WorldWideScience

Sample records for batch loading scheme

  1. Improved Load Shedding Scheme considering Distributed Generation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Das, Kaushik; Nitsas, Antonios; Altin, Müfit

    2017-01-01

    . These schemes utilize directional relays, power flow through feeders, wind and PV measurements to optimally select the feeders to be disconnected during load shedding such that DG disconnection is minimized while disconnecting required amount of consumption. These different UFLS schemes are compared in terms......With high penetration of distributed generation (DG), the conventional under-frequency load shedding (UFLS) face many challenges and may not perform as expected. This article proposes new UFLS schemes, which are designed to overcome the shortcomings of traditional load shedding scheme...... of frequency response, amount of consumption and DG disconnected during load shedding....

  2. Study on the impact of transition from 3-batch to 4-batch loading at Loviisa NPP on the long-term decay heat and activity inventory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lahtinen, Tuukka [Fortum Power and Heat Ltd., Fortum (Finland)

    2017-09-15

    The fuel economy of Loviisa NPP was improved by implementing a transition from 3-batch to 4-batch loading scheme between 2009 and 2013. Equilibrium cycle length as well as all process parameters were retained unchanged while the increase of fuel enrichment enabled to reduce the annual reload batch size from 102 to 84 assemblies. The fuel cycle transition obviously had an effect on the long-term decay heat and activity inventory. However, due to simultaneous change in several quantities the net effect over the relevant cooling time region is not self-evident. In this study the effect is analyzed properly, i. e. applying consistent calculation models and detailed description of assembly-wise irradiation histories. The study concludes that for the cooling time, foreseen typical prior to encapsulation of assemblies, the decay heat of discharge batch increases 2 - 3%. It is also concluded that, in order to maintain 100% filling degree of final disposal canisters, the cooling time prior to encapsulation needs to be prolonged by 10 - 15 years.

  3. On Non-Parallelizable Deterministic Client Puzzle Scheme with Batch Verification Modes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tang, Qiang; Jeckmans, Arjan

    A (computational) client puzzle scheme enables a client to prove to a server that a certain amount of computing resources (CPU cycles and/or Memory look-ups) has been dedicated to solve a puzzle. Researchers have identified a number of potential applications, such as constructing timed cryptography,

  4. Performance of the IEEE 802.3 EPON registration scheme under high load

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatia, Swapnil P.; Bartos, Radim

    2004-09-01

    The proposed standard for the IEEE 802.3 Ethernet Passive Optical Network includes a random delayed transmission scheme for registration of new nodes. Although the scheme performs well on low loads, our simulation demonstrates the degraded and undesirable performance of the scheme at higher loads. We propose a simple modification to the current scheme that increases its range of operation and is compatible with the IEEE draft standard. We demonstrate the improvement in performance gained without any significant increase in registration delay.

  5. The Effect of Organic Loading Rate on Milk WastewaterTreatment Using Sequencing Batch Reactor (SBR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hooman Hajiabadi

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available In this study, four aerobic sequencing batch reactors (SBRs were operated under the same conditions for the treatment of milk wastewater at different organic loading rates (OLRs. Cylindrical Plexiglas reactors were run for 56 days (including 21 days of acclimatization and 35 days of data gathering. Effective volume, influent wastewater flowrate, and sludge retention time (SRT of reactors were 5.5 L, 3.5 L/d, and 10 d, respectively. The average COD removal efficiency for the reactors R1, R2, R3, and R4 with influent OLRave values of 633, 929, 1915, and 3261 gCOD/m3d were 95, 96, 95, and 82 percent, respectively. The average effluent suspended solid (SS for all reactors was lower than 44 mg/L. Also, except for R4 with an average effluent turbidity of 270 NTU, other reactors met the Iranian wastewater emission standard (50 NTU. In addition, the average sludge volume index of reactors R1 to R3 was found to be lower than 67 mL/g. According to the results, the overall variation of COD removal efficiency versus influent OLR shows a decreasing rate with a correlation factor of 0.8 (R2.

  6. Dynamic load balance scheme for the DSMC algorithm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Jin; Geng, Xiangren; Jiang, Dingwu; Chen, Jianqiang

    2014-01-01

    The direct simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) algorithm, devised by Bird, has been used over a wide range of various rarified flow problems in the past 40 years. While the DSMC is suitable for the parallel implementation on powerful multi-processor architecture, it also introduces a large load imbalance across the processor array, even for small examples. The load imposed on a processor by a DSMC calculation is determined to a large extent by the total of simulator particles upon it. Since most flows are impulsively started with initial distribution of particles which is surely quite different from the steady state, the total of simulator particles will change dramatically. The load balance based upon an initial distribution of particles will break down as the steady state of flow is reached. The load imbalance and huge computational cost of DSMC has limited its application to rarefied or simple transitional flows. In this paper, by taking advantage of METIS, a software for partitioning unstructured graphs, and taking the total of simulator particles in each cell as a weight information, the repartitioning based upon the principle that each processor handles approximately the equal total of simulator particles has been achieved. The computation must pause several times to renew the total of simulator particles in each processor and repartition the whole domain again. Thus the load balance across the processors array holds in the duration of computation. The parallel efficiency can be improved effectively. The benchmark solution of a cylinder submerged in hypersonic flow has been simulated numerically. Besides, hypersonic flow past around a complex wing-body configuration has also been simulated. The results have displayed that, for both of cases, the computational time can be reduced by about 50%

  7. A load shedding scheme for DG integrated islanded power system utilizing backtracking search algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aziah Khamis

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available In a dispersed generation (DG integrated distribution system, several technical issues should be resolved if the grid disconnects and forms an islanded system. The most critical challenge in such a situation is to maintain the stability of the islanded system. The common practice is to reject several loads through a load shedding scheme. This study introduces a development of an optimal load shedding scheme based on backtracking search algorithm (BSA. To handle this optimization problem, a constraint multiobjective function that considers the linear static voltage stability margin (VSM and amount of load curtailment is formulated. It also handles the load priority and various operating conditions of DGs. The performance of the proposed load shedding scheme was evaluated through an extensive test conducted on the IEEE 33-bus radial distribution system with four DG units considering several scenarios such as load shedding under various operating points and at various islands using the MATLAB® software. Moreover, the effectiveness of the proposed scheme was validated by comparing its results with those obtained using the genetic algorithm (GA. The optimization results indicate that the proposed BSA technique is more effective in determining the optimal amount of load to be shed in any islanded system compared with GA.

  8. An Optimal Control Scheme to Minimize Loads in Wind Farms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soleimanzadeh, Maryam; Wisniewski, Rafal

    2012-01-01

    This work presents a control algorithm for wind farms that optimizes the power production of the farm and helps to increase the lifetime of wind turbines components. The control algorithm is a centralized approach, and it determines the power reference signals for individual wind turbines...... such that the structural loads of the wind turbines in low frequencies are reduced. The controller is relatively easy to implement on a wind farm, and in here the results of simulating the controller on a small wind farm is presented....

  9. Enhanced bioethanol production by fed-batch simultaneous saccharification and co-fermentation at high solid loading of Fenton reaction and sodium hydroxide sequentially pretreated sugarcane bagasse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Teng; Zhu, Ming-Jun

    2017-04-01

    A study on the fed-batch simultaneous saccharification and co-fermentation (SSCF) of Fenton reaction combined with NaOH pretreated sugarcane bagasse (SCB) at a high solid loading of 10-30% (w/v) was investigated. Enzyme feeding mode, substrate feeding mode and combination of both were compared with the batch mode under respective solid loadings. Ethanol concentrations of above 80g/L were obtained in batch and enzyme feeding modes at a solid loading of 30% (w/v). Enzyme feeding mode was found to increase ethanol productivity and reduce enzyme loading to a value of 1.23g/L/h and 9FPU/g substrate, respectively. The present study provides an economically feasible process for high concentration bioethanol production. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. New Concept of Multi-MA Radiation Loads in Inductive Energy Storage Systems (LL-scheme)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuvatin, A. S.; Zakharov, S. V.; Ivanov, A. A.

    1999-11-01

    Further development of Z-pinch plasma radiation sources for ICF is possible either through increase of the current value or through shortening of the current pulse at the load. In [1] it is suggested to couple electrical pulses of the duration of 2-3 10-7 s with inductive voltage multiplication scheme. The scheme proposed in the present work is oriented to microsecond -duration pulses typical for modern advanced capacitor banks. The scheme consists of two vacuum volumes connected electrically in parallel and powered by a common current source. The plasma in the first volume is responsible for power conditioning for a Z-pinch installed in the second one. We present results of the scheme optimization for a 60 MA, 100 ns rise-time load current. Plasma dynamics is simulated with the help of the 2D RMHD code Zeta. Limitations to the scheme performance due to plasma instabilities and formation of residual turbulent plasma tail are discussed. [1] L.Rudakov, "New Loads for High Power Generators", presented on the 12th IEEE Pulsed Power Conference.

  11. Application of batch tests to assess antibiotic loads in anaerobic processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, Diana C; Londoño, Yudy A; Peñuela, Gustavo A

    2017-05-01

    The presence of antibiotics in drinking water and wastewater has not been widely studied because the sanitary engineering sector mainly focuses on the removal of organic matter and nutrients. There is a lack of environmental regulations for pollutants like antibiotics. Batch tests analyse biodegradability to measure the anaerobic degradation potential of the substrate, or they can be used as toxicity tests. Oxytetracycline, florfenicol (FLO), ceftiofur (CEF) and penicillin G (PEN), commonly used in Colombia for the treatment of livestock diseases, were added in different concentrations to anaerobic sludge contained in serological glass bottles. The production of methane stored in the empty spaces of the bottles was monitored in order to determine the effect of the aforementioned antibiotics on the anaerobic process. It was found that CEF did not have any inhibitory effect on methanogenic activity, while PEN showed inhibition at all concentrations evaluated.

  12. ABOUT INFLUENCE OF DIFFERENT SCHEMES IMPACT RADIATION ENVIRONMENTS AND LOADS ON REINFORCED LAMELLAR STRUCTURAL MEMBERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafail B. Garibov

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the model of deformation of fiber-reinforced concrete rectangular plate under the influence of radiation environments. In the calculation of the plate was considered different schemes impact of the applied external loads and radiation environments.

  13. Multi-Class load balancing scheme for QoS and energy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Multi-Class load balancing scheme for QoS and energy conservation in cloud computing. ... If you would like more information about how to print, save, and work with PDFs, Highwire Press provides a helpful Frequently Asked Questions about PDFs. Alternatively, you can download the PDF file directly to your computer, from ...

  14. An intelligent load shedding scheme using neural networks and neuro-fuzzy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haidar, Ahmed M A; Mohamed, Azah; Al-Dabbagh, Majid; Hussain, Aini; Masoum, Mohammad

    2009-12-01

    Load shedding is some of the essential requirement for maintaining security of modern power systems, particularly in competitive energy markets. This paper proposes an intelligent scheme for fast and accurate load shedding using neural networks for predicting the possible loss of load at the early stage and neuro-fuzzy for determining the amount of load shed in order to avoid a cascading outage. A large scale electrical power system has been considered to validate the performance of the proposed technique in determining the amount of load shed. The proposed techniques can provide tools for improving the reliability and continuity of power supply. This was confirmed by the results obtained in this research of which sample results are given in this paper.

  15. Performance Analysis of Savonius Rotor Based Hydropower Generation Scheme with Electronic Load Controller

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajen Pudur

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the performance of electronic load controller (ELC of asynchronous generator (AG coupled to an uncontrolled Savonius turbine and variable water velocity. An AC-DC-AC converter with a dc link capacitor is employed to maintain the required frequency. The ELC which is feeding a resistive dump load is connected in parallel with the generating system and the power consumption is varied through the duty cycle of the chopper. Gate triggering of ELC is accomplished through sinusoidal pulse width modulation (SPWM by sensing the load current. A MATLAB/Simulink model of Savonius rotor, asynchronous generator, ELC, and three-phase load is presented. The proposed scheme is tested under various load conditions under varying water velocities and the performances are observed to be satisfactory.

  16. Internalizing carbon costs in electricity markets: Using certificates in a load-based emissions trading scheme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gillenwater, Michael; Breidenich, Clare

    2009-01-01

    Several western states have considered developing a regulatory approach to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from the electric power industry, referred to as a load-based (LB) cap-and-trade scheme. A LB approach differs from the traditional source-based (SB) cap-and-trade approach in that the emission reduction obligation is placed upon Load Serving Entities (LSEs), rather than electric generators. The LB approach can potentially reduce the problem of emissions leakage, relative to a SB system. For any of these proposed LB schemes to be effective, they must be compatible with modern, and increasingly competitive, wholesale electricity markets. LSE's are unlikely to know the emissions associated with their power purchases. Therefore, a key challenge for a LB scheme is how to assign emissions to each LSE. This paper discusses the problems with one model for assigning emissions under a LB scheme and proposes an alternative, using unbundled Generation Emission Attribute Certificates. By providing a mechanism to internalize an emissions price signal at the generator dispatch level, the tradable certificate model addresses both these problems and provides incentives identical to a SB scheme

  17. Interference mitigation enhancement of switched-based scheme in over-loaded femtocells

    KAUST Repository

    Gaaloul, Fakhreddine

    2012-06-01

    This paper proposes adequate methods to improve the interference mitigation capability of a recently investigated switched-based interference reduction scheme in short-range open-access and over-loaded femtocells. It is assumed that the available orthogonal channels for the femtocell network are distributed among operating access points in close vicinity, where each of which knows its allocated channels a priori. For the case when the feedback links are capacity-limited and the available channels can be universally shared and simultaneously used, the paper presents enhanced schemes to identify a channel to serve the desired scheduled user by maintaining the interference power level within a tolerable range. They attempt to either complement the switched-based scheme by minimum interference channel selection or adopt different interference thresholds on available channels, while aiming to reduce the channels examination load. The performance of the proposed schemes is quantified and then compared with those of the single-threshold switched-based scheme via numerical and simulation results. © 2012 IEEE.

  18. Evaluation of the botanical origin of commercial dry bee pollen load batches using pollen analysis: a proposal for technical standardization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ortrud M. Barth

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available High quality of bee pollen for commercial purpose is required. In order to attend the consumer with the best identification of the botanical and floral origin of the product, 25 bee pollen batches were investigated using two techniques of pollen grain preparation. The first started to identify pollen loads of different colors in two grams of each well mixed batch, and the second to identify pollen grains in a pool made of all the pollen loads comprised in two grams. The best result was obtained by this last technique, when a pollen grain suspension was dropped on a microscope slide and circa 500 pollen grains were counted per sample. This analysis resulted in the recognition of monofloral and bifloral pollen batches, while the use of the first technique resulted in all samples receiving a heterofloral diagnosis.É exigida alta qualidade para a comercialização de pólen apícola. A fim de atender o consumidor com a melhor identificação da origem botânica e floral do produto, 25 partidas de pólen apícola feram investigadas usande duas diferentes técnicas na preparação dos grãos de pólen. A primeira partiu da identificação das cargas polínicas contidas em dois gramas de cada partida bem misturada segundo suas cores. A segunda visava identificar os grãos de pólen de um agrupamento ("pool" de todas as cargas polínicas contidas em dois gramas de cada amostra. O melhor resultado foi obtido pela última técnica, quando uma suspensão de grãos de pólen era gotejada sobre uma lâmina de microscopia e cerca de 500 grãos de pólen eram centades por amostra. Esta análise resultou no reconhecimento de partidas monoflorais e biflorais de pólen apícola, enquanto que usando a primeira técnica, todas as amostras receberam a diagnose heterefloral.

  19. Study on Control Scheme for the Inverters in Low Voltage Microgrid with Nonlinear Loads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jiqiang; Lu, Wenzhou; Wu, Lei

    2017-05-01

    There are a lot of nonlinear loads in real low voltage microgrid system. It will cause serious output voltage and grid current harmonic distortions problems in island and grid-connected modes, respectively. To solve this problem, this paper proposes a droop control scheme with quasi-proportion and resonant (quasi-PR) controller based on αβ stationary reference frame to make microgrid smoothly switch between grid-connected and island modes without changing control method. Moreover, in island mode, not only stable output voltage and frequency, but also reduced output voltage harmonics with added nonlinear loads can be achieved; In grid-connected mode, not only constant power, but also reduced grid current harmonics can be achieved. Simulation results verify the effectiveness of the proposed control scheme.

  20. Decentralized & Adaptive Load-Frequency Control Scheme of Variable Speed Wind Turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoseinzadeh, Bakhtyar; Silva, Filipe Miguel Faria da; Bak, Claus Leth

    2014-01-01

    In power systems with high penetration of Wind Power (WP), transferring a part of Load Frequency Control (LFC) burden to variable speed Wind Turbines (WTs) is inevitable. The conventional LFC schemes merely rely on frequency information and since frequency is a common variable throughout the netw......In power systems with high penetration of Wind Power (WP), transferring a part of Load Frequency Control (LFC) burden to variable speed Wind Turbines (WTs) is inevitable. The conventional LFC schemes merely rely on frequency information and since frequency is a common variable throughout...... and therefore determining the contribution factor of each individual WT to gain an adaptive LFC approach. The Electrical Distance (ED) concept confirms that the locally measured voltage decay is a proper criterion of closeness to the disturbance place. Numerical simulations carried out in DigSilent Power...

  1. Improvement of burnup analysis for pebble bed reactors with an accumulative fuel loading scheme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simanullang, Irwan Liapto; Obara, Toru

    2015-01-01

    Given the limitations of natural uranium resources, innovative nuclear power plant concepts that increase the efficiency of nuclear fuel utilization are needed. The Pebble Bed Reactor (PBR) shows some potential to achieve high efficiency in natural uranium utilization. To simplify the PBR concept, PBR with an accumulation fuel loading scheme was introduced and the Fuel Handling System (FHS) removed. In this concept, the pebble balls are added little by little into the reactor core until the pebble balls reach the top of the reactor core, and all pebble balls are discharged from the core at the end of the operation period. A code based on the MVP/MVP-BURN method has been developed to perform an analysis of a PBR with the accumulative fuel loading scheme. The optimum fuel composition was found using the code for high burnup performance. Previous efforts provided several motivations to improve the burnup performance: First, some errors in the input code were corrected. This correction, and an overall simplification of the input code, was implemented for easier analysis of a PBR with the accumulative fuel loading scheme. Second, the optimum fuel design had been obtained in the infinite geometry. To improve the optimum fuel composition, a parametric survey was obtained by varying the amount of Heavy Metal (HM) uranium per pebble and the degree of uranium enrichment. Moreover, an entire analysis of the parametric survey was obtained in the finite geometry. The results show that improvements in the fuel composition can lead to more accurate analysis with the code. (author)

  2. Core loading pattern optimization of a typical two-loop 300 MWe PWR using Simulated Annealing (SA), novel crossover Genetic Algorithms (GA) and hybrid GA(SA) schemes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zameer, Aneela; Mirza, Sikander M.; Mirza, Nasir M.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • SA and GA based optimization for loading pattern has been carried out. • The LEOPARD and MCRAC codes for a typical PWR have been used. • At high annealing rates, the SA shows premature convergence. • Then novel crossover and mutation operators are proposed in this work. • Genetic Algorithms exhibit stagnation for small population sizes. - Abstract: A comparative study of the Simulated Annealing and Genetic Algorithms based optimization of loading pattern with power profile flattening as the goal, has been carried out using the LEOPARD and MCRAC neutronic codes, for a typical 300 MWe PWR. At high annealing rates, Simulated Annealing exhibited tendency towards premature convergence while at low annealing rates, it failed to converge to global minimum. The new ‘batch composition preserving’ Genetic Algorithms with novel crossover and mutation operators are proposed in this work which, consistent with the earlier findings (Yamamoto, 1997), for small population size, require comparable computational effort to Simulated Annealing with medium annealing rates. However, Genetic Algorithms exhibit stagnation for small population size. A hybrid Genetic Algorithms (Simulated Annealing) scheme is proposed that utilizes inner Simulated Annealing layer for further evolution of population at stagnation point. The hybrid scheme has been found to escape stagnation in bcp Genetic Algorithms and converge to the global minima with about 51% more computational effort for small population sizes

  3. Sustainable Load-Balancing Scheme for Inter-Sensor Convergence Processing of Routing Cooperation Topology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyun-Woo Kim

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Recent advancements in Information Technology (IT have sparked the creation of numerous and diverse types of devices and services. Manual data collection measurement methods have been automated through the use of various wireless or wired sensors. Single sensor devices are included in smart devices such as smartphones. Data transmission is critical for big data collected from sensor nodes, such as Mobile Sensor Nodes (MSNs, where sensors move dynamically according to sensor mobility, or Fixed Sensor Nodes (FSNs, where sensor locations are decided by the users. False data transfer processing of big data results in topology lifespan reduction and data transfer delays. Hence, a variety of simulators and diverse load-balancing algorithms have been developed as protocol verification tools for topology lifespan maximization and effective data transfer processing. However, those previously developed simulators have limited functions, such as an event function for a specific sensor or a battery consumption rate test for sensor deployment. Moreover, since the previous load-balancing algorithms consider only the general traffic distribution and the number of connected nodes without considering the current topology condition, the sustainable load-balancing technique that takes into account the battery consumption rate of the dispersed sensor nodes is required. Therefore, this paper proposes the Sustainable Load-balancing Scheme (SLS, which maximizes the overall topology lifespan through effective and sustainable load-balancing of data transfer among the sensors. SLS is capable of maintaining an effective topology as it considers both the battery consumption rate of the sensors and the data transfer delay.

  4. Burnup performance of rock-like oxide (ROX) fuel in small pebble bed reactor with accumulative fuel loading scheme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simanullang, Irwan Liapto; Obara, Toru

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Burnup performance using ROX fuel in PBR with accumulative fuel loading scheme was analyzed. • Initial excess reactivity was suppressed by reducing 235 U enrichment in the startup condition. • Negative temperature coefficient was achieved in all condition of PBR with accumulative fuel loading scheme using ROX fuel. • Core lifetime of PBR with accumulative fuel loading scheme using ROX fuel was shorter than with UO 2 fuel. • In PBR with accumulative fuel loading scheme using ROX fuel, achieved discharged burnup can be as high as that for UO 2 fuel. - Abstract: The Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) has proposed rock-like oxide (ROX) fuel as a new, once-through type fuel concept. Here, burnup performance using ROX fuel was simulated in a pebble bed reactor with an accumulative fuel loading scheme. The MVP-BURN code was used to simulate the burnup calculation. Fuel of 5 g-HM/pebble with 20% 235 U enrichment was selected as the optimum composition. Discharged burnup could reach up to 218 GWd/t, with a core lifetime of about 8.4 years. However, high excess reactivity occurred in the initial condition. Initial fuel enrichment was therefore reduced from 20% to 4.65% to counter the initial excess reactivity. The operation period was reduced by the decrease of initial fuel enrichment, but the maximum discharged burnup was 198 GWd/t. Burnup performance of ROX fuel in this reactor concept was compared with that of UO 2 fuel obtained previously. Discharged burnup for ROX fuel in the PBR with an accumulative fuel loading scheme was as high as UO 2 fuel. Maximum power density could be lowered by introducing ROX fuel compared to UO 2 fuel. However, PBR core lifetime was shorter with ROX fuel than with UO 2 fuel. A negative temperature coefficient was achieved for both UO 2 and ROX fuels throughout the operation period.

  5. Effects of carbon brush anode size and loading on microbial fuel cell performance in batch and continuous mode

    KAUST Repository

    Lanas, Vanessa

    2014-02-01

    Larger scale microbial fuel cells (MFCs) require compact architectures to efficiently treat wastewater. We examined how anode-brush diameter, number of anodes, and electrode spacing affected the performance of the MFCs operated in fed-batch and continuous flow mode. All anodes were initially tested with the brush core set at the same distance from the cathode. In fed-batch mode, the configuration with three larger brushes (25 mm diameter) produced 80% more power (1240 mW m-2) than reactors with eight smaller brushes (8 mm) (690 mW m-2). The higher power production by the larger brushes was due to more negative and stable anode potentials than the smaller brushes. The same general result was obtained in continuous flow operation, although power densities were reduced. However, by moving the center of the smaller brushes closer to the cathode (from 16.5 to 8 mm), power substantially increased from 690 to 1030 mW m-2 in fed batch mode. In continuous flow mode, power increased from 280 to 1020 mW m-2, resulting in more power production from the smaller brushes than the larger brushes (540 mW m-2). These results show that multi-electrode MFCs can be optimized by selecting smaller anodes, placed as close as possible to the cathode. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Coordinated Scheme of Under-Frequency Load Shedding with Intelligent Appliances in a Cyber Physical Power System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qi Wang

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The construction of a cyber physical system in a power grid provides more potential control strategies for the power grid. With the rapid employment of intelligent terminal equipment (e.g., smart meters and intelligent appliances in the environment of a smart grid, abundant dynamic response information could be introduced to support a secure and stable power system. Combining demand response technology with the traditional under-frequency load shedding (UFLS scheme, a new UFLS strategy-determining method involving intelligent appliances is put forward to achieve the coordinated control of quick response resources and the traditional control resources. Based on this method, intelligent appliances can be used to meet the regulatory requirements of system operation in advance and prevent significant frequency drop, thereby improving the flexibility and stability of the system. Time-domain simulation verifies the effectiveness of the scheme, which is able to mitigate frequency drop and reduce the amount of load shedding.

  7. SPS batch spacing optimisation

    CERN Document Server

    Velotti, F M; Carlier, E; Goddard, B; Kain, V; Kotzian, G

    2017-01-01

    Until 2015, the LHC filling schemes used the batch spac-ing as specified in the LHC design report. The maximumnumber of bunches injectable in the LHC directly dependson the batch spacing at injection in the SPS and hence onthe MKP rise time.As part of the LHC Injectors Upgrade project for LHCheavy ions, a reduction of the batch spacing is needed. In thisdirection, studies to approach the MKP design rise time of150ns(2-98%) have been carried out. These measurementsgave clear indications that such optimisation, and beyond,could be done also for higher injection momentum beams,where the additional slower MKP (MKP-L) is needed.After the successful results from 2015 SPS batch spacingoptimisation for the Pb-Pb run [1], the same concept wasthought to be used also for proton beams. In fact, thanksto the SPS transverse feed back, it was already observedthat lower batch spacing than the design one (225ns) couldbe achieved. For the 2016 p-Pb run, a batch spacing of200nsfor the proton beam with100nsbunch spacing wasreque...

  8. Wide Area Protection Scheme Preventing Cascading Events Caused by Load Flow Transferring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Zhou; Chen, Zhe; Sun, Haishun

    2013-01-01

    Load flow transferring after an initial contingency is regarded as one of the main reasons of causing unexpected cascading trips. A multi agent system (MAS) based wide area protection strategy is proposed in this paper to predict the load flow transferring from the point of view of impedance relays...... strategy. The simulation results indicate this strategy can successfully predict and prevent the unexpected relay operation caused by load flow transferring....

  9. Hierarchy level scheme for quasi-optimum fuel assembly loading in boiling water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sekimizu, K.

    1978-01-01

    A quasi-optimum fuel assembly allocation scheme for boiling water reactors was proposed and confirmed. It is characteristic of the scheme that the criteria function is represented by fuel assembly allotment to fuel groups. For each fuel group, a required property is given beforehand, and fuel assemblies are allocated to the core to determine the group property as closely as possible. By using the scheme, a fuel assembly allocation is obtained that has a large cycle burnup within a restriction for the peak-to-average power ratio. Another allocation is obtained that results in a large burnup of discharged fuel using a different criteria function. However, it is impossible to obtain a strictly optimum solution for a given criteria function because of the vast number of possible fuel assembly allocations. The search range is reduced by adopting a two-step scheme. In the first step, an optimum allocation of fresh assemblies is searched for, based on proper criteria. Then, in the second step, without moving the fresh fuel assemblies, an allocation of reload fuel assemblies is determined that ascertains the required group property as closely as possible. Results of the numerical calculation show that the scheme is very useful for practical fuel assembly allocation

  10. Enhancement of Voltage Stability of DC Smart Grid During Islanded Mode by Load Shedding Scheme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nassor, Thabit Salim; Senjyu, Tomonobu; Yona, Atsushi

    2015-10-01

    This paper presents the voltage stability of a DC smart grid based on renewable energy resources during grid connected and isolated modes. During the islanded mode the load shedding, based on the state of charge of the battery and distribution line voltage, was proposed for voltage stability and reservation of critical load power. The analyzed power system comprises a wind turbine, a photovoltaic generator, storage battery as controllable load, DC loads, and power converters. A fuzzy logic control strategy was applied for power consumption control of controllable loads and the grid-connected dual active bridge series resonant converters. The proposed DC Smart Grid operation has been verified by simulation using MATLAB® and PLECS® Blockset. The obtained results show the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  11. A new control scheme for PID load frequency controller of single-area and multi-area power systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padhan, Dola Gobinda; Majhi, Somanath

    2013-03-01

    A new control structure with a tuning method to design a PID load frequency controller for power systems is presented. Initially, the controller is designed for single area power system, then it is extended to multi-area case. The controller parameters are obtained by expanding controller transfer function using Laurent series. Relay based identification technique is adopted to estimate power system dynamics. Robustness studies on stability and performance are provided, with respect to uncertainties in the plant parameters. The proposed scheme ensures that overall system remains asymptotically stable for all bounded uncertainties and for system oscillations. Simulation results show the feasibility of the approach and the proposed method improves the load disturbance rejection performance significantly even in the presence of the uncertainties in plant parameters. Copyright © 2012 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Inner-Learning Mechanism Based Control Scheme for Manipulator with Multitasking and Changing Load

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fangzheng Xue

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available With the rapid development of robot technology and its application, manipulators may face complex tasks and dynamic environments in the coming future, which leads to two challenges of control: multitasking and changing load. In this paper, a novel multicontroller strategy is presented to meet such challenges. The presented controller is composed of three parts: subcontrollers, inner-learning mechanism, and switching rules. Each subcontroller is designed with self-learning skills to fit the changing load under a special task. When a new task comes, switching rule reselects the most suitable subcontroller as the working controller to handle current task instead of the older one. Inner-learning mechanism makes the subcontrollers learn from the working controller when load changes so that the switching action causes smaller tracking error than the traditional switch controller. The results of the simulation experiments on two-degree manipulator show the proposed method effect.

  13. Recent developments on SMA actuators: predicting the actuation fatigue life for variable loading schemes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, Robert W.; Lagoudas, Dimitris C.

    2017-04-01

    Shape memory alloys (SMAs), due to their ability to repeatably recover substantial deformations under applied mechanical loading, have the potential to impact the aerospace, automotive, biomedical, and energy industries as weight and volume saving replacements for conventional actuators. While numerous applications of SMA actuators have been flight tested and can be found in industrial applications, these actuators are generally limited to non-critical components, are not widely implemented and frequently one-off designs, and are generally overdesigned due to a lack of understanding of the effect of the loading path on the fatigue life and the lack of an accurate method for predicting actuator lifetimes. In recent years, multiple research efforts have increased our understanding of the actuation fatigue process of SMAs. These advances can be utilized to predict the fatigue lives and failure loads in SMA actuators. Additionally, these prediction methods can be implemented in order to intelligently design actuators in accordance with their fatigue and failure limits. In the following paper, both simple and complex thermomechanical loading paths have been considered. Experimental data was utilized from two material systems: equiatomic Nickel-Titanium and Nickelrich Nickel-Titanium.

  14. A Framework to Analyze the Performance of Load Balancing Schemes for Ensembles of Stochastic Simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahn, Tae-Hyuk [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Computer Science and Mathematics Division; Sandu, Adrian [Virginia Polytechnic Inst. and State Univ. (Virginia Tech), Blacksburg, VA (United States). Dept. of Computer Science; Watson, Layne T. [Virginia Polytechnic Inst. and State Univ. (Virginia Tech), Blacksburg, VA (United States). Dept. of Computer Science and Mathematics, Aerospace and Ocean Engineering; Shaffer, Clifford A. [Virginia Polytechnic Inst. and State Univ. (Virginia Tech), Blacksburg, VA (United States). Dept. of Computer Science; Cao, Yang [Virginia Polytechnic Inst. and State Univ. (Virginia Tech), Blacksburg, VA (United States). Dept. of Computer Science; Baumann, William T. [Virginia Polytechnic Inst. and State Univ. (Virginia Tech), Blacksburg, VA (United States). Dept. of Electrical and Computer Engineering

    2015-08-01

    Ensembles of simulations are employed to estimate the statistics of possible future states of a system, and are widely used in important applications such as climate change and biological modeling. Ensembles of runs can naturally be executed in parallel. However, when the CPU times of individual simulations vary considerably, a simple strategy of assigning an equal number of tasks per processor can lead to serious work imbalances and low parallel efficiency. This paper presents a new probabilistic framework to analyze the performance of dynamic load balancing algorithms for ensembles of simulations where many tasks are mapped onto each processor, and where the individual compute times vary considerably among tasks. Four load balancing strategies are discussed: most-dividing, all-redistribution, random-polling, and neighbor-redistribution. Simulation results with a stochastic budding yeast cell cycle model are consistent with the theoretical analysis. It is especially significant that there is a provable global decrease in load imbalance for the local rebalancing algorithms due to scalability concerns for the global rebalancing algorithms. The overall simulation time is reduced by up to 25 %, and the total processor idle time by 85 %.

  15. Auxiliary System Load Schemes in Large Thermal and Nuclear Power Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuzle, I.; Bosnjak, D.; Pandzic, H.

    2010-01-01

    Uninterrupted auxiliary system power supply in large power plants is a key factor for normal operation, transient states, start-ups and shutdowns and particularly during fault conditions. Therefore, there are many challenges in designing the main electrical system as well as the auxiliary systems power supply. Depending upon the type of fuel used and the environmental control system required, a thermal power plant may consume as much as 10% of its total generation for auxiliary power, while a nuclear power plant may require only 4 - 6% auxiliaries. In general, the larger the power generating plant, the higher the voltage selected for the AC auxiliary electric system. Most stations in the 75 to 500 MW range utilize 4,2 kV as the base auxiliary system voltage. Large generating stations 500 - 1000 MW and more use voltage levels of 6,9 kV and more. Some single dedicated loads such as electric driven boiler feed pumps are supplied ba a 13,8 kV bus. While designing the auxiliary electric system, the following areas must be considered: motor starting requirements, voltage regulation requirements, short-circuit duty requirements, economic considerations, reliability and alternate sources. Auxiliary power supply can't be completely generalized and each situation should be studied on its own merits to determine the optimal solution. Naturally, nuclear power plants have more reliability requirements and safety design criteria. Main coolant-pump power supply and continuity of service to other vital loads deserve special attention. This paper presents an overview of some up-to-date power plant auxiliary load system concepts. The main types of auxiliary loads are described and the electric diagrams of the modern auxiliary system supply concepts are given. Various alternative sources of auxiliary electrical supply are considered, the advantages and disadvantages of these are compared and proposals are made for high voltage distribution systems around the thermal and nuclear plant

  16. Energy Efficient Cooperative Spectrum Sensing in Cognitive Radio Networks Using Distributed Dynamic Load Balanced Clustering Scheme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muthukkumar R.

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Cognitive Radio (CR is a promising and potential technique to enable secondary users (SUs or unlicenced users to exploit the unused spectrum resources effectively possessed by primary users (PUs or licenced users. The proven clustering approach is used to organize nodes in the network into the logical groups to attain energy efficiency, network scalability, and stability for improving the sensing accuracy in CR through cooperative spectrum sensing (CSS. In this paper, a distributed dynamic load balanced clustering (DDLBC algorithm is proposed. In this algorithm, each member in the cluster is to calculate the cooperative gain, residual energy, distance, and sensing cost from the neighboring clusters to perform the optimal decision. Each member in a cluster participates in selecting a cluster head (CH through cooperative gain, and residual energy that minimises network energy consumption and enhances the channel sensing. First, we form the number of clusters using the Markov decision process (MDP model to reduce the energy consumption in a network. In this algorithm, CR users effectively utilize the PUs reporting time slots of unavailability. The simulation results reveal that the clusters convergence, energy efficiency, and accuracy of channel sensing increased considerably by using the proposed algorithm.

  17. Energy Efficient Cooperative Spectrum Sensing in Cognitive Radio Networks Using Distributed Dynamic Load Balanced Clustering Scheme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muthukkumar R.

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Cognitive Radio (CR is a promising and potential technique to enable secondary users (SUs or unlicenced users to exploit the unused spectrum resources effectively possessed by primary users (PUs or licenced users. The proven clustering approach is used to organize nodes in the network into the logical groups to attain energy efficiency, network scalability, and stability for improving the sensing accuracy in CR through cooperative spectrum sensing (CSS. In this paper, a distributed dynamic load balanced clustering (DDLBC algorithm is proposed. In this algorithm, each member in the cluster is to calculate the cooperative gain, residual energy, distance, and sensing cost from the neighboring clusters to perform the optimal decision. Each member in a cluster participates in selecting a cluster head (CH through cooperative gain, and residual energy that minimises network energy consumption and enhances the channel sensing. First, we form the number of clusters using the Markov decision process (MDP model to reduce the energy consumption in a network. In this algorithm, CR users effectively utilize the PUs reporting time slots of unavailability. The simulation results reveal that the clusters convergence, energy efficiency, and accuracy of channel sensing increased considerably by using the proposed algorithm.

  18. A Splitting Scheme for Solving Reaction-Diffusion Equations Modeling Dislocation Dynamics in Materials Subjected to Cyclic Loading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pontes, J.; Walgraef, D.; Christov, C. I.

    2010-11-01

    Strain localization and dislocation pattern formation are typical features of plastic deformation in metals and alloys. Glide and climb dislocation motion along with accompanying production/annihilation processes of dislocations lead to the occurrence of instabilities of initially uniform dislocation distributions. These instabilities result into the development of various types of dislocation micro-structures, such as dislocation cells, slip and kink bands, persistent slip bands, labyrinth structures, etc., depending on the externally applied loading and the intrinsic lattice constraints. The Walgraef-Aifantis (WA) (Walgraef and Aifanits, J. Appl. Phys., 58, 668, 1985) model is an example of a reaction-diffusion model of coupled nonlinear equations which describe 0 formation of forest (immobile) and gliding (mobile) dislocation densities in the presence of cyclic loading. This paper discuss two versions of the WA model and focus on a finite difference, second order in time 1-Nicolson semi-implicit scheme, with internal iterations at each time step and a spatial splitting using the Stabilizing, Correction (Christov and Pontes, Mathematical and Computer Modelling, 35, 87, 2002) for solving the model evolution equations in two dimensions. The results of two simulations are presented. More complete results will appear in a forthcoming paper.

  19. Rational molecular dynamics scheme for predicting optimum concentration loading of nano-additive in phase change materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monisha Rastogi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The present study deals with the diffusion and phase transition behaviour of paraffin reinforced with carbon nano-additives namely graphene oxide (GO and surface functionalized single walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNT. Bulk disordered systems of paraffin hydrocarbons impregnated with carbon nano-additives have been generated in realistic equilibrium conformations for potential application as latent heat storage systems. Ab initio molecular dynamics(MD in conjugation with COMPASS forcefield has been implemented using periodic boundary conditions. The proposed scheme allows determination of optimum nano-additive loading for improving thermo-physical properties through analysis of mass, thermal and transport properties; and assists in determination of composite behaviour and related performance from microscopic point of view. It was observed that nanocomposites containing 7.8 % surface functionalised SWCNT and 55% GO loading corresponds to best latent heat storage system. The propounded methodology could serve as a by-pass route for economically taxing and iterative experimental procedures required to attain the optimum composition for best performance. The results also hint at the large unexplored potential of ab-initio classical MD techniques for predicting performance of new nanocomposites for potential phase change material applications.

  20. New iterative load balancing scheme with multi-grid level relaxation technique toward a large scale geodynamical granular simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furuichi, M.; Nishiura, D.

    2016-12-01

    The complex dynamics of granular system is an essential part of natural processes such as crystal rich magma flow, accretion prism formation or tsunami sedimentation. Numerical modeling with Discrete Element Method (DEM) is an effective approach for understanding granular dynamics especially when the contact between particles induces strongly non-linear rheology (e.g. DEM-CFD simulation for magma reservoir [Bergantz et.al., Nature geo, 2015, Furuichi and Nishiura, G-cubed, 2014]). In Moving Lagrangian particle methods like DEM, a large number of particles is required to obtain an accurate solution. Therefore, an efficient parallelization of the code is important to handle huge particles system on HPC. However, since particles move around during the simulation, the workload between the different MPI processes becomes imbalance when using static sub-domains. To overcome this limitation, we present a new dynamic load balancing algorithms applicable to particle simulation methods such as DEM and Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH) [Furuichi and Nishiura submitted to Comput. Phys. Comm.]. Our method utilizes flexible orthogonal domain decomposition in which the domain is divided into columns, each of which independently defines rectangle sub-domains by rows. We regard the difference of the executed time between neighbor logical processes as the residual of nonlinear problem of the domain change. The load balancing is attained by minimizing the residual within the framework of the iterative non-linear solver combined with the multi-grid level technique for the local relaxation. Scalability tests attest that the algorithm demonstrates close-to-optimal strong and weak scalability on the K-computer and the Earth Simulator. This result holds for even as well as uneven particle distribution, including different types of particles and heterogeneous computer architecture. We performed a DEM simulation with over 2 billion particles for demonstrating the proposed scheme. The

  1. Systematic optimization of fed-batch simultaneous saccharification and fermentation at high-solid loading based on enzymatic hydrolysis and dynamic metabolic modeling of Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unrean, Pornkamol; Khajeeram, Sutamat; Laoteng, Kobkul

    2016-03-01

    An integrative simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) modeling is a useful guiding tool for rapid process optimization to meet the techno-economic requirement of industrial-scale lignocellulosic ethanol production. In this work, we have developed the SSF model composing of a metabolic network of a Saccharomyces cerevisiae cell associated with fermentation kinetics and enzyme hydrolysis model to quantitatively capture dynamic responses of yeast cell growth and fermentation during SSF. By using model-based design of feeding profiles for substrate and yeast cell in the fed-batch SSF process, an efficient ethanol production with high titer of up to 65 g/L and high yield of 85 % of theoretical yield was accomplished. The ethanol titer and productivity was increased by 47 and 41 %, correspondingly, in optimized fed-batch SSF as compared to batch process. The developed integrative SSF model is, therefore, considered as a promising approach for systematic design of economical and sustainable SSF bioprocessing of lignocellulose.

  2. Effect of core ceramic grinding on fracture behaviour of bilayered zirconia veneering ceramic systems under two loading schemes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jian, Yu-Tao; Tang, Tian-Yu; Swain, Michael V; Wang, Xiao-Dong; Zhao, Ke

    2016-12-01

    The aim of this in vitro study was to evaluate the effect of core ceramic grinding on the fracture behaviour of bilayered zirconia under two loading schemes. Interfacial surfaces of sandblasted zirconia disks (A) were ground with 80 (B), 120 (C) and 220 (D) grit diamond discs, respectively. Surface roughness and topographic analysis were performed using a confocal scanning laser microscope (CSLM) and a scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Relative monoclinic content was evaluated using X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD) then reevaluated after simulated veneer firing. Biaxial fracture strength (σ) and Weibull modulus (m) were calculated either with core in compression (subgroup Ac-Dc) or in tension (subgroup At-Dt). Facture surfaces were examined by SEM and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS). Maximum tensile stress at fracture was estimated by finite element analysis. Statistical data analysis was performed using Kruskal-Wallis and one-way ANOVA at a significance level of 0.05. As grit size of the diamond disc increased, zirconia surface roughness decreased (pzirconia surface after fracture for all groups. Technician grinding changed surface topography of zirconia ceramic material, but was not detrimental to the bilayered system strength after veneer application. Coarse grinding slightly improved the fracture strength reliability of the bilayered system tested with core in compression. It is recommended that veneering porcelain be applied directly after routine lab grinding of zirconia ceramic, and its application on rough zirconia cores may be preferred to enhance bond strength. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  3. Microbial population dynamics during long-term sludge adaptation of thermophilic and mesophilic sequencing batch digesters treating sewage fine sieved fraction at varying organic loading rates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tao, Y.; De Kreuk, M.K.; Zandvoort, M.H.; Van Lier, J.B.

    2015-01-01

    Background In this research, the feasibility of, and population dynamics in, one-step anaerobic sequencing batch reactor systems treating the fine sieved fraction (FSF) from raw municipal wastewater was studied under thermophilic (55 °C) and mesophilic (35 °C) conditions. FSF was sequestered from

  4. A distributed model predictive control based load frequency control scheme for multi-area interconnected power system using discrete-time Laguerre functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Yang; Zhou, Jianzhong; Xu, Yanhe; Zhang, Yuncheng; Qian, Zhongdong

    2017-05-01

    This paper proposes a distributed model predictive control based load frequency control (MPC-LFC) scheme to improve control performances in the frequency regulation of power system. In order to reduce the computational burden in the rolling optimization with a sufficiently large prediction horizon, the orthonormal Laguerre functions are utilized to approximate the predicted control trajectory. The closed-loop stability of the proposed MPC scheme is achieved by adding a terminal equality constraint to the online quadratic optimization and taking the cost function as the Lyapunov function. Furthermore, the treatments of some typical constraints in load frequency control have been studied based on the specific Laguerre-based formulations. Simulations have been conducted in two different interconnected power systems to validate the effectiveness of the proposed distributed MPC-LFC as well as its superiority over the comparative methods. Copyright © 2017 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Uneven batch data alignment with application to the control of batch end-product quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Jian; Marjanovic, Ognjen; Lennox, Barry

    2014-03-01

    Batch processes are commonly characterized by uneven trajectories due to the existence of batch-to-batch variations. The batch end-product quality is usually measured at the end of these uneven trajectories. It is necessary to align the time differences for both the measured trajectories and the batch end-product quality in order to implement statistical process monitoring and control schemes. Apart from synchronizing trajectories with variable lengths using an indicator variable or dynamic time warping, this paper proposes a novel approach to align uneven batch data by identifying short-window PCA&PLS models at first and then applying these identified models to extend shorter trajectories and predict future batch end-product quality. Furthermore, uneven batch data can also be aligned to be a specified batch length using moving window estimation. The proposed approach and its application to the control of batch end-product quality are demonstrated with a simulated example of fed-batch fermentation for penicillin production. Copyright © 2013 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Pro Spring Batch

    CERN Document Server

    Minella, Michael T

    2011-01-01

    Since its release, Spring Framework has transformed virtually every aspect of Java development including web applications, security, aspect-oriented programming, persistence, and messaging. Spring Batch, one of its newer additions, now brings the same familiar Spring idioms to batch processing. Spring Batch addresses the needs of any batch process, from the complex calculations performed in the biggest financial institutions to simple data migrations that occur with many software development projects. Pro Spring Batch is intended to answer three questions: *What? What is batch processing? What

  7. A Seamless Handoff Scheme with Access Point Load Balance for Real-Time Services Support in 802.11 Wireless LANs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manodham, Thavisak; Loyola, Luis; Miki, Tetsuya

    IEEE 802.11 wirelesses LANs (WLANs) have been rapidly deployed in enterprises, public areas, and households. Voice-over-IP (VoIP) and similar applications are now commonly used in mobile devices over wireless networks. Recent works have improved the quality of service (QoS) offering higher data rates to support various kinds of real-time applications. However, besides the need for higher data rates, seamless handoff and load balancing among APs are key issues that must be addressed in order to continue supporting real-time services across wireless LANs and providing fair services to all users. In this paper, we introduce a novel access point (AP) with two transceivers that improves network efficiency by supporting seamless handoff and traffic load balancing in a wireless network. In our proposed scheme, the novel AP uses the second transceiver to scan and find neighboring STAs in the transmission range and then sends the results to neighboring APs, which compare and analyze whether or not the STA should perform a handoff. The initial results from our simulations show that the novel AP module is more effective than the conventional scheme and a related work in terms of providing a handoff process with low latency and sharing traffic load with neighbor APs.

  8. Rule-based fuzzy inference system for estimating the influent COD/N ratio and ammonia load to a sequencing batch reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Y J; Bae, H; Ko, J H; Poo, K M; Kim, S; Kim, C W; Woo, H J

    2006-01-01

    A fuzzy inference system using sensor measurements was developed to estimate the influent COD/N ratio and ammonia load. The sensors measured ORP, DO and pH. The sensor profiles had a close relationship with the influent COD/N ratio and ammonia load. To confirm this operational knowledge for constructing a rule set, a correlation analysis was conducted. The results showed that a rule generation method based only on operational knowledge did not generate a sufficiently accurate relationship between sensor measurements and target variables. To compensate for this defect, a decision tree algorithm was used as a standardized method for rule generation. Given a set of inputs, this algorithm was used to determine the output variables. However, the generated rules could not estimate the continuous influent COD/N ratio and ammonia load. Fuzzified rules and the fuzzy inference system were developed to overcome this problem. The fuzzy inference system estimated the influent COD/N ratio and ammonia load quite well. When these results were compared to the results from a predictive polynomial neural network model, the fuzzy inference system was more stable.

  9. Microbial Population Dynamics and Ecosystem Functions of Anoxic/Aerobic Granular Sludge in Sequencing Batch Reactors Operated at Different Organic Loading Rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szabó, Enikö; Liébana, Raquel; Hermansson, Malte; Modin, Oskar; Persson, Frank; Wilén, Britt-Marie

    2017-01-01

    The granular sludge process is an effective, low-footprint alternative to conventional activated sludge wastewater treatment. The architecture of the microbial granules allows the co-existence of different functional groups, e.g., nitrifying and denitrifying communities, which permits compact reactor design. However, little is known about the factors influencing community assembly in granular sludge, such as the effects of reactor operation strategies and influent wastewater composition. Here, we analyze the development of the microbiomes in parallel laboratory-scale anoxic/aerobic granular sludge reactors operated at low (0.9 kg m -3 d -1 ), moderate (1.9 kg m -3 d -1 ) and high (3.7 kg m -3 d -1 ) organic loading rates (OLRs) and the same ammonium loading rate (0.2 kg NH 4 -N m -3 d -1 ) for 84 days. Complete removal of organic carbon and ammonium was achieved in all three reactors after start-up, while the nitrogen removal (denitrification) efficiency increased with the OLR: 0% at low, 38% at moderate, and 66% at high loading rate. The bacterial communities at different loading rates diverged rapidly after start-up and showed less than 50% similarity after 6 days, and below 40% similarity after 84 days. The three reactor microbiomes were dominated by different genera (mainly Meganema, Thauera, Paracoccus , and Zoogloea ), but these genera have similar ecosystem functions of EPS production, denitrification and polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) storage. Many less abundant but persistent taxa were also detected within these functional groups. The bacterial communities were functionally redundant irrespective of the loading rate applied. At steady-state reactor operation, the identity of the core community members was rather stable, but their relative abundances changed considerably over time. Furthermore, nitrifying bacteria were low in relative abundance and diversity in all reactors, despite their large contribution to nitrogen turnover. The results suggest that the OLR

  10. Monte Carlo simulation on kinetics of batch and semi-batch free radical polymerization

    KAUST Repository

    Shao, Jing

    2015-10-27

    Based on Monte Carlo simulation technology, we proposed a hybrid routine which combines reaction mechanism together with coarse-grained molecular simulation to study the kinetics of free radical polymerization. By comparing with previous experimental and simulation studies, we showed the capability of our Monte Carlo scheme on representing polymerization kinetics in batch and semi-batch processes. Various kinetics information, such as instant monomer conversion, molecular weight, and polydispersity etc. are readily calculated from Monte Carlo simulation. The kinetic constants such as polymerization rate k p is determined in the simulation without of “steady-state” hypothesis. We explored the mechanism for the variation of polymerization kinetics those observed in previous studies, as well as polymerization-induced phase separation. Our Monte Carlo simulation scheme is versatile on studying polymerization kinetics in batch and semi-batch processes.

  11. PROOF on a Batch System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Behrenhoff, W; Ehrenfeld, W; Samson, J; Stadie, H

    2011-01-01

    The 'parallel ROOT facility' (PROOF) from the ROOT framework provides a mechanism to distribute the load of interactive and non-interactive ROOT sessions on a set of worker nodes optimising the overall execution time. While PROOF is designed to work on a dedicated PROOF cluster, the benefits of PROOF can also be used on top of another batch scheduling system with the help of temporary per user PROOF clusters. We will present a lightweight tool which starts a temporary PROOF cluster on a SGE based batch cluster or, via a plugin mechanism, e.g. on a set of bare desktops via ssh. Further, we will present the result of benchmarks which compare the data throughput for different data storage back ends available at the German National Analysis Facility (NAF) at DESY.

