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Sample records for batch culture experiments

  1. Production of nattokinase by batch and fed-batch culture of Bacillus subtilis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Young-Han; Song, Jae Yong; Kim, Kyung Mi; Kim, Mi Kyoung; Lee, In Young; Kim, Sang Bum; Kim, Hyeon Shup; Han, Nam Soo; Lee, Bong Hee; Kim, Beom Soo

    2010-09-30

    Nattokinase was produced by batch and fed-batch culture of Bacillus subtilis in flask and fermentor. Effect of supplementing complex media (peptone, yeast extract, or tryptone) was investigated on the production of nattokinase. In flask culture, the highest cell growth and nattokinase activity were obtained with 50 g/L of peptone supplementation. In this condition, nattokinase activity was 630 unit/ml at 12 h. In batch culture of B. subtilis in fermentor, the highest nattokinase activity of 3400 unit/ml was obtained at 10h with 50 g/L of peptone supplementation. From the batch kinetics data, it was shown that nattokinase production was growth-associated and culture should be harvested before stationary phase for maximum nattokinase production. In fed-batch culture of B. subtilis using pH-stat feeding strategy, cell growth (optical density monitored at 600 nm) increased to ca. 100 at 22 h, which was 2.5 times higher than that in batch culture. The highest nattokinase activity was 7100 unit/ml at 19 h, which was also 2.1 times higher than that in batch culture. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. A parametric study ot protease production in batch and fed-batch cultures of Bacillus firmus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, S H; Parulekar, S J

    1991-03-05

    Proteolytic enzymes produced by Bacillus species find a wide variety of applications in brewing, detergent, food, and leather industries. Owing to significant differences normally observed in culture conditions promoting cell growth and those promoting production of metabolites such as enzymes, for increased efficacy of bioreactor operations it is essential to identify these sets of conditions (including medium formulation). This study is focused on formulation of a semidefined medium that substantially enhances synthesis and secretion of an alkaline protease in batch cultures of Bacillus firmus NRS 783, a known superior producer of this enzyme. The series of experiments conducted to identify culture conditions that lead to improved protease production also enables investigation of the regulatory effects of important culture parameters including pH, dissolved oxygen, and concentrations of nitrogen and phosphorous sources and yeast extract in the medium on cell growth, synthesis and secretion of protease, and production of two major nonbiomass products, viz., acetic acid and ethanol. Cell growth and formation of the three nonbiomass products are hampered significantly under nitrogen, phosphorous, or oxygen limitation, with the cells being unable to grow in an oxygen-free environment. Improvement in protease production is achieved with respect to each culture parameter, leading in the process to 80% enhancement in protease activity over that attained using media reported in the literature. Results of a few fed-batch experiments with constant feed rate, conducted to examine possible enhancement in protease production and to further investigate repression of protease synthesis by excess of the principal carbon and nitrogen sources, are also discussed. The detailed investigation of stimulatory and repressory effects of simple and complex nutrients on protease production and metabolism of Bacillus firmus conducted in this study will provide useful guidelines for design

  3. Medium optimization for protopectinase production by batch culture of

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Medium optimization for protopectinase production by batch culture of. C Fan, Z Liu, L Yao. Abstract. Optimization of medium compositions for protopectinase production by Aspergillus terreus in submerged culture was carried out. The medium components having significant effect on protopectinase production were reported ...

  4. Batch variation between branchial cell cultures: An analysis of variance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Heinz Johs. Max; Grosell, M.; Kristensen, L.

    2003-01-01

    We present in detail how a statistical analysis of variance (ANOVA) is used to sort out the effect of an unexpected batch-to-batch variation between cell cultures. Two separate cultures of rainbow trout branchial cells were grown on permeable filtersupports ("inserts"). They were supposed...... and introducing the observed difference between batches as one of the factors in an expanded three-dimensional ANOVA, we were able to overcome an otherwisecrucial lack of sufficiently reproducible duplicate values. We could thereby show that the effect of changing the apical medium was much more marked when...... the radioactive lipid precursors were added on the apical, rather than on the basolateral, side. Theinsert cell cultures were obviously polarized. We argue that it is not reasonable to reject troublesome experimental results, when we do not know a priori that something went wrong. The ANOVA is a very useful...

  5. Oxygen availability strongly affects chronological lifespan and thermotolerance in batch cultures of Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus M.M. Bisschops

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Stationary-phase (SP batch cultures of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, in which growth has been arrested by carbon-source depletion, are widely applied to study chronological lifespan, quiescence and SP-associated robustness. Based on this type of experiments, typically performed under aerobic conditions, several roles of oxygen in aging have been proposed. However, SP in anaerobic yeast cultures has not been investigated in detail. Here, we use the unique capability of S. cerevisiae to grow in the complete absence of oxygen to directly compare SP in aerobic and anaerobic bioreactor cultures. This comparison revealed strong positive effects of oxygen availability on adenylate energy charge, longevity and thermotolerance during SP. A low thermotolerance of anaerobic batch cultures was already evident during the exponential growth phase and, in contrast to the situation in aerobic cultures, was not substantially increased during transition into SP. A combination of physiological and transcriptome analysis showed that the slow post-diauxic growth phase on ethanol, which precedes SP in aerobic, but not in anaerobic cultures, endowed cells with the time and resources needed for inducing longevity and thermotolerance. When combined with literature data on acquisition of longevity and thermotolerance in retentostat cultures, the present study indicates that the fast transition from glucose excess to SP in anaerobic cultures precludes acquisition of longevity and thermotolerance. Moreover, this study demonstrates the importance of a preceding, calorie-restricted conditioning phase in the acquisition of longevity and stress tolerance in SP yeast cultures, irrespective of oxygen availability.

  6. Lipid production in batch and fed-batch cultures of Rhodosporidium toruloides from 5 and 6 carbon carbohydrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wiebe Marilyn G

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Microbial lipids are a potential source of bio- or renewable diesel and the red yeast Rhodosporidium toruloides is interesting not only because it can accumulate over 50% of its dry biomass as lipid, but also because it utilises both five and six carbon carbohydrates, which are present in plant biomass hydrolysates. Methods R. toruloides was grown in batch and fed-batch cultures in 0.5 L bioreactors at pH 4 in chemically defined, nitrogen restricted (C/N 40 to 100 media containing glucose, xylose, arabinose, or all three carbohydrates as carbon source. Lipid was extracted from the biomass using chloroform-methanol, measured gravimetrically and analysed by GC. Results Lipid production was most efficient with glucose (up to 25 g lipid L−1, 48 to 75% lipid in the biomass, at up to 0.21 g lipid L−1 h−1 as the sole carbon source, but high lipid concentrations were also produced from xylose (36 to 45% lipid in biomass. Lipid production was low (15–19% lipid in biomass with arabinose as sole carbon source and was lower than expected (30% lipid in biomass when glucose, xylose and arabinose were provided simultaneously. The presence of arabinose and/or xylose in the medium increased the proportion of palmitic and linoleic acid and reduced the proportion of oleic acid in the fatty acids, compared to glucose-grown cells. High cell densities were obtained in both batch (37 g L−1, with 49% lipid in the biomass and fed-batch (35 to 47 g L−1, with 50 to 75% lipid in the biomass cultures. The highest proportion of lipid in the biomass was observed in cultures given nitrogen during the batch phase but none with the feed. However, carbohydrate consumption was incomplete when the feed did not contain nitrogen and the highest total lipid and best substrate consumption were observed in cultures which received a constant low nitrogen supply. Conclusions Lipid production in R. toruloides was lower from arabinose and mixed

  7. Optimization of the Production of Polygalacturonase from Aspergillus kawachii Cloned in Saccharomyces cerevisiae in Batch and Fed-Batch Cultures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Jorge Baruque

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Polygalacturonases (PG; EC 3.2.1.15 catalyze the hydrolysis of pectin and/or pectic acid and are useful for industrial applications such as juice clarification and pectin extraction. Growth and heterologous expression of recombinant Saccharomyces cerevisiae which expresses an acidic PG from Aspergillus kawachii has been studied in batch and fed-batch cultures. Kinetics and stoichiometric parameters of the recombinant yeast were determined in batch cultures in a synthetic medium. In these cultures, the total biomass concentration, protein concentration, and enzyme activity achieved were 2.2 g/L, 10 mg/L, and 3 U/mL, respectively, to give a productivity of 0.06 U/(mL·h. In fed-batch cultures, various strategies for galactose feeding were used: (i after a glucose growth phase, the addition of a single pulse of galactose which gave a productivity of 0.19 U/(mL·h; (ii after a glucose growth phase, a double pulse of galactose at the same final concentration was added, resulting in a productivity of 0.21 U/(mL·h; (iii a simultaneous feeding of glucose and galactose, yielding a productivity of 1.32 U/(mL·h. Based on these results, the simultaneous feeding of glucose and galactose was by far the most suitable strategy for the production of this enzyme. Moreover, some biochemical characteristics of the recombinant enzyme such as a molecular mass of ~60 kDa, an isoelectric point of 3.7 and its ability to hydrolyze polygalacturonic acid at pH=2.5 were determined.

  8. Study on Batch Culture Growth Model for Lactococcus lactis IO-1

    OpenAIRE

    Ishizaki, Ayaaki; Ohta, Tomomi; Kobayashi, Genta; 石崎, 文彬; 太田, 智美; 小林, 元太

    1991-01-01

    L-lactate fermentation employing Lactncoccus lactis IO-1 demonstrated a typical end product inhibition. By numerical analysis of fermentation results of the batch culture of this microorganism, the specific rates for cell growth, substrate consumption and product formation were clearly expressed by the end product inhibition formulae. All constants for those formulae were determined by the fermentation results. A mathematical model for batch culture growth of this microorganism in which the n...

  9. Fed-batch CHO cell culture for lab-scale antibody production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fan, Yuzhou; Ley, Daniel; Andersen, Mikael Rørdam

    2017-01-01

    Fed-batch culture is the most commonly used upstream process in industry today for recombinant monoclonal antibody production using Chinese hamster ovary cells. Developing and optimizing this process in the lab is crucial for establishing process knowledge, which enable rapid and predictable tech......-transfer to manufacturing scale. In this chapter, we will describe stepwise how to carry out fed-batch CHO cell culture for lab-scale antibody production....

  10. Production of alpha-amylase in batch and chemostat culture by bacillus stearothermophilus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, P E; Cohen, D L; Whitaker, A

    1980-01-01

    The production of alpha-amylase by a strain of B.stearothermophilus isolated from leaf litter was investigated in a tryptone-maltose medium at 55 degrees in batch and chemostat culture. Amylase production was growth-limited and restricted to the exponential phase in batch culture. The enzyme yield was reduced by 40% when the culture pH was maintained at pH 7.2. Amylase production in chemostat culture was influenced by the growth rate throughout the dilution rate range used.

  11. Xylitol production by Candida parapsilosis under fed-batch culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra A. Furlan

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Xylitol production by Candida parapsilosis was investigated under fed-batch cultivation, using single (xylose or mixed (xylose and glucose sugars as substrates. The presence of glucose in the medium induced the production of ethanol as secondary metabolite and improved specific rates of growth, xylitol formation and substrate consumption. Fractionated supply of the feed medium at constant sugar concentration did not promote any increase on the productivity compared to the single batch cultivation.A produção de xylitol por Candida parapsilosis foi investigada em regime de batelada alimentada, usando substratos açucarados de composição simples (xilose ou composta (xilose e glicose. A presença de glicose no meio induziu a formação de etanol como metabólito secundário. A suplementação fracionada do meio de alimentação numa concentração fixa de açúcar não resultou em aumento da produtividade em relação àquela alcançada em batelada simples.

  12. Retardation characteristics of radionuclides in geologic media through batch and packed column experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Hun Hwee; Han, Kyung Won; Han, Pil Soo; Lee, Jae Owan; Park, Chung Kyun; Yang, Ho Yeon

    1988-03-01

    Batch and packed column experiments are performed to investigate the retardation characteristics of radionuclide,i.e, Cs-137 in geologic media. In batch experiment, the effects of important parameters on the sorption of radionuclide in geologic media, such as nuclide concentration, pH, and particle size are examined. The Kd value obtained from breakthrough curve was compared with that from the batch sorption experiment to investigate the applicability of the Kd value from batch experiment to prediction of radionuclide migration in dynamic flow through porous media. The proposed model of radionuclide migration in porous media is also verified using the experimental results. (Author)

  13. COMETABOLIC DEGRADATION OF CHLOROALLYL ALCOHOLS IN BATCH AND CONTINUOUS CULTURES

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VANDERWAARDE, JJ; KOK, R; JANSSEN, DB; Waarde, J.J. van der

    1994-01-01

    The biodegradation of chloroallyl alcohols by pure and mixed bacterial cultures was investigated. Only 2-chloroallyl alcohol and cis- and trans-3-chloroallyl alcohol served as growth substrate for pure cultures. The other chloroallyl alcohols could be cometabolically degraded during growth on

  14. Production of carotenoids and lipids by Rhodococcus opacus PD630 in batch and fed-batch culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thanapimmetha, Anusith; Suwaleerat, Tharatron; Saisriyoot, Maythee; Chisti, Yusuf; Srinophakun, Penjit

    2017-01-01

    Production of carotenoids by Rhodococcus opacus PD630 is reported. A modified mineral salt medium formulated with glycerol as an inexpensive carbon source was used for the fermentation. Ammonium acetate was the nitrogen source. A dry cell mass concentration of nearly 5.4 g/L could be produced in shake flasks with a carotenoid concentration of 0.54 mg/L. In batch culture in a 5 L bioreactor, without pH control, the maximum dry biomass concentration was ~30 % lower than in shake flasks and the carotenoids concentration was 0.09 mg/L. Both the biomass concentration and the carotenoids concentration could be raised using a fed-batch operation with a feed mixture of ammonium acetate and acetic acid. With this strategy, the final biomass concentration was 8.2 g/L and the carotenoids concentration was 0.20 mg/L in a 10-day fermentation. A control of pH proved to be unnecessary for maximizing the production of carotenoids in this fermentation.

  15. Batch experiment on H2S degradation by bacteria immobilised on activated carbons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, R; Ng, Y L; Chen, X G; Geng, A L; Gould, W D; Duan, H Q; Liang, D T; Koe, L C C

    2004-01-01

    Biological treatments of odorous compounds, as compared to chemical or physical technologies, are in general ecologically and environmentally favourable. However, there are some inefficiencies relative to the media used in biofiltration processes, such as the need for an adequate residence time; the limited lifetime, and pore blockage of media, which at present render the technology economically non-viable. The aim of the study is to develop novel active media to be used in performance-enhanced biofiltration processes, by achieving an optimum balance and combination of the media adsorption capacity with the biodegradation of H2S through the bacteria immobilised on the media. An enrichment culture was obtained from activated sludges in order to metabolise thiosulphate. Batch-wise experiments were conducted to optimise the bacteria immobilisation on activated carbon, so as to develop a novel "biocarbon". Biofilm was mostly developed through culturing the bacteria with the presence of carbons in mineral media. SEM and BET tests of the carbon along with the culturing process were used to identify, respectively, the biofilm development and biocarbon porosity. Breakthrough tests evaluated the biocarbon performance with varying gas resistance time, inlet H2S concentration, and type of support materials. Fundamental issues were discussed, including type of support material, mode of bacteria immobilisation, pore blockages, and biodegradation kinetics, etc. This batch-wise study provides a basis for our future research on optimisation of the biofiltration process using a bio-trickling reactor.

  16. Fructose production by Zymomonas mobilis in fed-batch culture with minimal sorbitol formation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edye, L A; Johns, M R; Ewings, K N

    1989-08-01

    Fed-batch cultures of Zymomonas mobilis (UQM 2864), a mutant unable to metabolise fructose, grown on diluted sugar cane syrup (200 g/l sucrose) achieved yields of 90.5 g/l fructose and 48.3 g/l ethanol with minimal sorbitol formation and complete utilization of the substrate. The effect of inoculum size on sorbitol formation in the batch stage of fed-batch fermentation are reported. Fermentation of sucrose (350 g/l) supplemented with nutrients yielded 142 g/l fructose and 76.5 g/l ethanol. Some fructose product loss at high fructose concentrations was observed. The fed-batch fermentation process offers a method for obtaining high concentrations of fructose and ethanol from sucrose materials. (orig.).

  17. Increasing the production of desulfurizing biocatalysts by means of fed - batch culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berdugo, C I; Mena, J A; Acero, J R; Mogollon, L

    2001-01-01

    Over the past years, environmental regulations have driven a lot of effort for the development of new technologies for the upgrading of fossil fuels. Biotechnology offers an alternative way to process fossil fuels by means of a biodesulfurization technology where the production of the biocatalyst is one of the key topics. Traditionally, the production is carried out in batch culture where the maximum cellular concentration is restricted by inherent limitations of the culture type and the microorganism growth rate. This work addresses the production of two desulfurizing microorganisms: Rhodococcus erythropolis IGTS8 and gordona rubropertinctus ICP172 using fed-batch culture. Fed-batch cultures were conducted in a 12 L fermentor using ICP 4 medium containing glucose and DMSO as carbon and sulfur sources. As a result, cell concentration was increased 1.5 and 3 times with fed-batch cultures using constant and exponential flow respectively, achieving a maximum cell concentration of 7.3 g DCW/L of biocatalyst igts8 and 12.85 gGDCW/L of the new biocatalyst ICP172. Both biocatalysts presented biodesulfurization activity in a spiked matrix DBT/HXD and in diesel matrix with the detection of 2-HBP which is the end-product of DBT degradation pathway

  18. In Vitro Growth of Curcuma longa L. in Response to Five Mineral Elements and Plant Density in Fed-Batch Culture Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Hawaz, Rabia F.; Bridges, William C.; Adelberg, Jeffrey W.

    2015-01-01

    Plant density was varied with P, Ca, Mg, and KNO3 in a multifactor experiment to improve Curcuma longa L. micropropagation, biomass and microrhizome development in fed-batch liquid culture. The experiment had two paired D-optimal designs, testing sucrose fed-batch and nutrient sucrose fed-batch techniques. When sucrose became depleted, volume was restored to 5% m/v sucrose in 200 ml of modified liquid MS medium by adding sucrose solutions. Similarly, nutrient sucrose fed-batch was restored to set points with double concentration of treatments’ macronutrient and MS micronutrient solutions, along with sucrose solutions. Changes in the amounts of water and sucrose supplementations were driven by the interaction of P and KNO3 concentrations. Increasing P from 1.25 to 6.25 mM increased both multiplication and biomass. The multiplication ratio was greatest in the nutrient sucrose fed-batch technique with the highest level of P, 6 buds/vessel, and the lowest level of Ca and KNO3. The highest density (18 buds/vessel) produced the highest fresh biomass at the highest concentrations of KNO3 and P with nutrient sucrose fed-batch, and moderate Ca and Mg concentrations. However, maximal rhizome dry biomass required highest P, sucrose fed-batch, and a moderate plant density. Different media formulations and fed-batch techniques were identified to maximize the propagation and storage organ responses. A single experimental design was used to optimize these dual purposes. PMID:25830292

  19. In vitro growth of Curcuma longa L. in response to five mineral elements and plant density in fed-batch culture systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Hawaz, Rabia F; Bridges, William C; Adelberg, Jeffrey W

    2015-01-01

    Plant density was varied with P, Ca, Mg, and KNO3 in a multifactor experiment to improve Curcuma longa L. micropropagation, biomass and microrhizome development in fed-batch liquid culture. The experiment had two paired D-optimal designs, testing sucrose fed-batch and nutrient sucrose fed-batch techniques. When sucrose became depleted, volume was restored to 5% m/v sucrose in 200 ml of modified liquid MS medium by adding sucrose solutions. Similarly, nutrient sucrose fed-batch was restored to set points with double concentration of treatments' macronutrient and MS micronutrient solutions, along with sucrose solutions. Changes in the amounts of water and sucrose supplementations were driven by the interaction of P and KNO3 concentrations. Increasing P from 1.25 to 6.25 mM increased both multiplication and biomass. The multiplication ratio was greatest in the nutrient sucrose fed-batch technique with the highest level of P, 6 buds/vessel, and the lowest level of Ca and KNO3. The highest density (18 buds/vessel) produced the highest fresh biomass at the highest concentrations of KNO3 and P with nutrient sucrose fed-batch, and moderate Ca and Mg concentrations. However, maximal rhizome dry biomass required highest P, sucrose fed-batch, and a moderate plant density. Different media formulations and fed-batch techniques were identified to maximize the propagation and storage organ responses. A single experimental design was used to optimize these dual purposes.

  20. Selection of chemically defined media for CHO cell fed-batch culture processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pan, X.; Streefland, M.; Dalm, C.; Wijffels, R.H.; Martens, D.E.

    2017-01-01

    Two CHO cell clones derived from the same parental CHOBC cell line and producing the same monoclonal antibody (BC-G, a low producing clone; BC-P, a high producing clone) were tested in four basal media in all possible combinations with three feeds (=12 conditions) in fed-batch cultures.
    Higher

  1. Fed-batch and perfusion culture processes: economic, environmental, and operational feasibility under uncertainty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollock, James; Ho, Sa V; Farid, Suzanne S

    2013-01-01

    This article evaluates the current and future potential of batch and continuous cell culture technologies via a case study based on the commercial manufacture of monoclonal antibodies. The case study compares fed-batch culture to two perfusion technologies: spin-filter perfusion and an emerging perfusion technology utilizing alternating tangential flow (ATF) perfusion. The operational, economic, and environmental feasibility of whole bioprocesses based on these systems was evaluated using a prototype dynamic decision-support tool built at UCL encompassing process economics, discrete-event simulation and uncertainty analysis, and combined with a multi-attribute decision-making technique so as to enable a holistic assessment. The strategies were compared across a range of scales and titres so as to visualize how their ranking changes in different industry scenarios. The deterministic analysis indicated that the ATF perfusion strategy has the potential to offer cost of goods savings of 20% when compared to conventional fed-batch manufacturing processes when a fivefold increase in maximum viable cell densities was assumed. Savings were also seen when the ATF cell density dropped to a threefold increase over the fed-batch strategy for most combinations of titres and production scales. In contrast, the fed-batch strategy performed better in terms of environmental sustainability with a lower water and consumable usage profile. The impact of uncertainty and failure rates on the feasibility of the strategies was explored using Monte Carlo simulation. The risk analysis results demonstrated the enhanced robustness of the fed-batch process but also highlighted that the ATF process was still the most cost-effective option even under uncertainty. The multi-attribute decision-making analysis provided insight into the limited use of spin-filter perfusion strategies in industry. The resulting sensitivity spider plots enabled identification of the critical ratio of weightings of

  2. A novel process-based model of microbial growth: self-inhibition in Saccharomyces cerevisiae aerobic fed-batch cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzoleni, Stefano; Landi, Carmine; Cartenì, Fabrizio; de Alteriis, Elisabetta; Giannino, Francesco; Paciello, Lucia; Parascandola, Palma

    2015-07-30

    Microbial population dynamics in bioreactors depend on both nutrients availability and changes in the growth environment. Research is still ongoing on the optimization of bioreactor yields focusing on the increase of the maximum achievable cell density. A new process-based model is proposed to describe the aerobic growth of Saccharomyces cerevisiae cultured on glucose as carbon and energy source. The model considers the main metabolic routes of glucose assimilation (fermentation to ethanol and respiration) and the occurrence of inhibition due to the accumulation of both ethanol and other self-produced toxic compounds in the medium. Model simulations reproduced data from classic and new experiments of yeast growth in batch and fed-batch cultures. Model and experimental results showed that the growth decline observed in prolonged fed-batch cultures had to be ascribed to self-produced inhibitory compounds other than ethanol. The presented results clarify the dynamics of microbial growth under different feeding conditions and highlight the relevance of the negative feedback by self-produced inhibitory compounds on the maximum cell densities achieved in a bioreactor.

  3. Perfusion seed cultures improve biopharmaceutical fed-batch production capacity and product quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, William C; Lu, Jiuyi; Kwiatkowski, Chris; Yuan, Hang; Kshirsagar, Rashmi; Ryll, Thomas; Huang, Yao-Ming

    2014-01-01

    Volumetric productivity and product quality are two key performance indicators for any biopharmaceutical cell culture process. In this work, we showed proof-of-concept for improving both through the use of alternating tangential flow perfusion seed cultures coupled with high-seed fed-batch production cultures. First, we optimized the perfusion N-1 stage, the seed train bioreactor stage immediately prior to the production bioreactor stage, to minimize the consumption of perfusion media for one CHO cell line and then successfully applied the optimized perfusion process to a different CHO cell line. Exponential growth was observed throughout the N-1 duration, reaching >40 × 10(6) vc/mL at the end of the perfusion N-1 stage. The cultures were subsequently split into high-seed (10 × 10(6) vc/mL) fed-batch production cultures. This strategy significantly shortened the culture duration. The high-seed fed-batch production processes for cell lines A and B reached 5 g/L titer in 12 days, while their respective low-seed processes reached the same titer in 17 days. The shortened production culture duration potentially generates a 30% increase in manufacturing capacity while yielding comparable product quality. When perfusion N-1 and high-seed fed-batch production were applied to cell line C, higher levels of the active protein were obtained, compared to the low-seed process. This, combined with correspondingly lower levels of the inactive species, can enhance the overall process yield for the active species. Using three different CHO cell lines, we showed that perfusion seed cultures can optimize capacity utilization and improve process efficiency by increasing volumetric productivity while maintaining or improving product quality. © 2014 American Institute of Chemical Engineers.

  4. Lactic acid production from potato peel waste by anaerobic sequencing batch fermentation using undefined mixed culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Shaobo; McDonald, Armando G; Coats, Erik R

    2015-11-01

    Lactic acid (LA) is a necessary industrial feedstock for producing the bioplastic, polylactic acid (PLA), which is currently produced by pure culture fermentation of food carbohydrates. This work presents an alternative to produce LA from potato peel waste (PPW) by anaerobic fermentation in a sequencing batch reactor (SBR) inoculated with undefined mixed culture from a municipal wastewater treatment plant. A statistical design of experiments approach was employed using set of 0.8L SBRs using gelatinized PPW at a solids content range from 30 to 50 g L(-1), solids retention time of 2-4 days for yield and productivity optimization. The maximum LA production yield of 0.25 g g(-1) PPW and highest productivity of 125 mg g(-1) d(-1) were achieved. A scale-up SBR trial using neat gelatinized PPW (at 80 g L(-1) solids content) at the 3 L scale was employed and the highest LA yield of 0.14 g g(-1) PPW and a productivity of 138 mg g(-1) d(-1) were achieved with a 1 d SRT. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Production of nattokinase by high cell density fed-batch culture of Bacillus subtilis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Eun-Yeong; Kim, Kyung Mi; Kim, Mi Kyoung; Lee, In Young; Kim, Beom Soo

    2011-09-01

    Bacillus subtilis was cultivated to high cell density for nattokinase production by pH-stat fed-batch culture. A concentrated mixture solution of glucose and peptone was automatically added by acid-supplying pump when culture pH rose above high limit. Effect of the ratio of glucose to peptone in feeding solution was investigated on cell growth and nattokinase production by changing the ratio from 0.2 to 5 g glucose/g peptone. The highest cell concentration was 77 g/L when the ratio was 0.2 g glucose/g peptone. Cell concentration decreased with increasing the ratio of glucose to peptone in feeding solution, while the optimum condition existed for nattokinase production. The highest nattokinase activity was 14,500 unit/mL at a ratio of 0.33 g glucose/g peptone, which was 4.3 times higher than that in batch culture.

  6. Identifying yeast isolated from spoiled peach puree and assessment of its batch culture for invertase production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcela Vega FERREIRA

    Full Text Available Abstract The identification of yeasts isolated from spoiled Jubileu peach puree using the API 20C AUX method and a commercial yeast as witness were studied. Subsequently, the yeast’s growth potential using two batch culture treatments were performed to evaluate number of colonies (N, reducing sugar concentration (RS, free-invertase (FI, and culture-invertase activity (CI. Stock cultures were maintained on potato dextrose agar (PDA slants at 4 °C and pH 5 for later use for batch-culture (150 rpm at 30°C for 24 h, then they were stored at 4 °C for subsequent invertase extraction. The FI extract was obtained using NaHCO3 as autolysis agent, and CI activity was determined on the supernatant after batch-cultured centrifugation. The activity was followed by an increase in absorbance at 490 nm using the acid 3,5-DNS method with glucose standard. Of the four yeasts identified, Saccharomyces cerevisiae was chosen for legal reasons. It showed logarithmic growth up to 18 h of fermentation with positive correlation CI activity and inverse with RS. FI showed greater activity by the end of the log phase and an inverse correlation with CI activity. Finally, it was concluded that treatment “A” is more effective than “B” to produce invertase (EC 3.2.1.26.

  7. The effects of furfural on ethanol production by Saccharomyces cerevisiae in batch culture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boyer, L.J.; Vega, J.L.; Klasson, K.T.; Clausen, E.C.; Gaddy, J.L. (Arkansas Univ., Fayetteville, AR (US). Dept. of Chemical Engineering)

    1992-01-01

    Browning reaction products such as furfural and 5-hydroxy-methyl-furfural (HMF) have been shown to inhibit microbial growth and metabolism in ethanol fermentations using Saccharomyces cerevisiae. This paper quantifies the extent of furfural inhibition and yeast growth, glucose utilization, and ethanol production as a function of inoculum size (0.1-9 gl{sup -1}). Batch culture experiments were conducted using furfural concentrations in the range of 0 to 2.0 gl{sup -1} and mathematical correlations were proposed and tested. The results indicate that the specific growth rate decreased with increasing furfural concentration and inoculum size, while the maintenance coefficients were unaffected. The apparent and true cell yield coefficients on glucose were depressed with the addition of furfural. Specific production rates were unaffected at the furfural levels used but ethanol inhibition was apparent. The specific production rate was less inhibited by ethanol at higher inoculum sizes. Global specific productivities were not affected by the presence of furfural. At a 0.1 gl{sup -1} inoculum size, furfural depletion was complete within 15-20 h, depending upon the furfural concentration employed. At higher incoculum levels (2-9 gl{sup -1}), all furfural was depleted in less than 5 h. (author).

  8. Monitoring and robust adaptive control of fed-batch cultures of microorganisms exhibiting overflow metabolism [abstract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vande Wouwer, A.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Overflow metabolism characterizes cells strains that are likely to produce inhibiting by-products resulting from an excess of substrate feeding and a saturated respiratory capacity. The critical substrate level separating the two different metabolic pathways is generally not well defined. Monitoring of this kind of cultures, going from model identification to state estimation, is first discussed. Then, a review of control techniques which all aim at maximizing the cell productivity of fed-batch fermentations is presented. Two main adaptive control strategies, one using an estimation of the critical substrate level as set-point and another regulating the by-product concentration, are proposed. Finally, experimental investigations of an adaptive RST control scheme using the observer polynomial for the regulation of the ethanol concentration in Saccharomyces cerevisiae fed-batch cultures ranging from laboratory to industrial scales, are also presented.

  9. Nonlinear impulsive system of fed-batch culture in fermentative production and its properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao Caixia; Li Kezan; Feng Enmin; Xiu Zhilong

    2006-01-01

    In this study, the nonlinear dynamical system of fed-batch fermentation is investigated in the process of bio-dissimilation of glycerol to 1,3-propanediol by Klebsiella pneumoniae. Considering the abrupt increase of glycerol in fed-batch culture, this paper proposes a nonlinear impulsive system of the culture process, which is fit for formulating the factual fermentation better than the continuous models in being. We study the questions of existence and properties of mild solutions for the system and the continuous dependence of solutions on initial values and the controllable variable. Finally, the numerical simulations show that the errors between experimental and computational values using the impulsive system are less than those using the previous continuous system

  10. Simulation of Feedforward-Feedback Control of Dissolved Oxygen of Microbial Repeated Fed-batch Culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ling Gao

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Fed-batch culture is often used in industry, and dissolved oxygen (DO concentration control is important in fermentation process control. DO control is often applied by using feedback (FB control strategy. But, feedforward-feedback (FF-FB control has the advantage in dealing with the time-varying characteristics resulted from the cell growth during the fermentation process. Mathematical modeling and computer simulation is a useful tool in analysis of the control system.  In this research, the FF-FB DO control and FB substrate control of repeated fed-batch culture process is modeled and simulated. The results showed the feasibility of the control strategy. These results are useful for control system development and process analyses and optimization.

  11. Beware batch culture: Seasonality and niche construction predicted to favor bacterial adaptive diversification.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles Rocabert

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Metabolic cross-feeding interactions between microbial strains are common in nature, and emerge during evolution experiments in the laboratory, even in homogeneous environments providing a single carbon source. In sympatry, when the environment is well-mixed, the reasons why emerging cross-feeding interactions may sometimes become stable and lead to monophyletic genotypic clusters occupying specific niches, named ecotypes, remain unclear. As an alternative to evolution experiments in the laboratory, we developed Evo2Sim, a multi-scale model of in silico experimental evolution, equipped with the whole tool case of experimental setups, competition assays, phylogenetic analysis, and, most importantly, allowing for evolvable ecological interactions. Digital organisms with an evolvable genome structure encoding an evolvable metabolic network evolved for tens of thousands of generations in environments mimicking the dynamics of real controlled environments, including chemostat or batch culture providing a single limiting resource. We show here that the evolution of stable cross-feeding interactions requires seasonal batch conditions. In this case, adaptive diversification events result in two stably co-existing ecotypes, with one feeding on the primary resource and the other on by-products. We show that the regularity of serial transfers is essential for the maintenance of the polymorphism, as it allows for at least two stable seasons and thus two temporal niches. A first season is externally generated by the transfer into fresh medium, while a second one is internally generated by niche construction as the provided nutrient is replaced by secreted by-products derived from bacterial growth. In chemostat conditions, even if cross-feeding interactions emerge, they are not stable on the long-term because fitter mutants eventually invade the whole population. We also show that the long-term evolution of the two stable ecotypes leads to character

  12. Batch culture of Azotobacter vinelandii under oxygen limitation conditionS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Camacho Rubio, F.; Martinez Nieto, L.; Fernandez Serrano, M.; Jimenez Moleon, M.C. [Departamento de Ingenieria Quimica, Universidad de Granada, Granada (Spain)

    1996-12-01

    The batch culture of Azotobacter vinealandii on glucose under nitrogen-fixing conditions, seeking oxygen limitation conditions, has been studied in order to use it as a Biological Test System for the experimental study of oxygen transfer enhancement methods in aerobic fermenters. overall kinetic parameters for exponential growth and for linear growth (under oxygen limitation) have been determined. It was noted an appreciable influence of the oxygen transfer rate on glucose and oxygen uptake, which seems to be due to alginate production, excreted as a nitrogenase protection mechanisms. (Author) 12 refs.

  13. Identifiability study of the proteins degradation model, based on ADM1, using simultaneous batch experiments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flotats, X.; Palatsi, J.; Ahring, Birgitte Kiær

    2006-01-01

    are not inhibiting the hydrolysis process. The ADM1 model adequately expressed the consecutive steps of hydrolysis and acidogenesis, with estimated kinetic values corresponding to a fast acidogenesis and slower hydrolysis. The hydrolysis was found to be the rate limiting step of anaerobic degradation. Estimation...... of yield coefficients based on the relative initial slopes of VFA profiles obtained in a simple batch experiment produced satisfactory results. From the identification study, it was concluded that it is possible to determine univocally the related kinetic parameter values for protein degradation...... if the evolution of amino acids is measured in simultaneous batch experiments, with different initial protein and amino acids concentrations....

  14. Adsorption thermal energy storage for cogeneration in industrial batch processes: Experiment, dynamic modeling and system analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schreiber, Heike; Graf, Stefan; Lanzerath, Franz; Bardow, André

    2015-01-01

    Adsorption thermal energy storage is investigated for heat supply with cogeneration in industrial batch processes. The feasibility of adsorption thermal energy storage is demonstrated with a lab-scale prototype. Based on these experiments, a dynamic model is developed and successfully calibrated to measurement data. Thereby, a reliable description of the dynamic behavior of the adsorption thermal energy storage unit is achieved. The model is used to study and benchmark the performance of adsorption thermal energy storage combined with cogeneration for batch process energy supply. As benchmark, we consider both a peak boiler and latent thermal energy storage based on a phase change material. Beer brewing is considered as an example of an industrial batch process. The study shows that adsorption thermal energy storage has the potential to increase energy efficiency significantly; primary energy consumption can be reduced by up to 25%. However, successful integration of adsorption thermal storage requires appropriate integration of low grade heat: Preferentially, low grade heat is available at times of discharging and in demand when charging the storage unit. Thus, adsorption thermal energy storage is most beneficial if applied to a batch process with heat demands on several temperature levels. - Highlights: • A highly efficient energy supply for industrial batch processes is presented. • Adsorption thermal energy storage (TES) is analyzed in experiment and simulation. • Adsorption TES can outperform both peak boilers and latent TES. • Performance of adsorption TES strongly depends on low grade heat temperature.

  15. Time-dependent radiation characteristics of Nannochloropsis oculata during batch culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heng, Ri-Liang; Pilon, Laurent

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports the temporal evolution of the scattering and absorbing cross-sections of marine eustigmatophycease Nannochloropsis oculata grown in a flat-plate photobioreactor (PBR). The PBR was operated in batch mode under constant irradiance of 7500 or 10,000 lux provided by red LEDs emitting at 630 nm. The radiation characteristics between 400 and 750 nm and pigment concentrations of N. oculata were measured systematically every 24 h for up to 18 days. They were found to vary significantly with time in response to changes in light and nutrients availability. The results were interpreted in terms of up- and down-regulations of pigments and other intracellular components. Finally, this study demonstrates that the light transfer in the PBR could be predicted using constant radiation characteristics measured during the exponential growth phase with reasonable accuracy provided that the cultures were not nitrogen limited. During nitrogen starvation, pigment concentrations decreased and radiation characteristics evolved rapidly. These results will be useful in the design and operation of PBRs for biofuel production at both small and large scales. - Highlights: • N. oculata cultures were grown in batch mode under two different irradiances. • Temporal evolution of their absorption and scattering cross-sections was reported. • The effects of photoacclimation and nitrogen starvation were quantified. • Results were interpreted in terms of regulation of cell constituents

  16. Concentrated fed-batch cell culture increases manufacturing capacity without additional volumetric capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, William C; Minkler, Daniel F; Kshirsagar, Rashmi; Ryll, Thomas; Huang, Yao-Ming

    2016-01-10

    Biomanufacturing factories of the future are transitioning from large, single-product facilities toward smaller, multi-product, flexible facilities. Flexible capacity allows companies to adapt to ever-changing pipeline and market demands. Concentrated fed-batch (CFB) cell culture enables flexible manufacturing capacity with limited volumetric capacity; it intensifies cell culture titers such that the output of a smaller facility can rival that of a larger facility. We tested this hypothesis at bench scale by developing a feeding strategy for CFB and applying it to two cell lines. CFB improved cell line A output by 105% and cell line B output by 70% compared to traditional fed-batch (TFB) processes. CFB did not greatly change cell line A product quality, but it improved cell line B charge heterogeneity, suggesting that CFB has both process and product quality benefits. We projected CFB output gains in the context of a 2000-L small-scale facility, but the output was lower than that of a 15,000-L large-scale TFB facility. CFB's high cell mass also complicated operations, eroded volumetric productivity, and showed our current processes require significant improvements in specific productivity in order to realize their full potential and savings in manufacturing. Thus, improving specific productivity can resolve CFB's cost, scale-up, and operability challenges. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Photosynthetic light reactions increase total lipid accumulation in carbon-supplemented batch cultures of Chlorella vulgaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodworth, Benjamin D; Mead, Rebecca L; Nichols, Courtney N; Kolling, Derrick R J

    2015-03-01

    Microalgae are an attractive biofuel feedstock because of their high lipid to biomass ratios, lipid compositions that are suitable for biodiesel production, and the ability to grow on varied carbon sources. While algae can grow autotrophically, supplying an exogenous carbon source can increase growth rates and allow heterotrophic growth in the absence of light. Time course analyses of dextrose-supplemented Chlorella vulgaris batch cultures demonstrate that light availability directly influences growth rate, chlorophyll production, and total lipid accumulation. Parallel photomixotrophic and heterotrophic cultures grown to stationary phase reached the same amount of biomass, but total lipid content was higher for algae grown in the presence of light (an average of 1.90 mg/mL vs. 0.77 mg/mL over 5 days of stationary phase growth). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Variability of Biological Degradation of Aromatic Hydrocarbons in an Aerobic Aquifer Determined by Laboratory Batch Experiments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Per Henning; Christensen, Thomas Højlund

    1994-01-01

    The biological aerobic degradation of 7 aromatic hydrocarbons (benzene, toluene, o-xylene, p-dichlorobenzene, o-dichlorobenzene, naphthalene and biphenyl) was studied for 149 days in replicate laboratory batch experiments with groundwater and sediment from 8 localities representing a 15 m × 30 m...

  19. Uptake of selenate on hydrated and degraded cement: batch and dynamic experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rojo, I.; Rovira, I.; Marti, V.; Pablo, J. de; Duro, L.; Gaona, X.; Colas, E.; Grive, M.

    2009-01-01

    The evaluation of selenate sorption and retardation in batch and dynamic experiments on hydrated and degraded cement has been studied. Desorption studies have also been carried in order to assess the reversibility of the sorption process. Sorption data onto degraded cement have been treated assuming the formation of surface complexes, whereas sorption kinetics has been fitted by using a pseudo-first order kinetic equation. Dynamic flow experiments have also been modelled. (authors)

  20. The mechanism of improved pullulan production by nitrogen limitation in batch culture of Aureobasidium pullulans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dahui; Chen, Feifei; Wei, Gongyuan; Jiang, Min; Dong, Mingsheng

    2015-08-20

    Batch culture of Aureobasidium pullulans CCTCC M 2012259 for pullulan production at different concentrations of ammonium sulfate and yeast extract was investigated. Increased pullulan production was obtained under nitrogen-limiting conditions, as compared to that without nitrogen limitation. The mechanism of nitrogen limitation favoring to pullulan overproduction was revealed by determining the activity as well as gene expression of key enzymes, and energy supply for pullulan biosynthesis. Results indicated that nitrogen limitation increased the activities of α-phosphoglucose mutase and glucosyltransferase, up-regulated the transcriptional levels of pgm1 and fks genes, and supplied more ATP intracellularly, which were propitious to further pullulan biosynthesis. The economic analysis of batch pullulan production indicated that nitrogen limitation could reduce more than one third of the cost of raw materials when glucose was supplemented to a total concentration of 70 g/L. This study also helps to understand the mechanism of other polysaccharide overproduction by nitrogen limitation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Macroscopic Dynamic Modeling of Sequential Batch Cultures of Hybridoma Cells: An Experimental Validation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurent Dewasme

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Hybridoma cells are commonly grown for the production of monoclonal antibodies (MAb. For monitoring and control purposes of the bioreactors, dynamic models of the cultures are required. However these models are difficult to infer from the usually limited amount of available experimental data and do not focus on target protein production optimization. This paper explores an experimental case study where hybridoma cells are grown in a sequential batch reactor. The simplest macroscopic reaction scheme translating the data is first derived using a maximum likelihood principal component analysis. Subsequently, nonlinear least-squares estimation is used to determine the kinetic laws. The resulting dynamic model reproduces quite satisfactorily the experimental data, as evidenced in direct and cross-validation tests. Furthermore, model predictions can also be used to predict optimal medium renewal time and composition.

  2. Effect of chito-oligosaccharides over human faecal microbiota during fermentation in batch cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mateos-Aparicio, Inmaculada; Mengíbar, Marian; Heras, Angeles

    2016-02-10

    Chitosan with high number of deacetylated units, its reacetylated derivative and COS obtained through an enzymatic treatment with chitosanase were tested in pH controlled batch cultures to investigate the ability of the human faecal microbiota to utilise them. Chitosan derivatives with high number of deacetylated units decreased the bacterial populations: Bifidobacterium spp., Eubacterium rectale/Clostridium coccoides, C. Histolyticum and Bacteroides/Prevotella. On the other hand, chitosan derivatives with high content of acetylated residues maintained the tested bacterial groups and could increase Lactobacillus/Enterococcus. Regarding short chain fatty acids (SCFA), only low Mw COS increased the production in similar levels than fructo-oligossacharides (FOS). The acetylated chitosans and their COS do not appear as potential prebiotics but did not affect negatively the faecal microbiota, while derivatives with high number of deacetylated units could induce a colonic microbiota imbalance. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Perfusion cell culture decreases process and product heterogeneity in a head-to-head comparison with fed-batch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walther, Jason; Lu, Jiuyi; Hollenbach, Myles; Yu, Marcella; Hwang, Chris; McLarty, Jean; Brower, Kevin

    2018-05-30

    In this study, we compared the impacts of fed-batch and perfusion platforms on process and product attributes for IgG1- and IgG4-producing cell lines. A "plug-and-play" approach was applied to both platforms at bench scale, using commercially available basal and feed media, a standard feed strategy for fed-batch, and ATF filtration for perfusion. Product concentration in fed-batch was 2.5 times greater than perfusion, while average productivity in perfusion was 7.5 times greater than fed-batch. PCA revealed more variability in the cell environment and metabolism during the fed-batch run. LDH measurements showed that exposure of product to cell lysate was 7-10 times greater in fed-batch. Product analysis shows larger abundances of neutral species in perfusion, likely due to decreased bioreactor residence times and extracellular exposure. The IgG1 perfusion product also had higher purity and lower half-antibody. Glycosylation was similar across both culture modes. The first perfusion harvest slice for both product types showed different glycosylation than subsequent harvests, suggesting that product quality lags behind metabolism. In conclusion, process and product data indicate that intra-lot heterogeneity is decreased in perfusion cultures. Additional data and discussion is required to understand the developmental, clinical and commercial implications, and in what situations increased uniformity would be beneficial. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  4. Amino acid and glucose metabolism in fed-batch CHO cell culture affects antibody production and glycosylation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fan, Yuzhou; Jimenez Del Val, Ioscani; Müller, Christian

    2015-01-01

    optimization, especially media optimization. Gaining knowledge on their interrelations could provide insight for obtaining higher immunoglobulin G (IgG) titer and better controlling glycosylationrelated product quality. In this work, different fed-batch processes with two chemically defined proprietary media......Fed-batch Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cell culture is the most commonly used process for IgG production in the biopharmaceutical industry. Amino acid and glucose consumption, cell growth, metabolism, antibody titer, and N-glycosylation patterns are always the major concerns during upstream process...... and glutamine concentrations and uptake rates were positively correlated with intracellular UDP-Gal availability. All these findings are important for optimization of fed-batch culture for improving IgG production and directing glycosylation quality....

  5. Fed-batch culture for the direct conversion of cellulosic substrates to acetic acid/ethanol by Fusarium oxysporum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, P.K.R.; Singh, A.; Schuegerl, K. (Hannover Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Technische Chemie)

    1991-01-01

    The production of acetic acid/ethanol and hydrolytic enzymes from potato waste (cellulosic waste from potato starch industries) by Fusarium oxysporum 841 was improved considerably by using fed-batch culture. In this, two types of feed policies were adopted consisting of different substrate concentrations and feeding times. In fed-batch culture, the enzymes tested, namely avicelase, CMCase, cellobiase and xylanase, showed significant improvements over batch fermentations with regard to enzyme titres and productivities. The maximum concentration, yield and productivity of acetic acid were 22.5 g litre{sup -1}, 0.38 g (g {sub strate}){sup -1} and 0.09 g litre{sup -1} h{sup -1}, respectively, and these values for ethanol were 5.7 g litre{sup -1}, 0.1 g (g substrate){sup -1} and 0.03 g litre{sup -1}h{sup -1}, respectively. (author).

  6. Acid protease and formation of multiple forms of glucoamylase in batch and continuous cultures of Aspergillus niger

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aalbæk, Thomas; Reeslev, Morten; Jensen, Bo

    2002-01-01

    with molecular weights of approx. 91 (GAI), 73 (GAII), and 59 kDa (GAIII). Data from batch fermentations with constant pH 3.0 and 5.0 showed a uniform distribution of extracellular GA forms throughout the fermentations and independent of culture growth phases. Furthermore, steady-state data from chemostat...

  7. Degradation of toluene and trichloroethylene by Burkholderia cepacia G4 in growth-limited fed-batch culture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mars, Astrid E.; Houwing, Joukje; Dolfing, Jan; Janssen, Dick B.

    Burkholderia (Pseudomonas) cepacia G4 was cultivated in a fed-batch bioreactor on either toluene or toluene plus trichloroethylene (TCE), The culture was allowed to reach a constant cell density under conditions in which the amount of toluene supplied equals the maintenance energy demand of the

  8. Optimization of culture conditions for biological hydrogen production by Citrobacter freundii CWBI952 in batch, sequenced-batch and semicontinuous operating mode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamilton, Christopher; Hiligsmann, Serge; Beckers, Laurent; Masset, Julien; Thonart, Philippe [Walloon Centre of Industrial Biology, Bd du Rectorat, 29, B.40 - P.70, B-4000 Liege (Belgium); Wilmotte, Annick [Center for Protein Engineering, Institute of Chemistry, B.6-P.14, B-4000 Liege (Belgium)

    2010-02-15

    Investigations were carried out to determine the effect of the pH, the nitrogen source, iron and the dilution rate (h{sup -1}) on fermentative hydrogen production from glucose by the newly isolated strain Citrobacter freundii CWBI952. The hydrogen production rate (HPR), hydrogen yield, biomass and soluble metabolites were monitored at 30 C in 100 mL serum bottles and in a 2.3 L bioreactor operated in batch, sequenced-batch and semicontinuous mode. The results indicate that hydrogen production activity, formate biosynthesis and glucose intake rates are very sensitive to the culture pH, and that additional formate bioconversion and production of hydrogen with lower biomass yields can be obtained at pH 5.9. In a further series of cultures casein peptone was replaced by (NH{sub 4}){sub 2}SO{sub 4}, a low cost alternative nitrogen source. The ammonia-based substitute was found to be suitable for H{sub 2} production when a concentration of 0.045 g/L FeSO{sub 4} was provided. Optimal overall performances (ca. an HPR of 33.2 mL H{sub 2}/L h and a yield of 0.83mol{sub H{sub 2}}/mol{sub glucose}) were obtained in the semicontinuous culture applying the previously optimized parameters for pH, nitrogen, and iron with a dilution rate of 0.012 h{sup -1} and degassing of biogas by N{sub 2} at a 28 mL/min flow rate. (author)

  9. Improved productivity of poly (3-hydroxybutyrate) (PHB) in thermophilic Chelatococcus daeguensis TAD1 using glycerol as the growth substrate in a fed-batch culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Bin; Huang, Shaobin; Xu, Fuqian; Zhang, Ruijian; Zhang, Yongqing

    2015-07-01

    A particularly successful polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) in industrial applications is poly (3-hydroxybutyrate) (PHB). However, one of the major obstacles for wider application of PHB is the cost of its production and purification. Therefore, it is desirable to discover a method for producing PHB in large quantities at a competitive price. Glycerol is a cheap and widely used carbon source that can be applied in PHB production process. There are numerous advantages to operating fermentation at elevated temperatures; only several thermophilic bacteria are able to accumulate PHB when glycerol is the growth substrate. Here, we report on the possibility of increasing PHB production at low cost using thermophilic Chelatococcus daeguensis TAD1 when glycerol is the growth substrate in a fed-batch culture. We found that (1) excess glycerol inhibited PHB accumulation and (2) organic nitrogen sources, such as tryptone and yeast extract, promoted the growth of C. daeguensis TAD1. In the batch fermentation experiments, we found that using glycerol at low concentrations as the sole carbon source, along with the addition of mixed nitrate (NH4Cl, tryptone, and yeast extract), stimulated PHB accumulation in C. daeguensis TAD1. The results showed that the PHB productivity decreased in the following order: two-stage fed-batch fermentation > fed-batch fermentation > batch fermentation. In optimized culture conditions, a PHB amount of 17.4 g l(-1) was obtained using a two-stage feeding regimen, leading to a productivity rate of 0.434 g l(-1) h(-1), which is the highest productivity rate reported for PHB to date. This high PHB biosynthetic productivity could decrease the total production cost, allowing for further development of industrial applications of PHB.

  10. The use of date waste for lactic acid production by a fed-batch culture using Lactobacillus casei subsp. rhamnosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nancib, Aicha; Nancib, Nabil; Boubendir, Abdelhafid; Boudrant, Joseph

    2015-01-01

    The production of lactic acid from date juice by Lactobacillus caseisubsp. rhamnosus in batch and fed-batch cultures has been investigated. The fed-batch culture system gave better results for lactic acid production and volumetric productivity. The aim of this work is to determine the effects of the feeding rate and the concentration of the feeding medium containing date juice glucose on the cell growth, the consumption of glucose and the lactic acid production by Lactobacillus casei subsp. rhamnosus in fed-batch cultures. For this study, two concentrations of the feeding medium (62 and 100 g/L of date juice glucose) were tested at different feeding rates (18, 22, 33, 75 and 150 mL/h). The highest volumetric productivity (1.3 g/L.h) and lactic acid yield (1.7 g/g) were obtained at a feeding rate of 33 mL/h and a date juice glucose concentration of 62 g/L in the feeding medium. As a result, most of the date juice glucose was completely utilised (residual glucose 1 g/L), and a maximum lactic acid production level (89.2 g/L) was obtained.

  11. [Virus adsorption from batch experiments as influenced by air-water interface].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hui; Zhao, Bing-zi; Zhang, Jia-bao; Zhang, Cong-zhi; Wang, Qiu-ying; Chen, Ji

    2007-12-01

    The presence of air-water interface in batch sorption experiments may result in inaccurate estimation of virus adsorption onto various soils. A batch sorption experiment was conducted to compare the adsorption results of MS2 in different soils under presence/absence of air-water interface. Soils with sterilization/nonterilization treatment were used. Virus recovery efficiency in a blank experiment (no soil) was also evaluated as affected by different amount of air-water interface. The presence of air-water interface altered the results of virus adsorption in different soils with different extent, with Sandy fluvo-aquic soil being the most considerably affected, followed by Red loam soil, and the least being Red clay soil, probably because of different soil properties associated with virus adsorption/inactivation. Soil sterilization resulted in more significant difference of virus adsorption onto the Sandy fluvo-aquic soil between the presence and absence of air-water interface, while a reduced difference was observed in the Red loam soil. The presence of air-water interface significantly decreased virus recovery efficiency, with the values being decreased with increase in the amount of air-water interface. Soil particles likely prohibit viruses from reaching the air-water interface or alter the forces at the solid-water-air interface so that the results from the blank experiment did not truly represent results from control blank, which probably resulted in adsorption difference between presence and absence of the air-water interface.

  12. Sorption of phosphate onto calcite; results from batch experiments and surface complexation modeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sø, Helle Ugilt; Postma, Dieke; Jakobsen, Rasmus

    2011-01-01

    The adsorption of phosphate onto calcite was studied in a series of batch experiments. To avoid the precipitation of phosphate-containing minerals the experiments were conducted using a short reaction time (3h) and low concentrations of phosphate (⩽50μM). Sorption of phosphate on calcite was stud......The adsorption of phosphate onto calcite was studied in a series of batch experiments. To avoid the precipitation of phosphate-containing minerals the experiments were conducted using a short reaction time (3h) and low concentrations of phosphate (⩽50μM). Sorption of phosphate on calcite...... of a high degree of super-saturation with respect to hydroxyapatite (SIHAP⩽7.83). The amount of phosphate adsorbed varied with the solution composition, in particular, adsorption increases as the CO32- activity decreases (at constant pH) and as pH increases (at constant CO32- activity). The primary effect...... of ionic strength on phosphate sorption onto calcite is its influence on the activity of the different aqueous phosphate species. The experimental results were modeled satisfactorily using the constant capacitance model with >CaPO4Ca0 and either >CaHPO4Ca+ or >CaHPO4- as the adsorbed surface species...

