biofilms evolved with time by changing the reactor operation mode and the organic load. Taken together, the data collected in this study provide a preliminary strong indication on the feasibility of Consortium A-based biofilm technology for the decontamination of NPnEO containing effluents.

  20. Torsion testing of bed joints

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Klavs Feilberg; Pedersen, Carsten Mørk

    2008-01-01

    be carried out directly in a normal testing machine. The torsion strength is believed to be the most important parameter in out-of-plane resistance of masonry walls subjected to bending about an axis perpendicular to the bed joints. The paper also contains a few test results from bending of small walls about...... an axis perpendicular to the bed joints, which indicate the close connection between these results and results from torsion tests. These characteristics make the torsion strength well suited to act as substitute parameter for the bending strength of masonry about an axis perpendicular to the bed joints....

  1. Acceptance Test Data for BWXT Coated Particle Batches 93172B and 93173B—Defective IPyC and Pyrocarbon Anisotropy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hunn, John D. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Helmreich, Grant W. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Dyer, John A. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Schumacher, Austin T. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Skitt, Darren J. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2017-08-01

    Coated particle batches J52O-16-93172B and J52O-16-93173B were produced by Babcock and Wilcox Technologies (BWXT) as part of the production campaign for the Advanced Gas Reactor Fuel Development and Qualification (AGR) Program’s AGR-5/6/7 irradiation test in the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) Advanced Test Reactor (ATR), but were not used in the final fuel composite. However, these batches may be used as demonstration production-scale coated particle fuel for other experiments. Each batch was coated in a 150-mm-diameter production-scale fluidized-bed chemical vapor deposition (CVD) furnace. Tristructural isotropic (TRISO) coatings were deposited on 425-μm-nominal-diameter spherical kernels from BWXT lot J52R-16-69317 containing a mixture of 15.5%-enriched uranium carbide and uranium oxide (UCO). The TRISO coatings consisted of four consecutive CVD layers: a ~50% dense carbon buffer layer with 100-μm-nominal thickness, a dense inner pyrolytic carbon (IPyC) layer with 40-μm-nominal thickness, a silicon carbide (SiC) layer with 35-μm-nominal thickness, and a dense outer pyrolytic carbon (OPyC) layer with 40-μm-nominal thickness. The TRISO-coated particle batches were sieved to upgrade the particles by removing over-sized and under-sized material, and the upgraded batches were designated by appending the letter A to the end of the batch number (e.g., 93172A). Secondary upgrading by sieving was performed on the A-designated batches to remove particles with missing or very-thin buffer layers that were identified during previous analysis of the individual batches for defective IPyC, as reported in the acceptance test data report for the AGR-5/6/7 production batches [Hunn et al. 2017b]. The additionally-upgraded batches were designated by appending the letter B to the end of the batch number (e.g., 93172B).

  2. Batch and fed-batch production of butyric acid by Clostridium butyricum ZJUCB

    OpenAIRE

    He, Guo-qing; Kong, Qing; Chen, Qi-he; Ruan, Hui

    2005-01-01

    The production of butyric acid by Clostridium butyricum ZJUCB at various pH values was investigated. In order to study the effect of pH on cell growth, butyric acid biosynthesis and reducing sugar consumption, different cultivation pH values ranging from 6.0 to 7.5 were evaluated in 5-L bioreactor. In controlled pH batch fermentation, the optimum pH for cell growth and butyric acid production was 6.5 with a cell yield of 3.65 g/L and butyric acid yield of 12.25 g/L. Based on these results, th...

  3. Bed Bugs: The Australian Response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard C. Russell

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Australia has experienced a sudden and unexpected resurgence in bed bug infestations from both Cimex lectularius L. and Cimex hemipterus F. A survey in 2006 revealed that infestations had increased across the nation by an average of 4,500% since the start of the decade. In response, a multi-disciplinary approach to combat the rise of this public health pest was implemented and involved the coordinated efforts of several organizations. The key components of the strategy included the introduction of a pest management standard ‘A Code of Practice for the Control of Bed Bug Infestations in Australia’ that defines and promotes ‘best practice’ in bed bug eradication, the development of a policy and procedural guide for accommodation providers, education of stakeholders in best management practices, and research. These strategies continue to evolve with developments that lead to improvements in ‘best practice’ while bed bugs remain problematic in Australia.

  4. Getting Rid of Bed Bugs

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... control is very important whether you are considering hiring a professional or planning to do it yourself. Controlling bed ... control methods, as others may cause serious harm. Hiring a pest management professional is a good option in many cases, but ...

  5. Sea bed mapping and inspection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    The conference has 24 presentations on the topics: Sea bed mapping, inspection, positioning, hydrography, marine archaeology, remote operation vehicles and computerized simulation technologies, oil field activities and plans, technological experiences and problems. (tk)

  6. Operating characteristics of rotating beds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keyvani, M.; Gardner, N.C.

    1988-01-01

    Vapor-liquid contacting in high gravitational fields offers prospects for significant reductions in the physical size, capital, and operating costs of packed towers. Pressure drops, power requirements, mass transfer coefficients and liquid residence time distributions are reported for a rotating bed separator. The beds studied were rigid, foamed aluminum, with specific surface areas ranging from 650 to 3000 m{sup 2}/m{sup 2}. Gravitational fields were varied from 50 to 300g.

  7. Role of moving planes and moving spheres following Dupin cyclides

    KAUST Repository

    Jia, Xiaohong

    2014-03-01

    We provide explicit representations of three moving planes that form a μ-basis for a standard Dupin cyclide. We also show how to compute μ-bases for Dupin cyclides in general position and orientation from their implicit equations. In addition, we describe the role of moving planes and moving spheres in bridging between the implicit and rational parametric representations of these cyclides. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.

  8. ATLAS starts moving in

    CERN Multimedia

    Della Mussia, S

    2004-01-01

    The first large active detector component was lowered into the ATLAS cavern on 1st March. It consisted of the 8 modules forming the lower part of the central barrel of the tile hadronic calorimeter. The work of assembling the barrel, which comprises 64 modules, started the following day. Two road trailers each with 64 wheels, positioned side by side. This was the solution chosen to transport the lower part of the central barrel of ATLAS' tile hadronic calorimeter from Building 185 to the PX16 shaft at Point 1 (see Figure 1). The transportation, and then the installation of the component in the experimental cavern, which took place over three days were, to say the least, rather spectacular. On 25 February, the component, consisting of eight 6-metre modules, was loaded on to the trailers. The segment of the barrel was transported on a steel support so that it wouldn't move an inch during the journey. On 26 February, once all the necessary safety checks had been carried out, the convoy was able to leave Buildi...

  9. Move and eat better

    CERN Multimedia

    2012-01-01

    CERN has many traditions, but in a week that’s seen the launch of the Medical Service’s  ‘Move & eat better’ campaign, it’s refreshing to note that among the oldest is a sporting one.  The CERN relay race dates back to 15 October 1971 when 21 pioneering teams set off to pound the pavements of CERN. Back then, the Focus users group came in first with a time of 12 minutes and 42 seconds. Today’s route is slightly different, and the number of teams has risen to over 100, with a new category of Nordic Walking introduced, as part of the campaign, for the first time.   The relay has provided some memorable events, and perhaps one of the longest-standing records in the history of sport, with the UA1 strollers’ 10 minutes and 13 seconds unbeaten for thirty years. In the women’s category, the UN Gazelles set the fastest time of 13 minutes and 16 seconds in 1996, while in the veterans category, you wi...

  10. Investigation on side-spray fluidized bed granulation with swirling airflow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Poh Mun; Chan, Lai Wah; Heng, Paul Wan Sia

    2013-03-01

    Top-spray fluidized bed granulation with axial fluidization airflow from the bottom of the granulator is well-established in the pharmaceutical industry. The application of swirling airflow for fluidized bed granulation was more recently introduced. This study examined the effects of various process parameters on the granules produced by side-spray fluidized bed with swirling airflow using the central composite and Box-Behnken design of experiment. Influence of the amount of binder solution, spray rate, and distance between spray nozzle and powder bed were initially studied to establish operationally viable values for these parameters. This was followed by an in-depth investigation on the effects of inlet airflow rate, atomizing air pressure and distance between spray nozzle and powder bed on granule properties. It was found that the amount of binder solution had a positive correlation with granule size and percentage of lumps but a negative correlation with size distribution and Hausner ratio of the granules. Binder solution spray rate was also found to affect the granules size. High drug content uniformity was observed in all the batches of granules produced. Both inlet airflow rate and atomizing air pressure were found to correlate negatively with granule size and percentage of lumps but correlate positively with the size distribution of the granule produced. Percentage of fines was found to be significantly affected by inlet airflow rate. Distance between spray nozzle and powder bed generally affected the percentage of lumps.

  11. 40 CFR 63.462 - Batch cold cleaning machine standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    .... (a) Each owner or operator of an immersion batch cold solvent cleaning machine shall comply with the... cleaning machine complying with paragraph (a)(2) or (b) of this section shall comply with the work and...

  12. Numerical modeling of batch formation in waste incineration plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Obroučka Karel

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is a mathematical description of algorithm for controlled assembly of incinerated batch of waste. The basis for formation of batch is selected parameters of incinerated waste as its calorific value or content of pollutants or the combination of both. The numerical model will allow, based on selected criteria, to compile batch of wastes which continuously follows the previous batch, which is a prerequisite for optimized operation of incinerator. The model was prepared as for waste storage in containers, as well as for waste storage in continuously refilled boxes. The mathematical model was developed into the computer program and its functionality was verified either by practical measurements or by numerical simulations. The proposed model can be used in incinerators for hazardous and municipal waste.

  13. Evaluation of sequencing batch reactor performance for petrochemical wastewater treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Mina Salari; Seyed Ahmad Ataei; Fereshteh Bakhtiyari

    2017-01-01

    Sequencing batch reactor (SBR) technology has found many applications in industrial wastewater treatment in recent years. The aim of this study was to determine the optimal time for a cycle of the sequencing batch reactor (SBR) and evaluate the performance of a SBR for petrochemical wastewater treatment in that cycle time. The reactor was operated with a suspended biomass configuration under aerobic conditions. Carbon removal and operating parameters such as pH, temperature and dissolved oxyg...

  14. BACKGROUND AND PROSPECTS FOR THE OPERATION OF BATCH DISTILLATION

    OpenAIRE

    Lombira Echevarria, J.; Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Facultad de Química e Ingeniería Química Unidad de Post Grado, Av . Venezuela s/n Lima -Perú; Otiniano Cáceres, M.; Universidad Naciona l Mayor de San Marcos, Facultad de Química e Ingeniería Química Unidad de Post Grado, Av . Venezuela s/n Lima -Perú

    2014-01-01

    Present contribution constitutes a review that shows the results of bibliographic research carried out about the simulation, design and optimization of batch. Distillation operation. It is analyses the present state of the art of this operation, contrasting its recent achieved results with difficulties that still exist in this area. The different batch distillation columns configurations that have been developed recently, such as the inverted column , middle vessels, multiple effects , extrac...

  15. Polynomial Batch Codes for Efficient IT-PIR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henry Ryan

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Private information retrieval (PIR is a way for clients to query a remote database without the database holder learning the clients’ query terms or the responses they generate. Compelling applications for PIR are abound in the cryptographic and privacy research literature, yet existing PIR techniques are notoriously inefficient. Consequently, no such PIRbased application to date has seen real-world at-scale deployment. This paper proposes new “batch coding” techniques to help address PIR’s efficiency problem. The new techniques exploit the connection between ramp secret sharing schemes and efficient information-theoretically secure PIR (IT-PIR protocols. This connection was previously observed by Henry, Huang, and Goldberg (NDSS 2013, who used ramp schemes to construct efficient “batch queries” with which clients can fetch several database records for the same cost as fetching a single record using a standard, non-batch query. The new techniques in this paper generalize and extend those of Henry et al. to construct “batch codes” with which clients can fetch several records for only a fraction the cost of fetching a single record using a standard non-batch query over an unencoded database. The batch codes are highly tuneable, providing a means to trade off (i lower server-side computation cost, (ii lower server-side storage cost, and/or (iii lower uni- or bi-directional communication cost, in exchange for a comparatively modest decrease in resilience to Byzantine database servers.

  16. Behavioral Responses of the Bed Bug to Permethrin-Impregnated ActiveGuard™ Fabric

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott A. Harrison

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available ActiveGuard™ Mattress Liners have been used to control house dust mites, and they also are commercially available as an integrated pest management tool for use against bed bugs (Cimex lectularius. The aim of our study was to evaluate responses of numerous populations of the bed bug to the permethrin-impregnated fabric, with particular regard to contact toxicity, repellency, and feeding inhibition. Continuous exposure to ActiveGuard fabric resulted in rapid intoxication for three of four populations, with 87 to 100% of moderately pyrethroid-resistant and susceptible bed bugs succumbing by 1 d. In comparison, a highly resistant population reached 22% mortality at 10 d. Video data revealed that bed bugs readily traversed ActiveGuard fabric and spent a considerable amount of time moving about and resting on it during a 12-h period. ActiveGuard fabric was non-repellent to bed bugs from five tested populations. Furthermore, significantly fewer bed bugs successfully fed to repletion through ActiveGuard fabric than through blank fabric for the five populations. With just 30 min of feeding exposure, mortality ranged from 4% to 83%, depending upon the bed bug strain. These laboratory studies indicate that ActiveGuard liners adversely affected bed bugs from diverse populations.

  17. Particle motion in fluidised beds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stein, M.G.

    1999-07-01

    Gas fluidised beds are important components in many process industries, e.g. coal combustors and granulators, but not much is known about the movement of the solids. Positron Emission Particle Tracking (PEPT) enables the movement of a single, radioactive tracer particle to be followed rapidly and faithfully. Experiments were carried out in columns sized between 70 and 240mm. diameter, operating in the bubbling regime at ambient process conditions using particles of group B and D (Geldart Classification). Particle motion was tracked and the data applied to models for particle movement at the gas distributor as well as close to other surfaces and to models for particle circulation in beds of cohesive particles. In the light of these data, models for particle and bubble interaction, particle circulation, segregation, attrition, erosion, heat transfer and fluidised bed scale-up rules were reassessed. Particle motion is directly caused by bubble motion, and their velocities were found to be equal for particles travelling in a bubble. PEPT enables particle circulation to be measured, giving a more accurate correlation for future predictions. Particle motion follows the scale-up rules based on similarities of the bubble motion in the bed. A new group of parameters was identified controlling the amount of attrition in fluidised beds and a new model to predict attrition is proposed. (author)

  18. Batch-to-Batch Quality Consistency Evaluation of Botanical Drug Products Using Multivariate Statistical Analysis of the Chromatographic Fingerprint

    OpenAIRE

    Xiong, Haoshu; Yu, Lawrence X.; Qu, Haibin

    2013-01-01

    Botanical drug products have batch-to-batch quality variability due to botanical raw materials and the current manufacturing process. The rational evaluation and control of product quality consistency are essential to ensure the efficacy and safety. Chromatographic fingerprinting is an important and widely used tool to characterize the chemical composition of botanical drug products. Multivariate statistical analysis has showed its efficacy and applicability in the quality evaluation of many ...

  19. Fluidized bed granulation of an ordered powder mixture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiel, W J; Nguyen, L T

    1982-11-01

    The phenomenon of ordered unit segregation is of paramount importance in determining the homogeneity of an ordered mixture. This problem can be avoided by using a monodisperse carrier, but it is uneconomic. The fluidized bed granulation of a 0.1% ordered mixture has been studied as a method of reducing the effects of segregation. The ordered units were stable when fluidized and no significant loss of the microfine adsorbed material occurred during processing. The distribution of the minor component in the granules was significantly more uniform than in the original ordered mixtures. The demixing potential (formula: see text) (where p = proportion of cohesive minor component and w is the weight % of carrier material in a particular size range) was used to quantify the distribution of the minor component as a function of particle size. DP is a coefficient of variation and can be directly compared with the specification standard deviation sigma A. Batches of granules were compressed into 100 or 350 mg tablets, containing approximately 100 and 350 micrograms of model drug substance. The weight and content coefficients of variation (c.v.) were determined for 20 tablets. All batches had a weight c.v. less than or equal to 1.5% and a content c.v. less than or equal to 4.6%. Granulation of an ordered mixture greatly reduces the potential for segregation to decrease the mixture homogeneity. It also provides a solution to the problems which may be encountered when the mixing of small quantities of cohesive materials during conventional fluidized bed granulation is attempted.

