WorldWideScience

Sample records for batch loading scheme

  1. A New Batch Verifying Scheme for Identifying Illegal Signatures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Adrian Atanasiu

    2013-01-01

    The concept of batch verifying multiple digital signatures is to find a method by which multiple digital signatures can be verified simultaneously in a lower time complexity than separately verifying all the signatures.In this article,we analyze the complexity of the batch verifying schemes defined by Li,Hwang and Chen in 2010,and propose a new batch verifying multiple digital signature scheme,in two variants:one for RSA-by completing the Harn's schema with an identifying illegal signatures algorithm,and the other adapted for a modified Elliptic Curve Digital Signature Algorithm protocol.

  2. Loading Schemes for Downlink OFDMA Systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    KONG Jian; LIU Fang; WANG Wen-bo; LIU Yuan-an

    2004-01-01

    In this paper we study the subcarrier and bit allocation strategies for downlink OFDMA system. Our optimization objective is to find optimum subcarrier and bit assignment minimizing the total transmitted power with the constraints on BER and data rate for all users. We divide this problem into three steps: resource allocation, subcarrier assignment and single-user power and bit allocation. For the first two steps we propose new algorithms. Various loading schemes constitute by combining these algorithms as well as algorithms proposed in Ref . [ 6 ]. Simulation results demonstrate that our proposed suboptimal loading scheme can achieve performance closer to the near optimal algorithm in Ref . [ 8 ] with much lower complexity than schemes in Ref .[6].

  3. Novel load balancing DHT scheme for the heterogeneous system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Yujun; Lu Xianliang; Hou Mengshu

    2008-01-01

    The capacities of the nodes in the peer-to-peer system are strongly heterogeneous,hence one can benefit from distributing the load.based on the capacity of the nodes.At first a model is discussed to evaluate the load balancing of the heterogeneous system,and then a novel load balancing scheme is proposed based on the concept of logical servers and the randomized binary tree,and theoretical guarantees are given.Finally,the feasibility of the scheme using extensive simulations is proven.

  4. A New Load Balancing Scheme on Heterogeneous Database Cluster

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GONG Weihua; WANG Yuanzhen

    2006-01-01

    In heterogeneous database cluster, the performance of load balancing is closely related to the computing capabilities of heterogeneous nodes and the different types of workloads. Thus, a method is introduced to evaluate the load status of nodes by the weighted load values with consideration of both the utilization of different resources and the workload types in a load balancer and an efficient and dynamic load balancing scheme is proposed for OLTP(online transaction processing) workloads to maximize the utilization of distributed resources and achieve better performance, which need not collect the feedback of load information from the lower nodes and effectively keeps from the data skew. The simulation results for OLTP services gained by TPC-C tool show that the dynamic weighted balancing policy leads to sub-linear throughput speedup and keeps the heterogeneous cluster well balanced.

  5. EFFECTS OF 4-CHLOROPHENOL LOADINGS ON ACCLIMATION OF BIOMASS WITH OPTIMIZED FIXED TIME SEQUENCING BATCH REACTOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Movahedyan, A. Assadi, M. M. Amin

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Chlorinated phenols in many industrial effluents are usually difficult to be removed by conventional biological treatment processes. Performance of the aerobic sequencing batch reactor treating 4-chlorophenol containing wastewater at different loadings rates from 0.0075 to 1.2 g4CP/L.d was evaluated. The sequencing batch reactor was operated with fill, react, settle and decant phases in the order of 10:370:90:10 min, respectively, for a cycle time of 8 h at 10 days solid retention time and 16 h hydraulic retention time in the stable period. The effects of 4-chlorophenol loadings on the 4-chlorophenol and chemical oxygen demand removal percents, yield coefficient (Y, biomass variation and sludge volume index were investigated. High chemical oxygen demand removal efficiencies (95±3.5% and approximately complete 4-chlorophenol removal (>99% were observed even in the absence of growth substrate. The degradation of 4-chlorophenol led to formation of 5-chloro-2-hydroxymuconic semialdehyde, which was more oxidized, indicating complete disappearance of 4-chlorophenol via meta-cleavage pathway. A compact sludge with excellent settleability (sludge volume index=47±6.1 mL/g developed during entire acclimation period. High removal efficiencies with sequencing batch reactor may be due to enforced short term unsteady state conditions coupled with periodic exposure of the microorganisms to defined process conditions which facilitate the required metabolic pathways for treating xenobiotics containing wastewater.

  6. Biodegradation and kinetics of aerobic granules under high organic loading rates in sequencing batch reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yao; Jiang, Wenju; Liang, David Tee; Tay, Joo Hwa

    2008-05-01

    Biodegradation, kinetics, and microbial diversity of aerobic granules were investigated under a high range of organic loading rate 6.0 to 12.0 kg chemical oxygen demand (COD) m(-3) day(-1) in a sequencing batch reactor. The selection and enriching of different bacterial species under different organic loading rates had an important effect on the characteristics and performance of the mature aerobic granules and caused the difference on granular biodegradation and kinetic behaviors. Good granular characteristics and performance were presented at steady state under various organic loading rates. Larger and denser aerobic granules were developed and stabilized at relatively higher organic loading rates with decreased bioactivity in terms of specific oxygen utilization rate and specific growth rate (muoverall) or solid retention time. The decrease of bioactivity was helpful to maintain granule stability under high organic loading rates and improve reactor operation. The corresponding biokinetic coefficients of endogenous decay rate (kd), observed yield (Yobs), and theoretical yield (Y) were measured and calculated in this study. As the increase of organic loading rate, a decreased net sludge production (Yobs) is associated with an increased solid retention time, while kd and Y changed insignificantly and can be regarded as constants under different organic loading rates.

  7. Iron deficiency and bioavailability in anaerobic batch and submerged membrane bioreactors (SAMBR) during organic shock loads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ketheesan, Balachandran; Thanh, Pham Minh; Stuckey, David C

    2016-07-01

    This study examined the effects of Fe(2+) and its bioavailability for controlling VFAs during organic shock loads in batch reactors and a submerged anaerobic membrane bioreactor (SAMBR). When seed grown under Fe-sufficient conditions (7.95±0.05mgFe/g-TSS), an organic shock resulted in leaching of Fe from the residual to organically bound and soluble forms. Under Fe-deficient seed conditions (0.1±0.002mgFe/gTSS), Fe(2+) supplementation (3.34mgFe(2+)/g-TSS) with acetate resulted in a 2.1-3.9 fold increase in the rate of methane production, while with propionate it increased by 1.2-1.5 fold compared to non-Fe(2+) supplemented reactors. Precipitation of Fe(2+) as sulphides and organically bound Fe were bioavailable to methanogens for acetate assimilation. The results confirmed that the transitory/long term limitations of Fe play a significant role in controlling the degradation of VFAs during organic shock loads due to their varying physical/chemical states, and bioavailability. PMID:27015020

  8. Adaptive Bit Loading Scheme with Semi-Blind Channel Estimation for OFDM Systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Ying; SU Guang-chuan

    2006-01-01

    An adaptive bit loading and power-allocation scheme is proposed in order to augment the performance of the system based on orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM), which is based on the maximum power margin. Coinciding with the adaptive loading scheme, a semi-blind channel estimation algorithm using subspace decomposition method is proposed, which uses the information in the cyclic prefix. An initial channel state information is estimated by using the training sequences with the method of interpolation filtering. The proposed adaptive scheme is simulated on an OFDM wireless local area network(WLAN) system in a time-varying channel. The performance is compared to the constant loading scheme.

  9. Investigation of schemes for incorporating generator Q limits in the fast decoupled load flow method

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Lakshmi Sundaresh; P S Nagendra Rao

    2015-06-01

    Fast Decoupled Load Flow (FDLF) is a very popular and widely used power flow analysis method because of its simplicity and efficiency. Even though the basic FDLF algorithm is well investigated, the same is not true in the case of additional schemes/modifications required to obtain adjusted load flow solutions using the FDLF method. Handling generator Q limits is one such important feature needed in any practical load flow method. This paper presents a comprehensive investigation of two classes of schemes intended to handle this aspect i.e. the bus type switching scheme and the sensitivity scheme. We propose two new sensitivity based schemes and assess their performance in comparison with the existing schemes. In addition, a new scheme to avoid the possibility of anomalous solutions encountered while using the conventional schemes is also proposed and evaluated. Results from extensive simulation studies are provided to highlight the strengths and weaknesses of these existing and proposed schemes, especially from the point of view of reliability.

  10. Dynamic load balance scheme for the DSMC algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jin; Geng, Xiangren; Jiang, Dingwu; Chen, Jianqiang

    2014-12-01

    The direct simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) algorithm, devised by Bird, has been used over a wide range of various rarified flow problems in the past 40 years. While the DSMC is suitable for the parallel implementation on powerful multi-processor architecture, it also introduces a large load imbalance across the processor array, even for small examples. The load imposed on a processor by a DSMC calculation is determined to a large extent by the total of simulator particles upon it. Since most flows are impulsively started with initial distribution of particles which is surely quite different from the steady state, the total of simulator particles will change dramatically. The load balance based upon an initial distribution of particles will break down as the steady state of flow is reached. The load imbalance and huge computational cost of DSMC has limited its application to rarefied or simple transitional flows. In this paper, by taking advantage of METIS, a software for partitioning unstructured graphs, and taking the total of simulator particles in each cell as a weight information, the repartitioning based upon the principle that each processor handles approximately the equal total of simulator particles has been achieved. The computation must pause several times to renew the total of simulator particles in each processor and repartition the whole domain again. Thus the load balance across the processors array holds in the duration of computation. The parallel efficiency can be improved effectively. The benchmark solution of a cylinder submerged in hypersonic flow has been simulated numerically. Besides, hypersonic flow past around a complex wing-body configuration has also been simulated. The results have displayed that, for both of cases, the computational time can be reduced by about 50%.

  11. An Optimal Control Scheme to Minimize Loads in Wind Farms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soleimanzadeh, Maryam; Wisniewski, Rafal

    2012-01-01

    This work presents a control algorithm for wind farms that optimizes the power production of the farm and helps to increase the lifetime of wind turbines components. The control algorithm is a centralized approach, and it determines the power reference signals for individual wind turbines...... such that the structural loads of the wind turbines in low frequencies are reduced. The controller is relatively easy to implement on a wind farm, and in here the results of simulating the controller on a small wind farm is presented....

  12. Energy-aware Load-balaning Fault-tolerant Routing Scheme for Ad hoc Sensor Networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHENG Wen-qing; XIONG Zhi-qiang; LIU Wei; YANG Zong-kai; XU Yong-jian

    2008-01-01

    Most routing protocols for sensor networks try to extend network lifetime by minimizing the energy consumption, but have not taken the network reliability into account. An energy-aware, load-balancing and fault-tolerant routing scheme, termed as ELFR was propsed to adapt to the harsh environment. First a network robustness model was presented. Based on this model, the route discovery phase was designed to make the sensors to construct into a hop-leveled network which is mesh structure. A cross-layer design was adopted to measure the transmission delay so as to detect the failed nodes. The routing scheme works with acknowledge (ACK) feedback mechanism to transfer control messages to avoid producing extra control overhead messages. When nodes fail, the new healthy paths will be selected locally without rerouting. Simulation results show that our scheme is much robust, and it achieves better energy efficiency, load balancing and maintains good end-to-end delay.

  13. Performance Analysis of Savonius Rotor Based Hydropower Generation Scheme with Electronic Load Controller

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajen Pudur

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the performance of electronic load controller (ELC of asynchronous generator (AG coupled to an uncontrolled Savonius turbine and variable water velocity. An AC-DC-AC converter with a dc link capacitor is employed to maintain the required frequency. The ELC which is feeding a resistive dump load is connected in parallel with the generating system and the power consumption is varied through the duty cycle of the chopper. Gate triggering of ELC is accomplished through sinusoidal pulse width modulation (SPWM by sensing the load current. A MATLAB/Simulink model of Savonius rotor, asynchronous generator, ELC, and three-phase load is presented. The proposed scheme is tested under various load conditions under varying water velocities and the performances are observed to be satisfactory.

  14. Evaluation of the botanical origin of commercial dry bee pollen load batches using pollen analysis: a proposal for technical standardization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ortrud M. Barth

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available High quality of bee pollen for commercial purpose is required. In order to attend the consumer with the best identification of the botanical and floral origin of the product, 25 bee pollen batches were investigated using two techniques of pollen grain preparation. The first started to identify pollen loads of different colors in two grams of each well mixed batch, and the second to identify pollen grains in a pool made of all the pollen loads comprised in two grams. The best result was obtained by this last technique, when a pollen grain suspension was dropped on a microscope slide and circa 500 pollen grains were counted per sample. This analysis resulted in the recognition of monofloral and bifloral pollen batches, while the use of the first technique resulted in all samples receiving a heterofloral diagnosis.É exigida alta qualidade para a comercialização de pólen apícola. A fim de atender o consumidor com a melhor identificação da origem botânica e floral do produto, 25 partidas de pólen apícola feram investigadas usande duas diferentes técnicas na preparação dos grãos de pólen. A primeira partiu da identificação das cargas polínicas contidas em dois gramas de cada partida bem misturada segundo suas cores. A segunda visava identificar os grãos de pólen de um agrupamento ("pool" de todas as cargas polínicas contidas em dois gramas de cada amostra. O melhor resultado foi obtido pela última técnica, quando uma suspensão de grãos de pólen era gotejada sobre uma lâmina de microscopia e cerca de 500 grãos de pólen eram centades por amostra. Esta análise resultou no reconhecimento de partidas monoflorais e biflorais de pólen apícola, enquanto que usando a primeira técnica, todas as amostras receberam a diagnose heterefloral.

  15. Load-adaptive frequency reuse scheme for inter-cell interference coordination in relay networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Mu-qiong; JI Hong; LI Xi

    2010-01-01

    Cellular relay networks adopting orthogonal frequency division multiple(OFDM)technology has been widely accepted for next generation wireless communication due to its advantage in enlarging coverage scale as well as improving data rate.In order to improve the performance of user equipments(UEs)near the cell edge,especially to avoid the interference from inter-cell and intra cell,an enhanced soft frequency reuse scheme is adopted in this paper to assure inter-cell interference coordination(ICIC).Compared with traditional frequency allocation work,the proposed scheme is interference-aware and load-adaptive,which dynamically assigns available frequency among UES under certain schedule method in variable traffic load condition and mitigates interference using information provided by interference indicator.It can improve signal-to-interference plus noise ratio(SINR)of the UE in each sub channel thus enable the system achieve better throughput and blocking probability performance.Simulation results prove that the proposed scheme may achieve desirable performance on throughput,blocking probability and spectral utilization in the sector under different traffic load compared with other schemes.

  16. Internalizing carbon costs in electricity markets: Using certificates in a load-based emissions trading scheme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Several western states have considered developing a regulatory approach to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from the electric power industry, referred to as a load-based (LB) cap-and-trade scheme. A LB approach differs from the traditional source-based (SB) cap-and-trade approach in that the emission reduction obligation is placed upon Load Serving Entities (LSEs), rather than electric generators. The LB approach can potentially reduce the problem of emissions leakage, relative to a SB system. For any of these proposed LB schemes to be effective, they must be compatible with modern, and increasingly competitive, wholesale electricity markets. LSE's are unlikely to know the emissions associated with their power purchases. Therefore, a key challenge for a LB scheme is how to assign emissions to each LSE. This paper discusses the problems with one model for assigning emissions under a LB scheme and proposes an alternative, using unbundled Generation Emission Attribute Certificates. By providing a mechanism to internalize an emissions price signal at the generator dispatch level, the tradable certificate model addresses both these problems and provides incentives identical to a SB scheme

  17. Interference mitigation enhancement of switched-based scheme in over-loaded femtocells

    KAUST Repository

    Gaaloul, Fakhreddine

    2012-06-01

    This paper proposes adequate methods to improve the interference mitigation capability of a recently investigated switched-based interference reduction scheme in short-range open-access and over-loaded femtocells. It is assumed that the available orthogonal channels for the femtocell network are distributed among operating access points in close vicinity, where each of which knows its allocated channels a priori. For the case when the feedback links are capacity-limited and the available channels can be universally shared and simultaneously used, the paper presents enhanced schemes to identify a channel to serve the desired scheduled user by maintaining the interference power level within a tolerable range. They attempt to either complement the switched-based scheme by minimum interference channel selection or adopt different interference thresholds on available channels, while aiming to reduce the channels examination load. The performance of the proposed schemes is quantified and then compared with those of the single-threshold switched-based scheme via numerical and simulation results. © 2012 IEEE.

  18. Impact of seed loading ratio on the growth kinetics of mono-ammonium phosphate under isothermal batch crystallization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Long, Bingwen; Yang, Haotian; Ding, Yigang [Wuhan Institute of Technology, Wuhan (China)

    2016-02-15

    The effect of seed load ratio on the growth kinetics of Mono-ammonium phosphate (MAP) under isothermal batch crystallization was investigated quantitatively. A direct parameter estimation method was proposed and applied to extract the growth kinetic parameters from a simple crystallization model using our experimental solution concentration decline data. The method assured the globally best parameters to be obtained and was found less sensitive to experimental errors. The linear growth constants k{sub g} and the growth order g were found to be in the range of 1,000-2,600 μm·min{sup -1} and 0.93-1.12, respectively, for MAP crystallized at 40 .deg. C. Both parameters decreased significantly with increase of seed load ratio and k{sub g} even showed a strong linear decline trend. The effective crystallization time also decreased with the seed mass. The proposed methodology could be extended to study the effect of other operation variables such as temperature and initial supersaturation on the crystal growth rate.

  19. A scheme to compensate the transient beam loading in TW electron linacs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A scheme to compensate the transient beam loading of the TW electron linac operated in multi-bunch mode is described. The proposed method is to excite an auxiliary cavity located at the end of the accelerator section with the residual rf power, which comes out of the section after one filling time, with properly adjusted phase and amplitude of the field. The transient energy gain of the electron beam in passing through the cavity will compensate the transient energy loss due to beam loading in the accelerator section. The parameters of ATF of Brookhaven National Laboratory are used for calculation as an example to illustrate the result of computation

  20. A Policy Switching Approach to Consolidating Load Shedding and Islanding Protection Schemes

    CERN Document Server

    Meier, Rich; Fern, Alan

    2014-01-01

    In recent years there have been many improvements in the reliability of critical infrastructure systems. Despite these improvements, the power systems industry has seen relatively small advances in this regard. For instance, power quality deficiencies, a high number of localized contingencies, and large cascading outages are still too widespread. Though progress has been made in improving generation, transmission, and distribution infrastructure, remedial action schemes (RAS) remain non-standardized and are often not uniformly implemented across different utilities, ISOs, and RTOs. Traditionally, load shedding and islanding have been successful protection measures in restraining propagation of contingencies and large cascading outages. This paper proposes a novel, algorithmic approach to selecting RAS policies to optimize the operation of the power network during and after a contingency. Specifically, we use policy-switching to consolidate traditional load shedding and islanding schemes. In order to model and...

  1. Decentralized & Adaptive Load-Frequency Control Scheme of Variable Speed Wind Turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoseinzadeh, Bakhtyar; Silva, Filipe Miguel Faria da; Bak, Claus Leth

    2014-01-01

    and therefore determining the contribution factor of each individual WT to gain an adaptive LFC approach. The Electrical Distance (ED) concept confirms that the locally measured voltage decay is a proper criterion of closeness to the disturbance place. Numerical simulations carried out in DigSilent Power......In power systems with high penetration of Wind Power (WP), transferring a part of Load Frequency Control (LFC) burden to variable speed Wind Turbines (WTs) is inevitable. The conventional LFC schemes merely rely on frequency information and since frequency is a common variable throughout......Factory software confirm the efficiency of proposed methodology to stabilize the power system after a severe contingency....

  2. Dry anaerobic digestion of high solids content dairy manure at high organic loading rates in psychrophilic sequence batch reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massé, Daniel I; Saady, Noori M Cata

    2015-05-01

    Cow manure with bedding is renewable organic biomass available around the year on dairy farms. Developing efficient and cost-effective psychrophilic dry anaerobic digestion (PDAD) processes could contribute to solving farm-related environmental, energy, and manure management problems in cold-climate regions. This study was to increase the organic loading rate (OLR), fed to a novel psychrophilic (20 °C) dry anaerobic digestion of 27% total solid dairy manure (cow feces and wheat straw) in sequence batch reactor (PDAD-SBR), by 133 to 160%. The PDAD-SBR process operated at treatment cycle length of 21 days and OLR of 7.0 and 8.0 g total chemical oxygen demand (TCOD) kg(-1) inoculum day(-1) (5.2 ± 0.1 and 5.8 ± 0.0 g volatile solids (VS) kg(-1) inoculum day(-1)) for four successive cycles (84 days) produced average specific methane yields (SMYs) of 147.1 ± 17.2 and 143.2 ± 11.7 normalized liters (NL) CH4 kg(-1) VS fed, respectively. PDAD of cow feces and wheat straw is possible with VS-based inoculum-to-substrate ratio of 1.45 at OLR of 8.0 g TCOD kg(-1) inoculum day(-1). Hydrolysis was the limiting step reaction. The VS removal averaged around 57.4 ± 0.5 and 60.5 ± 5.7% at OLR 7.0 and 8.0 g TCOD kg(-1) inoculum day(-1), respectively. PMID:25773978

  3. Core loading pattern optimization of a typical two-loop 300 MWe PWR using Simulated Annealing (SA), novel crossover Genetic Algorithms (GA) and hybrid GA(SA) schemes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • SA and GA based optimization for loading pattern has been carried out. • The LEOPARD and MCRAC codes for a typical PWR have been used. • At high annealing rates, the SA shows premature convergence. • Then novel crossover and mutation operators are proposed in this work. • Genetic Algorithms exhibit stagnation for small population sizes. - Abstract: A comparative study of the Simulated Annealing and Genetic Algorithms based optimization of loading pattern with power profile flattening as the goal, has been carried out using the LEOPARD and MCRAC neutronic codes, for a typical 300 MWe PWR. At high annealing rates, Simulated Annealing exhibited tendency towards premature convergence while at low annealing rates, it failed to converge to global minimum. The new ‘batch composition preserving’ Genetic Algorithms with novel crossover and mutation operators are proposed in this work which, consistent with the earlier findings (Yamamoto, 1997), for small population size, require comparable computational effort to Simulated Annealing with medium annealing rates. However, Genetic Algorithms exhibit stagnation for small population size. A hybrid Genetic Algorithms (Simulated Annealing) scheme is proposed that utilizes inner Simulated Annealing layer for further evolution of population at stagnation point. The hybrid scheme has been found to escape stagnation in bcp Genetic Algorithms and converge to the global minima with about 51% more computational effort for small population sizes

  4. Damping efficiency of the Tchamwa-Wielgosz explicit dissipative scheme under instantaneous loading conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahéo, Laurent; Grolleau, Vincent; Rio, Gérard

    2009-11-01

    To deal with dynamic and wave propagation problems, dissipative methods are often used to reduce the effects of the spurious oscillations induced by the spatial and time discretization procedures. Among the many dissipative methods available, the Tchamwa-Wielgosz (TW) explicit scheme is particularly useful because it damps out the spurious oscillations occurring in the highest frequency domain. The theoretical study performed here shows that the TW scheme is decentered to the right, and that the damping can be attributed to a nodal displacement perturbation. The FEM study carried out using instantaneous 1-D and 3-D compression loads shows that it is useful to display the damping versus the number of time steps in order to obtain a constant damping efficiency whatever the size of element used for the regular meshing. A study on the responses obtained with irregular meshes shows that the TW scheme is only slightly sensitive to the spatial discretization procedure used. To cite this article: L. Mahéo et al., C. R. Mecanique 337 (2009).

  5. Buffer scheme with battery energy storage capability for enhancement of network transient stability and load ride-through

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, X.Y.; Vilathgamuwa, D.M.; Choi, S.S. [School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore 639798 (Singapore)

    2008-05-01

    This paper examines a buffer scheme to mitigate the negative impacts of power-conditioned loads on network voltage and transient stabilities. The scheme is based on the use of battery energy-storage systems in the buffers. The storage systems ensure that protected loads downstream of the buffers can ride through upstream voltage sags and swells. Also, by controlling the buffers to operate in either constant impedance or constant power modes, power is absorbed or injected by the storage systems. The scheme thereby regulates the rotor-angle deviations of generators and enhances network transient stability. A computational method is described in which the capacity of the storage systems is determined to achieve simultaneously the above dual objectives of load ride-through and stability enhancement. The efficacy of the resulting scheme is demonstrated through numerical examples. (author)

  6. Sustainable Load-Balancing Scheme for Inter-Sensor Convergence Processing of Routing Cooperation Topology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyun-Woo Kim

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Recent advancements in Information Technology (IT have sparked the creation of numerous and diverse types of devices and services. Manual data collection measurement methods have been automated through the use of various wireless or wired sensors. Single sensor devices are included in smart devices such as smartphones. Data transmission is critical for big data collected from sensor nodes, such as Mobile Sensor Nodes (MSNs, where sensors move dynamically according to sensor mobility, or Fixed Sensor Nodes (FSNs, where sensor locations are decided by the users. False data transfer processing of big data results in topology lifespan reduction and data transfer delays. Hence, a variety of simulators and diverse load-balancing algorithms have been developed as protocol verification tools for topology lifespan maximization and effective data transfer processing. However, those previously developed simulators have limited functions, such as an event function for a specific sensor or a battery consumption rate test for sensor deployment. Moreover, since the previous load-balancing algorithms consider only the general traffic distribution and the number of connected nodes without considering the current topology condition, the sustainable load-balancing technique that takes into account the battery consumption rate of the dispersed sensor nodes is required. Therefore, this paper proposes the Sustainable Load-balancing Scheme (SLS, which maximizes the overall topology lifespan through effective and sustainable load-balancing of data transfer among the sensors. SLS is capable of maintaining an effective topology as it considers both the battery consumption rate of the sensors and the data transfer delay.

  7. Effects of carbon brush anode size and loading on microbial fuel cell performance in batch and continuous mode

    KAUST Repository

    Lanas, Vanessa

    2014-02-01

    Larger scale microbial fuel cells (MFCs) require compact architectures to efficiently treat wastewater. We examined how anode-brush diameter, number of anodes, and electrode spacing affected the performance of the MFCs operated in fed-batch and continuous flow mode. All anodes were initially tested with the brush core set at the same distance from the cathode. In fed-batch mode, the configuration with three larger brushes (25 mm diameter) produced 80% more power (1240 mW m-2) than reactors with eight smaller brushes (8 mm) (690 mW m-2). The higher power production by the larger brushes was due to more negative and stable anode potentials than the smaller brushes. The same general result was obtained in continuous flow operation, although power densities were reduced. However, by moving the center of the smaller brushes closer to the cathode (from 16.5 to 8 mm), power substantially increased from 690 to 1030 mW m-2 in fed batch mode. In continuous flow mode, power increased from 280 to 1020 mW m-2, resulting in more power production from the smaller brushes than the larger brushes (540 mW m-2). These results show that multi-electrode MFCs can be optimized by selecting smaller anodes, placed as close as possible to the cathode. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Effects of carbon brush anode size and loading on microbial fuel cell performance in batch and continuous mode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanas, Vanessa; Ahn, Yongtae; Logan, Bruce E.

    2014-02-01

    Larger scale microbial fuel cells (MFCs) require compact architectures to efficiently treat wastewater. We examined how anode-brush diameter, number of anodes, and electrode spacing affected the performance of the MFCs operated in fed-batch and continuous flow mode. All anodes were initially tested with the brush core set at the same distance from the cathode. In fed-batch mode, the configuration with three larger brushes (25 mm diameter) produced 80% more power (1240 mW m-2) than reactors with eight smaller brushes (8 mm) (690 mW m-2). The higher power production by the larger brushes was due to more negative and stable anode potentials than the smaller brushes. The same general result was obtained in continuous flow operation, although power densities were reduced. However, by moving the center of the smaller brushes closer to the cathode (from 16.5 to 8 mm), power substantially increased from 690 to 1030 mW m-2 in fed batch mode. In continuous flow mode, power increased from 280 to 1020 mW m-2, resulting in more power production from the smaller brushes than the larger brushes (540 mW m-2). These results show that multi-electrode MFCs can be optimized by selecting smaller anodes, placed as close as possible to the cathode.

  9. Coordinated Scheme of Under-Frequency Load Shedding with Intelligent Appliances in a Cyber Physical Power System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qi Wang

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The construction of a cyber physical system in a power grid provides more potential control strategies for the power grid. With the rapid employment of intelligent terminal equipment (e.g., smart meters and intelligent appliances in the environment of a smart grid, abundant dynamic response information could be introduced to support a secure and stable power system. Combining demand response technology with the traditional under-frequency load shedding (UFLS scheme, a new UFLS strategy-determining method involving intelligent appliances is put forward to achieve the coordinated control of quick response resources and the traditional control resources. Based on this method, intelligent appliances can be used to meet the regulatory requirements of system operation in advance and prevent significant frequency drop, thereby improving the flexibility and stability of the system. Time-domain simulation verifies the effectiveness of the scheme, which is able to mitigate frequency drop and reduce the amount of load shedding.

  10. H(2) production through anaerobic mixed culture: effect of batch S(0)/X(0) and shock loading in CSTR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Kuo-Shuh; Chen, Ya-Yun

    2004-12-01

    Biological production of H(2) has received considerable attention lately. The present study was undertaken to observe the effects of substrate/seeding ratios (S(0)/X(0)) on batch H(2) generation. The H(2)-producing seeding spores were obtained from the heat treatment (88 degrees C for 12h) of the compost from a grass composting facility. A dehydrated brewery mixture was used as feed substrate. The results indicate that the pattern of the cumulative H(2) production with time is similar to the growth curve with a typical lag, exponential and stationary phase; the results were successfully modeled with a modified Gompertz equation. It appears that maximum H(2) yield potential (27ml g(-1)COD(added)) occurs at an S(0)/X(0) ratio of about 4, whereas the maximum specific H(2) yield (205ml g(-1) VSSd(-1)) occurs at approximately S(0)/X(0)=3. The S(0)/X(0) ratios higher than 4 would inhibit H(2) production. An attempt was made to waste a certain amount of reactor content and replaced it with fresh substrate in order to enhance H(2) production. After this medium replacement, the H(2) production was initially inhibited and the system then exhibited a long lag before it reached an active H(2) production stage. For a continuous-stirred tank-reactor (CSTR) system, the results of replacing 25% of the reactor content indicate that there is still a lag time before a sudden increase in H(2) production after the addition of the new substrate feed. The major low molecular weight acids identified are HAc and HBu with total volatile acids of about 6000-8000mg l(-1). The ratio of HAc/HBu in the present study is relatively constant (about 5) and appears not significantly affected by the medium replacement. The concentration of total alcohols is about 2000mg l(-1). All in all, the CSTR system is able to recover to its previous performance after such a dramatic 25% medium replacement.

  11. Adaptive load balancing scheme in ad hoc networks%Ad hoc网络中一种自适应的负载均衡机制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁玉华; 陈惠民; 贾旻

    2007-01-01

    An adaptive load balancing scheme is proposed to balance the load in ad hoc networks.The new scheme can be applied in most on-demand routing protocols resulting in significant performance improvement.The proposed scheme is applied to the ad hoc on-demand distance vector(AODV)routing protocol.Simulation results show that the network load is balanced on the whole,and performance in packet loss rate,routing overhead and average end-to-end delay is also improved.

  12. Enhancement of Voltage Stability of DC Smart Grid During Islanded Mode by Load Shedding Scheme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nassor, Thabit Salim; Senjyu, Tomonobu; Yona, Atsushi

    2015-10-01

    This paper presents the voltage stability of a DC smart grid based on renewable energy resources during grid connected and isolated modes. During the islanded mode the load shedding, based on the state of charge of the battery and distribution line voltage, was proposed for voltage stability and reservation of critical load power. The analyzed power system comprises a wind turbine, a photovoltaic generator, storage battery as controllable load, DC loads, and power converters. A fuzzy logic control strategy was applied for power consumption control of controllable loads and the grid-connected dual active bridge series resonant converters. The proposed DC Smart Grid operation has been verified by simulation using MATLAB® and PLECS® Blockset. The obtained results show the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  13. Performance Analysis of Savonius Rotor Based Hydropower Generation Scheme with Electronic Load Controller

    OpenAIRE

    Rajen Pudur; Sarsing Gao

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes the performance of electronic load controller (ELC) of asynchronous generator (AG) coupled to an uncontrolled Savonius turbine and variable water velocity. An AC-DC-AC converter with a dc link capacitor is employed to maintain the required frequency. The ELC which is feeding a resistive dump load is connected in parallel with the generating system and the power consumption is varied through the duty cycle of the chopper. Gate triggering of ELC is accomplished through sinu...

  14. Wide Area Protection Scheme Preventing Cascading Events Caused by Load Flow Transferring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Zhou; Chen, Zhe; Sun, Haishun;

    2013-01-01

    Load flow transferring after an initial contingency is regarded as one of the main reasons of causing unexpected cascading trips. A multi agent system (MAS) based wide area protection strategy is proposed in this paper to predict the load flow transferring from the point of view of impedance relays......, and prevent the unexpected relay operations accordingly. The variations of node injections during the post fault transient period will be also considered in the prediction algorithm. The power system of Eastern Denmark modeled in real time digital simulator (RTDS) will be used to demonstrate the proposed...... strategy. The simulation results indicate this strategy can successfully predict and prevent the unexpected relay operation caused by load flow transferring....

  15. An Efficient SDN Load Balancing Scheme Based on Variance Analysis for Massive Mobile Users

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Zhong

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In a traditional network, server load balancing is used to satisfy the demand for high data volumes. The technique requires large capital investment while offering poor scalability and flexibility, which difficultly supports highly dynamic workload demands from massive mobile users. To solve these problems, this paper analyses the principle of software-defined networking (SDN and presents a new probabilistic method of load balancing based on variance analysis. The method can be used to dynamically manage traffic flows for supporting massive mobile users in SDN networks. The paper proposes a solution using the OpenFlow virtual switching technology instead of the traditional hardware switching technology. A SDN controller monitors data traffic of each port by means of variance analysis and provides a probability-based selection algorithm to redirect traffic dynamically with the OpenFlow technology. Compared with the existing load balancing methods which were designed to support traditional networks, this solution has lower cost, higher reliability, and greater scalability which satisfy the needs of mobile users.

  16. Resource-Aware Load Balancing Scheme using Multi-objective Optimization in Cloud Computing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kavita Rana

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Cloud computing is a service based, on-demand, pay per use model consisting of an interconnected and virtualizes resources delivered over internet. In cloud computing, usually there are number of jobs that need to be executed with the available resources to achieve optimal performance, least possible total time for completion, shortest response time, and efficient utilization of resources etc. Hence, job scheduling is the most important concern that aims to ensure that use’s requirement are properly and correctly satisfied by cloud infrastructure. Most of the task scheduling algorithm developed in cloud computing target single criteria which fails to provide efficient resource utilization. So, to enhance the system performance and increase resource utilization it is must to consider multiple criteria. This paper proposes a multi- objective scheduling algorithm that considers wide variety of attributes in cloud environment. The paper aims to improve the performance by reducing the load of a virtual machine (VM by using Load Balancing Method. Finally, it optimizes the resource utilization by using Resource Aware Scheduling Algorithm involving combination of Min- max and Max-Min strategy.

  17. An Efficient Power Scheduling Scheme for Residential Load Management in Smart Homes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Babar Rasheed

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we propose mathematical optimization models of household energy units to optimally control the major residential energy loads while preserving the user preferences. User comfort is modelled in a simple way, which considers appliance class, user preferences and weather conditions. The wind-driven optimization (WDO algorithm with the objective function of comfort maximization along with minimum electricity cost is defined and implemented. On the other hand, for maximum electricity bill and peak reduction, min-max regret-based knapsack problem (K-WDO algorithm is used. To validate the effectiveness of the proposed algorithms, extensive simulations are conducted for several scenarios. The simulations show that the proposed algorithms provide with the best optimal results with a fast convergence rate, as compared to the existing techniques.

  18. A Splitting Scheme for Solving Reaction-Diffusion Equations Modeling Dislocation Dynamics in Materials Subjected to Cyclic Loading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pontes, J.; Walgraef, D.; Christov, C. I.

    2010-11-01

    Strain localization and dislocation pattern formation are typical features of plastic deformation in metals and alloys. Glide and climb dislocation motion along with accompanying production/annihilation processes of dislocations lead to the occurrence of instabilities of initially uniform dislocation distributions. These instabilities result into the development of various types of dislocation micro-structures, such as dislocation cells, slip and kink bands, persistent slip bands, labyrinth structures, etc., depending on the externally applied loading and the intrinsic lattice constraints. The Walgraef-Aifantis (WA) (Walgraef and Aifanits, J. Appl. Phys., 58, 668, 1985) model is an example of a reaction-diffusion model of coupled nonlinear equations which describe 0 formation of forest (immobile) and gliding (mobile) dislocation densities in the presence of cyclic loading. This paper discuss two versions of the WA model and focus on a finite difference, second order in time 1-Nicolson semi-implicit scheme, with internal iterations at each time step and a spatial splitting using the Stabilizing, Correction (Christov and Pontes, Mathematical and Computer Modelling, 35, 87, 2002) for solving the model evolution equations in two dimensions. The results of two simulations are presented. More complete results will appear in a forthcoming paper.

  19. Rational molecular dynamics scheme for predicting optimum concentration loading of nano-additive in phase change materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rastogi, Monisha; Vaish, Rahul; Madhar, Niyaz Ahamad; Shaikh, Hamid; Al-Zahrani, S. M.

    2015-10-01

    The present study deals with the diffusion and phase transition behaviour of paraffin reinforced with carbon nano-additives namely graphene oxide (GO) and surface functionalized single walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNT). Bulk disordered systems of paraffin hydrocarbons impregnated with carbon nano-additives have been generated in realistic equilibrium conformations for potential application as latent heat storage systems. Ab initio molecular dynamics(MD) in conjugation with COMPASS forcefield has been implemented using periodic boundary conditions. The proposed scheme allows determination of optimum nano-additive loading for improving thermo-physical properties through analysis of mass, thermal and transport properties; and assists in determination of composite behaviour and related performance from microscopic point of view. It was observed that nanocomposites containing 7.8 % surface functionalised SWCNT and 55% GO loading corresponds to best latent heat storage system. The propounded methodology could serve as a by-pass route for economically taxing and iterative experimental procedures required to attain the optimum composition for best performance. The results also hint at the large unexplored potential of ab-initio classical MD techniques for predicting performance of new nanocomposites for potential phase change material applications.

  20. Rational molecular dynamics scheme for predicting optimum concentration loading of nano-additive in phase change materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monisha Rastogi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The present study deals with the diffusion and phase transition behaviour of paraffin reinforced with carbon nano-additives namely graphene oxide (GO and surface functionalized single walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNT. Bulk disordered systems of paraffin hydrocarbons impregnated with carbon nano-additives have been generated in realistic equilibrium conformations for potential application as latent heat storage systems. Ab initio molecular dynamics(MD in conjugation with COMPASS forcefield has been implemented using periodic boundary conditions. The proposed scheme allows determination of optimum nano-additive loading for improving thermo-physical properties through analysis of mass, thermal and transport properties; and assists in determination of composite behaviour and related performance from microscopic point of view. It was observed that nanocomposites containing 7.8 % surface functionalised SWCNT and 55% GO loading corresponds to best latent heat storage system. The propounded methodology could serve as a by-pass route for economically taxing and iterative experimental procedures required to attain the optimum composition for best performance. The results also hint at the large unexplored potential of ab-initio classical MD techniques for predicting performance of new nanocomposites for potential phase change material applications.

  1. Operation of a Batch Stripping Distillation Column

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    A stripping batch distillation column is preferred when the amount of the light component in the feed is small and the products are to be recovered at high purity. The operation modes of a batch stripping are believed to be the same as those of a rectifier. However, the control system of a stripper is different. In this paper, we explore three different control methods with Hysys (Hyprotech Ltd. 1997) for a batch stripper. The main difference is the control scheme for reboiler liquid level: (a) controlled by reflux flow; (b) controlled by reboiler heat duty; (c) controlled by bottom product flow. The main characteristics of operating a batch stripper with different control scheme are presented in this paper. Guidelines are provided for the startup of a batch stripper, the effects of somecontrol tuning parameters on the column performance are discussed.

  2. Systematic optimization of fed-batch simultaneous saccharification and fermentation at high-solid loading based on enzymatic hydrolysis and dynamic metabolic modeling of Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unrean, Pornkamol; Khajeeram, Sutamat; Laoteng, Kobkul

    2016-03-01

    An integrative simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) modeling is a useful guiding tool for rapid process optimization to meet the techno-economic requirement of industrial-scale lignocellulosic ethanol production. In this work, we have developed the SSF model composing of a metabolic network of a Saccharomyces cerevisiae cell associated with fermentation kinetics and enzyme hydrolysis model to quantitatively capture dynamic responses of yeast cell growth and fermentation during SSF. By using model-based design of feeding profiles for substrate and yeast cell in the fed-batch SSF process, an efficient ethanol production with high titer of up to 65 g/L and high yield of 85 % of theoretical yield was accomplished. The ethanol titer and productivity was increased by 47 and 41 %, correspondingly, in optimized fed-batch SSF as compared to batch process. The developed integrative SSF model is, therefore, considered as a promising approach for systematic design of economical and sustainable SSF bioprocessing of lignocellulose. PMID:26610806

  3. Rule-based fuzzy inference system for estimating the influent COD/N ratio and ammonia load to a sequencing batch reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Y J; Bae, H; Ko, J H; Poo, K M; Kim, S; Kim, C W; Woo, H J

    2006-01-01

    A fuzzy inference system using sensor measurements was developed to estimate the influent COD/N ratio and ammonia load. The sensors measured ORP, DO and pH. The sensor profiles had a close relationship with the influent COD/N ratio and ammonia load. To confirm this operational knowledge for constructing a rule set, a correlation analysis was conducted. The results showed that a rule generation method based only on operational knowledge did not generate a sufficiently accurate relationship between sensor measurements and target variables. To compensate for this defect, a decision tree algorithm was used as a standardized method for rule generation. Given a set of inputs, this algorithm was used to determine the output variables. However, the generated rules could not estimate the continuous influent COD/N ratio and ammonia load. Fuzzified rules and the fuzzy inference system were developed to overcome this problem. The fuzzy inference system estimated the influent COD/N ratio and ammonia load quite well. When these results were compared to the results from a predictive polynomial neural network model, the fuzzy inference system was more stable. PMID:16532750

  4. Effects of loading rate and aeration on nitrogen removal and N2O emissions in intermittently aerated sequencing batch reactors treating slaughterhouse wastewater at 11 °C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Min; Hu, Zhenhu; Liu, Rui; Zhan, Xinmin

    2015-04-01

    This study aimed to find optimal operation conditions for nitrogen removal from high strength slaughterhouse wastewater at 11 °C using the intermittently aerated sequencing batch reactors (IASBRs) so as to provide an engineering control strategy for the IASBR technology. Two operational parameters were examined: (1) loading rates and (2) aeration rates. Both the two parameters affected variation of DO concentrations in the IASBR operation cycles. It was found that to achieve efficient nitrogen removal via partial nitrification-denitrification (PND), "DO elbow" point must appear at the end of the last aeration period. There was a correlation between the ammonium oxidizing bacteria (AOB)/nitrite oxidizing bacteria (NOB) ratio and the average DO concentrations in the last aeration periods; when the average DO concentrations in the last aeration periods were lower than 4.86 mg/L, AOB became the dominant nitrifier population, which benefited nitrogen removal via PND. Both the nitrogen loading rate and the aeration rate influenced the population sizes of AOB and NOB. To accomplish efficient nitrogen removal via PND, the optimum aeration rate (A, L air/min) applied can be predicted according to the average organic loading rates based on mathematical equations developed in this study. The research shows that the amount of N2O generation in the aeration period was reduced with increasing the aeration rate; however, the highest N2O generation in the non-aeration period was observed at the optimum aeration rates.

  5. Pro Spring Batch

    CERN Document Server

    Minella, Michael T

    2011-01-01

    Since its release, Spring Framework has transformed virtually every aspect of Java development including web applications, security, aspect-oriented programming, persistence, and messaging. Spring Batch, one of its newer additions, now brings the same familiar Spring idioms to batch processing. Spring Batch addresses the needs of any batch process, from the complex calculations performed in the biggest financial institutions to simple data migrations that occur with many software development projects. Pro Spring Batch is intended to answer three questions: *What? What is batch processing? What

  6. Interaction of a self-focused laser beam with a DT fusion target in a plasma-loaded cone-guided ICF scheme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saedjalil, N.; Mehrangiz, M.; Jafari, S.; Ghasemizad, A.

    2016-06-01

    In this paper, the interaction of a self-focused laser beam with a DT fusion target in a plasma-loaded cone-guided ICF scheme has been presented. We propose here to merge a plasma-loaded cone with the precompressed DT target in order to strongly focus the incident laser beam on the core to improve the fusion gain. The WKB approximation is used to derive a differential equation that governs the evolution of beamwidth of the incident laser beam with the distance of propagation in the plasma medium. The effects of initial plasma and laser parameters, such as initial plasma electron temperature, initial radius of the laser beam, initial laser beam intensity and plasma density, on self-focusing and defocusing of the Gaussian laser beam have been studied. Numerical results indicate that with increasing the plasma frequency (or plasma density) in the cone, the laser beam will be self-focused noticeably, while for a thinner laser beam (with small radius), it will diverge as propagate in the cone. By evaluating the energy deposition of the relativistic electron ignitors in the fuel, the importance of electron transportation in the cone-attached shell was demonstrated. Moreover, by lessening the least energy needed for ignition, the electrons coupling with the pellet enhances. Therefore, it increases the fusion efficiency. In this scheme, with employing a plasma-loaded cone, the fusion process improves without needing an ultrahigh-intensity laser beam in a conventional ICF.

  7. A PWM Buck Converter With Load-Adaptive Power Transistor Scaling Scheme Using Analog-Digital Hybrid Control for High Energy Efficiency in Implantable Biomedical Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sung-Yun; Cho, Jihyun; Lee, Kyuseok; Yoon, Euisik

    2015-12-01

    We report a pulse width modulation (PWM) buck converter that is able to achieve a power conversion efficiency (PCE) of > 80% in light loads 100 μA) for implantable biomedical systems. In order to achieve a high PCE for the given light loads, the buck converter adaptively reconfigures the size of power PMOS and NMOS transistors and their gate drivers in accordance with load currents, while operating at a fixed frequency of 1 MHz. The buck converter employs the analog-digital hybrid control scheme for coarse/fine adjustment of power transistors. The coarse digital control generates an approximate duty cycle necessary for driving a given load and selects an appropriate width of power transistors to minimize redundant power dissipation. The fine analog control provides the final tuning of the duty cycle to compensate for the error from the coarse digital control. The mode switching between the analog and digital controls is accomplished by a mode arbiter which estimates the average of duty cycles for the given load condition from limit cycle oscillations (LCO) induced by coarse adjustment. The fabricated buck converter achieved a peak efficiency of 86.3% at 1.4 mA and > 80% efficiency for a wide range of load conditions from 45 μA to 4.1 mA, while generating 1 V output from 2.5-3.3 V supply. The converter occupies 0.375 mm(2) in 0.18 μm CMOS processes and requires two external components: 1.2 μF capacitor and 6.8 μH inductor.

  8. Monte Carlo simulation on kinetics of batch and semi-batch free radical polymerization

    KAUST Repository

    Shao, Jing

    2015-10-27

    Based on Monte Carlo simulation technology, we proposed a hybrid routine which combines reaction mechanism together with coarse-grained molecular simulation to study the kinetics of free radical polymerization. By comparing with previous experimental and simulation studies, we showed the capability of our Monte Carlo scheme on representing polymerization kinetics in batch and semi-batch processes. Various kinetics information, such as instant monomer conversion, molecular weight, and polydispersity etc. are readily calculated from Monte Carlo simulation. The kinetic constants such as polymerization rate k p is determined in the simulation without of “steady-state” hypothesis. We explored the mechanism for the variation of polymerization kinetics those observed in previous studies, as well as polymerization-induced phase separation. Our Monte Carlo simulation scheme is versatile on studying polymerization kinetics in batch and semi-batch processes.

  9. Comparative Analysis of VSI & 7 Level MLI Fed Induction Motor Drive with IFOC Scheme and Pump Load

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krishna Prabhakar Lall

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Induction Motor are named as workhouse of Industries. Three phase induction motors are widely used in Industrial drives because of their ruggedness, reliability and simplicity in construction. The Induction Motor is fed by a cascaded H-Bridge 7 Level MLI and is controlled by Indirect Field Oriented Control (IFOC technique. In the current paper, Multi Carrier PWM techniques like PD, POD and APOD are used for switching of multilevel inverters due to their simplicity, flexibility and reduced computational requirements compared to Space Vector Modulation (SVPWM. Dynamic performance of the Induction Motor is analyzed for various carrier based PWM methods. Mathematical model of Pump Load is designed and the performance of the Induction Motor Drive with Pump Load is analyzed using simulation results obtained.

  10. Single Cell Proteolytic Assays to Investigate Cancer Clonal Heterogeneity and Cell Dynamics Using an Efficient Cell Loading Scheme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yu-Chih; Cheng, Yu-Heng; Ingram, Patrick; Yoon, Euisik

    2016-06-01

    Proteolytic degradation of the extracellular matrix (ECM) is critical in cancer invasion, and recent work suggests that heterogeneous cancer populations cooperate in this process. Despite the importance of cell heterogeneity, conventional proteolytic assays measure average activity, requiring thousands of cells and providing limited information about heterogeneity and dynamics. Here, we developed a microfluidic platform that provides high-efficiency cell loading and simple valveless isolation, so the proteolytic activity of a small sample (10–100 cells) can be easily characterized. Combined with a single cell derived (clonal) sphere formation platform, we have successfully demonstrated the importance of microenvironmental cues for proteolytic activity and also investigated the difference between clones. Furthermore, the platform allows monitoring single cells at multiple time points, unveiling different cancer cell line dynamics in proteolytic activity. The presented tool facilitates single cell proteolytic analysis using small samples, and our findings illuminate the heterogeneous and dynamic nature of proteolytic activity.

  11. Spring batch essentials

    CERN Document Server

    Rao, P Raja Malleswara

    2015-01-01

    If you are a Java developer with basic knowledge of Spring and some experience in the development of enterprise applications, and want to learn about batch application development in detail, then this book is ideal for you. This book will be perfect as your next step towards building simple yet powerful batch applications on a Java-based platform.

  12. Ag/AgCl Loaded Bi2WO6 Composite: A Plasmonic Z-Scheme Visible Light-Responsive Photocatalyst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiangchao Meng

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Hierarchical flower-like Bi2WO6 was successfully synthesized by facile hydrothermal method at low pH. And Ag/AgCl was loaded by photoreduction on its surface. As-prepared photocatalysts were characterized by various techniques. Bi2WO6 was successfully synthesized at a size of 2-3 μm. Depositing Ag/AgCl did not destroy the crystal structure, and both Ag+ and metallic Ag0 were found. The band gap of the composite was 2.57 eV, which indicates that visible light could be the activating irradiation. In the photocatalytic activity test, the composite with 10 wt% Ag/AgCl boasted the highest removal efficiency (almost 100% in 45 min. The significant enhancement can be attributed to the surface plasmon resonance (SPR effect and the establishment of heterostructures between Ag/AgCl and Bi2WO6. A possible mechanism of photocatalytic oxidation in the presence of Ag/AgCl-Bi2WO6 was proposed. This work sheds light on the potential applications of plasmonic metals in photocatalysis to enhance their activities.

  13. Resource load balancing scheme based on simulated annealing algorithm.%基于模拟退火算法的资源负载均衡方案

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金杉; 麦丰; 任波

    2011-01-01

    The load balancing problem of network resources in large-scale ERP systems is studied. Firstly,the demand of this issue is modeled and analyzed theoretically;secondly,a heuristic objective function which satisfies the host and network constraints is designed,and furthermore the model is transformed into the problem of degree-constrained minimum spanning tree;thirdly, a simulated annealing algorithm is designed to deal with the problem and a load balancing scheme based on the algorithm named LABS is proposed eventually. According to the theoretical analysis,the time complexity of the computation operated by the whole network is the square of the size of node.The simulation results show that, by selecting appropriate factors, the scheme not only can absorb most of the nodes to participate in load balancing operations, but also can reduce the bottlenecks of nodes and the average utilization rate of resources significantly.%针对大型ERP系统的网络资源负载均衡问题展开研究.在理论上对问题的需求进行建模分析,设计了满足主机和网络性能约束的启发式目标函数,将模型转化为度约束最小生成树问题,设计了一种模拟退火算法对此问题进行处理,提出了基于该算法的资源负载均衡方案LABS.理论分析表明,整个网络执行该方案的时间复杂度为节点规模的平方阶,说明方案具有较强的可用性与可伸缩性.仿真实验结果显示,通过选择适当的启发因子,算法不仅可以吸纳大部分节点协同参与负载均衡操作,还能够显著减少系统中的瓶颈节点数,降低平均资源使用率.

  14. Hybrid Batch Bayesian Optimization

    CERN Document Server

    Azimi, Javad; Fern, Xiaoli

    2012-01-01

    Bayesian Optimization aims at optimizing an unknown non-convex/concave function that is costly to evaluate. We are interested in application scenarios where concurrent function evaluations are possible. Under such a setting, BO could choose to either sequentially evaluate the function, one input at a time and wait for the output of the function before making the next selection, or evaluate the function at a batch of multiple inputs at once. These two different settings are commonly referred to as the sequential and batch settings of Bayesian Optimization. In general, the sequential setting leads to better optimization performance as each function evaluation is selected with more information, whereas the batch setting has an advantage in terms of the total experimental time (the number of iterations). In this work, our goal is to combine the strength of both settings. Specifically, we systematically analyze Bayesian optimization using Gaussian process as the posterior estimator and provide a hybrid algorithm t...

  15. Dynamic Batch Bayesian Optimization

    CERN Document Server

    Azimi, Javad; Fern, Xiaoli

    2011-01-01

    Bayesian optimization (BO) algorithms try to optimize an unknown function that is expensive to evaluate using minimum number of evaluations/experiments. Most of the proposed algorithms in BO are sequential, where only one experiment is selected at each iteration. This method can be time inefficient when each experiment takes a long time and more than one experiment can be ran concurrently. On the other hand, requesting a fix-sized batch of experiments at each iteration causes performance inefficiency in BO compared to the sequential policies. In this paper, we present an algorithm that asks a batch of experiments at each time step t where the batch size p_t is dynamically determined in each step. Our algorithm is based on the observation that the sequence of experiments selected by the sequential policy can sometimes be almost independent from each other. Our algorithm identifies such scenarios and request those experiments at the same time without degrading the performance. We evaluate our proposed method us...

  16. Modelling of Batch Process Operations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abdul Samad, Noor Asma Fazli; Cameron, Ian; Gani, Rafiqul

    2011-01-01

    Here a batch cooling crystalliser is modelled and simulated as is a batch distillation system. In the batch crystalliser four operational modes of the crystalliser are considered, namely: initial cooling, nucleation, crystal growth and product removal. A model generation procedure is shown that s...