  12. Load-balancing by applying a bayesian learning automata (BLA) scheme in a non-stationary web-crawler network

    OpenAIRE

    Romtveit, Tarjei

    2010-01-01

    Masteroppgave i informasjons- og kommunikasjonsteknologi 2010 – Universitetet i Agder, Grimstad Distributed Web-Crawlers, i.e. , Web-Crawler Networks, have been known to retrieve massive amount of web-data to centralized search indexes the last decade. Companies like Google, Yahoo and lately Integrasco, have built their business model upon this retrieval. However, to load-balance Web-Crawler Networks have been proved difficult. Especially difficult are the geographical distribu...

  13. Spring batch essentials

    CERN Document Server

    Rao, P Raja Malleswara

    2015-01-01

    If you are a Java developer with basic knowledge of Spring and some experience in the development of enterprise applications, and want to learn about batch application development in detail, then this book is ideal for you. This book will be perfect as your next step towards building simple yet powerful batch applications on a Java-based platform.

  14. Deep-subwavelength light routing in nanowire-loaded surface plasmon polariton waveguides: an alternative to the hybrid guiding scheme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bian, Yusheng; Gong, Qihuang

    2013-01-01

    Nanowire-loaded surface plasmon polariton waveguide is an extremely simple structure that can be naturally formed by directly dropping a dielectric cylinder onto a metallic substrate. However, despite the substantial emphasis devoted to its hybrid plasmonic counterparts, this waveguiding structure has been paid little attention to so far. Here in this paper, through comprehensive numerical analysis, we reveal that such a configuration can be leveraged to achieve deep-subwavelength field confinement with mode area more than one order of magnitude smaller than that of the conventional hybrid waveguide, while maintaining a moderate attenuation with propagation distance over tens of microns. Two-dimensional parameter mapping concerning physical dimension, shape and material of the nanowire as well as the refractive index of the cladding has disclosed the wide-range existence nature of this plasmonic mode and the feasibility to further balance its confinement and loss. (paper)

  15. Ag/AgCl Loaded Bi2WO6 Composite: A Plasmonic Z-Scheme Visible Light-Responsive Photocatalyst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiangchao Meng

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Hierarchical flower-like Bi2WO6 was successfully synthesized by facile hydrothermal method at low pH. And Ag/AgCl was loaded by photoreduction on its surface. As-prepared photocatalysts were characterized by various techniques. Bi2WO6 was successfully synthesized at a size of 2-3 μm. Depositing Ag/AgCl did not destroy the crystal structure, and both Ag+ and metallic Ag0 were found. The band gap of the composite was 2.57 eV, which indicates that visible light could be the activating irradiation. In the photocatalytic activity test, the composite with 10 wt% Ag/AgCl boasted the highest removal efficiency (almost 100% in 45 min. The significant enhancement can be attributed to the surface plasmon resonance (SPR effect and the establishment of heterostructures between Ag/AgCl and Bi2WO6. A possible mechanism of photocatalytic oxidation in the presence of Ag/AgCl-Bi2WO6 was proposed. This work sheds light on the potential applications of plasmonic metals in photocatalysis to enhance their activities.

  16. A hybrid DGTD scheme for transient analysis of electromagnetic field interactions on microwave systems loaded with thin wires

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Ping

    2015-10-15

    Use of the discontinuous Galerkin time-domain (DGTD) method for analyzing electromagnetic field interactions on microwave structures loaded with thin wires has been very limited despite its well-known advantages. Direct application of the three dimensional (3D) DGTD method to such structures calls for very fine volumetric discretizations in the proximity of the thin wires. In this work, to avoid this possible source of computational inefficiency, electromagnetic field interactions on thin wires and the rest of the structures are modeled separately using the modified telegrapher and Maxwell equations, respectively. Then, 1D and 3D DGTD methods are used to discretize them. The coupling between the two resulting matrix systems is realized by introducing equivalent source terms in each equation set. A weighted electric field obtained from the 3D discretization around the wire is introduced as a voltage source in the telegrapher equations. A volume current density obtained from the 1D discretization on the wire is introduced as a current source in the Ampere law equation. © 2015 IEEE.

  17. Mathematical correlation between the load temperatures of a batch of a tight-coil annealing furnace; Correlacao matematica entre as temperaturas de uma carga em fornos de recozimento de bobinas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Branchini, Osvaldo L.G.; Gorni, Antonio A. [Companhia Siderurgica Paulista (Brazil)

    1989-12-31

    The temperature of fourteen selected points within the batch of a tight-coil annealing furnace were measured. It was detected hot and cold spot temperatures in different points in the batch, which originate temperature gradients and promote a dispersion in the recrystallization degree attained in these points. This fact induced to variations in the mechanical properties of the coils. In this paper some statistical equations were determined in order to establish a correlation between the process time and control temperature of the furnace with the hot process time control temperatures detected in the batch. (author). 5 tabs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  18. Batch-to-batch model improvement for cooling crystallization

    OpenAIRE

    Forgione , Marco; Birpoutsoukis , Georgios; Bombois , Xavier; Mesbah , Ali; Daudey , Peter; Van Den Hof , Paul

    2015-01-01

    International audience; Two batch-to-batch model update strategies for model-based control of batch cooling crystallization are presented. In Iterative Learning Control, a nominal process model is adjusted by a non-parametric, additive correction term which depends on the difference between the measured output and the model prediction in the previous batch. In Iterative Identification Control, the uncertain model parameters are iteratively estimated using the measured batch data. Due to the d...

  19. Heuristics for batching and sequencing in batch processing machines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuda Basnet

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we discuss the “batch processing” problem, where there are multiple jobs to be processed in flow shops. These jobs can however be formed into batches and the number of jobs in a batch is limited by the capacity of the processing machines to accommodate the jobs. The processing time required by a batch in a machine is determined by the greatest processing time of the jobs included in the batch. Thus, the batch processing problem is a mix of batching and sequencing – the jobs need to be grouped into distinct batches, the batches then need to be sequenced through the flow shop. We apply certain newly developed heuristics to the problem and present computational results. The contributions of this paper are deriving a lower bound, and the heuristics developed and tested in this paper.

  20. Prunus dulcis, Batch

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2010-06-07

    Jun 7, 2010 ... almond (Prunus dulcis, Batch) genotypes as revealed by PCR analysis. Yavar Sharafi1*, Jafar Hajilou1, Seyed AbolGhasem Mohammadi2, Mohammad Reza Dadpour1 and Sadollah Eskandari3. 1Department of Horticulture, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Tabriz, Tabriz, 5166614766, Iran.

  1. Modelling of Batch Process Operations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abdul Samad, Noor Asma Fazli; Cameron, Ian; Gani, Rafiqul

    2011-01-01

    Here a batch cooling crystalliser is modelled and simulated as is a batch distillation system. In the batch crystalliser four operational modes of the crystalliser are considered, namely: initial cooling, nucleation, crystal growth and product removal. A model generation procedure is shown that s...

  2. Polynomial Batch Codes for Efficient IT-PIR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henry Ryan

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Private information retrieval (PIR is a way for clients to query a remote database without the database holder learning the clients’ query terms or the responses they generate. Compelling applications for PIR are abound in the cryptographic and privacy research literature, yet existing PIR techniques are notoriously inefficient. Consequently, no such PIRbased application to date has seen real-world at-scale deployment. This paper proposes new “batch coding” techniques to help address PIR’s efficiency problem. The new techniques exploit the connection between ramp secret sharing schemes and efficient information-theoretically secure PIR (IT-PIR protocols. This connection was previously observed by Henry, Huang, and Goldberg (NDSS 2013, who used ramp schemes to construct efficient “batch queries” with which clients can fetch several database records for the same cost as fetching a single record using a standard, non-batch query. The new techniques in this paper generalize and extend those of Henry et al. to construct “batch codes” with which clients can fetch several records for only a fraction the cost of fetching a single record using a standard non-batch query over an unencoded database. The batch codes are highly tuneable, providing a means to trade off (i lower server-side computation cost, (ii lower server-side storage cost, and/or (iii lower uni- or bi-directional communication cost, in exchange for a comparatively modest decrease in resilience to Byzantine database servers.

  3. Pollution prevention applications in batch manufacturing operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sykes, Derek W.; O'Shaughnessy, James

    2004-02-01

    Older, "low-tech" batch manufacturing operations are often fertile grounds for gains resulting from pollution prevention techniques. This paper presents a pollution prevention technique utilized for wastewater discharge permit compliance purposes at a batch manufacturer of detergents, deodorants, and floor-care products. This manufacturer generated industrial wastewater as a result of equipment rinses required after each product batch changeover. After investing a significant amount of capital on end of pip-line wastewater treatment technology designed to address existing discharge limits, this manufacturer chose to investigate alternate, low-cost approaches to address anticipated new permit limits. Mass balances using spreadsheets and readily available formulation and production data were conducted on over 300 products to determine how each individual product contributed to the total wastewater pollutant load. These mass balances indicated that 22 products accounted for over 55% of the wastewater pollutant. Laboratory tests were conducted to determine whether these same products could accept their individual changeover rinse water as make-up water in formulations without sacrificing product quality. This changeover reuse technique was then implement at the plant scale for selected products. Significant reductions in wastewater volume (25%) and wastewater pollutant loading (85+%) were realized as a direct result of this approach.

  4. Kinetic study of batch and fed-batch enzymatic saccharification of pretreated substrate and subsequent fermentation to ethanol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gupta Rishi

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Enzymatic hydrolysis, the rate limiting step in the process development for biofuel, is always hampered by its low sugar concentration. High solid enzymatic saccharification could solve this problem but has several other drawbacks such as low rate of reaction. In the present study we have attempted to enhance the concentration of sugars in enzymatic hydrolysate of delignified Prosopis juliflora, using a fed-batch enzymatic hydrolysis approach. Results The enzymatic hydrolysis was carried out at elevated solid loading up to 20% (w/v and a comparison kinetics of batch and fed-batch enzymatic hydrolysis was carried out using kinetic regimes. Under batch mode, the actual sugar concentration values at 20% initial substrate consistency were found deviated from the predicted values and the maximum sugar concentration obtained was 80.78 g/L. Fed-batch strategy was implemented to enhance the final sugar concentration to 127 g/L. The batch and fed-batch enzymatic hydrolysates were fermented with Saccharomyces cerevisiae and ethanol production of 34.78 g/L and 52.83 g/L, respectively, were achieved. Furthermore, model simulations showed that higher insoluble solids in the feed resulted in both smaller reactor volume and shorter residence time. Conclusion Fed-batch enzymatic hydrolysis is an efficient procedure for enhancing the sugar concentration in the hydrolysate. Restricting the process to suitable kinetic regimes could result in higher conversion rates.

  5. BATCHING PRINCIPLE OF RATING POINT ACCRUAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Safontsev

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyzes characteristics of the postindustrial educational system, including the credit competence assessment, academic loads, and module-rating discipline structure. The employers’ judgments, reflected in the survey outcomes, make it possible to single out the most significant competencies for students to master. Such findings are regarded as a foundation for developing the assignment modules, integrating the problematic, testing and projecting tasks, designed to master necessary competences; their effectiveness is estimated by using the criteria of behavioral psychology. The paper demonstrates the sequences of monitoring assessment of students’ academic achievements, and recommends the batching principle of rating point accrual, based on criterion-oriented evaluation standards, reflecting students’ competence levels. The authors identify the basic competence indicators: interest in the subject, reflections on the test results, and inner motivation for project activities. The complex of batching equations is given for developing the training cards of academic disciplines, and guaranteeing the effectiveness of education system.

  6. Progressing batch hydrolysis process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, John D.

    1986-01-01

    A progressive batch hydrolysis process for producing sugar from a lignocellulosic feedstock, comprising passing a stream of dilute acid serially through a plurality of percolation hydrolysis reactors charged with said feedstock, at a flow rate, temperature and pressure sufficient to substantially convert all the cellulose component of the feedstock to glucose; cooling said dilute acid stream containing glucose, after exiting the last percolation hydrolysis reactor, then feeding said dilute acid stream serially through a plurality of prehydrolysis percolation reactors, charged with said feedstock, at a flow rate, temperature and pressure sufficient to substantially convert all the hemicellulose component of said feedstock to glucose; and cooling the dilute acid stream containing glucose after it exits the last prehydrolysis reactor.

  7. Stochastic growth logistic model with aftereffect for batch fermentation process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosli, Norhayati; Ayoubi, Tawfiqullah; Bahar, Arifah; Rahman, Haliza Abdul; Salleh, Madihah Md

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, the stochastic growth logistic model with aftereffect for the cell growth of C. acetobutylicum P262 and Luedeking-Piret equations for solvent production in batch fermentation system is introduced. The parameters values of the mathematical models are estimated via Levenberg-Marquardt optimization method of non-linear least squares. We apply Milstein scheme for solving the stochastic models numerically. The effciency of mathematical models is measured by comparing the simulated result and the experimental data of the microbial growth and solvent production in batch system. Low values of Root Mean-Square Error (RMSE) of stochastic models with aftereffect indicate good fits

  8. Stochastic growth logistic model with aftereffect for batch fermentation process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosli, Norhayati; Ayoubi, Tawfiqullah [Faculty of Industrial Sciences and Technology, Universiti Malaysia Pahang, Lebuhraya Tun Razak, 26300 Gambang, Pahang (Malaysia); Bahar, Arifah; Rahman, Haliza Abdul [Department of Mathematical Sciences, Faculty of Science, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 Johor Bahru, Johor (Malaysia); Salleh, Madihah Md [Department of Biotechnology Industry, Faculty of Biosciences and Bioengineering, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 Johor Bahru, Johor (Malaysia)

    2014-06-19

    In this paper, the stochastic growth logistic model with aftereffect for the cell growth of C. acetobutylicum P262 and Luedeking-Piret equations for solvent production in batch fermentation system is introduced. The parameters values of the mathematical models are estimated via Levenberg-Marquardt optimization method of non-linear least squares. We apply Milstein scheme for solving the stochastic models numerically. The effciency of mathematical models is measured by comparing the simulated result and the experimental data of the microbial growth and solvent production in batch system. Low values of Root Mean-Square Error (RMSE) of stochastic models with aftereffect indicate good fits.

  9. Load-shift incentives for household demand response: Evaluation of hourly dynamic pricing and rebate schemes in a wind-based electricity system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Katz, Jonas; Møller Andersen, Frits; Morthorst, Poul Erik

    2016-01-01

    Applying a partial equilibrium model of the electricity market we analyse effects of exposing household electricity customers to retail products with variable pricing. Both short-term and long-term effects of exposing customers to hourly spot market prices and a simpler rebate scheme are analysed...... under scenarios with large shares of wind power in a Danish case study. Our results indicate strategies that could be favourable in ensuring high adoption of products and efficient response by households. We find that simple pricing schemes, though economically less efficient, could become important...... in an early phase to initialise the development of household demand response. At a later point, when long-term dynamics take effect, a larger effort should be made to shift consumers onto real-time rates, and an increased focus on overall adoption of variable pricing will be required. Another finding...

  10. Novel toggle-rate based energy-efficient scheme for heavy load real-time IM-DD OFDM-PON with ONU LLID identification in time-domain using amplitude decision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Youxiang; Zhang, Junjie

    2017-07-10

    A novel low complexity and energy-efficient scheme by controlling the toggle-rate of ONU with time-domain amplitude identification is proposed for a heavy load downlink in an intensity-modulation and direct-detection orthogonal frequency division multiplexing passive optical network (IM-DD OFDM-PON). In a conventional OFDM-PON downlink, all ONUs have to perform demodulation for all the OFDM frames in a broadcast way no matter whether the frames are targeted to or not, which causes a huge energy waste. However, in our scheme, the optical network unit (ONU) logical link identifications (LLIDs) are inserted into each downlink OFDM frame in time-domain at the optical line terminal (OLT) side. At the ONU side, the LLID is obtained with a low complexity and high precision amplitude identification method. The ONU sets the toggle-rate of demodulation module to zero when the frames are not targeted to, which avoids unnecessary digital signal processing (DSP) energy consumption. Compared with the sleep-mode methods consisting of clock recovery and synchronization, toggle-rate shows its advantage in fast changing, which is more suitable for the heavy load scenarios. Moreover, for the first time to our knowledge, the characteristics of the proposed scheme are investigated in a real-time IM-DD OFDM system, which performs well at the received optical power as low as -21dBm. The experimental results show that 25.1% energy consumption can be saved in the receiver compared to the conventional configurations.

  11. Adaptation to high throughput batch chromatography enhances multivariate screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker, Gregory A; Calzada, Joseph; Herzer, Sibylle; Rieble, Siegfried

    2015-09-01

    High throughput process development offers unique approaches to explore complex process design spaces with relatively low material consumption. Batch chromatography is one technique that can be used to screen chromatographic conditions in a 96-well plate. Typical batch chromatography workflows examine variations in buffer conditions or comparison of multiple resins in a given process, as opposed to the assessment of protein loading conditions in combination with other factors. A modification to the batch chromatography paradigm is described here where experimental planning, programming, and a staggered loading approach increase the multivariate space that can be explored with a liquid handling system. The iterative batch chromatography (IBC) approach is described, which treats every well in a 96-well plate as an individual experiment, wherein protein loading conditions can be varied alongside other factors such as wash and elution buffer conditions. As all of these factors are explored in the same experiment, the interactions between them are characterized and the number of follow-up confirmatory experiments is reduced. This in turn improves statistical power and throughput. Two examples of the IBC method are shown and the impact of the load conditions are assessed in combination with the other factors explored. Copyright © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Colour schemes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Leeuwen, Theo

    2013-01-01

    This chapter presents a framework for analysing colour schemes based on a parametric approach that includes not only hue, value and saturation, but also purity, transparency, luminosity, luminescence, lustre, modulation and differentiation.......This chapter presents a framework for analysing colour schemes based on a parametric approach that includes not only hue, value and saturation, but also purity, transparency, luminosity, luminescence, lustre, modulation and differentiation....

  13. Control and Optimization of Batch Chemical Processes

    OpenAIRE

    Rohani, Sohrab; Chhabra, Raj; Bonvin, Dominique; François, Grégory

    2017-01-01

    A batch process is characterized by the repetition of time-varying operations of finite duration. Due to the repetition, there are two independent “time” variables, namely, the run time during a batch and the batch index. Accordingly, the control and optimization objectives can be defined for a given batch or over several batches. This chapter describes the various control and optimization strategies available for the operation of batch processes. These include online and run-to-run control o...

  14. Data-driven batch schuduling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bent, John [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Denehy, Tim [GOOGLE; Arpaci - Dusseau, Remzi [UNIV OF WISCONSIN; Livny, Miron [UNIV OF WISCONSIN; Arpaci - Dusseau, Andrea C [NON LANL

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we develop data-driven strategies for batch computing schedulers. Current CPU-centric batch schedulers ignore the data needs within workloads and execute them by linking them transparently and directly to their needed data. When scheduled on remote computational resources, this elegant solution of direct data access can incur an order of magnitude performance penalty for data-intensive workloads. Adding data-awareness to batch schedulers allows a careful coordination of data and CPU allocation thereby reducing the cost of remote execution. We offer here new techniques by which batch schedulers can become data-driven. Such systems can use our analytical predictive models to select one of the four data-driven scheduling policies that we have created. Through simulation, we demonstrate the accuracy of our predictive models and show how they can reduce time to completion for some workloads by as much as 80%.

  15. Adaptive Batch Mode Active Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, Shayok; Balasubramanian, Vineeth; Panchanathan, Sethuraman

    2015-08-01

    Active learning techniques have gained popularity to reduce human effort in labeling data instances for inducing a classifier. When faced with large amounts of unlabeled data, such algorithms automatically identify the exemplar and representative instances to be selected for manual annotation. More recently, there have been attempts toward a batch mode form of active learning, where a batch of data points is simultaneously selected from an unlabeled set. Real-world applications require adaptive approaches for batch selection in active learning, depending on the complexity of the data stream in question. However, the existing work in this field has primarily focused on static or heuristic batch size selection. In this paper, we propose two novel optimization-based frameworks for adaptive batch mode active learning (BMAL), where the batch size as well as the selection criteria are combined in a single formulation. We exploit gradient-descent-based optimization strategies as well as properties of submodular functions to derive the adaptive BMAL algorithms. The solution procedures have the same computational complexity as existing state-of-the-art static BMAL techniques. Our empirical results on the widely used VidTIMIT and the mobile biometric (MOBIO) data sets portray the efficacy of the proposed frameworks and also certify the potential of these approaches in being used for real-world biometric recognition applications.

  16. Transmission usage cost allocation schemes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abou El Ela, A.A.; El-Sehiemy, R.A.

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents different suggested transmission usage cost allocation (TCA) schemes to the system individuals. Different independent system operator (ISO) visions are presented using the proportional rata and flow-based TCA methods. There are two proposed flow-based TCA schemes (FTCA). The first FTCA scheme generalizes the equivalent bilateral exchanges (EBE) concepts for lossy networks through two-stage procedure. The second FTCA scheme is based on the modified sensitivity factors (MSF). These factors are developed from the actual measurements of power flows in transmission lines and the power injections at different buses. The proposed schemes exhibit desirable apportioning properties and are easy to implement and understand. Case studies for different loading conditions are carried out to show the capability of the proposed schemes for solving the TCA problem. (author)

  17. Study on the influence of finite element formulation and equation of motion solution scheme on FEM analysis results based on the asymmetrically loaded plate problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcin Krzeszowiec

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Computer simulations of physical phenomena are at the moment common both in science and industry. The possibility of finding approximate solutions for complicated systems of differential equations, mathematically describing issues in the fields of mechanics, physics or chemistry, allows for shorten design and research time, often significantly reducing the need for expensive experimental studies or costly production of prototypes. However, the mentioned prevalence of these methods, particularly the Finite Element Method, resulted in analysis outcomes to be often in advance regarded as accurate ones. The purpose of the article is to showcase, on a simple stress analysis problem, how parameters such as the density of the finite element mesh, finite element formulation or integration scheme significantly influence on the simulation results and how easy it is to end up with the results that do not hold any physical sense, despite the fact that all the basic assumptions of correct analysis (suitable boundary conditions, total system energy stored etc. have been met. The results of this study can serve as a warning against premature conclusion drawing from calculations carried out by means of FEM simulation.[b]Keywords[/b]: computational mechanics, finite element method, shell elements, numerical integration

  18. Tradable schemes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.K. Hoogland (Jiri); C.D.D. Neumann

    2000-01-01

    textabstractIn this article we present a new approach to the numerical valuation of derivative securities. The method is based on our previous work where we formulated the theory of pricing in terms of tradables. The basic idea is to fit a finite difference scheme to exact solutions of the pricing

  19. BatchJS: Implementing Batches in JavaScript

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D. Kasemier

    2014-01-01

    htmlabstractNone of our popular programming languages know how to handle distribution well. Yet our programs interact more and more with each other and our data resorts in databases and web services. Batches are a new addition to languages that can finally bring native support for distribution to

  20. Analysis of Adiabatic Batch Reactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erald Gjonaj

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available A mixture of acetic anhydride is reacted with excess water in an adiabatic batch reactor to form an exothermic reaction. The concentration of acetic anhydride and the temperature inside the adiabatic batch reactor are calculated with an initial temperature of 20°C, an initial temperature of 30°C, and with a cooling jacket maintaining the temperature at a constant of 20°C. The graphs of the three different scenarios show that the highest temperatures will cause the reaction to occur faster.

  1. A Simple Power Management Scheme with Enhanced Stability for a Solar PV/Wind/Fuel Cell/Grid Fed Hybrid Power Supply Designed for Industrial Loads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Saravanan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a new power conditioner topology with an intelligent power management controller that integrates multiple renewable energy sources such as solar energy, wind energy, and fuel cell energy with battery and AC grid supply as backup to make the best use of their operating characteristics with better reliability than that could be obtained by single renewable energy source based power supply. The proposed embedded controller is programmed to perform MPPT for solar PV panel and WTG, SOC estimation and battery, maintaining a constant voltage at PCC and power flow control by regulating the reference currents of the controller in an instantaneous basis. The instantaneous variation in reference currents of the controller enhances the controller response as it accommodates the effect of continuously varying solar insolation and wind speed in the power management. It also prioritizes the sources for consumption to achieve maximum usage of green energy than grid energy. The simulation results of the proposed power management system with real-time solar radiation and wind velocity data collected from solar centre, KEC, and experimental results for a sporadically varying load demand are presented in this paper and the results are encouraging from reliability and stability perspectives.

  2. Interactive and Batch Analysis at DESY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Künne, K.

    Besides the data taking and reconstruction the analysis of the Physics Data is a major part in Physics Computing. Currently a new structure, which should last for the next years (maybe the next millenium), is introduced in the computing for Physics Analysis at DESY, which closely follows a Client-Server-Model, and which is based on the Workgroup-Server-Concept (first introduced at CERN). The talk will give an overview about this new structure, which includes File-Servers, Workgroup-Servers, and Batch-Servers. Special emphasis will be given to the handling of different classes of data inside of such a distributed system. The important point here is to avoid unnecessary network traffic. Other key topics include management of that distributed system and load balancing issues. Also presented in this talk are experiences with that system and future developments.

  3. NDA BATCH 2002-02

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory

    2009-12-09

    QC sample results (daily background checks, 20-gram and 100-gram SGS drum checks) were within acceptable criteria established by WIPP's Quality Assurance Objectives for TRU Waste Characterization. Replicate runs were performed on 5 drums with IDs LL85101099TRU, LL85801147TRU, LL85801109TRU, LL85300999TRU and LL85500979TRU. All replicate measurement results are identical at the 95% confidence level as established by WIPP criteria. Note that the batch covered 5 weeks of SGS measurements from 23-Jan-2002 through 22-Feb-2002. Data packet for SGS Batch 2002-02 generated using gamma spectroscopy with the Pu Facility SGS unit is technically reasonable. All QC samples are in compliance with established control limits. The batch data packet has been reviewed for correctness, completeness, consistency and compliance with WIPP's Quality Assurance Objectives and determined to be acceptable. An Expert Review was performed on the data packet between 28-Feb-02 and 09-Jul-02 to check for potential U-235, Np-237 and Am-241 interferences and address drum cases where specific scan segments showed Se gamma ray transmissions for the 136-keV gamma to be below 0.1 %. Two drums in the batch showed Pu-238 at a relative mass ratio more than 2% of all the Pu isotopes.

  4. NGBAuth - Next Generation Batch Authentication for long running batch jobs.

    CERN Document Server

    Juto, Zakarias

    2015-01-01

    This document describes the prototyping of a new solution for the CERN batch authentication of long running jobs. While the job submission requires valid user credentials, these have to be renewed due to long queuing and execution times. Described within is a new system which will guarantee a similar level of security as the old LSFAuth while simplifying the implementation and the overall architecture. The new system is being built on solid, streamlined and tested components (notably OpenSSL) and a priority has been to make it more generic in order to facilitate the evolution of the current system such as for the expected migration from LSF to Condor as backend batch system.

  5. Batch chemical microreactors: Reversible, in-situ UHV sealing of a microcavity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Monkowski, Adam; Johansson, Martin; Nielsen, Jane Hvolbæk

    2009-01-01

    We propose a new type of microreactor to study heterogeneous catalytic systems. The proposed device operates using a batch reactor scheme, in which catalyst and reactant are introduced in one step and analyzed in a subsequent step. This differs from a flow microreactor in which reaction and analy......We propose a new type of microreactor to study heterogeneous catalytic systems. The proposed device operates using a batch reactor scheme, in which catalyst and reactant are introduced in one step and analyzed in a subsequent step. This differs from a flow microreactor in which reaction...

  6. Automated handling for SAF batch furnace and chemistry analysis operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bowen, W.W.; Sherrell, D.L.; Wiemers, M.J.

    1981-01-01

    The Secure Automated Fabrication Program is developing a remotely operated breeder reactor fuel pin fabrication line. The equipment will be installed in the Fuels and Materials Examination Facility being constructed at Hanford, Washington. Production is scheduled to start in mid-1986. The application of small pneumatically operated industrial robots for loading and unloading product into and out of batch furnaces and for distribution and handling of chemistry samples is described

  7. Investigation of schemes for incorporating generator Q limits in the ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Handling generator Q limits is one such important feature needed in any practical load flow method. This paper presents a comprehensive investigation of two classes of schemes intended to handle this aspect i.e. the bus type switching scheme and the sensitivity scheme. We propose two new sensitivity based schemes ...

  8. Algal Feedback and Removal Efficiency in a Sequencing Batch Reactor Algae Process (SBAR to Treat the Antibiotic Cefradine.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianqiu Chen

    Full Text Available Many previous studies focused on the removal capability for contaminants when the algae grown in an unexposed, unpolluted environment and ignored whether the feedback of algae to the toxic stress influenced the removal capability in a subsequent treatment batch. The present research investigated and compared algal feedback and removal efficiency in a sequencing batch reactor algae process (SBAR to remove cefradine. Three varied pollution load conditions (10, 30 and 60 mg/L were considered. Compared with the algal characteristics in the first treatment batch at 10 and 30 mg/L, higher algal growth inhibition rates were observed in the second treatment batch (11.23% to 20.81%. In contrast, algae produced more photosynthetic pigments in response to cefradine in the second treatment batch. A better removal efficiency (76.02% was obtained during 96 h when the alga treated the antibiotic at 60 mg/L in the first treatment batch and at 30 mg/L in the second treatment batch. Additionally, the removal rate per unit algal density was also improved when the alga treated the antibiotic at 30 or 60 mg/L in the first treatment batch, respectively and at 30 mg/L in the second treatment batch. Our result indicated that the green algae were also able to adapt to varied pollution loads in different treatment batches.

  9. Algal Feedback and Removal Efficiency in a Sequencing Batch Reactor Algae Process (SBAR) to Treat the Antibiotic Cefradine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jianqiu; Zheng, Fengzhu; Guo, Ruixin

    2015-01-01

    Many previous studies focused on the removal capability for contaminants when the algae grown in an unexposed, unpolluted environment and ignored whether the feedback of algae to the toxic stress influenced the removal capability in a subsequent treatment batch. The present research investigated and compared algal feedback and removal efficiency in a sequencing batch reactor algae process (SBAR) to remove cefradine. Three varied pollution load conditions (10, 30 and 60 mg/L) were considered. Compared with the algal characteristics in the first treatment batch at 10 and 30 mg/L, higher algal growth inhibition rates were observed in the second treatment batch (11.23% to 20.81%). In contrast, algae produced more photosynthetic pigments in response to cefradine in the second treatment batch. A better removal efficiency (76.02%) was obtained during 96 h when the alga treated the antibiotic at 60 mg/L in the first treatment batch and at 30 mg/L in the second treatment batch. Additionally, the removal rate per unit algal density was also improved when the alga treated the antibiotic at 30 or 60 mg/L in the first treatment batch, respectively and at 30 mg/L in the second treatment batch. Our result indicated that the green algae were also able to adapt to varied pollution loads in different treatment batches. PMID:26177093

  10. Scheme Program Documentation Tools

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørmark, Kurt

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes and discusses two different Scheme documentation tools. The first is SchemeDoc, which is intended for documentation of the interfaces of Scheme libraries (APIs). The second is the Scheme Elucidator, which is for internal documentation of Scheme programs. Although the tools...... as named functions in Scheme. Finally, the Scheme Elucidator is able to integrate SchemeDoc resources as part of an internal documentation resource....

  11. Additive operator-difference schemes splitting schemes

    CERN Document Server

    Vabishchevich, Petr N

    2013-01-01

    Applied mathematical modeling isconcerned with solving unsteady problems. This bookshows how toconstruct additive difference schemes to solve approximately unsteady multi-dimensional problems for PDEs. Two classes of schemes are highlighted: methods of splitting with respect to spatial variables (alternating direction methods) and schemes of splitting into physical processes. Also regionally additive schemes (domain decomposition methods)and unconditionally stable additive schemes of multi-component splitting are considered for evolutionary equations of first and second order as well as for sy

  12. DYNAMICS OF CHANGES IN TEMPERATURE OF BATCH STERILIZERS WITH BACKPRESSURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Klymenko

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The article describes the construction of dynamic subsystem logical and dynamic model for batch sterilizer with counter-pressure needed for the construction of programmer. To describe the dynamics of counter-pressure autoclave is used mathematical method that takes into account the sequence of the autoclave. Modeling scheme for areas of heating and shutter, and cooling area are programmed in MatLab with the the heat balance equation. There are circuit modeling temperature changes in banks in areas of heating and shutter speed and cooling section.

  13. Risk-based Methodology for Validation of Pharmaceutical Batch Processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiles, Frederick

    2013-01-01

    In January 2011, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration published new process validation guidance for pharmaceutical processes. The new guidance debunks the long-held industry notion that three consecutive validation batches or runs are all that are required to demonstrate that a process is operating in a validated state. Instead, the new guidance now emphasizes that the level of monitoring and testing performed during process performance qualification (PPQ) studies must be sufficient to demonstrate statistical confidence both within and between batches. In some cases, three qualification runs may not be enough. Nearly two years after the guidance was first published, little has been written defining a statistical methodology for determining the number of samples and qualification runs required to satisfy Stage 2 requirements of the new guidance. This article proposes using a combination of risk assessment, control charting, and capability statistics to define the monitoring and testing scheme required to show that a pharmaceutical batch process is operating in a validated state. In this methodology, an assessment of process risk is performed through application of a process failure mode, effects, and criticality analysis (PFMECA). The output of PFMECA is used to select appropriate levels of statistical confidence and coverage which, in turn, are used in capability calculations to determine when significant Stage 2 (PPQ) milestones have been met. The achievement of Stage 2 milestones signals the release of batches for commercial distribution and the reduction of monitoring and testing to commercial production levels. Individuals, moving range, and range/sigma charts are used in conjunction with capability statistics to demonstrate that the commercial process is operating in a state of statistical control. The new process validation guidance published by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration in January of 2011 indicates that the number of process validation batches

  14. Family based dispatching with batch availability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Zee, D.J.

    2013-01-01

    Family based dispatching rules seek to lower set-up frequencies by grouping (batching) similar types of jobs for joint processing. Hence shop flow times may be improved, as less time is spent on set-ups. Motivated by an industrial project we study the control of machines with batch availability,

  15. Nucleation and crystal growth in batch crystallizers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janse, A.H.

    1977-01-01

    The aim of the present work is to gain knowledge of the mechanism of formation of the crystal size distribution in batch crystallizers in order to give directives for design and operation of batch crystallizers. The crystal size distribution is important for the separation of crystals and mother

  16. Automatic endpoint determination for batch tea dryers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Temple, S.J.; Boxtel, van A.J.B.

    2001-01-01

    A laboratory batch fluid-bed dryer was developed for handling small samples of tea for experimental batch manufacture, and this dryer required a means of stopping drying when the process was complete. A control system was devised which requires only the initial weight of the sample to be entered

  17. Supervision of Fed-Batch Fermentations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gregersen, Lars; Jørgensen, Sten Bay

    1999-01-01

    Process faults may be detected on-line using existing measurements based upon modelling that is entirely data driven. A multivariate statistical model is developed and used for fault diagnosis of an industrial fed-batch fermentation process. Data from several (25) batches are used to develop a mo...

  18. Influence of different SSF conditions on ethanol production from corn stover at high solids loadings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gladis, Arne; Bondesson, Pia-Maria; Galbe, Mats

    2015-01-01

    In this study, three different kinds of simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) of washed pretreated corn stover with water-insoluble solids (WIS) content of 20% were investigated to find which one resulted in highest ethanol yield at high-solids loadings. The different methods were...... batch SSF, prehydrolysis followed by batch SSF and fed-batch SSF. Batch-SSF resulted in an ethanol yield of 75-76% and an ethanol concentration of 53 g/L. Prehydrolysis prior to batch SSF did not improve the ethanol yield compared with batch SSF. Fedbatch SSF, on the other hand, increased the yield...... was seen in batch mode with and without prehydrolysis (73%). This resulted in similar ethanol yields in all methods. However, the residence time to achieve the final ethanol yield was shorter using fed-batch. This shows that fed-batch can be a better alternative also at a lower enzyme loading....

  19. Integration of virtualized worker nodes in standard batch systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buege, Volker; Kunze, Marcel; Oberst, Oliver; Quast, Guenter; Scheurer, Armin; Hessling, Hermann; Kemp, Yves; Synge, Owen

    2010-01-01

    Current experiments in HEP only use a limited number of operating system flavours. Their software might only be validated on one single OS platform. Resource providers might have other operating systems of choice for the installation of the batch infrastructure. This is especially the case if a cluster is shared with other communities, or communities that have stricter security requirements. One solution would be to statically divide the cluster into separated sub-clusters. In such a scenario, no opportunistic distribution of the load can be achieved, resulting in a poor overall utilization efficiency. Another approach is to make the batch system aware of virtualization, and to provide each community with its favoured operating system in a virtual machine. Here, the scheduler has full flexibility, resulting in a better overall efficiency of the resources. In our contribution, we present a lightweight concept for the integration of virtual worker nodes into standard batch systems. The virtual machines are started on the worker nodes just before jobs are executed there. No meta-scheduling is introduced. We demonstrate two prototype implementations, one based on the Sun Grid Engine (SGE), the other using Maui/Torque as a batch system. Both solutions support local job as well as Grid job submission. The hypervisors currently used are Xen and KVM, a port to another system is easily envisageable. To better handle different virtual machines on the physical host, the management solution VmImageManager is developed. We will present first experience from running the two prototype implementations. In a last part, we will show the potential future use of this lightweight concept when integrated into high-level (i.e. Grid) work-flows.

  20. LSF usage for batch at CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    Schwickerath, Ulrich

    2007-01-01

    Contributed poster to the CHEP07. Original abstract: LSF 7, the latest version of Platform's batch workload management system, addresses many issues which limited the ability of LSF 6.1 to support large scale batch farms, such as the lxbatch service at CERN. In this paper we will present the status of the evaluation and deployment of LSF 7 at CERN, including issues concerning the integration of LSF 7 with the gLite grid middleware suite and, in particular, the steps taken to endure an efficient reporting of the local batch system status and usage to the Grid Information System

  1. A universal encoding scheme for MIMO transmission using a single active element for PSK modulation schemes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alrabadi, Osama; Papadias, C.B.; Kalis, A.

    2009-01-01

    A universal scheme for encoding multiple symbol streams using a single driven element (and consequently a single radio frequency (RF) frontend) surrounded by parasitic elements (PE) loaded with variable reactive loads, is proposed in this paper. The proposed scheme is based on creating a MIMO...... systems. The array can spatially multiplex the input streams by creating all the desired linear combinations (for a given modulation scheme) of the basis functions. The desired combinations are obtained by projecting the ratio of the symbols to be spatially multiplexed on the ratio of the basis functions...

  2. Evaluation of sequencing batch reactor performance for petrochemical wastewater treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mina Salari

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Sequencing batch reactor (SBR technology has found many applications in industrial wastewater treatment in recent years. The aim of this study was to determine the optimal time for a cycle of the sequencing batch reactor (SBR and evaluate the performance of a SBR for petrochemical wastewater treatment in that cycle time. The reactor was operated with a suspended biomass configuration under aerobic conditions. Carbon removal and operating parameters such as pH, temperature and dissolved oxygen (DO were monitored during the wastewater treatment. The SBR was run at different cycle times and amongst the cycle times tested, the best performance was obtained with a 7 h cycle time composed of a fill time of 15min, reaction of 6 h, settling of 30 min, and withdrawal of 15 min. The SBR with the determined cycle time was used to study the treatment of wastewater with various organic loading rates (12.88 gr COD/L.d, 18.02 gr COD/L.d and 31.39 gr COD/L.d. The SBR performance was evaluated by chemical oxygen demand (COD, total solids (TS total suspended solids (TSS removal efficiencies. During the shock loading tests, the maximum COD, TS and TSS removal efficiencies were 84%, 67% and 92%, respectively.

  3. Multi-objective optimization of glycopeptide antibiotic production in batch and fed batch processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maiti, Soumen K.; Eliasson Lantz, Anna; Bhushan, Mani

    2011-01-01

    as pareto optimal solutions. These solutions gives flexibility in evaluating the trade-offs and selecting the most suitable operating policy. Here, ε-constraint approach was used to generate the pareto solutions for two objectives: product concentration and product per unit cost of media, for batch and fed...... batch operations using process model for Amycolatopsis balhimycina, a glycopeptide antibiotic producer. This resulted in a set of several pareto optimal solutions with the two objectives ranging from (0.75gl−1, 3.97g$-1) to (0.44gl−1, 5.19g$-1) for batch and from (1.5gl−1, 5.46g$-1) to (1.1gl−1, 6.34g......$-1) for fed batch operations. One pareto solution each for batch and for fed batch mode was experimentally validated....

  4. Performance of sequencing batch biofilm and sequencing batch reactors in simultaneous p-nitrophenol and nitrogen removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goh, Chin-Ping; Seng, Chye-Eng; Sujari, Amat Ngilmi Ahmad; Lim, Poh-Eng

    2009-06-01

    The objective of this study is to evaluate the performance of sequencing batch biofilm reactors (SBBRs) and sequencing batch reactor (SBR) in the simultaneous removal of p-nitrophenol (PNP) and ammoniacal nitrogen. SBBRs involved the use of polyurethane sponge cubes and polyethylene rings, respectively, as carrier materials. The results demonstrate that complete removal of PNP was achievable for the SBR and SBBRs up to the PNP concentration of 350 mg/l (loading rate of 0.368 kg/m3 d). At this loading rate, the average ammoniacal nitrogen removal efficiency for the SBR and SBBR (with polyethylene rings) was reduced to 86% and 96%, respectively. However, the SBBR (with polyurethane sponge cubes) still managed to achieve an almost 100% ammoniacal nitrogen removal. Based on the results, the performance of the SBBRs was better than that of SBR in PNP and ammoniacal nitrogen removal. The results of the gas chromatography mass spectroscopy, high-performance liquid chromatography and ultraviolet-visible analyses indicate that complete mineralization of PNP was achieved in all of the reactors.

  5. Batch Attribute-Based Encryption for Secure Clouds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Yang

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Cloud storage is widely used by organizations due to its advantage of allowing universal access with low cost. Attribute-based encryption (ABE is a kind of public key encryption suitable for cloud storage. The secret key of each user and the ciphertext are associated with an access policy and an attribute set, respectively; in addition to holding a secret key, one can decrypt a ciphertext only if the associated attributes match the predetermined access policy, which allows one to enforce fine-grained access control on outsourced files. One issue in existing ABE schemes is that they are designed for the users of a single organization. When one wants to share the data with the users of different organizations, the owner needs to encrypt the messages to the receivers of one organization and then repeats this process for another organization. This situation is deteriorated with more and more mobile devices using cloud services, as the ABE encryption process is time consuming and may exhaust the power supplies of the mobile devices quickly. In this paper, we propose a batch attribute-based encryption (BABE approach to address this problem in a provably-secure way. With our approach, the data owner can outsource data in batches to the users of different organizations simultaneously. The data owner is allowed to decide the receiving organizations and the attributes required for decryption. Theoretical and experimental analyses show that our approach is more efficient than traditional encryption implementations in computation and communication.

  6. Autonomous Droop Scheme With Reduced Generation Cost

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nutkani, Inam Ullah; Loh, Poh Chiang; Wang, Peng

    2014-01-01

    ) of the microgrid. To reduce this TGC without relying on fast communication links, an autonomous droop scheme is proposed here, whose resulting power sharing is decided by the individual DG generation costs. Comparing it with the traditional scheme, the proposed scheme retains its simplicity and it is hence more....... This objective might, however, not suit microgrids well since DGs are usually of different types, unlike synchronous generators. Other factors like cost, efficiency, and emission penalty of each DG at different loading must be considered since they contribute directly to the total generation cost (TGC...

  7. Two approaches for sequential extraction of radionuclides in soils: batch and column methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vidal, M.; Rauret, G.

    1993-01-01

    A three-step sequential extraction designed by Community Bureau of Reference (BCR) is applied to two types of soil (sandy and sandy-loam) which had been previously contaminated with a radionuclide aerosol containing 134 Cs, 85 Sr and 110m Ag. This scheme is applied using both batch and column methods. The radionuclide distribution obtained with this scheme depends both on the method and on soil type. Compared with the batch method, column extraction is an inadvisable method. Kinetic aspects seem to be important, especially in the first and third fractions. The radionuclide distribution shows that radiostrontium has high mobility, radiocaesium is highly retained by clay minerals whereas Fe/Mn oxides and organic matter have an important role in radiosilver retention. (Author)

  8. Recursive Gaussian Process Regression Model for Adaptive Quality Monitoring in Batch Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Le Zhou

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In chemical batch processes with slow responses and a long duration, it is time-consuming and expensive to obtain sufficient normal data for statistical analysis. With the persistent accumulation of the newly evolving data, the modelling becomes adequate gradually and the subsequent batches will change slightly owing to the slow time-varying behavior. To efficiently make use of the small amount of initial data and the newly evolving data sets, an adaptive monitoring scheme based on the recursive Gaussian process (RGP model is designed in this paper. Based on the initial data, a Gaussian process model and the corresponding SPE statistic are constructed at first. When the new batches of data are included, a strategy based on the RGP model is used to choose the proper data for model updating. The performance of the proposed method is finally demonstrated by a penicillin fermentation batch process and the result indicates that the proposed monitoring scheme is effective for adaptive modelling and online monitoring.

  9. Batch Image Encryption Using Generated Deep Features Based on Stacked Autoencoder Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fei Hu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Chaos-based algorithms have been widely adopted to encrypt images. But previous chaos-based encryption schemes are not secure enough for batch image encryption, for images are usually encrypted using a single sequence. Once an encrypted image is cracked, all the others will be vulnerable. In this paper, we proposed a batch image encryption scheme into which a stacked autoencoder (SAE network was introduced to generate two chaotic matrices; then one set is used to produce a total shuffling matrix to shuffle the pixel positions on each plain image, and another produces a series of independent sequences of which each is used to confuse the relationship between the permutated image and the encrypted image. The scheme is efficient because of the advantages of parallel computing of SAE, which leads to a significant reduction in the run-time complexity; in addition, the hybrid application of shuffling and confusing enhances the encryption effect. To evaluate the efficiency of our scheme, we compared it with the prevalent “logistic map,” and outperformance was achieved in running time estimation. The experimental results and analysis show that our scheme has good encryption effect and is able to resist brute-force attack, statistical attack, and differential attack.

  10. Optimization of high solids fed-batch saccharification of sugarcane bagasse based on system viscosity changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yunyun; Xu, Jingliang; Zhang, Yu; Yuan, Zhenhong; Xie, Jun

    2015-10-10

    Viscosity trends in alkali-pretreated sugarcane bagasse (SCB) slurries undergoing high solids fed-batch enzymatic hydrolysis were measured for a range of solids loading from 15% to 36%. Solids liquefaction times were related to system viscosity changes. The viscosity decreased quickly for low solids loading, and increased with increasing solids content. Fed-batch hydrolysis was initiated with 15% solids loading, and an additional 8%, 7% and 6% were successively added after the system viscosity decreased to stable values to achieve a final solids content of 36%. Two enzyme-adding modes with 8.5FPU/g solid were investigated. The batch mode with all enzyme being added at the beginning of the reaction produced the highest yields, with approximately 231.7g/L total sugars and 134.9g/L glucose being obtained after 96h with nearly 60% of the final glucan conversion rate. This finding indicates that under the right conditions, the fed-batch strategy might be a plausible way to produce high sugars under high solids. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Controle multivariado de processos em batelada com duração variável Multivariate statistical control of unsynchronized batch processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávio S. Fogliatto

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Processos em batelada são utilizados em diversos setores industriais (por exemplo, na manufatura de alimentos e fármacos. Nesses processos, matérias-primas são carregadas em uma unidade de processamento e submetidas a uma série de transformações até a obtenção do produto final. O desempenho do processo é descrito por variáveis, monitoradas ao longo da batelada. Dados resultantes desses processos tendem a apresentar uma estrutura de correlação e autocorrelação significativa, sendo usualmente monitorados usando cartas de controle baseadas na análise de componentes principais (CCPs. Neste artigo, investiga-se o caso especial, bastante freqüente na prática, de bateladas com duração variável, as quais não podem ser diretamente monitoradas através das CCPs. Para tanto, propõe-se uma nova estratégia de controle multivariado da qualidade. No procedimento proposto, bateladas não são alinhadas ou time warped relativamente a suas trajetórias, mas completadas utilizando um esquema de fácil implementação prática. Desta forma, preserva-se toda a informação sobre a variabilidade ao longo do eixo do tempo nos perfis das variáveis de processo. O conjunto de dados completados é analisado utilizando o método Statis e o monitoramento do desempenho da batelada é realizado diretamente nos gráficos de planos fatoriais, a partir dos quais cartas de controle não-paramétricas são derivadas. Um exemplo utilizando dados simulados ilustra a proposta metodológica.Batch processes are widely used in several industrial sectors, such as food and pharmaceutical manufacturing. In a typical batch, raw materials are loaded in the processing unit and submitted to a series of transformations, yielding the final product. Process performance is described by variables which are monitored as the batch progresses. Data arising from such processes are likely to display a strong correlation-autocorrelation structure, and are usually monitored using

  12. 40 CFR 63.1321 - Batch process vents provisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... the reference control technology requirements for Group 1 batch process vents in § 63.1322, the.... Owners or operators of all Group 2 batch process vents shall comply with the applicable reference control....1323 is not required. (2) For batch process vents and aggregate batch vent streams, the control...

  13. Ethanol effect on batch and fed-batch Arthrospira platensis growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezerra, Raquel P; Matsudo, Marcelo C; Pérez Mora, Lina S; Sato, Sunao; de Carvalho, João C Monteiro

    2014-04-01

    The ability of Arthrospira platensis to use ethanol as a carbon and energy source was investigated by batch process and fed-batch process. A. platensis was cultivated under the effect of a single addition (batch process) and a daily pulse feeding (fed-batch process) of pure ethanol, at different concentrations, to evaluate cell concentration (X) and specific growth rate (μ). A marked increase was observed in the cell concentration of A. platensis in runs with ethanol addition when compared to control cultures without ethanol addition. The fed-batch process using an ethanol concentration of 38 mg L(-1) days(-1) reached the maximum cell concentration of 2,393 ± 241 mg L(-1), about 1.5-fold that obtained in the control culture. In all experiments, the maximum specific growth rate was observed in the early exponential phase of cell growth. In the fed-batch process, μ decreased more slowly than in the batch process and control culture, resulting in the highest final cell concentration. Ethanol can be used as a feasible carbon and energy source for A. platensis growth via a fed-batch process.

  14. Energy efficiency of batch and semi-batch (CCRO) reverse osmosis desalination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warsinger, David M; Tow, Emily W; Nayar, Kishor G; Maswadeh, Laith A; Lienhard V, John H

    2016-12-01

    As reverse osmosis (RO) desalination capacity increases worldwide, the need to reduce its specific energy consumption becomes more urgent. In addition to the incremental changes attainable with improved components such as membranes and pumps, more significant reduction of energy consumption can be achieved through time-varying RO processes including semi-batch processes such as closed-circuit reverse osmosis (CCRO) and fully-batch processes that have not yet been commercialized or modelled in detail. In this study, numerical models of the energy consumption of batch RO (BRO), CCRO, and the standard continuous RO process are detailed. Two new energy-efficient configurations of batch RO are analyzed. Batch systems use significantly less energy than continuous RO over a wide range of recovery ratios and source water salinities. Relative to continuous RO, models predict that CCRO and batch RO demonstrate up to 37% and 64% energy savings, respectively, for brackish water desalination at high water recovery. For batch RO and CCRO, the primary reductions in energy use stem from atmospheric pressure brine discharge and reduced streamwise variation in driving pressure. Fully-batch systems further reduce energy consumption by not mixing streams of different concentrations, which CCRO does. These results demonstrate that time-varying processes can significantly raise RO energy efficiency. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Model Penjadwalan Batch Multi Item dengan Dependent Processing Time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sukoyo Sukoyo

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates a development of single machine batch scheduling for multi items with dependent processing time. The batch scheduling problem is to determine simultaneously number of batch (N, which item and its size allocated for each batch, and processing sequences of resulting batches. We use total actual flow time as the objective of schedule performance. The multi item batch scheduling problem could be formulated into a biner-integer nonlinear programming model because the number of batch should be in integer value, the allocation of items to resulting batch need binary values, and also there are some non-linearity on objective function and constraint due to the dependent processing time. By applying relaxation on the decision variable of number of batch (N as parameter, a heuristic procedure could be applied to find solution of the single machine batch scheduling problem for multi items.

  16. Systematic Methodology for Reproducible Optimizing Batch Operation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonné, Dennis; Jørgensen, Sten Bay

    2006-01-01

    contribution furthermore presents how the asymptotic convergence of Iterative Learning Control is combined with the closed-loop performance of Model Predictive Control to form a robust and asymptotically stable optimal controller for ensuring reliable and reproducible operation of batch processes....... This controller may also be used for Optimizing control. The modeling and control performance is demonstrated on a fed-batch protein cultivation example. The presented methodologies lend themselves directly for application as Process Analytical Technologies (PAT).......This contribution presents a systematic methodology for rapid acquirement of discrete-time state space model representations of batch processes based on their historical operation data. These state space models are parsimoniously parameterized as a set of local, interdependent models. The present...