  20. A PAT-based qualification of pharmaceutical excipients produced by batch or continuous processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hertrampf, A; Müller, H; Menezes, J C; Herdling, T

    2015-10-10

    Pharmaceutical excipients have an influence on the main requirements for medicinal products (viz., quality, safety and efficacy) but also on their manufacturability. During product lifecycle it may become necessary to introduce minor changes (e.g., to continuously improve it) or major changes in the validated process (e.g., moving it to a new production site, replacing process version or even disruptively changing processing type). Those changes can influence the critical to quality attributes of the product. Therefore, it is important to enhance process understanding to avoid the risk of any significant quality changes. Process analytical technology can support better decision making and risk-management as required in quality by design - viz., by many pharmaceutical regulatory authorities. This study compares the quality of the pharmaceutical excipient sodium carbonate (anhydrous) produced either in a batch or a continuous process. For continuous processing two different production lines were available that differed on the dryer and crystallizer types used. Therefore their influence on critical to quality attributes of sodium carbonate was investigated for each of the three processing alternatives. The overall goal was to identify which of the continuous processes ensures a similar product quality to batch processing. Namely, changes on chemical and physical attributes of the product were investigated with Raman spectroscopy, laser diffraction and X-ray powder diffraction. Principal component analysis, a very common multivariate analysis technique, was applied to extract relevant information from small differences at multiple spectral regions from samples from each process type and from each analytical technique used. Changing processing from batch to continuous improved consistency of certain attributes (e.g., particle size distribution) but affected others. However, the increased process/product knowledge gained can lead to an enhanced control strategy and

  1. Grasping and hitting moving objects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schot, W.D.; Brenner, E.; Smeets, J.B.J.

    2011-01-01

    Some experimental evidence suggests that grasping should be regarded as independent control of the thumb and the index finger (digit control hypothesis). To investigate this further, we compared how the tips of the thumb and the index finger moved in space when grasping spheres to how they moved

  2. Congestion and residential moving behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Morten Marott; Pilegaard, Ninette; Van Ommeren, Jos

    2008-01-01

    we study how congestion and residential moving behaviour are interrelated, using a two-region job search model. Workers choose between interregional commuting and residential moving, in order to live closer to their place of work. This choice affects the external costs of commuting, due to conges......we study how congestion and residential moving behaviour are interrelated, using a two-region job search model. Workers choose between interregional commuting and residential moving, in order to live closer to their place of work. This choice affects the external costs of commuting, due...... to congestion. We focus on the equilibrium in which some workers currently living in one region accept jobs in the other, with a fraction of them choosing to commute from their current residence to the new job in the other region and the remainder choosing to move to the region in which the new job is located....... The welfare-maximising road tax is derived, which is essentially the Pigouvian tax, given the absence of a tax on moving. Given the presence of moving taxes, which are substantial in Europe, the optimal road tax for commuters is the Pigouvian tax plus the amortised value of the moving tax, evaluated...

  3. Quantum strategies in moving frames

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tan Jianchuan; Wang Anmin

    2009-01-01

    We investigate quantum strategies in moving frames by considering Prisoners' Dilemma and propose four thresholds of γ for two players to determine their Nash Equilibria. We find that the relativistic operations could enhance or diminish the quantum features of the game for different players who move in different directions relative to the arbiter

  4. Quantum strategies in moving frames

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tan Jianchuan [Department of Modern Physics, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230026 (China)], E-mail: tanjc@mail.ustc.edu.cn; Wang Anmin [Department of Modern Physics, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230026 (China)], E-mail: anmwang@ustc.edu.cn

    2009-02-16

    We investigate quantum strategies in moving frames by considering Prisoners' Dilemma and propose four thresholds of {gamma} for two players to determine their Nash Equilibria. We find that the relativistic operations could enhance or diminish the quantum features of the game for different players who move in different directions relative to the arbiter.

  5. Particle Bed Reactor scaling relationships

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slovik, G.; Araj, K.; Horn, F.L.; Ludewig, H.; Benenati, R.

    1987-01-01

    Scaling relationships for Particle Bed Reactors (PBRs) are discussed. The particular applications are short duration systems, i.e., for propulsion or burst power. Particle Bed Reactors can use a wide selection of different moderators and reflectors and be designed for such a wide range of power and bed power densities. Additional design considerations include the effect of varying the number of fuel elements, outlet Mach number in hot gas channel, etc. All of these variables and options result in a wide range of reactor weights and performance. Extremely light weight reactors (approximately 1 kg/MW) are possible with the appropriate choice of moderator/reflector and power density. Such systems are very attractive for propulsion systems where parasitic weight has to be minimized

  6. Fluidized-bed nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grimmett, E.S.; Kunze, J.F.

    1975-01-01

    A reactor vessel containing a fluidized-bed region of particulate material including both a neutron-moderating and a fertile substance is described. A gas flow including fissile material passes through the vessel at a sufficient rate to fluidize the particulate material and at a sufficient density to support a thermal fission reaction within the fluidized-bed region. The high-temperature portion of a heat transfer system is located within the fluidized-bed region of the reactor vessel in direct contact with the fluidized particles. Heat released by fission is thereby transferred at an enhanced rate to a coolant circulating within the heat transfer system. Fission products are continuously removed from the gas flow and supplemental fissile material added during the reactor operation. (U.S.)

  7. SLUDGE MASS REDUCTION: PRIMARY COMPOSITIONAL FACTORS THAT INFLUENCE MELT RATE FOR FUTURE SLUDGE BATCH PROJECTIONS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Newell, J; Miller, D; Stone, M; Pickenheim, B

    2008-01-01

    510 based system without Al-dissolution relative to the Frit 418 based system with Al-dissolution. Though the without aluminum dissolution scenario suggests a slightly higher melt rate with frit 510, several points must be taken into consideration: (1) The MRF does not have the ability to assess liquid feeds and, thus, rheology impacts. Instead, the MRF is a 'static' test bed in which a mass of dried melter feed (SRAT product plus frit) is placed in an 'isothermal' furnace for a period of time to assess melt rate. These conditions, although historically effective in terms of identifying candidate frits for specific sludge batches and mapping out melt rate versus waste loading trends, do not allow for assessments of the potential impact of feed rheology on melt rate. That is, if the rheological properties of the slurried melter feed resulted in the mounding of the feed in the melter (i.e., the melter feed was thick and did not flow across the cold cap), melt rate and/or melter operations (i.e., surges) could be negatively impacted. This could affect one or both flowsheets. (2) Waste throughput factors were not determined for Frit 510 and Frit 418 over multiple waste loadings. In order to provide insight into the mission life versus canister count question, one needs to define the maximum waste throughput for both flowsheets. Due to funding limitations, the melt rate testing only evaluated melt rate at a fixed waste loading. (3) DWPF will be processing SB5 through their facility in mid-November 2008. Insight into the over arching questions of melt rate, waste throughput, and mission life can be obtained directly from the facility. It is recommended that processing of SB5 through the facility be monitored closely and that data be used as input into the decision making process on whether to implement Al-dissolution for future sludge batches

  8. Radiation by moving charges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geloni, Gianluca; Kocharyan, Vitali; Saldin, Evgeni

    2017-04-01

    It is generally accepted that in order to describe the dynamics of relativistic particles in the laboratory (lab) frame it is sufficient to take into account the relativistic dependence of the particle momenta on the velocity. This solution of the dynamics problem in the lab frame makes no reference to Lorentz transformations. For this reason they are not discussed in particle tracking calculations in accelerator and plasma physics. It is generally believed that the electrodynamics problem can be treated within the same ''single inertial frame'' description without reference to Lorentz transformations. In particular, in order to evaluate radiation fields arising from charged particles in motion we need to know their velocities and positions as a function of the lab frame time t. The relativistic motion of a particle in the lab frame is described by Newton's second law ''corrected'' for the relativistic dependence of momentum on velocity. It is assumed in all standard derivations that one can perform identification of the trajectories in the source part of the usual Maxwell's equations with the trajectories vector x(t) measured (or calculated by using the corrected Newton's second law) in the lab frame. This way of coupling fields and particles is considered since more than a century as the relativistically correct procedure.We argue that this procedure needs to be changed, and we demonstrate the following, completely counterintuitive statement: the results of conventional theory of radiation by relativistically moving charges are not consistent with the principle of relativity. In order to find the trajectory of a particle in the lab frame consistent with the usual Maxwell's equations, one needs to solve the dynamic equation inmanifestly covariant form by using the coordinate-independent proper time τ to parameterize the particle world-line in space-time. We show that there is a difference between &apos

  9. Variable and space steps solution of a two phase moving boundary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Equations of a two phase moving boundary problem in cylindrical coordinates are obtained from the formulation of a transient shrinking core model of whole tree combustion in a one dimensional steady state fixed-bed reactor. An hybrid Variable Grid Method is developed to solve the non linear equations and the results are ...

  10. Better backs by better beds?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergholdt, Kim; Fabricius, Rasmus N; Bendix, Tom

    2008-01-01

    STUDY DESIGN: A "randomized"/stratified, single-blinded, parallel-group study. OBJECTIVE.: To evaluate 3 structurally different mattresses relative influence on patients with chronic low back pain (CLBP). SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: In several advertisements, it is proclaimed that certain...... using the probably most relevant "worst case" data. There were no relevant difference between the effects of the water bed and the foam bed. CONCLUSION: The Waterbed and foam mattress' did influence back symptoms, function and sleep more positively as apposed to the hard mattress, but the differences...

  11. 40 CFR 63.1326 - Batch process vents-recordkeeping provisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... operator of a batch process vent that has chosen to use a control device to comply with § 63.1322(a) shall... 40 Protection of Environment 11 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Batch process vents-recordkeeping... Batch process vents—recordkeeping provisions. (a) Group determination records for batch process vents...

  12. 40 CFR 63.487 - Batch front-end process vents-reference control technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... § 63.487 Batch front-end process vents—reference control technology. (a) Batch front-end process vents... process vent, reduce organic HAP emissions for the batch cycle by 90 weight percent using a control device... 40 Protection of Environment 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Batch front-end process vents-reference...

  13. 40 CFR 63.491 - Batch front-end process vents-recordkeeping requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... combustion device to control halogenated batch front-end process vents or halogenated aggregate batch vent... periods of process or control device operation when monitors are not operating. (f) Aggregate batch vent... 40 Protection of Environment 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Batch front-end process vents...

  14. 40 CFR 63.489 - Batch front-end process vents-monitoring equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... operator of a batch front-end process vent or aggregate batch vent stream that uses a control device to... meets the conditions of § 63.490(b)(3). (i) For batch front-end process vents using a control device to... 40 Protection of Environment 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Batch front-end process vents...

  15. 40 CFR 63.492 - Batch front-end process vents-reporting requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... recorded under § 63.491(e)(3) when the batch front-end process vent is diverted away from the control... 40 Protection of Environment 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Batch front-end process vents-reporting... Batch front-end process vents—reporting requirements. (a) The owner or operator of a batch front-end...

  16. Towards Batched Linear Solvers on Accelerated Hardware Platforms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haidar, Azzam [University of Tennessee (UT); Dong, Tingzing Tim [University of Tennessee (UT); Tomov, Stanimire [University of Tennessee (UT); Dongarra, Jack J [ORNL

    2015-01-01

    As hardware evolves, an increasingly effective approach to develop energy efficient, high-performance solvers, is to design them to work on many small and independent problems. Indeed, many applications already need this functionality, especially for GPUs, which are known to be currently about four to five times more energy efficient than multicore CPUs for every floating-point operation. In this paper, we describe the development of the main one-sided factorizations: LU, QR, and Cholesky; that are needed for a set of small dense matrices to work in parallel. We refer to such algorithms as batched factorizations. Our approach is based on representing the algorithms as a sequence of batched BLAS routines for GPU-contained execution. Note that this is similar in functionality to the LAPACK and the hybrid MAGMA algorithms for large-matrix factorizations. But it is different from a straightforward approach, whereby each of GPU's symmetric multiprocessors factorizes a single problem at a time. We illustrate how our performance analysis together with the profiling and tracing tools guided the development of batched factorizations to achieve up to 2-fold speedup and 3-fold better energy efficiency compared to our highly optimized batched CPU implementations based on the MKL library on a two-sockets, Intel Sandy Bridge server. Compared to a batched LU factorization featured in the NVIDIA's CUBLAS library for GPUs, we achieves up to 2.5-fold speedup on the K40 GPU.

  17. Oxidative protein refolding on size exclusion chromatography: From batch single-column to multi-column counter-current continuous processing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Saremirad, Pegah; Wood, Jeffery A.; Zhang, Yan; Ray, Ajay K.

    2015-01-01

    Recently protein refolding on size exclusion chromatography (SEC) operated in multi-column continuous simulated moving bed (SMB) configurations (hereinafter SMB-SEC) has been investigated for future industrial applications. This is due to several advantages offered by SMB configurations particularly

  18. Apparatus and process for controlling fluidized beds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehmat, Amirali G.; Patel, Jitendra G.

    1985-10-01

    An apparatus and process for control and maintenance of fluidized beds under non-steady state conditions. An ash removal conduit is provided for removing solid particulates from a fluidized bed separate from an ash discharge conduit in the lower portion of the grate supporting such a bed. The apparatus and process of this invention is particularly suitable for use in ash agglomerating fluidized beds and provides control of the fluidized bed before ash agglomeration is initiated and during upset conditions resulting in stable, sinter-free fluidized bed maintenance.

  19. Study on transient of fluidized bed nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Streck, E.E.

    1988-01-01

    The point kinetic equations for a Fluidized-Bed Nuclear Reactor are solved by the method of Hansen. Due to the time varying nature of the reactor volume, the equations have a non-conventional formulation (moving boundary problem), but the method of solution preserves its asymptotic convergence and efficiency characteristics under this formulation. A one dimensional and linearized thermal hydraulics feedback model was coupled to the point kinetic equations in order to obtain a more realistic representation of the reactor power. The resulting equations are solved by the Euler explicit method. (author)

  20. Advanced fluid bed calciner information on IR-100 award

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Druby, M.C.; Owen, T.J.; Klem, M.J.

    1986-01-01

    The advanced fluidized bed calciner provides time, temperature and turbulence to change a liquid slurry such as ammonium diuranate into a uranium dioxide powder. The liquid is sprayed into a hot chamber (up to 700 0 C) which includes thousands of tiny metal beads, about the size of BB's. The constantly moving beads provide an efficient heat transfer media for the immediate transformation of the slurry droplets into dry particles of powder, which are carried out by hot nitrogen gas and recovered in a collector

  1. Self-organization and chaos in a fluidized bed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daw, C.S.; Finney, C.E.A.; Vasudevan, M.; van Goor, N.A.; Nguyen, K.; Bruns, D.D.; Kostelich, E.J.; Grebogi, C.; Ott, E.; Yorke, J.A.

    1995-01-01

    We present experimental evidence that a complex system of particles suspended by upward-moving gas can exhibit low-dimensional bulk behavior. Specifically, we describe large-scale collective particle motion referred to as slugging in an industrial device known as a fluidized bed. As gas flow increases from zero, the bulk motion evolves from a fixed point to periodic oscillations to oscillations intermittently punctuated by ''stutters,'' which become more frequent as the flow increases further. At the highest flow tested, the behavior becomes extremely complex (''turbulent'')

  2. Physiology Of Prolonged Bed Rest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenleaf, John E.

    1991-01-01

    Report describes physiological effects of prolonged bed rest. Rest for periods of 24 hours or longer deconditions body to some extent; healing proceeds simultaneously with deconditioning. Report provides details on shifts in fluid electrolytes and loss of lean body mass, which comprises everything in body besides fat - that is, water, muscle, and bone. Based on published research.

  3. Influence of plane bed on the force exerted on a cylinder oscillating in still water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naeeni, S.T.O. [Tehran Univ., Dept. of Civil Engineering, Tehran (Iran); Narayanan, R. [Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, Faculty of Civil Engineering, Johor Bahru (Malaysia)

    2005-12-01

    The wall pressure field on a cylinder oscillating over a plane bed in still water is reported in this paper. Two gaps between the cylinder and the bed were considered. Pressures on the periphery of the cylinder were measured by a transducer and were found to be essentially repeatable from one cycle to the next. The forces determined from the pressure profiles compare well with those measured directly by a force transducer except significantly at Keulegan-Carpenter number of 15.0. The importance of the plane bed when it is stationary or moving with the cylinder is examined. The significance of the roughness of the bed with respect to the oscillatory forces exerted on the cylinder is also assessed. (Author)

  4. From Fed-batch to Continuous Enzymatic Biodiesel Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Price, Jason Anthony; Nordblad, Mathias; Woodley, John M.

    2015-01-01

    In this this paper, we use mechanistic modelling to guide the development of acontinuous enzymatic process that is performed as a fed-batch operation. In this workwe use the enzymatic biodiesel process as a case study. A mechanistic model developedin our previous work was used to determine...... measured components (triglycerides, diglycerides, monoglycerides, free fatty acid and fatty acid methyl esters(biodiesel)) much better than using fed-batch data alone given the smaller residuals. We also observe a reduction in the correlation between the parameters.The model was then used to predict that 5...... reactors are required (with a combined residence time of 30 hours) to reach a final biodiesel concentration within 2 % of the95.6 mass % achieved in a fed-batch operation, for 24 hours....

  5. Batch variation between branchial cell cultures: An analysis of variance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Heinz Johs. Max; Grosell, M.; Kristensen, L.