  17. Pollution prevention applications in batch manufacturing operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sykes, Derek W.; O'Shaughnessy, James

    2004-02-01

    Older, "low-tech" batch manufacturing operations are often fertile grounds for gains resulting from pollution prevention techniques. This paper presents a pollution prevention technique utilized for wastewater discharge permit compliance purposes at a batch manufacturer of detergents, deodorants, and floor-care products. This manufacturer generated industrial wastewater as a result of equipment rinses required after each product batch changeover. After investing a significant amount of capital on end of pip-line wastewater treatment technology designed to address existing discharge limits, this manufacturer chose to investigate alternate, low-cost approaches to address anticipated new permit limits. Mass balances using spreadsheets and readily available formulation and production data were conducted on over 300 products to determine how each individual product contributed to the total wastewater pollutant load. These mass balances indicated that 22 products accounted for over 55% of the wastewater pollutant. Laboratory tests were conducted to determine whether these same products could accept their individual changeover rinse water as make-up water in formulations without sacrificing product quality. This changeover reuse technique was then implement at the plant scale for selected products. Significant reductions in wastewater volume (25%) and wastewater pollutant loading (85+%) were realized as a direct result of this approach.

  18. Kinetic study of batch and fed-batch enzymatic saccharification of pretreated substrate and subsequent fermentation to ethanol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gupta Rishi

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Enzymatic hydrolysis, the rate limiting step in the process development for biofuel, is always hampered by its low sugar concentration. High solid enzymatic saccharification could solve this problem but has several other drawbacks such as low rate of reaction. In the present study we have attempted to enhance the concentration of sugars in enzymatic hydrolysate of delignified Prosopis juliflora, using a fed-batch enzymatic hydrolysis approach. Results The enzymatic hydrolysis was carried out at elevated solid loading up to 20% (w/v and a comparison kinetics of batch and fed-batch enzymatic hydrolysis was carried out using kinetic regimes. Under batch mode, the actual sugar concentration values at 20% initial substrate consistency were found deviated from the predicted values and the maximum sugar concentration obtained was 80.78 g/L. Fed-batch strategy was implemented to enhance the final sugar concentration to 127 g/L. The batch and fed-batch enzymatic hydrolysates were fermented with Saccharomyces cerevisiae and ethanol production of 34.78 g/L and 52.83 g/L, respectively, were achieved. Furthermore, model simulations showed that higher insoluble solids in the feed resulted in both smaller reactor volume and shorter residence time. Conclusion Fed-batch enzymatic hydrolysis is an efficient procedure for enhancing the sugar concentration in the hydrolysate. Restricting the process to suitable kinetic regimes could result in higher conversion rates.

  19. Load-shift incentives for household demand response: Evaluation of hourly dynamic pricing and rebate schemes in a wind-based electricity system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Katz, Jonas; Møller Andersen, Frits; Morthorst, Poul Erik

    2016-01-01

    under scenarios with large shares of wind power in a Danish case study. Our results indicate strategies that could be favourable in ensuring high adoption of products and efficient response by households. We find that simple pricing schemes, though economically less efficient, could become important......Applying a partial equilibrium model of the electricity market we analyse effects of exposing household electricity customers to retail products with variable pricing. Both short-term and long-term effects of exposing customers to hourly spot market prices and a simpler rebate scheme are analysed...

  20. Column and Batch Experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge L. Gardea-Torresdey

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Batch and column experiments were performed to determine the Cu(II binding capacity of silica-immobilized humin biomass. For column studies, 500 bed volumes of a 0.1 mM Cu(II solution were passed through humin packed columns at the flow rates of 1, 1.5, 2, and 3 mL/min. The biopolymer showed an average Cu binding capacity of 12 ± 1.5 mg/g and a Cu recovery of about 96.5 % ± 1.5. The breakthrough points for Cu(II alone were approximately 420, 390, 385, and 300 bed volumes for the flow rates of 1, 1.5, 2 and 3 mL/min, respectively. The interference studies demonstrated that at low concentrations, the hard cations Ca(II and Mg(II did not seem to represent a major interference on Cu(II binding to the humin biopolymer. The selectivity showed by this biopolymer was Cu(II>Ca(II>Mg(II. On the other hand, batch experiments showed that Ca(II + Mg(II at 100mM each reduced the Cu(II binding to 73 %. However, 1000 mM concentrations of Ca(II and Mg(II, separately and in mixture, reduced the Cu(II binding to 47 %, 44 % and 31 %, respectively. The results of this study showed that immobilized humin in a silica matrix could represent an inexpensive bio-source for Cu removal from contaminated water, even in the presence of low concentrations of the hard cations Ca(II and Mg(II.

  1. Research of an Efficient Variant of Batch RSA Algorithm%一种有效的Batch RSA算法的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李云飞; 柳青; 李彤; 郝林

    2011-01-01

    提出了一种改进的Batch RSA算法来提升Batch RSA算法的解密性能.该改进算法结合了负载转移技术和Multi-Power RSA技术,在Batch RSA算法的指数计算阶段提升Batch RSA算法的解密性能.实验结果和理论分析表明,该改进算法使得Batch RSA算法的解密性能得到显著提升,且易于并行实现,可使基于多核平台的Batch RSA算法的整体性能得到进一步提升.%This paper aimed at speeding up Batch RSA decryption. An efficient variant of Batch RSA was proposed to improve the Batch RSA decryption performance. The improved Batch RSA variant speeds up decryption by combining the load transferring technique and multi-power RSA technique in the exponentiation phase. The experimental result and the theoretical values show that the speed of the decryption is substantially improved and the variant can be efficiently implemented in parallel and parallel implementation of the variant on multi-core devices can further improve the overall performance of Batch RSA algorithm.

  2. An Adaptive Load Shedding Scheme Based on a Novel Index of Transient Voltage Stability%基于暂态电压稳定性新指标的自适应紧急减载方案

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李晔; 张保会

    2016-01-01

    Voltages and frequencies have mutual influences after large disturbance. The conventional under-voltage load shedding (UVLS) and under-frequency load shedding (UFLS) are adjusted respectively without full considerations on the time-space distribution character of voltages and the influences of induction motors on the system stability. From the two-node equivalent model, the influence of the slip ratio of the induction motor on transient voltage stability and load stability is analyzed, and a novel index of transient voltage instability which is composed of voltage drop and slip ratio increment is proposed. Furthermore, a wide area measurement system (WAMS) based adaptive load shedding scheme which is constructed by employing the novel index to determine the locations and magnitude of load curtailments is provided. This new scheme includes two control patterns including all nodes load shedding and partial nodes load shedding and it measures the transient voltage stability degree of the system more fully by using the novel index. Simulations on IEEE 39-bus system verify the effectiveness and the superiority of the proposed scheme on guaranteeing the voltage stability and frequency stability after large disturbance, comparing with the conventional control scheme.%频率和电压响应在大扰动后相互耦合,传统的低频、低压减载方案相互独立,未充分考虑电压的时空分布特性和感应电动机对系统稳定性的影响.从2节点系统出发,分析感应电动机转差率偏差值对负荷稳定性和暂态电压稳定性的影响,提出综合考虑感应电动机转差率偏差值和负荷母线电压跌落幅度的暂态电压失稳程度新指标;并基于广域信息条件,利用新指标选择切负荷地点,确定相应控制量以构建新的紧急切负荷方案.该方案利用新指标更加全面地衡量了系统暂态电压稳定程度,具有全网切负荷和局部切负荷两种控制模式.通过IEEE 39节点系统的仿真,

  3. Stochastic growth logistic model with aftereffect for batch fermentation process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosli, Norhayati; Ayoubi, Tawfiqullah [Faculty of Industrial Sciences and Technology, Universiti Malaysia Pahang, Lebuhraya Tun Razak, 26300 Gambang, Pahang (Malaysia); Bahar, Arifah; Rahman, Haliza Abdul [Department of Mathematical Sciences, Faculty of Science, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 Johor Bahru, Johor (Malaysia); Salleh, Madihah Md [Department of Biotechnology Industry, Faculty of Biosciences and Bioengineering, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 Johor Bahru, Johor (Malaysia)

    2014-06-19

    In this paper, the stochastic growth logistic model with aftereffect for the cell growth of C. acetobutylicum P262 and Luedeking-Piret equations for solvent production in batch fermentation system is introduced. The parameters values of the mathematical models are estimated via Levenberg-Marquardt optimization method of non-linear least squares. We apply Milstein scheme for solving the stochastic models numerically. The effciency of mathematical models is measured by comparing the simulated result and the experimental data of the microbial growth and solvent production in batch system. Low values of Root Mean-Square Error (RMSE) of stochastic models with aftereffect indicate good fits.

  4. Stochastic growth logistic model with aftereffect for batch fermentation process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosli, Norhayati; Ayoubi, Tawfiqullah; Bahar, Arifah; Rahman, Haliza Abdul; Salleh, Madihah Md

    2014-06-01

    In this paper, the stochastic growth logistic model with aftereffect for the cell growth of C. acetobutylicum P262 and Luedeking-Piret equations for solvent production in batch fermentation system is introduced. The parameters values of the mathematical models are estimated via Levenberg-Marquardt optimization method of non-linear least squares. We apply Milstein scheme for solving the stochastic models numerically. The effciency of mathematical models is measured by comparing the simulated result and the experimental data of the microbial growth and solvent production in batch system. Low values of Root Mean-Square Error (RMSE) of stochastic models with aftereffect indicate good fits.

  5. Fixed time test scheme for loading reliability based on Bayes Theory%基于Bayes理论的装载可靠度定时截尾试验方案

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    侯代文; 焦安龙; 杨晓华

    2015-01-01

    The formulation method of Bayes test scheme for torpedo loading reliability was studied. The optimal method is used to determine the test scheme,which overcomes the subjective problem in traditional method,and thus enhances the veraci⁃ty and objectivity of the test scheme. The concrete scenario indicates that both the test duration and cost have been reduced with method provided in this paper.%研究小子样条件下鱼雷装载可靠度Bayes检验方案的制定方法。采用优化方法确定试验方案,克服了传统方法主观性较强的缺点,提高了试验方案的准确性和客观性。应用实例表明,该方法能缩短试验时间,较大地降低了试验成本。

  6. Adaptation to high throughput batch chromatography enhances multivariate screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker, Gregory A; Calzada, Joseph; Herzer, Sibylle; Rieble, Siegfried

    2015-09-01

    High throughput process development offers unique approaches to explore complex process design spaces with relatively low material consumption. Batch chromatography is one technique that can be used to screen chromatographic conditions in a 96-well plate. Typical batch chromatography workflows examine variations in buffer conditions or comparison of multiple resins in a given process, as opposed to the assessment of protein loading conditions in combination with other factors. A modification to the batch chromatography paradigm is described here where experimental planning, programming, and a staggered loading approach increase the multivariate space that can be explored with a liquid handling system. The iterative batch chromatography (IBC) approach is described, which treats every well in a 96-well plate as an individual experiment, wherein protein loading conditions can be varied alongside other factors such as wash and elution buffer conditions. As all of these factors are explored in the same experiment, the interactions between them are characterized and the number of follow-up confirmatory experiments is reduced. This in turn improves statistical power and throughput. Two examples of the IBC method are shown and the impact of the load conditions are assessed in combination with the other factors explored. PMID:25914370

  7. Coordinated voltage control scheme for distribution grid with on-load tap-changer and distributed energy resources in a market context

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Han, Xue; Bindner, Henrik W.; Mehmedalic, Jasmin;

    2015-01-01

    participation. In addition, a newly established system should also allow and coordinate other controllable grid facilities. This paper proposes a hierarchical operating framework for DER units and controllable grid assets in a market environment. Voltage regulation as a common distributed system service is used...... for case study. The necessity of the coordination between DER units and the grid facilities, e.g., on-load tap-changer (OLTC), is addressed....

  8. Data-driven batch schuduling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bent, John [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Denehy, Tim [GOOGLE; Arpaci - Dusseau, Remzi [UNIV OF WISCONSIN; Livny, Miron [UNIV OF WISCONSIN; Arpaci - Dusseau, Andrea C [NON LANL

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we develop data-driven strategies for batch computing schedulers. Current CPU-centric batch schedulers ignore the data needs within workloads and execute them by linking them transparently and directly to their needed data. When scheduled on remote computational resources, this elegant solution of direct data access can incur an order of magnitude performance penalty for data-intensive workloads. Adding data-awareness to batch schedulers allows a careful coordination of data and CPU allocation thereby reducing the cost of remote execution. We offer here new techniques by which batch schedulers can become data-driven. Such systems can use our analytical predictive models to select one of the four data-driven scheduling policies that we have created. Through simulation, we demonstrate the accuracy of our predictive models and show how they can reduce time to completion for some workloads by as much as 80%.

  9. Shortcut Algorithm for Simulation of Batch Extractive Distillation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Huixiong; XU Shimin; HU Hui; XIAO Bin

    2007-01-01

    The batch extractive distillation (BED) process has the advantages of both batch and extractive distillation. It is one of the most promising means for the separation of azeotropic and close-boiling point systems. However, so far this process has not been applied in industry due to its over-complexity. A new shortcut model was proposed to simulate the operation of the batch extractive distillation operations. This algorithm is based on the assumption that the batch extractive distillation column can be considered as a continuous extractive distillation column with changing feed at anytime. Namely, the whole batch process is simulated as a succession of a finite number of steady states of short duration, in which holdup is considered as constant mole. For each period of time the batch extractive distillation process is solved through the algorithm for continuous extractive distillation. Finally, the practical implementation of the shortcut model is discussed and data from the lab-oratory and literature are presented. It is found that this model has better adaptability, more satisfactory accuracy and less calculative load than previous rigorous model. Hence the algorithm for simulating BED is verified.

  10. BatchJobs and BatchExperiments: Abstraction Mechanisms for Using R in Batch Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernd Bischl

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Empirical analysis of statistical algorithms often demands time-consuming experiments. We present two R packages which greatly simplify working in batch computing environments. The package BatchJobs implements the basic objects and procedures to control any batch cluster from within R. It is structured around cluster versions of the well-known higher order functions Map, Reduce and Filter from functional programming. Computations are performed asynchronously and all job states are persistently stored in a database, which can be queried at any point in time. The second package, BatchExperiments, is tailored for the still very general scenario of analyzing arbitrary algorithms on problem instances. It extends package BatchJobs by letting the user define an array of jobs of the kind apply algorithm A to problem instance P and store results. It is possible to associate statistical designs with parameters of problems and algorithms and therefore to systematically study their influence on the results. The packages main features are: (a Convenient usage: All relevant batch system operations are either handled internally or mapped to simple R functions. (b Portability: Both packages use a clear and well-defined interface to the batch system which makes them applicable in most high-performance computing environments. (c Reproducibility: Every computational part has an associated seed to ensure reproducibility even when the underlying batch system changes. (d Abstraction and good software design: The code layers for algorithms, experiment definitions and execution are cleanly separated and enable the writing of readable and maintainable code.

  11. Colour schemes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Leeuwen, Theo

    2013-01-01

    This chapter presents a framework for analysing colour schemes based on a parametric approach that includes not only hue, value and saturation, but also purity, transparency, luminosity, luminescence, lustre, modulation and differentiation.......This chapter presents a framework for analysing colour schemes based on a parametric approach that includes not only hue, value and saturation, but also purity, transparency, luminosity, luminescence, lustre, modulation and differentiation....

  12. Research on Coordination Scheme for Smart Household Appliances Participating Underfrequency Load Shedding%智能家电参与低频减载协调配合方案研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汤奕; 邓克愚; 孙华东; 易俊; 贺庆

    2013-01-01

    智能电网环境下智能电表和智能家电等智能终端设备在用户侧的推广应用,为电力系统安全稳定控制提供了丰富的动态响应信息。文章将智能需求响应技术与第3道防线中的低频减载措施相结合,利用负荷侧的快速响应资源与第3道防线进行协调控制,提出一种考虑智能家电响应的新型低频减载方案。基于智能电表与电网之间可双向通信的特点,控制智能家电主动提前响应系统的调控需求,通过与传统低频减载方案的协调,可阻止系统频率的大幅度跌落并尽快恢复至额定值附近,提高了系统运行的灵活性和可靠性。时域仿真表明该低频减载方案能够适应电网复杂的运行环境,快速有效地抑制故障下的频率跌落,减少切负荷代价。%Dissemination and application of intelligent terminal equipments such as intelligent meters and smart household appliances at the consumer side under smart grid environment offer abundant dynamic response information for security and stability control of power grid. Combining smart demand response technology with underfrequency load shedding measures involved in the third line of defense specified in Technical Guide For Electric Power System Security And Stability Control, the coordinated control could be carried out by using quick response resources and the third line of defense, and a new underfrequency load shedding scheme considering the response of smart household appliances is proposed. In view of the feature that the two-way communication can be implemented between smart meters and power grid, the smart household appliances can be controlled to be actively responded to the control and regulation requirement of power grid in advance, and through coordinating with traditional underfrequency load shedding scheme the substantial drop of system frequency could be prevented and system frequency could be restored nearly to its rated value as

  13. 协同物流模式下多批次整车运输调度问题%Research on the Full-loaded Vehicle Routing Problem with Multiple Batches in Collaborative Transportation Mode

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏江宁; 陆志强; 奚立峰

    2009-01-01

    The vehicle routing problem with time windows as well as multiple pickups and deliveries was studied in collaborative transportation mode. A mathematical model was developed considering the factors such as the number of trucks rented, the distances covered, and the penalty due to service delay. A hybrid genetic algorithm was proposed accordingly, integrating the restarting scheme which is able to improve the initial population and avoid premature convergence respectively. In addition, the local research strategy was fully used to get the optimal value quickly. The results of the computational experiment indicate that the proposed algorithm is effective.%研究了协同物流模式下,单车库、多集散点的带时间窗以及单点多批次配送与集货请求的联合运输问题.考虑车辆的租用费用、行驶费用、未按时完成服务产生的惩罚费用等因素,建立了数学模型并提出了混合遗传算法.算法中加入了重启动机制,以提高种群质量和避免早熟收敛,并采用局部搜索策略以快速寻找最优值.数值实验证明,混合遗传算法求解该类运输调度问题具有良好的效果,且算法效率较高.

  14. A Simple Power Management Scheme with Enhanced Stability for a Solar PV/Wind/Fuel Cell/Grid Fed Hybrid Power Supply Designed for Industrial Loads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Saravanan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a new power conditioner topology with an intelligent power management controller that integrates multiple renewable energy sources such as solar energy, wind energy, and fuel cell energy with battery and AC grid supply as backup to make the best use of their operating characteristics with better reliability than that could be obtained by single renewable energy source based power supply. The proposed embedded controller is programmed to perform MPPT for solar PV panel and WTG, SOC estimation and battery, maintaining a constant voltage at PCC and power flow control by regulating the reference currents of the controller in an instantaneous basis. The instantaneous variation in reference currents of the controller enhances the controller response as it accommodates the effect of continuously varying solar insolation and wind speed in the power management. It also prioritizes the sources for consumption to achieve maximum usage of green energy than grid energy. The simulation results of the proposed power management system with real-time solar radiation and wind velocity data collected from solar centre, KEC, and experimental results for a sporadically varying load demand are presented in this paper and the results are encouraging from reliability and stability perspectives.

  15. PBSNG—Batch System for Farm Architecture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    J.Fromm; K.Genser; 等

    2001-01-01

    FBSNG [1] is a redesigned version of Farm Batch System (FBS[1]),which was developed as a batch process management system for off-line Run II data processing at FNAL.FBSNG is designed for UNIX computer farms and is capable of managing up to 1000 nodes in a single farm.FBSNG allows users to start arrays of parallel processes on one or more farm computers,It uses a simplified abstract resource counting method for load balancing between computers.The resource counting approach allows FBSNG to be a simple and flexible tool for farm resource management.FBSNG scheduler features include guaranteed and controllable” fair-share” scheduling.FBSNG is easily portable across different flavors of UNIX.The system has been successfully used at Fermilab as well as by off-site collaborators for several years on farms of different sizes and different platforms for off-line data processing,Monte-Carlo data generation and other tasks.

  16. BatchJS: Implementing Batches in JavaScript

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kasemier, D.

    2014-01-01

    None of our popular programming languages know how to handle distribution well. Yet our programs interact more and more with each other and our data resorts in databases and web services. Batches are a new addition to languages that can finally bring native support for distribution to our favourite

  17. Inspection scheme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As part of the Danish RERTR Program, three fuel elements with LEU U3O8-Al fuel and three fuel elements with LEU U3Si2-Al fuel were manufactured by NUKEM for irradiation testing in the DR-3 reactor at the Risoe National Laboratory in Denmark. The inspection scheme for the elements with U3O8-Al fuel is presented here as an illustration only. The inspection scheme for the elements with U3Si2-Al fuel was very similar. In this example, all document numbers, drawing numbers, and form numbers have been deleted or replaced with a generic identification. (author)

  18. Biodegradability of industrial textile wastewater - batch tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paździor, Katarzyna; Klepacz-Smółka, Anna; Wrębiak, Julita; Liwarska-Bizukojć, Ewa; Ledakowicz, Stanisław

    2016-01-01

    Following new trends we applied oxygen uptake rate (OUR) tests as well as long-term tests (in two batch bioreactors systems) in order to assess the biodegradability of textile wastewater. Effluents coming from a dyeing factory were divided into two streams which differed in inorganic and organic contaminants loads. Usefulness of the stream division was proved. Biodegradation of the low-loaded stream led to over 97% reduction of biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5) together with 80% reduction of chemical oxygen demand (COD) and total organic carbon (TOC). Most of the controlled parameter values were below the levels allowed by legislation for influents to surface water, whereas the high-loaded stream was so contaminated with recalcitrant organic compounds that despite the reduction of BOD5 by over 95%, COD, TOC, total nitrogen and total phosphorus levels exceeded permissible values. OUR tests were aimed at determination of the following kinetic parameters: maximum specific growth rate (μMax), half-saturation constant, hydrolysis constant and decay coefficient for activated sludge biomass for both types of textile wastewater studied. The values of kinetic parameters will be applied in activated sludge models used for prediction and optimisation of biological treatment of textile wastewater. PMID:27642827

  19. Physicochemical Characteristics of Transferon™ Batches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilio Medina-Rivero

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Transferon, a biotherapeutic agent that has been used for the past 2 decades for diseases with an inflammatory component, has been approved by regulatory authorities in Mexico (COFEPRIS for the treatment of patients with herpes infection. The active pharmaceutical ingredient (API of Transferon is based on polydispersion of peptides that have been extracted from lysed human leukocytes by a dialysis process and a subsequent ultrafiltration step to select molecules below 10 kDa. To physicochemically characterize the drug product, we developed chromatographic methods and an SDS-PAGE approach to analyze the composition and the overall variability of Transferon. Reversed-phase chromatographic profiles of peptide populations demonstrated batch-to-batch consistency from 10 representative batches that harbored 4 primary peaks with a relative standard deviation (RSD of less than 7%. Aminogram profiles exhibited 17 proteinogenic amino acids and showed that glycine was the most abundant amino acid, with a relative content of approximately 18%. Further, based on their electrophoretic migration, the peptide populations exhibited a molecular mass of about 10 kDa. Finally, we determined the Transferon fingerprint using a mass spectrometry tool. Because each batch was produced from independent pooled buffy coat samples from healthy donors, supplied by a local blood bank, our results support the consistency of the production of Transferon and reveal its peptide identity with regard to its physicochemical attributes.

  20. Physicochemical Characteristics of Transferon™ Batches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Sánchez, Gilberto; Favari, Liliana; Estrada-Parra, Sergio

    2016-01-01

    Transferon, a biotherapeutic agent that has been used for the past 2 decades for diseases with an inflammatory component, has been approved by regulatory authorities in Mexico (COFEPRIS) for the treatment of patients with herpes infection. The active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) of Transferon is based on polydispersion of peptides that have been extracted from lysed human leukocytes by a dialysis process and a subsequent ultrafiltration step to select molecules below 10 kDa. To physicochemically characterize the drug product, we developed chromatographic methods and an SDS-PAGE approach to analyze the composition and the overall variability of Transferon. Reversed-phase chromatographic profiles of peptide populations demonstrated batch-to-batch consistency from 10 representative batches that harbored 4 primary peaks with a relative standard deviation (RSD) of less than 7%. Aminogram profiles exhibited 17 proteinogenic amino acids and showed that glycine was the most abundant amino acid, with a relative content of approximately 18%. Further, based on their electrophoretic migration, the peptide populations exhibited a molecular mass of about 10 kDa. Finally, we determined the Transferon fingerprint using a mass spectrometry tool. Because each batch was produced from independent pooled buffy coat samples from healthy donors, supplied by a local blood bank, our results support the consistency of the production of Transferon and reveal its peptide identity with regard to its physicochemical attributes. PMID:27525277

  1. NDA BATCH 2002-02

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory

    2009-12-09

    QC sample results (daily background checks, 20-gram and 100-gram SGS drum checks) were within acceptable criteria established by WIPP's Quality Assurance Objectives for TRU Waste Characterization. Replicate runs were performed on 5 drums with IDs LL85101099TRU, LL85801147TRU, LL85801109TRU, LL85300999TRU and LL85500979TRU. All replicate measurement results are identical at the 95% confidence level as established by WIPP criteria. Note that the batch covered 5 weeks of SGS measurements from 23-Jan-2002 through 22-Feb-2002. Data packet for SGS Batch 2002-02 generated using gamma spectroscopy with the Pu Facility SGS unit is technically reasonable. All QC samples are in compliance with established control limits. The batch data packet has been reviewed for correctness, completeness, consistency and compliance with WIPP's Quality Assurance Objectives and determined to be acceptable. An Expert Review was performed on the data packet between 28-Feb-02 and 09-Jul-02 to check for potential U-235, Np-237 and Am-241 interferences and address drum cases where specific scan segments showed Se gamma ray transmissions for the 136-keV gamma to be below 0.1 %. Two drums in the batch showed Pu-238 at a relative mass ratio more than 2% of all the Pu isotopes.

  2. Simulated Batch Production of Penicillin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitaker, A.; Walker, J. D.

    1973-01-01

    Describes a program in applied biology in which the simulation of the production of penicillin in a batch fermentor is used as a teaching technique to give students experience before handling a genuine industrial fermentation process. Details are given for the calculation of minimum production cost. (JR)

  3. Batching System for Superior Service

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-01-01

    Veridian's Portable Batch System (PBS) was the recipient of the 1997 NASA Space Act Award for outstanding software. A batch system is a set of processes for managing queues and jobs. Without a batch system, it is difficult to manage the workload of a computer system. By bundling the enterprise's computing resources, the PBS technology offers users a single coherent interface, resulting in efficient management of the batch services. Users choose which information to package into "containers" for system-wide use. PBS also provides detailed system usage data, a procedure not easily executed without this software. PBS operates on networked, multi-platform UNIX environments. Veridian's new version, PBS Pro,TM has additional features and enhancements, including support for additional operating systems. Veridian distributes the original version of PBS as Open Source software via the PBS website. Customers can register and download the software at no cost. PBS Pro is also available via the web and offers additional features such as increased stability, reliability, and fault tolerance.A company using PBS can expect a significant increase in the effective management of its computing resources. Tangible benefits include increased utilization of costly resources and enhanced understanding of computational requirements and user needs.

  4. A universal encoding scheme for MIMO transmission using a single active element for PSK modulation schemes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alrabadi, Osama; Papadias, C.B.; Kalis, A.;

    2009-01-01

    A universal scheme for encoding multiple symbol streams using a single driven element (and consequently a single radio frequency (RF) frontend) surrounded by parasitic elements (PE) loaded with variable reactive loads, is proposed in this paper. The proposed scheme is based on creating a MIMO...

  5. NDA Batch 2002-13

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hollister, R

    2009-09-17

    QC sample results (daily background check drum and 100-gram SGS check drum) were within acceptance criteria established by WIPP's Quality Assurance Objectives for TRU Waste Characterization. Replicate runs were performed on drum LL85501243TRU. Replicate measurement results are identical at the 95% confidence level as established by WIPP criteria. HWM NCAR No. 02-1000168 issued on 17-Oct-2002 regarding a partially dislodged Cd sheet filter on the HPGe coaxial detector. This physical geometry occurred on 01-Oct-2002 and was not corrected until 10-Oct-2002, during which period is inclusive of the present batch run of drums. Per discussions among the Independent Technical Reviewer, Expert Reviewer and the Technical QA Supervisor, as well as in consultation with John Fleissner, Technical Point of Contact from Canberra, the analytical results are technically reliable. All QC standard runs during this period were in control. Data packet for SGS Batch 2002-13 generated using passive gamma-ray spectroscopy with the Pu Facility SGS unit is technically reasonable. All QC samples are in compliance with establiShed control limits. The batch data packet has been reviewed for correctness, completeness, consistency and compliance with WIPP's Quality Assurance Objectives and determined to be acceptable.

  6. Batch-oriented software appliances

    CERN Document Server

    Murri, Riccardo

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents AppPot, a system for creating Linux software appliances. AppPot can be run as a regular batch or grid job and executed in user space, and requires no special virtualization support in the infrastructure. The main design goal of AppPot is to bring the benefits of a virtualization-based IaaS cloud to existing batch-oriented computing infrastructures. In particular, AppPot addresses the application deployment and configuration on large heterogeneous computing infrastructures: users are enabled to prepare their own customized virtual appliance for providing a safe execution environment for their applications. These appliances can then be executed on virtually any computing infrastructure being in a private or public cloud as well as any batch-controlled computing clusters the user may have access to. We give an overview of AppPot and its features, the technology that makes it possible, and report on experiences running it in production use within the Swiss National Grid infrastructure SMSCG.

  7. 间歇结晶过程的分批优化%Batch-to-batch Optimization of Batch Crystallization Processes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Woranee Paengjuntuek; Paisan Kittisupakorn; Amornchai Arpornwichanop

    2008-01-01

    It is the fact that several process parameters are either unknown or uncertain. Therefore, an optimal control profile calculated with developed process models with respect to such process parameters may not give an optimal performance when implemented to real processes. This study proposes a batch-to-batch optimization strat-egy for the estimation of uncertain kinetic parameters in a batch crystallization process of potassium sulfate produc-tion. The knowledge of a crystal size distribution of the product at the end of batch operation is used in the proposedmethodology. The updated kinetic parameters are applied for determining an optimal operating temperature policy for the next batch run.

  8. Algal Feedback and Removal Efficiency in a Sequencing Batch Reactor Algae Process (SBAR to Treat the Antibiotic Cefradine.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianqiu Chen

    Full Text Available Many previous studies focused on the removal capability for contaminants when the algae grown in an unexposed, unpolluted environment and ignored whether the feedback of algae to the toxic stress influenced the removal capability in a subsequent treatment batch. The present research investigated and compared algal feedback and removal efficiency in a sequencing batch reactor algae process (SBAR to remove cefradine. Three varied pollution load conditions (10, 30 and 60 mg/L were considered. Compared with the algal characteristics in the first treatment batch at 10 and 30 mg/L, higher algal growth inhibition rates were observed in the second treatment batch (11.23% to 20.81%. In contrast, algae produced more photosynthetic pigments in response to cefradine in the second treatment batch. A better removal efficiency (76.02% was obtained during 96 h when the alga treated the antibiotic at 60 mg/L in the first treatment batch and at 30 mg/L in the second treatment batch. Additionally, the removal rate per unit algal density was also improved when the alga treated the antibiotic at 30 or 60 mg/L in the first treatment batch, respectively and at 30 mg/L in the second treatment batch. Our result indicated that the green algae were also able to adapt to varied pollution loads in different treatment batches.

  9. A comparative study of sequencing batch reactor and moving-bed sequencing batch reactor for piggery wastewater treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwannate Sombatsompop

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This research aims to comparatively study the efficiency of piggery wastewater treatment by the moving-bed sequencing batch reactor (moving-bed SBR system with held medium, and the conventional sequencing batch reactor (SBR system, by varying the organic load from 0.59 to 2.36 kgCOD/m3.d. The COD treatment efficiency of the SBR and moving-bed SBR was higher than 60% at an organic load of 0.59 kgCOD/m3.d and higher than 80% at the organic loads of 1.18-2.36 kgCOD/m3.d. The BOD removal efficiency was greater than 90% at high organic loads of 1.18-2.36 kgCOD/m3.d. The moving-bed SBR gave TKN removal efficiency of 86-93%, whereas the SBR system exhibited the removal efficiency of 75-87% at all organic loads. The amount of effluent suspended solids for SBR systems exceeded the piggery wastewater limit of 200 mg/L at the organic load of 2.36 kgCOD/m3.d while that for the moving-bed SBR system did not. When the organic load was increased, the moving-bed SBR system yielded better treatment efficiency than that of the SBR system. The wastewater treated by the moving-bed SBR system met the criteria of wastewater standard for pig farms at all organic loads, while that treated by the SBR system was not satisfactory at a high organic load of 2.36 kgCOD/m3.d.

  10. STUDY ON MAXIMUM SPECIFIC SLUDGE ACIVITY OF DIFFERENT ANAEROBIC GRANULAR SLUDGE BY BATCH TESTS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The maximum specific sludge activity of granular sludge from large-scale UASB, IC and Biobed anaerobic reactors were investigated by batch tests. The limitation factors related to maximum specific sludge activity (diffusion, substrate sort, substrate concentration and granular size) were studied. The general principle and procedure for the precise measurement of maximum specific sludge activity were suggested. The potential capacity of loading rate of the IC and Biobed anaerobic reactors were analyzed and compared by use of the batch tests results.

  11. Transient and Stationary Losses in a Finite-Buffer Queue with Batch Arrivals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzej Chydzinski

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We present an analysis of the number of losses, caused by the buffer overflows, in a finite-buffer queue with batch arrivals and autocorrelated interarrival times. Using the batch Markovian arrival process, the formulas for the average number of losses in a finite time interval and the stationary loss ratio are shown. In addition, several numerical examples are presented, including illustrations of the dependence of the number of losses on the average batch size, buffer size, system load, autocorrelation structure, and time.

  12. Combinatorial Batch Codes with Redundancy

    OpenAIRE

    Jung, Jiyoon; Mummert, Carl; Niese, Elizabeth; Schroeder, Michael w.

    2015-01-01

    A combinatorial batch code with redundancy $r$ and parameters $(n,k,m,t)$ can be represented as a system $C$ of $m$ (not necessarily distinct) subsets of an underlying $n$-element set $F$, so that each $k$-subset of $F$ can be covered by every $(m-r)$-subset $K$ of $C$ while taking no more than $t$ elements of $F$ with each set in $K$. The sum of the cardinalities of the sets in $C$ is the weight of the code. We focus on the case $t =1$, and determine the minimal weight for several ranges of ...

  13. Batch chemical microreactors: Reversible, in-situ UHV sealing of a microcavity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Monkowski, Adam; Johansson, Martin; Nielsen, Jane Hvolbæk;

    2009-01-01

    We propose a new type of microreactor to study heterogeneous catalytic systems. The proposed device operates using a batch reactor scheme, in which catalyst and reactant are introduced in one step and analyzed in a subsequent step. This differs from a flow microreactor in which reaction and analy...

  14. FRIT DEVELOPMENT FOR SLUDGE BATCH 6

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fox, K.; Edwards, T.; Zamecnik, J.

    2010-05-13

    The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) evaluated a large number of Sludge Batch 6 (SB6) composition projections to support frit optimization for SB6 vitrification at the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF). The evaluations discussed in this report occurred over a period of about 4 months, and included about 40 composition projections, developed by both Savannah River Remediation (SRR) and SRNL. Paper study assessments were used to evaluate the sludge composition projections with arrays of potential frit compositions using the predictive models in the DWPF Product Composition Control System (PCCS). Both nominal sludge compositions and sludge compositions with anticipated compositional variation were considered. The model predictions were used to identify candidate frit compositions for each SB6 projection and to provide some guidance to SRR on washing and blending strategies for SB6 preparation. This report presents a chronological review of this process and summarizes the findings at each stage. Following initial feedback from this work, the number of washes in Tank 51 was reduced to increase the projected sodium concentration in SB6. Analyses of predicted frit performance before and after a potential decant of Tank 40 showed that the post-decant SB6 composition would be difficult to process with any frit composition and that this scenario should be avoided. Based on the most recent SB6 projections (February 2010 SB6 composition projections developed at SRNL using the measured SB6 qualification sample composition and the revised Tank Farm washing plan), Frit 418 appears to be viable for SB6 processing at a target waste loading of 36%. A Nominal Stage PCCS Measurement Acceptability Region (MAR) assessment gave projected operating windows of 25-41% waste loading, limited by predictions of nepheline crystallization. The projected operating window is reduced to 25-38% waste loading when anticipated compositional variation is considered, again limited by

  15. Batch process design: an overview from control

    OpenAIRE

    Zuluaga Bedoya, Christian Camilo

    2015-01-01

    Abstract: batch process design: an overview from control In this work, the topic of batch process design is addressed, through an analysis of the phenomenological-based model and using set-theoretic methods to deduce process constraints and parametric effects in state controllability. A review of literature is presented about characterization of batch process from point of view of design problem. Furthermore simultaneous process and control design is also reviewed, considering the main contri...

  16. A Practical SSL Server Performance Improvement Algorithm Based on Batch RSA Decryption

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Shi-qun; WU Yong-dong; ZHOU Jian-ying; CHEN Ke-fei

    2008-01-01

    The secure socket layer/ transport layer security(SSL/TLS) handshake protocol uses public key cryptographic algorithms such as RSA for key establishment. Typically, public key cryptographic algorithm is computational intensive due to the modular multiplications. Therefore, SSL/TLS servers often become swamped while performing public key decryptious when the simultaneous requests increase quickly. A batch RSA decryption algorithm was proposed. The novel algorithm provides the reasonable response time and opti-mizes server performance significantly. The decryption speedup is proportional to the batch size b, for instance,the speedup factor is 4, while in Shacham's scheme the acceleration rate is only 2.5 when b=4.

  17. An LMI Method to Robust Iterative Learning Fault-tolerant Guaranteed Cost Control for Batch Processes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Limin; CHEN Xi; GAO Furong

    2013-01-01

    Based on an equivalent two-dimensional Fornasini-Marchsini model for a batch process in industry,a closed-loop robust iterative learning fault-tolerant guaranteed cost control scheme is proposed for batch processes with actuator failures.This paper introduces relevant concepts of the fault-tolerant guaranteed cost control and formulates the robust iterative learning reliable guaranteed cost controller (ILRGCC).A significant advantage is that the proposed ILRGCC design method can be used for on-line optimization against batch-to-batch process uncertainties to realize robust tracking of set-point trajectory in time and batch-to-batch sequences.For the convenience of implementation,only measured output errors of current and previous cycles are used to design a synthetic controller for iterative learning control,consisting of dynamic output feedback plus feed-forward control.The proposed controller can not only guarantee the closed-loop convergency along time and cycle sequences but also satisfy the H∞ performance level and a cost function with upper bounds for all admissible uncertainties and any actuator failures.Sufficient conditions for the controller solution are derived in terms of linear matrix inequalities (LMIs),and design procedures,which formulate a convex optimization problem with LMI constraints,are presented.An example of injection molding is given to illustrate the effectiveness and advantages of the ILRGCC design approach.

  18. Batch process. Changes and problems of a batch process; Bacchi prosesu no hensen to kadai

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niwa, T. [Asahi Engineering (Japan)

    1997-09-05

    One of the characteristics of the manufacture of fine chemical products is multikind production. The life cycles of chemical industrial products have become shorter, and the difference between these life cycles and those of the manufacturing facility has become larger. The use of an FMS (Flexible Manufacturing System) has been demanded as the measure for solving the problems, and the advantages of a batch process have begun to be reconsidered. This paper describes the history of the development of a batch process, and then explains the problems of a batch process. The paper mentions the process control techniques, production information control systems, production support systems, training systems and process simulation systems as the main techniques supporting the development of a batch process. The paper mentions the modeling and standardizing of a batch process, systematic batch process designing methods and the modeling of a production control information system as the problems of a batch process. 8 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  19. Integration of virtualized worker nodes in standard batch systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buege, Volker; Kunze, Marcel; Oberst, Oliver; Quast, Guenter; Scheurer, Armin [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Postfach 6980, 76128 Karlsruhe (Germany); Hessling, Hermann [HTW Berlin, University of Applied Sciences, 10318 Berlin (Germany); Kemp, Yves; Synge, Owen, E-mail: Oliver.Oberst@iwr.fzk.d [DESY, Notkestrasse 85, 22607 Hamburg (Germany)

    2010-04-01

    Current experiments in HEP only use a limited number of operating system flavours. Their software might only be validated on one single OS platform. Resource providers might have other operating systems of choice for the installation of the batch infrastructure. This is especially the case if a cluster is shared with other communities, or communities that have stricter security requirements. One solution would be to statically divide the cluster into separated sub-clusters. In such a scenario, no opportunistic distribution of the load can be achieved, resulting in a poor overall utilization efficiency. Another approach is to make the batch system aware of virtualization, and to provide each community with its favoured operating system in a virtual machine. Here, the scheduler has full flexibility, resulting in a better overall efficiency of the resources. In our contribution, we present a lightweight concept for the integration of virtual worker nodes into standard batch systems. The virtual machines are started on the worker nodes just before jobs are executed there. No meta-scheduling is introduced. We demonstrate two prototype implementations, one based on the Sun Grid Engine (SGE), the other using Maui/Torque as a batch system. Both solutions support local job as well as Grid job submission. The hypervisors currently used are Xen and KVM, a port to another system is easily envisageable. To better handle different virtual machines on the physical host, the management solution VmImageManager is developed. We will present first experience from running the two prototype implementations. In a last part, we will show the potential future use of this lightweight concept when integrated into high-level (i.e. Grid) work-flows.

  20. Using Sloane Rulers for Optimal Recovery Schemes in Distributed Computing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Delhi Babu

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Clusters and distributed systems offer fault tolerance and high performance through load sharing, and are thus attractive in real-time applications. When all computers are up and running, we would like the load to be evenly distributed among the computers. When one or more computers fail, the load must be redistributed. The redistribution is determined by the recovery scheme. The recovery scheme should keep the load as evenly distributed as possible even when the most unfavorable combinations of computers break down, i.e., we want to optimize the worst-case behavior. In this paper we compare the worst-case behavior of schemes such as Modulo ruler, Golomb ruler, Greedy sequence and Log sequence with worst-case behavior of Sloane sequence. Finally we observe that Sloane scheme performs better than all the other schemes. Keywords: Fault tolerance; High performance computing; Cluster technique; Recovery schemes; Sloane sequence;

  1. Uranium Adsorption on Granular Activated Carbon – Batch Testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parker, Kent E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Golovich, Elizabeth C. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Wellman, Dawn M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2013-09-01

    The uranium adsorption performance of two activated carbon samples (Tusaar Lot B-64, Tusaar ER2-189A) was tested using unadjusted source water from well 299-W19-36. These batch tests support ongoing performance optimization efforts to use the best material for uranium treatment in the Hanford Site 200 West Area groundwater pump-and-treat system. A linear response of uranium loading as a function of the solution-to-solid ratio was observed for both materials. Kd values ranged from ~380,000 to >1,900,000 ml/g for the B-64 material and ~200,000 to >1,900,000 ml/g for the ER2-189A material. Uranium loading values ranged from 10.4 to 41.6 μg/g for the two Tusaar materials.

  2. LSF usage for batch at CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    Schwickerath, Ulrich

    2007-01-01

    Contributed poster to the CHEP07. Original abstract: LSF 7, the latest version of Platform's batch workload management system, addresses many issues which limited the ability of LSF 6.1 to support large scale batch farms, such as the lxbatch service at CERN. In this paper we will present the status of the evaluation and deployment of LSF 7 at CERN, including issues concerning the integration of LSF 7 with the gLite grid middleware suite and, in particular, the steps taken to endure an efficient reporting of the local batch system status and usage to the Grid Information System

  3. Batch process. Application of CAE technique to a batch process; Bacchi purosesu eno CAE gijutsu no tenkai

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Y.; Nakai, K.; Oba, S. [Aspentic Japan Co. Ltd. (Japan)

    1997-09-05

    This paper introduces recent topics of the application of the CAE technique to a batch process. A batch distillation modeling tool (BATCHFRAC) is aimed at modeling a distillation tower and a batch reactor for a batch process for fine chemical products, and is provided as an expanded additional function for ASPEN FLUS batch distillation. A batch process designing system (BATCH PLUS) is a comprehensive batch process simulator for efficiently carrying out the designing, the development or the analysis of a complicated recipe-based batch process concerning medical treatment, biotechnology and agriculture. A batch process information control system (Batch/21) is provided as a system having an expanded and additional function for a batch process of InfoPlus/21, an information control system which enables the observation, management and controlling of a process. 4 figs.

  4. Multi-objective optimization of glycopeptide antibiotic production in batch and fed batch processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maiti, Soumen K.; Eliasson Lantz, Anna; Bhushan, Mani;

    2011-01-01

    as pareto optimal solutions. These solutions gives flexibility in evaluating the trade-offs and selecting the most suitable operating policy. Here, ε-constraint approach was used to generate the pareto solutions for two objectives: product concentration and product per unit cost of media, for batch and fed...... batch operations using process model for Amycolatopsis balhimycina, a glycopeptide antibiotic producer. This resulted in a set of several pareto optimal solutions with the two objectives ranging from (0.75gl−1, 3.97g$-1) to (0.44gl−1, 5.19g$-1) for batch and from (1.5gl−1, 5.46g$-1) to (1.1gl−1, 6.34g......$-1) for fed batch operations. One pareto solution each for batch and for fed batch mode was experimentally validated....

  5. Batch Attribute-Based Encryption for Secure Clouds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Yang

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Cloud storage is widely used by organizations due to its advantage of allowing universal access with low cost. Attribute-based encryption (ABE is a kind of public key encryption suitable for cloud storage. The secret key of each user and the ciphertext are associated with an access policy and an attribute set, respectively; in addition to holding a secret key, one can decrypt a ciphertext only if the associated attributes match the predetermined access policy, which allows one to enforce fine-grained access control on outsourced files. One issue in existing ABE schemes is that they are designed for the users of a single organization. When one wants to share the data with the users of different organizations, the owner needs to encrypt the messages to the receivers of one organization and then repeats this process for another organization. This situation is deteriorated with more and more mobile devices using cloud services, as the ABE encryption process is time consuming and may exhaust the power supplies of the mobile devices quickly. In this paper, we propose a batch attribute-based encryption (BABE approach to address this problem in a provably-secure way. With our approach, the data owner can outsource data in batches to the users of different organizations simultaneously. The data owner is allowed to decide the receiving organizations and the attributes required for decryption. Theoretical and experimental analyses show that our approach is more efficient than traditional encryption implementations in computation and communication.

  6. A novel energy-efficient batch stripper: Thermodynamic feasibility, cost analysis and CO2 emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Growing energy demand, depletion of fossil fuel resources and environmental concerns have stimulated intensive research in improving the energetic potential of well-established process units through process intensification route. In this contribution, a novel internal heat integration scheme is introduced for batch stripping. Aiming to improve the thermodynamic efficiency of this transient distillation column, the tower is proposed to primarily divide into two diabatic sections. The upper section (top stripper) is operated at elevated pressures (heat source) keeping the lower part (bottom stripper) at normal state (heat sink) so that there exists a thermal driving force between them. With this goal, the proposed heat integrated batch stripper (HIBS) additionally requires a couple of internal heat exchangers, a compressor and a pressure reducing throttling valve. To quantify the benefits achieved by this novel scheme over a conventional standalone column, we use three performance indexes, namely energy savings, total annualized cost and CO2 emissions. Finally, the proposed HIBS configuration is demonstrated by simulating a binary system of cyclohexane and toluene. - Highlights: • A novel energy-efficient batch stripper is introduced. • Stripper is proposed to divide into two diabatic sections. • Two divided sections are thermally integrated by a couple of heat exchangers. • The mechanism is illustrated by the batch processing of a binary system

  7. Applying prior knowledge to model batch keeping-quality of cucumber batches

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schouten, R.E.; Tijskens, L.M.M.; Kooten, van O.; Jongbloed, G.

    2004-01-01

    Keeping-quality of individual cucumbers is limited by the green colour; the keeping-quality of batches of cucumbers is limited by the time it takes before 5␘f the cucumbers in the batch reach a predefined colour limit. From literature concerning the synthesis and degradation of chlorophyll and a pub

  8. Quality and Batch-to-Batch Consistency of Original and Biosimilar Epoetin Products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halim, Liem Andhyk; Brinks, Vera; Jiskoot, Wim; Romeijn, Stefan; Haselberg, Rob; Burns, Chris; Wadhwa, Meenu; Schellekens, Huub

    2016-02-01

    Comprehensive physicochemical characterization and biological assays are essential parts in assessing quality attributes of biologicals. Here, we compared the quality of different marketed recombinant human erythropoietin (epoetin) products: originators, Eprex and NeoRecormon as well as 2 biosimilars, Retacrit and Binocrit. In addition, assessment of batch-to-batch variability was included by collecting 2 or more batches of each product. Common assays which included sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, high-performance size-exclusion chromatography, asymmetrical flow field-flow fractionation, capillary zone electrophoresis, and potency testing were used. Of the tested products and among batches of single products, variations in epoetin content, isoform profiles, and potency were found. Ultimately, this study demonstrated the high quality of epoetin products with some degree of variation among products and batches, confirming the "similar but not identical" paradigm of biologicals. PMID:26869417

  9. Biogas production in an anaerobic sequencing batch reactor by using tequila vinasses: effect of pH and temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arreola-Vargas, J; Jaramillo-Gante, N E; Celis, L B; Corona-González, R I; González-Álvarez, V; Méndez-Acosta, H O

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, anaerobic digestion has been recognized as a suitable alternative for tequila vinasses treatment due to its high energy recovery and chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal efficiency. However, key factors such as the lack of suitable monitoring schemes and the presence of load disturbances, which may induce unstable operating conditions in continuous systems, have limited its application at full scale. Therefore, the aim of this work was to evaluate the anaerobic sequencing batch reactor (AnSBR) configuration in order to provide a low cost and easy operation alternative for the treatment of these complex effluents. In particular, the AnSBR was evaluated under different pH-temperature combinations: 7 and 32 °C; 7 and 38 °C; 8 and 32 °C and 8 and 38 °C. Results showed that the AnSBR configuration was able to achieve high COD removal efficiencies (around 85%) for all the tested conditions, while the highest methane yield was obtained at pH 7 and 38 °C (0.29 L/g COD added). Furthermore, high robustness was found in all the AnSBR experiments. Therefore, the full-scale application of the AnSBR technology for the treatment of tequila vinasses is quite encouraging, in particular for small and medium size tequila industries that operate under seasonal conditions.

  10. Dynamic Fractional Resource Scheduling vs. Batch Scheduling

    CERN Document Server

    Casanova, Henri; Vivien, Frédéric

    2011-01-01

    We propose a novel job scheduling approach for homogeneous cluster computing platforms. Its key feature is the use of virtual machine technology to share fractional node resources in a precise and controlled manner. Other VM-based scheduling approaches have focused primarily on technical issues or on extensions to existing batch scheduling systems, while we take a more aggressive approach and seek to find heuristics that maximize an objective metric correlated with job performance. We derive absolute performance bounds and develop algorithms for the online, non-clairvoyant version of our scheduling problem. We further evaluate these algorithms in simulation against both synthetic and real-world HPC workloads and compare our algorithms to standard batch scheduling approaches. We find that our approach improves over batch scheduling by orders of magnitude in terms of job stretch, while leading to comparable or better resource utilization. Our results demonstrate that virtualization technology coupled with light...

  11. Exploring the Transition From Batch to Online

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Anker Helms

    2010-01-01

    The transition from using computers in batch mode with punch cards, paper tape, piles of print, and lengthy response times to online mode by way of the video display terminal took place in most organizations in the 1970s and 1980s. The video display terminal was a significant forerunner of the tr......The transition from using computers in batch mode with punch cards, paper tape, piles of print, and lengthy response times to online mode by way of the video display terminal took place in most organizations in the 1970s and 1980s. The video display terminal was a significant forerunner...... structures, and acquire new skills. This work-in-progress paper extends an earlier study of the transition from batch to online, based on oral history interviews with (ex)-employees in two large Danish Service Bureaus. The paper takes the next step by ana-lyzing a particular genre: the commercial computer...

  12. Finite Boltzmann schemes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sman, van der R.G.M.

    2006-01-01

    In the special case of relaxation parameter = 1 lattice Boltzmann schemes for (convection) diffusion and fluid flow are equivalent to finite difference/volume (FD) schemes, and are thus coined finite Boltzmann (FB) schemes. We show that the equivalence is inherent to the homology of the Maxwell-Bolt

  13. b-Bit Minwise Hashing in Practice: Large-Scale Batch and Online Learning and Using GPUs for Fast Preprocessing with Simple Hash Functions

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Ping; Konig, Arnd Christian

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we study several critical issues which must be tackled before one can apply b-bit minwise hashing to the volumes of data often used industrial applications, especially in the context of search. 1. (b-bit) Minwise hashing requires an expensive preprocessing step that computes k (e.g., 500) minimal values after applying the corresponding permutations for each data vector. We developed a parallelization scheme using GPUs and observed that the preprocessing time can be reduced by a factor of 20-80 and becomes substantially smaller than the data loading time. 2. One major advantage of b-bit minwise hashing is that it can substantially reduce the amount of memory required for batch learning. However, as online algorithms become increasingly popular for large-scale learning in the context of search, it is not clear if b-bit minwise yields significant improvements for them. This paper demonstrates that $b$-bit minwise hashing provides an effective data size/dimension reduction scheme and hence it can d...

  14. Treatemnt of Wastewater with Modified Sequencing Batch Biofilm Reactor Technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡龙兴; 刘宇陆

    2002-01-01

    This paper describes the removel of COD and nitrogen from wastewater with modified sequencing batch biofilm reactor,The strategy of simultaneous feeding and draining was explored.The results show that introduction of a new batch of wastewater and withdrawal of the purifeid water can be conducted simultaneously with the maximum volumetric exchange rate of about 70%,Application of this feeding and draining mode leads to the reduction of the cycle time,the increase of the utilization of the reactor volume and the simplification of the reactor structure.The treatment of a synthetic wastewater containing COD and nitrogen was investigated.The operation mode of F(D)-O(i.e.,simultaneous feeding and draining followed by the aerobic condition)was adopted.It was found that COD was degraded very fast in the initial reaction period of time,then reduced slowly and the ammonia nitrogen and nitrate nitrogen concentrations decreased and increased with time respectively,while the nitrite nitrogen level increased first and then reduced.The relationship between the COD or ammonia nitrogen loading and its removal rate was examined,and the removal of COD,ammonia nitrogen and total nitrogen could exceed 95%,90%and 80% respectively,The fact that nitrogen could e removed more completely under constant aeration(aerobic condition)of the SBBR operation mode is very interesting and could be explained in several respects.

  15. Following an Optimal Batch Bioreactor Operations Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ibarra-Junquera, V.; Jørgensen, Sten Bay; Virgen-Ortíz, J.J.;

    2012-01-01

    The problem of following an optimal batch operation model for a bioreactor in the presence of uncertainties is studied. The optimal batch bioreactor operation model (OBBOM) refers to the bioreactor trajectory for nominal cultivation to be optimal. A multiple-variable dynamic optimization of fed...... as the master system which includes the optimal cultivation trajectory for the feed flow rate and the substrate concentration. The “real” bioreactor, the one with unknown dynamics and perturbations, is considered as the slave system. Finally, the controller is designed such that the real bioreactor...