  13. Changes of in vivo fluxes through central metabolic pathways during the production of nystatin by Streptomyces noursei in batch culture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jonsbu, E.; Christensen, Bjarke; Nielsen, Jens

    2001-01-01

    The central carbon metabolism of the nystatin-producing strain Streptomyces noursei ATCC 11455 was evaluated by C-13-labelling experiments. A batch fermentation was examined during the idiophase by GC-MS measurements of the labelling patterns of amino acids in the biomass. The labelling patterns...

  14. Aquifer recharge with reclaimed water in the Llobregat Delta. Laboratory batch experiments and field test site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobella, J.

    2010-05-01

    Summary Spain, as most other Mediterranean countries, faces near future water shortages, generalized pollution and loss of water dependent ecosystems. Aquifer recharge represents a promising option to become a source for indirect potable reuse purposes but presence of pathogens as well as organic and inorganic pollutants should be avoided. To this end, understanding the processes of biogeochemical degradation occurring within the aquifer during infiltration is capital. A set of laboratory batch experiments has been assembled in order to assess the behaviour of selected pesticides, drugs, estrogens, surfactant degradation products, biocides and phthalates under different redox conditions. Data collected during laboratory experiments and monitoring activities at the Sant Vicenç dels Horts test site will be used to build and calibrate a numerical model (i) of the physical-chemical-biochemical processes occurring in the batches and (ii) of multicomponent reactive transport in the unsaturated/saturated zone at the test site. Keywords Aquifer recharge, batch experiments, emerging micropollutants, infiltration, numerical model, reclaimed water, redox conditions, Soil Aquifer Treatment (SAT). 1. Introduction In Spain, the Llobregat River and aquifers, which supply water to Barcelona, have been overexploited for years and therefore, suffer from serious damages: the river dries up on summer, riparian vegetation has disappeared and seawater has intruded the aquifer. In a global context, solutions to water stress problems are urgently needed yet must be sustainable, economical and safe. Recent developments of analytical techniques detect the presence of the so-called "emerging" organic micropollutants in water and soils. Such compounds may affect living organisms when occurring in the environment at very low concentrations (microg/l or ng/l). In wastewater and drinking water treatment plants, a remarkable removal of these chemicals from water can be obtained only using

  15. Plutonium-239 sorption and transport on/in unsaturated sediments. Comparison of batch and column experiments for determining sorption coefficients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jinchuan Xie; Jiachun Lu; Xiaohua Zhou; Xuhui Wang; Mei Li; Lili Du; Yueheng Liu; Guoqing Zhou

    2013-01-01

    Sorption (distribution) coefficients of plutonium were most often derived by static batch experiments. However, it is not clear how unsaturated flow conditions including moisture content and pore water velocity change the sorption coefficients. Transport experiments of plutonium through the unsaturated sediments packed into the columns were then performed in order to determine the sorption coefficients (column-K ds ). Static batch experiments were also conducted to obtain batch-K ds and then compare the differences between batch-K ds and column-K ds . The results show that unsaturated flow conditions had no significant effect on column-K ds , and the average column-K d value was 1.74 ± 0.02 m 3 /kg. By comparison, batch-K d values spanned several orders of magnitude, regardless of the specified liquid-solid conditions. Moreover, the batch-K d (22.7 m 3 /kg) at the standard L/S (4 mL/g) recommended by ASTM D 4319 was over an order of magnitude larger than the average column-K d . (author)

  16. Supercritical Water Gasification of Biomass in a Ceramic Reactor: Long-Time Batch Experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele Castello

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Supercritical water gasification (SCWG is an emerging technology for the valorization of (wet biomass into a valuable fuel gas composed of hydrogen and/or methane. The harsh temperature and pressure conditions involved in SCWG (T > 375 °C, p > 22 MPa are definitely a challenge for the manufacturing of the reactors. Metal surfaces are indeed subject to corrosion under hydrothermal conditions, and expensive special alloys are needed to overcome such drawbacks. A ceramic reactor could be a potential solution to this issue. Finding a suitable material is, however, complex because the catalytic effect of the material can influence the gas yield and composition. In this work, a research reactor featuring an internal alumina inlay was utilized to conduct long-time (16 h batch tests with real biomasses and model compounds. The same experiments were also conducted in batch reactors made of stainless steel and Inconel 625. The results show that the three devices have similar performance patterns in terms of gas production, although in the ceramic reactor higher yields of C2+ hydrocarbons were obtained. The SEM observation of the reacted alumina surface revealed a good resistance of such material to supercritical conditions, even though some intergranular corrosion was observed.

  17. Acid protease and formation of multiple forms of glycoamylase in batch and continuous cultures of Aspergillus niger

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aalbæk, Thomas; Reeslev, Morten; Jensen, Bo

    2002-01-01

    In order to identify factors responsible for production of multiple forms of glucoamylase (GA) by Aspergillus niger Bo-1, the fungus was cultured in both complex and defined media in pH-controlled batch fermenters and chemostats. At all culture conditions three forms of GA were produced...... degradation of the GA forms at low pH. It was concluded that the observed modifications of the extracellular profile of GA isoforms in A. niger Bo-1 are due to changes in pH and medium composition....

  18. Uranium sorption from aqueous solutions by activated biochar fibres investigated by FTIR spectroscopy and batch experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loukia Hadjittofi; Ioannis Pashalidis

    2015-01-01

    The efficiency of activated biochar fibres obtained from Opuntia ficus indica regarding the sorption of hexavalent uranium (U(VI)) from aqueous solutions has been investigated by batch experiments, as a function of various physicochemical parameters, and FTIR spectroscopy prior and after U(VI) sorption. The experimental results show that the activated biochar fibres possess extraordinary sorption capacity for U(VI) even in acidic solutions (q max = 210 g kg -1 ), which is attributed to the formation of inner-sphere complexes with the surface carboxylic moieties, available in high density on the lamellar structures of the bio-sorbent. The adsorption process is described by a two-step exothermic reaction. (author)

  19. UO2 corrosion in high surface-area-to-volume batch experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bates, J. K.; Finch, R. J.; Hanchar, J. M.; Wolf, S. F.

    1997-01-01

    Unsaturated drip tests have been used to investigate the alteration of unirradiated UO 2 and spent UO 2 fuel in an unsaturated environment such as may be expected in the proposed repository at Yucca Mountain. In these tests, simulated groundwater is periodically injected onto a sample at 90 C in a steel vessel. The solids react with the dripping groundwater and water condensed on surfaces to form a suite of U(VI) alteration phases. Solution chemistry is determined from leachate at the bottom of each vessel after the leachate stops interacting with the solids. A more detailed knowledge of the compositional evolution of the leachate is desirable. By providing just enough water to maintain a thin film of water on a small quantity of fuel in batch experiments, we can more closely monitor the compositional changes to the water as it reacts to form alteration phases

  20. Modeling growth, lipid accumulation and lipid turnover in submerged batch cultures of Umbelopsis isabellina

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meeuwse, P.; Akbari, P.; Tramper, J.; Rinzema, A.

    2012-01-01

    The production of lipids by oleaginous yeast and fungi becomes more important because these lipids can be used for biodiesel production. To understand the process of lipid production better, we developed a model for growth, lipid production and lipid turnover in submerged batch fermentation. This

  1. Magnesium Uptake by the Green Microalga Chlorella vulgaris in Batch Cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Amor-Ben Ayed, Hela; Taidi, Behnam; Ayadi, Habib; Pareau, Dominique; Stambouli, Moncef

    2016-03-01

    The accumulation (internal and superficial distribution) of magnesium ions (Mg(2+)) by the green freshwater microalga Chlorella vulgaris (C. vulgaris) was investigated under autotrophic culture in a stirred photobioreactor. The concentrations of the three forms of Mg(2+) (dissolved, extracellular, and intracellular) were determined with atomic absorption spectroscopy during the course of C. vulgaris growth. The proportions of adsorbed (extracellular) and absorbed (intracellular) Mg(2+) were quantified. The concentration of the most important pigment in algal cells, chlorophyll a, increased over time in proportion to the increase in the biomass concentration, indicating a constant chlorophyll/biomass ratio during the linear growth phase. The mean-average rate of Mg(2+) uptake by C. vulgaris grown in a culture medium starting with 16 mg/l of Mg(2+) concentration was measured. A clear relationship between the biomass concentration and the proportion of the Mg(2+) removal from the medium was observed. Of the total Mg(2+) present in the culture medium, 18% was adsorbed on the cell wall and 51% was absorbed by the biomass by the end of the experiment (765 h). Overall, 69% of the initial Mg(2+) were found to be removed from the medium. This study supported the kinetic model based on a reversible first-order reaction for Mg(2+) bioaccumulation in C. vulgaris, which was consistent with the experimental data.

  2. Articulating cultures: socio-cultural experiences of black female ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Articulating cultures: socio-cultural experiences of black female immigrant students in South African schools 1. ... Gender and Behaviour ... and worrisome issue is that of the erosion of the social and cultural mores of Black3 immigrant students.

  3. Amino acid and glucose metabolism in fed-batch CHO cell culture affects antibody production and glycosylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Yuzhou; Jimenez Del Val, Ioscani; Müller, Christian; Wagtberg Sen, Jette; Rasmussen, Søren Kofoed; Kontoravdi, Cleo; Weilguny, Dietmar; Andersen, Mikael Rørdam

    2015-03-01

    Fed-batch Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cell culture is the most commonly used process for IgG production in the biopharmaceutical industry. Amino acid and glucose consumption, cell growth, metabolism, antibody titer, and N-glycosylation patterns are always the major concerns during upstream process optimization, especially media optimization. Gaining knowledge on their interrelations could provide insight for obtaining higher immunoglobulin G (IgG) titer and better controlling glycosylation-related product quality. In this work, different fed-batch processes with two chemically defined proprietary media and feeds were studied using two IgG-producing cell lines. Our results indicate that the balance of glucose and amino acid concentration in the culture is important for cell growth, IgG titer and N-glycosylation. Accordingly, the ideal fate of glucose and amino acids in the culture could be mainly towards energy and recombinant product, respectively. Accumulation of by-products such as NH4(+) and lactate as a consequence of unbalanced nutrient supply to cell activities inhibits cell growth. The levels of Leu and Arg in the culture, which relate to cell growth and IgG productivity, need to be well controlled. Amino acids with the highest consumption rates correlate with the most abundant amino acids present in the produced IgG, and thus require sufficient availability during culture. Case-by-case analysis is necessary for understanding the effect of media and process optimization on glycosylation. We found that in certain cases the presence of Man5 glycan can be linked to limitation of UDP-GlcNAc biosynthesis as a result of insufficient extracellular Gln. However, under different culture conditions, high Man5 levels can also result from low α-1,3-mannosyl-glycoprotein 2-β-N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase (GnTI) and UDP-GlcNAc transporter activities, which may be attributed to high level of NH4+ in the cell culture. Furthermore, galactosylation of the mAb Fc glycans

  4. The effect of organics on the sorption of cobalt by glacial sand in laboratory batch experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haigh, D.G.; Williams, G.M.; Hooker, P.J.; Ross, C.A.M.; Allen, M.R.; Warwick, P.

    1989-01-01

    Acetate, EDTA and organic compounds naturally present in groundwater at the Drigg in situ radionuclide migration experimental site, have been studied to assess their effect on the sorption of cobalt by glacial sand in a series of batch experiments. Removing 56% of the natural organic material from the grounwater with DEAE cellulose increased the distribution ratio (R d ) of cobalt by a factor of about two. EDTA had a dramatic effect on the sorption of Co even at low concentrations, reducing the R d by up to two orders of magnitude. At EDTA concentrations greater than 5 mg/l, there was no further reduction in sorption. EDTA was not itself sorbed, but formed a mobile complex with Co. Differences in distribution ratios were observed depending on whether the cobalt was added before or after EDTA. Within the same period of equilibrium, the R d values were higher when cobalt was allowed to equilibrate with the sand before adding EDTA. The desorption of cobalt from the mineral surface may be a rate-limiting step such that equilibrium was not achieved within the 14-day period of these experiments. Acetate had no effect on cobalt sorption in any of the experiments undertaken. This work is part of the Commission Mirage project, Phase 2, research area Geochemistry of actinides and fission products in natural aquifer systems

  5. Benzoate-induced stress enhances xylitol yield in aerobic fed-batch culture of Candida mogii TISTR 5892.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wannawilai, Siwaporn; Sirisansaneeyakul, Sarote; Chisti, Yusuf

    2015-01-20

    Production of the natural sweetener xylitol from xylose via the yeast Candida mogii TISTR 5892 was compared with and without the growth inhibitor sodium benzoate in the culture medium. Sodium benzoate proved to be an uncompetitive inhibitor in relatively poorly oxygenated shake flask aerobic cultures. In a better controlled aerobic environment of a bioreactor, the role of sodium benzoate could equally well be described as competitive, uncompetitive or noncompetitive inhibitor of growth. In intermittent fed-batch fermentations under highly aerobic conditions, the presence of sodium benzoate at 0.15gL(-1) clearly enhanced the xylitol titer relative to the control culture without the sodium benzoate. The final xylitol concentration and the average xylitol yield on xylose were nearly 50gL(-1) and 0.57gg(-1), respectively, in the presence of sodium benzoate. Both these values were substantially higher than reported for the same fermentation under microaerobic conditions. Therefore, a fed-batch aerobic fermentation in the presence of sodium benzoate is promising for xylitol production using C. mogii. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Modelling and properties of a nonlinear autonomous switching system in fed-batch culture of glycerol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Juan; Sun, Qingying; Feng, Enmin

    2012-11-01

    A nonlinear autonomous switching system is proposed to describe the coupled fed-batch fermentation with the pH as the feedback parameter. We prove the non-Zeno behaviors of the switching system and some basic properties of its solution, including the existence, uniqueness, boundedness and regularity. Numerical simulation is also carried out, which reveals that the proposed system can describe the factual fermentation process properly.

  7. Microbial lipid production by oleaginous yeast Cryptococcus sp. in the batch cultures using corncob hydrolysate as carbon source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Yi-Huang; Chang, Ku-Shang; Lee, Ching-Fu; Hsu, Chuan-Liang; Huang, Cheng-Wei; Jang, Hung-Der

    2015-01-01

    To realize the feasibility of biodiesel production from high-lipid cell culture, microbial lipid production by the oleaginous yeasts was studied using glucose and sucrose as carbon source. Among the tested strains, Cryptococcus sp. SM5S05 accumulated the highest levels of intracellular lipids. The crude lipid contents of Cryptococcus sp. cultured in yeast malt agar reached 30% on a dry weight basis. The accumulation of lipids strongly depended on carbon/nitrogen ratio and nitrogen concentration. The highest content of lipids, measured at a carbon/nitrogen ratio of 60–90 and at a nitrogen concentration of 0.2%, was 60–57% lipids in the dry biomass. Batch cultures using corncob hydrolysate demonstrated that there was minimal inhibitory effect with a reducing sugar concentration of 60 g l −1 or higher. Batch cultures of Cryptococcus sp. SM5S05 in the corncob hydrolysate medium with 60 g l −1 glucose resulted in a dry biomass, lipid yields, and content of 12.6 g l −1 , 7.6 g l −1 , and 60.2%, respectively. The lipids contained mainly long-chain saturated and unsaturated fatty acids with 16 and 18 carbon atoms. The fatty acid profile of Cryptococcus oils was quite similar to that of conventional vegetable oil. The cost of lipid production could be further reduced with corncob hydrolysate being utilized as the raw material for the oleaginous yeast. The results showed that the microbial lipid from Cryptococcus sp. was a potential alternative resource for biodiesel production. - Highlights: • Microbial oil production from oleaginous yeast Cryptococcus sp. was studied. • Accumulation of lipid strongly depended on C/N ratio and nitrogen concentration. • Cultures in hydrolysate medium with 60 g/l glucose resulted in maximum lipid yields. • Maximal lipid content in the Cryptococcus sp. were 60.2% on dried weight basis

  8. Competitive adsorption and selectivity sequence of heavy metals by chicken bone-derived biochar: Batch and column experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jong-Hwan; Cho, Ju-Sik; Ok, Yong Sik; Kim, Seong-Heon; Kang, Se-Won; Choi, Ik-Won; Heo, Jong-Soo; DeLaune, Ronald D; Seo, Dong-Cheol

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this research was to evaluate adsorption of heavy metals in single- and ternary-metal forms onto chicken bone biochar (CBB). Competitive sorption of heavy metals by CBB has never been reported previously. The maximum adsorption capacities of metals by CBB were in the order of Cu (130 mg g(-1)) > Cd (109 mg g(-1)) > Zn (93 mg g(-1)) in the single-metal adsorption isotherm and Cu (108 mg g(-1)) > Cd (54 mg g(-1)) ≥ Zn (44 mg g(-1)) in the ternary-metal adsorption isotherm. Cu was the most retained cation, whereas Zn could be easily exchanged and substituted by Cu. Batch experimental data best fit the Langmuir model rather than the Freundlich isotherms. In the column experiments, the total adsorbed amounts of the metals were in the following order of Cu (210 mg g(-1)) > Cd (192 mg g(-1)) > Zn (178) in single-metal conditions, and Cu (156) > Cd (123) > Zn (92) in ternary-metal conditions. Results from both the batch and column experiments indicate that competitive adsorption among metals increases the mobility of these metals. Especially, Zn in single-metal conditions lost it adsorption capacity most significantly. Based on the 3D simulation graphs of heavy metals, adsorption patterns under single adsorption condition were different than under competitive adsorption condition. Results from both the batch and column experiments show that competitive adsorption among metals increases the mobility of these metals. The maximum metal adsorption capacity of the metals in the column experiments was higher than that in the batch experiment indicating other metal retention mechanisms rather than adsorption may be involved. Therefore, both column and batch experiments are needed for estimating retention capacities and removal efficiencies of metals in CBB.

  9. Experiences of fitting isotherms to data from batch sorption experiments for radionuclides on tuffs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polzer, W.L.; Fuentes, H.R.

    1989-11-01

    Laboratory experiments have been performed on the sorption of radionuclides on tuff as site characterization information for the Yucca Mountain Project. This paper presents general observations on the results of curve-fitting of sorption data by isotherm equations and the effects of experimental variables on their regressional analysis. Observations are specific to the effectiveness and problems associated with fitting isotherms, the calculation and value of isotherm parameters, and the significance of experimental variables such as replication, particle size, mode of sorption, and mineralogy. These observations are important in the design of laboratory experiments to ensure that collected data are adequate for effectively characterizing sorption of radionuclides on tuffs or other materials. 13 refs., 2 figs., 4 tabs

  10. A multi-pronged investigation into the effect of glucose starvation and culture duration on fed-batch CHO cell culture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fan, Yuzhou; Jimenez Del Val, Ioscani; Müller, Christian

    2015-01-01

    to the interplay between the dilution effect associated with change in specific productivity of mAbs and the changed nucleotide sugar metabolism. Herein, we also show and discuss that increased cell culture duration negatively affect the maturation of glycans. In addition, comparative proteomics analysis of cells......In this study, omics-based analysis tools were used to explore the effect of glucose starvation and culture duration on monoclonal antibody (mAb) production in fed-batch CHO cell culture to gain better insight into how these parameters can be controlled to ensure optimal mAb productivity...... and quality. Titer and N-glycosylation of mAbs, as well as proteomic signature and metabolic status of the production cells in the culture were assessed. We found that the impact of glucose starvation on the titer and N-glycosylation of mAbs was dependent on the degree of starvation during early stationary...

  11. NIGHTHAWK - A Program for Modeling Saturated Batch and Column Experiments Incorporating Equilibrium and Kinetic Biogeochemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    NIGHTHAWK simulates the fate and transport of biogeochemically reactive contaminants in the saturated subsurface. Version 1.2 supports batch and one- dimensional advective-dispersive-reactive transport involving a number of biogeochemical processes, including: microbially-mediate...

  12. Are distribution coefficients measured from batch experiments meaningful for quantifying retention in compacted material?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goutelard, F.; Charles, Y.; Page, J. [CEA/DEN/DPC/SECR/L3MR batiment 450, 91191 Gif sur Yvette (France)

    2005-07-01

    Full text of publication follows: To quantify the ability of a clayey material to act as a barrier for radionuclides migration, reliable data on retention properties must be available. The most common method for determining the distribution coefficient, quantifying the radionuclide adsorption, is the batch technique applied to powdered solid. Are these data meaningful for highly compacted minerals? This question is still under debate in literature [1,2]. The aim of the present study is to compare distribution coefficient (KD) value for Cs and Ni onto compacted and dispersed for both Bentonite MX80 and Callovo-Oxfordian clayey material in a simulated site water. Firstly, classical batch sorption experiments are carried on dispersed materials pre-conditioned with the simulated site water at pH 7.3. Radiotracer {sup 137}Cs and {sup 58}Ni are used to investigate the constant-pH isotherm sorption. The bottleneck for measuring distribution coefficient onto highly compacted material lies in a careful monitoring of chemical conditions because they are driven by diffusion processes. For this study, we have chosen to use in-diffusion experiments [3]. Sample size is optimized to reach for high retention level (300 mL/g) the steady state in a reasonable time (3 to 6 month). In order to describe the response surface of compacted distribution coefficient on bentonite MX80, a 2 variables Doehlert matrix has been chosen. In this experimental design, the two variables are density and dispersed distribution coefficient. Bentonite is pre-conditioning before compaction to a density ranging from 1.2 to 1.85 kg/l. The pellet is confined in a cylindrical stainless steel filter (150 {mu}L) closed to both ends. The cell is placed in a tightly closed bottle containing the working solution. After a re-equilibration period (at least 3 weeks), {sup 133}Cs and {sup 59}Ni stable isotope are introduced for monitoring the KD level (between 150 mL/g to 330 mL/g). Radiotracer {sup 137}Cs and {sup 58

  13. Are distribution coefficients measured from batch experiments meaningful for quantifying retention in compacted material?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goutelard, F.; Charles, Y.; Page, J.

    2005-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: To quantify the ability of a clayey material to act as a barrier for radionuclides migration, reliable data on retention properties must be available. The most common method for determining the distribution coefficient, quantifying the radionuclide adsorption, is the batch technique applied to powdered solid. Are these data meaningful for highly compacted minerals? This question is still under debate in literature [1,2]. The aim of the present study is to compare distribution coefficient (KD) value for Cs and Ni onto compacted and dispersed for both Bentonite MX80 and Callovo-Oxfordian clayey material in a simulated site water. Firstly, classical batch sorption experiments are carried on dispersed materials pre-conditioned with the simulated site water at pH 7.3. Radiotracer 137 Cs and 58 Ni are used to investigate the constant-pH isotherm sorption. The bottleneck for measuring distribution coefficient onto highly compacted material lies in a careful monitoring of chemical conditions because they are driven by diffusion processes. For this study, we have chosen to use in-diffusion experiments [3]. Sample size is optimized to reach for high retention level (300 mL/g) the steady state in a reasonable time (3 to 6 month). In order to describe the response surface of compacted distribution coefficient on bentonite MX80, a 2 variables Doehlert matrix has been chosen. In this experimental design, the two variables are density and dispersed distribution coefficient. Bentonite is pre-conditioning before compaction to a density ranging from 1.2 to 1.85 kg/l. The pellet is confined in a cylindrical stainless steel filter (150 μL) closed to both ends. The cell is placed in a tightly closed bottle containing the working solution. After a re-equilibration period (at least 3 weeks), 133 Cs and 59 Ni stable isotope are introduced for monitoring the KD level (between 150 mL/g to 330 mL/g). Radiotracer 137 Cs and 58 Ni are used to quantify the

  14. Kinetics of sugars consumption and ethanol inhibition in carob pulp fermentation by Saccharomyces cerevisiae in batch and fed-batch cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima-Costa, Maria Emília; Tavares, Catarina; Raposo, Sara; Rodrigues, Brígida; Peinado, José M

    2012-05-01

    The waste materials from the carob processing industry are a potential resource for second-generation bioethanol production. These by-products are small carob kibbles with a high content of soluble sugars (45-50%). Batch and fed-batch Saccharomyces cerevisiae fermentations of high density sugar from carob pods were analyzed in terms of the kinetics of sugars consumption and ethanol inhibition. In all the batch runs, 90-95% of the total sugar was consumed and transformed into ethanol with a yield close to the theoretical maximum (0.47-0.50 g/g), and a final ethanol concentration of 100-110 g/l. In fed-batch runs, fresh carob extract was added when glucose had been consumed. This addition and the subsequent decrease of ethanol concentrations by dilution increased the final ethanol production up to 130 g/l. It seems that invertase activity and yeast tolerance to ethanol are the main factors to be controlled in carob fermentations. The efficiency of highly concentrated carob fermentation makes it a very promising process for use in a second-generation ethanol biorefinery.

  15. Efficacy of a commercial probiotic relative to oxytetracycline as Gram-negative bacterial control agents in a rotifer (Brachionus plicatilis) batch culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Two trials were conducted to evaluate two gram-negative bacterial control strategies in batch cultures of the rotifer Brachionus plicatilis. In the first trial, rotifers at an initial density of 47/mL were cultured for 5 d and dosed with a 10-mg/L solution of either oxytetracycline or a commercial p...

  16. Dynamic flux balance modeling of microbial co-cultures for efficient batch fermentation of glucose and xylose mixtures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanly, Timothy J; Henson, Michael A

    2011-02-01

    Sequential uptake of pentose and hexose sugars that compose lignocellulosic biomass limits the ability of pure microbial cultures to efficiently produce value-added bioproducts. In this work, we used dynamic flux balance modeling to examine the capability of mixed cultures of substrate-selective microbes to improve the utilization of glucose/xylose mixtures and to convert these mixed substrates into products. Co-culture simulations of Escherichia coli strains ALS1008 and ZSC113, engineered for glucose and xylose only uptake respectively, indicated that improvements in batch substrate consumption observed in previous experimental studies resulted primarily from an increase in ZSC113 xylose uptake relative to wild-type E. coli. The E. coli strain ZSC113 engineered for the elimination of glucose uptake was computationally co-cultured with wild-type Saccharomyces cerevisiae, which can only metabolize glucose, to determine if the co-culture was capable of enhanced ethanol production compared to pure cultures of wild-type E. coli and the S. cerevisiae strain RWB218 engineered for combined glucose and xylose uptake. Under the simplifying assumption that both microbes grow optimally under common environmental conditions, optimization of the strain inoculum and the aerobic to anaerobic switching time produced an almost twofold increase in ethanol productivity over the pure cultures. To examine the effect of reduced strain growth rates at non-optimal pH and temperature values, a break even analysis was performed to determine possible reductions in individual strain substrate uptake rates that resulted in the same predicted ethanol productivity as the best pure culture. © 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Advanced control of dissolved oxygen concentration in fed batch cultures during recombinant protein production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuprijanov, A; Gnoth, S; Simutis, R; Lübbert, A

    2009-02-01

    Design and experimental validation of advanced pO(2) controllers for fermentation processes operated in the fed-batch mode are described. In most situations, the presented controllers are able to keep the pO(2) in fermentations for recombinant protein productions exactly on the desired value. The controllers are based on the gain-scheduling approach to parameter-adaptive proportional-integral controllers. In order to cope with the most often appearing distortions, the basic gain-scheduling feedback controller was complemented with a feedforward control component. This feedforward/feedback controller significantly improved pO(2) control. By means of numerical simulations, the controller behavior was tested and its parameters were determined. Validation runs were performed with three Escherichia coli strains producing different recombinant proteins. It is finally shown that the new controller leads to significant improvements in the signal-to-noise ratio of other key process variables and, thus, to a higher process quality.

  18. Development of a chemically defined platform fed-batch culture media for monoclonal antibody-producing CHO cell lines with optimized choline content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuwae, Shinobu; Miyakawa, Ichiko; Doi, Tomohiro

    2018-01-11

    A chemically defined platform basal medium and feed media were developed using a single Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cell line that produces a monoclonal antibody (mAb). Cell line A, which showed a peak viable cell density of 5.9 × 10 6  cells/mL and a final mAb titer of 0.5 g/L in batch culture, was selected for the platform media development. Stoichiometrically balanced feed media were developed using glucose as an indicator of cell metabolism to determine the feed rates of all other nutrients. A fed-batch culture of cell line A using the platform fed-batch medium yielded a 6.4 g/L mAb titer, which was 12-fold higher than that of the batch culture. To examine the applicability of the platform basal medium and feed media, three other cell lines (A16, B, and C) that produce mAbs were cultured using the platform fed-batch medium, and they yielded mAb titers of 8.4, 3.3, and 6.2 g/L, respectively. The peak viable cell densities of the three cell lines ranged from 1.3 × 10 7 to 1.8 × 10 7  cells/mL. These results show that the nutritionally balanced fed-batch medium and feeds worked well for other cell lines. During the medium development, we found that choline limitation caused a lower cell viability, a lower mAb titer, a higher mAb aggregate content, and a higher mannose-5 content. The optimal choline chloride to glucose ratio for the CHO cell fed-batch culture was determined. Our platform basal medium and feed media will shorten the medium-development time for mAb-producing cell lines.

  19. Multivariate statistical process control (MSPC) using Raman spectroscopy for in-line culture cell monitoring considering time-varying batches synchronized with correlation optimized warping (COW).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ya-Juan; André, Silvère; Saint Cristau, Lydia; Lagresle, Sylvain; Hannas, Zahia; Calvosa, Éric; Devos, Olivier; Duponchel, Ludovic

    2017-02-01

    Multivariate statistical process control (MSPC) is increasingly popular as the challenge provided by large multivariate datasets from analytical instruments such as Raman spectroscopy for the monitoring of complex cell cultures in the biopharmaceutical industry. However, Raman spectroscopy for in-line monitoring often produces unsynchronized data sets, resulting in time-varying batches. Moreover, unsynchronized data sets are common for cell culture monitoring because spectroscopic measurements are generally recorded in an alternate way, with more than one optical probe parallelly connecting to the same spectrometer. Synchronized batches are prerequisite for the application of multivariate analysis such as multi-way principal component analysis (MPCA) for the MSPC monitoring. Correlation optimized warping (COW) is a popular method for data alignment with satisfactory performance; however, it has never been applied to synchronize acquisition time of spectroscopic datasets in MSPC application before. In this paper we propose, for the first time, to use the method of COW to synchronize batches with varying durations analyzed with Raman spectroscopy. In a second step, we developed MPCA models at different time intervals based on the normal operation condition (NOC) batches synchronized by COW. New batches are finally projected considering the corresponding MPCA model. We monitored the evolution of the batches using two multivariate control charts based on Hotelling's T 2 and Q. As illustrated with results, the MSPC model was able to identify abnormal operation condition including contaminated batches which is of prime importance in cell culture monitoring We proved that Raman-based MSPC monitoring can be used to diagnose batches deviating from the normal condition, with higher efficacy than traditional diagnosis, which would save time and money in the biopharmaceutical industry. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Strategies for Solving Potential Problems Associated with Laboratory Diffusion and Batch Experiments - Part 1: An Overview of Conventional Test Methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, M.; Takeda, M.; Nakajima, H.

    2006-01-01

    Laboratory diffusion testing as well as batch experiments are well established and widely adopted techniques for characterizing the diffusive and adsorptive properties of geological, geotechnical, and synthetic materials in both scientific and applied fields, including geological disposal of radioactive waste. Although several types of diffusion test, such as the through- diffusion test, in-diffusion test, out-diffusion test, and column test, are currently available, different methods may have different advantages and disadvantages. In addition, traditional methods may have limitations, such as the need for relatively long test times, cumbersome test procedures, and the possibility of errors due to differences between analytical assumptions and actual test conditions. Furthermore, traditional batch experiments using mineral powders are known to overestimate the sorption coefficient. In part 1 of this report, we present a brief overview of laboratory diffusion and batch experiments. The advantages, disadvantages, limitations, and/or potential problems associated with individual tests were compared and summarized. This comprehensive report will provide practical references for reviewing the results obtained from relevant experiments, especially from the viewpoint of regulation. To solve and/or eliminate the potential problems associated with conventional methods, and to obtain the diffusion coefficient and rock capacity factor from a laboratory test both rapidly and accurately, part 2 of this study discusses possible strategies involving the development of rigorous solutions to some relevant test methods, and sensitivity analyses for the related tests that may be helpful to judge the accuracy of the two parameters to be determined from individual tests. (authors)

  1. Production of Medium Chain Length Polyhydroxyalkanoates From Oleic Acid Using Pseudomonas putida PGA1 by Fed Batch Culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sidik Marsudi

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Bacterial polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs are a class of p0lymers currently receiving much attention because of their potential as renewable and biodegradable plastics. A wide variety of bacteria has been reported to produce PHAs including Pseudomonas strains. These strains are known as versatile medium chain length PHAs (PHAs-mcl producers using fatty acids as carbon source. Oleic acid was used to produce PHAs-mcl using Pseudomonas putida PGA 1 by continuous feeding of both nitrogen and carbon source, in a fed batch culture. During cell growth, PHAs also accumulated, indicating that PHA production in this organism is growth associated. Residual cell increased until the nitrogen source was depleted. At the end of fermentation, final cell concentration, PHA content, and roductivity were 30.2 g/L, 44.8 % of cell dry weight, and 0.188 g/l/h, respectively.

  2. Anaerobic co-digestion of waste activated sludge and greasy sludge from flotation process: Batch versus CSTR experiments to investigate optimal design

    OpenAIRE

    Girault , R.; Bridoux , G.; Nauleau , F.; Poullain , C.; Buffet , J.; Peu , P.; Sadowski , A.G.; Béline , F.

    2012-01-01

    In this study, the maximum ratio of greasy sluvdge to incorporate with waste activated sludge was investigated in batch and CSTR experiments. In batch experiments, inhibition occurred with a greasy sludge ratio of more than 20-30% of the feed COD. In CSTR experiments, the optimal greasy sludge ratio was 60% of the feed COD and inhibition occurred above a ratio of 80%. Hence, batch experiments can predict the CSTR yield when the degradation phenomenon are additive but cannot be used to determi...

  3. Acquisition of data from on-line laser turbidimeter and calculation of some kinetic variables in computer-coupled automated fed-batch culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kadotani, Y.; Miyamoto, K.; Mishima, N.; Kominami, M.; Yamane, T.

    1995-01-01

    Output signals of a commercially available on-line laser turbidimeter exhibit fluctuations due to air and/or CO 2 bubbles. A simple data processing algorithm and a personal computer software have been developed to smooth the noisy turbidity data acquired, and to utilize them for the on-line calculations of some kinetic variables involved in batch and fed-batch cultures of uniformly dispersed microorganisms. With this software, about 10 3 instantaneous turbidity data acquired over 55 s are averaged and convert it to dry cell concentration, X, every minute. Also, volume of the culture broth, V, is estimated from the averaged output data of weight loss of feed solution reservoir, W, using an electronic balance on which the reservoir is placed. Then, the computer software is used to perform linear regression analyses over the past 30 min of the total biomass, VX, the natural logarithm of the total biomass, ln(VX), and the weight loss, W, in order to calculate volumetric growth rate, d(VX)/dt, specific growth rate, μ [ = dln(VX)/dt] and the rate of W, dW/dt, every minute in a fed-batch culture. The software used to perform the first-order regression analyses of VX, ln(VX) and W was applied to batch or fed-batch cultures of Escherichia coli on minimum synthetic or natural complex media. Sample determination coefficients of the three different variables (VX, ln(VX) and W) were close to unity, indicating that the calculations are accurate. Furthermore, growth yield, Y x/s , and specific substrate consumption rate, q sc , were approximately estimated from the data, dW/dt and in a ‘balanced’ fed-batch culture of E. coli on the minimum synthetic medium where the computer-aided substrate-feeding system automatically matches well with the cell growth. (author)

  4. LIPID PRODUCTION BY DUNALIELLA SALINA IN BATCH CULTURE: EFFECTS OF NITROGEN LIMITATION AND LIGHT INTENSITY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weldy, C.S.; Huesemann, M.

    2007-01-01

    Atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) concentrations are increasing and may cause unknown deleterious environmental effects if left unchecked. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) has predicted in its latest report a 2°C to 4°C increase in global temperatures even with the strictest CO2 mitigation practices. Global warming can be attributed in large part to the burning of carbon-based fossil fuels, as the concentration of atmospheric CO2 is directly related to the burning of fossil fuels. Biofuels which do not add CO2 to the atmosphere are presently generated primarily from terrestrial plants, i.e., ethanol from corn grain and biodiesel from soybean oil. The production of biofuels from terrestrial plants is severely limited by the availability of fertile land. Lipid production from microalgae and its corresponding biodiesel production have been studied since the late 1970s but large scale production has remained economically infeasible due to the large costs of sterile growing conditions required for many algal species. This study focuses on the potential of the halophilic microalgae species Dunaliella salina as a source of lipids and subsequent biodiesel production. The lipid production rates under high light and low light as well as nitrogen suffi cient and nitrogen defi cient culture conditions were compared for D. salina cultured in replicate photobioreactors. The results show (a) cellular lipid content ranging from 16 to 44% (wt), (b) a maximum culture lipid concentration of 450mg lipid/L, and (c) a maximum integrated lipid production rate of 46mg lipid/L culture*day. The high amount of lipids produced suggests that D. salina, which can be mass-cultured in non-sterile outdoor ponds, has strong potential to be an economically valuable source for renewable oil and biodiesel production.

  5. Batch experiments of Cs, Co and Eu sorption onto cement with dissolved fibre mass UP2 in the liquid phase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holgersson, Stellan; Dubois, Isabelle; Boerstell, Lisa

    2011-05-01

    The potential effects of alkaline degradation products of the fibre mass UP2 on metal sorption onto fresh and degraded cement have been investigated. For this purpose, crushed cement have been leached to support material for the subsequent batch sorption experiments. Alkaline leaching of UP2 were also made, which gave leaching solutions of 30 ppm DOC after 300 days. These solutions were used in the batch experiments. Continued leaching shows that even higher concentrations can be expected: 45 ppm DOC in the leaching with a low-alkaline (pH 12.5) artificial cement pore-water and 150 ppm DOC with a high alkaline (pH 13.3) artificial pore-water. Batch sorption experiments with 134 Cs and 60 Co show no effects on metal sorption onto leached or fresh cement when the 30 ppm DOC leaching solutions of UP2 were used as liquid phase. The measured R d values were 10 -3 m 3 /kg for Cs and in the range of 0.03-0.1 m 3 /kg for Co. Separate experiments with other organics ligands were also made: EDTA, ISA and citric acid with maximum concentrations of 500, 300 and 300 ppm DOC, respectively. Also here no effects on Cs and Co sorption onto leached and fresh cement were established. Batch experiments of 152 Eu were not successful since results were above detection level of about 2-3 m 3 /kg. The addition of the aforementioned 30 ppm UP2 leaching solution or the other organic ligands did not affect the detection level. Measurements of background concentrations of total Eu show a peculiar result of Eu apparently increasing in batch experiments with cement to final values of about 5-10 nM. The underlying reason for this effect, whether real or artificial, could not be established. Background concentrations of Th were about 1 nM in both cement and blank samples. Background concentrations of Zr were about 100-700 nM in both cement and blank samples, the high values were measured acidic blanks, which suggests either acidic leaching from tube walls or contamination from the acid itself. No

  6. Batch experiments of Cs, Co and Eu sorption onto cement with dissolved fibre mass UP2 in the liquid phase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holgersson, Stellan; Dubois, Isabelle; Boerstell, Lisa (Department of Chemical and Biochemical Engineering, Nuclear Chemistry, Chalmers University of Technology (Sweden))

    2011-05-15

    The potential effects of alkaline degradation products of the fibre mass UP2 on metal sorption onto fresh and degraded cement have been investigated. For this purpose, crushed cement have been leached to support material for the subsequent batch sorption experiments. Alkaline leaching of UP2 were also made, which gave leaching solutions of 30 ppm DOC after 300 days. These solutions were used in the batch experiments. Continued leaching shows that even higher concentrations can be expected: 45 ppm DOC in the leaching with a low-alkaline (pH 12.5) artificial cement pore-water and 150 ppm DOC with a high alkaline (pH 13.3) artificial pore-water. Batch sorption experiments with 134Cs and 60Co show no effects on metal sorption onto leached or fresh cement when the 30 ppm DOC leaching solutions of UP2 were used as liquid phase. The measured R{sub d} values were 10-3 m3/kg for Cs and in the range of 0.03-0.1 m3/kg for Co. Separate experiments with other organics ligands were also made: EDTA, ISA and citric acid with maximum concentrations of 500, 300 and 300 ppm DOC, respectively. Also here no effects on Cs and Co sorption onto leached and fresh cement were established. Batch experiments of 152Eu were not successful since results were above detection level of about 2-3 m3/kg. The addition of the aforementioned 30 ppm UP2 leaching solution or the other organic ligands did not affect the detection level. Measurements of background concentrations of total Eu show a peculiar result of Eu apparently increasing in batch experiments with cement to final values of about 5-10 nM. The underlying reason for this effect, whether real or artificial, could not be established. Background concentrations of Th were about 1 nM in both cement and blank samples. Background concentrations of Zr were about 100-700 nM in both cement and blank samples, the high values were measured acidic blanks, which suggests either acidic leaching from tube walls or contamination from the acid itself. No

  7. ON-LINE MONITORING OF BIOMASS CONCENTRATION BASED ON A CAPACITANCE SENSOR: ASSESSING THE METHODOLOGY FOR DIFFERENT BACTERIA AND YEAST HIGH CELL DENSITY FED-BATCH CULTURES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. C. L. Horta

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The performance of an in-situ capacitance sensor for on-line monitoring of biomass concentration was evaluated for some of the most important microorganisms in the biotechnology industry: Escherichia coli, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Pichia pastoris and Bacillus megaterium. A total of 33 batch and fed-batch cultures were carried out in a bench-scale bioreactor and biomass formation trends were followed by dielectric measurements during the growth phase as well as the induction phase, for 5 recombinant E. coli strains. Permittivity measurements and viable cellular concentrations presented a linear correlation for all the studied conditions. In addition, the permittivity signal was further used for inference of the cellular growth rate. The estimated specific growth rates mirrored the main trends of the metabolic states of the different cells and they can be further used for setting-up control strategies in fed-batch cultures.

  8. Effect of glutamic acid on copper sorption onto kaolinite. Batch experiments and surface complexation modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karimzadeh, Lotfallah; Barthen, Robert; Gruendig, Marion; Franke, Karsten; Lippmann-Pipke, Johanna [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf e.V., Dresden (Germany). Reactive Transport; Stockmann, Madlen [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf e.V., Dresden (Germany). Surface Processes

    2017-06-01

    In this work, we study the mobility behavior of Cu(II) under conditions related to an alternative, neutrophile biohydrometallurgical Cu(II) leaching approach. Sorption of copper onto kaolinite influenced by glutamic acid (Glu) was investigated in the presence of 0.01 M NaClO{sub 4} by means of binary and ternary batch adsorption measurements over a pH range of 4 to 9 and surface complexation modeling.

  9. Effect of glutamic acid on copper sorption onto kaolinite. Batch experiments and surface complexation modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karimzadeh, Lotfallah; Barthen, Robert; Gruendig, Marion; Franke, Karsten; Lippmann-Pipke, Johanna; Stockmann, Madlen

    2017-01-01

    In this work, we study the mobility behavior of Cu(II) under conditions related to an alternative, neutrophile biohydrometallurgical Cu(II) leaching approach. Sorption of copper onto kaolinite influenced by glutamic acid (Glu) was investigated in the presence of 0.01 M NaClO_4 by means of binary and ternary batch adsorption measurements over a pH range of 4 to 9 and surface complexation modeling.

  10. Experiences in assessing safety culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spitalnik, J.

    2002-01-01

    Based on several Safety Culture self-assessment applications in nuclear organisations, the paper stresses relevant aspects to be considered when programming an assessment of this type. Reasons for assessing Safety Culture, basic principles to take into account, necessary resources, the importance of proper statistical analyses, the feed-back of results, and the setting up of action plans to enhance Safety Culture are discussed. (author)

  11. [Optimization of cultural condition of genetic engineering strain for antibiotic peptide adenoregulin and research on its fed-batch cultivation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yu-Xun; Cao, Wei; Wei, Dong-Zhi; Luo, Qing-Ping; Wang, Jin-Zhi

    2005-07-01

    33 amino acid antibiotic peptide adenoregulin (ADR), which were firstly isolated from the skin of South America arboreal frog Phyllomedusa bicolor, forms alpha-helix amphipathic structure in apolar medium and has a wide spectrum of antimicrobial activity and high potency of lytic ability. Adr gene was cloned in pET32a and transformed into Escherichia coli BL21(DE3) . The cultural and inductive conditions of E. coli BL21(DE3)/pET32a-adr have been optimized. The effect of three factors which were time point of induction, concentration of IPTG in the culture and time of induction on the expression level of Trx-ADR was investigated. The results indicated that the expression level was affected by the time point of induction most predominantly. 9 veriaties of media in which BL21 (DE3)/pET32a-adr was cultured and induced were tested to achieve high expression level of target protein. It was found that glucose in the medium played an important role in keeping stable and high expression level of Trx-ADR. The optimal inductive condition is as follows: the culture medium is 2 x YT + 0.5% glucose, the time point of induction is OD600 = 0.9, the final concentration of IPTG in the culture is 0.1 mmol/L and the induction time is 4 h. BL21 (DE3)/pET32a-adr was cultivated according to the strategy of constant pH at early stage and exponential feeding at later stage to obtain high cell density. During the entire fed-batch phase, by controlling the feeding of glucose, the specific growth rate of the culture was controlled at about 0.15 h(-1), the accumulation of acetic acid was controlled at low level (<2 g/L), but the plasmid stability could not be maintained well. At the end of the cultivation, 40% of the bacteria in the culture lost their plasmids. As a result, the expression level of the target protein declined dramatically, but 90% of Trx-ADR was in soluble form. The expressed fusion protein showed no antibacterial activity, while the native form of ADR lysed from Trx-ADR showed

  12. CHANGES IN CHLOROPHYLL A FLOURESCENCE AND PIGMENT RATIOS DURING DIFFERENT GROWTH PHASES OF A UNICELLULAR MARINE CHAETOCEROS (BACILLAROPHYCEAE) IN BATCH CULTURE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Interpretations of chlorophyll a fluorescence data are based largely on application with green algae and higher plants. This study evaluated the interpretation of fluorescence data for a unicellular marine diatom. Chaetoceros sp. was grown in 4-liter batch cultures on a 16:8, L:D...

  13. Spring batch essentials

    CERN Document Server

    Rao, P Raja Malleswara

    2015-01-01

    If you are a Java developer with basic knowledge of Spring and some experience in the development of enterprise applications, and want to learn about batch application development in detail, then this book is ideal for you. This book will be perfect as your next step towards building simple yet powerful batch applications on a Java-based platform.

  14. Production of functional killer protein in batch cultures upon a shift from aerobic to anaerobic conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gildo Almeida da Silva

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to study the production of functional protein in yeast culture. The cells of Saccharomyces cerevisiae Embrapa 1B (K+R+ killed a strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae Embrapa 26B (K-R-in grape must and YEPD media. The lethal effect of toxin-containing supernatant and the effect of aeration upon functional killer production and the correlation between the products of anaerobic metabolism and the functional toxin formation were evaluated. The results showed that at low sugar concentration, the toxin of the killer strain of Sacch. cerevisiae was only produced under anaerobic conditions . The system of killer protein production showed to be regulated by Pasteur and Crabtree effects. As soon as the ethanol was formed, the functional killer toxin was produced. The synthesis of the active killer toxin seemed to be somewhat associated with the switch to fermentation process and with concomitant alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH activity.

  15. Culture experiments on conductive polymers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onoda, Mitsuyoshi

    2012-01-01

    Fibroblast L929 and myoblast C2C12 cells of the mouse connective tissue origin were sown on the surface of conductive polymer films (polypyrrole, PPy and poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene), PEDOT) in the cell culture medium, and the proliferative process of these cells was observed. Without changing the form, fibroblast L929 and myoblast C2C12 cells were observed to proliferate almost similarly to the cell which cultured on a dish on the market and to maintain compatibility. In other word, it has been understood these two kinds of conductive polymers used in this study, the PEDOT films maintain the secretion function of the cell cultured on the surface of these polymers. Therefore, the PPy- and the PEDOT-coated electrode suggested the possibility usable as a nerve stimulation electrode with biocompatibility, because these polymers were effective to culture the cell.

  16. Variability of Biological Degradation of Phenolic Hydrocarbons in an Aerobic Aquifer Determined by Laboratory Batch Experiments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Per Henning; Christensen, Thomas Højlund

    1994-01-01

    The biological aerobic degradation of 7 phenolic hydrocarbons (phenol, o-cresol, o-nitrophenol, p-nitrophenol, 2,6-dichlorophenol, 2,4-dichlorophenol, 4,6-o-dichlorocresol) and 1 aromatic hydrocarbon (nitrobenzene) was studied for 149 days in replicate laboratory batch microcosms with sediment...... and groundwater from 8 localities representing a 15 m × 30 m section of an aerobic aquifer. Three patterns of variation were found: (1) phenol, o-cresol and in most cases p-nitrophenol showed very fast degradation with no or only short lag phases and with very little variation among localities; (2) 2...

  17. Hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) expression in plant cell culture: Kinetics of antigen accumulation in batch culture and its intracellular form.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Mark L; Mason, Hugh S; Shuler, Michael L

    2002-12-30

    The production of edible vaccines in transgenic plants and plant cell culture may be improved through a better understanding of antigen processing and assembly. The hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) was chosen for study because it undergoes substantial and complex post-translational modifications, which are necessary for its immunogenicity. This antigen was expressed in soybean (Glycine max L. Merr. cv Williams 82) and tobacco NT1 (Nicotiana tabacum L.) cell suspension cultures, and HBsAg production in batch culture was characterized. The plant-derived antigen consisted predominantly of disulfide cross-linked HBsAg protein (p24(s)) dimers, which were all membrane associated. Similar to yeast, the plant-expressed HBsAg was retained intracellularly. The maximal HBsAg titers were obtained with soybean suspension cultures (20-22 mg/L) with titers in tobacco cultures being approximately 10-fold lower. For soybean cells, electron microscopy and immunolocalization demonstrated that all the HBsAg was localized to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and provoked dilation and proliferation of the ER network. Sucrose gradient analysis of crude extracts showed that HBsAg had a complex size distribution uncharacteristic of the antigen's normal structure of uniform 22-nm virus-like particles. The extent of authentic epitope formation was assessed by comparing total p24(s) synthesized to that reactive by polyclonal and monoclonal immunoassays. Depending on culture age, between 40% and 100% of total p24(s) was polyclonal antibody reactive whereas between 6% and 37% was recognized by a commercial monoclonal antibody assay. Possible strategies to increase HBsAg production and improve post-translational processing are discussed. Copyright 2002 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Experience on HTCondor batch system for HEP and other research fields at KISTI-GSDC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, S. U.; Jaikar, A.; Kong, B.; Yeo, I.; Bae, S.; Kim, J.

    2017-10-01

    Global Science experimental Data hub Center (GSDC) at Korea Institute of Science and Technology Information (KISTI) located at Daejeon in South Korea is the unique datacenter in the country which helps with its computing resources fundamental research fields dealing with the large-scale of data. For historical reason, it has run Torque batch system while recently it starts running HTCondor for new systems. Having different kinds of batch systems implies inefficiency in terms of resource management and utilization. We conducted a research on resource management with HTCondor for several user scenarios corresponding to the user environments that currently GSDC supports. A recent research on the resource usage patterns at GSDC is considered in this research to build the possible user scenarios. Checkpointing and Super-Collector model of HTCondor give us more efficient and flexible way to manage resources and Grid Gate provided by HTCondor helps to interface with the Grid environment. In this paper, the overview on the essential features of HTCondor exploited in this work is described and the practical examples for HTCondor cluster configuration in our cases are presented.

  19. Calcium transcriptionally regulates the biofilm machinery of Xylella fastidiosa to promote continued biofilm development in batch cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Jennifer K; Chen, Hongyu; McCarty, Sara E; Liu, Lawrence Y; De La Fuente, Leonardo

    2016-05-01

    The functions of calcium (Ca) in bacteria are less characterized than in eukaryotes, where its role has been studied extensively. The plant-pathogenic bacterium Xylella fastidiosa has several virulence features that are enhanced by increased Ca concentrations, including biofilm formation. However, the specific mechanisms driving modulation of this feature are unclear. Characterization of biofilm formation over time showed that 4 mM Ca supplementation produced denser biofilms that were still developing at 96 h, while biofilm in non-supplemented media had reached the dispersal stage by 72 h. To identify changes in global gene expression in X. fastidiosa grown in supplemental Ca, RNA-Seq of batch culture biofilm cells was conducted at three 24-h time intervals. Results indicate that a variety of genes are differentially expressed in response to Ca, including genes related to attachment, motility, exopolysaccharide synthesis, biofilm formation, peptidoglycan synthesis, regulatory functions, iron homeostasis, and phages. Collectively, results demonstrate that Ca supplementation induces a transcriptional response that promotes continued biofilm development, while biofilm cells in nonsupplemented media are driven towards dispersion of cells from the biofilm structure. These results have important implications for disease progression in planta, where xylem sap is the source of Ca and other nutrients for X. fastidiosa. © 2016 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Genetic Algorithmic Optimization of PHB Production by a Mixed Culture in an Optimally Dispersed Fed-batch Bioreactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pratap R. Patnaik

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Poly-β-hydroxybutyrate (PHB is an energy-storage polymer whose properties are similar to those of chemical polymers such as polyethylene and polypropylene. Moreover, PHB is biodegradable, absorbed by human tissues and less energy-consuming than synthetic polymers. Although Ralstonia eutropha is widely used to synthesize PHB, it is inefficient in utilizing glucose and similar sugars. Therefore a co-culture of R. eutropha and Lactobacillus delbrueckii is preferred since the latter can convert glucose to lactate, which R. eutropha can metabolize easily. Tohyama et al. [24] maximized PHB production in a well-mixed fed-batch bioreactor with glucose and (NH42SO4 as the primary substrates. Since production-scale bioreactors often deviate from ideal laboratory-scale reactors, a large bioreactor was simulated by means of a dispersion model with the kinetics determined by Tohyama et al. [24] and dispersion set at an optimum Peclet number of 20 [32]. The time-dependent feed rates of the two substrates were determined through a genetic algorithm (GA to maximize PHB production. This bioreactor produced 22.2% more PHB per liter and 12.8% more cell mass than achieved by Tohyama et al. [24]. These results, and similar observations with other fermentations, indicate the feasibility of enhancing the efficiency of large nonideal bioreactors through GA optimizations.

  1. In vitro rumen feed degradability assessed with DaisyII and batch culture: effect of sample size

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Schiavon

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In vitro degradability with DaisyII (D equipment is commonly performed with 0.5g of feed sample into each filter bag. Literature reported that a reduction of the ratio of sample size to bag surface could facilitate the release of soluble or fine particulate. A reduction of sample size to 0.25 g could improve the correlation between the measurements provided by D and the conventional batch culture (BC. This hypothesis was screened by analysing the results of 2 trials. In trial 1, 7 feeds were incubated for 48h with rumen fluid (3 runs x 4 replications both with D (0.5g/bag and BC; the regressions between the mean values provided for the various feeds in each run by the 2 methods either for NDF (NDFd and in vitro true DM (IVTDMD degradability, had R2 of 0.75 and 0.92 and RSD of 10.9 and 4.8%, respectively. In trial 2, 4 feeds were incubated (2 runs x 8 replications with D (0.25 g/bag and BC; the corresponding regressions for NDFd and IVTDMD showed R2 of 0.94 and 0.98 and RSD of 3.0 and 1.3%, respectively. A sample size of 0.25 g improved the precision of the measurements obtained with D.