    2003-01-01

    We present in detail how a statistical analysis of variance (ANOVA) is used to sort out the effect of an unexpected batch-to-batch variation between cell cultures. Two separate cultures of rainbow trout branchial cells were grown on permeable filtersupports ("inserts"). They were supposed...... to be simple duplicates for testing the effect of two induced factors-apical or basolateral addition of radioactive precursors and different apical media-on the incorporation of 14C-acetate and 32Pphosphate intotissue lipids. Unfortunately, they did not altogether give the same result. By accepting this fact...... and introducing the observed difference between batches as one of the factors in an expanded three-dimensional ANOVA, we were able to overcome an otherwisecrucial lack of sufficiently reproducible duplicate values. We could thereby show that the effect of changing the apical medium was much more marked when...

  6. Production of butyric acid from glucose and xylose with immobilized cells of Clostridium tyrobutyricum in a fibrous-bed bioreactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Ling; Wang, Jufang; Liang, Shizhong; Wang, Xiaoning; Cen, Peilin; Xu, Zhinan

    2010-01-01

    Butyric acid has many applications in chemical, food, and pharmaceutical industries. In the present study, Clostridium tyrobutyricum ATCC 25755 was immobilized in a fibrous-bed bioreactor to evaluate the performance of butyrate production from glucose and xylose. The results showed that the final concentration and yield of butyric acid were 13.70 and 0.46 g g(-1), respectively, in batch fermentation when 30 g L(-1) glucose was introduced into the bioreactor. Furthermore, high concentration 10.10 g L(-1) and yield 0.40 g g(-1) of butyric acid were obtained with 25 g L(-1) xylose as the carbon source. The immobilized cells of C. tyrobutyricum ensured similar productivity and yield from repeated batch fermentation. In the fed-batch fermentation, the final concentration of butyric acid was further improved to 24.88 g L(-1) with one suitable glucose feeding in the fibrous-bed bioreactor. C. tyrobutyricum immobilized in the fibrous-bed bioreactor would provide an economically viable fermentation process to convert the reducing sugars derived from plant biomass into the final bulk chemical (butyric acid).

  7. A High-Fidelity Batch Simulation Environment for Integrated Batch and Piloted Air Combat Simulation Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodrich, Kenneth H.; McManus, John W.; Chappell, Alan R.

    1992-01-01

    A batch air combat simulation environment known as the Tactical Maneuvering Simulator (TMS) is presented. The TMS serves as a tool for developing and evaluating tactical maneuvering logics. The environment can also be used to evaluate the tactical implications of perturbations to aircraft performance or supporting systems. The TMS is capable of simulating air combat between any number of engagement participants, with practical limits imposed by computer memory and processing power. Aircraft are modeled using equations of motion, control laws, aerodynamics and propulsive characteristics equivalent to those used in high-fidelity piloted simulation. Databases representative of a modern high-performance aircraft with and without thrust-vectoring capability are included. To simplify the task of developing and implementing maneuvering logics in the TMS, an outer-loop control system known as the Tactical Autopilot (TA) is implemented in the aircraft simulation model. The TA converts guidance commands issued by computerized maneuvering logics in the form of desired angle-of-attack and wind axis-bank angle into inputs to the inner-loop control augmentation system of the aircraft. This report describes the capabilities and operation of the TMS.

  8. Continuous flow technology vs. the batch-by-batch approach to produce pharmaceutical compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Kevin P; Johnson, Martin D

    2018-01-01

    For the manufacture of small molecule drugs, many pharmaceutical innovator companies have recently invested in continuous processing, which can offer significant technical and economic advantages over traditional batch methodology. This Expert Review will describe the reasons for this interest as well as many considerations and challenges that exist today concerning continuous manufacturing. Areas covered: Continuous processing is defined and many reasons for its adoption are described. The current state of continuous drug substance manufacturing within the pharmaceutical industry is summarized. Current key challenges to implementation of continuous manufacturing are highlighted, and an outlook provided regarding the prospects for continuous within the industry. Expert commentary: Continuous processing at Lilly has been a journey that started with the need for increased safety and capability. Over twelve years the original small, dedicated group has grown to more than 100 Lilly employees in discovery, development, quality, manufacturing, and regulatory designing in continuous drug substance processing. Recently we have focused on linked continuous unit operations for the purpose of all-at-once pharmaceutical manufacturing, but the technical and business drivers that existed in the very beginning for stand-alone continuous unit operations in hybrid processes have persisted, which merits investment in both approaches.

  9. Imaging of Moving Ground Vehicles

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rihaczek, A

    1996-01-01

    ... requires that use be made of the complex image. The yaw/pitch/roll/bounce/flex motion of a moving ground vehicle demands that different motion compensations be applied to different parts of the vehicle...

  10. Surface moving map industry survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-08-01

    This industry survey provides an overview of the currently available surface moving map products, as of March, 2009. Thirteen manufactureres and six research organizations participated and provided descriptions of the information elements they depict...

  11. Minimum Delay Moving Object Detection

    KAUST Repository

    Lao, Dong

    2017-01-08

    We present a general framework and method for detection of an object in a video based on apparent motion. The object moves relative to background motion at some unknown time in the video, and the goal is to detect and segment the object as soon it moves in an online manner. Due to unreliability of motion between frames, more than two frames are needed to reliably detect the object. Our method is designed to detect the object(s) with minimum delay, i.e., frames after the object moves, constraining the false alarms. Experiments on a new extensive dataset for moving object detection show that our method achieves less delay for all false alarm constraints than existing state-of-the-art.

  12. Minimum Delay Moving Object Detection

    KAUST Repository

    Lao, Dong

    2017-11-09

    We present a general framework and method for detection of an object in a video based on apparent motion. The object moves relative to background motion at some unknown time in the video, and the goal is to detect and segment the object as soon it moves in an online manner. Due to unreliability of motion between frames, more than two frames are needed to reliably detect the object. Our method is designed to detect the object(s) with minimum delay, i.e., frames after the object moves, constraining the false alarms. Experiments on a new extensive dataset for moving object detection show that our method achieves less delay for all false alarm constraints than existing state-of-the-art.

  13. Transient heating of moving objects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.I. Baida

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available A mathematical model of transient and quasistatic heating of moving objects by various heat sources is considered. The mathematical formulation of the problem is described, examples of thermal calculation given.

  14. Autowaves in moving excitable media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.A.Davydov

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Within the framework of kinematic theory of autowaves we suggest a method for analytic description of stationary autowave structures appearing at the boundary between the moving and fixed excitable media. The front breakdown phenomenon is predicted for such structures. Autowave refraction and, particulary, one-side "total reflection" at the boundary is considered. The obtained analytical results are confirmed by computer simulations. Prospects of the proposed method for further studies of autowave dynamics in the moving excitable media are discussed.

  15. Stochastic growth logistic model with aftereffect for batch fermentation process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosli, Norhayati; Ayoubi, Tawfiqullah; Bahar, Arifah; Rahman, Haliza Abdul; Salleh, Madihah Md

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, the stochastic growth logistic model with aftereffect for the cell growth of C. acetobutylicum P262 and Luedeking-Piret equations for solvent production in batch fermentation system is introduced. The parameters values of the mathematical models are estimated via Levenberg-Marquardt optimization method of non-linear least squares. We apply Milstein scheme for solving the stochastic models numerically. The effciency of mathematical models is measured by comparing the simulated result and the experimental data of the microbial growth and solvent production in batch system. Low values of Root Mean-Square Error (RMSE) of stochastic models with aftereffect indicate good fits

  16. Stochastic growth logistic model with aftereffect for batch fermentation process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosli, Norhayati; Ayoubi, Tawfiqullah [Faculty of Industrial Sciences and Technology, Universiti Malaysia Pahang, Lebuhraya Tun Razak, 26300 Gambang, Pahang (Malaysia); Bahar, Arifah; Rahman, Haliza Abdul [Department of Mathematical Sciences, Faculty of Science, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 Johor Bahru, Johor (Malaysia); Salleh, Madihah Md [Department of Biotechnology Industry, Faculty of Biosciences and Bioengineering, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 Johor Bahru, Johor (Malaysia)

    2014-06-19

    In this paper, the stochastic growth logistic model with aftereffect for the cell growth of C. acetobutylicum P262 and Luedeking-Piret equations for solvent production in batch fermentation system is introduced. The parameters values of the mathematical models are estimated via Levenberg-Marquardt optimization method of non-linear least squares. We apply Milstein scheme for solving the stochastic models numerically. The effciency of mathematical models is measured by comparing the simulated result and the experimental data of the microbial growth and solvent production in batch system. Low values of Root Mean-Square Error (RMSE) of stochastic models with aftereffect indicate good fits.

  17. Aerobic biodegradation of a sulfonated phenylazonaphthol dye by a bacterial community immobilized in a multistage packed-bed BAC reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Arias, Alfredo; Juárez-Ramírez, Cleotilde; de los Cobos-Vasconcelos, Daniel; Ruiz-Ordaz, Nora; Salmerón-Alcocer, Angélica; Ahuatzi-Chacón, Deifilia; Galíndez-Mayer, Juvencio

    2010-11-01

    A microbial community able to aerobically degrade the azo dye Acid Orange 7 was selected from riparian or lacustrine sediments collected at sites receiving textile wastewaters. Three bacterial strains, pertaining to the genera Pseudomonas, Arthrobacter, and Rhizobium, constitute the selected community. The biodegradation of AO7 was carried out in batch-suspended cell culture and in a continuously operated multistage packed-bed BAC reactor. The rapid decolorization observed in batch culture, joined to a delay of about 24 h in COD removal and cell growth, suggests that enzymes involved in biodegradation of the aromatic amines generated after AO7 azo-bond cleavage (1-amino-2-naphthol [1-A2N] and 4-aminobenzenesulfonic acid [4-ABS]), are inducible in this microbial consortium. After this presumptive induction period, the accumulated byproducts, measured through COD, were partially metabolized and transformed in cell mass. At all azo dye loading rates used, complete removal of AO7 and 1-A2N was obtained in the multistage packed-bed BAC reactor (PBR).; however, the overall COD (eta ( COD )) and 4-ABS (eta ( ABS )) removal efficiencies obtained in steady state continuous culture were about 90%. Considering the toxicity of 1-A2N, its complete removal has particular relevance. In the first stages of the packed-bed BAC reactor (Fig. 4a-c), major removal was observed. In the last stage, only a slight removal of COD and 4-ABS was obtained. Comparing to several reported studies, the continuously operated multistage packed-bed BAC reactor showed similar or superior results. In addition, the operation of large-packed-bed BAC reactors could be improved by using several shallow BAC bed stages, because the pressure drop caused by bed compaction of a support material constituted by small and fragile particles can be reduced.

  18. The Importance of Splat Events to the Spatiotemporal Structure of Near-Bed Fluid Velocity and Bed Load Motion Over Bed Forms: Laboratory Experiments Downstream of a Backward Facing Step

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leary, K. C. P.; Schmeeckle, M. W.

    2017-12-01

    Flow separation/reattachment on the lee side of alluvial bed forms is known to produce a complex turbulence field, but the spatiotemporal details of the associated patterns of bed load sediment transported remain largely unknown. Here we report turbulence-resolving, simultaneous measurements of bed load motion and near-bed fluid velocity downstream of a backward facing step in a laboratory flume. Two synchronized high-speed video cameras simultaneously observed bed load motion and the motion of neutrally buoyant particles in a laser light sheet 6 mm above the bed at 250 frames/s downstream of a 3.8 cm backward facing step. Particle Imaging Velocimetry (PIV) and Acoustic Doppler Velocimetry (ADV) were used to characterize fluid turbulent patterns, while manual particle tracking techniques were used to characterize bed load transport. Octant analysis, conducted using ADV data, coupled with Markovian sequence probability analysis highlights differences in the flow near reattachment versus farther downstream. Near reattachment, three distinct flow patterns are apparent. Farther downstream we see the development of a dominant flow sequence. Localized, intermittent, high-magnitude transport events are more apparent near flow reattachment. These events are composed of streamwise and cross-stream fluxes of comparable magnitudes. Transport pattern and fluid velocity data are consistent with the existence of permeable "splat events," wherein a volume of fluid moves toward and impinges on the bed (sweep) causing a radial movement of fluid in all directions around the point of impingement (outward interaction). This is congruent with flow patterns, identified with octant analysis, proximal to flow reattachment.

  19. Protecting Your Home from Bed Bugs

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... your home: Inspect the luggage rack in your hotel room for bed bugs. Check secondhand furniture, beds, ... Grants January 19, 2017 Web Snapshot No FEAR Act Data Privacy Privacy and Security Notice Connect. Data. ...

  20. Videos, Webinars, Blogs Related to Bed Bugs

    Science.gov (United States)

    These tools provide practical insight on issues such as integrated pest management (IPM) for schools, bed bug bites, how carpet beetles can help, bed bugs as hitchhikers, and preventing and controlling infestations.

  1. EPA-Registered Bed Bug Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... treat your bed bug infestation. Foggers and bug bombs should not be used as the only method ... effective but take some time to kill the population); or Bed bugs’ becoming resistant to a specific ...

  2. Effects of carbon brush anode size and loading on microbial fuel cell performance in batch and continuous mode

    KAUST Repository

    Lanas, Vanessa

    2014-02-01

    Larger scale microbial fuel cells (MFCs) require compact architectures to efficiently treat wastewater. We examined how anode-brush diameter, number of anodes, and electrode spacing affected the performance of the MFCs operated in fed-batch and continuous flow mode. All anodes were initially tested with the brush core set at the same distance from the cathode. In fed-batch mode, the configuration with three larger brushes (25 mm diameter) produced 80% more power (1240 mW m-2) than reactors with eight smaller brushes (8 mm) (690 mW m-2). The higher power production by the larger brushes was due to more negative and stable anode potentials than the smaller brushes. The same general result was obtained in continuous flow operation, although power densities were reduced. However, by moving the center of the smaller brushes closer to the cathode (from 16.5 to 8 mm), power substantially increased from 690 to 1030 mW m-2 in fed batch mode. In continuous flow mode, power increased from 280 to 1020 mW m-2, resulting in more power production from the smaller brushes than the larger brushes (540 mW m-2). These results show that multi-electrode MFCs can be optimized by selecting smaller anodes, placed as close as possible to the cathode. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Analysis and modelling of the energy requirements of batch processes; Analyse und Modellierung des Energiebedarfes in Batch-Prozessen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bieler, P.S.

    2002-07-01

    This intermediate report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) presents the results of a project aiming to model the energy consumption of multi-product, multi-purpose batch production plants. The utilities investigated were electricity, brine and steam. Both top-down and bottom-up approaches are described, whereby top-down was used for the buildings where the batch process apparatus was installed. Modelling showed that for batch-plants at the building level, the product mix can be too variable and the diversity of products and processes too great for simple modelling. Further results obtained by comparing six different production plants that could be modelled are discussed. The several models developed are described and their wider applicability is discussed. Also, the results of comparisons made between modelled and actual values are presented. Recommendations for further work are made.

  4. Chemical-looping combustion in a reverse-flow fixed bed reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Lu; Bollas, George M.

    2016-01-01

    A reverse-flow fixed bed reactor concept for CLC (chemical-looping combustion) is explored. The limitations of conventional fixed bed reactors, as applied to CLC, are overcome by reversing the gas flow direction periodically to enhance the mixing characteristics of the bed, thus improving oxygen carrier utilization and energy efficiency with respect to power generation. The reverse-flow reactor is simulated by a dusty-gas model and compared with an equivalent fixed bed reactor without flow reversal. Dynamic optimization is used to calculate conditions at which each reactor operates at maximum energy efficiency. Several cases studies illustrate the benefits of reverse-flow operation for the CLC with CuO and NiO oxygen carriers and methane and syngas fuels. The results show that periodic reversal of the flow during reduction improves the contact between the fuel and unconverted oxygen carrier, enabling the system to suppress unwanted catalytic reactions and axial temperature and conversion gradients. The operational scheme presented reduces the fluctuations of temperature during oxidation and increases the high-temperature heat produced by the process. CLC in a reverse-flow reactor has the potential to achieve higher energy efficiency than conventional fixed bed CLC reactors, when integrated with a downstream gas turbine of a combined cycle power plant. - Highlights: • Reverse-flow fixed bed CLC reactors for combined cycle power systems. • Dynamic optimization tunes operation of batch and transient CLC systems. • The reverse-flow CLC system provides stable turbine-ready gas stream. • Reverse-flow CLC fixed bed reactor has superior CO 2 capture and thermal efficiency.

  5. Design of two-column batch-to-batch recirculation to enhance performance in ion-exchange chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persson, Oliver; Andersson, Niklas; Nilsson, Bernt

    2018-01-05

    Preparative liquid chromatography is a separation technique widely used in the manufacturing of fine chemicals and pharmaceuticals. A major drawback of traditional single-column batch chromatography step is the trade-off between product purity and process performance. Recirculation of impure product can be utilized to make the trade-off more favorable. The aim of the present study was to investigate the usage of a two-column batch-to-batch recirculation process step to increase the performance compared to single-column batch chromatography at a high purity requirement. The separation of a ternary protein mixture on ion-exchange chromatography columns was used to evaluate the proposed process. The investigation used modelling and simulation of the process step, experimental validation and optimization of the simulated process. In the presented case the yield increases from 45.4% to 93.6% and the productivity increases 3.4 times compared to the performance of a batch run for a nominal case. A rapid concentration build-up product can be seen during the first cycles, before the process reaches a cyclic steady-state with reoccurring concentration profiles. The optimization of the simulation model predicts that the recirculated salt can be used as a flying start of the elution, which would enhance the process performance. The proposed process is more complex than a batch process, but may improve the separation performance, especially while operating at cyclic steady-state. The recirculation of impure fractions reduces the product losses and ensures separation of product to a high degree of purity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Fluidization quality analyzer for fluidized beds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daw, C.S.; Hawk, J.A.