  17. Fuzzy batch controller for granular materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zamyatin Nikolaj

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper focuses on batch control of granular materials in production of building materials from fluorine anhydrite. Batching equipment is intended for smooth operation and timely feeding of supply hoppers at a required level. Level sensors and a controller of an asynchronous screw drive motor are used to control filling of the hopper with industrial anhydrite binders. The controller generates a required frequency and ensures required productivity of a feed conveyor. Mamdani-type fuzzy inference is proposed for controlling the speed of the screw that feeds mixture components. As related to production of building materials based on fluoride anhydrite, this method is used for the first time. A fuzzy controller is proven to be effective in controlling the filling level of the supply hopper. In addition, the authors determined optimal parameters of the batching process to ensure smooth operation and production of fluorine anhydrite materials of specified properties that can compete with gypsum-based products.

  18. Control of Batch Processes Based on Hierarchical Petri Nets

    OpenAIRE

    YAJIMA, Tomoyuki; ITO, Takashi; HASHIZUME, Susumu; KURIMOTO, Hidekazu; ONOGI, Katsuaki

    2004-01-01

    A batch process is a typical concurrent system in which multiple interacting tasks are carried out in parallel on several batches at the same time. A major difficulty in designing a batch control system is the lack of modeling techniques. This paper aims at developing a method of constructing batch control system models in a hierarchical manner and operating batch processes using the constructed models. For this purpose, it first defines process and plant specifications described by partial l...

  19. Load shift control schemes for residential cooling devices. Results of a field test; Ergebnisse eines Feldtests zum oszillationsfreien Lastmanagement von Kuehl-/Gefriergeraeten in Privathaushalten auf Basis von Temperaturvorgaben

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hinrichs, Christian [Oldenburg Univ. (Germany); Luensdorf, Ontje; Sonnenschein, Michael [OFFIS Institut fuer Informatik, Oldenburg (Germany); Loewenstein, Claas [EWE AG, Oldenburg (Germany)

    2012-07-01

    Due to the increasing integration of renewable energy resources with fluctuating feed-in of electrical power, the use of flexible loads in energy management systems gains more and more interest lately. However, because of technical restrictions, direct control of the power consumption of such appliances is usually not feasible. The contribution at hand presents a control mechanism for domestic cooling devices, which is based on temperature set points and thus can be realized using standard comfort functions. The proposed mechanism is able to actively reverse synchronizations of device states, and hence prevents oscillations in the resulting load curve. Results of a field test are shown subsequently. (orig.)

  20. The Mawala irrigation scheme

    OpenAIRE

    de Bont, Chris

    2018-01-01

    This booklet was written to share research results with farmers and practitioners in Tanzania. It gives a summary of the empirical material collected during three months of field work in the Mawala irrigation scheme (Kilimanjaro Region), and includes maps, tables and photos. It describes the history of the irrigation scheme, as well current irrigation and farming practices. It especially focuses on the different kinds of infrastructural improvement in the scheme (by farmers and the government...

  1. Comparison of refueling schemes for DUPIC core

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, H.; Rhee, B.W.; Park, H.

    1995-01-01

    A parametric study has been performed for the various refueling schemes of CANDU 6 reactor loaded with reference DUPIC fuel. The optimum discharge burnup was determined such that the peak bundle power is minimized for the equilibrium core. Based on the results of instantaneous core calculation using patterned random age distributions, it was decided to perform the refueling simulations only for 2-bundle and 4-bundle shift refueling schemes. The 600 FPD simulation has shown that the operational margins of the channel and bundle power to the license limits are 7.9% and 17.1%, respectively, for 2-bundle shift refueling scheme. The 4-bundle shift refueling scheme also satisfies the license limits and the operational margins of the channel and bundle power are 7.1% and 9.8%, respectively. The results of refueling simulation indicate the possibility of using reference DUPIC fuel in current CANDU 6 reactor. (author)

  2. Monitoring of batch processes using spectroscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gurden, S. P.; Westerhuis, J. A.; Smilde, A. K.

    2002-01-01

    There is an increasing need for new techniques for the understanding, monitoring and the control of batch processes. Spectroscopy is now becoming established as a means of obtaining real-time, high-quality chemical information at frequent time intervals and across a wide range of industrial

  3. Exploring the Transition From Batch to Online

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Anker Helms

    2010-01-01

    The transition from using computers in batch mode with punch cards, paper tape, piles of print, and lengthy response times to online mode by way of the video display terminal took place in most organizations in the 1970s and 1980s. The video display terminal was a significant forerunner...

  4. Multiagent-Based Distributed Load Shedding for Islanded Microgrids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xi Wu

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses a multiagent-based distributed load shedding scheme to restore frequency for the microgrids during islanded operation. The objective of the proposed scheme is to realize a distributed load shedding considering its associated cost and the capacity of the flexible loads. There are two advantages of the proposed scheme: (1 it is a distributed scheme using average-consensus theorem, which can discover the global information when only communications between immediate neighboring agents are used, moreover it can meet the requirements of plug-and-play operations more easily than a centralized scheme; (2 it is a new adaptive load shedding through the comprehensive weights which take into accounts the cost of load shedding and the capacity of flexible loads, these comprehensive weights are evaluated locally by making use of the adaptability and intelligence characteristics of agents. Simulation results in power systems computer aided design (PSCAD illustrate the validity and adaptability of the proposed load shedding scheme.

  5. Comparison of batch and continuous multi-column protein A capture processes by optimal design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baur, Daniel; Angarita, Monica; Müller-Späth, Thomas; Steinebach, Fabian; Morbidelli, Massimo

    2016-07-01

    Multi-column capture processes show several advantages compared to batch capture. It is however not evident how many columns one should use exactly. To investigate this issue, twin-column CaptureSMB, 3- and 4-column periodic counter-current chromatography (PCC) and single column batch capture are numerically optimized and compared in terms of process performance for capturing a monoclonal antibody using protein A chromatography. Optimization is carried out with respect to productivity and capacity utilization (amount of product loaded per cycle compared to the maximum amount possible), while keeping yield and purity constant. For a wide range of process parameters, all three multi-column processes show similar maximum capacity utilization and performed significantly better than batch. When maximizing productivity, the CaptureSMB process shows optimal performance, except at high feed titers, where batch chromatography can reach higher productivity values than the multi-column processes due to the complete decoupling of the loading and elution steps, albeit at a large cost in terms of capacity utilization. In terms of trade-off, i.e. how much the capacity utilization decreases with increasing productivity, CaptureSMB is optimal for low and high feed titers, whereas the 3-column process is optimal in an intermediate region. Using these findings, the most suitable process can be chosen for different production scenarios. Copyright © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Cost-Prioritized Droop Schemes for Autonomous AC Microgrids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nutkani, Inam Ullah; Loh, Poh Chiang; Wang, Peng

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents two cost-prioritized droop sche- mes for distributed generators (DGs) in a rural or islanded microgrid. Dispatch prioritization of the schemes allows autonomous identification of the appropriate DGs for generation, in accordance to the overall load conditions of the microgrid....... The result is a lower total generation cost for the microgrid when compared to other droop schemes. An experimental system has been implemented and tested with results showing a higher saving achieved by the proposed schemes....

  7. Succesful labelling schemes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juhl, Hans Jørn; Stacey, Julia

    2001-01-01

    to carry out a campaign targeted at this segment. The awareness percentage is already 92 % and 67% of the respondents believe they know the meaning of the scheme. But it stands to reason to study whether the respondents actually know what the labelling scheme stands for or if they just think they do...

  8. Adaptive protection scheme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Sitharthan

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims at modelling an electronically coupled distributed energy resource with an adaptive protection scheme. The electronically coupled distributed energy resource is a microgrid framework formed by coupling the renewable energy source electronically. Further, the proposed adaptive protection scheme provides a suitable protection to the microgrid for various fault conditions irrespective of the operating mode of the microgrid: namely, grid connected mode and islanded mode. The outstanding aspect of the developed adaptive protection scheme is that it monitors the microgrid and instantly updates relay fault current according to the variations that occur in the system. The proposed adaptive protection scheme also employs auto reclosures, through which the proposed adaptive protection scheme recovers faster from the fault and thereby increases the consistency of the microgrid. The effectiveness of the proposed adaptive protection is studied through the time domain simulations carried out in the PSCAD⧹EMTDC software environment.

  9. Batch and fed-batch production of butyric acid by Clostridium butyricum ZJUCB

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Guo-qing; Kong, Qing; Chen, Qi-he; Ruan, Hui

    2005-01-01

    The production of butyric acid by Clostridium butyricum ZJUCB at various pH values was investigated. In order to study the effect of pH on cell growth, butyric acid biosynthesis and reducing sugar consumption, different cultivation pH values ranging from 6.0 to 7.5 were evaluated in 5-L bioreactor. In controlled pH batch fermentation, the optimum pH for cell growth and butyric acid production was 6.5 with a cell yield of 3.65 g/L and butyric acid yield of 12.25 g/L. Based on these results, this study then compared batch and fed-batch fermentation of butyric acid production at pH 6.5. Maximum value (16.74 g/L) of butyric acid concentration was obtained in fed-batch fermentation compared to 12.25 g/L in batch fermentation. It was concluded that cultivation under fed-batch fermentation mode could enhance butyric acid production significantly (P<0.01) by C. butyricum ZJUCB. PMID:16252341

  10. Green synthesis of isopropyl myristate in novel single phase medium Part I: Batch optimization studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vadgama, Rajeshkumar N; Odaneth, Annamma A; Lali, Arvind M

    2015-12-01

    Isopropyl myristate finds many applications in food, cosmetic and pharmaceutical industries as an emollient, thickening agent, or lubricant. Using a homogeneous reaction phase, non-specific lipase derived from Candida antartica, marketed as Novozym 435, was determined to be most suitable for the enzymatic synthesis of isopropyl myristate. The high molar ratio of alcohol to acid creates novel single phase medium which overcomes mass transfer effects and facilitates downstream processing. The effect of various reaction parameters was optimized to obtain a high yield of isopropyl myristate. Effect of temperature, agitation speed, organic solvent, biocatalyst loading and batch operational stability of the enzyme was systematically studied. The conversion of 87.65% was obtained when the molar ratio of isopropyl alcohol to myristic acid (15:1) was used with 4% (w/w) catalyst loading and agitation speed of 150 rpm at 60 °C. The enzyme has also shown good batch operational stability under optimized conditions.

  11. Experimental Verification of Dynamic Operation of Continuous and Multivessel Batch Distillation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wittgens, Bernd

    1999-07-01

    This thesis presents a rigorous model based on first principles for dynamic simulation of the composition dynamics of a staged high-purity continuous distillation columns and experiments performed to verify it. The thesis also demonstrates the importance of tray hydraulics to obtain good agreement between simulation and experiment and derives analytic expressions for dynamic time constants for use in simplified and vapour dynamics. A newly developed multivessel batch distillation column consisting of a reboiler, intermediate vessels and a condenser vessel provides a generalization of previously proposed batch distillation schemes. The total reflux operation of this column was presented previously and the present thesis proposes a simple feedback control strategy for its operation based on temperature measurements. The feasibility of this strategy is demonstrated by simulations and verified by laboratory experiments. It is concluded that the multivessel column can be easily operated with simple temperature controllers, where the holdups are only controlled indirectly. For a given set of temperature setpoints, the final product compositions are independent of the initial feed composition. When the multivessel batch distillation column is compared to a conventional batch column, both operated under feedback control, it is found that the energy required to separate a multicomponent mixture into highly pure products is much less for the multivessel system. This system is also the simplest one to operate.

  12. Optimal operation of batch membrane processes

    CERN Document Server

    Paulen, Radoslav

    2016-01-01

    This study concentrates on a general optimization of a particular class of membrane separation processes: those involving batch diafiltration. Existing practices are explained and operational improvements based on optimal control theory are suggested. The first part of the book introduces the theory of membrane processes, optimal control and dynamic optimization. Separation problems are defined and mathematical models of batch membrane processes derived. The control theory focuses on problems of dynamic optimization from a chemical-engineering point of view. Analytical and numerical methods that can be exploited to treat problems of optimal control for membrane processes are described. The second part of the text builds on this theoretical basis to establish solutions for membrane models of increasing complexity. Each chapter starts with a derivation of optimal operation and continues with case studies exemplifying various aspects of the control problems under consideration. The authors work their way from th...

  13. Threshold Signature Schemes Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anastasiya Victorovna Beresneva

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This work is devoted to an investigation of threshold signature schemes. The systematization of the threshold signature schemes was done, cryptographic constructions based on interpolation Lagrange polynomial, elliptic curves and bilinear pairings were examined. Different methods of generation and verification of threshold signatures were explored, the availability of practical usage of threshold schemes in mobile agents, Internet banking and e-currency was shown. The topics of further investigation were given and it could reduce a level of counterfeit electronic documents signed by a group of users.

  14. Batch calculations in CalcHEP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pukhov, A.

    2003-01-01

    CalcHEP is a clone of the CompHEP project which is developed by the author outside of the CompHEP group. CompHEP/CalcHEP are packages for automatic calculations of elementary particle decay and collision properties in the lowest order of perturbation theory. The main idea prescribed into the packages is to make available passing on from the Lagrangian to the final distributions effectively with a high level of automation. According to this, the packages were created as a menu driven user friendly programs for calculations in the interactive mode. From the other side, long-time calculations should be done in the non-interactive regime. Thus, from the beginning CompHEP has a problem of batch calculations. In CompHEP 33.23 the batch session was realized by mean of interactive menu which allows to the user to formulate the task for batch. After that the not-interactive session was launched. This way is too restricted, not flexible, and leads to doubling in programming. In this article I discuss another approach how one can force an interactive program to work in non-interactive mode. This approach was realized in CalcHEP 2.1 disposed on http://theory.sinp.msu.ru/~pukhov/calchep.html

  15. Batch-batch stable microbial community in the traditional fermentation process of huyumei broad bean pastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Linjiang; Fan, Zihao; Kuai, Hui; Li, Qi

    2017-09-01

    During natural fermentation processes, a characteristic microbial community structure (MCS) is naturally formed, and it is interesting to know about its batch-batch stability. This issue was explored in a traditional semi-solid-state fermentation process of huyumei, a Chinese broad bean paste product. The results showed that this MCS mainly contained four aerobic Bacillus species (8 log CFU per g), including B. subtilis, B. amyloliquefaciens, B. methylotrophicus, and B. tequilensis, and the facultative anaerobe B. cereus with a low concentration (4 log CFU per g), besides a very small amount of the yeast Zygosaccharomyces rouxii (2 log CFU per g). The dynamic change of the MCS in the brine fermentation process showed that the abundance of dominant species varied within a small range, and in the beginning of process the growth of lactic acid bacteria was inhibited and Staphylococcus spp. lost its viability. Also, the MCS and its dynamic change were proved to be highly reproducible among seven batches of fermentation. Therefore, the MCS naturally and stably forms between different batches of the traditional semi-solid-state fermentation of huyumei. Revealing microbial community structure and its batch-batch stability is helpful for understanding the mechanisms of community formation and flavour production in a traditional fermentation. This issue in a traditional semi-solid-state fermentation of huyumei broad bean paste was firstly explored. This fermentation process was revealed to be dominated by a high concentration of four aerobic species of Bacillus, a low concentration of B. cereus and a small amount of Zygosaccharomyces rouxii. Lactic acid bacteria and Staphylococcus spp. lost its viability at the beginning of fermentation. Such the community structure was proved to be highly reproducible among seven batches. © 2017 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  16. 40 CFR 63.1408 - Aggregate batch vent stream provisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 11 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Aggregate batch vent stream provisions... § 63.1408 Aggregate batch vent stream provisions. (a) Emission standards. Owners or operators of aggregate batch vent streams at a new or existing affected source shall comply with either paragraph (a)(1...

  17. 7 CFR 58.728 - Cooking the batch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cooking the batch. 58.728 Section 58.728 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... Procedures § 58.728 Cooking the batch. Each batch of cheese within the cooker, including the optional...

  18. Monitoring and robust adaptive control of fed-batch cultures of microorganisms exhibiting overflow metabolism [abstract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vande Wouwer, A.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Overflow metabolism characterizes cells strains that are likely to produce inhibiting by-products resulting from an excess of substrate feeding and a saturated respiratory capacity. The critical substrate level separating the two different metabolic pathways is generally not well defined. Monitoring of this kind of cultures, going from model identification to state estimation, is first discussed. Then, a review of control techniques which all aim at maximizing the cell productivity of fed-batch fermentations is presented. Two main adaptive control strategies, one using an estimation of the critical substrate level as set-point and another regulating the by-product concentration, are proposed. Finally, experimental investigations of an adaptive RST control scheme using the observer polynomial for the regulation of the ethanol concentration in Saccharomyces cerevisiae fed-batch cultures ranging from laboratory to industrial scales, are also presented.

  19. Treatment of winery wastewater by an anaerobic sequencing batch reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruíz, C; Torrijos, M; Sousbie, P; Lebrato Martínez, J; Moletta, R; Delgenès, J P

    2002-01-01

    Treatment of winery wastewater was investigated using an anaerobic sequencing batch reactor (ASBR). Biogas production rate was monitored and permitted the automation of the bioreactor by a simple control system. The reactor was operated at an organic loading rate (ORL) around 8.6 gCOD/L.d with soluble chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal efficiency greater than 98%, hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 2.2 d and a specific organic loading rate (SOLR) of 0.96 gCOD/gVSS.d. The kinetics of COD and VFA removal were investigated for winery wastewater and for simple compounds such as ethanol, which is a major component of winery effluent, and acetate, which is the main volatile fatty acid (VFA) produced. The comparison of the profiles obtained with the 3 substrates shows that, overall, the acidification of the organic matter and the methanisation of the VFA follow zero order reactions, in the operating conditions of our study. The effect on the gas production rate resulted in two level periods separated by a sharp break when the acidification stage was finished and only the breaking down of the VFA continued.

  20. Tabled Execution in Scheme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Willcock, J J; Lumsdaine, A; Quinlan, D J

    2008-08-19

    Tabled execution is a generalization of memorization developed by the logic programming community. It not only saves results from tabled predicates, but also stores the set of currently active calls to them; tabled execution can thus provide meaningful semantics for programs that seemingly contain infinite recursions with the same arguments. In logic programming, tabled execution is used for many purposes, both for improving the efficiency of programs, and making tasks simpler and more direct to express than with normal logic programs. However, tabled execution is only infrequently applied in mainstream functional languages such as Scheme. We demonstrate an elegant implementation of tabled execution in Scheme, using a mix of continuation-passing style and mutable data. We also show the use of tabled execution in Scheme for a problem in formal language and automata theory, demonstrating that tabled execution can be a valuable tool for Scheme users.

  1. Semiautomated, Reproducible Batch Processing of Soy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thoerne, Mary; Byford, Ivan W.; Chastain, Jack W.; Swango, Beverly E.

    2005-01-01

    A computer-controlled apparatus processes batches of soybeans into one or more of a variety of food products, under conditions that can be chosen by the user and reproduced from batch to batch. Examples of products include soy milk, tofu, okara (an insoluble protein and fiber byproduct of soy milk), and whey. Most processing steps take place without intervention by the user. This apparatus was developed for use in research on processing of soy. It is also a prototype of other soy-processing apparatuses for research, industrial, and home use. Prior soy-processing equipment includes household devices that automatically produce soy milk but do not automatically produce tofu. The designs of prior soy-processing equipment require users to manually transfer intermediate solid soy products and to press them manually and, hence, under conditions that are not consistent from batch to batch. Prior designs do not afford choices of processing conditions: Users cannot use previously developed soy-processing equipment to investigate the effects of variations of techniques used to produce soy milk (e.g., cold grinding, hot grinding, and pre-cook blanching) and of such process parameters as cooking times and temperatures, grinding times, soaking times and temperatures, rinsing conditions, and sizes of particles generated by grinding. In contrast, the present apparatus is amenable to such investigations. The apparatus (see figure) includes a processing tank and a jacketed holding or coagulation tank. The processing tank can be capped by either of two different heads and can contain either of two different insertable mesh baskets. The first head includes a grinding blade and heating elements. The second head includes an automated press piston. One mesh basket, designated the okara basket, has oblong holes with a size equivalent to about 40 mesh [40 openings per inch (.16 openings per centimeter)]. The second mesh basket, designated the tofu basket, has holes of 70 mesh [70 openings

  2. Optimization of cooling strategy and seeding by FBRM analysis of batch crystallization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Dejiang; Liu, Lande; Xu, Shijie; Du, Shichao; Dong, Weibing; Gong, Junbo

    2018-03-01

    A method is presented for optimizing the cooling strategy and seed loading simultaneously. Focused beam reflectance measurement (FBRM) was used to determine the approximating optimal cooling profile. Using these results in conjunction with constant growth rate assumption, modified Mullin-Nyvlt trajectory could be calculated. This trajectory could suppress secondary nucleation and has the potential to control product's polymorph distribution. Comparing with linear and two step cooling, modified Mullin-Nyvlt trajectory have a larger size distribution and a better morphology. Based on the calculating results, the optimized seed loading policy was also developed. This policy could be useful for guiding the batch crystallization process.

  3. Batch fermentation options for high titer bioethanol production from a SPORL pretreated Douglas-Fir forest residue without detoxification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mingyan Yang; Hairui Ji; Junyong Zhu

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluated batch fermentation modes, namely, separate hydrolysis and fermentation (SHF), quasi-simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (Q-SSF), and simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF), and fermentation conditions, i.e., enzyme and yeast loadings, nutrient supplementation and sterilization, on high titer bioethanol production from SPORL...

  4. Scheme of energy utilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-04-01

    This scheme defines the objectives relative to the renewable energies and the rational use of the energy in the framework of the national energy policy. It evaluates the needs and the potentialities of the regions and preconizes the actions between the government and the territorial organizations. The document is presented in four parts: the situation, the stakes and forecasts; the possible actions for new measures; the scheme management and the regional contributions analysis. (A.L.B.)

  5. Low-biodegradable composite chemical wastewater treatment by biofilm configured sequencing batch reactor (SBBR).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohan, S Venkata; Rao, N Chandrasekhara; Sarma, P N

    2007-06-01

    Biofilm configured system with sequencing/periodic discontinuous batch mode operation was evaluated for the treatment of low-biodegradable composite chemical wastewater (low BOD/COD ratio approximately 0.3, high sulfate content: 1.75 g/l) in aerobic metabolic function. Reactor was operated under anoxic-aerobic-anoxic microenvironment conditions with a total cycle period of 24 h [fill: 15 min; reaction: 23 h (aeration along with recirculation); settle: 30 min; decant: 15 min] and the performance of the system was studied at organic loading rates (OLR) of 0.92, 1.50, 3.07 and 4.76 kg COD/cum-day. Substrate utilization showed a steady increase with increase in OLR and system performance sustained at higher loading rates. Maximum non-cumulative substrate utilization was observed after 4h of the cycle operation. Sulfate removal efficiency of 20% was observed due to the induced anoxic conditions prevailing during the sequence phase operation of the reactor and the existing internal anoxic zones in the biofilm matrix. Biofilm configured sequencing batch reactor (SBR) showed comparatively higher efficiency to the corresponding suspended growth and granular activated carbon (GAC) configured systems studied with same wastewater. Periodic discontinuous batch mode operation of the biofilm reactors results in a more even distribution of the biomass throughout the reactor and was able to treat large shock loads than the continuous flow process. Biofilm configured system coupled with periodic discontinuous batch mode operation imposes regular variations in the substrate concentration on biofilm organisms. As a result, organisms throughout the film achieve maximum growth rates resulting in improved reaction potential leading to stable and robust system which is well suited for treating highly variable wastes.

  6. CONVERSION OF PINEAPPLE JUICE WASTE INTO LACTIC ACID IN BATCH AND FED – BATCH FERMENTATION SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah Mochamad Busairi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Pineapple juice waste contains valuable components, which are mainly sucrose, glucose, and fructose. Recently, lactic acid has been considered to be an important raw material for the production of biodegradable lactide polymer. The fermentation experiments were carried out in a 3 litres fermentor (Biostat B Model under anaerobic condition with stirring speed of 50 rpm, temperature at 40oC, and pH of 6.00. Effect of feed concentration on lactic acid production, bacterial growth, substrate utilisation and productivity was studied. The results obtained from fed- batch culture fermentation showed that the maximum lactic acid productivity was 0.44 g/L.h for feed concentration of 90 g/L at 48 hours. Whereas the lactic acid productivity obtained from fed-batch culture was twice and half fold higher than that of batch culture productivity.  Buangan jus nanas mengandung komponen yang berharga terutama sukrosa, glukosa, dan fruktosa. Asam laktat adalah bahan baku yang terbaru dan penting untuk dibuat sebagai polimer laktat yang dapat terdegradasi oleh lingkungan. Percobaan dilakukan pada fermentor 3 liter (Model Biostat B di bawah kondisi anaerob dengan kecepatan pengadukan 50 rpm, temperatur 40oC, dan pH 6,00. Pengaruh konsentrasi umpan terhadap produksi asam laktat, pertumbuhan mikroba, pengggunaan substrat dan produktivitas telah dipelajari. Hasil yang didapatkan pada fermentasi dengan menggunakan sistem fed-batch menunjukkan bahwa produktivitas asam laktat maksimum adalah 0.44 g/L,jam dengan konsentrasi umpan, 90 g/L pada waktu 48 jam. Bahkan produktivitas asam laktat yang didapat pada kultur fed-batch lebih tinggi 2,5 kali dari pada proses menggunakan sistem batch

  7. Rapid and precise determination of Sr and Nd isotopic ratios in geological samples from the same filament loading by thermal ionization mass spectrometry employing a single-step separation scheme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chao-Feng; Li, Xian-Hua; Li, Qiu-Li; Guo, Jing-Hui; Li, Xiang-Hui; Yang, Yue-Heng

    2012-05-21

    Thermal ionization mass spectrometry (TIMS) offers the excellent precision and accuracy of the Sr and Nd isotopic ratio analysis for geological samples, but this method is labour intensive, expensive and time-consuming. In this study, a new analytical protocol by TIMS is presented that aims at improving analytical efficiency and cutting down experimental cost. Using the single-step cation exchange resin technique, mixed Sr and rare earth elements (REEs) fractions were separated from matrix and evaporated to dryness. Afterwards, mixed Sr+REEs fractions were dissolved and loaded onto the same Re filament using 1 μL of 2 M HCl. Then, Sr and Nd were sequentially measured without venting using TIMS. In contrast to conventional TIMS methods, the merits of this analytical protocol are its cost- and time-saving adaptations. The applicability of our method is evaluated by replicated measurements of (87)Sr/(86)Sr and (143)Nd/(144)Nd for nine international silicate rock reference materials, spanning a wide range of bulk compositions. The typical internal precision in this study is ca. 0.001% (RSE) for (87)Sr/(86)Sr and (143)Nd/(144)Nd; the analytical results obtained for these standard rocks show a good agreement with reported values, indicating the effectiveness of the proposed method. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Parallel-Batch Scheduling with Two Models of Deterioration to Minimize the Makespan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cuixia Miao

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We consider the bounded parallel-batch scheduling with two models of deterioration, in which the processing time of the first model is pj=aj+αt and of the second model is pj=a+αjt. The objective is to minimize the makespan. We present O(n log n time algorithms for the single-machine problems, respectively. And we propose fully polynomial time approximation schemes to solve the identical-parallel-machine problem and uniform-parallel-machine problem, respectively.

  9. High throughput batch wafer handler for 100 to 200 mm wafers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rathmell, R.D.; Raatz, J.E.; Becker, B.L.; Kitchen, R.L.; Luck, T.R.; Decker, J.H.

    1989-01-01

    A new batch processing end station for ion implantation has been developed for wafers of 100 to 200 mm diameter. It usilizes a spinning disk with clampless wafer support. All wafer transport is done with backside handling and is carried out in vacuum. This end station incorporates a new dose control scheme which is able to monitor the incident particle current independently of the charge state of the ions. This technique prevents errors which may be caused by charge exchange between the beam and residual gas. The design and features of this system will be reviewed and the performance to date will be presented. (orig.)

  10. Following an Optimal Batch Bioreactor Operations Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ibarra-Junquera, V.; Jørgensen, Sten Bay; Virgen-Ortíz, J.J.

    2012-01-01

    -batch reactor for biomass production is studied using a differential geometry approach. The maximization problem is solved by handling both the optimal filling policy and substrate concentration in the inlet stream. In order to follow the OBBOM, a master–slave synchronization is used. The OBBOM is considered...... as the master system which includes the optimal cultivation trajectory for the feed flow rate and the substrate concentration. The “real” bioreactor, the one with unknown dynamics and perturbations, is considered as the slave system. Finally, the controller is designed such that the real bioreactor...

  11. Compact Spreader Schemes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Placidi, M.; Jung, J. -Y.; Ratti, A.; Sun, C.

    2014-07-25

    This paper describes beam distribution schemes adopting a novel implementation based on low amplitude vertical deflections combined with horizontal ones generated by Lambertson-type septum magnets. This scheme offers substantial compactness in the longitudinal layouts of the beam lines and increased flexibility for beam delivery of multiple beam lines on a shot-to-shot basis. Fast kickers (FK) or transverse electric field RF Deflectors (RFD) provide the low amplitude deflections. Initially proposed at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC) as tools for beam diagnostics and more recently adopted for multiline beam pattern schemes, RFDs offer repetition capabilities and a likely better amplitude reproducibility when compared to FKs, which, in turn, offer more modest financial involvements both in construction and operation. Both solutions represent an ideal approach for the design of compact beam distribution systems resulting in space and cost savings while preserving flexibility and beam quality.

  12. Compact spreader schemes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Placidi, M.; Jung, J.-Y.; Ratti, A.; Sun, C., E-mail: csun@lbl.gov

    2014-12-21

    This paper describes beam distribution schemes adopting a novel implementation based on low amplitude vertical deflections combined with horizontal ones generated by Lambertson-type septum magnets. This scheme offers substantial compactness in the longitudinal layouts of the beam lines and increased flexibility for beam delivery of multiple beam lines on a shot-to-shot basis. Fast kickers (FK) or transverse electric field RF Deflectors (RFD) provide the low amplitude deflections. Initially proposed at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC) as tools for beam diagnostics and more recently adopted for multiline beam pattern schemes, RFDs offer repetition capabilities and a likely better amplitude reproducibility when compared to FKs, which, in turn, offer more modest financial involvements both in construction and operation. Both solutions represent an ideal approach for the design of compact beam distribution systems resulting in space and cost savings while preserving flexibility and beam quality.

  13. Electrostatic energy harvesting device with out-of-the-plane gap closing scheme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Fei; Hansen, Ole

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we report on an electrostatic energy harvester with an out-of-the-plane gap closing scheme. Using advanced MEMS technology, energy harvesting devices formed by a four wafer stack are batch fabricated and fully packaged at wafer scale. A spin coated CYTOP polymer is used both...

  14. Electrostatic energy harvesting device with out-of-the-plane gap closing scheme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Fei; Hansen, Ole

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we report on an electrostatic energy harvester with an out-of-the-plane gap closing scheme. Using advanced MEMS technology, energy harvesting devices with a four wafer stack are batch fabricated and fully packaged at wafer scale. CYTOP polymer is used both as an electret material...

  15. The socio-economic impact of the Lake Chad resettlement scheme ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJL

    This study was undertaken with the objective of assessing the socio-economic impacts that have taken place since the arrival of different batches of settlers following the resettlement scheme. These impacts include damages exerted on the natural environment, accessibility to sites, provision of infrastructural facilities and ...

  16. Ethanol production potential from fermented rice noodle wastewater treatment using entrapped yeast cell sequencing batch reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siripattanakul-Ratpukdi, Sumana

    2012-03-01

    Fermented rice noodle production generates a large volume of starch-based wastewater. This study investigated the treatment of the fermented rice noodle wastewater using entrapped cell sequencing batch reactor (ECSBR) compared to traditional sequencing batch reactor (SBR). The yeast cells were applied because of their potential to convert reducing sugar in the wastewater to ethanol. In present study, preliminary treatment by acid hydrolysis was performed. A yeast culture, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, with calcium alginate cell entrapment was used. Optimum yeast cell loading in batch experiment and fermented rice noodle treatment performances using ECSBR and SBR systems were examined. In the first part, it was found that the cell loadings (0.6-2.7 × 108 cells/mL) did not play an important role in this study. Treatment reactions followed the second-order kinetics with the treatment efficiencies of 92-95%. In the second part, the result showed that ECSBR performed better than SBR in both treatment efficiency and system stability perspectives. ECSBR maintained glucose removal of 82.5 ± 10% for 5-cycle treatment while glucose removal by SBR declined from 96 to 40% within the 5-cycle treatment. Scanning electron microscopic images supported the treatment results. A number of yeast cells entrapped and attached onto the matrix grew in the entrapment matrix.

  17. Scanning schemes in white light photoelasticity - Part II: Novel fringe resolution guided scanning scheme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramakrishnan, Vivek; Ramesh, K.

    2017-05-01

    Varied spatial resolution of isochromatic fringes over the domain influences the accuracy of fringe order estimation using TFP/RGB photoelasticity. This has been brought out in the first part of the work. The existing scanning schemes do not take this into account, which leads to the propagation of noise from the low spatial resolution zones. In this paper, a method is proposed for creating a whole field map which represents the spatial resolution of the isochromatic fringe pattern. A novel scanning scheme is then proposed whose progression is guided by the spatial resolution of the fringes in the isochromatic image. The efficacy of the scanning scheme is demonstrated using three problems - an inclined crack under bi-axial loading, a thick ring subjected to internal pressure and a stress frozen specimen of an aerospace component. The proposed scheme has use in a range of applications. The scanning scheme is effective even if the model has random zones of noise which is demonstrated using a plate subjected to concentrated load. This aspect is well utilised to extract fringe data from thin slices cut from a stereo-lithographic model that has characteristic random noise due to layered manufacturing.

  18. 4. Payment Schemes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 6; Issue 2. Electronic Commerce - Payment Schemes. V Rajaraman. Series Article Volume 6 Issue 2 February 2001 pp 6-13. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: https://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/006/02/0006-0013 ...

  19. Link Monotonic Allocation Schemes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slikker, M.

    1999-01-01

    A network is a graph where the nodes represent players and the links represent bilateral interaction between the players. A reward game assigns a value to every network on a fixed set of players. An allocation scheme specifies how to distribute the worth of every network among the players. This

  20. Alternative health insurance schemes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keiding, Hans; Hansen, Bodil O.

    2002-01-01

    In this paper, we present a simple model of health insurance with asymmetric information, where we compare two alternative ways of organizing the insurance market. Either as a competitive insurance market, where some risks remain uninsured, or as a compulsory scheme, where however, the level...... competitive insurance; this situation turns out to be at least as good as either of the alternatives...

  1. 4. Payment Schemes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 6; Issue 2. Electronic Commerce - Payment Schemes. V Rajaraman. Series Article Volume 6 Issue 2 February 2001 pp 6-13 ... Author Affiliations. V Rajaraman1. IBM Professor of Information Technology JNCASR Bangalore 560 064, India.

  2. CSR schemes in agribusiness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pötz, Katharina Anna; Haas, Rainer; Balzarova, Michaela

    2013-01-01

    of schemes that can be categorized on focus areas, scales, mechanisms, origins, types and commitment levels. Research limitations/implications – The findings contribute to conceptual and empirical research on existing models to compare and analyse CSR standards. Sampling technique and depth of analysis limit...

  3. Simple monotonic interpolation scheme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greene, N.M.

    1980-01-01

    A procedure for presenting tabular data, such as are contained in the ENDF/B files, that is simpler, more general, and potentially much more compact than the present schemes used with ENDF/B is presented. The method has been successfully used for Bondarenko interpolation in a module of the AMPX system. 1 figure, 1 table

  4. Aerobic granulation in a sequencing batch airlift reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beun, J J; van Loosdrecht, M C M; Heijnen, J J

    2002-02-01

    Aerobic granular sludge was cultivated in an intensely mixed sequencing batch airlift reactor (SBAR). A COD loading of 2.5 kg Acetate-COD/(m3 d) was applied. Granules developed in the reactor within one week after inoculation with suspended activated sludge from a conventional wastewater treatment plant. Selection of the dense granules from the biomass mixture occurs because of the differences in settling velocities between granules (fast settling biomass), and filaments and flocs (slow settling biomass). At 'steady state' the granules had an average diameter of 2.5 mm, a biomass density of 60g VSS/I of granules, and a settling rate of > 10 m/h. The biomass consisted of both heterotrophic and nitrifying bacteria. The reactor was operated over a long period during which the granular sludge proved to remain stable. The performance of the intermittently fed SBAR was compared to that of the continuously fed biofilm airlift suspension reactor (BASR). The most importance difference was that the density of the granules in the SBAR was much higher than the density of the biofilms in the BASR. It is discussed that this could be due to the fact that the SBAR is intermittently fed, while the BASR is continuously fed.

  5. Degradation of formaldehyde in anaerobic sequencing batch biofilm reactor (ASBBR)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pereira, N.S. [Laboratorio de Processos Biologicos (LPB), Departamento de Hidraulica e Saneamento, Escola de Engenharia de Sao Carlos (EESC), Universidade de Sao Paulo - USP, Engenharia Ambiental, Bloco 4-F, Av. Joao Dagnone, 1100 Santa Angelina, 13.563-120 Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil); Zaiat, M. [Laboratorio de Processos Biologicos (LPB), Departamento de Hidraulica e Saneamento, Escola de Engenharia de Sao Carlos (EESC), Universidade de Sao Paulo - USP, Engenharia Ambiental, Bloco 4-F, Av. Joao Dagnone, 1100 Santa Angelina, 13.563-120 Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil)], E-mail: zaiat@sc.usp.br

    2009-04-30

    The present study evaluated the degradation of formaldehyde in a bench-scale anaerobic sequencing batch reactor, which contained biomass immobilized in polyurethane foam matrices. The reactor was operated for 212 days at 35 deg. C with 8 h sequential cycles, under different affluent formaldehyde concentrations ranging from 31.6 to 1104.4 mg/L (formaldehyde loading rates from 0.08 to 2.78 kg/m{sup 3} day). The results indicate excellent reactor stability and over 99% efficiency in formaldehyde removal, with average effluent formaldehyde concentration of 3.6 {+-} 1.7 mg/L. Formaldehyde degradation rates increased from 204.9 to 698.3 mg/L h as the initial concentration of formaldehyde was increased from around 100 to around 1100 mg/L. However, accumulation of organic matter was observed in the effluent (chemical oxygen demand (COD) values above 500 mg/L) due to the presence of non-degraded organic acids, especially acetic and propionic acids. This observation poses an important question regarding the anaerobic route of formaldehyde degradation, which might differ substantially from that reported in the literature. The anaerobic degradation pathway can be associated with the formation of long-chain oligomers from formaldehyde. Such long- or short-chain polymers are probably the precursors of organic acid formation by means of acidogenic anaerobic microorganisms.

  6. Batch crystallization of rifapentine for inhalable tuberculosis medication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijanarko, Anondho; Meivita, Maria Prisca; Hermansyah, Heri; Sahlan, Muhamad; Lakerveld, Richard

    2018-02-01

    In the midst of Tuberculosis (TB) pandemic, a research about new tuberculosis drug that results in more rapid resolution of tubercular infection is important. It will play a crucial role in accelerating the reductions in tuberculosis incidence that is occurring worldwide. The effectiveness of rifapentine has been assessed and it has been proven to be the most effective antibiotics for TB. A frequent administration and dose of rifapentine resulted in more rapid resolution of tubercular infection. However, based on former research, high exposure levels for treatment shortening may be unachievable with oral administration and might instead be achieved by direct aerosol delivery of rifapentine to the pulmonary site of infection. Therefore, with the growing interest in the effectiveness of rifapentine in frequent administration and dose, this research integrates an inhalable form of crystalline rifapentine prepared using a batch process. Moreover, this research investigates the effect of seed loading, supersaturation ratio, and residence time on the characterization of crystalline rifapentine in order to form a crystalline rifapentine in an inhalable size. The research was carried out by using anti-solvent crystallization method with acetone as a solvent and distilled water as an anti-solvent. Based on the assessment of various operating variables, it can be concluded that the optimum result was obtained at the unseeded experiment with supersaturation ratio = 1.26. Unseeded experiments are preferred because the ideal size for therapeutic aerosol was achieved in unseeded experiments.

  7. Load Measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kock, Carsten Weber; Vesth, Allan

    The report describes Load measurements carried out on a given wind turbine. The aim of the measurement program regarding the loads on the turbine is to verify the basic characteristics of the wind turbine and loads on the blades, the rotor and the tower, using [Ref 1], [Ref2] and [Ref 3]. Regarding...... the fatigue loads, the rotor, blades and tower moments are presented. The fatigue loads are evaluated using rainflow counting described in detail in Ref. [1]. The 1Hz equivalent load ranges are calculated at different wind speeds. All information regarding the instrumentation is collected in [ref 4] and [ref...

  8. Batch Cultivation Model for Biopolymer Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. E. Torres-Cerna

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a mathematical model to evaluate the kinetics of two different Pseudomonas putida strains, wild and mutant-type for the microbial production of polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs. Model parameters were estimated to represent adequately experimental data from the batch reactor using the differential evolution algorithm. Based on the mathematical model with the best-fit parameter values, simulations suggested that the high production of PHA by the mutant strain can be attributed not only to the higher production of PHA but also to a reduction in the consumption rate of the substrates of approximately 66 %. Remarkably, the cell growth rate value is higher for the wild type than the mutant type, suggesting that the PHA increase is not only to an increase in the production rate but also to the metabolism of the cells. This mathematical model advances comprehension of the PHA production capacity by P. putida paving the road towards environmentally friendly plastics.

  9. Maximum thermodynamic efficiency problem in batch distillation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. C. Zavala-Loría

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available A dynamic batch distillation study of the non-ideal mixture Ethanol-Water is presented. The objective of the study was to calculate an average thermodynamic efficiency of the process under an optimal constant reflux policy and the objective function includes a given production time in order to obtain the desired product quality (measured as the average mole fraction of the accumulated product. An expression for computing the thermodynamic efficiency is presented. The simulation of the column uses a mathematical model considering the complete dynamics of the operation and the problem of optimal control resulting in a non-linear programming problem. A dynamic optimization technique based on a SQP method was used to solve the problem. The average thermodynamic efficiency for the separation process under the conditions presented was 37.95%.

  10. Optimizing Resource Utilization in Grid Batch Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gellrich, Andreas

    2012-01-01

    On Grid sites, the requirements of the computing tasks (jobs) to computing, storage, and network resources differ widely. For instance Monte Carlo production jobs are almost purely CPU-bound, whereas physics analysis jobs demand high data rates. In order to optimize the utilization of the compute node resources, jobs must be distributed intelligently over the nodes. Although the job resource requirements cannot be deduced directly, jobs are mapped to POSIX UID/GID according to the VO, VOMS group and role information contained in the VOMS proxy. The UID/GID then allows to distinguish jobs, if users are using VOMS proxies as planned by the VO management, e.g. ‘role=production’ for Monte Carlo jobs. It is possible to setup and configure batch systems (queuing system and scheduler) at Grid sites based on these considerations although scaling limits were observed with the scheduler MAUI. In tests these limitations could be overcome with a home-made scheduler.

  11. Load forecasting for supermarket refrigeration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bacher, Peder; Madsen, Henrik; Aalborg Nielsen, Henrik

    This report presents a study of models for forecasting the load for supermarket refrigeration. The data used for building the forecasting models consists of load measurements, local climate measurements and weather forecasts. The load measurements are from a supermarket located in a village...... in Denmark. The load for refrigeration is the sum of all cabinets in the supermarket, both low and medium temperature cabinets, and spans a period of one year. As input to the forecasting models the ambient temperature observed near the supermarket together with weather forecasts are used. Every hour...... the hourly load for refrigeration for the following 42 hours is forecasted. The forecast models are adaptive linear time-series models which are fitted with a computationally efficient recursive least squares scheme. The dynamic relations between the inputs and the load is modeled by simple transfer...

  12. Spatial and interannual variability in Baltic sprat batch fecundity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haslob, H.; Tomkiewicz, Jonna; Hinrichsen, H.H.

    2011-01-01

    and ambient temperature explained 70% of variability in absolute batch fecundity. Oxygen content and fish condition were not related to sprat batch fecundity. Additionally, a negative effect of stock size on sprat batch fecundity in the Bornholm Basin was revealed. The obtained data and results are important...... in the central Baltic Sea, namely the Bornholm Basin, Gdansk Deep and Southern Gotland Basin. Environmental parameters such as hydrography, fish condition and stock density were tested in order to investigate the observed variability in sprat fecundity. Absolute batch fecundity was found to be positively related...

  13. Sewage sludge irradiators: Batch and continuous flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lavale, D.S.; George, J.R.; Shah, M.R.; Rawat, K.P.

    1998-01-01

    The potential threat to the environment imposed by high pathogenic organism content in municipal wastewater, especially the sludge and the world-wide growing aspirations for a cleaner, salubrious environment have made it mandatory for the sewage and sludge to undergo treatment, prior to their ultimate disposal to mother nature. Incapabilities associated with the conventional wastewater treatments to mitigate the problem of microorganisms have made it necessary to look for other alternatives, radiation treatment being the most reliable, rapid and environmentally sustainable of them. To promote the use of radiation for the sludge hygienization, Department of Atomic Energy has endeavoured to set up an indigenous, Sludge Hygienization Research Irradiator (SHRI) in the city of Baroda. Designed for 18.5 PBq of 60 Co to disinfect the digested sludge, the irradiator has additional provision for treatment of effluent and raw sewage. From engineering standpoint, all the subsystems have been functioning satisfactorily since its commissioning in 1990. Prolonged studies, spanning over a period of six years, primarily focused on inactivation of microorganism revealed that 3 kGy dose of gamma radiation is adequate to make the sludge pathogen and odour-free. A dose of 1.6 kGy in raw sewage and 0.5 kGy in effluent reduced coliform counts down to the regulatory discharge limits. These observations reflect a possible cost-effective solution to the burgeoning problem of surface water pollution across the globe. In the past, sub 37 PBq 60 Co batch irradiators have been designed and commissioned successfully for the treatment of sludge. Characterized with low dose delivery rates they are well-suited for treating low volumes of sludge in batches. Some concepts of continuous flow 60 Co irradiators having larger activities, yet simple and economic in design, are presented in the paper

  14. Survey on batch-to-batch variation in spray paints: a collaborative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muehlethaler, Cyril; Massonnet, Geneviève; Deviterne, Marie; Bradley, Maureen; Herrero, Ana; de Lezana, Itxaso Diaz; Lauper, Sandrine; Dubois, Damien; Geyer-Lippmann, Jochen; Ketterer, Sonja; Milet, Stéphane; Bertrand, Magali; Langer, Wolfgang; Plage, Bernd; Gorzawski, Gabriele; Lamothe, Véronique; Marsh, Louissa; Turunen, Raija

    2013-06-10

    This study represents the most extensive analysis of batch-to-batch variations in spray paint samples to date. The survey was performed as a collaborative project of the ENFSI (European Network of Forensic Science Institutes) Paint and Glass Working Group (EPG) and involved 11 laboratories. Several studies have already shown that paint samples of similar color but from different manufacturers can usually be differentiated using an appropriate analytical sequence. The discrimination of paints from the same manufacturer and color (batch-to-batch variations) is of great interest and these data are seldom found in the literature. This survey concerns the analysis of batches from different color groups (white, papaya (special shade of orange), red and black) with a wide range of analytical techniques and leads to the following conclusions. Colored batch samples are more likely to be differentiated since their pigment composition is more complex (pigment mixtures, added pigments) and therefore subject to variations. These variations may occur during the paint production but may also occur when checking the paint shade in quality control processes. For these samples, techniques aimed at color/pigment(s) characterization (optical microscopy, microspectrophotometry (MSP), Raman spectroscopy) provide better discrimination than techniques aimed at the organic (binder) or inorganic composition (fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) or elemental analysis (SEM - scanning electron microscopy and XRF - X-ray fluorescence)). White samples contain mainly titanium dioxide as a pigment and the main differentiation is based on the binder composition (CH stretches) detected either by FTIR or Raman. The inorganic composition (elemental analysis) also provides some discrimination. Black samples contain mainly carbon black as a pigment and are problematic with most of the spectroscopic techniques. In this case, pyrolysis-GC/MS represents the best technique to detect differences

  15. On Converting Secret Sharing Scheme to Visual Secret Sharing Scheme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Daoshun

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Traditional Secret Sharing (SS schemes reconstruct secret exactly the same as the original one but involve complex computation. Visual Secret Sharing (VSS schemes decode the secret without computation, but each share is m times as big as the original and the quality of the reconstructed secret image is reduced. Probabilistic visual secret sharing (Prob.VSS schemes for a binary image use only one subpixel to share the secret image; however the probability of white pixels in a white area is higher than that in a black area in the reconstructed secret image. SS schemes, VSS schemes, and Prob. VSS schemes have various construction methods and advantages. This paper first presents an approach to convert (transform a -SS scheme to a -VSS scheme for greyscale images. The generation of the shadow images (shares is based on Boolean XOR operation. The secret image can be reconstructed directly by performing Boolean OR operation, as in most conventional VSS schemes. Its pixel expansion is significantly smaller than that of VSS schemes. The quality of the reconstructed images, measured by average contrast, is the same as VSS schemes. Then a novel matrix-concatenation approach is used to extend the greyscale -SS scheme to a more general case of greyscale -VSS scheme.

  16. Beyond Scheme F

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elliott, C.J.; Fisher, H.; Pepin, J. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Gillmann, R. [Federal Highway Administration, Washington, DC (United States)

    1996-07-01

    Traffic classification techniques were evaluated using data from a 1993 investigation of the traffic flow patterns on I-20 in Georgia. First we improved the data by sifting through the data base, checking against the original video for questionable events and removing and/or repairing questionable events. We used this data base to critique the performance quantitatively of a classification method known as Scheme F. As a context for improving the approach, we show in this paper that scheme F can be represented as a McCullogh-Pitts neural network, oar as an equivalent decomposition of the plane. We found that Scheme F, among other things, severely misrepresents the number of vehicles in Class 3 by labeling them as Class 2. After discussing the basic classification problem in terms of what is measured, and what is the desired prediction goal, we set forth desirable characteristics of the classification scheme and describe a recurrent neural network system that partitions the high dimensional space up into bins for each axle separation. the collection of bin numbers, one for each of the axle separations, specifies a region in the axle space called a hyper-bin. All the vehicles counted that have the same set of in numbers are in the same hyper-bin. The probability of the occurrence of a particular class in that hyper- bin is the relative frequency with which that class occurs in that set of bin numbers. This type of algorithm produces classification results that are much more balanced and uniform with respect to Classes 2 and 3 and Class 10. In particular, the cancellation of errors of classification that occurs is for many applications the ideal classification scenario. The neural network results are presented in the form of a primary classification network and a reclassification network, the performance matrices for which are presented.

  17. Scalable Nonlinear Compact Schemes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghosh, Debojyoti [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Constantinescu, Emil M. [Univ. of Chicago, IL (United States); Brown, Jed [Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States)

    2014-04-01

    In this work, we focus on compact schemes resulting in tridiagonal systems of equations, specifically the fifth-order CRWENO scheme. We propose a scalable implementation of the nonlinear compact schemes by implementing a parallel tridiagonal solver based on the partitioning/substructuring approach. We use an iterative solver for the reduced system of equations; however, we solve this system to machine zero accuracy to ensure that no parallelization errors are introduced. It is possible to achieve machine-zero convergence with few iterations because of the diagonal dominance of the system. The number of iterations is specified a priori instead of a norm-based exit criterion, and collective communications are avoided. The overall algorithm thus involves only point-to-point communication between neighboring processors. Our implementation of the tridiagonal solver differs from and avoids the drawbacks of past efforts in the following ways: it introduces no parallelization-related approximations (multiprocessor solutions are exactly identical to uniprocessor ones), it involves minimal communication, the mathematical complexity is similar to that of the Thomas algorithm on a single processor, and it does not require any communication and computation scheduling.

  18. Quantum identification schemes with entanglements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mihara, Takashi

    2002-01-01

    We need secure identification schemes because many situations exist in which a person must be identified. In this paper, we propose three quantum identification schemes with entanglements. First, we propose a quantum one-time pad password scheme. In this scheme, entanglements play the role of a one-time pad password. Next, we propose a quantum identification scheme that requires a trusted authority. Finally, we propose a quantum message authentication scheme that is constructed by combining a different quantum cryptosystem with an ordinary authentication tag

  19. an investigation into the applicability of natural load variation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The present work explores the potentials of natural load variation scheme as a low cost option that is capable of estimating the actual yield of PV modules. Essentially, the scheme consists of a firmware controlling the switching of a number of resistors(loads) connected in parallel. By looping through the resistors in parallel, ...