  16. Scheme Program Documentation Tools

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørmark, Kurt

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes and discusses two different Scheme documentation tools. The first is SchemeDoc, which is intended for documentation of the interfaces of Scheme libraries (APIs). The second is the Scheme Elucidator, which is for internal documentation of Scheme programs. Although the tools...... are separate and intended for different documentation purposes they are related to each other in several ways. Both tools are based on XML languages for tool setup and for documentation authoring. In addition, both tools rely on the LAML framework which---in a systematic way---makes an XML language available...

  17. Improved EPRCA Congestion Control Scheme for ATM Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. M.Sreenivasulu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Traffic management and congestion control are major issues in Asynchronous Transfer Mode(ATM networks. Congestion arises when traffic in the network is more than offered load. The primary function of congestion control is to ensure good throughput and low delay performance while maintaining a fair allocation of network resources to users. In this paper, Enhanced Proportional Rate based Congestion Avoidance (EPRCA scheme proposed by ATM forum has been considered. But this scheme has limitation of higher cell drop problem for the bursty traffic. Improvements to EPRCA scheme have been proposed to reduce cell drop problem and results of improved EPRCA schemes were analyzed with basic EPRCA scheme.

  18. Comparison of batch and continuous multi-column protein A capture processes by optimal design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baur, Daniel; Angarita, Monica; Müller-Späth, Thomas; Steinebach, Fabian; Morbidelli, Massimo

    2016-07-01

    Multi-column capture processes show several advantages compared to batch capture. It is however not evident how many columns one should use exactly. To investigate this issue, twin-column CaptureSMB, 3- and 4-column periodic counter-current chromatography (PCC) and single column batch capture are numerically optimized and compared in terms of process performance for capturing a monoclonal antibody using protein A chromatography. Optimization is carried out with respect to productivity and capacity utilization (amount of product loaded per cycle compared to the maximum amount possible), while keeping yield and purity constant. For a wide range of process parameters, all three multi-column processes show similar maximum capacity utilization and performed significantly better than batch. When maximizing productivity, the CaptureSMB process shows optimal performance, except at high feed titers, where batch chromatography can reach higher productivity values than the multi-column processes due to the complete decoupling of the loading and elution steps, albeit at a large cost in terms of capacity utilization. In terms of trade-off, i.e. how much the capacity utilization decreases with increasing productivity, CaptureSMB is optimal for low and high feed titers, whereas the 3-column process is optimal in an intermediate region. Using these findings, the most suitable process can be chosen for different production scenarios. PMID:26992151

  19. Convertible Proxy Signcryption Scheme

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李继国; 李建中; 曹珍富; 张亦辰

    2004-01-01

    In 1996, Mambo et al introduced the concept of proxy signature. However, proxy signature can only provide the delegated authenticity and cannot provide confidentiality. Recently, Gamage et al and Chan and Wei proposed different proxy signcryption schemes respectively, which extended the concept of proxy signature.However, only the specified receiver can decrypt and verify the validity of proxy signcryption in their schemes.To protect the receiver' s benefit in case of a later dispute, Wu and Hsu proposed a convertible authenticated encryption scheme, which carn enable the receiver to convert signature into an ordinary one that can be verified by anyone. Based on Wu and Hsu' s scheme and improved Kim' s scheme, we propose a convertible proxy signcryption scheme. The security of the proposed scheme is based on the intractability of reversing the one-way hash function and solving the discrete logarithm problem. The proposed scheme can satisfy all properties of strong proxy signature and withstand the public key substitution attack and does not use secure channel. In addition, the proposed scheme can be extended to convertible threshold proxy signcryption scheme.

  20. Batching alternatives for Phase I retrieval wastes to be processed in WRAP Module 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mayancsik, B.A. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States)

    1994-10-13

    During the next two decades, the transuranic (TRU) waste now stored in the 200 Area burial trenches and storage buildings is to be retrieved, processed in the Waste Receiving and Processing (WRAP) Module 1 facility, and shipped to a final disposal facility. The purpose of this document is to identify the criteria that can be used to batch suspect TRU waste, currently in retrievable storage, for processing through the WRAP Module 1 facility. These criteria are then used to generate a batch plan for Phase 1 Retrieval operations, which will retrieve the waste located in Trench 4C-04 of the 200 West Area burial ground. The reasons for batching wastes for processing in WRAP Module 1 include reducing the exposure of workers and the environment to hazardous material and ionizing radiation; maximizing the efficiency of the retrieval, processing, and disposal processes by reducing costs, time, and space throughout the process; reducing analytical sampling and analysis; and reducing the amount of cleanup and decontamination between process runs. The criteria selected for batching the drums of retrieved waste entering WRAP Module 1 are based on the available records for the wastes sent to storage as well as knowledge of the processes that generated these wastes. The batching criteria identified in this document include the following: waste generator; type of process used to generate or package the waste; physical waste form; content of hazardous/dangerous chemicals in the waste; radiochemical type and quantity of waste; drum weight; and special waste types. These criteria were applied to the waste drums currently stored in Trench 4C-04. At least one batching scheme is shown for each of the criteria listed above.

  1. Batching alternatives for Phase I retrieval wastes to be processed in WRAP Module 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During the next two decades, the transuranic (TRU) waste now stored in the 200 Area burial trenches and storage buildings is to be retrieved, processed in the Waste Receiving and Processing (WRAP) Module 1 facility, and shipped to a final disposal facility. The purpose of this document is to identify the criteria that can be used to batch suspect TRU waste, currently in retrievable storage, for processing through the WRAP Module 1 facility. These criteria are then used to generate a batch plan for Phase 1 Retrieval operations, which will retrieve the waste located in Trench 4C-04 of the 200 West Area burial ground. The reasons for batching wastes for processing in WRAP Module 1 include reducing the exposure of workers and the environment to hazardous material and ionizing radiation; maximizing the efficiency of the retrieval, processing, and disposal processes by reducing costs, time, and space throughout the process; reducing analytical sampling and analysis; and reducing the amount of cleanup and decontamination between process runs. The criteria selected for batching the drums of retrieved waste entering WRAP Module 1 are based on the available records for the wastes sent to storage as well as knowledge of the processes that generated these wastes. The batching criteria identified in this document include the following: waste generator; type of process used to generate or package the waste; physical waste form; content of hazardous/dangerous chemicals in the waste; radiochemical type and quantity of waste; drum weight; and special waste types. These criteria were applied to the waste drums currently stored in Trench 4C-04. At least one batching scheme is shown for each of the criteria listed above

  2. SLUDGE BATCH 7B GLASS VARIABILITY STUDY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, F.; Edwards, T.

    2011-10-25

    The Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) is preparing to initiate processing Sludge Batch 7b (SB7b). In support of the upcoming processing, the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) provided a recommendation to utilize Frits 418 with a 6% Na{sub 2}O addition (26 wt% Na{sub 2}O in sludge) and 702 with a 4% Na{sub 2}O addition (24 wt% Na{sub 2}O in sludge) to process SB7b. This recommendation was based on assessments of the compositional projections for SB7b available at the time from the Savannah River Remediation (SRR). To support qualification of SB7b, SRNL executed a variability study to assess the applicability of the current durability models for SB7b. The durability models were assessed over the expected composition range of SB7b, including potential caustic additions, combined with Frits 702 and 418 over a 32-40% waste loading (WL) range. Thirty four glasses were selected based on Frits 418 and 702 coupled with the sludge projections with an additional 4-6% Na{sub 2}O to reflect the potential caustic addition. Six of these glasses, based on average nominal sludge compositions including the appropriate caustic addition, were developed for both Frit 418 and Frit 702 at 32, 36 and 40% WL to provide coverage in the center of the anticipated SB7b glass region. All glasses were fabricated and characterized using chemical composition analysis, X-ray diffraction (XRD) and the Product Consistency Test (PCT). To comply with the DWPF Glass Product Control Program, a total of thirty four glasses were fabricated to assess the applicability of the current DWPF PCCS durability models. Based on the measured PCT response, all of the glasses were acceptable with respect to the Environmental Assessment (EA) benchmark glass regardless of thermal history. The NL[B] values of the SB7b variability study glasses were less than 1.99 g/L as compared to 16.695 g/L for EA. A small number of the D-optimally selected 'outer layer' extreme vertices (EV) glasses were not

  3. SLUDGE BATCH VARIABILITY STUDY WITH FRIT 418

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, F.; Edwards, T.

    2010-11-29

    The Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) initiated processing Sludge Batch 6 (SB6) in the summer of 2010. In support of processing, the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) provided a recommendation to utilize Frit 418 to process SB6. This recommendation was based on assessments of the compositional projections for SB6 available at the time from the Liquid Waste Organization (LWO) and SRNL (using a model-based approach). To support qualification of SB6, SRNL executed a variability study to assess the applicability of the current durability models for SB6. The durability models were assessed over the expected Frit 418-SB6 composition range. Seventeen glasses were selected for the variability study based on the sludge projections used in the frit recommendation. Five of the glasses are based on the centroid of the compositional region, spanning a waste loading (WL) range of 32 to 40%. The remaining twelve glasses are extreme vertices (EVs) of the sludge region of interest for SB6 combined with Frit 418 and are all at 36% WL. These glasses were fabricated and characterized using chemical composition analysis, X-ray diffraction (XRD) and the Product Consistency Test (PCT). After initiating the SB6 variability study, the measured composition of the SB6 Tank 51 qualification glass produced at the SRNL Shielded Cells Facility indicated that thorium was present in the glass at an appreciable concentration (1.03 wt%), which made it a reportable element for SB6. This concentration of ThO{sub 2} resulted in a second phase of experimental studies. Five glasses were formulated that were based on the centroid of the new sludge compositional region combined with Frit 418, spanning a WL range of 32 to 40%. These glasses were fabricated and characterized using chemical composition analysis and the PCT. Based on the measured PCT response, all of the glasses (with and without thorium) were acceptable with respect to the Environmental Assessment (EA) reference glass

  4. Efficacy of Aspergillus sp. for degradation of chlorpyrifos in batch and continuous aerated packed bed bioreactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Maya; Srivastva, Navnita; Shukla, Awadhesh Kumar; Singh, Ram Sharan; Upadhyay, Siddh Nath; Dubey, Suresh Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Aerobic biodegradation of chlorpyrifos (CP) by Aspergillus sp. was investigated in batch and continuous packed bed bioreactors. The optimal process parameters for achieving the maximum removal efficiency (RE), determined using a batch bioreactor packed with polyurethane foam pieces, were inoculum level: 2.5 mg (wet weight) mL(-1), pH 7.0, temperature 28 °C, DO 5.8 mg L(-1), and CP concentration 300 mg L(-1). The continuous packed bed bioreactor was operated at flow rates ranging from 10 to 40 mL h(-1) while keeping other parameters at their optimal level. Steady-state CP removal efficiencies greater than 85 % were obtained up to the inlet loading of 180 mg L(-1) d(-1). The continuous bioreactor behaved as a plug flow unit and was able to stabilize quickly after perturbation in the inlet loading.

  5. Autonomous Droop Scheme With Reduced Generation Cost

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nutkani, Inam Ullah; Loh, Poh Chiang; Wang, Peng;

    2014-01-01

    Droop schemes have traditionally been applied to the control of parallel synchronous generators in power systems. It has subsequently been brought over to the control of distributed generators (DGs) in microgrids with the same retained objective of proportional power sharing based on ratings....... This objective might, however, not suit microgrids well since DGs are usually of different types, unlike synchronous generators. Other factors like cost, efficiency, and emission penalty of each DG at different loading must be considered since they contribute directly to the total generation cost (TGC......) of the microgrid. To reduce this TGC without relying on fast communication links, an autonomous droop scheme is proposed here, whose resulting power sharing is decided by the individual DG generation costs. Comparing it with the traditional scheme, the proposed scheme retains its simplicity and it is hence more...

  6. Stateless Transitive Signature Schemes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MA Chun-guang; CAI Man-chun; YANG Yi-xian

    2004-01-01

    A new practical method is introduced to transform the stateful transitive signature scheme to stateless one without the loss of security. According to the approach, two concrete stateless transitive signature schemes based on Factoring and RSA are presented respectively. Under the assumption of the hardness of factoring and one-more- RSA-inversion problem, both two schemes are secure under the adaptive chosen-message attacks in random oracle model.

  7. Batch process. Optimum designing and operation of a batch process; Bacchi purosesu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hasebe, S. [Kyoto Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1997-09-05

    Since the control of a batch process becomes dynamic, it becomes necessary to handle the process differently from a continuous process in terms of the designing, operating and controlling of the process. This paper describes the characteristics and the problems to be solved of a batch process from three points of view, the designing, operation and controlling of the process. A major problem of a batch process is the designing difficulty. In a batch process, the amount of products capable of being manufactured per unit time by each apparatus and that by the whole plant structured by combining apparatuses are different, and therefore the time and apparatus capacity are wasted in some cases. The actual designing of a batch process involves various factors, such as the seasonal fluctuation of demand for products, the possibility of expanding the apparatuses in the future and the easiness of controlling the process, and the shipment of products during consecutive holidays and periodic maintenance, which are not included in the formulation of mathematical programming problems. Regarding the optimum operation of a batch process and the controlling of the same, descriptions of forming of a dynamic optimum operation pattern and verification of the sequence control system are given. 9 refs., 4 figs.

  8. Batch and fed-batch production of butyric acid by Clostridium butyricum ZJUCB

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HE Guo-qing; KONG Qing; CHEN Qi-he; RUAN Hui

    2005-01-01

    The production of butyric acid by Clostridium butyricum ZJUCB at various pH values was investigated. In order to study the effect of pH on cell growth, butyric acid biosynthesis and reducing sugar consumption, different cultivation pH values ranging from 6.0 to 7.5 were evaluated in 5-L bioreactor. In controlled pH batch fermentation, the optimum pH for cell growth and butyric acid production was 6.5 with a cell yield of 3.65 g/L and butyric acid yield of 12.25 g/L. Based on these results, this study then compared batch and fed-batch fermentation of butyric acid production at pH 6.5. Maximum value (16.74 g/L) of butyric acid concentration was obtained in fed-batch fermentation compared to 12.25 g/L in batch fermentation. It was concluded that cultivation under fed-batch fermentation mode could enhance butyric acid production significantly (P<0.01) by C. butyricum ZJUCB.

  9. ARSENATE BIOSORPTION BY IRON-MODIFIED PINE SAWDUST IN BATCH SYSTEMS: KINETICS AND EQUILIBRIUM STUDIES

    OpenAIRE

    María Aranzazú López-Leal,; Raúl Cortés-Martínez; Ruth Alfaro-Cuevas-Villanueva,; Héctor Eduardo Martínez-Flores; , Consuelo De Jesús Cortés-Penagos

    2012-01-01

    The biosorption of As(V) from aqueous solutions by pine sawdust chemically modified with iron in batch systems was investigated. The loading process of Fe in this biomaterial was achieved by hydrolysis of two different ferric salts. This modification of sawdust is an attempt to improve As(V) biosorption for practical applications. The kinetics and maximum biosorption capacities of the unmodified and modified pine sawdust were evaluated. It was found that the pseudo-second order model describe...

  10. Experimental Verification of Dynamic Operation of Continuous and Multivessel Batch Distillation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wittgens, Bernd

    1999-07-01

    This thesis presents a rigorous model based on first principles for dynamic simulation of the composition dynamics of a staged high-purity continuous distillation columns and experiments performed to verify it. The thesis also demonstrates the importance of tray hydraulics to obtain good agreement between simulation and experiment and derives analytic expressions for dynamic time constants for use in simplified and vapour dynamics. A newly developed multivessel batch distillation column consisting of a reboiler, intermediate vessels and a condenser vessel provides a generalization of previously proposed batch distillation schemes. The total reflux operation of this column was presented previously and the present thesis proposes a simple feedback control strategy for its operation based on temperature measurements. The feasibility of this strategy is demonstrated by simulations and verified by laboratory experiments. It is concluded that the multivessel column can be easily operated with simple temperature controllers, where the holdups are only controlled indirectly. For a given set of temperature setpoints, the final product compositions are independent of the initial feed composition. When the multivessel batch distillation column is compared to a conventional batch column, both operated under feedback control, it is found that the energy required to separate a multicomponent mixture into highly pure products is much less for the multivessel system. This system is also the simplest one to operate.

  11. Using Forensics to Untangle Batch Effects in TCGA Data - TCGA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehan Akbani, Ph.D., and colleagues at the University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center developed a tool called MBatch to detect, diagnose, and correct batch effects in TCGA data. Read more about batch effects in this Case Study.

  12. Optimal operation of batch membrane processes

    CERN Document Server

    Paulen, Radoslav

    2016-01-01

    This study concentrates on a general optimization of a particular class of membrane separation processes: those involving batch diafiltration. Existing practices are explained and operational improvements based on optimal control theory are suggested. The first part of the book introduces the theory of membrane processes, optimal control and dynamic optimization. Separation problems are defined and mathematical models of batch membrane processes derived. The control theory focuses on problems of dynamic optimization from a chemical-engineering point of view. Analytical and numerical methods that can be exploited to treat problems of optimal control for membrane processes are described. The second part of the text builds on this theoretical basis to establish solutions for membrane models of increasing complexity. Each chapter starts with a derivation of optimal operation and continues with case studies exemplifying various aspects of the control problems under consideration. The authors work their way from th...

  13. Process Modeling for Batch Cooling Crystallization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The general mathematical model for batch cooling crystallization was established based on the popula tion balance equation considering the change of slurry volume, and simulated with crystallization thermodynamics, kinetics and mass balance employing bed voidage. In the system of vitamin C-water-ethanol, reliability of this model was verified by comparison between simulation results and experimental data. The effects of operation parameters on product quality can be systematically investigated by modeling simulation.

  14. Process Modeling for Batch Cooling Crystallization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈慧萍; 王静康

    2001-01-01

    The general mathematical model for batch cooling crystallization was established based on the population balance equation considering the change of slurry volume, and simulated with crystallization thermodynamics,kinetics and mass balance employing bed voidage. In the system of vitamin C-water-ethanol, reliability of this model was verified by comparison between simulation results and experimental data. The effects of operation parameters on product quality can be systematically investigated by modeling simulation.

  15. SULFATE SOLUBILITY LIMIT VERIFICATION FOR DWPF SLUDGE BATCH 7A

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Billings, A.

    2011-04-19

    During processing at the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF), high sulfate concentrations in the feed are a concern to DWPF as it can lead to the formation of a detrimental, sulfate-rich, molten salt phase on the surface of the glass melt pool. To avoid these issues, a sulfate concentration limit was implemented into the Product Composition Control System (PCCS). Related to SB7a frit development efforts, the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) assessed the viability of using the current 0.6 wt % SO{sub 4}{sup 2-} limit set for SB6 (in glass) and the possibility of increasing the SO{sub 4}{sup 2-} solubility limit in PCCS to account for anticipated sulfur concentrations, targeted waste loadings, and inclusion of secondary streams (e.g., Actinide Removal Process (ARP)) with two recommended frits (Frit 418 and Frit 702) for SB7a processing. For a nominal SB7a blend with a 63 inch SB6 heel remaining in Tank 40 (projection SB7a-63), a 0.60 wt% SO{sub 4}{sup 2-} in glass limit was determined for waste loadings of 34 wt% up to 40 wt% with Frit 418 based on crucible melts with batched chemicals. SRNL also examined the inclusion of ARP for the same blending scenario (SB7a-63-ARP) with Frit 418 and at least a 0.6 wt% SO{sub 4}{sup 2-} level, and waste loadings of 34 wt% to 40 wt% were also acceptable. When a visible yellow and/or white sulfate salt layer was visible on the surface of any cooled glass, it was assumed to have surpassed the solubility limit of SO{sub 4}{sup 2-} for that particular composition. All of the glasses fabricated at these concentrations did not exhibit a sulfate rich salt layer on the surface of the glass melt and retained the majority of the batched SO{sub 4}{sup 2-}. At higher levels of SO{sub 4}{sup 2-} 'spiked' into the projected sludge compositions over the aforementioned interval of waste loadings, with Frit 418, low viscosity sulfur layers were observed on the surface of glass melts which confirm exceeding the solubility

  16. Multiresolution signal decomposition schemes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goutsias, J.; Heijmans, H.J.A.M.

    1998-01-01

    [PNA-R9810] Interest in multiresolution techniques for signal processing and analysis is increasing steadily. An important instance of such a technique is the so-called pyramid decomposition scheme. This report proposes a general axiomatic pyramid decomposition scheme for signal analysis and synthes

  17. Load Measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kock, Carsten Weber; Vesth, Allan

    The report describes Load measurements carried out on a given wind turbine. The aim of the measurement program regarding the loads on the turbine is to verify the basic characteristics of the wind turbine and loads on the blades, the rotor and the tower, using [Ref 1], [Ref2] and [Ref 3]. Regarding...... the fatigue loads, the rotor, blades and tower moments are presented. The fatigue loads are evaluated using rainflow counting described in detail in Ref. [1]. The 1Hz equivalent load ranges are calculated at different wind speeds. All information regarding the instrumentation is collected in [ref 4] and [ref...

  18. 40 CFR 63.1321 - Batch process vents provisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 11 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Batch process vents provisions. 63.1321... Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutant Emissions: Group IV Polymers and Resins § 63.1321 Batch process vents provisions. (a) Batch process vents. Except as specified in paragraphs (b) through (d) of this...

  19. Succesful labelling schemes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juhl, Hans Jørn; Stacey, Julia

    2001-01-01

    labelling schemes. Mass communication such as TV commercials will have very different impact on each of the four segments. It might be possible to increase the knowledge of 'the labelling blind' from 52% to 75%, but the use of the label would only rise from 16% to 18%. The awareness percentage of 'the...... to carry out a campaign targeted at this segment. The awareness percentage is already 92 % and 67% of the respondents believe they know the meaning of the scheme. But it stands to reason to study whether the respondents actually know what the labelling scheme stands for or if they just think they do....... If there is discrepancy between their perceptions of the contents of the schemes, this might be the reason why the scheme is not observed when they shop....

  20. Monitoring and robust adaptive control of fed-batch cultures of microorganisms exhibiting overflow metabolism [abstract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vande Wouwer, A.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Overflow metabolism characterizes cells strains that are likely to produce inhibiting by-products resulting from an excess of substrate feeding and a saturated respiratory capacity. The critical substrate level separating the two different metabolic pathways is generally not well defined. Monitoring of this kind of cultures, going from model identification to state estimation, is first discussed. Then, a review of control techniques which all aim at maximizing the cell productivity of fed-batch fermentations is presented. Two main adaptive control strategies, one using an estimation of the critical substrate level as set-point and another regulating the by-product concentration, are proposed. Finally, experimental investigations of an adaptive RST control scheme using the observer polynomial for the regulation of the ethanol concentration in Saccharomyces cerevisiae fed-batch cultures ranging from laboratory to industrial scales, are also presented.

  1. A predictive and feedback control algorithm maintains a constant glucose concentration in fed-batch fermentations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleman, G L; Chalmers, J J; Luli, G W; Strohl, W R

    1991-04-01

    A combined predictive and feedback control algorithm based on measurements of the concentration of glucose on-line has been developed to control fed-batch fermentations of Escherichia coli. The predictive control algorithm was based on the on-line calculation of glucose demand by the culture and plotting a linear regression to the next datum point to obtain a predicted glucose demand. This provided a predictive "coarse" control for the glucose-based nutrient feed. A direct feedback control using a proportional controller, based on glucose measurements every 2 min, fine-tuned the feed rate. These combined control schemes were used to maintain glucose concentrations in fed-batch fermentations as tight as 0.49 +/- 0.04 g/liter during growth of E. coli to high cell densities. PMID:2059049

  2. Semiautomated, Reproducible Batch Processing of Soy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thoerne, Mary; Byford, Ivan W.; Chastain, Jack W.; Swango, Beverly E.

    2005-01-01

    A computer-controlled apparatus processes batches of soybeans into one or more of a variety of food products, under conditions that can be chosen by the user and reproduced from batch to batch. Examples of products include soy milk, tofu, okara (an insoluble protein and fiber byproduct of soy milk), and whey. Most processing steps take place without intervention by the user. This apparatus was developed for use in research on processing of soy. It is also a prototype of other soy-processing apparatuses for research, industrial, and home use. Prior soy-processing equipment includes household devices that automatically produce soy milk but do not automatically produce tofu. The designs of prior soy-processing equipment require users to manually transfer intermediate solid soy products and to press them manually and, hence, under conditions that are not consistent from batch to batch. Prior designs do not afford choices of processing conditions: Users cannot use previously developed soy-processing equipment to investigate the effects of variations of techniques used to produce soy milk (e.g., cold grinding, hot grinding, and pre-cook blanching) and of such process parameters as cooking times and temperatures, grinding times, soaking times and temperatures, rinsing conditions, and sizes of particles generated by grinding. In contrast, the present apparatus is amenable to such investigations. The apparatus (see figure) includes a processing tank and a jacketed holding or coagulation tank. The processing tank can be capped by either of two different heads and can contain either of two different insertable mesh baskets. The first head includes a grinding blade and heating elements. The second head includes an automated press piston. One mesh basket, designated the okara basket, has oblong holes with a size equivalent to about 40 mesh [40 openings per inch (.16 openings per centimeter)]. The second mesh basket, designated the tofu basket, has holes of 70 mesh [70 openings

  3. Batch Model for Batched Timestamps Data Analysis with Application to the SSA Disability Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, Qingqi; Yuan, Ao; Che, Xuan; Huynh, Minh; Zhou, Chunxiao

    2016-01-01

    The Office of Disability Adjudication and Review (ODAR) is responsible for holding hearings, issuing decisions, and reviewing appeals as part of the Social Security Administration’s disability determining process. In order to control and process cases, the ODAR has established a Case Processing and Management System (CPMS) to record management information since December 2003. The CPMS provides a detailed case status history for each case. Due to the large number of appeal requests and limited resources, the number of pending claims at ODAR was over one million cases by March 31, 2015. Our National Institutes of Health (NIH) team collaborated with SSA and developed a Case Status Change Model (CSCM) project to meet the ODAR’s urgent need of reducing backlogs and improve hearings and appeals process. One of the key issues in our CSCM project is to estimate the expected service time and its variation for each case status code. The challenge is that the systems recorded job departure times may not be the true job finished times. As the CPMS timestamps data of case status codes showed apparent batch patterns, we proposed a batch model and applied the constrained least squares method to estimate the mean service times and the variances. We also proposed a batch search algorithm to determine the optimal batch partition, as no batch partition was given in the real data. Simulation studies were conducted to evaluate the performance of the proposed methods. Finally, we applied the method to analyze a real CPMS data from ODAR/SSA.

  4. BATCH-GE: Batch analysis of Next-Generation Sequencing data for genome editing assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boel, Annekatrien; Steyaert, Woutert; De Rocker, Nina; Menten, Björn; Callewaert, Bert; De Paepe, Anne; Coucke, Paul; Willaert, Andy

    2016-01-01

    Targeted mutagenesis by the CRISPR/Cas9 system is currently revolutionizing genetics. The ease of this technique has enabled genome engineering in-vitro and in a range of model organisms and has pushed experimental dimensions to unprecedented proportions. Due to its tremendous progress in terms of speed, read length, throughput and cost, Next-Generation Sequencing (NGS) has been increasingly used for the analysis of CRISPR/Cas9 genome editing experiments. However, the current tools for genome editing assessment lack flexibility and fall short in the analysis of large amounts of NGS data. Therefore, we designed BATCH-GE, an easy-to-use bioinformatics tool for batch analysis of NGS-generated genome editing data, available from https://github.com/WouterSteyaert/BATCH-GE.git. BATCH-GE detects and reports indel mutations and other precise genome editing events and calculates the corresponding mutagenesis efficiencies for a large number of samples in parallel. Furthermore, this new tool provides flexibility by allowing the user to adapt a number of input variables. The performance of BATCH-GE was evaluated in two genome editing experiments, aiming to generate knock-out and knock-in zebrafish mutants. This tool will not only contribute to the evaluation of CRISPR/Cas9-based experiments, but will be of use in any genome editing experiment and has the ability to analyze data from every organism with a sequenced genome. PMID:27461955

  5. BATCH-GE: Batch analysis of Next-Generation Sequencing data for genome editing assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boel, Annekatrien; Steyaert, Woutert; De Rocker, Nina; Menten, Björn; Callewaert, Bert; De Paepe, Anne; Coucke, Paul; Willaert, Andy

    2016-01-01

    Targeted mutagenesis by the CRISPR/Cas9 system is currently revolutionizing genetics. The ease of this technique has enabled genome engineering in-vitro and in a range of model organisms and has pushed experimental dimensions to unprecedented proportions. Due to its tremendous progress in terms of speed, read length, throughput and cost, Next-Generation Sequencing (NGS) has been increasingly used for the analysis of CRISPR/Cas9 genome editing experiments. However, the current tools for genome editing assessment lack flexibility and fall short in the analysis of large amounts of NGS data. Therefore, we designed BATCH-GE, an easy-to-use bioinformatics tool for batch analysis of NGS-generated genome editing data, available from https://github.com/WouterSteyaert/BATCH-GE.git. BATCH-GE detects and reports indel mutations and other precise genome editing events and calculates the corresponding mutagenesis efficiencies for a large number of samples in parallel. Furthermore, this new tool provides flexibility by allowing the user to adapt a number of input variables. The performance of BATCH-GE was evaluated in two genome editing experiments, aiming to generate knock-out and knock-in zebrafish mutants. This tool will not only contribute to the evaluation of CRISPR/Cas9-based experiments, but will be of use in any genome editing experiment and has the ability to analyze data from every organism with a sequenced genome. PMID:27461955

  6. Load Measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vesth, Allan; Kock, Carsten Weber

    The report describes Load measurements carried out on a given wind turbine. The aim of the measurement program regarding the loads on the turbine is to verify the basic characteristics of the wind turbine and loads on the blades, the rotor and the tower, using [Ref 1], [Ref2] and [Ref 3]. Regardi...

  7. Load Measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kock, Carsten Weber; Vesth, Allan

    The report describes Load measurements carried out on a given wind turbine. The aim of the measurement program regarding the loads on the turbine is to verify the basic characteristics of the wind turbine and loads on the blades, the rotor and the tower, using [Ref 1], [Ref2] and [Ref 3]. Regarding...

  8. A Fuzzy Commitment Scheme

    CERN Document Server

    Al-saggaf, Alawi A

    2008-01-01

    This paper attempt has been made to explain a fuzzy commitment scheme. In the conventional Commitment schemes, both committed string m and valid opening key are required to enable the sender to prove the commitment. However there could be many instances where the transmission involves noise or minor errors arising purely because of the factors over which neither the sender nor the receiver have any control. The fuzzy commitment scheme presented in this paper is to accept the opening key that is close to the original one in suitable distance metric, but not necessarily identical. The concept itself is illustrated with the help of simple situation.

  9. Production of ethanol in batch and fed-batch fermentation of soluble sugar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keeping in view of the demand and need for alternate energy source, especially liquid fuels and the availability of raw materials in Pakistan, we have carried out biochemical and technological studies for ethanol through fermentation of renewable substrates. Molasses and sugar cane have been used as substrate for yeast fermentation. Selected yeast were used in both batch and semi continuous fermentation of molasses. Clarified dilute molasses were fermented with different strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Ethanol concentration after 64 hours batch fermentation reached 9.4% with 90% yield based on sugar content. During feed batch system similar results were obtained after a fermentation cycle of 48 hours resulting in higher productivity. Similarly carbohydrates in fruit juices and hydro lysates of biomass can be economically fermented to ethanol to be used as feed stock for other chemicals. (author)

  10. CONVERSION OF PINEAPPLE JUICE WASTE INTO LACTIC ACID IN BATCH AND FED – BATCH FERMENTATION SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah Mochamad Busairi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Pineapple juice waste contains valuable components, which are mainly sucrose, glucose, and fructose. Recently, lactic acid has been considered to be an important raw material for the production of biodegradable lactide polymer. The fermentation experiments were carried out in a 3 litres fermentor (Biostat B Model under anaerobic condition with stirring speed of 50 rpm, temperature at 40oC, and pH of 6.00. Effect of feed concentration on lactic acid production, bacterial growth, substrate utilisation and productivity was studied. The results obtained from fed- batch culture fermentation showed that the maximum lactic acid productivity was 0.44 g/L.h for feed concentration of 90 g/L at 48 hours. Whereas the lactic acid productivity obtained from fed-batch culture was twice and half fold higher than that of batch culture productivity.  Buangan jus nanas mengandung komponen yang berharga terutama sukrosa, glukosa, dan fruktosa. Asam laktat adalah bahan baku yang terbaru dan penting untuk dibuat sebagai polimer laktat yang dapat terdegradasi oleh lingkungan. Percobaan dilakukan pada fermentor 3 liter (Model Biostat B di bawah kondisi anaerob dengan kecepatan pengadukan 50 rpm, temperatur 40oC, dan pH 6,00. Pengaruh konsentrasi umpan terhadap produksi asam laktat, pertumbuhan mikroba, pengggunaan substrat dan produktivitas telah dipelajari. Hasil yang didapatkan pada fermentasi dengan menggunakan sistem fed-batch menunjukkan bahwa produktivitas asam laktat maksimum adalah 0.44 g/L,jam dengan konsentrasi umpan, 90 g/L pada waktu 48 jam. Bahkan produktivitas asam laktat yang didapat pada kultur fed-batch lebih tinggi 2,5 kali dari pada proses menggunakan sistem batch

  11. Sojourn time distributions in a Markovian G-queue with batch arrival and batch removal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Woo Shin

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available We consider a single server Markovian queue with two types of customers; positive and negative, where positive customers arrive in batches and arrivals of negative customers remove positive customers in batches. Only positive customers form a queue and negative customers just reduce the system congestion by removing positive ones upon their arrivals. We derive the LSTs of sojourn time distributions for a single server Markovian queue with positive customers and negative customers by using the first passage time arguments for Markov chains.

  12. Tabled Execution in Scheme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Willcock, J J; Lumsdaine, A; Quinlan, D J

    2008-08-19

    Tabled execution is a generalization of memorization developed by the logic programming community. It not only saves results from tabled predicates, but also stores the set of currently active calls to them; tabled execution can thus provide meaningful semantics for programs that seemingly contain infinite recursions with the same arguments. In logic programming, tabled execution is used for many purposes, both for improving the efficiency of programs, and making tasks simpler and more direct to express than with normal logic programs. However, tabled execution is only infrequently applied in mainstream functional languages such as Scheme. We demonstrate an elegant implementation of tabled execution in Scheme, using a mix of continuation-passing style and mutable data. We also show the use of tabled execution in Scheme for a problem in formal language and automata theory, demonstrating that tabled execution can be a valuable tool for Scheme users.

  13. Scheme of energy utilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This scheme defines the objectives relative to the renewable energies and the rational use of the energy in the framework of the national energy policy. It evaluates the needs and the potentialities of the regions and preconizes the actions between the government and the territorial organizations. The document is presented in four parts: the situation, the stakes and forecasts; the possible actions for new measures; the scheme management and the regional contributions analysis. (A.L.B.)

  14. Parallel-Batch Scheduling with Two Models of Deterioration to Minimize the Makespan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cuixia Miao

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We consider the bounded parallel-batch scheduling with two models of deterioration, in which the processing time of the first model is pj=aj+αt and of the second model is pj=a+αjt. The objective is to minimize the makespan. We present O(n log n time algorithms for the single-machine problems, respectively. And we propose fully polynomial time approximation schemes to solve the identical-parallel-machine problem and uniform-parallel-machine problem, respectively.

  15. Robustness of reinforced gradient-type iterative learning control for batch processes with Gaussian noise☆

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xuan Yang; Xiao'e Ruan

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, a reinforced gradient-type iterative learning control profile is proposed by making use of system matrices and a proper learning step to improve the tracking performance of batch processes disturbed by exter-nal Gaussian white noise. The robustness is analyzed and the range of the step is specified by means of statistical technique and matrix theory. Compared with the conventional one, the proposed algorithm is more efficient to resist external noise. Numerical simulations of an injection molding process il ustrate that the proposed scheme is feasible and effective.

  16. Adaptive load shedding and regional protection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ford, J.J.; Ledwich, G. [School of Engineering Systems, Queensland University of Technology, Brisbane, Qld 4001 (Australia); Bevrani, H. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Kurdistan Sanandaj, Kurdistan (Iran)

    2009-11-15

    The requirement for improved efficiency whilst maintaining system security necessitates the development of improved system analysis approaches and the development of advanced emergency control technologies. Load shedding is a type of emergency control that is designed to ensure system stability by curtailing system load to match generation supply. This paper presents a new adaptive load shedding scheme that provides emergency protection against excess frequency decline, whilst minimizing the risk of line overloading. The proposed load shedding scheme uses the local frequency rate information to adapt the load shedding behaviour to suit the size and location of the experienced disturbance. The proposed scheme is tested in simulation on a 3-region, 10-generator sample system and shows good performance. (author)

  17. Indirect visual cryptography scheme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiubo; Li, Tuo; Shi, Yishi

    2015-10-01

    Visual cryptography (VC), a new cryptographic scheme for image. Here in encryption, image with message is encoded to be N sub-images and any K sub-images can decode the message in a special rules (N>=2, 2images are printed on transparency and stacked exactly, the message of original image will be decrypted by human visual system, but any K-1 of them get no information about it. This cryptographic scheme can decode concealed images without any cryptographic computations, and it has high security. But this scheme lacks of hidden because of obvious feature of sub-images. In this paper, we introduce indirect visual cryptography scheme (IVCS), which encodes sub-images to be pure phase images without visible strength based on encoding of visual cryptography. The pure phase image is final ciphertexts. Indirect visual cryptography scheme not only inherits the merits of visual cryptography, but also raises indirection, hidden and security. Meanwhile, the accuracy alignment is not required any more, which leads to the strong anti-interference capacity and robust in this scheme. System of decryption can be integrated highly and operated conveniently, and its process of decryption is dynamic and fast, which all lead to the good potentials in practices.

  18. Ethanol production potential from fermented rice noodle wastewater treatment using entrapped yeast cell sequencing batch reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siripattanakul-Ratpukdi, Sumana

    2012-03-01

    Fermented rice noodle production generates a large volume of starch-based wastewater. This study investigated the treatment of the fermented rice noodle wastewater using entrapped cell sequencing batch reactor (ECSBR) compared to traditional sequencing batch reactor (SBR). The yeast cells were applied because of their potential to convert reducing sugar in the wastewater to ethanol. In present study, preliminary treatment by acid hydrolysis was performed. A yeast culture, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, with calcium alginate cell entrapment was used. Optimum yeast cell loading in batch experiment and fermented rice noodle treatment performances using ECSBR and SBR systems were examined. In the first part, it was found that the cell loadings (0.6-2.7 × 108 cells/mL) did not play an important role in this study. Treatment reactions followed the second-order kinetics with the treatment efficiencies of 92-95%. In the second part, the result showed that ECSBR performed better than SBR in both treatment efficiency and system stability perspectives. ECSBR maintained glucose removal of 82.5 ± 10% for 5-cycle treatment while glucose removal by SBR declined from 96 to 40% within the 5-cycle treatment. Scanning electron microscopic images supported the treatment results. A number of yeast cells entrapped and attached onto the matrix grew in the entrapment matrix.

  19. Two Schemes of Blind MMSE Multiuser Receiver for Space-Time Coded CDMA Systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LU Min; XU Chang-jiang; FENG Guang-zeng

    2004-01-01

    Minimum Mean Square Error (MMSE) multiuser detection yields the highest output SINR among all linear detectors. The blind MMSE linear detector can be implemented with batch processes or sequential processes. In this paper, according to the different implementations of blind detectors, the authors analyze two schemes of the blind MMSE multiuser receiver for space-time coded CDMA Systems and make a comparison between both schemes by the theoretical analysis and numerical simulations.

  20. Durability and reutilization capabilities of a Ni-Ru catalyst for the hydrolysis of sodium borohydride in batch reactors

    OpenAIRE

    Pinto, A.M.F.R.; M.J.F. Ferreira; Fernandes, V. R.; Rangel, C. M.

    2011-01-01

    The study of catalyst durability and reutilization on catalyzed hydrolysis of sodium borohydride is essential from an application point of view. Few works on this topic are available in the literature. In the present work, a powder nickel-ruthenium based catalyst, unsupported, used in two different schemes of NaBH 4 hydrolysis (alkaline and alkali free hydrolysis), performed in batch reactors with different volumes and bottom geometries (flat and conical), was investigated in terms of durabil...

  1. Transfer of Campylobacter from a Positive Batch to Broiler Carcasses of a Subsequently Slaughtered Negative Batch: A Quantitative Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seliwiorstow, Tomasz; Baré, Julie; Van Damme, Inge; Gisbert Algaba, Ignacio; Uyttendaele, Mieke; De Zutter, Lieven

    2016-06-01

    The present study was conducted to quantify Campylobacter cross-contamination from a positive batch of broiler chicken carcasses to a negative batch at selected processing steps and to evaluate the duration of this cross-contamination. During each of nine visits conducted in three broiler slaughterhouses, Campylobacter levels were determined on broiler carcasses originating from Campylobacter-negative batches processed immediately after Campylobacter-positive batches. Data were collected after four steps during the slaughter process (scalding, plucking, evisceration, and washing) at 1, 10, and 20 min after the start of the slaughter of the batches. Campylobacter levels in ceca of birds from Campylobacter-positive batches ranged from 5.62 to 9.82 log CFU/g. When the preceding positive batch was colonized at a low level, no (enumerable) carcass contamination was found in a subsequent negative batch. However, when Campylobacter levels were high in the positive batch, Campylobacter was found on carcasses of the subsequent negative batch but at levels significantly lower than those found on carcasses from the preceding positive batch. The scalding and the evisceration process contributed the least (< 1.5 log CFU/g) and the most (up to 4 log CFU/ g), respectively, to the Campylobacter transmission from a positive batch to a negative batch. Additionally, the number of Campylobacter cells transferred from positive to negative batches decreased over the first 20 min of sampling time. However, the reduction was slower than previously estimated in risk assessment studies, suggesting that pathogen transfer during crosscontamination is a complex process.

  2. Droop Scheme With Consideration of Operating Costs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nutkani, I. U.; Loh, Poh Chiang; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2014-01-01

    Although many droop schemes have been proposed for distributed generator (DG) control in a microgrid, they mainly focus on achieving proportional power sharing based on the DG kVA ratings. Other factors like generation costs, efficiencies, and emission penalties at different loads have not been...... state will meet the intended objectives, as demonstrated in the experiment with a defined objective of minimizing the total microgrid operating cost....

  3. Application of the locally analytic differencing scheme to some test problems for the convection-diffusion equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The locally analytic differencing (LOAD) scheme of Wong and Raithby (1979) is applied to solve a variety of 1D and 2D convection-diffusion problems. The results are compared with those obtained with the exponential differencing (ED) scheme of Spalding (1972). The LOAD scheme is significantly more accurate at grid Peclet numbers 5 or greater, the errors in the solution obtained with the LOAD scheme can be one to two orders of magnitude less than the errors obtained with the ED scheme on the same grid. For a prescribed accuracy, the LOAD scheme requires far fewer grid points (computer memory) and much less computer time (cost). For 2D problems, the cross-wind (false) diffusion in the LOAD scheme is much less than in the ED scheme. The LOAD scheme is easy to implement: the discretization coefficients remain the same as in the ED scheme, and only the term corresponding to the source term receives some additional correction. This correction term is presented. Existing compter programs based on the ED scheme can be easily modified to incorporate the LOAD scheme. 18 references

  4. XTR-Kurosawa-Desmedt Scheme

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DING XIU-HUAN; FU ZHI-GUO; ZHANG SHU-GONG

    2009-01-01

    This paper proposes an XTR version of the Kurosawa-Desmedt scheme. Our scheme is secure against adaptive choeen-ciphertext attack under the XTR version of the Decisional Diffie-Hellman assumption in the standard model. Comparing efficiency between the Kurosawa-Desmedt scheme and the proposed XTR-Kurosawa-Desmedt scheme, we find that the proposed scheme is more efficient than the Kurosawa-Desmedt scheme both in communication and computation without compromising security.

  5. The UNCLE finite element scheme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A completely general finite element scheme, implemented in the UKAEA Reactor Group is outlined. UNCLE is not a complete, self-contained program. It is a framework of routines that provide the common services required by all general purpose finite element programs, whether for heat transfer, stress analysis or any other linear (or piece-wise linear) problem. These services are: input of mesh, geometry, loads (etc) and material data: matrix and load vector calculation and assembly (including handling of standard boundary conditions); solution of global matrix (elimination and conjugate gradient methods); output (printed and graphical) of initial geometry, displacements, stresses, final geometry etc; facilities for iteration for non-linear problems and time integration; mass matrix reduction, dynamic analysis of reduced problem and expansion of displacements to full problem. The framework is written to handle 1, 2, 3 or more dimensions equally efficiently. To produce a general purpose program for a particular range of applications it is only necessary to provide a set of element subroutines specialised to the application (heat transfer, framework analysis, continuum stress analysis etc)

  6. Use of phosphorus release batch tests for modelling an EBPR pilot plant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tykesson, E.; Aspegren, H.; Henze, Mogens;

    2002-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate how routinely performed phosphorus release tests could be used when modelling enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR) using activated sludge models such as ASM2d. A pilot plant with an extensive analysis programme was used as basis for the simulations....... Without any calibration the prediction of phosphorus removal was poor and the initial release rates from the simulations were not similar to those found from the laboratory tests. A period with low organic loading was chosen as a calibration period. In this period averages of daily influent measurements...... a simulated batch test and the PHA uptake rate was increased to fit this release rate with the average initial rates from laboratory batch tests performed during the period. The calibrated model was verified with data from the subsequent period where acetate was dosed....

  7. The physics scheme design for In-Hospital Neutron Irradiator-Mark 1 reactor loaded low-enrichment fuel%低浓化医院中子照射器(IHNI-1)堆芯的物理方案设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    江新标; 张文首; 高集金; 李义国; 周永茂

    2009-01-01

    采用蒙特卡罗程序MCNP/4B模拟计算了功率为30 kw的低浓化医院中子照射器的堆芯物理参数,设计了合理的堆芯布置方案、~(235)U富集度、控制棒价值、后备反应性和停堆深度,得到固有安全性较高、寿期达10年且无需换料、采用低浓化UO_2燃料的医院中子照射器的堆芯物理设计方案,为后续反应堆工程设计以及硼中子俘获治疗肿瘤用中子束的设计提供理论依据.%The core physics properties of 30 Kw In-Hospital Neutron Irradiator-Mark l(IHNI-l) reactor loaded low-enrichment fuel are simulated by using MCNP/4B Monte Carlo code. The arrangement scheme of core, ~(235)U enrichment, control rods' value, excess reactivity and shutdown margin are also reasonably introduced. The results show that the physics scheme of IHNI-1 reactor which possesses some particular characteristics, such as high inherent safety, 10 years lifetime without any refueling and low-enrichment UO_2 fuel, has been discovered in the paper and it will provide theoretic basis for reactor engineering design and neutron beam design for Boron Neutron Capture Therapy in the future.

  8. Electrostatic energy harvesting device with out-of-the-plane gap closing scheme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Fei; Hansen, Ole

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we report on an electrostatic energy harvester with an out-of-the-plane gap closing scheme. Using advanced MEMS technology, energy harvesting devices with a four wafer stack are batch fabricated and fully packaged at wafer scale. CYTOP polymer is used both as an electret material...

  9. Electrostatic energy harvesting device with out-of-the-plane gap closing scheme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Fei; Hansen, Ole

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we report on an electrostatic energy harvester with an out-of-the-plane gap closing scheme. Using advanced MEMS technology, energy harvesting devices formed by a four wafer stack are batch fabricated and fully packaged at wafer scale. A spin coated CYTOP polymer is used both...

  10. Batch-to-batch pharmacokinetic variability confounds current bioequivalence regulations: A dry powder inhaler randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burmeister Getz, E; Carroll, K J; Jones, B; Benet, L Z

    2016-09-01

    Current pharmacokinetic (PK) bioequivalence guidelines do not account for batch-to-batch variability in study design or analysis. Here we evaluate the magnitude of batch-to-batch PK variability for Advair Diskus 100/50. Single doses of fluticasone propionate and salmeterol combinations were administered by oral inhalation to healthy subjects in a randomized clinical crossover study comparing three different batches purchased from the market, with one batch replicated across two treatment periods. All pairwise comparisons between different batches failed the PK bioequivalence statistical test, demonstrating substantial PK differences between batches that were large enough to demonstrate bio-inequivalence in some cases. In contrast, between-replicate PK bioequivalence was demonstrated for the replicated batch. Between-batch variance was ∼40-70% of the estimated residual error. This large additional source of variability necessitates re-evaluation of bioequivalence assessment criteria to yield a result that is both generalizable and consistent with the principles of type I and type II error rate control. PMID:27037630

  11. Melting Properties of Loose and Granulated Glass Batch

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Jing; DENG Zhenglu; XIE Jun; CHENG Jinshu; HAN Jianjun; ZHOU Xuedong

    2014-01-01

    The physical properties, the pre-reacting performance and melting properties of the loose glass batch and the granulated glass batch were investigated, respectively. The experimental results showed that compacted glass batch could reduce dust, use ultra-fine powder, and improve heat transfer efficiency. When loose glass batch was compressed into granular, the thermal conductivity was increased from 0.273 W/m•℃to 0.430 W/m•℃, the activation energy Ea of pre-reacting decreased from 178.77 kJ/mol to 143.30 kJ/mol. Using the pre-reacted granular glass batch can significantly reduce the melting time, increase the batch melting rate, and decrease the heat consumption of 1kg molten glass from 3591.24 to 3277.03kJ/kg.

  12. Adaptive quality prediction of batch processes based on PLS model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Chun-fu; ZHANG Jie; WANG Gui-zeng

    2006-01-01

    There are usually no on-line product quality measurements in batch and semi-batch processes,which make the process control task very difficult.In this paper,a model for predicting the end-product quality from the available on-line process variables at the early stage of a batch is developed using partial least squares (PLS)method.Furthermore,some available mid-course quality measurements are used to rectify the final prediction results.To deal with the problem that the process may change with time,recursive PLS (RPLS) algorithm is used to update the model based on the new batch data and the old model parameters after each batch.An application to a simulated batch MMA polymerization process demonstrates the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  13. Microfabrication-derived DDS: From batch to individual production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takada, K

    2008-06-01

    As a result of recent advances in microfabrication technology (MFT), microparticles including microcapsules and microspheres can be prepared individually and the disadvantages of the conventional microparticles produced by batch production, i.e. (i) low loading efficiency, (ii) large size variation, and (iii) initial burst release, have been remedied. In addition, all conventional microparticles have the same structure, a spherical shape, so they have only one function, sustained release. Threelayer microcapsules (TLMCs) have been designed to address these issues. TLMCs consist of a surface layer, a drug carrying layer, and a basement layer. TLMCs have sustained release as well as adhesiveness and targeting functions. TLMCs are prepared using ink-jet printer nozzle technology. The obtained TLMCs are used for the oral delivery of peptide/protein drugs and long-term sustained-release injection preparation. In addition, self-dissolving micropiles (SDMPs) can be individually produced by MFT as a percutaneous preparation. MFT allows biopharmaceutical drugs like insulin, erythropoietin, and growth hormone to be absorbed through the skin. Thus, advances in MFT have accelerated the development of pharmaceutical technology.

  14. Pretreatment of coking wastewater using anaerobic sequencing batch reactor (ASBR)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Bing; SUN Ying-lan; LI Yu-ying

    2005-01-01

    A laboratory-scale anaerobic sequencing batch reactor (ASBR) was used to pretreat coking wastewater. Inoculated anaerobic granular biomass was acclimated for 225 d to the coking wastewater, and then the biochemical methane potential (BMP)of the coking wastewater in the acclimated granular biomass was measured. At the same time, some fundamental technological factors, such as the filling time and the reacting time ratio (tf/tr), the mixing intensity and the intermittent mixing mode, that affect anaerobic pretreatment of coking wastewater with ASBR, were evaluated through orthogonal tests. The COD removal efficiency reached 38%~50% in the stable operation period with the organic loading rate of 0.37~0.54 kg COD/(m3.d) at the optimum conditions of tf/tr, the mixing intensity and the intermittent mixing mode. In addition, the biodegradability of coking wastewater distinctly increased after the pretreatment using ASBR. At the end of the experiment, the microorganism forms on the granulated sludge in the ASBR were observed using SEM (scanning electron microscope) and fluoroscope. The results showed that the dominant microorganism on the granular sludge was Methanosaeta instead of Methanosarcina dominated on the inoculated sludge.

  15. Degradation of formaldehyde in anaerobic sequencing batch biofilm reactor (ASBBR)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pereira, N.S. [Laboratorio de Processos Biologicos (LPB), Departamento de Hidraulica e Saneamento, Escola de Engenharia de Sao Carlos (EESC), Universidade de Sao Paulo - USP, Engenharia Ambiental, Bloco 4-F, Av. Joao Dagnone, 1100 Santa Angelina, 13.563-120 Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil); Zaiat, M. [Laboratorio de Processos Biologicos (LPB), Departamento de Hidraulica e Saneamento, Escola de Engenharia de Sao Carlos (EESC), Universidade de Sao Paulo - USP, Engenharia Ambiental, Bloco 4-F, Av. Joao Dagnone, 1100 Santa Angelina, 13.563-120 Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil)], E-mail: zaiat@sc.usp.br

    2009-04-30

    The present study evaluated the degradation of formaldehyde in a bench-scale anaerobic sequencing batch reactor, which contained biomass immobilized in polyurethane foam matrices. The reactor was operated for 212 days at 35 deg. C with 8 h sequential cycles, under different affluent formaldehyde concentrations ranging from 31.6 to 1104.4 mg/L (formaldehyde loading rates from 0.08 to 2.78 kg/m{sup 3} day). The results indicate excellent reactor stability and over 99% efficiency in formaldehyde removal, with average effluent formaldehyde concentration of 3.6 {+-} 1.7 mg/L. Formaldehyde degradation rates increased from 204.9 to 698.3 mg/L h as the initial concentration of formaldehyde was increased from around 100 to around 1100 mg/L. However, accumulation of organic matter was observed in the effluent (chemical oxygen demand (COD) values above 500 mg/L) due to the presence of non-degraded organic acids, especially acetic and propionic acids. This observation poses an important question regarding the anaerobic route of formaldehyde degradation, which might differ substantially from that reported in the literature. The anaerobic degradation pathway can be associated with the formation of long-chain oligomers from formaldehyde. Such long- or short-chain polymers are probably the precursors of organic acid formation by means of acidogenic anaerobic microorganisms.