    1995-07-25

    A control loop and fluidization quality analyzer for a fluidized bed utilizes time varying pressure drop measurements. A fast-response pressure transducer measures the overall bed pressure drop, or over some segment of the bed, and the pressure drop signal is processed to produce an output voltage which changes with the degree of fluidization turbulence. 9 figs.

  7. Moving event and moving participant in aspectual conceptions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Izutsu Katsunobu

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This study advances an analysis of the event conception of aspectual forms in four East Asian languages: Ainu, Japanese, Korean, and Ryukyuan. As earlier studies point out, event conceptions can be divided into two major types: the moving-event type and the moving-participant type, respectively. All aspectual forms in Ainu and Korean, and most forms in Japanese and Ryukyuan are based on that type of event conception. Moving-participant oriented Ainu and movingevent oriented Japanese occupy two extremes, between which Korean and Ryukyuan stand. Notwithstanding the geographical relationships among the four languages, Ryukyuan is closer to Ainu than to Korean, whereas Korean is closer to Ainu than to Japanese.

  8. Lipid production in batch and fed-batch cultures of Rhodosporidium toruloides from 5 and 6 carbon carbohydrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wiebe Marilyn G

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Microbial lipids are a potential source of bio- or renewable diesel and the red yeast Rhodosporidium toruloides is interesting not only because it can accumulate over 50% of its dry biomass as lipid, but also because it utilises both five and six carbon carbohydrates, which are present in plant biomass hydrolysates. Methods R. toruloides was grown in batch and fed-batch cultures in 0.5 L bioreactors at pH 4 in chemically defined, nitrogen restricted (C/N 40 to 100 media containing glucose, xylose, arabinose, or all three carbohydrates as carbon source. Lipid was extracted from the biomass using chloroform-methanol, measured gravimetrically and analysed by GC. Results Lipid production was most efficient with glucose (up to 25 g lipid L−1, 48 to 75% lipid in the biomass, at up to 0.21 g lipid L−1 h−1 as the sole carbon source, but high lipid concentrations were also produced from xylose (36 to 45% lipid in biomass. Lipid production was low (15–19% lipid in biomass with arabinose as sole carbon source and was lower than expected (30% lipid in biomass when glucose, xylose and arabinose were provided simultaneously. The presence of arabinose and/or xylose in the medium increased the proportion of palmitic and linoleic acid and reduced the proportion of oleic acid in the fatty acids, compared to glucose-grown cells. High cell densities were obtained in both batch (37 g L−1, with 49% lipid in the biomass and fed-batch (35 to 47 g L−1, with 50 to 75% lipid in the biomass cultures. The highest proportion of lipid in the biomass was observed in cultures given nitrogen during the batch phase but none with the feed. However, carbohydrate consumption was incomplete when the feed did not contain nitrogen and the highest total lipid and best substrate consumption were observed in cultures which received a constant low nitrogen supply. Conclusions Lipid production in R. toruloides was lower from arabinose and mixed

  9. Lipid production in batch and fed-batch cultures of Rhodosporidium toruloides from 5 and 6 carbon carbohydrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiebe, Marilyn G; Koivuranta, Kari; Penttilä, Merja; Ruohonen, Laura

    2012-05-30

    Microbial lipids are a potential source of bio- or renewable diesel and the red yeast Rhodosporidium toruloides is interesting not only because it can accumulate over 50% of its dry biomass as lipid, but also because it utilises both five and six carbon carbohydrates, which are present in plant biomass hydrolysates. R. toruloides was grown in batch and fed-batch cultures in 0.5 L bioreactors at pH 4 in chemically defined, nitrogen restricted (C/N 40 to 100) media containing glucose, xylose, arabinose, or all three carbohydrates as carbon source. Lipid was extracted from the biomass using chloroform-methanol, measured gravimetrically and analysed by GC. Lipid production was most efficient with glucose (up to 25 g lipid L(-1), 48 to 75% lipid in the biomass, at up to 0.21 g lipid L(-1) h(-1)) as the sole carbon source, but high lipid concentrations were also produced from xylose (36 to 45% lipid in biomass). Lipid production was low (15-19% lipid in biomass) with arabinose as sole carbon source and was lower than expected (30% lipid in biomass) when glucose, xylose and arabinose were provided simultaneously. The presence of arabinose and/or xylose in the medium increased the proportion of palmitic and linoleic acid and reduced the proportion of oleic acid in the fatty acids, compared to glucose-grown cells. High cell densities were obtained in both batch (37 g L(-1), with 49% lipid in the biomass) and fed-batch (35 to 47 g L(-1), with 50 to 75% lipid in the biomass) cultures. The highest proportion of lipid in the biomass was observed in cultures given nitrogen during the batch phase but none with the feed. However, carbohydrate consumption was incomplete when the feed did not contain nitrogen and the highest total lipid and best substrate consumption were observed in cultures which received a constant low nitrogen supply. Lipid production in R. toruloides was lower from arabinose and mixed carbohydrates than from glucose or xylose. Although high biomass and lipid

  10. Designing a CR Test bed

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cattoni, Andrea Fabio; Buthler, Jakob Lindbjerg; Tonelli, Oscar

    2014-01-01

    with their own set up, since the potential costs and efforts could not pay back in term of expected research results. Software Defined Radio solutions offer an easy way to communication researchers for the development of customized research test beds. While several hardware products are commercially available......Research on intelligent and reconfigurable wireless systems is in continuous evolution. Nevertheless, in order to fix some keystones, more and more researchers are entering the idea of research-oriented test beds. Unfortunately, it is very difficult for a wide number of research groups to start......, the software is most of the times open source and ready to use for third party users. Even though the software solution developers claim complete easiness in the development of custom applications, in reality there are a number of practical hardware and software issues that research groups need to face, before...

  11. Review of acute cancer beds.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Evans, D S

    2012-01-01

    A review of admissions to cancer services at University Hospital Galway (UHG) was undertaken to assess the appropriateness of hospital usage. All cancer specialty patients admitted from 26-28 May 2009 were reviewed (n = 82). Chi square tests, Exact tests, and One-way ANOVA were utilised to analyse key issues emerging from the data. Fifty (61%) were classified as emergencies. Twenty three (67%) occupied a designated cancer bed with 24 (30%) in outlying non-oncology wards. The mean length of stay was 29.3 days. Possible alternatives to admission were identified for 15 (19%) patients. There was no evidence of discharge planning for 50 (60%) admissions. There is considerable potential to make more appropriate utilisation of UHG for cancer patients, particularly in terms of reducing bed days and length of stay and the proportion of emergency cancer admissions, and further developing integrated systems of discharge planning.

  12. Device for measuring bed pressure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gulin, B.M.; Chubar, V.G.

    1979-03-05

    The invention refers to studies in wells and is designed for piezomeasurements for the processes of undergrond leaching out associated with the movement of fluids of variable density to the productive beds. The purpose of he invention is to increase the accuracy of measurements of bed pressure by reducing the influence of changes of fluid density in the well. The goal is achieved because the device is equipped with a piezometric pipe arranged in the well and filled with liquid whose density is less than the density of the solution, and the transformer of the level is installed in the pipe. The pipe can have a throttle. A drawing and description of the proposed device are presented.

  13. Shell of Planet Earth – Global Batch Bioreactor.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hanika, Jiří; Šolcová, Olga; Kaštánek, P.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 40, č. 11 (2017), s. 1959-1965 ISSN 0930-7516 R&D Projects: GA TA ČR TE01020080 Institutional support: RVO:67985858 Keywords : critical raw materials * global batch bioreactor * planet earth Subject RIV: CI - Industrial Chemistry, Chemical Engineering OBOR OECD: Chemical process engineering Impact factor: 2.051, year: 2016

  14. Batch arrival discrete time queue with gated vacation system ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A class of single server vacation queues, which have batch arrivals and single server, is considered in discrete time. Here the server goes on vacation of random length as soon as the system becomes empty. On return from vacation, if he finds any customers waiting in the queue, the server starts serving the customers one ...

  15. Medium optimization for protopectinase production by batch culture of

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Medium optimization for protopectinase production by batch culture of. C Fan, Z Liu, L Yao. Abstract. Optimization of medium compositions for protopectinase production by Aspergillus terreus in submerged culture was carried out. The medium components having significant effect on protopectinase production were reported ...

  16. DEVELOPMENT OF AN AUTOMATED BATCH-PROCESS SOLAR ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    One of the shortcomings of solar disinfection of water (SODIS) is the absence of a feedback mechanism indicating treatment completion. This work presents the development of an automated batch-process water disinfection system aimed at solving this challenge. Locally sourced materials in addition to an Arduinomicro ...

  17. Quality control for 12 batch of DTPA-Sn

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isaac, M.; Gamboa, R.; Leyva, R.; Hernandez, I.; Turino, D.

    1994-01-01

    The quality control is carry out at 12 batch of DTPA-Sn for labeling with 99 m Tc. The instrumental methods of analysis and control charts were discussed in order to find a warranty time for the product. (author). 2 refs, 3 figs, 1 tab

  18. Development of Production Control in Small Batch Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Németh Péter

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Our aim with this paper is to develop a new performance measurement and control system for small batch production in the automotive industry. For this reason, we present our previous research results for warehouse performance measurement and adopt its methodology to production control. The proposed method is based on artificial intelligence (neural networks.

  19. Sequencing for Batch Production in a Group Flowline Machine Shop ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The purpose of the paper is to develop a useful technique for sequencing batches of components through machine shops arranged under the group flowline production system. The approach is to apply a modified version of Petrov's group flowline technique for machining components which follow a unidirectional route.

  20. Comparison of neptunium sorption results using batch and column techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Triay, I.R.; Furlano, A.C.; Weaver, S.C.; Chipera, S.J.; Bish, D.L.

    1996-08-01

    We used crushed-rock columns to study the sorption retardation of neptunium by zeolitic, devitrified, and vitric tuffs typical of those at the site of the potential high-level nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. We used two sodium bicarbonate waters (groundwater from Well J-13 at the site and water prepared to simulate groundwater from Well UE-25p No. 1) under oxidizing conditions. It was found that values of the sorption distribution coefficient, Kd, obtained from these column experiments under flowing conditions, regardless of the water or the water velocity used, agreed well with those obtained earlier from batch sorption experiments under static conditions. The batch sorption distribution coefficient can be used to predict the arrival time for neptunium eluted through the columns. On the other hand, the elution curves showed dispersivity, which implies that neptunium sorption in these tuffs may be nonlinear, irreversible, or noninstantaneous. As a result, use of a batch sorption distribution coefficient to calculate neptunium transport through Yucca Mountain tuffs would yield conservative values for neptunium release from the site. We also noted that neptunium (present as the anionic neptunyl carbonate complex) never eluted prior to tritiated water, which implies that charge exclusion does not appear to exclude neptunium from the tuff pores. The column experiments corroborated the trends observed in batch sorption experiments: neptunium sorption onto devitrified and vitric tuffs is minimal and sorption onto zeolitic tuffs decreases as the amount of sodium and bicarbonate/carbonate in the water increases

  1. On energy optimisation in multipurpose batch plants using heat storage

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Majozi, T

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The use of heat integration in multipurpose batch plants to minimise energy usage has been in the literature for more than two decades. Direct heat integration may be exploited when the heat source and heat sink processes are active over a common...

  2. Batch immunoextraction method for efficient purification of aromatic cytokinins

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hauserová, Eva; Swaczynová, Jana; Doležal, Karel; Lenobel, René; Popa, Igor; Hajdúch, M.; Vydra, D.; Fuksová, Květoslava; Strnad, Miroslav

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 1100, č. 1 (2005), s. 116-125 ISSN 0021-9673 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IBS4055304 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50380511; MSM6198959216 Keywords : antibody * 6-benzylaminopurine * batch immunoextraction Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 3.096, year: 2005

  3. Tier 3 batch system data locality via managed caches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Max; Giffels, Manuel; Jung, Christopher; Kühn, Eileen; Quast, Günter

    2015-05-01

    Modern data processing increasingly relies on data locality for performance and scalability, whereas the common HEP approaches aim for uniform resource pools with minimal locality, recently even across site boundaries. To combine advantages of both, the High- Performance Data Analysis (HPDA) Tier 3 concept opportunistically establishes data locality via coordinated caches. In accordance with HEP Tier 3 activities, the design incorporates two major assumptions: First, only a fraction of data is accessed regularly and thus the deciding factor for overall throughput. Second, data access may fallback to non-local, making permanent local data availability an inefficient resource usage strategy. Based on this, the HPDA design generically extends available storage hierarchies into the batch system. Using the batch system itself for scheduling file locality, an array of independent caches on the worker nodes is dynamically populated with high-profile data. Cache state information is exposed to the batch system both for managing caches and scheduling jobs. As a result, users directly work with a regular, adequately sized storage system. However, their automated batch processes are presented with local replications of data whenever possible.

  4. A recirculating incubation system for hatching small batches of fish ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper describes the design, construction and evaluation of the capacity of a re-circulating incubation system for hatching small batches of fish eggs. ... Water flowed out of the incubation unit through a small section of glass and then plastic tubing inserted through a second hole in the rubber stopper to a PVC drain ...

  5. Spore survival during batch dry rendering of abattoir waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowry, P D; Fernando, T; Gill, C O

    1979-01-01

    Normal batch dry rendering practice does not ensure sterile products, because bacterial spores are protected against thermal denaturation by the high fat-low water content environment which results from drying the materials at temperatures below those required for sterilization. PMID:117753

  6. Adaptation to high throughput batch chromatography enhances multivariate screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker, Gregory A; Calzada, Joseph; Herzer, Sibylle; Rieble, Siegfried

    2015-09-01

    High throughput process development offers unique approaches to explore complex process design spaces with relatively low material consumption. Batch chromatography is one technique that can be used to screen chromatographic conditions in a 96-well plate. Typical batch chromatography workflows examine variations in buffer conditions or comparison of multiple resins in a given process, as opposed to the assessment of protein loading conditions in combination with other factors. A modification to the batch chromatography paradigm is described here where experimental planning, programming, and a staggered loading approach increase the multivariate space that can be explored with a liquid handling system. The iterative batch chromatography (IBC) approach is described, which treats every well in a 96-well plate as an individual experiment, wherein protein loading conditions can be varied alongside other factors such as wash and elution buffer conditions. As all of these factors are explored in the same experiment, the interactions between them are characterized and the number of follow-up confirmatory experiments is reduced. This in turn improves statistical power and throughput. Two examples of the IBC method are shown and the impact of the load conditions are assessed in combination with the other factors explored. Copyright © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. An analysis of DTP- associated reactions by manufacturer, batch ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Merieux J5497 or SAIMR F08609. Methods of randomisation varied slightly between the two clinic groups in order to minimise clinic disruption. DTP dose numbers and batches were recorded on clinic cards to ensure vaccination with the same ...

  8. A storage assignment model for batch preparation in process industries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ashayeri, J.; Selen, W.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to develop new model formulation for reducing the workload in pre‐batching at a manufacturer of flavors and fragrances, by optimally assigning ingredients to different storage types, taking into account past usage of ingredients and several restrictions about

  9. Synthesis of zero effluent multipurpose batch processes using effective scheduling

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Gouws, JF

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available the scheduling of operations in the synthesis phase. The mathematically based method presented in this paper deals with the synthesis of a batch plant operating in the fashion mentioned above. The method determines the optimal size and number of processing...

  10. THE BAUXITES AND JELAR - BEDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krešimir Sakač

    1993-12-01

    Full Text Available Minor bauxite deposits and occurrences were formed in technically disturbed environments in the middle part of the Adriatic geotectonic unit in Dinarides, contemporary with the clastic Jelar-beds in the Late Lutetian time. Uneven chemical composition of these Eocene bauxites, their sporadic occurrences in developed paleorelief as well as characteristic petrographic composition of the immediate overlying rocks point out at different genetical conditions (the paper is published in Croatian.

  11. Dynometer test bed (fact sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Dell, K.

    2000-04-24

    The National Renewable Energy Laboratory's (NREL's) Dynamometer Test Bed is one of a kind. It offers wind industry engineers a unique opportunity to conduct lifetime endurance tests on a wide range of wind turbine drivetrains and gearboxes at various speeds, using low or high torque. By testing full-scale wind turbines, engineers from NREL and industry hope to understand the impact of various wind conditions with the goal of improving hardware design.