  20. Bioprocess iterative batch-to-batch optimization based on hybrid parametric/nonparametric models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira, Ana P; Clemente, João J; Cunha, António E; Carrondo, Manuel J T; Oliveira, Rui

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents a novel method for iterative batch-to-batch dynamic optimization of bioprocesses. The relationship between process performance and control inputs is established by means of hybrid grey-box models combining parametric and nonparametric structures. The bioreactor dynamics are defined by material balance equations, whereas the cell population subsystem is represented by an adjustable mixture of nonparametric and parametric models. Thus optimizations are possible without detailed mechanistic knowledge concerning the biological system. A clustering technique is used to supervise the reliability of the nonparametric subsystem during the optimization. Whenever the nonparametric outputs are unreliable, the objective function is penalized. The technique was evaluated with three simulation case studies. The overall results suggest that the convergence to the optimal process performance may be achieved after a small number of batches. The model unreliability risk constraint along with sampling scheduling are crucial to minimize the experimental effort required to attain a given process performance. In general terms, it may be concluded that the proposed method broadens the application of the hybrid parametric/nonparametric modeling technique to "newer" processes with higher potential for optimization.

  1. Batch process. Batch process used in a beer brewery; Biru kojo no bacchi purosesu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kihara, K. [Kirin Engneering Co. Ltd. (Japan)

    1997-09-05

    In a beer brewing process, there is a system in which unit operation of chemical engineering is combined with the techniques of food and fermentation engineering in order to brew beer meeting the quality concept. This paper introduces the characteristics of a batch system used in the brewing of beer and the control method for the brewing of beer. The characteristics of the batch system used in a beer brewing process are the following three. In order to minimize the quality variation ascribed to the raw materials and the process, the materials are blended in various parts of the system. In the saccharification step which determines the quality of beer, two methods, i.e. a batch method and a continuous method are used, and beer brewing companies employ a saccharification system meeting the condition for attaining a desired quality of their own products. Two mashing systems are operated at different cycles shifted by half cycle from each other, not starting both at a time, so as to level the peaks of the utilities, whereby the operation of the utility-related facility is optimized. 1 ref., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  2. Cost-based droop scheme for DC microgrid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nutkani, Inam Ullah; Wang, Peng; Loh, Poh Chiang

    2014-01-01

    DC microgrids are gaining interest due to higher efficiencies of DC distribution compared with AC. The benefits of DC systems have been widely researched for data centers, IT facilities and residential applications. The research focus, however, has been more on system architecture and optimal...... voltage level, less on optimized operation and control of generation sources. The latter theme is perused in this paper, where cost-based droop scheme is proposed for distributed generators (DGs) in DC microgrids. Unlike traditional proportional power sharing based droop scheme, the proposed scheme......-connected operation. Most importantly, the proposed scheme can reduce overall total generation cost in DC microgrids without centralized controller and communication links. The performance of the proposed scheme has been verified under different load conditions....

  3. Improved monitoring of batch processes by incorporating external information

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ramaker, H. J.; van Sprang, E. N. M.; Gurden, S. P.; Westerhuis, J. A.; Smilde, A. K.

    2002-01-01

    In this paper an overview is given of statistical process monitoring with the emphasis on batch processes and the possible steps to take for improving this by incorporating external information. First, the general concept of statistical process monitoring of batches is explained. This concept has

  4. Using warping information for batch process monitoring and fault classification.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    González-Martínez, J.M.; Westerhuis, J.A.; Ferrer, A.

    2013-01-01

    This paper discusses how to use the warping information obtained after batch synchronization for process monitoring and fault classification. The warping information can be used for i) building unsupervised control charts or ii) fault classification when a rich faulty batches database is available.

  5. Modelling and Simulation of the Batch Hydrolysis of Acetic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The kinetic modelling of the batch synthesis of acetic acid from acetic anhydride was investigated. The kinetic data of the reaction was obtained by conducting the hydrolysis reaction in a batch reactor. A dynamic model was formulated for this process and simulation was carried out using gPROMS® an advanced process ...

  6. Adaptive scheduling of batch servers in flow shops

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Zee, D.J.

    Batch servicing is a common way of benefiting from economies of scale in manufacturing operations. Good examples of production systems that allow for batch processing are ovens found in the aircraft industry and in semiconductor manufacturing. In this paper we study the issue of dynamic scheduling

  7. Adaptive Scheduling Of Batch Servers In Flow Shops

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Zee, D.J.

    2001-01-01

    Batch servicing is a common way of benefiting from economies of scale in manufacturing operations. Good examples of production systems that allow for batch processing are ovens found in aircraft industry and in semiconductor manufacturing. In this paper we study the issue of dynamic scheduling of

  8. Solving a chemical batch scheduling problem by local search

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brucker, P.; Hurink, Johann L.

    1999-01-01

    A chemical batch scheduling problem is modelled in two different ways as a discrete optimization problem. Both models are used to solve the batch scheduling problem in a two-phase tabu search procedure. The method is tested on real-world data.

  9. 40 CFR 63.1406 - Reactor batch process vent provisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... megagram of product or less for non-solvent-based resin production. (2) The owner or operator of a reactor... 40 Protection of Environment 11 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Reactor batch process vent provisions... § 63.1406 Reactor batch process vent provisions. (a) Emission standards. Owners or operators of reactor...

  10. 40 CFR Table 1 to Subpart H of... - Batch Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Batch Processes 1 Table 1 to Subpart H... Subpart H of Part 63—Batch Processes Monitoring Frequency for Equipment Other than Connectors Operating time (% of year) Equivalent continuous process monitoring frequency time in use Monthly Quarterly...

  11. Communication and control in small batch part manufacturing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tiemersma, J.J.; Curtis, W.; Kals, H.J.J.

    1993-01-01

    This paper reports on the development of a real-time control network as an integrated part of a shop floor control system for small batch part manufacturing. The shop floor control system is called the production control system (PCS). The PCS aims at an improved control of small batch part

  12. On the track of fish batches in three distribution networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Randrup, Maria; Wu, Haiping; Jørgensen, Bo M.

    2012-01-01

    the necessary information, it was possible to locate the end destinations of the fish batches. The batch sizes and the number of companies involved clearly rose when batch joining occurred. Thus, a fault in a small batch can potentially have widespread implications. The study also underlines the importance......Three fish products sampled in retail shops were traced back to their origin and fish from the same batch were tracked forward towards the retailer, thereby simulating a recall situation. The resulting distribution networks were very complex, but to the extent that companies were willing to provide...... of discovering a fault as early as possible in order to minimise the costs of a recall. The localisation of distributed products during a recall operation can be facilitated by a well-constructed traceability system....

  13. The risks of extreme load extrapolation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, R.; Bierbooms, W.A.A.M.

    2017-01-01

    An important problem in wind turbine design is the prediction of the 50-year load, as set by the IEC 61400-1 Design Load Case (DLC) 1.1. In most cases, designers work with limited simulation budgets and are forced to use extrapolation schemes to obtain the required return level. That this is no easy

  14. ESCAP mobile training scheme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasas, F M

    1977-01-01

    In response to a United Nations resolution, the Mobile Training Scheme (MTS) was set up to provide training to the trainers of national cadres engaged in frontline and supervisory tasks in social welfare and rural development. The training is innovative in its being based on an analysis of field realities. The MTS team consisted of a leader, an expert on teaching methods and materials, and an expert on action research and evaluation. The country's trainers from different departments were sent to villages to work for a short period and to report their problems in fulfilling their roles. From these grass roots experiences, they made an analysis of the job, determining what knowledge, attitude and skills it required. Analysis of daily incidents and problems were used to produce indigenous teaching materials drawn from actual field practice. How to consider the problems encountered through government structures for policy making and decisions was also learned. Tasks of the students were to identify the skills needed for role performance by job analysis, daily diaries and project histories; to analyze the particular community by village profiles; to produce indigenous teaching materials; and to practice the role skills by actual role performance. The MTS scheme was tried in Nepal in 1974-75; 3 training programs trained 25 trainers and 51 frontline workers; indigenous teaching materials were created; technical papers written; and consultations were provided. In Afghanistan the scheme was used in 1975-76; 45 participants completed the training; seminars were held; and an ongoing Council was created. It is hoped that the training program will be expanded to other countries.

  15. Bonus Schemes and Trading Activity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pikulina, E.S.; Renneboog, L.D.R.; Ter Horst, J.R.; Tobler, P.N.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract: Little is known about how different bonus schemes affect traders’ propensity to trade and which bonus schemes improve traders’ performance. We study the effects of linear versus threshold (convex) bonus schemes on traders’ behavior. Traders purchase and sell shares in an experimental stock

  16. Scheme of stepmotor control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grashilin, V.A.; Karyshev, Yu.Ya.

    1982-01-01

    A 6-cycle scheme of step motor is described. The block-diagram and the basic circuit of the step motor control are presented. The step motor control comprises a pulse shaper, electronic commutator and power amplifiers. The step motor supply from 6-cycle electronic commutator provides for higher reliability and accuracy than from 3-cycle commutator. The control of step motor work is realised by the program given by the external source of control signals. Time-dependent diagrams for step motor control are presented. The specifications of the step-motor is given

  17. Cell Load Balancing Schemes for Uncoordinated Heterogeneous Deployment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mihaylov, Mihail; Mihovska, Albena D.; Poulkov, Vladimir

    2013-01-01

    This paper proposes an energy consumption improvement algorithm based on a coefficient determining the reliability of offloading users to a new base station (BS) regarding the additional power needed for them to be compensated during an offload from pico BS (PBS) to macro BS (MBS) in uncoordinate...

  18. Batch-to-batch quality consistency evaluation of botanical drug products using multivariate statistical analysis of the chromatographic fingerprint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Haoshu; Yu, Lawrence X; Qu, Haibin

    2013-06-01

    Botanical drug products have batch-to-batch quality variability due to botanical raw materials and the current manufacturing process. The rational evaluation and control of product quality consistency are essential to ensure the efficacy and safety. Chromatographic fingerprinting is an important and widely used tool to characterize the chemical composition of botanical drug products. Multivariate statistical analysis has showed its efficacy and applicability in the quality evaluation of many kinds of industrial products. In this paper, the combined use of multivariate statistical analysis and chromatographic fingerprinting is presented here to evaluate batch-to-batch quality consistency of botanical drug products. A typical botanical drug product in China, Shenmai injection, was selected as the example to demonstrate the feasibility of this approach. The high-performance liquid chromatographic fingerprint data of historical batches were collected from a traditional Chinese medicine manufacturing factory. Characteristic peaks were weighted by their variability among production batches. A principal component analysis model was established after outliers were modified or removed. Multivariate (Hotelling T(2) and DModX) control charts were finally successfully applied to evaluate the quality consistency. The results suggest useful applications for a combination of multivariate statistical analysis with chromatographic fingerprinting in batch-to-batch quality consistency evaluation for the manufacture of botanical drug products.

  19. Batch-to-batch learning for model-based control of process systems with application to cooling crystallization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Forgione, M.

    2014-01-01

    From an engineering perspective, the term process refers to a conversion of raw materials into intermediate or final products using chemical, physical, or biological operations. Industrial processes can be performed either in continuous or in batch mode. There exist for instance continuous and batch

  20. Glucoamylase production in batch, chemostat and fed-batch cultivations by an industrial strain of Aspergillus niger

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Henrik; Beyer, Michael; Nielsen, Jens

    2000-01-01

    The Aspergillus niger strain BO-1 was grown in batch, continuous (chemostat) and fed-batch cultivations in order to study the production of the extracellular enzyme glucoamylase under different growth conditions. In the pH range 2.5-6.0, the specific glucoamylase productivity and the specific...

  1. Batch versus continuous feeding strategies for pharmaceutical removal by subsurface flow constructed wetland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Dongqing; Gersberg, Richard M.; Zhu, Junfei; Hua, Tao; Jinadasa, K.B.S.N.; Tan, Soon Keat

    2012-01-01

    This study evaluated the effect of continuous and batch feeding on the removal of 8 pharmaceuticals (carbamazepine, naproxen, diclofenac, ibuprofen, caffeine, salicylic acid, ketoprofen and clofibric acid) from synthetic wastewater in mesocosm-scale constructed wetlands (CWs). Both loading modes were operated at hydraulic application rates of 5.6 cm day −1 and 2.8 cm day −1 . Except for carbamazepine, clofibric acid and naproxen, removal in CWs was significantly (p ow ) and removal efficiencies of pharmaceutical compounds in the CWs, showed that pharmaceutical removal efficiency was significantly (p ow value, but not with log K ow value. - Highlights: ► Batch feeding in mesocosm-scale constructed wetlands enhances pharmaceutical removal. ► K values for the 8 pharmaceuticals were in the range of 0.01–0.1 m day −1 . ► The pharmaceutical removal efficiency was inversely correlated with log D ow value. - Batch (drain and fill) feeding in mesocosm-scale constructed wetlands enhances pharmaceutical removal.

  2. Immobilization of yeast inulinase on chitosan beads for the hydrolysis of inulin in a batch system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, R S; Singh, R P; Kennedy, J F

    2017-02-01

    An extracellular inulinase was partially purified by ethanol precipitation and gel exclusion chromatography from a cell free extract of Kluyveromyces marxianus. Partially purified inulinase exhibited 420 IU/mg specific activity and it was immobilized on chitosan beads. Activity yield of immobilized inulinase was optimized with glutaraldehyde concentration (1-5%), glutaraldehyde treatment time (30-240min), enzyme coupling-time (2-16h) and enzyme loading (5-30 IU) as functions. Under the optimized conditions maximum yield 65.5% of immobilized inulinase was obtained. Maximum hydrolysis of inulin 84.5% and 78.2% was observed at 125rpm after 4h by immobilized and free enzyme, respectively. A retention-time of 4h and 5h was found optimal for the hydrolysis of inulin under agitation (125rpm) by free and immobilized enzyme, respectively. The recycling of the developed immobilized biocatalyst was carried out after 5h of inulin hydrolysis in a batch system. The developed immobilized biocatalyst was successfully used for the hydrolysis of inulin for 14 batches. This is the first report on the immobilization of yeast inulinase on chitosan beads for the hydrolysis of inulin in a batch system. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. High Availability and Load Balancing Solution Development in High Load Distributed Systems of Electronic Payments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. M. Nichiporchuk

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available A review of several solutions for comfortable work in systems with a large number of short transactions has been produced in the work. Several common cluster design schemes of providing data identity between the nodes have been analyzed as well as several load balancing schemes. As a result, a simulation cluster has been designed and installed in respect to the formalized in the work requirements such as scalability, load balancing and replication support.

  4. Automated fuel pin loading system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christiansen, D.W.; Brown, W.F.; Steffen, J.M.

    An automated loading system for nuclear reactor fuel elements utilizes a gravity feed conveyor which permits individual fuel pins to roll along a constrained path perpendicular to their respective lengths. The individual lengths of fuel cladding are directed onto movable transports, where they are aligned coaxially with the axes of associated handling equipment at appropriate production stations. Each fuel pin can be be reciprocated axially and/or rotated about its axis as required during handling steps. The fuel pins are inerted as a batch prior to welding of end caps by one of two disclosed welding systems.

  5. Load forecasting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mak, H.

    1995-01-01

    Slides used in a presentation at The Power of Change Conference in Vancouver, BC in April 1995 about the changing needs for load forecasting were presented. Technological innovations and population increase were said to be the prime driving forces behind the changing needs in load forecasting. Structural changes, market place changes, electricity supply planning changes, and changes in planning objectives were other factors discussed. It was concluded that load forecasting was a form of information gathering, that provided important market intelligence

  6. Packet reversed packet combining scheme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhunia, C.T.

    2006-07-01

    The packet combining scheme is a well defined simple error correction scheme with erroneous copies at the receiver. It offers higher throughput combined with ARQ protocols in networks than that of basic ARQ protocols. But packet combining scheme fails to correct errors when the errors occur in the same bit locations of two erroneous copies. In the present work, we propose a scheme that will correct error if the errors occur at the same bit location of the erroneous copies. The proposed scheme when combined with ARQ protocol will offer higher throughput. (author)

  7. Batch and fed-batch production of butyric acid by Clostridium butyricum ZJUCB

    OpenAIRE

    He, Guo-qing; Kong, Qing; Chen, Qi-he; Ruan, Hui

    2005-01-01

    The production of butyric acid by Clostridium butyricum ZJUCB at various pH values was investigated. In order to study the effect of pH on cell growth, butyric acid biosynthesis and reducing sugar consumption, different cultivation pH values ranging from 6.0 to 7.5 were evaluated in 5-L bioreactor. In controlled pH batch fermentation, the optimum pH for cell growth and butyric acid production was 6.5 with a cell yield of 3.65 g/L and butyric acid yield of 12.25 g/L. Based on these results, th...

  8. Catalytic hydrotreatment of fast pyrolysis liquids in batch and continuous set-ups using a bimetallic Ni-Cu catalyst with a high metal content

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yin, Wang; Kloekhorst, Arjan; Venderbosch, Robertus H.; Bykova, Maria V.; Khromova, Sofia A.; Yakovlev, Vadim A.; Heeres, Hero J.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, an experimental study on the hydrotreatment of fast pyrolysis liquids is reported in both batch and continuous set-ups using a novel bimetallic Ni-Cu based catalyst with high Ni loading (up to 50%) prepared by a sol-gel method. The experiments were carried out in a wide temperature

  9. Green synthesis of isopropyl myristate in novel single phase medium Part I: Batch optimization studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajeshkumar N. Vadgama

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Isopropyl myristate finds many applications in food, cosmetic and pharmaceutical industries as an emollient, thickening agent, or lubricant. Using a homogeneous reaction phase, non-specific lipase derived from Candida antartica, marketed as Novozym 435, was determined to be most suitable for the enzymatic synthesis of isopropyl myristate. The high molar ratio of alcohol to acid creates novel single phase medium which overcomes mass transfer effects and facilitates downstream processing. The effect of various reaction parameters was optimized to obtain a high yield of isopropyl myristate. Effect of temperature, agitation speed, organic solvent, biocatalyst loading and batch operational stability of the enzyme was systematically studied. The conversion of 87.65% was obtained when the molar ratio of isopropyl alcohol to myristic acid (15:1 was used with 4% (w/w catalyst loading and agitation speed of 150 rpm at 60 °C. The enzyme has also shown good batch operational stability under optimized conditions.

  10. 40 CFR 63.462 - Batch cold cleaning machine standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    .... (a) Each owner or operator of an immersion batch cold solvent cleaning machine shall comply with the... cleaning machine complying with paragraph (a)(2) or (b) of this section shall comply with the work and...

  11. Numerical modeling of batch formation in waste incineration plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Obroučka Karel

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is a mathematical description of algorithm for controlled assembly of incinerated batch of waste. The basis for formation of batch is selected parameters of incinerated waste as its calorific value or content of pollutants or the combination of both. The numerical model will allow, based on selected criteria, to compile batch of wastes which continuously follows the previous batch, which is a prerequisite for optimized operation of incinerator. The model was prepared as for waste storage in containers, as well as for waste storage in continuously refilled boxes. The mathematical model was developed into the computer program and its functionality was verified either by practical measurements or by numerical simulations. The proposed model can be used in incinerators for hazardous and municipal waste.

  12. Two notes about Ponzi schemes

    OpenAIRE

    Patrick Honohan

    1987-01-01

    A Ponzi scheme is an arrangement whereby a promoter offers an investment opportunity with attractive dividends, but where the only basis for the dividends is the future receipts from new investors. The first of these two notes explores some of the analytical properties of a Ponzi scheme, addressing in particular the question whether it is possible for a Ponzi scheme to exist if all the participants are rational. The second note briefly examines the collapse of the PMPA insurance company whos...

  13. Evaluation of sequencing batch reactor performance for petrochemical wastewater treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Mina Salari; Seyed Ahmad Ataei; Fereshteh Bakhtiyari

    2017-01-01

    Sequencing batch reactor (SBR) technology has found many applications in industrial wastewater treatment in recent years. The aim of this study was to determine the optimal time for a cycle of the sequencing batch reactor (SBR) and evaluate the performance of a SBR for petrochemical wastewater treatment in that cycle time. The reactor was operated with a suspended biomass configuration under aerobic conditions. Carbon removal and operating parameters such as pH, temperature and dissolved oxyg...

  14. BACKGROUND AND PROSPECTS FOR THE OPERATION OF BATCH DISTILLATION

    OpenAIRE

    Lombira Echevarria, J.; Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Facultad de Química e Ingeniería Química Unidad de Post Grado, Av . Venezuela s/n Lima -Perú; Otiniano Cáceres, M.; Universidad Naciona l Mayor de San Marcos, Facultad de Química e Ingeniería Química Unidad de Post Grado, Av . Venezuela s/n Lima -Perú

    2014-01-01

    Present contribution constitutes a review that shows the results of bibliographic research carried out about the simulation, design and optimization of batch. Distillation operation. It is analyses the present state of the art of this operation, contrasting its recent achieved results with difficulties that still exist in this area. The different batch distillation columns configurations that have been developed recently, such as the inverted column , middle vessels, multiple effects , extrac...

  15. Entropy conservative finite element schemes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tadmor, E.

    1986-01-01

    The question of entropy stability for discrete approximations to hyperbolic systems of conservation laws is studied. The amount of numerical viscosity present in such schemes is quantified and related to their entropy stability by means of comparison. To this end, two main ingredients are used: entropy variables and the construction of certain entropy conservative schemes in terms of piecewise-linear finite element approximations. It is then shown that conservative schemes are entropy stable, if and (for three-point schemes) only if, they contain more numerical viscosity than the abovementioned entropy conservation ones.

  16. New Ideas on Labeling Schemes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rotbart, Noy Galil

    in a distributed fashion increases. Second, attempting to answer queries on vertices of a graph stored in a distributed fashion can be significantly more complicated. In order to lay theoretical foundations to the first penalty mentioned a large body of work concentrated on labeling schemes. A labeling scheme...... evaluation of fully dynamic labeling schemes. Due to a connection between adjacency labeling schemes and the graph theoretical study of induced universal graphs, we study these in depth and show novel results for bounded degree graphs and power-law graphs. We also survey and make progress on the related...

  17. Multiple-load series resonant inverter for induction cooking ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    P Sharath Kumar

    In addition, it can achieve efficient and stable zero voltage switching operation in the whole load range. The proposed control scheme is simulated and experimentally verified with two-load inverter configuration. Keywords. Induction cooking; multiple load; series resonant inverter; ZVS; pulse density modulation control. 1.

  18. hybrid modulation scheme fo rid modulation scheme fo dulation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    eobe

    This work proposes a switching technique for ca proposes a switching technique for ca. (SCSPWM) scheme is employed in the generation circulation schemes are presented for this concepts, it is now possible to generate equal ave pts, it is now possible to generate equal ave semiconductor switches. This results in equal ...

  19. SLUDGE MASS REDUCTION: PRIMARY COMPOSITIONAL FACTORS THAT INFLUENCE MELT RATE FOR FUTURE SLUDGE BATCH PROJECTIONS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Newell, J; Miller, D; Stone, M; Pickenheim, B

    2008-01-01

    510 based system without Al-dissolution relative to the Frit 418 based system with Al-dissolution. Though the without aluminum dissolution scenario suggests a slightly higher melt rate with frit 510, several points must be taken into consideration: (1) The MRF does not have the ability to assess liquid feeds and, thus, rheology impacts. Instead, the MRF is a 'static' test bed in which a mass of dried melter feed (SRAT product plus frit) is placed in an 'isothermal' furnace for a period of time to assess melt rate. These conditions, although historically effective in terms of identifying candidate frits for specific sludge batches and mapping out melt rate versus waste loading trends, do not allow for assessments of the potential impact of feed rheology on melt rate. That is, if the rheological properties of the slurried melter feed resulted in the mounding of the feed in the melter (i.e., the melter feed was thick and did not flow across the cold cap), melt rate and/or melter operations (i.e., surges) could be negatively impacted. This could affect one or both flowsheets. (2) Waste throughput factors were not determined for Frit 510 and Frit 418 over multiple waste loadings. In order to provide insight into the mission life versus canister count question, one needs to define the maximum waste throughput for both flowsheets. Due to funding limitations, the melt rate testing only evaluated melt rate at a fixed waste loading. (3) DWPF will be processing SB5 through their facility in mid-November 2008. Insight into the over arching questions of melt rate, waste throughput, and mission life can be obtained directly from the facility. It is recommended that processing of SB5 through the facility be monitored closely and that data be used as input into the decision making process on whether to implement Al-dissolution for future sludge batches

  20. On the Use of Nonlinear Model Predictive Control without Parameter Adaptation for Batch Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Christophe Binette

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Optimization techniques are typically used to improve economic performance of batch processes, while meeting product and environmental specifications and safety constraints. Offline methods suffer from the parameters of the model being inaccurate, while re-identification of the parameters may not be possible due to the absence of persistency of excitation. Thus, a practical solution is the Nonlinear Model Predictive Control (NMPC without parameter adaptation, where the measured states serve as new initial conditions for the re-optimization problem with a diminishing horizon. In such schemes, it is clear that the optimum cannot be reached due to plant-model mismatch. However, this paper goes one step further in showing that such re-optimization could in certain cases, especially with an economic cost, lead to results worse than the offline optimal input. On the other hand, in absence of process noise, for small parametric variations, if the cost function corresponds to tracking a feasible trajectory, re-optimization always improves performance. This shows inherent robustness associated with the tracking cost. A batch reactor example presents and analyzes the different cases. Re-optimizing led to worse results in some cases with an economical cost function, while no such problem occurred while working with a tracking cost.

  1. Mathematical modeling of lipase and protease production by Penicillium restrictum in a batch fermenter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freire, D M; Sant'Anna, G L; Alves, T L

    1999-01-01

    This work presents a mathematical model that describes time course variations of extracellular lipase and protease activities for the batch fermentation of the fungus Penicillium restrictum, a new and promising strain isolated from soil and wastes of a Brazilian babassu coconut oil industry. The fermentation process was modeled by an unstructured model, which considered the following dependent variables: cells, fat acid, dissolved oxygen concentrations, lipase and protease activities, and cell lysate concentration. The last variable represents the amount of cells that has been lysed by the shear stress and natural cell death. Proteases released to the medium, as consequence of this process, enhance lipase inactivation. The model is able to predict the effects of some operation variables such as air flow rate and agitation speed. The mathematical model was validated against batch-fermentation data obtained under several operating conditions. Because substrate concentration has antagonistic effects on lipase activity, a typical optimization scheme should be developed in order to minimize these deleterious effects while maximizing lipase activity.

  2. Design of batch audio/video conversion platform based on JavaEE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Yansong; Jiang, Lianpin

    2018-03-01

    With the rapid development of digital publishing industry, the direction of audio / video publishing shows the diversity of coding standards for audio and video files, massive data and other significant features. Faced with massive and diverse data, how to quickly and efficiently convert to a unified code format has brought great difficulties to the digital publishing organization. In view of this demand and present situation in this paper, basing on the development architecture of Sptring+SpringMVC+Mybatis, and combined with the open source FFMPEG format conversion tool, a distributed online audio and video format conversion platform with a B/S structure is proposed. Based on the Java language, the key technologies and strategies designed in the design of platform architecture are analyzed emphatically in this paper, designing and developing a efficient audio and video format conversion system, which is composed of “Front display system”, "core scheduling server " and " conversion server ". The test results show that, compared with the ordinary audio and video conversion scheme, the use of batch audio and video format conversion platform can effectively improve the conversion efficiency of audio and video files, and reduce the complexity of the work. Practice has proved that the key technology discussed in this paper can be applied in the field of large batch file processing, and has certain practical application value.

  3. Batch-to-Batch Quality Consistency Evaluation of Botanical Drug Products Using Multivariate Statistical Analysis of the Chromatographic Fingerprint

    OpenAIRE

    Xiong, Haoshu; Yu, Lawrence X.; Qu, Haibin

    2013-01-01

    Botanical drug products have batch-to-batch quality variability due to botanical raw materials and the current manufacturing process. The rational evaluation and control of product quality consistency are essential to ensure the efficacy and safety. Chromatographic fingerprinting is an important and widely used tool to characterize the chemical composition of botanical drug products. Multivariate statistical analysis has showed its efficacy and applicability in the quality evaluation of many ...

  4. Thermodynamic simulations of hydrate formation from gas mixtures in batch operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobayashi, Takehito; Mori, Yasuhiko H.

    2007-01-01

    This paper deals with the hydrate formation from mixed hydrate-forming gases such as natural gas to be converted to hydrates for the purpose of its storage and biogases from which carbon dioxide is to be separated by hydrate formation. When a batch operation is selected for processing such a gas mixture in a closed reactor, we need to predict the evolution of the thermodynamic and compositional states inside the reactor during the operation. We have contrived a simulation scheme that allows us to estimate the simultaneous changes in the composition of the residual gas, the structure of the hydrate formed and the guest composition in the hydrate, in addition to the change in the system pressure, with the progress of hydrate formation during each operation. This scheme assumes the transient hydrate forming process in a reactor during each operation to be a series of numerous equilibrium states, each slightly deviating from the preceding state. That is, a thermodynamic system composed of the contents of the reactor is assumed to be subjected to a quasi-static, irreversible change in state, instantaneously keeping itself in thermodynamic equilibrium. The paper demonstrates a simulation of a process of hydrate formation from a methane + propane mixture and compares its results to relevant experimental results reported by Uchida et al. [Uchida T, Morikawa M, Takeya S, Ikeda IY, Ohmura R, Nagao J, et al. Two-step formation of methane-propane mixed gas hydrates in a batch-type reactor. AIChE J 2004;50(2):518-23

  5. Performance of Multi-Carrier Access Schemes with Receiver Impairments in Down Link Indoor Environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Das, Suvra Sekhar; Rao, Raieshwar Kurapati; Prasad, Ramjee

    2006-01-01

    impairments, such as synchronization error and channel estimation errors. This work is targeted towards unified verification of performance of the schemes for different spreading gains, load conditions and sub carrier grouping schemes in quasi static realistic indoor channel environment in the presence...

  6. Performance evaluation of time-delay control schemes for uninterruptible power supplies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Loh, P.C; Tang, Y.; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2008-01-01

    transitions. Even more favorable is that the above-described performance features are attained under all load-operating conditions and at the same level of implementation easiness as for the traditional double-loop control scheme. Lastly, for verifying the practicality of the control schemes, an experimental...

  7. CANONICAL BACKWARD DIFFERENTIATION SCHEMES FOR ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The schemes are based on rational interpolation obtained from canonical polynomials. They are A-stable. The test problems show that they give better results than Euler backward method and trapezoidal method near a singular point. KEY WORDS: backward differentiation scheme, collocation, initial value problems.

  8. Improving groundwater storage and soil moisture estimates by assimilating GRACE, SMOS, and SMAP data into CABLE using ensemble Kalman batch smoother and particle batch smoother frameworks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, S. C.; Tangdamrongsub, N.; Yeo, I. Y.; Dong, J.

    2017-12-01

    Soil moisture and groundwater storage are important information for comprehensive understanding of the climate system and accurate assessment of the regional/global water resources. It is possible to derive the water storage from land surface models but the outputs are commonly biased by inaccurate forcing data, inefficacious model physics, and improper model parameter calibration. To mitigate the model uncertainty, the observation (e.g., from remote sensing as well as ground in-situ data) are often integrated into the models via data assimilation (DA). This study aims to improve the estimation of soil moisture and groundwater storage by simultaneously assimilating satellite observations from the Gravity Recovery And Climate Experiment (GRACE), the Soil Moisture Ocean Salinity (SMOS), and the Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) into the Community Atmosphere Biosphere Land Exchange (CABLE) land surface model using the ensemble Kalman batch smoother (EnBS) and particle batch smoother (PBS) frameworks. The uncertainty of GRACE observation is obtained rigorously from the full error variance-covariance matrix of the GRACE data product. This method demonstrates the use of a realistic representative of GRACE uncertainty, which is spatially correlated in nature, leads to a higher accuracy of water storage computation. Additionally, the comparison between EnBS and PBS results is discussed to understand the filter's performance, limitation, and suitability. The joint DA is demonstrated in the Goulburn catchment, South-East Australia, where diverse ground observations (surface soil moisture, root-zone soil moisture, and groundwater level) are available for evaluation of our DA results. Preliminary results show that both smoothers provide significant improvement of surface soil moisture and groundwater storage estimates. Importantly, our developed DA scheme disaggregates the catchment-scale GRACE information into finer vertical and spatial scales ( 25 km). We present an

  9. SLUDGE BATCH 5 VARIABILITY STUDY WITH FRIT 418

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raszewski, F; Tommy Edwards, T; David Peeler, D

    2008-09-29

    The Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) is preparing to initiate processing Sludge Batch 5 (SB5) in early FY 2009. In support of the upcoming processing, the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) provided a recommendation to utilize Frit 418 as a transitional frit to initiate processing of SB5. This recommendation was based on the results of assessments on the compositional projections for SB5 available at that time from both the Liquid Waste Organization (LWO) and SRNL (using a model-based approach). To support qualification of the Frit 418-SB5 system, SRNL executed a variability study to assess the acceptability of the Frit 418-SB5 glasses with respect to durability and the applicability of the current durability models. Twenty one glasses were selected for the variability study based on the available SB5 projections primarily spanning a waste loading (WL) range of 25-37%. In order to account for the addition of caustic to Tank 40, which occurred in July 2008, 3 wt% Na2O was added to the original Tank 40 heel projections. The addition of the Actinide Removal Process (ARP) stream to the blend composition was also included. Two of the glasses were fabricated at 25% and 28% WL in order to challenge the homogeneity constraint of the Product Composition Control System (PCCS) for SB5 coupled operations. These twenty one glasses were fabricated and characterized using chemical composition analysis, X-ray Diffraction (XRD) and the Product Consistency Test (PCT). The results of this study indicate that Frit 418 is a viable option for sludge-only and coupled operations. The addition of ARP did not have any negative impacts on the acceptability and predictability of the variability study glasses. Based on the measured PCT response, all of the glasses were acceptable as compared to the Environmental Assessment (EA) reference glass regardless of the thermal history and were also predictable using the current PCCS model for durability. The homogeneity constraint can

  10. 40 CFR 63.1326 - Batch process vents-recordkeeping provisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... operator of a batch process vent that has chosen to use a control device to comply with § 63.1322(a) shall... 40 Protection of Environment 11 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Batch process vents-recordkeeping... Batch process vents—recordkeeping provisions. (a) Group determination records for batch process vents...

  11. 40 CFR 63.487 - Batch front-end process vents-reference control technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... § 63.487 Batch front-end process vents—reference control technology. (a) Batch front-end process vents... process vent, reduce organic HAP emissions for the batch cycle by 90 weight percent using a control device... 40 Protection of Environment 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Batch front-end process vents-reference...

  12. 40 CFR 63.491 - Batch front-end process vents-recordkeeping requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... combustion device to control halogenated batch front-end process vents or halogenated aggregate batch vent... periods of process or control device operation when monitors are not operating. (f) Aggregate batch vent... 40 Protection of Environment 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Batch front-end process vents...

  13. 40 CFR 63.489 - Batch front-end process vents-monitoring equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... operator of a batch front-end process vent or aggregate batch vent stream that uses a control device to... meets the conditions of § 63.490(b)(3). (i) For batch front-end process vents using a control device to... 40 Protection of Environment 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Batch front-end process vents...

  14. 40 CFR 63.492 - Batch front-end process vents-reporting requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... recorded under § 63.491(e)(3) when the batch front-end process vent is diverted away from the control... 40 Protection of Environment 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Batch front-end process vents-reporting... Batch front-end process vents—reporting requirements. (a) The owner or operator of a batch front-end...

  15. Towards Batched Linear Solvers on Accelerated Hardware Platforms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haidar, Azzam [University of Tennessee (UT); Dong, Tingzing Tim [University of Tennessee (UT); Tomov, Stanimire [University of Tennessee (UT); Dongarra, Jack J [ORNL

    2015-01-01

    As hardware evolves, an increasingly effective approach to develop energy efficient, high-performance solvers, is to design them to work on many small and independent problems. Indeed, many applications already need this functionality, especially for GPUs, which are known to be currently about four to five times more energy efficient than multicore CPUs for every floating-point operation. In this paper, we describe the development of the main one-sided factorizations: LU, QR, and Cholesky; that are needed for a set of small dense matrices to work in parallel. We refer to such algorithms as batched factorizations. Our approach is based on representing the algorithms as a sequence of batched BLAS routines for GPU-contained execution. Note that this is similar in functionality to the LAPACK and the hybrid MAGMA algorithms for large-matrix factorizations. But it is different from a straightforward approach, whereby each of GPU's symmetric multiprocessors factorizes a single problem at a time. We illustrate how our performance analysis together with the profiling and tracing tools guided the development of batched factorizations to achieve up to 2-fold speedup and 3-fold better energy efficiency compared to our highly optimized batched CPU implementations based on the MKL library on a two-sockets, Intel Sandy Bridge server. Compared to a batched LU factorization featured in the NVIDIA's CUBLAS library for GPUs, we achieves up to 2.5-fold speedup on the K40 GPU.

  16. Frequency Stabilizing Scheme for a Danish Island Grid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cha, Seung-Tae; Wu, Qiuwei; Østergaard, Jacob

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes the development of frequency stabilizing control scheme for a small Danish island of Bornholm. The Bornholm power system is able to transit from interconnected operation with the Nordic power system to isolated islanding operation. During islanding operation the shedding...... with a battery energy storage system (BESS) has been proposed. The real-time models of distribution grids of Bornholm power system were used to carry out case studies to illustrate the performance of centralized load frequency control as well as coordinated control scheme. Case study results show...

  17. Testing SLURM open source batch system for a Tierl/Tier2 HEP computing facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donvito, Giacinto; Italiano, Alessandro; Salomoni, Davide

    2014-01-01

    In this work the testing activities that were carried on to verify if the SLURM batch system could be used as the production batch system of a typical Tier1/Tier2 HEP computing center are shown. SLURM (Simple Linux Utility for Resource Management) is an Open Source batch system developed mainly by the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, SchedMD, Linux NetworX, Hewlett-Packard, and Groupe Bull. Testing was focused both on verifying the functionalities of the batch system and the performance that SLURM is able to offer. We first describe our initial set of requirements. Functionally, we started configuring SLURM so that it replicates all the scheduling policies already used in production in the computing centers involved in the test, i.e. INFN-Bari and the INFN-Tier1 at CNAF, Bologna. Currently, the INFN-Tier1 is using IBM LSF (Load Sharing Facility), while INFN-Bari, an LHC Tier2 for both CMS and Alice, is using Torque as resource manager and MAUI as scheduler. We show how we configured SLURM in order to enable several scheduling functionalities such as Hierarchical FairShare, Quality of Service, user-based and group-based priority, limits on the number of jobs per user/group/queue, job age scheduling, job size scheduling, and scheduling of consumable resources. We then show how different job typologies, like serial, MPI, multi-thread, whole-node and interactive jobs can be managed. Tests on the use of ACLs on queues or in general other resources are then described. A peculiar SLURM feature we also verified is triggers on event, useful to configure specific actions on each possible event in the batch system. We also tested highly available configurations for the master node. This feature is of paramount importance since a mandatory requirement in our scenarios is to have a working farm cluster even in case of hardware failure of the server(s) hosting the batch system. Among our requirements there is also the possibility to deal with pre-execution and post

  18. Testing SLURM open source batch system for a Tierl/Tier2 HEP computing facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donvito, Giacinto; Salomoni, Davide; Italiano, Alessandro

    2014-06-01

    In this work the testing activities that were carried on to verify if the SLURM batch system could be used as the production batch system of a typical Tier1/Tier2 HEP computing center are shown. SLURM (Simple Linux Utility for Resource Management) is an Open Source batch system developed mainly by the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, SchedMD, Linux NetworX, Hewlett-Packard, and Groupe Bull. Testing was focused both on verifying the functionalities of the batch system and the performance that SLURM is able to offer. We first describe our initial set of requirements. Functionally, we started configuring SLURM so that it replicates all the scheduling policies already used in production in the computing centers involved in the test, i.e. INFN-Bari and the INFN-Tier1 at CNAF, Bologna. Currently, the INFN-Tier1 is using IBM LSF (Load Sharing Facility), while INFN-Bari, an LHC Tier2 for both CMS and Alice, is using Torque as resource manager and MAUI as scheduler. We show how we configured SLURM in order to enable several scheduling functionalities such as Hierarchical FairShare, Quality of Service, user-based and group-based priority, limits on the number of jobs per user/group/queue, job age scheduling, job size scheduling, and scheduling of consumable resources. We then show how different job typologies, like serial, MPI, multi-thread, whole-node and interactive jobs can be managed. Tests on the use of ACLs on queues or in general other resources are then described. A peculiar SLURM feature we also verified is triggers on event, useful to configure specific actions on each possible event in the batch system. We also tested highly available configurations for the master node. This feature is of paramount importance since a mandatory requirement in our scenarios is to have a working farm cluster even in case of hardware failure of the server(s) hosting the batch system. Among our requirements there is also the possibility to deal with pre-execution and post

  19. Spectral scheme for spacetime physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seriu, Masafumi

    2002-01-01

    Based on the spectral representation of spatial geometry, we construct an analysis scheme for spacetime physics and cosmology, which enables us to compare two or more universes with each other. In this scheme the spectral distance plays a central role, which is the measure of closeness between two geometries defined in terms of the spectra. We apply this scheme for analyzing the averaging problem in cosmology; we explicitly investigate the time evolution of the spectra, distance between two nearby spatial geometries, simulating the relation between the real Universe and its model. We then formulate the criteria for a model to be a suitable one

  20. Coordinated renewable energy support schemes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morthorst, P.E.; Jensen, S.G.

    2006-01-01

    This paper illustrates the effect that can be observed when support schemes for renewable energy are regionalised. Two theoretical examples are used to explain interactive effects on, e.g., the price of power, conditions for conventional power producers, and changes in import and export of power...... RES-E support schemes already has a common liberalised power market. In this case the introduction of a common support scheme for renewable technologies will lead to more efficient sitings of renewable plants, improving economic and environmental performance of the total power system...

  1. Elimination of water pathogens with solar radiation using an automated sequential batch CPC reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polo-López, M I; Fernández-Ibáñez, P; Ubomba-Jaswa, E; Navntoft, C; García-Fernández, I; Dunlop, P S M; Schmid, M; Byrne, J A; McGuigan, K G

    2011-11-30

    Solar disinfection (SODIS) of water is a well-known, effective treatment process which is practiced at household level in many developing countries. However, this process is limited by the small volume treated and there is no indication of treatment efficacy for the user. Low cost glass tube reactors, together with compound parabolic collector (CPC) technology, have been shown to significantly increase the efficiency of solar disinfection. However, these reactors still require user input to control each batch SODIS process and there is no feedback that the process is complete. Automatic operation of the batch SODIS process, controlled by UVA-radiation sensors, can provide information on the status of the process, can ensure the required UVA dose to achieve complete disinfection is received and reduces user work-load through automatic sequential batch processing. In this work, an enhanced CPC photo-reactor with a concentration factor of 1.89 was developed. The apparatus was automated to achieve exposure to a pre-determined UVA dose. Treated water was automatically dispensed into a reservoir tank. The reactor was tested using Escherichia coli as a model pathogen in natural well water. A 6-log inactivation of E. coli was achieved following exposure to the minimum uninterrupted lethal UVA dose. The enhanced reactor decreased the exposure time required to achieve the lethal UVA dose, in comparison to a CPC system with a concentration factor of 1.0. Doubling the lethal UVA dose prevented the need for a period of post-exposure dark inactivation and reduced the overall treatment time. Using this reactor, SODIS can be automatically carried out at an affordable cost, with reduced exposure time and minimal user input. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Elimination of water pathogens with solar radiation using an automated sequential batch CPC reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Polo-Lopez, M.I., E-mail: mpolo@psa.es [Plataforma Solar de Almeria - CIEMAT, PO Box 22, 04200 Tabernas, Almeria (Spain); Fernandez-Ibanez, P., E-mail: pilar.fernandez@psa.es [Plataforma Solar de Almeria - CIEMAT, PO Box 22, 04200 Tabernas, Almeria (Spain); Ubomba-Jaswa, E., E-mail: euniceubombajaswa@yahoo.com [Natural Resources and the Environment, CSIR, PO Box 395, Pretoria (South Africa); Navntoft, C., E-mail: christian.navntoft@solarmate.com.ar [Instituto de Investigacion e Ingenieria Ambiental, Universidad Nacional de San Martin (3iA-UNSAM), Peatonal Belgrano 3563, B1650ANQ San Martin (Argentina); Universidad Tecnologica Nacional - Facultad Regional Buenos Aires - Departamento de Ingenieria Civil - Laboratorio de Estudios sobre Energia Solar, (UTN-FRBA-LESES), Mozart 2300, (1407) Ciudad Autonoma de Buenos Aires, Republica Argentina (Argentina); Garcia-Fernandez, I., E-mail: irene.garcia@psa.es [Plataforma Solar de Almeria - CIEMAT, PO Box 22, 04200 Tabernas, Almeria (Spain); Dunlop, P.S.M., E-mail: psm.dunlop@ulster.ac.uk [Department of Physiology and Medical Physics, Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland, Dublin 2 (Ireland); Schmid, M. [Department of Physiology and Medical Physics, Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland, Dublin 2 (Ireland); Byrne, J.A., E-mail: j.byrne@ulster.ac.uk [Department of Physiology and Medical Physics, Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland, Dublin 2 (Ireland); and others

    2011-11-30

    Solar disinfection (SODIS) of water is a well-known, effective treatment process which is practiced at household level in many developing countries. However, this process is limited by the small volume treated and there is no indication of treatment efficacy for the user. Low cost glass tube reactors, together with compound parabolic collector (CPC) technology, have been shown to significantly increase the efficiency of solar disinfection. However, these reactors still require user input to control each batch SODIS process and there is no feedback that the process is complete. Automatic operation of the batch SODIS process, controlled by UVA-radiation sensors, can provide information on the status of the process, can ensure the required UVA dose to achieve complete disinfection is received and reduces user work-load through automatic sequential batch processing. In this work, an enhanced CPC photo-reactor with a concentration factor of 1.89 was developed. The apparatus was automated to achieve exposure to a pre-determined UVA dose. Treated water was automatically dispensed into a reservoir tank. The reactor was tested using Escherichia coli as a model pathogen in natural well water. A 6-log inactivation of E. coli was achieved following exposure to the minimum uninterrupted lethal UVA dose. The enhanced reactor decreased the exposure time required to achieve the lethal UVA dose, in comparison to a CPC system with a concentration factor of 1.0. Doubling the lethal UVA dose prevented the need for a period of post-exposure dark inactivation and reduced the overall treatment time. Using this reactor, SODIS can be automatically carried out at an affordable cost, with reduced exposure time and minimal user input.

  3. Reconfirmation of frit 803 based on the January 2016 sludge batch 9 reprojection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, F. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Edwards, T. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2016-02-10

    On January 11, 2016, Savannah River Remediation (SRR) provided the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) with a Sludge Batch 9 (SB9) reprojection that was developed from the analyzed composition of a Tank 51 sample. This sample was collected after field washing had been completed in Tank 51 to support the alternate reductant task. Based on this reprojection, Frit 803 is still a viable option for the processing of SB9 under sludge-only operations and coupled (Actinide Removal Process (ARP) product with and without monosodium titanate (MST)) operations. The maximum projected volumes of ARP product that can be transferred from the Precipitate Reactor Feed Tank (PRFT) per Sludge Receipt and Adjustment Tank (SRAT) batch and the resulting Na2O concentrations in the SRAT for coupled operations were determined. The Na2O concentrations in the SRAT resulting from the maximum projected ARP product transfer volumes are consistent with those from the previous assessments that were based on the August 2015 projections. Regardless of the presence or absence of MST in the ARP product, the contribution of Na2O to the resulting glass will be similar at the same waste loading (WL). These projected volumes of ARP product are not anticipated to be an issue for SB9. The actual transfer volumes from the PRFT to the SRAT are determined based upon the analyzed Na2O concentrations in the PRFT samples, which has resulted in larger transfer volumes than those allowed by the projections for Sludge Batch 8 (SB8). An operating window of 32-40% WL around the nominal WL of 36% is achievable for both sludge-only and coupled operations; however, each of the glass systems studied does become limited by waste form affecting constraints (durability) at higher volumes of ARP product and WLs of 41-42%.

  4. Elimination of water pathogens with solar radiation using an automated sequential batch CPC reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polo-López, M.I.; Fernández-Ibáñez, P.; Ubomba-Jaswa, E.; Navntoft, C.; García-Fernández, I.; Dunlop, P.S.M.; Schmid, M.; Byrne, J.A.

    2011-01-01

    Solar disinfection (SODIS) of water is a well-known, effective treatment process which is practiced at household level in many developing countries. However, this process is limited by the small volume treated and there is no indication of treatment efficacy for the user. Low cost glass tube reactors, together with compound parabolic collector (CPC) technology, have been shown to significantly increase the efficiency of solar disinfection. However, these reactors still require user input to control each batch SODIS process and there is no feedback that the process is complete. Automatic operation of the batch SODIS process, controlled by UVA-radiation sensors, can provide information on the status of the process, can ensure the required UVA dose to achieve complete disinfection is received and reduces user work-load through automatic sequential batch processing. In this work, an enhanced CPC photo-reactor with a concentration factor of 1.89 was developed. The apparatus was automated to achieve exposure to a pre-determined UVA dose. Treated water was automatically dispensed into a reservoir tank. The reactor was tested using Escherichia coli as a model pathogen in natural well water. A 6-log inactivation of E. coli was achieved following exposure to the minimum uninterrupted lethal UVA dose. The enhanced reactor decreased the exposure time required to achieve the lethal UVA dose, in comparison to a CPC system with a concentration factor of 1.0. Doubling the lethal UVA dose prevented the need for a period of post-exposure dark inactivation and reduced the overall treatment time. Using this reactor, SODIS can be automatically carried out at an affordable cost, with reduced exposure time and minimal user input.

  5. From Fed-batch to Continuous Enzymatic Biodiesel Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Price, Jason Anthony; Nordblad, Mathias; Woodley, John M.

    2015-01-01

    In this this paper, we use mechanistic modelling to guide the development of acontinuous enzymatic process that is performed as a fed-batch operation. In this workwe use the enzymatic biodiesel process as a case study. A mechanistic model developedin our previous work was used to determine...... measured components (triglycerides, diglycerides, monoglycerides, free fatty acid and fatty acid methyl esters(biodiesel)) much better than using fed-batch data alone given the smaller residuals. We also observe a reduction in the correlation between the parameters.The model was then used to predict that 5...... reactors are required (with a combined residence time of 30 hours) to reach a final biodiesel concentration within 2 % of the95.6 mass % achieved in a fed-batch operation, for 24 hours....

  6. Batch variation between branchial cell cultures: An analysis of variance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Heinz Johs. Max; Grosell, M.; Kristensen, L.

    2003-01-01

    We present in detail how a statistical analysis of variance (ANOVA) is used to sort out the effect of an unexpected batch-to-batch variation between cell cultures. Two separate cultures of rainbow trout branchial cells were grown on permeable filtersupports ("inserts"). They were supposed...... to be simple duplicates for testing the effect of two induced factors-apical or basolateral addition of radioactive precursors and different apical media-on the incorporation of 14C-acetate and 32Pphosphate intotissue lipids. Unfortunately, they did not altogether give the same result. By accepting this fact...... and introducing the observed difference between batches as one of the factors in an expanded three-dimensional ANOVA, we were able to overcome an otherwisecrucial lack of sufficiently reproducible duplicate values. We could thereby show that the effect of changing the apical medium was much more marked when...

  7. Carbohydrate Loading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csernus, Marilyn

    Carbohydrate loading is a frequently used technique to improve performance by altering an athlete's diet. The objective is to increase glycogen stored in muscles for use in prolonged strenuous exercise. For two to three days, the athlete consumes a diet that is low in carbohydrates and high in fat and protein while continuing to exercise and…

  8. A High-Fidelity Batch Simulation Environment for Integrated Batch and Piloted Air Combat Simulation Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodrich, Kenneth H.; McManus, John W.; Chappell, Alan R.