  2. Combined data preprocessing and multivariate statistical analysis characterizes fed-batch culture of mouse hybridoma cells for rational medium design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selvarasu, Suresh; Kim, Do Yun; Karimi, Iftekhar A; Lee, Dong-Yup

    2010-10-01

    We present an integrated framework for characterizing fed-batch cultures of mouse hybridoma cells producing monoclonal antibody (mAb). This framework systematically combines data preprocessing, elemental balancing and statistical analysis technique. Initially, specific rates of cell growth, glucose/amino acid consumptions and mAb/metabolite productions were calculated via curve fitting using logistic equations, with subsequent elemental balancing of the preprocessed data indicating the presence of experimental measurement errors. Multivariate statistical analysis was then employed to understand physiological characteristics of the cellular system. The results from principal component analysis (PCA) revealed three major clusters of amino acids with similar trends in their consumption profiles: (i) arginine, threonine and serine, (ii) glycine, tyrosine, phenylalanine, methionine, histidine and asparagine, and (iii) lysine, valine and isoleucine. Further analysis using partial least square (PLS) regression identified key amino acids which were positively or negatively correlated with the cell growth, mAb production and the generation of lactate and ammonia. Based on these results, the optimal concentrations of key amino acids in the feed medium can be inferred, potentially leading to an increase in cell viability and productivity, as well as a decrease in toxic waste production. The study demonstrated how the current methodological framework using multivariate statistical analysis techniques can serve as a potential tool for deriving rational medium design strategies. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Induction of secondary metabolism of Aspergillus terreus ATCC 20542 in the batch bioreactor cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boruta, Tomasz; Bizukojc, Marcin

    2016-04-01

    Cultivation of Aspergillus terreus ATCC 20542 in a stirred tank bioreactor was performed to induce the biosynthesis of secondary metabolites and provide the bioprocess-related insights into the metabolic capabilities of the investigated strain. The activation of biosynthetic routes was attempted by the diversification of process conditions and growth media. Several strategies were tested, including the addition of rapeseed oil or inulin, changing the concentration of nitrogen source, reduction of chlorine supply, cultivation under saline conditions, and using various aeration schemes. Fifteen secondary metabolites were identified in the course of the study by using ultra-high performance liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry, namely mevinolinic acid, 4a,5-dihydromevinolinic acid, 3α-hydroxy-3,5-dihydromonacolin L acid, terrein, aspulvinone E, dihydroisoflavipucine, (+)-geodin, (+)-bisdechlorogeodin, (+)-erdin, asterric acid, butyrolactone I, desmethylsulochrin, questin, sulochrin, and demethylasterric acid. The study also presents the collection of mass spectra that can serve as a resource for future experiments. The growth in a salt-rich environment turned out to be strongly inhibitory for secondary metabolism and the formation of dense and compact pellets was observed. Generally, the addition of inulin, reducing the oxygen supply, and increasing the content of nitrogen source did not enhance the production of examined molecules. The most successful strategy involved the addition of rapeseed oil to the chlorine-deficient medium. Under these conditions, the highest levels of butyrolactone I, asterric acid, and mevinolinic acid were achieved and the presence of desmethylsulochrin and (+)-bisdechlorogeodin was detected in the broth. The constant and relatively high aeration rate in the idiophase was shown to be beneficial for terrein and (+)-geodin biosynthesis.

  4. Metabolic Control in Mammalian Fed-Batch Cell Cultures for Reduced Lactic Acid Accumulation and Improved Process Robustness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viktor Konakovsky

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Biomass and cell-specific metabolic rates usually change dynamically over time, making the “feed according to need” strategy difficult to realize in a commercial fed-batch process. We here demonstrate a novel feeding strategy which is designed to hold a particular metabolic state in a fed-batch process by adaptive feeding in real time. The feed rate is calculated with a transferable biomass model based on capacitance, which changes the nutrient flow stoichiometrically in real time. A limited glucose environment was used to confine the cell in a particular metabolic state. In order to cope with uncertainty, two strategies were tested to change the adaptive feed rate and prevent starvation while in limitation: (i inline pH and online glucose concentration measurement or (ii inline pH alone, which was shown to be sufficient for the problem statement. In this contribution, we achieved metabolic control within a defined target range. The direct benefit was two-fold: the lactic acid profile was improved and pH could be kept stable. Multivariate Data Analysis (MVDA has shown that pH influenced lactic acid production or consumption in historical data sets. We demonstrate that a low pH (around 6.8 is not required for our strategy, as glucose availability is already limiting the flux. On the contrary, we boosted glycolytic flux in glucose limitation by setting the pH to 7.4. This new approach led to a yield of lactic acid/glucose (Y L/G around zero for the whole process time and high titers in our labs. We hypothesize that a higher carbon flux, resulting from a higher pH, may lead to more cells which produce more product. The relevance of this work aims at feeding mammalian cell cultures safely in limitation with a desired metabolic flux range. This resulted in extremely stable, low glucose levels, very robust pH profiles without acid/base interventions and a metabolic state in which lactic acid was consumed instead of being produced from day 1. With

  5. Influence of temperature on the geochemistry of Callovo-Oxfordian argillite: batch experiments and modelling at 80 deg. C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gailhanou, H.; Tournassat, C.; Laperche, V.; Grangeon, S.; Blanc, P.; Marty, N.; Crouzet, C.; Henry, B.; Gaucher, E.C.; Greneche, J.M.; Kars, M.; Made, B.; Altmann, S.

    2012-01-01

    Document available in extended abstract form only. A repository of high-level nuclear wastes in the Callovo-Oxfordian (COx) clay rock will lead to a temporary increase in temperature locally around the disposal cells, up to about 80 C. Thermally induced modifications of the pore-water chemistry of the clay rock must be assessed since the pore water chemistry can affect the rates of corrosion of metallic materials used in the disposal facility. The chemistry of COx pore water has been studied at ambient temperature (∼ 25 C) using modelling approaches constrained by parameter values measured on core samples and by measurements of pore water collected by means of specially designed in-situ experiments. In particular, the predictive model from Gaucher et al. (2009) reproduces the measured, in situ pore-water composition without any estimated parameters. In the present study, carried out as part of a collaborative BRGM/Andra research program, the results of long-term batch experiments performed at 80 C, are compared with compositions predicted using a model based on the one developed for 25 C. Batch experiments Two batch experiments have been performed with COx rock samples in contact with synthetic water, for respectively 6 and 20 months. The experiments were prepared at 25 C under anoxic atmosphere in closed reactors, with solution compositions close to the pore water composition. Afterwards, each system was heated at 80 C. During the experiments, measurements of PCO 2 were carried out as this parameter is considered as an indicator of the reactivity of this carbonate-dominated system. At the end of the experiments, the suspension was filtered at 0.1 μm at 80 C, under anoxic atmosphere. The pH was also measured at 80 C. Major cations (Ca, Mg, K, Na, Sr) and anions (notably Cl, SO 4 ), TIC and minor and trace elements (notably Si, Al, Fe, Zn, Pb) were analysed. Concerning the solids, some minor changes were detected in the mineralogy between initial and final solids

  6. Stochastic models to study the impact of mixing on a fed-batch culture of Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delvigne, F; Lejeune, A; Destain, J; Thonart, P

    2006-01-01

    The mechanisms of interaction between microorganisms and their environment in a stirred bioreactor can be modeled by a stochastic approach. The procedure comprises two submodels: a classical stochastic model for the microbial cell circulation and a Markov chain model for the concentration gradient calculus. The advantage lies in the fact that the core of each submodel, i.e., the transition matrix (which contains the probabilities to shift from a perfectly mixed compartment to another in the bioreactor representation), is identical for the two cases. That means that both the particle circulation and fluid mixing process can be analyzed by use of the same modeling basis. This assumption has been validated by performing inert tracer (NaCl) and stained yeast cells dispersion experiments that have shown good agreement with simulation results. The stochastic model has been used to define a characteristic concentration profile experienced by the microorganisms during a fermentation test performed in a scale-down reactor. The concentration profiles obtained in this way can explain the scale-down effect in the case of a Saccharomyces cerevisiae fed-batch process. The simulation results are analyzed in order to give some explanations about the effect of the substrate fluctuation dynamics on S. cerevisiae.

  7. Efficiency of biological activator formulated material (BAFM) for volatile organic compounds removal--preliminary batch culture tests with activated sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corre, Charline; Couriol, Catherine; Amrane, Abdeltif; Dumont, Eric; Andrès, Yves; Le Cloirec, Pierre

    2012-01-01

    During biological degradation, such as biofiltration of air loaded with volatile organic compounds, the pollutant is passed through a bed packed with a solid medium acting as a biofilm support. To improve microorganism nutritional equilibrium and hence to enhance the purification capacities, a Biological Activator Formulated Material (BAFM) was developed, which is a mixture of solid nutrients dissolving slowly in a liquid phase. This solid was previously validated on mineral pollutants: ammonia and hydrogen sulphide. To evaluate the efficiency of such a material for biodegradation of some organic compounds, a simple experiment using an activated sludge batch reactor was carried out. The pollutants (sodium benzoate, phenol, p-nitrophenol and 2-4-dichlorophenol) were in the concentration range 100 to 1200 mg L(-1). The positive impact of the formulated material was shown. The improvement of the degradation rates was in the range 10-30%. This was the consequence of the low dissolution of the nutrients incorporated during material formulation, followed by their consumption by the biomass, as shown for urea used as a nitrogen source. Owing to its twofold interest (mechanical resistance and nutritional supplementation), the Biological Activator Formulated Material seems to be a promising material. Its addition to organic or inorganic supports should be investigated to confirm its relevance for implementation in biofilters.

  8. High level expression of Glomerella cingulata cutinase in dense cultures of Pichia pastoris grown under fed-batch conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seman, W M K Wan; Bakar, S A; Bukhari, N A; Gaspar, S M; Othman, R; Nathan, S; Mahadi, N M; Jahim, J; Murad, A M A; Bakar, F D Abu

    2014-08-20

    A Pichia pastoris transformant carrying the cutinase cDNA of Glomerella cingulata was over-expressed in a 5L bioreactor (2.0L working volume) under fed-batch conditions. Bioreactor experiments rely on varying selected parameters in repeated rounds of optimisation: here these included duration of induction, pH and temperature. Highest cell densities (320gL(-1) wet cell weight) with a cutinase production of 3800mgL(-1) and an activity of 434UmL(-1) were achieved 24h after induction with methanol in basal salt medium (at pH 5 and 28°C). Characterisation of the cutinase showed that it was stable between pH 6 and pH 11, had an optimum pH of 8.0 and retained activity for 30min at 50°C (optimum temperature 25°C).The preferred substrates of G. cingulata cutinase were the medium- to long-chain ρ-nitrophenyl esters of ρ-nitrophenylcaprylate (C8), ρ-nitrophenyllaurate (C12) and ρ-nitrophenylmyristate (C14), with the highest catalytic efficiency, kcat/Km of 7.7±0.7mM(-1)s(-1) for ρ-nitrophenylcaprylate. Microscopic analyses showed that the G. cingulata cutinase was also capable of depolymerising the high molecular weight synthetic polyester, polyethylene terephthalate. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. The improvement of the quality of polluted irrigation water through a phytoremediation process in a hydroponic batch culture system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Retnaningdyah, Catur

    2017-11-01

    The objective of this research was to determine the effectiveness of a phytoremediation process using some local hydro macrophytes to reduce fertilizer residue in irrigation water in order to support healthy agriculture and to prevent eutrophication and algae bloom in water. A phytoremediation process was carried out in a hydroponic floating system by using transparent plastic bags of 1 m in diameter and 1 m in height that were placed in collecting ponds before they were used for agricultural activities. Paddy soils were used as substrates in this system. The irrigation water was treated with nutrient enrichment (Urea and SP-36 fertilizers). Then, the system was planted with remediation actors (Azolla sp., Ipomoea aquatica, Limnocharis flava, Marsilea crenata, polyculture of those hydro macrophytes and control). The improvement of the water quality as a result of the phytoremediation process was characterized by a decline in the concentration of some physicochemical parameters, which were measured at 7 days after incubation, as well as an increase in the plankton diversity index value. The results showed that all of the hydro macrophytes used in this research, which was grown in the hydroponic batch culture system for a period of 7 days, were able to significantly improve the irrigation water quality, which was enriched by the synthetic fertilizers Urea and SP36. This was reflected by a significant decrease in the concentration of water TSS, nitrate, BOD, COD and total phosphate and an increase in the value of water DO at 7 days after incubation. Improvement of the water quality is also reflected in the increasing plankton diversity index value as a bioindicator of water pollution indicating a change in the pollution status from moderately polluted to slightly polluted at 7 days after incubation.

  10. Control of algal production in a high rate algal pond: investigation through batch and continuous experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derabe Maobe, H; Onodera, M; Takahashi, M; Satoh, H; Fukazawa, T

    2014-01-01

    For decades, arid and semi-arid regions in Africa have faced issues related to water availability for drinking, irrigation and livestock purposes. To tackle these issues, a laboratory scale greywater treatment system based on high rate algal pond (HRAP) technology was investigated in order to guide the operation of the pilot plant implemented in the 2iE campus in Ouagadougou (Burkina Faso). Because of the high suspended solids concentration generally found in effluents of this system, the aim of this study is to improve the performance of HRAPs in term of algal productivity and removal. To determine the selection mechanism of self-flocculated algae, three sets of sequencing batch reactors (SBRs) and three sets of continuous flow reactors (CFRs) were operated. Despite operation with the same solids retention time and the similarity of the algal growth rate found in these reactors, the algal productivity was higher in the SBRs owing to the short hydraulic retention time of 10 days in these reactors. By using a volume of CFR with twice the volume of our experimental CFRs, the algal concentration can be controlled during operation under similar physical conditions in both reactors.

  11. Inverse Modeling of Water-Rock-CO2 Batch Experiments: Potential Impacts on Groundwater Resources at Carbon Sequestration Sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Changbing; Dai, Zhenxue; Romanak, Katherine D; Hovorka, Susan D; Treviño, Ramón H

    2014-01-01

    This study developed a multicomponent geochemical model to interpret responses of water chemistry to introduction of CO2 into six water-rock batches with sedimentary samples collected from representative potable aquifers in the Gulf Coast area. The model simulated CO2 dissolution in groundwater, aqueous complexation, mineral reactions (dissolution/precipitation), and surface complexation on clay mineral surfaces. An inverse method was used to estimate mineral surface area, the key parameter for describing kinetic mineral reactions. Modeling results suggested that reductions in groundwater pH were more significant in the carbonate-poor aquifers than in the carbonate-rich aquifers, resulting in potential groundwater acidification. Modeled concentrations of major ions showed overall increasing trends, depending on mineralogy of the sediments, especially carbonate content. The geochemical model confirmed that mobilization of trace metals was caused likely by mineral dissolution and surface complexation on clay mineral surfaces. Although dissolved inorganic carbon and pH may be used as indicative parameters in potable aquifers, selection of geochemical parameters for CO2 leakage detection is site-specific and a stepwise procedure may be followed. A combined study of the geochemical models with the laboratory batch experiments improves our understanding of the mechanisms that dominate responses of water chemistry to CO2 leakage and also provides a frame of reference for designing monitoring strategy in potable aquifers.

  12. Determination of some significant batch culture conditions affecting acetyl-xylan esterase production by Penicillium notatum NRRL-1249

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akhtar MN

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Acetyl-xylan esterase (AXE, EC 3.1.1.72 hydrolyses acetate group from the linear chain of xylopyranose residues bound by β-1,4-linkage. The enzyme finds commercial applications in bio-bleaching of wood pulp, treating animal feed to increase digestibility, processing food to increase clarification and converting lignocellulosics to feedstock and fuel. In the present study, we report on the production of an extracellular AXE from Penicillium notatum NRRL-1249 by solid state fermentation (SSF. Results Wheat bran at a level of 10 g (with 4 cm bed height was optimized as the basal substrate for AXE production. An increase in enzyme activity was observed when 7.5 ml of mineral salt solution (MSS containing 0.1% KH2PO4, 0.05% KCl, 0.05% MgSO4.7H2O, 0.3% NaNO3, 0.001% FeSO4.2H2O and 0.1% (v/w Tween-80 as an initial moisture content was used. Various nitrogen sources including ammonium sulphate, urea, peptone and yeast extract were compared for enzyme production. Maximal enzyme activity of 760 U/g was accomplished which was found to be highly significant (p ≤ 0.05. A noticeable enhancement in enzyme activity was observed when the process parameters including incubation period (48 h, initial pH (5, 0.2% (w/w urea as nitrogen source and 0.5% (v/w Tween-80 as a stimulator were further optimized using a 2-factorial Plackett-Burman design. Conclusion From the results it is clear that an overall improvement of more than 35% in terms of net enzyme activity was achieved compared to previously reported studies. This is perhaps the first report dealing with the use of P. notatum for AXE production under batch culture SSF. The Plackett-Burman model terms were found highly significant (HS, suggesting the potential commercial utility of the culture used (df = 3, LSD = 0.126.

  13. Anaerobic co-digestion of waste activated sludge and greasy sludge from flotation process: batch versus CSTR experiments to investigate optimal design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girault, R; Bridoux, G; Nauleau, F; Poullain, C; Buffet, J; Peu, P; Sadowski, A G; Béline, F

    2012-02-01

    In this study, the maximum ratio of greasy sludge to incorporate with waste activated sludge was investigated in batch and CSTR experiments. In batch experiments, inhibition occurred with a greasy sludge ratio of more than 20-30% of the feed COD. In CSTR experiments, the optimal greasy sludge ratio was 60% of the feed COD and inhibition occurred above a ratio of 80%. Hence, batch experiments can predict the CSTR yield when the degradation phenomenon are additive but cannot be used to determine the maximum ratio to be used in a CSTR configuration. Additionally, when the ratio of greasy sludge increased from 0% to 60% of the feed COD, CSTR methane production increased by more than 60%. When the greasy sludge ratio increased from 60% to 90% of the feed COD, the reactor yield decreased by 75%. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Selenium Sequestration in a Cationic Layered Rare Earth Hydroxide: A Combined Batch Experiments and EXAFS Investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Lin; Zhang, Linjuan; Li, Jie; Zhang, Duo; Chen, Lanhua; Sheng, Daopeng; Yang, Shitong; Xiao, Chengliang; Wang, Jianqiang; Chai, Zhifang; Albrecht-Schmitt, Thomas E; Wang, Shuao

    2017-08-01

    Selenium is of great concern owing to its acutely toxic characteristic at elevated dosage and the long-term radiotoxicity of 79 Se. The contents of selenium in industrial wastewater, agricultural runoff, and drinking water have to be constrained to a value of 50 μg/L as the maximum concentration limit. We reported here the selenium uptake using a structurally well-defined cationic layered rare earth hydroxide, Y 2 (OH) 5 Cl·1.5H 2 O. The sorption kinetics, isotherms, selectivity, and desorption of selenite and selenate on Y 2 (OH) 5 Cl·1.5H 2 O at pH 7 and 8.5 were systematically investigated using a batch method. The maximum sorption capacities of selenite and selenate are 207 and 124 mg/g, respectively, both representing the new records among those of inorganic sorbents. In the low concentration region, Y 2 (OH) 5 Cl·1.5H 2 O is able to almost completely remove selenium from aqueous solution even in the presence of competitive anions such as NO 3 - , Cl - , CO 3 2- , SO 4 2- , and HPO 4 2- . The resulting concentration of selenium is below 10 μg/L, well meeting the strictest criterion for the drinking water. The selenate on loaded samples could be desorbed by rinsing with concentrated noncomplexing NaCl solutions whereas complexing ligands have to be employed to elute selenite for the material regeneration. After desorption, Y 2 (OH) 5 Cl·1.5H 2 O could be reused to remove selenate and selenite. In addition, the sorption mechanism was unraveled by the combination of EDS, FT-IR, Raman, PXRD, and EXAFS techniques. Specifically, the selenate ions were exchanged with chloride ions in the interlayer space, forming outer-sphere complexes. In comparison, besides anion exchange mechanism, the selenite ions were directly bound to the Y 3+ center in the positively charged layer of [Y 2 (OH) 5 (H 2 O)] + through strong bidentate binuclear inner-sphere complexation, consistent with the observation of the higher uptake of selenite over selenate. The results presented in

  15. An optimized fed-batch culture strategy integrated with a one-step fermentation improves L-lactic acid production by Rhizopus oryzae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Yongqian; Sun, Xiaolong; Zhu, Huayue; Jiang, Ru; Luo, Xi; Yin, Longfei

    2018-05-21

    In previous work, we proposed a novel modified one-step fermentation fed-batch strategy to efficiently generate L-lactic acid (L-LA) using Rhizopus oryzae. In this study, to further enhance efficiency of L-LA production through one-step fermentation in fed-batch cultures, we systematically investigated the initial peptone- and glucose-feeding approaches, including different initial peptone and glucose concentrations and maintained residual glucose levels. Based on the results of this study, culturing R. oryzae with initial peptone and glucose concentrations of 3.0 and 50.0 g/l, respectively, using a fed-batch strategy is an effective approach of producing L-LA through one-step fermentation. Changing the residual glucose had no obvious effect on the generation of L-LA. We determined the maximum LA production and productivity to be 162 g/l and 6.23 g/(l·h), respectively, during the acid production stage. Compared to our previous work, there was almost no change in L-LA production or yield; however, the productivity of L-LA increased by 14.3%.

  16. Utilisation of factorial experiments for the UV/H O process in a batch ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    drinie

    2001-10-04

    Oct 4, 2001 ... The predictions given by the factorial experiments model were confirmed by the ... studies have given the effect of initial H2O2 concentration, initial concentration of the ... This mathematical model may be utilised to explain.

  17. Batch experiments versus soil pore water extraction--what makes the difference in isoproturon (bio-)availability?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Folberth, Christian; Suhadolc, Metka; Scherb, Hagen; Munch, Jean Charles; Schroll, Reiner

    2009-10-01

    Two approaches to determine pesticide (bio-)availability in soils (i) batch experiments with "extraction with an excess of water" (EEW) and (ii) the recently introduced "soil pore water (PW) extraction" of pesticide incubated soil samples have been compared with regard to the sorption behavior of the model compound isoproturon in soils. A significant correlation between TOC and adsorbed pesticide amount was found when using the EEW approach. In contrast, there was no correlation between TOC and adsorbed isoproturon when using the in situ PW extraction method. Furthermore, sorption was higher at all concentrations in the EEW method when comparing the distribution coefficients (K(d)) for both methods. Over all, sorption in incubated soil samples at an identical water tension (-15 kPa) and soil density (1.3 g cm(-3)) appears to be controlled by a complex combination of sorption driving soil parameters. Isoproturon bioavailability was found to be governed in different soils by binding strength and availability of sorption sites as well as water content, whereas the dominance of either one of these factors seems to depend on the individual composition and characteristics of the respective soil sample. Using multiple linear regression analysis we obtained furthermore indications that the soil pore structure is affected by the EEW method due to disaggregation, resulting in a higher availability of pesticide sorption sites than in undisturbed soil samples. Therefore, it can be concluded that isoproturon sorption is overestimated when using the EEW method, which should be taken into account when using data from this approach or similar batch techniques for risk assessment analysis.

  18. Metabolic switches and adaptations deduced from the proteomes of Streptomyces coelicolor wild type and phoP mutant grown in batch culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Louise; Hodgson, David A; Wentzel, Alexander; Nieselt, Kay; Ellingsen, Trond E; Moore, Jonathan; Morrissey, Edward R; Legaie, Roxane; Wohlleben, Wolfgang; Rodríguez-García, Antonio; Martín, Juan F; Burroughs, Nigel J; Wellington, Elizabeth M H; Smith, Margaret C M

    2012-02-01

    Bacteria in the genus Streptomyces are soil-dwelling oligotrophs and important producers of secondary metabolites. Previously, we showed that global messenger RNA expression was subject to a series of metabolic and regulatory switches during the lifetime of a fermentor batch culture of Streptomyces coelicolor M145. Here we analyze the proteome from eight time points from the same fermentor culture and, because phosphate availability is an important regulator of secondary metabolite production, compare this to the proteome of a similar time course from an S. coelicolor mutant, INB201 (ΔphoP), defective in the control of phosphate utilization. The proteomes provide a detailed view of enzymes involved in central carbon and nitrogen metabolism. Trends in protein expression over the time courses were deduced from a protein abundance index, which also revealed the importance of stress pathway proteins in both cultures. As expected, the ΔphoP mutant was deficient in expression of PhoP-dependent genes, and several putatively compensatory metabolic and regulatory pathways for phosphate scavenging were detected. Notably there is a succession of switches that coordinately induce the production of enzymes for five different secondary metabolite biosynthesis pathways over the course of the batch cultures.

  19. Remediation of contaminated agricultural soils near a former Pb/Zn smelter in Austria: Batch, pot and field experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friesl, W.; Friedl, J.; Platzer, K.; Horak, O.; Gerzabek, M.H.

    2006-01-01

    Metal contaminated crops from contaminated soils are possible hazards for the food chain. The aim of this study was to find practical and cost-effective measures to reduce metal uptake in crops grown on metal contaminated soils near a former metal smelter in Austria. Metal-inefficient cultivars of crop plants commonly grown in the area were investigated in combination with in-situ soil amendments. A laboratory batch experiment using 15 potential amendments was used to select 5 amendments to treat contaminated soil in a pot study using two Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) cultivars that differed in their ability to accumulate cadmium. Results from this experiment identified 3 of these amendments for use in a field trial. In the pot experiment a reduction in ammonium nitrate extractable Cd (<41%) and Pb (<49%) compared to the controls was measured, with a concurrent reduction of uptake into barley grain (Cd < 62%, Pb < 68%). In the field extractable fractions of Cd, Pb, and Zn were reduced by up to 96%, 99%, and 99%, respectively in amended soils. - Gravel sludge and red mud, combined with metal-excluding cultivars, can improve contaminated land

  20. Endoplasmic Reticulum-Associated rht-PA Processing in CHO Cells: Influence of Mild Hypothermia and Specific Growth Rates in Batch and Chemostat Cultures.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauricio Vergara

    Full Text Available Chinese hamster ovary (CHO cells are the main host for producing recombinant proteins with human therapeutic applications mainly because of their capability to perform proper folding and glycosylation processes. In addition, mild hypothermia is one of the main strategies for maximising the productivity of these systems. However, little information is available on the effect of culture temperature on the folding and degradation processes of recombinant proteins that takes place in the endoplasmic reticulum.In order to evaluate the effect of the mild hypothermia on processing/endoplasmatic reticulum-associated degradation (ERAD processes, batch cultures of CHO cells producing recombinant human tissue plasminogen activator (rht-PA were carried out at two temperatures (37°C and 33°C and treated with specific inhibitors of glycosylation and ERAD I (Ubiquitin/Proteasome system or ERAD II (Autophagosoma/Lisosomal system pathways. The effect of mild hypothermia was analysed separately from its indirect effect on specific cell growth rate. To do this, chemostat cultures were carried out at the same incubation conditions as the batch cultures, controlling cell growth at high (0.017 h-1 and low (0.012 h-1 dilution rates. For a better understanding of the investigated phenomenon, cell behaviour was also analysed using principal component analysis (PCA.Results suggest that rht-PA is susceptible to degradation by both ERAD pathways studied, revealing that processing and/or ERAD processes are sensitive to temperature cultivation in batch culture. Moreover, by isolating the effect of culture temperature from the effect of cell growth rate verifyed by using chemostat cultures, we have found that processing and/or ERAD processes are more sensitive to reduction in specific growth rate than low temperature, and that temperature reduction may have a positive effect on protein processing. Interestingly, PCA indicated that the integrated performance displayed by CHO

  1. Improvisation as Ability, Culture, and Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgins, Lee; Mantie, Roger

    2013-01-01

    We argue in this article for greater role for improvisation in the music classroom. Based on an extensive examination of scholarship about improvisational practices, we propose three conceptualizations--ability, culture, experience--that can serve to guide the teaching of improvisation. When considered as an "ability," improvisation is a…

  2. Batch experiments for assessing the sorption/desorption characteristics of 152Eu in systems of loose sediments and water containing humic acids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klotz, D.

    2001-01-01

    The 152 Eu distribution coefficients of the sorption and desorption of non-binding loose sediments of different grain sizes are investigated using a groundwater of tertiary lignite from Northern Germany which contains high concentrations of humic acids. The batch experiments were carried out with a ratio of 2.5cm 3 /g of solution volume to sediment mass, without mixing [de

  3. Robots and Cultural Heritage: New Museum Experiences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio Germak

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The introduction of new technologies to enhance the visiting museum experience is not a novelty. A large variety of interactive systems are nowadays available, including virtual tours, which makes cultural heritage accessible remotely. The theme of increase in accessibility and attractiveness has lately been faced with the employment of the service robotics, covering various types of applications. Regrettably, many of robotics solutions appear less successful in terms of utility and usability. On the basis of this awareness, a design for a new robotic solution for cultural heritage has been proposed. The project, developed at the royal residence of Racconigi Castle, consists of a telepresence robot designed as a tool to explore inaccessible areas of the heritage. The employed robot, called Virgil, was expressly designed for the project. The control of the robot is entrusted to the museum guides in order to enhance their work and enrich the cultural storytelling.

  4. Anaerobic co-digestion of canola straw and buffalo dung: optimization of methane production in batch experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sahito, A.R.; Brohi, K.M.

    2014-01-01

    In several regions of the Pakistan, crop cultivation is leading to the production crop residues and its disposal problems. It has been suggested that the co-digestion of the crop residues with the buffalo dung might be a disposal way for the wasted portion of the crops residue. The objective of present study was to optimize the anaerobic co-digestion of canola straw and the buffalo dung through batch experiments in order to obtain maximum methane production. The optimization was carried out in three stages. In first stage, the best canola straw to buffalo dung ratio was evaluated. In second stage, the best concentration of sodium hydrogen carbonate was assessedas the alkaline pretreatment chemical, whereas in the third stage most suitable particle size of the canola strawwas evaluated. The assessment criteria for the optimization of a co-digestion were cumulative methane production and ABD (Anaerobic Biodegradability). The results yield that anaerobic co-digestibility of the canola straw and the buffalo dung is obviously influenced by all the three factors of optimization. The maximum methane production was obtained as 911 NmL from the canola straw to buffalo dung ratio of 40:60, the alkaline doze of 0.6 gNaHCO/sub 3/ gVS and canola straw particle size of 2mm. However, because of the higher shredding cost to produce 2mm sized canola straw, particle size 4mm could be the best canola straw particle size. (author)

  5. Anaerobic Co-Digestion of Canola Straw and Buffalo Dung: Optimization of Methane Production in Batch Experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Razaque Sahito

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In several regions of the Pakistan, crop cultivation is leading to the production crop residues and its disposal problems. It has been suggested that the co-digestion of the crop residues with the buffalo dung might be a disposal way for the wasted portion of the crops' residue. The objective of present study was to optimize the anaerobic co-digestion of canola straw and the buffalo dung through batch experiments in order to obtain maximum methane production. The optimization was carried out in three stages. In first stage, the best canola straw to buffalo dung ratio was evaluated. In second stage, the best concentration of sodium hydrogen carbonate was assessedas the alkaline pretreatment chemical, whereas in the third stage most suitable particle size of the canola strawwas evaluated. The assessment criteria for the optimization of a co-digestion were cumulative methane production and ABD (Anaerobic Biodegradability. The results yield that anaerobic co-digestibility of the canola straw and the buffalo dung is obviously influenced by all the three factors of optimization. The maximum methane production was obtained as 911 NmL from the canola straw to buffalo dung ratio of 40:60, the alkaline doze of 0.6 gNaHCO3 / gVS and canola straw particle size of 2mm. However, because of the higher shredding cost to produce 2mm sized canola straw, particle size 4mm could be the best canola straw particle size.

  6. Adsorption of arsenate on soils. Part 1: Laboratory batch experiments using 16 Chinese soils with different physiochemical properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang Wei; Zhang Shuzhen; Shan Xiaoquan; Feng Muhua; Zhu Yongguan; McLaren, Ron G.

    2005-01-01

    Laboratory batch experiments were carried out to study the adsorption of arsenate on 16 Chinese soils with different physicochemical properties. Wide differences in arsenate adsorption were observed, and the Jiangxi and Hubei soils were more effective sorbents for arsenate than other soils. The Langmuir one-surface and two-surface equations were used to model the arsenate adsorption data. Except for the Jiangxi and Hubei soils, the Langmuir one-surface equation gave reasonably good fits to the arsenate adsorption data. However, the Langmuir two-surface equation generally provided a better fit than the Langmuir one-surface equation. For soils with relative high organic matter (OM), dissolved organic carbon (DOC) or extractable phosphate, the Langmuir one-surface and two-surface equations described the adsorption isotherms similarly. In contrast, for soils with relatively low contents of OM, DOC or extractable phosphate, the Langmuir two-surface equation gave the better fit to the arsenate adsorption data. - The Langmuir two-surface equation fits arsenate adsorption onto soils

  7. Cultural adaptation in translational research: field experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dévieux, Jessy G; Malow, Robert M; Rosenberg, Rhonda; Jean-Gilles, Michèle; Samuels, Deanne; Ergon-Pérez, Emma; Jacobs, Robin

    2005-06-01

    The increase in the incidence of HIV/AIDS among minorities in the United States and in certain developing nations has prompted new intervention priorities, stressing the adaptation of efficacious interventions for diverse and marginalized groups. The experiences of Florida International University's AIDS Prevention Program in translating HIV primary and secondary prevention interventions among these multicultural populations provide insight into the process of cultural adaptations and address the new scientific emphasis on ecological validity. An iterative process involving forward and backward translation, a cultural linguistic committee, focus group discussions, documentation of project procedures, and consultations with other researchers in the field was used to modify interventions. This article presents strategies used to ensure fidelity in implementing the efficacious core components of evidence-based interventions for reducing HIV transmission and drug use behaviors and the challenges posed by making cultural adaptation for participants with low literacy. This experience demonstrates the importance of integrating culturally relevant material in the translation process with intense focus on language and nuance. The process must ensure that the level of intervention is appropriate for the educational level of participants. Furthermore, the rights of participants must be protected during consenting procedures by instituting policies that recognize the socioeconomic, educational, and systemic pressures to participate in research.

  8. Effects of biosurfactant production by indigenous soil microorganisms on bioremediation of a co-contaminated soil in batch experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jalali, F.; Mulligan, C.N. [Concordia Univ., Centre for Building Studies, Montreal, PQ (Canada). Dept. of Building, Civil and Environmental Engineering

    2007-07-01

    The challenge of remediating soils that are contaminated with both hydrocarbon compounds and metals was discussed, with particular reference to an in-situ bioremediation technique that was developed in the 1970s to deal with contaminated soils. The technique involves a two-stage process where water with added oxygen and nutrients is applied onto and injected into a contaminated area to stimulate the indigenous microbial populations in the soil. In addition to using organic pollutants as their carbon source, microorganisms can facilitate the removal of metals from the soil matrix and attenuate the toxicity of certain metals. Extraction wells placed downstream of the contaminated soils are used to remove and treat the water to eliminate any mobilized contaminants. This paper presented the results of batch experiments that evaluated the feasibility of biosurfactant production for the purpose of bioremediating a soil contaminated with aged petroleum hydrocarbons and heavy metals. The first phase of the study examined the growth of the native microbial population and the biodegradation of petroleum hydrocarbons, the production of biosurfactant and the mobilization of the total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) and metals into the aqueous phase. Biodegradation of petroleum hydrocarbons was observed in both soil and soil amended with nitrogen and phosphorous. However, the nutrient-amended soil had higher biodegradation of petroleum hydrocarbons, where 36 per cent of TPH was degraded by the end of the 50 day experiment, compared to 15 per cent for the non-amended soils. The concentration of biosurfactants in the same period increased 3 times their critical micelle concentration. It was concluded that biosurfactant production enhances the bioremediation of co-contaminated soils. 36 refs., 1 tab., 8 figs.

  9. Constraining Path-Dependent Processes During Basalt-CO2 Interactions with Observations From Flow-Through and Batch Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, D.; Garing, C.; Zahasky, C.; Harrison, A. L.; Bird, D. K.; Benson, S. M.; Oelkers, E. H.; Maher, K.

    2017-12-01

    Predicting the timing and magnitude of CO2 storage in basaltic rocks relies partly on quantifying the dependence of reactivity on flow path and mineral distribution. Flow-through experiments that use intact cores are advantageous because the spatial heterogeneity of pore space and reactive phases is preserved. Combining aqueous geochemical analyses and petrologic characterization with non-destructive imaging techniques (e.g. micro-computed tomography) constrains the relationship between irreversible reactions, pore connectivity and accessible surface area. Our work enhances these capabilities by dynamically imaging flow through vesicular basalts with Positron Emission Tomography (PET) scanning. PET highlights the path a fluid takes by detecting photons produced during radioactive decay of an injected radiotracer (FDG). We have performed single-phase, CO2-saturated flow-through experiments with basaltic core from Iceland at CO2 sequestration conditions (50 °C; 76-90 bar Ptot). Constant flow rate and continuous pressure measurements at the inlet and outlet of the core constrain permeability. We monitor geochemical evolution through cation and anion analysis of outlet fluid sampled periodically. Before and after reaction, we perform PET scans and characterize the core using micro-CT. The PET scans indicate a discrete, localized flow path that appears to be a micro-crack connecting vesicles, suggesting that vesicle-lining minerals are immediately accessible and important reactants. Rapid increases in aqueous cation concentration, pH and HCO3- indicate that the rock reacts nearly immediately after CO2 injection. After 24 hours the solute release decreases, which may reflect a transition to reaction with phases with slower kinetic dissolution rates (e.g. zeolites and glasses to feldspar), a decrease in available reactive surface area or precipitation. We have performed batch experiments using crushed material of the same rock to elucidate the effect of flow path

  10. Simple generic model for dynamic experiments with Saccharomyces cerevisiae in continuous culture. Decoupling between anabolism and catabolism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duboc, Philippe Jean; von Stockar, U.; Villadsen, John

    1998-01-01

    The dynamic behavior of a continuous culture of Saccharomyces cerevisiae subjected to a sudden increase in the dilution rate has been successfully modelled for anaerobic growth on glucose, and for aerobic growth on acetate, on ethanol, and on glucose. The catabolism responded by an immediate jump...... identified in steady state continuous cultures or during batch experiments. Only the time constant of biosynthesis regeneration, tau(x), and the time constant of catabolic capacity regeneration, tau(cat), had to be identified during transient experiments. In most experiments 7, was around 3 h, and tau(cat...

  11. CONVERSION OF PINEAPPLE JUICE WASTE INTO LACTIC ACID IN BATCH AND FED – BATCH FERMENTATION SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah Mochamad Busairi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Pineapple juice waste contains valuable components, which are mainly sucrose, glucose, and fructose. Recently, lactic acid has been considered to be an important raw material for the production of biodegradable lactide polymer. The fermentation experiments were carried out in a 3 litres fermentor (Biostat B Model under anaerobic condition with stirring speed of 50 rpm, temperature at 40oC, and pH of 6.00. Effect of feed concentration on lactic acid production, bacterial growth, substrate utilisation and productivity was studied. The results obtained from fed- batch culture fermentation showed that the maximum lactic acid productivity was 0.44 g/L.h for feed concentration of 90 g/L at 48 hours. Whereas the lactic acid productivity obtained from fed-batch culture was twice and half fold higher than that of batch culture productivity.  Buangan jus nanas mengandung komponen yang berharga terutama sukrosa, glukosa, dan fruktosa. Asam laktat adalah bahan baku yang terbaru dan penting untuk dibuat sebagai polimer laktat yang dapat terdegradasi oleh lingkungan. Percobaan dilakukan pada fermentor 3 liter (Model Biostat B di bawah kondisi anaerob dengan kecepatan pengadukan 50 rpm, temperatur 40oC, dan pH 6,00. Pengaruh konsentrasi umpan terhadap produksi asam laktat, pertumbuhan mikroba, pengggunaan substrat dan produktivitas telah dipelajari. Hasil yang didapatkan pada fermentasi dengan menggunakan sistem fed-batch menunjukkan bahwa produktivitas asam laktat maksimum adalah 0.44 g/L,jam dengan konsentrasi umpan, 90 g/L pada waktu 48 jam. Bahkan produktivitas asam laktat yang didapat pada kultur fed-batch lebih tinggi 2,5 kali dari pada proses menggunakan sistem batch

  12. Pyrite oxidation in the presence of hematite and alumina: I. Batch leaching experiments and kinetic modeling calculations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabelin, Carlito Baltazar; Veerawattananun, Suchol; Ito, Mayumi; Hiroyoshi, Naoki; Igarashi, Toshifumi

    2017-02-15

    Pyrite is one of the most common and geochemically important sulfide minerals in nature because of its role in the redox recycling of iron (Fe). It is also the primary cause of acid mine drainage (AMD) that is considered as a serious and widespread problem facing the mining and mineral processing industries. In the environment, pyrite oxidation occurs in the presence of ubiquitous metal oxides, but the roles that they play in this process remain largely unknown. This study evaluates the effects of hematite (α-Fe 2 O 3 ) and alumina (α-Al 2 O 3 ) on pyrite oxidation by batch-reactor type experiments, surface-sensitive characterization of the oxidation layer and thermodynamic/kinetic modeling calculations. In the presence of hematite, dissolved sulfur (S) concentration dramatically decreased independent of the pH, and the formation of intermediate sulfoxy anionic species on the surface of pyrite was retarded. These results indicate that hematite minimized the overall extent of pyrite oxidation, but the kinetic model could not explain how this suppression occurred. In contrast, pyrite oxidation was enhanced in the alumina suspension as suggested by the higher dissolved S concentration and stronger infrared (IR) absorption bands of surface-bound oxidation products. Based on the kinetic model, alumina enhanced the oxidative dissolution of pyrite because of its strong acid buffering capacity, which increased the suspension pH. The higher pH values increased the oxidation of Fe 2+ to Fe 3+ by dissolved O 2 (DO) that enhanced the overall oxidative dissolution kinetics of pyrite. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Growth of aspergillus terreus and the production of itaconic acid in batch and continuous cultures. The influence of pH

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rychtera, M.; Wase, J.D.A.

    1981-01-01

    Aspergillus terreus (NRRL 1960) was cultivated in batch and in continuous single-stage culture. The influence of pH on the growth of the organism, on the formation of itaconic acid and on the kinetics of fermentation was studied under phosphate limitation, both at controlled ph values and also when the pH was allowed to decrease in a natural way. In the pH range 1.7-3.5, the ratio of undissociated:half-dissociated acid varied from 190:1 to 1.5:1. The amount of completely dissociated acid may be regarded as negligible. In batch systems operated without pH control, an initial pH of 3.1 proved to be the most effective. Product formation under such conditions started at a point where the exponential growth phase commenced and was described by a zero-order equation. The maximum itaconic acid production rate was shifted behind maximum growth rate. The continuous single-stage system was first order with respect to product formation. At pH greater than 3.1, a number of aberrant and pellet forms of the mould occurred, resulting in decreased acid production. (Refs. 41).

  14. A cross-cultural experience at midnight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niimura, Junko

    2013-04-01

    This essay is a story about a cultural interaction between a Japanese mother and a Chinese young mother whose baby was premature. When I was staying in a hospital in Japan to deliver my second son, I shared a room with this mother. She delivered her baby very early-at 25 weeks of pregnancy. Her baby received extensive medical treatment in the neonatal intensive care unit. However, this Chinese young mother appeared bewildered about the communication from the Japanese hospital staff because Japanese hospital's communication about the medical care of premature infants was very different from China. One day at midnight, she spoke with me about having deep uneasiness about the situation and having many unanswered questions. After this cultural experience, I began to think more deeply about cultural differences in terms of health and illness and the influence of universal health insurance on the lives of the families of premature infants. I also recognized that the value of life is not calculated in the same fashion globally. © 2013 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  15. Rich Medium Composition Affects Escherichia coli Survival, Glycation, and Mutation Frequency during Long-Term Batch Culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kram, Karin E; Finkel, Steven E

    2015-07-01

    Bacteria such as Escherichia coli are frequently grown to high density to produce biomolecules for study in the laboratory. To achieve this, cells can be incubated in extremely rich media that increase overall cell yield. In these various media, bacteria may have different metabolic profiles, leading to changes in the amounts of toxic metabolites produced. We have previously shown that stresses experienced during short-term growth can affect the survival of cells during the long-term stationary phase (LTSP). Here, we incubated cells in LB, 2× yeast extract-tryptone (YT), Terrific Broth, or Super Broth medium and monitored survival during the LTSP, as well as other reporters of genetic and physiological change. We observe differential cell yield and survival in all media studied. We propose that differences in long-term survival are the result of changes in the metabolism of components of the media that may lead to increased levels of protein and/or DNA damage. We also show that culture pH and levels of protein glycation, a covalent modification that causes protein damage, affect long-term survival. Further, we measured mutation frequency after overnight incubation and observed a correlation between high mutation frequencies at the end of the log phase and loss of viability after 4 days of LTSP incubation, indicating that mutation frequency is potentially predictive of long-term survival. Since glycation and mutation can be caused by oxidative stress, we measured expression of the oxyR oxidative stress regulator during log-phase growth and found that higher levels of oxyR expression during the log phase are consistent with high mutation frequency and lower cell density during the LTSP. Since these complex rich media are often used when producing large quantities of biomolecules in the laboratory, the observed increase in damage resulting in glycation or mutation may lead to production of a heterogeneous population of plasmids or proteins, which could affect the

  16. Consolidated bioprocessing of microalgal biomass to carboxylates by a mixed culture of cow rumen bacteria using anaerobic sequencing batch reactor (ASBR).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Baisuo; Liu, Jie; Frear, Craig; Holtzapple, Mark; Chen, Shulin

    2016-12-01

    This study employed mixed-culture consolidated bioprocessing (CBP) to digest microalgal biomass in an anaerobic sequencing batch reactor (ASBR). The primary objectives are to evaluate the impact of hydraulic residence time (HRT) on the productivity of carboxylic acids and to characterize the bacterial community. HRT affects the production rate and patterns of carboxylic acids. For the 5-L laboratory-scale fermentation, a 12-day HRT was selected because it offered the highest productivity of carboxylic acids and it synthesized longer chains. The variability of the bacterial community increased with longer HRT (R 2 =0.85). In the 5-L laboratory-scale fermentor, the most common phyla were Firmicutes (58.3%), Bacteroidetes (27.4%), and Proteobacteria (11.9%). The dominant bacterial classes were Clostridia (29.8%), Bacteroidia (27.4%), Tissierella (26.2%), and Betaproteobacteria (8.9%). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Early-warning process/control for anaerobic digestion and biological nitrogen transformation processes: Batch, semi-continuous, and/or chemostat experiments. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hickey, R. [Science Applications International Corp., McLean, VA (United States)

    1992-09-01

    The objective of this project was to develop and test an early-warning/process control model for anaerobic sludge digestion (AD). The approach was to use batch and semi-continuously fed systems and to assemble system parameter data on a real-time basis. Specific goals were to produce a real-time early warning control model and computer code, tested for internal and external validity; to determine the minimum rate of data collection for maximum lag time to predict failure with a prescribed accuracy and confidence in the prediction; and to determine and characterize any trends in the real-time data collected in response to particular perturbations to feedstock quality. Trends in the response of trace gases carbon monoxide and hydrogen in batch experiments, were found to depend on toxicant type. For example, these trace gases respond differently for organic substances vs. heavy metals. In both batch and semi-continuously feed experiments, increased organic loading lead to proportionate increases in gas production rates as well as increases in CO and H{sub 2} concentration. An analysis of variance of gas parameters confirmed that CO was the most sensitive indicator variable by virtue of its relatively larger variance compared to the others. The other parameters evaluated including gas production, methane production, hydrogen, carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide and methane concentration. In addition, a relationship was hypothesized between gaseous CO concentration and acetate concentrations in the digester. The data from semicontinuous feed experiments were supportive.

  18. Oskarshamn site investigation. Batch experiments of I, Cs, Sr, Ni, Eu, U and Np sorption onto soil from the Laxemar area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holgersson, Stellan (Dept. of Chemical and Biochemical Engineering, Nuclear Chemistry, Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Goeteborg (Sweden))

    2009-04-15

    Soil and groundwater samples from the Laxemar area have been collected and characterised, as have previously been reported. Batch experiments with sorption of radiotracers of I, Cs, Sr, Ni, Eu, U and Np have been made with eight selected soil samples and one natural groundwater. The solid/liquid ratio in the experiments was 1/48 and sampling were made at 3 hours, 1 day, 7 days, 14 days, 40 days and finally 130 days. Phase separation was made by centrifugation field > 20 kG. Experiments were made in an inert-gas glove-box (O{sub 2} < 1 ppm). The same type of batch sorption experiments was also made with a synthetic groundwater. The recipe for the synthetic groundwater was based on the analyses of the natural groundwater, except for dissolved organic matter, which were omitted. A separate series of supporting experiments, without radionuclide tracers, were made for the measurement of the evolution of pH and Eh. Another series of supporting experiments were made for a number of chemical analyses, where samples were taken at 14 and 130 days only: anion and cation chromatography, alkalinity titrations, total organic carbon (TOC), inorganic carbon, pH and Eh measurements, ICP-MS and -OES analyses of background radiotracer elements and a number of other elements. The general trend of the batch sorption results show specific surface corrected distribution coefficients, R{sub a} (m) that increase with time, but the trend is a levelling out to limiting values. Iodine sorption is generally below the lower detection limit and very few data could be collected for this tracer. Eu generally shows the strongest sorption and some measurements at the later samplings are above the upper detection limit. Results from the batch experiments with peat and natural groundwater at 130 days give R{sub a} values that ranges from 5x10-5 (Sr) to 3x10-4 m (Cs). The order of increasing sorption is: Sr, Ni, Np, Eu, U and Cs. For synthetic groundwater Eu and U sorption is stronger, at least

  19. Biosynthesis of highly enriched 13C-lycopene for human metabolic studies using repeated batch tomato cell culturing with 13C-glucose

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, Nancy E.; Rogers, Randy B.; Lu, Chi-Hua; Conlon, Lauren E.; Lila, Mary Ann; Clinton, Steven K.; Erdman, John W.

    2013-01-01

    While putative disease-preventing lycopene metabolites are found in both tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) products and in their consumers, mammalian lycopene metabolism is poorly understood. Advances in tomato cell culturing techniques offer an economical tool for generation of highly-enriched 13C-lycopene for human bioavailability and metabolism studies. To enhance the 13C-enrichment and yields of labeled lycopene from the hp-1 tomato cell line, cultures were first grown in 13C-glucose media for three serial batches and produced increasing proportions of uniformly labeled lycopene (14.3 +/− 1.2 %, 39.6 +/− 0.5 %, and 48.9 +/− 1.5% with consistent yields (from 5.8 to 9 mg/L). An optimized 9-day-long 13C-loading and 18-day-long labeling strategy developed based on glucose utilization and lycopene yields, yielded 13C-lycopene with 93% 13C isotopic purity, and 55% of isotopomers were uniformly labeled. Furthermore, an optimized acetone and hexane extraction led to a four-fold increase in lycopene recovery from cultures compared to a standard extraction. PMID:23561155

  20. The Influence of Cross-Cultural Experiences & Location on Teachers' Perceptions of Cultural Competence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes-Murphy, Solange A.; Murphy, Christopher G.

    2016-01-01

    The increasing cultural and linguistic diversity in academic settings necessitates greater cultural competence on the part of teachers, and enhancing the cultural competence of teachers requires a greater understanding of both the level of cultural competence among teachers and the experiences that enhance cultural competence. Teacher educators…

  1. Key Process Conditions for Production of C4 Dicarboxylic Acids in Bioreactor Batch Cultures of an Engineered Saccharomyces cerevisiae Strain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zelle, R.M.; De Hulster, E.; Kloezen, W.; Pronk, J.T.; Van Maris, A.J.A.

    2010-01-01

    A recent effort to improve malic acid production by Saccharomyces cerevisiae by means of metabolic engineering resulted in a strain that produced up to 59 g liter(-1) of malate at a yield of 0.42 mol (mol glucose)(-1) in calcium carbonate-buffered shake flask cultures. With shake flasks, process

  2. Cell culture experiments planned for the space bioreactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Dennis R.; Cross, John H.

    1987-01-01

    Culturing of cells in a pilot-scale bioreactor remains to be done in microgravity. An approach is presented based on several studies of cell culture systems. Previous and current cell culture research in microgravity which is specifically directed towards development of a space bioprocess is described. Cell culture experiments planned for a microgravity sciences mission are described in abstract form.

  3. The effect of growth phase on the lipid class, fatty acid and sterol composition in the marine dinoflagellate, Gymnodinium sp. in batch culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansour, Maged P; Volkman, John K; Blackburn, Susan I

    2003-05-01

    We have studied the effects of growth phase on the lipid composition in batch cultures of Gymnodinium sp. CS-380/3 over 43 days of culturing. The lipid content increased two fold, from late logarithmic (day 6) to linear growth phase (day 22) then decreased at stationary phase (day 43) while the lipid yield (mg l(-1)) increased 30-fold from day 6 to 30 mg l(-1) at day 43. Changes in fatty acid content mirrored those observed for the total lipid, while the sterol content continued to increase with culture age through to stationary phase. The largest changes occurred in the lipid classes, especially the polar lipids and triacylglycerols (oil). The proportion of triacylglycerols increased from 8% (of total lipids) at day 6 to 30% at day 43, with a concomitant decrease in the polar lipid fraction. The proportions of 16:0 and DHA [22:6(n-3)] increased while those of 18:5(n-3) and EPA [20:5(n-3)] decreased with increasing culture age. The proportion of the major sterol, dinosterol, decreased from 41% (day 6) to 29% (day 43), while the major dinostanol epimer (23R,24R) increased from 33% (day 6) to 38% (day 22). Despite small changes in the proportion of the main sterols, the same sterols were present at all stages of growth, indicating their value as a chemotaxonomic tool for distinguishing between strains within the same genus. Growth phase could be a useful variable for optimising the oil and DHA content with potential for aquaculture feeds and a source of DHA-rich oils for nutraceuticals.

  4. Production of Gymnemic Acid Depends on Medium, Explants, PGRs, Color Lights, Temperature, Photoperiod, and Sucrose Sources in Batch Culture of Gymnema sylvestre

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Bakrudeen Ali Ahmed

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Gymnema sylvestre (R.Br. is an important diabetic medicinal plant which yields pharmaceutically active compounds called gymnemic acid (GA. The present study describes callus induction and the subsequent batch culture optimization and GA quantification determined by linearity, precision, accuracy, and recovery. Best callus induction of GA was noticed in MS medium combined with 2,4-D (1.5 mg/L and KN (0.5 mg/L. Evaluation and isolation of GA from the calluses derived from different plant parts, namely, leaf, stem and petioles have been done in the present case for the first time. Factors such as light, temperature, sucrose, and photoperiod were studied to observe their effect on GA production. Temperature conditions completely inhibited GA production. Out of the different sucrose concentrations tested, the highest yield (35.4 mg/g d.w was found at 5% sucrose followed by 12 h photoperiod (26.86 mg/g d.w. Maximum GA production (58.28 mg/g d.w was observed in blue light. The results showed that physical and chemical factors greatly influence the production of GA in callus cultures of G. sylvestre. The factors optimized for in vitro production of GA during the present study can successfully be employed for their large-scale production in bioreactors.