  12. Numerical simulation of fluid bed drying based on two-fluid model and experimental validation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Assari, M.R. [Jundi-shapur University, Dezful (Iran); Basirat Tabrizi, H.; Saffar-Avval, M. [Amirkabir University of Technology, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Tehran (Iran)

    2007-02-15

    A mathematical model for batch drying based on the Eulerian 'two-fluid models' was developed. The two-dimensional, axis-symmetrical cylindrical equations for both phases were solved numerically. The governing equations were discretized using a finite volume method with local grid refinement near the wall and inlet port. The effects of parameters such as inlet gas velocity and inlet gas temperature on the moisture content, temperature of solid and gas at the outlet are shown. This data from the model was compared with that obtained from experiments with a fluidized bed and found to be in reasonably good agreement. (author)

  13. Minimum Delay Moving Object Detection

    KAUST Repository

    Lao, Dong

    2017-05-14

    This thesis presents a general framework and method for detection of an object in a video based on apparent motion. The object moves, at some unknown time, differently than the “background” motion, which can be induced from camera motion. The goal of proposed method is to detect and segment the object as soon it moves in an online manner. Since motion estimation can be unreliable between frames, more than two frames are needed to reliably detect the object. Observing more frames before declaring a detection may lead to a more accurate detection and segmentation, since more motion may be observed leading to a stronger motion cue. However, this leads to greater delay. The proposed method is designed to detect the object(s) with minimum delay, i.e., frames after the object moves, constraining the false alarms, defined as declarations of detection before the object moves or incorrect or inaccurate segmentation at the detection time. Experiments on a new extensive dataset for moving object detection show that our method achieves less delay for all false alarm constraints than existing state-of-the-art.

  14. Advances in fluidized bed technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mutanen, K.

    1992-01-01

    Atmospheric fluidized bed combustion (AFBC) has advanced into industrial cogeneration and utility-scale electric generation. During the 1980's AFBC became the dominant technology in the United States for power generation systems fired with solid fuels. Development of pressurized fluidized bed combustion/gasification (PFB/G) has grown rapidly from small bench-scale rigs to large pilot and demonstration plants. AFBC as large as 160 MWe in capacity are now in operation, while pressurized combustion systems generating 80 MWe have started up two years ago. The major driving forces behind development of fluidized bed technologies are all the time strictening emission control regulations, need for fuel flexibility, repowering of older power plants and need for higher efficiency in electricity generation. Independent power producers (IPP) and cogenerators were the first ones in the United States who accepted AFBC for wide commercial use. Their role will be dominant in the markets of the 1990's also. Developers of AFBC systems are working on designs that reduce investment costs, decrease emissions and offer even higher reliability and availability in utility-scale applications while developers of PFBC/G work on designs that increase plant efficiencies, allow modular construction, decrease emissions further and reduce the cost of generating power. This paper presents technological background, commercial status, boiler performance, emissions and future developments for both AFBC and PFBC/G systems

  15. The characteristics of bed agglomeration during fluidized bed combustion of eucalyptus bark

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaivatamaset, Pawin; Tia, Suvit

    2015-01-01

    The bed agglomeration behaviors were investigated experimentally when eucalyptus bark was burning tested in a laboratory scale fluidized bed reactor. The focuses of this work were the influences of operating conditions and bed materials on the bed agglomeration tendency and the elucidation in the behaviors of fuel inorganic elements and the governing mode of the agglomeration. It was found that the defluidization caused by the bed agglomeration was clearly detectable from the decrease in measured bed pressure. The growth of bed particle and accumulation of agglomerates during combustion provided the partial to complete defluidization. The defluidization was promoted by the increase of bed temperature and bed particle size, and the decrease of fluidizing air velocity. The SEM-EDS analyses revealed that the bed agglomeration was mainly attributed to the formation of potassium silicate compounds as liquid phase during the combustion. This was initiated by the chemical reaction between the bed particle and the released ash constituents. In this study, the inorganic migration from fuel particle to bed particle was likely dominated by the condensation/reaction. The thermodynamic examination by ternary phase diagram analysis corroborated that the liquid phase formation of the ash derived materials controlled the agglomeration. The alumina sand prevented the bed agglomeration since it was inactive in the formation of viscous molten substances during combustion at the observed temperatures. - Highlights: • The behaviors of bed agglomeration were studied during the fluidized bed combustion of eucalyptus bark. • The increase in bed temperature and sand size, and the decrease of air velocity promoted bed defluidization. • The formation of molten potassium silicate compounds conduced to the bed agglomeration. • Condensation/reaction was the dominant inorganic migration mechanism from fuel particle to bed particle. • The alumina sand prevented effectively the bed

  16. Bed agglomeration characteristics of palm shell and corncob combustion in fluidized bed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaivatamaset, Pawin; Sricharoon, Panchan; Tia, Suvit

    2011-01-01

    Bed particle agglomeration was studied experimentally in an atmospheric laboratory scale fluidized bed combustor using quartz sand as bed material. Palm shell and corncob were tested. The objectives of the study were (i) to describe the contributions of the biomass ash properties and the operating conditions on the bed agglomeration tendency in term of the bed defluidization time (t def ) and the extent of potassium accumulation in the bed (K/Bed) and (ii) to further elucidate the ash inorganic behaviors and the governing bed agglomeration mechanisms. Defluidization caused by the bed agglomeration was experienced in all experiments during combustion of these biomasses, as a consequence of the presence of potassium in biomass. The experimental results indicated that biomass ash characteristics were the significant influence on the bed agglomeration. The increasing bed temperature, bed particle size and static bed height and the decreasing fluidizing air velocity enhanced the bed agglomeration tendency. The SEM/EDS analyses on the agglomerates confirmed that the agglomeration was attributed to the formation of potassium silicate liquid enriched on the surface of quartz sand particles in conjunction with the high surface temperature of the burning biomass char particles. Thermodynamic examination based on the phase diagram analysis confirmed that the molten phase formation was responsible for the agglomeration. In this study, the high molten ash fraction resulting from the high potassium content in biomass promoted the agglomeration and thus defluidization. - Highlights: → Palm shell and corncob of Thailand are tested their bed agglomeration behaviors during fluidized bed combustion. → The increase of bed temperature, bed particle size and static bed height and the decrease of air velocity enhance bed agglomeration. → The formation of ash derived potassium silicate melts enriched on sand surface is the key process. → The collision between char and sand

  17. Moving Horizon Estimation and Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, John Bagterp

    successful and applied methodology beyond PID-control for control of industrial processes. The main contribution of this thesis is introduction and definition of the extended linear quadratic optimal control problem for solution of numerical problems arising in moving horizon estimation and control...... problems. Chapter 1 motivates moving horizon estimation and control as a paradigm for control of industrial processes. It introduces the extended linear quadratic control problem and discusses its central role in moving horizon estimation and control. Introduction, application and efficient solution....... It provides an algorithm for computation of the maximal output admissible set for linear model predictive control. Appendix D provides results concerning linear regression. Appendix E discuss prediction error methods for identification of linear models tailored for model predictive control....

  18. Moving walkways; Le trottoir rapide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cote, A. [Regie Autonome des Transports Parisiens (RATP), 75 - Paris (France)

    2001-03-01

    Rapid transit systems are continually evolving to meet the demands of modern life. Solutions are currently becoming available to address the problem of moving visitors over a distance of a few hundred metres within theme parks and other major attractions. The moving walkway, first used at the beginning of the 20. century, is experiencing something of a renaissance with 3 projects currently under way in Japan, one in Australia and one in France. The latter is being built by the Paris Public Transport Authority (RATP) and will enter service at the Montparnasse Metro station at the beginning of 2002. The moving walkway will carry 10 000 passengers per hour at a speed of 15 km/h over distances between 200 and 500 metres. The requirement for acceleration and deceleration zones has demanded the use of complex mechanical systems. (authors)

  19. Clinical evaluation of an automated turning bed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melland, H I; Langemo, D; Hanson, D; Olson, B; Hunter, S

    1999-01-01

    The purposes of this study were to assess client comfort and sleep quality, client physiologic response (skin and respiratory status), the effect on the need for caregiver assistance, and cost when using an automated turning bed. Nonexperimental, evaluative study. Twenty-four adult home or long-term care resident subjects who had a degenerative disease, spinal cord injury, stroke, cerebral palsy, or back surgery. Each subject agreed to use the automated turning bed for four weeks. Researchers completed a demographic survey and skin assessment, and assessed each subject for pressure ulcer risk and for the need of assistance of a care giver for turning before and after the four weeks of using the turning bed. Subjects rated the turning bed in terms of comfort and sleep quality. Subjects rated the turning bed as more comfortable than their own bed and expressed satisfaction at the pain relief attained when on the turning bed. While using the turning bed, there was a significant improvement in sleep quality. No skin breakdown or deterioration in respiratory status occurred. Fewer subjects required the assistance of a caregiver for turning when on the turning bed. This automated turning bed shows great promise in meeting a need for patients with limited mobility whether they are homebound or in a residential community. Future studies that further investigate use of the turning bed for postoperative back patients while still in the acute care setting are indicated. Replicative studies with a larger sample size are also indicated.

  20. Mechanistic modelling of fluidized bed drying processes of wet porous granules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortier, Séverine Thérèse F.C.; De Beer, Thomas; Gernaey, Krist

    2011-01-01

    granules is given. This review provides a basis for future mechanistic model development for the drying process of wet granules in pharmaceutical processes. It is intended for a broad audience with a varying level of knowledge on pharmaceutical processes and mathematical modelling. Mathematical models...... particle, can be described using the continuum approach, the pore network modelling method and the shrinkage of the diameter of the wet core approach. As several granules dry at a drying rate dependent on the gas temperature, gas velocity, porosity, etc., the moisture content of a batch of granules......Fluidized bed dryers are frequently used in industrial applications and also in the pharmaceutical industry. The general incentives to develop mechanistic models for pharmaceutical processes are listed, and our vision on how this can particularly be done for fluidized bed drying processes of wet...

  1. Microbiological and chemical approaches to degradation of mecoprop in a Moving-Bed Biofilm-Reactor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Escola, Monica; Tue Kjærgaard Nielsen, Tue; Hansen, Lars Hestbjerg

    treatment. MBBRs consist incontain biofilms which are grown on small (1-4 cm diameter) plastic chips that are suspended and mixed in a water tank. These systems have been recognized as robust and versatile. Besides, biofilm systems fdescribe acilitatedemonstrate a clear, but slow, biodegradation of some...

  2. Biodegradation of pharmaceuticals from hospital wastewater in staged Moving Bed Biofilm Reactors (MBBR)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Escola, Monica; Kumar Chhetri, Ravi; Ooi, Gordon

    2015-01-01

    on biofilms that are grown on plastic-chips which are suspended and aerated in a treatment tank. Such biofilm systems have shown a clear (but slow) biodegradation of some compounds that are recalcitrant in activated sludge. This study investigated the performance of a pilot MBBR-plant for the removal...

  3. Oxygen Consumption Ratio - Reduction in Energy Consumption Using Moving Bed Biofilter

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Land-based reuse systems offer many advantages over netpens or flow-through systems. This includes reduced siting problems, better control of water quality, and...

  4. Ammonia Removal Efficiency - Reduction in Energy Consumption Using Moving Bed Biofilter

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Land-based reuse systems offer many advantages over netpens or flow-through systems. This includes reduced siting problems, better control of water quality, and...

  5. Surface TAN Conversion Rate - Reduction in Energy Consumption Using Moving Bed Biofilter

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Land-based reuse systems offer many advantages over netpens or flow-through systems. This includes reduced siting problems, better control of water quality, and...

  6. Influence of fixed and moving bed biofilters on micro particle dynamics in a recirculating aquaculture system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fernandes, Paulo; Pedersen, Lars-Flemming; Pedersen, Per Bovbjerg

    2017-01-01

    Accumulation of fine particulate organic matter in recirculating aquaculture systems (RAS) is a balancebetween system input (from feed to waste), internal transformation, removal and dilution. The mecha-nisms leading to fine particle accumulation in RAS are not fully understood, and neither...... (Oncorhynchus mykiss), and operatedunder constant feed loading conditions (1 kg feed/m3of make-up water) for more than three months.Production or removal of micro particles according to biofilter mode of operation (FBB vs. MBB) wasassessed by operating all biofilters simultaneously as well as separately....... Nitrate levels ranged between 40and 44 mg N/L, reflecting stable operating conditions and constant feed loading.The trends observed when FBB or MBB were operated separately were also observed when all filterswere operated simultaneously. Differences in biofilm formation, development and maintenance...

  7. Hybrid moving bed biofilm reactors: an effective solution for upgrading a large wastewater treatment plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mannina, Giorgio; Viviani, Gaspare

    2009-01-01

    Over the last few years there has been a growing attention regarding the receiving water body quality state. As a matter of a fact, the Directive 91/271 of the European Union (EU) replaced the "emission standard" concept that fixes discharge limits depending on polluting emission characteristics, with the "stream standard" concept that fixes discharge limits for each polluting substance depending on self-depurative characteristics of the RWB. In this context, several WWTPs need to be upgraded in order to meet stricter effluent limits. The need of WWTP upgrading was also emphasized by the growing urbanization that have led, in most cases, to get overloaded WWTP due to an overcoming of the maximum WWTP capacity. In order to upgrade existing WWTP basically two main possibilities can be chosen: building new tanks or modify the WWTP by introducing new technologies such as the HMBBR systems. In this paper, such latter possibility was explored and as a case study an existing Italian WWTP (Acqua dei Corsari) located in Palermo (IT) was analysed. The main goal was to test the effectiveness of HMBBR systems with respect to the WWTP upgrading. The survey was carried out by means of model simulation and an HMBBR pilot plant. This latter was employed for the evaluation of the model parameters as well as kinetic coefficients for the HMBBR. The model results are encouraging towards the WWTP upgrading by means of HMBBR. As a matter of fact, the model simulation results showed that the WWTP maximum capacity can be upgraded from 480,000 up to one million PE.

  8. A novel integrated thermally coupled moving bed reactors for naphtha reforming process with hydrodealkylation of toluene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iranshahi, Davood; Saeedi, Reza; Azizi, Kolsoom; Nategh, Mahshid

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • A novel thermally coupled reactor in CCR naphtha reforming process is modeled. • The required heat of Naphtha process is attained with toluene hydrodealkylation. • A new kinetic model involving 32 pseudo-component and 84 reactions is proposed. • The aromatics and hydrogen production increase 19% and 23%, respectively. - Abstract: Due to the importance of catalytic naphtha reforming process in refineries, development of this process to attain the highest yield of desired products is crucial. In this study, continuous catalyst regeneration naphtha reforming process with radial flow is coupled with hydrodealkylation of toluene to prevent energy loss while enhancing aromatics and hydrogen yields. In this coupled process, heat is transferred between hot and cold sections (from hydrodealkylation of toluene to catalytic naphtha reforming process) using the process integration method. A steady-state two-dimensional model, which considers coke formation on the catalyst pellets, is developed and 32 pseudo-components with 84 reactions are investigated. Kinetic model utilized for HDA process is homogeneous and non-catalytic. The modeling results reveal an approximate increase of 19% and 23% in aromatics and hydrogen molar flow rates, respectively, in comparison with conventional naphtha reforming process. The improvement in aromatics production evidently indicates that HDA is a suitable process to be coupled with naphtha reforming.

  9. Influence of fixed and moving bed biofilters on micro particle dynamics in a recirculating aquaculture system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fernandes, Paulo; Pedersen, Lars-Flemming; Pedersen, Per Bovbjerg

    2017-01-01

    Accumulation of fine particulate organic matter in recirculating aquaculture systems (RAS) is a balancebetween system input (from feed to waste), internal transformation, removal and dilution. The mecha-nisms leading to fine particle accumulation in RAS are not fully understood, and neither...

  10. Impact of temperature on ammonium and nitrite removal rates in RAS moving bed biofilters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kinyage, John Peter Hewa; Pedersen, Lars-Flemming

    2016-01-01

    The impact of temperature on bacterial processes is well known; however temperature related data on nitrification rates in aquaculture systems are fragmented and compiled from different studies. We sought to determine ammonium and nitrite removal kinetics over a temperature range from 6 to 36 °C...