    1992-01-01

    A batch air combat simulation environment known as the Tactical Maneuvering Simulator (TMS) is presented. The TMS serves as a tool for developing and evaluating tactical maneuvering logics. The environment can also be used to evaluate the tactical implications of perturbations to aircraft performance or supporting systems. The TMS is capable of simulating air combat between any number of engagement participants, with practical limits imposed by computer memory and processing power. Aircraft are modeled using equations of motion, control laws, aerodynamics and propulsive characteristics equivalent to those used in high-fidelity piloted simulation. Databases representative of a modern high-performance aircraft with and without thrust-vectoring capability are included. To simplify the task of developing and implementing maneuvering logics in the TMS, an outer-loop control system known as the Tactical Autopilot (TA) is implemented in the aircraft simulation model. The TA converts guidance commands issued by computerized maneuvering logics in the form of desired angle-of-attack and wind axis-bank angle into inputs to the inner-loop control augmentation system of the aircraft. This report describes the capabilities and operation of the TMS.

  9. Continuous flow technology vs. the batch-by-batch approach to produce pharmaceutical compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Kevin P; Johnson, Martin D

    2018-01-01

    For the manufacture of small molecule drugs, many pharmaceutical innovator companies have recently invested in continuous processing, which can offer significant technical and economic advantages over traditional batch methodology. This Expert Review will describe the reasons for this interest as well as many considerations and challenges that exist today concerning continuous manufacturing. Areas covered: Continuous processing is defined and many reasons for its adoption are described. The current state of continuous drug substance manufacturing within the pharmaceutical industry is summarized. Current key challenges to implementation of continuous manufacturing are highlighted, and an outlook provided regarding the prospects for continuous within the industry. Expert commentary: Continuous processing at Lilly has been a journey that started with the need for increased safety and capability. Over twelve years the original small, dedicated group has grown to more than 100 Lilly employees in discovery, development, quality, manufacturing, and regulatory designing in continuous drug substance processing. Recently we have focused on linked continuous unit operations for the purpose of all-at-once pharmaceutical manufacturing, but the technical and business drivers that existed in the very beginning for stand-alone continuous unit operations in hybrid processes have persisted, which merits investment in both approaches.

  10. Adaptive Voltage Stability Protection Based on Load Identification Using Phasor Measurement Units

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Leo; Bak, Claus Leth; Chen, Zhe

    2011-01-01

    with respect to load characteristics was evaluated. Based on different load characteristics, different control and protection schemes were implemented, i.e. shunt capacitor connection, on-load tap changer blocking and load shedding. The results showed that load-based adaptive voltage control and protection...... scheme based on PMUs is promising, as it prevented the voltage collapse and minimized the load shedding area....... collapse. In this paper, the online load identification using measurement-based approach based on Phasor Measurement Units (PMU) was proposed to evaluate the proximity to voltage instability in order to prevent voltage collapse. In the scenarios of disturbances, the proximity to voltage collapse...

  11. Relaxation schemes for Chebyshev spectral multigrid methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Yimin; Fulton, Scott R.

    1993-01-01

    Two relaxation schemes for Chebyshev spectral multigrid methods are presented for elliptic equations with Dirichlet boundary conditions. The first scheme is a pointwise-preconditioned Richardson relaxation scheme and the second is a line relaxation scheme. The line relaxation scheme provides an efficient and relatively simple approach for solving two-dimensional spectral equations. Numerical examples and comparisons with other methods are given.

  12. Good governance for pension schemes

    CERN Document Server

    Thornton, Paul

    2011-01-01

    Regulatory and market developments have transformed the way in which UK private sector pension schemes operate. This has increased demands on trustees and advisors and the trusteeship governance model must evolve in order to remain fit for purpose. This volume brings together leading practitioners to provide an overview of what today constitutes good governance for pension schemes, from both a legal and a practical perspective. It provides the reader with an appreciation of the distinctive characteristics of UK occupational pension schemes, how they sit within the capital markets and their social and fiduciary responsibilities. Providing a holistic analysis of pension risk, both from the trustee and the corporate perspective, the essays cover the crucial role of the employer covenant, financing and investment risk, developments in longevity risk hedging and insurance de-risking, and best practice scheme administration.

  13. A Novel Iris Segmentation Scheme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen-Chung Liu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the key steps in the iris recognition system is the accurate iris segmentation from its surrounding noises including pupil, sclera, eyelashes, and eyebrows of a captured eye-image. This paper presents a novel iris segmentation scheme which utilizes the orientation matching transform to outline the outer and inner iris boundaries initially. It then employs Delogne-Kåsa circle fitting (instead of the traditional Hough transform to further eliminate the outlier points to extract a more precise iris area from an eye-image. In the extracted iris region, the proposed scheme further utilizes the differences in the intensity and positional characteristics of the iris, eyelid, and eyelashes to detect and delete these noises. The scheme is then applied on iris image database, UBIRIS.v1. The experimental results show that the presented scheme provides a more effective and efficient iris segmentation than other conventional methods.

  14. Numerical schemes for explosion hazards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Therme, Nicolas

    2015-01-01

    In nuclear facilities, internal or external explosions can cause confinement breaches and radioactive materials release in the environment. Hence, modeling such phenomena is crucial for safety matters. Blast waves resulting from explosions are modeled by the system of Euler equations for compressible flows, whereas Navier-Stokes equations with reactive source terms and level set techniques are used to simulate the propagation of flame front during the deflagration phase. The purpose of this thesis is to contribute to the creation of efficient numerical schemes to solve these complex models. The work presented here focuses on two major aspects: first, the development of consistent schemes for the Euler equations, then the buildup of reliable schemes for the front propagation. In both cases, explicit in time schemes are used, but we also introduce a pressure correction scheme for the Euler equations. Staggered discretization is used in space. It is based on the internal energy formulation of the Euler system, which insures its positivity and avoids tedious discretization of the total energy over staggered grids. A discrete kinetic energy balance is derived from the scheme and a source term is added in the discrete internal energy balance equation to preserve the exact total energy balance at the limit. High order methods of MUSCL type are used in the discrete convective operators, based solely on material velocity. They lead to positivity of density and internal energy under CFL conditions. This ensures that the total energy cannot grow and we can furthermore derive a discrete entropy inequality. Under stability assumptions of the discrete L8 and BV norms of the scheme's solutions one can prove that a sequence of converging discrete solutions necessarily converges towards the weak solution of the Euler system. Besides it satisfies a weak entropy inequality at the limit. Concerning the front propagation, we transform the flame front evolution equation (the so

  15. Cycle-time determination and process control of sequencing batch membrane bioreactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krampe, J

    2013-01-01

    In this paper a method to determine the cycle time for sequencing batch membrane bioreactors (SBMBRs) is introduced. One of the advantages of SBMBRs is the simplicity of adapting them to varying wastewater composition. The benefit of this flexibility can only be fully utilised if the cycle times are optimised for the specific inlet load conditions. This requires either proactive and ongoing operator adjustment or active predictive instrument-based control. Determination of the cycle times for conventional sequencing batch reactor (SBR) plants is usually based on experience. Due to the higher mixed liquor suspended solids concentrations in SBMBRs and the limited experience with their application, a new approach to calculate the cycle time had to be developed. Based on results from a semi-technical pilot plant, the paper presents an approach for calculating the cycle time in relation to the influent concentration according to the Activated Sludge Model No. 1 and the German HSG (Hochschulgruppe) Approach. The approach presented in this paper considers the increased solid contents in the reactor and the resultant shortened reaction times. This allows for an exact calculation of the nitrification and denitrification cycles with a tolerance of only a few minutes. Ultimately the same approach can be used for a predictive control strategy and for conventional SBR plants.

  16. Nonylphenol polyethoxylate degradation in aqueous waste by the use of batch and continuous biofilm bioreactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Gioia, Diana; Sciubba, Luigi; Bertin, Lorenzo; Barberio, Claudia; Salvadori, Laura; Frassinetti, Stefania; Fava, Fabio

    2009-07-01

    An aerobic bacterial consortium (Consortium A) was recently obtained from textile wastewater and was capable of degrading 4-nonylphenol and nonylphenol polyethoxylates (NPnEOs). In the perspective of developing a biotechnological process for the treatment of effluents from activated sludge plants fed with NPnEO contaminated wastewater, the capability of Consortium A of biodegrading an industrial mixture of NPnEOs in the physiological condition of immobilized cells was investigated. Two identically configured packed bed reactors were developed by immobilizing the consortium on silica beads or granular activated carbon. Both reactors were tested in batch and continuous mode by feeding them with water supplemented with NPnEOs. The two reactors were monitored through chemical, microbiological and molecular integrated methodology. Active biofilms were generated on both immobilization supports. Both reactors displayed comparable NPnEO mineralization under batch and continuous conditions. FISH analyses evidenced that the biofilms evolved with time by changing the reactor operation mode and the organic load. Taken together, the data collected in this study provide a preliminary strong indication on the feasibility of Consortium A-based biofilm technology for the decontamination of NPnEO containing effluents.

  17. Breeding schemes in reindeer husbandry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lars Rönnegård

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the paper was to investigate annual genetic gain from selection (G, and the influence of selection on the inbreeding effective population size (Ne, for different possible breeding schemes within a reindeer herding district. The breeding schemes were analysed for different proportions of the population within a herding district included in the selection programme. Two different breeding schemes were analysed: an open nucleus scheme where males mix and mate between owner flocks, and a closed nucleus scheme where the males in non-selected owner flocks are culled to maximise G in the whole population. The theory of expected long-term genetic contributions was used and maternal effects were included in the analyses. Realistic parameter values were used for the population, modelled with 5000 reindeer in the population and a sex ratio of 14 adult females per male. The standard deviation of calf weights was 4.1 kg. Four different situations were explored and the results showed: 1. When the population was randomly culled, Ne equalled 2400. 2. When the whole population was selected on calf weights, Ne equalled 1700 and the total annual genetic gain (direct + maternal in calf weight was 0.42 kg. 3. For the open nucleus scheme, G increased monotonically from 0 to 0.42 kg as the proportion of the population included in the selection programme increased from 0 to 1.0, and Ne decreased correspondingly from 2400 to 1700. 4. In the closed nucleus scheme the lowest value of Ne was 1300. For a given proportion of the population included in the selection programme, the difference in G between a closed nucleus scheme and an open one was up to 0.13 kg. We conclude that for mass selection based on calf weights in herding districts with 2000 animals or more, there are no risks of inbreeding effects caused by selection.

  18. Small-scale classification schemes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hertzum, Morten

    2004-01-01

    . While coordination mechanisms focus on how classification schemes enable cooperation among people pursuing a common goal, boundary objects embrace the implicit consequences of classification schemes in situations involving conflicting goals. Moreover, the requirements specification focused on functional...... requirements and provided little information about why these requirements were considered relevant. This stands in contrast to the discussions at the project meetings where the software engineers made frequent use of both abstract goal descriptions and concrete examples to make sense of the requirements...

  19. An Improved Overloading Scheme for Downlink CDMA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc Moeneclaey

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available An improved overloading scheme is presented for single-user detection in the downlink of multiple-access systems based on OCDMA/OCDMA (O/O. By displacing in time the orthogonal signatures of the two user sets that make up the overloaded system, the cross-correlation between the users of the two sets is reduced. For random O/O with square-root cosine rolloff chip pulses, the multiuser interference can be decreased by up to 50% (depending on the chip pulse bandwidth as compared to quasiorthogonal sequences (QOS that are presently part of the downlink standard of Cdma2000. This reduction of the multiuser interference gives rise to an increase of the achievable signal-to-interference-plus-noise ratio for a particular channel load.

  20. Analysis and modelling of the energy requirements of batch processes; Analyse und Modellierung des Energiebedarfes in Batch-Prozessen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bieler, P.S.

    2002-07-01

    This intermediate report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) presents the results of a project aiming to model the energy consumption of multi-product, multi-purpose batch production plants. The utilities investigated were electricity, brine and steam. Both top-down and bottom-up approaches are described, whereby top-down was used for the buildings where the batch process apparatus was installed. Modelling showed that for batch-plants at the building level, the product mix can be too variable and the diversity of products and processes too great for simple modelling. Further results obtained by comparing six different production plants that could be modelled are discussed. The several models developed are described and their wider applicability is discussed. Also, the results of comparisons made between modelled and actual values are presented. Recommendations for further work are made.

  1. Communication Improvement for the LU NAS Parallel Benchmark: A Model for Efficient Parallel Relaxation Schemes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yarrow, Maurice; VanderWijngaart, Rob; Kutler, Paul (Technical Monitor)

    1997-01-01

    The first release of the MPI version of the LU NAS Parallel Benchmark (NPB2.0) performed poorly compared to its companion NPB2.0 codes. The later LU release (NPB2.1 & 2.2) runs up to two and a half times faster, thanks to a revised point access scheme and related communications scheme. The new scheme sends substantially fewer messages. is cache "friendly", and has a better load balance. We detail the, observations and modifications that resulted in this efficiency improvement, and show that the poor behavior of the original code resulted from deriving a message passing scheme from an algorithm originally devised for a vector architecture.

  2. Design of two-column batch-to-batch recirculation to enhance performance in ion-exchange chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persson, Oliver; Andersson, Niklas; Nilsson, Bernt

    2018-01-05

    Preparative liquid chromatography is a separation technique widely used in the manufacturing of fine chemicals and pharmaceuticals. A major drawback of traditional single-column batch chromatography step is the trade-off between product purity and process performance. Recirculation of impure product can be utilized to make the trade-off more favorable. The aim of the present study was to investigate the usage of a two-column batch-to-batch recirculation process step to increase the performance compared to single-column batch chromatography at a high purity requirement. The separation of a ternary protein mixture on ion-exchange chromatography columns was used to evaluate the proposed process. The investigation used modelling and simulation of the process step, experimental validation and optimization of the simulated process. In the presented case the yield increases from 45.4% to 93.6% and the productivity increases 3.4 times compared to the performance of a batch run for a nominal case. A rapid concentration build-up product can be seen during the first cycles, before the process reaches a cyclic steady-state with reoccurring concentration profiles. The optimization of the simulation model predicts that the recirculated salt can be used as a flying start of the elution, which would enhance the process performance. The proposed process is more complex than a batch process, but may improve the separation performance, especially while operating at cyclic steady-state. The recirculation of impure fractions reduces the product losses and ensures separation of product to a high degree of purity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Lipid production in batch and fed-batch cultures of Rhodosporidium toruloides from 5 and 6 carbon carbohydrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wiebe Marilyn G

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Microbial lipids are a potential source of bio- or renewable diesel and the red yeast Rhodosporidium toruloides is interesting not only because it can accumulate over 50% of its dry biomass as lipid, but also because it utilises both five and six carbon carbohydrates, which are present in plant biomass hydrolysates. Methods R. toruloides was grown in batch and fed-batch cultures in 0.5 L bioreactors at pH 4 in chemically defined, nitrogen restricted (C/N 40 to 100 media containing glucose, xylose, arabinose, or all three carbohydrates as carbon source. Lipid was extracted from the biomass using chloroform-methanol, measured gravimetrically and analysed by GC. Results Lipid production was most efficient with glucose (up to 25 g lipid L−1, 48 to 75% lipid in the biomass, at up to 0.21 g lipid L−1 h−1 as the sole carbon source, but high lipid concentrations were also produced from xylose (36 to 45% lipid in biomass. Lipid production was low (15–19% lipid in biomass with arabinose as sole carbon source and was lower than expected (30% lipid in biomass when glucose, xylose and arabinose were provided simultaneously. The presence of arabinose and/or xylose in the medium increased the proportion of palmitic and linoleic acid and reduced the proportion of oleic acid in the fatty acids, compared to glucose-grown cells. High cell densities were obtained in both batch (37 g L−1, with 49% lipid in the biomass and fed-batch (35 to 47 g L−1, with 50 to 75% lipid in the biomass cultures. The highest proportion of lipid in the biomass was observed in cultures given nitrogen during the batch phase but none with the feed. However, carbohydrate consumption was incomplete when the feed did not contain nitrogen and the highest total lipid and best substrate consumption were observed in cultures which received a constant low nitrogen supply. Conclusions Lipid production in R. toruloides was lower from arabinose and mixed

  4. Lipid production in batch and fed-batch cultures of Rhodosporidium toruloides from 5 and 6 carbon carbohydrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiebe, Marilyn G; Koivuranta, Kari; Penttilä, Merja; Ruohonen, Laura

    2012-05-30

    Microbial lipids are a potential source of bio- or renewable diesel and the red yeast Rhodosporidium toruloides is interesting not only because it can accumulate over 50% of its dry biomass as lipid, but also because it utilises both five and six carbon carbohydrates, which are present in plant biomass hydrolysates. R. toruloides was grown in batch and fed-batch cultures in 0.5 L bioreactors at pH 4 in chemically defined, nitrogen restricted (C/N 40 to 100) media containing glucose, xylose, arabinose, or all three carbohydrates as carbon source. Lipid was extracted from the biomass using chloroform-methanol, measured gravimetrically and analysed by GC. Lipid production was most efficient with glucose (up to 25 g lipid L(-1), 48 to 75% lipid in the biomass, at up to 0.21 g lipid L(-1) h(-1)) as the sole carbon source, but high lipid concentrations were also produced from xylose (36 to 45% lipid in biomass). Lipid production was low (15-19% lipid in biomass) with arabinose as sole carbon source and was lower than expected (30% lipid in biomass) when glucose, xylose and arabinose were provided simultaneously. The presence of arabinose and/or xylose in the medium increased the proportion of palmitic and linoleic acid and reduced the proportion of oleic acid in the fatty acids, compared to glucose-grown cells. High cell densities were obtained in both batch (37 g L(-1), with 49% lipid in the biomass) and fed-batch (35 to 47 g L(-1), with 50 to 75% lipid in the biomass) cultures. The highest proportion of lipid in the biomass was observed in cultures given nitrogen during the batch phase but none with the feed. However, carbohydrate consumption was incomplete when the feed did not contain nitrogen and the highest total lipid and best substrate consumption were observed in cultures which received a constant low nitrogen supply. Lipid production in R. toruloides was lower from arabinose and mixed carbohydrates than from glucose or xylose. Although high biomass and lipid

  5. Microbial population dynamics during sludge granulation in an A/O/A sequencing batch reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Qiulai; Zhou, Jun; Wang, Hongyu; Zhang, Jing; Wei, Li

    2016-08-01

    The evolution of the bacterial population during formation of denitrifying phosphorus removal granular sludge was investigated using high-throughput pyrosequencing. As a result, mature granules with a compact structure were obtained in an anaerobic/aerobic/anoxic (A/O/A) sequencing batch reactor under an organic loading rate as low as 0.3kg COD/(m(3)·d). Rod-shaped microbes were observed to cover with the outer surface of granules. Besides, reliable COD and simultaneous nitrogen and phosphorus removal efficiencies were achieved over the whole operation period. MiSeq pyrosequencing analysis illustrated that both the microbial diversity and richness increased sharply during the granulation process, whereas they stayed stable after the presence of granules. Some microorganisms seemed to contribute to the formation of granules, and some were identified as functional bacterial groups responsible for constructing the biological reactor. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Scanning schemes in white light Photoelasticity - Part I: Critical assessment of existing schemes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramakrishnan, Vivek; Ramesh, K.

    2017-05-01

    The use of white light based Three Fringe Photoelasticity (TFP)/RGB Photoelasticity has gained importance in the recent years. With recent advances in TFP, it is possible to resolve fringe orders upto twelve. The main advantage of this technique is that it requires only a single image for isochromatic demodulation, which makes it suitable especially for problems where recording multiple images is difficult. The accuracy of isochromatic data obtained using TFP/RGB Photoelasticity is dependent on the scanning scheme used to refine the data, which is necessary to incorporate fringe order continuity. In this paper, the existing scanning schemes are critically evaluated for their ability to scan the entire model domain, influence of seed point selection and noise propagation. The scanning schemes are assessed using four problems of increasing level of geometric complexity - Circular disc under compression (simply connected), bi-axially loaded cruciform specimen with an inclined crack, a thick ring subjected to internal pressure and a finite plate with a hole (multiply connected).

  7. Economic Droop Scheme for Decentralized Power Management in DC Microgrids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Alizadeh

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes an autonomous and economic droop control scheme for DC microgrid application. In this method, a cost-effective power sharing technique among various types of DG units is properly adopted. The droop settings are determined based on an algorithm to individually manage the power management without any complicated optimization methods commonly applied in the centralized control method. In the proposed scheme, the system retains all the advantages of the traditional droop method while minimizes the generation costs of the DC microgrid. In the proposed method, all DGs are classified in a sorting rule based on their total generation cost and the reference voltage of their droop equations is then determined. The proposed scheme is applied to a typical DC microgrid consisting of four different types of DGs and a controllable load. The simulation results are presented to verify the effectiveness of the proposed method using MATLAB/SIMULINK software.

  8. Cognitive Aware Interference Mitigation Scheme for LTE Femtocells

    KAUST Repository

    Alqerm, Ismail

    2015-04-21

    Femto-cells deployment in today’s cellular networks came into practice to fulfill the increasing demand for data services. However, interference to other femto and macro-cells users remains an unresolved challenge. In this paper, we propose an interference mitigation scheme to control the cross-tier interference caused by femto-cells to the macro users and the co-tier interference among femtocells. Cognitive radio spectrum sensing capability is utilized to determine the non-occupied channels or the ones that cause minimal interference to the macro users. An awareness based channel allocation scheme is developed with the assistance of the graph-coloring algorithm to assign channels to the femto-cells base stations with power optimization, minimal interference, maximum throughput, and maximum spectrum efficiency. In addition, the scheme exploits negotiation capability to match traffic load and QoS with the channel capacity, and to maintain efficient utilization of the available channels.

  9. Proposal of Wireless Traffic Control Schemes for Wireless LANs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiraguri, Takefumi; Ichikawa, Takeo; Iizuka, Masataka; Kubota, Shuji

    This paper proposes two traffic control schemes to support the communication quality of multimedia streaming services such as VoIP and audio/video over IEEE 802.11 wireless LAN systems. The main features of the proposed scheme are bandwidth control for each flow of the multimedia streaming service and load balancing between access points (APs) of the wireless LAN by using information of data link, network and transport layers. The proposed schemes are implemented on a Linux machine which is called the wireless traffic controller (WTC). The WTC connects a high capacity backbone network and an access network to which the APs are attached. We evaluated the performance of the proposed WTC and confirmed that the communication quality of the multimedia streaming would be greatly improved by using this technique.

  10. Shell of Planet Earth – Global Batch Bioreactor.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hanika, Jiří; Šolcová, Olga; Kaštánek, P.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 40, č. 11 (2017), s. 1959-1965 ISSN 0930-7516 R&D Projects: GA TA ČR TE01020080 Institutional support: RVO:67985858 Keywords : critical raw materials * global batch bioreactor * planet earth Subject RIV: CI - Industrial Chemistry, Chemical Engineering OBOR OECD: Chemical process engineering Impact factor: 2.051, year: 2016

  11. Batch arrival discrete time queue with gated vacation system ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A class of single server vacation queues, which have batch arrivals and single server, is considered in discrete time. Here the server goes on vacation of random length as soon as the system becomes empty. On return from vacation, if he finds any customers waiting in the queue, the server starts serving the customers one ...

  12. Medium optimization for protopectinase production by batch culture of

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Medium optimization for protopectinase production by batch culture of. C Fan, Z Liu, L Yao. Abstract. Optimization of medium compositions for protopectinase production by Aspergillus terreus in submerged culture was carried out. The medium components having significant effect on protopectinase production were reported ...

  13. DEVELOPMENT OF AN AUTOMATED BATCH-PROCESS SOLAR ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    One of the shortcomings of solar disinfection of water (SODIS) is the absence of a feedback mechanism indicating treatment completion. This work presents the development of an automated batch-process water disinfection system aimed at solving this challenge. Locally sourced materials in addition to an Arduinomicro ...

  14. Quality control for 12 batch of DTPA-Sn

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isaac, M.; Gamboa, R.; Leyva, R.; Hernandez, I.; Turino, D.

    1994-01-01

    The quality control is carry out at 12 batch of DTPA-Sn for labeling with 99 m Tc. The instrumental methods of analysis and control charts were discussed in order to find a warranty time for the product. (author). 2 refs, 3 figs, 1 tab

  15. Development of Production Control in Small Batch Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Németh Péter

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Our aim with this paper is to develop a new performance measurement and control system for small batch production in the automotive industry. For this reason, we present our previous research results for warehouse performance measurement and adopt its methodology to production control. The proposed method is based on artificial intelligence (neural networks.

  16. Sequencing for Batch Production in a Group Flowline Machine Shop ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The purpose of the paper is to develop a useful technique for sequencing batches of components through machine shops arranged under the group flowline production system. The approach is to apply a modified version of Petrov's group flowline technique for machining components which follow a unidirectional route.

  17. Comparison of neptunium sorption results using batch and column techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Triay, I.R.; Furlano, A.C.; Weaver, S.C.; Chipera, S.J.; Bish, D.L.

    1996-08-01

    We used crushed-rock columns to study the sorption retardation of neptunium by zeolitic, devitrified, and vitric tuffs typical of those at the site of the potential high-level nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. We used two sodium bicarbonate waters (groundwater from Well J-13 at the site and water prepared to simulate groundwater from Well UE-25p No. 1) under oxidizing conditions. It was found that values of the sorption distribution coefficient, Kd, obtained from these column experiments under flowing conditions, regardless of the water or the water velocity used, agreed well with those obtained earlier from batch sorption experiments under static conditions. The batch sorption distribution coefficient can be used to predict the arrival time for neptunium eluted through the columns. On the other hand, the elution curves showed dispersivity, which implies that neptunium sorption in these tuffs may be nonlinear, irreversible, or noninstantaneous. As a result, use of a batch sorption distribution coefficient to calculate neptunium transport through Yucca Mountain tuffs would yield conservative values for neptunium release from the site. We also noted that neptunium (present as the anionic neptunyl carbonate complex) never eluted prior to tritiated water, which implies that charge exclusion does not appear to exclude neptunium from the tuff pores. The column experiments corroborated the trends observed in batch sorption experiments: neptunium sorption onto devitrified and vitric tuffs is minimal and sorption onto zeolitic tuffs decreases as the amount of sodium and bicarbonate/carbonate in the water increases

  18. On energy optimisation in multipurpose batch plants using heat storage

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Majozi, T

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The use of heat integration in multipurpose batch plants to minimise energy usage has been in the literature for more than two decades. Direct heat integration may be exploited when the heat source and heat sink processes are active over a common...

  19. Batch immunoextraction method for efficient purification of aromatic cytokinins

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hauserová, Eva; Swaczynová, Jana; Doležal, Karel; Lenobel, René; Popa, Igor; Hajdúch, M.; Vydra, D.; Fuksová, Květoslava; Strnad, Miroslav

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 1100, č. 1 (2005), s. 116-125 ISSN 0021-9673 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IBS4055304 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50380511; MSM6198959216 Keywords : antibody * 6-benzylaminopurine * batch immunoextraction Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 3.096, year: 2005

  20. Tier 3 batch system data locality via managed caches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Max; Giffels, Manuel; Jung, Christopher; Kühn, Eileen; Quast, Günter

    2015-05-01

    Modern data processing increasingly relies on data locality for performance and scalability, whereas the common HEP approaches aim for uniform resource pools with minimal locality, recently even across site boundaries. To combine advantages of both, the High- Performance Data Analysis (HPDA) Tier 3 concept opportunistically establishes data locality via coordinated caches. In accordance with HEP Tier 3 activities, the design incorporates two major assumptions: First, only a fraction of data is accessed regularly and thus the deciding factor for overall throughput. Second, data access may fallback to non-local, making permanent local data availability an inefficient resource usage strategy. Based on this, the HPDA design generically extends available storage hierarchies into the batch system. Using the batch system itself for scheduling file locality, an array of independent caches on the worker nodes is dynamically populated with high-profile data. Cache state information is exposed to the batch system both for managing caches and scheduling jobs. As a result, users directly work with a regular, adequately sized storage system. However, their automated batch processes are presented with local replications of data whenever possible.

  1. A recirculating incubation system for hatching small batches of fish ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper describes the design, construction and evaluation of the capacity of a re-circulating incubation system for hatching small batches of fish eggs. ... Water flowed out of the incubation unit through a small section of glass and then plastic tubing inserted through a second hole in the rubber stopper to a PVC drain ...

  2. Spore survival during batch dry rendering of abattoir waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowry, P D; Fernando, T; Gill, C O

    1979-01-01

    Normal batch dry rendering practice does not ensure sterile products, because bacterial spores are protected against thermal denaturation by the high fat-low water content environment which results from drying the materials at temperatures below those required for sterilization. PMID:117753

  3. An analysis of DTP- associated reactions by manufacturer, batch ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Merieux J5497 or SAIMR F08609. Methods of randomisation varied slightly between the two clinic groups in order to minimise clinic disruption. DTP dose numbers and batches were recorded on clinic cards to ensure vaccination with the same ...

  4. A storage assignment model for batch preparation in process industries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ashayeri, J.; Selen, W.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to develop new model formulation for reducing the workload in pre‐batching at a manufacturer of flavors and fragrances, by optimally assigning ingredients to different storage types, taking into account past usage of ingredients and several restrictions about

  5. Synthesis of zero effluent multipurpose batch processes using effective scheduling

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Gouws, JF

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available the scheduling of operations in the synthesis phase. The mathematically based method presented in this paper deals with the synthesis of a batch plant operating in the fashion mentioned above. The method determines the optimal size and number of processing...

  6. Comparative Batch and Column Evaluation of Thermal and Wet ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    batch adsorption experiments and continous flow (fixed bed) column experiment to study the mechanism of dye removal by the commercial ... compared with those obtained for thermal regeneration method (qmax = 61.73mgg-1) and wet oxidative method (qmax .... Carbon hardness was determined using a wet attrition test ...

  7. A Robust Control Scheme for Medium-Voltage-Level DVR Implementation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blaabjerg, Frede; Loh, Poh Chiang; Li, Yun Wei

    2007-01-01

    of Hinfin controller weighting function selection, inner current loop tuning, and system disturbance rejection capability is presented. Finally, the designed control scheme is extensively tested on a laboratory 10-kV MV-level DVR system with varying voltage sag (balanced and unbalanced) and loading (linear......In this paper, a robust control scheme with an outer Hinfin voltage control loop and an inner current control loop is designed and implemented on a medium-voltage (MV)-level dynamic voltage restorer (DVR) system. Through a simple selection of weighting functions, the synthesized Hinfin controller....../nonlinear load and induction motor load) conditions. It is shown that the proposed control scheme is effective in both balanced and unbalanced sag compensation and load disturbance rejection, as its robustness is explicitly specified....

  8. A Power System Emergency Control Scheme in the Presence of High Wind Power Penetration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoseinzadeh, Bakhtyar

    of grids with a high penetration of renewable energies makes it difficult to overseen and overcome widespread range of combinational and cascading events, just by relying on conventional protection systems, which generally do no coordinate the different grid variables in the respective protection schemes...... from distant units to the incidence place. In this thesis, localization of both load-frequency control an load shedding are fulfilled using locally measured voltage drop data in the decentralized control strategy. The proposed load shedding scheme is coordinated with existing plant protection relays......The main goal of the project is to improve existing protection technology by localizing the load shedding scheme in grids with high share of dispersed generation dominantly provided by renewable energy sources, i.e. wind, wave, solar, biomass, etc. The higher complexity and lower predictability...

  9. Experience with the new reverse injection scheme in the Tevatron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saritepe, S.; Goderre, G.; Annala, G.; Hanna, B.; Braun, A.

    1993-01-01

    In the new injection scenario the antiproton beam is injected onto a helical Tevatron orbit to avoid the detrimental effects of the beam-beam interaction at 150 GeV. The new scenario required changes in the tuning procedures. Antiprotons are too precious to be used for tuning, therefore the antiproton injection line has to be tuned with protons by reverse injecting them from the Tevatron into the Main Ring. Previously, the reverse injection was performed in one supercycle. One batch of uncoalesced bunches was injected into the Tevatron and ejected after 40 seconds. The orbit closure was performed in the Main Ring. In the new scheme the lambertson magnets have to be moved, separator polarities have to be switched, activities that cannot be completed in one supercycle. Therefore, the reverse injection sequence was changed. This involved the redefinition of TVBS (Tevatron Beam Synchronized Clock) event $D8 as MRBS (Main Ring Beam Synchronized Clock) $D8 thus making it possible to inject 6 proton batches (or coalesced bunches) and eject them one at a time on command, performing orbit closure each time in the Main Ring

  10. Load Control System Reliability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trudnowski, Daniel [Montana Tech of the Univ. of Montana, Butte, MT (United States)

    2015-04-03

    This report summarizes the results of the Load Control System Reliability project (DOE Award DE-FC26-06NT42750). The original grant was awarded to Montana Tech April 2006. Follow-on DOE awards and expansions to the project scope occurred August 2007, January 2009, April 2011, and April 2013. In addition to the DOE monies, the project also consisted of matching funds from the states of Montana and Wyoming. Project participants included Montana Tech; the University of Wyoming; Montana State University; NorthWestern Energy, Inc., and MSE. Research focused on two areas: real-time power-system load control methodologies; and, power-system measurement-based stability-assessment operation and control tools. The majority of effort was focused on area 2. Results from the research includes: development of fundamental power-system dynamic concepts, control schemes, and signal-processing algorithms; many papers (including two prize papers) in leading journals and conferences and leadership of IEEE activities; one patent; participation in major actual-system testing in the western North American power system; prototype power-system operation and control software installed and tested at three major North American control centers; and, the incubation of a new commercial-grade operation and control software tool. Work under this grant certainly supported the DOE-OE goals in the area of “Real Time Grid Reliability Management.”

  11. Multiuser switched diversity scheduling schemes

    KAUST Repository

    Shaqfeh, Mohammad

    2012-09-01

    Multiuser switched-diversity scheduling schemes were recently proposed in order to overcome the heavy feedback requirements of conventional opportunistic scheduling schemes by applying a threshold-based, distributed, and ordered scheduling mechanism. The main idea behind these schemes is that slight reduction in the prospected multiuser diversity gains is an acceptable trade-off for great savings in terms of required channel-state-information feedback messages. In this work, we characterize the achievable rate region of multiuser switched diversity systems and compare it with the rate region of full feedback multiuser diversity systems. We propose also a novel proportional fair multiuser switched-based scheduling scheme and we demonstrate that it can be optimized using a practical and distributed method to obtain the feedback thresholds. We finally demonstrate by numerical examples that switched-diversity scheduling schemes operate within 0.3 bits/sec/Hz from the ultimate network capacity of full feedback systems in Rayleigh fading conditions. © 2012 IEEE.

  12. Balancing Loads Among Robotic-Manipulator Arms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreutz, Kenneth K.; Lokshin, Anatole

    1990-01-01

    Paper presents rigorous mathematical approach to control of multiple robot arms simultaneously grasping one object. Mathematical development focuses on relationship between ability to control degrees of freedom of configuration and ability to control forces within grasped object and robot arms. Understanding of relationship leads to practical control schemes distributing load more equitably among all arms while grasping object with proper nondamaging forces.

  13. MASS PRODUCTION OF THE BENEFICIAL NEMATODE STEINERNEMA CARPOCAPSAE UTILIZING A FED-BATCH CULTURING PROCESS

    OpenAIRE

    Leonard D. Holmes; Floyd L. Inman III; Sivanadane Mandjiny; Rinu Kooliyottil; Devang Upadhyay

    2013-01-01

    The present study deals with the batch and fed-batch mass production of Steinernema carpocapsae. S. carpocapsae is an entomoparasitic nematode that is used as a biological control agent of soil-borne crop insect pests. The ability and efficiency of fed-batch culture process was successful through the utilization of the nematode’s bacterial symbiont Xenorhabdus nematophila. Results from the fed-batch process were compared to those obtain from the standard batch process. The fed-batch process s...

  14. Glucoamylase production in batch, chemostat and fed-batch cultivations by an industrial strain of Aspergillus niger

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Henrik; Beyer, Michael; Nielsen, Jens

    2000-01-01

    growth rate of the fungus were independent of pH when grown in batch cultivations. The specific glucoamylase productivity increased linearly with the specific growth rate in the range 0-0.1 h(-1) and was constant in the range 0.1-0.2 h(-1) Maltose and maltodextrin were non-inducing carbon sources...

  15. An energy efficient cooperative hierarchical MIMO clustering scheme for wireless sensor networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasim, Mehwish; Qaisar, Saad; Lee, Sungyoung

    2012-01-01

    In this work, we present an energy efficient hierarchical cooperative clustering scheme for wireless sensor networks. Communication cost is a crucial factor in depleting the energy of sensor nodes. In the proposed scheme, nodes cooperate to form clusters at each level of network hierarchy ensuring maximal coverage and minimal energy expenditure with relatively uniform distribution of load within the network. Performance is enhanced by cooperative multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) communication ensuring energy efficiency for WSN deployments over large geographical areas. We test our scheme using TOSSIM and compare the proposed scheme with cooperative multiple-input multiple-output (CMIMO) clustering scheme and traditional multihop Single-Input-Single-Output (SISO) routing approach. Performance is evaluated on the basis of number of clusters, number of hops, energy consumption and network lifetime. Experimental results show significant energy conservation and increase in network lifetime as compared to existing schemes.

  16. An Energy Efficient Cooperative Hierarchical MIMO Clustering Scheme for Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sungyoung Lee

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In this work, we present an energy efficient hierarchical cooperative clustering scheme for wireless sensor networks. Communication cost is a crucial factor in depleting the energy of sensor nodes. In the proposed scheme, nodes cooperate to form clusters at each level of network hierarchy ensuring maximal coverage and minimal energy expenditure with relatively uniform distribution of load within the network. Performance is enhanced by cooperative multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO communication ensuring energy efficiency for WSN deployments over large geographical areas. We test our scheme using TOSSIM and compare the proposed scheme with cooperative multiple-input multiple-output (CMIMO clustering scheme and traditional multihop Single-Input-Single-Output (SISO routing approach. Performance is evaluated on the basis of number of clusters, number of hops, energy consumption and network lifetime. Experimental results show significant energy conservation and increase in network lifetime as compared to existing schemes.

  17. An intelligent robotics control scheme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orlando, N. E.

    1984-01-01

    The problem of robot control is viewed at the level of communicating high-level commands produced by intelligent algorithms to the actuator/sensor controllers. Four topics are considered in the design of an integrated control and communications scheme for an intelligent robotic system: the use of abstraction spaces, hierarchical versus heterarchical control, distributed processing, and the interleaving of the steps of plan creation and plan execution. A scheme is presented for an n-level distributed hierarchical/heterarchical control system that effectively interleaves intelligent planning, execution, and sensory feedback. A three-level version of this scheme has been successfully implemented in the Intelligent Systems Research Lab at NASA Langley Research Center. This implementation forms the control structure for DAISIE (Distributed Artificially Intelligent System for Interacting with the Environment), a testbed system integrating AI software with robotics hardware.

  18. One-qubit fingerprinting schemes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beaudrap, J. Niel de

    2004-01-01

    Fingerprinting is a technique in communication complexity in which two parties (Alice and Bob) with large data sets send short messages to a third party (a referee), who attempts to compute some function of the larger data sets. For the equality function, the referee attempts to determine whether Alice's data and Bob's data are the same. In this paper, we consider the extreme scenario of performing fingerprinting where Alice and Bob both send either one bit (classically) or one qubit (in the quantum regime) messages to the referee for the equality problem. Restrictive bounds are demonstrated for the error probability of one-bit fingerprinting schemes, and show that it is easy to construct one-qubit fingerprinting schemes which can outperform any one-bit fingerprinting scheme. The author hopes that this analysis will provide results useful for performing physical experiments, which may help to advance implementations for more general quantum communication protocols

  19. Modulation Schemes for Wireless Access

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Vejrazka

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available Four modulation schemes, namely minimum shift keying (MSK, Gaussianminimum shift keying (GMSK, multiamplitude minimum shift keying(MAMSK and π/4 differential quadrature phase shift keying (π/4-QPSKare described and their applicability to wireless access is discussedin the paper. Low complexity receiver structures based on differentialdetection are analysed to estimate the performance of the modulationschemes in the additive Gaussian noise and the Rayleigh and Riceenvelope fast fading channel. The bandwidth efficiency is calculated toevaluate the modulation schemes. The results show that the MAMSK schemegives the greatest bandwidth efficiency, but its performance in theRayleigh channel is rather poor. In contrast, the MSK scheme is lessbandwidth efficient, but it is more resistant to Rayleigh fading. Theperformance of π/4-QPSK signal is considerably improved by appropriateprefiltering.

  20. Electrical injection schemes for nanolasers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lupi, Alexandra; Chung, Il-Sug; Yvind, Kresten

    2013-01-01

    injection schemes have been compared: vertical pi- n junction through a current post structure as in1 and lateral p-i-n junction with either uniform material as in2 or with a buried heterostructure (BH) as in3. To allow a direct comparison of the three schemes the same active material composition consisting......The performance of injection schemes among recently demonstrated electrically pumped photonic crystal nanolasers has been investigated numerically. The computation has been carried out at room temperature using a commercial semiconductor simulation software. For the simulations two electrical...... threshold current has been achieved with the lateral electrical injection through the BH; while the lowest resistance has been obtained from the current post structure even though this model shows a higher current threshold because of the lack of carrier confinement. Final scope of the simulations...

  1. Simple scheme for gauge mediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murayama, Hitoshi; Nomura, Yasunori

    2007-01-01

    We present a simple scheme for constructing models that achieve successful gauge mediation of supersymmetry breaking. In addition to our previous work [H. Murayama and Y. Nomura, Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 151803 (2007)] that proposed drastically simplified models using metastable vacua of supersymmetry breaking in vectorlike theories, we show there are many other successful models using various types of supersymmetry-breaking mechanisms that rely on enhanced low-energy U(1) R symmetries. In models where supersymmetry is broken by elementary singlets, one needs to assume U(1) R violating effects are accidentally small, while in models where composite fields break supersymmetry, emergence of approximate low-energy U(1) R symmetries can be understood simply on dimensional grounds. Even though the scheme still requires somewhat small parameters to sufficiently suppress gravity mediation, we discuss their possible origins due to dimensional transmutation. The scheme accommodates a wide range of the gravitino mass to avoid cosmological problems

  2. Electric power distribution and load transfer system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradford, Michael P. (Inventor); Parkinson, Gerald W. (Inventor); Grant, Ross M. (Inventor)

    1989-01-01

    A power distribution system includes a plurality of power sources and load transfer units including transistors and diodes connected in series and leading to a common power output, each of the transistors being controller switchable subject to voltage levels of the respective input and output sides of said transistors, and the voltage and current level of said common power output. The system is part of an interconnection scheme in which all but one of the power sources is connected to a single load transfer unit, enabling the survival of at least a single power source with the failure of one of the load transfer units.

  3. Electrical Injection Schemes for Nanolasers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lupi, Alexandra; Chung, Il-Sug; Yvind, Kresten

    2014-01-01

    Three electrical injection schemes based on recently demonstrated electrically pumped photonic crystal nanolasers have been numerically investigated: 1) a vertical p-i-n junction through a post structure; 2) a lateral p-i-n junction with a homostructure; and 3) a lateral p-i-n junction....... For this analysis, the properties of different schemes, i.e., electrical resistance, threshold voltage, threshold current, and internal efficiency as energy requirements for optical interconnects are compared and the physics behind the differences is discussed....

  4. Increasing the load bearing capacity of barrel vaults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kamerling, M.W.

    2011-01-01

    Just after World War II many barrel vaults and domes were built with a structural system, known as Fusée Ceramique. This paper analyses the load bearing capacity of these vaults. Schemes, theories, idealizations and assumptions are analysed, validated and discussed. Methods to increase the load

  5. Efficient adaptive fuzzy control scheme

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Papp, Z.; Driessen, B.J.F.

    1995-01-01

    The paper presents an adaptive nonlinear (state-) feedback control structure, where the nonlinearities are implemented as smooth fuzzy mappings defined as rule sets. The fine tuning and adaption of the controller is realized by an indirect adaptive scheme, which modifies the parameters of the fuzzy

  6. New practicable Siberian Snake schemes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steffen, K.

    1983-07-01

    Siberian Snake schemes can be inserted in ring accelerators for making the spin tune almost independent of energy. Two such schemes are here suggested which lend particularly well to practical application over a wide energy range. Being composed of horizontal and vertical bending magnets, the proposed snakes are designed to have a small maximum beam excursion in one plane. By applying in this plane a bending correction that varies with energy, they can be operated at fixed geometry in the other plane where most of the bending occurs, thus avoiding complicated magnet motion or excessively large magnet apertures that would otherwise be needed for large energy variations. The first of the proposed schemes employs a pair of standard-type Siberian Snakes, i.e. of the usual 1st and 2nd kind which rotate the spin about the longitudinal and the transverse horizontal axis, respectively. The second scheme employs a pair of novel-type snakes which rotate the spin about either one of the horizontal axes that are at 45 0 to the beam direction. In obvious reference to these axes, they are called left-pointed and right-pointed snakes. (orig.)

  7. Homogenization scheme for acoustic metamaterials

    KAUST Repository

    Yang, Min

    2014-02-26

    We present a homogenization scheme for acoustic metamaterials that is based on reproducing the lowest orders of scattering amplitudes from a finite volume of metamaterials. This approach is noted to differ significantly from that of coherent potential approximation, which is based on adjusting the effective-medium parameters to minimize scatterings in the long-wavelength limit. With the aid of metamaterials’ eigenstates, the effective parameters, such as mass density and elastic modulus can be obtained by matching the surface responses of a metamaterial\\'s structural unit cell with a piece of homogenized material. From the Green\\'s theorem applied to the exterior domain problem, matching the surface responses is noted to be the same as reproducing the scattering amplitudes. We verify our scheme by applying it to three different examples: a layered lattice, a two-dimensional hexagonal lattice, and a decorated-membrane system. It is shown that the predicted characteristics and wave fields agree almost exactly with numerical simulations and experiments and the scheme\\'s validity is constrained by the number of dominant surface multipoles instead of the usual long-wavelength assumption. In particular, the validity extends to the full band in one dimension and to regimes near the boundaries of the Brillouin zone in two dimensions.

  8. Optimal Operation of Industrial Batch Crystallizers : A Nonlinear Model-based Control Approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mesbah, A.

    2010-01-01

    Batch crystallization is extensively employed in the chemical, pharmaceutical, and food industries to separate and purify high value-added chemical substances. Despite their widespread application, optimal operation of batch crystallizers is particularly challenging. The difficulties primarily

  9. Selecting local constraint for alignment of batch process data with dynamic time warping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spooner, Max Peter; Kold, David; Kulahci, Murat

    2017-01-01

    observation number for every batch. Dynamic time warping has been shown to be an effective method for meeting these objectives. This is based on a dynamic programming algorithm that aligns a batch to a reference batch, by stretching and compressing its local time dimension. The resulting ”warping function......There are two key reasons for aligning batch process data. The first is to obtain same-length batches so that standard methods of analysis may be applied, whilst the second reason is to synchronise events that take place during each batch so that the same event is associated with the same......” may be interpreted as a progress signature of the batch which may be appended to the aligned data for further analysis. For the warping function to be a realistic reflection of the progress of a batch, it is necessary to impose some constraints on the dynamic time warping algorithm, to avoid...

  10. Mathematical technique for the design of near-zero-effluent batch processess

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Gouws, JF

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Wastewater minimisation in chemical processes has always been the privilege of continuous rather than batch plants. However, this situation is steadily changing, since batch plants have a tendency to generate much more toxic effluent compared...

  11. Heat integration in multipurpose batch plants using a robust scheduling framework

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Seid, ER

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Energy saving is becoming increasingly important in batch processing facilities. Multipurpose batch plants have become more popular than ever in the processing environment due to their inherent flexibility and adaptability to market conditions, even...

  12. On Bottleneck Product Rate Variation Problem with Batching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shree Khadka

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The product rate variation problem minimizes the variation in the rate at which different models of a common base product are produced on the assembly lines with the assumption of negligible switch-over cost and unit processing time for each copy of each model. The assumption of significant setup and arbitrary processing times forces the problem to be a two phase problem. The first phase determines the size and the number of batches and the second one sequences the batches of models. In this paper, the bottleneck case i.e. the min-max case of the problem with a generalized objective function is formulated. A Pareto optimal solution is proposed and a relation between optimal sequences for the problem with different objective functions is investigated.

  13. Integration of Grid and Local Batch Resources at DESY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyer, Christoph; Finnern, Thomas; Gellrich, Andreas; Hartmann, Thomas; Kemp, Yves; Lewendel, Birgit

    2017-10-01

    As one of the largest resource centres DESY has to support differing work flows of users from various scientific backgrounds. Users can be for one HEP experiments in WLCG or Belle II as well as local HEP users but also physicists from other fields as photon science or accelerator development. By abandoning specific worker node setups in favour of generic flat nodes with middleware resources provided via CVMFS, we gain flexibility to subsume different use cases in a homogeneous environment. Grid jobs and the local batch system are managed in a HTCondor based setup, accepting pilot, user and containerized jobs. The unified setup allows dynamic re-assignment of resources between the different use cases. Monitoring is implemented on global batch system metrics as well as on a per job level utilizing corresponding cgroup information.

  14. APPLICATION OF MODEL PREDICTIVE CONTROL TO BATCH POLYMERIZATION REACTOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.M. Ghasem

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available The absence of a stable operational state in polymerization reactors that operates in batches is factor that determine the need of a special control system. In this study, advanced control methodology is implemented for controlling the operation of a batch polymerization reactor for polystyrene production utilizingmodel predictive control. By utilizing a model of the polymerization process, the necessary operational conditions were determined for producing the polymer within the desired characteristics. The maincontrol objective is to bring the reactor temperature to its target temperature as rapidly as possible with minimal temperature overshoot. Control performance for the proposed method is encouraging. It has been observed that temperature overshoot can be minimized by the proposed method with the use of both reactor and jacket energy balance for reactor temperature control.

  15. Continuous Heterogeneous Photocatalysis in Serial Micro-Batch Reactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pieber, Bartholomäus; Shalom, Menny; Antonietti, Markus; Seeberger, Peter H; Gilmore, Kerry

    2018-01-29

    Solid reagents, leaching catalysts, and heterogeneous photocatalysts are commonly employed in batch processes but are ill-suited for continuous-flow chemistry. Heterogeneous catalysts for thermal reactions are typically used in packed-bed reactors, which cannot be penetrated by light and thus are not suitable for photocatalytic reactions involving solids. We demonstrate that serial micro-batch reactors (SMBRs) allow for the continuous utilization of solid materials together with liquids and gases in flow. This technology was utilized to develop selective and efficient fluorination reactions using a modified graphitic carbon nitride heterogeneous catalyst instead of costly homogeneous metal polypyridyl complexes. The merger of this inexpensive, recyclable catalyst and the SMBR approach enables sustainable and scalable photocatalysis. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. JAVA Implementation of the Batched iLab Shared Architecture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lenard Payne

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The MIT iLab Shared Architecture is limited currently to running on the Microsoft Windows platform. A JAVA implementation of the Batched iLab Shared Architecture has been developed that can be used on other operating systems and still interoperate with the existing Microsoft .NET web services of MIT’s iLab ServiceBroker. The Batched iLab Shared Architecture has been revised and separates the Labserver into a LabServer that handles experiment management and a LabEquipment that handles experiment execution. The JAVA implementation provides a 3-tier code development model that allows code to be reused and to develop only the code that is specific to each experiment.

  17. Recipe-Based Batch Control Using High-Level Grafchart

    OpenAIRE

    Johnsson, Charlotta

    1997-01-01

    High-Level Grafchart is a graphical programming language for control of sequential processes. Sequential control is important in all kinds of industries: discrete, continuous and batch. Sequential elements show up both on the local control level and on the supervisory control level. High-Level Grafchart combines the graphical syntax of Grafcet/SFC with high-level programming language constructs and ideas from High-Level Petri Nets. High-Level Grafchart can be used to control sequential proces...

  18. Using Simulation for Scheduling and Rescheduling of Batch Processes

    OpenAIRE

    Girish Joglekar

    2017-01-01

    The problem of scheduling multiproduct and multipurpose batch processes has been studied for more than 30 years using math programming and heuristics. In most formulations, the manufacturing recipes are represented by simplified models using state task network (STN) or resource task network (RTN), transfers of materials are assumed to be instantaneous, constraints due to shared utilities are often ignored, and scheduling horizons are kept small due to the limits on the problem size that can b...

  19. Adsorption of Arsenite onto Kemiron in a batch system

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    doti

    This study investigated the effect of pH and coexisting ions on As(III) adsorption using batch experiment and discovered that pH strongly influenced As(III) adsorption. However, differences in background ionic strengths of 0.001 N NaNO3 and 0.1 N NaNO3 had no effect on the sorption trend. The isotherms followed ...

  20. MATHEMATICAL MODELING OF BATCH ADSORPTION OF MANGANESE ONTO BONE CHAR

    OpenAIRE

    Maria, M. E.; Mansur, M. B.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The present study investigated the dynamics of batch adsorption of manganese onto bone char by using two distinct mathematical formulations: the diffusion model and the shrinking core model. Both models assumed spherical particles and adequately described the transient behavior of metal adsorption under changing operating conditions. Comparatively, the diffusion model described the manganese adsorption better at distinct particle sizes even when small particles were used (dp ≤ 0.147 ...