  16. TANK 50 BATCH 0 SALTSTONE FORMULATION CONFIRMATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Langton, C.

    2006-06-05

    Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) personnel were requested to confirm the Tank 50 Batch 0 grout formulation per Technical Task Request, SSF-TTR-2006-0001 (task 1 of 2) [1]. Earlier Batch 0 formulation testing used a Tank 50 sample collected in September 2005 and is described elsewhere [2]. The current testing was performed using a sample of Tank 50 waste collected in May 2006. This work was performed according to the Technical Task and Quality Assurance Plan (TT/QAP), WSRC-RP-2006-00594 [3]. The salt solution collected from Tank 50 in May 2006 contained approximately 3 weight percent more solids than the sample collected in September 2005. The insoluble solids took longer to settle in the new sample which was interpreted as indicating finer particles in the current sample. The saltstone formulation developed for the September 2005 Tank 50 Batch 0 sample was confirmed for the May 2006 sample with one minor exception. Saltstone prepared with the Tank 50 sample collected in May 2006 required 1.5 times more Daratard 17 set retarding admixture than the saltstone prepared with the September In addition, a sample prepared with lower shear mixing (stirring with a spatula) had a higher plastic viscosity (57 cP) than samples made with higher shear mixing in a blender (23cP). The static gel times of the saltstone slurries made with low shear mixing were also shorter ({approx}32 minutes) than those for comparable samples made in the blender ({approx}47 minutes). The addition of the various waste streams (ETP, HEU-HCAN, and GPE-HCAN) to Tank 50 from September 2005 to May 2006 has increased the amount of set retarder, Daratard 17, required for processing saltstone slurries through the Saltstone facility. If these streams are continued to be added to Tank 50, the quantity of admixtures required to maintain the same processing conditions for the Saltstone facility will probably change and additional testing is recommended to reconfirm the Tank 50 Saltstone formulation.

  17. Nonstandard finite difference schemes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mickens, Ronald E.

    1995-01-01

    The major research activities of this proposal center on the construction and analysis of nonstandard finite-difference schemes for ordinary and partial differential equations. In particular, we investigate schemes that either have zero truncation errors (exact schemes) or possess other significant features of importance for numerical integration. Our eventual goal is to bring these methods to bear on problems that arise in the modeling of various physical, engineering, and technological systems. At present, these efforts are extended in the direction of understanding the exact nature of these nonstandard procedures and extending their use to more complicated model equations. Our presentation will give a listing (obtained to date) of the nonstandard rules, their application to a number of linear and nonlinear, ordinary and partial differential equations. In certain cases, numerical results will be presented.

  18. ENGINEERING CONTRACT ON FY-2 BATCH 2 SATELLITES SIGNED

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SunQing

    2004-01-01

    The signing ceremony of the Engineering Contract on FY-2 Batch 2 (FY-2 02) Satellites was held in Beijing by Commission of Science, Technology and Industry for National Defense (COSTIND) on August 31, 2004. The contract on the development and manufacture of FY-2 batch 2 satellites and the contract on the launch, test and control of FY-2 Batch 2 satellites were signed by China Meteorological Administration (CMA),

  19. ADVANCES ON BILINEAR MODELING OF BIOCHEMICAL BATCH PROCESSES

    OpenAIRE

    GONZÁLEZ MARTÍNEZ, JOSÉ MARÍA

    2015-01-01

    [EN] This thesis is aimed to study the implications of the statistical modeling approaches proposed for the bilinear modeling of batch processes, develop new techniques to overcome some of the problems that have not been yet solved and apply them to data of biochemical processes. The study, discussion and development of the new methods revolve around the four steps of the modeling cycle, from the alignment, preprocessing and calibration of batch data to the monitoring of batches trajectories....

  20. A Survey of Batch Cataloging Practices and Problems

    OpenAIRE

    Young, Philip

    2011-01-01

    Groups of bibliographic records are added to library catalogs with increasing frequency. Batch cataloging requires knowledge of bulk record transfer as well as current cataloging standards. While more efficient than cataloging items individually, batch cataloging requires different skills and creates new challenges. Responses to a wide-ranging online survey document the workload, tools, practices, and problems of batch cataloging. The unique characteristics of electronic resources affect many...

  1. A batch fabricated biomimetic dry adhesive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Northen, Michael T.; Turner, Kimberly L.

    2005-08-01

    The fine hair adhesive system found in nature is capable of reversibly adhering to just about any surface. This dry adhesive, best demonstrated in the pad of the gecko, makes use of a multilevel conformal structure to greatly increase inelastic surface contact, enhancing short range interactions and producing significant amounts of attractive forces. Recent work has attempted to reproduce and test the terminal submicrometre 'hairs' of the system. Here we report the first batch fabricated multi-scale conformal system to mimic nature's dry adhesive. The approach makes use of massively parallel MEMS processing technology to produce 20-150 µm platforms, supported by single slender pillars, and coated with ~2 µm long, ~200 nm diameter, organic looking polymer nanorods, or 'organorods'. To characterize the structures a new mesoscale nanoindenter adhesion test technique has been developed. Experiments indicate significantly improved adhesion with the multiscale system. Additional processing caused a hydrophilic to hydrophobic transformation of the surface and testing indicated further improvement in adhesion.

  2. Load distributions of some classic DHTs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nie Xiaowen; Lu Xianliang; Zhou Xu; Tang Hui; Li Lin

    2009-01-01

    The load balance is a critical issue of distributed Hash table (DHT), and the previous work shows that there exists O(logn) imbalance of load in Chord. The load distribution of Chord, Pastry, and the virtual servers (VS) balancing scheme and deduces the closed form expressions of the probability density function (PDF) and cumulative distribution function (CDF) of the load in these DHTs is analyzes. The analysis and simulation show that the load of all these DHTs obeys the gamma distribution with similar formed parameters.

  3. Link Monotonic Allocation Schemes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slikker, M.

    1999-01-01

    A network is a graph where the nodes represent players and the links represent bilateral interaction between the players. A reward game assigns a value to every network on a fixed set of players. An allocation scheme specifies how to distribute the worth of every network among the players. This allo

  4. Alternative health insurance schemes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keiding, Hans; Hansen, Bodil O.

    2002-01-01

    In this paper, we present a simple model of health insurance with asymmetric information, where we compare two alternative ways of organizing the insurance market. Either as a competitive insurance market, where some risks remain uninsured, or as a compulsory scheme, where however, the level...... competitive insurance; this situation turns out to be at least as good as either of the alternatives...

  5. Batch-to-batch uniformity of bacterial community succession and flavor formation in the fermentation of Zhenjiang aromatic vinegar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zong-Min; Lu, Zhen-Ming; Yu, Yong-Jian; Li, Guo-Quan; Shi, Jin-Song; Xu, Zheng-Hong

    2015-09-01

    Solid-state fermentation of traditional Chinese vinegar is a mixed-culture refreshment process that proceeds for many centuries without spoilage. Here, we investigated bacterial community succession and flavor formation in three batches of Zhenjiang aromatic vinegar using pyrosequencing and metabolomics approaches. Temporal patterns of bacterial succession in the Pei (solid-state vinegar culture) showed no significant difference (P > 0.05) among three batches of fermentation. In all the batches investigated, the average number of community operational taxonomic units (OTUs) decreased dramatically from 119 ± 11 on day 1 to 48 ± 16 on day 3, and then maintained in the range of 61 ± 9 from day 5 to the end of fermentation. We confirmed that, within a batch of fermentation process, the patterns of bacterial diversity between the starter (took from the last batch of vinegar culture on day 7) and the Pei on day 7 were similar (90%). The relative abundance dynamics of two dominant members, Lactobacillus and Acetobacter, showed high correlation (coefficient as 0.90 and 0.98 respectively) among different batches. Furthermore, statistical analysis revealed dynamics of 16 main flavor metabolites were stable among different batches. The findings validate the batch-to-batch uniformity of bacterial community succession and flavor formation accounts for the quality of Zhenjiang aromatic vinegar. Based on our understanding, this is the first study helps to explain the rationality of age-old artistry from a scientific perspective. PMID:25998816

  6. Database driven scheduling for batch systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Experiments at the Jefferson Laboratory will soon be generating data at the rate of 1 TB/day. In this paper, the authors present a database driven scheme that they are currently implementing in order to ensure the safe archival and subsequent reconstruction of this data. They use a client-server architecture implemented in Java to serve data between the experiments, the mass storage, and the processor farm

  7. Batch process. Batch process used in a beer brewery; Biru kojo no bacchi purosesu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kihara, K. [Kirin Engneering Co. Ltd. (Japan)

    1997-09-05

    In a beer brewing process, there is a system in which unit operation of chemical engineering is combined with the techniques of food and fermentation engineering in order to brew beer meeting the quality concept. This paper introduces the characteristics of a batch system used in the brewing of beer and the control method for the brewing of beer. The characteristics of the batch system used in a beer brewing process are the following three. In order to minimize the quality variation ascribed to the raw materials and the process, the materials are blended in various parts of the system. In the saccharification step which determines the quality of beer, two methods, i.e. a batch method and a continuous method are used, and beer brewing companies employ a saccharification system meeting the condition for attaining a desired quality of their own products. Two mashing systems are operated at different cycles shifted by half cycle from each other, not starting both at a time, so as to level the peaks of the utilities, whereby the operation of the utility-related facility is optimized. 1 ref., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  8. Cell Load Balancing Schemes for Uncoordinated Heterogeneous Deployment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mihaylov, Mihail; Mihovska, Albena D.; Poulkov, Vladimir;

    2013-01-01

    This paper proposes an energy consumption improvement algorithm based on a coefficient determining the reliability of offloading users to a new base station (BS) regarding the additional power needed for them to be compensated during an offload from pico BS (PBS) to macro BS (MBS) in uncoordinate...

  9. Experimental Validation of a Marine Propeller Thrust Estimation Scheme

    OpenAIRE

    Luca Pivano; Øyvind N. Smogeli; Tor A. Johansen; Thor Inge Fossen

    2007-01-01

    A thrust estimation scheme for a marine propeller has been experimentally tested in waves and with a device that simulates the influence of a vessel hull. The scheme is formed by a nonlinear propeller torque observer and a mapping to generate the thrust from the observed torque. The mapping includes the estimation of the advance number. This is utilized to improve the performance when the propeller is lightly loaded. The advance speed is assumed to be unknown, and only measurements of shaft s...

  10. Treatment of a complex chemical wastewater using a sequencing batch reactor : from lab to full scale

    OpenAIRE

    Brito, A. G.; Mota, J. M.; Mendes, J.; Teunissen, G.; Machado, P

    2000-01-01

    This paper is focused on the application of a biological Sequencing Batch Reactor for the treatment of a complex wastewater discharged by a chemical industry of synthetic glues and resins. The main source of wastewater is the washing and cleaning procedures used in the manufacturing process. The present study comprised the assessment of SBR feasibility as secondary treatment, both at lab and full scale. In the lab scale reactor, at an applied organic load of 0.15 kgCODlkgVSS.day, COD removal ...

  11. Improved batch correction in untargeted MS-based metabolomics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wehrens, Ron; Hageman, Jos A.; Eeuwijk, van Fred; Kooke, Rik; Flood, Pádraic J.; Wijnker, Erik; Keurentjes, Joost J.B.; Lommen, Arjen; Eekelen, van Henriëtte D.L.M.; Hall, Robert D.; Mumm, Roland; Vos, de Ric C.H.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Batch effects in large untargeted metabolomics experiments are almost unavoidable, especially when sensitive detection techniques like mass spectrometry (MS) are employed. In order to obtain peak intensities that are comparable across all batches, corrections need to be performed. S

  12. Adaptive scheduling of batch servers in flow shops

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Zee, D.J.

    2002-01-01

    Batch servicing is a common way of benefiting from economies of scale in manufacturing operations. Good examples of production systems that allow for batch processing are ovens found in the aircraft industry and in semiconductor manufacturing. In this paper we study the issue of dynamic scheduling o

  13. Communication and control in small batch part manufacturing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tiemersma, J.J.; Curtis, W.; Kals, H.J.J.

    1993-01-01

    This paper reports on the development of a real-time control network as an integrated part of a shop floor control system for small batch part manufacturing. The shop floor control system is called the production control system (PCS). The PCS aims at an improved control of small batch part manufactu

  14. Iron load

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filippo Cassarà

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Recent research addressed the main role of hepcidin in the regulation of iron metabolism. However, while this mechanism could be relevant in causing iron load in Thalassemia Intermedia and Sickle-Cell Anemia, its role in Thalassemia Major (TM is marginal. This is mainly due to the high impact of transfusional requirement into the severe increase of body iron. Moreover, the damage of iron load may be worsened by infections, as HCV hepatitis, or liver and endocrinological damage. One of the most relevant associations was found between splenectomy and increase of risk for mortality due,probably, to more severe iron load. These issues suggest as morbidity and mortality of this group of patients they do not depend only by our ability in controlling heart damage but even in preventing or treating particular infections and complications. This finding is supported by the impairment of survival curves in patients with complications different from heart damage. However, because, during recent years different direct and indirect methods to detect iron overload in patients affected by secondary hemochromatosis have been implemented, our ability to maintain under control iron load is significantly improved. Anyway, the future in iron load management remains to be able to have an iron load map of our body for targeting chelation and other medical treatment according to the single organ damage.

  15. Spatial and interannual variability in Baltic sprat batch fecundity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haslob, H.; Tomkiewicz, Jonna; Hinrichsen, H.H.;

    2011-01-01

    in the central Baltic Sea, namely the Bornholm Basin, Gdansk Deep and Southern Gotland Basin. Environmental parameters such as hydrography, fish condition and stock density were tested in order to investigate the observed variability in sprat fecundity. Absolute batch fecundity was found to be positively related...... to fish length and weight. Significant differences in absolute and relative batch fecundity of Baltic sprat among areas and years were detected, and could partly be explained by hydrographic features of the investigated areas. A non-linear multiple regression model taking into account fish length...... and ambient temperature explained 70% of variability in absolute batch fecundity. Oxygen content and fish condition were not related to sprat batch fecundity. Additionally, a negative effect of stock size on sprat batch fecundity in the Bornholm Basin was revealed. The obtained data and results are important...

  16. Dynamic Simulation of Batch Photocatalytic Reactor (BPR) for Wastewater Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutta, Suman

    2012-08-01

    Reactive dyes discharged from dyehouse causes a serious environmental problem. UV/TiO2 photocatalysis has been employed effectively for these organic dyes removal from dye-house effluent. This process produces less amount of non-toxic final product. In this paper a photocatalytic reactor has been designed for Reactive red 198 (RR198) removal from aqueous solution. The reactor is operating in batch mode. After each batch, TiO2 catalyst has been separated and recycled in the next batch. Mathematical model equation of this batch photocatalytic reactor (BPR) has been developed considering Langmuir-Hinshelwood kinetics. Simulation of BPR has been carried out using fourth order Runge-Kutta (RK) method and fifth order RK method (Butcher method). This simulation results can be used to develop an automatic photocatlytic reactor for industrial wastewater treatment. Catalyst activity decay and its effect on each batch have been incorporated in this model.

  17. On Converting Secret Sharing Scheme to Visual Secret Sharing Scheme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Daoshun

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Traditional Secret Sharing (SS schemes reconstruct secret exactly the same as the original one but involve complex computation. Visual Secret Sharing (VSS schemes decode the secret without computation, but each share is m times as big as the original and the quality of the reconstructed secret image is reduced. Probabilistic visual secret sharing (Prob.VSS schemes for a binary image use only one subpixel to share the secret image; however the probability of white pixels in a white area is higher than that in a black area in the reconstructed secret image. SS schemes, VSS schemes, and Prob. VSS schemes have various construction methods and advantages. This paper first presents an approach to convert (transform a -SS scheme to a -VSS scheme for greyscale images. The generation of the shadow images (shares is based on Boolean XOR operation. The secret image can be reconstructed directly by performing Boolean OR operation, as in most conventional VSS schemes. Its pixel expansion is significantly smaller than that of VSS schemes. The quality of the reconstructed images, measured by average contrast, is the same as VSS schemes. Then a novel matrix-concatenation approach is used to extend the greyscale -SS scheme to a more general case of greyscale -VSS scheme.

  18. Isolation of lactoperoxidase using different cation exchange resins by batch and column procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fweja, Leonard Wt; Lewis, Michael J; Grandison, Alistair S

    2010-08-01

    Lactoperoxidase (LP) was isolated from whey protein by cation-exchange using Carboxymethyl resin (CM-25C) and Sulphopropyl Toyopearl resin (SP-650C). Both batch and column procedures were employed and the adsorption capacities and extraction efficiencies were compared. The resin bed volume to whey volume ratios were 0.96:1.0 for CM-25C and 0.64:1.0 for SP-650 indicating higher adsorption capacity of SP-650 compared with CM-25C. The effluent LP activity depended on both the enzyme activity in the whey and the amount of whey loaded on the column within the saturation limits of the resin. The percentage recovery was high below the saturation point and fell off rapidly with over-saturation. While effective recovery was achieved with column extraction procedures, the recovery was poor in batch procedures. The whey-resin contact time had little impact on the enzyme adsorption. SDS PAGE and HPLC analyses were also carried out, the purity was examined and the proteins characterised in terms of molecular weights. Reversed phase HPLC provided clear distinction of the LP and lactoferrin (LF) peaks. The enzyme purity was higher in column effluents compared with batch effluents, judged on the basis of the clarity of the gel bands and the resolved peaks in HPLC chromatograms.

  19. Effect of glass-batch makeup on the melting process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hrma, Pavel R; Schweiger, Michael J; Humrickhouse, Carissa J; Moody, J Adam; Tate, Rachel M; Rainsdon, Timothy T; Tegrotenhuis, Nathan E; Arrigoni, Benjamin M; Marcial, Jose; Rodriguez, Carmen P; Tincher, Benjamin

    2010-03-29

    The response of a glass batch to heating is determined by the batch makeup and in turn determines the rate of melting. Batches formulated for a high-alumina nuclear waste to be vitrified in an all-electric melter were heated at a constant temperature-increase rate to determine changes in melting behavior in response to the selection of batch chemicals and silica grain-size as well as the addition of heat-generating reactants. The type of batch materials and the size of silica grains determine how much, if any, primary foam occurs during melting. Small quartz grains, 5-μm in size, caused extensive foaming because their major portion dissolved at temperatures <800°C, contributing to the formation of viscous glass-forming melt that trapped evolving batch gases. Primary foam did not occur in batches with larger quartz grains, ±75 μm in size, because their major portion dissolved at temperatures >800°C when batch gases no longer evolved. The exothermal reaction of nitrates with sucrose was ignited at a temperature as low as 160°C and caused a temporary jump in temperature of several hundred degrees. Secondary foam, the source of which is oxygen from redox reactions, occurred in all batches of a limited composition variation involving five oxides, B2O3, CaO, Li2O, MgO, and Na2O. The foam volume at the maximum volume-increase rate was a weak function of temperature and melt basicity. Neither the batch makeup nor the change in glass composition had a significant impact on the dissolution of silica grains. The impacts of primary foam generation on glass homogeneity and the rate of melting in large-scale continuous furnaces have yet to be established via mathematical modeling and melter experiments.

  20. The Picard Scheme

    OpenAIRE

    Kleiman, Steven L.

    2013-01-01

    We develop in detail most of the theory of the Picard scheme that Grothendieck sketched in two Bourbaki talks and in commentaries on them. Also, we review in brief much of the rest of the theory developed by Grothendieck and by others. But we begin with a twelve-page historical introduction, which traces the development of the ideas from Bernoulli to Grothendieck, and which may appeal to a wider audience.

  1. Biodenitrification in Sequencing Batch Reactors. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silverstein, J. [Colorado Univ., Boulder, CO (United States). Dept. of Civil, Environmental, and Architectural Engineering

    1996-01-23

    One plan for stabilization of the Solar Pond waters and sludges at Rocky Flats Plant (RFP), is evaporation and cement solidification of the salts to stabilize heavy metals and radionuclides for land disposal as low-level mixed waste. It has been reported that nitrate (NO{sub 3}{sub {minus}}) salts may interfere with cement stabilization of heavy metals and radionuclides. Therefore, biological nitrate removal (denitrification) may be an important pretreatment for the Solar Pond wastewaters at RFP, improving the stability of the cement final waste form, reducing the requirement for cement (or pozzolan) additives and reducing the volume of cemented low-level mixed waste requiring ultimate disposal. A laboratory investigation of the performance of the Sequencing Batch Reactor (SBR) activated sludge process developed for nitrate removal from a synthetic brine typical of the high-nitrate and high-salinity wastewaters in the Solar Ponds at Rocky Flats Plant was carried out at the Environmental Engineering labs at the University of Colorado, Boulder, between May 1, 1994 and October 1, 1995.

  2. Implicit schemes and parallel computing in unstructured grid CFD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkatakrishnam, V.

    1995-01-01

    The development of implicit schemes for obtaining steady state solutions to the Euler and Navier-Stokes equations on unstructured grids is outlined. Applications are presented that compare the convergence characteristics of various implicit methods. Next, the development of explicit and implicit schemes to compute unsteady flows on unstructured grids is discussed. Next, the issues involved in parallelizing finite volume schemes on unstructured meshes in an MIMD (multiple instruction/multiple data stream) fashion are outlined. Techniques for partitioning unstructured grids among processors and for extracting parallelism in explicit and implicit solvers are discussed. Finally, some dynamic load balancing ideas, which are useful in adaptive transient computations, are presented.

  3. Batch Processing of CMOS Compatible Feedthroughs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, F.E.; Heschel, M.; Hansen, Ole

    2003-01-01

    process scheme allows for post processing of feedthroughs in any kind of fully processed CMOS wafer. The fabrication of the electrical feedthroughs is based on wet etching of through-holes, low temperature deposition of dielectric material, and electrodeposition of photoresist and feedthrough metal. The...... feedthrough technology employs a simple solution to the well-known CMOS compatibility issue of KOH by protecting the CMOS side of the wafer using sputter deposited TiW/Au. The fabricated feedthroughs exhibit excellent electrical performance having a serial resistance of 40 mOmega and a parasitic capacitance...

  4. Batch-to-batch learning for model-based control of process systems with application to cooling crystallization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Forgione, M.

    2014-01-01

    From an engineering perspective, the term process refers to a conversion of raw materials into intermediate or final products using chemical, physical, or biological operations. Industrial processes can be performed either in continuous or in batch mode. There exist for instance continuous and batch

  5. 40 CFR Table 7 to Subpart Jjj of... - Group 1 Batch Process Vents and Aggregate Batch Vent Streams-Monitoring, Recordkeeping, and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 11 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Group 1 Batch Process Vents and Aggregate Batch Vent Streams-Monitoring, Recordkeeping, and Reporting Requirements 7 Table 7 to Subpart JJJ... Table 7 to Subpart JJJ of Part 63—Group 1 Batch Process Vents and Aggregate Batch Vent...

  6. 40 CFR Table 6 to Subpart U of... - Group 1 Batch Front-End Process Vents and Aggregate Batch Vent Streams-Monitoring, Recordkeeping...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Group 1 Batch Front-End Process Vents and Aggregate Batch Vent Streams-Monitoring, Recordkeeping, and Reporting Requirements 6 Table 6 to... 6 to Subpart U of Part 63—Group 1 Batch Front-End Process Vents and Aggregate Batch Vent...

  7. A PRACTICAL PROXY SIGNATURE SCHEME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sattar Aboud

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A proxy signature scheme is a variation of the ordinary digital signature scheme which enables a proxy signer to generate signatures on behalf of an original signer. In this paper, we present two efficient types of proxy signature scheme. The first one is the proxy signature for warrant partial delegation combines an advantage of two well known warrant partial delegation schemes. This proposed proxy signature scheme is based on the difficulty of solving the discrete logarithm problem. The second proposed scheme is based on threshold delegation the proxy signer power to sign the message is share. We claim that the proposed proxy signature schemes meet the security requirements and more practical than the existing proxy signature schemes.

  8. Beam loading

    CERN Document Server

    Gamp, Alexander

    2013-01-01

    We begin by giving a description of the radio-frequency generator-cavity-beam coupled system in terms of basic quantities. Taking beam loading and cavity detuning into account, expressions for the cavity impedance as seen by the generator and as seen by the beam are derived. Subsequently methods of beam-loading compensation by cavity detuning, radio-frequency feedback and feedforward are described. Examples of digital radio-frequency phase and amplitude control for the special case of superconducting cavities are also given. Finally, a dedicated phase loop for damping synchrotron oscillations is discussed.

  9. Guam Power Authority automatic underfrequency load shedding study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wong, H.H. [Hawaiian Electric Co., Inc., Honolulu, HI (United States); Flores, J.C.; Fang, Y.; Baldevia, R.P. [Guam Power Authority, Agana (Guam)

    1995-12-31

    Guam Power Authority (GPA) has developed an automatic underfrequency load shedding scheme using a transient stability simulation program. This scheme strives to minimize the amount of load shed by selecting frequency settings based on the severity of generation or load imbalance and the availability of spinning reserves. The fast speed of frequency decay due to loss of generation is shown to be particularly pronounced in an island system, requiring more careful design of any load shedding scheme than large interconnected systems. The use of a well prepared transient stability study model allows the simulation of specific contingencies and the fine-tuning of load shedding strategies for optimality. The development of the scheme is described, and trade-off between equipment protection, customer service availability, and practical operating issues, such as synchronization of generators to the grid, are discussed. (author). 9 figs., 6 refs.

  10. Batch-specific discrimination using nuclear quadrupole resonance spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyriakidou, Georgia; Jakobsson, Andreas; Althoefer, Kaspar; Barras, Jamie

    2015-04-01

    In this paper, we report on the identification of batches of analgesic paracetamol (acetaminophen) tablets using nitrogen-14 nuclear quadrupole resonance spectroscopy ((14)N NQR). The high sensitivity of NQR to the electron charge distribution surrounding the quadrupolar nucleus enables the unique characterization of the crystal structure of the material. Two hypothesis were tested on batches of the same brand: the within the same batch variability and the difference between batches that varied in terms of their batch number and expiry date. The multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) did not provide any within-batches variations, indicating the natural deviation of a medicine manufactured under the same conditions. Alternatively, the statistical analysis revealed a significant discrimination between the different batches of paracetamol tablets. Therefore, the NQR signal is an indicator of factors that influence the physical and chemical integrity of the material. Those factors might be the aging of the medicine, the manufacturing, or storage conditions. The results of this study illustrate the potential of NQR as promising technique in applications such as detection and authentication of counterfeit medicines.

  11. Two Improved Digital Signature Schemes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    In this paper, two improved digital signature schemes are presented based on the design of directed signaturescheme [3]. The peculiarity of the system is that only if the scheme is specific recipient, the signature is authenticated.Since the scheme adds the screen of some information parameters, the difficulty of deciphered keys and the security ofdigital signature system are increased.

  12. Bonus schemes and trading activity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pikulina, E.S.; Renneboog, L.D.R.; ter Horst, J.R.; Tobler, P.N.

    2014-01-01

    Little is known about how different bonus schemes affect traders' propensity to trade and which bonus schemes improve traders' performance. We study the effects of linear versus threshold bonus schemes on traders' behavior. Traders buy and sell shares in an experimental stock market on the basis of

  13. A New Deferred Sentencing Scheme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. K. Chakravarti

    1968-10-01

    Full Text Available A new deferred sentencing scheme resembling double sampling scheme has been suggested from viewpoint of operational and administrative. It is recommended particularly when the inspection is destructive. The O.C. curves of the scheme for two sample sizes of 5 and 10 have been given.

  14. Batch cooling crystallization and pressure filtration of sulphathiazole

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Häkkinen, Antti; Pöllänen, Kati; Karjalainen, Milja;

    2005-01-01

    crystal suspensions obtained through an unseeded batch-cooling-crystallization process was studied. Sulphathiazole, which is an antibiotic agent with multiple polymorphic forms, was produced by performing laboratory-scale cooling crystallization experiments from five different mixtures of water and propan...... the samples obtained from different solvents. The crystals produced in the batch-cooling-crystallization experiments were separated from the crystallizing solvents using a batch-type pressure Nutsche filter, and the filtration characteristics of the suspensions were evaluated on the basis of average filter...

  15. Reminiscences about numerical schemes

    CERN Document Server

    Godunov, Sergei K

    2008-01-01

    This preprint appeared firstly in Russian in 1997. Some truncated versions of this preprint were published in English and French, here a fully translated version is presented. The translation in English was done by O. V. Feodoritova and V. Deledicque to whom I express my gratitude. In the present paper I will describe how the first variant of the Godunov's scheme has been elaborated in 1953-1954 and tell about all modifications realized by myself (until 1969) and the group of scientists from the Institute of Applied Mathematics in Moscow (which has become the M.V.Keldysh Institute of Applied Mathematics).

  16. CONSIDERATIONS CONCERNING GUARANTEE SCHEMES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EMILIA CLIPICI

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available When a large withdrawal from banks occurs, customers withdraw their deposits, so banks are likely to go bankrupt because of liquidity problems. There are several mechanisms that allow the banking system to avoid the phenomenon of massive withdrawals from banks. The most effective one is the deposit insurance. The deposit insurance is seen primarily as a means of protecting depositors of credit institutions, and secondly as a means of ensuring the stability of the banking system. This article described deposit guarantee scheme in Romania and other country.

  17. Load sensor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van den Ende, D.; Almeida, P.M.R.; Dingemans, T.J.; Van der Zwaag, S.

    2007-01-01

    The invention relates to a load sensor comprising a polymer matrix and a piezo-ceramic material such as PZT, em not bedded in the polymer matrix, which together form a compos not ite, wherein the polymer matrix is a liquid crystalline resin, and wherein the piezo-ceramic material is a PZT powder for

  18. Carbohydrate Loading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csernus, Marilyn

    Carbohydrate loading is a frequently used technique to improve performance by altering an athlete's diet. The objective is to increase glycogen stored in muscles for use in prolonged strenuous exercise. For two to three days, the athlete consumes a diet that is low in carbohydrates and high in fat and protein while continuing to exercise and…

  19. Metamaterial Loading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Paredes

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available It is shown that printed antennas loaded with metamaterial resonators can be designed to exhibit multiband functionality. Two different antenna types and metamaterial loading are considered: (i printed dipoles or monopoles loaded with open complementary split ring resonators (OCSRRs and (ii meander line or folded dipole antennas loaded with split ring resonators (SRRs or spiral resonators (SRs. In the first case, multiband operation is achieved by series connecting one or more OCSRRs within the dipole/monopole. Such resonators force opens at their positions, and by locating them at a quarter wavelength (at the required operating frequencies from the feeding point, it is possible to achieve multiple radiation bands. In the second case, dual-band functionality is achieved through the perturbation of the antenna characteristics caused by the presence of the metamaterial resonators. This latter strategy is specially suited to achieve conjugate matching between the antenna and the chip in radiofrequency identification (RFID tags at two of the regulated UHF-RFID bands.

  20. Apiary B-Factory separation scheme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A magnetic beam-separation scheme for an asymmetric-energy B-Factory based on the SLAC electron-positron collider PEP is described that has the following properties: the beams collide head-on and are separated magnetically with sufficient clearance at the parasitic crossing points and at the septum, the magnets have large beam-stay-clear apertures, synchrotron radiation produces low detector backgrounds and acceptable heat loads, and the peak β-function values and contributions to the chromaticities in the IR quadrupoles are moderate. 8 figs., 2 tabs

  1. Green synthesis of isopropyl myristate in novel single phase medium Part I: Batch optimization studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajeshkumar N. Vadgama

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Isopropyl myristate finds many applications in food, cosmetic and pharmaceutical industries as an emollient, thickening agent, or lubricant. Using a homogeneous reaction phase, non-specific lipase derived from Candida antartica, marketed as Novozym 435, was determined to be most suitable for the enzymatic synthesis of isopropyl myristate. The high molar ratio of alcohol to acid creates novel single phase medium which overcomes mass transfer effects and facilitates downstream processing. The effect of various reaction parameters was optimized to obtain a high yield of isopropyl myristate. Effect of temperature, agitation speed, organic solvent, biocatalyst loading and batch operational stability of the enzyme was systematically studied. The conversion of 87.65% was obtained when the molar ratio of isopropyl alcohol to myristic acid (15:1 was used with 4% (w/w catalyst loading and agitation speed of 150 rpm at 60 °C. The enzyme has also shown good batch operational stability under optimized conditions.

  2. Contaminant removal in septage treatment with vertical flow constructed wetlands operated under batch flow conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jong, Valerie Siaw Wee; Tang, Fu Ee

    2016-01-01

    Individual septic tanks are the most common means of on-site sanitation in Malaysia, but they result in a significant volume of septage. A two-staged vertical flow constructed wetlands (VFCWs) system for the treatment of septage was constructed and studied in Sarawak, Malaysia. Raw septage was treated in the first stage wetlands, and the resulting percolate was fed onto the second stage wetlands for further treatment. Here, the effects of a batch loading regime on the contaminant removal efficiency at the second stage wetlands, which included palm kernel shell within their filter substrate, are presented. The batch loading regime with pond:rest (P:R) period of 1:1, 2:2 and 3:3 (day:day) was studied. The improvement of the effluent redox condition was evident with P:R = 3:3, resulting in excellent organic matters (chemical oxygen demand and biochemical oxygen demand) and nitrogen reduction. The bed operated with P:R = 1:1 experienced constant clogging, with a water layer observed on the bed surface. For the P:R = 3:3 regime, the dissolved oxygen profile was not found to decay drastically after 24 hours of ponding, suggesting that the biodegradation mainly occurred during the first day. The study results indicate that a suitable application regime with an adequate rest period is important in VFCWs to ensure efficient operation.

  3. An efficient quantum secure direct communication scheme with authentication

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang Yu-Guang; Wen Qiao-Yan; Zhu Fu-Chen

    2007-01-01

    In this paper an efficient quantum secure direct communication (QSDC) scheme with authentication is presented,which is based on quantum entanglement and polarized single photons. The present protocol uses Einstein-PodolskyRosen (EPR) pairs and polarized single photons in batches. A particle of the EPR pairs is retained in the sender's QSDC protocol. According to the shared information beforehand, these two kinds of quantum states are mixed and then transmitted via a quantum channel. The EPR pairs are used to transmit secret messages and the polarized single photons used for authentication and eavesdropping check. Consequently, because of the dual contributions of the polarized single photons, no classical information is needed. The intrinsic efficiency and total efficiency are both 1 in this scheme as almost all of the instances are useful and each EPR pair can be used to carry two bits of information.

  4. Investigation of Rheological Impacts on Sludge Batch 3 as Insoluble Solids and Wash Endpoints are Adjusted

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) is currently processing and immobilizing radioactive sludge slurry into a durable borosilicate glass. The DWPF has already processed three sludge batches (Sludge Batch 1A, Sludge Batch 1B, and Sludge Batch 2) and is currently processing the fourth sludge batch (Sludge Batch 3). A sludge batch is defined as a single tank of sludge slurry or a combination of sludge slurries from different tanks that has been or will be qualified before being transferred to DWPF. As a part of the Sludge Batch 3 (SB3) qualification task, rheology measurements of the sludge slurry were requested at different insoluble solids loadings. These measurements were requested in order to gain insight into potential processing problems that may occur as the insoluble solids are adjusted up or down (by concentration or dilution) during the process. As a part of this study, a portion of the ''as received'' SB3 sample was washed with inhibited water (0.015 M NaOH and 0.015 M NaNO2) to target 0.5M Na versus a measured 1M Na in the supernate. The purpose of the ''washing'' step was to allow a comparison of the SB3 rheological data to the rheological data collected for Sludge Batch 2 (SB2) and to determine if there was a dependence of the yield stress and consistency as a function of washing. The ''as received'' SB3 rheology data was also compared to SB3 simulants prepared by the Simulant Development Program in order to provide guidance for selecting a simulant that is more representative of the rheological properties of the radioactive sludge slurry. A summary of the observations, conclusions are: (1) The yield stress and plastic viscosity increased as the weight percent insoluble solids were increased for the ''as received'' and ''washed'' SB3 samples, at a fixed pH. (2) For the same insoluble solids loading, the yield stress for the SB2 sample is approximately a factor of three higher than the ''as received'' SB3 sample. There also appears to be small

  5. Secure mediated certificateless signature scheme

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Chen; MA Wen-ping; WANG Xin-mei

    2007-01-01

    Ju et al proposed a certificateless signature scheme with instantaneous revocation by introducing security mediator (SEM) mechanism. This article presents a detailed cryptoanalysis of this scheme and shows that, in their proposed scheme, once a valid signature has been produced, the signer can recover his private key information and the instantaneous revocation property will be damaged. Furthermore, an improved mediated signature scheme, which can eliminate these disadvantages, is proposed, and security proof of the improved scheme under elliptic curve factorization problem (ECFP) assumption and bilinear computational diffie-hellman problem (BCDH) assumption is also proposed.

  6. Cost-Prioritized Droop Schemes for Autonomous AC Microgrids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nutkani, Inam Ullah; Loh, Poh Chiang; Wang, Peng;

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents two cost-prioritized droop sche- mes for distributed generators (DGs) in a rural or islanded microgrid. Dispatch prioritization of the schemes allows autonomous identification of the appropriate DGs for generation, in accordance to the overall load conditions of the microgrid....

  7. Decentralized Economic Dispatch Scheme With Online Power Reserve for Microgrids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nutkani, I. U.; Loh, Poh Chiang; Wang, P.;

    2016-01-01

    costs, their power ratings, and other necessary constraints, before deciding the DG dispatch priorities and droop characteristics. The proposed scheme also allows online power reserve to be set and regulated within the microgrid. This, together with the generation cost saved, has been verified...... experimentally under different reserve, load, and DG conditions....

  8. Frequency Stabilizing Scheme for a Danish Island Grid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cha, Seung-Tae; Wu, Qiuwei; Østergaard, Jacob

    2012-01-01

    with a battery energy storage system (BESS) has been proposed. The real-time models of distribution grids of Bornholm power system were used to carry out case studies to illustrate the performance of centralized load frequency control as well as coordinated control scheme. Case study results show...

  9. Optimal configuration, design and operation of batch distillation processes

    OpenAIRE

    Low, K. H.

    2003-01-01

    The overall objective of this thesis is to study the optimal configuration. design and operating policy of batch distillation processes in different separation scenarios. In so doing, this work also aims to provide conceptual insights and compare the performance of the traditional regular column against unconventional columns. In the first part of the thesis, the optimal operation of extractive batch distillation is investigated. A rigorous dynamic optimisation approach based o...

  10. Optimal control of a fed-batch fermentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dekkers, R.M.

    1984-01-01

    The common cultivation of bakers' yeast is an aerobic fed-batch fermentation under sugar-limited growth. The ultimate objective of on-line computer control is to optimize the process through maximizing the productivity of biomass formation while minimizing the consumption of raw materials for the product. Results obtained on the optimal control of a fed-batch fermentation are given. The aspects to be considered are instrumentation, state estimation, optimization and process control.

  11. Differences of silicon photodiode spectral reflectance among the same batch

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    A.L.Mu(n)oz Zurita; J.Campos Acosta; A.Pons Aglio; A.Shcherbakov

    2008-01-01

    Photodiode's reflectance plays an important role regarding the relation between responsivity and the incident flux. In this work we analyze how the spectral reflectance changes among photodiodes from the same manufacturer and batch and how the reflectance of three standard photodiodes has drifted during six years. The results show that the reflectance changes from diode to diode within the same batch and also show th.at the reflectance ofphotodiodes changes on time. This ageing is spectrally dependent.

  12. Dynamic Extensions of Batch Systems with Cloud Resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Compute clusters use Portable Batch Systems (PBS) to distribute workload among individual cluster machines. To extend standard batch systems to Cloud infrastructures, a new service monitors the number of queued jobs and keeps track of the price of available resources. This meta-scheduler dynamically adapts the number of Cloud worker nodes according to the requirement profile. Two different worker node topologies are presented and tested on the Amazon EC2 Cloud service.

  13. Xylitol production by Candida parapsilosis under fed-batch culture

    OpenAIRE

    Furlan Sandra A.; Castro Heizir F. de

    2001-01-01

    Xylitol production by Candida parapsilosis was investigated under fed-batch cultivation, using single (xylose) or mixed (xylose and glucose) sugars as substrates. The presence of glucose in the medium induced the production of ethanol as secondary metabolite and improved specific rates of growth, xylitol formation and substrate consumption. Fractionated supply of the feed medium at constant sugar concentration did not promote any increase on the productivity compared to the single batch culti...

  14. RHEOLOGICAL PROPERTIES OF SAVANNAH RIVER SITE (srs) RADIOACTIVE HIGH LEVEL WASTES AND MELTER FEEDS FOR SLUDGE BATCH 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Savannah River Site, SRS, is currently pursuing an aggressive program to empty its High Level Waste, HLW, tanks and immobilize its radioactive waste into a durable borosilicate glass in the Defense Waste Processing Facility, DWPF. To create a batch of feed for the DWPF, several tanks of sludge slurry are combined into one of the million gallon, i.e. 3.79E06 liters, feed tanks for DWPF. A batch of feed nominally consists of 500,000 gallons, i.e. 1.89E06 liters. After a batch of feed is prepared, a portion of the batch, 26,500 liters, is transferred to DWPF. This batch is then chemically adjusted in the Chemical Processing Cell, CPC, prior to being fed to the melter to make the final product; canisters filled with glass. During the processing of the third batch, or Sludge Batch 2, of feed through the DWPF CPC, pumping and transfer problems were noted. These problems hindered the processing of the feed through the CPC, and thus impacted canister production in DWPF. In order to investigate the root cause of these problems, data were collected and evaluated for possible trends. One trend noted was the relationship between the pH, solids loading concentration, and temperature of the feed. As any one of these three variables changed, the rheological properties of the feed appeared to change. To determine the dependency of the rheological property, samples were obtained and shipped to Savannah River National Laboratory's, SRNL, Shielded Cells Facility. The samples were processed under two sets of conditions and rheological measurements obtained. The results of the SRNL studies showed that the ending pH of the samples impacted the rheological properties of the sample. Lowering the pH of the sludge slurry resulted in lower plastic viscosity and yield stress values,thus alleviating the processing problems. Increasing the solids loading typically increased both the plastic viscosity and yield stress. There was minimal or no dependency on temperature

  15. Load sensor

    OpenAIRE

    van den Ende, D.; Almeida, P.M.R.; Dingemans, T.J.; Van der Zwaag, S.

    2007-01-01

    The invention relates to a load sensor comprising a polymer matrix and a piezo-ceramic material such as PZT, em not bedded in the polymer matrix, which together form a compos not ite, wherein the polymer matrix is a liquid crystalline resin, and wherein the piezo-ceramic material is a PZT powder forming 30-60% by volume of the composite, and wherein the PZT powder forms 40-50% by volume of the composite.

  16. Batch process monitoring based on multilevel ICA-PCA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhi-qiang GE; Zhi-huan SONG

    2008-01-01

    In this paper,we describe a new batch process monitoring method based on multilevel independent component analysis and principal component analysis (MLICA-PCA).Unlike the conventional multi-way principal component analysis (MPCA) method,MLICA-PCA provides a separated interpretation for multilevel batch process data.Batch process data are partitioned into two levels:the within-batch level and the between-batch level.In each level,the Gaussian and non-Ganssian components of process information can be separately extracted.I2,T2 and SPE statistics are individually built and monitored.The new method facilitates fault diagnosis.Since the two variation levels arc decomposed,the variables responsible for faults in each level can be identified and interpreted more easily.A case study of the Dupont benchmark process showed that the proposed method was more efficient and interpretable in fault detection and diagnosis,compared to the alternative batch process monitoring method.

  17. OPLS in batch monitoring - Opens up new opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souihi, Nabil; Lindegren, Anders; Eriksson, Lennart; Trygg, Johan

    2015-02-01

    In batch statistical process control (BSPC), data from a number of "good" batches are used to model the evolution (trajectory) of the process and they also define model control limits, against which new batches may be compared. The benchmark methods used in BSPC include partial least squares (PLS) and principal component analysis (PCA). In this paper, we have used orthogonal projections to latent structures (OPLS) in BSPC and compared the results with PLS and PCA. The experimental study used was a batch hydrogenation reaction of nitrobenzene to aniline characterized by both UV spectroscopy and process data. The key idea is that OPLS is able to separate the variation in data that is correlated to the process evolution (also known as 'batch maturity index') from the variation that is uncorrelated to process evolution. This separation of different types of variations can generate different batch trajectories and hence lead to different established model control limits to detect process deviations. The results demonstrate that OPLS was able to detect all process deviations and provided a good process understanding of the root causes for these deviations. PCA and PLS on the other hand were shown to provide different interpretations for several of these process deviations, or in some cases they were unable to detect actual process deviations. Hence, the use of OPLS in BSPC can lead to better fault detection and root cause analysis as compared to existing benchmark methods and may therefore be used to complement the existing toolbox. PMID:25604817

  18. [Characteristic of Particulate Emissions from Concrete Batching in Beijing].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Yi-feng; Zhou, Zhen; Zhong, Lian-hong; Yan, Jing; Qu, Song; Huang, Yu-hu; Tian, He- zhong; Pan, Tao

    2016-01-15

    With the economic development and population growth in Beijing, there is a strong need for construction and housing, which leads to the increase of the construction areas. Meanwhile, as a local provided material, the production of concrete has been raised. In the process of concrete production by concrete batching, there are numerous particulates emitted, which have large effect on the atmospheric environment, however, systematic study about the tempo-spatial characteristics of pollutant emission from concrete batching is still rare. In this study, we estimated the emission of particulates from concrete batching from 1991 to 2012 using emission factor method, analyzed the tempo-spatial characteristics of pollutant emission, established the uncertainty range by adopting Monte-Carlo method, and predicted the future emission in 2020 based on the relative environmental and economical policies. The results showed that: (1) the emissions of particulates from concrete batching showed a trend of "first increase and then decrease", reaching the maximum in 2005, and then decreased due to stricter emission standard and enhanced environmental management. (2) according to spatial distribution, the emission of particulates from concrete batch mainly concentrated in the urban area with more human activities, and the area between the fifth ring and the sixth ring contributed the most. (3) through scenarios analysis, for further reducing the emission from concrete batching in 2020, more stricter standard for green production as well as powerful supervision is needed.

  19. Plasma enhanced atomic layer batch processing of aluminum doped titanium dioxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Among many promising high-k dielectrics, TiO2 is an interesting candidate because of its relatively high k value of over 40 and its easy integration into existing semiconductor manufacturing schemes. The most critical issues of TiO2 are its low electrical stability and its high leakage current density. However, doping TiO2 with Al has shown to yield significant improvement of layer quality on Ru electrodes [S. K. Kim et al., Adv. Mater. 20, 1429 (2008)]. In this work we investigated if atomic layer deposition (ALD) of Al doped TiO2 is feasible in a batch system. Electrical characterizations were done using common electrode materials like TiN, TaN, or W. Additionally, the effect of plasma enhanced processing in this reactor was studied. For this investigation a production batch ALD furnace has been retrofitted with a plasma source which can be used for post deposition anneals with oxygen radicals as well as for directly plasma enhanced ALD. After evaluation of several Ti precursors a deposition process for AlTiOx with excellent film thickness and composition uniformity was developed. The effects of post deposition anneals, Al2O3 interlayers between electrode and TiO2, Al doping concentration, plasma enhanced deposition and electrode material type on leakage current density are shown. An optimized AlTiOx deposition process on TaN electrodes yields to leakage current density of 5 x 10-7 A/cm2 at 2 V and k values of about 35. Thus, it could be demonstrated that a plasma enhanced batch ALD process for Al doped TiO2 is feasible with acceptable leakage current density on a standard electrode material.

  20. CSR schemes in agribusiness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pötz, Katharina Anna; Haas, Rainer; Balzarova, Michaela

    2013-01-01

    of schemes that can be categorized on focus areas, scales, mechanisms, origins, types and commitment levels. Research limitations/implications – The findings contribute to conceptual and empirical research on existing models to compare and analyse CSR standards. Sampling technique and depth of analysis limit...... this research, but the authors offer insights into patterns of CSR standard development in agribusiness and point to important research avenues. Practical implications – These findings can help agribusiness managers to select and analyse CSR standards and other forms of CSR guidance. Social implications...... – Standard and guidance setting activities can be expected to have real-life effects on CSR outcomes. These effects need to be better understood by policy makers and stakeholders. The authors' meta-analysis contributes to further research on who or what influences standard development. Originality...

  1. UNITED STABILIZING SCHEME FOR EDGE DELAY IN OPTICAL BURST SWITCHED NETWORKS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    A novel scheme, namely united stabilizing scheme for edge delay, is introduced in optical burst switched networks. In the scheme, the limits of burst length and assembly time are both set according to certain qualifications. For executing the scheme, the conception for unit input bit rate is introduced to improve universality, and the assembly algorithm with a buffer safety space under the self-similar traffic model at each ingress edge router is proposed. Then, the components of burst and packet delay are concluded, and the equations that limits of burst length and assembly time should satisfy to stabilize the burst edge delay under different buffer offered loads are educed. The simulation results show that united stabilizing scheme stabilizes both burst and packet edge delay to a great extent when buffer offered load changes from 0.1 to 1, and the edge delay of burst and packet are near the limit values under larger offered load, respectively.

  2. A Genetic Algorithms Based Approach for Identification of Escherichia coli Fed-batch Fermentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olympia Roeva

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the use of genetic algorithms for identification of Escherichia coli fed-batch fermentation process. Genetic algorithms are a directed random search technique, based on the mechanics of natural selection and natural genetics, which can find the global optimal solution in complex multidimensional search space. The dynamic behavior of considered process has known nonlinear structure, described with a system of deterministic nonlinear differential equations according to the mass balance. The parameters of the model are estimated using genetic algorithms. Simulation examples for demonstration of the effectiveness and robustness of the proposed identification scheme are included. As a result, the model accurately predicts the process of cultivation of E. coli.

  3. Mathematical modeling of lipase and protease production by Penicillium restrictum in a batch fermenter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freire, D M; Sant'Anna, G L; Alves, T L

    1999-01-01

    This work presents a mathematical model that describes time course variations of extracellular lipase and protease activities for the batch fermentation of the fungus Penicillium restrictum, a new and promising strain isolated from soil and wastes of a Brazilian babassu coconut oil industry. The fermentation process was modeled by an unstructured model, which considered the following dependent variables: cells, fat acid, dissolved oxygen concentrations, lipase and protease activities, and cell lysate concentration. The last variable represents the amount of cells that has been lysed by the shear stress and natural cell death. Proteases released to the medium, as consequence of this process, enhance lipase inactivation. The model is able to predict the effects of some operation variables such as air flow rate and agitation speed. The mathematical model was validated against batch-fermentation data obtained under several operating conditions. Because substrate concentration has antagonistic effects on lipase activity, a typical optimization scheme should be developed in order to minimize these deleterious effects while maximizing lipase activity. PMID:15304703

  4. Effect of batch and fed-batch growth modes on biofilm formation by Listeria monocytogenes at different temperatures

    OpenAIRE

    Rodrigues, Diana Alexandra Ferreira; Almeida, Marta A. S.; Teixeira, P.; Oliveira, Rosário; Azeredo, Joana

    2009-01-01

    The influence of Listeria monocytogenes (L. monocytogenes) biofilm formation feeding conditions (batch and fed-batch) at different temperatures on biofilm biomass and activity was determined. Biofilm biomass and cellular metabolic activity were assessed by Crystal Violet (CV) staining and 2,3-bis(2-methoxy-4-nitro-5-sulfophenyl)-2H-tetrazolium-5-carboxanilide inner salt (XTT) colorimetric method, respectively. Live/Dead staining was also performed in order to get microscopic visualization of ...

  5. Design and Application of Software Sensors in Batch and Fed-batch Cultivations during Recombinant Protein Expression in Escherichia coli

    OpenAIRE

    Warth, Benedikt

    2008-01-01

    Software sensors are a potent tool to improve biotechnological real time process monitoring and control. In the current project, algorithms for six partly novel, software sensors were established and tested in a microbial reactor system. Eight batch and two fed-batch runs were carried out with a recombinant Escherichia coli to investigate the suitability of the different software sensor models in diverse cultivation stages. Special respect was given to effects on the sensors after recombinant...

  6. 固体氧化物燃料电池电厂并网最优效率负荷跟踪分层递阶控制策略%Maximum Efficiency Load-tracking Hierarchical Control Scheme for Grid-connected Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Power Plants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李勇汇; 王冰; 朱海昱

    2014-01-01

    By introducing the energy balance equation in a benchmark dynamic model, a feasible operating space (FOS) for solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) steady-state operating safety was proposed in this paper. The maximum electrical efficiency for a given active power (P) was proven to be on one of the boundaries of the FOS where the fuel utilization factor (u) and stack operating temperature (T) are the maximum and minimum allowable values respectively. The positions of the poles of the dynamic model indicate a hierarchical control scheme, which contains a fast and a slow control system, can be used for the SOFC power plant to achieve the maximum efficiency load-tracking under the grid-connected condition. Based on the relative gain array analysis, P and u as the two outputs of the fast active power control system are strongly dependent on the natural gas flow rate of the fuel processor and the phase shift angle (δ) of the power conditioning unit respectively. The system can therefore be decentralized to two single-input and two single-output systems. The multiplicate model factor described the loop interactions were included in the design of corresponding proportional-integral-differential (PID) controllers. The oxygen flow rate was used to regulate T in the slow temperature control system. Asδhas a significant effect on T, a feed-forward controller was used to reject the disturbance. The efficacy of the overall control scheme was verified by the simulation results.%通过对一个基准动态模型引入能量守恒公式,该文提出适用于固体氧化物燃料电池(solid oxide fuel cell, SOFC)静态安全运行的合理运行空间(feasible operating space, FOS)。输出有功P在FOS的一个边界上时其电气效率被证明为最大,此时氢气利用系数 u 和电堆温度 T 分别为允许的最大值和最小值。动态模型极点的分布表明:并网SOFC电厂实现最大效率负荷跟踪可采用含有一个快速和一个慢速控制系统的分

  7. A study on clavulanic acid production by Streptomyces clavuligerus in batch, fed-batch and continuous processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. B. Neto

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Clavulanic acid (CA is a potent inhibitor of beta-lactamases, enzymes that are responsible for the hydrolysis of beta-lactam antibiotics. It is a secondary metabolite produced by the filamentous aerobic bacterium Streptomyces clavuligerus in submerged cultivations. In the present work clavulanic acid production in batch, fed-batch and continuous bioreactors was studied with the objective of increasing productivity. The operating conditions: temperature, aeration and agitation, were the same in all cases, 28º C, 0.5 vvm and 800 rpm, respectively. The CA concentration obtained in the fed-batch culture, 404 mg L-1, was ca twice the value obtained in the batch culture, 194 mg L-1, while 293 mg L-1 was obtained in the continuous culture. The highest productivity was obtained in the continuous cultivation, 10.6 mg L-1 h-1, as compared with 8.8 mg L-1 h-1 in the fed-batch process and 3.5 mg L-1 h-1 in the batch process, suggesting that continuous culture of Streptomyces clavuligerus is a promising strategy for clavulanic acid production.