  11. Modulator Dynamics Shape the Design Space for Stepwise-Elution Simulated Moving Bed Chromatographic Separations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wayne, Chris J; Velayudhan, Ajoy

    2018-03-31

    For proteins and other biological macromolecules, SMB chromatography is best operated non-isocratically. However, traditional modes of non-isocratic SMB operation generate significant mobile-phase modulator dynamics. The mechanisms by which these modulator dynamics affect a separation's success, and thus frame the design space, have yet to be explained quantitatively. Here, the dynamics of the modulator (e.g. salts in ion exchange and hydrophobic interaction chromatography) are explicitly accounted for. This leads to the elucidation of two new design constraints, presented as dimensionless numbers, which quantify the effects of the modulator phenomena and thus predict the success of a non-isocratic SMB separation. Consequently, these two new design constraints re-define the SMB design space. Computational and experimental studies at the boundaries of this design space corroborate the theoretical predictions. The design of efficient and robust operating conditions through use of the new design space is also demonstrated. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  12. Gas-phase simulated moving bed: Propane/propylene separation on 13X zeolite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Vanessa F D; Ribeiro, Ana M; Plaza, Marta G; Santos, João C; Loureiro, José M; Ferreira, Alexandre F P; Rodrigues, Alírio E

    2015-12-04

    In the last years several studies were carried out in order to separate gas mixtures by SMB technology; however, this technology has never been implemented on an industrial scale. In the present work, a gas phase SMB bench unit was built and tested for the separation of propane and propylene mixtures, using 13X zeolite extrudates as adsorbent and isobutane as desorbent. Three experiments were performed to separate propane/propylene by gas phase SMB in the bench scale unit with a 4-2-2 configuration, i.e., open loop circuit by suppressing section IV (desorbent regeneration followed by a recycle). Consequently, all the experiments were conducted using an external supply of pure isobutane as desorbent. Parameters such as switching time, extract and raffinate stream flow rates were changed to improve the efficiency of the process. Experimental results have shown that it is feasible to separate propylene from propane by gas phase SMB at a bench scale and that this process is a potential candidate to replace the conventional technologies for the propane/propylene separation. The performance parameters obtained are very promising for future development of this technology, since propylene was obtained in the extract stream with a purity of 99.93%, a recovery of 99.51%, and a productivity of [Formula: see text] . Propane was obtained in the raffinate stream with a purity of 98.10%, a recovery of 99.73% and a productivity of [Formula: see text] . The success of the above mentioned bench scale tests is a big step for the future implementation of this technology in a larger scale. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Modelling of hybrid moving bed biofilm reactors: a pilot plant experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mannina, G; Di Trapani, D; Torregrossa, M; Viviani, G

    2007-01-01

    In recent years there has been an increasing interest in the development of hybrid biofilm reactors, especially in the upgrading of existing WWTP that are no longer able to respect concentration limits. In fact, today's challenge is the achievement of a good aquatic state for the receiving water bodies according to the Water Framework Directive requirements, which indeed limit even more the continuous emissions, i.e. coming from WWTP. This paper presents the setting up of a mathematical model for the simulation of a hybrid MBBR system; the model calibration/validation has been carried out considering a field gathering campaign on an experimental pilot plant. The main goal is to gain insight about MBBR processes attempting to overcome main shortcomings in particular referring to the modelling aspects. The model is made up of two connected sub-models for the simulation of the suspended and attached biomass. The model is mainly based on the concepts of the activated sludge model No. 1 (ASM1) for the description of the biokinetic process both for the suspended and for the attached biomass. The results show a good agreement between predicted and observed values both for the attached and for the suspended biomass moreover they are encouraging for further researches.

  14. A statistical method for velocity detection in moving powder beds using image analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Willemsz, Tofan A.; Tran, Thanh N.; van der Hoeven, Martijn; Hooijmaijers, Ricardo; Frijlink, Henderik W.; Vromans, Herman; Maarschalk, Kees van der Voort

    An existing method to measure particle velocity is particle image velocimetry which requires presence of tracer materials. This method of contrast enhancement is not always applicable in an industrial setting. Therefore a method to assess the movement of small, structures has been introduced, called

  15. Coal gasification by indirect heating in a single moving bed reactor: Process development & simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junaid Akhlas

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In this work, the development and simulation of a new coal gasification process with indirect heat supply is performed. In this way, the need of pure oxygen production as in a conventional gasification process is avoided. The feasibility and energetic self-sufficiency of the proposed processes are addressed. To avoid the need of Air Separation Unit, the heat required by gasification reactions is supplied by the combustion flue gases, and transferred to the reacting mixture through a bayonet heat exchanger installed inside the gasifier. Two alternatives for the flue gas generation have been investigated and compared. The proposed processes are modeled using chemical kinetics validated on experimental gasification data by means of a standard process simulator (Aspen PlusTM, integrated with a spreadsheet for the modeling of a special type of heat exchanger. Simulation results are presented and discussed for proposed integrated process schemes. It is shown that they do not need external energy supply and ensure overall efficiencies comparable to conventional processes while producing syngas with lower content of carbon dioxide.

  16. CFD Modelling of an Open Core Downdraft Moving Bed Biomass Gasifier

    OpenAIRE

    A. Rogel–Ramírez

    2008-01-01

    This paper contains the description of a bidimensional Computacional Fluid Dynamics (CFD), model developed to simulate the flow and reaction in a stratified downdraft biomass gasifier, whereby Eulerian conservation equations are solved for particle and gas phase components, velocities and specific enthalpies. The model is based on the PHOENICS package and represents a tool which can be used in gasifier analysis and design. Contributions of chemical kinetic and the mixing rate using the EBU ap...

  17. CFD Modelling of an Open Core Downdraft Moving Bed Biomass Gasifier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Rogel–Ramírez

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper contains the description of a bidimensional Computacional Fluid Dynamics (CFD, model developed to simulate the flow and reaction in a stratified downdraft biomass gasifier, whereby Eulerian conservation equations are solved for particle and gas phase components, velocities and specific enthalpies. The model is based on the PHOENICS package and represents a tool which can be used in gasifier analysis and design. Contributions of chemical kinetic and the mixing rate using the EBU approach are considered in the gas phase global homogeneous reactions. The harmonic blending of chemical kinetics and mass transfer effects, determine the global heterogeneous reactions between char and O2, CO2, and H2O. The turbulence effect in the gas phase is accounted by the standard k–s approach. The model provides information of the producer gas composition, velocities and temperature at the outlet, and allows different operating parameters and feed properties to be changed. Finally, a comparison with experimental data available in literature was done, which showed satisfactory agreement from a qualitative point of view, though further validation is required.

  18. Hybrid Moving Bed Biofilm Reactor for the biodegradation of benzotriazoles and hydroxy-benzothiazole in wastewater

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mazioti, Aikaterini A.; Stasinakis, Athanasios S.; Psoma, Aikaterini K.

    2017-01-01

    (CBTR) and 5-methyl-1H-benzotriazole (5TTR). Comparison of the HMBBR system with MBBR or AS systems from literature showed that the HMBBR system was more efficient for the biodegradation of the investigated chemicals. Biotransformation products of target compounds were identified using ultra high......-performance liquid chromatography, coupled with a quadrupole-time-of-flight high-resolution mass spectrometer (UHPLC-QToF-MS). Twenty two biotransformation products were tentatively identified, while retention time denoted the formation of more polar transformation products than the parent compounds....

  19. Biodegradation of pharmaceuticals in hospital wastewater by staged Moving Bed Biofilm Reactors (MBBR)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Escola Casas, Monica; Chhetri, Ravi Kumar; Ooi, Gordon Tze Hoong

    2015-01-01

    Hospital wastewater contributes a significant input of pharmaceuticals into municipal wastewater. The combination of suspended activated sludge and biofilm processes, as stand-alone or as hybrid process (hybrid biofilm and activated sludge system (Hybas™)) has been suggested as a possible solutio...

  20. Volumetric TAN Conversion Rate - Reduction in Energy Consumption Using Moving Bed Biofilter

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Land-based reuse systems offer many advantages over netpens or flow-through systems. This includes reduced siting problems, better control of water quality, and...

  1. MASS PRODUCTION OF THE BENEFICIAL NEMATODE STEINERNEMA CARPOCAPSAE UTILIZING A FED-BATCH CULTURING PROCESS

    OpenAIRE

    Leonard D. Holmes; Floyd L. Inman III; Sivanadane Mandjiny; Rinu Kooliyottil; Devang Upadhyay

    2013-01-01

    The present study deals with the batch and fed-batch mass production of Steinernema carpocapsae. S. carpocapsae is an entomoparasitic nematode that is used as a biological control agent of soil-borne crop insect pests. The ability and efficiency of fed-batch culture process was successful through the utilization of the nematode’s bacterial symbiont Xenorhabdus nematophila. Results from the fed-batch process were compared to those obtain from the standard batch process. The fed-batch process s...

  2. Grasping and hitting moving objects

    OpenAIRE

    Schot, Willemijn D.; Brenner, Eli; Smeets, Jeroen B. J.

    2011-01-01

    Some experimental evidence suggests that grasping should be regarded as independent control of the thumb and the index finger (digit control hypothesis). To investigate this further, we compared how the tips of the thumb and the index finger moved in space when grasping spheres to how they moved when they were hitting the sphere using only one digit. In order to make the tasks comparable, we designed the experiment in such a way that subjects contacted the spheres in about the same way in the...

  3. Moving Tourism Social Entrepreneurship Forward

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sheldon, Pauline; Dredge, Dianne; Daniele, Roberto

    2017-01-01

    This chapter concludes the book by considering the role that research and education can play to move the TSE agenda forward. In addition to consolidating the chapter authors’ thoughts about the future of SE and tourism, it also lays out some directions for research tracks in the future. It consid......This chapter concludes the book by considering the role that research and education can play to move the TSE agenda forward. In addition to consolidating the chapter authors’ thoughts about the future of SE and tourism, it also lays out some directions for research tracks in the future...

  4. Glucoamylase production in batch, chemostat and fed-batch cultivations by an industrial strain of Aspergillus niger

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Henrik; Beyer, Michael; Nielsen, Jens

    2000-01-01

    growth rate of the fungus were independent of pH when grown in batch cultivations. The specific glucoamylase productivity increased linearly with the specific growth rate in the range 0-0.1 h(-1) and was constant in the range 0.1-0.2 h(-1) Maltose and maltodextrin were non-inducing carbon sources...

  5. Pebble bed pebble motion: Simulation and Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cogliati, Joshua J.

    Pebble bed reactors (PBR) have moving graphite fuel pebbles. This unique feature provides advantages, but also means that simulation of the reactor requires understanding the typical motion and location of the granular flow of pebbles. This dissertation presents a method for simulation of motion of the pebbles in a PBR. A new mechanical motion simulator, PEBBLES, efficiently simulates the key elements of motion of the pebbles in a PBR. This model simulates gravitational force and contact forces including kinetic and true static friction. It's used for a variety of tasks including simulation of the effect of earthquakes on a PBR, calculation of packing fractions, Dancoff factors, pebble wear and the pebble force on the walls. The simulator includes a new differential static friction model for the varied geometries of PBRs. A new static friction benchmark was devised via analytically solving the mechanics equations to determine the minimum pebble-to-pebble friction and pebble-to-surface friction for a five pebble pyramid. This pyramid check as well as a comparison to the Janssen formula was used to test the new static friction equations. Because larger pebble bed simulations involve hundreds of thousands of pebbles and long periods of time, the PEBBLES code has been parallelized. PEBBLES runs on shared memory architectures and distributed memory architectures. For the shared memory architecture, the code uses a new O(n) lock-less parallel collision detection algorithm to determine which pebbles are likely to be in contact. The new collision detection algorithm improves on the traditional non-parallel O(n log(n)) collision detection algorithm. These features combine to form a fast parallel pebble motion simulation. The PEBBLES code provides new capabilities for understanding and optimizing PBRs. The PEBBLES code has provided the pebble motion data required to calculate the motion of pebbles during a simulated earthquake. The PEBBLES code provides the ability to

  6. Strategies for the startup of methanogenic inverse fluidized-bed reactors using colonized particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarado-Lassman, A; Sandoval-Ramos, A; Flores-Altamirano, M G; Vallejo-Cantú, N A; Méndez-Contreras, J M

    2010-05-01

    One of the inconveniences in the startup of methanogenic inverse fluidized-bed reactors (IFBRs) is the long period required for biofilm formation and stabilization of the system. Previous researchers have preferred to start up in batch mode to shorten stabilization times. Much less work has been done with continuous-mode startup for the IFBR configuration of reactors. In this study, we prepared two IFBRs with similar characteristics to compare startup times for batch- and continuous-operation modes. The reactors were inoculated with a small quantity of colonized particles and run for a period of 3 months, to establish the optimal startup strategy using synthetic media as a substrate (glucose as a source of carbon). After the startup stage, the continuous- and batch-mode reactors removed more than 80% of the chemical oxygen demand (COD) in 51 and 60 days of operation, respectively; however, at the end of the experiments, the continuous-mode reactor had more biomass attached to the support media than the batch-mode reactor. Both reactors developed fully covered support media, but only the continuous-mode reactor had methane yields close to the theoretical value that is typical of stable reactors. Then, a combined startup strategy was proposed, with industrial wastewater as the substrate, using a sequence of batch cycles followed by continuous operation, which allows stable operation at an organic loading rate of 20 g COD/L x d in 15 days. Using a fraction of colonized support as an inoculum presents advantages, with respect to previously reported strategies.

  7. Occurrence and distribution of different bed types of seagrass Posidonia oceanica around the Maltese Islands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.A. BORG

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The small-scale distribution of Posidonia oceanica bed types were mapped at four locations off the northern coast of the Maltese Islands, using aerial photography supplemented by surveys using SCUBA diving. Results showed a similar pattern of occurrence of the seagrass at all locations surveyed. In shallow waters (2 m – 4 m, P. oceanicaoccurred as patches of variable size on a rocky and/or sandy substratum. In deeper waters (5 m – 10 m, the patches of seagrass were often replaced by reticulate beds consisting of P. oceanicainterspersed with areas of bare sand. Deeper still (11 m – 13 m, a transition from reticulate to continuous beds occurred. Continuous beds extended to depths of around 25 - 30 m and eventually became reticulate or patchy in deeper waters (>25 m. Values of total seagrass percentage cover increased, while the ratio of fragmented:continuous bed cover decreased for the four study locations on moving southwards (Ramla Bay to St Thomas Bay, indicating that P. oceanica habitat was more abundant and less fragmented in the south-eastern parts of the Maltese Islands. However, values calculated using an exposure index did not did indicate a relationship between exposure and the observed decease in fragmentation of seagrass beds on moving northwest to southwest along the north-eastern coast. Data from the four sites surveyed, together with data from other surveys, were used to show the large-scale distribution of P. oceanica beds around the Maltese Islands. The implications of the study findings for the conservation and management of P. oceanica habitat around the Maltese Islands are discussed.

  8. Natural waste materials containing chitin as adsorbents for textile dyestuffs: batch and continuous studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueiredo, S A; Loureiro, J M; Boaventura, R A

    2005-10-01

    In this work three natural waste materials containing chitin were used as adsorbents for textile dyestuffs, namely the Anodonta (Anodonta cygnea) shell, the Sepia (Sepia officinalis) and the Squid (Loligo vulgaris) pens. The selected dyestuffs were the Cibacron green T3G-E (CI reactive green 12), and the Solophenyl green BLE 155% (CI direct green 26), both from CIBA, commonly used in cellulosic fibres dyeing, the most used fibres in the textile industry. Batch equilibrium studies showed that the materials' adsorption capacities increase after a simple and inexpensive chemical treatment, which increases their porosity and chitin relative content. Kinetic studies suggested the existence of a high internal resistance in both systems. Fixed bed column experiments performed showed an improvement in adsorbents' behaviour after chemical treatment. However, in the column experiments, the biodegradation was the main mechanism of dyestuff removal, allowing the materials' bioregeneration. The adsorption was strongly reduced by the pore clogging effect of the biomass. The deproteinised Squid pen (grain size 0.500-1.41 mm) is the adsorbent with highest adsorption capacity (0.27 and 0.037 g/g, respectively, for the reactive and direct dyestuffs, at 20 degrees C), followed by the demineralised Sepia pen and Anodonta shell, behaving like pure chitin in all experiments, but showing inferior performances than the granular activated carbon tested in the column experiments.

  9. Removal of nitrogen and phosphorus from dairy wastewater using constructed wetlands systems operating in batch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronaldo Rocha Bastos

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available This work presents the results of a study conducted for a period of seven months on the effectiveness of constructed wetland systems for the treatment of dairy wastewater aiming at removing, nitrogen and phosphorus. Six experimental systems were assembled with a net volume of 115 L using HDPE tanks, with length/width ratio of 2:1. In three of the systems, gravel 0 was used as substrate, while gravel 0 and sand was used in the three others, in the percentage of 80% and 20%, respectively. The systems were operated in batch cycles of 48 hours, applying 7.5 L of influent per cycle. Four of the experimental units were cultivated, and two kept as controls. The selected species chosen were the macrophytes, Typha domingensis and Hedychium coronarium. The removal efficiency concerning nitrogen compounds showed to be quite promising with values ranging from 29.4 to 73.4%, while phosphorus removal from the beds was lower, reaching efficiencies between 18.61 and 34.3%, considered good values, since the removal of these substances is quite difficult through conventional treatment.