  1. Batch production of microchannel plate photo-multipliers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frisch, Henry J.; Wetstein, Matthew; Elagin, Andrey

    2018-03-06

    In-situ methods for the batch fabrication of flat-panel micro-channel plate (MCP) photomultiplier tube (PMT) detectors (MCP-PMTs), without transporting either the window or the detector assembly inside a vacuum vessel are provided. The method allows for the synthesis of a reflection-mode photocathode on the entrance to the pores of a first MCP or the synthesis of a transmission-mode photocathode on the vacuum side of a photodetector entrance window.

  2. Sequencing batch-reactor control using Gaussian-process models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocijan, Juš; Hvala, Nadja

    2013-06-01

    This paper presents a Gaussian-process (GP) model for the design of sequencing batch-reactor (SBR) control for wastewater treatment. The GP model is a probabilistic, nonparametric model with uncertainty predictions. In the case of SBR control, it is used for the on-line optimisation of the batch-phases duration. The control algorithm follows the course of the indirect process variables (pH, redox potential and dissolved oxygen concentration) and recognises the characteristic patterns in their time profile. The control algorithm uses GP-based regression to smooth the signals and GP-based classification for the pattern recognition. When tested on the signals from an SBR laboratory pilot plant, the control algorithm provided a satisfactory agreement between the proposed completion times and the actual termination times of the biodegradation processes. In a set of tested batches the final ammonia and nitrate concentrations were below 1 and 0.5 mg L(-1), respectively, while the aeration time was shortened considerably. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Fault Diagnosis of Batch Reactor Using Machine Learning Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sujatha Subramanian

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Fault diagnosis of a batch reactor gives the early detection of fault and minimizes the risk of thermal runaway. It provides superior performance and helps to improve safety and consistency. It has become more vital in this technical era. In this paper, support vector machine (SVM is used to estimate the heat release (Qr of the batch reactor both normal and faulty conditions. The signature of the residual, which is obtained from the difference between nominal and estimated faulty Qr values, characterizes the different natures of faults occurring in the batch reactor. Appropriate statistical and geometric features are extracted from the residual signature and the total numbers of features are reduced using SVM attribute selection filter and principle component analysis (PCA techniques. artificial neural network (ANN classifiers like multilayer perceptron (MLP, radial basis function (RBF, and Bayes net are used to classify the different types of faults from the reduced features. It is observed from the result of the comparative study that the proposed method for fault diagnosis with limited number of features extracted from only one estimated parameter (Qr shows that it is more efficient and fast for diagnosing the typical faults.

  4. Yields from pyrolysis of refinery residue using a batch process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Prithiraj

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Batch pyrolysis was a valuable process of assessing the potential of recovering and characterising products from hazardous waste materials. This research explored the pyrolysis of hydrocarbon-rich refinery residue, from crude oil processes, in a 1200 L electrically-heated batch retort. Furthermore, the off-gases produced were easily processed in compliance with existing regulatory emission standards. The methodology offers a novel, cost-effective and environmentally compliant method of assessing recovery potential of valuable products. The pyrolysis experiments yielded significant oil (70% with high calorific value (40 MJ/kg, char (14% with carbon content over 80% and non-condensable gas (6% with significant calorific value (240 kJ/mol. The final gas stream was subjected to an oxidative clean-up process with continuous on-line monitoring demonstrating compliance with South African emission standards. The gas treatment was overall economically optimal as only a smaller portion of the original residue was subjected to emission-controlling steps. Keywords: Batch pyrolysis, Volatiles, Oil yields, Char, Emissions, Oil recovery

  5. Analyzing data flows of WLCG jobs at batch job level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuehn, Eileen; Fischer, Max; Giffels, Manuel; Jung, Christopher; Petzold, Andreas

    2015-05-01

    With the introduction of federated data access to the workflows of WLCG, it is becoming increasingly important for data centers to understand specific data flows regarding storage element accesses, firewall configurations, as well as the scheduling of batch jobs themselves. As existing batch system monitoring and related system monitoring tools do not support measurements at batch job level, a new tool has been developed and put into operation at the GridKa Tier 1 center for monitoring continuous data streams and characteristics of WLCG jobs and pilots. Long term measurements and data collection are in progress. These measurements already have been proven to be useful analyzing misbehaviors and various issues. Therefore we aim for an automated, realtime approach for anomaly detection. As a requirement, prototypes for standard workflows have to be examined. Based on measurements of several months, different features of HEP jobs are evaluated regarding their effectiveness for data mining approaches to identify these common workflows. The paper will introduce the actual measurement approach and statistics as well as the general concept and first results classifying different HEP job workflows derived from the measurements at GridKa.

  6. Fed-batch production of tetanus toxin by Clostridium tetani.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fratelli, Fernando; Siquini, Tatiana Joly; de Abreu, Marcelo Estima; Higashi, Hisako Gondo; Converti, Attilio; de Carvalho, João Carlos Monteiro

    2010-01-01

    This study deals with the effects of the initial nitrogen source (NZ Case TT) level and the protocol of glucose addition during the fed-batch production of tetanus toxin by Clostridium tetani. An increase in the initial concentration of NZ Case TT (NZ(0)) accelerated cell growth, increased the consumption of the nitrogen source as well as the final yield of tetanus toxin, which achieved the highest values (50-60 L(f)/mL) for NZ(0) > or = 50 g/L. The addition of glucose at fixed times (16, 56, and 88 h) ensured a toxin yield ( approximately 60 L(f)/mL) about 33% higher than those of fed-batch runs with addition at fixed concentration ( approximately 45 L(f)/mL) and about 300% higher than those obtained in reference batch runs nowadays used at industrial scale. The results of this work promise to substantially improve the present production of tetanus toxin and may be adopted for human vaccine production after detoxification and purification.

  7. Monitoring a PVC batch process with multivariate statistical process control charts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tates, A. A.; Louwerse, D. J.; Smilde, A. K.; Koot, G. L. M.; Berndt, H.

    1999-01-01

    Multivariate statistical process control charts (MSPC charts) are developed for the industrial batch production process of poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC). With these MSPC charts different types of abnormal batch behavior were detected on-line. With batch contribution plots, the probable causes of these

  8. 40 CFR 63.1323 - Batch process vents-methods and procedures for group determination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... in § 63.1322(a)(1) or § 63.1322(b)(1) or routing the batch process vent to a control device to comply... 40 Protection of Environment 11 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Batch process vents-methods and... Polymers and Resins § 63.1323 Batch process vents—methods and procedures for group determination. (a...

  9. Performance assessment and improvement of control charts for statistical batch process monitoring

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ramaker, Henk-Jan; van Sprang, Eric N. M.; Westerhuis, Johan A.; Gurden, Stephen P.; Smilde, Age K.; van der Meulen, Frank H.

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes the concepts of statistical batch process monitoring and the associated problems. It starts with an introduction to process monitoring in general which is then extended to batch process monitoring. The performance of control charts for batch process monitoring is discussed by

  10. 21 CFR 111.260 - What must the batch record include?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ..., LABELING, OR HOLDING OPERATIONS FOR DIETARY SUPPLEMENTS Production and Process Control System: Requirements... record must include the following: (a) The batch, lot, or control number: (1) Of the finished batch of... that quality control personnel: (1) Reviewed the batch production record, including: (i) Review of any...

  11. 40 CFR 63.486 - Batch front-end process vent provisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... sources with batch front-end process vents classified as Group 1 shall comply with the reference control... Group 2 batch front-end process vents shall comply with the applicable reference control technology... 40 Protection of Environment 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Batch front-end process vent provisions...

  12. 40 CFR 63.1322 - Batch process vents-reference control technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 11 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Batch process vents-reference control technology. 63.1322 Section 63.1322 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Batch process vents—reference control technology. (a) Batch process vents. The owner or operator of a...

  13. 40 CFR 417.10 - Applicability; description of the soap manufacturing by batch kettle subcategory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... manufacturing by batch kettle subcategory. 417.10 Section 417.10 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... CATEGORY Soap Manufacturing by Batch Kettle Subcategory § 417.10 Applicability; description of the soap manufacturing by batch kettle subcategory. The provisions of this subpart are applicable to discharges resulting...

  14. OSAT: a tool for sample-to-batch allocations in genomics experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Li

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Batch effect is one type of variability that is not of primary interest but ubiquitous in sizable genomic experiments. To minimize the impact of batch effects, an ideal experiment design should ensure the even distribution of biological groups and confounding factors across batches. However, due to the practical complications, the availability of the final collection of samples in genomics study might be unbalanced and incomplete, which, without appropriate attention in sample-to-batch allocation, could lead to drastic batch effects. Therefore, it is necessary to develop effective and handy tool to assign collected samples across batches in an appropriate way in order to minimize the impact of batch effects. Results We describe OSAT (Optimal Sample Assignment Tool, a bioconductor package designed for automated sample-to-batch allocations in genomics experiments. Conclusions OSAT is developed to facilitate the allocation of collected samples to different batches in genomics study. Through optimizing the even distribution of samples in groups of biological interest into different batches, it can reduce the confounding or correlation between batches and the biological variables of interest. It can also optimize the homogeneous distribution of confounding factors across batches. It can handle challenging instances where incomplete and unbalanced sample collections are involved as well as ideally balanced designs.

  15. Degradation of chlorophenol mixtures in a fed-batch system by two ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Degradation of chlorophenol mixtures in a fed-batch system by two soil bacteria. ... This work was undertaken to investigate the effect of variations of the feed rate on a fed-batch set-up used to degrade xenobiotics. ... Keywords: Chlorophenol; fed batch system; aerobic degradation; waste treatment; microbial biocatalysis ...

  16. Look-ahead strategies for controlling batch operations in industry : Overview, comparison and exploration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Zee, D.J.

    2000-01-01

    Batching jobs in a manufacturing system is a very common policy in most industries. Main reasons for batching are avoidance of set ups and/or facilitation of material handling. Good examples of batch wise production systems are ovens found in aircraft industry and in semi-conductor manufacturing.

  17. Look-ahead strategies for controlling batch operations in industry - overview, comparison and exploration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zee, D.J. van der; Harten, A. van; Schuur, P.C.; Joines, JA; Barton, RR; Kang, K; Fishwick, PA

    2000-01-01

    Batching jobs in a manufacturing system is a very common policy in most industries. The main reasons for batching are avoidance of set ups and/or facilitation of material handling. Good examples of batch-wise production systems are ovens found in aircraft industry and in semiconductor manufacturing.

  18. Look-ahead strategies for controlling batch operations in industry - An overview

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zee, Durk-Jouke van der; Chick, SE; Sanchez, PJ; Ferrin, D; Morrice, DJ

    2003-01-01

    Batching jobs in a manufacturing system is a very common policy in most industries. Main reasons for batching are avoidance of set ups and/or facilitation of material handling. Examples of batch-wise production systems are ovens found in aircraft industry and in semiconductor manufacturing. Starting

  19. 40 CFR 63.1407 - Non-reactor batch process vent provisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 11 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Non-reactor batch process vent... § 63.1407 Non-reactor batch process vent provisions. (a) Emission standards. (1) Owners or operators of non-reactor batch process vents located at new or existing affected sources with 0.25 tons per year (0...

  20. Optimization of a fed-batch fermentation process for production of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Due to the substrate inhibition that takes place at high levels of carbon source, fed-batch fermentation was proposed as a better alternative for BLM production. The combined effects of batch and fed-batch fermentation and various pH profiles on BLM production in a bioreactor were evaluated. The tested pH profiles included ...

  1. Look-ahead strategies for controlling batch operations in industry : basic insights in rule construction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Zee, D.J.; Sullivan, W.A.; Ahmad, M.M.; Fichtner, D.; Sauer, W.; Weigert, G.; Zerna, T.

    2002-01-01

    Batching jobs in a manufacturing system is a very common policy in most industries. Main reasons for batching are avoidance of set ups and/or facilitation of material handling. Examples of batch-wise production systems are ovens found in aircraft industry and in semiconductor manufacturing. Starting

  2. Treatment of dairy effluents in an aerobic granular sludge sequencing batch reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarzenbeck, N; Borges, J M; Wilderer, P A

    2005-03-01

    Aerobic granular sludge can successfully be cultivated in a sequencing batch reactor (SBR) treating dairy wastewater. Attention has to be paid to the fact that suspended solids are always present in the effluent of aerobic granular sludge reactors, making a post-treatment step necessary. Sufficient post-treatment can be achieved through a sedimentation process with a hydraulic retention time of 15-30 min. After complete granulation and the separation of biomass from the effluent, removal efficiencies of 90% CODtotal, 80% Ntotal and 67% Ptotal can be achieved at a volumetric exchange ratio of 50% and a cycle duration of 8 h. Effluent values stabilize at around 125 mg l-1 CODdissolved. The maximum applicable loading rate is nevertheless limited, as the stability of aerobic granules very much depends on the presence of distinct feast and famine conditions and the degradation of real wastewaters shows slower kinetics compared with synthetic wastewaters. As loading rate and volumetric exchange ratio are coupled in an SBR system, the potential of granular sludge for improving process efficiency is also limited.

  3. Sequence and batch language programs and alarm-related ``C`` programs for the 242-A MCS. Revision 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berger, J.F.

    1995-03-01

    A Distributive Process Control system was purchased by Project B-534, ``242-A Evaporator/Crystallizer Upgrades``. This control system, called the Monitor and Control System (MCS), was installed in the 242-A Evaporator located in the 200 East Area. The purpose of the MCS is to monitor and control the Evaporator and monitor a number of alarms and other signals from various Tank Farm facilities. Applications software for the MCS was developed by the Waste Treatment Systems Engineering (WTSE) group of Westinghouse. The standard displays and alarm scheme provide for control and monitoring, but do not directly indicate the signal location or depict the overall process. To do this, WTSE developed a second alarm scheme which uses special programs, annunciator keys, and process graphics. The special programs are written in two languages; Sequence and Batch Language (SABL), and ``C`` language. The WTSE-developed alarm scheme works as described below: SABL relates signals and alarms to the annunciator keys, called SKID keys. When an alarm occurs, a SABL program causes a SKID key to flash, and if the alarm is of yellow or white priority then a ``C`` program turns on an audible horn (the D/3 system uses a different audible horn for the red priority alarms). The horn and flashing key draws the attention of the operator.

  4. Ethanol production from Sorghum bicolor using both separate and simultaneous saccharification and fermentation in batch and fed batch systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mehmood, Sajid; Gulfraz, M.; Rana, N. F.

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this work was to find the best combination of different experimental conditions during pre-treatment, enzymatic saccharification, detoxification of inhibitors and fermentation of Sorghum bicolor straw for ethanol production. The optimization of pre-treatment using different...... were used in order to increase the monomeric sugar during enzymatic hydrolysis and it has been observed that the addition of these surfactants contributed significantly in cellulosic conversion but no effect was shown on hemicellulosic hydrolysis. Fermentability of hydrolyzate was tested using...... Saccharomyces cerevisiae Ethanol Red (TM) and it was observed that simultaneous saccharification and fermentation ( SSF) with both batch and fed batch resulted in better ethanol yield as compared to separate hydrolysis and fermentation ( SHF). Detoxification of furan during SHF facilitated reduction...

  5. Production of lactic acid from cheese whey by batch and repeated batch cultures of Lactobacillus sp. RKY2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyang-Ok; Wee, Young-Jung; Kim, Jin-Nam; Yun, Jong-Sun; Ryu, Hwa-Won

    2006-01-01

    The fermentative production of lactic acid from cheese whey and corn steep liquor (CSL) as cheap raw materials was investigated by using Lactobacillus sp. RKY2 in order to develop a cost-effective fermentation medium. Lactic acid yields based on consumed lactose were obtained at more than 0.98 g/g from the medium containing whey lactose. Lactic acid productivities and yields obtained from whey lactose medium were slightly higher than those obtained from pure lactose medium. The lactic acid productivity gradually decreased with increase in substrate concentration owing to substrate and product inhibitions. The fermentation efficiencies were improved by the addition of more CSL to the medium. Moreover, through the cell-recycle repeated batch fermentation, lactic acid productivity was maximized to 6.34 g/L/h, which was 6.2 times higher than that of the batch fermentation.

  6. Optimization of the Production of Polygalacturonase from Aspergillus kawachii Cloned in Saccharomyces cerevisiae in Batch and Fed-Batch Cultures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Jorge Baruque

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Polygalacturonases (PG; EC 3.2.1.15 catalyze the hydrolysis of pectin and/or pectic acid and are useful for industrial applications such as juice clarification and pectin extraction. Growth and heterologous expression of recombinant Saccharomyces cerevisiae which expresses an acidic PG from Aspergillus kawachii has been studied in batch and fed-batch cultures. Kinetics and stoichiometric parameters of the recombinant yeast were determined in batch cultures in a synthetic medium. In these cultures, the total biomass concentration, protein concentration, and enzyme activity achieved were 2.2 g/L, 10 mg/L, and 3 U/mL, respectively, to give a productivity of 0.06 U/(mL·h. In fed-batch cultures, various strategies for galactose feeding were used: (i after a glucose growth phase, the addition of a single pulse of galactose which gave a productivity of 0.19 U/(mL·h; (ii after a glucose growth phase, a double pulse of galactose at the same final concentration was added, resulting in a productivity of 0.21 U/(mL·h; (iii a simultaneous feeding of glucose and galactose, yielding a productivity of 1.32 U/(mL·h. Based on these results, the simultaneous feeding of glucose and galactose was by far the most suitable strategy for the production of this enzyme. Moreover, some biochemical characteristics of the recombinant enzyme such as a molecular mass of ~60 kDa, an isoelectric point of 3.7 and its ability to hydrolyze polygalacturonic acid at pH=2.5 were determined.

  7. Removal of fluoxetine and its effects in the performance of an aerobic granular sludge sequential batch reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreira, Irina S.; Amorim, Catarina L. [CBQF – Centro de Biotecnologia e Química Fina – Laboratório Associado, Escola Superior de Biotecnologia, Universidade Católica Portuguesa/Porto, Rua Dr. António Bernardino Almeida, 4200-072 Porto (Portugal); Ribeiro, Ana R. [CBQF – Centro de Biotecnologia e Química Fina – Laboratório Associado, Escola Superior de Biotecnologia, Universidade Católica Portuguesa/Porto, Rua Dr. António Bernardino Almeida, 4200-072 Porto (Portugal); Centro de Química Medicinal da Universidade do Porto (CEQUIMED-UP), Rua de Jorge Viterbo Ferreira 228, 4050-313 Porto (Portugal); CESPU, Instituto de Investigação e Formação Avançada em Ciências e Tecnologias da Saúde, Rua Central de Gandra 1317, 4585-116 Gandra PRD (Portugal); Mesquita, Raquel B.R. [CBQF – Centro de Biotecnologia e Química Fina – Laboratório Associado, Escola Superior de Biotecnologia, Universidade Católica Portuguesa/Porto, Rua Dr. António Bernardino Almeida, 4200-072 Porto (Portugal); Laboratory of Hydrobiology, Institute of Biomedical Sciences Abel Salazar (ICBAS) and Institute of Marine Research (CIIMAR), Universidade do Porto, Rua de Jorge Viterbo Ferreira 228, 4050-313 Porto (Portugal); and others

    2015-04-28

    Highlights: • Enantioselective removal of fluoxetine by aerobic granular sludge was evaluated. • Sorption of fluoxetine to aerobic granules occurred. • Bacterial community gradually changed during operation of sequential batch reactor. • Main biological processes occurring within the granules were preserved. • Overall performance of the reactor was recovered after initial fluoxetine shock loads. - Abstract: Fluoxetine (FLX) is a chiral fluorinated pharmaceutical mainly indicated for treatment of depression and is one of the most distributed drugs. There is a clear evidence of environmental contamination with this drug. Aerobic granular sludge sequencing batch reactors constitute a promising technology for wastewater treatment; however the removal of carbon and nutrients can be affected by micropollutants. In this study, the fate and effect of FLX on reactor performance and on microbial population were investigated. FLX adsorption/desorption to the aerobic granules was observed. FLX shock loads (≤4 μM) did not show a significant effect on the COD removal. Ammonium removal efficiency decreased in the beginning of first shock load, but after 20 days, ammonia oxidizing bacteria became adapted. The nitrite concentration in the effluent was practically null indicating that nitrite oxidizing bacteria was not inhibited, whereas, nitrate was accumulated in the effluent, indicating that denitrification was affected. Phosphate removal was affected at the beginning showing a gradual adaptation, and the effluent concentration was <0.04 mM after 70 days. A shift in microbial community occurred probably due to FLX exposure, which induced adaptation/restructuration of the microbial population. This contributed to the robustness of the reactor, which was able to adapt to the FLX load.

  8. Removal of fluoxetine and its effects in the performance of an aerobic granular sludge sequential batch reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moreira, Irina S.; Amorim, Catarina L.; Ribeiro, Ana R.; Mesquita, Raquel B.R.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Enantioselective removal of fluoxetine by aerobic granular sludge was evaluated. • Sorption of fluoxetine to aerobic granules occurred. • Bacterial community gradually changed during operation of sequential batch reactor. • Main biological processes occurring within the granules were preserved. • Overall performance of the reactor was recovered after initial fluoxetine shock loads. - Abstract: Fluoxetine (FLX) is a chiral fluorinated pharmaceutical mainly indicated for treatment of depression and is one of the most distributed drugs. There is a clear evidence of environmental contamination with this drug. Aerobic granular sludge sequencing batch reactors constitute a promising technology for wastewater treatment; however the removal of carbon and nutrients can be affected by micropollutants. In this study, the fate and effect of FLX on reactor performance and on microbial population were investigated. FLX adsorption/desorption to the aerobic granules was observed. FLX shock loads (≤4 μM) did not show a significant effect on the COD removal. Ammonium removal efficiency decreased in the beginning of first shock load, but after 20 days, ammonia oxidizing bacteria became adapted. The nitrite concentration in the effluent was practically null indicating that nitrite oxidizing bacteria was not inhibited, whereas, nitrate was accumulated in the effluent, indicating that denitrification was affected. Phosphate removal was affected at the beginning showing a gradual adaptation, and the effluent concentration was <0.04 mM after 70 days. A shift in microbial community occurred probably due to FLX exposure, which induced adaptation/restructuration of the microbial population. This contributed to the robustness of the reactor, which was able to adapt to the FLX load

  9. Project financing renewable energy schemes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brandler, A.

    1993-01-01

    The viability of many Renewable Energy projects is critically dependent upon the ability of these projects to secure the necessary financing on acceptable terms. The principal objective of the study was to provide an overview to project developers of project financing techniques and the conditions under which project finance for Renewable Energy schemes could be raised, focussing on the potential sources of finance, the typical project financing structures that could be utilised for Renewable Energy schemes and the risk/return and security requirements of lenders, investors and other potential sources of financing. A second objective is to describe the appropriate strategy and tactics for developers to adopt in approaching the financing markets for such projects. (author)

  10. Finite volume schemes for Vlasov

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Crouseilles Nicolas

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We present finite volume schemes for the numerical approximation of the one-dimensional Vlasov-Poisson equation (FOV CEMRACS 2011 project. Stability analysis is performed for the linear advection and links with semi-Lagrangian schemes are made. Finally, numerical results enable to compare the different methods using classical plasma test cases. Des schémas de type volumes finis sont étudiés ici pour l’approximation de l’équation de Vlasov-Poisson (projet FOV, CEMRACS 2011. Une analyse de stabilité est effectuée dans le cas de l’advection linéaire et plusieurs liens sont faits entre les méthodes volumes finis et semi-Lagrangiennes. Enfin, les méthodes sont comparées sur des cas tests académiques de la physique des plasmas.

  11. Distance labeling schemes for trees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alstrup, Stephen; Gørtz, Inge Li; Bistrup Halvorsen, Esben

    2016-01-01

    We consider distance labeling schemes for trees: given a tree with n nodes, label the nodes with binary strings such that, given the labels of any two nodes, one can determine, by looking only at the labels, the distance in the tree between the two nodes. A lower bound by Gavoille et al. [Gavoille...... variants such as, for example, small distances in trees [Alstrup et al., SODA, 2003]. We improve the known upper and lower bounds of exact distance labeling by showing that 1/4 log2(n) bits are needed and that 1/2 log2(n) bits are sufficient. We also give (1 + ε)-stretch labeling schemes using Theta...

  12. Biodegradation of p-nitrophenol by aerobic granules in a sequencing batch reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Shan; Zhuang, Wei-Qin; Wu, Bing; Tay, Stephen Tiong-Lee; Tay, Joo-Hwa

    2006-04-01

    In this study, aerobic granules to treat wastewater containing p-nitrophenol (PNP) were successfully developed in a sequencing batch reactor (SBR) using activated sludge as inoculum. A key step was the conditioning of the activated sludge seed to enrich for biomass with improved settleability and higher PNP degradation activity by implementing progressive decreases in settling time and stepwise increases in PNP concentration. The aerobic granules were cultivated at a PNP loading rate of 0.6 kg/ m3 x day, with glucose to boost the growth of PNP-degrading biomass. The granules had a clearly defined shape and appearance, settled significantly faster than activated sludge, and were capable of nearly complete PNP removal. The granules had specific PNP degradation rates that increased with PNP concentration from 0 to 40.1 mg of PNP/L, peaked at 19.3 mg of PNP/(g of VSS) x h (VSS = volatile suspended solids), and declined with further increases in PNP concentration as substrate inhibition effects became significant. Batch incubation experiments show that the PNP-degrading granules could also degrade other phenolic compounds, such as hydroquinone, p-nitrocatechol, phenol, 2,4-dichlorophenol, and 2,6-dichlorophenol. The PNP-degrading granules contained diverse microbial morphotypes, and PNP-degrading bacteria accounted for 49% of the total culturable heterotrophic bacteria. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis analysis of 16S rRNA gene fragments showed a gradual temporal shift in microbial community succession as the granules developed from the activated sludge seed. Specific oxygen utilization rates at 100 mg/L PNP were found to increase with the evolution of smaller granules to large granules, suggesting that the granulation process can enhance metabolic efficiency toward biodegradation of PNP. The results in this study demonstrate that it is possible to use aerobic granules for PNP biodegradation and broadens the benefits of using the SBR to target treatment of toxic

  13. New schemes for particle accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishida, Y.

    1985-01-01

    In the present paper, the authors propose new schemes for realizing the v/sub p/xB accelerator, by using no plasma system for producing the strong longitudinal waves. The first method is to use a grating for obtaining extended interaction of an electron beam moving along the grating surface with light beam incident also along the surface. Here, the light beam propagates obliquely to the grating grooves for producing strong electric field, and the electron beam propagates in parallel to the light beam. The static magnetic field is applied perpendicularly to the grating surface. In the present system, the beam interacts synchronously with the p-polarized wave which has the electric field be parallel to the grating surface. Another conventional scheme is to use a delay circuit. Here, the light beam propagates obliquely between a pair of array of conductor fins or slots. The phase velocity of the spatial harmonics in the y-direction (right angle to the array of slots) is slower than the speed of light. With the aid of powerful laser light or microwave source, it should be possible to miniaturise linacs by using the v/sub p/xB effect and schemes proposed here

  14. An Arbitrated Quantum Signature Scheme without Entanglement"*

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Hui-Ran; Luo Ming-Xing; Peng Dai-Yuan; Wang Xiao-Jun

    2017-01-01

    Several quantum signature schemes are recently proposed to realize secure signatures of quantum or classical messages. Arbitrated quantum signature as one nontrivial scheme has attracted great interests because of its usefulness and efficiency. Unfortunately, previous schemes cannot against Trojan horse attack and DoS attack and lack of the unforgeability and the non-repudiation. In this paper, we propose an improved arbitrated quantum signature to address these secure issues with the honesty arbitrator. Our scheme takes use of qubit states not entanglements. More importantly, the qubit scheme can achieve the unforgeability and the non-repudiation. Our scheme is also secure for other known quantum attacks . (paper)

  15. An Arbitrated Quantum Signature Scheme without Entanglement*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hui-Ran; Luo, Ming-Xing; Peng, Dai-Yuan; Wang, Xiao-Jun

    2017-09-01

    Several quantum signature schemes are recently proposed to realize secure signatures of quantum or classical messages. Arbitrated quantum signature as one nontrivial scheme has attracted great interests because of its usefulness and efficiency. Unfortunately, previous schemes cannot against Trojan horse attack and DoS attack and lack of the unforgeability and the non-repudiation. In this paper, we propose an improved arbitrated quantum signature to address these secure issues with the honesty arbitrator. Our scheme takes use of qubit states not entanglements. More importantly, the qubit scheme can achieve the unforgeability and the non-repudiation. Our scheme is also secure for other known quantum attacks.

  16. Analogical Argument Schemes and Complex Argument Structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andre Juthe

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses several issues in argumentation theory. The over-arching goal is to discuss how a theory of analogical argument schemes fits the pragma-dialectical theory of argument schemes and argument structures, and how one should properly reconstruct both single and complex argumentation by analogy. I also propose a unified model that explains how formal valid deductive argumentation relates to argument schemes in general and to analogical argument schemes in particular. The model suggests “scheme-specific-validity” i.e. that there are contrasting species of validity for each type of argument scheme that derive from one generic conception of validity.

  17. ANALYSIS OF THE PREDICTIVE DMC CONTROLLER PERFORMANCE APPLIED TO A FEED-BATCH BIOREACTOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. A. D. RODRIGUES

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available Two control algorithms were implemented in the stabilization of the dissolved oxygen concentration of the penicillin process production phase. A deterministic and nonstructured mathematical model was used, where were considered the balances of cell, substrate, dissolved oxygen and product formation as well as kinetic of the growth, respiration, product inhibition due to excess of substrate, penicillin hydrolyze, yield factors among cell growth, substrate consumption and dissolved oxygen consumption. The bioreactor was operated in a feed-batch way using an optimal strategy for the operational policy. The agitation speed was used as manipulated variable in order to achieve the dissolved oxygen control because it was found to be the most sensitive one. Two types of control configurations were implemented. First, the PID feedback control with the parameters estimated through Modified Simplex optimization method using the IAE index, and second, the DMC predictive control that had as control parameters the model, prediction and control horizons as well as suppression factor and the trajectory parameter. A sensitivity analysis of these two control algorithms was performed using the sample time and dead time as the index to make stability evaluation. Both configurations showed stable performance, however, the predictive one was found to be more robust in relation to the sample time, as well as the dead time variations. This is a very important characteristic to be considered for the implementation of control scheme in real fermentative process

  18. Development and test of small-scale batch-fired straw boilers in Denmark

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kristensen, E.F.; Kristensen, J.K.

    2004-01-01

    In Denmark, government subsidies for the testing and installation of biomass-fired boilers were available for the period from 1995 until 2002. Each boiler type had to pass an official approval test to achieve subsidy. The combustion abilities of the boiler were optimized prior to the test. The main aim of this subsidy was to encourage the development of energy-efficient and environmentally friendly boilers. The scheme was therefore organized in such a way that the greatest subsidies were awarded for boilers with high efficiency and low emissions. This goal has in effect been achieved for batch-fired straw boilers, where the typical efficiency has been increased from about 75% in 1995 to about 87% in 2002. Similarly, the carbon monoxide emissions have been reduced from 5000 ppm (reference value 10% O 2 ) in 1995 to less than 1000 ppm in 2002. These improvements are mainly due to better insulation inside the combustion chamber, more efficient techniques for supplying air to the combustion process, improved cooling of the flue gas, and optimization of the electronic control unit for the air supply

  19. A new divided-wall heat integrated distillation column (HIDiC) for batch processing: Feasibility and analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jana, Amiya K.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A novel heat integrated configuration is proposed for batch distillation. • The shell is divided into two closed semi-cylinders by a metal wall. • An open-loop variable manipulation policy is formulated. • The column improves its energy efficiency and economic performance. - Abstract: This work introduces a new heat integrated distillation column (HIDiC) for batch processing. Under this scheme, the entire cylindrical shell is proposed to divide vertically by a metal wall into two closed semi-cylinders. Aiming to generate an internal heat source, a heat pump system is employed over the left hand division to elevate the pressure of the right hand part with the application of HIDiC concept. This new divided-wall HIDiC column utilizes its own energy source by transferring heat from the high pressure (HP) to low pressure (LP) side, thereby reducing the utility consumption in both the still and condenser. To make this thermal integration technology more effective, a typical tray configuration is proposed in both sides of the divided-wall. Unlike the continuous flow distillation, the batch column shows unsteady state process characteristics that make its operation more challenging. With this, an open-loop variable manipulation policy is formulated so that the dynamics of the heat integrated column remain close, if not same, with its conventional counterpart. This is a necessary condition required for a fair comparison between them. Finally, the proposed configuration is illustrated by a binary column, showing an improvement in energy savings, entropy generation and cost over its conventional analogous. This thermally integrated configuration is relatively simple than the traditional HIDiC in terms of design and operation.

  20. Influence of coal batch preparation on the quality of metallurgical соkе

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Катерина Олегівна Шмельцер

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available To study the influence of coal batch properties on coke strength we have considered the quality of the coke produced at the plant in Krivoy Rog from 2008 till 2012. Such factors as the large number of coal suppliers, imprecise selection of the optimal degree of batch crushing result in the decline in coke quality, the batch density and contents of the lean class (<0,5 mm are not optimum; poor blending of the batch after crushing; increased moisture and ash content of the coking batch; and extreme fluctuation in the coal and batch characteristics. It was found that high humidity of coal batch and its large fluctuations has most profound effect on the mechanical properties of coke. Under deteriorating resource base the quality of the coking batch preparation is important, To have batch of proper quality the following key aspects must be taken into account: the batch must be crushed to an optimum degree that will result in leaning components decrease and increased contents of vitrivite in it which improves the sinterability and coking, and hence the quality of coke; the degree of mixing of the coking batch in all indices must be up to 98-99%, for uneven distribution in the coal chamber worsens the quality of coke

  1. Recommendation of ruthenium source for sludge batch flowsheet studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woodham, W. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2017-09-13

    Included herein is a preliminary analysis of previously-generated data from sludge batches 7a, 7b, 8, and 9 sludge simulant and real-waste testing, performed to recommend a form of ruthenium for future sludge batch simulant testing under the nitric-formic flowsheet. Focus is given to reactions present in the Sludge Receipt and Adjustment Tank cycle, given that this cycle historically produces the most changes in chemical composition during Chemical Process Cell processing. Data is presented and analyzed for several runs performed under the nitric-formic flowsheet, with consideration given to effects on the production of hydrogen gas, nitrous oxide gas, consumption of formate, conversion of nitrite to nitrate, and the removal and recovery of mercury during processing. Additionally, a brief discussion is given to the effect of ruthenium source selection under the nitric-glycolic flowsheet. An analysis of data generated from scaled demonstration testing, sludge batch 9 qualification testing, and antifoam degradation testing under the nitric-glycolic flowsheet is presented. Experimental parameters of interest under the nitric-glycolic flowsheet include N2O production, glycolate destruction, conversion of glycolate to formate and oxalate, and the conversion of nitrite to nitrate. To date, the number of real-waste experiments that have been performed under the nitric-glycolic flowsheet is insufficient to provide a complete understanding of the effects of ruthenium source selection in simulant experiments with regard to fidelity to real-waste testing. Therefore, a determination of comparability between the two ruthenium sources as employed under the nitric-glycolic flowsheet is made based on available data in order to inform ruthenium source selection for future testing under the nitric-glycolic flowsheet.

  2. Joint multiuser switched diversity and adaptive modulation schemes for spectrum sharing systems

    KAUST Repository

    Qaraqe, Marwa

    2012-12-01

    In this paper, we develop multiuser access schemes for spectrum sharing systems whereby secondary users are allowed to share the spectrum with primary users under the condition that the interference observed at the primary receiver is below a predetermined threshold. In particular, we devise two schemes for selecting a user among those that satisfy the interference constraint and achieve an acceptable signal-to-noise ratio level. The first scheme selects the user that reports the best channel quality. In order to alleviate the high feedback load associated with the first scheme, we develop a second scheme based on the concept of switched diversity where the base station scans the users in a sequential manner until an acceptable user is found. In addition to these two selection schemes, we consider two power adaptive settings at the secondary users based on the amount of interference available at the secondary transmitter. In the On/Off power setting, users are allowed to transmit based on whether the interference constraint is met or not, while in the full power adaptive setting, the users are allowed to vary their transmission power to satisfy the interference constraint. Finally, we present numerical results for our proposed algorithms where we show the trade-off between the average spectral efficiency and average feedback load for both schemes. © 2012 IEEE.

  3. Scheme for the fabrication of ultrashort channel metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Appenzeller, J.; Martel, R.; Solomon, P.; Chan, K.; Avouris, Ph.; Knoch, J.; Benedict, J.; Tanner, M.; Thomas, S.; Wang, K. L.

    2000-01-01

    We present a scheme for the fabrication of ultrashort channel length metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors (MOSFETs) involving nanolithography and molecular-beam epitaxy. The active channel is undoped and is defined by a combination of nanometer-scale patterning and anisotropic etching of an n ++ layer grown on a silicon on insulator wafer. The method is self-limiting and can produce MOSFET devices with channel lengths of less than 10 nm. Measurements on the first batch of n-MOSFET devices fabricated with this approach show very good output characteristics and good control of short-channel effects. (c) 2000 American Institute of Physics

  4. Batched Triangular DLA for Very Small Matrices on GPUs

    KAUST Repository

    Charara, Ali

    2017-03-13

    In several scientific applications, like tensor contractions in deep learning computation or data compression in hierarchical low rank matrix approximation, the bulk of computation typically resides in performing thousands of independent dense linear algebra operations on very small matrix sizes (usually less than 100). Batched dense linear algebra kernels are becoming ubiquitous for such scientific computations. Within a single API call, these kernels are capable of simultaneously launching a large number of similar matrix computations, removing the expensive overhead of multiple API calls while increasing the utilization of the underlying hardware.

  5. Optimum heat storage design for heat integrated multipurpose batch plants

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Stamp, J

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available June 2011 Accepted 7 June 2011 Available online xxx Keywords: a b s t r a c t Heat integration to minimis for more than two decade which leads to suboptimal leading to improved results optimisation of heat storag exhibits MINLP structure, w a... different thermal storage systems were designed to store the heat released during an exothermic reaction phase and reuse the heat for preheating the reactants in the following batch. Savings between 50% and 70% could be achieved, however, payback time...

  6. Online and Batch Supervised Background Estimation via L1 Regression

    KAUST Repository

    Dutta, Aritra

    2017-11-23

    We propose a surprisingly simple model for supervised video background estimation. Our model is based on $\\\\ell_1$ regression. As existing methods for $\\\\ell_1$ regression do not scale to high-resolution videos, we propose several simple and scalable methods for solving the problem, including iteratively reweighted least squares, a homotopy method, and stochastic gradient descent. We show through extensive experiments that our model and methods match or outperform the state-of-the-art online and batch methods in virtually all quantitative and qualitative measures.

  7. Decoupling schemes for the SSC Collider

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cai, Y.; Bourianoff, G.; Cole, B.; Meinke, R.; Peterson, J.; Pilat, F.; Stampke, S.; Syphers, M.; Talman, R.

    1993-05-01

    A decoupling system is designed for the SSC Collider. This system can accommodate three decoupling schemes by using 44 skew quadrupoles in the different configurations. Several decoupling schemes are studied and compared in this paper

  8. Decoupling schemes for the SCC Collider

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cai, Y.; Bourianoff, G.; Cole, B.; Meinke, R.; Peterson, J.; Pilat, F.; Stampke, S.; Syphers, M.; Talman, R.

    1993-01-01

    A decoupling system is designed for the SSC Collider. This system can accommodate three decoupling schemes by using 44 skew quadrupoles in the different configurations. Several decoupling schemes are studied and compared in this paper

  9. TVD schemes for open channel flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delis, A. I.; Skeels, C. P.

    1998-04-01

    The Saint Venant equations for modelling flow in open channels are solved in this paper, using a variety of total variation diminishing (TVD) schemes. The performance of second- and third-order-accurate TVD schemes is investigated for the computation of free-surface flows, in predicting dam-breaks and extreme flow conditions created by the river bed topography. Convergence of the schemes is quantified by comparing error norms between subsequent iterations. Automatically calculated time steps and entropy corrections allow high CFL numbers and smooth transition between different conditions. In order to compare different approaches with TVD schemes, the most accurate of each type was chosen. All four schemes chosen proved acceptably accurate. However, there are important differences between the schemes in the occurrence of clipping, overshooting and oscillating behaviour and in the highest CFL numbers allowed by a scheme. These variations in behaviour stem from the different orders and inherent properties of the four schemes.

  10. Algebraic K-theory of generalized schemes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anevski, Stella Victoria Desiree

    Nikolai Durov has developed a generalization of conventional scheme theory in which commutative algebraic monads replace commutative unital rings as the basic algebraic objects. The resulting geometry is expressive enough to encompass conventional scheme theory, tropical algebraic geometry and ge...

  11. Algebraic K-theory of generalized schemes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anevski, Stella Victoria Desiree

    Nikolai Durov has developed a generalization of conventional scheme theory in which commutative algebraic monads replace commutative unital rings as the basic algebraic objects. The resulting geometry is expressive enough to encompass conventional scheme theory, tropical algebraic geometry...

  12. Development of a sustainability reporting scheme for biofuels: A UK case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chalmers, Jessica; Archer, Greg

    2011-01-01

    In 2008, the UK launched the first regulatory sustainability reporting scheme for biofuels. The development of the scheme, managed by the Low Carbon Vehicle Partnership for the Department for Transport, involved extensive stakeholder engagement. The scheme has significantly increased understanding by policy-makers, the biofuels industry and its supply chains on how to monitor and manage the sustainability risks of biofuels and increase their greenhouse-gas benefits. It is providing a practical model for similar developments globally. To receive certificates in order to meet volume obligations under the Renewable Transport Fuel Obligation (RTFO), suppliers must provide a monthly carbon and sustainability report on individual batches of renewable fuels they supply into the UK. The Renewable Fuels Agency produces aggregate monthly reports of overall performance and quarterly updates of individual supplier performance. This scheme is an important first step to assist the biofuels industry to demonstrate its environmental credentials and justify the subsidies received. The paper provides a case study of the development of the scheme, its initial outcomes and outstanding challenges.

  13. Adaptive control schemes for improving dynamic performance of efficiency-optimized induction motor drives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Navneet; Raj Chelliah, Thanga; Srivastava, S P

    2015-07-01

    Model Based Control (MBC) is one of the energy optimal controllers used in vector-controlled Induction Motor (IM) for controlling the excitation of motor in accordance with torque and speed. MBC offers energy conservation especially at part-load operation, but it creates ripples in torque and speed during load transition, leading to poor dynamic performance of the drive. This study investigates the opportunity for improving dynamic performance of a three-phase IM operating with MBC and proposes three control schemes: (i) MBC with a low pass filter (ii) torque producing current (iqs) injection in the output of speed controller (iii) Variable Structure Speed Controller (VSSC). The pre and post operation of MBC during load transition is also analyzed. The dynamic performance of a 1-hp, three-phase squirrel-cage IM with mine-hoist load diagram is tested. Test results are provided for the conventional field-oriented (constant flux) control and MBC (adjustable excitation) with proposed schemes. The effectiveness of proposed schemes is also illustrated for parametric variations. The test results and subsequent analysis confer that the motor dynamics improves significantly with all three proposed schemes in terms of overshoot/undershoot peak amplitude of torque and DC link power in addition to energy saving during load transitions. Copyright © 2015 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. MIRD radionuclide data and decay schemes

    CERN Document Server

    Eckerman, Keith F

    2007-01-01

    For all physicians, scientists, and physicists working in the nuclear medicine field, the MIRD: Radionuclide Data and Decay Schemes updated edition is an essential sourcebook for radiation dosimetry and understanding the properties of radionuclides. Includes CD Table of Contents Decay schemes listed by atomic number Radioactive decay processes Serial decay schemes Decay schemes and decay tables This essential reference for nuclear medicine physicians, scientists and physicists also includes a CD with tabulations of the radionuclide data necessary for dosimetry calculations.

  15. Secret Sharing Schemes and Advanced Encryption Standard

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-01

    Secret Sharing Scheme, they have only been better under certain parameters; there is always a trade -off with some parameter of the scheme. xiv...NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL MONTEREY, CALIFORNIA THESIS SECRET SHARING SCHEMES AND ADVANCED ENCRYPTION STANDARD by Bing Yong Lim September 2015 Thesis...AND SUBTITLE SECRET SHARING SCHEMES AND ADVANCED ENCRYPTION STANDARD 5. FUNDING NUMBERS 6. AUTHOR(S) Lim, Bin Yong 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S

  16. Tightly Secure Signatures From Lossy Identification Schemes

    OpenAIRE

    Abdalla , Michel; Fouque , Pierre-Alain; Lyubashevsky , Vadim; Tibouchi , Mehdi

    2015-01-01

    International audience; In this paper, we present three digital signature schemes with tight security reductions in the random oracle model. Our first signature scheme is a particularly efficient version of the short exponent discrete log-based scheme of Girault et al. (J Cryptol 19(4):463–487, 2006). Our scheme has a tight reduction to the decisional short discrete logarithm problem, while still maintaining the non-tight reduction to the computational version of the problem upon which the or...

  17. Electrical load detection aparatus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2010-01-01

    A load detection technique for a load comprising multiple frequency-dependant sub-loads comprises measuring a representation of the impedance characteristic of the load; providing stored representations of a multiplicity of impedance characteristics of the load; each one of the stored representat...

  18. THROUGHPUT ANALYSIS OF EXTENDED ARQ SCHEMES

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PUBLICATIONS1

    and Wait (SW), Selective Repeat (SR), Stutter. (ST) and Go-Back-N (GBN) (Lin and Costello,. 2003). Combinations of these schemes lead to mixed mode schemes which include the SR-. GBN, SR-ST1 and SR-ST2. In the mixed mode schemes, when a prescribed number of failures occur in the SR mode, the GBN or ST ...

  19. The durability of waveguide fibers at cyclic change of loading, temperature and humidity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karimov, S.N.; Sultonov, U.; Shamsidinov, M.I.

    1992-01-01

    Present article is devoted to durability of waveguide fibers at cyclic change of loading, temperature and humidity. The mounting scheme and loading of sample is presented. The dependence of glass fiber durability on number of thermal cycles at various humidity rates was considered. The dependence of number of cycles on maximal loading at cyclic temperature change was studied.

  20. The Original Management Incentive Schemes

    OpenAIRE

    Richard T. Holden

    2005-01-01

    During the 1990s, the structure of pay for top corporate executives shifted markedly as the use of stock options greatly expanded. By the early 2000s, as the dot-com boom ended and the Nasdaq stock index melted down, these modern executive incentive schemes were being sharply questioned on many grounds—for encouraging excessive risk-taking and a short-run orientation, for being an overly costly and inefficient method of providing incentives, and even for tempting managers of firms like Enron,...

  1. The mathematics of Ponzi schemes

    OpenAIRE

    Artzrouni, Marc

    2009-01-01

    A first order linear differential equation is used to describe the dynamics of an investment fund that promises more than it can deliver, also known as a Ponzi scheme. The model is based on a promised, unrealistic interest rate; on the actual, realized nominal interest rate; on the rate at which new deposits are accumulated and on the withdrawal rate. Conditions on these parameters are given for the fund to be solvent or to collapse. The model is fitted to data available on Charles...

  2. Adaptive Optics Metrics & QC Scheme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girard, Julien H.

    2017-09-01

    "There are many Adaptive Optics (AO) fed instruments on Paranal and more to come. To monitor their performances and assess the quality of the scientific data, we have developed a scheme and a set of tools and metrics adapted to each flavour of AO and each data product. Our decisions to repeat observations or not depends heavily on this immediate quality control "zero" (QC0). Atmospheric parameters monitoring can also help predict performances . At the end of the chain, the user must be able to find the data that correspond to his/her needs. In Particular, we address the special case of SPHERE."

  3. Network Regulation and Support Schemes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ropenus, Stephanie; Schröder, Sascha Thorsten; Jacobsen, Henrik

    2009-01-01

    At present, there exists no explicit European policy framework on distributed generation. Various Directives encompass distributed generation; inherently, their implementation is to the discretion of the Member States. The latter have adopted different kinds of support schemes, ranging from feed-in...... tariffs to market-based quota systems, and network regulation approaches, comprising rate-of-return and incentive regulation. National regulation and the vertical structure of the electricity sector shape the incentives of market agents, notably of distributed generators and network operators...

  4. Intelligent Aggregation Based on Content Routing Scheme for Cloud Computing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiachen Xu

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Cloud computing has emerged as today’s most exciting computing paradigm for providing services using a shared framework, which opens a new door for solving the problems of the explosive growth of digital resource demands and their corresponding convenience. With the exponential growth of the number of data types and data size in so-called big data work, the backbone network is under great pressure due to its transmission capacity, which is lower than the growth of the data size and would seriously hinder the development of the network without an effective approach to solve this problem. In this paper, an Intelligent Aggregation based on a Content Routing (IACR scheme for cloud computing, which could reduce the amount of data in the network effectively and play a basic supporting role in the development of cloud computing, is first put forward. All in all, the main innovations in this paper are: (1 A framework for intelligent aggregation based on content routing is proposed, which can support aggregation based content routing; (2 The proposed IACR scheme could effectively route the high aggregation ratio data to the data center through the same routing path so as to effectively reduce the amount of data that the network transmits. The theoretical analyses experiments and results show that, compared with the previous original routing scheme, the IACR scheme can balance the load of the whole network, reduce the amount of data transmitted in the network by 41.8%, and reduce the transmission time by 31.6% in the same network with a more balanced network load.

  5. Fiber Bundle Model Under Heterogeneous Loading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Subhadeep; Goswami, Sanchari

    2018-03-01

    The present work deals with the behavior of fiber bundle model under heterogeneous loading condition. The model is explored both in the mean-field limit as well as with local stress concentration. In the mean field limit, the failure abruptness decreases with increasing order k of heterogeneous loading. In this limit, a brittle to quasi-brittle transition is observed at a particular strength of disorder which changes with k. On the other hand, the model is hardly affected by such heterogeneity in the limit where local stress concentration plays a crucial role. The continuous limit of the heterogeneous loading is also studied and discussed in this paper. Some of the important results related to fiber bundle model are reviewed and their responses to our new scheme of heterogeneous loading are studied in details. Our findings are universal with respect to the nature of the threshold distribution adopted to assign strength to an individual fiber.

  6. Biomineralization of azo dye bearing wastewater in periodic discontinuous batch reactor: Effect of microaerophilic conditions on treatment efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naresh Kumar, A; Nagendranatha Reddy, C; Venkata Mohan, S

    2015-01-01

    The present study illustrates the influence of microaerophilic condition on periodic discontinuous batch reactor (PDBR) operation in treating azo dye containing wastewater. The process performance was evaluated with the function of various dye load operations (50-750 mg/l) by keeping the organic load (1.6 kg COD/m(3)-day) constant. Initially, lower dye operation (50mg dye/l) resulted in higher dye [45 mg dye/l (90%)] and COD [SDR: 1.29 kg COD/m(3)-day (92%)] removal efficiencies. Higher dye load operation (750 mg dye/l) also showed non-inhibitory performance with respect to dye [600 mg dye/l (80%)] and COD [1.25 kg COD/m(3)-day (80%)] removal efficiencies. Increment in dye load showed increment in azo reductase and dehydrogenase activities (39.6 U; 4.96 μg/ml; 750 mg/l). UV-Vis spectroscopy (200-800 nm), FTIR and (1)H NMR studies revealed the disappearance of azo bond (-NN-). First derivative cyclic voltammogram supported the involvement of various membrane bound redox shuttlers, viz., cytochrome-C, cytochrome-bc1 and flavoproteins (FAD (H)). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Near infrared spectroscopy for qualitative comparison of pharmaceutical batches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roggo, Y; Roeseler, C; Ulmschneider, M

    2004-11-19

    Pharmaceuticals are produced according to current pharmacopoeias, which require quality parameters. Tablets of identical formulation, produced by different factories should have the same properties before and after storage. In this article, we analyzed samples having two different origins before and after storage (30 degrees C, 75% relative moisture). The aim of the study is to propose two approaches to understand the differences between origins and the storage effect by near infrared spectroscopy. In the first part, the main wavelengths are identified in transmittance and reflectance near infrared spectra in order to identify the major differences between the samples. In this paper, this approach is called fingerprinting. In the second part, principal component analysis (PCA) is computed to confirm the fingerprinting interpretation. The two interpretations show the differences between batches: physical aspect and moisture content. The manufacturing process is responsible for the physical differences between batches. During the storage, changes are due to the increase of moisture content and the decrease of the active content.