  8. Butanol production by immobilised Clostridium acetobutylicum in repeated batch, fed-batch, and continuous modes of fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolejš, Igor; Krasňan, Vladimír; Stloukal, Radek; Rosenberg, Michal; Rebroš, Martin

    2014-10-01

    Clostridium acetobutylicum immobilised in polyvinylalcohol, lens-shaped hydrogel capsules (LentiKats(®)) was studied for production of butanol and other products of acetone-butanol-ethanol fermentation. After optimising the immobilisation protocol for anaerobic bacteria, continuous, repeated batch, and fed-batch fermentations in repeated batch mode were performed. Using glucose as a substrate, butanol productivity of 0.41 g/L/h and solvent productivity of 0.63 g/L/h were observed at a dilution rate of 0.05 h(-1) during continuous fermentation with a concentrated substrate (60 g/L). Through the process of repeated batch fermentation, the duration of fermentation was reduced from 27.8h (free-cell fermentation) to 3.3h (immobilised cells) with a solvent productivity of 0.77 g/L/h (butanol 0.57 g/L/h). The highest butanol and solvent productivities of 1.21 and 1.91 g/L/h were observed during fed-batch fermentation operated in repeated batch mode with yields of butanol (0.15 g/g) and solvents (0.24 g/g), respectively, produced per gram of glucose.

  9. Adsorption of Magnesium Sulfate from Desulfurization Industrial Wastewater by Nano-Cerium Loaded Recycled Aggregates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Hyung-Sun; Bak, Somi; Seo, Seong-Gyu; Choi, Jeongdong; Kim, Eun-Sik

    2016-02-01

    In this research, the recycled aggregates (RAs) from blast furnace were solidified with nano-cerium (Ce), and applied to reduce the ionic species (e.g., magnesium sulfate) in the desulfurization industrial wastewater. Static batch experiments were performed based on different loading of recycled aggregates. Sulfate sorption isotherm studies were performed by Langmuir adsorption model. The physical morphologies were determined using scanning electron microscope. The results presented that the partial ions were captured with the different loading of the recycled aggregates during the batch tests. It was observed that 8 hr batch reaction equilibrated the electrical conductivity reduction, and 13% mass loading was estimated an optimal dosage of adsorbent. This study showed the nano-Ce loaded RAs could reduce ionic species in wastewater, and expected to be an economical adsorbent for wastewater treatment process. PMID:27433701

  10. Loads and loads and loads: the influence of prospective load, retrospective load, and ongoing task load in prospective memory

    OpenAIRE

    Beat eMeier; Zimmermann, Thomas D.

    2015-01-01

    In prospective memory tasks different kinds of load can occur. Adding a prospective memory task can impose a load on ongoing task performance. Adding ongoing task load can affect prospective memory performance. The existence of multiple target events increases prospective load and adding complexity to the to-be-remembered action increases retrospective load. In two experiments, we systematically examined the effects of these different types of load on prospective memory performance. Results s...

  11. Improved Ternary Subdivision Interpolation Scheme

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Huawei; QIN Kaihuai

    2005-01-01

    An improved ternary subdivision interpolation scheme was developed for computer graphics applications that can manipulate open control polygons unlike the previous ternary scheme, with the resulting curve proved to be still C2-continuous. Parameterizations of the limit curve near the two endpoints are given with expressions for the boundary derivatives. The split joint problem is handled with the interpolating ternary subdivision scheme. The improved scheme can be used for modeling interpolation curves in computer aided geometric design systems, and provides a method for joining two limit curves of interpolating ternary subdivisions.

  12. SLUDGE BATCH 5 VARIABILITY STUDY WITH FRIT 418

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raszewski, F; Tommy Edwards, T; David Peeler, D

    2008-09-29

    The Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) is preparing to initiate processing Sludge Batch 5 (SB5) in early FY 2009. In support of the upcoming processing, the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) provided a recommendation to utilize Frit 418 as a transitional frit to initiate processing of SB5. This recommendation was based on the results of assessments on the compositional projections for SB5 available at that time from both the Liquid Waste Organization (LWO) and SRNL (using a model-based approach). To support qualification of the Frit 418-SB5 system, SRNL executed a variability study to assess the acceptability of the Frit 418-SB5 glasses with respect to durability and the applicability of the current durability models. Twenty one glasses were selected for the variability study based on the available SB5 projections primarily spanning a waste loading (WL) range of 25-37%. In order to account for the addition of caustic to Tank 40, which occurred in July 2008, 3 wt% Na2O was added to the original Tank 40 heel projections. The addition of the Actinide Removal Process (ARP) stream to the blend composition was also included. Two of the glasses were fabricated at 25% and 28% WL in order to challenge the homogeneity constraint of the Product Composition Control System (PCCS) for SB5 coupled operations. These twenty one glasses were fabricated and characterized using chemical composition analysis, X-ray Diffraction (XRD) and the Product Consistency Test (PCT). The results of this study indicate that Frit 418 is a viable option for sludge-only and coupled operations. The addition of ARP did not have any negative impacts on the acceptability and predictability of the variability study glasses. Based on the measured PCT response, all of the glasses were acceptable as compared to the Environmental Assessment (EA) reference glass regardless of the thermal history and were also predictable using the current PCCS model for durability. The homogeneity constraint can

  13. Load Control System Reliability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trudnowski, Daniel [Montana Tech of the Univ. of Montana, Butte, MT (United States)

    2015-04-03

    This report summarizes the results of the Load Control System Reliability project (DOE Award DE-FC26-06NT42750). The original grant was awarded to Montana Tech April 2006. Follow-on DOE awards and expansions to the project scope occurred August 2007, January 2009, April 2011, and April 2013. In addition to the DOE monies, the project also consisted of matching funds from the states of Montana and Wyoming. Project participants included Montana Tech; the University of Wyoming; Montana State University; NorthWestern Energy, Inc., and MSE. Research focused on two areas: real-time power-system load control methodologies; and, power-system measurement-based stability-assessment operation and control tools. The majority of effort was focused on area 2. Results from the research includes: development of fundamental power-system dynamic concepts, control schemes, and signal-processing algorithms; many papers (including two prize papers) in leading journals and conferences and leadership of IEEE activities; one patent; participation in major actual-system testing in the western North American power system; prototype power-system operation and control software installed and tested at three major North American control centers; and, the incubation of a new commercial-grade operation and control software tool. Work under this grant certainly supported the DOE-OE goals in the area of “Real Time Grid Reliability Management.”

  14. Comparison of Mesh Adaptivity Schemes in Finite ElementSimulation of Tube Extrusion Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. K. Pathak

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available In this study, finite element simulation of tube extrusion process has been carried outconsidering different mesh adaptivity schemes. A comparison of these schemes has been madebased on stress, strain distribution, and load-stroke curves. Based on the finite element results,it is observed that the success of the computer simulation is dependent on the mesh refinementcriteria.

  15. Performance evaluation of time-delay control schemes for uninterruptible power supplies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Loh, P.C; Tang, Y.; Blaabjerg, Frede;

    2008-01-01

    transitions. Even more favorable is that the above-described performance features are attained under all load-operating conditions and at the same level of implementation easiness as for the traditional double-loop control scheme. Lastly, for verifying the practicality of the control schemes, an experimental...

  16. AUTISTIC CHILDREN PROTECTION SCHEME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragan LUKIC

    1998-09-01

    Full Text Available The present article sets forth the theoretical grounds which make the basis for the organizational scheme of the autistic persons social protection. This protection consists of the below listed forms of work:· Health service with the role of an early detection and participation in the creation of rehabilitation programs;· Social protection with its programs of work from the diagnostics where the defectologist makes a team together with the physician and the psychologists to the systems of rehabilitation institutions where the defectologist’s is the main responsibility.The present article underlines two facts, namely:· that an autistic person requires to be followed and every spare moment used to promote and advance the activities the doer commenced himself instead of having him carry out the programs which are beyond his internal motivations and which he finds emotionally inaccessible;· that and form of work organization with autistic persons must subordinate its administrative part to the basic professional requirements this kind of disorder (handicap sets in front of each professional.

  17. 40 CFR 63.492 - Batch front-end process vents-reporting requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Batch front-end process vents-reporting... Batch front-end process vents—reporting requirements. (a) The owner or operator of a batch front-end process vent or aggregate batch vent stream at an affected source shall submit the information...

  18. 40 CFR 63.1322 - Batch process vents-reference control technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 11 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Batch process vents-reference control... Batch process vents—reference control technology. (a) Batch process vents. The owner or operator of a Group 1 batch process vent, as determined using the procedures in § 63.1323, shall comply with...

  19. 40 CFR 63.1327 - Batch process vents-reporting requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 11 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Batch process vents-reporting... Batch process vents—reporting requirements. (a) The owner or operator of a batch process vent or aggregate batch vent stream at an affected source shall submit the information specified in paragraphs...

  20. 40 CFR 63.1326 - Batch process vents-recordkeeping provisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 11 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Batch process vents-recordkeeping... Batch process vents—recordkeeping provisions. (a) Group determination records for batch process vents... batch process vent subject to the group determination procedures of § 63.1323. Except for paragraph...

  1. 40 CFR 63.487 - Batch front-end process vents-reference control technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... assumes that the batch unit operation is operating at the maximum design capacity of the EPPU for 12... 40 Protection of Environment 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Batch front-end process vents-reference... § 63.487 Batch front-end process vents—reference control technology. (a) Batch front-end process...

  2. Dynamic Load Balancing of Samr Applications on Distributed Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Zhiling Lan; Taylor, Valerie E.; Greg Bryan

    2002-01-01

    Dynamic load balancing(DLB) for parallel systems has been studied extensively; however, DLB for distributed systems is relatively new. To efficiently utilize computing resources provided by distributed systems, an underlying DLB scheme must address both heterogeneous and dynamic features of distributed systems. In this paper, we propose a DLB scheme for Structured Adaptive Mesh Refinement(SAMR) applications on distributed systems. While the proposed scheme can take into consideration (1) the ...

  3. Simplified Load-Following Control for a Fuel Cell System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasquez, Arturo

    2010-01-01

    A simplified load-following control scheme has been proposed for a fuel cell power system. The scheme could be used to control devices that are important parts of a fuel cell system but are sometimes characterized as parasitic because they consume some of the power generated by the fuel cells.

  4. Testing SLURM open source batch system for a Tierl/Tier2 HEP computing facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donvito, Giacinto; Salomoni, Davide; Italiano, Alessandro

    2014-06-01

    In this work the testing activities that were carried on to verify if the SLURM batch system could be used as the production batch system of a typical Tier1/Tier2 HEP computing center are shown. SLURM (Simple Linux Utility for Resource Management) is an Open Source batch system developed mainly by the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, SchedMD, Linux NetworX, Hewlett-Packard, and Groupe Bull. Testing was focused both on verifying the functionalities of the batch system and the performance that SLURM is able to offer. We first describe our initial set of requirements. Functionally, we started configuring SLURM so that it replicates all the scheduling policies already used in production in the computing centers involved in the test, i.e. INFN-Bari and the INFN-Tier1 at CNAF, Bologna. Currently, the INFN-Tier1 is using IBM LSF (Load Sharing Facility), while INFN-Bari, an LHC Tier2 for both CMS and Alice, is using Torque as resource manager and MAUI as scheduler. We show how we configured SLURM in order to enable several scheduling functionalities such as Hierarchical FairShare, Quality of Service, user-based and group-based priority, limits on the number of jobs per user/group/queue, job age scheduling, job size scheduling, and scheduling of consumable resources. We then show how different job typologies, like serial, MPI, multi-thread, whole-node and interactive jobs can be managed. Tests on the use of ACLs on queues or in general other resources are then described. A peculiar SLURM feature we also verified is triggers on event, useful to configure specific actions on each possible event in the batch system. We also tested highly available configurations for the master node. This feature is of paramount importance since a mandatory requirement in our scenarios is to have a working farm cluster even in case of hardware failure of the server(s) hosting the batch system. Among our requirements there is also the possibility to deal with pre-execution and post

  5. Guam Power Authority automatic underfrequency load shedding study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wong, H.H. [Hawaiian Electric Co., Honolulu, HI (United States); Flores, J.C.; Fang, Y.; Baldevia, R.P. Jr. [Guam Power Authority, Agana (Guam)

    1995-12-31

    This paper describes the development of a new automatic underfrequency load shedding scheme on the Guam Power Authority`s (GPA) system using a transient stability simulation program. The new scheme strives to minimize the amount of load shed by selecting frequency settings based on the severity of generation or load unbalance and the availability of spinning reserves. The fast speed of frequency decay due to loss of generation is shown to be particularly pronounced in an island system, requiring more careful design of any load shedding scheme than large interconnected systems. The use of a well-prepared transient stability study model allows the simulation of specific contingencies and the fine-tuning of load shedding strategies for optimality. The trade-off between equipment protection, customer service availability, and practical operating issues, such as, synchronization of generators to the grid, are discussed.

  6. Elimination of water pathogens with solar radiation using an automated sequential batch CPC reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Polo-Lopez, M.I., E-mail: mpolo@psa.es [Plataforma Solar de Almeria - CIEMAT, PO Box 22, 04200 Tabernas, Almeria (Spain); Fernandez-Ibanez, P., E-mail: pilar.fernandez@psa.es [Plataforma Solar de Almeria - CIEMAT, PO Box 22, 04200 Tabernas, Almeria (Spain); Ubomba-Jaswa, E., E-mail: euniceubombajaswa@yahoo.com [Natural Resources and the Environment, CSIR, PO Box 395, Pretoria (South Africa); Navntoft, C., E-mail: christian.navntoft@solarmate.com.ar [Instituto de Investigacion e Ingenieria Ambiental, Universidad Nacional de San Martin (3iA-UNSAM), Peatonal Belgrano 3563, B1650ANQ San Martin (Argentina); Universidad Tecnologica Nacional - Facultad Regional Buenos Aires - Departamento de Ingenieria Civil - Laboratorio de Estudios sobre Energia Solar, (UTN-FRBA-LESES), Mozart 2300, (1407) Ciudad Autonoma de Buenos Aires, Republica Argentina (Argentina); Garcia-Fernandez, I., E-mail: irene.garcia@psa.es [Plataforma Solar de Almeria - CIEMAT, PO Box 22, 04200 Tabernas, Almeria (Spain); Dunlop, P.S.M., E-mail: psm.dunlop@ulster.ac.uk [Department of Physiology and Medical Physics, Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland, Dublin 2 (Ireland); Schmid, M. [Department of Physiology and Medical Physics, Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland, Dublin 2 (Ireland); Byrne, J.A., E-mail: j.byrne@ulster.ac.uk [Department of Physiology and Medical Physics, Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland, Dublin 2 (Ireland); and others

    2011-11-30

    Solar disinfection (SODIS) of water is a well-known, effective treatment process which is practiced at household level in many developing countries. However, this process is limited by the small volume treated and there is no indication of treatment efficacy for the user. Low cost glass tube reactors, together with compound parabolic collector (CPC) technology, have been shown to significantly increase the efficiency of solar disinfection. However, these reactors still require user input to control each batch SODIS process and there is no feedback that the process is complete. Automatic operation of the batch SODIS process, controlled by UVA-radiation sensors, can provide information on the status of the process, can ensure the required UVA dose to achieve complete disinfection is received and reduces user work-load through automatic sequential batch processing. In this work, an enhanced CPC photo-reactor with a concentration factor of 1.89 was developed. The apparatus was automated to achieve exposure to a pre-determined UVA dose. Treated water was automatically dispensed into a reservoir tank. The reactor was tested using Escherichia coli as a model pathogen in natural well water. A 6-log inactivation of E. coli was achieved following exposure to the minimum uninterrupted lethal UVA dose. The enhanced reactor decreased the exposure time required to achieve the lethal UVA dose, in comparison to a CPC system with a concentration factor of 1.0. Doubling the lethal UVA dose prevented the need for a period of post-exposure dark inactivation and reduced the overall treatment time. Using this reactor, SODIS can be automatically carried out at an affordable cost, with reduced exposure time and minimal user input.

  7. Reconfirmation of frit 803 based on the January 2016 sludge batch 9 reprojection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, F. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Edwards, T. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2016-02-10

    On January 11, 2016, Savannah River Remediation (SRR) provided the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) with a Sludge Batch 9 (SB9) reprojection that was developed from the analyzed composition of a Tank 51 sample. This sample was collected after field washing had been completed in Tank 51 to support the alternate reductant task. Based on this reprojection, Frit 803 is still a viable option for the processing of SB9 under sludge-only operations and coupled (Actinide Removal Process (ARP) product with and without monosodium titanate (MST)) operations. The maximum projected volumes of ARP product that can be transferred from the Precipitate Reactor Feed Tank (PRFT) per Sludge Receipt and Adjustment Tank (SRAT) batch and the resulting Na2O concentrations in the SRAT for coupled operations were determined. The Na2O concentrations in the SRAT resulting from the maximum projected ARP product transfer volumes are consistent with those from the previous assessments that were based on the August 2015 projections. Regardless of the presence or absence of MST in the ARP product, the contribution of Na2O to the resulting glass will be similar at the same waste loading (WL). These projected volumes of ARP product are not anticipated to be an issue for SB9. The actual transfer volumes from the PRFT to the SRAT are determined based upon the analyzed Na2O concentrations in the PRFT samples, which has resulted in larger transfer volumes than those allowed by the projections for Sludge Batch 8 (SB8). An operating window of 32-40% WL around the nominal WL of 36% is achievable for both sludge-only and coupled operations; however, each of the glass systems studied does become limited by waste form affecting constraints (durability) at higher volumes of ARP product and WLs of 41-42%.

  8. Hermite-interpolatory subdivision schemes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuijt, Frans; Damme, van Ruud

    1998-01-01

    Stationary interpolatory subdivision schemes for Hermite data that consist of function values and first derivatives are examined. A general class of Hermite-interpolatory subdivision schemes is proposed, and some of its basic properties are stated. The goal is to characterise and construct certain c

  9. Homographic scheme for Riccati equation

    CERN Document Server

    Dubois, François

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we present a numerical scheme for the resolution of matrix Riccati equation, usualy used in control problems. The scheme is unconditionnaly stable and the solution is definite positive at each time step of the resolution. We prove the convergence in the scalar case and present several numerical experiments for classical test cases.

  10. On stochastic finite difference schemes

    OpenAIRE

    Gyongy, Istvan

    2013-01-01

    Finite difference schemes in the spatial variable for degenerate stochastic parabolic PDEs are investigated. Sharp results on the rate of $L_p$ and almost sure convergence of the finite difference approximations are presented and results on Richardson extrapolation are established for stochastic parabolic schemes under smoothness assumptions.

  11. Load balancing in integrated optical wireless networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yan, Ying; Dittmann, Lars; Wong, S-W.;

    2010-01-01

    with the integrated control scheme so as to maximize overall network throughput in the integrated network architecture. To the best of our knowledge no load balancing mechanisms, especially based on the Multi-Point Control Protocol (MPCP) defined in the IEEE 802.3ah, have been proposed so far. The major research...

  12. Run-to-run product quality control of batch processes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIA Li; SHI Ji-ping; CHENG Da-shuai; CHIU Min-sen

    2009-01-01

    Batch processes have been increasingly used in the production of low volume and high value added products.Consequently,optimization control in batch processes is crucial in order to derive the maximum benefit.In this paper,a run-to-run product quality control based on iterative learning optimization control is developed.Moreover,a rigorous theorem is proposed and proven in this paper,which states that the tracking error under the optimal iterative learning control (ILC) law can converge to zero.In this paper,a typical nonlinear batch continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR) is considered,and the results show that the performance of trajectory tracking is gradually improved by the ILC.

  13. Batch Statistical Process Monitoring Approach to a Cocrystallization Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarraguça, Mafalda C; Ribeiro, Paulo R S; Santos, Adenilson O Dos; Lopes, João A

    2015-12-01

    Cocrystals are defined as crystalline structures composed of two or more compounds that are solid at room temperature held together by noncovalent bonds. Their main advantages are the increase of solubility, bioavailability, permeability, stability, and at the same time retaining active pharmaceutical ingredient bioactivity. The cocrystallization between furosemide and nicotinamide by solvent evaporation was monitored on-line using near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) as a process analytical technology tool. The near-infrared spectra were analyzed using principal component analysis. Batch statistical process monitoring was used to create control charts to perceive the process trajectory and define control limits. Normal and non-normal operating condition batches were performed and monitored with NIRS. The use of NIRS associated with batch statistical process models allowed the detection of abnormal variations in critical process parameters, like the amount of solvent or amount of initial components present in the cocrystallization.

  14. Biogas plasticization coupled anaerobic digestion: batch test results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schimel, Keith A

    2007-06-01

    Biogas has unique properties for improving the biodegradability of biomass solids during anaerobic digestion (AD). This report presents batch test results of the first investigation into utilizing biogas plasticization to "condition" organic polymers during active digestion of waste activated sludge (WAS). Preliminary design calculations based on polymer diffusion rate limitation are presented. Analysis of the 20 degrees C batch test data determined the first order (k(1)) COD conversion coefficient to be 0.167 day(-1) with a maximum COD utilization rate of 11.25 g L(-1) day(-1). Comparison of these batch test results to typical conventional AD performance parameters showed orders of magnitude improvement. These results show that biogas plasticization during active AD could greatly improve renewable energy yields from biomass waste materials such as MSW RDF, STP sludges, food wastes, animal manure, green wastes, and agricultural crop residuals. PMID:17054122

  15. Application of gain scheduling to the control of batch bioreactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardello, Ralph; San, Ka-Yiu

    1987-01-01

    The implementation of control algorithms to batch bioreactors is often complicated by the inherent variations in process dynamics during the course of fermentation. Such a wide operating range may render the performance of fixed gain PID controllers unsatisfactory. In this work, a detailed study on the control of batch fermentation is performed. Furthermore, a simple batch controller design is proposed which incorporates the concept of gain-scheduling, a subclass of adaptive control, with oxygen uptake rate as an auxiliary variable. The control of oxygen tension in the biorector is used as a vehicle to convey the proposed idea, analysis and results. Simulation experiments indicate significant improvement in controller performance can be achieved by the proposed approach even in the presence of measurement noise.

  16. Batch variation between branchial cell cultures: An analysis of variance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Heinz Johs. Max; Grosell, M.; Kristensen, L.

    2003-01-01

    We present in detail how a statistical analysis of variance (ANOVA) is used to sort out the effect of an unexpected batch-to-batch variation between cell cultures. Two separate cultures of rainbow trout branchial cells were grown on permeable filtersupports ("inserts"). They were supposed...... and introducing the observed difference between batches as one of the factors in an expanded three-dimensional ANOVA, we were able to overcome an otherwisecrucial lack of sufficiently reproducible duplicate values. We could thereby show that the effect of changing the apical medium was much more marked when...... the radioactive lipid precursors were added on the apical, rather than on the basolateral, side. Theinsert cell cultures were obviously polarized. We argue that it is not reasonable to reject troublesome experimental results, when we do not know a priori that something went wrong. The ANOVA is a very useful...

  17. From Fed-batch to Continuous Enzymatic Biodiesel Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Price, Jason Anthony; Nordblad, Mathias; Woodley, John M.;

    2015-01-01

    In this this paper, we use mechanistic modelling to guide the development of acontinuous enzymatic process that is performed as a fed-batch operation. In this workwe use the enzymatic biodiesel process as a case study. A mechanistic model developedin our previous work was used to determine...... measured components (triglycerides, diglycerides, monoglycerides, free fatty acid and fatty acid methyl esters(biodiesel)) much better than using fed-batch data alone given the smaller residuals. We also observe a reduction in the correlation between the parameters.The model was then used to predict that 5...... reactors are required (with a combined residence time of 30 hours) to reach a final biodiesel concentration within 2 % of the95.6 mass % achieved in a fed-batch operation, for 24 hours....

  18. Multiuser Switched Diversity Scheduling Schemes

    CERN Document Server

    Shaqfeh, Mohammad; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim

    2012-01-01

    Multiuser switched-diversity scheduling schemes were recently proposed in order to overcome the heavy feedback requirements of conventional opportunistic scheduling schemes by applying a threshold-based, distributed, and ordered scheduling mechanism. The main idea behind these schemes is that slight reduction in the prospected multiuser diversity gains is an acceptable trade-off for great savings in terms of required channel-state-information feedback messages. In this work, we characterize the achievable rate region of multiuser switched diversity systems and compare it with the rate region of full feedback multiuser diversity systems. We propose also a novel proportional fair multiuser switched-based scheduling scheme and we demonstrate that it can be optimized using a practical and distributed method to obtain the feedback thresholds. We finally demonstrate by numerical examples that switched-diversity scheduling schemes operate within 0.3 bits/sec/Hz from the ultimate network capacity of full feedback sys...

  19. Initial Sulfate Solubility Study for Sludge Batch 4 (SB4)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lorier, T

    2005-04-01

    The objective of this task is to provide the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) of the Savannah River Site (SRS) with an assessment of the viability of using the current 0.6 wt% SO{sub 4}{sup =} limit (in glass) and/or the possibility of increasing the SO{sub 4}{sup =} solubility limit to account for anticipated sulfur concentrations in Sludge Batch 4 (SB4). The 0.6 wt% SO{sub 4}{sup =} limit was implemented for processing of Frit 418-Sludge Batch 3 (SB3) to avoid the formation of sulfate inclusions in the glass and/or the formation of a molten sulfate-rich phase on the melt pool in the DWPF melter. The presence of such a phase on the surface of the melt pool increases corrosion rates of melter components, enhances the potential for steam excursions in a slurry-fed waste glass melter, and creates the potential for undesirable current paths that could deplete energy delivered to the melter due to the electrical conductivity of the molten salt layer. This suite of sulfate-solubility tests began by testing the 1200-canister, 2nd transfer case for SB4 (as defined by Lilliston and Shah, 2004)--based on this being the most conservative (having the highest predicted viscosity when coupled with specific frits, it could potentially have the greatest impact on SO{sub 4}{sup =} solubility) blending scenario of SB4 with the heel of SB3 for SO{sub 4}{sup =} solubility. Frits 320 and 418 were tested with SB4 and the tests indicated that at the current SO{sub 4}{sup =} limit (in glass) and the tested waste loadings (30% and 40%), neither Frit 320 nor Frit 418 could be utilized with SB4 (for the 1200-canister, 2nd transfer case composition originally provided). More specifically, SO{sub 4}{sup =} was observed on the surface with the SB4 composition and Frit 320 at 40% waste loading (WL) and 0.6 wt% SO{sub 4}{sup =}, and with Frit 418 at 30% and 40% WL and 0.5 wt% SO{sub 4}{sup =}. As alternative frits were being developed--Frits 447, 448, and 449, that contained CaO and/or V

  20. SULFATE SOLUBILITY LIMIT VERIFICATION FOR DWPF SLUDGE BATCH 7B

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fox, K.

    2011-10-03

    The objective of this study was to determine a sulfate solubility limit in glass for Sludge Batch 7b (SB7b). The SB7b composition projection provided by Savannah River Remediation (SRR) on May 25, 2011 was used as the basis for formulating glass compositions to determine the sulfate limit. Additions of Na{sub 2}O to the projected sludge composition were made by the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) due to uncertainty in the final concentration of Na{sub 2}O for SB7b, which is dependent on washing effectiveness and the potential need to add NaOH to ensure an acceptable projected operating window. Additions of 4, 6, and 8 wt % Na{sub 2}O were made to the nominal May 25, 2011 composition projection. An updated SB7b composition projection was received from SRR on August 4, 2011. Due to compositional similarities, no additional experimental work using the August 4, 2011 compositions was considered to be necessary for this study. Both Frit 418 and Frit 702 were included in this study. The targeted sulfate (SO{sub 4}{sup 2-}) concentrations of the study glasses were selected within the range of 0.6 to 0.9 wt % in glass. A total of 52 glass compositions were selected based on the compositional variables of Na{sub 2}O addition, Actinide Removal Process (ARP) stream addition, waste loading, frit composition, and sulfate concentration. The glasses were batched, melted, and characterized following SRNL procedures. Visual observations were recorded for each glass after it cooled and used as in indicator of sulfur retention. Representative samples of each of the glasses fabricated were subjected to chemical analysis to determine whether the targeted compositions were met, as well as to determine the quantity of sulfate that was retained after melting. In general, the measured composition data showed that there were only minor issues in meeting the targeted compositions for the study glasses, and the measured sulfate concentrations for each study glass were within 10% of

  1. Improving the Load Balancing Performance of Vlasiator

    CERN Document Server

    Turk, Ata; Demirci, G Vehbi; von Alfthan, Sebastian; Honkonen, Ilja

    2011-01-01

    This whitepaper describes the load-balancing performance issues that are observed and tackled during the petascaling of the Vlasiator codes. Vlasiator is a Vlasov-hybrid simulation code developed in Finnish Meteorological Institute (FMI). Vlasiator models the communications associated with the spatial grid operated on as a hypergraph and partitions the grid using the parallel hypergraph partitioning scheme (PHG) of the Zoltan partitioning framework. The result of partitioning determines the distribution of grid cells to processors. It is observed that the partitioning phase takes a substantial percentage of the overall computation time. Alternative (graph-partitioning-based) schemes that perform almost as well as the hypergraph partitioning scheme and that require less preprocessing overhead and better balance are proposed and investigated. A comparison in terms of effect on running time, preprocessing overhead and load-balancing quality of Zoltan's PHG, ParMeTiS, and PT-SCOTCH are presented. Test results on ...

  2. Batch-related sterile endophthalmitis following intravitreal injection of bevacizumab

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morteza Entezari

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: To report a series of patients with sterile endophthalmitis after intravitreal bevacizumab (IVB injection from 2 different batches of bevacizumab. Materials and Methods: Records of 11 eyes with severe inflammation after IVB injections from two different batches (7 eyes from one and 4 from the other on two separate days were evaluated. Fifteen eyes of 15 patients in one day were treated with one batch and 18 eyes of 17 patients were treated another day using another batch injected for different retinal diseases. Each batch was opened on the day of injection. We used commercially available bevacizumab (100 mg/4 ml kept at 4°C. Severe cases with hypopyon were admitted to the ward and underwent anterior chamber and vitreous tap for direct smear and culture. Results: Pain, redness and decreased vision began after 11-17 days. All had anterior chamber and vitreous reactions and 5 had hypopyon. Antibiotics and corticosteroids were initiated immediately, but the antibiotics were discontinued after negative culture results. Visual acuity returned to pre-injection levels in 10 eyes after 1 month and only in one eye pars plana vitrectomy was performed. Mean VA at the time of presentation with inflammation (1.76 ± 0.78 logMAR decreased significantly (P = 0.008 compared to the initial mean corrected VA (1.18 ± 0.55 logMAR; however, final mean corrected VA (1.02 ± 0.48 logMAR improved in comparison with the baseline but not to a significant level (P = 0.159. Conclusions: We report a cluster of sterile endophthalmitis following intravitreal injection of bevacizumab from the same batch of bevacizumab that has a favorable prognosis.

  3. FRIT OPTIMIZATION FOR SLUDGE BATCH PROCESSING AT THE DEFENSE WASTE PROCESSING FACILITY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fox, K.

    2009-01-28

    The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) Frit Development Team recommends that the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) utilize Frit 418 for initial processing of high level waste (HLW) Sludge Batch 5 (SB5). The extended SB5 preparation time and need for DWPF feed have necessitated the use of a frit that is already included on the DWPF procurement specification. Frit 418 has been used previously in vitrification of Sludge Batches 3 and 4. Paper study assessments predict that Frit 418 will form an acceptable glass when combined with SB5 over a range of waste loadings (WLs), typically 30-41% based on nominal projected SB5 compositions. Frit 418 has a relatively high degree of robustness with regard to variation in the projected SB5 composition, particularly when the Na{sub 2}O concentration is varied. The acceptability (chemical durability) and model applicability of the Frit 418-SB5 system will be verified experimentally through a variability study, to be documented separately. Frit 418 has not been designed to provide an optimal melt rate with SB5, but is recommended for initial processing of SB5 until experimental testing to optimize a frit composition for melt rate can be completed. Melt rate performance can not be predicted at this time and must be determined experimentally. Note that melt rate testing may either identify an improved frit for SB5 processing (one which produces an acceptable glass at a faster rate than Frit 418) or confirm that Frit 418 is the best option.

  4. Batch Private Keys Generation for RSA in Security Communication Systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Yun; CHEN Xin

    2005-01-01

    RSA public key cryptosystem is extensively used in information security systems.However, key generation for RSA cryptosystem requires multiplicative inversion over finite field, which has higher computational complexity, compared with either multiplication in common sense or modular multiplication over finite field. In order to improve the performance of key generation, we propose a batch private keys generation method in this paper. The method derives efficiency from cutting down multiplicative inversions over finite field. Theoretical analysis shows that the speed of batch private keys generation for s users is faster than that of s times solo private key generation. It is suitable for applications in those systems with large amount of users.

  5. Experimental Validation of a Marine Propeller Thrust Estimation Scheme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Pivano

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available A thrust estimation scheme for a marine propeller has been experimentally tested in waves and with a device that simulates the influence of a vessel hull. The scheme is formed by a nonlinear propeller torque observer and a mapping to generate the thrust from the observed torque. The mapping includes the estimation of the advance number. This is utilized to improve the performance when the propeller is lightly loaded. The advance speed is assumed to be unknown, and only measurements of shaft speed and motor torque have been used. Accurate results have been obtained in experimental tests.

  6. Analysis and modelling of the energy requirements of batch processes; Analyse und Modellierung des Energiebedarfes in Batch-Prozessen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bieler, P.S.

    2002-07-01

    This intermediate report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) presents the results of a project aiming to model the energy consumption of multi-product, multi-purpose batch production plants. The utilities investigated were electricity, brine and steam. Both top-down and bottom-up approaches are described, whereby top-down was used for the buildings where the batch process apparatus was installed. Modelling showed that for batch-plants at the building level, the product mix can be too variable and the diversity of products and processes too great for simple modelling. Further results obtained by comparing six different production plants that could be modelled are discussed. The several models developed are described and their wider applicability is discussed. Also, the results of comparisons made between modelled and actual values are presented. Recommendations for further work are made.

  7. Aerobic digestion of tannery wastewater in a sequential batch reactor by salt-tolerant bacterial strains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durai, G.; Rajasimman, M.; Rajamohan, N.

    2011-09-01

    Among the industries generating hyper saline effluents, tanneries are prominent in India. Hyper saline wastewater is difficult to treat by conventional biological treatment methods. Salt-tolerant microbes can adapt to these conditions and degrade the organics in hyper saline wastewater. In this study, the performance of a bench scale aerobic sequencing batch reactor (SBR) was investigated to treat the tannery wastewater by the salt-tolerant bacterial strains namely Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Bacillus flexus, Exiguobacterium homiense and Styphylococcus aureus. The study was carried out under different operating conditions by changing the hydraulic retention time, organic loading rate and initial substrate concentration. From the results it was found that a maximum COD reduction of 90.4% and colour removal of 78.6% was attained. From this study it was found that the salt-tolerant microorganisms could improve the reduction efficiency of COD and colour of the tannery wastewater.

  8. Microbial population dynamics during sludge granulation in an A/O/A sequencing batch reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Qiulai; Zhou, Jun; Wang, Hongyu; Zhang, Jing; Wei, Li

    2016-08-01

    The evolution of the bacterial population during formation of denitrifying phosphorus removal granular sludge was investigated using high-throughput pyrosequencing. As a result, mature granules with a compact structure were obtained in an anaerobic/aerobic/anoxic (A/O/A) sequencing batch reactor under an organic loading rate as low as 0.3kg COD/(m(3)·d). Rod-shaped microbes were observed to cover with the outer surface of granules. Besides, reliable COD and simultaneous nitrogen and phosphorus removal efficiencies were achieved over the whole operation period. MiSeq pyrosequencing analysis illustrated that both the microbial diversity and richness increased sharply during the granulation process, whereas they stayed stable after the presence of granules. Some microorganisms seemed to contribute to the formation of granules, and some were identified as functional bacterial groups responsible for constructing the biological reactor. PMID:27115745

  9. Combined treatment of landfill leachate with fecal supernatant in sequencing batch reactor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Shao-qi; ZHANG Hong-guo; SHI Yong

    2006-01-01

    A laboratory-scale sequencing batch reactor (SBR) is used to treat landfill leachate containing high concentration of ammonium nitrogen with municipal fecal supernatant. The SBR system is operated in the following sequential phases: fill period,anoxic period, aeration period, settling period, decant and idle period. The results indicated that the average removal efficiencies of COD, BOD5, TN, NH+4-N were 93.76%, 98.28%, 84.74% and 99.21%, respectively. The average sludge removal loading rates of Highly effective simultaneous nitrification and denitrification was achieved in the SBR system. The ratio of nitrification and denitrification was 99% and 84%, respectively. There was partial NO-2 denitrification in the system.

  10. A Proposed Algorithm to improve security & Efficiency of SSL-TLS servers using Batch RSA decryption

    CERN Document Server

    Pateriya, R K; Shrivastava, S C; Patel, Jaideep

    2009-01-01

    Today, Internet becomes the essential part of our lives. Over 90 percent of the ecommerce is developed on the Internet. A security algorithm became very necessary for producer client transactions assurance and the financial applications safety. The rsa algorithm applicability derives from algorithm properties like confidentiality, safe authentication, data safety and integrity on the internet. Thus, this kind of networks can have a more easy utilization by practical accessing from short, medium, even long distance and from different public places. Rsa encryption in the client side is relatively cheap, whereas, the corresponding decryption in the server side is expensive because its private exponent is much larger. Thus ssl tls servers become swamped to perform public key decryption operations when the simultaneous requests increase quickly .The batch rsa method is useful for such highly loaded web server .In our proposed algorithm by reducing the response time and clients tolerable waiting time an improvement...

  11. Lipid production in batch and fed-batch cultures of Rhodosporidium toruloides from 5 and 6 carbon carbohydrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wiebe Marilyn G

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Microbial lipids are a potential source of bio- or renewable diesel and the red yeast Rhodosporidium toruloides is interesting not only because it can accumulate over 50% of its dry biomass as lipid, but also because it utilises both five and six carbon carbohydrates, which are present in plant biomass hydrolysates. Methods R. toruloides was grown in batch and fed-batch cultures in 0.5 L bioreactors at pH 4 in chemically defined, nitrogen restricted (C/N 40 to 100 media containing glucose, xylose, arabinose, or all three carbohydrates as carbon source. Lipid was extracted from the biomass using chloroform-methanol, measured gravimetrically and analysed by GC. Results Lipid production was most efficient with glucose (up to 25 g lipid L−1, 48 to 75% lipid in the biomass, at up to 0.21 g lipid L−1 h−1 as the sole carbon source, but high lipid concentrations were also produced from xylose (36 to 45% lipid in biomass. Lipid production was low (15–19% lipid in biomass with arabinose as sole carbon source and was lower than expected (30% lipid in biomass when glucose, xylose and arabinose were provided simultaneously. The presence of arabinose and/or xylose in the medium increased the proportion of palmitic and linoleic acid and reduced the proportion of oleic acid in the fatty acids, compared to glucose-grown cells. High cell densities were obtained in both batch (37 g L−1, with 49% lipid in the biomass and fed-batch (35 to 47 g L−1, with 50 to 75% lipid in the biomass cultures. The highest proportion of lipid in the biomass was observed in cultures given nitrogen during the batch phase but none with the feed. However, carbohydrate consumption was incomplete when the feed did not contain nitrogen and the highest total lipid and best substrate consumption were observed in cultures which received a constant low nitrogen supply. Conclusions Lipid production in R. toruloides was lower from arabinose and mixed

  12. Coordinated renewable energy support schemes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morthorst, P.E.; Jensen, S.G.

    2006-01-01

    This paper illustrates the effect that can be observed when support schemes for renewable energy are regionalised. Two theoretical examples are used to explain interactive effects on, e.g., the price of power, conditions for conventional power producers, and changes in import and export of power...... RES-E support schemes already has a common liberalised power market. In this case the introduction of a common support scheme for renewable technologies will lead to more efficient sitings of renewable plants, improving economic and environmental performance of the total power system...

  13. Increasing the load bearing capacity of barrel vaults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kamerling, M.W.

    2011-01-01

    Just after World War II many barrel vaults and domes were built with a structural system, known as Fusée Ceramique. This paper analyses the load bearing capacity of these vaults. Schemes, theories, idealizations and assumptions are analysed, validated and discussed. Methods to increase the load bear

  14. Performance comparison of suspended bed and batch contactor chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quiñones-García, I; Rayner, I; Levison, P R; Dickson, N; Purdom, G

    2001-01-26

    In some applications, the purification and recovery of biomolecules is performed via a cascade of batch adsorption and desorption stages using agitated contactors and related filtration devices. Suspended bed chromatography is a recent process-scale innovation that is applicable to these separations. This hybrid technique exploits the benefits of combining batch adsorption in an agitated contactor with elution in an enclosed column system. To some extent, the process is similar to batch contactor chromatography but can be fully contained and significantly quicker. The process has two steps; first the fluid containing the sample is mixed with the adsorbent in a stirred tank. Second, the slurry suspension is transferred directly into a specialized column, such as an IsoPak column. The media with the adsorbed product is formed as a packed bed, whilst the suspension liquid is passed out of the column. The product is then eluted from the packed bed utilizing standard column-chromatography techniques. The performance of the suspended bed and the agitated contactor operations are demonstrated both by full-scale experimental results and process simulations. The purification of ovalbumin from a hen-egg white feedstock by anion-exchange chromatography was used as a case study in order to prove the concept. With the availability of both pump-packed systems and shear-resistant media, suspended bed chromatography is a better alternative for a range of applications than the traditional batch separations using agitated contactors. PMID:11218119

  15. The second batch of environmental standard qualified list released

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    The Ministry of Environmental Protection released the second batch of enterprises list that basically meet environment standards recently. Total 41 enterprises from 10 provinces and autonomous regions of Inner Mongolia, Jiangsu, Jiangxi, Sichuan, Gansu and so on are included in the list.

  16. A fixed-size batch service queue with vacations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ho Woo Lee

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with batch service queues with vacations in which customers arrive according to a Poisson process. Decomposition method is used to derive the queue length distributions both for single and multiple vacation cases. The authors look at other decomposition techniques and discuss some related open problems.

  17. A Storage Assignment Model for Batch Preparation in Process Industries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ashayeri, J.; Selen, W.

    2010-01-01

    A new model formulation is developed for reducing the workload in pre-batching at a manufacturer of flavours and fragrances, by optimally assigning ingredients to different storage types, taking into account past usage of ingredients and several restrictions about volumes and number of storage units

  18. Perancangan Sistem Pengaduk Pada Bioreaktor Batch Untuk Meningkatkan Produksi Biogas

    OpenAIRE

    Candrika Widiartanti Yuwono; Totok Soehartanto

    2013-01-01

    Proses anaerob merupakan proses fermentasi dimana memiliki proses yang berlangsung cukup lama. Dan pada bioreaktor anaerob sistem batch, diduga terdapat indikasi pada penurunan jumlah produksi biogas, yang disebabkan karena tejadi pengendapan atau pemisahan antara limbah cair dengan padatannya. Untuk itu muncul upaya untuk melakukan sistem pengadukan agar terjadi homogenitas dan bisa menyerupai seperti kondisi awal, sehingga diharapkan dapat memperpanjang masa produksi biogas. Adapun pengaduk...

  19. On the track of fish batches in three distribution networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Randrup, Maria; Wu, Haiping; Jørgensen, Bo M.

    2012-01-01

    Three fish products sampled in retail shops were traced back to their origin and fish from the same batch were tracked forward towards the retailer, thereby simulating a recall situation. The resulting distribution networks were very complex, but to the extent that companies were willing to provide...

  20. A fast-initiating ionically tagged ruthenium complex: a robust supported pre-catalyst for batch-process and continuous-flow olefin metathesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borré, Etienne; Rouen, Mathieu; Laurent, Isabelle; Magrez, Magaly; Caijo, Fréderic; Crévisy, Christophe; Solodenko, Wladimir; Toupet, Loic; Frankfurter, René; Vogt, Carla; Kirschning, Andreas; Mauduit, Marc

    2012-12-14

    In this study, a new pyridinium-tagged Ru complex was designed and anchored onto sulfonated silica, thereby forming a robust and highly active supported olefin-metathesis pre-catalyst for applications under batch and continuous-flow conditions. The involvement of an oxazine-benzylidene ligand allowed the reactivity of the formed Ru pre-catalyst to be efficiently controlled through both steric and electronic activation. The oxazine scaffold facilitated the introduction of the pyridinium tag, thereby affording the corresponding cationic pre-catalyst in good yield. Excellent activities in ring-closing (RCM), cross (CM), and enyne metathesis were observed with only 0.5 mol % loading of the pre-catalyst. When this powerful pre-catalyst was immobilized onto a silica-based cationic-exchange resin, a versatile catalytically active material for batch reactions was generated that also served as fixed-bed material for flow reactors. This system could be reused at 1 mol % loading to afford metathesis products in high purity with very low ruthenium contamination under batch conditions (below 5 ppm). Scavenging procedures for both batch and flow processes were conducted, which led to a lowering of the ruthenium content to as little as one tenth of the original values.

  1. Cost-based droop scheme with lower generation costs for microgrids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nutkani, I. U.; Loh, Poh Chiang; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2013-01-01

    on the DG kVA ratings. Other operating characteristics like generation costs, efficiencies and emission penalties at different loadings have not been considered. This makes existing droop schemes not too well-suited for standalone microgrids without central management system, where different types of...... DGs usually exist. As an alternative, this paper proposes a cost-based droop scheme, whose objective is to reduce a generation cost realized with various DG operating characteristics taken into consideration. The proposed droop scheme therefore retains all advantages of the traditional droop schemes......, while at the same time keep its generation cost low. These findings have been validated through simulation and scaled down lab experiment....

  2. Good governance for pension schemes

    CERN Document Server

    Thornton, Paul

    2011-01-01

    Regulatory and market developments have transformed the way in which UK private sector pension schemes operate. This has increased demands on trustees and advisors and the trusteeship governance model must evolve in order to remain fit for purpose. This volume brings together leading practitioners to provide an overview of what today constitutes good governance for pension schemes, from both a legal and a practical perspective. It provides the reader with an appreciation of the distinctive characteristics of UK occupational pension schemes, how they sit within the capital markets and their social and fiduciary responsibilities. Providing a holistic analysis of pension risk, both from the trustee and the corporate perspective, the essays cover the crucial role of the employer covenant, financing and investment risk, developments in longevity risk hedging and insurance de-risking, and best practice scheme administration.

  3. A Novel Iris Segmentation Scheme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen-Chung Liu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the key steps in the iris recognition system is the accurate iris segmentation from its surrounding noises including pupil, sclera, eyelashes, and eyebrows of a captured eye-image. This paper presents a novel iris segmentation scheme which utilizes the orientation matching transform to outline the outer and inner iris boundaries initially. It then employs Delogne-Kåsa circle fitting (instead of the traditional Hough transform to further eliminate the outlier points to extract a more precise iris area from an eye-image. In the extracted iris region, the proposed scheme further utilizes the differences in the intensity and positional characteristics of the iris, eyelid, and eyelashes to detect and delete these noises. The scheme is then applied on iris image database, UBIRIS.v1. The experimental results show that the presented scheme provides a more effective and efficient iris segmentation than other conventional methods.

  4. Loads and loads and loads: The influence of prospective load, retrospective load, and ongoing task load in prospective memory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beat eMeier

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In prospective memory tasks different kinds of load can occur. Adding a prospective memory task can impose a load on ongoing task performance. Adding ongoing task load can affect prospective memory performance. The existence of multiple target events increases prospective load and adding complexity to the to-be-remembered action increases retrospective load. In two experiments, we systematically examined the effects of these different types of load on prospective memory performance. Results showed an effect of prospective load on costs in the ongoing task for categorical targets (Experiment 2, but not for specific targets (Experiment 1. Retrospective load and ongoing task load both affected remembering the retrospective component of the prospective memory task. We suggest that prospective load can enhance costs in the ongoing task due to additional monitoring requirements. Retrospective load and ongoing task load seem to impact the division of resources between the ongoing task and retrieval of the retrospective component, which may affect disengagement from the ongoing task. In general, the results demonstrate that the different types of load affect prospective memory differentially.

  5. Correspondence between Community Structure and Function during Succession in Phenol- and Phenol-plus-Trichloroethene-Fed Sequencing Batch Reactors

    OpenAIRE

    Ayala-del-Río, Héctor L.; Stephen J Callister; Criddle, Craig S.; Tiedje, James M

    2004-01-01

    The effects of more than 2 years of trichloroethene (TCE) application on community succession and function were studied in two aerobic sequencing batch reactors. One reactor was fed phenol, and the second reactor was fed both phenol and TCE in sequence twice per day. After initiation of TCE loading in the second reactor, the TCE transformation rates initially decreased, but they stabilized with an average second-order rate coefficient of 0.044 liter mg−1 day−1 for 2 years. In contrast, the ph...

  6. Breeding schemes in reindeer husbandry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lars Rönnegård

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the paper was to investigate annual genetic gain from selection (G, and the influence of selection on the inbreeding effective population size (Ne, for different possible breeding schemes within a reindeer herding district. The breeding schemes were analysed for different proportions of the population within a herding district included in the selection programme. Two different breeding schemes were analysed: an open nucleus scheme where males mix and mate between owner flocks, and a closed nucleus scheme where the males in non-selected owner flocks are culled to maximise G in the whole population. The theory of expected long-term genetic contributions was used and maternal effects were included in the analyses. Realistic parameter values were used for the population, modelled with 5000 reindeer in the population and a sex ratio of 14 adult females per male. The standard deviation of calf weights was 4.1 kg. Four different situations were explored and the results showed: 1. When the population was randomly culled, Ne equalled 2400. 2. When the whole population was selected on calf weights, Ne equalled 1700 and the total annual genetic gain (direct + maternal in calf weight was 0.42 kg. 3. For the open nucleus scheme, G increased monotonically from 0 to 0.42 kg as the proportion of the population included in the selection programme increased from 0 to 1.0, and Ne decreased correspondingly from 2400 to 1700. 4. In the closed nucleus scheme the lowest value of Ne was 1300. For a given proportion of the population included in the selection programme, the difference in G between a closed nucleus scheme and an open one was up to 0.13 kg. We conclude that for mass selection based on calf weights in herding districts with 2000 animals or more, there are no risks of inbreeding effects caused by selection.

  7. An arbitrated quantum signature scheme

    CERN Document Server

    Zeng, G; Zeng, Guihua; Keitel, Christoph H.

    2002-01-01

    The general principle for a quantum signature scheme is proposed and investigated based on ideas from classical signature schemes and quantum cryptography. The suggested algorithm is implemented by a symmetrical quantum key cryptosystem and Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger (GHZ) triplet states and relies on the availability of an arbitrator. We can guarantee the unconditional security of the algorithm, mostly due to the correlation of the GHZ triplet states and the use of quantum one-time pads.

  8. Computer Simulation of Batch Grinding Process Based on Simulink 5.0

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Xia; YANG Ying-jie; DENG Hui-yong; HUANG Guang-yao

    2005-01-01

    How to use Simulink software in grinding system was studied. The method of designing batch grinding subsystem and the steps of building batch grinding blockset were introduced. Based on batch grinding population balance model, batch grinding was simulated with Simulink. The results show that the simulation system designed with Simulink explain reasonably the impersonal rule of batch grinding. On the basis of batch grinding simulation, the computer simulation of mineral processing system with Simulink of grinding and classification, comminution, etc, can be properly explored.

  9. Power System Aggregate Load Area Modelling by Particle Swarm Optimization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jian-Lin Wei; Ji-Hong Wang; Q.H.Wu; Nan Lu

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents a new approach for deriving a power system aggregate load area model (ALAM). In this approach, an equivalent area load model is derived to represent the load characters for a particular area load of a power system network. The Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) method is employed to identify the unknown parameters of the generalised system, ALAM, based on the system measurement directly using a one-step scheme. Simulation studies are carried out for an IEEE 14-Bus power system and an IEEE 57-Bus power system. Simulation results show that the ALAM can represent the area load characters accurately under different operational conditions and at different power system states.

  10. Glucoamylase production in batch, chemostat and fed-batch cultivations by an industrial strain of Aspergillus niger

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Henrik; Beyer, Michael; Nielsen, Jens

    2000-01-01

    The Aspergillus niger strain BO-1 was grown in batch, continuous (chemostat) and fed-batch cultivations in order to study the production of the extracellular enzyme glucoamylase under different growth conditions. In the pH range 2.5-6.0, the specific glucoamylase productivity and the specific...... growth rate of the fungus were independent of pH when grown in batch cultivations. The specific glucoamylase productivity increased linearly with the specific growth rate in the range 0-0.1 h(-1) and was constant in the range 0.1-0.2 h(-1) Maltose and maltodextrin were non-inducing carbon sources...... compared to glucose, and the maximum specific growth rate was 0.19 +/- 0.02 h(-1) irrespective of whether glucose or maltose was the carbon source. In fed-batch cultivations, glucoamylase titres of up to 6.5 g 1(-1) were obtained even though the strain contained only one copy of the glaA gene....

  11. Adaptive IMEX schemes for high-order unstructured methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermeire, Brian C.; Nadarajah, Siva

    2015-01-01

    We present an adaptive implicit-explicit (IMEX) method for use with high-order unstructured schemes. The proposed method makes use of the Gerschgorin theorem to conservatively estimate the influence of each individual degree of freedom on the spectral radius of the discretization. This information is used to split the system into implicit and explicit regions, adapting to unsteady features in the flow. We dynamically repartition the domain to balance the number of implicit and explicit elements per core. As a consequence, we are able to achieve an even load balance for each implicit/explicit stage of the IMEX scheme. We investigate linear advection-diffusion, isentropic vortex advection, unsteady laminar flow over an SD7003 airfoil, and turbulent flow over a circular cylinder. Results show that the proposed method consistently yields a stable discretization, and maintains the theoretical order of accuracy of the high-order spatial schemes.

  12. A J estimation scheme for surface cracks in piping welds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A cooperative program between EDF, CEA and AREVA NP was launched in 2004 to develop a J estimation scheme which takes into account the strength mis-match effects. The scheme relies on the definition of an 'equivalent' stressplastic strain curve, as proposed in the R6 rule. This curve is then used with the analytical methods for homogeneous cracked components. In a first step, the method is developed for circumferential surface cracks in straight butt-welded pipes submitted to mechanical loading. It takes into account the geometry of the weld joint (V-shaped), as well as the location of the crack within the weld. This paper recalls the background of the method, provides the detailed formulae needed to apply the J-estimation scheme and finally presents thevalidation work, based on a large finite element database

  13. Proposal of Wireless Traffic Control Schemes for Wireless LANs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiraguri, Takefumi; Ichikawa, Takeo; Iizuka, Masataka; Kubota, Shuji

    This paper proposes two traffic control schemes to support the communication quality of multimedia streaming services such as VoIP and audio/video over IEEE 802.11 wireless LAN systems. The main features of the proposed scheme are bandwidth control for each flow of the multimedia streaming service and load balancing between access points (APs) of the wireless LAN by using information of data link, network and transport layers. The proposed schemes are implemented on a Linux machine which is called the wireless traffic controller (WTC). The WTC connects a high capacity backbone network and an access network to which the APs are attached. We evaluated the performance of the proposed WTC and confirmed that the communication quality of the multimedia streaming would be greatly improved by using this technique.