  5. Oskarshamn site investigation. Batch experiments of I, Cs, Sr, Ni, Eu, U and Np sorption onto soil from the Laxemar area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holgersson, Stellan

    2009-04-01

    Soil and groundwater samples from the Laxemar area have been collected and characterised, as have previously been reported. Batch experiments with sorption of radiotracers of I, Cs, Sr, Ni, Eu, U and Np have been made with eight selected soil samples and one natural groundwater. The solid/liquid ratio in the experiments was 1/48 and sampling were made at 3 hours, 1 day, 7 days, 14 days, 40 days and finally 130 days. Phase separation was made by centrifugation field > 20 kG. Experiments were made in an inert-gas glove-box (O 2 a (m) that increase with time, but the trend is a levelling out to limiting values. Iodine sorption is generally below the lower detection limit and very few data could be collected for this tracer. Eu generally shows the strongest sorption and some measurements at the later samplings are above the upper detection limit. Results from the batch experiments with peat and natural groundwater at 130 days give R a values that ranges from 5x10 -5 (Sr) to 3x10 -4 m (Cs). The order of increasing sorption is: Sr, Ni, Np, Eu, U and Cs. For synthetic groundwater Eu and U sorption is stronger, at least initially, compared with the natural groundwater, but for Cs the sorption is weaker over the whole sampling period. Results from the batch experiments with gyttja and natural groundwater at 130 days give R a values that ranges from 3x10 -5 (Sr) to 1x10 -2 m (Eu). The order of increasing sorption is: Sr, Cs, U, Ni, Np and Eu. For synthetic groundwater the sorption of U is stronger and comparable with Eu. Results from the batch experiments with clay gyttja, type I and natural groundwater at 130 days give R a values that ranges from 1x10 -5 (Sr) to > 1x10 -3 m (Eu). The order of increasing sorption is: Sr, Cs, Ni, U, Np and Eu. For synthetic groundwater the sorption of U is stronger, at least initially, comparable with Eu. For Np, on the other hand, the sorption is weaker and comparable with Sr over the whole sampling period. Results from the batch experiments

  6. Evaluation on prebiotic properties of β-glucan and oligo-β-glucan from mushrooms by human fecal microbiota in fecal batch culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiraphon Chaikliang

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: β-glucan is dietary fiber, a structural polysaccharide, β-linked linear chains of D-glucose polymers with variable frequency of branches. β-glucan is isolated from different sources such as cell walls of baker’s yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae, cereals (oat and barley and various species of mushrooms. Among 8 mushrooms in the study, Schizophylum commune Fr and Auricularia auricula Judae had the highest in β-glucan contents and the cheapest cost of mushroom per content of β-glucan, respectively. Even the function of β-glucan on immune modulation has been known however no report on interaction between β-glucan and human gut microbiota. Gut microbiota is thought to have health effects by interaction with non-digestible component particular fermentable dietary fiber. It is important to correlate the specific groups of the microbial communities associated with β-glucan fermentation and the consequential SCFA profiles. β-glucan from mushroom may has potential prebiotic function similar to those from commercial yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae β-glucan. Objective: To evaluate on prebiotic properties of soluble β-glucans and oligo-β-glucans from Schizophylum commune Fr and Auricularia auricula Judae by fecal fermentation in batch culture. Methods: In vitro fecal fermentation in anaerobic batch cultures under simulated conditions similar to human colon with human faecal samples from three donors were performed. Comparison on 3 β-glucans and 2 oligo-β-glucans have been studied. Sample was taken at 0 h, 24 h and 48 h to analyze the numbers of bacterial changes by fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH technique. Short chain fatty acids (SCFA were analyzed by HPLC. The prebiotic index (PI was calculated according to the change of 5 specific bacterial genus within 48 h fermentation. Results: Soluble β-glucan from Auricularia auricula Judae increased numbers of bifidobacteria and lactobacillus significantly (P<0.05. The PI of

  7. Detection of Sialic Acid-Utilising Bacteria in a Caecal Community Batch Culture Using RNA-Based Stable Isotope Probing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wayne Young

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Sialic acids are monosaccharides typically found on cell surfaces and attached to soluble proteins, or as essential components of ganglioside structures that play a critical role in brain development and neural transmission. Human milk also contains sialic acid conjugated to oligosaccharides, glycolipids, and glycoproteins. These nutrients can reach the large bowel where they may be metabolised by the microbiota. However, little is known about the members of the microbiota involved in this function. To identify intestinal bacteria that utilise sialic acid within a complex intestinal community, we cultured the caecal microbiota from piglets in the presence of 13C-labelled sialic acid. Using RNA-based stable isotope probing, we identified bacteria that consumed 13C-sialic acid by fractionating total RNA in isopycnic buoyant density gradients followed by 16S rRNA gene analysis. Addition of sialic acid caused significant microbial community changes. A relative rise in Prevotella and Lactobacillus species was accompanied by a corresponding reduction in the genera Escherichia/Shigella, Ruminococcus and Eubacterium. Inspection of isotopically labelled RNA sequences suggests that the labelled sialic acid was consumed by a wide range of bacteria. However, species affiliated with the genus Prevotella were clearly identified as the most prolific users, as solely their RNA showed significantly higher relative shares among the most labelled RNA species. Given the relevance of sialic acid in nutrition, this study contributes to a better understanding of their microbial transformation in the intestinal tract with potential implications for human health.

  8. Response coefficient analysis of a fed-batch bioreactor to dissolved oxygen perturbation in complementary cultures during PHB production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patnaik Pratap R

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although the production of poly-β-hydroxybutyrate (PHB has many biological, energetic and environmental advantages over chemically synthesized polymers, synthetic polymers continue to be produced industrially since the productivities of fermentation processes fr PHB are not yet economically competitive. Improvement of a PHB fermentation requires good understanding and optimization under the realistic conditions of large bioreactors. Laboratory-scale studies have shown that co-cultures of Ralstonia eutropha and Lactobacillus delbrueckii generate better fermentation efficiencies than R. eutropha alone. In large bioreactors, incomplete dispersioin and perturbations in the dissolved oxygen (DO concentration, both of which affect the fermentation, have to be considered. This study analyzes the effect of DO fluctuations on bioreactor performance for both ideal and optimally dispersed broths. Results Response coefficient analysis was employed to obtain quantitative information on the effect of DO perturbations on different variables. Three values of the Peclet number (Pe cheracterized three levels of dispersion: Pe = 0.01 for nearly complete dispersion, Pe = 20 for optimum dispersion and Pe = 60 for insufficient dispersion. The response coefficients (RCs of the pairs of bacterial concentrations and the main substrates, glucose and ammonium chloride, showed contrasting variations with time. Lactate, a critical intermediate, and PHB had similar RC profiles but those of lactate were one to two orders of magnitude larger than other RCs. Significantly, the optimum Pe also resulted in the largest RCs, suggesting a balance between productivity and reactor stability. Conclusion Since R. eutropha requires oxygen for its growth whereas L. delbrueckii does not, fluctuations in the DO concentartion have a strong influence on the fermentation. Apart from this, the mechanism of PHB biosynthesis indicates that control of lactate is a critical

  9. Trans-cultural nursing: Exploring the experiences of international ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Namibian health care services as visiting nurses. Three themes emerged, namely (1) experiences relating to recognition of differences in care delivery, (2) experiences relating to feelings of culture shock, and (3) appreciation for experiencing a cultural encounter. Based on these themes, guidelines were constructed.

  10. Australian midwives' experiences of their workplace culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catling, Christine J; Reid, Fiona; Hunter, Billie

    2017-04-01

    A number of adverse events in Australia and overseas have highlighted the need to examine the workplace culture in the maternity environment. Little attention has been paid to the midwifery workplace culture in Australia. The study aimed to explore the midwifery workplace culture from the perspective of midwives themselves. A qualitative descriptive design was used. Group and individual interviews were undertaken of urban, regional and rural-based midwives in Australia. Data were analysed thematically. The study showed that both new and experienced midwives felt frustrated by organisational environments and attitudes, and expressed strategies to cope with this. Five themes were identified from the data. These were: Bullying and resilience, Fatigued and powerless midwives, Being 'hampered by the environment', and The importance of support for midwifery. The study discusses the themes in depth. In particular, discussion focusses on how midwifery practise was affected by midwives' workplace culture and model of care, and the importance of supportive relationships from peers and managers. This study illuminated both positive and negative aspects of the midwifery workplace culture in Australia. One way to ensure the wellbeing and satisfaction of midwives in order to maintain the midwifery workforce and provide quality care to women and their families is to provide positive workplace cultures. Copyright © 2016 Australian College of Midwives. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Pro Spring Batch

    CERN Document Server

    Minella, Michael T

    2011-01-01

    Since its release, Spring Framework has transformed virtually every aspect of Java development including web applications, security, aspect-oriented programming, persistence, and messaging. Spring Batch, one of its newer additions, now brings the same familiar Spring idioms to batch processing. Spring Batch addresses the needs of any batch process, from the complex calculations performed in the biggest financial institutions to simple data migrations that occur with many software development projects. Pro Spring Batch is intended to answer three questions: *What? What is batch processing? What

  12. Previous International Experience, Cross-Cultural Training, and Expatriates' Cross-Cultural Adjustment: Effects of Cultural Intelligence and Goal Orientation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koo Moon, Hyoung; Kwon Choi, Byoung; Shik Jung, Jae

    2012-01-01

    Although various antecedents of expatriates' cross-cultural adjustment have been addressed, previous international experience, predeparture cross-cultural training, and cultural intelligence (CQ) have been most frequently examined. However, there are few attempts that explore the effects of these antecedents simultaneously or consider the possible…

  13. Culture Clash: Shona (Zimbabwean) Migrant Women's Experiences ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper discusses the influence of cross-cultural modes of communication on perceptions of sexual health and wellbeing for Shona (Zimbabwean) women living in Australia and their children. Data was collected using focus groups in South Australia with fourteen women, between the ages of 29 and 53. Transcripts were ...

  14. Pre-Service Teachers' Cultural and Teaching Experiences Abroad

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ateskan, Armagan

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates Turkish pre-service teachers' experiences related to a two-month international teaching and cultural experience in the United States of America. In total, 289 graduate students from Turkey participated in a collaborative project from 2001 to 2010. The experience included an orientation week, six weeks of student teaching in…

  15. Study Abroad: Enhanced Learning Experience in Cultural Diversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaoko, Japheth

    2010-01-01

    This paper examines how a study abroad experiential learning course in diversity provided a cultural immersion experience for a group of social work students from a small private university in central Kentucky. The students participated in a three-week international education experience in Kenya and reported this experience helped them become more…

  16. Mutual effects of copper and phosphate on their interaction with γ-Al2O3: combined batch macroscopic experiments with DFT calculations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Xuemei; Yang, Shitong; Tan, Xiaoli; Chen, Changlun; Sheng, Guodong; Wang, Xiangke

    2012-10-30

    The mutual effects of Cu(II) and phosphate on their interaction with γ-Al(2)O(3) are investigated by using batch experiments combined with density functional theory (DFT) calculations. The results of batch experiments show that coexisting phosphate promotes the retention of Cu(II) on γ-Al(2)O(3), whereas phosphate retention is not affected by coexisting Cu(II) at low initial phosphate concentrations (≤ 3.6 mg P/L). Cu-phosphate aqueous complexes control Cu(II) retention through the formation of type B ternary surface complexes (where phosphate bridges γ-Al(2)O(3) and Cu(II)) at pH 5.5. This deduction is further supported by the results of DFT calculations. More specifically, the DFT calculation results indicate that the type B ternary surface complexes prefer to form outer-sphere or monodentate inner-sphere binding mode under our experimental conditions. The enhancement of phosphate retention on γ-Al(2)O(3) in the presence of Cu(II) at high initial phosphate concentrations (>3.6 mg P/L) may be attributed to the formation of 1:2 Cu(II)-phosphate species and/or surface precipitates. Understanding the mutual effects of phosphate and Cu(II) on their mobility and transport in mineral/water environments is more realistic to design effective remediation strategies for reducing their negative impacts on aquatic/terrestrial environments. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Generality and cultural variation in the experience of regret

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Breugelmans, S.M.; Zeelenberg, M.; Gilovich, T.; Huang, W.H.; Shani, Y.

    2014-01-01

    Regret is the prototypical decision-related emotion. Most theory and research on regret comes from the United States and Europe, but recent research has suggested potential cross-cultural differences in regret. We examined generality and cultural variation in the experience of regret. A

  18. An Intensive Cultural Experience in a Rural Area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Mary Durand; Olivares, Sergio A.; Kim, Hyun Jung; Beilke, Cheryle

    2003-01-01

    Discusses how, following an intensive 2-day clinical experience for nursing students in a rural, culturally diverse region, student evaluations and papers showed evidence of cultural learning and increased knowledge of rural health care systems. Includes reflections by a teaching associate and two students. (Contains 33 references.) (SK)

  19. Culturally-Anchored Values and University Education Experience Perception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitsis, Ann; Foley, Patrick

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to examine whether business students' gender, age and culturally-anchored values affect their perceptions of their university course experience. Design/methodology/approach: Culturally diverse business students (n 1/4 548) studying at an Australian university were surveyed using previously established scales.…

  20. Investigation of students' experiences of gendered cultures in engineering workplaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Male, Sally A.; Gardner, Anne; Figueroa, Eugenia; Bennett, Dawn

    2018-05-01

    Women remain severely under-represented in engineering in Australia as in all Western countries. This limits the pool of talent, standpoints and approaches within the profession. Furthermore, this under-representation equates to restriction of the benefits of being an engineer mainly to men. Gendered workplace experiences have been found to contribute to women leaving the profession. In this study we explore students' experiences of gendered cultures in engineering workplaces, using interviews with a purposive sample of 13 students (4 male) recruited following a previous survey. Although the overall experience of workplace learning is positive for many students, male and female engineering students reported experiences consistent with masculine cultures. Educators and employers must proactively lead improvements to the culture in engineering workplaces, prepare students for gendered workplaces and support students to reflect during and after workplace experiences. The experiences presented here could be adapted to enhance inclusivity training.

  1. Using AI to Access and Experience Cultural Heritage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L. Hardman (Lynda); L. Aroyo (Lora); J.R. van Ossenbruggen (Jacco); E. Hyvönen

    2009-01-01

    htmlabstractCultural heritage involves rich and highly heterogeneous collections of different people, organizations and collections. Preserved mainly by professionals it is challenging to convey this diversity of perspectives and information to the general public. Professionals also experience a

  2. Volatilization of Po by microorganisms at laboratory culture experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Momoshima, N.; Ishida, A.; Yoshinaga, C.; Fukuda, A.

    2005-01-01

    The previous experiments proved the volatility of polonium form culture medium in which microorganisms were propagated from seed of seawater, river water or pond water, therefore we did not know what kind of species are responsible to Po volatility. To search microorganisms, which concerned with Po emission we carried out culture experiments using known microorganisms. Three microorganisms were examined; Escherichia coli K-12, Bacillus subtilis and Chromobacterium violaceum. The microorganisms were pre-cultured in LB medium at 30 degree C and a small portion of the pre-cultured was transferred to a culture bottle in which LB medium and 208 Po tracer were contained. The culture was done at 30 degree C with shaking the culture bottle and air passed through a filter was introduced. The Po volatilized was transferred into the trap vials in which scintillator for liquid scintillation counting (LSC) was contained. The Po activity was measured by LSC. All of the microorganisms examined volatilized Po but their ability was quite different each other. Highest ability was observed on Chromobacterium violaceum and then Escherichia coli K-12 followed by Bacillus subtilis, the relative magnitude of the ability was 10 2 , 10, 1, respectively. Chromobacterium violaceum and Escherichia coli K-12 showed high volatility for the first 24 h but Escherichia coli K-12 showed a decrease thereafter. However high volatility was continued on Chromobacterium violaceum during the culture. The low culture temperature suppressed Po volatility, supporting biologically mediated Po emission from the culture.

  3. A cultural perspective on emotional experiences across the life span.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossmann, Igor; Karasawa, Mayumi; Kan, Chiemi; Kitayama, Shinobu

    2014-08-01

    Past research suggests that older adults place a greater priority on goals of maintaining positive experiences and distancing from negative experiences. We hypothesized that these aging-related differences in emotional experiences are more pronounced in Western cultures that encourage linear approaches to well-being compared with Eastern cultures that encourage more dialectic approaches to well-being. We compared reports of positive and negative emotional experiences from random samples of Americans (a culture characterized by focus on positive and distancing from negative experiences) and Japanese (a culture characterized by its endorsement of dialectical experiences). In support of our hypothesis, older Americans reported significantly less negative emotions in unpleasant situations, relative to their younger counterparts. Furthermore, both trait-level negativity (i.e., rumination) and interpersonal negativity (i.e., recall of unpleasant relationships and intensity of an unpleasant interpersonal experience) were lower among older compared with younger Americans. In contrast, such aging-related effects were absent in the Japanese respondents. Even though older and younger Japanese reported the same amount of negative emotions in unpleasant situations, older Japanese also reported more positive emotions in the same unpleasant situations. Together, these findings highlight the role of culture for understanding how emotional experiences unfold across adulthood.

  4. Simulated Batch Production of Penicillin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitaker, A.; Walker, J. D.

    1973-01-01

    Describes a program in applied biology in which the simulation of the production of penicillin in a batch fermentor is used as a teaching technique to give students experience before handling a genuine industrial fermentation process. Details are given for the calculation of minimum production cost. (JR)

  5. Hybrid Experience Space for Cultural Heritage Communication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Veirum, Niels Einar; Christensen, Mogens Fiil; Mayerhofer, Mikkel

    2006-01-01

    by daily use of experience products like computer-games, IMAX cinemas and theme parks featuring virtual reality installations. “It’s a question of stone-axe displays versus Disney-power installations” as one of the involved museum professionals point it, “but we don’t want any of these possibilities...

  6. Batch and flow-through continuous stirred reactor experiments of Sr2+-adsorption onto smectite: influence of pH, concentration and ionic strength

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guimaraes, V.; Azenha, M.; Silva, A.F.; Bobos, I.

    2012-01-01

    Document available in extended abstract form only. Strontium-90 (t 1/2 = 29.1 years) resulting from the nuclear fission process is one of the main constituents connected with nuclear waste fuel. Concerning the physical properties and sorption behaviour one of the suitable buffer materials used as a backfill in the geological disposal systems for high-level radioactive wastes is smectite. The 2 μm clay fractions of di-octahedral smectite were used for adsorption experiments in batch and flow-through experiments. Flow-through experiments were carried out at different pH (4 and 8) and concentrations (8.00x10 -2 mmolSr 2+ /L, 2.0x10 -1 mmolSr 2+ /L, 3.3x10 -1 mmolSr 2+ /L and 4.1 x10 -1 mmol Sr 2+ /L). Batch experiments were carried out at different ionic strength ([KNO 3 ]=10 -2 M and [KNO 3 ]=10 -3 M), pH (4 and 8), whereas the concentration ranged between 0.19 mmolSr 2+ /L and 9.60 mmolSr 2+ /L. The adsorption strontium rate in flow-through experiments was found higher at pH 4 than at pH 8, where less of 20% amount of strontium was adsorbed on clay surface after 34 hours. This is explained by the surface charge of smectite layers with a permanent negative charge on the basal planes due essentially to isomorphic substitution. Also additional polar sites are conditionally charged by direct protonation of outer edge surfaces. Therefore, more negative sites become available for the strontium ions sorption, as the pH increasing. After adsorption, the clays were submitted to a desorption process. The rate of desorption at pH 4 is initially too fast due to the elevated amount of strontium released by smectite. After 255 min, the strontium amount desorbed is very low and the rate of desorption approached to zero. By contrast at pH 8 the rate of desorption is practically constant, and after 255 min there is a significant amount of strontium released by clay. Due to these different behaviors in different pH conditions, after 10 hours of desorption, the amount of strontium

  7. Simultaneous Transformation of Commingled Trichloroethylene, Tetrachloroethylene, and 1,4-Dioxane by a Microbially Driven Fenton Reaction in Batch Liquid Cultures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekar, Ramanan; Taillefert, Martial

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Improper disposal of 1,4-dioxane and the chlorinated organic solvents trichloroethylene (TCE) and tetrachloroethylene (also known as perchloroethylene [PCE]) has resulted in widespread contamination of soil and groundwater. In the present study, a previously designed microbially driven Fenton reaction system was reconfigured to generate hydroxyl (HO˙) radicals for simultaneous transformation of source zone levels of single, binary, and ternary mixtures of TCE, PCE, and 1,4-dioxane. The reconfigured Fenton reaction system was driven by fed batch cultures of the Fe(III)-reducing facultative anaerobe Shewanella oneidensis amended with lactate, Fe(III), and contaminants and exposed to alternating anaerobic and aerobic conditions. To avoid contaminant loss due to volatility, the Fe(II)-generating, hydrogen peroxide-generating, and contaminant transformation phases of the microbially driven Fenton reaction system were separated. The reconfigured Fenton reaction system transformed TCE, PCE, and 1,4-dioxane either as single contaminants or as binary and ternary mixtures. In the presence of equimolar concentrations of PCE and TCE, the ratio of the experimentally derived rates of PCE and TCE transformation was nearly identical to the ratio of the corresponding HO˙ radical reaction rate constants. The reconfigured Fenton reaction system may be applied as an ex situ platform for simultaneous degradation of commingled TCE, PCE, and 1,4-dioxane and provides valuable information for future development of in situ remediation technologies. IMPORTANCE A microbially driven Fenton reaction system [driven by the Fe(III)-reducing facultative anaerobe S. oneidensis] was reconfigured to transform source zone levels of TCE, PCE, and 1,4-dioxane as single contaminants or as binary and ternary mixtures. The microbially driven Fenton reaction may thus be applied as an ex situ platform for simultaneous degradation of at least three (and potentially more) commingled contaminants

  8. Cultural experiences of immigrant nurses at two hospitals in Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, Gabriel; Angélica-Muñoz, Luz; Hoga, Luiza Akiko Komura

    2014-01-01

    to explore the cultural experiences of nurses who immigrated to Chile. The study's theoretical framework was the Purnell Model for Cultural Competence. Leininger's Observation-Participation-Reflection method was developed at two hospitals in the city of Santiago, and ethnographic interviews were held with 15 immigrant nurses. among Purnell's 12 domains, the following were identified: Overview/heritage, Communication, Workforce issues, Family roles and organization, Biocultural ecology and Health-care practices. The difficulties were related to the language and its semantic meaning, the new responsibilities and the difficult relationship with colleagues. "In search of better horizons - the decision to immigrate", "Gaining confidence and establishing a support network - employability and professional performance" and "Seeking for people's acceptance - professional adaptation in a new cultural scenario" are cultural themes that represent their experiences. the competence to offer cultural care demands the development of public policies and continuing education programs at health institutions, specifically focused on immigrant nurses.

  9. Modacrylic anion-exchange fibers for Cr(VI) removal from chromium-plating rinse water in batch and flow-through column experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seung-Chan; Kang, Jin-Kyu; Sim, Eun-Hye; Choi, Nag-Choul; Kim, Song-Bae

    2017-11-10

    The aim of this study was to investigate Cr(VI) removal from chromium-plating rinse water using modacrylic anion-exchange fibers (KaracaronTM KC31). Batch experiments were performed with synthetic Cr(VI) solutions to characterize the KC31 fibers in Cr(VI) removal. Cr(VI) removal by the fibers was affected by solution pH; the Cr(VI) removal capacity was the highest at pH 2 and decreased gradually with a pH increase from 2 to 12. In regeneration and reuse experiments, the Cr(VI) removal capacity remained above 37.0 mg g -1 over five adsorption-desorption cycles, demonstrating that the fibers could be successfully regenerated with NaCl solution and reused. The maximum Cr(VI) removal capacity was determined to be 250.3 mg g -1 from the Langmuir model. In Fourier-transform infrared spectra, a Cr = O peak newly appeared at 897 cm -1 after Cr(VI) removal, whereas a Cr-O peak was detected at 772 cm -1 due to the association of Cr(VI) ions with ion-exchange sites. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analyses demonstrated that Cr(VI) was partially reduced to Cr(III) after the ion exchange on the surfaces of the fibers. Batch experiments with chromium-plating rinse water (Cr(VI) concentration = 1178.8 mg L -1 ) showed that the fibers had a Cr(VI) removal capacity of 28.1-186.4 mg g -1 under the given conditions (fiber dose = 1-10 g L -1 ). Column experiments (column length = 10 cm, inner diameter = 2.5 cm) were conducted to examine Cr(VI) removal from chromium-plating rinse water by the fibers under flow-through column conditions. The Cr(VI) removal capacities for the fibers at flow rates of 0.5 and 1.0 mL min -1 were 214.8 and 171.5 mg g -1 , respectively. This study demonstrates that KC31 fibers are effective in the removal of Cr(VI) ions from chromium-plating rinse water.

  10. Batch and column studies of adsorption of Li, Ni and Br by a reference sand for contaminant transport experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seigel, M.D.; Ward, D.B.; Bryan, C.R.

    1995-09-01

    A processed quartz sand (Wedron 510), mined from the St. Peter sandstone, has been characterized by a variety of chemical and physical methods for use as a reference porous media in transport model validation experiments. Wedron 510 sand was used in an intermediate-scale experiment involving migration of Ni, Li and Br through a 6-m high x 3-m diameter caisson. Ni and Li adsorption/desorption, and Li/Ni site-competition experiments yielded information on the importance of the trace mineral phases to adsorption of Li and Ni by the sand. The presence of an iron hydroxide coating similar to goethite on the sand grains is suggested by visual observation and leaching experiments. Kaolinite was identified by SEM and XRD as a significant trace mineral phase in the sand and occurs as small particles coating the sand grains. Quartz, the predominant constituent of the sand by weight, does not appear to contribute significantly to the adsorption properties of the sand. Qualitatively, the adsorption properties of the sand can be adequately modeled as a two-mineral system (goethite and kaolinite). The studies described in this report should provide a basis for understanding transport of Ni, Li and Br through porous media similar to the reference sand. Techniques were developed for obtaining parameter values for surface complexation and kinetic adsorption models for the sand and its mineral components. These constants can be used directly in coupled hydrogeochemical transport codes. The techniques should be useful for characterization of other natural materials and elements in high-level nuclear waste in support of coupled hydrogeochemical transport calculations for Yucca Mountain

  11. Growth and exopolysaccharide yield of Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus DSM 20081 in batch and continuous bioreactor experiments at constant pH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mende, Susann; Krzyzanowski, Leona; Weber, Jost; Jaros, Doris; Rohm, Harald

    2012-02-01

    Some Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus strains are able to synthesize exopolysaccharides (EPS) and are therefore highly important for the dairy industry as starter cultures. The aim of this study was to investigate the nutritional requirements for growth and EPS production of Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus DSM 20081. A medium was developed from a semi-defined medium (SDM) in which glucose was replaced by lactose and different combinations of supplements (nucleobases, vitamins, salts, sodium formate and orotic acid) were added. Constant pH batch fermentation with the modified medium resulted in an EPS yield of approximately 210 mg glucose equivalents per liter medium. This was a 10-fold increase over flask cultivation of this strain in SDM. Although not affecting cell growth, the mixture of salts enhanced the EPS synthesis. Whereas EPS production was approximately 12 mg/g dry biomass without salt supplementation, a significantly higher yield (approximately 20 mg/g dry biomass) was observed after adding the salt mixture. In continuous fermentation, a maximal EPS concentration was obtained at a dilution rate of 0.31/h (80 mg EPS/L), which corresponded to a specific EPS production of 49 mg/g dry biomass. Copyright © 2011 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Energy saving options for glass furnaces & recovery of heat from their flue gases and experiences with batch & cullet pre-heaters applied in the glass industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beerkens, R.G.C.

    2009-01-01

    Several measures, such as changes in batch composition (less batch humidity), or optimization of operating conditions, and limiting the combustion air excess, can lead to typically 2-8 % of energy savings of industrial glass furnaces. Larger energy savings are only possible by new furnace designs,

  13. Regulation of Autotrophic and Heterotrophic Metabolism in Pseudomonas oxalaticus OX1. Growth on Fructose and on Mixtures of Fructose and Formate in Batch and Continuous Cultures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkhuizen, L.; Harder, W.

    1984-01-01

    In Pseudomonas oxalaticus the synthesis of enzymes involved in autotrophic CO2 fixation via the Calvin cycle is regulated by repression/derepression. During growth of the organism on fructose alone, the synthesis of ribulosebisphosphate carboxylase (RuBPCase) remained fully repressed, both in batch

  14. The Transitional Experience: An Alternative View of Culture Shock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adler, Peter S.

    1975-01-01

    This article contended that the problems and frustrations encountered in the culture shock process are important to an understanding of change and movement experiences, and that such transitional experiences can be the source of higher levels of personality development. (Author/RK)

  15. Adsorption of arsenic and phosphate onto the surface of calcite as revealed by batch experiments and surface complexation modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sø, Helle Ugilt

    different calcite-equilibrated solutions that varied in pH, PCO2, ionic strength and activity of Ca2+, CO3 2- and HCO3 -. To avoid the precipitation of phosphate or arsenic-containing minerals the experiments were conducted using a short reaction time (generally 3 h) and a low concentration of phosphate...... adsorption affinity for calcite is greater as compared to arsenate and the phosphate sorption isotherms are more strongly curved. However, the amount of both arsenate and phosphate adsorbed varied with the solution composition in the same manner. In particular, adsorption increased as the CO3 2- activity...... decreased (at constant pH) and as pH increased (at constant CO3 2- activity). The dependency on the carbonate activity indicates competition for sorption sites between carbonate and arsenate/phosphate, whereas the pH dependency is likely a response to changes in arsenate and phosphate speciation...

  16. Calibration of new batches and a study of applications of nuclear track detectors under the harsh conditions of nuclear fusion experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malinowska, A., E-mail: a.malinowska@ncbj.gov.pl [National Centre for Nuclear Research, Andrzeja Soltana 7 Str., 05-400 Otwock (Poland); Szydlowski, A.; Jaskola, M.; Korman, A.; Malinowski, K.; Kuk, M. [National Centre for Nuclear Research, Andrzeja Soltana 7 Str., 05-400 Otwock (Poland)

    2012-06-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Each new batch of PM-355 material should be carefully calibrated. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The detectors heated at a temperature higher than 100 Degree-Sign C demonstrate v nearly equal to 1. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The dependence of V{sub B} on the temperature is similar to the dependence of V{sub B} on the dose of electron and gamma radiation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The aging effect of these materials also has a significant influence on the track diameter. - Abstract: This paper describes calibration studies of PM-355 detectors manufactured at different times in order to compare their sensitivity to the investigated ions. These studies were motivated by the application of solid-state nuclear track detectors (SSNTDs) in fusion experiments to measure energetic ions escaping from high-temperature plasmas. The CR-39 detector and its new versions such as PM-355, PM-500, PM-600 have been examined for several years at our institute. The PM-355 plastic appeared to be the best, especially for the detection of light ions. However, to use these detectors optimally, especially in spectroscopic measurements, each new batch of PM-355 material should be carefully calibrated. In high temperature plasma experiments the detectors operate under harsh conditions of high temperature, heat impact, intense X-ray, neutron and fast electron radiation. In order to evaluate the effect of these conditions on the crater formation process, some of the {alpha} particle- and proton-irradiated PM-355 detector samples were heated in an oven and then etched and scanned. Other alpha- and proton-irradiated samples were exposed to {gamma} and electron radiation of doses varying from 100 to 2000 kGy. The irradiated samples were then etched in steps and the bulk etching rate v{sub B} of the PM-355 material was determined. The craters induced by the projectiles in both heated and {gamma} and electron irradiated samples differ considerably from the

  17. Generality and cultural variation in the experience of regret.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breugelmans, Seger M; Zeelenberg, Marcel; Gilovich, Thomas; Huang, Wen-Hsien; Shani, Yaniv

    2014-12-01

    Regret is the prototypical decision-related emotion. Most theory and research on regret comes from the United States and Europe, but recent research has suggested potential cross-cultural differences in regret. We examined generality and cultural variation in the experience of regret. A cross-cultural study compared experiences of regret with those of disappointment and guilt as reported by participants from the United States (n = 143), the Netherlands (n = 147), Israel (n = 148), and Taiwan (n = 115). We found strong evidence for generality of the distinct emotion components of regret, compared with those of disappointment and guilt. We also found cultural variation in the frequency and intensity of regret in intrapersonal situations (regrets about outcomes affecting the self) and interpersonal regrets (regrets about outcomes affecting others). Whereas in the U.S. sample, regret was experienced more intensely in intrapersonal than interpersonal situations, both emotions were experienced more intensely in interpersonal situations in the Taiwanese sample.

  18. Simulation of kefiran production of Lactobacillus kefiranofaciens JCM6985 in fed-batch reactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamas Cheirsilp

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Kinetics of kefiran production by Lactobacillus kefiranofaciens JCM6985 has been investigated. A mathematical model taking into account the mechanism of exopolysaccharides production has been developed. Experiments were carried out in batch mode in order to obtain kinetic model parameters that were further applied to simulate fed-batch processes. A simplification of parameter fitting was also introduced for complicated model. The fed-batch mode allows more flexibility in the control of the substrate concentration as well as product concentration in the culture medium. Based on the batch mathematical model, a fed-batch model was developed and simulations were done. Simulation study in fed-batch reactor resulted that substrate concentration should be controlled at 20 g L-1 to soften the product inhibition and also to stimulate utilization of substrate and its hydrolysate. From simulation results of different feeding techniques, it was found that constant feeding at 0.01 L h-1 was most practically effective feeding profile for exopolysaccharides production in fed-batch mode.

  19. CROSS-CULTURAL EXPERIMENTS AS AN ADAPTATION STRATEGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    И И Подойницына

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The article considers methodological and empirical aspects of cross-cultural communica-tions under the economic and cultural globalization that determined the free movement of labor migrants around the world though this process is accompanied by certain difficulties. The authors believe that even a theoretically prepared person that knows about the influence of cultural differences on the organizational management in different countries will experience a cultural shock when working abroad. The cultural shock is a discomfort, frustration and even depression caused by getting into an unfamiliar environment. At the applied level, the authors analyze the so-called ‘cross-cultural experiments’ - attempts of an individual (a working specialist of a certain nation to test one’s strength, skills, and professional competencies in a foreign company. The authors’ sociological study of a cultural benchmarking type consisted of two stages. At the first stage, foreigners working in the capital of the Republic of Sakha (Yakutia were inter-viewed; at the second stage, the Russians working abroad, mainly in the USA, were interviewed. The migra-tion flows from China have recently intensified in Yakutia, but the overwhelming majority of labor migrants are still from West and Central Asia, mainly from Tajikistan, Kyrgyzstan, and Armenia. The foreigners working in Yakutia and Russians working abroad experience same difficulties of adaptation in a new col-lective. Friends, relatives, members of the ethnic community, but not specially trained cross-cultural coaches and mentors, help them with adaptation. Such a personnel technology as selection, recruitment and headhunt-ing works reasonably well, while other HR technologies of cross-cultural management (motivation, feedback, etc. are still lagging behind. The authors insist on introducing courses on cross-cultural adaptation in interna-tional groups both in Russia and abroad together with a system of the so

  20. Experiences of Cultural Activities provided by the Employer in Finland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katinka Tuisku

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The increasing mental demands of healthcare work call for developing complementary health promotion strategies. Cultural leisure activities have long been recognized as a source of wellbeing and coping for employees. Yet, little is known about implementation of employer-provided cultural activities—how they are encountered and experienced. In this study, a public sector hospital department offered monthly cultural events for personnel: Theater, concerts, musicals, dance-performances, museum visits and sight-seeing. A digital questionnaire was sent to hospital staff (N = 769 to ask about their participation in employer-provided cultural activities during the past 6 months. The motives and obstacles for participation, and the quality of experience of the cultural events, were explored quantitatively and qualitatively. The main motives for participation were related to well-being, content of cultural events and invitations from employer or colleagues. For some, the participation was hampered by work-shifts and missing information. The participants experienced recreation, relaxation and psychological detachment from strain, which is essential for recovery. Community participation was more common than individual participation. Shared cultural experiences among employees may increase the social capital at workplace, but equal access for all employees should be guaranteed.

  1. Cross-cultural psychiatric residency training: the Oregon experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boehnlein, James K; Leung, Paul K; Kinzie, John David

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to describe the goals and structure of cross-cultural psychiatric training at Oregon Health and Science University (OHSU). This training in core knowledge, skills, and attitudes of cultural psychiatry over the past three decades has included medical students, residents, and fellows, along with allied mental health personnel. The curriculum includes both didactic sessions devoted to core topics in the field and varied clinical experiences in community settings and the Intercultural Psychiatric Program under the supervision of experienced academic faculty. The authors review the central elements of the training experiences and include a detailed description of the core clinical settings and experiences. At the conclusion of their clinical experiences, trainees have specialized cross-cultural psychiatric knowledge and skills, including treatment of refugees and immigrants, sociocultural variables that influence the assessment and treatment of a wide range of psychiatric conditions, and comfort with cultural dynamics that influence both the doctor/patient relationship and collaboration with a wide range of mental health professionals. Because of rapid demographic changes in the U.S. population, providing cross-cultural training for students, residents, and fellows is an essential foundation for the education of the next generation of clinicians and health care leaders. OHSU has provided a long-term model for this training in a busy clinical and academic setting that places an emphasis on multidisciplinary and multicultural collaboration.

  2. Perfusion based cell culture chips

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heiskanen, Arto; Emnéus, Jenny; Dufva, Martin

    2010-01-01

    Performing cell culture in miniaturized perfusion chambers gives possibilities to experiment with cells under near in vivo like conditions. In contrast to traditional batch cultures, miniaturized perfusion systems provide precise control of medium composition, long term unattended cultures...... and tissue like structuring of the cultures. However, as this chapter illustrates, many issues remain to be identified regarding perfusion cell culture such as design, material choice and how to use these systems before they will be widespread amongst biomedical researchers....

  3. On-line monitoring of important organoleptic methyl-branched aldehydes during batch fermentation of starter culture Staphylococcus xylosus reveal new insight into their production in a model fermentation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Vos Petersen, Christian; Beck, Hans Christian; Lauritsen, Frants R

    2004-01-01

    A small fermentor (55 mL) was directly interfaced to a membrane inlet mass spectrometer for continuous on-line monitoring of oxygen and volatile metabolites during batch fermentations of the starter culture Staphylococcus xylosus. Using this technique, we were able to correlate production...... of a longer aerobic growth period. Growing S. xylosus under conditions resembling those in a fermented sausage revealed that NaCl (5%) increased aldehyde production considerably, whereas KNO(3) (0.03%) or NaNO(2) (0.03%) had little effect. A lowering of pH from 7.2 to 6.0 reduced cell density, but had a minor...

  4. Influences of incubation temperature and various saccharides on the production of organic acids and gases by gut microbes of rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss in a micro-scale batch culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kihara, M; Sakata, T

    2001-08-01

    We studied the influence of incubation temperature and additional saccharides on the metabolism of hindgut microbes of the rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss in a 50 microl-scale batch culture system. Intestinal contents of rainbow trout reared at 15 degrees C were incubated with glucose, lactosucrose, sodium alginate or colloidal chitin (each 10 g/l) at 15 degrees C or 25 degrees C for 12 h. Levels of organic acids at 0 h and 12 h of incubation were quantified with HPLC. We also monitored gas release from these cultures during incubation. The main product was iso-butyric acid, except for the cultures with colloidal chitin where no net production of organic acids was observed. We detected higher levels of iso-butyric acid in cultures with lactosucrose than in the other cultures. Net production of this acid was less in cultures with colloidal chitin than in blank cultures. The volume of released gas was larger when incubated at 25 degrees C than at 15 degrees C. Cultures with colloidal chitin released more gas than blank cultures when they were incubated at 15 degrees C. Cultures with sodium alginate released less gas than blank cultures irrespective of incubation temperature. These results indicate that the hindgut microbes of this carnivorous fish mainly produce branched-chain fatty acids, very likely by microbial digestion of nitrogenous materials rather than saccharides. However, additional saccharides affected production of branched-chain fatty acids. The influence of incubation temperature in the present study also suggested that the environmental temperature of host fish should affect microbial digestion in the fish gut.

  5. Cultural based preconceptions in aesthetic experience of architecture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stevanović Vladimir

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available On a broader scale, the aim of this paper is to examine theoretically the effects a cultural context has on the aesthetic experience of images existing in perceived reality. Minimalism in architecture, as direct subject of research, is a field of particularities in which we observe functioning of this correlation. Through the experiment with the similarity phenomenon, the paper follows specific manifestations of general formal principles and variability of meaning of minimalism in architecture in limited areas of cultural backgrounds of Serbia and Japan. The goal of the comparative analysis of the examples presented is to indicate the conditions that may lead to a possibly different aesthetic experience in two different cultural contexts. Attribution of different meanings to similar formal visual language of architecture raises questions concerning the system of values, which produces these meanings in their cultural and historical perspectives. The establishment of values can also be affected by preconceptions resulting from association of perceived similarities. Are the preconceptions in aesthetic reception of architecture conditionally affected by pragmatic needs, symbolic archetypes, cultural metaphors based on tradition or ideologically constructed dogmas? Confronting philosophical postulates of the Western and Eastern traditions with the transculturality theory of Wolfgang Welsch, the answers may become more available.

  6. The use of fed batch approaches to maximise yields in bacterial fermentation and protein expression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McLean, A.

    2001-01-01

    A fermentation facility for the scale up of bacterial and yeast fermentations has been set up at the University of Queensland under the auspices of the ARC Special Research Centre for Functional and Applied Genomics. A major application is the production of recombinant proteins for determination of tertiary structures by X-ray crystallography or nuclear magnetic resonance. For this purpose, large amounts of protein arc needed and the yield from a single fermentation run is crucial to success within constrained laboratory budgets. To achieve maximal yields we are optimising fed batch approaches in bacterial fermentation. Fed batch offers many advantages over batch cultures. Coupled with the ability to monitor online the internal conditions of the fermentation including pH and dissolved oxygen and stirrer cascading functions it is possible to ensure that the nutritional environment of the microorganism is optimised for its growth and or for optimal protein expression. The poster will describe some of our experience in setting up fed batch fermentations and successful applications of fed batches to increasing protein yield. It will also outline services that are available to academic groups outside the University of Queensland For structure determination and functional studies, the production of radiolabelled proteins can also be an advantage. We will describe initial experiments aimed at coupling the principles of fed batch fermentation to the introduction of carbon or nitrogen isotopes into the recombinant protein

  7. Navigating across Cultures: Narrative Constructions of Lived Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pufall-Jones, Elizabeth; Mistry, Jayanthi

    2010-01-01

    In this study, we investigated how individuals from diverse backgrounds learn to navigate the many worlds in which they live and explore how variations in life experiences are associated with aspects of navigating across cultures. We conducted the study using a phenomenological approach based on retrospective personal narratives from 19 young…

  8. Forming Pedagogical Aesthetic Culture of Students in British Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papushyna, Valentyna

    2017-01-01

    The author of the article analyzes the concept and primary factors of personality aesthetic culture development in the context of higher education in England. The scholars' works and pedagogical advanced experience of the country nowadays pay special attention to forming personal creativity and self-realization of modern specialists. They are…

  9. Developing International Managers: The Contribution of Cultural Experience to Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townsend, Peter; Regan, Padraic; Li, Liang Liang

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to evaluate cultural experience as a learning strategy for developing international managers. Design/methodology/approach: Using an integrated framework, two quantitative studies, based on empirical methodology, are conducted. Study 1, with an undergraduate sample situated in the Asia Pacific, aimed to examine…

  10. Creating Cultural Competence: An Outreach Immersion Experience in Southern Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    West-Olatunji, Cirecie; Goodman, Rachael D.; Mehta, Sejal; Templeton, Laura

    2011-01-01

    With disasters on the rise, counselors need to increase their cultural awareness, knowledge, and skills to work with affected communities. This study reports outcomes of a four-week immersion experience in southern Africa with six counselor-trainees. Data sources for this qualitative study were: daily journals and demographic forms. Outcomes…

  11. Temperature and pH optima of enzyme activities produced by cellulolytic thermophilic fungi in batch and solid-state cultures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grajek, W

    1986-01-01

    The temperature and pH optima of cellulolytic activities produced by thermophilic fungi in liquid and solid-state cultures were established. Some differences in optimal conditions for enzyme activities, which depended on culture methods, were confirmed. 10 references.

  12. Cultural experiences of immigrant nurses at two hospitals in Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Rodríguez

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: to explore the cultural experiences of nurses who immigrated to Chile. The study´s theoretical framework was the Purnell Model for Cultural Competence.METHOD: Leininger's Observation-Participation-Reflection method was developed at two hospitals in the city of Santiago, and ethnographic interviews were held with 15 immigrant nurses.RESULTS: among Purnell's 12 domains, the following were identified: Overview/heritage, Communication, Workforce issues, Family roles and organization, Biocultural ecology and Health-care practices. The difficulties were related to the language and its semantic meaning, the new responsibilities and the difficult relationship with colleagues. "In search of better horizons - the decision to immigrate", "Gaining confidence and establishing a support network - employability and professional performance" and "Seeking for people´s acceptance - professional adaptation in a new cultural scenario" are cultural themes that represent their experiences.CONCLUSIONS: the competence to offer cultural care demands the development of public policies and continuing education programs at health institutions, specifically focused on immigrant nurses.

  13. [Mental health beliefs between culture and subjective illness experience].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritter, Kristina; Chaudhry, Haroon R; Aigner, Martin; Zitterl, Werner; Stompe, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    Subjective health beliefs are representations about pathogenesis, course and treatment options of psychic as well as somatic illnesses. They are important for a psychotherapeutic interaction as well as for a stable drug adherence. However, it remains unclear whether these representations are primarily affected by the cultural background or by an individual's specific illness experiences, a question of increasing importance in our era of globalized migration. The study sample consisted of 203 Austrians (125 with schizophrenia, 78 with obsessivecompulsive disorder) and 190 Pakistanis (120 with schizophrenia, 70 with obsessive-compulsive disorder). All patients completed the "Causal Explanations of Mental Disorders" (CEMD), a 41-item self-rating questionnaire. Pakistani patients reported magic-religious oriented mental health beliefs more frequently. In contrast, Austrians' beliefs are more often in line with the bio-psychosocial explanations of Western medicine. Concerning mental health beliefs the cultural background seems to be more important than the subjective experience with a distinctive mental disorder. Although the subjective experience is of importance for the shape of illnessspecific cognitions, mental health beliefs are primarily caused by the patients' socio-cultural origin. It is a challenge for psychiatry to improve the co-operation with culture-anthropology and other social sciences.

  14. Social experience does not abolish cultural diversity in eye movements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David J Kelly

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Adults from Eastern (e.g., China and Western (e.g., USA cultural groups display pronounced differences in a range of visual processing tasks. For example, the eye movement strategies used for information extraction during a variety of face processing tasks (e.g., identification and facial expressions of emotion categorization differs across cultural groups. Currently, many of the differences reported in previous studies have asserted that culture itself is responsible for shaping the way we process visual information, yet this has never been directly investigated. In the current study, we assessed the relative contribution of genetic and cultural factors by testing face processing in a population of British Born Chinese (BBC adults using face recognition and expression classification tasks. Contrary to predictions made by the cultural differences framework, the majority of BBC adults deployed ‘Eastern’ eye movement strategies, while approximately 25% of participants displayed ‘Western’ strategies. Furthermore, the cultural eye movement strategies used by individuals were consistent across recognition and expression tasks. These findings suggest that ‘culture’ alone cannot straightforwardly account for diversity in eye movement patterns. Instead a more complex understanding of how the environment and individual experiences can influence the mechanisms that govern visual processing is required.

  15. CULTURAL TOURISM EXPERIENCE ON CUSTOMER SATISFACTION: EVIDENCE FROM THAILAND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanchana Sukanthasirikul

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the service quality of cultural tourism experience perceived by tourists on their satisfaction and further explores the relationships between perceived value, appraisal emotion, and customer satisfaction. A total of 327 respondents completed a survey conducted at two cultural festivals in Thailand. Using structural equation modeling (SEM technique, the results reveal the direct and positive effects of the service quality on perceived value, appraisal emotion, and customer satisfaction. This study summarizes the findings and offers some interesting implications for practitioners and researchers.

  16. The effect of high pH alkaline solutions on the mineral stability of the Boom Clay - Batch experiments at 60 deg. C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Honty, M.; De Craen, M.; Wang, L.; Madejova, J.; Czimerova, A.; Pentrak, M.; Stricek, I.; Van Geet, M.

    2010-01-01

    Boom Clay is currently viewed as a reference host formation for studies on deep geological disposal of radioactive waste in Belgium. The interactions between bulk rock Boom Clay and 0.1 M KOH, 0.1 M NaOH, 0.1 M Ca(OH) 2 , young cement water and evolved cement water solutions, ranging in pH from 12.5 to 13.2, were examined as static batch experiments at 60 deg. C to simulate alkaline plume perturbations, which are expected to occur in the repository due to the presence of concrete. Both liquids and solids were investigated at specific times between 90 and 510 days in order to control the elemental budget and to search for potential mineralogical alterations. Also, the clay fraction was separated from the whole-rock Boom Clay at the end of each run and characterized for its mineralogical composition. Thereby, the importance of the mineral matrix to buffer the alkaline attack and the role of organic matter to protect clay minerals were also addressed. The results indicate that the degree of geochemical perturbation in Boom Clay is dependent on the initial pH of the applied solution together with the nature of the major cation in the reactant fluids. The higher the initial pH of the media, the stronger its interaction with Boom Clay. No major non-clay mineralogical alteration of the Boom Clay was detected, but dissolution of kaolinite, smectite and illite occurred within the studied experimental conditions. The dissolution of clays is accompanied by the decrease in the layer charge, followed by a decrease in the cation-exchange capacity. The highest TOC values coincide with the highest total elemental concentrations in the leachates, and correspondingly, the highest dissolution degree. However, no quantitative link could be established between the degree of organic matter decomposition and clay dissolution.

  17. Light-optimized growth of cyanobacterial cultures: Growth phases and productivity of biomass and secreted molecules in light-limited batch growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Ryan L; McGinley, Laura L; Purdy, Hugh M; Korosh, Travis C; Reed, Jennifer L; Root, Thatcher W; Pfleger, Brian F

    2018-03-27

    Cyanobacteria are photosynthetic microorganisms whose metabolism can be modified through genetic engineering for production of a wide variety of molecules directly from CO 2 , light, and nutrients. Diverse molecules have been produced in small quantities by engineered cyanobacteria to demonstrate the feasibility of photosynthetic biorefineries. Consequently, there is interest in engineering these microorganisms to increase titer and productivity to meet industrial metrics. Unfortunately, differing experimental conditions and cultivation techniques confound comparisons of strains and metabolic engineering strategies. In this work, we discuss the factors governing photoautotrophic growth and demonstrate nutritionally replete conditions in which a model cyanobacterium can be grown to stationary phase with light as the sole limiting substrate. We introduce a mathematical framework for understanding the dynamics of growth and product secretion in light-limited cyanobacterial cultures. Using this framework, we demonstrate how cyanobacterial growth in differing experimental systems can be easily scaled by the volumetric photon delivery rate using the model organisms Synechococcus sp. strain PCC7002 and Synechococcus elongatus strain UTEX2973. We use this framework to predict scaled up growth and product secretion in 1L photobioreactors of two strains of Synechococcus PCC7002 engineered for production of l-lactate or L-lysine. The analytical framework developed in this work serves as a guide for future metabolic engineering studies of cyanobacteria to allow better comparison of experiments performed in different experimental systems and to further investigate the dynamics of growth and product secretion. Copyright © 2018 International Metabolic Engineering Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. SPS batch spacing optimisation

    CERN Document Server

    Velotti, F M; Carlier, E; Goddard, B; Kain, V; Kotzian, G

    2017-01-01

    Until 2015, the LHC filling schemes used the batch spac-ing as specified in the LHC design report. The maximumnumber of bunches injectable in the LHC directly dependson the batch spacing at injection in the SPS and hence onthe MKP rise time.As part of the LHC Injectors Upgrade project for LHCheavy ions, a reduction of the batch spacing is needed. In thisdirection, studies to approach the MKP design rise time of150ns(2-98%) have been carried out. These measurementsgave clear indications that such optimisation, and beyond,could be done also for higher injection momentum beams,where the additional slower MKP (MKP-L) is needed.After the successful results from 2015 SPS batch spacingoptimisation for the Pb-Pb run [1], the same concept wasthought to be used also for proton beams. In fact, thanksto the SPS transverse feed back, it was already observedthat lower batch spacing than the design one (225ns) couldbe achieved. For the 2016 p-Pb run, a batch spacing of200nsfor the proton beam with100nsbunch spacing wasreque...

  19. Reciprocity, culture and human cooperation: previous insights and a new cross-cultural experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gächter, Simon; Herrmann, Benedikt

    2009-03-27

    Understanding the proximate and ultimate sources of human cooperation is a fundamental issue in all behavioural sciences. In this paper, we review the experimental evidence on how people solve cooperation problems. Existing studies show without doubt that direct and indirect reciprocity are important determinants of successful cooperation. We also discuss the insights from a large literature on the role of peer punishment in sustaining cooperation. The experiments demonstrate that many people are 'strong reciprocators' who are willing to cooperate and punish others even if there are no gains from future cooperation or any other reputational gains. We document this in new one-shot experiments, which we conducted in four cities in Russia and Switzerland. Our cross-cultural approach allows us furthermore to investigate how the cultural background influences strong reciprocity. Our results show that culture has a strong influence on positive and in especially strong negative reciprocity. In particular, we find large cross-cultural differences in 'antisocial punishment' of pro-social cooperators. Further cross-cultural research and experiments involving different socio-demographic groups document that the antisocial punishment is much more widespread than previously assumed. Understanding antisocial punishment is an important task for future research because antisocial punishment is a strong inhibitor of cooperation.

  20. A fast approach to determine a fed batch feeding profile for recombinant Pichia pastoris strains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herwig Christoph

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The microorganism Pichia pastoris is a commonly used microbial host for the expression of recombinant proteins in biotechnology and biopharmaceutical industry. To speed up process development, a fast methodology to determine strain characteristic parameters, which are needed to subsequently set up fed batch feeding profiles, is required. Results Here, we show the general applicability of a novel approach to quantify a certain minimal set of bioprocess-relevant parameters, i.e. the adaptation time of the culture to methanol, the specific substrate uptake rate during the adaptation phase and the maximum specific substrate uptake rate, based on fast and easy-to-do batch cultivations with repeated methanol pulses in a batch culture. A detailed analysis of the adaptation of different P. pastoris strains to methanol was conducted and revealed that each strain showed very different characteristics during adaptation, illustrating the need of individual screenings for an optimal parameter definition during this phase. Based on the results obtained in batch cultivations, dynamic feeding profiles based on the specific substrate uptake rate were employed for different P. pastoris strains. In these experiments the maximum specific substrate uptake rate, which had been defined in batch experiments, also represented the upper limit of methanol uptake, underlining the validity of the determined process-relevant parameters and the overall experimental strategy. Conclusion In this study, we show that a fast approach to determine a minimal set of strain characteristic parameters based on easy-to-do batch cultivations with methanol pulses is generally applicable for different P. pastoris strains and that dynamic fed batch strategies can be designed on the specific substrate uptake rate without running the risk of methanol accumulation.