  8. Palm Olein Polyols Production by Batch and Continuous Hydrolysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Darfizzi Derawi; Jumat Salimon; Darfizzi Derawi

    2013-01-01

    Di-hydroxy-PO degree (70 % of yield) was synthesised through oxirane cleavage of epoxidized palm olein (EPO degree) by using continuous and batch hydrolysis process. Both hydrolysis processes obtained an optimum oxirane cleavage yield (97.2 %) by using perchloric acid 3 % v/ wt for 90 min (continuous process) and 75 min (batch process). The presence of stretching vibration broadband peak of hydroxyl at wavenumber 3429 cm -1 shown on the Fourier transformation infra-red (FTIR) spectrum, indicate formation of polyols compound. The carbon-nuclear magnetic resonance ( 13 C-NMR) spectrum of di-hydroxy-PO o showed the presence of carbon peak bonded with hydroxyl (74.5 ppm). The proton-nuclear magnetic resonance ( 1 H-NMR) spectrum of di-hydroxy-PO o showed the presence of proton peak attached to the carbon of polyols (3.4 ppm) and proton of hydroxyl (4.6 ppm). Kinematic viscosity of polyols product (110.7 mg KOH/ g oil) were 1435.2 cSt (40 degree Celsius) and 55.2 cSt (100 degree Celsius) with the viscosity index of 78. (author)

  9. Stormwater Pollution Prevention Plan - TA-60 Asphalt Batch Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sandoval, Leonard Frank [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2018-01-31

    This Storm Water Pollution Prevention Plan (SWPPP) was developed in accordance with the provisions of the Clean Water Act (33 U.S.C. §§1251 et seq., as amended), and the Multi-Sector General Permit for Storm Water Discharges Associated with Industrial Activity (U.S. EPA, June 2015) issued by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) for the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) and using the industry specific permit requirements for Sector P-Land Transportation and Warehousing as a guide. This SWPPP applies to discharges of stormwater from the operational areas of the TA-60-01 Asphalt Batch Plant at Los Alamos National Laboratory. Los Alamos National Laboratory (also referred to as LANL or the “Laboratory”) is owned by the Department of Energy (DOE), and is operated by Los Alamos National Security, LLC (LANS). Throughout this document, the term “facility” refers to the TA-60 Asphalt Batch Plant and associated areas. The current permit expires at midnight on June 4, 2020.

  10. Optimalisasi Biosorpsi Bekatul Terhadap Kalsium (Ca dengan Menggunakan Metode Batch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subarman Subarman

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The study is titled Optimization of biosorption Biomass Against Calcium (Ca by using the method of Batch. Background on this research that, the utilization of biomass as an adsorbent bran on the absorption of calcium metal (Ca and reduce the pollution caused from the bran biomass. This study aims to determine the optimum pH and time as well as processing of biomass with metal biosorption Calcium (Ca. Bran biomass taken directly to rice mills in Kecematan Pallangga Gowa. The method used in  this  study is  the activation process,  the  determination  of  the  optimum  pH,  optimum  timing, method in the determination of biosorption Batch, then the results were analyzed by using Atomic absorption spectrophotometer (AAS.The results obtained from this study is that the pH optimum at pH 9, the optimum contact time to 15 minutes, and the biosorption capacity of 14.1804 mg/L.

  11. Xylitol production by Candida parapsilosis under fed-batch culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra A. Furlan

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Xylitol production by Candida parapsilosis was investigated under fed-batch cultivation, using single (xylose or mixed (xylose and glucose sugars as substrates. The presence of glucose in the medium induced the production of ethanol as secondary metabolite and improved specific rates of growth, xylitol formation and substrate consumption. Fractionated supply of the feed medium at constant sugar concentration did not promote any increase on the productivity compared to the single batch cultivation.A produção de xylitol por Candida parapsilosis foi investigada em regime de batelada alimentada, usando substratos açucarados de composição simples (xilose ou composta (xilose e glicose. A presença de glicose no meio induziu a formação de etanol como metabólito secundário. A suplementação fracionada do meio de alimentação numa concentração fixa de açúcar não resultou em aumento da produtividade em relação àquela alcançada em batelada simples.

  12. Comparison of the release of constituents from granular materials under batch and column testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez Meza, Sarynna; Garrabrants, Andrew C; van der Sloot, Hans; Kosson, David S

    2008-01-01

    Column leaching testing can be considered a better basis for assessing field impact data than any other available batch test method and thus provides a fundamental basis from which to estimate constituent release under a variety of field conditions. However, column testing is time-intensive compared to the more simplified batch testing, and may not always be a viable option when making decisions for material reuse. Batch tests are used most frequently as a simple tool for compliance or quality control reasons. Therefore, it is important to compare the release that occurs under batch and column testing, and establish conservative interpretation protocols for extrapolation from batch data when column data are not available. Five different materials (concrete, construction debris, aluminum recycling residue, coal fly ash and bottom ash) were evaluated via batch and column testing, including different column flow regimes (continuously saturated and intermittent unsaturated flow). Constituent release data from batch and column tests were compared. Results showed no significant difference between the column flow regimes when constituent release data from batch and column tests were compared. In most cases batch and column testing agreed when presented in the form of cumulative release. For arsenic in carbonated materials, however, batch testing underestimates the column constituent release for most LS ratios and also on a cumulative basis. For cases when As is a constituent of concern, column testing may be required.

  13. Investigation of vinegar production using a novel shaken repeated batch culture system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlepütz, Tino; Büchs, Jochen

    2013-01-01

    Nowadays, bioprocesses are developed or optimized on small scale. Also, vinegar industry is motivated to reinvestigate the established repeated batch fermentation process. As yet, there is no small-scale culture system for optimizing fermentation conditions for repeated batch bioprocesses. Thus, the aim of this study is to propose a new shaken culture system for parallel repeated batch vinegar fermentation. A new operation mode - the flushing repeated batch - was developed. Parallel repeated batch vinegar production could be established in shaken overflow vessels in a completely automated operation with only one pump per vessel. This flushing repeated batch was first theoretically investigated and then empirically tested. The ethanol concentration was online monitored during repeated batch fermentation by semiconductor gas sensors. It was shown that the switch from one ethanol substrate quality to different ethanol substrate qualities resulted in prolonged lag phases and durations of the first batches. In the subsequent batches the length of the fermentations decreased considerably. This decrease in the respective lag phases indicates an adaptation of the acetic acid bacteria mixed culture to the specific ethanol substrate quality. Consequently, flushing repeated batch fermentations on small scale are valuable for screening fermentation conditions and, thereby, improving industrial-scale bioprocesses such as vinegar production in terms of process robustness, stability, and productivity. Copyright © 2013 American Institute of Chemical Engineers.

  14. Improving the development of event-driven control systems in the batch processing industry. A case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, A; Rotstein, G; Alsop, N; Bromberg, J P; Gollain, C; Sorensen, S; Macchietto, S; Jakeman, C

    2002-07-01

    This paper presents the results of an academia-industry collaborative project whose main objective was to test novel techniques for the development of event-driven control systems in the batch processing (e.g., pharmaceutical, fine chemicals, food) industries. Proposed techniques build upon industrial standards and focus on (i) formal synthesis of phase control logic and its automatic translation into procedural code, and (ii) verification of the complete discrete-event control system via dynamic simulation. In order to test the techniques in an engineering environment, a complete discrete-event control system was produced for a benchmark batch process plant based on a standard development method employed by one of the industrial partners. The control system includes functional process specification, control architecture, distributed control system (DCS) proprietary programming code for procedural control at equipment, unit, and process cell levels, and human-machine interfaces: A technical assessment of the development method and the obtained control system was then carried out. Improvements were suggested using the proposed techniques in the specification, code generation and, verification steps. The project assessed the impact of these techniques from both an engineering and economic point of view. Results suggest that the introduction of computer aided engineering (CAE) practices based on the benchmarked techniques and a structured approach could effect a 75% reduction of errors produced in the development process. This translates into estimated overall savings of 7% for green-field projects. Figures were compared with other partners' experience. It is expected that the work load on a given project will shift, increasing the load on process engineers during the specification stage and decreasing the load on the software engineers during the code writing.

  15. REMINDER: Saved Leave Scheme (SLS)

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    Transfer of leave to saved leave accounts Under the provisions of the voluntary saved leave scheme (SLS), a maximum total of 10 days'* annual and compensatory leave (excluding saved leave accumulated in accordance with the provisions of Administrative Circular No 22B) can be transferred to the saved leave account at the end of the leave year (30 September). We remind you that unused leave of all those taking part in the saved leave scheme at the closure of the leave year accounts is transferred automatically to the saved leave account on that date. Therefore, staff members have no administrative steps to take. In addition, the transfer, which eliminates the risk of omitting to request leave transfers and rules out calculation errors in transfer requests, will be clearly shown in the list of leave transactions that can be consulted in EDH from October 2003 onwards. Furthermore, this automatic leave transfer optimizes staff members' chances of benefiting from a saved leave bonus provided that they ar...

  16. Distribution load estimation (DLE)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seppaelae, A.; Lehtonen, M. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland)

    1998-08-01

    The load research has produced customer class load models to convert the customers` annual energy consumption to hourly load values. The reliability of load models applied from a nation-wide sample is limited in any specific network because many local circumstances are different from utility to utility and time to time. Therefore there is a need to find improvements to the load models or, in general, improvements to the load estimates. In Distribution Load Estimation (DLE) the measurements from the network are utilized to improve the customer class load models. The results of DLE will be new load models that better correspond to the loading of the distribution network but are still close to the original load models obtained by load research. The principal data flow of DLE is presented

  17. Arbitrated quantum signature scheme using Bell states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Qin; Chan, W. H.; Long Dongyang

    2009-01-01

    In an arbitrated quantum signature scheme, the signatory signs the message and the receiver verifies the signature's validity with the assistance of the arbitrator. We present an arbitrated quantum signature scheme using two-particle entangled Bell states similar to the previous scheme using three-particle entangled Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger states [G. H. Zeng and C. H. Keitel, Phys. Rev. A 65, 042312 (2002)]. The proposed scheme can preserve the merits in the original scheme while providing a higher efficiency in transmission and reducing the complexity of implementation.

  18. Load profiles analysis for electricity market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radu Porumb

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In the wake of electric power system transition towards smart grids, and the adoption of the electric market schemes, electric utilities are facing the need of a better load profiles understanding for their customers. In this work, some key objectives were addresses, such as definition of the mathematical model for calculating the hourly energy specific, identification of the three target groups for users who have developed consumer profiles, definition of the two types of significant load and assessment of the impact of using consumer profiles on users.

  19. Hierarchical Control Scheme for Voltage Unbalance Compensation in Islanded Microgrids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Savaghebi, Mehdi; Guerrero, Josep M.; Jalilian, Alireza

    2011-01-01

    The concept of microgrid hierarchical control is presented, recently. In this paper, a hierarchical scheme which includes primary and secondary control levels is proposed for islanded microgrids. The primary control level consists of DG local controllers. Local controller of each DG comprises...... active and reactive power controllers, virtual impedance loop and voltage and current controllers. The secondary level is designed to compensate the voltage unbalance at the load bus (LB) of the islanded microgrid. Also, restoration of LB voltage amplitude and microgrid frequency to the rated values...

  20. Analysis and experimental verification of a control scheme for unified power quality conditioner

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peng Cheng Zhu; Xun Li; Yong Kang; Jian Chen [Huazhong Univ. of Science and Techmnology, Wuhan (China). Dept. of Electrical Engineering

    2005-07-01

    Improving power quality for sensitive load by a Unified Power Quality Conditioner (UPQC) in a distributed generation system is presented in this paper. The power balance of a UPQC, consisting of back-to-back connected series and shunt Active Filters (AF), is analysed. Based on the analysis a novel control scheme is established in a 2-phase Synchronous Rotating d-q Frame (SRF). In this control scheme, the series AF is controlled as a current source and makes the input current sinusoidal, while the shunt AF is controlled as a voltage source and keeps the load voltage in the normal value. With the proposed control strategy, the UPQC is capable of compensating not only harmonic and reactive currents of the load but also grid voltage distortion. There is no harmonic interference between harmonic-producing loads and harmonic-sensitive loads, which are connected on the common bus. The performance of a UPQC with the proposed control scheme under nonlinear load and grid voltage distortion is investigated with simulation as well as experimental works. (Author)

  1. Bagasse hydrolyzates from Agave tequilana as substrates for succinic acid production by Actinobacillus succinogenes in batch and repeated batch reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corona-González, Rosa Isela; Varela-Almanza, Karla María; Arriola-Guevara, Enrique; Martínez-Gómez, Álvaro de Jesús; Pelayo-Ortiz, Carlos; Toriz, Guillermo

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this work was to obtain fermentable sugars by enzymatic or acid hydrolyses of Agave tequilana Weber bagasse in order to produce succinic acid with Actinobacillus succinogenes. Hydrolyses were carried out with mineral acids (sulfuric and hydrochloric acids) or a commercial cellulolytic enzyme, and were optimized statistically by a response surface methodology, having as factors the concentration of acid/enzyme and time of hydrolysis. The concentration of sugars obtained at optimal conditions for each hydrolysis were 21.7, 22.4y 19.8g/L for H2SO4, HCl and the enzymatic preparation respectively. Concerning succinic acid production, the enzymatic hydrolyzates resulted in the highest yield (0.446g/g) and productivity (0.57g/Lh) using A. succinogenes in a batch reactor system. Repeated batch fermentation with immobilized A. succinogenes in agar and with the enzymatic hydrolyzates resulted in a maximum concentration of succinic acid of 33.6g/L from 87.2g/L monosaccharides after 5 cycles in 40h, obtaining a productivity of 1.32g/Lh. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  2. Production of carotenoids and lipids by Rhodococcus opacus PD630 in batch and fed-batch culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thanapimmetha, Anusith; Suwaleerat, Tharatron; Saisriyoot, Maythee; Chisti, Yusuf; Srinophakun, Penjit

    2017-01-01

    Production of carotenoids by Rhodococcus opacus PD630 is reported. A modified mineral salt medium formulated with glycerol as an inexpensive carbon source was used for the fermentation. Ammonium acetate was the nitrogen source. A dry cell mass concentration of nearly 5.4 g/L could be produced in shake flasks with a carotenoid concentration of 0.54 mg/L. In batch culture in a 5 L bioreactor, without pH control, the maximum dry biomass concentration was ~30 % lower than in shake flasks and the carotenoids concentration was 0.09 mg/L. Both the biomass concentration and the carotenoids concentration could be raised using a fed-batch operation with a feed mixture of ammonium acetate and acetic acid. With this strategy, the final biomass concentration was 8.2 g/L and the carotenoids concentration was 0.20 mg/L in a 10-day fermentation. A control of pH proved to be unnecessary for maximizing the production of carotenoids in this fermentation.

  3. Citric acid production from hydrolysate of pretreated straw cellulose by Yarrowia lipolytica SWJ-1b using batch and fed-batch cultivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaoyan; Lv, Jinshun; Zhang, Tong; Deng, Yuanfang

    2015-01-01

    In this study, crude cellulase produced by Trichoderma reesei Rut-30 was used to hydrolyze pretreated straw. After the compositions of the hydrolysate of pretreated straw were optimized, the study showed that natural components of pretreated straw without addition of any other components such as (NH4)2SO4, KH2PO4, or Mg(2+) were suitable for citric acid production by Yarrowia lipolytica SWJ-1b, and the optimal ventilatory capacity was 10.0 L/min/L medium. Batch and fed-batch production of citric acid from the hydrolysate of pretreated straw by Yarrowia lipolytica SWJ-1b has been investigated. In the batch cultivation, 25.4 g/L and 26.7 g/L citric acid were yields from glucose and hydrolysate of straw cellulose, respectively, while the cultivation time was 120 hr. In the three-cycle fed-batch cultivation, citric acid (CA) production was increased to 42.4 g/L and the cultivation time was extended to 240 hr. However, iso-citric acid (ICA) yield in fed-batch cultivation (4.0 g/L) was similar to that during the batch cultivation (3.9 g/L), and only 1.6 g/L of reducing sugar was left in the medium at the end of fed-batch cultivation, suggesting that most of the added carbon was used in the cultivation.

  4. High-Frequency Axial Fatigue Test Procedures for Spectrum Loading

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-07-20

    closed-loop digital test frame controller with a command feedback compensation scheme was used to minimize controller error during testing. 15...controller response during variable amplitude loading, and a closed-loop digital test frame controller with a command feedback compensation scheme was...failures beyond 10 7 cycles can be caused by several competing failure mechanisms and may result in a transition from surface dominated crack

  5. Regulation control and energy management scheme for wireless power transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, John M.

    2015-12-29

    Power transfer rate at a charging facility can be maximized by employing a feedback scheme. The state of charge (SOC) and temperature of the regenerative energy storage system (RESS) pack of a vehicle is monitored to determine the load due to the RESS pack. An optimal frequency that cancels the imaginary component of the input impedance for the output signal from a grid converter is calculated from the load of the RESS pack, and a frequency offset f* is made to the nominal frequency f.sub.0 of the grid converter output based on the resonance frequency of a magnetically coupled circuit. The optimal frequency can maximize the efficiency of the power transfer. Further, an optimal grid converter duty ratio d* can be derived from the charge rate of the RESS pack. The grid converter duty ratio d* regulates wireless power transfer (WPT) power level.

  6. A general framework for the synthesis and operational design of batch processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Papaeconomou, Eirini; Gani, Rafiqul; Jørgensen, Sten Bay

    2002-01-01

    , which is the sequence of batch operations performed in order to achieve a specific objective. Important features of the methodology are a set of rule-based algorithms that provide the operational model of the units. Such an algorithm is highlighted, together with the associated rules......The objective of this paper is to present a general problem formulation and a general methodology for the synthesis of batch operations and the operational design of individual batch processes, such as mixing, reaction and separation. The general methodology described supplies the batch routes......, for the operational design of batch reactors. A case study involving the feasible operation of a batch reactor with multiple desirable and undesirable reactions and operational constraints is presented. Application results including verification of the generated operational sequences (alternatives) through dynamic...

  7. A General framework for the Synthesis and Operational Design of Batch Processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    , which is the sequence of batch operations performed in order to achieve a specific objective. Important features of the methodology are a set of rule-based algorithms that provide the operational model of the units. Such an algorithm is highlighted, together with the associated rules......The objective of this paper is to present a general problem formulation and a general methodlogy for the synthesis of batch operations and the operational design of individual batch processes, such as mixing, reaction and separation. The general methodology described supplies the batch routes......, for the operational design of batch reactors. A case study involving the feasible operation of a batch reactor with multiple desirable and undesirable reactions and operational constraints is presented. Application results including verification of the generated operational sequences (alternatives) through dynamic...

  8. Design of batch operations: Systematic methodology for generation and analysis of sustainable alternatives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carvalho, Ana; Matos, Henrique A.; Gani, Rafiqul

    2010-01-01

    the operational, environmental, economical and safety related problems inherent in the process (batch or continuous). Alternatives that are more sustainable, compared to a reference, are generated and evaluated by addressing one or more of the identified problems. A decomposition technique as well as a set......The objective of this paper is to present a new methodology that is able to generate, screen and identify sustainable alternatives to continuous chemical processes as well as processes operating in the batch mode. The methodology generates the sustainable (design) alternatives by locating...... of batch indicators for batch operations has been developed and added to the methodology so that a wide range of processes that operate in continuous mode, in semi-continuous and/or in batch modes can be improved. The principal calculation steps of the methodology for applications to continuous and batch...

  9. Biological Treatment of Leachate using Sequencing Batch Reactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WDMC Perera

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE TA Abstract   In Sri Lanka municipal solid waste is generally disposed in poorly managed open dumps which lack liner systems and leachate collection systems. Rain water percolates through the waste layers to produce leachate which drains in to ground water and finally to nearby water bodies, degrading the quality of water. Leachate thus has become a major environmental concern in municipal waste management and treatment of leachate is a major challenge for the existing and proposed landfill sites.   The study was conducted to assess the feasibility of the usage of the Sequencing Batch Reactor in the treatment of the landfill leachate up to the proposed levels in the draft report of “Proposed Sri Lankan standard for landfill leachate to be disposed to the inland waters". Leachate collected from the open dumpsite at Meethotamulla, Western Province, Sri Lanka was used for leachate characterization.   SBR was constructed with a 10-liter working volume operated in an 18 hour cycle mode and each cycle consists of 15hours of aerobic, 2h settle and 0.5 h of fill/decant stages. The Dissolved Oxygen level within the SBR was maintained at 2 mg/l through the aerobic stage. Infeed was diluted with water during the acclimatization period and a leachate to water ratio of 55:45 was maintained. The removal efficiencies for different parameters were; COD (90.5%, BOD (92.6%, TS (92.1%, Conductivity (83.9%, Alkalinity (97.4%, Hardness (82.2%, Mg (80.5%, Fe (94.2%, Zn (63.4%, Cr (31.69%, Pb (99.6%, Sulphate (98.9%, and Phosphorus (71.4% respectively. In addition Ni and Cd were removed completely during a single SBR cycle. Thus the dilution of leachate in the dumpsites using municipal wastewater, groundwater or rainwater was identified as the most cost effective dilution methods. The effluent from the Sequencing batch reactor is proposed to be further treated using a constructed wetland before releasing to surface water.

  10. FLOWSHEET FOR ALUMINUM REMOVAL FROM SLUDGE BATCH 6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pike, J.; Gillam, J.

    2008-01-01

    Samples of Tank 12 sludge slurry show a substantially larger fraction of aluminum than originally identified in sludge batch planning. The Liquid Waste Organization (LWO) plans to formulate Sludge Batch 6 (SB6) with about one half of the sludge slurry in Tank 12 and one half of the sludge slurry in Tank 4. LWO identified aluminum dissolution as a method to mitigate the effect of having about 50% more solids in High Level Waste (HLW) sludge than previously planned. Previous aluminum dissolution performed in a HLW tank in 1982 was performed at approximately 85 C for 5 days and dissolved nearly 80% of the aluminum in the sludge slurry. In 2008, LWO successfully dissolved 64% of the aluminum at approximately 60 C in 46 days with minimal tank modifications and using only slurry pumps as a heat source. This report establishes the technical basis and flowsheet for performing an aluminum removal process in Tank 51 for SB6 that incorporates the lessons learned from previous aluminum dissolution evolutions. For SB6, aluminum dissolution process temperature will be held at a minimum of 65 C for at least 24 days, but as long as practical or until as much as 80% of the aluminum is dissolved. As planned, an aluminum removal process can reduce the aluminum in SB6 from about 84,500 kg to as little as 17,900 kg with a corresponding reduction of total insoluble solids in the batch from 246,000 kg to 131,000 kg. The extent of the reduction may be limited by the time available to maintain Tank 51 at dissolution temperature. The range of dissolution in four weeks based on the known variability in dissolution kinetics can range from 44 to more than 80%. At 44% of the aluminum dissolved, the mass reduction is approximately 1/2 of the mass noted above, i.e., 33,300 kg of aluminum instead of 66,600 kg. Planning to reach 80% of the aluminum dissolved should allow a maximum of 81 days for dissolution and reduce the allowance if test data shows faster kinetics. 47,800 kg of the dissolved

  11. Commercial application of freezing-irradiation combination process for pasteurization of two specific batches of cooked, peeled shrimps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wills, P.A.

    1981-01-01

    In 1978 microbiological standards for pre-cooked, peeled frozen shrimps imported into Australia were abruptly amended and made more stringent. Large consignments of shrimps failed to meet the new specifications and were placed in quarantine on arrival. Two importers affected by the change in policy obtained permission to investigate the feasibility of using ionizing radiation to reduce to an acceptable level the microbial load on two batches of frozen shrimps. Trial irradiations established that doses of 6 or 8 kGy (600 or 800 krad) reduced microbial levels at least 100-fold, thus enabling these batches to meet the new microbiological standard. Applications to State regulatory authorities resulted in approvals being granted to the importers to irradiate: (1) in New South Wales 47 tonnes of imported frozen shrimps at 6 kGy, using the Research Establishment's facilities; and (2) in Victoria 14.3 tonnes at 8 kGy using ICI Australia Operations Pty Ltd's commercial radiation plant at Dandenong. Approvals applied solely to these two batches and marketing of the irradiated shrimps were confined to the State in which they were irradiated. The microbiological basis for the choice of dose, dosimetry, technology, legal aspects, economics and public acceptance of this first limited commercial use in Australia of radiation for food preservation are described. It is suggested that in standards for irradiation of specific foods, dose limits should be flexible enough to take into account the relationships between the physical state of food, temperature during irradiation, the extent of chemical change likely to occur at that temperature, and the dose required to produce the desired microbiological effect. (author)

  12. Towards the Integration of Dark- and Photo-Fermentative Waste Treatment. 4. Repeated Batch Sequential Dark- and Photofermentation using Starch as Substrate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laurinavichene, T. V.; Belokopytov, B. F.; Laurinavichius, K. S.; Khusnutdinova, A. N.; Seibert, M.; Tsygankov, A. A.

    2012-05-01

    In this study we demonstrated the technical feasibility of a prolonged, sequential two-stage integrated process under a repeated batch mode of starch fermentation. In this durable scheme, the photobioreactor with purple bacteria in the second stage was fed directly with dark culture from the first stage without centrifugation, filtration, or sterilization (not demonstrated previously). After preliminary optimization, both the dark- and the photo-stages were performed under repeated batch modes with different process parameters. Continuous H{sub 2} production in this system was observed at a H{sub 2} yield of up to 1.4 and 3.9 mole mole{sup -1} hexose during the dark- and photo-stage, respectively (for a total of 5.3 mole mole{sup -1} hexose), and rates of 0.9 and 0.5 L L{sup -1} d{sup -1}, respectively. Prolonged repeated batch H{sub 2} production was maintained for up to 90 days in each stage and was rather stable under non-aseptic conditions. Potential for improvements in these results are discussed.

  13. SLUDGE BATCH 4: MODEL BASED ASSESSMENTS OF THE FEBRUARY 2007 SLUDGE PROJECTION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peeler, D; Tommy Edwards, T; Kevin Fox, K

    2007-01-01

    The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) has developed, and continues to enhance, its integrated capability to evaluate the impact of proposed sludge preparation plans on the Defense Waste Processing Facility's (DWPF's) operation. One of the components of this integrated capability focuses on frit development which identifies a viable frit or frits for each sludge option being contemplated for DWPF processing. A frit is considered viable if its composition allows for economic fabrication and if, when it is combined with the sludge option under consideration, the DWPF property/composition models (the models of DWPF's Product Composition Control System (PCCS)) indicate that the combination has the potential for an operating window (a waste loading (WL) interval over which the sludge/frit glass system satisfies processability and durability constraints) that would allow DWPF to meet its goals for waste loading and canister production. This report documents the results of SRNL's efforts to identify candidate frit compositions and corresponding predicted operating windows (defined in terms of WL intervals) for the February 2007 compositional projection of Sludge Batch 4 (SB4) developed by the Liquid Waste Organization (LWO). The nominal compositional projection was used to assess projected operating windows (in terms of a waste loading interval over which all predicted properties were classified as acceptable) for various frits, evaluate the applicability of the 0.6 wt% SO 4 = PCCS limit to the glass systems of interest, and determine the impact (or lack thereof) to the previous SB4 variability studies. It should be mentioned that the information from this report will be coupled with assessments of melt rate to recommend a frit for SB4 processing. The results of this paper study suggest that candidate frits are available to process the nominal SB4 composition over attractive waste loadings of interest to DWPF. Specifically, two primary candidate frits for SB4

  14. Scheme of thinking quantum systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yukalov, V I; Sornette, D

    2009-01-01

    A general approach describing quantum decision procedures is developed. The approach can be applied to quantum information processing, quantum computing, creation of artificial quantum intelligence, as well as to analyzing decision processes of human decision makers. Our basic point is to consider an active quantum system possessing its own strategic state. Processing information by such a system is analogous to the cognitive processes associated to decision making by humans. The algebra of probability operators, associated with the possible options available to the decision maker, plays the role of the algebra of observables in quantum theory of measurements. A scheme is advanced for a practical realization of decision procedures by thinking quantum systems. Such thinking quantum systems can be realized by using spin lattices, systems of magnetic molecules, cold atoms trapped in optical lattices, ensembles of quantum dots, or multilevel atomic systems interacting with electromagnetic field

  15. Support Schemes and Ownership Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ropenus, Stephanie; Schröder, Sascha Thorsten; Costa, Ana

    of the ongoing fuel cell based micro‐combined heat and power (mCHP) demonstration projects by addressing the socio‐economic and systems analyses perspectives of a large‐scale promotion scheme of fuel cells. This document constitutes the deliverable of Work Package 1 of the FC4Home project and provides......In recent years, fuel cell based micro‐combined heat and power has received increasing attention due to its potential contribution to energy savings, efficiency gains, customer proximity and flexibility in operation and capacity size. The FC4Home project assesses technical and economic aspects...... previous findings and provides a short “preview” of the quantitative analyses in subsequent Work Packages by giving some food for thought on the way....

  16. Biogas Production from Batch Anaerobic Co-Digestion of Night Soil with Food Waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Assadawut Khanto

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study is to investigate the biogas production from Anaerobic Co-Digestion of Night Soil (NS with Food Waste (FW. The batch experiment was conducted through the NS and FW with a ratio of 70:30 by weight. The experiment is mainly evaluated by the characteristic of Co-Digestion and Biogas Production. In addition of food waste was inflating the COD loading from 17,863 to 42,063 mg/L which is 135 % increased. As the result, it shows that pH has dropped off in the beginning of 7-day during digestion and it was slightly increased into the range of optimum anaerobic condition. After digestion of the biogas production was 2,184 l and 56.5 % of methane fraction has obtained within 31 days of experimentation. The investigation of Biochemical Methane Potential (BMP and Specific Methanogenic Activities (SMA were highly observed. And the results were obtained by 34.55 mL CH4/gCODremoval and 0.38 g CH4-COD/gVSS-d. While the average COD removal from the 4 outlets got 92%, 94%, 94 % and 92 % respectively. However, the effluent in COD concentration was still high and it needs further treatment before discharge.

  17. Accelerating Aerobic Sludge Granulation by Adding Dry Sewage Sludge Micropowder in Sequencing Batch Reactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jun; Liu, Jun; Wang, Danjun; Chen, Tao; Ma, Ting; Wang, Zhihong; Zhuo, Weilong

    2015-01-01

    Micropowder (20–250 µm) made from ground dry waste sludge from a municipal sewage treatment plant was added in a sequencing batch reactor (R2), which was fed by synthetic wastewater with acetate as carbon source. Compared with the traditional SBR (R1), aerobic sludge granulation time was shortened 15 days in R2. Furthermore, filamentous bacteria in bulking sludge were controlled to accelerate aerobic granulation and form large granules. Correspondingly, the SVI decreased from 225 mL/g to 37 mL/g. X-ray Fluorescence (XRF) analysis demonstrated that Al and Si from the micropowder were accumulated in granules. A mechanism hypotheses for the acceleration of aerobic granulation by adding dry sludge micropowder is proposed: added micropowder acts as nuclei to induce bacterial attachment; dissolved matters from the micropowder increase abruptly the organic load for starved sludge to control overgrown filamentous bacteria as a framework for aggregation; increased friction from the movement of micropowder forces the filaments which extend outwards to shrink for shaping granules. PMID:26308025

  18. Look-ahead strategies for controlling batch operations in industry: Overview, comparison and exploration

    OpenAIRE

    van der Zee, D.J.

    2000-01-01

    Batching jobs in a manufacturing system is a very common policy in most industries. Main reasons for batching are avoidance of set ups and/or facilitation of material handling. Good examples of batch wise production systems are ovens found in aircraft industry and in semi-conductor manufacturing. Starting from the early nineties much research efforts have been put in constructing strategies for the dynamic control of these systems in order to reduce cycle times. Typically, these so-called "lo...

  19. Biogas Production from Brewer’s Yeast Using an Anaerobic Sequencing Batch Reactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregor Drago Zupančič

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Renewable energy sources are becoming increasingly important in the beverage and food industries. In the brewing industry, a significant percentage of the used raw materials finishes the process as secondary resource or waste. The research on the anaerobic digestion of brewer’s yeast has been scarce until recent years. One of the reasons for this is its use as a secondary resource in the food industry and as cattle feed. Additionally, market value of brewer’s yeast is higher than its energy value. Due to the increase of energy prices, brewer’s yeast has become of interest as energy substrate despite its difficult degradability in anaerobic conditions. The anaerobic co-digestion of brewer’s yeast and anaerobically treated brewery wastewater was studied using a pilot-scale anaerobic sequencing batch reactor (ASBR seeded with granular biomass. The experiments showed very good and stable operation with an organic loading rate of up to 8.0 kg/(m3·day, and with a maximum achieved organic loading rate of 13.6 kg/(m3·day in a single cycle. A specific biogas productivity of over 0.430 m3/kg of the total chemical oxygen demand (COD inserted, and total COD removal efficiencies of over 90 % were achieved. This study suggests that the brewer’s yeast can be successfully digested in an ASBR without adverse effects on the biogas production from brewer’s yeast/wastewater mixtures of up to 8 % (by volume. By using the brewer’s yeast in the ASBR process, the biogas production from brewery wastewater could be increased by 50 %.

  20. Queue Length and Server Content Distribution in an Infinite-Buffer Batch-Service Queue with Batch-Size-Dependent Service

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U. C. Gupta

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We analyze an infinite-buffer batch-size-dependent batch-service queue with Poisson arrival and arbitrarily distributed service time. Using supplementary variable technique, we derive a bivariate probability generating function from which the joint distribution of queue and server content at departure epoch of a batch is extracted and presented in terms of roots of the characteristic equation. We also obtain the joint distribution of queue and server content at arbitrary epoch. Finally, the utility of analytical results is demonstrated by the inclusion of some numerical examples which also includes the investigation of multiple zeros.

  1. Moving from batch towards continuous organic‐chemical pharmaceutical production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cervera Padrell, Albert Emili

    alkylation reaction was achieved using a filter reactor coupled with a side‐entry tubular reactor, using real‐time in‐line near‐infrared (NIR) spectroscopy for monitoring the reaction and ensuring the right product quality. A subsequent hydrolysis of the alkoxide product was performed in continuous mode......Pharmaceutical ingredients have traditionally been produced in batches using multipurpose stirred vessels. Reactions and separations have typically been tailored to fit these units, facing multiple limitations when transferring synthetic routes from the laboratory to industrial scale. Scaling up...... thus resulted in many cases in low reaction yields and separation efficiencies. These limitations were however compensated by a relatively fast process implementation. For the pharmaceutical industry this meant that new drug products could be exclusively marketed for a longer time period, resulting...

  2. Hadoop distributed batch processing for Gaia: a success story

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riello, Marco

    2015-12-01

    The DPAC Cambridge Data Processing Centre (DPCI) is responsible for the photometric calibration of the Gaia data including the low resolution spectra. The large data volume produced by Gaia (~26 billion transits/year), the complexity of its data stream and the self-calibrating approach pose unique challenges for scalability, reliability and robustness of both the software pipelines and the operations infrastructure. DPCI has been the first in DPAC to realise the potential of Hadoop and Map/Reduce and to adopt them as the core technologies for its infrastructure. This has proven a winning choice allowing DPCI unmatched processing throughput and reliability within DPAC to the point that other DPCs have started following our footsteps. In this talk we will present the software infrastructure developed to build the distributed and scalable batch data processing system that is currently used in production at DPCI and the excellent results in terms of performance of the system.

  3. Combined Estimation and Optimal Control of Batch Membrane Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Jelemenský

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we deal with the model-based time-optimal operation of a batch diafiltration process in the presence of membrane fouling. Membrane fouling poses one of the major problems in the field of membrane processes. We model the fouling behavior and estimate its parameters using various methods. Least-squares, least-squares with a moving horizon, recursive least-squares methods and the extended Kalman filter are applied and discussed for the estimation of the fouling behavior on-line during the process run. Model-based optimal non-linear control coupled with parameter estimation is applied in a simulation case study to show the benefits of the proposed approach.

  4. Biological Treatment of Dairy Wastewater by Sequencing Batch Reactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Mohseni-Bandpi, H Bazari

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available A bench scale aerobic Sequencing Batch Reactor (SBR was investigated to treat the wastewater from an industrial milk factory. The reactor was constructed from plexi glass material and its volume was 22.5 L. The reactor was supplied with oxygen by fine bubble air diffuser. The reactor was fed with milk factory and synthetic wastewater under different operational conditions. The COD removal efficiency was achieved more than 90%, whereas COD concentration varied from 400 to 2500 mg/l. The optimum dissolved oxygen in the reactor was 2 to 3 mg/l and MLVSS was around 3000 mg/l. Easy operation, low cost and minimal sludge bulking condition make the SBR system an interesting option for the biological medium strength industrial wastewater treatment. The study demonstrated the capability of aerobic SBR for COD removal from dairy industrial wastewater.

  5. Batch study of uranium biosorption by Elodea canadensis biomass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng-ji Yi; University of Science and Technology Beijing, Haidian District, Beijing; Jun Yao; Chinese University of Geosciences, Beijing; Mi-jia Zhu; Hui-lun Chen; Fei Wang; Zhi-min Yuan; Xing Liu

    2016-01-01

    The adsorption of U(VI) onto Elodea canadensis was studied via a batch equilibrium method. Kinetic investigation indicated that the U(VI) adsorption by E. canadensis reached an equilibrium in 120 min and followed pseudo-second-order kinetics. The solution pH was the most important parameter controlling adsorption of U(VI) and the optimum pH for U(VI) removal is 6.0. The U(VI) biosorption can be well described by Langmuir model. IR spectrum analysis revealed that -NH 2 , -OH, C=O and C-O could bind strongly with U(VI). XPS spectrum analysis implied that ion exchange and coordination mechanism could be involved in the U(VI) biosorption process. (author)

  6. Treatment of Laboratory Wastewater by Sequence Batch reactor technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imtiaz, N.; Butt, M.; Khan, R.A.; Saeed, M.T.; Irfan, M.

    2012-01-01

    These studies were conducted on the characterization and treatment of sewage mixed with waste -water of research and testing laboratory (PCSIR Laboratories Lahore). In this study all the parameters COD, BOD and TSS etc of influent (untreated waste-water) and effluent (treated waste-water) were characterized using the standard methods of examination for water and waste-water. All the results of the analyzed waste-water parameters were above the National Environmental Quality Standards (NEQS) set at National level. Treatment of waste-water was carried out by conventional sequencing batch reactor technique (SBR) using aeration and settling technique in the same treatment reactor at laboratory scale. The results of COD after treatment were reduced from (90-95 %), BOD (95-97 %) and TSS (96-99 %) and the reclaimed effluent quality was suitable for gardening purposes. (author)

  7. Convolutional neural networks with balanced batches for facial expressions recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battini Sönmez, Elena; Cangelosi, Angelo

    2017-03-01

    This paper considers the issue of fully automatic emotion classification on 2D faces. In spite of the great effort done in recent years, traditional machine learning approaches based on hand-crafted feature extraction followed by the classification stage failed to develop a real-time automatic facial expression recognition system. The proposed architecture uses Convolutional Neural Networks (CNN), which are built as a collection of interconnected processing elements to simulate the brain of human beings. The basic idea of CNNs is to learn a hierarchical representation of the input data, which results in a better classification performance. In this work we present a block-based CNN algorithm, which uses noise, as data augmentation technique, and builds batches with a balanced number of samples per class. The proposed architecture is a very simple yet powerful CNN, which can yield state-of-the-art accuracy on the very competitive benchmark algorithm of the Extended Cohn Kanade database.

  8. Batch anaerobic methanogenesis of phenolic coal conversion waste water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fedorak, P.M.; Hrudey, S.E.

    1985-01-01

    The amenability to anaerobic treatment of a phenolic wastewater from a coal conversion pilot plant was investigated in batch experiments using the Hungate serum bottle technique, using cultures containing unmodified wastewater, wastewater extracted with ether, and pre-reduced, reconstituted wastewater. Data are given on the composition of the wastewater and the concentrations of various phenolic compounds present. Wastewater concentrations of 2, 4 and 6% (vol/vol) increased methane production compared with control cultures, but higher concentrations of the wastewater were inhibitory. Further experiments indicated that the inhibitory components were ether-extractable, but were not any of the major phenolic compounds present in the original wastewater. There was also evidence to confirm that m-cresol was amenable to anaerobic degradation.

  9. Batch fabrication of disposable screen printed SERS arrays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Lu-Lu; Li, Da-Wei; Xue, Jin-Qun; Zhai, Wen-Lei; Fossey, John S; Long, Yi-Tao

    2012-03-07

    A novel facile method of fabricating disposable and highly reproducible surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) arrays using screen printing was explored. The screen printing ink containing silver nanoparticles was prepared and printed on supporting materials by a screen printing process to fabricate SERS arrays (6 × 10 printed spots) in large batches. The fabrication conditions, SERS performance and application of these arrays were systematically investigated, and a detection limit of 1.6 × 10(-13) M for rhodamine 6G could be achieved. Moreover, the screen printed SERS arrays exhibited high reproducibility and stability, the spot-to-spot SERS signals showed that the intensity variation was less than 10% and SERS performance could be maintained over 12 weeks. Portable high-throughput analysis of biological samples was accomplished using these disposable screen printed SERS arrays.

  10. Increased CPC batch size study for Tank 42 sludge in the Defense Waste Processing Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daniel, W.E.

    2000-01-01

    A series of experiments have been completed at TNX for the sludge-only REDOX adjusted flowsheet using Tank 42 sludge simulant in response to the Technical Task Request HLW/DWPT/TTR-980013 to increase CPC batch sizes. By increasing the initial SRAT batch size, a melter feed batch at greater waste solids concentration can be prepared and thus increase melter output per batch by about one canister. The increased throughput would allow DWPF to dispose of more waste in a given time period thus shortening the overall campaign

  11. Increased CPC batch size study for Tank 42 sludge in the Defense Waste Processing Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daniel, W.E.

    2000-01-06

    A series of experiments have been completed at TNX for the sludge-only REDOX adjusted flowsheet using Tank 42 sludge simulant in response to the Technical Task Request HLW/DWPT/TTR-980013 to increase CPC batch sizes. By increasing the initial SRAT batch size, a melter feed batch at greater waste solids concentration can be prepared and thus increase melter output per batch by about one canister. The increased throughput would allow DWPF to dispose of more waste in a given time period thus shortening the overall campaign.

  12. Role of batch depletion of broiler houses on the occurrence of Campylobacter spp. in chicken flocks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hald, Birthe; Rattenborg, Erik; Madsen, Mogens

    2001-01-01

    Aims: The effect of batch depletion of broiler houses for campylobacter occurrence in broiler flocks was estimated in 10 flocks, each comprising a separate female and male batch. Methods and Results: The chicks were sampled first bq; cloacal swabs in the broiler houses before the start...... that batch depletion of broiler houses increased the prevalence of Campylobacter spp.-infected broilers in the flocks, that the introduction occurred a hen catching the first batch, and that campylobacter spreads through the entire flock within a week. Significance and Impact of the Study: The results from...

  13. Energy Saving in Three-Phase Diode Rectifiers Using EI Technique with Adjustable Switching Frequency Scheme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davari, Pooya; Zare, Firuz; Yang, Yongheng

    2016-01-01

    A front-end rectifier can significantly impact a power electronics system performance and efficiency for applications such as motor drive where the system commonly operates under partial loading conditions. This paper proposes an adjustable switching frequency scheme using an electronic inductor...

  14. Optimal control of batch emulsion polymerization of vinyl chloride

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Damslora, Andre Johan

    1998-12-31

    The highly exothermic polymerization of vinyl chloride (VC) is carried out in large vessels where the heat removal represents a major limitation of the production rate. Many emulsion polymerization reactors are operated in such a way that a substantial part of the heat transfer capacity is left unused for a significant part of the total batch time. To increase the reaction rate so that it matches the heat removal capacity during the course of the reaction, this thesis proposes the use of a sufficiently flexible initiator system to obtain a reaction rate which is high throughout the reaction and real-time optimization to compute the addition policy for the initiator. This optimization based approach provides a basis for an interplay between design and control and between production and research. A simple model is developed for predicting the polymerization rate. The model is highly nonlinear and open-loop unstable and may serve as an interesting case for comparison of nonlinear control strategies. The model is fitted to data obtained in a laboratory scale reactor. Finally, the thesis discusses optimal control of the emulsion polymerization reactor. Reduction of the batch cycle time is of major economic importance, as long as the quality parameters are within their specifications. The control parameterization had a major influence on the performance. A differentiable spline parameterization was applied and the optimization is illustrated in a number of cases. The best performance is obtained when the reactor temperature is obtained when the optimization is combined with some form of closed-loop control of the reactor temperature. 112 refs., 48 figs., 4 tabs.

  15. Integrating PROOF Analysis in Cloud and Batch Clusters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodríguez-Marrero, Ana Y; Fernández-del-Castillo, Enol; López García, Álvaro; Marco de Lucas, Jesús; Matorras Weinig, Francisco; González Caballero, Isidro; Cuesta Noriega, Alberto

    2012-01-01

    High Energy Physics (HEP) analysis are becoming more complex and demanding due to the large amount of data collected by the current experiments. The Parallel ROOT Facility (PROOF) provides researchers with an interactive tool to speed up the analysis of huge volumes of data by exploiting parallel processing on both multicore machines and computing clusters. The typical PROOF deployment scenario is a permanent set of cores configured to run the PROOF daemons. However, this approach is incapable of adapting to the dynamic nature of interactive usage. Several initiatives seek to improve the use of computing resources by integrating PROOF with a batch system, such as Proof on Demand (PoD) or PROOF Cluster. These solutions are currently in production at Universidad de Oviedo and IFCA and are positively evaluated by users. Although they are able to adapt to the computing needs of users, they must comply with the specific configuration, OS and software installed at the batch nodes. Furthermore, they share the machines with other workloads, which may cause disruptions in the interactive service for users. These limitations make PROOF a typical use-case for cloud computing. In this work we take profit from Cloud Infrastructure at IFCA in order to provide a dynamic PROOF environment where users can control the software configuration of the machines. The Proof Analysis Framework (PAF) facilitates the development of new analysis and offers a transparent access to PROOF resources. Several performance measurements are presented for the different scenarios (PoD, SGE and Cloud), showing a speed improvement closely correlated with the number of cores used.

  16. Neurovascular modeling: small-batch manufacturing of silicone vascular replicas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chueh, J Y; Wakhloo, A K; Gounis, M J

    2009-06-01

    Realistic, population based cerebrovascular replicas are required for the development of neuroendovascular devices. The objective of this work was to develop an efficient methodology for manufacturing realistic cerebrovascular replicas. Brain MR angiography data from 20 patients were acquired. The centerline of the vasculature was calculated, and geometric parameters were measured to describe quantitatively the internal carotid artery (ICA) siphon. A representative model was created on the basis of the quantitative measurements. Using this virtual model, we designed a mold with core-shell structure and converted it into a physical object by fused-deposit manufacturing. Vascular replicas were created by injection molding of different silicones. Mechanical properties, including the stiffness and luminal coefficient of friction, were measured. The average diameter, length, and curvature of the ICA siphon were 4.15 +/- 0.09 mm, 22.60 +/- 0.79 mm, and 0.34 +/- 0.02 mm(-1) (average +/- standard error of the mean), respectively. From these image datasets, we created a median virtual model, which was transformed into a physical replica by an efficient batch-manufacturing process. The coefficient of friction of the luminal surface of the replica was reduced by up to 55% by using liquid silicone rubber coatings. The modulus ranged from 0.67 to 1.15 MPa compared with 0.42 MPa from human postmortem studies, depending on the material used to make the replica. Population-representative, smooth, and true-to-scale silicone arterial replicas with uniform wall thickness were successfully built for in vitro neurointerventional device-testing by using a batch-manufacturing process.

  17. Repeated batch and continuous degradation of chlorpyrifos by Pseudomonas putida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pradeep, Vijayalakshmi; Subbaiah, Usha Malavalli

    2015-01-01

    The present study was undertaken with the objective of studying repeated batch and continuous degradation of chlorpyrifos (O,O-diethyl O-3,5,6-trichloropyridin-2-yl phosphorothioate) using Ca-alginate immobilized cells of Pseudomonas putida isolated from an agricultural soil, and to study the genes and enzymes involved in degradation. The study was carried out to reduce the toxicity of chlorpyrifos by degrading it to less toxic metabolites. Long-term stability of pesticide degradation was studied during repeated batch degradation of chlorpyrifos, which was carried out over a period of 50 days. Immobilized cells were able to show 65% degradation of chlorpyrifos at the end of the 50th cycle with a cell leakage of 112 × 10(3) cfu mL(-1). During continuous treatment, 100% degradation was observed at 100 mL h(-1) flow rate with 2% chlorpyrifos, and with 10% concentration of chlorpyrifos 98% and 80% degradation was recorded at 20 mL h(-1) and 100 mL h(-1) flow rate respectively. The products of degradation detected by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis were 3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinol and chlorpyrifos oxon. Plasmid curing experiments with ethidium bromide indicated that genes responsible for the degradation of chlorpyrifos are present on the chromosome and not on the plasmid. The results of Polymerase chain reaction indicate that a ~890-bp product expected for mpd gene was present in Ps. putida. Enzymatic degradation studies indicated that the enzymes involved in the degradation of chlorpyrifos are membrane-bound. The study indicates that immobilized cells of Ps. putida have the potential to be used in bioremediation of water contaminated with chlorpyrifos.

  18. Fed-batch production of green coconut hydrolysates for high-gravity second-generation bioethanol fermentation with cellulosic yeast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Jimmy; Demeke, Mekonnen M; Van de Velde, Miet; Foulquié-Moreno, Maria R; Kerstens, Dorien; Sels, Bert F; Verplaetse, Alex; Fernandes, Antonio Alberto Ribeiro; Thevelein, Johan M; Fernandes, Patricia Machado Bueno

    2017-11-01

    The residual biomass obtained from the production of Cocos nucifera L. (coconut) is a potential source of feedstock for bioethanol production. Even though coconut hydrolysates for ethanol production have previously been obtained, high-solid loads to obtain high sugar and ethanol levels remain a challenge. We investigated the use of a fed-batch regime in the production of sugar-rich hydrolysates from the green coconut fruit and its mesocarp. Fermentation of the hydrolysates obtained from green coconut or its mesocarp, containing 8.4 and 9.7% (w/v) sugar, resulted in 3.8 and 4.3% (v/v) ethanol, respectively. However, green coconut hydrolysate showed a prolonged fermentation lag phase. The inhibitor profile suggested that fatty acids and acetic acid were the main fermentation inhibitors. Therefore, a fed-batch regime with mild alkaline pretreatment followed by saccharification, is presented as a strategy for fermentation of such challenging biomass hydrolysates, even though further improvement of yeast inhibitor tolerance is also needed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Plutonium immobilization -- Can loading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kriikku, E.

    2000-01-01

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) will immobilize excess plutonium in the proposed Plutonium Immobilization Project (PIP). The PIP adds the excess plutonium to ceramic pucks, loads the pucks into cans, and places the cans into DWPF canisters. This paper discusses the PIP process steps, the can loading conceptual design, can loading equipment design, and can loading work completed

  20. On Optimal Designs of Some Censoring Schemes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Adnan Mohammad Awad

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this paper  is to explore suitability of some entropy-information measures for introducing a new optimality censoring criterion and to apply it to some censoring schemes from some underlying life-time models.  In addition, the  paper investigates four related issues namely; the  effect of the parameter of parent distribution on optimal scheme, equivalence of schemes based on Shannon and Awad sup-entropy measures, the conjecture that the optimal scheme is one stage scheme, and  a conjecture by Cramer and Bagh (2011 about Shannon minimum and maximum schemes when parent distribution is reflected power. Guidelines for designing an optimal censoring plane are reported together with theoretical and numerical results and illustrations.

  1. Tissue engineering scheming by artificial intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, J; Ge, H; Zhou, X; Yang, D

    2005-01-01

    Tissue engineers are often confused when seeking the most effective, economical and secure scheme for tissue engineering. The aim of this study is to generate tissue engineering schemes with artificial intelligence instead of human intelligence. The experimental data of tissue engineered cartilage were integrated and standardized with a centralized database, and a scheme engine was developed using artificial intelligent methods (artificial neural networks and decision trees). The scheme engine was trained with existing cases in the database, and then was used to generate tissue engineering schemes for new experimental animals. Following the schemes generated by the artificial intelligent system, we cured 18 of the 20 experimental animals. In conclusion, artificial intelligence is a powerful method for decision making in the tissue engineering realm.