  14. Cognitive Aware Interference Mitigation Scheme for LTE Femtocells

    KAUST Repository

    AlQerm, Ismail

    2015-04-21

    Femto-cells deployment in today’s cellular networks came into practice to fulfill the increasing demand for data services. However, interference to other femto and macro-cells users remains an unresolved challenge. In this paper, we propose an interference mitigation scheme to control the cross-tier interference caused by femto-cells to the macro users and the co-tier interference among femtocells. Cognitive radio spectrum sensing capability is utilized to determine the non-occupied channels or the ones that cause minimal interference to the macro users. An awareness based channel allocation scheme is developed with the assistance of the graph-coloring algorithm to assign channels to the femto-cells base stations with power optimization, minimal interference, maximum throughput, and maximum spectrum efficiency. In addition, the scheme exploits negotiation capability to match traffic load and QoS with the channel capacity, and to maintain efficient utilization of the available channels.

  15. Unbalanced Load Simulation of Electronic Power Transformer in Distribution System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Dan; Mao Chengxiong; Lu Jiming; Fan Shu; Cao Jiewei; Wang Ben

    2006-01-01

    A control scheme of electronic power transformer (EPT) in a three-phase four-wire distribution system, which included an input section, an isolating section and an output section, was researched under unbalanced loads. The simple and appropriate control scheme was developed through analyzing the system requirements of the primary side and the load requirements of the secondary side. In the input section, a dual-loop control in synchronous rotating d-q coordinates was introduced, and in the output section, a dual-loop control based on instantaneous output voltage wasused. Load characteristics of EPT were investigated by using Matlab/Simulink software. Simulation results showed that, with the proposed control scheme, the EPT has good performances and the sinusoidal input current and constant output voltage can be realized under both balanced and unbalanced loads.

  16. A Novel Information Security Scheme using Cryptic Steganography

    OpenAIRE

    K RAMA MOHANA RAO; P Anil Kumar; B.RAJA RAO,; M.NAGU

    2010-01-01

    The demand for effective information security schemes is increasing day by day with the exponential growth of Internet. Cryptography and Steganography are the two popular techniques for secret communication. The contents of message are kept secret in cryptography, where as in steganography the message is embedded into the cover image (text, video and image (pay load)). In this proposed system we developed a system in which cryptography and steganography are used as integrated part along with ...

  17. Research on contamination caused by the topographical difference in batch transportation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gong, J.; Yan, D.; Kang, Z. [PetroChina Co. Ltd., Beijing (China)

    2004-07-01

    This paper presented a mixing model for explaining the affect of density, viscosity and the topographical height difference on the interfacial product-mixing in a pipeline. The model used a new virtual axial dispersion coefficient which considers the factor that influence the mixing, such as the physical property differentials between the adjacent petroleum products, the concentration and its gradient, gravitation acceleration, and the inclination angle. Since several factors complicate the interface movement along the pipeline, the Reynolds number was simplified to consider the mixture as a function of concentration. The mixing model was solved numerically by the Crank-Nicholson implicit difference scheme. It was shown that the effect of inclination angle on contamination decreased gradually with an increase in the total distance traveled by the interface and the contamination Reynolds number. The degree of influence became negligible when the pipeline had complete turbulent flow and the Reynolds number was greater than the critical Reynolds number. It was concluded that in undulate long-distance multi-product pipelines, contamination due to topographical height difference can be ignored in turbulent flow when the Reynolds number is higher than the critical Reynolds number. The data, graphs and tables presented in this paper clarified the influence of density and viscosity differentials and topographical difference on the mixing in batch transfer. The proposed method was found to be particularly suitable for the design and operation of batch transportation in which a wide variety of petroleum products are successively pumped in a single long pipeline. 7 refs., 3 tabs., 7 figs.

  18. MASS PRODUCTION OF THE BENEFICIAL NEMATODE STEINERNEMA CARPOCAPSAE UTILIZING A FED-BATCH CULTURING PROCESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonard D. Holmes

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The present study deals with the batch and fed-batch mass production of Steinernema carpocapsae. S. carpocapsae is an entomoparasitic nematode that is used as a biological control agent of soil-borne crop insect pests. The ability and efficiency of fed-batch culture process was successful through the utilization of the nematode’s bacterial symbiont Xenorhabdus nematophila. Results from the fed-batch process were compared to those obtain from the standard batch process. The fed-batch process successively improved the mass production process of S. carpocapsae employing liquid medium technology. Within the first week of the fed-batch process (day six, the nematode density obtained was 202,000 nematodes mL−1; whereas on day six, batch culture mode resulted in a nematode density of 23,000 nematodes mL−1. The fed-batch process was superior to that of batch production with a yield approximately 8.8-fold higher. In fed-batch process, the nematode yield was improved 88.6 % higher within a short amount of time compared to the batch process. Fed-batch seems to make the process more efficient and possibly economically viable.

  19. Efficient Password-Typed Key Agreement Scheme

    CERN Document Server

    Aboud, Sattar J

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we will study Lee, Kim and Yoo, a verifier password typed key agreement scheme and demonstrate that the scheme is not secure. Then, the authors will propose an enhanced verifier typed key agreement scheme relied on Lee, Kim and Yoo scheme and demonstrate that the propose scheme resists against password guessing attack and stolen verifier attack. The authors are claimed that the proposed scheme is more secure and efficient compare with Lee, Kim and Yoo.

  20. Electrical load detection aparatus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2010-01-01

    A load detection technique for a load comprising multiple frequency-dependant sub-loads comprises measuring a representation of the impedance characteristic of the load; providing stored representations of a multiplicity of impedance characteristics of the load; each one of the stored representat...

  1. Study on signal characteristic analysis of multi-axis load measurement sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Sang-Kyun; Hwang, Hui-Yun

    2016-11-01

    This study suggested a tactile sensor with piezoelectric sensors in a fibrous shape to detect multi-axial loads (vertical load and horizontal load) simultaneously for the skins of unmanned robots. The sensor was designed by finite element analyses. A simple detecting scheme of the multi-axial loads was constructed by lab-scale experiments. Verification tests of the developed tactile sensor confirmed that applied vertical and horizontal loads could be detected with less than 4% error.

  2. An Energy Efficient Cooperative Hierarchical MIMO Clustering Scheme for Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sungyoung Lee

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In this work, we present an energy efficient hierarchical cooperative clustering scheme for wireless sensor networks. Communication cost is a crucial factor in depleting the energy of sensor nodes. In the proposed scheme, nodes cooperate to form clusters at each level of network hierarchy ensuring maximal coverage and minimal energy expenditure with relatively uniform distribution of load within the network. Performance is enhanced by cooperative multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO communication ensuring energy efficiency for WSN deployments over large geographical areas. We test our scheme using TOSSIM and compare the proposed scheme with cooperative multiple-input multiple-output (CMIMO clustering scheme and traditional multihop Single-Input-Single-Output (SISO routing approach. Performance is evaluated on the basis of number of clusters, number of hops, energy consumption and network lifetime. Experimental results show significant energy conservation and increase in network lifetime as compared to existing schemes.

  3. Multiuser switched diversity scheduling schemes

    KAUST Repository

    Shaqfeh, Mohammad

    2012-09-01

    Multiuser switched-diversity scheduling schemes were recently proposed in order to overcome the heavy feedback requirements of conventional opportunistic scheduling schemes by applying a threshold-based, distributed, and ordered scheduling mechanism. The main idea behind these schemes is that slight reduction in the prospected multiuser diversity gains is an acceptable trade-off for great savings in terms of required channel-state-information feedback messages. In this work, we characterize the achievable rate region of multiuser switched diversity systems and compare it with the rate region of full feedback multiuser diversity systems. We propose also a novel proportional fair multiuser switched-based scheduling scheme and we demonstrate that it can be optimized using a practical and distributed method to obtain the feedback thresholds. We finally demonstrate by numerical examples that switched-diversity scheduling schemes operate within 0.3 bits/sec/Hz from the ultimate network capacity of full feedback systems in Rayleigh fading conditions. © 2012 IEEE.

  4. Nonlinear secret image sharing scheme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Sang-Ho; Lee, Gil-Je; Yoo, Kee-Young

    2014-01-01

    Over the past decade, most of secret image sharing schemes have been proposed by using Shamir's technique. It is based on a linear combination polynomial arithmetic. Although Shamir's technique based secret image sharing schemes are efficient and scalable for various environments, there exists a security threat such as Tompa-Woll attack. Renvall and Ding proposed a new secret sharing technique based on nonlinear combination polynomial arithmetic in order to solve this threat. It is hard to apply to the secret image sharing. In this paper, we propose a (t, n)-threshold nonlinear secret image sharing scheme with steganography concept. In order to achieve a suitable and secure secret image sharing scheme, we adapt a modified LSB embedding technique with XOR Boolean algebra operation, define a new variable m, and change a range of prime p in sharing procedure. In order to evaluate efficiency and security of proposed scheme, we use the embedding capacity and PSNR. As a result of it, average value of PSNR and embedding capacity are 44.78 (dB) and 1.74t⌈log2 m⌉ bit-per-pixel (bpp), respectively.

  5. Energy partitioning schemes: a dilemma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, I

    2007-01-01

    Two closely related energy partitioning schemes, in which the total energy is presented as a sum of atomic and diatomic contributions by using the "atomic decomposition of identity", are compared on the example of N,N-dimethylformamide, a simple but chemically rich molecule. Both schemes account for different intramolecular interactions, for instance they identify the weak C-H...O intramolecular interactions, but give completely different numbers. (The energy decomposition scheme based on the virial theorem is also considered.) The comparison of the two schemes resulted in a dilemma which is especially striking when these schemes are applied for molecules distorted from their equilibrium structures: one either gets numbers which are "on the chemical scale" and have quite appealing values at the equilibrium molecular geometries, but exhibiting a counter-intuitive distance dependence (the two-center energy components increase in absolute value with the increase of the interatomic distances)--or numbers with too large absolute values but "correct" distance behaviour. The problem is connected with the quick decay of the diatomic kinetic energy components. PMID:17328441

  6. Energy partitioning schemes: a dilemma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, I

    2007-01-01

    Two closely related energy partitioning schemes, in which the total energy is presented as a sum of atomic and diatomic contributions by using the "atomic decomposition of identity", are compared on the example of N,N-dimethylformamide, a simple but chemically rich molecule. Both schemes account for different intramolecular interactions, for instance they identify the weak C-H...O intramolecular interactions, but give completely different numbers. (The energy decomposition scheme based on the virial theorem is also considered.) The comparison of the two schemes resulted in a dilemma which is especially striking when these schemes are applied for molecules distorted from their equilibrium structures: one either gets numbers which are "on the chemical scale" and have quite appealing values at the equilibrium molecular geometries, but exhibiting a counter-intuitive distance dependence (the two-center energy components increase in absolute value with the increase of the interatomic distances)--or numbers with too large absolute values but "correct" distance behaviour. The problem is connected with the quick decay of the diatomic kinetic energy components.

  7. Nonlinear secret image sharing scheme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Sang-Ho; Lee, Gil-Je; Yoo, Kee-Young

    2014-01-01

    Over the past decade, most of secret image sharing schemes have been proposed by using Shamir's technique. It is based on a linear combination polynomial arithmetic. Although Shamir's technique based secret image sharing schemes are efficient and scalable for various environments, there exists a security threat such as Tompa-Woll attack. Renvall and Ding proposed a new secret sharing technique based on nonlinear combination polynomial arithmetic in order to solve this threat. It is hard to apply to the secret image sharing. In this paper, we propose a (t, n)-threshold nonlinear secret image sharing scheme with steganography concept. In order to achieve a suitable and secure secret image sharing scheme, we adapt a modified LSB embedding technique with XOR Boolean algebra operation, define a new variable m, and change a range of prime p in sharing procedure. In order to evaluate efficiency and security of proposed scheme, we use the embedding capacity and PSNR. As a result of it, average value of PSNR and embedding capacity are 44.78 (dB) and 1.74t⌈log2 m⌉ bit-per-pixel (bpp), respectively. PMID:25140334

  8. On the choice of batch mode in order to maximize throughput

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weeda, P.J.

    1990-01-01

    An analysis of serial process configurations consisting of three processes and two machines shows interesting relations between the choice of batch mode (or batch structure), utilization of capacities and maximum throughput.

  9. JAVA Implementation of the Batched iLab Shared Architecture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lenard Payne

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The MIT iLab Shared Architecture is limited currently to running on the Microsoft Windows platform. A JAVA implementation of the Batched iLab Shared Architecture has been developed that can be used on other operating systems and still interoperate with the existing Microsoft .NET web services of MIT’s iLab ServiceBroker. The Batched iLab Shared Architecture has been revised and separates the Labserver into a LabServer that handles experiment management and a LabEquipment that handles experiment execution. The JAVA implementation provides a 3-tier code development model that allows code to be reused and to develop only the code that is specific to each experiment.

  10. Nonlinear dynamic modeling of multicomponent batch distillation: a case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Jiménez

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is to compare several of the commercial dynamic models for batch distillation available worldwide. In this context, BATCHFRAC™, CHEMCAD™ BATCH, and HYSYS.Plant® software performances are compared to experimental data. The software can be used as soft sensors, playing the roll of ad-hoc observers or estimators for control objectives. Rigorous models were used as an alternative to predict the concentration profile and to specify the optimal switching time from products to slop cuts. The performance of a nonlinear model obtained using a novel identification algorithm was also studied. In addition, the strategy for continuous separation was revised with residue curve map analysis using Aspen SPLIT™.

  11. Method to incorporate energy integration considerations in multiproduct batch processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corominas, J.; Espuna, A.; Puigjaner, L. (Universidad Politecnica de Cataluna, Barcelona (Spain))

    Systemization of an energy saving grass-root design and retrofitting technology based on process integration is a subject of increasing interest in plants running under the batch mode of operation. In this work, the solution to the product changeover problem is studied in order to achieve a feasible and optimized heat exchange network design for multiproduct batch plants. A new methodology is presented which is based on: (a) the campaign-mode of plant operation; and (b) the study of energy integration for each campaign. The concept of Macronetwork is also introduced. Algorithms to obtain the best feasible matches and energy targets are presented and results of test-case studies are discussed to illustrate this methodology. (author)

  12. A new look at energy integration in multiproduct batch processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corominas, J.; Espuna, A.; Puigjaner, L. (Univ. Politecnica de Catalunya (Spain). Chemical Engineering Dept.)

    1993-01-01

    Systematization of an energy saving grass-root design and retrofitting technology based on process integration is a subject of increasing interest in plants running under the batch mode of operation. In this work, the solution to the changeover product problem is studied in order to achieve a feasible and optimized heat exchange network design for multiproduct batch plants. A new methodology is presented which is based on: (a) the campaign-mode of plant operation, (b) the study of energy integration for each campaign. The concept of Macronetwork is also introduced. This includes the heat exchanger network of all campaigns in an overall design, and contemplates the common matches between networks of campaigns of different products. Algorithms to obtain the best feasible matches and energy targets are presented and results of test-case studies are discussed to illustrate this methodology. (author)

  13. Sorting Olive Batches for the Milling Process Using Image Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Aguilera Puerto

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The quality of virgin olive oil obtained in the milling process is directly bound to the characteristics of the olives. Hence, the correct classification of the different incoming olive batches is crucial to reach the maximum quality of the oil. The aim of this work is to provide an automatic inspection system, based on computer vision, and to classify automatically different batches of olives entering the milling process. The classification is based on the differentiation between ground and tree olives. For this purpose, three different species have been studied (Picudo, Picual and Hojiblanco. The samples have been obtained by picking the olives directly from the tree or from the ground. The feature vector of the samples has been obtained on the basis of the olive image histograms. Moreover, different image preprocessing has been employed, and two classification techniques have been used: these are discriminant analysis and neural networks. The proposed methodology has been validated successfully, obtaining good classification results.

  14. Distribution load estimation (DLE)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seppaelae, A.; Lehtonen, M. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland)

    1998-08-01

    The load research has produced customer class load models to convert the customers` annual energy consumption to hourly load values. The reliability of load models applied from a nation-wide sample is limited in any specific network because many local circumstances are different from utility to utility and time to time. Therefore there is a need to find improvements to the load models or, in general, improvements to the load estimates. In Distribution Load Estimation (DLE) the measurements from the network are utilized to improve the customer class load models. The results of DLE will be new load models that better correspond to the loading of the distribution network but are still close to the original load models obtained by load research. The principal data flow of DLE is presented

  15. MACROSCOPIC KINETIC MODELS OF GLYCEROL BATCH FERMENTATION WITH OSMOTOLERANT YEAST

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    l introductionGlycerol production by fermentation has beenwidely investigated to meet the great commercialdemand in last decades and osmotolerant yeast wasthe microorganism studied most. To analyze thefermentation process more efficiently, a kinetic modelshould be established but little works about it werereported because of its complicated metabolism ofglycerol [1-3]. Batch fermentation experiment showedthat low glucose concentration in the latterfermentation stage resulted in decrease in both glucoseconsu...

  16. Batch gating for data association in monocular SLAM

    OpenAIRE

    Guerra Paradas, Edmundo; Munguía Alcalá, Rodrigo Francisco; Bolea Monte, Yolanda; Grau Saldes, Antoni

    2013-01-01

    This work describes the development and implementation of a single-camera SLAM system, introducing a novel data validation algorithm. A 6-DOF monocular SLAM method developed is based on the Delayed Inverse-Depth (DI-D) Feature Initialization, with the addition of a new data association batch validation technique, the Highest Order Hypothesis Compatibility Test, HOHCT. The DI-D initializes new features in the system defining single hypothesis for the initial depth of features by stoch...

  17. Group technology. [Increasing batch-lot production efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rome, C.P.

    1976-01-01

    Group Technology has been conceptually applied to the manufacture of batch-lots of 554 machined electromechanical parts which now require 79 different types of metal-removal tools. The products have been grouped into 7 distinct families which require from 8 to 22 machines in each machine-cell. Throughput time can be significantly reduced and savings can be realized from tooling, direct-labor, and indirect-labor costs.

  18. Feasibility of extractive distillation process variants in batch rectifier column

    OpenAIRE

    Stéger, Csaba; Varga, Viktoria; Horvath, Laszlo; Rev, Endre; Fonyo, Zsolt; Meyer, Michel; Lelkes, Zoltan

    2005-01-01

    A systematic comparison is presented about the separation tasks of azeotropic and close-boiling mixtures applying batch extractive distillation (BED) in rectifier. All the eight possible mixture types with at most a single azeotrope (minimum and maximum boiling azeotropes with heavy, light, and intermediate boiling entrainers; and close boiling mixtures with heavy and light entrainers) are compared. The main results of the feasibility studies on the hitherto unpublished cases are presented. A...

  19. Mathematical modeling of recombinant Escherichia coli aerobic batch fermentations

    OpenAIRE

    Costa, Rafael S; Rocha, I; Ferreira, E. C.

    2008-01-01

    In this work, three competing unstructured mathematical models for the biomass growth by recombinant E. coli strains with different acetate inhibition kinetics terms were evaluated for batch processes at constant temperature and pH. The models considered the dynamics of biomass growth, acetate accumulation, substrate consumption, Green Fluorescence Protein (GFP) production and three metabolic pathways for E. coli. Parameter estimation and model validation was carried out usi...

  20. EFFECT OF DYE CONCENTRATION ON SEQUENCING BATCH REACTOR PERFORMANCE

    OpenAIRE

    A. A. Vaigan ، M. R. Alavi Moghaddam ، H. Hashemi

    2009-01-01

    Reactive dyes have been identified as problematic compounds in textile industries wastewater as they are water soluble and cannot be easily removed by conventional aerobic biological treatment systems. The treatability of a reactive dye (Brill Blue KN-R) by sequencing batch reactor and the influence of the dye concentration on system performance were investigated in this study. Brill Blue KN-R is one of the main dyes that are used in textile industries in Iran. Four cylindrical Plexiglas reac...

  1. Optimization of Recipe Based Batch Control Systems Using Neural Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Šoštarec, A.; Gosak, D.; Hlupić, N.

    2012-01-01

    In the modern pharmaceutical industry many flexible batch plants operate under an integrated business and production system, using ISA S95 and ISA S88 standards for models and terminology, and implementing flexible recipe-based production. In the environment of constantly changing market conditions, adjustment to surroundings is a business necessity. To support necessary production improvement, regulatory authorities have introduced the risk based approach for the control of process dev...

  2. Industrial and Municipal Wastewater Treatment in the Sequencing Batch Reactor

    OpenAIRE

    Vrtovsek, J.; Ros, M.

    2008-01-01

    A mixture of Industrial wastewater from chemical industry (varnish, paint and pigments production) and municipal wastewater was treated in pilot sequencing batch reactor (SBR). Results of the pilot experiments show that the foaming problem has great influence on the behavior of SBR, especially when the ratio between industrial and municipal wastewater is very high. Foaming problem was negligible when the mixture with φ; 20 % of the industrial wastewater and j = 80 % of the municipal wastewate...

  3. SEQUENCING BATCH REACTOR: A PROMISING TECHNOLOGY IN WASTEWATER TREATMENT

    OpenAIRE

    A.H Mahvi

    2008-01-01

    Discharge of domestic and industrial wastewater to surface or groundwater is very dangerous to the environment. Therefore treatment of any kind of wastewater to produce effluent with good quality is necessary. In this regard choosing an effective treatment system is important. Sequencing batch reactor is a modification of activated sludge process which has been successfully used to treat municipal and industrial wastewater. The process could be applied for nutrients removal, high biochemical ...

  4. Health advantages of transition to batch management system in farrow-to-finish pig herds

    OpenAIRE

    Vangroenweghe, F; Suls, L; Van Driessche, E.; Maes, Dominiek; De Graef, E.

    2012-01-01

    Sow batch management systems have become more popular due to advantages in labour planning, piglet batch sizes, all-in all-out practices and health management. The present study investigated the potential health advantages of 10 selected farrow-to-finish pig herds before and after transition from a one week batch management system to a four or five week batch management system. Five different animal categories (gilts, sows, piglets, growers and finishers) were sampled at three time points (T0...

  5. On-line Scheduling Algorithm for Penicillin Fed-batch Fermentation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XUE Yao-feng; YUAN Jing-qi

    2005-01-01

    An on-line scheduling algorithm to maximize gross profit of penicillin fed-batch fermentation is proposed. According to the on-line classification method, fed-batch fermentation batches are classified into three categories. Using the scheduling strategy, the optimal termination sequence of batches is obtained. Pseudo on-line simulations for testing the proposed algorithm with the data from industrial scale penicillin fermentation are carried out.

  6. Comparison of four enhancement strategies for aerobic granulation in sequencing batch reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aerobic granules were developed in four identical sequencing batch reactors (SBRs) with synthetic wastewater to compare different strategies for the enhancement of granulation. The SBRs were operated by (a) increasing organic loading rate in R1; (b) reducing settling time in R2; (c) extending starvation period in R3; and (d) increasing shear force in R4. The results showed that four operational strategies were able to enhance aerobic granulation successfully in SBR, but that also showed different effect on the granulation process and characteristics of mature aerobic granules. The rapidest granulation was observed by using short settling time (R2) and the granules had higher extracellular polymeric substance (EPS) than other reactors. Extended starvation period (R3) and high shear force (R4) resulted in longer granulation period and the granules with higher integrity and smaller size. Higher organic loading rate (R1) resulted in the granules with larger size and higher K value. The maximum specific COD removal rates (qmax) of the granules in all SBRs were at a similar level (0.13-0.16 g COD/h-g VSS) but the granules in R1 and R2 had higher apparent half rate constant (K) of 18 and 16 mg/L, than those in R3 and R4 (2.8 and 3.3 mg/L).

  7. Nitrification and aerobic denitrification in anoxic-aerobic sequencing batch reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alzate Marin, Juan C; Caravelli, Alejandro H; Zaritzky, Noemí E

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of achieving nitrogen (N) removal using a lab-scale sequencing batch reactor (SBR) exposed to anoxic/aerobic (AN/OX) phases, focusing to achieve aerobic denitrification. This process will minimize emissions of N2O greenhouse gas. The effects of different operating parameters on the reactor performance were studied: cycle duration, AN/OX ratio, pH, dissolved oxygen concentration (DOC), and organic load. The highest inorganic N removal (NiR), close to 70%, was obtained at pH=7.5, low organic load (440mgCOD/(Lday)) and high aeration given by 12h cycle, AN/OX ratio=0.5:1.0 and DOC higher than 4.0mgO2/L. Nitrification followed by high-rate aerobic denitrification took place during the aerobic phase. Aerobic denitrification could be attributed to Tetrad-forming organisms (TFOs) with phenotype of glycogen accumulating organisms using polyhydroxyalkanoate and/or glycogen storage. The proposed AN/OX system constitutes an eco-friendly N removal process providing N2 as the end product. PMID:26512862

  8. Hydrolysis of Virgin Coconut Oil Using Immobilized Lipase in a Batch Reactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Suan Chua

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Hydrolysis of virgin coconut oil (VCO had been carried out by using an immobilised lipase from Mucor miehei (Lipozyme in a water-jacketed batch reactor. The kinetic of the hydrolysis was investigated by varying the parameters such as VCO concentration, enzyme loading, water content, and reaction temperature. It was found that VCO exhibited substrate inhibition at the concentration more than 40% (v/v. Lipozyme also achieved the highest production of free fatty acids, 4.56 mM at 1% (w/v of enzyme loading. The optimum water content for VCO hydrolysis was 7% (v/v. A relatively high content of water was required because water was one of the reactants in the hydrolysis. The progress curve and the temperature profile of the enzymatic hydrolysis also showed that Lipozyme could be used for free fatty acid production at the temperature up to 50°C. However, the highest initial reaction rate and the highest yield of free fatty acid production were at 45 and 40°C, respectively. A 100 hours of initial reaction time has to be compensated in order to obtain the highest yield of free fatty acid production at 40°C.

  9. Study of nitrogen and organics removal in sequencing batch reactor (SBR) using hybrid media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thuan, Tran-Hung; Chung, Yun-Chul; Ahn, Dae-Hee

    2003-03-01

    The removal of nitrogen and organics in a sequencing batch reactor (SBR) using hybrid media were investigated in this work. The hybrid media was made by the use of polyurethane foam (PU) cubes and powdered activated carbon (PAC). The function of activated carbon of hybrid media was to offer a suitable active site, which was able to absorb organic substances and ammonia, as well as that of PU was to provide an appropriated surface onto which biomass could be attached and grown. A laboratory-scale moving-bed sequencing batch reactor (SBR) was used for investigating the efficiency of hybrid media. The removal of nitrogen and organics for synthetic wastewater (COD; 490-1,627 mg/L, NH4(+)-N; 180-210 mg/L) were evaluated at different COD/N ratio and different anoxic phase conditions, respectively. The system was operated with the organic loading rate (OLR) of 0.1, 0.16, 0.24, and 0.28 kg COD/m3 day, respectively. Each mode based on OLR was divided as the periods of 45 days of operation time, except for third mode that was operated during 30 days. After acclimatization period, effluent total COD concentrations slightly decreased and the removal efficiency of organics increased to about 90% (COD; 70 mg/L) after 60 days and achieved 98% (COD; 30 mg/L) at the end of experiments. The organics reduction seemed to be less affected by shock loading since high organic loads did not affect the removal efficiency. The NIH4(+)-N concentrations in effluent showed almost lower than 1 mg/L and NO3(-)-N concentrations were high (150 mg/L) during a very low C/N ratio (C/N=2). Over 90% of T-N removal efficiency (T-N; 16 mg/L) was obtained during the last 20 days of the operation after controlling the COD/N ratio (C/N=7). The mixing condition and COD/N ratio at anoxic phase were determined as a main operating factors. In future, the optimal operating conditions of SBR system with hybrid media will be investigated from the view of maintaining a sufficient biomass to the hybrid media under

  10. Analyzing data flows of WLCG jobs at batch job level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuehn, Eileen; Fischer, Max; Giffels, Manuel; Jung, Christopher; Petzold, Andreas

    2015-05-01

    With the introduction of federated data access to the workflows of WLCG, it is becoming increasingly important for data centers to understand specific data flows regarding storage element accesses, firewall configurations, as well as the scheduling of batch jobs themselves. As existing batch system monitoring and related system monitoring tools do not support measurements at batch job level, a new tool has been developed and put into operation at the GridKa Tier 1 center for monitoring continuous data streams and characteristics of WLCG jobs and pilots. Long term measurements and data collection are in progress. These measurements already have been proven to be useful analyzing misbehaviors and various issues. Therefore we aim for an automated, realtime approach for anomaly detection. As a requirement, prototypes for standard workflows have to be examined. Based on measurements of several months, different features of HEP jobs are evaluated regarding their effectiveness for data mining approaches to identify these common workflows. The paper will introduce the actual measurement approach and statistics as well as the general concept and first results classifying different HEP job workflows derived from the measurements at GridKa.

  11. Batch fabrication of micro-optical sensing and imaging devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wippermann, F. C.; Reimann, A.; Oelschläger, A.; Dannberg, P.; Blöhbaum, F.; Koburg, C.; Köhler, T.

    2013-03-01

    As demonstrated in microelectronics, the batch fabrication based on the processing of wafers can lead to a significant reduction in prize as well as in size. This concept was adapted to the fabrication of imaging optics extensively used in mobile phone cameras relying on small pixels and low resolutions such as VGA. We report on batch fabricated customer specific opto-electronical modules used in machine sensing and automotive applications relying on large pixel sizes and non-conventional sensor characteristics. We specially focus on the lens mold mastering for the subsequent UV-replication since comparatively large sag heights of 250μm are required. Two technological approaches were applied, first, based on reflow of photoresist and, second, using diamond turning for the generation of a single lens mold and a subsequent step&repeat-process for array mastering on 8" wafers. Aspects of the optical design and simulation, the batch fabrication based on 8" wafers and characterization results are provided by the example of an f/1.1 opto-electronic sensor and an objective for a global shutter imager using 550x550 pixels with 3.6μm pitch.

  12. Fault Diagnosis of Batch Reactor Using Machine Learning Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sujatha Subramanian

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Fault diagnosis of a batch reactor gives the early detection of fault and minimizes the risk of thermal runaway. It provides superior performance and helps to improve safety and consistency. It has become more vital in this technical era. In this paper, support vector machine (SVM is used to estimate the heat release (Qr of the batch reactor both normal and faulty conditions. The signature of the residual, which is obtained from the difference between nominal and estimated faulty Qr values, characterizes the different natures of faults occurring in the batch reactor. Appropriate statistical and geometric features are extracted from the residual signature and the total numbers of features are reduced using SVM attribute selection filter and principle component analysis (PCA techniques. artificial neural network (ANN classifiers like multilayer perceptron (MLP, radial basis function (RBF, and Bayes net are used to classify the different types of faults from the reduced features. It is observed from the result of the comparative study that the proposed method for fault diagnosis with limited number of features extracted from only one estimated parameter (Qr shows that it is more efficient and fast for diagnosing the typical faults.

  13. Perancangan Sistem Pengaduk Pada Bioreaktor Batch Untuk Meningkatkan Produksi Biogas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Candrika Widiartanti Yuwono

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Proses anaerob merupakan proses fermentasi dimana memiliki proses yang berlangsung cukup lama. Dan pada bioreaktor anaerob sistem batch, diduga terdapat indikasi pada penurunan jumlah produksi biogas, yang disebabkan karena tejadi pengendapan atau pemisahan antara limbah cair dengan padatannya. Untuk itu muncul upaya untuk melakukan sistem pengadukan agar terjadi homogenitas dan bisa menyerupai seperti kondisi awal, sehingga diharapkan dapat memperpanjang masa produksi biogas. Adapun pengadukan merupakan salah satu faktor yang berpengaruh pada kehidupan mikroba. Dan pada penelitian ini akan dilakukan perancangan sistem pengaduk yang digerakkan oleh sebuah motor dimana menggunakan timer dan pengatur kecepatan. Desain disesuaikan dengan substrat yang digunakan yaitu limbah cair tahu dan eceng gondok, yang mengalami pengendapan sehingga pada pengaduk memiliki blade yang diletakkan di dasar dalam bioreaktor. Sistem pengadukan dilakukan pada saat nilai pH yang diamati tiap harinya mengalami penurunan, yaitu pada hari ke–24 pH bernilai 6,49. Dan pada pengukuran berikutnya ditunjukkan dengan pH bernilai 6,89. Pengadukan dilakukan secara pelan dengan putaran 170 rpm selama 2 x 1 menit. Hasil daripada jumlah produksi biogas yang dihasilkan bisa dibandingkan antara bioreaktor batch tidak berpengaduk dengan bioreaktor batch berpengaduk, dimana berturut-turut memiliki jumlah volume 467 mL (25 hari dan 873 mL (31 hari.

  14. Electrical Injection Schemes for Nanolasers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lupi, Alexandra; Chung, Il-Sug; Yvind, Kresten

    2014-01-01

    Three electrical injection schemes based on recently demonstrated electrically pumped photonic crystal nanolasers have been numerically investigated: 1) a vertical p-i-n junction through a post structure; 2) a lateral p-i-n junction with a homostructure; and 3) a lateral p-i-n junction....... For this analysis, the properties of different schemes, i.e., electrical resistance, threshold voltage, threshold current, and internal efficiency as energy requirements for optical interconnects are compared and the physics behind the differences is discussed....

  15. 40 CFR Table 2 to Subpart Vvvvvv... - Emission Limits and Compliance Requirements for Batch Process Vents

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Requirements for Batch Process Vents 2 Table 2 to Subpart VVVVVV of Part 63 Protection of Environment... of Part 63—Emission Limits and Compliance Requirements for Batch Process Vents As required in § 63.11496, you must comply with the requirements for batch process vents as shown in the following...

  16. A General framework for the Synthesis and Operational Design of Batch Processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    The objective of this paper is to present a general problem formulation and a general methodlogy for the synthesis of batch operations and the operational design of individual batch processes, such as mixing, reaction and separation. The general methodology described supplies the batch routes...

  17. A general framework for the synthesis and operational design of batch processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Papaeconomou, Eirini; Gani, Rafiqul; Jørgensen, Sten Bay

    2002-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to present a general problem formulation and a general methodology for the synthesis of batch operations and the operational design of individual batch processes, such as mixing, reaction and separation. The general methodology described supplies the batch routes...

  18. Look-ahead strategies for controlling batch operations in industry : basic insights in rule construction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Zee, D.J.; Sullivan, W.A.; Ahmad, M.M.; Fichtner, D.; Sauer, W.; Weigert, G.; Zerna, T.

    2002-01-01

    Batching jobs in a manufacturing system is a very common policy in most industries. Main reasons for batching are avoidance of set ups and/or facilitation of material handling. Examples of batch-wise production systems are ovens found in aircraft industry and in semiconductor manufacturing. Starting

  19. OSAT: a tool for sample-to-batch allocations in genomics experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Li

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Batch effect is one type of variability that is not of primary interest but ubiquitous in sizable genomic experiments. To minimize the impact of batch effects, an ideal experiment design should ensure the even distribution of biological groups and confounding factors across batches. However, due to the practical complications, the availability of the final collection of samples in genomics study might be unbalanced and incomplete, which, without appropriate attention in sample-to-batch allocation, could lead to drastic batch effects. Therefore, it is necessary to develop effective and handy tool to assign collected samples across batches in an appropriate way in order to minimize the impact of batch effects. Results We describe OSAT (Optimal Sample Assignment Tool, a bioconductor package designed for automated sample-to-batch allocations in genomics experiments. Conclusions OSAT is developed to facilitate the allocation of collected samples to different batches in genomics study. Through optimizing the even distribution of samples in groups of biological interest into different batches, it can reduce the confounding or correlation between batches and the biological variables of interest. It can also optimize the homogeneous distribution of confounding factors across batches. It can handle challenging instances where incomplete and unbalanced sample collections are involved as well as ideally balanced designs.

  20. Distribution load estimation - DLE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seppaelae, A. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland)

    1996-12-31

    The load research project has produced statistical information in the form of load models to convert the figures of annual energy consumption to hourly load values. The reliability of load models is limited to a certain network because many local circumstances are different from utility to utility and time to time. Therefore there is a need to make improvements in the load models. Distribution load estimation (DLE) is the method developed here to improve load estimates from the load models. The method is also quite cheap to apply as it utilises information that is already available in SCADA systems

  1. Wind Loads on Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dyrbye, Claes; Hansen, Svend Ole

    pressure to structural response) and design criteria. Starting with an introduction of the wind load chain, the book moves on to meteorological considerations, atmospheric boundary layer, static wind load, dynamic wind load and scaling laws used in wind-tunnel tests. The dynamic wind load covers vibrations......Wind loads have to be taken into account when designing civil engineering structures. The wind load on structures can be systematised by means of the wind load chain: wind climate (global), terrain (wind at low height), aerodynamic response (wind load to pressure), mechanical response (wind...

  2. Dynamic Load Balancing of Samr Applications on Distributed Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiling Lan

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Dynamic load balancing(DLB for parallel systems has been studied extensively; however, DLB for distributed systems is relatively new. To efficiently utilize computing resources provided by distributed systems, an underlying DLB scheme must address both heterogeneous and dynamic features of distributed systems. In this paper, we propose a DLB scheme for Structured Adaptive Mesh Refinement(SAMR applications on distributed systems. While the proposed scheme can take into consideration (1 the heterogeneity of processors and (2 the heterogeneity and dynamic load of the networks, the focus of this paper is on the latter. The load-balancing processes are divided into two phases: global load balancing and local load balancing. We also provide a heuristic method to evaluate the computational gain and redistribution cost for global redistribution. Experiments show that by using our distributed DLB scheme, the execution time can be reduced by 9%- to using parallel DLB scheme which does not consider the heterogeneous and dynamic features of distributed systems.

  3. Removal of fluoxetine and its effects in the performance of an aerobic granular sludge sequential batch reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Enantioselective removal of fluoxetine by aerobic granular sludge was evaluated. • Sorption of fluoxetine to aerobic granules occurred. • Bacterial community gradually changed during operation of sequential batch reactor. • Main biological processes occurring within the granules were preserved. • Overall performance of the reactor was recovered after initial fluoxetine shock loads. - Abstract: Fluoxetine (FLX) is a chiral fluorinated pharmaceutical mainly indicated for treatment of depression and is one of the most distributed drugs. There is a clear evidence of environmental contamination with this drug. Aerobic granular sludge sequencing batch reactors constitute a promising technology for wastewater treatment; however the removal of carbon and nutrients can be affected by micropollutants. In this study, the fate and effect of FLX on reactor performance and on microbial population were investigated. FLX adsorption/desorption to the aerobic granules was observed. FLX shock loads (≤4 μM) did not show a significant effect on the COD removal. Ammonium removal efficiency decreased in the beginning of first shock load, but after 20 days, ammonia oxidizing bacteria became adapted. The nitrite concentration in the effluent was practically null indicating that nitrite oxidizing bacteria was not inhibited, whereas, nitrate was accumulated in the effluent, indicating that denitrification was affected. Phosphate removal was affected at the beginning showing a gradual adaptation, and the effluent concentration was <0.04 mM after 70 days. A shift in microbial community occurred probably due to FLX exposure, which induced adaptation/restructuration of the microbial population. This contributed to the robustness of the reactor, which was able to adapt to the FLX load

  4. Removal of fluoxetine and its effects in the performance of an aerobic granular sludge sequential batch reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreira, Irina S.; Amorim, Catarina L. [CBQF – Centro de Biotecnologia e Química Fina – Laboratório Associado, Escola Superior de Biotecnologia, Universidade Católica Portuguesa/Porto, Rua Dr. António Bernardino Almeida, 4200-072 Porto (Portugal); Ribeiro, Ana R. [CBQF – Centro de Biotecnologia e Química Fina – Laboratório Associado, Escola Superior de Biotecnologia, Universidade Católica Portuguesa/Porto, Rua Dr. António Bernardino Almeida, 4200-072 Porto (Portugal); Centro de Química Medicinal da Universidade do Porto (CEQUIMED-UP), Rua de Jorge Viterbo Ferreira 228, 4050-313 Porto (Portugal); CESPU, Instituto de Investigação e Formação Avançada em Ciências e Tecnologias da Saúde, Rua Central de Gandra 1317, 4585-116 Gandra PRD (Portugal); Mesquita, Raquel B.R. [CBQF – Centro de Biotecnologia e Química Fina – Laboratório Associado, Escola Superior de Biotecnologia, Universidade Católica Portuguesa/Porto, Rua Dr. António Bernardino Almeida, 4200-072 Porto (Portugal); Laboratory of Hydrobiology, Institute of Biomedical Sciences Abel Salazar (ICBAS) and Institute of Marine Research (CIIMAR), Universidade do Porto, Rua de Jorge Viterbo Ferreira 228, 4050-313 Porto (Portugal); and others

    2015-04-28

    Highlights: • Enantioselective removal of fluoxetine by aerobic granular sludge was evaluated. • Sorption of fluoxetine to aerobic granules occurred. • Bacterial community gradually changed during operation of sequential batch reactor. • Main biological processes occurring within the granules were preserved. • Overall performance of the reactor was recovered after initial fluoxetine shock loads. - Abstract: Fluoxetine (FLX) is a chiral fluorinated pharmaceutical mainly indicated for treatment of depression and is one of the most distributed drugs. There is a clear evidence of environmental contamination with this drug. Aerobic granular sludge sequencing batch reactors constitute a promising technology for wastewater treatment; however the removal of carbon and nutrients can be affected by micropollutants. In this study, the fate and effect of FLX on reactor performance and on microbial population were investigated. FLX adsorption/desorption to the aerobic granules was observed. FLX shock loads (≤4 μM) did not show a significant effect on the COD removal. Ammonium removal efficiency decreased in the beginning of first shock load, but after 20 days, ammonia oxidizing bacteria became adapted. The nitrite concentration in the effluent was practically null indicating that nitrite oxidizing bacteria was not inhibited, whereas, nitrate was accumulated in the effluent, indicating that denitrification was affected. Phosphate removal was affected at the beginning showing a gradual adaptation, and the effluent concentration was <0.04 mM after 70 days. A shift in microbial community occurred probably due to FLX exposure, which induced adaptation/restructuration of the microbial population. This contributed to the robustness of the reactor, which was able to adapt to the FLX load.

  5. Sequence and batch language programs and alarm-related ``C`` programs for the 242-A MCS. Revision 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berger, J.F.

    1995-03-01

    A Distributive Process Control system was purchased by Project B-534, ``242-A Evaporator/Crystallizer Upgrades``. This control system, called the Monitor and Control System (MCS), was installed in the 242-A Evaporator located in the 200 East Area. The purpose of the MCS is to monitor and control the Evaporator and monitor a number of alarms and other signals from various Tank Farm facilities. Applications software for the MCS was developed by the Waste Treatment Systems Engineering (WTSE) group of Westinghouse. The standard displays and alarm scheme provide for control and monitoring, but do not directly indicate the signal location or depict the overall process. To do this, WTSE developed a second alarm scheme which uses special programs, annunciator keys, and process graphics. The special programs are written in two languages; Sequence and Batch Language (SABL), and ``C`` language. The WTSE-developed alarm scheme works as described below: SABL relates signals and alarms to the annunciator keys, called SKID keys. When an alarm occurs, a SABL program causes a SKID key to flash, and if the alarm is of yellow or white priority then a ``C`` program turns on an audible horn (the D/3 system uses a different audible horn for the red priority alarms). The horn and flashing key draws the attention of the operator.

  6. Kinetic study of batch and fed-batch enzymatic saccharification of pretreated substrate and subsequent fermentation to ethanol

    OpenAIRE

    Gupta Rishi; Kumar Sanjay; Gomes James; Kuhad Ramesh

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Enzymatic hydrolysis, the rate limiting step in the process development for biofuel, is always hampered by its low sugar concentration. High solid enzymatic saccharification could solve this problem but has several other drawbacks such as low rate of reaction. In the present study we have attempted to enhance the concentration of sugars in enzymatic hydrolysate of delignified Prosopis juliflora, using a fed-batch enzymatic hydrolysis approach. Results The enzymatic hydroly...

  7. Relaxation of the lower frit loading constraint for DWPF process control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The lower limit on the frit loading parameter when measurement uncertainty is introduced has impacted DWPF performance during immobilization of Tank 42 Sludge; therefore, any defensible relaxation or omission of this constraint should correspondingly increase DWPF waste loading and efficiency. Waste loading should be increased because the addition of frit is the current remedy for exceeding the lower frit loading constraint. For example, frit was added to DWPF SME Batches 94, 97 and 98 to remedy these batches for low frit loading. Attempts were also made to add frit in addition to the optimum computed to assure the lower frit loading constraint would be satisfied; however, approximately half of the SME Batches produced after Batch 98 have violated the lower frit loading constraint. If the DWPF batches did not have to be remediated and additional frit added because of the lower frit loading limit, then both, the performance of the DWPF process and the waste loading in the glass produced would be increased. Before determining whether or not the lower frit loading limit can be relaxed or omitted, the origin of this and the other constraints related to durability prediction must be examined. The lower limit loading constraint results from the need to make highly durable glass in DWPF. It is required that DWPF demonstrate that the glass produced would have durability that is at least two standard deviations greater than that of the Environmental Assessment (EA) glass. Glass durability cannot be measured in situ, it must be predicted from composition which can be measured. Fortunately, the leaching characteristics of homogeneous waste glasses is strongly related to the total molar free energy of the constituent species. Thus the waste acceptance specification has been translated into a requirement that the total molar free energy associated with the glass composition that would be produced from a DWPF melter feed batch be less than that of the EA glass accounting for

  8. Cultivation of aerobic granules in a novel configuration of sequencing batch airlift reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezaei, Laya Siroos; Ayati, Bita; Ganjidoust, Hossein

    2012-01-01

    Aerobic granules can be formed in sequencing batch airlift reactors (SBAR) and sequencing batch reactors (SBR). Comparing these two systems, the SBAR has excellent mixing condition, but due to a high height-to-diameter ratio (H/D), there is no performance capability at full scale at the present time. This research examined a novel configuration of SBAR at laboratory scale (with a box structure) for industrial wastewater treatment. To evaluate chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal efficiency and granule formation of the novel reactor (R1), in comparison a conventional SBAR (R2) was operated under similar conditions during the experimental period. R1 and R2 with working volumes of 3.6 L and 4.5 L, respectively, were used to cultivate aerobic granules. Both reactors were operated for 4 h per cycle. Experiments were done at different organic loading rates (OLRs) ranging from 0.6-4.5 kg COD/m3.d for R1 and from 0.72-5.4 kg COD/m3.d for R2. After 150 days of operation, large-sized black filamentous granules with diameters of 0.5-2 mm and 2-11 mm were formed in R1 and R2, respectively. In the second part of the experiment, the efficiency of removal of a toxic substance by aerobic granules was investigated using aniline as a carbon source with a concentration in the range 1.2-6.6 kg COD/m3.d and 1.44-7.92 kg COD/m3.d in R1 and R2, respectively. It was found that COD removal efficiency of the novel airlift reactor was over 97% and 94.5% using glucose and aniline as carbon sources, respectively. Sludge volume index (SVI) was also decreased to 30 mL/g by granulation in the novel airlift reactor. PMID:23393968

  9. Beam loading compensation in the NLCTA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the design of the Next Linear Collider (NLC), multi-bunch operation is employed to improve efficiency at the cost of substantial beam loading. The RF pulse that powers the accelerator structures will be shaped to compensate for the effect of the transient loading along the bunch train. This scheme has been implemented in the Next Linear Collider Test Accelerator (NLCTA), a facility built to test the key accelerator technology of the NLC. In this paper the authors describe the compensation method, the techniques used to measure the energy variation along the bunch train, and results from tests with NLC-like beam currents

  10. ERM Scheme for Quantile Regression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dao-Hong Xiang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper considers the ERM scheme for quantile regression. We conduct error analysis for this learning algorithm by means of a variance-expectation bound when a noise condition is satisfied for the underlying probability measure. The learning rates are derived by applying concentration techniques involving the ℓ2-empirical covering numbers.

  11. Homogenization scheme for acoustic metamaterials

    KAUST Repository

    Yang, Min

    2014-02-26

    We present a homogenization scheme for acoustic metamaterials that is based on reproducing the lowest orders of scattering amplitudes from a finite volume of metamaterials. This approach is noted to differ significantly from that of coherent potential approximation, which is based on adjusting the effective-medium parameters to minimize scatterings in the long-wavelength limit. With the aid of metamaterials’ eigenstates, the effective parameters, such as mass density and elastic modulus can be obtained by matching the surface responses of a metamaterial\\'s structural unit cell with a piece of homogenized material. From the Green\\'s theorem applied to the exterior domain problem, matching the surface responses is noted to be the same as reproducing the scattering amplitudes. We verify our scheme by applying it to three different examples: a layered lattice, a two-dimensional hexagonal lattice, and a decorated-membrane system. It is shown that the predicted characteristics and wave fields agree almost exactly with numerical simulations and experiments and the scheme\\'s validity is constrained by the number of dominant surface multipoles instead of the usual long-wavelength assumption. In particular, the validity extends to the full band in one dimension and to regimes near the boundaries of the Brillouin zone in two dimensions.

  12. Robust Threshold Guillou-Quisquater Signature Scheme

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Hong; ZHANG Zhen-feng; FENG Deng-guo

    2005-01-01

    The deficiencies of the first threshold GuillouQuisquater signature scheme presented by Li-San Liu, ChengKang Chu and Wen-Guey Tzeng are analysised at first, and then a new threshold Guillou-Quisquater signature scheme is presented. The new scheme is unforgeable and robust against any adaptive adversary if the base Guillou-Quisquater signature scheme is unforgeable under the chosen message attack and computing the discrete logarithm modulo a prime is hard.This scheme can also achieve optimal resilience. However,the new scheme does not need the assumption that N is the product of two safe primes. The basic signature scheme underlying the new scheme is exactly Guillou-Quisquater signature scheme, and the additional strong computation assumption introduced by the first threshold Guillou-Quisquater scheme is weaken.

  13. Secure Undeniable Threshold Proxy Signature Scheme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sattar J. Aboud

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available the threshold proxy signature scheme allows the original signer to delegate a signature authority to the proxy group to cooperatively sign message on behalf of an original signer. In this paper, we propose a new scheme which includes the features and benefits of the RSA scheme. Also, we will evaluate the security of undeniable threshold proxy signature scheme with known signers. We find that the existing threshold proxy scheme is insecure against the original signer forgery. In this paper, we show the cryptanalysis of an existed scheme. Additional, we propose the secure, undeniable and known signers threshold proxy signature scheme which answers the drawback of an existed scheme. We also demonstrate that a threshold proxy signature suffers from a conspiracy of an original signer and a secret share dealer, that the scheme is commonly forgeable, and cannot offer undeniable. We claim that the proposed scheme offers the undeniable characteristic.

  14. SLUDGE MASS REDUCTION: PRIMARY COMPOSITIONAL FACTORS THAT INFLUENCE MELT RATE FOR FUTURE SLUDGE BATCH PROJECTIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Newell, J; Miller, D; Stone, M; Pickenheim, B

    2008-08-28

    of the Frit 510 based system without Al-dissolution relative to the Frit 418 based system with Al-dissolution. Though the without aluminum dissolution scenario suggests a slightly higher melt rate with frit 510, several points must be taken into consideration: (1) The MRF does not have the ability to assess liquid feeds and, thus, rheology impacts. Instead, the MRF is a 'static' test bed in which a mass of dried melter feed (SRAT product plus frit) is placed in an 'isothermal' furnace for a period of time to assess melt rate. These conditions, although historically effective in terms of identifying candidate frits for specific sludge batches and mapping out melt rate versus waste loading trends, do not allow for assessments of the potential impact of feed rheology on melt rate. That is, if the rheological properties of the slurried melter feed resulted in the mounding of the feed in the melter (i.e., the melter feed was thick and did not flow across the cold cap), melt rate and/or melter operations (i.e., surges) could be negatively impacted. This could affect one or both flowsheets. (2) Waste throughput factors were not determined for Frit 510 and Frit 418 over multiple waste loadings. In order to provide insight into the mission life versus canister count question, one needs to define the maximum waste throughput for both flowsheets. Due to funding limitations, the melt rate testing only evaluated melt rate at a fixed waste loading. (3) DWPF will be processing SB5 through their facility in mid-November 2008. Insight into the over arching questions of melt rate, waste throughput, and mission life can be obtained directly from the facility. It is recommended that processing of SB5 through the facility be monitored closely and that data be used as input into the decision making process on whether to implement Al-dissolution for future sludge batches.

  15. Fair Electronic Payment Scheme Based on DSA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Shao-bin; HONG Fan; ZHU Xian

    2005-01-01

    We present a multi-signature scheme based on DSA and describes a fair electronic payment scheme based on improved DSA signatures. The scheme makes both sides in equal positions during the course of electronic transaction. A Trusted Third Party (TTP) is involved in the scheme to guarantee the fairness of the scheme for both sides. However, only during the course of registration and dispute resolution will TTP be needed. TTP is not needed during the normal payment stage.

  16. A novel control scheme for simultaneous elimination of imbalance, disturbance and voltage harmonic in power systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Javad Olamaei; Farnoosh NarjabadiFam; Amid Nazeri

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, the increasing application of nonlinear and unbalanced electronic equipment and large single phase loads have made voltage imbalance a serious problem in power distribution systems. A novel approach has been proposed to eliminate voltage imbalance and disturbances. The main strategy of this scheme is based on series active filter. By improving control circuit toward existing schemes and proposing a new strategy to control the voltage amplitude, simultaneous elimination of voltage imbalance, faults, voltage harmonics and also compensation of voltage drop in transmission lines become possible. Eventually, the voltage on the load side is a perfectly balanced three phase voltage with specific proper amplitude. The proposed scheme has been simulated in a test network and the results show high capability of this scheme for the complete elimination of imbalance without phase shift.

  17. ANALYSIS OF THE PREDICTIVE DMC CONTROLLER PERFORMANCE APPLIED TO A FEED-BATCH BIOREACTOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. A. D. RODRIGUES

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available Two control algorithms were implemented in the stabilization of the dissolved oxygen concentration of the penicillin process production phase. A deterministic and nonstructured mathematical model was used, where were considered the balances of cell, substrate, dissolved oxygen and product formation as well as kinetic of the growth, respiration, product inhibition due to excess of substrate, penicillin hydrolyze, yield factors among cell growth, substrate consumption and dissolved oxygen consumption. The bioreactor was operated in a feed-batch way using an optimal strategy for the operational policy. The agitation speed was used as manipulated variable in order to achieve the dissolved oxygen control because it was found to be the most sensitive one. Two types of control configurations were implemented. First, the PID feedback control with the parameters estimated through Modified Simplex optimization method using the IAE index, and second, the DMC predictive control that had as control parameters the model, prediction and control horizons as well as suppression factor and the trajectory parameter. A sensitivity analysis of these two control algorithms was performed using the sample time and dead time as the index to make stability evaluation. Both configurations showed stable performance, however, the predictive one was found to be more robust in relation to the sample time, as well as the dead time variations. This is a very important characteristic to be considered for the implementation of control scheme in real fermentative process

  18. Load testing circuit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2009-01-01

    A load testing circuit a circuit tests the load impedance of a load connected to an amplifier. The load impedance includes a first terminal and a second terminal, the load testing circuit comprising a signal generator providing a test signal of a defined bandwidth to the first terminal of the load...... impedance, an energy-storing element being connected to the second terminal of the load impedance and providing an output signal, and a measuring unit that measures the output signal or compares the output signal with a reference....