  1. Learning to Teach Culturally and Linguistically Diverse Students through Cross-Cultural Experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savva, Maria

    2017-01-01

    Teacher participation in cross-cultural experiences is often associated with the broadening of perspectives and increased intercultural sensitivity. While these qualities provide an overarching and important framework for intercultural development, they remain highly abstract. What exactly do we mean when we refer to these qualities? And in what…

  2. Hip Hop Culture's OGs: A Narrative Inquiry into the Intersection of Hip Hop Culture, Black Males and Their Schooling Experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchanan, Ian P.

    2013-01-01

    Using a critical race lens, this narrative study employs a focus group design to explore the intersections between black males, hip hop culture and schooling experiences. To provide a sociocultural grounding, this study first reviews the research literature around hip hop culture.s sociocultural development and its impact as a culture force that…

  3. Cultural conflicts in the weight loss experience of overweight Latinos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz, V A; Mainous, A G; Pope, C

    2007-02-01

    In spite of the high prevalence of obesity in the Latino population, there is limited recent information that can be used by health-care providers to develop culturally appropriate weight loss strategies for this population. Therefore, we describe weight loss experiences, attitudes and barriers in overweight Latino adults. Qualitative study using focus group methodology. Twenty-one overweight adults (body mass index >/=25, age >/=20 years) self-identified as Latinos. Subjects participated in one of three focus groups. Reccurring themes within group discussions were identified by three independent investigators, one who was ethnicity concordant. Themes included the presence of mixed messages when determining one's appropriate weight, with participants' desire to lose weight to be healthy (based on professional advice and personal experience) conflicting with the cultural idea that being overweight is healthy. Participants described discordance when adapting to the mainstream, leading to the loss of healthy traditional habits. Participants expressed interest in weight loss and familiarity with dieting and weight loss interventions. They desired culturally appropriate nutrition education and reassurance regarding healthy dieting from health-care providers. The importance of interactions with peers during education was another relevant theme, and participants were overwhelmingly positive about group education. To improve health promotion for Latinos, cultural factors distinctive to this underserved population, and barriers they articulate, should be considered when developing weight loss interventions.

  4. Thomas Docherty. Culture and a New Experience of Democracy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erik S. RORABACK

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Thomas Docherty’s freshly printed volume from Stanford University Press, Aesthetic Democracy, is requisite reading for all those thinking beings out there interested in the question of the inter-relation and even inter-articulation between culture and experience for a possible new encounter with the political that would inch toward a truer form of democracy for our current postmodern social spheres and spaces. Professor of English and Comparative Literature in the University of Warwick, long ...

  5. Effects of sulfur and monensin concentrations on in vitro dry matter disappearance, hydrogen sulfide production, and volatile fatty acid concentrations in batch culture ruminal fermentations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, D R; Dilorenzo, N; Leibovich, J; May, M L; Quinn, M J; Homm, J W; Galyean, M L

    2010-04-01

    Effects of monensin (MON) and S on in vitro fermentation and H(2)S production were evaluated in 2 experiments. In Exp. 1, 2 ruminally cannulated steers were adapted (>14 d) to a 75% concentrate diet [steam-flaked corn (SFC)-based], and ruminal fluid was collected approximately 4 h after feeding. Substrate composed (DM basis) of 85.2% SFC, 9% alfalfa hay, 5% cottonseed meal, and 0.8% urea was added with ruminal fluid and buffer to sealed 125-mL serum bottles to allow for gas collection. A Na(2)SO(4) solution was added to yield S equivalent to 0.2, 0.4, and 0.8% of substrate DM, and MON was included at 0, 2, 4, and 6 mg/L of culture volume. Bottle head-space gas was analyzed for H(2)S. No MON (P = 0.29) or MON x S interaction (P = 0.41) effects were detected for H(2)S production. Increasing S linearly increased (P molar proportions of acetate, butyrate, and the acetate:propionate ratio (A:P), and linearly increased (P 21 d) to a 75% concentrate diet (SFC base) that contained 15% (DM basis) wet corn distillers grains plus solubles (WDGS) and MON at 22 mg/kg of DM. In vitro substrate DM was composed of 75.4% SFC, 15% WDGS, 9% alfalfa hay, and 0.6% urea, and S and MON concentrations were the same as in Exp. 1. No effects of MON (P = 0.93) or the MON x S interaction (P = 0.99) were noted for H(2)S production; however, increasing S linearly increased (P molar proportions of acetate, butyrate, and A:P and linearly increased (P molar proportions were evident with MON regardless of S concentration.

  6. Subjective experience of architectural objects: A cross-cultural study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marković Slobodan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present study was to compare Serbian and Japanese participants in their subjective experience of Serbian and Japanese architectural objects. Subjective experience was operationalized through the ratings on the bipolar scales (e.g. pleasant-unpleasant. In the Preliminary study 1, a set of twelve rating scales was generated. In the Preliminary study 2 twelve Serbian and twelve Japanese architectural objects were specified. In the main experiment two groups of participants, twenty-one Serbian and twenty Japanese, rated twelve Serbian and twelve Japanese objects. A factor analysis extracted three dimensions of subjective experience: Beauty, Firmness and Fullness. Analysis of variance have shown that both Serbian and Japanese participants agreed that Japanese architectural objects looked more beautiful and firmer than Serbian objects. These finding is generally in line with perceptualist hypothesis that stimulus constraints are more effective than culture. However, interactions revealed some cultural differences that are consistent with culturalist hypothesis: compared to Serbian participants, Japanese participants rated Japanese architectural objects as more beautiful, whereas, compared to Japanese, Serbian participants rated Serbian objects as less fragile and emptier than Japanese objects. Generaly, our study have shown that Serbian (Western and Japanese (Eastern participants show general similarity in their subjective experience of architectural objects. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 179033

  7. Mixed messages: residents' experiences learning cross-cultural care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Elyse R; Betancourt, Joseph R; Kim, Minah K; Maina, Angela W; Blumenthal, David; Weissman, Joel S

    2005-09-01

    An Institute of Medicine report issued in 2002 cited cross-cultural training as a mechanism to address racial and ethnic disparities in health care, but little is known about residents' training and capabilities to provide quality care to diverse populations. This article explores a select group of residents' perceptions of their preparedness to deliver quality care to diverse populations. Seven focus groups and ten individual interviews were conducted with 68 residents in locations nationwide. Qualitative analysis of focus-group and individual interview transcripts was performed to assess residents' perceptions of (1) preparedness to deliver care to diverse patients; (2) educational climate; and (3) training experiences. Most residents in this study noted the importance of cross-cultural care yet reported little formal training in this area. Residents wanted more formal training yet expressed concern that culture-specific training could lead to stereotyping. Most residents had developed ad hoc, informal skills to care for diverse patients. Although residents perceived institutional endorsement, they sensed it was a low priority due to lack of time and resources. Residents in this study reported receiving mixed messages about cross-cultural care. They were told it is important, yet they received little formal training and did not have time to treat diverse patients in a culturally sensitive manner. As a result, many developed coping behaviors rather than skills based on formally taught best practices. Training environments need to increase training to enhance residents' preparedness to deliver high-quality cross-cultural care if the medical profession is to achieve the goals set by the Institute of Medicine.

  8. Sorption of Sr, Co and Zn on illite: Batch experiments and modelling including Co in-diffusion measurements on compacted samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montoya, V.; Baeyens, B.; Glaus, M. A.; Kupcik, T.; Marques Fernandes, M.; Van Laer, L.; Bruggeman, C.; Maes, N.; Schäfer, T.

    2018-02-01

    Experimental investigations on the uptake of divalent cations (Sr, Co and Zn) onto illite (Illite du Puy, Le-Puy-en-Velay, France) were carried out by three different international research groups (Institute for Nuclear Waste Disposal, KIT (Germany), Group Waste & Disposal, SCK-CEN, (Belgium) and Laboratory for Waste Management, PSI (Switzerland)) in the framework of the European FP7 CatClay project. The dependence of solid-liquid distribution ratios (Rd values) on pH at trace metal conditions (sorption edges) and on the metal ion concentration (sorption isotherms) was determined in dilute suspensions of homo-ionic Na-illite (Na-IdP) under controlled N2 atmosphere. The experimental results were modelled using the 2 Site Protolysis Non Electrostatic Surface Complexation and Cation Exchange (2SPNE SC/CE) sorption model. The sorption of Sr depends strongly on ionic strength, while a rather weak pH dependence is observed in a pH range between 3 and 11. The data were modelled with cation exchange reactions, taking into account competition with H, K, Ca, Mg and Al, and surface complexation on weak amphotheric edge sites at higher pH values. The sorption of Co on Na-IdP, however, is strongly pH dependent. Cation exchange on the planar sites and surface complexation on strong and weak amphoteric edge sites were used to describe the Co sorption data. Rd values for Co derived from in-diffusion measurements on compacted Na-IdP samples (bulk-dry density of 1700 kg m-3) between pH 5.0 and 9.0 are in good agreement with the batch sorption data. The equivalence of both approaches to measure sorption was thus confirmed for the present test system. In addition, the results highlight the importance of both major and minor surface species for the diffusive transport behaviour of strongly sorbing metal cations. While surface complexes at the edge sites determine largely the Rd value, the diffusive flux may be governed by those species bound to the planar sites, even at low fractional

  9. Influence of alkaline (PH 8.3-12.0) and saline solutions on chemical, mineralogical and physical properties of two different bentonites - batch experiments at 25 deg. C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heikola, Tiina; Vuorinen, Ulla; Kumpulainen, Sirpa; Kiviranta, Leena; Korkeakoski, Petri

    2012-01-01

    Document available in extended abstract form only. Construction of a spent fuel repository deep in the bedrock will need supporting structures using cement materials. A part of them can be removed before closure but still it is estimated that about 1000 tonnes will remain in the host rock. Degradation of cementitious materials produces leachates of high pH. If such an alkaline plume reaches the bentonite buffer, it may induce mineralogical and chemical changes in bentonite over long term, and further affect the safety functions of the buffer. Laboratory experiments were done with the objective to gain data of possible alterations in mineralogical, chemical and physical properties of bentonites contacted with high-pH saline solutions. Two untreated, high grade, Na- and Ca-bentonites, were used in batch experiments, which were carried out in an anaerobic glove-box at 25±1 deg. C for 554 days. Each bentonite sample (20 g) was leached with approximately 3.8 L of leaching solution, which equals 190 mL/g of bentonite. The bentonites were leached with three types of simulated cement waters (pH 9.7, 11.3 and 12.0) and one saline groundwater simulate (pH 8.3) as a reference. The leaching solutions were 0.3 M, and contained NaCl and CaCl 2 , and trace amounts of SiO 2 , K, Br, Mg and SO 4 . Dissolved oxygen and carbon dioxide were removed from leaching solutions before mixing of bentonite in PC bottles. The samples were placed on a platform shaker in order to allow better contact between bentonite and the leaching solution. The evolution of pH in the samples was followed by measuring the pH-value of each sample in the solution phase approximately twice a week and the solution was renewed when values of two to three consecutive measurements did not change. On average, the leaching solution was renewed once a month. For each renewal of the leaching solution the phases were separated, the reacted solution withdrawn, and the chemical composition analysed. Before analysis the

  10. Heuristics for batching and sequencing in batch processing machines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuda Basnet

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we discuss the “batch processing” problem, where there are multiple jobs to be processed in flow shops. These jobs can however be formed into batches and the number of jobs in a batch is limited by the capacity of the processing machines to accommodate the jobs. The processing time required by a batch in a machine is determined by the greatest processing time of the jobs included in the batch. Thus, the batch processing problem is a mix of batching and sequencing – the jobs need to be grouped into distinct batches, the batches then need to be sequenced through the flow shop. We apply certain newly developed heuristics to the problem and present computational results. The contributions of this paper are deriving a lower bound, and the heuristics developed and tested in this paper.

  11. Extraordinary experiences in its cultural and theoretical context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Lucadou, Walter; Wald, Franziska

    2014-06-01

    The growing complexity, opaqueness and specialization of many areas of life and - above all - a booming psychological and esoteric market create the necessity for counselling and advice for individuals who encounter so-called 'paranormal' experiences. These experiences are often interpreted as 'transpersonal' or 'spiritual', depending on the cultural background and religious traditions. The term 'spiritual crisis' has become a fashionable diagnosis with some transpersonal psychotherapists. Paranormal experiences, regardless of their acceptance of academic psychology and psychiatry, are still a taboo subject in society. The Parapsychological Counselling Office in Freiburg is a professional unit with governmental support, which helps individuals to cope with such experiences adequately. The work and responsibilities of the counselling centre are presented. A large collection of cases in the form of letters, which were sent in by individuals wanting to communicate their unusual or extraordinary experiences have been analysed. Some of the results are reported here. Finally, we discuss a special form of 'inexplicable experiences' based on a theoretical model. Its recommendations seem counter-intuitive but are ultimately successful. The model starts from a system-theoretical viewpoint and uses concepts such as complementarity and entanglement of generalized quantum theory (GQT) and the model of pragmatic information (MPI). Since it turned out that individuals who contact the counselling centre also offer their own interpretations and 'explanation', the question arises, how these resources can be used to help clients.

  12. Fate of bulk organic matter, nitrogen, and pharmaceutically active compounds in batch experiments simulating soil aquifer treatment (SAT) using primary effluent

    KAUST Repository

    Abel, Chol D T

    2013-06-30

    Reduction of bulk organic matter, nitrogen, and pharmaceutically active compounds from primary effluent during managed aquifer recharge was investigated using laboratory-scale batch reactors. Biologically stable batch reactors were spiked with different concentrations of sodium azide to inhibit biological activity and probe the effect of microbial activity on attenuation of various pollutants of concern. The experimental results obtained revealed that removal of dissolved organic carbon correlated with active microbial biomass. Furthermore, addition of 2 mM of sodium azide affected nitrite-oxidizing bacteria leading to accumulation of nitrite-nitrogen in the reactors while an ammonium-nitrogen reduction of 95.5 % was achieved. Removal efficiencies of the hydrophilic neutral compounds phenacetin, paracetamol, and caffeine were independent of the extent of the active microbial biomass and were >90 % in all reactors, whereas removal of pentoxifylline was dependent on the biological stability of the reactor. However, hydrophobic ionic compounds exhibited removal efficiency >80 % in batch reactors with the highest biological activity as evidenced by high concentration of adenosine triphosphate. © 2013 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.

  13. Fate of bulk organic matter, nitrogen, and pharmaceutically active compounds in batch experiments simulating soil aquifer treatment (SAT) using primary effluent

    KAUST Repository

    Abel, Chol D T; Sharma, Saroj K.; Maeng, Sungkyu; Magic-Knezev, Aleksandra; Kennedy, Maria Dolores; Amy, Gary L.

    2013-01-01

    Reduction of bulk organic matter, nitrogen, and pharmaceutically active compounds from primary effluent during managed aquifer recharge was investigated using laboratory-scale batch reactors. Biologically stable batch reactors were spiked with different concentrations of sodium azide to inhibit biological activity and probe the effect of microbial activity on attenuation of various pollutants of concern. The experimental results obtained revealed that removal of dissolved organic carbon correlated with active microbial biomass. Furthermore, addition of 2 mM of sodium azide affected nitrite-oxidizing bacteria leading to accumulation of nitrite-nitrogen in the reactors while an ammonium-nitrogen reduction of 95.5 % was achieved. Removal efficiencies of the hydrophilic neutral compounds phenacetin, paracetamol, and caffeine were independent of the extent of the active microbial biomass and were >90 % in all reactors, whereas removal of pentoxifylline was dependent on the biological stability of the reactor. However, hydrophobic ionic compounds exhibited removal efficiency >80 % in batch reactors with the highest biological activity as evidenced by high concentration of adenosine triphosphate. © 2013 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.

  14. Prunus dulcis, Batch

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2010-06-07

    Jun 7, 2010 ... almond (Prunus dulcis, Batch) genotypes as revealed by PCR analysis. Yavar Sharafi1*, Jafar Hajilou1, Seyed AbolGhasem Mohammadi2, Mohammad Reza Dadpour1 and Sadollah Eskandari3. 1Department of Horticulture, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Tabriz, Tabriz, 5166614766, Iran.

  15. CHANGES IN CHLOROPHYLL A FLUORENSCENCE AND PIGMENT RATIOS DURING DIFFERENT GROWTH PHASES OF A UNICELLULAR MARINE CHEATOSEROS (BACILLARIOPHYCEAE) IN BATCH CULTURE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Photosystem II reaction centers per cell decreased as the cultures began to decline. The degree of inactivation increased daily as the cell numbers continued to decrease. The concentration of chlorophyll a per cell and the ratio of the major accessory pigments to chlorophyll a (e...

  16. A Cultural Immersion Field Experience: Examining Pre-Service Music Teachers' Beliefs about Cultural Differences

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanDeusen, Andrea J.

    2017-01-01

    With the intent of informing music teacher education practices and developing more culturally responsive and relevant teachers, the purpose of this research was to explore pre-service music teachers' understandings of culture and diversity, and to examine the impact of a short-term cultural immersion field experience on pre-service music teachers'…

  17. The lived experience of depression among culturally Deaf adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheppard, K; Badger, T

    2010-11-01

    Culturally Deaf adults lost hearing at early ages, communicate primarily in American Sign Language (ASL), and self-identify as culturally Deaf. Communication barriers lead to isolation, low self-esteem, abuse, and inadequate health care. Screening Deaf patients for depressive symptoms poses challenge. Nurses are rarely familiar with ASL, and depression screening tools aren't easily translated from English to ASL. Consequently, Deaf adults are not adequately screened for depression. Qualitative interviews were conducted with culturally Deaf adults, and certified interpreters helped to enhance understanding. Text was generated from interview transcriptions and researcher observations. No novel depressive symptoms were described. Various ASL signs were used to represent depression; two participants used a unique gesture that had no meaning to others. Childhood experiences leading to depression included sexual or physical abuse, feeling ostracized from family and like a burden. Suicidal gestures communicated severity of depression. Adults felt interpreters were unwelcome during mental health encounters. No participants were asked about depressive symptoms despite frank manifestations of depression. Study describes antecedents and consequences of depressive symptoms among Deaf adults. Understanding symptom manifestations and challenges experienced by Deaf patients helps identify those at risk for depression, thereby reducing morbidity and mortality. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing.

  18. Endoplasmic Reticulum-Associated rht-PA Processing in CHO Cells: Influence of Mild Hypothermia and Specific Growth Rates in Batch and Chemostat Cultures

    OpenAIRE

    Vergara, Mauricio; Berrios, Julio; Mart?nez, Irene; D?az-Barrera, Alvaro; Acevedo, Cristian; Reyes, Juan G.; Gonzalez, Ramon; Altamirano, Claudia

    2015-01-01

    Background Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells are the main host for producing recombinant proteins with human therapeutic applications mainly because of their capability to perform proper folding and glycosylation processes. In addition, mild hypothermia is one of the main strategies for maximising the productivity of these systems. However, little information is available on the effect of culture temperature on the folding and degradation processes of recombinant proteins that takes place in ...

  19. International Students from Melbourne Describing Their Cross-Cultural Transitions Experiences: Culture Shock, Social Interaction, and Friendship Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belford, Nish

    2017-01-01

    Drawing from a study that explored how international students experience cross-cultural transitions after living and studying in Melbourne for a few years, this paper, in particular, examines the participants' experiences with culture shock, social interaction, and friendship development. The findings include narratives of their personal stories…

  20. Comparison of transcriptional heterogeneity of eight genes between batch Desulfovibrio vulgaris biofilm and planktonic culture at a single-cell level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenhua eQi

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB biofilm formed on metal surfaces can change the physicochemical properties of metals and cause metal corrosion. To enhance understanding of differential gene expression in Desulfovibrio vulgaris under planktonic and biofilm growth modes, a single-cell based RT-qPCR approach was applied to determine gene expression levels of 8 selected target genes in four sets of the 31 individual cells isolated from each growth condition (i.e., biofilm formed on a stainless steel (SS) and planktonic cultures, exponential and stationary phases. The results showed obvious gene-expression heterogeneity for the target genes among D. vulgaris single cells of both biofilm and planktonic cultures. In addition, an increased gene-expression heterogeneity in the D. vulgaris biofilm when compared with the planktonic culture was also observed for seven out of eight selected genes, which may be contributing to the increased complexity in terms of structures and morphology in the biofilm. Moreover, the results showed up-regulation of DVU0281 gene encoding exopolysaccharide biosynthesis protein, and down-regulation of genes involved in energy metabolism (i.e., DVU0434 and DVU0588, stress responses (i.e., DVU2410 and response regulator (i.e., DVU3062 in the D. vulgaris biofilm cells. Finally, the gene (DVU2571 involved in iron transportation was found down-regulated, and two genes (DVU1340 and DVU1397 involved in ferric uptake repressor and iron storage were up-regulated in D. vulgaris biofilm, suggesting their possible roles in maintaining normal metabolism of the D. vulgaris biofilm under environments of high concentration of iron. This study showed that the single-cell based analysis could be a useful approach in deciphering metabolism of microbial biofilms.

  1. Interrogating globalization and culture in anthropological perspective the Indian experience

    OpenAIRE

    Mondal, Sekh

    2012-01-01

    The present article is an attempt to examine and highlight the issues of cultural globalization and globalization of cultures with particular reference to India. To deal with these, I will discuss and analyze the concepts of globalization, cultural globalization and the nature of interrelation between global and local cultures in general and of India in particular. How the non-Indian global cultural elements are spreading among the Indians and how the Indian cultural elements are diffusing ov...

  2. Regulatory Oversight of Safety Culture — Korea’s Experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, S.J.; Choi, Y.S.; Kim, J.T.

    2016-01-01

    In Korea, a regulatory oversight program of safety culture was launched in 2012 to establish regulatory measures against several events caused by weak safety culture in the nuclear industry. This paper is intended to introduce the preliminary regulatory oversight framework, development and validation of safety culture components, pilot safety culture inspection results and lessons learned. The safety culture model should be based on a sound understanding of the national culture and industry characteristics where the model will be applied. The nuclear safety culture oversight model is being developed and built on the Korean regulatory system to independently assess the nuclear power operating organizations’ safety culture.

  3. Modelling of Batch Process Operations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abdul Samad, Noor Asma Fazli; Cameron, Ian; Gani, Rafiqul

    2011-01-01

    Here a batch cooling crystalliser is modelled and simulated as is a batch distillation system. In the batch crystalliser four operational modes of the crystalliser are considered, namely: initial cooling, nucleation, crystal growth and product removal. A model generation procedure is shown that s...

  4. Teacher Candidates' Perceptions of Debriefing Circles to Facilitate Self-Reflection during a Cultural Immersion Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Addleman, Rebecca A.; Brazo, Carol J.; Dixon, Kristin; Cevallos, Tatiana; Wortman, Shary

    2014-01-01

    This study followed 9 teacher candidates through a 3-week cultural immersion experience in which they volunteered in educational settings where they were not members of the majority culture. This learning experience was designed to help candidates better understand their culturally, ethnically, and linguistically diverse future students. A…

  5. The experiences of African American graduate students: A cultural transition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, Joretta

    Historically Black Colleges and Universities (HBCU) have long been an intellectual resource for the African American community. HBCUs have provided and continue to provide an educational pathway for many Black students, particularly women who seek graduate and advanced degrees. However, despite the overwhelmingly positive presence of HBCU in the African American community, the academic training of students who graduate from HBCUs may be perceived as insufficient by predominantly White graduate institutions (PWIs). As a result, African American students who are not well integrated into their respective departmental communities and cultures at PW/is are likely to leave graduate school. Thus the continuing loss of talented people, potential research, role models for society, and the next generation of African American students in the fields of math, engineering, and the sciences (STEM) create a segregated and limited university environment. Studies in the field that attempt to provide insight in to experiences of underrepresented students are ultimately beneficial. However, often such studies do not address the process of adapting to the culture of a predominantly white institution (PWI), particularly within white and male dominated fields such as mathematics and the sciences. Research has also indicated that the first two years at a predominantly white graduate institution is the crucial transitional period for students of color, and it is this transitional moment in time that is the focus of this study. I consider how students make the transition from HBCU to majority institutions, and what impact this transition has on their persistence and commitment to their discipline. The limited amount of research that does address the experiences of minority doctoral students in math and science is usually coupled with the experiences of women. However, race and gender are not linear or additive. It cannot be assumed that the same factors that effect the under representation

  6. Enhancing Oceanography Classrooms with "Captive and Cultured" Ocean Experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macko, S. A.; Tuite, M.; O'Connell, M.

    2012-04-01

    Students in oceanography classes often request more direct exposure to actual ocean situations or field trips. During regular session (13 week) or shorter term (4 week) summer classes such long trips are logistically difficult owing to large numbers of students involved or timing. This new approach to such a course supplement addresses the requests by utilizing local resources and short field trips for a limited number of students (20) to locations in which Ocean experiences are available, and are often supported through education and outreach components. The vision of the class was a mixture of classroom time, readings, along with paper and actual laboratories. In addition short day-long trips to locations where the ocean was "captured" were also used to supplement the experience as well as speakers involved with aquaculture ("cultivated") . Central Virginia is a fortunate location for such a class, with close access for "day travel" to the Chesapeake Bay and numerous field stations, museums with ocean-based exhibits (the Smithsonian and National Zoo) that address both extant and extinct Earth history, as well as national/state aquaria in Baltimore, Washington and Virginia Beach. Furthermore, visits to local seafood markets at local grocery stores, or larger city markets) enhance the exposure to productivity in the ocean, and viability of the fisheries sustainability. The course could then address not only the particulars of the marine science, but also aspects of ethics, including keeping animals in captivity or overfishing of particular species and the special difficulties that arise from captive or culturing ocean populations. In addition, the class was encouraged to post web-based journals of experiences in order to share opinions of observations in each of the settings.

  7. Simulation experiences of paramedic students: a cross-cultural examination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Williams B

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Brett Williams,1 Chloe Abel,1 Eihab Khasawneh,2 Linda Ross,1 Tracy Levett-Jones31Department of Community Emergency Health & Paramedic Practice, Monash University, Frankston, Victoria, Australia; 2Faculty of Applied Medical Sciences, Jordan University of Science and Technology, Irbid, Jordan; 3School of Nursing and Midwifery, The University of Newcastle, Callaghan, New South Wales, AustraliaBackground: Simulation-based education is an important part of paramedic education and ­training. While accessing clinical placements that are adequate in quality and quantity continues to be challenging, simulation is being recognized by paramedic academics as a potential alternative. Examining students’ satisfaction of simulation, particularly cross-culturally is therefore important in providing feedback to academic teaching staff and the international paramedic community.Objective: This study aimed to compare simulation satisfaction among paramedic students from universities in Australia and Jordan.Methods: A cross-sectional study using a paper-based English version of the Satisfaction with Simulation Experience Scale was administered to paramedic students from all year levels.Results: A total of 511 students participated in this study; 306 students (60% from Australia (Monash University and 205 students (40% from Jordan (Jordan University of Science and Technology. There were statistically significant differences with large effect size noted in all three original factors between Australian and Jordanian students: debrief and feedback (mean =38.66 vs mean =34.15; P<0.001; d=0.86, clinical reasoning (mean =21.32 vs mean =18.28; P<0.001; d=0.90, and clinical learning (mean =17.59 vs mean =15.47; P<0.001; d=1.12.Conclusion: This study has demonstrated that simulation education is generally well received by students in Australia and Jordan although Australian students reported having higher satisfaction levels then their Jordanian counterparts. These results

  8. Antipathogenic activity of probiotics against Salmonella Typhimurium and Clostridium difficile in anaerobic batch culture systems: is it due to synergies in probiotic mixtures or the specificity of single strains?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tejero-Sariñena, Sandra; Barlow, Janine; Costabile, Adele; Gibson, Glenn R; Rowland, Ian

    2013-12-01

    Probiotics are currently being investigated for prevention of infections caused by enteric pathogens. The aim of this in vitro study was to evaluate the influence of three single probiotics: Lactobacillus casei NCIMB 30185 (PXN 37), Lactobacillus acidophilus NCIMB 30184 (PXN 35), Bifidobacterium breve NCIMB 30180 (PXN 25) and a probiotic mixture containing the above strains plus twelve other strains belonging to the Lactobacillus, Bifidobacterium, Lactococcus, Streptococcus and Bacillus genera on the survival of Salmonella Typhimurium and Clostridium difficile using pH-controlled anaerobic batch cultures containing mixed faecal bacteria. Changes in relevant bacterial groups and effects of probiotic addition on survival of the two pathogens were assessed over 24 h. Quantitative analysis of bacterial populations revealed that there was a significant increase in lactobacilli and/or bifidobacteria numbers, depending on probiotic addition, compared with the control (no added probiotic). There was also a significant reduction in S. Typhimurium and C. difficile numbers in the presence of certain probiotics compared with controls. Of the probiotic treatments, two single strains namely L. casei NCIMB 30185 (PXN 37), and B. breve NCIMB 30180 (PXN 25) were the most potent in reducing the numbers of S. Typhimurium and C. difficile. In addition, the supplementation with probiotics into the systems influenced some fermentations parameters. Acetate was found in the largest concentrations in all vessels and lactate and formate were generally detected in higher amounts in vessels with probiotic addition compared to controls. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. BATCH-GE: Batch analysis of Next-Generation Sequencing data for genome editing assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boel, Annekatrien; Steyaert, Woutert; De Rocker, Nina; Menten, Björn; Callewaert, Bert; De Paepe, Anne; Coucke, Paul; Willaert, Andy

    2016-01-01

    Targeted mutagenesis by the CRISPR/Cas9 system is currently revolutionizing genetics. The ease of this technique has enabled genome engineering in-vitro and in a range of model organisms and has pushed experimental dimensions to unprecedented proportions. Due to its tremendous progress in terms of speed, read length, throughput and cost, Next-Generation Sequencing (NGS) has been increasingly used for the analysis of CRISPR/Cas9 genome editing experiments. However, the current tools for genome editing assessment lack flexibility and fall short in the analysis of large amounts of NGS data. Therefore, we designed BATCH-GE, an easy-to-use bioinformatics tool for batch analysis of NGS-generated genome editing data, available from https://github.com/WouterSteyaert/BATCH-GE.git. BATCH-GE detects and reports indel mutations and other precise genome editing events and calculates the corresponding mutagenesis efficiencies for a large number of samples in parallel. Furthermore, this new tool provides flexibility by allowing the user to adapt a number of input variables. The performance of BATCH-GE was evaluated in two genome editing experiments, aiming to generate knock-out and knock-in zebrafish mutants. This tool will not only contribute to the evaluation of CRISPR/Cas9-based experiments, but will be of use in any genome editing experiment and has the ability to analyze data from every organism with a sequenced genome. PMID:27461955

  10. Cultural Considerations in Counseling Couples Who Experience Infertility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnett, Judith A.

    2009-01-01

    Infertility creates challenges affecting various aspects of couples' intimate lives. Practices regarding reproduction are often shaped by cultural messages. Culturally sensitive treatment methods help counselors provide effective therapy to couples with fertility problems. This article describes cultural influences, challenges, and counseling…

  11. The Impact of Cultural Background and Cross-Cultural Experience on Impressions of American and Korean Male Speakers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Ying; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Studies whether people from different cultures form different trait impressions based on identical vocal qualities, and whether cross-cultural experience influences trait impressions. Results for 48 Korean undergraduates in Korea and 32 U.S. undergraduates and 32 Korean graduate students in Boston (Massachusetts) highlight theories of ecological…

  12. Experience and Cultural Learning in Global Business Contexts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søderberg, Anne-Marie

    2017-01-01

    . Learners in today’s global business (school) world are more culturally diverse, and the potential of the increasing number of bi-cultural and bi-lingual students and managers as boundary-spanners must be considered. Recent empirical studies of face-to-face and virtual global collaboration show that cross...... divides. This chapter discusses a number of issues in relation to cultural learning processes in global business contexts: various concepts of learning, different approaches to cross-cultural competence training of future global leaders, and various learning contexts in management education and training......Globalization with increased mobility of the workforce and more frequent use of information and communication technologies means still more people must develop a deeper understanding of Cultural Others, a higher degree of cultural self-awareness and an ability to bridge across multiple cultural...

  13. Neuroscientific Explanations of Religious Experience are Not free from Cultural Aspects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Runehov, Anne Leona Cesarine

    2008-01-01

    We cannot disregard that the neuroscientific research on religious phenomena such as religious experiences and rituals for example, has increased significantly the last years. Neuroscientists claim that neuroscience contributes considerably in the process of understanding religious experiences, b...... neuroscientific issues, also cultural-religious assumptions that underlie this conclusion. Key Words Culture, Neuroscience, Religious Experience, Meditation. Udgivelsesdato: January...

  14. Radiation processing for cultural heritage preservation – Romanian experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moise Ioan Valentin

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Radiation sterilization has been considered a mass decontamination technique for biodegradable cultural heritage (CH since its widespread application in the medical field. Initial experiments have revealed advantages, for example, efficiency and effectiveness, but also disadvantages, namely “side effects” concerning CH materials. More than 50 years later, the adequacy of ionizing radiation for some CH artefacts is still the subject of discussion. The main reason why is that science and industry are not yet able to provide a more efficient technique for treating mass decontamination. For wooden items, there is general agreement that the irradiation dose required for insect eradication is not damaging, even in the case of polychromed wood. For cellulose pulp (paper, there is a reduction in polymerization degree (DP at the high doses necessary to stop the attack of fungi, but this should be considered taking into account the purpose of the treatment. Emergency or rescue treatments are necessary to mitigate the consequences of accidents or improper storage conditions. In some cases (archives, the value of written information is greater than the historical value of the paper support. For other materials, namely textiles, leather and parchment, less research has been published on the effect of ionizing radiation treatment. As a general rule, irradiation is not necessary when only a few CH elements are present that are affected by biological contamination since restorers can solve the problem by classical means. The need for radiation treatment arises when large collections (hundreds, thousands or even more elements are heavily affected by the biological attack. In Romania, the IRASM gamma irradiator of IFIN-HH is receiving an increasing number of requests for CH treatment, mainly due to an intensive research programme concerning this topic and close liaison with CH owners or administrators. Besides reviewing the scientific results obtained in

  15. Anaerobic biodegradation of cellulosic material: Batch experiments and modelling based on isotopic data and focusing on aceticlastic and non-aceticlastic methanogenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qu, X.; Vavilin, V.A.; Mazeas, L.; Lemunier, M.; Duquennoi, C.; He, P.-J.; Bouchez, T.

    2009-01-01

    Utilizing stable carbon isotope data to account for aceticlastic and non-aceticlastic pathways of methane generation, a model was created to describe laboratory batch anaerobic decomposition of cellulosic materials (office paper and cardboard). The total organic and inorganic carbon concentrations, methane production volume, and methane and CO 2 partial pressure values were used for the model calibration and validation. According to the fluorescent in situ hybridization observations, three groups of methanogens including strictly hydrogenotrophic methanogens, strictly aceticlastic methanogens (Methanosaeta sp.) and Methanosarcina sp., consuming both acetate and H 2 /H 2 CO 3 as well as acetate-oxidizing syntrophs, were considered. It was shown that temporary inhibition of aceticlastic methanogens by non-ionized volatile fatty acids or acidic pH was responsible for two-step methane production from office paper at 35 o C where during the first and second steps methane was generated mostly from H 2 /H 2 CO 3 and acetate, respectively. Water saturated and unsaturated cases were tested. According to the model, at the intermediate moisture (150%), much lower methane production occurred because of full-time inhibition of aceticlastic methanogens. At the lowest moisture, methane production was very low because most likely hydrolysis was seriously inhibited. Simulations showed that during cardboard and office paper biodegradation at 55 o C, non-aceticlastic syntrophic oxidation by acetate-oxidizing syntrophs and hydrogenotrophic methanogens were the dominant methanogenic pathways.

  16. Progressing batch hydrolysis process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, J.D.

    1985-01-10

    A progressive batch hydrolysis process is disclosed for producing sugar from a lignocellulosic feedstock. It comprises passing a stream of dilute acid serially through a plurality of percolation hydrolysis reactors charged with feed stock, at a flow rate, temperature and pressure sufficient to substantially convert all the cellulose component of the feed stock to glucose. The cooled dilute acid stream containing glucose, after exiting the last percolation hydrolysis reactor, serially fed through a plurality of pre-hydrolysis percolation reactors, charged with said feedstock, at a flow rate, temperature and pressure sufficient to substantially convert all the hemicellulose component of said feedstock to glucose. The dilute acid stream containing glucose is cooled after it exits the last prehydrolysis reactor.

  17. Integrating Sustainability and Hawaiian Culture into the Tourism Experience of the Hawaiian Islands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wendy Agrusa

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The travel industry in Hawaii has been experiencing a trend towards more authentic tourism, which reintegrates Hawaiian culture into the visitors’ experience. This study investigated the reintegration of Hawaiian culture into the tourism experience on the Hawaiian Islands by reviewing existing literature, and by analyzing primary data collected through visitor surveys. The purpose of the study was to determine whether there is a visitors’ demand for a more authentic tourism experience in Hawaii through the reintegration of Hawaiian culture, and if so, which efforts should be made or continue to be made to achieve this authenticity. Important aspects that were taken into consideration in this research effort arethe changes Hawaiian culture has experienced with the arrival of outsiders, and the authenticity of the Hawaiian tourism experience today. Further aspects that were examined include the visitors’ image of Hawaii, their expectations, their experiences and satisfaction during their stay, their interest in and understanding of Hawaiian culture, as well as the type of Hawaiian cultural experiences they are interested in. According to the findings of this study, English speaking visitors are interested in Hawaiian culture and feel that Hawaiian culture is not represented enough in the tourism experience today. The conclusion is, therefore, that efforts to integrate Hawaiian culture into the tourism experience need to be increasedbeyond what is currently being done. Ideas for reintegrating Hawaiian culture are discussed and possible solutions are provided.

  18. ANALYSIS OF FOREIGN EXPERIENCE OF SYSTEMIC DEVELOPMENT OF FUTURE SOCIAL PEDAGOGISTS’ INFORMATIONAL CULTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleksandr A. Ratsul

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the analysis of foreign experience of systemic development of future social pedagogists’ informational culture. A number of cultural universals are identified, each of them is treated as the core of culture. A list of components of future social pedagogists’ information culture is given. Personality traits that enable future social pedagogists to participate effectively in all kinds of work with information are characterized. Two structural levels (contents and functions in future social pedagogists’ information culture are singled out. Main functions of future social pedagogists’ information culture are defined. The structural organization of future social pedagogists’ information culture is analyzed.

  19. Batch-to-batch uniformity of bacterial community succession and flavor formation in the fermentation of Zhenjiang aromatic vinegar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zong-Min; Lu, Zhen-Ming; Yu, Yong-Jian; Li, Guo-Quan; Shi, Jin-Song; Xu, Zheng-Hong

    2015-09-01

    Solid-state fermentation of traditional Chinese vinegar is a mixed-culture refreshment process that proceeds for many centuries without spoilage. Here, we investigated bacterial community succession and flavor formation in three batches of Zhenjiang aromatic vinegar using pyrosequencing and metabolomics approaches. Temporal patterns of bacterial succession in the Pei (solid-state vinegar culture) showed no significant difference (P > 0.05) among three batches of fermentation. In all the batches investigated, the average number of community operational taxonomic units (OTUs) decreased dramatically from 119 ± 11 on day 1 to 48 ± 16 on day 3, and then maintained in the range of 61 ± 9 from day 5 to the end of fermentation. We confirmed that, within a batch of fermentation process, the patterns of bacterial diversity between the starter (took from the last batch of vinegar culture on day 7) and the Pei on day 7 were similar (90%). The relative abundance dynamics of two dominant members, Lactobacillus and Acetobacter, showed high correlation (coefficient as 0.90 and 0.98 respectively) among different batches. Furthermore, statistical analysis revealed dynamics of 16 main flavor metabolites were stable among different batches. The findings validate the batch-to-batch uniformity of bacterial community succession and flavor formation accounts for the quality of Zhenjiang aromatic vinegar. Based on our understanding, this is the first study helps to explain the rationality of age-old artistry from a scientific perspective. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Developing Culturally Competent Teachers: An International Student Teaching Field Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmona, Michelle; Partlo, Margaret; Kaczynski, Dan; Leonard, Simon N.

    2015-01-01

    This study offers a theoretical construct for better understanding how experiential learning enables student teachers to acquire social and cultural variation skills, develop cultural empathy in the K-12 classroom, and the transference of these skills to new educational situations. An Australian and United States research team used a…

  1. Potsdamer Platz, Berlin - Autographic Experiences, cultural heritage and branded environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Allingham, Peter

    2009-01-01

    One of the main attractions found at Potsdamer Platz in Berlin is Sony Center, a "brandscape" that appeals and communicates to experientially and culturally minded audiences of citizens and tourists. Apart from commercial and cultural venues Sony Center contains apartments, numerous cafés...

  2. Past Experience, Cultural Intelligence, and Satisfaction with International Business Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrell, Daniel L.; Ravlin, Elizabeth C.; Ramsey, Jase R.; Ward, Anna-Katherine

    2013-01-01

    Despite significant increases in international business education, and cultural competence in particular, in U.S. classrooms we still know relatively little about the roles of specific cultural intelligence dimensions relative to how students affectively respond to such education. This article examines the relationship between prior international…

  3. Developing Culture-Adaptive Competency Through Experiences with Expressive Avatars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverglate, Daniel S.; Sims, Edward M.; Glover, Gerald; Friedman, Harris

    2012-01-01

    Modern Warfighters often find themselves in a variety of non-combat roles such as negotiator, peacekeeper, reconstruction, and disaster relief. They are expected to perform these roles within a culture alien to their own. Each individual they encounter brings their own set of values to the interaction that must be understood and reconciled. To navigate the human terrain of these complex interactions, the Warfighter must not only consider the specifics of the target culture, but also identify the stakeholders, recognize the influencing cultural dimensions, and adapt to the situation to achieve the best possible outcome. Vcom3D is using game-based scenarios to develop culturally adaptive competency. The avatars that represent the stakeholders must be able to portray culturally accurate behavior, display complex emotion, and communicate through verbal and non-verbal cues. This paper will discuss the use of emerging game technologies to better simulate human behavior in cross-cultural dilemmas. Nomenclature: culture, adaptive, values, cultural values dimensions, dilemmas, virtual humans, non-verbal communications

  4. Changing culture - the experience of TU Delft Library

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heijne, M.; Van der Sar, E.

    2004-01-01

    When seeking to introduce change into an organisation, it is usually the organisational structure that is the main focus of attention. A reorganisation, however, does not necessarily resolve underlying cultural problems. It can, in fact, be just these cultural problems that prevent the organisation

  5. Investing in organisational culture: nursing students' experience of organisational learning culture in aged care settings following a program of cultural development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grealish, Laurie; Henderson, Amanda

    2016-10-01

    Concerns around organisational learning culture limit nursing student placements in aged care settings to first year experiences. Determine the impact of an extended staff capacity building program on students' experiences of the organisational learning culture in the aged care setting. Pre and post-test design. A convenience sample of first, second and third year Bachelor of Nursing students attending placements at three residential aged care facilities completed the Clinical Learning Organisational Culture Survey. Responses between the group that attended placement before the program (n = 17/44; RR 38%) and the group that attended following the program (n = 33/72; RR 45%) were compared. Improvements were noted in the areas of recognition, accomplishment, and influence, with decreases in dissatisfaction. Organisational investment in building staff capacity can produce a positive learning culture. The aged care sector offers a rich learning experience for students when staff capacity to support learning is developed.

  6. Development of a health safety culture under different social and cultural conditions: lessons from the experiences of Japanese utilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taniguchi, Taketoshi

    1998-01-01

    In anticipation of the steady expansion of nuclear power in Asia, all organizations involved in operating nuclear facilities are emphasizing the importance of regional cooperation in the development and enhancement of a safety culture. This paper, based on employees' attitudinal surveys, provides some lessons learned from the experiences of Japanese electric utilities in developing and enhancing a sound safety culture within the organizations which are operating nuclear power plants and related facilities, and discusses approaches for cooperation in Asia, taking into account the different socio-cultural environments. (author)

  7. Cadmium removal using Cladophora in batch, semi-batch and flow reactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sternberg, Steven P K; Dorn, Ryan W

    2002-02-01

    This study presents the results of using viable algae to remove cadmium from a synthetic wastewater. In batch and semi-batch tests, a local strain of Cladophora algae removed 80-94% of the cadmium introduced. The flow experiments that followed were conducted using non-local Cladophora parriaudii. Results showed that the alga removed only 12.7(+/-6.4)% of the cadmium introduced into the reactor. Limited removal was the result of insufficient algal quantities and poor contact between the algae and cadmium solution.

  8. Heterotrophs are key contributors to nitrous oxide production in activated sludge under low C-to-N ratios during nitrification-Batch experiments and modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domingo-Félez, Carlos; Pellicer-Nàcher, Carles; Petersen, Morten S; Jensen, Marlene M; Plósz, Benedek G; Smets, Barth F

    2017-01-01

    Nitrous oxide (N 2 O), a by-product of biological nitrogen removal during wastewater treatment, is produced by ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) and heterotrophic denitrifying bacteria (HB). Mathematical models are used to predict N 2 O emissions, often including AOB as the main N 2 O producer. Several model structures have been proposed without consensus calibration procedures. Here, we present a new experimental design that was used to calibrate AOB-driven N 2 O dynamics of a mixed culture. Even though AOB activity was favoured with respect to HB, oxygen uptake rates indicated HB activity. Hence, rigorous experimental design for calibration of autotrophic N 2 O production from mixed cultures is essential. The proposed N 2 O production pathways were examined using five alternative process models confronted with experimental data inferred. Individually, the autotrophic and heterotrophic denitrification pathway could describe the observed data. In the best-fit model, which combined two denitrification pathways, the heterotrophic was stronger than the autotrophic contribution to N 2 O production. Importantly, the individual contribution of autotrophic and heterotrophic to the total N 2 O pool could not be unambiguously elucidated solely based on bulk N 2 O measurements. Data on NO would increase the practical identifiability of N 2 O production pathways. Biotechnol. Bioeng. 2017;114: 132-140. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Constructing Image-Based Culture Definitions Using Metaphors: Impact of a Cross-Cultural Immersive Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuleja, Elizabeth A.

    2017-01-01

    This study provides an approach to teaching and learning in the international business (IB) classroom about cultural values, beliefs, attitudes, and norms through the study of cultural metaphor. The methodology is based on established qualitative methods by using participants' visual pictures and written explanations--representative of their…

  10. Kubernetes as a batch scheduler

    OpenAIRE

    Souza, Clenimar; Brito Da Rocha, Ricardo

    2017-01-01

    This project aims at executing a CERN batch use case using Kubernetes, in order to figure out what are the advantages and disadvantages, as well as the functionality that can be replicated or is missing. The reference for the batch system is the CERN Batch System, which uses HTCondor. Another goal of this project is to evaluate the current status of federated resources in Kubernetes, in comparison to the single-cluster API resources. Finally, the last goal of this project is to implement buil...

  11. CANCER PATIENT’S EXPERIENCE CROSSING THE HEALTH CULTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maura G. Felea

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Cognitive anthropology does not predict human behavior, but tries to access principles that rule behavior. Cross-cultural communication is a skill acquired through a learning process, and it can improve doctor-patient relationship and enhance the outcomes of care. The unfulfilled expectations of a patient may influence the patient self-esteem and his perceived role in the society. For some patients living with cancer, it was found as an unforeseen benefit of learning to be closer to God. Based on a narrative communication, we tried to underline cross-cultural differences in cancer patients from different countries with various backgrounds. We described the patient reactions, his way of interpreting the things that happened to him, and his actions regarding adaptive changes in behavior. The originality of the study resides in understanding cross-cultural patterns of cancer patients. The innovative element is the use of qualitative research and its application in health care.

  12. Memory in cultured cortical networks: experiment and modeling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Witteveen, Tim; van Veenendaal, Tamar; le Feber, Jakob; Sergeev, A.

    The mechanism behind memory is one of the mysteries in neuroscience. Here we unravel part of the mechanism by showing that cultured neuronal networks develop an activity connectivity balance. External inputs disturb this balance and induce connectivity changes. The new connectivity is no longer

  13. Narrative and Experience of Community as Philosophy of Culture ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper argues that the distinctive feature of African philosophising is a communitarian outlook expressed through various forms of narrative. The paper first illustrates the close relationship between narrative and community in the African cultural milieu. It then goes on to examine the way in which African academics in ...

  14. Cognitive Adaptation to the Experience of Social and Cultural Diversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crisp, Richard J.; Turner, Rhiannon N.

    2011-01-01

    Diversity is a defining characteristic of modern society, yet there remains considerable debate over the benefits that it brings. The authors argue that positive psychological and behavioral outcomes will be observed only when social and cultural diversity is experienced in a way that challenges stereotypical expectations and that when this…

  15. Design Factors Affect User Experience for Different Cultural Populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Sauman

    2016-01-01

    With increasing changes in our demographic populations and new immigrants settling in the US, there is an increasing need for visual communications that address the diversity of our populations. This paper draws from the results of the researcher's several past research and teaching projects that worked with different cultural populations. These…

  16. Data-driven batch schuduling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bent, John [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Denehy, Tim [GOOGLE; Arpaci - Dusseau, Remzi [UNIV OF WISCONSIN; Livny, Miron [UNIV OF WISCONSIN; Arpaci - Dusseau, Andrea C [NON LANL

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we develop data-driven strategies for batch computing schedulers. Current CPU-centric batch schedulers ignore the data needs within workloads and execute them by linking them transparently and directly to their needed data. When scheduled on remote computational resources, this elegant solution of direct data access can incur an order of magnitude performance penalty for data-intensive workloads. Adding data-awareness to batch schedulers allows a careful coordination of data and CPU allocation thereby reducing the cost of remote execution. We offer here new techniques by which batch schedulers can become data-driven. Such systems can use our analytical predictive models to select one of the four data-driven scheduling policies that we have created. Through simulation, we demonstrate the accuracy of our predictive models and show how they can reduce time to completion for some workloads by as much as 80%.

  17. Gender, culture and changing attitudes: experiences of HIV in Zimbabwe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Stephen; Broom, Alex

    2013-01-01

    This paper draws on a series of qualitative interviews with 60 people living in economically poor communities of Harare, the capital of Zimbabwe, to provide new insight into the cultural landscape of HIV. While there has been extensive exploration of gender, sexuality, culture and HIV in Zimbabwe, there is a need to revisit these issues given the country's recent political and economic history. These questions have shaped the meanings that have been created around HIV (i.e., notions of HIV-as-death and as being produced by promiscuity) and the gendered mediation of cultural practices (i.e., forms of sexual expression and treatment uptake). Drawing on the accounts from a group directly affected by HIV, we illustrate the persistence of gendered and spiritualised ideas about 'blame', 'transmission' and 'treatment' and the disproportionate burden that still falls on Zimbabwean women. We conclude with an exploration of how everyday understandings of HIV may be shifting and the ways in which marginality, discrimination and stigma may be being challenged by openness, dialogue and attitude change.

  18. An Exploration of Hispanic Mothers' Culturally Sustaining Experiences at an Informal Science Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiland, Ingrid

    2015-01-01

    Science education reform focuses on learner-centered instruction within contexts that support learners' sociocultural experiences. The purpose of this study was to explore Hispanic mothers' experiences as accompanying adults at an informal science center within the context of culturally sustaining experiences, which include the fluidity…

  19. Cultural affordances and emotional experience: socially engaging and disengaging emotions in Japan and the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitayama, Shinobu; Mesquita, Batja; Karasawa, Mayumi

    2006-11-01

    The authors hypothesized that whereas Japanese culture encourages socially engaging emotions (e.g., friendly feelings and guilt), North American culture fosters socially disengaging emotions (e.g., pride and anger). In two cross-cultural studies, the authors measured engaging and disengaging emotions repeatedly over different social situations and found support for this hypothesis. As predicted, Japanese showed a pervasive tendency to reportedly experience engaging emotions more strongly than they experienced disengaging emotions, but Americans showed a reversed tendency. Moreover, as also predicted, Japanese subjective well-being (i.e., the experience of general positive feelings) was more closely associated with the experience of engaging positive emotions than with that of disengaging emotions. Americans tended to show the reversed pattern. The established cultural differences in the patterns of emotion suggest the consistent and systematic cultural shaping of emotion over time.

  20. Radiosensitivity of continuous cultures: experiments with diploid yeast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiefer, J.; Wagner, E.

    1975-01-01

    To study the influence of systems parameters on the radiosensitivity of cell populations, stationary chemostat cultures of diploid yeast with different dilution rates were γ-irradiated. Proliferation and budding kinetics were investigated and the doses necessary to eliminate the entire population determined as a function of dilution rate. It was found that this killing dose decreases with dilution rate in a linear manner. The radiosensitivity of the cells was shown to depend on the dilution rate which is presumably due to differing compositions of the population. (U.S.)

  1. Water reduction in waste-activated sludge by resettling and filtration in batch. Phase (1): pilot-scale experiments to optimize performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trapote, Arturo; Jover, Margarita; Cartagena, Pablo; El Kaddouri, Marouane; Prats, Daniel

    2014-08-01

    This article describes an effective procedure for reducing the water content of excess sludge production from a wastewater treatment plant by increasing its concentration and, as a consequence, minimizing the volume of sludge to be managed. It consists of a pre-dewatering sludge process, which is used as a preliminary step or alternative to the thickening. It is made up of two discontinuous sequential stages: the first is resettling and the second, filtration through a porous medium. The process is strictly physical, without any chemical additives or electromechanical equipment intervening. The experiment was carried out in a pilot-scale system, consisting of a column of sedimentation that incorporates a filter medium. Different sludge heights were tested over the filter to verify the influence ofhydrostatic pressure on the various final concentrations of each stage. The results show that the initial sludge concentration may increase by more than 570% by the end of the process with the final volume of sludge being reduced in similar proportions and hydrostatic pressure having a limited effect on this final concentration. Moreover, the value of the hydrostatic pressure at which critical specific cake resistance is reached is established.

  2. Perceptions of Cultural Competence among Urban School Social Workers: Does Experience Make a Difference?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teasley, Martell L.; Baffour, Tiffany D.; Tyson, Edgar H.

    2005-01-01

    This exploratory study examined the contribution of social work experience and licensure to self-reported levels of cultural competence of social workers in urban public school systems. In addition, it examined the influence of practitioners race or ethnicity on perceived levels of culturally competent practice in urban schools. Using survey…

  3. Crossing the Atlantic: Integrating Cross-Cultural Experiences into Undergraduate Business Courses Using Virtual Communities Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luethge, Denise J.; Raska, David; Greer, Bertie M.; O'Connor, Christina

    2016-01-01

    Today's business school academics are tasked with pedagogy that offers students an understanding of the globalization of markets and the cross-cultural communication skills needed in today's business environment. The authors describe how a virtual cross-cultural experience was integrated into an undergraduate business course and used as an…

  4. Experiences of Cultural Diversity in the Context of an Emergent Transnationalism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizvi, Fazal

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the author argues that despite wide-ranging appeal of the discourses of globalization, our modes of thinking and ways of addressing issues of cultural diversity remain trapped within a national framework. The dominant constructions of cultural diversity often overlook the ways in which experiences of diversity now take place in…

  5. Transcultural healthcare immersion: a unique interprofessional experience poised to influence collaborative practice in cultural settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morton, Jennifer

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes a model for interprofessional and transcultural learning established by the author and supported by the University of New England and Ghana Health Mission, Inc. The model for interprofessional immersion in cultural settings represents a guiding framework predicated on a conceptual "brick and mortar" process for building cultural proficiency among individuals and within teams. It encompasses social, clinical and behavioral components (brick) and personal desire, cultural humility and values (mortar). The ``bounty'' aspect of the model is achieved by way of successful student learning outcomes, positive interprofessional and community-based collaborations, and finally, and to be measured over time, favorable patient and population (programmatic) outcomes. In partnership with the Ghana Health Mission, Inc and local community health workers, students and faculty from a range of health professions took part in a cultural-clinical experience known as Transcultural Immersion in Healthcare. The goal of the experience was to advance cultural proficiency and knowledge through intensive cultural immersion. An urban setting in Ghana, located in West Africa served as the setting for this unique experience. The transcultural immersion in healthcare experience achieved its ``bounty'' as seen in the enhanced cultural proficiency of students and faculty, seamless interprofessional communication and collaboration, and provision of primary care and related services to patients and the Ghanaian community. Future research is in development to test the Model for Interprofessional Immersion in Cultural Settings (MIICS) in a variety of other settings and with a cross section of health disciplines.