  2. How can conceptual schemes change teaching?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wickman, Per-Olof

    2012-03-01

    Lundqvist, Almqvist and Östman describe a teacher's manner of teaching and the possible consequences it may have for students' meaning making. In doing this the article examines a teacher's classroom practice by systematizing the teacher's transactions with the students in terms of certain conceptual schemes, namely the epistemological moves, educational philosophies and the selective traditions of this practice. In connection to their study one may ask how conceptual schemes could change teaching. This article examines how the relationship of the conceptual schemes produced by educational researchers to educational praxis has developed from the middle of the last century to today. The relationship is described as having been transformed in three steps: (1) teacher deficit and social engineering, where conceptual schemes are little acknowledged, (2) reflecting practitioners, where conceptual schemes are mangled through teacher practice to aid the choices of already knowledgeable teachers, and (3) the mangling of the conceptual schemes by researchers through practice with the purpose of revising theory.

  3. Fast DPCM scheme for lossless compression of aurora spectral images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Wanqiu; Wu, Jiaji

    2016-10-01

    Aurora has abundant information to be stored. Aurora spectral image electronically preserves spectral information and visual observation of aurora during a period to be studied later. These images are helpful for the research of earth-solar activities and to understand the aurora phenomenon itself. However, the images are produced with a quite high sampling frequency, which leads to the challenging transmission load. In order to solve the problem, lossless compression turns out to be required. Indeed, each frame of aurora spectral images differs from the classical natural image and also from the frame of hyperspectral image. Existing lossless compression algorithms are not quite applicable. On the other hand, the key of compression is to decorrelate between pixels. We consider exploiting a DPCM-based scheme for the lossless compression because DPCM is effective for decorrelation. Such scheme makes use of two-dimensional redundancy both in the spatial and spectral domain with a relatively low complexity. Besides, we also parallel it for a faster computation speed. All codes are implemented on a structure consists of nested for loops of which the outer and the inner loops are respectively designed for spectral and spatial decorrelation. And the parallel version is represented on CPU platform using different numbers of cores. Experimental results show that compared to traditional lossless compression methods, the DPCM scheme has great advantage in compression gain and meets the requirement of real-time transmission. Besides, the parallel version has expected computation performance with a high CPU utilization.

  4. Cognitive Aware Interference Mitigation Scheme for OFDMA Femtocells

    KAUST Repository

    Alqerm, Ismail

    2015-04-09

    Femto-cells deployment in today’s cellular networks came into practice to fulfill the increasing demand for data services. It also extends the coverage in the indoor areas. However, interference to other femto and macro-cells users remains an unresolved challenge. In this paper, we propose an interference mitigation scheme to control the cross-tier interference caused by femto-cells to the macro users and the co-tier interference among femtocells. Cognitive radio spectrum sensing capability is utilized to determine the non-occupied channels or the ones that cause minimal interference to the macro users. An awareness based channel allocation scheme is developed with the assistance of the graph-coloring algorithm to assign channels to the femto-cells base stations with power optimization, minimal interference, maximum throughput, and maximum spectrum efficiency. In addition, the scheme exploits negotiation capability to match traffic load and QoS with the channel, and to maintain efficient utilization of the available channels.

  5. Resonance ionization scheme development for europium

    CERN Document Server

    Chrysalidis, K; Fedosseev, V N; Marsh, B A; Naubereit, P; Rothe, S; Seiffert, C; Kron, T; Wendt, K

    2017-01-01

    Odd-parity autoionizing states of europium have been investigated by resonance ionization spectroscopy via two-step, two-resonance excitations. The aim of this work was to establish ionization schemes specifically suited for europium ion beam production using the ISOLDE Resonance Ionization Laser Ion Source (RILIS). 13 new RILIS-compatible ionization schemes are proposed. The scheme development was the first application of the Photo Ionization Spectroscopy Apparatus (PISA) which has recently been integrated into the RILIS setup.

  6. Alternative schemes for the inertial fusion energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tikhonchuk, V.T. [Centre Lasers Intenses et Applications, University Bordeaux 1-CNRS-CEA, 33405, Talence (France); Mima, K., E-mail: tikhonchuk@celia.u-bordeaux1.fr [Institute of Laser Engineering, Osaka University, Osaka (Japan)

    2011-10-15

    The advanced target designs are requiring a lower laser energy for ignition and promising higher energy gains. Two approaches are under development within the European inertial fusion energy project HiPER: the fast ignition scheme with energetic electrons and the shock ignition scheme. The fundamental physical issues and major experimental works related to the alternative ignition schemes as well as the reactor designs are discussed.

  7. Resonance ionization scheme development for europium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chrysalidis, K., E-mail: katerina.chrysalidis@cern.ch; Goodacre, T. Day; Fedosseev, V. N.; Marsh, B. A. [CERN (Switzerland); Naubereit, P. [Johannes Gutenberg-Universität, Institiut für Physik (Germany); Rothe, S.; Seiffert, C. [CERN (Switzerland); Kron, T.; Wendt, K. [Johannes Gutenberg-Universität, Institiut für Physik (Germany)

    2017-11-15

    Odd-parity autoionizing states of europium have been investigated by resonance ionization spectroscopy via two-step, two-resonance excitations. The aim of this work was to establish ionization schemes specifically suited for europium ion beam production using the ISOLDE Resonance Ionization Laser Ion Source (RILIS). 13 new RILIS-compatible ionization schemes are proposed. The scheme development was the first application of the Photo Ionization Spectroscopy Apparatus (PISA) which has recently been integrated into the RILIS setup.

  8. Data mining for detecting Bitcoin Ponzi schemes

    OpenAIRE

    Bartoletti, Massimo; Pes, Barbara; Serusi, Sergio

    2018-01-01

    Soon after its introduction in 2009, Bitcoin has been adopted by cyber-criminals, which rely on its pseudonymity to implement virtually untraceable scams. One of the typical scams that operate on Bitcoin are the so-called Ponzi schemes. These are fraudulent investments which repay users with the funds invested by new users that join the scheme, and implode when it is no longer possible to find new investments. Despite being illegal in many countries, Ponzi schemes are now proliferating on Bit...

  9. Individual and combined effects of organic, toxic, and hydraulic shocks on sequencing batch reactor in treating petroleum refinery wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizzouri, Nashwan Sh; Shaaban, Md Ghazaly

    2013-04-15

    This study analyzes the effects of toxic, hydraulic, and organic shocks on the performance of a lab-scale sequencing batch reactor (SBR) with a capacity of 5L. Petroleum refinery wastewater (PRWW) was treated with an organic loading rate (OLR) of approximately 0.3 kg chemical oxygen demand (COD)/kg MLSSd at 12.8h hydraulic retention time (HRT). A considerable variation in the COD was observed for organic, toxic, hydraulic, and combined shocks, and the worst values observed were 68.9, 77.1, 70.2, and 57.8%, respectively. Improved control of toxic shock loads of 10 and 20mg/L of chromium (VI) was identified. The system was adversely affected by the organic shock when a shock load thrice the normal value was used, and this behavior was repeated when the hydraulic shock was 4.8h HRT. The empirical recovery period was greater than the theoretical period because of the inhibitory effects of phenols, sulfides, high oil, and grease in the PRWW. The system recovery rates from the shocks were in the following order: toxic, organic, hydraulic, and combined shocks. System failure occurred when the combined shocks of organic and hydraulic were applied. The system was resumed by replacing the PRWW with glucose, and the OLR was reduced to half its initial value. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Design of an Attachment Scheme of a Vehicle to a Typical Fighter Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Hemant; Sarkar, Arindam; Jain, P. C.; Anjaneyulu, P. S. R.

    2018-01-01

    Design of an attachment scheme of a flight vehicle to a fighter aircraft is a critical task. Here, flight vehicle is a cylindrical body and it is attached to fighter aircraft with the help of a component called launch lug. Loads experienced by the flight vehicle in captive condition have been estimated by using aircraft parameters obtained during previous missions of similar kind of vehicles. This paper provides state of the art design consideration of the attachment scheme (launch lug and shell assembly) of the flight vehicle to the fighter aircraft. The structural integrity of the flight vehicle and its attachments scheme to the fighter aircraft has been verified at various aircraft manoeuvring conditions in its flight envelope through analysis. Design is verified using laboratory testing and in field trials. Finally this flight vehicle with the attachment scheme was used in flight trials.

  11. Comparing Security Notions of Secret Sharing Schemes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Songsong Dai

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Different security notions of secret sharing schemes have been proposed by different information measures. Entropies, such as Shannon entropy and min entropy, are frequently used in the setting security notions for secret sharing schemes. Different to the entropies, Kolmogorov complexity was also defined and used in study the security of individual instances for secret sharing schemes. This paper is concerned with these security notions for secret sharing schemes defined by the variational measures, including Shannon entropy, guessing probability, min entropy and Kolmogorov complexity.

  12. Quantum signature scheme for known quantum messages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Taewan; Lee, Hyang-Sook

    2015-01-01

    When we want to sign a quantum message that we create, we can use arbitrated quantum signature schemes which are possible to sign for not only known quantum messages but also unknown quantum messages. However, since the arbitrated quantum signature schemes need the help of a trusted arbitrator in each verification of the signature, it is known that the schemes are not convenient in practical use. If we consider only known quantum messages such as the above situation, there can exist a quantum signature scheme with more efficient structure. In this paper, we present a new quantum signature scheme for known quantum messages without the help of an arbitrator. Differing from arbitrated quantum signature schemes based on the quantum one-time pad with the symmetric key, since our scheme is based on quantum public-key cryptosystems, the validity of the signature can be verified by a receiver without the help of an arbitrator. Moreover, we show that our scheme provides the functions of quantum message integrity, user authentication and non-repudiation of the origin as in digital signature schemes. (paper)

  13. A Spatial Domain Quantum Watermarking Scheme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei Zhan-Hong; Chen Xiu-Bo; Niu Xin-Xin; Yang Yi-Xian; Xu Shu-Jiang

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a spatial domain quantum watermarking scheme. For a quantum watermarking scheme, a feasible quantum circuit is a key to achieve it. This paper gives a feasible quantum circuit for the presented scheme. In order to give the quantum circuit, a new quantum multi-control rotation gate, which can be achieved with quantum basic gates, is designed. With this quantum circuit, our scheme can arbitrarily control the embedding position of watermark images on carrier images with the aid of auxiliary qubits. Besides reversely acting the given quantum circuit, the paper gives another watermark extracting algorithm based on quantum measurements. Moreover, this paper also gives a new quantum image scrambling method and its quantum circuit. Differ from other quantum watermarking schemes, all given quantum circuits can be implemented with basic quantum gates. Moreover, the scheme is a spatial domain watermarking scheme, and is not based on any transform algorithm on quantum images. Meanwhile, it can make sure the watermark be secure even though the watermark has been found. With the given quantum circuit, this paper implements simulation experiments for the presented scheme. The experimental result shows that the scheme does well in the visual quality and the embedding capacity. (paper)

  14. Acceptance Test Data for Candidate AGR-5/6/7 TRISO Particle Batches BWXT Coater Batches 93165 93172 Defective IPyC Fraction and Pyrocarbon Anisotropy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Helmreich, Grant W. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Hunn, John D. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Skitt, Darren J. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Dyer, John A. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Schumacher, Austin T. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2017-03-01

    Coated particle fuel batches J52O-16-93165, 93166, 93168, 93169, 93170, and 93172 were produced by Babcock and Wilcox Technologies (BWXT) for possible selection as fuel for the Advanced Gas Reactor Fuel Development and Qualification (AGR) Program’s AGR-5/6/7 irradiation test in the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) Advanced Test Reactor (ATR). Some of these batches may alternately be used as demonstration coated particle fuel for other experiments. Each batch was coated in a 150-mm-diameter production-scale fluidized-bed chemical vapor deposition (CVD) furnace. Tristructural isotropic (TRISO) coatings were deposited on 425-μm-nominal-diameter spherical kernels from BWXT lot J52R-16-69317 containing a mixture of 15.5%-enriched uranium carbide and uranium oxide (UCO). The TRISO coatings consisted of four consecutive CVD layers: a ~50% dense carbon buffer layer with 100-μm-nominal thickness, a dense inner pyrolytic carbon (IPyC) layer with 40-μm-nominal thickness, a silicon carbide (SiC) layer with 35-μm-nominal thickness, and a dense outer pyrolytic carbon (OPyC) layer with 40-μmnominal thickness. The TRISO-coated particle batches were sieved to upgrade the particles by removing over-sized and under-sized material, and the upgraded batches were designated by appending the letter A to the end of the batch number (e.g., 93165A).

  15. Bit Loading Algorithms for Cooperative OFDM Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gui Bo

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract We investigate the resource allocation problem for an OFDM cooperative network with a single source-destination pair and multiple relays. Assuming knowledge of the instantaneous channel gains for all links in the entire network, we propose several bit and power allocation schemes aiming at minimizing the total transmission power under a target rate constraint. First, an optimal and efficient bit loading algorithm is proposed when the relay node uses the same subchannel to relay the information transmitted by the source node. To further improve the performance gain, subchannel permutation, in which the subchannels are reallocated at relay nodes, is considered. An optimal subchannel permutation algorithm is first proposed and then an efficient suboptimal algorithm is considered to achieve a better complexity-performance tradeoff. A distributed bit loading algorithm is also proposed for ad hoc networks. Simulation results show that significant performance gains can be achieved by the proposed bit loading algorithms, especially when subchannel permutation is employed.

  16. Loads and loads and loads: the influence of prospective load, retrospective load, and ongoing task load in prospective memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier, Beat; Zimmermann, Thomas D.

    2015-01-01

    In prospective memory tasks different kinds of load can occur. Adding a prospective memory task can impose a load on ongoing task performance. Adding ongoing task load (OTL) can affect prospective memory performance. The existence of multiple target events increases prospective load (PL) and adding complexity to the to-be-remembered action increases retrospective load (RL). In two experiments, we systematically examined the effects of these different types of load on prospective memory performance. Results showed an effect of PL on costs in the ongoing task for categorical targets (Experiment 2), but not for specific targets (Experiment 1). RL and OTL both affected remembering the retrospective component of the prospective memory task. We suggest that PL can enhance costs in the ongoing task due to additional monitoring requirements. RL and OTL seem to impact the division of resources between the ongoing task and retrieval of the retrospective component, which may affect disengagement from the ongoing task. In general, the results demonstrate that the different types of load affect prospective memory differentially. PMID:26082709

  17. High-order asynchrony-tolerant finite difference schemes for partial differential equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aditya, Konduri; Donzis, Diego A.

    2017-12-01

    Synchronizations of processing elements (PEs) in massively parallel simulations, which arise due to communication or load imbalances between PEs, significantly affect the scalability of scientific applications. We have recently proposed a method based on finite-difference schemes to solve partial differential equations in an asynchronous fashion - synchronization between PEs is relaxed at a mathematical level. While standard schemes can maintain their stability in the presence of asynchrony, their accuracy is drastically affected. In this work, we present a general methodology to derive asynchrony-tolerant (AT) finite difference schemes of arbitrary order of accuracy, which can maintain their accuracy when synchronizations are relaxed. We show that there are several choices available in selecting a stencil to derive these schemes and discuss their effect on numerical and computational performance. We provide a simple classification of schemes based on the stencil and derive schemes that are representative of different classes. Their numerical error is rigorously analyzed within a statistical framework to obtain the overall accuracy of the solution. Results from numerical experiments are used to validate the performance of the schemes.

  18. Limiting factors in Escherichia colifed-batch production of recombinant proteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sanden, A.M.; Prytz, I.; Tubelekas, I.

    2003-01-01

    recombinant protein production, fed-batch, specific growth rate, feed profile, induction, mRNA, transcription, translation, acetic acid formation......recombinant protein production, fed-batch, specific growth rate, feed profile, induction, mRNA, transcription, translation, acetic acid formation...

  19. Monitoring and Characterization of Crystal Nucleation and Growth during Batch Crystallization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kadam, S.S.

    2012-01-01

    Batch crystallization is commonly used in pharmaceutical, agrochemical, specialty and fine chemicals industry. The advantages of batch crystallization lie in its ease of operation and the relatively simple equipment that can be used. On the other hand a major disadvantage associated with it is the

  20. Fed-batch fermentation dealing with nitrogen limitation in microbial transglutaminase production by Streptoverticillium mobaraense

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhu, Y.; Rinzema, A.; Tramper, J.; Bruin, E. de; Bol, J.

    1998-01-01

    In the later stages of a batch fermentation for microbial transglutaminase production by Streptoverticillium mobaraense the availability of a nitrogen source accessible to the microorganism becomes critical. Fed-batch fermentation is investigated with the aim of avoiding this substrate limitation.

  1. Multidimensional Dynamic Programming Algorithm for N-Level Batching with Hierarchical Clustering Structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seung-Kil Lim

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study focuses on the N-level batching problem with a hierarchical clustering structure. Clustering is the task of grouping a set of item types in such a way that item types in the same cluster are more similar (in some sense or another to each other than to those in other clusters. In hierarchical clustering structure, more and more different item types are clustered together as the level of the hierarchy increases. N-level batching is the process by which items with different types are grouped into several batches passed from level 1 to level N sequentially for given hierarchical clustering structure such that batches in each level should satisfy the maximum and minimum batch size requirements of the level. We consider two types of processing costs of the batches: unit processing cost and batch processing cost. We formulate the N-level batching problem with a hierarchical clustering structure as a nonlinear integer programming model with the objective of minimizing the total processing cost. To solve the problem optimally, we propose a multidimensional dynamic programming algorithm with an example.

  2. Implementation of Sliding Mode Controller with Boundary Layer for Saccharomyces cerevisiae Fed-batch Cultivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stoyan Tzonkov

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available An implementation of sliding mode control for yeast fed-batch cultivation is presented in this paper. Developed controller has been implemented on two real fed-batch cultivations of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The controller successfully stabilizes the process and shows a very good performance at high input disturbances.

  3. Critical evaluation of approaches for on-line batch process monitoring

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Sprang, E. N. M.; Ramaker, H. J.; Westerhuis, J. A.; Gurden, S. P.; Smilde, A. K.

    2002-01-01

    Since the introduction of batch process monitoring using component models in 1992, different approaches for statistical batch process monitoring have been suggested in the literature. This is the first evaluation of five proposed approaches so far. The differences and similarities between the

  4. Fed-batch fermentation dealing with nitrogen limitation in microbial transglutaminase production by Streptoverticillium mobaraense

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rinzema, A; Tramper, J; de Bruin, E; Bol, J

    In the later stages of a batch fermentation for microbial transglutaminase production by Streptoverticillium mobaraense the availability of a nitrogen source accessible to the microorganism becomes critical. Fed-batch fermentation is investigated with the aim of avoiding this substrate limitation.

  5. Landfill leachate treatment by batch supercritical water oxidation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Fernando Marulanda Cardona

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available El tratamiento de lixiviados por medio de diferentes procesos fisicoquímicos y biológicos ha sido ampliamente estudiado. Sin embargo, ningún proceso logra las eficiencias de destruc- ción requeridas en cuanto a materia orgánica y nitrógeno, razón por la cual el tratamiento se realiza por medio de tecnologías combinadas. La oxidación en agua supercrítica o SCWO, proceso que se lleva a cabo a temperaturas y presiones superiores a las del punto crítico del agua en presencia de una fuente de oxígeno, se ha aplicado exitosamente al tratamiento de distintos tipos de aguas residuales de forma eficiente. Por lo tanto, este trabajo presenta un estudio experimental de la oxidación en agua supercrítica de lixiviados de relleno sanitario en un reactor batch, en el rango de temperatura de 400-500°C, tiempos de reacción de 15 a 30 mi- nutos y excesos de oxígeno (OE de 100 % a 300 %. Se midieron las eficiencias de destrucción de carbono orgánico total (COT y nitrógeno total (NT, y se determinó el efecto combinado de los factores estudiados por medio del Análisis de Varianza (ANOVA. Las condiciones de operación óptimas para la destrucción de COT fueron 400°C, 30 min y 100 % OE, y 500°C, 30 min y 100 % OE para el NT. A diferencia de lo reportado en estudios similares, los resultados su- gieren que es posible llevar a cabo la destrucción simultánea del COT y el NT en los lixiviados por medio de SCWO a 400°C, 100 % OE y tiempos de residencia de más de 30 min sin usar un catalizador, ya sea en un proceso batch o continuo, siempre y cuando tanto el oxidante como el agua residual se mezclen y se calienten juntos a la temperatura de reacción.

  6. Inhibition of Sulfide Mineral Oxidation by Surface Coating Agents: Batch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, J.; Ji, M. K.; Yun, H. S.; Park, Y. T.; Gee, E. D.; Lee, W. R.; Jeon, B.-H.

    2012-04-01

    Mining activities and mineral industries have impacted on rapid oxidation of sulfide minerals such as pyrite (FeS2) which leads to Acid Mine Drainage (AMD) formation. Some of the abandoned mines discharge polluted water without proper environmental remediation treatments, largely because of financial constraints in treating AMD. Magnitude of the problem is considerable, especially in countries with a long history of mining. As metal sulfides become oxidized during mining activities, the aqueous environment becomes acid and rich in many metals, including iron, lead, mercury, arsenic and many others. The toxic heavy metals are responsible for the environmental deterioration of stream, groundwater and soils. Several strategies to remediate AMD contaminated sites have been proposed. Among the source inhibition and prevention technologies, microencapsulation (coating) has been considered as a promising technology. The encapsulation is based on inhibition of O2 diffusion by surface coating agent and is expected to control the oxidation of pyrite for a long time. Potential of several surface coating agents for preventing oxidation of metal sulfide minerals from both Young-Dong coal mine and Il-Gwang gold mine were examined by conducting batch experiments and field tests. Powdered pyrite as a standard sulfide mineral and rock samples from two mine outcrops were mixed with six coating agents (KH2PO4, MgO and KMnO4 as chemical agents, and apatite, cement and manganite as mineral agents) and incubated with oxidizing agents (H2O2 or NaClO). Batch experiments with Young-Dong coal mine samples showed least SO42- production in presence of KMnO4 (16% sulfate production compared to no surface coating agents) or cement (4%) within 8 days. In the case of Il-Gwang mine samples, least SO42- production was observed in presence of KH2PO4 (8%) or cement (2%) within 8 days. Field-scale pilot tests at Il-Gwang site also showed that addition of KH2PO4 decreased sulfate production from 200 to

  7. Batch and continuous extraction of bromelain enzyme by reversed micelles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Maria Frattini Fileti

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The main aim of this study was to optimize the conditions for bromelain extraction by reversed micelles from pineapple juice (Ananas comosus. The purification was carried out in batch extraction and a micro-column with pulsed caps for continuous extraction. The cationic micellar solution was made of BDBAC as a surfactant, isooctane as a solvent and hexanol as a co-solvent. For the batch process, a purification factor of 3 times at the best values of surfactant agent, co-solvent and salt concentrations, pH of the back and forward extractions were, 100 mM, 10% v/v, 1 M, 3.5 and 8, respectively. For the continuous operation, independent variables optimal point was determined: ratio between light phase flow rate and total flow rate equal to 0.67 and 1 second for the time interval between the pulses. This optimal point led to a productivity of 1.29 mL/min and a purification factor of 4.96.Este trabalho teve como objetivo principal otimizar as condições para extração da bromelina do suco do abacaxi (Ananas comosus por micelas reversas. A purificação foi feita usando o processo de extração em batelada e contínuo, este último em uma micro-coluna de campânulas pulsantes. A solução micelar catiônica foi preparada com o surfactante BDBAC, i-octano como solvente e hexanol como co-solvente. Na extração em batelada encontrou-se um fator de purificação de 3 vezes, e seus melhores valores de concentração do agente surfactante, co-solvente e sal, de pH da re-extração e extração, foram respectivamente iguais a: 100 mM, 10% v/v, 1 M, 3,5 e 8. Para a operação contínua, as variáveis independentes ótimas foram: 0,67 para a razão entre as taxas de fluxos da fase leve e a total e 1 s para o intervalo de tempo entre pulsos das campânulas. Este ponto ótimo leva a uma produtividade de 1,29 mL/min e a um fator de purificação igual a 4,96.

  8. Cow bones char as a green sorbent for fluorides removal from aqueous solutions: batch and fixed-bed studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nigri, Elbert M; Cechinel, Maria Alice P; Mayer, Diego A; Mazur, Luciana P; Loureiro, José M; Rocha, Sônia D F; Vilar, Vítor J P

    2017-01-01

    Cow bone char was investigated as sorbent for the defluoridation of aqueous solutions. The cow bone char was characterized in terms of its morphology, chemical composition, and functional groups present on the bone char surface using different analytical techniques: SEM, EDS, N 2 -BET method, and FTIR. Batch equilibrium studies were performed for the bone chars prepared using different procedures. The highest sorption capacities for fluoride were obtained for the acid washed (q = 6.2 ± 0.5 mg/g) and Al-doped (q = 6.4 ± 0.3 mg/g) bone chars. Langmuir and Freundlich models fitted well the equilibrium sorption data. Fluoride removal rate in batch system is fast in the first 5 h, decreasing after this time until achieving equilibrium due to pore diffusion. The presence of carbonate and bicarbonate ions in the aqueous solution contributes to a decrease of the fluoride sorption capacity of the bone char by 79 and 31 %, respectively. Regeneration of the F-loaded bone char using 0.5 M NaOH solution leads to a sorption capacity for fluoride of 3.1 mg/g in the second loading cycle. Fluoride breakthrough curve obtained in a fixed-bed column presents an asymmetrical S-shaped form, with a slow approach of C/C 0  → 1.0 due to pore diffusion phenomena. Considering the guideline value for drinking water of 1.5 mg F - /L, as recommended by World Health Organization, the service cycle for fluoride removal was of 71.0 h ([F - ] feed  ∼ 9 mg/L; flow rate = 1 mL/min; m sorbent  = 12.6 g). A mass transfer model considering the pore diffusion was able to satisfactorily describe the experimental data obtained in batch and continuous systems.

  9. The Impact of the Source of Alkali on Sludge Batch 3 Melt Rate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, M

    2005-01-01

    Previous Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) melt rate tests in support of the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) have indicated that improvements in melt rate can be achieved through an increase in the total alkali of the melter feed. Higher alkali can be attained by the use of an ''underwashed'' sludge, a high alkali frit, or a combination of the two. Although the general trend between melt rate and total alkali (in particular Na 2 O content) has been demonstrated, the question of ''does the source of alkali (SOA) matter?'' still exists. Therefore the purpose of this set of tests was to determine if the source of alkali (frit versus sludge) can impact melt rate. The general test concept was to transition from a Na 2 O-rich frit to a Na 2 O-deficient frit while compensating the Na 2 O content in the sludge to maintain the same overall Na 2 O content in the melter feed. Specifically, the strategy was to vary the amount of alkali in frits and in the sludge batch 3 (SB3) sludge simulant (midpoint or baseline feed was SB3/Frit 418 at 35% waste loading) so that the resultant feeds had the same final glass composition when vitrified. A set of SOA feeds using frits ranging from 0 to 16 weight % Na 2 O (in 4% increments) was first tested in the Melt Rate Furnace (MRF) to determine if indeed there was an impact. The dry-fed MRF tests indicated that if the alkali is too depleted from either the sludge (16% Na 2 O feed) or the frit (the 0% Na 2 O feed), then melt rate was negatively impacted when compared to the baseline SB3/Frit 418 feed currently being processed at DWPF. The MRF melt rates for the 4 and 12% SOA feeds were similar to the baseline SB3/Frit 418 (8% SOA) feed. Due to this finding, a smaller subset of SOA feeds that could be processed in the DWPF (4 and 12% SOA feeds) was then tested in the Slurry-fed Melt Rate Furnace (SMRF). The results from a previous SMRF test with SB3/Frit 418 (Smith et al. 2004) were used as the SMRF melt rate of the baseline

  10. Case-by-case risk assessment of broiler meat batches: An effective control strategy for Campylobacter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Bjarke Bak; Nauta, Maarten; Korsgaard, Helle

    2013-01-01

    In 2006, the Danish government decided to take new measures to control Salmonella and Campylobacter in Danish and imported retail meat. The legal basis for these new measures was article 14 in the EU food law, which states that food shall not be placed on the market if it is unsafe, among others......, for reasons of contamination. This provision allows each member state to make a specific risk assessment of food batches, and decide whether a batch poses an unacceptable risk to the consumer or not. Here we present the basis for the risk assessment model on Campylobacter used in this new approach...... and the results of more than 3,000 batches of broiler meat tested since 2007. The risk was assessed for batches with one or more samples positive for Campylobacter (>100 cfu/g). Reductions in the number of positive batches from 2007 to 2010 were observed for both domestic (from 17% to 7%, p=0.01) and imported...

  11. Treatment of Diesel Waste by Sequencing Batch Bioreactor ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nei

    2012-03-13

    Mar 13, 2012 ... Identification of hydrocarbons present in the diesel waste were carried out in a gas chromatograph (capillary ... hydrocarbons biodegradation percentage as a function of pH, C:N ratio, initial waste load, and agitation speed. .... (a quadratic positive effect). It is also apparent that the carbon-nitrogen ratio (C:N) ...

  12. Mobile Machine for E-payment Scheme

    OpenAIRE

    Sattar J Aboud

    2010-01-01

    In this article e-payment scheme by mobile machine is considered. The requirements for a mobile machine in e-payment are presented, particularly when merchant employing accounts for payments and when using advertising. In the proposed scheme we will use the public key infrastructure and certificate for authenticate purchaser and merchant and to secure the communication between them.

  13. Sampling scheme optimization from hyperspectral data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Debba, P.

    2006-01-01

    This thesis presents statistical sampling scheme optimization for geo-environ-menta] purposes on the basis of hyperspectral data. It integrates derived products of the hyperspectral remote sensing data into individual sampling schemes. Five different issues are being dealt with.First, the optimized

  14. A generalized scheme for designing multistable continuous ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In this paper, a generalized scheme is proposed for designing multistable continuous dynamical systems. The scheme is based on the concept of partial synchronization of states and the concept of constants of motion. The most important observation is that by coupling two mdimensional dynamical systems, multistable ...

  15. Hybrid scheme for Brownian semistationary processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bennedsen, Mikkel; Lunde, Asger; Pakkanen, Mikko S.

    We introduce a simulation scheme for Brownian semistationary processes, which is based on discretizing the stochastic integral representation of the process in the time domain. We assume that the kernel function of the process is regularly varying at zero. The novel feature of the scheme is to ap...

  16. Consolidation of the health insurance scheme

    CERN Multimedia

    Association du personnel

    2009-01-01

    In the last issue of Echo, we highlighted CERN’s obligation to guarantee a social security scheme for all employees, pensioners and their families. In that issue we talked about the first component: pensions. This time we shall discuss the other component: the CERN Health Insurance Scheme (CHIS).

  17. A hierarchical classification scheme of psoriasis images

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maletti, Gabriela Mariel; Ersbøll, Bjarne Kjær

    2003-01-01

    A two-stage hierarchical classification scheme of psoriasis lesion images is proposed. These images are basically composed of three classes: normal skin, lesion and background. The scheme combines conventional tools to separate the skin from the background in the first stage, and the lesion from...

  18. Community healthcare financing scheme: findings among residents ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... none were active participants as 2(0.6%) were indifferent. There was a statistically significant relationship, Fischers <0.0001 between sex and the scheme's knowledge. Conclusion: Knowledge of the scheme was poor among majority of the respondents and none were active participants. Bribery and corruption was the ...

  19. A generalized scheme for designing multistable continuous ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. In this paper, a generalized scheme is proposed for designing multistable continuous dynamical systems. The scheme is based on the concept of partial synchronization of states and the concept of constants of motion. The most important observation is that by coupling two m- dimensional dynamical systems ...

  20. Batch pervaporative fermentation with coupled membrane and its influence on energy consumption in permeate recovery and distillation stage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leon, Juan A.; Palacios-Bereche, Reynaldo; Nebra, Silvia A.

    2016-01-01

    In the ethanol production process from sugarcane molasses, the distillation process is a high-energy demand stage. The distillation energy efficiency is strongly associated with the alcoholic fermentation performance in the process. The final ethanol concentration in the alcoholic wines has a direct impact on consumption of thermal energy in ethanol separation. In this paper, ethanol production with a H-SBMF (Hybrid-Simple Batch Membrane Fermenter) using PDMS (polydimethylsiloxane) pervaporation membrane was modelled and simulated, in order to determine its influence on energy consumption in distillation. Steam in distillation and electrical energy needs in permeate recovery were mainly influenced by membrane adaptation. The H-SBMF achieved a higher ethanol production in the range of 10–13% compared to the conventional batch fermenter, and an increase in productivity of 150%. The distillation system consisted of two sets of columns: the ethanol recovery column and the rectification column. The permeate recovery system (i.e. vacuum and compression) was regarded in order to evaluate the electrical energy requirement, and the thermal energy demand was evaluated. A decrease in steam consumption was evidenced by the adaptation of the membrane to the fermenter. Higher energy efficiencies were achieved in distillation with larger membrane areas, achieving almost 17% steam reduction. - Highlights: • Higher and faster ethanol productions were achieved by fermenter hybridization. • Multi-stage permeate compression and inter-stage heat recovery were assumed. • Energy demand was studied based on an integrated fermentation and distillation scheme. • High-energy efficiency was attained in the distillation to produce hydrated alcohol.

  1. Batch management based monitoring system: design, implement, and visualization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kan Bowen; Shi Jingyan

    2012-01-01

    Torque, an efficient PBS (Portable Batch System)-based open source Resource Management system, was originally developed by Ames research center of NASA, which was designed to satisfy the computing requirements of heterogeneous network. With the development of distributed computing, Torque has been widely used in high performance computing cluster. However, because of the lack of a well designed monitoring system, it is difficult to monitor, record, and control, leading to low stability, reliability and manageability. To overcome those problems, this paper designs and implements an adaptive lightweight monitoring system for torque from five aspects. 1) A lightweight circulating filtration logging system is developed to obtain the real-time running status of torque; 2) One uniform interface was provided for administrators to define monitoring commands, which can query management resources of torque; 3) Storage strategy is designed to make monitoring information persistent; 4) One uniform interface is provided for users to customized alarms, which can submit exceptions and errors to users via emails and SMS in real time; 5) HTML5 technology is applied in the customizable visualization of the jobs' status in torque in real time. (authors)

  2. Colored noise effects on batch attitude accuracy estimates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilanow, Stephen

    1991-01-01

    The effects of colored noise on the accuracy of batch least squares parameter estimates with applications to attitude determination cases are investigated. The standard approaches used for estimating the accuracy of a computed attitude commonly assume uncorrelated (white) measurement noise, while in actual flight experience measurement noise often contains significant time correlations and thus is colored. For example, horizon scanner measurements from low Earth orbit were observed to show correlations over many minutes in response to large scale atmospheric phenomena. A general approach to the analysis of the effects of colored noise is investigated, and interpretation of the resulting equations provides insight into the effects of any particular noise color and the worst case noise coloring for any particular parameter estimate. It is shown that for certain cases, the effects of relatively short term correlations can be accommodated by a simple correction factor. The errors in the predicted accuracy assuming white noise and the reduced accuracy due to the suboptimal nature of estimators that do not take into account the noise color characteristics are discussed. The appearance of a variety of sample noise color characteristics are demonstrated through simulation, and their effects are discussed for sample estimation cases. Based on the analysis, options for dealing with the effects of colored noise are discussed.

  3. Environmental Hazard Assessment of Jarosite Waste Using Batch Leaching Tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Kerolli – Mustafa

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Jarosite waste samples from Trepça Zinc Industry in Kosovo were subjected to two batch leaching tests as an attempt to characterize the leaching behavior and mobility of minor and major elements of jarosite waste. To achieve this, deionized water and synthetic acidic rain leaching tests were employed. A two-step acidic treatment in microwave digestion system were used to dissolve jarosite waste samples, followed by determination of Al, Ag, As, Ba, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, P, Pb, S, Si, Sr, and Zn by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES. The validation of the procedure was performed by the analysis of two geochemical reference materials, S JR-3 and S Jsy-1. Two toxicity leaching tests revealed a high metal releasing of Cd, Cu, Ni, Mn, Pb, Zn, and As, and the metal release risk for these elements is still very high due the low pH and acid rain. The statistical analysis showed useful data information on the relationship between elements in jarosite samples in two different extraction conditions (deionized water and synthetic acid rain.

  4. EFFECT OF DYE CONCENTRATION ON SEQUENCING BATCH REACTOR PERFORMANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Vaigan ، M. R. Alavi Moghaddam ، H. Hashemi

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Reactive dyes have been identified as problematic compounds in textile industries wastewater as they are water soluble and cannot be easily removed by conventional aerobic biological treatment systems. The treatability of a reactive dye (Brill Blue KN-R by sequencing batch reactor and the influence of the dye concentration on system performance were investigated in this study. Brill Blue KN-R is one of the main dyes that are used in textile industries in Iran. Four cylindrical Plexiglas reactors were run for 36 days (5 days for acclimatization of sludge and 31 days for normal operation at different initial dye concentrations. The dye concentrations were adjusted to be 20, 25, 30 and 40 mg/L in the reactors R1, R2, R3 and R4, respectively. In all reactors, effective volume, influent wastewater flowrate and sludge retention time were 5.5 L, 3.0 L/d and 10 d, respectively. According to the obtained data, average dye removal efficiencies of R1, R2, R3 and R4 were 57% ± 2, 50.18% ± 3, 44.97% ± 3 and 30.98% ± 3, respectively. The average COD removal efficiencies of all reactors were 97% ± 1, 97.12% ± 1, 96.93% ± 1 and 97.22% ± 1, respectively. The dye removal efficiency was decreased by increasing the dye concentration with the correlation coefficient of 0.997.

  5. Batched Tile Low-Rank GEMM on GPUs

    KAUST Repository

    Charara, Ali

    2018-02-01

    Dense General Matrix-Matrix (GEMM) multiplication is a core operation of the Basic Linear Algebra Subroutines (BLAS) library, and therefore, often resides at the bottom of the traditional software stack for most of the scientific applications. In fact, chip manufacturers give a special attention to the GEMM kernel implementation since this is exactly where most of the high-performance software libraries extract the hardware performance. With the emergence of big data applications involving large data-sparse, hierarchically low-rank matrices, the off-diagonal tiles can be compressed to reduce the algorithmic complexity and the memory footprint. The resulting tile low-rank (TLR) data format is composed of small data structures, which retains the most significant information for each tile. However, to operate on low-rank tiles, a new GEMM operation and its corresponding API have to be designed on GPUs so that it can exploit the data sparsity structure of the matrix while leveraging the underlying TLR compression format. The main idea consists in aggregating all operations onto a single kernel launch to compensate for their low arithmetic intensities and to mitigate the data transfer overhead on GPUs. The new TLR GEMM kernel outperforms the cuBLAS dense batched GEMM by more than an order of magnitude and creates new opportunities for TLR advance algorithms.

  6. Unusal pattern of product inhibition: batch acetic acid fermentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bar, R.; Gainer, J.L.; Kirwan, D.J.

    1987-04-20

    The limited tolerance of microorganisms to their metabolic products results in inhibited growth and product formation. The relationship between the specific growth rate, micro, and the concentration of an inhibitory product has been described by a number of mathematical models. In most cases, micro was found to be inversely proportional to the product concentration and invariably the rate of substrate utilization followed the same pattern. In this communication, the authors report a rather unusual case in which the formation rate of a product, acetic acid, increased with a decreasing growth rate of the microorganism, Acetobacter aceti. Apparently, a similar behavior was mentioned in a review report with respect to Clostridium thermocellum in a batch culture but was not published in the freely circulating literature. The fermentation of ethanol to acetic acid, C/sub 2/H/sub 5/OH + O/sub 2/ = CH/sub 3/COOH + H/sub 2/O is clearly one of the oldest known fermentations. Because of its association with the commercial production of vinegar it has been a subject of extensive but rather technically oriented studies. Suprisingly, the uncommon uncoupling between the inhibited microbial growth and the product formation appears to have been unnoticed. 13 references.

  7. MATHEMATICAL MODELING OF BATCH ADSORPTION OF MANGANESE ONTO BONE CHAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. E. Maria

    Full Text Available Abstract The present study investigated the dynamics of batch adsorption of manganese onto bone char by using two distinct mathematical formulations: the diffusion model and the shrinking core model. Both models assumed spherical particles and adequately described the transient behavior of metal adsorption under changing operating conditions. Comparatively, the diffusion model described the manganese adsorption better at distinct particle sizes even when small particles were used (dp ≤ 0.147 mm; the shrinking core model proved to be more reliable when larger adsorbent particles were used (dp > 0.147 mm, and it described experimental data better at changing solid-liquid ratios. Manganese adsorption was favored when: (i smaller adsorbing particles were used due to the increase in the contact area and easier access to reacting sites of the char; however, such an effect proved to be limited to dp ≤ 0.147 mm, and (ii higher solid-liquid ratios were used due to the increase in the available reacting sites. External and intraparticle mass transfer dependences on particle size and solid-liquid ratio were also investigated, and results corroborated with prior investigations found in the literature.

  8. Hydrogen generation from glycerol in batch fermentation process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seifert, K.; Waligorska, M.; Wojtowski, M.; Laniecki, M. [Faculty of Chemistry, A. Mickiewicz University, Grunwaldzka 6, 60-780 Poznan (Poland)

    2009-05-15

    The influence of concentration of glycerol, inoculum and total nitrogen on hydrogen generation, in batch dark fermentation process in the presence of digested sludge (at 37 C and at initial pH = 6) was studied. Changes in substrate and products concentrations were modeled with modified Gompertz equations (correlation coefficient R{sup 2} = 0.9015). The 1,3-propandiol, butyric acid, acetic acid, lactic acid and ethanol were found as the main liquid metabolites. Maximal substrate yield for hydrogen was 0.41 mol H{sub 2}/mol glycerol and was obtained for medium containing 10 g/l of glycerol with the lowest amount of inoculum - 1.16 g volatile suspended solid (VSS)/l. Increase of glycerol concentration from 5 to 30 g/l resulted in much better hydrogen generation, namely from 0.345 to 0.715 l H{sub 2}/l. Further increase of glycerol concentration did not cause any changes. The H{sub 2}:CO{sub 2} ratio in biogas in system with the highest substrate yield was always 1. The initial concentration of glycerol does not influence the rate of hydrogen generation. The increase of initial concentration of inoculum from 1.2 to 11.6 g VSS/l results in the decrease of specific hydrogen yield. Nitrogen concentration in medium does not influence the hydrogen production. (author)

  9. Pembuatan Biodiesel Secara Batch Dengan Memanfaatkan Gelombang Mikro (Microwave

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rhesa Purnama Putra

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Biodiesel merupakan bioenergi atau bahan bakar nabati yang dibuat dari minyak nabati, baik minyak baru atau bekas penggorengan melalui proses transesterifikasi, esterifikasi, atau proses esterifikasi-transesterifikasi. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk membuat biodiesel dari minyak goreng secara batch melalui proses transesterifikasi dengan menggunakan radiasi mikrowave serta mempelajari berapa daya dan waktu optimal yang diperlukan untuk proses pembuatan biodiesel dengan radiasi microwave dengan katalis CaO, H2SO4, dan tanpa katalis. Dalam penelitian ini digunakan tiga variabel, yaitu daya (Watt;100,200,300,400, waktu (menit; 5,10,15,20 dan jenis katalis; CaO, H2SO4, dan tanpa katalis. Pada tahap persiapan menghitung volume minyak dan metanol yang akan dicampur. Kemudian mencampurnya didalam reaktor. Lalu mendinginkan campuran hingga terbentuk dua lapisan atas dan bawah dilanjutkan dengan melakukan pemisahan lapisan atas (biodiesel dari lapisan bawah (gliserol. Adapun pada tahap analisis, biodiesel hasil reaksi transesterfikasi dianalisa untuk mendapatkan data yield metil ester, densitas, viskositas, dan flash point. Dari penelitian diketahui bahwa hasil yang didapatkan masih belum dapat memenuhi standar biodiesel yang ditetapkan. Katalis CaO dapat memberikan hasil yang lebih baik dibandingkan dengan katalis H2SO4 dan tanpa katalis. Kondisi operasi untuk menghasilkan kualitas yield biodiesel terbaik yaitu pada daya 200 Watt selama 20 menit dengan menggunakan katalis CaO. Yield biodiesel terbesar didapatkan yield sebesar 60,11 %.

  10. Virtual Sensors for Biodiesel Production in a Batch Reactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Betty Y. López-Zapata

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Fossil fuel combustion produces around 98% of coal emissions. Therefore, liquid and gaseous biofuels have become more attractive due to their environmental benefits. The biodiesel production process requires measurements that help to control and supervise the variables involved in the process. The measurements provide valuable information about the operation conditions and give estimations about the critical variables of the process. The information from measurements is essential for monitoring the state of a process and verifying if it has an optimal performance. The objective of this study was the conception of a virtual sensor based on the Extended Kalman Filter (EKF and the model of a batch biodiesel reactor for estimating concentrations of triglycerides (TG, diglycerides (DG, monoglycerides (MG, methyl ester (E, alcohol (A, and glycerol (GL in real-time through measurement of the temperature and pH. Estimation of the TG, DG, MG, E, A, and Gl through this method eliminates the need for additional sensors and allows the use of different types of control. For the performance analysis of the virtual sensor, the data obtained from the EKF are compared with experimental data reported in the literature, with the mean square error of the estimate then being calculated. In addition, the results of this approach can be implemented in a real system, since it only uses measurements available in a reactor such as temperature and pH.

  11. Labelling schemes: From a consumer perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juhl, Hans Jørn; Stacey, Julia

    2000-01-01

    Labelling of food products attracts a lot of political attention these days. As a result of a number of food scandals, most European countries have acknowledged the need for more information and better protection of consumers. Labelling schemes are one way of informing and guiding consumers....... However, initiatives in relation to labelling schemes seldom take their point of departure in consumers' needs and expectations; and in many cases, the schemes are defined by the institutions guaranteeing the label. It is therefore interesting to study how consumers actually value labelling schemes....... A recent MAPP study has investigated the value consumers attach the Government-controlled labels 'Ø-mærket' and 'Den Blå Lup' and the private supermarket label 'Mesterhakket' when they purchase minced meat. The results reveal four consumer segments that use labelling schemes for food products very...

  12. Two-Stage Load Shedding for Secondary Control in Hierarchical Operation of Islanded Microgrids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhou, Quan; Li, Zhiyi; Wu, Qiuwei

    2018-01-01

    A two-stage load shedding scheme is presented to cope with the severe power deficit caused by microgrid islanding. Coordinated with the fast response of inverter-based distributed energy resources (DERs), load shedding at each stage and the resulting power flow redistribution are estimated....... The first stage of load shedding will cease rapid frequency decline in which the measured frequency deviation is employed to guide the load shedding level and process. Once a new steady-state is reached, the second stage is activated, which performs load shedding according to the priorities of loads...

  13. Exact analysis of Packet Reversed Packet Combining Scheme and Modified Packet Combining Scheme; and a combined scheme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhunia, C.T.

    2007-07-01

    Packet combining scheme is a well defined simple error correction scheme for the detection and correction of errors at the receiver. Although it permits a higher throughput when compared to other basic ARQ protocols, packet combining (PC) scheme fails to correct errors when errors occur in the same bit locations of copies. In a previous work, a scheme known as Packet Reversed Packet Combining (PRPC) Scheme that will correct errors which occur at the same bit location of erroneous copies, was studied however PRPC does not handle a situation where a packet has more than 1 error bit. The Modified Packet Combining (MPC) Scheme that can correct double or higher bit errors was studied elsewhere. Both PRPC and MPC schemes are believed to offer higher throughput in previous studies, however neither adequate investigation nor exact analysis was done to substantiate this claim of higher throughput. In this work, an exact analysis of both PRPC and MPC is carried out and the results reported. A combined protocol (PRPC and MPC) is proposed and the analysis shows that it is capable of offering even higher throughput and better error correction capability at high bit error rate (BER) and larger packet size. (author)

  14. Early-warning process/control for anaerobic digestion and biological nitrogen transformation processes: Batch, semi-continuous, and/or chemostat experiments. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hickey, R. [Science Applications International Corp., McLean, VA (United States)

    1992-09-01

    The objective of this project was to develop and test an early-warning/process control model for anaerobic sludge digestion (AD). The approach was to use batch and semi-continuously fed systems and to assemble system parameter data on a real-time basis. Specific goals were to produce a real-time early warning control model and computer code, tested for internal and external validity; to determine the minimum rate of data collection for maximum lag time to predict failure with a prescribed accuracy and confidence in the prediction; and to determine and characterize any trends in the real-time data collected in response to particular perturbations to feedstock quality. Trends in the response of trace gases carbon monoxide and hydrogen in batch experiments, were found to depend on toxicant type. For example, these trace gases respond differently for organic substances vs. heavy metals. In both batch and semi-continuously feed experiments, increased organic loading lead to proportionate increases in gas production rates as well as increases in CO and H{sub 2} concentration. An analysis of variance of gas parameters confirmed that CO was the most sensitive indicator variable by virtue of its relatively larger variance compared to the others. The other parameters evaluated including gas production, methane production, hydrogen, carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide and methane concentration. In addition, a relationship was hypothesized between gaseous CO concentration and acetate concentrations in the digester. The data from semicontinuous feed experiments were supportive.

  15. Wind Loads on Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dyrbye, Claes; Hansen, Svend Ole

    Wind loads have to be taken into account when designing civil engineering structures. The wind load on structures can be systematised by means of the wind load chain: wind climate (global), terrain (wind at low height), aerodynamic response (wind load to pressure), mechanical response (wind...... pressure to structural response) and design criteria. Starting with an introduction of the wind load chain, the book moves on to meteorological considerations, atmospheric boundary layer, static wind load, dynamic wind load and scaling laws used in wind-tunnel tests. The dynamic wind load covers vibrations...... induced by wind turbulence, vortex shedding, flutter and galloping. The book gives a comprehensive treatment of wind effects on structures and it will be useful for consulting engineers designing wind-sensitive structures. It will also be valuable for students of civil engineering as textbook...

  16. Autonomous Propellant Loading Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The AES Autonomous Propellant Loading (APL) project consists of three activities. The first is to develop software that will automatically control loading of...

  17. Fuel pellet loading apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    Apparatus is described for loading a predetermined amount of nuclear fuel pellets into nuclear fuel elements and particularly for the automatic loading of fuel pellets from within a sealed compartment. (author)

  18. Switched-based interference reduction scheme for open-access overlaid cellular networks

    KAUST Repository

    Radaydeh, Redha Mahmoud Mesleh

    2012-06-01

    Femtocells have been proposed to enhance the spatial coverage and system capacity of existing cellular networks. However, this technology may result in significant performance loss due to the increase in co-channel interference, particularly when coordination between access points is infeasible. This paper targets interference management in such overlaid networks. It is assumed that the femtocells employ the open-access strategy to reduce cross-tier interference, and can share resources concurrently. It is also assumed that each end user (EU) can access one channel at a time, and transfer limited feedback. To reduce the effect of co-tier interference in the absence of the desired EU channel state information (CSI) at the serving access point as well as coordination between active access points, a switched scheme based on the interference levels associated with available channels is proposed. Through the analysis, the scheme modes of operation in under-loaded and over-loaded channels are studied, from which the statistics of the resulting interference power are quantified. The impact of the proposed scheme on the received desired power is thoroughly discussed. In addition, the effect of the switching threshold on the achieved performance of the desired EU is investigated. The results clarify that the proposed scheme can improve the performance while reducing the number of examined channels and feedback load. © 2012 IEEE.

  19. Some novel power-conversion schemes employing pulse-width modulated high-frequency links

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manias, S.

    1984-01-01

    Static power conversion schemes employing Pulse-Width Modulated high-frequency (HF) links, are investigated. The employment of HF links in power conversion schemes results in substantial size, weight, and cost reduction of the power converter isolation transfer and reactive components. Therefore, in applications where density is of prime importance the employment of HF links is the natural choice. The following power conversion schemes employing an HF link are investigated: (1) a voltage source DC to AC inverter consisting of an HF link and a DC to AC inverter stage: its main advantage over conventional inverter configurations is the drastic size and weight reduction of the magnetic components; (2) a three-phase Current Source DC to AC inverter consisting of an HF link and a DC to AC inverter stage: the current source is created by the HF link stage which together with a high frequency transformer provides isolation between the source and the load; (3) an AC to DC converter consisting of an HF link stage: the proposed power conversion scheme employs an AC to AC cyclo-converter as an HF link which together with a high frequency isolation transfer provides isolation between the source and the load; and (4) a bilateral HF link power converter: the proposed power conversion scheme incorporates a battery charger into an inverter by using the existing power circuit components.

  20. Limit loads in nozzles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zouain, N.

    1983-01-01

    The static method for the evaluation of the limit loads of a perfectly elasto-plastic structure is presented. Using the static theorem of Limit Analysis and the Finite Element Method, a lower bound for the colapso load can be obtained through a linear programming problem. This formulation if then applied to symmetrically loaded shells of revolution and some numerical results of limit loads in nozzles are also presented. (Author) [pt