  19. Development of a simple model for batch and boundary information updation for a similar ship's block model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LEE Hyeon-deok; SON Myeong-jo; OH Min-jae; LEE Hyung-woo; KIM Tae-wan

    2012-01-01

    In early 2000,large domestic shipyards introduced shipbuilding 3D computer-aided design (CAD)to the hull production design process to define manufacturing and assembly information.The production design process accounts for most of the man-hours (M/H) of the entire design process and is closely connected to yard production because designs must take into account the production schedule of the shipyard,the current state of the dock needed to mount the ship's block,and supply information.Therefore,many shipyards are investigating the complete automation of the production design process to reduce the M/H for designers.However,these problems are still currently unresolved,and a clear direction is needed for research on the automatic design base of manufacturing rules,batches reflecting changed building specifications,batch updates of boundary information for hull members,and management of the hull model change history to automate the production design process.In this study,a process was developed to aid production design engineers in designing a new ship's hull block model from that of a similar ship previously built,based on AVEVA Marine.An automation system that uses the similar ship's hull block model is proposed to reduce M/H and human errors by the production design engineer.First,scheme files holding important information were constructed in a database to automatically update hull block model modifications.Second,for batch updates,the database's table,including building specifications and the referential integrity of a relational database were compared.In particular,this study focused on reflecting the frequent modification of building specifications and regeneration of boundary information of the adjacent panel due to changes in a specific panel.Third,the rollback function is proposed in which the database (DB) is used to return to the previously designed panels.

  20. A NEW TWO-DIMENSIONAL SIGNAL DECOMPOSITION SCHEME USING THE EXTREME-LIFTING SCHEME

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Baofang; Ping Xijian; Deng Guanglin; Shao Meizhen

    2001-01-01

    This paper discusses the signal decomposition method using the extreme-lifting scheme and two two-dimensional decomposition schemes: separable one-dimensional scheme and two-dimensional scheme with quincunx sampling. The structure of the relation "~" between Ex and Ey of these two schemes is symmetrical and both these two schemes have shortcomings)An unsymmetrical scheme of the extreme-lifting scheme is proposed in this paper, which canbe directly used to decompose two-dimensional image and can get better decomposition result than the two schemes with little computation cost.

  1. A Timeout Based Congestion Control Scheme for Window Flow- Controlled Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Jain, R.

    1998-01-01

    During overload, most networks drop packets due to buffer unavailability. The resulting timeouts at the source provide an implicit mechanism to convey congestion signals from the network to the source. On a timeout, a source should not only retransmit the lost packet, but it should also reduce its load on the network. Based on this realization, we have developed a simple congestion control scheme using the acknowledgment timeouts as indications of packet loss and congestion. This scheme does ...

  2. Collection of uranium by polyurethane foam loaded with LIX 63

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recovery of uranium(VI) from dilute solutions by the use of the open-cell polyurethane foam (PUF) loaded with 5,8-diethyl-7-hydroxy-6-dodecanone oxime (LIX 63) has been investigated. Above pH 4.5 more than 99 % of the uranium in the solutions was sorbed onto the LIX 63 loaded PUF. The sorbed uranium was recovered from the PUF with dilute acid solutions, and the loaded PUF could be repeatedly used in a batch or column method. The sorption of uranium was accelerated by squeezing the PUF and by increasing temperature. The sorption capacity for uranium increases linearly with an increase in LIX 63 loading the PUF. Quantitative collection of uranium over a relatively wide range of concentrations can be achieved, provided that the PUF contains an excess of LIX 63. (author)

  3. A design algorithm for batch stirred tank transesterification reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► Simplified algorithm for batch biodiesel reactor design was developed. ► C Sharp software tool for implementing the algorithm was also developed. ► 50 L/batch reactor was constructed and used to process neem oil biodiesel. ► Results showed that the produced neem biodiesel is a fuel grade product. ► Scale-up of the reactor was carried out using the developed software. - Abstract: A 50 L per batch, stirred tank reactor, suitable for carrying out transesterification of vegetable oils was designed and constructed. The major design assumptions included stainless steel plate thickness of 2 mm, reaction temperature of 60–65 °C and an initial/final fluid temperature of 25/70 °C. The calculated impeller Reynolds number was in the mixed regime zone of 10–104; the power number was varied between 1 and 5, while a typical propeller speed of 22.5 rev/s (or 1350 rev/min) was adopted. The limiting design conditions were maximum reactor diameter of 1.80 m, straight side height-to-diameter ratio in the range of 0.75–1.5 and minimum agitator motor power of 746 W (1 Hp). Based upon the design, a simple algorithm was developed and interpreted into Microsoft C Sharp computer programming language to enable scale up of the reactor. Performance testing of the realized reactor was carried out while using it to produce Neem oil biodiesel via base – catalyzed methanolysis, which yielded high quality fuel product.

  4. Persistence of Escherichia coli in batch and continuous vermicomposting systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hénault-Ethier, Louise; Martin, Vincent J J; Gélinas, Yves

    2016-10-01

    Vermicomposting is a biooxidation process in which epigeicearthworms act in synergy with microbial populations to degrade organic matter. Vermicomposting does not go through a thermophilic stage as required by North American legislations for pathogen eradication. We examined the survival of a Green Fluorescent Protein (GFP) labeled Escherichia coli MG1655 as a model for the survival of pathogenic bacteria in both small-scale batch and medium-scale continuously-operated systems to discern the influence of the earthworm Eisenia fetida, nutrient content and the indigenous vermicompost microbial community on pathogen abundance. In batch systems, the microbial community had the greatest influence on the rapid decline of E. coli populations, and the effect of earthworms was only visible in microbially-impoverishedvermicomposts. No significant earthworm density-dependent relationship was observed on E. coli survival under continuous operation. E. coli numbers decreased below the US EPA compost sanitation guidelines of 10(3)Colony Forming Units (CFU)/g (dry weight) within 18-21days for both the small-scale batch and medium-scale continuous systems, but it took up to 51days without earthworms and with an impoverished microbial community to reach the legal limit. Nutrient replenishment (i.e. organic carbon) provided by continuous feed input did not appear to extend E. coli survival. In fact, longer survival of E. coli was noticed in treatments where less total and labile sugars were available, suggesting that sugars may support potentially antagonist bacteria in the vermicompost. Total N, pH and humidity did not appear to affect E. coli survival. Several opportunistic human pathogens may be found in vermicompost, and their populations are likely kept in check by antagonists.

  5. Persistence of Escherichia coli in batch and continuous vermicomposting systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hénault-Ethier, Louise; Martin, Vincent J J; Gélinas, Yves

    2016-10-01

    Vermicomposting is a biooxidation process in which epigeicearthworms act in synergy with microbial populations to degrade organic matter. Vermicomposting does not go through a thermophilic stage as required by North American legislations for pathogen eradication. We examined the survival of a Green Fluorescent Protein (GFP) labeled Escherichia coli MG1655 as a model for the survival of pathogenic bacteria in both small-scale batch and medium-scale continuously-operated systems to discern the influence of the earthworm Eisenia fetida, nutrient content and the indigenous vermicompost microbial community on pathogen abundance. In batch systems, the microbial community had the greatest influence on the rapid decline of E. coli populations, and the effect of earthworms was only visible in microbially-impoverishedvermicomposts. No significant earthworm density-dependent relationship was observed on E. coli survival under continuous operation. E. coli numbers decreased below the US EPA compost sanitation guidelines of 10(3)Colony Forming Units (CFU)/g (dry weight) within 18-21days for both the small-scale batch and medium-scale continuous systems, but it took up to 51days without earthworms and with an impoverished microbial community to reach the legal limit. Nutrient replenishment (i.e. organic carbon) provided by continuous feed input did not appear to extend E. coli survival. In fact, longer survival of E. coli was noticed in treatments where less total and labile sugars were available, suggesting that sugars may support potentially antagonist bacteria in the vermicompost. Total N, pH and humidity did not appear to affect E. coli survival. Several opportunistic human pathogens may be found in vermicompost, and their populations are likely kept in check by antagonists. PMID:27499290

  6. Protection of UPQC Against the Load Side Short Circuits

    OpenAIRE

    Axente, Iurie, (Thesis); Basu, Malabika; Conlon, Michael; Gaughan, Kevin

    2010-01-01

    This study presents a protection scheme for protecting the series inverter of a unified power quality conditioner (UPQC). The proposed scheme protects the series inverter from overcurrents and overvoltages, which appear during short-circuit faults on the load side of the UPQC. The main protection element is a crowbar connected across the secondary of the series transformer and consists of a pair of antiparallel connected thyristors, which is governed by a simple Zener diode-based control circ...

  7. 基于参数优化批处理的TLS协议%Parameter Optimization-Based Batching TLS Protocol

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    齐芳; 贾维嘉; 鲍丰; 吴永东; 王国军

    2007-01-01

    TLS(transport layer security)协议的基本设计目标是为两个通信实体之间提供数据的保密性和完整性.由于在传输层安全握手协议中最耗费计算资源的步骤是服务器RSA解密运算,优化的批处理的RSA方法提出可以用于加速TLS会话的初始化.首先指出了以前的批处理方法由于要求多证书实现而实用性不强.然后提出了单一证书策略的方法,从而克服了这一问题.还提出结合用户对于因特网服务质量的要求优化了批处理参数.为了选择优化的批处理的参数,不仅考虑了服务器的性能,而且还考虑了客户可容忍的等待时间.通过分析并在阐述平均排队时间、批处理服务时间和系统稳定性的基础上提出了一种新颖的优化批处理调度算法,已部署在服务器上.最后通过分析和模拟两种方法验证了所提出方案的实用性和有效性.%The primary goal of the Transport Layer Security (TLS) protocol is to provide confidentiality and data integrity between two communicating entities. Since the most computationally expensive step in the TLS handshake protocol is the server's RSA decryption, it is introduced that optimal batch RSA can be used to speedup TLS session initialization. This paper first indicates that the previous batch method is impractical since it requires a multiple of certificates, then it proposes the unique certificate scheme to overcome the problem. It is also introduced that the batching parameter is optimized when integrating users' requirements for Internet Quality of Service (QoS). To select the optimal batching parameters, not only the server's performance but also the client's tolerable waiting time is considered. Based on the analysis of the mean queue time, batching service time and the stability of the system, a novel batch optimal scheduling algorithm which is deployed in a batching Web server is proposed. Finally, the proposed algorithm is evaluated to be practical and

  8. REAL WASTE TESTING OF SLUDGE BATCH 5 MELTER FEED RHEOLOGY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reboul, S.; Stone, M.

    2010-03-17

    Clogging of the melter feed loop at the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) has reduced the throughput of Sludge Batch 5 (SB5) processing. After completing a data review, DWPF attributed the clogging to the rheological properties of the Slurry Mix Evaporator (SME) project. The yield stress of the SB5 melter feed material was expected to be high, based on the relatively high pH of the SME product and the rheological results of a previous Chemical Process Cell (CPC) demonstration performed at the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL).

  9. Simple multicomponent batch distillation procedure with a variable reflux policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. N. García

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a shortcut procedure for batch distillation simulation with a variable reflux policy. The procedure starts from a shortcut method developed by Sundaram and Evans in 1993 and uses an iterative cycle to calculate the reflux ratio at each moment. The functional relationship between the concentrations at the bottom and the dome is evaluated using the Fenske equation and is complemented with the equations proposed by Underwood and Gilliland. The results of this procedure are consistent with those obtained using a fast method widely validated in the relevant literature.

  10. Batch Mode Data Analysis at ORNL for Radiation Portal Monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Global Nuclear Security Technology Division at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has developed two batch-mode data analysis tools to address the volume of data generated by radiation portal monitors (RPMs) deployed by the Second Line of Defense (SLD). The first of these tools, the ORNL Data Portal (ORNLDP), serves as both a repository and an analysis environment for the data generated by RPMs. The second tool, the In-Country Analysis Tool (ICAT), is portable and serves primarily as a small-scale analysis environment.

  11. WEIGHTED COMPACT SCHEME FOR SHOCK CAPTURING

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    A new class of finite difference schemes--the weighted compact schemes are proposed. According to the idea of the WENO schemes, the weighted compact scheme is constructed by a combination of the approximations of derivatives on candidate stencils with properly assigned weights so that the non-oscillatory property is achieved when discontinuities appear. The primitive function reconstruction method of ENO schemes is applied to obtain the conservative form of the weighted compact scheme. This new scheme not only preserves the characteristic of standard compact schemes and achieves high order accuracy and high resolution using a compact stencil,but also can accurately capture shock waves and discontinuities without oscillation, Numerical examples show that the new scheme is very promising and successful.``

  12. Biomineralization of azo dye bearing wastewater in periodic discontinuous batch reactor: Effect of microaerophilic conditions on treatment efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naresh Kumar, A; Nagendranatha Reddy, C; Venkata Mohan, S

    2015-01-01

    The present study illustrates the influence of microaerophilic condition on periodic discontinuous batch reactor (PDBR) operation in treating azo dye containing wastewater. The process performance was evaluated with the function of various dye load operations (50-750 mg/l) by keeping the organic load (1.6 kg COD/m(3)-day) constant. Initially, lower dye operation (50mg dye/l) resulted in higher dye [45 mg dye/l (90%)] and COD [SDR: 1.29 kg COD/m(3)-day (92%)] removal efficiencies. Higher dye load operation (750 mg dye/l) also showed non-inhibitory performance with respect to dye [600 mg dye/l (80%)] and COD [1.25 kg COD/m(3)-day (80%)] removal efficiencies. Increment in dye load showed increment in azo reductase and dehydrogenase activities (39.6 U; 4.96 μg/ml; 750 mg/l). UV-Vis spectroscopy (200-800 nm), FTIR and (1)H NMR studies revealed the disappearance of azo bond (-NN-). First derivative cyclic voltammogram supported the involvement of various membrane bound redox shuttlers, viz., cytochrome-C, cytochrome-bc1 and flavoproteins (FAD (H)).

  13. Ion Polarization Scheme for MEIC

    CERN Document Server

    Kondratenko, A M; Filatov, Yu N; Derbenev, Ya S; Lin, F; Morozov, V S; Zhang, Y

    2016-01-01

    The choice of a figure 8 shape for the booster and collider rings of MEIC opens wide possibilities for preservation of the ion polarization during beam acceleration as well as for control of the polarization at the collider's interaction points. As in the case of accelerators with Siberian snakes, the spin tune is energy independent but is equal to zero instead of one half. The figure-8 topology eliminates the effect of arcs on the spin motion. There appears a unique opportunity to control the polarization of any particle species including deuterons, using longitudinal fields of small integrated strength (weak solenoids). Contrary to existing schemes, using weak solenoids in figure-8 colliders, one can control the polarization at the interaction points without essentially any effect on the beam's orbital characteristics. A universal scheme for control of the polarization using weak solenoids provides an elegant solution to the problem of ion acceleration completely eliminating resonant beam depolarization. It...

  14. Project financing renewable energy schemes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The viability of many Renewable Energy projects is critically dependent upon the ability of these projects to secure the necessary financing on acceptable terms. The principal objective of the study was to provide an overview to project developers of project financing techniques and the conditions under which project finance for Renewable Energy schemes could be raised, focussing on the potential sources of finance, the typical project financing structures that could be utilised for Renewable Energy schemes and the risk/return and security requirements of lenders, investors and other potential sources of financing. A second objective is to describe the appropriate strategy and tactics for developers to adopt in approaching the financing markets for such projects. (author)

  15. MEASUREMENT OF WASTE LOADING IN SALTSTONE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One of the goals of the Saltstone variability study is to identify the operational and compositional variables that control or influence the important processing and performance properties of Saltstone grout mixtures. One of those properties of importance is the Waste Loading (WL) of the decontaminated salt solution (DSS) in the Saltstone waste form. Waste loading is a measure of the amount of waste that can be incorporated within a waste form. The value of the Saltstone waste loading ultimately determines the number of vaults that will be required to disposition all of the DSS. In this report, the waste loading is defined as the volume in milliliters of DSS per liter of Saltstone waste form. The two most important parameters that determine waste loading for Saltstone are water to cementitious material (w/cm) ratio and the cured grout density. Data are provided that show the dependence of waste loading on the w/cm ratio for a fixed DSS composition using the current premix material (45% Blast Furnace Slag (BFS), 45% Fly Ash (FA) and 10% Ordinary Portland Cement (OPC)). The impact of cured grout density on waste loading was also demonstrated. Mixes (at 0.60 w/cm) made with a Modular Caustic side extraction Unit (MCU) simulant and either OPC or BFS have higher cured grout densities than mixes made with premix and increase the WL to 709 mL/L for the OPC mix and 689 mL/L for the BFS mix versus the value of 653 mL/L for MCU in premix at 0.60 w/cm ratio. Bleed liquid reduces the waste loading and lowers the effective w/cm ratio of Saltstone. A method is presented (and will be used in future tasks) for correcting the waste loading and the w/cm ratio of the as-batched mixes in those cases where bleed liquid is present. For example, the Deliquification, Dissolution and Adjustment (DDA) mix at an as-batched 0.60 w/cm ratio, when corrected for % bleed, gives a mix with a 0.55 w/cm ratio and a WL that has been reduced from 662 to 625 mL/L. An example is provided that

  16. Validation scheme for diagnostic tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim was to develop a scheme for the validation of assays developed in the research laboratory for the successful transfer and implementation in the diagnostic laboratory. Although logistically, temporally and economically challenging, proper validation minimizes the chance of failure and increases the possibility of successful transfer and implementation in the diagnostic laboratory. A properly validated assay, which includes good design, good quality control and good documentation, reduces the chances of liability and increases confidence in the assay both nationally and internationally

  17. Practical E-Payment Scheme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Al-Fayoumi

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available E-payment is now one of the most central research areas in e-commerce, mainly regarding online and offline payment scenarios. Customers are generally passive in e-commerce transaction. Relied on a blind signature, this paper introduces an e-payment protocol, in which customers have more initiative, and can terminate the transaction before possible cheats, its security is enhanced. Moreover, the cost of workers and communications falls down considerably while the cost of trusted authority and protecting information is increased. As there is no trusted authority in the proposed scheme, network overcrowding and conspiracy problems can be avoided. Furthermore, the protocol satisfies fairness and non-repudiation. This helps merchant and bank to speed up the financial transaction process and to give user instant services at any time. Also, in this paper, we will discuss an important e-payment protocol namely pay-word scheme and examine its advantages and limitations, which encourages the authors to improve the scheme that keeps all characteristics intact without compromise of the security robustness. The suggested protocol employs the idea of blind signature with the thought of hash chain. We will compare the proposed protocol with pay-word protocol and demonstrate that the proposed protocol offers more security and efficiency, which makes the protocol workable for real world services.

  18. A comparison study on the high-rate co-digestion of sewage sludge and food waste using a temperature-phased anaerobic sequencing batch reactor system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyun-Woo; Nam, Joo-Youn; Shin, Hang-Sik

    2011-08-01

    Assessing contemporary anaerobic biotechnologies requires proofs on reliable performance in terms of renewable bioenergy recovery such as methane (CH(4)) production rate, CH(4) yield while removing volatile solid (VS) effectively. This study, therefore, aims to evaluate temperature-phased anaerobic sequencing batch reactor (TPASBR) system that is a promising approach for the sustainable treatment of organic fraction of municipal solid wastes (OFMSW). TPASBR system is compared with a conventional system, mesophilic two-stage anaerobic sequencing batch reactor system, which differs in operating temperature of 1st-stage. Results demonstrate that TPASBR system can obtain 44% VS removal from co-substrate of sewage sludge and food waste while producing 1.2m(3)CH(4)/m(3)(system)/d (0.2m(3)CH(4)/kgVS(added)) at organic loading rate of 6.1gVS/L/d through the synergy of sequencing-batch operation, co-digestion, and temperature-phasing. Consequently, the rapid and balanced anaerobic metabolism at thermophilic stage makes TPASBR system to afford high organic loading rate showing superior performance on OFMSW stabilization. PMID:21600764

  19. On parameters determination of multi-port equivalent scheme for multi-winding traction transformers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sobczyk Tadeusz J.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to present a new equivalent scheme of multi-windings traction transformers, based on multiport purely inductive circuit. The mathematical background of this equivalent scheme is described. The determination of the different scheme elements is made through a finite-elements calculation of both main and leakage inductances, for the case of a four-winding transformer. A procedure is defined, which allows to estimate the values of these elements from some measurements on the transformer at no-load and short-circuit operations. A specific strategy of short-circuit tests is described, allowing to determine all parameters in a rather simple way.

  20. Restoration scheme for multi-failures based on protection ring with dynamic weight in WDM networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Hai; Zhao, Yongli; Zhang, Jie; Wang, Dajiang; Gu, Wanyi

    2011-12-01

    A novel restoration scheme for multi-failures based on protection ring with dynamic weight (PRDW) is proposed in this paper. This scheme effectively resolves the multi-failures which is in one service and the conflicts by restoration between services. PRDW use Dijkstra's algorithm to compute path and protection ring. These rings rely on protection weight which is dynamic, so that they can as much as possible to divide multi-failures to single ones. Meanwhile PRDW introduce independent protection weight to balance load, which effectively gets combat for resources less vicious. Simulation results show that PRDW works better than traditional schemes.

  1. A biometric signcryption scheme without bilinear pairing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Mingwen; Ren, Zhiyuan; Cai, Jun; Zheng, Wentao

    2013-03-01

    How to apply the entropy in biometrics into the encryption and remote authentication schemes to simplify the management of keys is a hot research area. Utilizing Dodis's fuzzy extractor method and Liu's original signcryption scheme, a biometric identity based signcryption scheme is proposed in this paper. The proposed scheme is more efficient than most of the previous proposed biometric signcryption schemes for that it does not need bilinear pairing computation and modular exponentiation computation which is time consuming largely. The analysis results show that under the CDH and DL hard problem assumption, the proposed scheme has the features of confidentiality and unforgeability simultaneously.

  2. Improving the development of event-driven control systems in the batch processing industry. A case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, A; Rotstein, G; Alsop, N; Bromberg, J P; Gollain, C; Sorensen, S; Macchietto, S; Jakeman, C

    2002-07-01

    This paper presents the results of an academia-industry collaborative project whose main objective was to test novel techniques for the development of event-driven control systems in the batch processing (e.g., pharmaceutical, fine chemicals, food) industries. Proposed techniques build upon industrial standards and focus on (i) formal synthesis of phase control logic and its automatic translation into procedural code, and (ii) verification of the complete discrete-event control system via dynamic simulation. In order to test the techniques in an engineering environment, a complete discrete-event control system was produced for a benchmark batch process plant based on a standard development method employed by one of the industrial partners. The control system includes functional process specification, control architecture, distributed control system (DCS) proprietary programming code for procedural control at equipment, unit, and process cell levels, and human-machine interfaces: A technical assessment of the development method and the obtained control system was then carried out. Improvements were suggested using the proposed techniques in the specification, code generation and, verification steps. The project assessed the impact of these techniques from both an engineering and economic point of view. Results suggest that the introduction of computer aided engineering (CAE) practices based on the benchmarked techniques and a structured approach could effect a 75% reduction of errors produced in the development process. This translates into estimated overall savings of 7% for green-field projects. Figures were compared with other partners' experience. It is expected that the work load on a given project will shift, increasing the load on process engineers during the specification stage and decreasing the load on the software engineers during the code writing. PMID:12160348

  3. High Power Disk Loaded Guide Load

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farkas, Z.D.; /SLAC

    2006-02-22

    A method to design a matching section from a smooth guide to a disk-loaded guide, using a variation of broadband matching, [1, 2] is described. Using this method, we show how to design high power loads. The load consists of a disk-loaded coaxial guide operating in the TE{sub 01}-mode. We use this mode because it has no electric field terminating on a conductor, has no axial currents, and has no current at the cylinder-disk interface. A high power load design that has -35 dB reflection and a 200 MHz, -20 dB bandwidth, is presented. It is expected that it will carry the 600 MW output peak power of the pulse compression network. We use coaxial geometry and stainless steel material to increase the attenuation per cell.

  4. 2CAuth: A New Two Factor Authentication Scheme Using QR-Code

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Harini

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Password based schemes has been the standard means of authentication over decades. Enhancements use entities like ownership (something one possess, knowledge (something one knows, and inherence (something one is as first factor and mobile phones as token less second factor, in combinations, to offer different levels of security assurances, trading off usability. In this paper we present ‘2CAuth’ a new two factor authentication scheme that enhances secure usage of application information and preserves usability, without sacrificing user’s privacy. A significant feature of the scheme is that it DOES NOT call for any synchronization between Mobile Network Operator (MNO and users. The analysis of the scheme clearly brings out itseffectiveness in terms of its usability even at times of peak loads on mobile networks. The scheme has the dual advantage of carrying out the verification of transactions which involve the physical presence of the user as well as those to be done in his absence.

  5. A NOVEL LINK ADAPTATION SCHEME TO ENHANCE PERFORMANCE OF IEEE 802.11G WIRELESS LAN

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    A novel link adaptation scheme using linear Auto Regressive (AR) model channel estimation algorithm to enhance the performance of auto rate selection mechanism in IEEE 802.11g is proposed. This scheme can overcome the low efficiency caused by time interval between the time when Received Signal Strength (RSS) is measured and the time when rate is selected. The best rate is selected based on data payload length, frame retry count and the estimated RSS, which is estimated from recorded RSSs. Simulation results show that the proposed scheme enhances mean throughput performance up to 7%, in saturation state,and up to 24% in finite load state compared with those non-estimation schemes, performance enhancements in average drop rate and average number of transmission attempts per data frame delivery also validate the effectiveness of the proposed scheme.

  6. Beam Loading Compensation in the Main Linac of CLIC

    OpenAIRE

    Schulte, D.; Syratchev, I.

    2000-01-01

    Compensation of multi-bunch beam loading is of great importance in the main linac of the Compact Linear Collider (CLIC). The bunch-to-bunch energy variation has to stay below 1 part in 1000. In CLIC, the RF power is obtained by decelerating a drive beam which is formed by merging a number of short bunch trains. A promising scheme for tackling beam loading in the main linac is based on varying the lengths of the bunch trains in the drive beam. The scheme and its expected performance are presen...

  7. Comparison of growth, acetate production, and acetate inhibition of Escherichia coli strains in batch and fed-batch fermentations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luli, G W; Strohl, W R

    1990-04-01

    The growth characteristics and acetate production of several Escherichia coli strains were compared by using shake flasks, batch fermentations, and glucose-feedback-controlled fed-batch fermentations to assess the potential of each strain to grow at high cell densities. Of the E. coli strains tested, including JM105, B, W3110, W3100, HB101, DH1, CSH50, MC1060, JRG1046, and JRG1061, strains JM105 and B were found to have the greatest relative biomass accumulation, strain MC1060 accumulated the highest concentrations of acetic acid, and strain B had the highest growth rates under the conditions tested. In glucose-feedback-controlled fed-batch fermentations, strains B and JM105 produced only 2 g of acetate.liter-1 while accumulating up to 30 g of biomass.liter-1. Under identical conditions, strains HB101 and MC1060 accumulated less than 10 g of biomass.liter-1 and strain MC1060 produced 8 g of acetate.liter-1. The addition of various concentrations of sodium acetate to the growth medium resulted in a logarithmic decrease, with respect to acetate concentration, in the growth rates of E. coli JM105, JM105(pOS4201), and JRG1061. These data indicated that the growth of the E. coli strains was likely to be inhibited by the acetate they produced when grown on media containing glucose. A model for the inhibition of growth of E. coli by acetate was derived from these experiments to explain the inhibition of acetate on E. coli strains at neutral pH. PMID:2187400

  8. A Simplified Downlink Transmission and Receiving Scheme for IDMA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xing-Zhong Xiong; Jian-Hao Hu

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a downlink transmission and receiving scheme for interleave-division multiple access (IDMA) system based on time-division duplexing (TDD) mode and time-reversal (TR) technique. The proposed scheme uses the time-reversed version of the channel impulse responses (CIR) obtained from the uplink to pre-process the transmitted signal at base station. By exploiting the weak correlations of fading channels for different user ends (UE), it is helpful to alleviate the multi-user interference (MUI) and co-channel interference (CCI). Moreover, the application of the TR technique in a multiple input-single output (MISO) configuration can reduce the delay spread of the channel impulse response, and mitigate inter-symbol interference (ISI). The UE can be simplified by canceling the iteration operation. Thus the data detection of the proposed scheme is rather simple as compared with the traditional IDMA, the complexity and computational load of UE is decreased substantially, and the proposed scheme provides a great deal of privacy and security to mobile users.

  9. PI controller scheme for charge balance in implantable electrical stimulators

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    C Rathna

    2016-01-01

    Electrical stimulation has been used in a wide variety of medical implant applications. In all of these applications, due to safety concerns, maintaining charge balance becomes a critically important issue that needs to be addressed at the design stage. It is important that charge balancing schemes be robust to circuit (process) and load impedance variations, and at the same time must also lend themselves to miniaturization. In this communication, simulation studies on the effectiveness of using Proportional Integral (P-I) control schemes for managing charge balance in electrical stimulation are presented. The adaptation of the P-I control scheme to implant circuits leads to two possible circuit realizations in the analog domain. The governing equations for these realizations are approximated to simple linear equations. Considering typical circuit and tissue parameter values and their expected uncertainties, Matlab as well as circuit simulations have been carried out. Simulation results presented indicate that the tissue voltages settle to well below 20% of the safe levels and within about 20 stimulations cycles, thus confirming the validity and robustness of the proposed schemes.

  10. Joint multiuser switched diversity and adaptive modulation schemes for spectrum sharing systems

    KAUST Repository

    Qaraqe, Marwa

    2012-12-01

    In this paper, we develop multiuser access schemes for spectrum sharing systems whereby secondary users are allowed to share the spectrum with primary users under the condition that the interference observed at the primary receiver is below a predetermined threshold. In particular, we devise two schemes for selecting a user among those that satisfy the interference constraint and achieve an acceptable signal-to-noise ratio level. The first scheme selects the user that reports the best channel quality. In order to alleviate the high feedback load associated with the first scheme, we develop a second scheme based on the concept of switched diversity where the base station scans the users in a sequential manner until an acceptable user is found. In addition to these two selection schemes, we consider two power adaptive settings at the secondary users based on the amount of interference available at the secondary transmitter. In the On/Off power setting, users are allowed to transmit based on whether the interference constraint is met or not, while in the full power adaptive setting, the users are allowed to vary their transmission power to satisfy the interference constraint. Finally, we present numerical results for our proposed algorithms where we show the trade-off between the average spectral efficiency and average feedback load for both schemes. © 2012 IEEE.

  11. Detection and isolation of Bluetongue virus from commercial vaccine batches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bumbarov, Velizar; Golender, Natalia; Erster, Oran; Khinich, Yevgeny

    2016-06-14

    In this report we describe the detection and identification of Bluetongue virus (BTV) contaminations in commercial vaccines. BTV RNA was detected in vaccine batches of Lumpy skin disease (LSD) and Sheep pox (SP) using quantitative PCR (qPCR) for VP1 and NS3 genes. Both batches were positive for VP1 and NS3 in qPCR. The LSD vaccine-derived sample was positive for VP1 and VP2 in conventional PCR. The SP vaccine-derived sample was examined by amplification of VP1, VP4, VP6, VP7, NS2 and NS3 gene segments in conventional PCR. The SP vaccine-derived sample was further propagated in embryonated chicken eggs (ECE) and Vero cells. Preliminary sequence analysis showed that the LSD vaccine-derived sequence was 98-99% similar to BTV9. Analysis of the six genomic segments from the SP vaccine-derived isolate showed the highest similarity to BTV26 (66.3-97.8%). These findings are particularly important due to the effect of BTV on cattle and sheep, for which the vaccines are intended. They also demonstrate the necessity of rigorous vaccine inspection and strict vaccine production control. PMID:27171751

  12. BEclear: Batch Effect Detection and Adjustment in DNA Methylation Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akulenko, Ruslan; Merl, Markus; Helms, Volkhard

    2016-01-01

    Batch effects describe non-natural variations of, for example, large-scale genomic data sets. If not corrected by suitable numerical algorithms, batch effects may seriously affect the analysis of these datasets. The novel array platform independent software tool BEclear enables researchers to identify those portions of the data that deviate statistically significant from the remaining data and to replace these portions by typical values reconstructed from neighboring data entries based on latent factor models. In contrast to other comparable methods that often use some sort of global normalization of the data, BEclear avoids changing the apparently unaffected parts of the data. We tested the performance of this approach on DNA methylation data for various tumor data sets taken from The Cancer Genome Atlas and compared the results to those obtained with the existing algorithms ComBat, Surrogate Variable Analysis, RUVm and Functional normalization. BEclear constantly performed at par with or better than these methods. BEclear is available as an R package at the Bioconductor project http://bioconductor.org/packages/release/bioc/html/BEclear.html. PMID:27559732

  13. Transfer bonding technology for batch fabrication of SMA microactuators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grund, T.; Guerre, R.; Despont, M.; Kohl, M.

    2008-05-01

    Currently, the broad market introduction of shape memory alloy (SMA) microactuators and sensors is hampered by technological barriers, since batch fabrication methods common to electronics industry are not available. The present study intends to overcome these barriers by introducing a wafer scale transfer process that allows the selective transfer of heat-treated and micromachined shape memory alloy (SMA) film or foil microactuators to randomly selected receiving sites on a target substrate. The technology relies on a temporary adhesive bonding layer between SMA film/foil and an auxiliary substrate, which can be removed by laser ablation. The transfer technology was tested for microactuators of a cold-rolled NiTi foil of 20 μm thickness, which were heat-treated in free-standing condition, then micromachined on an auxiliary substrate of glass, and finally selectively transferred to different target substrates of a polymer. For demonstration, the new technology was used for batch-fabrication of SMA-actuated polymer microvalves.

  14. SEQUENCING BATCH REACTOR: A PROMISING TECHNOLOGY IN WASTEWATER TREATMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. H. Mahvi

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Discharge of domestic and industrial wastewater to surface or groundwater is very dangerous to the environment. Therefore treatment of any kind of wastewater to produce effluent with good quality is necessary. In this regard choosing an effective treatment system is important. Sequencing batch reactor is a modification of activated sludge process which has been successfully used to treat municipal and industrial wastewater. The process could be applied for nutrients removal, high biochemical oxygen demand containing industrial wastewater, wastewater containing toxic materials such as cyanide, copper, chromium, lead and nickel, food industries effluents, landfill leachates and tannery wastewater. Of the process advantages are single-tank configuration, small foot print, easily expandable, simple operation and low capital costs. Many researches have been conducted on this treatment technology. The authors had been conducted some investigations on a modification of sequencing batch reactor. Their studies resulted in very high percentage removal of biochemical oxygen demand, chemical oxygen demand, total kjeldahl nitrogen, total nitrogen, total phosphorus and total suspended solids respectively. This paper reviews some of the published works in addition to experiences of the authors.

  15. BEclear: Batch Effect Detection and Adjustment in DNA Methylation Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akulenko, Ruslan; Merl, Markus; Helms, Volkhard

    2016-01-01

    Batch effects describe non-natural variations of, for example, large-scale genomic data sets. If not corrected by suitable numerical algorithms, batch effects may seriously affect the analysis of these datasets. The novel array platform independent software tool BEclear enables researchers to identify those portions of the data that deviate statistically significant from the remaining data and to replace these portions by typical values reconstructed from neighboring data entries based on latent factor models. In contrast to other comparable methods that often use some sort of global normalization of the data, BEclear avoids changing the apparently unaffected parts of the data. We tested the performance of this approach on DNA methylation data for various tumor data sets taken from The Cancer Genome Atlas and compared the results to those obtained with the existing algorithms ComBat, Surrogate Variable Analysis, RUVm and Functional normalization. BEclear constantly performed at par with or better than these methods. BEclear is available as an R package at the Bioconductor project http://bioconductor.org/packages/release/bioc/html/BEclear.html. PMID:27559732

  16. Xylitol production by Candida parapsilosis under fed-batch culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra A. Furlan

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Xylitol production by Candida parapsilosis was investigated under fed-batch cultivation, using single (xylose or mixed (xylose and glucose sugars as substrates. The presence of glucose in the medium induced the production of ethanol as secondary metabolite and improved specific rates of growth, xylitol formation and substrate consumption. Fractionated supply of the feed medium at constant sugar concentration did not promote any increase on the productivity compared to the single batch cultivation.A produção de xylitol por Candida parapsilosis foi investigada em regime de batelada alimentada, usando substratos açucarados de composição simples (xilose ou composta (xilose e glicose. A presença de glicose no meio induziu a formação de etanol como metabólito secundário. A suplementação fracionada do meio de alimentação numa concentração fixa de açúcar não resultou em aumento da produtividade em relação àquela alcançada em batelada simples.

  17. Development and Validation of Chemical Kinetic Mechanism Reduction Scheme for Large-Scale Mechanisms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poon, Hiew Mun; Ng, Hoon Kiat; Gan, Suyin;

    2014-01-01

    This work is an extension to a previously reported work on chemical kinetic mechanism reduction scheme for large-scale mechanisms. Here, Perfectly Stirred Reactor (PSR) was added as a criterion of data source for mechanism reduction instead of using only auto-ignition condition. As a result......, a reduced n-hexadecane mechanism with 79 species for diesel fuel surrogate was successfully derived from the detailed mechanism. Following that, the reduced n-hexadecane mechanism was validated under auto-ignition and PSR conditions using zero-dimensional (0-D) closed homogeneous batch reactor in CHEMKIN...

  18. Development of a sustainability reporting scheme for biofuels: A UK case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 2008, the UK launched the first regulatory sustainability reporting scheme for biofuels. The development of the scheme, managed by the Low Carbon Vehicle Partnership for the Department for Transport, involved extensive stakeholder engagement. The scheme has significantly increased understanding by policy-makers, the biofuels industry and its supply chains on how to monitor and manage the sustainability risks of biofuels and increase their greenhouse-gas benefits. It is providing a practical model for similar developments globally. To receive certificates in order to meet volume obligations under the Renewable Transport Fuel Obligation (RTFO), suppliers must provide a monthly carbon and sustainability report on individual batches of renewable fuels they supply into the UK. The Renewable Fuels Agency produces aggregate monthly reports of overall performance and quarterly updates of individual supplier performance. This scheme is an important first step to assist the biofuels industry to demonstrate its environmental credentials and justify the subsidies received. The paper provides a case study of the development of the scheme, its initial outcomes and outstanding challenges.

  19. A Novel Information Security Scheme using Cryptic Steganography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K RAMA MOHANA RAO

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The demand for effective information security schemes is increasing day by day with the exponential growth of Internet. Cryptography and Steganography are the two popular techniques for secret communication. The contents of message are kept secret in cryptography, where as in steganography the message is embedded into the cover image (text, video and image (pay load. In this proposed system we developed a system in which cryptography and steganography are used as integrated part along with newly developed enhanced security model. In cryptography we are using MD-5 Algorithm to encrypt a message and a part of message is hidden in DCT of an image, remaining part of the message is used to generate three ( 3 secret keys which make the system highly secured. To avoid the problem of unauthorized data access steganography along with cryptography called as Cryptic-Steganography scheme is the right most solution.

  20. Reforming Dutch Occupational Pension Schemes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bovenberg, A.L.; Gradus, R.H.J.M.

    2014-01-01

    Dutch occupational defined-benefit plans suffer from a number of serious weaknesses, including ambiguous ownership of the surplus, back-loading of benefits, and lack of tailor-made risk management. To address these weaknesses, we propose collective individual defined-contribution plans that are actu

  1. Secret sharing scheme with inherited characteristic

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ye Zhenjun; Meng Fanzhen

    2006-01-01

    To assure the shareholders can look for their "legal" attorneys to renew the secret, once the secret sharing scheme is initialized, a secret sharing scheme with inherited characteristic is constructed. In this scheme, each shareholder can produce a new share by his algorithm, which is equivalent to the primary one. Together with other shares, the primary secret can be renewed. Since this scheme is constructed not by replacing the primary share with a new share produced by the dealer in his primitive secret sharing scheme, so no matter how much shares the shareholder produces, these shares can not be gathered together to renew the secret in this scheme. Compared with the existing secret sharing schemes, this scheme provides more agility for the shareholders by investing each of them a function but not affect its security.

  2. Ghana - Ghana Compact I Irrigation Schemes

    Data.gov (United States)

    Millenium Challenge Corporation — The Millennium Development Authority (MiDA) financed the construction of a new irrigation scheme in Kpong and the renovation of two irrigation schemes in Botanga...

  3. TVD schemes for open channel flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delis, A. I.; Skeels, C. P.

    1998-04-01

    The Saint Venant equations for modelling flow in open channels are solved in this paper, using a variety of total variation diminishing (TVD) schemes. The performance of second- and third-order-accurate TVD schemes is investigated for the computation of free-surface flows, in predicting dam-breaks and extreme flow conditions created by the river bed topography. Convergence of the schemes is quantified by comparing error norms between subsequent iterations. Automatically calculated time steps and entropy corrections allow high CFL numbers and smooth transition between different conditions. In order to compare different approaches with TVD schemes, the most accurate of each type was chosen. All four schemes chosen proved acceptably accurate. However, there are important differences between the schemes in the occurrence of clipping, overshooting and oscillating behaviour and in the highest CFL numbers allowed by a scheme. These variations in behaviour stem from the different orders and inherent properties of the four schemes.

  4. Elliptic Curve Blind Digital Signature Schemes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YOULin; YANGYixian; WENQiaoyan

    2003-01-01

    Blind signature schemes are important cryptographic protocols in guaranteeing the privacy or anonymity of the users.Three new blind signature schemes and their corresponding generalizations are pro-posed. Moreover, their securities are simply analyzed.

  5. EFFICIENCY PROBLEMS RELATED TO PERMANGANATE OXIDATION SCHEMES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oxidation schemes for the in-situ destruction of chlorinated solvents, using potassium permanganate, are receiving considerable attention. Indication from field studies and from our own work are that permanganate oxidation schemes have inherent problems that could severely limit...

  6. Wireless Broadband Access and Accounting Schemes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    In this paper, we propose two wireless broadband access and accounting schemes. In both schemes, the accounting system adopts RADIUS protocol, but the access system adopts SSH and SSL protocols respectively.

  7. Linear multi-secret sharing schemes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIAO Liangliang; LIU Mulan

    2005-01-01

    In this paper the linear multi-secret sharing schemes are studied by using monotone span programs. A relation between computing monotone Boolean functions by using monotone span programs and realizing multi-access structures by using linear multisecret sharing schemes is shown. Furthermore, the concept of optimal linear multi-secret sharing scheme is presented and the several schemes are proved to be optimal.

  8. Improvement of publicly verifiable authenticated encryption scheme

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LEI Fei-yu; CHEN Wen; MA Chang-she; CHEN Ke-fei

    2007-01-01

    A weakness of unforgeability is found in Ma and Chen scheme, and the root cause is the susceptive linear design in the scheme. In order to avoid the weakness and susceptive linear design, an improvement by means of two mechanisms including quadratic residue and composite discrete logarithm is proposed, which can defeat the forgery attacks in Ma and Chen scheme. The new scheme remains good confidentiality, public verifiability and efficiency.

  9. Bagasse hydrolyzates from Agave tequilana as substrates for succinic acid production by Actinobacillus succinogenes in batch and repeated batch reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corona-González, Rosa Isela; Varela-Almanza, Karla María; Arriola-Guevara, Enrique; Martínez-Gómez, Álvaro de Jesús; Pelayo-Ortiz, Carlos; Toriz, Guillermo

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this work was to obtain fermentable sugars by enzymatic or acid hydrolyses of Agave tequilana Weber bagasse in order to produce succinic acid with Actinobacillus succinogenes. Hydrolyses were carried out with mineral acids (sulfuric and hydrochloric acids) or a commercial cellulolytic enzyme, and were optimized statistically by a response surface methodology, having as factors the concentration of acid/enzyme and time of hydrolysis. The concentration of sugars obtained at optimal conditions for each hydrolysis were 21.7, 22.4y 19.8g/L for H2SO4, HCl and the enzymatic preparation respectively. Concerning succinic acid production, the enzymatic hydrolyzates resulted in the highest yield (0.446g/g) and productivity (0.57g/Lh) using A. succinogenes in a batch reactor system. Repeated batch fermentation with immobilized A. succinogenes in agar and with the enzymatic hydrolyzates resulted in a maximum concentration of succinic acid of 33.6g/L from 87.2g/L monosaccharides after 5 cycles in 40h, obtaining a productivity of 1.32g/Lh. PMID:26802183

  10. Intact cell mass spectrometry as a progress tracking tool for batch and fed-batch fermentation processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helmel, Michaela; Marchetti-Deschmann, Martina; Raus, Martin; Posch, Andreas E; Herwig, Christoph; Šebela, Marek; Allmaier, Günter

    2015-02-01

    Penicillin production during a fermentation process using industrial strains of Penicillium chrysogenum is a research topic permanently discussed since the accidental discovery of the antibiotic. Intact cell mass spectrometry (ICMS) can be a fast and novel monitoring tool for the fermentation progress during penicillin V production in a nearly real-time fashion. This method is already used for the characterization of microorganisms and the differentiation of fungal strains; therefore, the application of ICMS to samples directly harvested from a fermenter is a promising possibility to get fast information about the progress of fungal growth. After the optimization of the ICMS method to penicillin V fermentation broth samples, the obtained ICMS data were evaluated by hierarchical cluster analysis or an in-house software solution written especially for ICMS data comparison. Growth stages of a batch and fed-batch fermentation of Penicillium chrysogenum are differentiated by one of those statistical approaches. The application of two matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) instruments in the linear positive ion mode from different vendors demonstrated the universal applicability of the developed ICMS method. The base for a fast and easy-to-use method for monitoring the fermentation progress of P. chrysogenum is created with this ICMS method developed especially for fermentation broth samples.

  11. Citric acid production from hydrolysate of pretreated straw cellulose by Yarrowia lipolytica SWJ-1b using batch and fed-batch cultivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaoyan; Lv, Jinshun; Zhang, Tong; Deng, Yuanfang

    2015-01-01

    In this study, crude cellulase produced by Trichoderma reesei Rut-30 was used to hydrolyze pretreated straw. After the compositions of the hydrolysate of pretreated straw were optimized, the study showed that natural components of pretreated straw without addition of any other components such as (NH4)2SO4, KH2PO4, or Mg(2+) were suitable for citric acid production by Yarrowia lipolytica SWJ-1b, and the optimal ventilatory capacity was 10.0 L/min/L medium. Batch and fed-batch production of citric acid from the hydrolysate of pretreated straw by Yarrowia lipolytica SWJ-1b has been investigated. In the batch cultivation, 25.4 g/L and 26.7 g/L citric acid were yields from glucose and hydrolysate of straw cellulose, respectively, while the cultivation time was 120 hr. In the three-cycle fed-batch cultivation, citric acid (CA) production was increased to 42.4 g/L and the cultivation time was extended to 240 hr. However, iso-citric acid (ICA) yield in fed-batch cultivation (4.0 g/L) was similar to that during the batch cultivation (3.9 g/L), and only 1.6 g/L of reducing sugar was left in the medium at the end of fed-batch cultivation, suggesting that most of the added carbon was used in the cultivation.

  12. Limit loads in nozzles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The static method for the evaluation of the limit loads of a perfectly elasto-plastic structure is presented. Using the static theorem of Limit Analysis and the Finite Element Method, a lower bound for the colapso load can be obtained through a linear programming problem. This formulation if then applied to symmetrically loaded shells of revolution and some numerical results of limit loads in nozzles are also presented. (Author)

  13. Arbitrated quantum signature scheme with message recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Hwayean; Hong, Changho; Kim, Hyunsang; Lim, Jongin; Yang, Hyung Jin

    2004-02-16

    Two quantum signature schemes with message recovery relying on the availability of an arbitrator are proposed. One scheme uses a public board and the other does not. However both schemes provide confidentiality of the message and a higher efficiency in transmission.

  14. Quantum Signature Scheme with Weak Arbitrator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Ming-Xing; Chen, Xiu-Bo; Yun, Deng; Yang, Yi-Xian

    2012-07-01

    In this paper, we propose one quantum signature scheme with a weak arbitrator to sign classical messages. This scheme can preserve the merits in the original arbitrated scheme with some entanglement resources, and provide a higher efficiency in transmission and reduction the complexity of implementation. The arbitrator is costless and only involved in the disagreement case.

  15. Population Monotonic Path Schemes for Simple Games

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ciftci, B.B.; Borm, P.E.M.; Hamers, H.J.M.

    2006-01-01

    A path scheme for a simple game is composed of a path, i.e., a sequence of coalitions that is formed during the coalition formation process and a scheme, i.e., a payoff vector for each coalition in the path.A path scheme is called population monotonic if a player's payoff does not decrease as the pa

  16. A Model of Hierarchical Key Assignment Scheme

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Zhigang; ZHAO Jing; XU Maozhi

    2006-01-01

    A model of the hierarchical key assignment scheme is approached in this paper, which can be used with any cryptography algorithm. Besides, the optimal dynamic control property of a hierarchical key assignment scheme will be defined in this paper. Also, our scheme model will meet this property.

  17. Direct Load Control (DLC) Considering Nodal Interrupted Energy Assessment Rate (NIEAR) in Restructured Power Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Qiuwei; Wang, Peng; Goel, Lalit

    2010-01-01

    A direct load control (DLC) scheme of air conditioning loads (ACL) considering direct monetary compensation to ACL customers for the service interruption caused by the DLC program is proposed in this paper for restructured power systems. The nodal interrupted energy assessment rate (NIEAR), which...... of the system energy cost, the system spinning reserve cost and the compensation cost to the ACL customers. Dynamic programming (DP) was used to obtain the optimal DLC scheme. The IEEE reliability test system (RTS) was studied to illustrate the proposed DLC scheme.......A direct load control (DLC) scheme of air conditioning loads (ACL) considering direct monetary compensation to ACL customers for the service interruption caused by the DLC program is proposed in this paper for restructured power systems. The nodal interrupted energy assessment rate (NIEAR), which...

  18. Valiant load-balanced robust routing under hose model for WDM mesh networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaoning; Li, Lemin; Wang, Sheng

    2006-09-01

    In this paper, we propose Valiant Load-Balanced robust routing scheme for WDM mesh networks under the model of polyhedral uncertainty (i.e., hose model), and the proposed routing scheme is implemented with traffic grooming approach. Our Objective is to maximize the hose model throughput. A mathematic formulation of Valiant Load-Balanced robust routing is presented and three fast heuristic algorithms are also proposed. When implementing Valiant Load-Balanced robust routing scheme to WDM mesh networks, a novel traffic-grooming algorithm called MHF (minimizing hop first) is proposed. We compare the three heuristic algorithms with the VPN tree under the hose model. Finally we demonstrate in the simulation results that MHF with Valiant Load-Balanced robust routing scheme outperforms the traditional traffic-grooming algorithm in terms of the throughput for the uniform/non-uniform traffic matrix under the hose model.

  19. Biogas Production from Batch Anaerobic Co-Digestion of Night Soil with Food Waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Assadawut Khanto

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study is to investigate the biogas production from Anaerobic Co-Digestion of Night Soil (NS with Food Waste (FW. The batch experiment was conducted through the NS and FW with a ratio of 70:30 by weight. The experiment is mainly evaluated by the characteristic of Co-Digestion and Biogas Production. In addition of food waste was inflating the COD loading from 17,863 to 42,063 mg/L which is 135 % increased. As the result, it shows that pH has dropped off in the beginning of 7-day during digestion and it was slightly increased into the range of optimum anaerobic condition. After digestion of the biogas production was 2,184 l and 56.5 % of methane fraction has obtained within 31 days of experimentation. The investigation of Biochemical Methane Potential (BMP and Specific Methanogenic Activities (SMA were highly observed. And the results were obtained by 34.55 mL CH4/gCODremoval and 0.38 g CH4-COD/gVSS-d. While the average COD removal from the 4 outlets got 92%, 94%, 94 % and 92 % respectively. However, the effluent in COD concentration was still high and it needs further treatment before discharge.

  20. Simultaneous nitrification-denitrification and phosphorus removal in a fixed bed sequencing batch reactor (FBSBR)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rahimi, Yousef, E-mail: you.rahimi@gmail.com [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Graduate Faculty of Environment, University of Tehran, No. 25 Qods St., Enghelab Ave, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Torabian, Ali, E-mail: atorabi@ut.ac.ir [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Graduate Faculty of Environment, University of Tehran, No. 25 Qods St., Enghelab Ave, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Mehrdadi, Naser, E-mail: mehrdadi@ut.ac.ir [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Graduate Faculty of Environment, University of Tehran, No. 25 Qods St., Enghelab Ave, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Shahmoradi, Behzad, E-mail: bshahmorady@gmail.com [Department of Environmental Science, University of Mysore, MGM-06 Mysore (India)

    2011-01-30

    Research highlights: {yields} Sludge production in FSBR reactor is 20-30% less than SBR reactor. {yields} FSBR reactor showed more nutrient removal rate than SBR reactor. {yields} FSBR reactor showed less VSS/TSS ratio than SBR reactor. - Abstract: Biological nutrient removal (BNR) was investigated in a fixed bed sequencing batch reactor (FBSBR) in which instead of activated sludge polypropylene carriers were used. The FBSBR performance on carbon and nitrogen removal at different loading rates was significant. COD, TN, and phosphorus removal efficiencies were at range of 90-96%, 60-88%, and 76-90% respectively while these values at SBR reactor were 85-95%, 38-60%, and 20-79% respectively. These results show that the simultaneous nitrification-denitrification (SND) is significantly higher than conventional SBR reactor. The higher total phosphorus (TP) removal in FBSBR correlates with oxygen gradient in biofilm layer. The influence of fixed media on biomass production yield was assessed by monitoring the MLSS concentrations versus COD removal for both reactors and results revealed that the sludge production yield (Y{sub obs}) is significantly less in FBSBR reactors compared with SBR reactor. The FBSBR was more efficient in SND and phosphorus removal. Moreover, it produced less excess sludge but higher in nutrient content and stabilization ratio (less VSS/TSS ratio).

  1. Uptake of permanganate from aqueous environment by surfactant modified montmorillonite batch and fixed bed studies

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    N Mahadevaiah; B Vijayakumar; K Hemalatha; B S Jai Prakash

    2011-12-01

    Organo-clay was prepared by incorporating different amounts (in terms of CEC, ranging from 134–840 mg of quaternary ammonium cation (QACs) such as hexadecytrimethylammonium bromide ([C19H42N]Br) into the montmorillonite clay. Prepared organo-clays are characterized by CHN analyser and XRD to measure the amount of elemental content and interlayer spacing of surfactant modified clay. The batch experiments of sorption of permanganate from aqueous media by organo-clays was studied at different acidic strengths (pH 1–7). The experimental results show that the rate and amount of adsorption of permanganate was higher at lower pH compared to raw montmorillonite. Laboratory fixed bed experiments were conducted to evaluate the breakthrough time and nature of breakthrough curves. The shape of the breakthrough curves shows that the initial cationic surfactant loadings at 1.0 CEC of the clay is enough to enter the permanganate ions in to the interlamellar region of the surfactant modified smectile clays. These fixed bed studies were also applied to quantify the effect of bed-depth and breakthrough time during the uptake of permanganate. Calculation of thermodynamic parameters shows that the sorption of permanganate is spontaneous and follows the first order kinetics.