  6. Student Perceptions of the Hip Hop Culture's Influence on the Undergraduate Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wessel, Roger D.; Wallaert, Kerry A.

    2011-01-01

    This study sought to determine how identification and engagement with the hip hop culture influenced the educational experiences of undergraduate students at a Midwestern, predominately White university by interviewing 11 students who self-identified as being immersed in the hip hop culture. Through a qualitative, phenomenological investigation,…

  7. Developing leaders' strategic thinking through global work experience: the moderating role of cultural distance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dragoni, Lisa; Oh, In-Sue; Tesluk, Paul E; Moore, Ozias A; VanKatwyk, Paul; Hazucha, Joy

    2014-09-01

    To respond to the challenge of how organizations can develop leaders who can think strategically, we investigate the relation of leaders' global work experiences--that is, those experiences that require the role incumbent to transcend national boundaries--to their competency in strategic thinking. We further examine whether leaders' exposure to a country whose culture is quite distinct from the culture of their own country (i.e., one that is culturally distant) moderates these relationships. Our analyses of 231 upper level leaders reveals that the time they have spent in global work experiences positively relates to their strategic thinking competency, particularly for leaders who have had exposure to a more culturally distant country. We discuss these findings in light of the research on international work experiences and leader development. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  8. Experiences in Broker-Facilitated Participatory Cross-Cultural Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie P. Kowal

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Health researchers are increasingly using community-based participatory research approaches because of the benefits accrued through ongoing community engagement. The documentation of our research partnership highlights key ethical and analytical challenges researchers face in participatory research, particularly in projects partnering with service providers or cultural brokers in cross-cultural settings. In this article, we describe how choices made to accommodate a participatory research approach in the examination of vaccination behavior impacted the process and outcomes of our qualitative inquiries. First, we found that employing multiple interviewers influenced the breadth of discussion topics, thus reducing the ability to achieve saturation in small study populations. This was mitigated by (a having two people at each interview and (b using convergent interviewing, a technique in which multiple interviewers discuss and include concepts raised in interviews in subsequent interviews to test the validity of interview topics. Second, participants were less engaged during the informed consent process if they knew the interviewer before the interview commenced. Finally, exposing identity traits, such as age or immigration status, before the interview affected knowledge cocreation, as the focus of the conversation then mirrored those traits. For future research, we provide recommendations to reduce ethical and analytical concerns that arise with qualitative interview methods in participatory research. Specifically, we provide guidance to ensure ethical informed consent processes and rigorous interview techniques.

  9. Comparative Batch and Column Evaluation of Thermal and Wet ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The efficiency of regenerated spent commercial activated carbon for synthetic dye removal was studied using thermal and wet oxidative regeneration methods. Two types of experiments were carried out, batch adsorption experiments and continous flow (fixed bed) column experiment to study the mechanism of dye removal ...

  10. A Virtual Walk through London: Culture Learning through a Cultural Immersion Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shih, Ya-Chun

    2015-01-01

    Integrating Google Street View into a three-dimensional virtual environment in which users control personal avatars provides these said users with access to an innovative, interactive, and real-world context for communication and culture learning. We have selected London, a city famous for its rich historical, architectural, and artistic heritage,…

  11. Cross Cultural Differences in Decisions from Experience: Evidence from Denmark, Israel and Taiwain

    OpenAIRE

    Sibilla Di Guida; Ido Erev; Davide Marchiori

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines the effects of different cultural backgrounds on decisions from experience. In Experiment 1, participants from Denmark, Israel, and Taiwan faced each of six binary choice problems for 200 trials. The participants did not receive prior description of the payoff distributions, but obtained complete feedback after each choice. Comparison of choice behavior across cultural groups reveals similar overall choice rates, and similar indications of underweighting of rare events and...

  12. The Pursuit of Happiness and Its Relationship to the Meta-experience of Emotions and Culture

    OpenAIRE

    Hofmann, Stefan G.

    2013-01-01

    In this commentary, I provide a brief background of the meta-experience of emotions, the philosophical and psychological literature on happiness, and further discuss the influence of culture on happiness. The meta-experience of emotions implies that there are primary and secondary emotions (i.e., emotions about emotions), similar to the concept of meta-cognitions. Primary and secondary emotions are closely associated with one’s cultural background and happiness. Most scholars throughout histo...

  13. Towards an Inclusive Pedagogical Culture: Experiences from University Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iliana María Fernández-Fernández

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we deal with conceptual and methodological elements to develop the pedagogical inclusive competence of the professors of higher education in Ecuador. We analyze the current conceptions and the main drawbacks related to the inclusion process in the university environment nowadays. We support a theoretical procedural model, and from the practical standpoint, we implemented the methodological procedures structured in a map of processes to reach an inclusive formative process. The main results are given in the development of the pedagogical inclusive competence and the increase of the inclusion culture at the university, and revealed in the improvement of university curriculum from an inclusive approach, the betterment of the physical and technological infrastructure, the permanent upgrading of professors and putting into practice policies of affirmative action.

  14. A Chinese Nurse's Socio-Cultural Experiences in Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yang

    2014-01-01

    In this article, the author expresses her thoughts and experiences on studying abroad. Yang Huang explains that studying overseas for international students means a lot--not only being away from home but also experiencing quite a few unexpected difficulties. Studying abroad is full of challenges for every student due to the language barrier,…

  15. Enhancing Sustainable Food Cultures by Experience Based Learning in Tourism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Jesper

    The paper describes the results and niche forming methodology used in the commercial and in the R&D parts along the product-service chain of regional tourism. Obstacles and window of opportunities for further sustaining the tourism trade by enhancing the experience part of the business....

  16. Gender and Cultural Differences in Game-Based Learning Experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukosch, Heide; Kurapati, Shalini; Groen, Daan; Verbraeck, Alexander

    2017-01-01

    Games have been successfully used in educational settings for many years. Still, it is not known in detail which factors influence the use and effectiveness of educational games. The game environment, its technology, and other game mechanics are factors directly linked to the game itself. The player's experience with the subject of the game and/or…

  17. Health benefits of nature experience: psychological, social and cultural processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartig, T.; Berg, van den A.E.; Hagerhall, M.

    2011-01-01

    In this chapter we consider how experiences of nature can affect human health and well-being. We first address the matter of ‘what has been’; that is, we sketch the development of theory and research concerned with health benefits of natural environments, from ancient times to the current situation.

  18. Effects of asymmetric cultural experiences on the auditory pathway: evidence from music.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Patrick C M; Perrachione, Tyler K; Margulis, Elizabeth Hellmuth

    2009-07-01

    Cultural experiences come in many different forms, such as immersion in a particular linguistic community, exposure to faces of people with different racial backgrounds, or repeated encounters with music of a particular tradition. In most circumstances, these cultural experiences are asymmetric, meaning one type of experience occurs more frequently than other types (e.g., a person raised in India will likely encounter the Indian todi scale more so than a Westerner). In this paper, we will discuss recent findings from our laboratories that reveal the impact of short- and long-term asymmetric musical experiences on how the nervous system responds to complex sounds. We will discuss experiments examining how musical experience may facilitate the learning of a tone language, how musicians develop neural circuitries that are sensitive to musical melodies played on their instrument of expertise, and how even everyday listeners who have little formal training are particularly sensitive to music of their own culture(s). An understanding of these cultural asymmetries is useful in formulating a more comprehensive model of auditory perceptual expertise that considers how experiences shape auditory skill levels. Such a model has the potential to aid in the development of rehabilitation programs for the efficacious treatment of neurologic impairments.

  19. Workplace culture and the practice experience of midwifery students: A meta-synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arundell, Fiona; Mannix, Judy; Sheehan, Athena; Peters, Kath

    2018-04-01

    To describe midwifery students' practice experience and to explore facilitators and barriers to positive clinical learning experiences. Practice experience is a vital component of every midwifery course. Course dissatisfaction and attrition of midwifery students has been attributed to sub-optimal practice experiences. Events or actions experienced by midwifery students that trigger dissatisfaction and attrition need to be identified. A meta-synthesis was based on that developed by Noblit and Hare. Students perceive workplaces as poorly prepared for their arrival and subsequent support. Students' experience in the practice setting is influenced by the existing workplace culture. Workplace culture influences institutional functioning and individuals within the culture. Enculturation of students into the midwifery culture and subsequent learning is affected by the support received. The practice experience of midwifery students was profoundly influenced by workplace culture. Students tended to have polarized accounts of their experience that were predominantly negative. To provide an optimal environment for midwifery students; midwifery managers and individual midwives need to be aware of the facilitators and barriers to midwifery student development in the practice setting. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. BatchJS: Implementing Batches in JavaScript

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D. Kasemier

    2014-01-01

    htmlabstractNone of our popular programming languages know how to handle distribution well. Yet our programs interact more and more with each other and our data resorts in databases and web services. Batches are a new addition to languages that can finally bring native support for distribution to

  1. The experience and effect of team sport in a migrant culture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ryom, Knud; Stelter, Reinhard

    The experience and effect of team sport in a migrant culture Knud Ryom, Reinhard Stelter University of Copenhagen, Denmark Boys with migrant background have major difficulties to adjust and participate in the Danish school system and society (OECD,2010). This study aimed to investigate the possible...... effects of team sport as a social tool, used to develop social capability, identity and active citizenship in an area with major social challenges in Denmark. A team sport (football) was chosen because of positive results in social integration for individuals with a diverse cultural background...... in an area with major social challenges. Research implications will be discussed at the symposium. The experience and effect of team sport in a migrant culture. Available from: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/278674530_The_experience_and_effect_of_team_sport_in_a_migrant_culture [accessed Sep 15...

  2. Challenges and Experiences of Building Multidisciplinary Datasets across Cultures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamiyansharav, K.; Laituri, M.; Fernandez-Gimenez, M.; Fassnacht, S. R.; Venable, N. B. H.; Allegretti, A. M.; Reid, R.; Baival, B.; Jamsranjav, C.; Ulambayar, T.; Linn, S.; Angerer, J.

    2017-12-01

    Efficient data sharing and management are key challenges to multidisciplinary scientific research. These challenges are further complicated by adding a multicultural component. We address the construction of a complex database for social-ecological analysis in Mongolia. Funded by the National Science Foundation (NSF) Dynamics of Coupled Natural and Human (CNH) Systems, the Mongolian Rangelands and Resilience (MOR2) project focuses on the vulnerability of Mongolian pastoral systems to climate change and adaptive capacity. The MOR2 study spans over three years of fieldwork in 36 paired districts (Soum) from 18 provinces (Aimag) of Mongolia that covers steppe, mountain forest steppe, desert steppe and eastern steppe ecological zones. Our project team is composed of hydrologists, social scientists, geographers, and ecologists. The MOR2 database includes multiple ecological, social, meteorological, geospatial and hydrological datasets, as well as archives of original data and survey in multiple formats. Managing this complex database requires significant organizational skills, attention to detail and ability to communicate within collective team members from diverse disciplines and across multiple institutions in the US and Mongolia. We describe the database's rich content, organization, structure and complexity. We discuss lessons learned, best practices and recommendations for complex database management, sharing, and archiving in creating a cross-cultural and multi-disciplinary database.

  3. Patterns and Impacts of Short-Term Cross-Cultural Experience in Science and Mathematics Teaching: Benefits, Value, and Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanyaprasith, Kamonwan; Finley, Fred N.; Phonphok, Nason

    2015-01-01

    This study evaluates a cross-cultural experience in science and mathematics teaching in Thailand--an internship program. In this study, qualitative data sources including semi-structured interviews, classroom observations, and pre-post questionnaire were collected from five groups of participants, which were: (a) administrators; (b) Thai…

  4. High solid fed-batch butanol fermentation with simultaneous product recovery: part II - process integration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    In these studies liquid hot water (LHW) pretreated and enzymatically hydrolyzed Sweet Sorghum Bagasse (SSB) hydrolyzates were fermented in a fed-batch reactor. As reported in the preceding paper, the culture was not able to ferment the hydrolyzate I in a batch process due to presence of high level o...

  5. The Relationship between Cultural Values and Learning Preference: The Impact of Acculturation Experiences upon East Asians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuang, Szu-Fang

    2012-01-01

    Globalization and technology advancement are creating more biculturalism at workplaces and learning settings. However, little is known about acculturation experience and its influence on a person's cultural values and learning preference. The research reported in this study investigates the impact of acculturation experiences upon the relationship…

  6. Factors affecting the recreation of a story from a text : A cross-cultural experiment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stokmans, Mia; el Aissati, Abder; Boogaard, Marianne; van den Bogaerde, Beppie; Bacchini, Sylvia; Curcic, Maja; de Jong, Nivja; le Pichon, Emanuelle; Rasier, Laurent

    In this research, we regard a text as a written expression about an extraordinary experience in which the socio-economic, cultural and historical background of an author affects the way this experience is translated into a text that tells the story. From this perspective, the task of a reader is to

  7. NDA BATCH 2002-02

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory

    2009-12-09

    QC sample results (daily background checks, 20-gram and 100-gram SGS drum checks) were within acceptable criteria established by WIPP's Quality Assurance Objectives for TRU Waste Characterization. Replicate runs were performed on 5 drums with IDs LL85101099TRU, LL85801147TRU, LL85801109TRU, LL85300999TRU and LL85500979TRU. All replicate measurement results are identical at the 95% confidence level as established by WIPP criteria. Note that the batch covered 5 weeks of SGS measurements from 23-Jan-2002 through 22-Feb-2002. Data packet for SGS Batch 2002-02 generated using gamma spectroscopy with the Pu Facility SGS unit is technically reasonable. All QC samples are in compliance with established control limits. The batch data packet has been reviewed for correctness, completeness, consistency and compliance with WIPP's Quality Assurance Objectives and determined to be acceptable. An Expert Review was performed on the data packet between 28-Feb-02 and 09-Jul-02 to check for potential U-235, Np-237 and Am-241 interferences and address drum cases where specific scan segments showed Se gamma ray transmissions for the 136-keV gamma to be below 0.1 %. Two drums in the batch showed Pu-238 at a relative mass ratio more than 2% of all the Pu isotopes.

  8. Batching System for Superior Service

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-01-01

    Veridian's Portable Batch System (PBS) was the recipient of the 1997 NASA Space Act Award for outstanding software. A batch system is a set of processes for managing queues and jobs. Without a batch system, it is difficult to manage the workload of a computer system. By bundling the enterprise's computing resources, the PBS technology offers users a single coherent interface, resulting in efficient management of the batch services. Users choose which information to package into "containers" for system-wide use. PBS also provides detailed system usage data, a procedure not easily executed without this software. PBS operates on networked, multi-platform UNIX environments. Veridian's new version, PBS Pro,TM has additional features and enhancements, including support for additional operating systems. Veridian distributes the original version of PBS as Open Source software via the PBS website. Customers can register and download the software at no cost. PBS Pro is also available via the web and offers additional features such as increased stability, reliability, and fault tolerance.A company using PBS can expect a significant increase in the effective management of its computing resources. Tangible benefits include increased utilization of costly resources and enhanced understanding of computational requirements and user needs.

  9. Understanding cultural competence in a multicultural nursing workforce: registered nurses' experience in Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almutairi, Adel F; McCarthy, Alexandra; Gardner, Glenn E

    2015-01-01

    In Saudi Arabia, the health system is mainly staffed by expatriate nurses from different cultural and linguistic backgrounds. Given the potential risks this situation poses for patient care, it is important to understand how cultural diversity can be effectively managed in this multicultural environment. The purpose of this study was to explore notions of cultural competence with non-Saudi Arabian nurses working in a major hospital in Saudi Arabia. Face-to-face, audio-recorded, semistructured interviews were conducted with 24 non-Saudi Arabian nurses. Deductive data collection and analysis were undertaken drawing on Campinha-Bacote's cultural competence model. The data that could not be explained by this model were coded and analyzed inductively. Nurses within this culturally diverse environment struggled with the notion of cultural competence in terms of each other's cultural expectations and those of the dominant Saudi culture. The study also addressed the limitations of Campinha-Bacote's model, which did not account for all of the nurses' experiences. Subsequent inductive analysis yielded important themes that more fully explained the nurses' experiences in this environment. The findings can inform policy, professional education, and practice in the multicultural Saudi setting. © The Author(s) 2014.

  10. Using a medium of free amino acids to produce penicillin g acylase in fed-batch cultivations of Bacillus megaterium ATCC 14945

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. G. Silva

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available The production of penicillin G acylase (PGA, an important industrial enzyme from a wild strain of Bacillus megaterium using a pool of free amino acids as substrate was studied in a bench-scale bioreactor. Experiments carried out in shakers showed that the substitution of casein for free amino acids in the presence of cheese whey was the culture medium that provided the highest productivity. Several cultivations were carried out in a bioreactor operated in either batch or fed-batch mode. Batch runs showed that enzyme production is associated with microorganism growth. The following set of amino acids was preferentially consumed: Ala, Arg, Asp, Gly, Lys, Ser, Thr and Trp. On the other hand, the rates of consumption of His, Ile, Leu, Met, Phe, Pro, Tyr and Val were lower.

  11. Production of tea vinegar by batch and semicontinuous fermentation

    OpenAIRE

    Kaur, Pardeep; Kocher, G. S.; Phutela, R. P.

    2010-01-01

    The fermented tea vinegar combines the beneficial properties of tea and vinegar. The complete fermentation takes 4 to 5 weeks in a batch culture and thus can be shortened by semi continuous/ continuous fermentation using immobilized bacterial cells. In the present study, alcoholic fermentation of 1.0 and 1.5% tea infusions using Saccharomyces cerevisae G was carried out that resulted in 84.3 and 84.8% fermentation efficiency (FE) respectively. The batch vinegar fermentation of these wines wit...

  12. Ethanol production potential from fermented rice noodle wastewater treatment using entrapped yeast cell sequencing batch reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siripattanakul-Ratpukdi, Sumana

    2012-03-01

    Fermented rice noodle production generates a large volume of starch-based wastewater. This study investigated the treatment of the fermented rice noodle wastewater using entrapped cell sequencing batch reactor (ECSBR) compared to traditional sequencing batch reactor (SBR). The yeast cells were applied because of their potential to convert reducing sugar in the wastewater to ethanol. In present study, preliminary treatment by acid hydrolysis was performed. A yeast culture, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, with calcium alginate cell entrapment was used. Optimum yeast cell loading in batch experiment and fermented rice noodle treatment performances using ECSBR and SBR systems were examined. In the first part, it was found that the cell loadings (0.6-2.7 × 108 cells/mL) did not play an important role in this study. Treatment reactions followed the second-order kinetics with the treatment efficiencies of 92-95%. In the second part, the result showed that ECSBR performed better than SBR in both treatment efficiency and system stability perspectives. ECSBR maintained glucose removal of 82.5 ± 10% for 5-cycle treatment while glucose removal by SBR declined from 96 to 40% within the 5-cycle treatment. Scanning electron microscopic images supported the treatment results. A number of yeast cells entrapped and attached onto the matrix grew in the entrapment matrix.

  13. Experience feedback from incidents: methodological and cultural aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perinet, R.

    2007-01-01

    EdF has designed some provisions to improve the reliability of human interventions: an increased number of training simulators, management of the quality of interventions, implementation of human factor consultants on each site, improvement in user documentation, development of communication practices, etc. However, despite efforts made in the right direction, the complexity of human behaviour and organisations make it obligatory to follow up the efficacy of these provisions over time in order to ensure that they produce the expected results on work practices. The in-depth analysis by IRSN of events that are significant for safety shows that experience feedback from incidents constitutes a real opportunity to ensure this follow-up. It also highlights the difficulty for licensees to define the temporal context of investigations to carry out, analysing errors committed more in depth and identifying ensuing problems. This article shows that these difficulties are the result of inappropriate methodologies and a lack of skills and availability to carry out the analysis. Finally, it shows that the incident leads to defensive behaviour among those participating in the system that blocks the compilation of information and limits the relevance of analyses. (author)

  14. The Pursuit of Happiness and Its Relationship to the Meta-experience of Emotions and Culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmann, Stefan G

    2013-04-01

    In this commentary, I provide a brief background of the meta-experience of emotions, the philosophical and psychological literature on happiness, and further discuss the influence of culture on happiness. The meta-experience of emotions implies that there are primary and secondary emotions (i.e., emotions about emotions), similar to the concept of meta-cognitions. Primary and secondary emotions are closely associated with one's cultural background and happiness. Most scholars throughout history believe that happiness per se cannot be taught. However, it is possible to teach practices that lead to the path toward happiness. Promising strategies include loving-kindness and compassion meditation. These strategies are based on Buddhist teachings, which are deeply rooted in a collectivistic culture. This illustrates the close association between emotions, approaches towards happiness, and cultural background.

  15. NGBAuth - Next Generation Batch Authentication for long running batch jobs.

    CERN Document Server

    Juto, Zakarias

    2015-01-01

    This document describes the prototyping of a new solution for the CERN batch authentication of long running jobs. While the job submission requires valid user credentials, these have to be renewed due to long queuing and execution times. Described within is a new system which will guarantee a similar level of security as the old LSFAuth while simplifying the implementation and the overall architecture. The new system is being built on solid, streamlined and tested components (notably OpenSSL) and a priority has been to make it more generic in order to facilitate the evolution of the current system such as for the expected migration from LSF to Condor as backend batch system.

  16. Pericellular oxygen monitoring with integrated sensor chips for reproducible cell culture experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kieninger, J; Aravindalochanan, K; Sandvik, J A; Pettersen, E O; Urban, G A

    2014-04-01

    Here we present an application, in two tumour cell lines, based on the Sensing Cell Culture Flask system as a cell culture monitoring tool for pericellular oxygen sensing. T-47D (human breast cancer) and T98G (human brain cancer) cells were cultured either in atmospheric air or in a glove-box set at 4% oxygen, in both cases with 5% CO2 in the gas phase. Pericellular oxygen tension was measured with the help of an integrated sensor chip comprising oxygen sensor arrays. Obtained results illustrate variation of pericellular oxygen tension in attached cells covered by stagnant medium. Independent of incubation conditions, low pericellular oxygen concentration levels, usually associated with hypoxia, were found in dense cell cultures. Respiration alone brought pericellular oxygen concentration down to levels which could activate hypoxia-sensing regulatory processes in cultures believed to be aerobic. Cells in culture believed to experience conditions of mild hypoxia may, in reality, experience severe hypoxia. This would lead to incorrect assumptions and suggests that pericellular oxygen concentration readings are of great importance to obtain reproducible results when dealing with hypoxic and normoxic (aerobic) incubation conditions. The Sensing Cell Culture Flask system allows continuous monitoring of pericellular oxygen concentration with outstanding long-term stability and no need for recalibration during cell culture experiments. The sensor is integrated into the flask bottom, thus in direct contact with attached cells. No additional equipment needs to be inserted into the flask during culturing. Transparency of the electrochemical sensor chip allows optical inspection of cells attached on top of the sensor. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Initiations, interactions, cognoscenti: social and cultural capital in the music festival experience

    OpenAIRE

    Wilks, Linda

    2009-01-01

    This thesis explores the role of social and cultural capital in the music festival experience. It does so by gathering observations and post-festival accounts from attendees at three separate music festivals located in England. The data were analysed using Fairclough's approach to critical discourse analysis, resulting in the identification of styles and orders of discourse.\\ud \\ud Little research, particularly of a qualitative nature, has investigated the roles of cultural taste and social i...

  18. Effect of glass-batch makeup on the melting process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hrma, Pavel R.; Schweiger, Michael J.; Humrickhouse, Carissa J.; Moody, J. Adam; Tate, Rachel M.; Rainsdon, Timothy T.; Tegrotenhuis, Nathan E.; Arrigoni, Benjamin M.; Marcial, Jose; Rodriguez, Carmen P.; Tincher, Benjamin

    2010-01-01

    The response of a glass batch to heating is determined by the batch makeup and in turn determines the rate of melting. Batches formulated for a high-alumina nuclear waste to be vitrified in an all-electric melter were heated at a constant temperature-increase rate to determine changes in melting behavior in response to the selection of batch chemicals and silica grain-size as well as the addition of heat-generating reactants. The type of batch materials and the size of silica grains determine how much, if any, primary foam occurs during melting. Small quartz grains, 5 (micro)m in size, caused extensive foaming because their major portion dissolved at temperatures 800 C when batch gases no longer evolved. The exothermal reaction of nitrates with sucrose was ignited at a temperature as low as 160 C and caused a temporary jump in temperature of several hundred degrees. Secondary foam, the source of which is oxygen from redox reactions, occurred in all batches of a limited composition variation involving five oxides, B 2 O 3 , CaO, Li 2 O, MgO, and Na 2 O. The foam volume at the maximum volume-increase rate was a weak function of temperature and melt basicity. Neither the batch makeup nor the change in glass composition had a significant impact on the dissolution of silica grains. The impacts of primary foam generation on glass homogeneity and the rate of melting in large-scale continuous furnaces have yet to be established via mathematical modeling and melter experiments.

  19. Effect Of Glass-Batch Makeup On The Melting Process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kruger, A.A.; Hrma, P.

    2010-01-01

    The response of a glass batch to heating is determined by the batch makeup and in turn determines the rate of melting. Batches formulated for a high-alumina nuclear waste to be vitrified in an all-electric melter were heated at a constant temperature-increase rate to determine changes in melting behavior in response to the selection of batch chemicals and silica grain-size as well as the addition of heat-generating reactants. The type of batch materials and the size of silica grains determine how much, if any, primary foam occurs during melting. Small quartz grains, 5 (micro)m in size, caused extensive foaming because their major portion dissolved at temperatures 800 C when batch gases no longer evolved. The exothermal reaction of nitrates with sucrose was ignited at a temperature as low as 160 C and caused a temporary jump in temperature of several hundred degrees. Secondary foam, the source of which is oxygen from redox reactions, occurred in all batches of a limited composition variation involving five oxides, B 2 O 3 , CaO, Li 2 O, MgO, and Na 2 O. The foam volume at the maximum volume-increase rate was a weak function of temperature and melt basicity. Neither the batch makeup nor the change in glass composition had a significant impact on the dissolution of silica grains. The impacts of primary foam generation on glass homogeneity and the rate of melting in large-scale continuous furnaces have yet to be established via mathematical modeling and melter experiments.

  20. Cross-cultural human-computer interaction and user experience design a semiotic perspective

    CERN Document Server

    Brejcha, Jan

    2015-01-01

    This book describes patterns of language and culture in human-computer interaction (HCI). Through numerous examples, it shows why these patterns matter and how to exploit them to design a better user experience (UX) with computer systems. It provides scientific information on the theoretical and practical areas of the interaction and communication design for research experts and industry practitioners and covers the latest research in semiotics and cultural studies, bringing a set of tools and methods to benefit the process of designing with the cultural background in mind.

  1. Culture, role conflict and caregiver stress: The lived experiences of family cancer caregivers in Nairobi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Githaiga, Jennifer Nyawira

    2017-10-01

    This article explores the experiences of a small group of Nairobi women caring for a family cancer patient at home. On the basis of literature on women as caregivers in Africa, and on other literature more broadly, it was anticipated that issues around generational roles, gender and women's cultural role would be relevant. Seven women participated in semi-structured in-depth interviews, while thirteen women participated in four mini focus groups. Data were analysed using interpretative phenomenological analysis. Findings underscore the socio-cultural complexities of caregiving as a basis for evidence-based culturally appropriate structures to support family caregivers.

  2. Cultural differences in emotion regulation during self-reflection on negative personal experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, William; Lau, Anna S

    2013-01-01

    Reflecting on negative personal experiences has implications for mood that may vary as a function of specific domains (e.g., achievement vs. interpersonal) and cultural orientation (e.g., interdependence vs. independence). This study investigated cultural differences in the social-cognitive and affective processes undertaken as Easterners and Westerners reflected on negative interpersonal and performance experiences. One hundred Asian Americans and 92 European-American college students were randomly assigned to one of three conditions: interpersonal rejection, achievement failure, or a control condition. Results revealed that Asian Americans experienced greater distress than European Americans after self-reflecting over a failed interpersonal experience, suggesting cultural sensitivity in the relational domain. Consistent with theoretical predictions, analysis of the social cognitive and affective processes that participants engaged in during self-reflection provided some evidence that self-enhancement may buffer distress for European Americans, while emotion suppression may be adaptive for Asian Americans.

  3. A qualitative investigation of the cultural adjustment experiences of Asian international college women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Constantine, Madonna G; Kindaichi, Mai; Okazaki, Sumie; Gainor, Kathy A; Baden, Amanda L

    2005-05-01

    This qualitative study explored the cultural adjustment experiences of 15 Asian Indian, Japanese, Korean, and Vietnamese international college women through semistructured interviews. By using consensual qualitative research methodology (C. E. Hill, B. J. Thompson, & E. N. Williams, 1997), 6 primary domains or themes related to these women's cultural adjustment experiences were identified via data analysis: their feelings and thoughts about living in the United States, perceived differences between their country of origin and the United States, their English language acquisition and use, their prejudicial or discriminatory experiences in the United States, their peer and family networks, and their strategies for coping with cultural adjustment problems. Implications of the findings for mental health practice are discussed. Copyright (c) 2005 APA, all rights reserved.

  4. PROOF on a Batch System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Behrenhoff, W; Ehrenfeld, W; Samson, J; Stadie, H

    2011-01-01

    The 'parallel ROOT facility' (PROOF) from the ROOT framework provides a mechanism to distribute the load of interactive and non-interactive ROOT sessions on a set of worker nodes optimising the overall execution time. While PROOF is designed to work on a dedicated PROOF cluster, the benefits of PROOF can also be used on top of another batch scheduling system with the help of temporary per user PROOF clusters. We will present a lightweight tool which starts a temporary PROOF cluster on a SGE based batch cluster or, via a plugin mechanism, e.g. on a set of bare desktops via ssh. Further, we will present the result of benchmarks which compare the data throughput for different data storage back ends available at the German National Analysis Facility (NAF) at DESY.

  5. Context Influences on the Subjective Experience of Aging: The Impact of Culture and Domains of Functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Erica L; Hess, Thomas M; Kornadt, Anna E; Rothermund, Klaus; Fung, Helene; Voss, Peggy

    2017-08-01

    Attitudes about aging influence how people feel about their aging and affect psychological and health outcomes in later life. Given cross-cultural variability in such attitudes, the subjective experience of aging (e.g., subjective age [SA]) may also vary, potentially accounting for culture-specific patterns of aging-related outcomes. Our study explored cultural variation in SA and its determinants. American (N = 569), Chinese (N = 492), and German (N = 827) adults aged 30-95 years completed a questionnaire that included instruments measuring basic demographic information, SA, beliefs about thresholds of old age, control over life changes, and age dependency of changes in eight different life domains (i.e., family, work). Analyses revealed consistency across cultures in the domain-specificity of SA, but differences in the amount of shared variance across domains (e.g., Chinese adults exhibited greater homogeneity across domains than did Americans and Germans). Cultural differences were also observed in levels of SA in some domains, which were attenuated by domain-specific beliefs (e.g., control). Interestingly, beliefs about aging accounted for more cultural variation in SA than did sociodemographic factors (e.g., education). Our results demonstrate that subjective perceptions of aging and everyday functioning may be best understood from a perspective focused on context (i.e., culture, life domain). Given its important relation to functioning, examination of cross-cultural differences in the subjective experience of aging may highlight factors that determine variations in aging-related outcomes that then could serve as targets of culture-specific interventions promoting well-being in later life. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Ethnic Swedish parents' experiences of minority ethnic nurses' cultural competence in Swedish paediatric care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavallali, Azar G; Kabir, Zarina Nahar; Jirwe, Maria

    2014-06-01

    Sweden has a population of a little more than 9.4 million. The rapid growth of immigration in Sweden has resulted in an increased number of minority ethnic patients and minority ethnic nurses in the Swedish healthcare system. This also applies to paediatric care. The purpose of this study was to explore how parents with ethnic Swedish backgrounds experience minority ethnic nurses' cultural competence and the care the nurses provide in a Swedish paediatric care context. This exploratory qualitative study is of 14 parents with an ethnic Swedish background whose child was in a ward at a children's hospital in Stockholm County Council. Data were collected using semi-structured interviews to identify parents' perceptions and experiences of minority ethnic nurses' cultural competence. The interviews were analysed by qualitative content analysis. The analyses of the interviews led to four main categories: influence of nurses' ethnicity; significance of cross-cultural communication; cross-cultural skills; and the importance of nursing education. Nurses' ethnicity did not have much impact on parents' satisfaction with their child's care. The parents attached importance to nurses' language skills and to their adaptation and awareness of Swedish culture. They also attached weight to nurses' professional knowledge and personal attributes. The role of nursing education to increase nurses' cultural awareness was highlighted too. © 2013 Nordic College of Caring Science.

  7. Bidens tripartite L.: A Cd-accumulator confirmed by pot culture and site sampling experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei Shuhe; Niu Rongcheng; Srivastava, Mrittunjai; Zhou Qixing; Wu Zhijie; Sun Tieheng; Hu Yahu; Li Yunmeng

    2009-01-01

    Characteristics of accumulation and tolerance of cadmium (Cd) in Bidens tripartite L. were investigated to identify Cd-accumulating properties. In this study, pot culture experiment and site sampling experiments were conducted to assess whether this plant is a heavy metal hyperaccumulator or accumulator. The results indicated that the Cd enrichment factor (concentration in plant/soil) and Cd translocation factor (concentration in shoot/root) of B. tripartite was principally >1 in pot culture and concentration gradient experiments. Shoot biomass was not reduced significantly (p -1 , the threshold concentration for a Cd-hyperaccumulator. In the site sampling experiment, B. tripartite also showed Cd-accumulator properties. Based on these results, B. tripartite could be identified as a Cd-accumulator. Thus, B. tripartite should only be considered as a Cd-accumulator.

  8. A Cultural Approach to Understanding Professional Experiences of Foreign-Born Faculty in U.S. Educational Leadership Preparation Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khrabrova, Iryna; Sanzo, Karen L.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the professional experiences of foreign-born faculty members serving in U.S. educational leadership preparation programs, utilizing a cultural approach to discern their lived experiences related to professional life. Cultural values were explored as reflected in professional life experiences. The…

  9. Health professionals' perceptions of cultural influences on stroke experiences and rehabilitation in Kuwait.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omu, Onutobor; Reynolds, Frances

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the perceptions of health professionals who treat stroke patients in Kuwait regarding cultural influences on the experience of stroke and rehabilitation in Kuwait. Health professionals interviewed were from a variety of cultural backgrounds thus providing an opportunity to investigate how they perceived the influence of culture on stroke recovery and rehabilitation in Kuwait. Semi-structured interviews were carried out with 12 health professionals with current/recent stroke rehabilitation experience in Kuwait, followed by thematic analysis of the verbatim transcripts. The health professionals identified several features of the Kuwaiti culture that they believed affected the experiences of stroke patients. These were religious beliefs, family involvement, limited education and public information about stroke, prevailing negative attitudes toward stroke, access to finances for private treatment, social stigma and the public invisibility of disabled people, difficulties identifying meaningful goals for rehabilitation, and an acceptance of dependency linked with the widespread presence of maids and other paid assistants in most Kuwaiti homes. To offer culturally sensitive care, these issues should be taken into account during the rehabilitation of Kuwaiti stroke patients in their home country and elsewhere.

  10. Dynamic cell culture system: a new cell cultivation instrument for biological experiments in space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gmunder, F. K.; Nordau, C. G.; Tschopp, A.; Huber, B.; Cogoli, A.

    1988-01-01

    The prototype of a miniaturized cell cultivation instrument for animal cell culture experiments aboard Spacelab is presented (Dynamic cell culture system: DCCS). The cell chamber is completely filled and has a working volume of 200 microliters. Medium exchange is achieved with a self-powered osmotic pump (flowrate 1 microliter h-1). The reservoir volume of culture medium is 230 microliters. The system is neither mechanically stirred nor equipped with sensors. Hamster kidney (Hak) cells growing on Cytodex 3 microcarriers were used to test the biological performance of the DCCS. Growth characteristics in the DCCS, as judged by maximal cell density, glucose consumption, lactic acid secretion and pH, were similar to those in cell culture tubes.

  11. Cross-cultural care encounters in paediatric care: minority ethnic parents' experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavallali, Azar Gashasb; Jirwe, Maria; Kabir, Zarina Nahar

    2017-03-01

    Because of worldwide migration, the healthcare staff in general as well as in paedi"atric care specifically is challenged increasingly by people from various ethnic backgrounds. The challenge is related to providing culturally competent care and effectively communicating with people from diverse cultural and ethnic backgrounds who have different health beliefs, practices, values and languages. This also applies to the Swedish society and to Swedish paediatric care. The purpose of this study was to describe the expectations and experiences of cross-cultural care encounters among minority ethnic parents in Swedish paediatric care. A qualitative design was used in the study. Data were collected using semi-structured interviews between October 2011 and March 2012. The sample consisted of 12 parents of minority ethnic backgrounds who had their child in a ward at a children's hospital in the Stockholm County Council. The interviews were analysed using manifest content analysis. The Regional Ethical Review Committee approved the study (Ref: Nr: 2011/927-31/5). The analysis of the interviews led to three categories: fundamentals in nursing, cultural sensitivity and understanding, and influencing conditions. Generic knowledge and skills of nurses outweighed the need for the nurses to have culture-specific knowledge of their patients or relatives in cross-cultural care encounters. Language skills and the availability of bilingual nurses in a multi-ethnic society can facilitate communication and increase parents' satisfaction in cross-cultural care encounters. © 2016 Nordic College of Caring Science.

  12. The cross-cultural transition experience: Phenomenological analysis on a group of international students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Grazia Novara

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This study is focused on exploration of experience of cultural transition that has lived a group of international students (European and not European host at an Italian University during particular experiential segment marking the transition from their culture of belonging to the new social and cultural context. From an epistemological point of view that aligns with the phenomenological tradition with individual and group interviews, it was monitored with a longitudinal methodology as the representation of the transit cross-cultural adaptation to the context it emerged from the interviews are associated through the dominant narrative themes. The results show how in the early stage of contact with the new culture, the group of students, both European and not, have felt a sense of disorientation associated with the loss of its cultural matrix. Over the next step of analysis is rather more clearly the difference between the group of European students, whose performances evoke an adjustment process easier and less based on feelings of ambivalence and close relationships that characterize the group of non-European students.Keywords: Cross-cultural transition; International students: Phenomenology  

  13. Canadian Punjabi Sikh men's experiences of lifestyle changes following myocardial infarction: cultural connections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galdas, Paul M; Oliffe, John L; Wong, Sabrina T; Ratner, Pamela A; Johnson, Joy L; Kelly, Mary T

    2012-01-01

    To describe how culture underlies Canadian Punjabi Sikh men's experiences of adopting lifestyle changes following myocardial infarction (MI). Qualitative, interpretive design. In-depth, individual interviews were conducted with 27 Canadian Punjabi Sikh men post-MI. Data were analysed using constant comparative methods. Cultural influences were identified in Punjabi Sikh men's descriptions of their experience of adopting lifestyle changes. Actions related to self-care, rehabilitation and lifestyle change post-MI were embedded in collectivist family and community contexts. Three themes, derived from the data, were found to intertwine with these contexts; they related to food consumption, physical exercise and faith and religion. These findings highlight how collectivist ideals influence Canadian Punjabi Sikh men's adoption of lifestyle changes post-MI. The content and processes by which healthcare providers deliver heart health and rehabilitation to Canadian Punjabi Sikh men might be guided, at least in part, by the collectivist cultural practices underpinning our findings.

  14. Finding meaning in first episode psychosis: experience, agency, and the cultural repertoire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, John Aggergaard

    2004-12-01

    The article examines individuals' attempts to generate meaning following their experiences with psychosis. The inquiry is based on a person-centered ethnographic study of a Danish mental health community program for early intervention in schizophrenia and involves longitudinal interviews with 15 of its participants. The article takes an existential anthropological perspective emphasizing agency and cultural phenomenology to investigate how individuals draw on resources from the cultural repertoire to make sense of personally disturbing experiences during their psychosis. It is suggested that the concept of "system of explanation" has advantages over, for example, "illness narrative" and "explanatory model" when demonstrating how some individuals engage in the creative analytic and theory-building work of bricolage, selecting, adding, and combining various systems of explanation. Delusions are equally derived from the cultural repertoire but are constructed as dogmatic explanations that are idiosyncratic to the individual who holds them.

  15. Muslim Students' Cultural and Religious Experiences in City, Suburban and Regional University Campuses in NSW, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Possamai, Adam; Dunn, Kevin; Hopkins, Peter; Worthington, Lisa; Amin, Faroque

    2016-01-01

    Although there has been much research about the growing ethnic and religious diversity on university campuses across the world, relatively little is known about the religious and cultural experiences of Muslim students on university campuses in Australia. We draw upon an analysis of a questionnaire that was completed by 323 Muslim students who…

  16. Emerging Culture of English-Medium Instruction in Korea: Experiences of Korean and International Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jeongyeon; Tatar, Bradley; Choi, Jinsook

    2014-01-01

    This study aims to contrastively examine Korean and international students' experiences of taking subject courses at a Korean university. Focusing on the viewpoints of the students, rather than central authorities, we attempt to reveal how language use and cultural factors are interpenetrated in the praxis of English-medium instruction (EMI). The…

  17. U.S.-Based Short-Term Public Health Cultural Immersion Experience for Chinese Undergraduate Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Dorothy Lewis; Biederman, Donna J.

    2017-01-01

    A U.S. and Chinese university developed a short-term student exchange program in public/community health. The program--which consisted of lectures, seminars, field trips, cross-cultural experiences, and a synthesis excursion--resulted in high levels of program satisfaction, increased intrapersonal awareness, and skill acquisition. Program content…

  18. Enhancing Critical Consciousness through a Cross-Cultural Immersion Experience in South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Kyoung Mi; VanVoorhis, Richard W.; Ellenwood, Audrey E.

    2015-01-01

    Using phenomenological approaches, the author explored the meanings and essences of a cross-cultural immersion experience in South Africa among counseling master's-level students. Five core themes--the meaning of being American, sociopolitical awareness, engagement with South Africans and their communities, appreciation of life, and commitment to…

  19. Women Mentoring in the Academe: A Faculty Cross-Racial and Cross-Cultural Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guramatunhu-Mudiwa, Precious; Angel, Roma B.

    2017-01-01

    Two women faculty members, one White from the southeastern United States and one Black African from Zimbabwe, purposefully explored their informal mentoring relationship with the goal of illuminating the complexities associated with their cross-racial, cross-cultural experience. Concentrating on their four-year mentor-mentee academic relationship…

  20. Postglobal Teacher Preparation: Border Thinking along the Global South through International Cross-Cultural Experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahatzad, Jubin; Sasser, Hannah L.; Phillion, JoAnn; Karimi, Nastaran; Deng, Yuwen; Akiyama, Reiko; Sharma, Suniti

    2013-01-01

    Preservice teachers' international cross-cultural experiences can provide opportunities for the exploration of epistemic frontiers. In this article we suggest that postglobal teacher preparation take a critically reflective approach that engages preservice teachers in border thinking, which allows for other ways of knowing while studying abroad.…

  1. Adolescents Media Experiences in the Classroom: SimCity as a Cultural Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacasa, Pilar; García-Pernía, María-Ruth; Núñez, Patricia

    2014-01-01

    The main goal of this paper is to analyze adolescents' experiences when they play SimCity (EA, 2008), a commercial videogame, in an innovative learning environment designed around the concept of participatory culture. By using this video game in the classroom and machinima productions created in relation to the game, we sought to generate a…

  2. Cultural Demands of the Host-Nation: International Student Experience and the Public Diplomacy Consequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Triana, Benjamin

    2015-01-01

    Traditional approaches for hosting international students tend to focus on classroom achievement rather than on intercultural exchange and cultural immersion. Such approaches lessen the possibility of successful educational experiences which also hinders public diplomacy. Two case studies are presented that reveal how structural changes at a…

  3. Children's Faithfulness in Imitating Language Use Varies Cross-culturally, Contingent on Prior Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klinger, Jörn; Mayor, Julien; Bannard, Colin

    2016-01-01

    Despite its recognized importance for cultural transmission, little is known about the role imitation plays in language learning. Three experiments examine how rates of imitation vary as a function of qualitative differences in the way language is used in a small indigenous community in Oaxaca, Mexico and three Western comparison groups. Data from…

  4. Openness to experience and culture-openness transactions across the lifespan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schwaba, Ted; Luhmann, Maike; Denissen, J.J.A.; Chung, J.M.H.; Bleidorn, Wiebke

    2018-01-01

    We examined the life span development of openness to experience and tested whether change in this personality trait was associated with change in cultural activity, such as attending the opera or visiting museums. Data came from the Dutch Longitudinal Internet Study for the Social Sciences panel,

  5. Students' Moral Reasoning as Related to Cultural Background and Educational Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bar-Yam, Miriam; And Others

    The relationship between moral development and cultural and educational background is examined. Approximately 120 Israeli youth representing different social classes, sex, religious affiliation, and educational experience were interviewed. The youth interviewed included urban middle and lower class students, Kibbutz-born, Youth Aliyah…

  6. Culture and Belief Systems: A Christian Experience in the 21st Century

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Culture, which is manifested in symbols, heroes, rituals, values and practices, refers to the cumulative deposit of knowledge, experience, beliefs, values, attitudes, meanings, hierarchies, religions, concepts of time, roles, spatial relations, concepts of the universe and material objects and possessions acquired by a group of ...

  7. "The International Schools Are Not so International after All": The Educational Experiences of Third Culture Kids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lijadi, Anastasia Aldelina; van Schalkwyk, Gertina J.

    2018-01-01

    One of the significant adaptations needed by children of high-mobility families when moving to a new country is adjustment to the education system. This exploratory study reports on the lived experiences and opinions from three cohorts of adult Third Culture Kids (TCK) during their primary and secondary education (N = 33). We explored the school…

  8. Adsorption of Arsenite onto Kemiron in a batch system

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    doti

    This study investigated the effect of pH and coexisting ions on As(III) adsorption using batch experiment and discovered that pH strongly influenced As(III) adsorption. However, differences ... contamination by such heavy metals as arsenic (As). Arsenite ..... and then transition through point of zero charge (PZC) and then into ...

  9. Comparison of neptunium sorption results using batch and column techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Triay, I.R.; Furlano, A.C.; Weaver, S.C.; Chipera, S.J.; Bish, D.L.

    1996-08-01

    We used crushed-rock columns to study the sorption retardation of neptunium by zeolitic, devitrified, and vitric tuffs typical of those at the site of the potential high-level nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. We used two sodium bicarbonate waters (groundwater from Well J-13 at the site and water prepared to simulate groundwater from Well UE-25p No. 1) under oxidizing conditions. It was found that values of the sorption distribution coefficient, Kd, obtained from these column experiments under flowing conditions, regardless of the water or the water velocity used, agreed well with those obtained earlier from batch sorption experiments under static conditions. The batch sorption distribution coefficient can be used to predict the arrival time for neptunium eluted through the columns. On the other hand, the elution curves showed dispersivity, which implies that neptunium sorption in these tuffs may be nonlinear, irreversible, or noninstantaneous. As a result, use of a batch sorption distribution coefficient to calculate neptunium transport through Yucca Mountain tuffs would yield conservative values for neptunium release from the site. We also noted that neptunium (present as the anionic neptunyl carbonate complex) never eluted prior to tritiated water, which implies that charge exclusion does not appear to exclude neptunium from the tuff pores. The column experiments corroborated the trends observed in batch sorption experiments: neptunium sorption onto devitrified and vitric tuffs is minimal and sorption onto zeolitic tuffs decreases as the amount of sodium and bicarbonate/carbonate in the water increases

  10. Indigenous cultural contexts for STEM experiences: snow snakes' impact on students and the community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Brant G.; Roehrig, Gillian

    2018-03-01

    Opportunities for American Indian youth to meaningfully engage in school-based science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) experiences have historically been inadequate. As a consequence, American Indian students perform lower on standardized assessments of science education than their peers. In this article we describe the emergence of meaning for students—as well as their community—resulting from Indigenous culturally-based STEM curriculum that used an American Indian tradition as a focal context. Specifically, the game of snow snakes ( Gooneginebig in Ojibwe) afforded an opportunity for STEM and culturally-based resources to work in unison. A case study research design was used with the bounded case represented by the community associated with the snow snake project. The research question guiding this study was: What forms of culturally relevant meaning do students and the community form as a result of the snow snake game? Results indicate evidence of increased student and community engagement through culturally-based STEM experiences in the form of active participation and the rejuvenation of a traditional game. Implications are discussed for using culturally-based contexts for STEM learning.

  11. Geoheritage, Geotourism and the Cultural Landscape: Enhancing the Visitor Experience and Promoting Geoconservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John E. Gordon

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Geotourism spans a range of visitor interests, from the specialist geotourist to the more general visitor. As well as supporting geoconservation outcomes, it provides economic, cultural, relational and social benefits for both visitors and host communities. The interconnections between geoheritage and the cultural components of the landscape have antecedents in concepts of landscape aesthetics in different cultures. These interconnections provide a range of opportunities for enhancing the geotourist experience and promoting geoconservation and geoeducation by means of activities that involve aesthetic and emotional experiences and interpretation through different cultural filters that encourage the rediscovery of a sense of wonder both about the geological stories in the landscape and the human interactions. A cultural ecosystem services framework provides a holistic approach for informing conservation policy, management and planning for geotourism, enabling assessment of multiple benefits and trade-offs for visitors and communities based on the values of the geoheritage assets. Geotourism studies could also benefit from integration of existing theory, conceptual analysis and practice from broader heritage and nature-based tourism and closer collaboration with relevant social sciences. Adhering to sound geoethical practice is an essential part of geotourism, which can also play a role in the promotion of geoethics among the public and professionals.

  12. Blood culture contamination in hospitalized pediatric patients: a single institution experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min, Hyewon; Park, Cheong Soo; Kim, Dong Soo

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Blood culture is the most important tool for detecting bacteremia in children with fever. However, blood culture contamination rates range from 0.6% to 6.0% in adults; rates for young children have been considered higher than these, although data are limited, especially in Korea. This study determined the contamination rate and risk factors in pediatric patients visiting the emergency room (ER) or being admitted to the ward. Methods We conducted a retrospective chart review of blood cultures obtained from children who visited Yonsei Severance Hospital, Korea between 2006 and 2010. Positive blood cultures were labeled as true bacteremia or contamination according to Centers for Disease Control and Prevention/National Healthcare Safety Network definitions for laboratory-confirmed bloodstream infection, after exclusion of cultures drawn from preexisting central lines only. Results Among 40,542 blood cultures, 610 were positive, of which 479 were contaminations and 131 were true bacteremia (overall contamination rate, 1.18%). The contamination rate in the ER was significantly higher than in the ward (1.32% vs. 0.66%, P6 years, respectively). Conclusion Overall, contamination rates were higher in younger children than in older children, given the difficulty of performing blood sampling in younger children. The contamination rates from the ER were higher than those from the ward, not accounted for only by overcrowding and lack of experience among personnel collecting samples. Further study to investigate other factors affecting contamination should be required. PMID:24868215

  13. Application of gain scheduling to the control of batch bioreactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardello, Ralph; San, Ka-Yiu

    1987-01-01

    The implementation of control algorithms to batch bioreactors is often complicated by the inherent variations in process dynamics during the course of fermentation. Such a wide operating range may render the performance of fixed gain PID controllers unsatisfactory. In this work, a detailed study on the control of batch fermentation is performed. Furthermore, a simple batch controller design is proposed which incorporates the concept of gain-scheduling, a subclass of adaptive control, with oxygen uptake rate as an auxiliary variable. The control of oxygen tension in the biorector is used as a vehicle to convey the proposed idea, analysis and results. Simulation experiments indicate significant improvement in controller performance can be achieved by the proposed approach even in the presence of measurement noise.

  14. Branding, subvertising and markets of experience Culture, counterculture and globalised advertising strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    César San Nicolás Romera

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available In the current sociocultural and commercial context, transnational companies base their communication policies on a phenomenon of expansive branding of their own brand names, converted into products of symbolic consumption. In the face of these policies, founded on the use of cultural and countercultural elements as circulation strategies, a whole series of cultural resistance movements attempt to counteract the actions of the large multinationals with strategies similar to those that these companies employ. In this article, the author analyses this game of attack-counterattack, calling attention to the “reversible” nature of such actions, founded on the commercial exploitation of the expressive experiences of their social targets.

  15. Culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Timothy B; Rodríguez, Melanie Domenech; Bernal, Guillermo

    2011-02-01

    This article summarizes the definitions, means, and research of adapting psychotherapy to clients' cultural backgrounds. We begin by reviewing the prevailing definitions of cultural adaptation and providing a clinical example. We present an original meta-analysis of 65 experimental and quasi-experimental studies involving 8,620 participants. The omnibus effect size of d = .46 indicates that treatments specifically adapted for clients of color were moderately more effective with that clientele than traditional treatments. The most effective treatments tended to be those with greater numbers of cultural adaptations. Mental health services targeted to a specific cultural group were several times more effective than those provided to clients from a variety of cultural backgrounds. We recommend a series of research-supported therapeutic practices that account for clients' culture, with culture-specific treatments being more effective than generally culture-sensitive treatments. © 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Habitus and Flow in Primary School Musical Practice: Relations between Family Musical Cultural Capital, Optimal Experience and Music Participation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valenzuela, Rafael; Codina, Nuria

    2014-01-01

    Based on Bourdieu's idea that cultural capital is strongly related to family context, we describe the relations between family musical cultural capital and optimal experience during compulsory primary school musical practice. We analyse whether children from families with higher levels of musical cultural capital, and specifically with regard to…

  17. A Model-based B2B (Batch to Batch) Control for An Industrial Batch Polymerization Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogawa, Morimasa

    This paper describes overview of a model-based B2B (batch to batch) control for an industrial batch polymerization process. In order to control the reaction temperature precisely, several methods based on the rigorous process dynamics model are employed at all design stage of the B2B control, such as modeling and parameter estimation of the reaction kinetics which is one of the important part of the process dynamics model. The designed B2B control consists of the gain scheduled I-PD/II2-PD control (I-PD with double integral control), the feed-forward compensation at the batch start time, and the model adaptation utilizing the results of the last batch operation. Throughout the actual batch operations, the B2B control provides superior control performance compared with that of conventional control methods.