  10. Flow rate and interference studies for copper binding to a silica-immobilized humin polymer matrix: column and batch experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardea-Torresdey, Jorge L; Contreras, Carolina; de la Rosa, Guadalupe; Peralta-Videa, Jose R

    2005-01-01

    Batch and column experiments were performed to determine the Cu(II) binding capacity of silica-immobilized humin biomass. For column studies, 500 bed volumes of a 0.1 mM Cu(II) solution were passed through humin packed columns at the flow rates of 1, 1.5, 2, and 3 mL/min. The biopolymer showed an average Cu binding capacity of 12 +/- 1.5 mg/g and a Cu recovery of about 96.5 % +/- 1.5. The breakthrough points for Cu(II) alone were approximately 420, 390, 385, and 300 bed volumes for the flow rates of 1, 1.5, 2 and 3 mL/min, respectively. The interference studies demonstrated that at low concentrations, the hard cations Ca(II) and Mg(II) did not seem to represent a major interference on Cu(II) binding to the humin biopolymer. The selectivity showed by this biopolymer was Cu(II)>Ca(II)>Mg(II). On the other hand, batch experiments showed that Ca(II) + Mg(II) at 100mM each reduced the Cu(II) binding to 73 %. However, 1000 mM concentrations of Ca(II) and Mg(II), separately and in mixture, reduced the Cu(II) binding to 47 %, 44 % and 31 %, respectively. The results of this study showed that immobilized humin in a silica matrix could represent an inexpensive bio-source for Cu removal from contaminated water, even in the presence of low concentrations of the hard cations Ca(II) and Mg(II).

  11. Rolling motion in moving droplets

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2015-02-19

    Feb 19, 2015 ... Drops moving on a substrate under the action of gravity display both rolling and sliding motions. The two limits of a thin sheet-like drop in sliding motion on a surface, and a spherical drop in roll, have been extensively studied. We are interested in intermediate shapes. We quantify the contribution of rolling ...

  12. Raw eggs-moving target

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forrest, Doug

    1999-09-01

    High school physics students often have difficulty with understanding when and where to use an appropriate calculation to solve a problem. In this activity students have to solve a real problem using formulas they have seen before, but in a context with which they are unfamiliar; namely dropping a raw egg on a moving target-their instructor.

  13. Rolling motion in moving droplets

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. Drops moving on a substrate under the action of gravity display both rolling and sliding motions. The two limits of a thin sheet-like drop in sliding motion on a surface, and a spherical drop in roll, have been extensively studied. We are interested in intermediate shapes. We quantify the contribution of rolling motion ...

  14. Carlson Wagonlit Travel is moving

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

    The renovation of the Main Building continues!   Because of this, Carlson Wagonlit Travel will move from building 62 to building 510 on 4 October and the agency will be closed in the afternoon. An emergency service will be organised for official travels only. Phone: 022 799 75 73 & 022 799 75 78 / e-mail: cern@carlsonwagonlit.ch

  15. Prostate Bed Motion During Intensity-Modulated Radiotherapy Treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klayton, Tracy; Price, Robert; Buyyounouski, Mark K.; Sobczak, Mark [Department of Radiation Oncology, Fox Chase Cancer Center, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Greenberg, Richard [Department of Urologic Oncology, Fox Chase Cancer Center, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Li, Jinsheng; Keller, Lanea; Sopka, Dennis [Department of Radiation Oncology, Fox Chase Cancer Center, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Kutikov, Alexander [Department of Urologic Oncology, Fox Chase Cancer Center, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Horwitz, Eric M., E-mail: eric.horwitz@fccc.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Fox Chase Cancer Center, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States)

    2012-09-01

    Purpose: Conformal radiation therapy in the postprostatectomy setting requires accurate setup and localization of the prostatic fossa. In this series, we report prostate bed localization and motion characteristics, using data collected from implanted radiofrequency transponders. Methods and Materials: The Calypso four-dimensional localization system uses three implanted radiofrequency transponders for daily target localization and real-time tracking throughout a course of radiation therapy. We reviewed the localization and tracking reports for 20 patients who received ultrasonography-guided placement of Calypso transponders within the prostate bed prior to a course of intensity-modulated radiation therapy at Fox Chase Cancer Center. Results: At localization, prostate bed displacement relative to bony anatomy exceeded 5 mm in 9% of fractions in the anterior-posterior (A-P) direction and 21% of fractions in the superior-inferior (S-I) direction. The three-dimensional vector length from skin marks to Calypso alignment exceeded 1 cm in 24% of all 652 fractions with available setup data. During treatment, the target exceeded the 5-mm tracking limit for at least 30 sec in 11% of all fractions, generally in the A-P or S-I direction. In the A-P direction, target motion was twice as likely to move posteriorly, toward the rectum, than anteriorly. Fifteen percent of all treatments were interrupted for repositioning, and 70% of patients were repositioned at least once during their treatment course. Conclusion: Set-up errors and motion of the prostatic fossa during radiotherapy are nontrivial, leading to potential undertreatment of target and excess normal tissue toxicity if not taken into account during treatment planning. Localization and real-time tracking of the prostate bed via implanted Calypso transponders can be used to improve the accuracy of plan delivery.

  16. Test bed for applications of heterogeneous unmanned vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filiberto Muñoz Palacios

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This article addresses the development and implementation of a test bed for applications of heterogeneous unmanned vehicle systems. The test bed consists of unmanned aerial vehicles (Parrot AR.Drones versions 1 or 2, Parrot SA, Paris, France, and Bebop Drones 1.0 and 2.0, Parrot SA, Paris, France, ground vehicles (WowWee Rovio, WowWee Group Limited, Hong Kong, China, and the motion capture systems VICON and OptiTrack. Such test bed allows the user to choose between two different options of development environments, to perform aerial and ground vehicles applications. On the one hand, it is possible to select an environment based on the VICON system and LabVIEW (National Instruments or robotics operating system platforms, which make use the Parrot AR.Drone software development kit or the Bebop_autonomy Driver to communicate with the unmanned vehicles. On the other hand, it is possible to employ a platform that uses the OptiTrack system and that allows users to develop their own applications, replacing AR.Drone’s original firmware with original code. We have developed four experimental setups to illustrate the use of the Parrot software development kit, the Bebop Driver (AutonomyLab, Simon Fraser University, British Columbia, Canada, and the original firmware replacement for performing a strategy that involves both ground and aerial vehicle tracking. Finally, in order to illustrate the effectiveness of the developed test bed for the implementation of advanced controllers, we present experimental results of the implementation of three consensus algorithms: static, adaptive, and neural network, in order to accomplish that a team of multiagents systems move together to track a target.

  17. Chemical Oxygen Demand abatement in sewage using Micro-Aeration Enhanced Ecological Floating Bed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Hongle; Zhou, Gaofeng; Liu, Yiqing; Tan, Jiancong; Fu, Yongsheng

    2018-02-01

    The traditional ecological floating bed combined with micro-aeration system and artificial medium was developed for the removal of contaminants and remediation of surface water. This micro-aeration enhanced ecological floating bed (MAEEFB) consisted of aeration unit, microbial processing unit and aquatic plant unit. Batch experiments were conducted in different operating conditions on the removal of chemical oxygen demand (COD) in the sewage using MAEEFB. The removal rate of COD by MAEEFB, enhanced ecological floating bed (EEFB) and traditional ecological floating bed (TEFB) in the same reaction conditions was 59.2%, 56.9% and 30.6%, respectively, indicating that the combination of micro-aeration system and artificial medium could enhance the removal efficiency of COD in TEFB. In MAEEFB, the aeration intensity should be designed reasonablely considering both treatment efficiency and operation cost. Only increasing the specific surface area of the packing cannot effectively improve the purification efficiency of water. Factors like packing material, ability of intercepting organics and complicated extent of microorganisms attaching on the packing should also be considered.

  18. Particle bed reactor scaling relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slovik, G.; Araj, K.; Horn, F. L.; Ludewig, H.; Benenati, R.

    The Particle Bed Reactor (PBR) concept can be used in several applications both as part of a power generating system or as a direct propulsion unit. In order to carry out optimization studies of systems involving a PBR, it is necessary to know the variation of the critical mass with pertinent system parameters such as weight, size, power level and thrust level. A parametric study is presented for all the practical combinations of fuel and moderating material. The PBR is described, the practical combinations of materials and dimensions are discussed, and an example is presented.

  19. Moving in a moving medium: new perspectives on flight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepard, Emily L C; Ross, Andrew N; Portugal, Steven J

    2016-09-26

    One of the defining features of the aerial environment is its variability; air is almost never still. This has profound consequences for flying animals, affecting their flight stability, speed selection, energy expenditure and choice of flight path. All these factors have important implications for the ecology of flying animals, and the ecosystems they interact with, as well as providing bio-inspiration for the development of unmanned aerial vehicles. In this introduction, we touch on the factors that drive the variability in airflows, the scales of variability and the degree to which given airflows may be predictable. We then summarize how papers in this volume advance our understanding of the sensory, biomechanical, physiological and behavioural responses of animals to air flows. Overall, this provides insight into how flying animals can be so successful in this most fickle of environments.This article is part of the themed issue 'Moving in a moving medium: new perspectives on flight'. © 2016 The Author(s).

  20. Emergence of traveling wave endothermic reaction in a catalytic fixed bed under microwave heating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerasev, Alexander P.

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents a new phenomenon in a packed bed catalytic reactor under microwave heating - traveling wave (moving reaction zones) endothermic chemical reaction. A two-phase model is developed to simulate the nonlinear dynamic behavior of the packed bed catalytic reactor with an irreversible first-order chemical reaction. The absorbed microwave power was obtained from Lambert's law. The structure of traveling wave endothermic chemical reaction was explored. The effects of the gas velocity and microwave power on performance of the packed bed catalytic reactor were presented. Finally, the effects of the change in the location of the microwave source at the packed bed reactor was demonstrated. - Highlights: • A new phenomenon - traveling waves of endothermic reaction - is predicted. • The physical and mathematical model of a packed bed catalytic reactor under microwave heating is presented. • The structure of the traveling waves is explored. • The configuration of heating the packed bed reactor via microwave plays a key role.

  1. Optimal Operation of Industrial Batch Crystallizers : A Nonlinear Model-based Control Approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mesbah, A.

    2010-01-01

    Batch crystallization is extensively employed in the chemical, pharmaceutical, and food industries to separate and purify high value-added chemical substances. Despite their widespread application, optimal operation of batch crystallizers is particularly challenging. The difficulties primarily

  2. Selecting local constraint for alignment of batch process data with dynamic time warping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spooner, Max Peter; Kold, David; Kulahci, Murat

    2017-01-01

    observation number for every batch. Dynamic time warping has been shown to be an effective method for meeting these objectives. This is based on a dynamic programming algorithm that aligns a batch to a reference batch, by stretching and compressing its local time dimension. The resulting ”warping function......There are two key reasons for aligning batch process data. The first is to obtain same-length batches so that standard methods of analysis may be applied, whilst the second reason is to synchronise events that take place during each batch so that the same event is associated with the same......” may be interpreted as a progress signature of the batch which may be appended to the aligned data for further analysis. For the warping function to be a realistic reflection of the progress of a batch, it is necessary to impose some constraints on the dynamic time warping algorithm, to avoid...

  3. Mathematical technique for the design of near-zero-effluent batch processess

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Gouws, JF

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Wastewater minimisation in chemical processes has always been the privilege of continuous rather than batch plants. However, this situation is steadily changing, since batch plants have a tendency to generate much more toxic effluent compared...

  4. Heat integration in multipurpose batch plants using a robust scheduling framework

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Seid, ER

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Energy saving is becoming increasingly important in batch processing facilities. Multipurpose batch plants have become more popular than ever in the processing environment due to their inherent flexibility and adaptability to market conditions, even...

  5. On Bottleneck Product Rate Variation Problem with Batching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shree Khadka

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The product rate variation problem minimizes the variation in the rate at which different models of a common base product are produced on the assembly lines with the assumption of negligible switch-over cost and unit processing time for each copy of each model. The assumption of significant setup and arbitrary processing times forces the problem to be a two phase problem. The first phase determines the size and the number of batches and the second one sequences the batches of models. In this paper, the bottleneck case i.e. the min-max case of the problem with a generalized objective function is formulated. A Pareto optimal solution is proposed and a relation between optimal sequences for the problem with different objective functions is investigated.

  6. Integration of Grid and Local Batch Resources at DESY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyer, Christoph; Finnern, Thomas; Gellrich, Andreas; Hartmann, Thomas; Kemp, Yves; Lewendel, Birgit

    2017-10-01

    As one of the largest resource centres DESY has to support differing work flows of users from various scientific backgrounds. Users can be for one HEP experiments in WLCG or Belle II as well as local HEP users but also physicists from other fields as photon science or accelerator development. By abandoning specific worker node setups in favour of generic flat nodes with middleware resources provided via CVMFS, we gain flexibility to subsume different use cases in a homogeneous environment. Grid jobs and the local batch system are managed in a HTCondor based setup, accepting pilot, user and containerized jobs. The unified setup allows dynamic re-assignment of resources between the different use cases. Monitoring is implemented on global batch system metrics as well as on a per job level utilizing corresponding cgroup information.

  7. APPLICATION OF MODEL PREDICTIVE CONTROL TO BATCH POLYMERIZATION REACTOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.M. Ghasem

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available The absence of a stable operational state in polymerization reactors that operates in batches is factor that determine the need of a special control system. In this study, advanced control methodology is implemented for controlling the operation of a batch polymerization reactor for polystyrene production utilizingmodel predictive control. By utilizing a model of the polymerization process, the necessary operational conditions were determined for producing the polymer within the desired characteristics. The maincontrol objective is to bring the reactor temperature to its target temperature as rapidly as possible with minimal temperature overshoot. Control performance for the proposed method is encouraging. It has been observed that temperature overshoot can be minimized by the proposed method with the use of both reactor and jacket energy balance for reactor temperature control.

  8. JAVA Implementation of the Batched iLab Shared Architecture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lenard Payne

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The MIT iLab Shared Architecture is limited currently to running on the Microsoft Windows platform. A JAVA implementation of the Batched iLab Shared Architecture has been developed that can be used on other operating systems and still interoperate with the existing Microsoft .NET web services of MIT’s iLab ServiceBroker. The Batched iLab Shared Architecture has been revised and separates the Labserver into a LabServer that handles experiment management and a LabEquipment that handles experiment execution. The JAVA implementation provides a 3-tier code development model that allows code to be reused and to develop only the code that is specific to each experiment.

  9. A Framework for Representing Moving Objects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Becker, Ludger; Blunck, Henrik; Hinrichs, Klaus

    2004-01-01

    We present a framework for representing the trajectories of moving objects and the time-varying results of operations on moving objects. This framework supports the realization of discrete data models of moving objects databases, which incorporate representations of moving objects based on non...

  10. Recipe-Based Batch Control Using High-Level Grafchart

    OpenAIRE

    Johnsson, Charlotta

    1997-01-01

    High-Level Grafchart is a graphical programming language for control of sequential processes. Sequential control is important in all kinds of industries: discrete, continuous and batch. Sequential elements show up both on the local control level and on the supervisory control level. High-Level Grafchart combines the graphical syntax of Grafcet/SFC with high-level programming language constructs and ideas from High-Level Petri Nets. High-Level Grafchart can be used to control sequential proces...

  11. Using Simulation for Scheduling and Rescheduling of Batch Processes

    OpenAIRE

    Girish Joglekar

    2017-01-01

    The problem of scheduling multiproduct and multipurpose batch processes has been studied for more than 30 years using math programming and heuristics. In most formulations, the manufacturing recipes are represented by simplified models using state task network (STN) or resource task network (RTN), transfers of materials are assumed to be instantaneous, constraints due to shared utilities are often ignored, and scheduling horizons are kept small due to the limits on the problem size that can b...

  12. Integration of virtualized worker nodes in standard batch systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buege, Volker; Kunze, Marcel; Oberst, Oliver; Quast, Guenter; Scheurer, Armin; Hessling, Hermann; Kemp, Yves; Synge, Owen

    2010-01-01

    Current experiments in HEP only use a limited number of operating system flavours. Their software might only be validated on one single OS platform. Resource providers might have other operating systems of choice for the installation of the batch infrastructure. This is especially the case if a cluster is shared with other communities, or communities that have stricter security requirements. One solution would be to statically divide the cluster into separated sub-clusters. In such a scenario, no opportunistic distribution of the load can be achieved, resulting in a poor overall utilization efficiency. Another approach is to make the batch system aware of virtualization, and to provide each community with its favoured operating system in a virtual machine. Here, the scheduler has full flexibility, resulting in a better overall efficiency of the resources. In our contribution, we present a lightweight concept for the integration of virtual worker nodes into standard batch systems. The virtual machines are started on the worker nodes just before jobs are executed there. No meta-scheduling is introduced. We demonstrate two prototype implementations, one based on the Sun Grid Engine (SGE), the other using Maui/Torque as a batch system. Both solutions support local job as well as Grid job submission. The hypervisors currently used are Xen and KVM, a port to another system is easily envisageable. To better handle different virtual machines on the physical host, the management solution VmImageManager is developed. We will present first experience from running the two prototype implementations. In a last part, we will show the potential future use of this lightweight concept when integrated into high-level (i.e. Grid) work-flows.

  13. Adsorption of Arsenite onto Kemiron in a batch system

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    doti

    This study investigated the effect of pH and coexisting ions on As(III) adsorption using batch experiment and discovered that pH strongly influenced As(III) adsorption. However, differences in background ionic strengths of 0.001 N NaNO3 and 0.1 N NaNO3 had no effect on the sorption trend. The isotherms followed ...