  2. Performance and microbial ecology of a nitritation sequencing batch reactor treating high-strength ammonia wastewater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wenjing; Dai, Xiaohu; Cao, Dawen; Wang, Sha; Hu, Xiaona; Liu, Wenru; Yang, Dianhai

    2016-01-01

    The partial nitrification (PN) performance and the microbial community variations were evaluated in a sequencing batch reactor (SBR) for 172 days, with the stepwise elevation of ammonium concentration. Free ammonia (FA) and low dissolved oxygen inhibition of nitrite-oxidized bacteria (NOB) were used to achieve nitritation in the SBR. During the 172 days operation, the nitrogen loading rate of the SBR was finally raised to 3.6 kg N/m3/d corresponding the influent ammonium of 1500 mg/L, with the ammonium removal efficiency and nitrite accumulation rate were 94.12% and 83.54%, respectively, indicating that the syntrophic inhibition of FA and low dissolved oxygen contributed substantially to the stable nitrite accumulation. The results of the 16S rRNA high-throughput sequencing revealed that Nitrospira, the only nitrite-oxidizing bacteria in the system, were successively inhibited and eliminated, and the SBR reactor was dominated finally by Nitrosomonas, the ammonium-oxidizing bacteria, which had a relative abundance of 83%, indicating that the Nitrosomonas played the primary roles on the establishment and maintaining of nitritation. Followed by Nitrosomonas, Anaerolineae (7.02%) and Saprospira (1.86%) were the other mainly genera in the biomass. PMID:27762325

  3. The valuation of malnutrition in the mono-digestion of maize silage by anaerobic batch tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinken, L; Urban, I; Haun, E; Urban, I; Weichgrebe, D; Rosenwinkel, K-H

    2008-01-01

    Anaerobic digestion is a technology which is used to produce methane from organic solids and energy crops. Especially in recent years, the fermentation of energy crops has become more and more important because of increasing costs for energy and special benefits for renewable energy sources in Germany. Anaerobic bacteria require macro and micro nutrients to grow. Absence of these elements can inhibit the anaerobic process significantly. In particular mono-substrates like maize or certain industrial wastewater often cannot provide all required nutrients. For this reason this research investigates the influence of substrate and trace elements on anaerobic digestion in detail. Different agricultural anaerobic biomasses are analysed with special regard to their trace element content. Based on these results, the influence of three trace elements (iron, cobalt, and nickel) on anaerobic digestion was studied in anaerobic batch tests at different sludge loading rates and for different substrates (maize and acetate). Biogas production was found to be 35% for maize silage and up to 70% higher for acetate with trace element dosage than in the reference reactor. PMID:18957759

  4. COMPARISON OF VISUAL CRYPTOGRAPHIC SCHEMES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.Amarnath Reddy,

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Visual cryptography technique allows the visual information to be encrypted in such a way that their decryption can be performed by human visual system. This technique used to encrypt a image into shares such that stacking a sufficient number of shares reveals the secret images. In visual cryptography there are different technique like sub pixel, error diffusion, Boolean operation etc. Visual cryptography can be applied for copyright for images, access control to user images, Visual authentication and identification any kind images of images like (normal or digital. This paper compares various visual cryptography schemes in terms of security, quality of images, contrast, and reliability of images.

  5. Update on the Pyramid Scheme

    CERN Document Server

    Banks, Tom

    2012-01-01

    We summarize recent work in which we attempt to make a consistent model of LHC physics, from the Pyramid Scheme. The models share much with the NMSSM, in particular, enhanced tree level contributions to the Higgs mass and a preference for small tan {\\beta}. There are 3 different singlet fields, and a new strongly coupled gauge theory, so the constraints of perturbative unification are quite different. We outline our general approach to the model, which contains a Kahler potential for three of the low energy fields, which is hard to calculate. Detailed calculations, based on approximations to the Kahler potential, will be presented in a future publication.

  6. Biological Treatment of Leachate using Sequencing Batch Reactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WDMC Perera

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE TA Abstract   In Sri Lanka municipal solid waste is generally disposed in poorly managed open dumps which lack liner systems and leachate collection systems. Rain water percolates through the waste layers to produce leachate which drains in to ground water and finally to nearby water bodies, degrading the quality of water. Leachate thus has become a major environmental concern in municipal waste management and treatment of leachate is a major challenge for the existing and proposed landfill sites.   The study was conducted to assess the feasibility of the usage of the Sequencing Batch Reactor in the treatment of the landfill leachate up to the proposed levels in the draft report of “Proposed Sri Lankan standard for landfill leachate to be disposed to the inland waters". Leachate collected from the open dumpsite at Meethotamulla, Western Province, Sri Lanka was used for leachate characterization.   SBR was constructed with a 10-liter working volume operated in an 18 hour cycle mode and each cycle consists of 15hours of aerobic, 2h settle and 0.5 h of fill/decant stages. The Dissolved Oxygen level within the SBR was maintained at 2 mg/l through the aerobic stage. Infeed was diluted with water during the acclimatization period and a leachate to water ratio of 55:45 was maintained. The removal efficiencies for different parameters were; COD (90.5%, BOD (92.6%, TS (92.1%, Conductivity (83.9%, Alkalinity (97.4%, Hardness (82.2%, Mg (80.5%, Fe (94.2%, Zn (63.4%, Cr (31.69%, Pb (99.6%, Sulphate (98.9%, and Phosphorus (71.4% respectively. In addition Ni and Cd were removed completely during a single SBR cycle. Thus the dilution of leachate in the dumpsites using municipal wastewater, groundwater or rainwater was identified as the most cost effective dilution methods. The effluent from the Sequencing batch reactor is proposed to be further treated using a constructed wetland before releasing to surface water.

  7. Validation of TVD-schemes for unsteady turbomachinery flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engel, K.; Eulitzl, F.; Faden, M.; Pokorny, S.

    Well documented explicit TVD schemes are assessed in terms of time accuracy, propagation properties and computational work load with emphasis on their application to unsteady turbomachinery flow computations. Non-reflecting boundary conditions are in use for the flow entry and exit boundaries. As inviscid test cases serve the flow through a flat plate cascade excited by oscillating back pressure and the unsteady flow past an oscillating NACA-0012 profile. The shock induced turbulent boundary layer separation on an arc profile in a channel is studied qualitatively.

  8. A Formal Evaluation of the Security Schemes for Wireless Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shadi R. Masadeh

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Information security is a critical issue in the wireless network, because the transmission media is open (no physical control on the air. Any wireless device equipped with wireless interface can use and share the airwave transmission medium with other users. For protection purposes, several security mechanisms have been developed over years. This paper provides systematic evaluation of different security schemes used in wireless networks: WEP, TKIP, WPA, AES and WPA2. A formal comparison is made between these security algorithms for different settings such as different data types, different packet sizes and traffic loads.

  9. Two-stage assembly-type flowshop batch scheduling problem subject to a fixed job sequence

    OpenAIRE

    F J Hwang; B M T Lin

    2012-01-01

    This paper discusses a two-stage assembly-type flowshop scheduling problem with batching considerations subject to a fixed job sequence. The two-stage assembly flowshop consists of m stage-1 parallel dedicated machines and a stage-2 assembly machine which processes the jobs in batches. Four regular performance metrics, namely, the total completion time, maximum lateness, total tardiness, and number of tardy jobs, are considered. The goal is to obtain an optimal batching decision for the prede...

  10. A CATASTROPHIC-CUM-RESTORATIVE QUEUING SYSTEM WITH CORRELATED BATCH ARRIVALS AND VARIABLE CAPACITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rakesh Kumar

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we study a catastrophic-cum-restorative queuing system with correlated batch arrivals and service in batches of variable sizes. We perform the transient analysis of the queuing model. We obtain the Laplace Transform of the probability generating function of system size. Finally, some particular cases of the model have been derived and discussed. Keywords: Queue length, Catastrophes, Correlated batch arrivals, Broadband services, Variable service capacity, and Restoration.

  11. A study on the use of the BioBall® as a biofilm carrier in a sequencing batch reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masłoń, Adam; Tomaszek, Janusz A

    2015-11-01

    Described in this study are experiments conducted to evaluate the removal of organics and nutrients from synthetic wastewater by a moving bed sequencing batch biofilm reactor using BioBall® carriers as biofilm media. The work involving a 15L-laboratory scale MBSBBR (moving bed sequencing batch biofilm reactor) model showed that the wastewater treatment system was based on biochemical processes taking place with activated sludge and biofilm microorganisms developing on the surface of the BioBall® carriers. Classical nitrification and denitrification and the typical enhanced biological phosphorus removal process were achieved in the reactor analyzed, which operated with a volumetric organic loading of 0.84-0.978gCODL(-1)d(-1). The average removal efficiencies for COD, total nitrogen and total phosphorus were found to be 97.7±0.5%, 87.8±2.6% and 94.3±1.3%, respectively. Nitrification efficiency reached levels in the range 96.5-99.7%. PMID:26298401

  12. Anaerobic co-digestion of chicken manure and corn stover in batch and continuously stirred tank reactor (CSTR).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yeqing; Zhang, Ruihong; He, Yanfeng; Zhang, Chenyu; Liu, Xiaoying; Chen, Chang; Liu, Guangqing

    2014-03-01

    Anaerobic co-digestion of chicken manure and corn stover in batch and CSTR were investigated. The batch co-digestion tests were performed at an initial volatile solid (VS) concentration of 3gVS/L, carbon-to-nitrogen (C/N) ratio of 20, and retention time of 30d. The methane yield was determined to be 281±12mL/gVSadded. Continuous reactor was carried out with feeding concentration of 12% total solids and C/N ratio of 20 at organic loading rates (OLRs) of 1-4gVS/L/d. Results showed that at OLR of 4gVS/L/d, stable and preferable methane yield of 223±7mL/gVSadded was found, which was equal to energy yield (EY) of 8.0±0.3MJ/kgVSadded. Post-digestion of digestate gave extra EY of 1.5-2.6MJ/kgVSadded. Pyrolysis of digestate provided additional EY of 6.1MJ/kgVSadded. Pyrolysis can be a promising technique to reduce biogas residues and to produce valuable gas products simultaneously.

  13. Anaerobic digestion of grape pomace: Biochemical characterization of the fractions and methane production in batch and continuous digesters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Achkar, Jean H; Lendormi, Thomas; Hobaika, Zeina; Salameh, Dominique; Louka, Nicolas; Maroun, Richard G; Lanoisellé, Jean-Louis

    2016-04-01

    In this study, we have estimated the biogas and methane production from grape pomace (variety Cabernet Franc). The physical and chemical characteristics of the raw material were determined, and the structural polysaccharides were identified and analyzed by the Van Soest method. Batch anaerobic digestions were carried out to assess the methane production of the grape pomace, pulp and seeds. The obtained cumulative methane productions are 0.125, 0.165 and 0.052 Nm(3) kg COD(-1) for grape pomace, pulps and seeds, respectively. The effect of grinding on the methane potential of the substrates, as a mechanical pretreatment, was evaluated. We found that it increased the anaerobic biodegradability for grape pomace, pulp and seeds by 13.1%, 4.8% and 22.2%, respectively. On the other hand, the methane potential of the grape pomace was determined in a laboratory pilot plant (12L) continuously mixed with an organic loading rate of 2.5 kg COD m(3) d(-1) and a hydraulic retention time of 30 days. The corresponding biogas production was 6.43 × 10(-3) Nm(3) d(-1), with a methane content of 62.3%. Thus, the pilot plant's efficiency compared to that achieved in the batch process was 81.2%. Finally, a significant correlation was found between the biochemical content and methane production.

  14. A study on the use of the BioBall® as a biofilm carrier in a sequencing batch reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masłoń, Adam; Tomaszek, Janusz A

    2015-11-01

    Described in this study are experiments conducted to evaluate the removal of organics and nutrients from synthetic wastewater by a moving bed sequencing batch biofilm reactor using BioBall® carriers as biofilm media. The work involving a 15L-laboratory scale MBSBBR (moving bed sequencing batch biofilm reactor) model showed that the wastewater treatment system was based on biochemical processes taking place with activated sludge and biofilm microorganisms developing on the surface of the BioBall® carriers. Classical nitrification and denitrification and the typical enhanced biological phosphorus removal process were achieved in the reactor analyzed, which operated with a volumetric organic loading of 0.84-0.978gCODL(-1)d(-1). The average removal efficiencies for COD, total nitrogen and total phosphorus were found to be 97.7±0.5%, 87.8±2.6% and 94.3±1.3%, respectively. Nitrification efficiency reached levels in the range 96.5-99.7%.

  15. Harnessing dark fermentative hydrogen from pretreated mixture of food waste and sewage sludge under sequencing batch mode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, Joo-Youn; Kim, Dong-Hoon; Kim, Sang-Hyoun; Lee, Wontae; Shin, Hang-Sik; Kim, Hyun-Woo

    2016-04-01

    Food waste and sewage sludge are the most abundant and problematic organic wastes in any society. Mixture of these two wastes may provide appropriate substrate condition for dark fermentative biohydrogen production based on synergistic mutual benefits. This work evaluates continuous hydrogen production from the cosubstrate of food waste and sewage sludge to verify mechanisms of performance improvement in anaerobic sequencing batch reactors. Volatile solid concentration and mixing ratio of food waste and sludge were adjusted to 5 % and 80:20, respectively. Five different hydraulic retention times (HRT) of 36, 42, 48, 72, and 108 h were tested using anaerobic sequencing batch reactors to find out optimal operating condition. Results show that the best performance was achieved at HRT 72 h, where the hydrogen yield, the hydrogen production rate, and hydrogen content were 62.0 mL H2/g VS, 1.0 L H2/L/day, and ~50 %, respectively. Sufficient solid retention time (143 h) and proper loading rate (8.2 g COD/L/day as carbohydrate) at HRT 72h led to the enhanced performance with better hydrogen production showing appropriate n-butyrate/acetate (B/A) ratio of 2.6. Analytical result of terminal-restriction fragment length polymorphism revealed that specific peaks associated with Clostridium sp. and Bacillus sp. were strongly related to enhanced hydrogen production from the cosubstrate of food waste and sewage sludge.

  16. Harnessing dark fermentative hydrogen from pretreated mixture of food waste and sewage sludge under sequencing batch mode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, Joo-Youn; Kim, Dong-Hoon; Kim, Sang-Hyoun; Lee, Wontae; Shin, Hang-Sik; Kim, Hyun-Woo

    2016-04-01

    Food waste and sewage sludge are the most abundant and problematic organic wastes in any society. Mixture of these two wastes may provide appropriate substrate condition for dark fermentative biohydrogen production based on synergistic mutual benefits. This work evaluates continuous hydrogen production from the cosubstrate of food waste and sewage sludge to verify mechanisms of performance improvement in anaerobic sequencing batch reactors. Volatile solid concentration and mixing ratio of food waste and sludge were adjusted to 5 % and 80:20, respectively. Five different hydraulic retention times (HRT) of 36, 42, 48, 72, and 108 h were tested using anaerobic sequencing batch reactors to find out optimal operating condition. Results show that the best performance was achieved at HRT 72 h, where the hydrogen yield, the hydrogen production rate, and hydrogen content were 62.0 mL H2/g VS, 1.0 L H2/L/day, and ~50 %, respectively. Sufficient solid retention time (143 h) and proper loading rate (8.2 g COD/L/day as carbohydrate) at HRT 72h led to the enhanced performance with better hydrogen production showing appropriate n-butyrate/acetate (B/A) ratio of 2.6. Analytical result of terminal-restriction fragment length polymorphism revealed that specific peaks associated with Clostridium sp. and Bacillus sp. were strongly related to enhanced hydrogen production from the cosubstrate of food waste and sewage sludge. PMID:26150291

  17. Treatment of agro based industrial wastewater in sequencing batch reactor: performance evaluation and growth kinetics of aerobic biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, J X; Vadivelu, V M

    2014-12-15

    A sequencing batch reactor (SBR) with a working volume of 8 L and an exchange ratio of 25% was used to enrich biomass for the treatment of the anaerobically treated low pH palm oil mill effluent (POME). The influent concentration was stepwise increased from 5000 ± 500 mg COD/L to 11,500 ± 500 mg COD/L. The performance of the reactor was monitored at different organic loading rates (OLRs). It was found that approximately 90% of the COD content of the POME wastewater was successfully removed regardless of the OLR applied to the SBR. Cycle studies of the SBR show that the oxygen uptake by the biomass while there is no COD reduction may be due to the oxidation of the storage product by the biomass. Further, the growth kinetic parameters of the biomass were determined in batch experiments using respirometer. The maximum specific growth rate (μmax) was estimated to be 1.143 day(-1) while the half saturation constant (Ks) with respect to COD was determined to be 0.429 g COD/L. The decay coefficient (bD) and biomass yield (Y) were found to be 0.131 day(-1) and 0.272 mg biomass/mg COD consumed, respectively.

  18. Treatment of anaerobic digester effluents of nylon wastewater through chemical precipitation and a sequencing batch reactor process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Haiming; Song, Qianwu; Wang, Wenjun; Wu, Shaowei; Dai, Jiankun

    2012-06-30

    Chemical precipitation, in combination with a sequencing batch reactor (SBR) process, was employed to remove pollutants from anaerobic digester effluents of nylon wastewater. The effects of the chemicals along with various Mg:N:P ratios on the chemical precipitation (struvite precipitation) were investigated. When brucite and H(3)PO(4) were applied at an Mg:N:P molar ratio of 3:1:1, an ammonia-removal rate of 81% was achieved, which was slightly more than that (80%) obtained with MgSO(4)·7H(2)O and Na(2)HPO(4)·12H(2)O at Mg:N:P molar ratios greater than the stoichiometric ratio. To further reduce the ammonia loads of the successive biotreatment, an overdose of phosphate with brucite and H(3)PO(4) was applied during chemical precipitation. The ammonia-removal rate at the Mg:N:P molar ratio of 3.5:1:1.05 reached 88%, with a residual PO(4)-P concentration of 16 mg/L. The economic analysis showed that the chemical cost of chemical precipitation could be reduced by about 41% when brucite and H(3)PO(4) were used instead of MgSO(4)·7H(2)O and Na(2)HPO(4)·12H(2)O. The subsequent biological process that used a sequencing batch reactor showed high removal rates of contaminants. The quality of the final effluent met the requisite effluent-discharging standards.

  19. Sample Results From Routine Salt Batch 7 Samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peters, T. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2016-01-14

    Strip Effluent Hold Tank (SEHT) and Decontaminated Salt Solution Hold Tank (DSSHT) samples from several of the “microbatches” of Integrated Salt Disposition Project (ISDP) Salt Batch (“Macrobatch”) 7B have been analyzed for 238Pu, 90Sr, 137Cs, cations (Inductively Coupled Plasma Emission Spectroscopy - ICPES), and anions (Ion Chromatography Anions - IC-A). The analytical results from the current microbatch samples are similar to those from previous macrobatch samples. The Actinide Removal Process (ARP) and the Modular Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction Unit (MCU) continue to show more than adequate Pu and Sr removal, and there is a distinct positive trend in Cs removal (increasing cesium decontamination), due to the use of the Next Generation Solvent (NGS). The bulk chemistry of the DSSHT and SEHT samples do not show any signs of unusual behavior.

  20. Study on the numerical simulation of batch sieving process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIAO Hong-guang; MA Jiao; ZHAO Yue-min; CHEN Lun-jian

    2006-01-01

    Screening was widely used in many sectors of industry. However, it is rather incomplete to the cognition of the sieving process for us due to the daedal separation process involving interactions of thousands of particulates. To address this problem, two dimensional numerical simulation of batch sieving process was performed by adopting advanced discrete element method (DEM), which is one of the highly nonlinear digitized dynamic simulative methods and can be used to reveal the quantitative change from particle dimension level. DEM simulation results show that the jam phenomena of sieve-plate apertures of the "blinding particles" in the screen feed can be demonstrated vividly and results also reveal that the velocity of particle moving on the screen plate will vary along with the screen length. This conclusion will be helpful to the design and operation of screen.

  1. Simulated annealing and joint manufacturing batch-sizing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarker Ruhul

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available We address an important problem of a manufacturing system. The system procures raw materials from outside suppliers in a lot and processes them to produce finished goods. It proposes an ordering policy for raw materials to meet the requirements of a production facility. In return, this facility has to deliver finished products demanded by external buyers at fixed time intervals. First, a general cost model is developed considering both raw materials and finished products. Then this model is used to develop a simulated annealing approach to determining an optimal ordering policy for procurement of raw materials and also for the manufacturing batch size to minimize the total cost for meeting customer demands in time. The solutions obtained were compared with those of traditional approaches. Numerical examples are presented. .

  2. CONSOLIDATING BATCH AND TRANSACTIONAL WORKLOADS USING DEPENDENCY STRUCTURE PRIORITIZATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.NIVETHITHA

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Organizations offer efficient services to their customers through cloud. These services can either be a batch or transactional workloads. To offer a real-time service, there comes a need to schedule these workloads in an efficient way. An idea to consolidate these workloads enables us to cut down the energy consumption and infrastructure cost. It will be harder to consolidate both these workloads due to the difference in their nature, performance goals and control mechanisms. The proposed work implements the concept of Dependency Structure Prioritization (DSP to assign priority to the job. This work tends to make effective resource utilization through reducing the number of job migration and missed deadline jobs by considering the deadline and the priority of the job as the most important evaluation factor.

  3. [Neural network detection of abnormalities in fed-batch fermentation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yun-Feng; Yuan, Jing-Qi

    2005-01-01

    During fermentation, it is often difficult to detect the abnormalities, for example, caused by contamination on-line. Instead, the faults were detected usually by off-line laboratory analysis or other ways, which in most cases, is too late to remedy the situation. In this paper, a simple three-layers BP network was used for the early prediction of the amount of product, based on the difference in prediction errors between normal and abnormal charges and other accessorial information, such as profit function and pH value. In addition, three indications characteristic to abnormal charge are incorporated in practical operation. The prediction for Cephalosporin C Fed-batch Fermentation in a Chinese pharmaceutical factory was studied in details as an example and the result shows the abnormal charge can be discovered early successfully using the method. PMID:15859337

  4. Analytical study plan: Shielded Cells batch 1 campaign; Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radioactive operations in the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) will require that the Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC) perform analyses and special studies with actual Savannah River Site (SRS) high-level waste sludge. SRS Tank 42 and Tank 51 will comprise the first batch of sludge to be processed in the DWPF. Approximately 25 liters of sludge from each of these tanks will be characterized and processed in the Shielded Cells of SRTC. During the campaign, processes will include sludge characterization, sludge washing, rheology determination, mixing, hydrogen evolution, feed preparation, and vitrification of the waste. To complete the campaign, the glass will be characterized to determine its durability and crystallinity. This document describes the types of samples that will be produced, the sampling schedule and analyses required, and the methods for sample and analytical control

  5. Hadoop distributed batch processing for Gaia: a success story

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riello, Marco

    2015-12-01

    The DPAC Cambridge Data Processing Centre (DPCI) is responsible for the photometric calibration of the Gaia data including the low resolution spectra. The large data volume produced by Gaia (~26 billion transits/year), the complexity of its data stream and the self-calibrating approach pose unique challenges for scalability, reliability and robustness of both the software pipelines and the operations infrastructure. DPCI has been the first in DPAC to realise the potential of Hadoop and Map/Reduce and to adopt them as the core technologies for its infrastructure. This has proven a winning choice allowing DPCI unmatched processing throughput and reliability within DPAC to the point that other DPCs have started following our footsteps. In this talk we will present the software infrastructure developed to build the distributed and scalable batch data processing system that is currently used in production at DPCI and the excellent results in terms of performance of the system.

  6. Hybrid modeling of xanthan gum bioproduction in batch bioreactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zabot, Giovani L; Mecca, Jaqueline; Mesomo, Michele; Silva, Marceli F; Prá, Valéria Dal; de Oliveira, Débora; Oliveira, J Vladimir; Castilhos, Fernanda; Treichel, Helen; Mazutti, Marcio A

    2011-10-01

    This work is focused on hybrid modeling of xanthan gum bioproduction process by Xanthomonas campestris pv. mangiferaeindicae. Experiments were carried out to evaluate the effects of stirred speed and superficial gas velocity on the kinetics of cell growth, lactose consumption and xanthan gum production in a batch bioreactor using cheese whey as substrate. A hybrid model was employed to simulate the bio-process making use of an artificial neural network (ANN) as a kinetic parameter estimator for the phenomenological model. The hybrid modeling of the process provided a satisfactory fitting quality of the experimental data, since this approach makes possible the incorporation of the effects of operational variables on model parameters. The applicability of the validated model was investigated, using the model as a process simulator to evaluate the effects of initial cell and lactose concentration in the xanthan gum production.

  7. Treatment of Laboratory Wastewater by Sequence Batch reactor technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    These studies were conducted on the characterization and treatment of sewage mixed with waste -water of research and testing laboratory (PCSIR Laboratories Lahore). In this study all the parameters COD, BOD and TSS etc of influent (untreated waste-water) and effluent (treated waste-water) were characterized using the standard methods of examination for water and waste-water. All the results of the analyzed waste-water parameters were above the National Environmental Quality Standards (NEQS) set at National level. Treatment of waste-water was carried out by conventional sequencing batch reactor technique (SBR) using aeration and settling technique in the same treatment reactor at laboratory scale. The results of COD after treatment were reduced from (90-95 %), BOD (95-97 %) and TSS (96-99 %) and the reclaimed effluent quality was suitable for gardening purposes. (author)

  8. Minimum Amount of Slop Cut in Batch Distillation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    The pulse-control operation technique which alternates between total reflux operation and total efflux operation in batch distillation was studied along with the minimum amount of slop cut.Total reflux time was confirmed by dynamic simulation, and total efflux time was adopted by statistic method. For the mixture of hexane and cyclohexane and the traditional constant reflux ratio operation strategy, the amount of slop cut is 1.8-2.1 times of the minimum amount of slop cut; whereas for the pulse-control operation strategy, it is 1.2-1.4 times of the minimum amount of slop cut. So compared with the traditional constant reflux ratio operation, the pulse-control operation can decrease the amount of slop cut and operation time, and meanwhile, enhance separation efficiency and yield.

  9. Fed-batch Fermentation of Lactic Acid Bacteria to Improve Biomass Production: A Theoretical Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beng Lee, Boon; Tham, Heng Jin; Chan, Eng Seng

    Recently, fed-batch fermentation has been introduced in an increasing number of fermentation processes. Previous researches showed that fed-batch fermentation can increase the biomass yield of many strains. Improvement of the biomass yield is interested because biomass from lactic acid bacteria (LAB) fermentation is widely used in food and pharmaceutical industry. The aim of this research is to study the ability and feasibility of fed-batch fermentation to improve biomass production of LAB. Appropriate model has been selected from literature. Monod equation described the substrate limitation of LAB and the product inhibition of LAB follows a non-competitive model. Furthermore, the lactic acid production follows Luedeking and Piret model. Then the models are applied to simulate the fermentation of batch and fed-batch cultures by using MATLAB. From the results of simulation, fed-batch fermentation showed that substrate limitation and substrate inhibition can be avoided. Besides that, the variable volume fed-batch fermentation also showed that product inhibition can be eliminated by diluting the product concentration with added fresh feed. However, it was found that fed-batch fermentation is not economically feasible because large amount of substrate is required to reduce the product inhibition effect. Therefore, fed-batch fermentation plays more importance role if the fermentation strain has high Ks value or low Kp value.

  10. Analysis of Mixing Characteristics of Batch Stirred Vessels Using the Networks-of-Zones Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Batch stirred vessels, being devoid of through flow, cannot be assessed by the classical response technique. However, visible inert tracers can be readily observed in a batch or semi-batch stirred vessel. Visible images of the mixing and dispersion of the tracer present a picture in both space and time of the mixing process. Axi-symmetric networks of backmixed zones were used in an image reconstruction approach to analytically characterize the mixing. Computer generated images were compared with experimental results. The qualitative agreement between the observed and calculated images suggests that the analysis of batch stirred reactors can be used to guide operational strategies to control internal concentration fields.

  11. Lipase-catalysed transesterification of soya bean oil for biodiesel production during continuous batch operation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Wei; Xu, Yuanyuan; Liu, Dehua

    2003-10-01

    The effects of temperature, oil/alcohol molar ratio and by-product glycerol were studied during Lipozyme TL IM-catalysed continuous batch operation when short-chain alcohols were used as the acyl acceptor. In non-continuous batch operation, the optimal oil/alcohol ratio and temperature were 1:4 and 40-50 degrees C; however, during the continuous batch operation, the optimal oil/alcohol ratio and temperature were 1:1 and 30 degrees C; 95% of enzymic activity remained after 10 batches when isopropanol was adopted to remove by-product glycerol during repeated use of the lipase.

  12. Increased CPC batch size study for Tank 42 sludge in the Defense Waste Processing Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A series of experiments have been completed at TNX for the sludge-only REDOX adjusted flowsheet using Tank 42 sludge simulant in response to the Technical Task Request HLW/DWPT/TTR-980013 to increase CPC batch sizes. By increasing the initial SRAT batch size, a melter feed batch at greater waste solids concentration can be prepared and thus increase melter output per batch by about one canister. The increased throughput would allow DWPF to dispose of more waste in a given time period thus shortening the overall campaign

  13. Retardation characteristics of radionuclides in geologic media through batch and packed column experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batch and packed column experiments are performed to investigate the retardation characteristics of radionuclide,i.e, Cs-137 in geologic media. In batch experiment, the effects of important parameters on the sorption of radionuclide in geologic media, such as nuclide concentration, pH, and particle size are examined. The Kd value obtained from breakthrough curve was compared with that from the batch sorption experiment to investigate the applicability of the Kd value from batch experiment to prediction of radionuclide migration in dynamic flow through porous media. The proposed model of radionuclide migration in porous media is also verified using the experimental results. (Author)

  14. REMINDER: Saved Leave Scheme (SLS)

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    Transfer of leave to saved leave accounts Under the provisions of the voluntary saved leave scheme (SLS), a maximum total of 10 days'* annual and compensatory leave (excluding saved leave accumulated in accordance with the provisions of Administrative Circular No 22B) can be transferred to the saved leave account at the end of the leave year (30 September). We remind you that unused leave of all those taking part in the saved leave scheme at the closure of the leave year accounts is transferred automatically to the saved leave account on that date. Therefore, staff members have no administrative steps to take. In addition, the transfer, which eliminates the risk of omitting to request leave transfers and rules out calculation errors in transfer requests, will be clearly shown in the list of leave transactions that can be consulted in EDH from October 2003 onwards. Furthermore, this automatic leave transfer optimizes staff members' chances of benefiting from a saved leave bonus provided that they ar...

  15. Optimal Timer Based Selection Schemes

    CERN Document Server

    Shah, Virag; Yim, Raymond

    2009-01-01

    Timer-based mechanisms are often used to help a given (sink) node select the best helper node among many available nodes. Specifically, a node transmits a packet when its timer expires, and the timer value is a monotone non-increasing function of its local suitability metric. The best node is selected successfully if no other node's timer expires within a 'vulnerability' window after its timer expiry, and so long as the sink can hear the available nodes. In this paper, we show that the optimal metric-to-timer mapping that (i) maximizes the probability of success or (ii) minimizes the average selection time subject to a minimum constraint on the probability of success, maps the metric into a set of discrete timer values. We specify, in closed-form, the optimal scheme as a function of the maximum selection duration, the vulnerability window, and the number of nodes. An asymptotic characterization of the optimal scheme turns out to be elegant and insightful. For any probability distribution function of the metri...

  16. Spatial electric load forecasting

    CERN Document Server

    Willis, H Lee

    2002-01-01

    Spatial Electric Load Forecasting Consumer Demand for Power and ReliabilityCoincidence and Load BehaviorLoad Curve and End-Use ModelingWeather and Electric LoadWeather Design Criteria and Forecast NormalizationSpatial Load Growth BehaviorSpatial Forecast Accuracy and Error MeasuresTrending MethodsSimulation Method: Basic ConceptsA Detailed Look at the Simulation MethodBasics of Computerized SimulationAnalytical Building Blocks for Spatial SimulationAdvanced Elements of Computerized SimulationHybrid Trending-Simulation MethodsAdvanced

  17. Regulation control and energy management scheme for wireless power transfer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, John M.

    2015-12-29

    Power transfer rate at a charging facility can be maximized by employing a feedback scheme. The state of charge (SOC) and temperature of the regenerative energy storage system (RESS) pack of a vehicle is monitored to determine the load due to the RESS pack. An optimal frequency that cancels the imaginary component of the input impedance for the output signal from a grid converter is calculated from the load of the RESS pack, and a frequency offset f* is made to the nominal frequency f.sub.0 of the grid converter output based on the resonance frequency of a magnetically coupled circuit. The optimal frequency can maximize the efficiency of the power transfer. Further, an optimal grid converter duty ratio d* can be derived from the charge rate of the RESS pack. The grid converter duty ratio d* regulates wireless power transfer (WPT) power level.

  18. A practical fuzzy controllers scheme of overhead crane

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chengyuan CHANG; Shihwei HSU; Kuohung CHIANG

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents fuzzy-based design for the control of overhead crane.Instead of analyzing the complex nonlinear crane system,the proposed approach uses simple but effective way to control the crane.There are twin fuzzy controllers which deal with the feedback information,the position of trolley crane and the swing angle of load,to suppress the sway and accelerate the speed when the crane transports the heavy load.This approach simplifies the designing procedure of crane controller;besides,the twin controller method reduces the rule number when fulfilling the fuzzy system.Finally,experimental results through the crane model demonstrate the effectiveness of the scheme.

  19. Sludge Batch 2 (Marcobath 3) Flowsheet Studies with Simulants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koopman, D.C.

    2001-03-02

    Sludge-only process simulations of the Sludge Receipt and Adjustment Tank (SRAT) and the Slurry Mix Evaporator (SME) cycle were conducted for the two most likely scenarios for Sludge Batch 2 (Macrobatch 3). The two scenarios are a roughly 50:50 blend of Tank 8 and Tank 40 washed sludge and Tank 40 washed sludge by itself. The testing used new simulants of Tank 8 and Tank 40 washed sludge prepared at the University of South Carolina. The washing endpoint was about 0.5 moles sodium per liter supernate. This report summarizes both the simulant preparation and process simulation activities. The rheology work requested in the Task Plan will be documented in a separate report. Two scoping SRAT simulations were conducted for Tank 40 sludge. This was followed by a complete SRAT and SME simulation using Sludge Batch 1B acid stoichiometry (137.5 percent). Four scoping SRAT simulations were conducted for the Tank 8/40 blend. Three complete SRAT and SME simulations using blended sludge were then performed. One was at the recommended acid stoichiometry of 125 percent. The second used identical acid stoichiometry with HM levels of noble metals. The final run was at worst case noble metals and assumed complete transfer of the Formic Acid Feed Tank. Testing was completed without any major incidents. Hydrogen flow rates in excess of the design bases (0.65 lbs./hr for the SRAT and 0.23 lbs./hr for the SME) are marked in bold. Full details on the noble metals concentrations can be found in the body of the report.

  20. Integrating PROOF Analysis in Cloud and Batch Clusters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    High Energy Physics (HEP) analysis are becoming more complex and demanding due to the large amount of data collected by the current experiments. The Parallel ROOT Facility (PROOF) provides researchers with an interactive tool to speed up the analysis of huge volumes of data by exploiting parallel processing on both multicore machines and computing clusters. The typical PROOF deployment scenario is a permanent set of cores configured to run the PROOF daemons. However, this approach is incapable of adapting to the dynamic nature of interactive usage. Several initiatives seek to improve the use of computing resources by integrating PROOF with a batch system, such as Proof on Demand (PoD) or PROOF Cluster. These solutions are currently in production at Universidad de Oviedo and IFCA and are positively evaluated by users. Although they are able to adapt to the computing needs of users, they must comply with the specific configuration, OS and software installed at the batch nodes. Furthermore, they share the machines with other workloads, which may cause disruptions in the interactive service for users. These limitations make PROOF a typical use-case for cloud computing. In this work we take profit from Cloud Infrastructure at IFCA in order to provide a dynamic PROOF environment where users can control the software configuration of the machines. The Proof Analysis Framework (PAF) facilitates the development of new analysis and offers a transparent access to PROOF resources. Several performance measurements are presented for the different scenarios (PoD, SGE and Cloud), showing a speed improvement closely correlated with the number of cores used.

  1. Optimal control of batch emulsion polymerization of vinyl chloride

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Damslora, Andre Johan

    1998-12-31

    The highly exothermic polymerization of vinyl chloride (VC) is carried out in large vessels where the heat removal represents a major limitation of the production rate. Many emulsion polymerization reactors are operated in such a way that a substantial part of the heat transfer capacity is left unused for a significant part of the total batch time. To increase the reaction rate so that it matches the heat removal capacity during the course of the reaction, this thesis proposes the use of a sufficiently flexible initiator system to obtain a reaction rate which is high throughout the reaction and real-time optimization to compute the addition policy for the initiator. This optimization based approach provides a basis for an interplay between design and control and between production and research. A simple model is developed for predicting the polymerization rate. The model is highly nonlinear and open-loop unstable and may serve as an interesting case for comparison of nonlinear control strategies. The model is fitted to data obtained in a laboratory scale reactor. Finally, the thesis discusses optimal control of the emulsion polymerization reactor. Reduction of the batch cycle time is of major economic importance, as long as the quality parameters are within their specifications. The control parameterization had a major influence on the performance. A differentiable spline parameterization was applied and the optimization is illustrated in a number of cases. The best performance is obtained when the reactor temperature is obtained when the optimization is combined with some form of closed-loop control of the reactor temperature. 112 refs., 48 figs., 4 tabs.

  2. Modification of QUICK scheme by skew points

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mirzaei, M.; Mohammadi, R.; Malekzadeh, M. [K.N. Toosi Univ. of Technology, Aerospace Engineering Dept., Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)]. E-mail: Mirzaei@kntu.ac.ir

    2005-07-01

    This paper presents a new method for convective flux approximation based on inclusions of skew points. The scheme uses the truncated terms of QUICK scheme and with the aid of an equation extracted from momentum equations, the skew points will appear in the convective flux formula. The results show that the presented scheme has better accuracy than the other schemes. Diffusion fluxes are approximated using power law scheme and for evaluation of the performance of the presented method several test cases were carried out and the results are compared with the results of other numerical works and experimental data. (author)

  3. On symmetric and upwind TVD schemes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yee, H. C.

    1986-01-01

    The performance of the upwind and symmetric total variation diminishing (TVD) schemes in viscous and inviscid airfoil steady-state calculations is considered, and the extension of the implicit second-order-accurate TVD scheme for hyperbolic systems of conservative laws in curvilinear coordinates is discussed. For two-dimensional steady-state applications, schemes are implemented in a conservative noniterative alternating direction implicit form, and results illustrate that the algorithm produces a fairly good solution for an RAE2822 airfoil calculation. The study demonstrates that the symmetric TVD scheme is as accurate as the upwind TVD scheme, while requiring less computational effort than it.

  4. A New Signature Scheme with Shared Verification

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIA Xiao-yun; LUO Shou-shan; YUAN Chao-wei

    2006-01-01

    With expanding user demands, digital signature techniques are also being expanded greatly, from single signature and single verification techniques to techniques supporting multi-users. This paper presents a new digital signature scheme vith shared verification based on the fiat-shamir signature scheme. This scheme is suitable not only for digital signatures of one public key, but also for situations where multiple public keys are required. In addition, the scheme can resist all kinds of collusion, making it more practicable and safer. Additionally it is more efficient than other schemes.

  5. A Distributed Network Mobility Management Scheme for Hierarchical Mobile IPv6 Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawano, Keita; Kinoshita, Kazuhiko; Yamai, Nariyoshi

    Route optimization for network mobility is a key technique for providing a node in a mobile network (Mobile Network Node or MNN) with high quality broadband communications. Many schemes adding route optimization function to Network Mobility (NEMO) Basic Support protocol, the standardized network mobility management protocol from the IETF nemo working group, have already been proposed in recent years. One such scheme, a scheme using Hierarchical Mobile IPv6 (HMIPv6) aims to overcome micromobility management issues as well by applying a mechanism based on HMIPv6. The traditional scheme, however, suffers from a significant number of signaling messages as the number of MNNs and/or the number of their Correspondent Nodes (CNs) increase, because many messages notifying the MNNs' Home Agents (HAMNNs) and the CNs of the mobile network's movement are generated simultaneously each time the mobile network moves to the domain of another micromobility management router (Mobility Anchor Point or MAP). This paper proposes a scheme to overcome this problem. Our scheme reduces the number of signaling messages generated at the same time by managing the mobility of MNNs using multiple MAPs distributed within a network for load sharing. The results of simulation experiments show that our scheme works efficiently compared to the traditional scheme when a mobile network has many MNNs and/or these MNNs communicate with many CNs.

  6. Exact Finite Difference Scheme and Nonstandard Finite Difference Scheme for Burgers and Burgers-Fisher Equations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We present finite difference schemes for Burgers equation and Burgers-Fisher equation. A new version of exact finite difference scheme for Burgers equation and Burgers-Fisher equation is proposed using the solitary wave solution. Then nonstandard finite difference schemes are constructed to solve two equations. Numerical experiments are presented to verify the accuracy and efficiency of such NSFD schemes.

  7. Exact Finite Difference Scheme and Nonstandard Finite Difference Scheme for Burgers and Burgers-Fisher Equations

    OpenAIRE

    Lei Zhang; Lisha Wang; Xiaohua Ding

    2014-01-01

    We present finite difference schemes for Burgers equation and Burgers-Fisher equation. A new version of exact finite difference scheme for Burgers equation and Burgers-Fisher equation is proposed using the solitary wave solution. Then nonstandard finite difference schemes are constructed to solve two equations. Numerical experiments are presented to verify the accuracy and efficiency of such NSFD schemes.

  8. A novel fully automatic scheme for fiducial marker-based alignment in electron tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Renmin; Wang, Liansan; Liu, Zhiyong; Sun, Fei; Zhang, Fa

    2015-12-01

    Although the topic of fiducial marker-based alignment in electron tomography (ET) has been widely discussed for decades, alignment without human intervention remains a difficult problem. Specifically, the emergence of subtomogram averaging has increased the demand for batch processing during tomographic reconstruction; fully automatic fiducial marker-based alignment is the main technique in this process. However, the lack of an accurate method for detecting and tracking fiducial markers precludes fully automatic alignment. In this paper, we present a novel, fully automatic alignment scheme for ET. Our scheme has two main contributions: First, we present a series of algorithms to ensure a high recognition rate and precise localization during the detection of fiducial markers. Our proposed solution reduces fiducial marker detection to a sampling and classification problem and further introduces an algorithm to solve the parameter dependence of marker diameter and marker number. Second, we propose a novel algorithm to solve the tracking of fiducial markers by reducing the tracking problem to an incomplete point set registration problem. Because a global optimization of a point set registration occurs, the result of our tracking is independent of the initial image position in the tilt series, allowing for the robust tracking of fiducial markers without pre-alignment. The experimental results indicate that our method can achieve an accurate tracking, almost identical to the current best one in IMOD with half automatic scheme. Furthermore, our scheme is fully automatic, depends on fewer parameters (only requires a gross value of the marker diameter) and does not require any manual interaction, providing the possibility of automatic batch processing of electron tomographic reconstruction.

  9. Hybrid scheme for Brownian semistationary processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bennedsen, Mikkel; Lunde, Asger; Pakkanen, Mikko S.

    We introduce a simulation scheme for Brownian semistationary processes, which is based on discretizing the stochastic integral representation of the process in the time domain. We assume that the kernel function of the process is regularly varying at zero. The novel feature of the scheme is to...... approximate the kernel function by a power function near zero and by a step function elsewhere. The resulting approximation of the process is a combination of Wiener integrals of the power function and a Riemann sum, which is why we call this method a hybrid scheme. Our main theoretical result describes the...... asymptotics of the mean square error of the hybrid scheme and we observe that the scheme leads to a substantial improvement of accuracy compared to the ordinary forward Riemann-sum scheme, while having the same computational complexity. We exemplify the use of the hybrid scheme by two numerical experiments...

  10. Hybrid Transmission Scheme for MIMO Relay Channels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guangming Xu

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available To improve the achievable rate for the MIMO channels, we propose a hybrid transmission (HT scheme that mixes half-duplex decode-and-forward cooperative relaying transmission (DFRH)with direct transmission (DT. In the HT scheme, the source message is divided into two parts: one is transmitted by DFRH scheme and another is transmitted by DT scheme. Precoding and decoding are considered to convert the original MIMO relay channel into several parallel subchannels so that resource allocation can be easily performed. We focus on the spatial subchannel and power allocation problem. The objective of this problem is to maximize the total achievable rate under the constraints of joint total transmission power. Simulation results show that significant capacity gain can be achieved by the HT scheme compared to the DT scheme and the pure DFRH scheme.

  11. A process for energy-efficient high-solids fed-batch enzymatic liquefaction of cellulosic biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardona, M J; Tozzi, E J; Karuna, N; Jeoh, T; Powell, R L; McCarthy, M J

    2015-12-01

    The enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulosic biomass is a key step in the biochemical production of fuels and chemicals. Economically feasible large-scale implementation of the process requires operation at high solids loadings, i.e., biomass concentrations >15% (w/w). At increasing solids loadings, however, biomass forms a high viscosity slurry that becomes increasingly challenging to mix and severely mass transfer limited, which limits further addition of solids. To overcome these limitations, we developed a fed-batch process controlled by the yield stress and its changes during liquefaction of the reaction mixture. The process control relies on an in-line, non-invasive magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) rheometer to monitor real-time evolution of yield stress during liquefaction. Additionally, we demonstrate that timing of enzyme addition relative to biomass addition influences process efficiency, and the upper limit of solids loading is ultimately limited by end-product inhibition as soluble glucose and cellobiose accumulate in the liquid phase. PMID:26432053

  12. Reduced Design Load Basis for Ultimate Blade Loads Estimation in Multidisciplinary Design Optimization Frameworks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavese, Christian; Tibaldi, Carlo; Larsen, Torben J.; Kim, Taeseong; Thomsen, Kenneth

    2016-09-01

    The aim is to provide a fast and reliable approach to estimate ultimate blade loads for a multidisciplinary design optimization (MDO) framework. For blade design purposes, the standards require a large amount of computationally expensive simulations, which cannot be efficiently run each cost function evaluation of an MDO process. This work describes a method that allows integrating the calculation of the blade load envelopes inside an MDO loop. Ultimate blade load envelopes are calculated for a baseline design and a design obtained after an iteration of an MDO. These envelopes are computed for a full standard design load basis (DLB) and a deterministic reduced DLB. Ultimate loads extracted from the two DLBs with the two blade designs each are compared and analyzed. Although the reduced DLB supplies ultimate loads of different magnitude, the shape of the estimated envelopes are similar to the one computed using the full DLB. This observation is used to propose a scheme that is computationally cheap, and that can be integrated inside an MDO framework, providing a sufficiently reliable estimation of the blade ultimate loading. The latter aspect is of key importance when design variables implementing passive control methodologies are included in the formulation of the optimization problem. An MDO of a 10 MW wind turbine blade is presented as an applied case study to show the efficacy of the reduced DLB concept.

  13. PRELIMINARY FRIT DEVELOPMENT AND MELT RATE TESTING FOR SLUDGE BATCH 6 (SB6)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fox, K.; Miller, D.; Edwards, T.

    2009-07-21

    The Liquid Waste Organization (LWO) provided the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) with a Sludge Batch 6 (SB6) composition projection in March 2009. Based on this projection, frit development efforts were undertaken to gain insight into compositional effects on the predicted and measured properties of the glass waste form and to gain insight into frit components that may lead to improved melt rate for SB6-like compositions. A series of Sludge Batch 6 (SB6) based glasses was selected, fabricated and characterized in this study to better understand the ability of frit compositions to accommodate uncertainty in the projected SB6 composition. Acceptable glasses (compositions where the Product Composition Control System (PCCS) Measurement Acceptability Region (MAR) predicted acceptable properties, good chemical durability was measured, and no detrimental nepheline crystallization was observed) can be made using Frit 418 with SB6 over a range of Na{sub 2}O and Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} concentrations. However, the ability to accommodate variation in the sludge composition limits the ability to utilize alternative frits for potential improvements in melt rate. Frit 535, which may offer improvements in melt rate due to its increased B2O3 concentration, produced acceptable glasses with the baseline SB6 composition at waste loadings of 34 and 42%. However, the PCCS MAR results showed that it is not as robust as Frit 418 in accommodating variation in the sludge composition. Preliminary melt rate testing was completed in the Melt Rate Furnace (MRF) with four candidate frits for SB6. These four frits were selected to evaluate the impacts of B{sub 2}O{sub 3} and Na{sub 2}O concentrations in the frit relative to those of Frit 418, although they are not necessarily candidates for SB6 vitrification. Higher concentrations of B{sub 2}O{sub 3} in the frit relative to that of Frit 418 appeared to improve melt rate. However, when a higher concentration of B{sub 2}O{sub 3} was coupled

  14. Anaerobic treatment of apple waste with swine manure for biogas production: Batch and continuous operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► Apple waste (AW) was co-digested with swine manure (SM). ► Mixture of AW and SM produced a higher biogas yield than SM only. ► Mixture of AW and SM produced a higher biogas yield at 55 °C than at 36.5 °C. ► Modified Gompertz model best fitted to the substrates used. ► Positive synergetic effect up to 33% AW during continuous digestion. -- Abstract: This study evaluated the performance of anaerobic digesters using a mixture of apple waste (AW) and swine manure (SM). Tests were performed using both batch and continuous digesters. The batch test evaluated the gas potential, gas production rate of the AW and SM (Experiment I), and the effect of AW co-digestion with SM (33:67,% volatile solids (VSs) basis) (Experiment II) at mesophilic and thermophilic temperatures. The first-order kinetic model and modified Gompertz model were also evaluated for methane yield. The continuous test evaluated the performance of a single stage completely stirred tank reactor (CSTR) with different mixture ratios of AW and SM at mesophilic temperature. The ultimate biogas and methane productivity of AW in terms of total chemical oxygen demand (TCOD) was determined to be 510 and 252 mL/g TCOD added, respectively. The mixture of AW and SM improved the biogas yield by approximately 16% and 48% at mesophilic and thermophilic temperatures, respectively, compared to the use of SM only, but no significant difference was found in the methane yield. The difference between the predicted and measured methane yield was higher with a first order kinetic model (4.6–18.1%) than with a modified Gompertz model (1.2–3.4%). When testing continuous digestion, the methane yield increased from 146 to 190 mL/g TCOD added when the AW content in the feed was increased from 25% to 33% (VS basis) at a constant organic loading rate (OLR) of 1.6 g VS/L/d and a hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 30 days. However, the total volatile fatty acids (TVFA) accumulation increased rapidly and the p

  15. Production of laccase by Coriolus versicolor and its application in decolorization of dyestuffs : (Ⅰ) Production of laccase by batch and repeated-batch processes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    The production of laccase by Coriolus versicolor wasstudied. The effect of cultivation conditions on laccase productionby Coriolus versicolor was examined to obtain optimal medium andcultivation conditions. Both batch and repeated-batch processeswere performed for laccase production. In repeated-batchfermentation with self-immobilized mycelia, total of 14 cycles wereperformed with laccase activity in the range between 3.4 and 14.8U/ml.

  16. Meeting Report: Batch-to-Batch Variability in Estrogenic Activity in Commercial Animal Diets—Importance and Approaches for Laboratory Animal Research

    OpenAIRE

    Heindel, Jerrold J.; vom Saal, Frederick S.

    2007-01-01

    We report information from two workshops sponsored by the National Institutes of Health that were held to a) assess whether dietary estrogens could significantly impact end points in experimental animals, and b) involve program participants and feed manufacturers to address the problems associated with measuring and eliminating batch-to-batch variability in rodent diets that may lead to conflicting findings in animal experiments within and between laboratories. Data were presented at the work...

  17. Optimisation of load control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koponen, P. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland)

    1998-08-01

    Electricity cannot be stored in large quantities. That is why the electricity supply and consumption are always almost equal in large power supply systems. If this balance were disturbed beyond stability, the system or a part of it would collapse until a new stable equilibrium is reached. The balance between supply and consumption is mainly maintained by controlling the power production, but also the electricity consumption or, in other words, the load is controlled. Controlling the load of the power supply system is important, if easily controllable power production capacity is limited. Temporary shortage of capacity causes high peaks in the energy price in the electricity market. Load control either reduces the electricity consumption during peak consumption and peak price or moves electricity consumption to some other time. The project Optimisation of Load Control is a part of the EDISON research program for distribution automation. The following areas were studied: Optimization of space heating and ventilation, when electricity price is time variable, load control model in power purchase optimization, optimization of direct load control sequences, interaction between load control optimization and power purchase optimization, literature on load control, optimization methods and field tests and response models of direct load control and the effects of the electricity market deregulation on load control. An overview of the main results is given in this chapter

  18. Electrical injection schemes for nanolasers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lupi, Alexandra; Chung, Il-Sug; Yvind, Kresten

    2013-01-01

    The performance of injection schemes among recently demonstrated electrically pumped photonic crystal nanolasers has been investigated numerically. The computation has been carried out at room temperature using a commercial semiconductor simulation software. For the simulations two electrical...... of 3 InGaAsP QWs on an InP substrate has been chosen for the modeling. In the simulations the main focus is on the electrical and optical properties of the nanolasers i.e. electrical resistance, threshold voltage, threshold current and wallplug efficiency. In the current flow evaluation the lowest...... threshold current has been achieved with the lateral electrical injection through the BH; while the lowest resistance has been obtained from the current post structure even though this model shows a higher current threshold because of the lack of carrier confinement. Final scope of the simulations...

  19. Scheme of thinking quantum systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A general approach describing quantum decision procedures is developed. The approach can be applied to quantum information processing, quantum computing, creation of artificial quantum intelligence, as well as to analyzing decision processes of human decision makers. Our basic point is to consider an active quantum system possessing its own strategic state. Processing information by such a system is analogous to the cognitive processes associated to decision making by humans. The algebra of probability operators, associated with the possible options available to the decision maker, plays the role of the algebra of observables in quantum theory of measurements. A scheme is advanced for a practical realization of decision procedures by thinking quantum systems. Such thinking quantum systems can be realized by using spin lattices, systems of magnetic molecules, cold atoms trapped in optical lattices, ensembles of quantum dots, or multilevel atomic systems interacting with electromagnetic field

  20. Staggered Schemes for Fluctuating Hydrodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Balboa, F; Delgado-Buscalioni, R; Donev, A; Fai, T; Griffith, B; Peskin, C S

    2011-01-01

    We develop numerical schemes for solving the isothermal compressible and incompressible equations of fluctuating hydrodynamics on a grid with staggered momenta. We develop a second-order accurate spatial discretization of the diffusive, advective and stochastic fluxes that satisfies a discrete fluctuation-dissipation balance, and construct temporal discretizations that are at least second-order accurate in time deterministically and in a weak sense. Specifically, the methods reproduce the correct equilibrium covariances of the fluctuating fields to third (compressible) and second (incompressible) order in the time step, as we verify numerically. We apply our techniques to model recent experimental measurements of giant fluctuations in diffusively mixing fluids in a micro-gravity environment [A. Vailati et. al., Nature Communications 2:290, 2011]. Numerical results for the static spectrum of non-equilibrium concentration fluctuations are in excellent agreement between the compressible and incompressible simula...