  18. Christian Spiritual Experience as a Model of a Culture of Dialogue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rybicki Adam

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available A space for dialogue between people and the cultures is a focus of this article. To start with, the biblical basis for analysing spiritual experience is presented, followed by the components of Christian spiritual-religious experience. It is also explored whether it is possible to cross-reference the said components with the culture of dialogue. A particular focus is made on the spirituality of encounter and mysticism that leads to a conclusion that a reliable and continuously deepening reflection on Christian spirituality shows its value not only on a “vertical” (upright plane, i.e. a dialogue with God, but also on a horizontal, flat plane. It shapes the overall attitude of a person, both towards other people and towards themselves, as well as towards the world around them. Certain elements may play a major role in shaping the culture of dialogue between people and the communities of people. These elements are: relational character, desire of getting to know “the other you”, emphasizing the dignity of “the other you”, mutual respect, shared search for and acceptance of the truth and a communal dimension (communion. The ethical aspects of spiritual experience – including a mystical experience – such as conscience, virtue or value, have also been regarded because the ethical elements play a very important role in the dialogue of people and communities.

  19. Adaptation to high throughput batch chromatography enhances multivariate screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker, Gregory A; Calzada, Joseph; Herzer, Sibylle; Rieble, Siegfried

    2015-09-01

    High throughput process development offers unique approaches to explore complex process design spaces with relatively low material consumption. Batch chromatography is one technique that can be used to screen chromatographic conditions in a 96-well plate. Typical batch chromatography workflows examine variations in buffer conditions or comparison of multiple resins in a given process, as opposed to the assessment of protein loading conditions in combination with other factors. A modification to the batch chromatography paradigm is described here where experimental planning, programming, and a staggered loading approach increase the multivariate space that can be explored with a liquid handling system. The iterative batch chromatography (IBC) approach is described, which treats every well in a 96-well plate as an individual experiment, wherein protein loading conditions can be varied alongside other factors such as wash and elution buffer conditions. As all of these factors are explored in the same experiment, the interactions between them are characterized and the number of follow-up confirmatory experiments is reduced. This in turn improves statistical power and throughput. Two examples of the IBC method are shown and the impact of the load conditions are assessed in combination with the other factors explored. Copyright © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Pilot experiment on utilization of vegetable biomass in Umbria. Part 2. Anaerobic digestion of the wastes coming from the maintenance activity of the lake Trasimeno and the working of energetic cultures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poletti, A.; Selvaggi, R.; Poletti, L.

    2000-01-01

    In this work the energetic exploitation has been assessed of the vegetable biomasses available in the region Umbria, derived both from the maintenance operation of Lake Trasimeno and energetic cultures. Biomethanation experiments have been carried out both on laboratory scale, by preparing anaerobic digestion tests in batch and in continuous, and on pilot scale, through the use of a 2000 litres digest or. Throughout the experiment the main chemical and physical process parameters have been monitored and the process efficiency assessed. The experimental values, measured for the anaerobic digestion process, have shown that both types of biomass can be very good substrated for the production of biogas. Their energetic re-use, when considering the broad and complex problems posed by breeding wastes disposal, could positively contribute to a rational sustainability scheme of the activities operating in the territory [it

  1. Adult English Language Learners Constructing and Sharing Their Stories and Experiences: The Cultural and Linguistic Autobiography Writing Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Gloria

    2011-01-01

    This article is the culmination of the Cultural and Linguistic Autobiography (CLA) writing project, which details narrative descriptions of adult English language learners' (ELLs') cultural and linguistic experiences and how those experiences may have influenced the ways in which these learners constructed and reconstructed their identities.…

  2. Investigation on novel raceway pond with inclined paddle wheels through simulation and microalgae culture experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Fanxue; Huang, Jianke; Meng, Chen; Zhu, Fachao; Chen, Jianpei; Li, Yuanguang

    2016-01-01

    The open raceway ponds are nowadays the most used large-scale reactors for microalgae culture. To avoid the stacking of microalgae, the paddle wheels are the most widely used to circulate and mix the culture medium. In this paper, a numerical simulation using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) was used to investigate the hydrodynamic characteristics of open raceway ponds with different types of paddle wheels (the traditional paddle wheels and the novel paddle wheels with specially inclined angle of the blades). The particle image velocimetry (PIV) was used to validate the reliability of the CFD model. The CFD simulation results showed that the novel raceway pond with 15° inclined angle of the blades had the best mixing efficiency under the same power consumption. Lastly, the results of microalgae culture experiments showed that the growth rates of Chlorella pyrenoidosa in the novel raceway pond with 15° inclined angle of the blades were higher than those in the traditional reactor. The results of the culture experiments and CFD simulations were identical with each other. Therefore, a novel paddle wheel with 15° inclined angle of the blades was obtained for better microalgae cultivation.

  3. Experience of migrant care and needs for cultural competence training among public health workers in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chae, Duckhee; Lee, Jina; Asami, Keiko; Kim, Hyunlye

    2018-05-01

    This study explored the experiences of public health workers (PHWs) providing health care for migrants living in Korea and clarified needs for cultural competence training. Twenty-six PHWs from five public health centers in Gwangju city, South Korea, participated in this exploratory qualitative study. Five semi-structured focus group interviews of PHWs were conducted from September to December 2016. A directed content analysis approach was conducted using four categories: perceived characteristics of migrants, interaction between PHWs and migrants, interaction between PHWs and organizations/systems, and cultural competence training needs. PHWs perceived that migrants lacked autonomy in health decisions and awareness of health behaviors. PHWs experienced difficulties in communicating and in establishing trusting relationships. They found clients hard to reach and easy to miss, a lack of continuity in health care programs, and inadequate human and material resources. They preferred passive teaching methods to activity-based simulation. PHWs believed essential training should be provided through e-learning to all PHWs, including management. PHWs reported experiencing multiple challenges from a lack of preparedness for culturally competent care and their clients' vulnerability. Development of cultural competence training is suggested through e-learning that reflects the PHWs' experiences and provides systematic support. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. The imperative of culture: a quantitative analysis of the impact of culture on workforce engagement, patient experience, physician engagement, value-based purchasing, and turnover.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owens, Katie; Eggers, Jim; Keller, Stephanie; McDonald, Audrey

    2017-01-01

    Current uncertainty for the future of the health care landscape is placing an increasing amount of pressure on leadership teams to be prepared to steer their organization forward in a number of potential directions. It is commonly recognized among health care leaders that culture will either enable or disable organizational success. However, very few studies empirically link culture to health care-specific performance outcomes. Nearly every health care organization in the US specifies its cultural aspirations through mission and vision statements and values. Ambitions of patient-centeredness, care for the community, workplace of choice, and world-class quality are frequently cited; yet, little definitive research exists to quantify the importance of building high-performing cultures. Our study examined the impact of cultural attributes defined by a culture index (Cronbach's alpha = 0.88) on corresponding performance with key health care measures. We mapped results of the culture index across data sets, compared results, and evaluated variations in performance among key indicators for leaders. Organizations that perform in the top quartile for our culture index statistically significantly outperformed those in the bottom quartile on all but one key performance indicator tested. The culture top quartile organizations outperformed every domain for employee engagement, physician engagement, patient experience, and overall value-based purchasing performance with statistical significance. Culture index top quartile performers also had a 3.4% lower turnover rate than the bottom quartile performers. Finally, culture index top quartile performers earned an additional 1% on value-based purchasing. Our findings demonstrate a meaningful connection between performance in the culture index and organizational performance. To best impact these key performance outcomes, health care leaders should pay attention to culture and actively steer workforce engagement in attributes that

  5. Landscape experiences as a cultural ecosystem service in a Nordic context:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindhjem, Henrik; Reinvang, Rasmus; Zandersen, Marianne

    2015-01-01

    Cultural ecosystem services in the form of experiences derived from landscapes are potentially important, but often overlooked. Given the large and unprecedented landscape changes many of the Nordic countries are undergoing, there is a need to find ways of including people’s preferences and the v......Cultural ecosystem services in the form of experiences derived from landscapes are potentially important, but often overlooked. Given the large and unprecedented landscape changes many of the Nordic countries are undergoing, there is a need to find ways of including people’s preferences...... and decision-making contexts in the Nordics. The literature demonstrates potentially high unaccounted welfare loss from landscape change. We find clear weaknesses in current practices, that a second phase will try to address. The project was carried out by Vista Analysis in Oslo and Department of Environmental...

  6. The Relation Between Valence and Arousal in Subjective Experience Varies With Personality and Culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuppens, Peter; Tuerlinckx, Francis; Yik, Michelle; Koval, Peter; Coosemans, Joachim; Zeng, Kevin J; Russell, James A

    2017-08-01

    While in general arousal increases with positive or negative valence (a so-called V-shaped relation), there are large differences among individuals in how these two fundamental dimensions of affect are related in people's experience. In two studies, we examined two possible sources of this variation: personality and culture. In Study 1, participants (Belgian university students) recalled a recent event that was characterized by high or low valence or arousal and reported on their feelings and their personality in terms of the Five-Factor Model. In Study 2, participants from Canada, China/Hong Kong, Japan, Korea, and Spain reported on their feelings in a thin slice of time and on their personality. In Study 1, we replicated the V-shape as characterizing the relation between valence and arousal, and identified personality correlates of experiencing particular valence-arousal combinations. In Study 2, we documented how the V-shaped relation varied as a function of Western versus Eastern cultural background and personality. The results showed that the steepness of the V-shaped relation between valence and arousal increases with Extraversion within cultures, and with a West-East distinction between cultures. Implications for the personality-emotion link and research on cultural differences in affect are discussed. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. The role of the regulator in promoting and evaluating safety culture. Operating experience feedback programme approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez, S.

    2002-01-01

    Promoting and Evaluating Safety Culture (S.C.) in Operating Organizations must be one of the main Nuclear Regulator goals to achieve. This can be possible only if each and every one of the regulatory activities inherently involves S.C. It can be seen throughout attitudes, values, uses and practices in both individuals and the whole regulatory organization. One among all the regulatory tools commonly used by regulators to promote and evaluate the commitment of the licensees with safety culture as a whole involves organizational factors and particular attention is directed to the operating organization. This entailed a wide range of activities, including all those related with management of safety performance. Operating Experience Feedback Programme as a tool to enhance safety operation is particularly useful for regulators in the evaluation of the role of S.C. in operating organization. Safety Culture is recognized as a subset of the wider Organizational Culture. Practices that improve organizational effectiveness can also contribute to enhance safety. An effective event investigation methodology is a specific practice, which contributes to a healthy Safety Culture. (author)

  8. Humour, beauty, and culture as personal health resources: experiences of elderly Swedish women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forssén, Annika S K

    2007-01-01

    This paper explores how a group of elderly women used humour, beauty, and cultural activities to maintain physical and mental well-being. The paper reports on one aspect of a qualitative study on women's work and health in a lifetime perspective. Interviews with 20 strategically selected Swedish women, aged 63 to 83 years, were audiotaped and analysed according to a phenomenological approach. During the interview process, the researchers became increasingly aware that the women had clear ideas about what enabled them to feel well and healthy - even when actually quite diseased. Creating and enjoying humour, beauty, and culture formed part of such strategies. Joking with workmates made hard, low-status jobs easier, helped them endure pain, and helped balance marital difficulties. Creating a nice and comfortable home gave pleasure and a little luxury in a life filled with necessities. Making articles for everyday use more beautiful was regarded as worthwhile, because it gave delight to them and their families. Gains from cultural activities were social, aesthetic, and existential - the latter through a feeling of self-recognition and being heard. Humour, beauty, and culture formed a greater part of these women's survival strategies than expected. Making everyday life more aesthetic is an undervalued aspect of women's health-creating work in the family. Through their lifelong experience as carers and homemakers, elderly women possess special knowledge regarding what may promote health, a knowledge that should be tapped. When supplying elderly women with social care, their needs for humour, beauty, and culture should be respected.

  9. Developing and Strengthening of Safety Culture at Ukrainian NPPs: Experience of NNEGC “Energoatom”

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheyko, Y.; Kotin, P.

    2016-01-01

    , including: • Self evaluation of safety culture; • Questioning the staff; • Independent audits of safety culture. NAEC “Energoatom” seeks to take into account international experience, and to participate in conferences (such as this one), seminars and workshops held under the auspices of the IAEA, as well as to follow the guidelines and standards of the IAEA in the organization of activities to improve the safety culture. Other sources of international experience in this field are the EU-funded projects of “soft” assistance and guidance of other authorised international nuclear industry organizations such as WANO. In this regard, it should be mentioned WANO guidance document GL 2002-02 “Principles of effective personnel organization” that identifies five fundamental principles relating to human factors, and important for the development of a sustainable safety culture in the organization: • Even the best experts make mistakes; • A situation fraught with errors is predictable, manageable and preventable; • Human behavior is determined by organizational processes and values; • Highest efficiency operation is achieved through the promotion and support; • Violations can be avoided by understanding the causes of errors and implementing lessons learned. Within the framework of the international programs of EC “soft” aid in recent years, the projects that contribute to the development of a safety culture in the NAEC “Energoatom” have been either carried out or are ongoing. These projects include the solution of certain problems (for example, in the area of human factor—the task of “no punishment for error” approach establishment), as well as more common tasks of improving overall safety culture, such as: • Implementation of programs to inform senior staff and management, including the essential features needed to create a strong culture of safety; creating conditions for the improvement of the organizational and managerial impact on the

  10. Nature and culture in Amazonian landscape: a photographic experience echoing Amerindian cosmology and historical ecology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Pardini

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available As an artistic experience, the photographic research "Arborescence - plant physiognomy in Amazonian landscape" conduces the author to discover landscape as an interpenetration of Nature and Culture (man's indirect presence; being face to face with vegetable subjects; continuity, undifferentiation and equivalence between the 'natural' (heterogeneous, spontaneous, native, rural and the 'cultural' (homogeneous, cultivated, exotic, urban in the experience of landscape; arborescence as a "cosmic image" (Gaston Bachelard, where the high (sky, light, branches, sky water and the low (earth, shade, roots, land water are equivalent and reversible poles. Such experience echoes the eco-cosmology of forest societies in Amazonia. The Amerindian cosmology is a "symbolic ecology" (Philippe Descola, that is, "a complex dynamics of social intercourse and transformations between humans and non-humans, visible and invisible subjects" (Bruce Albert; the Amerindian ecology is "a cosmology put into practice" (Kaj Århem, wherein hunted animals and cultivated plants are 'relatives' to be seduced or coerced. Such model appears to be a form of "socialization of nature" (Descola, "humanization of the forest" (Evaristo Eduardo de Miranda and "indirect anthropization" of Amazonian ecosystems (Descola which produces "cultural forests" (William Balée.

  11. Culture care meanings and experiences of postpartum depression among Jordanian Australian women: a transcultural study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nahas, V; Amasheh, N

    1999-01-01

    This study discovers, describes, and explains the personal experiences, perceptions, and care meanings of Jordanian women who have suffered postpartum depression. Most postpartum cases often are misdiagnosed as exclusively psychological and untreated by health care professionals without consideration to the cultural meanings of this problem. Understanding the experiences of these women is important, as their expressions often are contextually and culturally influenced. Using Leininger's Theory of Culture Care Diversity and Universality, a purposive sample of 22 Jordanian women diagnosed with postpartum depression, living in Sydney, were interviewed. The ethnonursing research method and data analysis procedures were used. Results revealed that Jordanian mothers experienced severe loss of control over emotions of loneliness, hopelessness, and feelings of being a bad mother. Three major themes focusing on the care meanings and experiences of Jordanian women are discussed: (a) Care means strong family support and kinship during the postpartum period, (b) care is carrying out and fulfilling traditional gender roles as mother and wife, and (c) care is preservation of Jordanian childbearing customs as expressed in the celebration of the birth of the baby.

  12. Development of a Continuous Phytoplankton Culture System for Ocean Acidification Experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cathryn Wynn-Edwards

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Around one third of all anthropogenic CO2 emissions have been absorbed by the oceans, causing changes in seawater pH and carbonate chemistry. These changes have the potential to affect phytoplankton, which are critically important for marine food webs and the global carbon cycle. However, our current knowledge of how phytoplankton will respond to these changes is limited to a few laboratory and mesocosm experiments. Long-term experiments are needed to determine the vulnerability of phytoplankton to enhanced pCO2. Maintaining phytoplankton cultures in exponential growth for extended periods of time is logistically difficult and labour intensive. Here we describe a continuous culture system that greatly reduces the time required to maintain phytoplankton cultures, and minimises variation in experimental pCO2 treatments over time. This system is simple, relatively cheap, flexible, and allows long-term experiments to be performed to further our understanding of chronic responses and adaptation by phytoplankton species to future ocean acidification.

  13. A Tainha como Patrimônio Cultural e Experiência Turístico-Cultural em Bombinhas, Santa Catarina / Mullet Fish as Cultural Heritage and Tourism Experience in Bombinhas, Santa Catarina, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yolanda Flores e Silva

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo apresenta resultado de pesquisa realizada em Bombinhas, SC, sobre as tradições alimentares das famílias de pescadores artesanais, nesse município. O estudo teve como objetivo investigar o patrimônio alimentar tradicional da localidade e o seu potencial como experiência turístico-cultural. O percurso metodológico adotado foi o qualitativo, de natureza exploratória e descritiva, com uso do método etnográfico: trabalho de campo, entrevistas e observações do cotidiano local. A análise dos dados foi realizada através de Interpretação Reflexiva. Os resultados apontam para um patrimônio alimentar ancorado no pescado, mais especificamente na Tainha, com receitas preparadas no fogão à lenha pelas mulheres da comunidade. Herança cultural, a Tainha é degustada em eventos especiais familiares e públicos, como a Missa da Tainha, as farinhadas familiares e as Festas Juninas, entre outras, podendo, assim, representar uma experiência cultural diferenciada para o turista. Mullet Fish as Cultural Heritage and Tourism Experience in Bombinhas, Santa Catarina, Brazil - This paper presents results of research on the food traditions of the families of artisanal fisherfolk of the municipality of Bombinhas, SC. The study aimed to investigate the food heritage and its potential as a tourist-cultural experience. The methodological approach adopted was qualitative, exploratory and descriptive using the ethnographic method: fieldwork, interviews, and observations. Data analysis was performed by Reflexive Interpretation. The results show that there is a food heritage anchored in Mullet prepared in the wood stove by the women of the community. The Mullet fish generates dishes tasted in family and in public events such as the Mass of the Mullet, and outdoors festival (“festas juninas”. The government and the population considers this food as an important cultural heritage and an especial experience to the tourist.

  14. Ethical and cultural striving: Lived experiences of minority nurses in dementia care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egede-Nissen, Veslemøy; Sellevold, Gerd Sylvi; Jakobsen, Rita; Sørlie, Venke

    2017-09-01

    Nursing workforce in Western European health institutions has become more diverse because of immigration and recruitment from Asian, African, and East-European countries. Minority healthcare providers may experience communication problems in interaction with patients and coworkers, and they are likely to experience conflict or uncertainty when confronted with different cultural traditions and values. Persons with dementia are a vulnerable group, and the consequences of their illness challenge the ability to understand and express oneself verbally. The large number of minority healthcare providers in nursing homes underlines the importance to obtain better knowledge about this group's experiences with the care challenges in dementia care units. Can you tell about any challenges in the experiences in the encounter with persons suffering from dementia? Participants and research context: Five minority healthcare providers in a nursing home, in a dementia unit. All guidelines for research ethic were followed. Ethical consideration: The participants were informed that participation was voluntary, and they were guarantied anonymity. We used a qualitative method, conducting individual interviews, using a narrative approach. In the analysis, we applied a phenomenological-hermeneutical method, developed for researching life experiences. One theme and four subthemes: striving to understand the quality of care for persons with dementia. The subthemes: sensitivity to understand the patients' verbal and nonverbal expressions. To understand gratefulness, understand the patient as an adult and autonomous person, and understand the patient as a patient in a nursing home. Challenges comprise both ethical and cultural striving to understand persons with dementia. To care for persons with dementia in an unfamiliar context may be understood as a striving for acting ethically, when at the same time striving to adapt and acculturate to new cultural norms, in order to practice good

  15. Combining universal beauty and cultural context in a unifying model of visual aesthetic experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redies, Christoph

    2015-01-01

    In this work, I propose a model of visual aesthetic experience that combines formalist and contextual aspects of aesthetics. The model distinguishes between two modes of processing. First, perceptual processing is based on the intrinsic form of an artwork, which may or may not be beautiful. If it is beautiful, a beauty-responsive mechanism is activated in the brain. This bottom-up mechanism is universal amongst humans; it is widespread in the visual brain and responsive across visual modalities. Second, cognitive processing is based on contextual information, such as the depicted content, the intentions of the artist or the circumstances of the presentation of the artwork. Cognitive processing is partially top-down and varies between individuals according to their cultural experience. Processing in the two channels is parallel and largely independent. In the general case, an aesthetic experience is induced if processing in both channels is favorable, i.e., if there is resonance in the perceptual processing channel ("aesthetics of perception"), and successful mastering in the cognitive processing channel ("aesthetics of cognition"). I speculate that this combinatorial mechanism has evolved to mediate social bonding between members of a (cultural) group of people. Primary emotions can be elicited via both channels and modulate the degree of the aesthetic experience. Two special cases are discussed. First, in a subset of (post-)modern art, beauty no longer plays a prominent role. Second, in some forms of abstract art, beautiful form can be enjoyed with minimal cognitive processing. The model is applied to examples of Western art. Finally, implications of the model are discussed. In summary, the proposed model resolves the seeming contradiction between formalist perceptual approaches to aesthetic experience, which are based on the intrinsic beauty of artworks, and contextual approaches, which account for highly individual and culturally dependent aspects of aesthetics.

  16. Combining universal beauty and cultural context in a unifying model of visual aesthetic experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redies, Christoph

    2015-01-01

    In this work, I propose a model of visual aesthetic experience that combines formalist and contextual aspects of aesthetics. The model distinguishes between two modes of processing. First, perceptual processing is based on the intrinsic form of an artwork, which may or may not be beautiful. If it is beautiful, a beauty-responsive mechanism is activated in the brain. This bottom–up mechanism is universal amongst humans; it is widespread in the visual brain and responsive across visual modalities. Second, cognitive processing is based on contextual information, such as the depicted content, the intentions of the artist or the circumstances of the presentation of the artwork. Cognitive processing is partially top–down and varies between individuals according to their cultural experience. Processing in the two channels is parallel and largely independent. In the general case, an aesthetic experience is induced if processing in both channels is favorable, i.e., if there is resonance in the perceptual processing channel (“aesthetics of perception”), and successful mastering in the cognitive processing channel (“aesthetics of cognition”). I speculate that this combinatorial mechanism has evolved to mediate social bonding between members of a (cultural) group of people. Primary emotions can be elicited via both channels and modulate the degree of the aesthetic experience. Two special cases are discussed. First, in a subset of (post-)modern art, beauty no longer plays a prominent role. Second, in some forms of abstract art, beautiful form can be enjoyed with minimal cognitive processing. The model is applied to examples of Western art. Finally, implications of the model are discussed. In summary, the proposed model resolves the seeming contradiction between formalist perceptual approaches to aesthetic experience, which are based on the intrinsic beauty of artworks, and contextual approaches, which account for highly individual and culturally dependent aspects of

  17. Monte Carlo simulation on kinetics of batch and semi-batch free radical polymerization

    KAUST Repository

    Shao, Jing; Tang, Wei; Xia, Ru; Feng, Xiaoshuang; Chen, Peng; Qian, Jiasheng; Song, Changjiang

    2015-01-01

    experimental and simulation studies, we showed the capability of our Monte Carlo scheme on representing polymerization kinetics in batch and semi-batch processes. Various kinetics information, such as instant monomer conversion, molecular weight

  18. Telemental Health Training, Team Building, and Workforce Development in Cultural Context: The Hawaii Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alicata, Daniel; Schroepfer, Amanda; Unten, Tim; Agoha, Ruby; Helm, Susana; Fukuda, Michael; Ulrich, Daniel; Michels, Stanton

    2016-04-01

    The goal of the University of Hawaii (UH) child and adolescent psychiatry telemental health (TMH) program is to train child and adolescent psychiatry fellows to provide behavioral health services for the children of Hawaii and the Pacific Islands in the cultural context of their rural communities using interactive videoteleconferencing (IVTC). The training experience balances learning objectives with community service. Learning objectives include: Understanding mental health disparities in rural communities, leveraging community resources in ongoing treatment, providing culturally effective care, and improving health care access and delivery through TMH service research and evaluation. We describe the UH experience. Several UH faculty are experienced with IVTC technology. They are triple-board trained, are recognized for their research in program evaluation and mental health disparities, and are committed to serving Hawaii's rural communities. We demonstrate the role of TMH in linking children and their families living in rural communities with multiple mental health treatment providers. The service-learning curriculum and a unique collaboration with Mayo Clinic provide the opportunity to examine the role of TMH in global service, and training, education, and research. TMH provides direct services to patients and consultation on Hawaii Island and Maui County. The collaboration with the Mayo Clinic brings further consultation in complex diagnostics, pharmacogenomics, and cross-cultural psychiatry. A curriculum provides trainees experience with IVTC with the goal of potential recruitment to underserved rural communities. The TMH program at UH is unique in its team building and workforce development by joining multiple entities through IVTC and translating expertise from the Mayo Clinic to rural communities, and strengthening collaboration with local child and adolescent psychiatrists, and primary care and other mental health providers. The UH psychiatry program is a

  19. We are on the same boat, but still I am from another culture: the lived experiences of learning in groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Kaire

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available What does it mean to learn in a group of people from different cultures? How does one encounter people from different cultures when there is no clear ‘quantitative’ domination of any culture? By asking these questions the paper represents a hermeneutic phenomenological study that explores the phenomenon of learning in a culturally diverse group. A phenomenological study is undertaken with young people (18-30 years from different EU countries who participated in learning mobility project European Voluntary Service and had long-term volunteering experience abroad. The research concentrates on the lived moments of vis-à-vis intercultural encounters during learning process in groups. Specifically, through the descriptions of lived experience and phenomenological reflection the paper describes how young people experience self and others while they are learning in culturally diverse groups. Lived experiences of young people lead them into ‘no-man’s land’ (Waldenfels, 2011 where connection and separation simultaneously exist.

  20. Capacity Planning for Batch and Perfusion Bioprocesses Across Multiple Biopharmaceutical Facilities

    OpenAIRE

    Siganporia, Cyrus C; Ghosh, Soumitra; Daszkowski, Thomas; Papageorgiou, Lazaros G; Farid, Suzanne S

    2014-01-01

    Production planning for biopharmaceutical portfolios becomes more complex when products switch between fed-batch and continuous perfusion culture processes. This article describes the development of a discrete-time mixed integer linear programming (MILP) model to optimize capacity plans for multiple biopharmaceutical products, with either batch or perfusion bioprocesses, across multiple facilities to meet quarterly demands. The model comprised specific features to account for products with fe...

  1. Student nurses' experiences of living and studying in a different culture to their own and the development of cultural sensitivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ruddock, Heidi

    With the increase of culturally diverse people residing in Denmark, it has become imperative to provide student nurses with knowledge and skills that will enable them to become culturally sensitive in order interact effectively with clients from culturally diverse backgrounds. The aim of this study...... was to explore whether student nurses develop cultural sensitivity as a consequence of living and studying in a culture that is different from their own. Seven Danish student nurses who had participated in student exchanges in Jamaica, Australia, Malta and Greenland took part in this study. A qualitative...

  2. Supporting students of diverse cultures and faiths - Experiences from a University perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gale, Jill; Thalitaya, Madhusudan Deepak

    2017-09-01

    University of Bedfordshire is a large University with over 24000 students from over 100 countries. The main religions recorded are Christianity, Islam, Hinduism, Buddhism, Jewish and Sikhism amongst others. Around 45% of them do not have any recorded religion. The Mental Health Advisor will come across a wide range of students from different backgrounds each with their own unique presentation of mental health distress. It is well known that people of different communities and cultures experience signs and symptoms of mental distress in different ways. This is very important for clinicians to be aware of the nuances around cultures and traditions in the context of mental illness in order to assist clinicians more accurately diagnose, support and manage them. In an effort to improve diagnosis and care to people of all backgrounds, the 5 th edition of the Diagnosis and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5) incorporates a greater cultural sensitivity throughout the manual. This includes a reflection of cross-cultural variations in presentations and cultural concepts of distress. The mental Health Advisor is available to help with practical support to assist students to manage their mental health and study. This includes support with an initial assessment, structures support, assisting with making reasonable adjustments under the Equality Act (2010), support students to access Disabled Student's Allowances and reasonable adjustments to enable them to study effectively and achieve their potential and where necessary, making appropriate referrals to internal and/or external services. One of the main roles of the advisor is to support students with mental health difficulties which are impacting on their studies. This support may include anxiety management, motivation, relaxation techniques, study plans and understanding the impact of medication. This paper will look at some of the experiences faced by the mental health advisor and will also reflect on

  3. The Rhetoric and Reality of Leading the Inclusive School: Socio-Cultural Reflections on Lived Experiences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lindy-Anne Abawi

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper details a cross-cultural study of inclusive leadership practices within a basic education context in each of the following countries: Australia, Canada, and Colombia. Each school was selected after district educational leaders identified the school as being inclusive of students with diverse learning needs over an extended period of time. The researchers were particularly interested in the norms and assumptions that were evident within conversations because these were viewed as indicators of the nature of the embedded school culture within each context. School leaders and teachers were interviewed to determine the link between rhetoric and reality, and what inclusion ‘looked like’, ‘felt like’, and ‘sounded like’ at each site, and whether any discernible differences could be attributed to societal culture. A refractive phenomenological case study approach was used to capture the messages within each context and the lived experiences of the participants as they sought to cater for the needs of students. Data were collected from semi-structured interviews with school leaders and teaching staff. Each researcher conducted environmental observations, documenting the impressions and insights gained from the more implicit messages communicated verbally, non-verbally, and experientially from school structures, visuals, and school ground interactions. Themes were collated from the various narratives that were recounted. Both similarities and distinct socio-cultural differences emerged.

  4. The place of experience, culture and multimedia learning in teacher training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica Fantin

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available What are the challenges of training children, young people and teachers today? Speaking of knowledge and skills necessary for teachers to perform in current scenarios implies asking to what extent university degree courses and teacher training institutions are adapting to the new demands of education. By highlighting some current challenges of university education, this article emphasizes the importance of experience, cultural training and multimedia in teacher training, from a culturalistic perspective of media education. Considering that media education is a field under construction, the transversality and the contribution of multidisciplinary knowledge of science, education, communication and the arts are a “border-object”, an interface that can better interpret the current transformation of knowledge and the tools of digital culture which are not limited to school education. The text discusses the possibility of multimedia education and its skills, such as integration of knowledge and methodological contributions deriving from different areas of knowledge and from the perspective of multiple languages in school and culture. From this results the need to set up other spaces for thinking about educational and training praxis, discussing news forms of cultural mediation in contemporary settings of teachers training.

  5. Photo irradiation Systems for In-Vitro Cultured Cells Phototherapy and Photobiology Experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serrano Navarro, Joel; Morales Lopez, Orestes M.; Hernandez Quintanas, Luis F.; Lopez Silva, Y.; Fabila Bustos, Diego A.; De la Rosa Vazquez, Jose M.; Valor Reed, Alma; Stolik Isakina, Suren; Brodin, Patrik N.; Guha, Chandan; Tome, Wolfgang A.

    2016-01-01

    The increase in research and application of various phototherapy methods, especially photodynamic therapy (PDT) has created the need to study in depth the mechanisms of interaction of light with biological tissue using a photosensitizing drug in order to increase the therapeutic effectiveness. In this issue, two systems for controlled irradiation of in-vitro cell culture and temperature monitoring of the culture are presented. The first system was designed to irradiate 24 wells in a 96-well microplate. The second one was constructed for the irradiation and control of a 24-well microplate using larger volumes of cultured cells. Both systems can independently irradiate and control the temperature of each well. The systems include a module for contactless measurement of the temperature in each well. Light sources are located in an interchangeable module, so that it can be replaced to irradiate with different wavelengths. These prototypes count with various operation modes, controlled by a computer, which permits establishing specific settings in accordance with the desired experiment. The systems allow the automated experiment execution with precise control of dosimetry, irradiation and temperature, which reduces the sample-handling while, saves time. (Author)

  6. A two dimensional clinostat experiment for microalgae cultures - basic work for bio- regenerativ life support systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harting, Benjamin; Slenzka, Klaus

    2012-07-01

    To investigate the influence of microgravity environments on photosynthetic organisms we designed a 2 dimensional clinostatexperiment for a suspended cell culture of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. A novel approach of online measurments concerning relevant parameters important for the clasification of photosynthesis was obtained. To adress the photosynthesis rate we installed and validated an optical mesurement system to monitor the evolution and consumption of dissolved oxygen. Simultaneously a PAM sensor to analyse the flourescence quantum yield of the photochemical reaction was integarted. Thus it was possible to directly classify important parameters of the phototrophic metabolism during clinorotation. The experiment design including well suited light conditions and further biochemical analysis were directly performed for microalgal cell cultures. Changes in the photosynthetic efficiancy of phototrophic cyanobacteria has been observed during parabolic flight campaign but the cause is already not understood. Explenations could be the dependency of gravitaxis by intracellular ionconcentartion or the existance of mechanosensitive ionchannels for example associated in chloroplasts of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. The purpuse of the microalgal clinostat are studies in a qasi microgravity environment for the process design of future bioregenerative life suport systems in spaceflight missions. First results has indicated the need for special nourishment of the cell culture during microgravity experiments. Further data will be presented during the assembly.

  7. Evaluation and optimization of hepatocyte culture media factors by design of experiments (DoE) methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Jia; Mandenius, Carl-Fredrik; Lübberstedt, Marc; Urbaniak, Thomas; Nüssler, Andreas K N; Knobeloch, Daniel; Gerlach, Jörg C; Zeilinger, Katrin

    2008-07-01

    Optimization of cell culture media based on statistical experimental design methodology is a widely used approach for improving cultivation conditions. We applied this methodology to refine the composition of an established culture medium for growth of a human hepatoma cell line, C3A. A selection of growth factors and nutrient supplements were systematically screened according to standard design of experiments (DoE) procedures. The results of the screening indicated that the medium additives hepatocyte growth factor, oncostatin M, and fibroblast growth factor 4 significantly influenced the metabolic activities of the C3A cell line. Surface response methodology revealed that the optimum levels for these factors were 30 ng/ml for hepatocyte growth factor and 35 ng/ml for oncostatin M. Additional experiments on primary human hepatocyte cultures showed high variance in metabolic activities between cells from different individuals, making determination of optimal levels of factors more difficult. Still, it was possible to conclude that hepatocyte growth factor, epidermal growth factor, and oncostatin M had decisive effects on the metabolic functions of primary human hepatocytes.

  8. "What matters most:" a cultural mechanism moderating structural vulnerability and moral experience of mental illness stigma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Lawrence H; Chen, Fang-pei; Sia, Kathleen Janel; Lam, Jonathan; Lam, Katherine; Ngo, Hong; Lee, Sing; Kleinman, Arthur; Good, Byron

    2014-02-01

    To understand Chinese immigrants' experiences with mental illness stigma and mental health disparities, we integrate frameworks of 'structural vulnerability' and 'moral experience' to identify how interaction between structural discrimination and cultural engagements might shape stigma. Fifty Chinese immigrants, including 64% Fuzhounese immigrants who experienced particularly harsh socio-economical deprivation, from two Chinese bilingual psychiatric inpatient units in New York City were interviewed from 2006 to 2010 about their experiences of mental illness stigma. Interview questions were derived from 4 stigma measures, covering various life domains. Participants were asked to elaborate their rating of measure items, and thus provided open-ended, narrative data. Analysis of the narrative data followed a deductive approach, guided by frameworks of structural discrimination and "what matters most" - a cultural mechanism signifying meaningful participation in the community. After identifying initial coding classifications, analysis focused on the interface between the two main concepts. Results indicated that experiences with mental illness stigma were contingent on the degree to which immigrants were able to participate in work to achieve "what mattered most" in their cultural context, i.e., accumulation of financial resources. Structural vulnerability - being situated in an inferior position when facing structural discrimination - made access to affordable mental health services challenging. As such, structural discrimination increased healthcare spending and interfered with financial accumulation, often resulting in future treatment nonadherence and enforcing mental health disparities. Study participants' internalizing their structurally-vulnerable position further led to a depreciated sense of self, resulting in a reduced capacity to advocate for healthcare system changes. Paradoxically, the multi-layered structural marginalization experienced by Chinese

  9. The imperative of culture: a quantitative analysis of the impact of culture on workforce engagement, patient experience, physician engagement, value-based purchasing, and turnover

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Owens K

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Katie Owens,1 Jim Eggers,2 Stephanie Keller,1 Audrey McDonald1 1HealthStream Engagement Institute, Pensacola, FL, 2Analytics, HealthStream, Laurel, MD, USA Abstract: Current uncertainty for the future of the health care landscape is placing an increasing amount of pressure on leadership teams to be prepared to steer their organization forward in a number of potential directions. It is commonly recognized among health care leaders that culture will either enable or disable organizational success. However, very few studies empirically link culture to health care-specific performance outcomes. Nearly every health care organization in the US specifies its cultural aspirations through mission and vision statements and values. Ambitions of patient-centeredness, care for the community, workplace of choice, and world-class quality are frequently cited; yet, little definitive research exists to quantify the importance of building high-performing cultures. Our study examined the impact of cultural attributes defined by a culture index (Cronbach’s alpha = 0.88 on corresponding performance with key health care measures. We mapped results of the culture index across data sets, compared results, and evaluated variations in performance among key indicators for leaders. Organizations that perform in the top quartile for our culture index statistically significantly outperformed those in the bottom quartile on all but one key performance indicator tested. The culture top quartile organizations outperformed every domain for employee engagement, physician engagement, patient experience, and overall value-based purchasing performance with statistical significance. Culture index top quartile performers also had a 3.4% lower turnover rate than the bottom quartile performers. Finally, culture index top quartile performers earned an additional 1% on value-based purchasing. Our findings demonstrate a meaningful connection between performance in the culture index and

  10. Family based dispatching with batch availability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Zee, D.J.

    2013-01-01

    Family based dispatching rules seek to lower set-up frequencies by grouping (batching) similar types of jobs for joint processing. Hence shop flow times may be improved, as less time is spent on set-ups. Motivated by an industrial project we study the control of machines with batch availability,

  11. Cultural intersections: a qualitative inquiry into the experience of Asian Indian-White interracial couples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inman, Arpana G; Altman, Abby; Kaduvettoor-Davidson, Anju; Carr, Amanda; Walker, Jessica A

    2011-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the "lived experience" of Asian Indian (AI)-White couples in interracial marriages. Ten highly educated AI-White professional couples were individually interviewed about their subjective experience of being in an interracial marriage, the challenges and strengths of this marriage, and the potential role of culture in their marriages. Data were analyzed using the Consensual Qualitative Research methodology. Results indicated that the couples' marital experiences were influenced by a complex intersection of ecosystemic factors with significant psychological impacts. These findings highlight shortcomings in drawing simplistic conclusions regarding the success or failure of an interracial marriage and have important implications for theory, research, and clinical practice. 2011 © FPI, Inc.

  12. Butanol production from wheat straw by simultaneous saccharification and fermentation using Clostridium beijerinckii: Part II-Fed-batch fermentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qureshi, Nasib; Saha, Badal C.; Cotta, Michael A.

    2008-01-01

    In these studies, Clostridium beijerinckii P260 was used to produce butanol (acetone-butanol-ethanol, or ABE) from wheat straw (WS) hydrolysate in a fed-batch reactor. It has been demonstrated that simultaneous hydrolysis of WS to achieve 100% hydrolysis to simple sugars (to the extent achievable under present conditions) and fermentation to butanol is possible. In addition to WS, the reactor was fed with a sugar solution containing glucose, xylose, arabinose, galactose, and mannose. The culture utilized all of the above sugars. It was noticed that near the end of fermentation (286-533 h), the culture had difficulties utilizing xylose. As a result of supplemental sugar feed to the reactor, ABE productivity was improved by 16% as compared with previous studies. In our previous experiment on simultaneous saccharification of WS and fermentation to butanol, a productivity of 0.31 g L -1 h -1 was observed, while in the present studies a productivity of 0.36 g L -1 h -1 was observed. It should be noted that a productivity of 0.77 g L -1 h -1 was observed when the culture was highly active. The fed-batch fermentation was operated for 533 h. It should be noted that C. beijerinckii P260 can be used to produce butanol from WS in integrated fermentations

  13. Glycerol as a Cheaper Carbon Source in Bacterial Cellulose (BC) Production by Gluconacetobacter Xylinus DSM46604 in Batch Fermentation System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azila Adnan; Nair, G.R.; Roslan Umar; Roslan Umar

    2015-01-01

    Bacterial cellulose (BC) is a polymer of glucose monomers, which has unique properties including high crystallinity and high strength. It has potential to be used in biomedical applications such as making artificial blood vessel, wound dressings, and in the paper making industry. Extensive study on BC aimed to improve BC production such as by using glycerol as a cheaper carbon source. BC was produced in shake flask culture using five different concentrations of glycerol (10, 20, 30, 40 and 50 g/ L). Using concentration of glycerol above 20 g/ L inhibited culture growth and BC production. Further experiments were performed in batch culture (3-L bioreactor) using 20 g/ L glycerol. It produced yield and productivity of 0.15 g/ g and 0.29 g/ L/ day BC, respectively. This is compared with the control medium, 50 g/ L glucose, which only gave yield and productivity of 0.05 g/ g and 0.23 g/ L/ day, respectively. Twenty g/ L of glycerol enhanced BC production by Gluconacetobacter xylinus DSM46604 in batch fermentation system. (author)

  14. The influence of workplace culture on nurses' learning experiences: a systematic review of qualitative evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Kate; White, Sarahlouise; Stephenson, Matthew

    2016-06-01

    A healthy workplace culture enables nurses to experience valuable learning in the workplace. Learning in the workplace enables the provision of evidence-based and continuously improving safe patient care, which is central to achieving good patient outcomes. Therefore, nurses need to learn within a workplace that supports the implementation of evidence-based, professional practice and enables the best patient outcomes; the influence of workplace culture may play a role in this. The purpose of this review was to critically appraise and synthesize the best available qualitative evidence to understand both the nurses' learning experiences within the workplace and the factors within the workplace culture that influence those learning experiences. Registered and enrolled nurses regulated by a nursing and midwifery board and/or recognized health practitioner regulation agency (or their international equivalent). This review considered studies that described two phenomena of interest: the nurses' learning experience, either within an acute healthcare workplace or a workplace-related learning environment and the influence of workplace culture on the nurses' learning experience (within the workplace or workplace-related learning environment). This review considered studies that included nurses working in an acute healthcare organization within a Western culture. This review considered studies that focused on qualitative evidence and included the following research designs: phenomenological, grounded theory and critical theory. Published and unpublished studies in English from 1980 to 2013 were identified using a three-step search strategy, searching various databases, and included hand searching of the reference lists within articles selected for appraisal. For studies meeting the inclusion criteria, methodological quality was assessed using a standardized checklist from the Joanna Briggs Institute Qualitative Assessment and Review Instrument (JBI-QARI). Qualitative data

  15. Black deaf individuals' reading skills: influence of ASL, culture, family characteristics, reading experience, and education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Candace; Clark, M Diane; Musyoka, Millicent M; Anderson, Melissa L; Gilbert, Gizelle L; Agyen, Selina; Hauser, Peter C

    2010-01-01

    Previous research on the reading abilities of Deaf individuals from various cultural groups suggests that Black Deaf and Hispanic Deaf individuals lag behind their White Deaf peers. The present study compared the reading skills of Black Deaf and White Deaf individuals, investigating the influence of American Sign Language (ASL), culture, family characteristics, reading experience, and education. (The descriptor Black is used throughout the present article, as Black Deaf individuals prefer this term to African American. For purposes of parallel construction, the term White is used instead of European American.) It was found that Black Deaf study participants scored lower on measures of both reading and ASL. These findings provide implications for possible interventions at the primary, secondary, and college levels of education.

  16. From Awareness to Cultural Agency: EFL Colombian Student Teachers’ Travelling Abroad Experiences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Jairo Viafara González

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Colombian English as a foreign language student teachers’ opportunities to grow as educators through international sojourns do not usually subsume the traditional study and residence abroad goal. This was the case for our participants who engaged mainly in working abroad with study being ancillary. Fifty student teachers from two public universities reported how their international sojourn bolstered their intercultural learning. Three different programs, disconnected from participants’ academic institutions, became vehicles for their experiences abroad. Surveys and interviews reveal that participants’ origin, selected programs, and contextual circumstances influenced their intercultural learning. As a result, intercultural development gravitated towards awareness of intercultural patterns, critical reading of culture, and pre-service teachers’ repositioning to build cultural agency. Implications suggest the need to connect traveling abroad programs to undergraduate curricula.

  17. Undergraduate students' development of social, cultural, and human capital in a networked research experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Jennifer Jo; Conaway, Evan; Dolan, Erin L.

    2016-12-01

    Recent calls for reform in undergraduate biology education have emphasized integrating research experiences into the learning experiences of all undergraduates. Contemporary science research increasingly demands collaboration across disciplines and institutions to investigate complex research questions, providing new contexts and models for involving undergraduates in research. In this study, we examined the experiences of undergraduates participating in a multi-institution and interdisciplinary biology research network. Unlike the traditional apprenticeship model of research, in which a student participates in research under the guidance of a single faculty member, students participating in networked research have the opportunity to develop relationships with additional faculty and students working in other areas of the project, at their own and at other institutions. We examined how students in this network develop social ties and to what extent a networked research experience affords opportunities for students to develop social, cultural, and human capital. Most studies of undergraduate involvement in science research have focused on documenting student outcomes rather than elucidating how students gain access to research experiences or how elements of research participation lead to desired student outcomes. By taking a qualitative approach framed by capital theories, we have identified ways that undergraduates utilize and further develop various forms of capital important for success in science research. In our study of the first 16 months of a biology research network, we found that undergraduates drew upon a combination of human, cultural, and social capital to gain access to the network. Within their immediate research groups, students built multidimensional social ties with faculty, peers, and others, yielding social capital that can be drawn upon for information, resources, and support. They reported developing cultural capital in the form of learning to

  18. Removal of geosmin and 2-methylisoborneol during managed aquifer recharge: Batch and column studies

    KAUST Repository

    Maeng, Sungkyu; Abel, Chol D T; Sharma, Saroj K.; Park, Nosuk; Amy, Gary L.

    2012-01-01

    Managed aquifer recharge is a robust barrier in the multi-barrier approach to supply safe drinking water. The removal performance of gesomin and 2-methylisoborneol through managed aquifer recharge was investigated using batch and column experiments

  19. Modeling of Fusarium redolens Dzf2 mycelial growth kinetics and optimal fed-batch fermentation for beauvericin production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Li-Jian; Liu, Yuan-Shuai; Zhou, Li-Gang; Wu, Jian-Yong

    2011-09-01

    Beauvericin (BEA) is a cyclic hexadepsipeptide mycotoxin with notable phytotoxic and insecticidal activities. Fusarium redolens Dzf2 is a highly BEA-producing fungus isolated from a medicinal plant. The aim of the current study was to develop a simple and valid kinetic model for F. redolens Dzf2 mycelial growth and the optimal fed-batch operation for efficient BEA production. A modified Monod model with substrate (glucose) and product (BEA) inhibition was constructed based on the culture characteristics of F. redolens Dzf2 mycelia in a liquid medium. Model parameters were derived by simulation of the experimental data from batch culture. The model fitted closely with the experimental data over 20-50 g l(-1) glucose concentration range in batch fermentation. The kinetic model together with the stoichiometric relationships for biomass, substrate and product was applied to predict the optimal feeding scheme for fed-batch fermentation, leading to 54% higher BEA yield (299 mg l(-1)) than in the batch culture (194 mg l(-1)). The modified Monod model incorporating substrate and product inhibition was proven adequate for describing the growth kinetics of F. redolens Dzf2 mycelial culture at suitable but not excessive initial glucose levels in batch and fed-batch cultures.

  20. Uneven batch data alignment with application to the control of batch end-product quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Jian; Marjanovic, Ognjen; Lennox, Barry

    2014-03-01

    Batch processes are commonly characterized by uneven trajectories due to the existence of batch-to-batch variations. The batch end-product quality is usually measured at the end of these uneven trajectories. It is necessary to align the time differences for both the measured trajectories and the batch end-product quality in order to implement statistical process monitoring and control schemes. Apart from synchronizing trajectories with variable lengths using an indicator variable or dynamic time warping, this paper proposes a novel approach to align uneven batch data by identifying short-window PCA&PLS models at first and then applying these identified models to extend shorter trajectories and predict future batch end-product quality. Furthermore, uneven batch data can also be aligned to be a specified batch length using moving window estimation. The proposed approach and its application to the control of batch end-product quality are demonstrated with a simulated example of fed-batch fermentation for penicillin production. Copyright © 2013 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Cultural and Gender Differences in Experiences and Expression of Test Anxiety among Chinese, Finnish, and Swedish Grade 3 Pupils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyroos, Mikaela; Korhonen, Johan; Peng, Aihui; Linnanmäki, Karin; Svens-Liavåg, Camilla; Bagger, Anette; Sjöberg, Gunnar

    2015-01-01

    While test anxiety has been studied extensively, little consideration has been given to the cultural impacts of children's experiences and expressions of test anxiety. The aim of this work was to examine whether variance in test anxiety scores can be predicted based on gender and cultural setting. Three hundred and ninety-eight pupils in Grade 3…

  2. Re-Forming the Boundaries: A Trans-Cultural Comparison of Positive Experiences among Adolescent Males and Females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magen, Zipora

    1983-01-01

    Presents a cross-cultural study of positive experiences among males and females from Israeli-Arab, Israeli-Jewish, and American samples (N=1094), which revealed that differences between the sexes were in the same direction across the three cultures. The one exception is the life aspiration of Israeli boys, markedly more self-transcending than…

  3. Safety Culture Assessment at Regulatory Body - PNRA Experience of Implementing IAEA Methodology for Safety Culture Self Assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhatti, S.A.N.; Arshad, N.

    2016-01-01

    The prevalence of a good safety culture is equally important for all kind of organizations involved in nuclear business including operating organizations, designers, regulator, etc., and this should be reflected through all the processes and activities of these organizations. The need for inculcating safety culture into regulatory processes and practices is gradually increasing since the major accident at Fukushima. Accordingly, several international fora in last few years repeatedly highlighted the importance of prevalence of safety culture in regulatory bodies as well. The utilisation of concept of safety culture always remained applicable in regulatory activities of PNRA in the form of core values. After the Fukushima accident, PNRA considered it important to check the extent of utilisation of safety culture concept in organizational activities and decided to conduct its “Safety Culture Self-Assessment (SCSA)” for presenting itself as a role model in-order to endorse the fact that safety culture at regulatory authority plays an important role to influence safety culture at licenced facilities.

  4. Batch phenol biodegradation study and application of factorial experimental design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Hellal

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A bacterium, Pseudomonas aeruginosa (ATTC27853, was investigated for its ability to grow and to degrade phenol as solecarbon source, in aerobic batch culture. The parameters which affect the substrate biodegradation such as the adaptation ofbacteria to phenol, the temperature, and the nature of the bacteria were investigated. The results show that for a range oftemperature of 30 to 40°C, the best degradation of phenol for a concentration of 100mg/l was observed at 30°C. The regenerationof the bacterium which allows the reactivation of its enzymatic activity, shows that the degradation of 100 mg/ l ofsubstrate at 30° C required approximately 50 hours with revivified bacteria, while it only starts after 72 hours for those norevivified. Adapted to increasing concentrations, allows the bacteria to degrade a substrate concentration of about 400mg/l in less than 350 hours.A second part was consisted in the determination of a substrate degradation model using the factorial experiment design,as a function of temperature (30-40°C and of the size of the inoculums (260.88 - 521.76mg/ l. The results were analyzedstatistically using the Student’s t-test, analysis of variance, and F-test. The value of R2 (0.99872 and adjusted R2 (0.9962close to 1.0, verifies the good correlation between the observed and the predicted values, and provides the excellent relationshipbetween the independent variables (factors and the response (the time of the phenol degradation. F-value found above200, indicates that the considered model is statistically significant.

  5. Men, culture and hegemonic masculinity: understanding the experience of prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wall, David; Kristjanson, Linda

    2005-06-01

    Following a diagnosis of, and treatment for prostate cancer, there is an expectation that men will cope with, adjust to and accept the psychosocial impact on their lives and relationships. Yet, there is a limited qualitative world literature investigating the psychosocial experience of prostate cancer, and almost no literature exploring how masculinity mediates in such an experience. This paper will suggest that the experience of prostate cancer, the process by which it is investigated, and the way in which it is understood has been shaped by an essentialist interpretation of gender, exemplified by hegemonic masculinity as the archetypal mechanism of male adaptation. In response to this static and limiting view of masculinity, this paper will offer a reframe of hegemonic masculinity. This reframe, being more aligned with common experience, will portray masculinity as a dynamic and contextual construct, better understood as one of a number of cultural reference points around which each man organises and adopts behaviour. It will be suggested that the extant literature, in being organised around hegemonic masculinity, obfuscates the experience of prostate cancer and acts to render covert any collateral masculinities, public or private, that may also be operating.

  6. LSF usage for batch at CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    Schwickerath, Ulrich

    2007-01-01

    Contributed poster to the CHEP07. Original abstract: LSF 7, the latest version of Platform's batch workload management system, addresses many issues which limited the ability of LSF 6.1 to support large scale batch farms, such as the lxbatch service at CERN. In this paper we will present the status of the evaluation and deployment of LSF 7 at CERN, including issues concerning the integration of LSF 7 with the gLite grid middleware suite and, in particular, the steps taken to endure an efficient reporting of the local batch system status and usage to the Grid Information System

  7. The imperative of culture: a quantitative analysis of the impact of culture on workforce engagement, patient experience, physician engagement, value-based purchasing, and turnover

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owens, Katie; Eggers, Jim; Keller, Stephanie; McDonald, Audrey

    2017-01-01

    Current uncertainty for the future of the health care landscape is placing an increasing amount of pressure on leadership teams to be prepared to steer their organization forward in a number of potential directions. It is commonly recognized among health care leaders that culture will either enable or disable organizational success. However, very few studies empirically link culture to health care-specific performance outcomes. Nearly every health care organization in the US specifies its cultural aspirations through mission and vision statements and values. Ambitions of patient-centeredness, care for the community, workplace of choice, and world-class quality are frequently cited; yet, little definitive research exists to quantify the importance of building high-performing cultures. Our study examined the impact of cultural attributes defined by a culture index (Cronbach’s alpha = 0.88) on corresponding performance with key health care measures. We mapped results of the culture index across data sets, compared results, and evaluated variations in performance among key indicators for leaders. Organizations that perform in the top quartile for our culture index statistically significantly outperformed those in the bottom quartile on all but one key performance indicator tested. The culture top quartile organizations outperformed every domain for employee engagement, physician engagement, patient experience, and overall value-based purchasing performance with statistical significance. Culture index top quartile performers also had a 3.4% lower turnover rate than the bottom quartile performers. Finally, culture index top quartile performers earned an additional 1% on value-based purchasing. Our findings demonstrate a meaningful connection between performance in the culture index and organizational performance. To best impact these key performance outcomes, health care leaders should pay attention to culture and actively steer workforce engagement in attributes that

  8. Everyday Experiences of 18- to 36-Month-Old Children from Migrant Families: The Influence of Host Culture and Migration Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Driessen, Ricarda; Leyendecker, Birgit; Scholmerich, Axel; Harwood, Robin

    2010-01-01

    We explored the everyday experiences of 18- to 36-month-old toddlers at two study sites and the influence of adaptation to the host culture on the everyday experiences of children from migrant families. First- and second-generation Puerto Rican families in Connecticut, USA, first- and second-generation Turkish families in Bochum, Germany, as well…

  9. The culture of Chlorella vulgaris with human urine in multibiological life support system experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ming; Liu, Hong; Tong, Ling; Fu, Yuming; He, Wenting; Hu, Enzhu; Hu, Dawei

    The Integrative Experimental System (IES) was established as a tool to evaluate the rela-tionship of the subsystems in Bioregenerative Life Support System, and Multibiological Life Support System Experiments (MLSSE) have been conducted in the IES. The IES consists of a higher plant chamber, an animal chamber and a plate photo bioreactor (PPB) which cultivated lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.), silkworm (Bombyx Mori L.) and microalgae (Chlorella vulgaris), respectively. In MLSSE, four volunteers took turns breathing the system air through a tube connected with the animal chamber periodically. According to the CO2 concentration in the IES, the automotive control system of the PPB changed the light intensity regulating the photosynthesis of Chlorella vulgaris to make CO2 /O2 in the system maintain at stable levels. Chlorella vulgaris grew with human urine by carrying certain amount of alga liquid out of the bioreactor every day with synthetic urine replenished into the system, and O2 was regenerated, at the same time human urine was purified. Results showed that this IES worked stably and Chlorella vulgaris grew well; The culture of Chlorella vulgaris could be used to keep the balance of CO2 and O2 , and the change of light intensity could control the gas composition in the IES; Microalgae culture could be used in emergency in the system, the culture of Chlorella vulgaris could recover to original state in 5 days; 15.6 ml of condensation water was obtained every day by the culture of Chlorella vulgaris; The removal efficiencies of N, P in human urine could reach to 98.2% and 99.5%.