  14. MATHEMATICAL MODELING OF BATCH ADSORPTION OF MANGANESE ONTO BONE CHAR

    OpenAIRE

    Maria, M. E.; Mansur, M. B.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The present study investigated the dynamics of batch adsorption of manganese onto bone char by using two distinct mathematical formulations: the diffusion model and the shrinking core model. Both models assumed spherical particles and adequately described the transient behavior of metal adsorption under changing operating conditions. Comparatively, the diffusion model described the manganese adsorption better at distinct particle sizes even when small particles were used (dp ≤ 0.147 ...

  15. Batch production of microchannel plate photo-multipliers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frisch, Henry J.; Wetstein, Matthew; Elagin, Andrey

    2018-03-06

    In-situ methods for the batch fabrication of flat-panel micro-channel plate (MCP) photomultiplier tube (PMT) detectors (MCP-PMTs), without transporting either the window or the detector assembly inside a vacuum vessel are provided. The method allows for the synthesis of a reflection-mode photocathode on the entrance to the pores of a first MCP or the synthesis of a transmission-mode photocathode on the vacuum side of a photodetector entrance window.

  16. Automated handling for SAF batch furnace and chemistry analysis operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bowen, W.W.; Sherrell, D.L.; Wiemers, M.J.

    1981-01-01

    The Secure Automated Fabrication Program is developing a remotely operated breeder reactor fuel pin fabrication line. The equipment will be installed in the Fuels and Materials Examination Facility being constructed at Hanford, Washington. Production is scheduled to start in mid-1986. The application of small pneumatically operated industrial robots for loading and unloading product into and out of batch furnaces and for distribution and handling of chemistry samples is described

  17. Sequencing batch-reactor control using Gaussian-process models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocijan, Juš; Hvala, Nadja

    2013-06-01

    This paper presents a Gaussian-process (GP) model for the design of sequencing batch-reactor (SBR) control for wastewater treatment. The GP model is a probabilistic, nonparametric model with uncertainty predictions. In the case of SBR control, it is used for the on-line optimisation of the batch-phases duration. The control algorithm follows the course of the indirect process variables (pH, redox potential and dissolved oxygen concentration) and recognises the characteristic patterns in their time profile. The control algorithm uses GP-based regression to smooth the signals and GP-based classification for the pattern recognition. When tested on the signals from an SBR laboratory pilot plant, the control algorithm provided a satisfactory agreement between the proposed completion times and the actual termination times of the biodegradation processes. In a set of tested batches the final ammonia and nitrate concentrations were below 1 and 0.5 mg L(-1), respectively, while the aeration time was shortened considerably. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Fault Diagnosis of Batch Reactor Using Machine Learning Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sujatha Subramanian

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Fault diagnosis of a batch reactor gives the early detection of fault and minimizes the risk of thermal runaway. It provides superior performance and helps to improve safety and consistency. It has become more vital in this technical era. In this paper, support vector machine (SVM is used to estimate the heat release (Qr of the batch reactor both normal and faulty conditions. The signature of the residual, which is obtained from the difference between nominal and estimated faulty Qr values, characterizes the different natures of faults occurring in the batch reactor. Appropriate statistical and geometric features are extracted from the residual signature and the total numbers of features are reduced using SVM attribute selection filter and principle component analysis (PCA techniques. artificial neural network (ANN classifiers like multilayer perceptron (MLP, radial basis function (RBF, and Bayes net are used to classify the different types of faults from the reduced features. It is observed from the result of the comparative study that the proposed method for fault diagnosis with limited number of features extracted from only one estimated parameter (Qr shows that it is more efficient and fast for diagnosing the typical faults.

  19. Yields from pyrolysis of refinery residue using a batch process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Prithiraj

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Batch pyrolysis was a valuable process of assessing the potential of recovering and characterising products from hazardous waste materials. This research explored the pyrolysis of hydrocarbon-rich refinery residue, from crude oil processes, in a 1200 L electrically-heated batch retort. Furthermore, the off-gases produced were easily processed in compliance with existing regulatory emission standards. The methodology offers a novel, cost-effective and environmentally compliant method of assessing recovery potential of valuable products. The pyrolysis experiments yielded significant oil (70% with high calorific value (40 MJ/kg, char (14% with carbon content over 80% and non-condensable gas (6% with significant calorific value (240 kJ/mol. The final gas stream was subjected to an oxidative clean-up process with continuous on-line monitoring demonstrating compliance with South African emission standards. The gas treatment was overall economically optimal as only a smaller portion of the original residue was subjected to emission-controlling steps. Keywords: Batch pyrolysis, Volatiles, Oil yields, Char, Emissions, Oil recovery

  20. Analyzing data flows of WLCG jobs at batch job level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuehn, Eileen; Fischer, Max; Giffels, Manuel; Jung, Christopher; Petzold, Andreas

    2015-05-01

    With the introduction of federated data access to the workflows of WLCG, it is becoming increasingly important for data centers to understand specific data flows regarding storage element accesses, firewall configurations, as well as the scheduling of batch jobs themselves. As existing batch system monitoring and related system monitoring tools do not support measurements at batch job level, a new tool has been developed and put into operation at the GridKa Tier 1 center for monitoring continuous data streams and characteristics of WLCG jobs and pilots. Long term measurements and data collection are in progress. These measurements already have been proven to be useful analyzing misbehaviors and various issues. Therefore we aim for an automated, realtime approach for anomaly detection. As a requirement, prototypes for standard workflows have to be examined. Based on measurements of several months, different features of HEP jobs are evaluated regarding their effectiveness for data mining approaches to identify these common workflows. The paper will introduce the actual measurement approach and statistics as well as the general concept and first results classifying different HEP job workflows derived from the measurements at GridKa.

  1. Fed-batch production of tetanus toxin by Clostridium tetani.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fratelli, Fernando; Siquini, Tatiana Joly; de Abreu, Marcelo Estima; Higashi, Hisako Gondo; Converti, Attilio; de Carvalho, João Carlos Monteiro

    2010-01-01

    This study deals with the effects of the initial nitrogen source (NZ Case TT) level and the protocol of glucose addition during the fed-batch production of tetanus toxin by Clostridium tetani. An increase in the initial concentration of NZ Case TT (NZ(0)) accelerated cell growth, increased the consumption of the nitrogen source as well as the final yield of tetanus toxin, which achieved the highest values (50-60 L(f)/mL) for NZ(0) > or = 50 g/L. The addition of glucose at fixed times (16, 56, and 88 h) ensured a toxin yield ( approximately 60 L(f)/mL) about 33% higher than those of fed-batch runs with addition at fixed concentration ( approximately 45 L(f)/mL) and about 300% higher than those obtained in reference batch runs nowadays used at industrial scale. The results of this work promise to substantially improve the present production of tetanus toxin and may be adopted for human vaccine production after detoxification and purification.

  2. High-yield growth of vertically aligned carbon nanotubes on a continuously moving substrate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guzman de Villoria, R; Hart, A J; Steiner, S A III; Wardle, B L [Department of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Figueredo, S L; Slocum, A H, E-mail: rguzman@mit.ed [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States)

    2009-10-07

    Vertically aligned carbon nanotube (CNT) arrays are grown on a moving substrate, demonstrating continuous growth of nanoscale materials with long-range order. A cold-wall chamber with an oscillating moving platform is used to locally heat a silicon growth substrate coated with an Fe/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalyst film for CNT growth via chemical vapor deposition. The reactant gases are introduced over the substrate through a directed nozzle to attain high-yield CNT growth. Aligned multi-wall carbon nanotube arrays (or 'forests') with heights of {approx}1 mm are achieved at substrate speeds up to 2.4 mm s{sup -1}. Arrays grown on moving substrates at different velocities are studied in order to identify potential physical limitations of repeatable and fast growth on a continuous basis. No significant differences are noted between static and moving growth as characterized by scanning electron microscopy and Raman spectroscopy, although overall growth height is marginally reduced at the highest substrate velocity. CNT arrays produced on moving substrates are also found to be comparable to those produced through well-characterized batch processes consistent with a base-growth mechanism. Growth parameters required for the moving furnace are found to differ only slightly from those used in a comparable batch process; thermal uniformity appears to be the critical parameter for achieving large-area uniform array growth. If the continuous-growth technology is combined with a reaction zone isolation scheme common in other types of processing (e.g., in the manufacture of carbon fibers), large-scale dense and aligned CNT arrays may be efficiently grown and harvested for numerous applications including providing interlayers for advanced composite reinforcement and improved electrical and thermal transport.

  3. On partial fluidization in rotating fluidized beds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kao, J.; Pfeffer, R.; Tardos, G.I.

    1987-01-01

    In a rotating fluidized bed, unlike in a conventional fluidized bed, the granules are fluidized layer by layer from the (inner) free surface outward at increasing radius as the gas velocity is increased. This is a very significant and interesting phenomenon and is extremely important in the design of these fluidized beds. The phenomenon was first suggested in a theoretical analysis and recently verified experimentally in the authors' laboratory. However, in the first paper, the equations presented are too cumbersome and the influence of bed thickness is not clearly stated. In this note the authors present simplified equations, based on that paper, for the pressure drop and the minimum fluidizing velocities in a rotating fluidized bed. Experimental data are also shown and compared with the theoretical model, and the effect of bed thickness is shown. Furthermore, an explanation for the observation of a maximum in the pressure drop vs. velocity curve instead of the plateau derived by Chen is proposed

  4. Gruppebaseret behandling af BED - et faseopdelt behandlingstilbud

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laust, Jakob; Lau, Marianne Engelbrecht; Waaddegaard, Mette

    2015-01-01

    Titel: Afrapportering vedr. SATS-puljemidler til behandling og erfaringsopsamling vedr. BED for perioden 1. marts 2013 – 1. maj 2015. Baggrund: Binge Eating Disorder (BED), på dansk tvangsoverspisning, er en udbredt, men overset spiseforstyrrelse med alvorlige psykiske, fysiske og sociale...... konsekvenser. BED blev i 2013 optaget i DSM-5 (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders) som en selvstændig diagnose og BED forventes medtaget i den forestående revision af det internationale diagnose system, ICD-11. Sundhedsstyrelsen gav på denne baggrund satspuljemidler til erfaringsopsamling...... vedr. BED. I den forbindelse ansøgte Ambulatorium for Spiseforstyrrelser på Psykoterapeutisk Center Stolpegård ovenstående midler til at udvikle en ambulant, primært psykoterapeutisk gruppebehandling til patienter med moderat til svær BED med fokus på såvel spiseforstyrrelse såvel som overvægt. Metode...

  5. Monitoring a PVC batch process with multivariate statistical process control charts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tates, A. A.; Louwerse, D. J.; Smilde, A. K.; Koot, G. L. M.; Berndt, H.

    1999-01-01

    Multivariate statistical process control charts (MSPC charts) are developed for the industrial batch production process of poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC). With these MSPC charts different types of abnormal batch behavior were detected on-line. With batch contribution plots, the probable causes of these

  6. 40 CFR 63.1323 - Batch process vents-methods and procedures for group determination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... in § 63.1322(a)(1) or § 63.1322(b)(1) or routing the batch process vent to a control device to comply... 40 Protection of Environment 11 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Batch process vents-methods and... Polymers and Resins § 63.1323 Batch process vents—methods and procedures for group determination. (a...

  7. Performance assessment and improvement of control charts for statistical batch process monitoring

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ramaker, Henk-Jan; van Sprang, Eric N. M.; Westerhuis, Johan A.; Gurden, Stephen P.; Smilde, Age K.; van der Meulen, Frank H.

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes the concepts of statistical batch process monitoring and the associated problems. It starts with an introduction to process monitoring in general which is then extended to batch process monitoring. The performance of control charts for batch process monitoring is discussed by

  8. 21 CFR 111.260 - What must the batch record include?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ..., LABELING, OR HOLDING OPERATIONS FOR DIETARY SUPPLEMENTS Production and Process Control System: Requirements... record must include the following: (a) The batch, lot, or control number: (1) Of the finished batch of... that quality control personnel: (1) Reviewed the batch production record, including: (i) Review of any...

  9. 40 CFR 63.486 - Batch front-end process vent provisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... sources with batch front-end process vents classified as Group 1 shall comply with the reference control... Group 2 batch front-end process vents shall comply with the applicable reference control technology... 40 Protection of Environment 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Batch front-end process vent provisions...

  10. 40 CFR 63.1322 - Batch process vents-reference control technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 11 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Batch process vents-reference control technology. 63.1322 Section 63.1322 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Batch process vents—reference control technology. (a) Batch process vents. The owner or operator of a...

  11. 40 CFR 417.10 - Applicability; description of the soap manufacturing by batch kettle subcategory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... manufacturing by batch kettle subcategory. 417.10 Section 417.10 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... CATEGORY Soap Manufacturing by Batch Kettle Subcategory § 417.10 Applicability; description of the soap manufacturing by batch kettle subcategory. The provisions of this subpart are applicable to discharges resulting...

  12. OSAT: a tool for sample-to-batch allocations in genomics experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Li

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Batch effect is one type of variability that is not of primary interest but ubiquitous in sizable genomic experiments. To minimize the impact of batch effects, an ideal experiment design should ensure the even distribution of biological groups and confounding factors across batches. However, due to the practical complications, the availability of the final collection of samples in genomics study might be unbalanced and incomplete, which, without appropriate attention in sample-to-batch allocation, could lead to drastic batch effects. Therefore, it is necessary to develop effective and handy tool to assign collected samples across batches in an appropriate way in order to minimize the impact of batch effects. Results We describe OSAT (Optimal Sample Assignment Tool, a bioconductor package designed for automated sample-to-batch allocations in genomics experiments. Conclusions OSAT is developed to facilitate the allocation of collected samples to different batches in genomics study. Through optimizing the even distribution of samples in groups of biological interest into different batches, it can reduce the confounding or correlation between batches and the biological variables of interest. It can also optimize the homogeneous distribution of confounding factors across batches. It can handle challenging instances where incomplete and unbalanced sample collections are involved as well as ideally balanced designs.

  13. Degradation of chlorophenol mixtures in a fed-batch system by two ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Degradation of chlorophenol mixtures in a fed-batch system by two soil bacteria. ... This work was undertaken to investigate the effect of variations of the feed rate on a fed-batch set-up used to degrade xenobiotics. ... Keywords: Chlorophenol; fed batch system; aerobic degradation; waste treatment; microbial biocatalysis ...

  14. Look-ahead strategies for controlling batch operations in industry : Overview, comparison and exploration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Zee, D.J.

    2000-01-01

    Batching jobs in a manufacturing system is a very common policy in most industries. Main reasons for batching are avoidance of set ups and/or facilitation of material handling. Good examples of batch wise production systems are ovens found in aircraft industry and in semi-conductor manufacturing.

  15. Look-ahead strategies for controlling batch operations in industry - overview, comparison and exploration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zee, D.J. van der; Harten, A. van; Schuur, P.C.; Joines, JA; Barton, RR; Kang, K; Fishwick, PA

    2000-01-01

    Batching jobs in a manufacturing system is a very common policy in most industries. The main reasons for batching are avoidance of set ups and/or facilitation of material handling. Good examples of batch-wise production systems are ovens found in aircraft industry and in semiconductor manufacturing.

  16. Look-ahead strategies for controlling batch operations in industry - An overview

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zee, Durk-Jouke van der; Chick, SE; Sanchez, PJ; Ferrin, D; Morrice, DJ

    2003-01-01

    Batching jobs in a manufacturing system is a very common policy in most industries. Main reasons for batching are avoidance of set ups and/or facilitation of material handling. Examples of batch-wise production systems are ovens found in aircraft industry and in semiconductor manufacturing. Starting

  17. 40 CFR 63.1407 - Non-reactor batch process vent provisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 11 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Non-reactor batch process vent... § 63.1407 Non-reactor batch process vent provisions. (a) Emission standards. (1) Owners or operators of non-reactor batch process vents located at new or existing affected sources with 0.25 tons per year (0...

  18. Optimization of a fed-batch fermentation process for production of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Due to the substrate inhibition that takes place at high levels of carbon source, fed-batch fermentation was proposed as a better alternative for BLM production. The combined effects of batch and fed-batch fermentation and various pH profiles on BLM production in a bioreactor were evaluated. The tested pH profiles included ...

  19. Look-ahead strategies for controlling batch operations in industry : basic insights in rule construction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Zee, D.J.; Sullivan, W.A.; Ahmad, M.M.; Fichtner, D.; Sauer, W.; Weigert, G.; Zerna, T.

    2002-01-01

    Batching jobs in a manufacturing system is a very common policy in most industries. Main reasons for batching are avoidance of set ups and/or facilitation of material handling. Examples of batch-wise production systems are ovens found in aircraft industry and in semiconductor manufacturing. Starting

  20. Gas distributor for fluidized bed coal gasifier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worley, Arthur C.; Zboray, James A.

    1980-01-01

    A gas distributor for distributing high temperature reaction gases to a fluidized bed of coal particles in a coal gasification process. The distributor includes a pipe with a refractory reinforced lining and a plurality of openings in the lining through which gas is fed into the bed. These feed openings have an expanding tapered shape in the downstream or exhaust direction which aids in reducing the velocity of the gas jets as they enter the bed.