  10. Improvement of the butanol production selectivity and butanol to acetone ratio (B:A) by addition of electron carriers in the batch culture of a new local isolate of Clostridium acetobutylicum YM1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasser Al-Shorgani, Najeeb Kaid; Kalil, Mohd Sahaid; Wan Yusoff, Wan Mohtar; Shukor, Hafiza; Hamid, Aidil Abdul

    2015-12-01

    Improvement in the butanol production selectivity or enhanced butanol:acetone ratio (B:A) is desirable in acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) fermentation by Clostridium strains. In this study, artificial electron carriers were added to the fermentation medium of a new isolate of Clostridium acetobutylicum YM1 in order to improve the butanol yield and B:A ratio. The results revealed that medium supplementation with electron carriers changed the metabolism flux of electron and carbon in ABE fermentation by YM1. A decrease in acetone production, which subsequently improved the B:A ratio, was observed. Further improvement in the butanol production and B:A ratios were obtained when the fermentation medium was supplemented with butyric acid. The maximum butanol production (18.20 ± 1.38 g/L) was gained when a combination of methyl red and butyric acid was added. Although the addition of benzyl viologen (0.1 mM) and butyric acid resulted in high a B:A ratio of 16:1 (800% increment compared with the conventional 2:1 ratio), the addition of benzyl viologen to the culture after 4 h resulted in the production of 18.05 g/L butanol. Manipulating the metabolic flux to butanol through the addition of electron carriers could become an alternative strategy to achieve higher butanol productivity and improve the B:A ratio. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Culturally and linguistically diverse healthcare students' experiences of learning in a clinical environment: A systematic review of qualitative studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikkonen, Kristina; Elo, Satu; Kuivila, Heli-Maria; Tuomikoski, Anna-Maria; Kääriäinen, Maria

    2016-02-01

    Learning in the clinical environment of healthcare students plays a significant part in higher education. The greatest challenges for culturally and linguistically diverse healthcare students were found in clinical placements, where differences in language and culture have been shown to cause learning obstacles for students. There has been no systematic review conducted to examine culturally and linguistically diverse healthcare students' experiences of their learning in the clinical environment. This systematic review aims to identify culturally and linguistically diverse healthcare students' experiences of learning in a clinical environment. The search strategy followed the guidelines of the Centre of Reviews and Dissemination. The original studies were identified from seven databases (CINAHL, Medline Ovid, Scopus, Web of Science, Academic Search Premiere, Eric and Cochrane Library) for the period 2000-2014. Two researchers selected studies based on titles, abstracts and full texts using inclusion criteria and assessed the quality of studies independently. Twelve original studies were chosen for the review. The culturally and linguistically diverse healthcare students' learning experiences were divided into three influential aspects of learning in a clinical environment: experiences with implementation processes and provision; experiences with peers and mentors; and experiences with university support and instructions. The main findings indicate that culturally and linguistically diverse healthcare students embarking on clinical placements initially find integration stressful. Implementing the process of learning in a clinical environment requires additional time, well prepared pedagogical orientation, prior cultural and language education, and support for students and clinical staff. Barriers to learning by culturally and linguistically diverse healthcare students were not being recognized and individuals were not considered motivated; learners experienced the

  12. Class, gender and culture in the experience of menopause. A comparative survey in Tunisia and France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delanoë, Daniel; Hajri, Selma; Bachelot, Annie; Mahfoudh Draoui, Dorra; Hassoun, Danielle; Marsicano, Elise; Ringa, Virginie

    2012-07-01

    The experience of menopause can vary strongly from one society to another: frequency of hot flushes, other somatic and psychological symptoms, and changes in family and social relations. Several studies have shown that country of residence, country of birth, ethnicity, and social class all play roles in these variations. But few comparative anthropological studies have analysed the social processes that construct the experience of menopause or considered menopausal women's social and financial autonomy. To study the impact of the social status accorded to menopausal women and their social resources, during 2007 and 2008 we conducted a series of 75 in-depth interviews with women in different sociocultural settings: Tunisian women in Tunisia, Tunisian women in France, and French women in France, all aged from 45 to 70 years. Our methodological approach to the data included content analysis, typology development and socio-demographic analysis. Quite substantial differences appeared, as a function of social class and cultural environment. We identified three principal experiences of menopause. Tunisian working class women, in Tunisia and France, experience menopause with intense symptoms and strong feelings of social degradation. Among Tunisian middle-class women in both countries, menopause was most often accompanied by a severe decline in aesthetic and social value but few symptoms. For most of the French women, menopause involved few symptoms and little change in their social value. The distribution of types of experiences according to social but not geographic or national factors indicates that, in the populations studied here, the differences in symptoms are not biologically determined. Different experiences of menopause are linked to social class and to the degree of male domination. A given level of independence and emancipation allows women an identity beyond their reproductive function and a status unimpaired by menopause. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All

  13. Establishing column batch repeatability according to Quality by Design (QbD) principles using modeling software.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rácz, Norbert; Kormány, Róbert; Fekete, Jenő; Molnár, Imre

    2015-04-10

    Column technology needs further improvement even today. To get information of batch-to-batch repeatability, intelligent modeling software was applied. Twelve columns from the same production process, but from different batches were compared in this work. In this paper, the retention parameters of these columns with real life sample solutes were studied. The following parameters were selected for measurements: gradient time, temperature and pH. Based on calculated results, batch-to-batch repeatability of BEH columns was evaluated. Two parallel measurements on two columns from the same batch were performed to obtain information about the quality of packing. Calculating the average of individual working points at the highest critical resolution (R(s,crit)) it was found that the robustness, calculated with a newly released robustness module, had a success rate >98% among the predicted 3(6) = 729 experiments for all 12 columns. With the help of retention modeling all substances could be separated independently from the batch and/or packing, using the same conditions, having high robustness of the experiments. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Fuzzy batch controller for granular materials

    OpenAIRE

    Zamyatin Nikolaj; Smirnov Gennadij; Fedorchuk Yuri; Rusina Olga

    2018-01-01

    The paper focuses on batch control of granular materials in production of building materials from fluorine anhydrite. Batching equipment is intended for smooth operation and timely feeding of supply hoppers at a required level. Level sensors and a controller of an asynchronous screw drive motor are used to control filling of the hopper with industrial anhydrite binders. The controller generates a required frequency and ensures required productivity of a feed conveyor. Mamdani-type fuzzy infer...

  15. Batch Computed Tomography Analysis of Projectiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-01

    ARL-TR-7681 ● MAY 2016 US Army Research Laboratory Batch Computed Tomography Analysis of Projectiles by Michael C Golt, Chris M...Laboratory Batch Computed Tomography Analysis of Projectiles by Michael C Golt and Matthew S Bratcher Weapons and Materials Research...values to account for projectile variability in the ballistic evaluation of armor. 15. SUBJECT TERMS computed tomography , CT, BS41, projectiles

  16. cultural

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irene Kreutz

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Es un estudio cualitativo que adoptó como referencial teorico-motodológico la antropología y la etnografía. Presenta las experiencias vivenciadas por mujeres de una comunidad en el proceso salud-enfermedad, con el objetivo de comprender los determinantes sócio-culturales e históricos de las prácticas de prevención y tratamiento adoptados por el grupo cultural por medio de la entrevista semi-estructurada. Los temas que emergieron fueron: la relación entre la alimentación y lo proceso salud-enfermedad, las relaciones con el sistema de salud oficial y el proceso salud-enfermedad y lo sobrenatural. Los dados revelaron que los moradores de la comunidad investigada tienen un modo particular de explicar sus procedimientos terapéuticos. Consideramos que es papel de los profesionales de la salud en sus prácticas, la adopción de abordajes o enfoques que consideren al individuo en su dimensión sócio-cultural e histórica, considerando la enorme diversidad cultural en nuestro país.

  17. Use of carbamylated charge standards for testing batches of ampholytes used in two-dimensional elecrophoresis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tollaksen, S L; Edwards, J J; Anderson, N G

    1981-01-01

    A method of testing batches of ampholytes is presented. By using carbamylated charge standards to co-electrophorese with the protein sample in the first-dimension isoelectric focusing gel, one can monitor, after running and staining the second-dimension sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) slab gel, the continuity of the pH gradient. Charge standards can also be used to check the reproducibility of the pH gradient among batches of ampholytes and to modify the new batch with a small amount of a narrow range ampholyte to assure reproducibility of experiments. Ampholytes for comparison were obtained from three major manufacturers. 5 figures.

  18. Integration of virtualized worker nodes in standard batch systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buege, Volker; Kunze, Marcel; Oberst, Oliver; Quast, Guenter; Scheurer, Armin; Hessling, Hermann; Kemp, Yves; Synge, Owen

    2010-01-01

    Current experiments in HEP only use a limited number of operating system flavours. Their software might only be validated on one single OS platform. Resource providers might have other operating systems of choice for the installation of the batch infrastructure. This is especially the case if a cluster is shared with other communities, or communities that have stricter security requirements. One solution would be to statically divide the cluster into separated sub-clusters. In such a scenario, no opportunistic distribution of the load can be achieved, resulting in a poor overall utilization efficiency. Another approach is to make the batch system aware of virtualization, and to provide each community with its favoured operating system in a virtual machine. Here, the scheduler has full flexibility, resulting in a better overall efficiency of the resources. In our contribution, we present a lightweight concept for the integration of virtual worker nodes into standard batch systems. The virtual machines are started on the worker nodes just before jobs are executed there. No meta-scheduling is introduced. We demonstrate two prototype implementations, one based on the Sun Grid Engine (SGE), the other using Maui/Torque as a batch system. Both solutions support local job as well as Grid job submission. The hypervisors currently used are Xen and KVM, a port to another system is easily envisageable. To better handle different virtual machines on the physical host, the management solution VmImageManager is developed. We will present first experience from running the two prototype implementations. In a last part, we will show the potential future use of this lightweight concept when integrated into high-level (i.e. Grid) work-flows.

  19. A long summer of festivals. Experience categories and productive cultures in the Spanish music industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Héctor Fouce; hfoucero@ccinf.ucm.es

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A rigorous analysis of the music industry dynamics cannot take for granted the idea that there is a crisis in music: under that label there is simply a new set of production cultures and consumption. We are in the middle of a change from a cultural industry based on the object (the disc, the CD to an economy grounded on experience (Pine and Gilmore, 2000. In order to exemplify it, I will pay special attention to live music case. On the other hand, there is a surprising height of music festivals by all over Spain. Each city of the country tries to find its own place in the summer map by offering different music styles, such as: hip-hop, folk or rock. This article examines the new public categories, like international tourists or families with children, who join the festivals modifying their organization; the financing and the contents.Un análisis riguroso de las dinámicas de la industria musical no puede dar por sentado la idea de que hay una crisis en la música: bajo esa etiqueta hay simplemente un nuevo conjunto de culturas de producción y consumo. Estamos en pleno giro desde una industria cultural basada en el objeto (el disco, el CD hasta una economía de la experiencia (Pine y Gilmore, 2000. Para ejemplificarlo me centraré en el caso de la música en directo. Hay un sorprendente auge de los festivales musicales por toda España. Del hiphop al folk o al rock, cada ciudad del país intenta situarse en el mapa del verano ofreciendo un festival. El artículo revisa nuevas categorías de público, como los turistas internacionales o las familias con hijos, que se incorporan a los festivales modificando su organización, su financiación y sus contenidos.

  20. [Towards a safety culture in the neonatal unit: Six years experience].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esqué Ruiz, M T; Moretones Suñol, M G; Rodríguez Miguélez, J M; Parés Tercero, S; Cortés Albuixech, R; Varón Ramírez, E M; Figueras Aloy, J

    2015-10-01

    A safety culture is the collective effort of an institution to direct its resources toward the goal of safety. An analysis is performed on the six years of experience of the Committee on the Safety of Neonatal Patient. A mailbox was created for the declaration of adverse events, and measures for their correction were devised, such as case studies, continuous education, prevention of nosocomial infections, as well as information on the work done and its assessment. A total of 1287 reports of adverse events were received during the six years, of which 600 (50.8%) occurred in the neonatal ICU, with 15 (1.2%) contributing to death, and 1282 (99.6%) considered preventable. Simple corrective measures (notification, security alerts, etc.) were applied in 559 (43.4%), intermediate measures (protocols, monthly newsletter, etc.) in 692 (53.8%), and more complex measures (causal analysis, scripts, continuous education seminars, prospective studies, etc.) in 66 (5.1%). As regards nosocomial infections, the prevention strategies implemented (hand washing, insertion and maintenance of catheters) directly affected their improvement. Two surveys were conducted to determine the level of satisfaction with the Committee on the Safety of Neonatal Patient. A rating 7.5/10 was obtained in the local survey, while using the Spanish version of the Hospital Survey on Patient Safety Culture the rate was 7.26/10. A path to a culture of safety has been successfully started and carried out. Reporting the adverse events is the key to obtaining information on their nature, etiology and evolution, and to undertake possible prevention strategies. Copyright © 2014 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  1. Forming insights: assessment of the occupational therapy practice in a cultural context from experience with indigenous people

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Daniela Corrêa de Macedo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This article is the result of a reflection process on the issue of occupational therapy and culture through analysis of practical experiences of a extension project. It aimed to increase knowledge and reflections of occupational therapy and its technical actions in cultural contexts from the perspective of ethnicity issues. It is a documental and qualitative research was aiming to report the experience of students and an occupational therapist, obtained through their written reports between 2012 and 2014. Data were analyzed using the categorizations proposed by Bardin. The categories of analysis found are related to technical activities in occupational therapy, namely: cultural and ethnic action. The results showed that, in the experiences with the Guarani community, there are already significant and consolidated actions of occupational therapy in cultural contexts. The technical actions already performed confirm the relevance of the occupational therapist role in the cultural context and in the ethnicity context. These practices are, in turn, relevant for the production of knowledge, the theoretical and methodological scope and professional training in social and cultural contexts of occupational therapy. It is emphasized that technical procedures coherent with the ethnicity issues in a joint relationship, articulated by cultural mediation, can strengthen human doings and identity claims.

  2. Cross-Cultural Differences in the Experience of Grandparent-Grandchild Relationships and Related Psychosocial Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayslip, Bert; Toledo, Ray M; Henderson, Craig E; Rodriguez, R Mishelle; Caballero Vela, Daniela M

    2018-01-01

    This study examined grandchildren's perceptions of the quality of their relationship with their grandmothers and how these perceptions relate to psychosocial outcomes. Eighty-two youth from Mexico and 99 youth from the United States aged between 13 and 16 participated. Results suggested that both cultures benefit in unique ways from positive relationship with their grandmothers. Yet, there were also differences in the relational experience of grandmother-grandchild relationships across cultures. Specifically, grandchildren in the U.S. sample reported higher relationship quality, relational competency, and self-efficacy than the grandchildren in the Mexico sample. Within the U.S. sample, relationship quality was associated with grandchildren's relational competence, while in the Mexico sample, relationship quality was associated with self-efficacy. Limitations of the present study include restricted generalizability to other age groups and to grandfathers and that only one element of the grandparent-grandchild dyad was sampled. Longitudinal research will improve our understanding of the causal dynamics of grandparent-grandchild relationships.

  3. Exploring and Promoting Prosocial Vaccination: A Cross-Cultural Experiment on Vaccination of Health Care Personnel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Böhm

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Influenza vaccination for health care personnel (HCP is recommended particularly because it indirectly protects patients from contracting the disease. Vaccinating can therefore be interpreted as a prosocial act. However, HCP vaccination rates are often far too low to prevent nosocomial infections. Effective interventions are needed to increase HCP’s influenza vaccine uptake. Here we devise a novel tool to experimentally test interventions that aim at increasing prosocially motivated vaccine uptake under controlled conditions. We conducted a large-scale and cross-cultural experiment with participants from countries with either a collectivistic (South Korea or an individualistic (USA cultural background. Results showed that prosocially motivated vaccination was more likely in South Korea compared to the US, mediated by a greater perception of vaccination as a social act. However, changing the default of vaccination, such that participants had to opt out rather than to opt in, increased vaccine uptake in the US and therefore compensated for the lower level of prosocial vaccination. In sum, the present study provides both a novel method to investigate HCP influenza vaccination behavior and interventions to increase their vaccine uptake.

  4. Exploring and Promoting Prosocial Vaccination: A Cross-Cultural Experiment on Vaccination of Health Care Personnel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Böhm, Robert; Betsch, Cornelia; Korn, Lars; Holtmann, Cindy

    2016-01-01

    Influenza vaccination for health care personnel (HCP) is recommended particularly because it indirectly protects patients from contracting the disease. Vaccinating can therefore be interpreted as a prosocial act. However, HCP vaccination rates are often far too low to prevent nosocomial infections. Effective interventions are needed to increase HCP's influenza vaccine uptake. Here we devise a novel tool to experimentally test interventions that aim at increasing prosocially motivated vaccine uptake under controlled conditions. We conducted a large-scale and cross-cultural experiment with participants from countries with either a collectivistic (South Korea) or an individualistic (USA) cultural background. Results showed that prosocially motivated vaccination was more likely in South Korea compared to the US, mediated by a greater perception of vaccination as a social act. However, changing the default of vaccination, such that participants had to opt out rather than to opt in, increased vaccine uptake in the US and therefore compensated for the lower level of prosocial vaccination. In sum, the present study provides both a novel method to investigate HCP influenza vaccination behavior and interventions to increase their vaccine uptake.

  5. Cooperation, decision time, and culture: Online experiments with American and Indian participants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akihiro Nishi

    Full Text Available Two separate bodies of work have examined whether culture affects cooperation in economic games and whether cooperative or non-cooperative decisions occur more quickly. Here, we connect this work by exploring the relationship between decision time and cooperation in American versus Indian subjects. We use a series of dynamic social network experiments in which subjects play a repeated public goods game: 80 sessions for a total of 1,462 subjects (1,059 from the United States, 337 from India, and 66 from other countries making 13,560 decisions. In the first round, where subjects do not know if connecting neighbors are cooperative, American subjects are highly cooperative and decide faster when cooperating than when defecting, whereas a majority of Indian subjects defect and Indians decide faster when defecting than when cooperating. Almost the same is true in later rounds where neighbors were previously cooperative (a cooperative environment except decision time among Indian subjects. However, when connecting neighbors were previously not cooperative (a non-cooperative environment, a large majority of both American and Indian subjects defect, and defection is faster than cooperation among both sets of subjects. Our results imply the cultural background of subjects in their real life affects the speed of cooperation decision-making differentially in online social environments.

  6. Experiences in the promotion of the safety culture in radiological activities in Cuba

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferro, Ruben; Guillen, Alba; Ilizastigui, Fidel

    2001-01-01

    During the last decade, the need to promote and achieve high safety culture levels has been one of the priorities in the nuclear sector around the world, although it has been focused basically on nuclear power. Nevertheless, it is an important and current topic for any risk related activity, since it results in a greater involvement and commitment of managers and personnel to safety, thereby reducing the so called 'organizational failures', one of the most frequent contributors to several of the major industrial disasters in the recent years. The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has also pointed that out and in some of its recent publications and meetings has recognized the need for extending this concept to the area of radioactive source. In Cuba, the Regulatory Body has been working in this direction during several years, promoting national research and studies in this field, issuing documents and organizing events and other activities. With this it is expected to introduce new work methods and practices to be applied by management and personnel involved in the use of radioactive sources, reflecting a higher safety culture level. This paper summarizes the experience of Cuban Regulatory Body in this field. (author)

  7. ADASIR system: a Cuban learning experience from accidents and promotion of radiation safety culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferro Fernandez, Ruben; Ilizastigui Perez, Fidel; Fuente Puch, Andres de la

    2010-01-01

    The Cuban Regulatory Authority is carrying out a National Program for fostering and development of Safety Culture taking into account the wide recognition of the Human factors contribution to radiological events. The program includes the introduction of new regulatory practices and initiatives in order to increase the safety culture in Cuban facilities. The most recent of those initiatives is the System for Radiological Event Analysis, Dissemination and Learning, called ADASIR (Initials of the System's name in Spanish). The main purpose of this system is to provide a better understanding and knowledge of any radiological event reported both in the country and abroad reducing, this way, the possibility of a new occurrence of a similar event in our facilities. A team of regulatory and external experts make together a detailed review of all available information about the event and identify possible root causes, failed barriers and other important data of national interest. The results of such review are documented and sent to any Cuban facility or organization with potential for similar occurrence according to the equipment and practices they have. The document includes an specific checklist which could be used by the facilities to make a self-assessment and evaluate theirs strength and weakness in regards to a similar event. This paper presents the main characteristics and results of this new experience of Cuban Regulatory Authority. (author)

  8. Crescimento e composição química de dez espécies de microalgas marinhas em cultivos estanques Growth and chemical composition of ten species of marine microalgae in batch cultures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viviane Borges-Campos

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Microalgas apresentam diversas aplicações econômicas consagradas, como usos na aquicultura e na indústria de alimentos, havendo buscas por novos usos, como a geração de biomassa para produção de biodiesel. As possíveis aplicações estão diretamente relacionadas à taxa de crescimento e ao perfil químico das espécies. Assim, a seleção de condições que promovam o aproveitamento da biomassa algácea é fundamental para sua utilização econômica. Neste estudo, 10 espécies de microalgas marinhas foram cultivadas e comparadas quanto ao crescimento e à composição química. Foram observadas diferenças na velocidade de crescimento, com espécies de células menores crescendo mais rapidamente que microalgas maiores. Teores de proteínas, carboidratos, lipídeos e pigmentos fotossintetizantes variaram amplamente entre as espécies, sendo as proteínas as substâncias mais abundantes. Todas as espécies apresentaram concentrações de ácidos aminados semelhantes, sendo os ácidos aspártico e glutâmico os mais abundantes. Algumas espécies apresentaram altas concentrações de ácidos graxos de importância econômica, como os ácidos eicosapentaenoico e linoleico. O balanço dos resultados indica que há poucas tendências gerais relacionadas a grandes grupos taxonômicos.Microalgae show several economic applications, such as uses in aquaculture and in food industry, and there is a search for new uses, such as the biomass production to convert into biodiesel. All possible applications are directly linked to growth rate and the chemical profile of the species. Thus, the selection of conditions to promote a better use of algal biomass is fundamental for economic purposes. In this study, 10 species of marine microalgae were cultured and compared for growth and chemical composition. Remarkable differences of growth performance have been observed, with species with small cell volumes growing faster than species with large cell volumes

  9. Preparing culturally and linguistically diverse preservice Early Childhood teachers for field experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melinda Miller

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This article reports on an action research project focussed on preparing culturally and linguistically diverse (CALD preservice early childhood teachers for field experience. A series of targeted workshops delivered over one semester was designed to support the students to develop intercultural competence in relation to knowledge, attitude, skills and behaviours that contribute to success on field placement. Findings indicate that short-term initiatives targeted specifically to students’ identified needs and strengths can help to build intercultural competence for both students and teacher educators. For the participants, access to communication strategies, opportunities for rehearsal of teaching practice, and peer and academic support contributed to shifts in attitude, and the development of skills and new knowledge. New learnings for the teacher educators included challenging assumptions about CALD students’ sense of community and belonging in the university context.

  10. Expatriate Cross-Cultural Training for China: Views and Experience of 'China Hands'

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Selmer, Jan

    2010-01-01

    Abstract: Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to examine empirically the views and experience of cross-cultural training (CCT) of experienced Western business expatriates ("China Hands") assigned to China. Design/methodology/approach - Data for this study were extracted from a mail questionnaire...... further highlight the need for more CCT for business expatriates destined for China. A clear majority of respondents preferred pre-departure training a few weeks before departing for China and only a few of them claimed that CCT would not have been useful at any time. Most of the China Hands thought...... that CCT improved core managerial activities and therefore could have helped them to become better managers in China. Practical implications - The views of experienced China Hands will be of use to a wide variety of management practitioners, given the competitive nature of the Chinese business environment...

  11. Batch and Continuous Packed Column Studies Biosorption by Yeast Supported onto Granular Pozzolana

    OpenAIRE

    A. Djafer; S. Kouadri Moustefai; A. Idou; M. Douani

    2013-01-01

    The removal of chromium by living yeast biomass immobilized onto pozzolana was studied. The results obtained in batch experiments indicate that the immobilized yeast on to pozzolana is a excellent biosorbent of Cr(V) with a good removal rates of 85–90%. The initial concentration solution and agitation speed affected Cr(V) removal. The batch studies data were described using the Freundlich and Langmuir models, but the best fit was obtained with Langmuir model. The breakthrough curve from the c...

  12. Heterogeneous batch distillation processes for waste solvent recovery in pharmaceutical industry

    OpenAIRE

    Rodriguez-Donis, Ivonne; Gerbaud, Vincent; Arias-Barreto, Alien; Joulia, Xavier

    2009-01-01

    A summary about our experiences in the introduction of heterogeneous entrainers in azeotropic and extractive batch distillation is presented in this work. Essential advantages of the application of heterogeneous entrainers are showed by rigorous simulation and experimental verification in a bench batch distillation column for separating several azeotropic mixtures such as acetonitrile – water, n hexane – ethyl acetate and chloroform – methanol, commonly found in pharmaceutical industry.

  13. Acceptance Test Data for Candidate AGR-5/6/7 TRISO Particle Batches BWXT Coater Batches 93165 93172 Defective IPyC Fraction and Pyrocarbon Anisotropy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Helmreich, Grant W. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Hunn, John D. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Skitt, Darren J. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Dyer, John A. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Schumacher, Austin T. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2017-03-01

    Coated particle fuel batches J52O-16-93165, 93166, 93168, 93169, 93170, and 93172 were produced by Babcock and Wilcox Technologies (BWXT) for possible selection as fuel for the Advanced Gas Reactor Fuel Development and Qualification (AGR) Program’s AGR-5/6/7 irradiation test in the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) Advanced Test Reactor (ATR). Some of these batches may alternately be used as demonstration coated particle fuel for other experiments. Each batch was coated in a 150-mm-diameter production-scale fluidized-bed chemical vapor deposition (CVD) furnace. Tristructural isotropic (TRISO) coatings were deposited on 425-μm-nominal-diameter spherical kernels from BWXT lot J52R-16-69317 containing a mixture of 15.5%-enriched uranium carbide and uranium oxide (UCO). The TRISO coatings consisted of four consecutive CVD layers: a ~50% dense carbon buffer layer with 100-μm-nominal thickness, a dense inner pyrolytic carbon (IPyC) layer with 40-μm-nominal thickness, a silicon carbide (SiC) layer with 35-μm-nominal thickness, and a dense outer pyrolytic carbon (OPyC) layer with 40-μmnominal thickness. The TRISO-coated particle batches were sieved to upgrade the particles by removing over-sized and under-sized material, and the upgraded batches were designated by appending the letter A to the end of the batch number (e.g., 93165A).

  14. Growth of the coccolithophore Emiliania huxleyi in light- and nutrient-limited batch reactors: relevance for the BIOSOPE deep ecological niche of coccolithophores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrin, Laura; Probert, Ian; Langer, Gerald; Aloisi, Giovanni

    2016-11-01

    Coccolithophores are unicellular calcifying marine algae that play an important role in the oceanic carbon cycle via their cellular processes of photosynthesis (a CO2 sink) and calcification (a CO2 source). In contrast to the well-studied, surface-water coccolithophore blooms visible from satellites, the lower photic zone is a poorly known but potentially important ecological niche for coccolithophores in terms of primary production and carbon export to the deep ocean. In this study, the physiological responses of an Emiliania huxleyi strain to conditions simulating the deep niche in the oligotrophic gyres along the BIOSOPE transect in the South Pacific Gyre were investigated. We carried out batch culture experiments with an E. huxleyi strain isolated from the BIOSOPE transect, reproducing the in situ conditions of light and nutrient (nitrate and phosphate) limitation. By simulating coccolithophore growth using an internal stores (Droop) model, we were able to constrain fundamental physiological parameters for this E. huxleyi strain. We show that simple batch experiments, in conjunction with physiological modelling, can provide reliable estimates of fundamental physiological parameters for E. huxleyi that are usually obtained experimentally in more time-consuming and costly chemostat experiments. The combination of culture experiments, physiological modelling and in situ data from the BIOSOPE cruise show that E. huxleyi growth in the deep BIOSOPE niche is limited by availability of light and nitrate. This study contributes more widely to the understanding of E. huxleyi physiology and behaviour in a low-light and oligotrophic environment of the ocean.

  15. Designing assisted living technologies ‘in the wild’: preliminary experiences with cultural probe methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wherton Joseph

    2012-12-01

    , limited emotional or psychological resources, life events, and acute illness. Discussions between researchers and participants about the materials collected (and sometimes about what had prevented them completing the tasks helped elicit further information relevant to assisted living technology design. The probe materials were particularly helpful when having conversations with non-English speaking participants through an interpreter. Conclusions Cultural probe methods can help build a rich picture of the lives and experiences of older people to facilitate the co-production of assisted living technologies. But their application may be constrained by the participant’s physical, mental and emotional capacity. They are most effective when used as a tool to facilitate communication and development of a deeper understanding of older people’s needs.

  16. Cross-Cultural Field Experiences in Earth and Social Sciences for Chilean and American Graduate Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffin, J.; Russell, M.; Fuentes, B.; Riffo, A.; Link, T. E.; Caamaño, D.; King, R.; Barra, R.

    2017-12-01

    the plans of both countries. This project is an example of the value of supplemental field experiences in graduate education, as it stimulated conversations on earth science subjects that transcend disciplines, cultures, and scales, and provided students a practicum for applying interdisciplinary research techniques.

  17. Influences of Caregivers' Cultural Norms, Values, Beliefs and Experiences on Caregiver Physical Aggression

    OpenAIRE

    Lin, Joyce

    2016-01-01

    The negative impact of physical violence against children is well established, but cultural norms surrounding appropriate acts of violence vary and aspects of one’s culture influence these behaviors. Given that the U.S. is multicultural, it is critical to examine which aspects of immigrants’ cultures are risky or protective for physical discipline. However, researchers who study the links between culture and physical punishment typically focus on one culture and the factors identified in one ...

  18. Cr, Cu, Hg and Ni release from incineration bottom ash during utilization in land reclamation - based on lab-scale batch and column leaching experiments and a modeling study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Ke; Chan, Wei Ping; Dou, Xiaomin; Ren, Fei; Wei-Chung Chang, Victor

    2018-04-01

    Incineration bottom ash (IBA) as potential material for land reclamation was investigated, based on leaching tests, sorption studies and simulation models. Based on batch and column leaching tests, Cr, Cu, Hg and Ni in the IBA leachates were measured as high as 510 μg/L, 20330 μg/L, 5.1 μg/L and 627 μg/L, respectively, presenting potential environmental risks. Sorption study was then performed with various concentrations of IBA leachates on sands and excavated materials. Partitioning coefficients of targeting metals were determined to be 6.5 (Cr), 18.4 (Cu), 16.6 (Hg), and 1.8 (Ni) for sands, while 17.4 (Cr), 13.6 (Cu), 67.1 (Hg), and 0.9 (Ni) for excavated materials, much lower than literature in favor of their transportation. Deterministic and Monte Carlo simulation was further performed under designated boundaries, combined with measured geotechnical parameters: density, porosity, permeability, partitioning coefficient, observed diffusivity, hydraulic gradient, etc., to quantitatively predict metals' fate during IBA land reclamation. Environmental risks were quantitatively unveiled in terms of predicted time of breakthrough for the targeting metals (comparing to US EPA criterion for maximum or continuous concentration). Sands were of little effects for all metals' breakthrough (1 month or less) under advection, while excavated materials sufficiently retained metals from thousands up to millions of years, under diffusion or advection. Permeability next to the IBA layer as the major risk-limiting factor, dominated transport of IBA leachates into the field. The current study provides discrimination of environmental risks associated with metals and a quantitative guidance of project design for IBA utilization in land reclamation. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Examination of reproducibility in microbiological degredation experiments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sommer, Helle Mølgaard; Spliid, Henrik; Holst, Helle

    1998-01-01

    Experimental data indicate that certain microbiological degradation experiments have a limited reproducibility. Nine identical batch experiments were carried out on 3 different days to examine reproducibility. A pure culture, isolated from soil, grew with toluene as the only carbon and energy...... source. Toluene was degraded under aerobic conditions at a constant temperature of 28 degreesC. The experiments were modelled by a Monod model - extended to meet the air/liquid system, and the parameter values were estimated using a statistical nonlinear estimation procedure. Model reduction analysis...... resulted in a simpler model without the biomass decay term. In order to test for model reduction and reproducibility of parameter estimates, a likelihood ratio test was employed. The limited reproducibility for these experiments implied that all 9 batch experiments could not be described by the same set...

  20. Emotion experience and regulation in China and the United States: How do culture and gender shape emotion responding?

    OpenAIRE

    Davis, E; Greenberger, E; Charles, S; Chen, C; Zhao, L; Dong, Q

    2012-01-01

    Culture and gender shape emotion experience and regulation, in part because the value placed on emotions and the manner of their expression is thought to vary across these groups. This study tested the hypothesis that culture and gender would interact to predict people's emotion responding (emotion intensity and regulatory strategies). Chinese (n = 220; 52% female) and American undergraduates (n = 241; 62% female) viewed photos intended to elicit negative emotions after receiving instructions...

  1. Energy efficiency of batch and semi-batch (CCRO) reverse osmosis desalination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warsinger, David M; Tow, Emily W; Nayar, Kishor G; Maswadeh, Laith A; Lienhard V, John H

    2016-12-01

    As reverse osmosis (RO) desalination capacity increases worldwide, the need to reduce its specific energy consumption becomes more urgent. In addition to the incremental changes attainable with improved components such as membranes and pumps, more significant reduction of energy consumption can be achieved through time-varying RO processes including semi-batch processes such as closed-circuit reverse osmosis (CCRO) and fully-batch processes that have not yet been commercialized or modelled in detail. In this study, numerical models of the energy consumption of batch RO (BRO), CCRO, and the standard continuous RO process are detailed. Two new energy-efficient configurations of batch RO are analyzed. Batch systems use significantly less energy than continuous RO over a wide range of recovery ratios and source water salinities. Relative to continuous RO, models predict that CCRO and batch RO demonstrate up to 37% and 64% energy savings, respectively, for brackish water desalination at high water recovery. For batch RO and CCRO, the primary reductions in energy use stem from atmospheric pressure brine discharge and reduced streamwise variation in driving pressure. Fully-batch systems further reduce energy consumption by not mixing streams of different concentrations, which CCRO does. These results demonstrate that time-varying processes can significantly raise RO energy efficiency. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Ethno-cultural diversity in the experience of widowhood in later life: Chinese widows in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin-Matthews, Anne; Tong, Catherine E; Rosenthal, Carolyn J; McDonald, Lynn

    2013-12-01

    This paper utilizes Helena Znaniecka Lopata's concept of life frameworks as a lens through which to understand the experience of widowhood amongst elderly Chinese immigrant women living in Toronto, Canada. While Lopata defined life frameworks as including social supports, social relations and social roles, for these widows, personal resources (framed in Chinese cultural context) were also important aspects of life frameworks. In-depth interviews with 20 widows contacted through a Chinese community center were conducted in Mandarin and Cantonese and then transcribed and interpreted through team-based qualitative analyses. These women ranged in age from 69 to 93 years and had been in Canada an average of 17 years, with over half of them widowed following immigration. Our analysis framed the widows' narratives in terms of four types of supports defined by Lopata: social, service, financial and emotional supports. They had fairly extensive social and service supports focused primarily around family and the Chinese community. Although norms of filial piety traditionally dictate sons as primary supports, daughters predominated as providers of supports to these widows. Interpreted from a life course perspective, financial supports were deemed sufficient, despite overall limited financial means. Emotional support was more nuanced and complex for these widows. Loneliness and feelings of social isolation were prevalent. Nevertheless, themes of acceptance and satisfaction dominated our findings, as did reciprocity and exchange. The narrative accounts of these widows depict a complexity of experience rooted in their biographies as Chinese women and as immigrants, rather than primarily in widowhood itself. © 2013.

  3. Web-based experiments for the study of collective social dynamics in cultural markets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salganik, Matthew J; Watts, Duncan J

    2009-07-01

    Social scientists are often interested in understanding how the dynamics of social systems are driven by the behavior of individuals that make up those systems. However, this process is hindered by the difficulty of experimentally studying how individual behavioral tendencies lead to collective social dynamics in large groups of people interacting over time. In this study, we investigate the role of social influence, a process well studied at the individual level, on the puzzling nature of success for cultural products such as books, movies, and music. Using a "multiple-worlds" experimental design, we are able to isolate the causal effect of an individual-level mechanism on collective social outcomes. We employ this design in a Web-based experiment in which 2,930 participants listened to, rated, and downloaded 48 songs by up-and-coming bands. Surprisingly, despite relatively large differences in the demographics, behavior, and preferences of participants, the experimental results at both the individual and collective levels were similar to those found in Salganik, Dodds, and Watts (2006). Further, by comparing results from two distinct pools of participants, we are able to gain new insights into the role of individual behavior on collective outcomes. We conclude with a discussion of the strengths and weaknesses of Web-based experiments to address questions of collective social dynamics. Copyright © 2009 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  4. Concepts within the Chinese culture that influence the cancer pain experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lih-Mih; Miaskowski, Christine; Dodd, Marylin; Pantilat, Steven

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to describe some of the concepts within the Chinese culture that influence the sociocultural dimension of the cancer pain experience. The major concepts that influence Chinese patients' perspectives on cancer pain and its management include Taoism/energy, Buddhism, and Confucianism. Within the beliefs of Taoism/energy, pain occurs if Qi, or blood circulation, is blocked. To relieve pain, the blockage of Qi/blood must be removed and the person needs to maintain harmony with the universe. Within the beliefs of Buddhism, pain/suffering is a power, unwanted but existent, that comes from a barrier in the last life; from the objective world; from a person's own sensation; or from other people, animals, and materials. Only by following the 8 right ways (ie, right view, right intention, right speech, right action, right livelihood, right effort, right mindfulness, and right concentration) can an individual end the path of pain/suffering. A Confucian believes that pain is an essential element of life, a "trial" or a "sacrifice." Therefore, when a person suffers with pain, he or she would rather endure the pain and not report it to a clinician until the pain becomes unbearable. Oncology nurses who care for Chinese patients need to understand the fundamental beliefs that influence the sociocultural dimension of the pain experience for these patients. This information will assist the oncology nurse in developing a more effective pain management plan.

  5. Yields from pyrolysis of refinery residue using a batch process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Prithiraj

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Batch pyrolysis was a valuable process of assessing the potential of recovering and characterising products from hazardous waste materials. This research explored the pyrolysis of hydrocarbon-rich refinery residue, from crude oil processes, in a 1200 L electrically-heated batch retort. Furthermore, the off-gases produced were easily processed in compliance with existing regulatory emission standards. The methodology offers a novel, cost-effective and environmentally compliant method of assessing recovery potential of valuable products. The pyrolysis experiments yielded significant oil (70% with high calorific value (40 MJ/kg, char (14% with carbon content over 80% and non-condensable gas (6% with significant calorific value (240 kJ/mol. The final gas stream was subjected to an oxidative clean-up process with continuous on-line monitoring demonstrating compliance with South African emission standards. The gas treatment was overall economically optimal as only a smaller portion of the original residue was subjected to emission-controlling steps. Keywords: Batch pyrolysis, Volatiles, Oil yields, Char, Emissions, Oil recovery

  6. Improving cellulase productivity of Penicillium oxalicum RE-10 by repeated fed-batch fermentation strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Xiaolong; Song, Wenxia; Liu, Guodong; Li, Zhonghai; Yang, Piao; Qu, Yinbo

    2017-03-01

    Medium optimization and repeated fed-batch fermentation were performed to improve the cellulase productivity by P. oxalicum RE-10 in submerged fermentation. First, Plackett-Burman design (PBD) and central composite design (CCD) were used to optimize the medium for cellulase production. PBD demonstrated wheat bran and NaNO 3 had significant influences on cellulase production. The CCD results showed the maximum filter paper activity (FPA) production of 8.61U/mL could be achieved in Erlenmeyer flasks. The maximal FPA reached 12.69U/mL by submerged batch fermentation in a 7.5-L stirred tank, 1.76-fold higher than that on the original medium. Then, the repeated fed-batch fermentation strategy was performed successfully for increasing the cellulase productivity from 105.75U/L/h in batch fermentation to 158.38U/L/h. The cellulase activity and the glucan conversion of delignined corn cob residue hydrolysis had no significant difference between the enzymes sampled from different cycles of the repeated fed-batch fermentation and that from batch culture. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Communication and cultural interaction in health promotion strategies to migrant populations in Italy: the cross-cultural phone counselling experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filippo Maria Taglieri

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: In the last 10 years migration processes have progressively increased worldwide and in Italy about 5 millions of residing migrants are estimated. To meet health needs of these new residents, effective relational and communication tools, which allow a reciprocal intercultural interaction within health care structures, are therefore necessary. AIM: This article faces the main features of the relational-communication processes associated with health promotion and care in the migrant population in Italy to the aim of identifying the key and critical points within the interaction between different cultures, focusing on the role of specific professional figures, including cultural mediators and health educators. RESULTS: Within the activity of HIV phone counselling operated by Psyco-socio-behavioural, Communication and Training Operating Unit of National Institute of Health in Italy, an intercultural approach was successfully experienced in a project targeted to migrants (2007-2008. Specifically, the presence of cultural mediators answering in the languages of main migrants' groups allowed the increase of calls from migrant people and of the information provided.

  8. Dominant Cultural Narratives, Racism, and Resistance in the Workplace: A Study of the Experiences of Young Black Canadians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasford, Julian

    2016-03-01

    Although many studies have examined lived experiences of racism and resistance in various contexts, relatively little research has examined such experiences among Black youth within the workplace-particularly in the Canadian context. In this study I use qualitative analyses of narrative interviews with 24 Black Canadian youth and young adults (aged 16-35) to examine the impact of dominant cultural narratives on lived experiences of workplace racism and resistance. Findings are presented using theatrical games as a central conceptual metaphor, suggesting that: (a) dominant cultural narratives have a major impact on relational dynamics of oppression in the workplace; (b) identity performance is a critical strategy for negotiating dominant cultural narratives in the workplace; and (c) panopticism (the internalized gaze) is a significant aspect of internalized oppression. Implications for future research and action are discussed. © Society for Community Research and Action 2016.

  9. A Cross-Cultural Study of How Usability Professionals Experience the Usability of Everyday Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jiang, Y.; Sun, X.; Li, H.

    2009-01-01

    in the study, their understanding of fun systems differs across cultural backgrounds. Also, easy-to-use and useful systems are perceived as being similar or different depending on the usability professional’s cultural background. Most other cross-cultural differences relate to categories of construct......Culture influences many aspects of the design and use of computer systems; understanding better this influence on their own thinking may benefit usability professionals who do cross-cultural usability work. Using Kelly’s notion of personal constructs, we focus on one mediator of culture: how...

  10. Fuzzy batch controller for granular materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zamyatin Nikolaj

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper focuses on batch control of granular materials in production of building materials from fluorine anhydrite. Batching equipment is intended for smooth operation and timely feeding of supply hoppers at a required level. Level sensors and a controller of an asynchronous screw drive motor are used to control filling of the hopper with industrial anhydrite binders. The controller generates a required frequency and ensures required productivity of a feed conveyor. Mamdani-type fuzzy inference is proposed for controlling the speed of the screw that feeds mixture components. As related to production of building materials based on fluoride anhydrite, this method is used for the first time. A fuzzy controller is proven to be effective in controlling the filling level of the supply hopper. In addition, the authors determined optimal parameters of the batching process to ensure smooth operation and production of fluorine anhydrite materials of specified properties that can compete with gypsum-based products.

  11. History based batch method preserving tally means

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shim, Hyung Jin; Choi, Sung Hoon

    2012-01-01

    In the Monte Carlo (MC) eigenvalue calculations, the sample variance of a tally mean calculated from its cycle-wise estimates is biased because of the inter-cycle correlations of the fission source distribution (FSD). Recently, we proposed a new real variance estimation method named the history-based batch method in which a MC run is treated as multiple runs with small number of histories per cycle to generate independent tally estimates. In this paper, the history-based batch method based on the weight correction is presented to preserve the tally mean from the original MC run. The effectiveness of the new method is examined for the weakly coupled fissile array problem as a function of the dominance ratio and the batch size, in comparison with other schemes available

  12. Leuconostoc carnosum 4010 has the potential for use as a protective culture for vacuum-packed meats: culture isolation, bacteriocin identification, and meat application experiments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Budde, B.B.; Hornbæk, T.; Jacobsen, T.

    2003-01-01

    A new culture, Leuconostoc carnosum 4010, for biopreservation of vacuum-packed meats is described. The culture originated from bacteriocin-producing lactic acid bacteria (LAB) naturally present in vacuum-packed meat products. Approximately, 72,000 colonies were isolated from 48 different vacuum......-packed meat products and examined for antibacterial activity. Bacteriocin-producing colonies were isolated from 46% of the packages examined. Leuc. carnosum was the predominant bacteriocin-producing strain and Leuc. carnosum 4010 was selected for further experiments because it showed strong antilisterial...... activity corresponding to molecular sizes of 4.6 and 5.3 kDa. N-terminal amino acid sequencing showed that Leuc. carnosum 4010 produced two bacteriocins highly similar or identical to leucocin A and leucocin C. Application experiments showed that the addition of 10(7) cfu/g Leuc. carnosum 4010 to a vacuum...

  13. Prevention of demoralization in prolonged bicultural conflict and interaction: the role of cultural receptors I - description of a natural experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Figueiredo, John M

    2013-08-01

    This article examines how symbols and sentiments are exchanged to produce a synthesis of two cultures in the context of prolonged bicultural conflict and interaction, thereby minimizing or preventing sociocultural disintegration and the resulting demoralization. This process will be shown to be anchored on the discovery of certain thematic areas (cultural receptors) in which social roles or cultural mandates are missing, unclear, ambiguous or congruent. The setting of this research is the history of Goa, a former Portuguese state on the western coast of India, where the exchange between the Portuguese and Indian cultures lasted longer than four centuries (1510-1961). Both published and unpublished sources were studied. From 1510, the year of the beginning of the Portuguese rule, until 1540, the local traditions and leadership patterns were respected. This was followed by a period of religious intolerance during which attempts were made to encourage Hindus to convert to Christianity and to wipe out the bicultural interaction. Finally a new era of tolerance and cultural integration started around 1773 and continued until 1961. The bicultural interaction persisted and a hybrid culture developed around cultural receptors. The history of Portuguese Goa is a natural experiment that allows us to examine the role played by cultural receptors in the adaptation to acculturative stress.

  14. Cross-cultural study: experience, understanding of menopause, and related therapies in Australian and Laotian women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayakhot, Padaphet; Vincent, Amanda; Teede, Helena

    2012-12-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate and compare symptom experiences, beliefs, attitudes, and understanding of menopause and menopausal therapies in Australian and Laotian women. This was a cross-cultural, questionnaire-based study involving 108 women (56 Australian women and 52 Laotian women aged 40-65 y) attending outpatient clinics in Australia and Laos. Descriptive statistics and univariate analysis were conducted using Student's t test or Mann-Whitney U test, where appropriate. Psychological symptoms, depression, vasomotor symptoms, and sexual dysfunction were significantly higher in Australian women compared with Laotian women (P menopause as aging (57%), whereas most Laotian women reported not knowing what menopause meant to them (81%). Australian women's fears about menopause included weight gain (43%), aging (41%), and breast cancer (38%), whereas Laotian women reported not knowing about potential menopausal problems (85%). Exercise (55%), education and awareness (46%), and improving lifestyle (41%) were reported by Australian women as being effective in alleviating menopausal symptoms, with only 21% reporting not knowing what was effective compared with 83% of Laotian women. Many women reported not knowing the risks/benefits of hormonal therapies (50% of Australian women and 87% of Laotian women) and herbal therapies (79% of Australian women and 92% of Laotian women). General practitioners were the most common source of menopause information for both Australians (73%) and Laotians (67%). Sociocultural factors influence women's perception of menopause. Psychological symptoms, sexual dysfunction, and vasomotor symptoms are more commonly reported by Australian women than by Laotian women. Women have a limited understanding of the risks/benefits of menopausal therapies, and culturally appropriate education is needed.

  15. High cell density fed-batch fermentations for lipase production: feeding strategies and oxygen transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salehmin, M N I; Annuar, M S M; Chisti, Y

    2013-11-01

    This review is focused on the production of microbial lipases by high cell density fermentation. Lipases are among the most widely used of the enzyme catalysts. Although lipases are produced by animals and plants, industrial lipases are sourced almost exclusively from microorganisms. Many of the commercial lipases are produced using recombinant species. Microbial lipases are mostly produced by batch and fed-batch fermentation. Lipases are generally secreted by the cell into the extracellular environment. Thus, a crude preparation of lipases can be obtained by removing the microbial cells from the fermentation broth. This crude cell-free broth may be further concentrated and used as is, or lipases may be purified from it to various levels. For many large volume applications, lipases must be produced at extremely low cost. High cell density fermentation is a promising method for low-cost production: it allows a high concentration of the biomass and the enzyme to be attained rapidly and this eases the downstream recovery of the enzyme. High density fermentation enhances enzyme productivity compared with the traditional submerged culture batch fermentation. In production of enzymes, a high cell density is generally achieved through fed-batch operation, not through perfusion culture which is cumbersome. The feeding strategies used in fed-batch fermentations for producing lipases and the implications of these strategies are discussed. Most lipase-producing microbial fermentations require oxygen. Oxygen transfer in such fermentations is discussed.

  16. Following an Optimal Batch Bioreactor Operations Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ibarra-Junquera, V.; Jørgensen, Sten Bay; Virgen-Ortíz, J.J.

    2012-01-01

    The problem of following an optimal batch operation model for a bioreactor in the presence of uncertainties is studied. The optimal batch bioreactor operation model (OBBOM) refers to the bioreactor trajectory for nominal cultivation to be optimal. A multiple-variable dynamic optimization of fed...... as the master system which includes the optimal cultivation trajectory for the feed flow rate and the substrate concentration. The “real” bioreactor, the one with unknown dynamics and perturbations, is considered as the slave system. Finally, the controller is designed such that the real bioreactor...

  17. Supervision of Fed-Batch Fermentations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gregersen, Lars; Jørgensen, Sten Bay

    1999-01-01

    Process faults may be detected on-line using existing measurements based upon modelling that is entirely data driven. A multivariate statistical model is developed and used for fault diagnosis of an industrial fed-batch fermentation process. Data from several (25) batches are used to develop...... a model for cultivation behaviour. This model is validated against 13 data sets and demonstrated to explain a significant amount of variation in the data. The multivariate model may directly be used for process monitoring. With this method faults are detected in real time and the responsible measurements...

  18. Exploring the Transition From Batch to Online

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Anker Helms

    2010-01-01

    of the truly interactive use of computers known today. The transition invoked changes in a number of areas: technological, such as hybrid forms between batch and online; organisational such as decentralization; and personal as users and developers alike had to adopt new technology, shape new organizational...... structures, and acquire new skills. This work-in-progress paper extends an earlier study of the transition from batch to online, based on oral history interviews with (ex)-employees in two large Danish Service Bureaus. The paper takes the next step by ana-lyzing a particular genre: the commercial computer...

  19. On the Effects of Organizational Culture on E-Learning Readiness: An Iranian Experience

    OpenAIRE

    Seyed Yaghoub Hosseini; Khodakaram Salimifard; Shahrbanoo Yadollahi

    2012-01-01

    An organization’s success in implementing e-learning depends on the supports provided by the organizational culture. This paper is aimed to evaluate the impacts of organizational culture on e-learning readiness. To test the research hypothesis, Beta coefficient test was used. Research results indicated a significant positive impact of Clan and Adhocracy cultures on e-learning readiness. It was found that Market culture has a negative impact on e-learning readiness. Research findings cannot ...

  20. Developing Cultural Competence and Overcoming Ethical Challenges in the Informed Consent Process: An Experience from Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Messih, Ibrahim Adib; El-Setouhy, Maged; Crouch, Michael M.; Earhart, Kenneth C.

    2008-01-01

    Research is conducted in a variety of cultural settings. Ethical standards developed in Europe and the Americas are increasingly applied in these settings, many of which are culturally different from the countries in which these standards originated. To overcome these cultural differences, investigators may be tempted to deviate from ethical…

  1. Improvement of xanthan gum production in batch culture using ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Yomi

    2011-12-21

    Dec 21, 2011 ... Fermentation was carried out in 500 ml Erlenmeyer flask with 200 ml of a ... The effect of acetic acid on xanthan production was studied with ... improvement when compared with the control. No .... in a plunging jet reactor.

  2. Improvement of xanthan gum production in batch culture using ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Yomi

    2011-12-21

    Dec 21, 2011 ... In this study, the effect of acetic acid on the improvement of xanthan biosynthesis by Xanthomonas campestris b82 was investigated. ... shown that citric acid that is used as a chelating agent in medium to prevent the ... pH value close to the acid pKa) in the medium in one pulse, 30 h after incubation (at the ...

  3. Medium optimization for protopectinase production by batch culture ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ajl yemi

    2011-11-11

    Nov 11, 2011 ... Optimization of medium compositions for protopectinase production by ... food industry, pharmacy and cosmetic manufacture due to ... energy intensive and industrial wastes (Iglesias and ... group of enzymes, which produce the enzymatic ... development time and overall costs (Pan et al., 2008; Ren.

  4. Online and Batch Supervised Background Estimation via L1 Regression

    KAUST Repository

    Dutta, Aritra

    2017-11-23

    We propose a surprisingly simple model for supervised video background estimation. Our model is based on $\\\\ell_1$ regression. As existing methods for $\\\\ell_1$ regression do not scale to high-resolution videos, we propose several simple and scalable methods for solving the problem, including iteratively reweighted least squares, a homotopy method, and stochastic gradient descent. We show through extensive experiments that our model and methods match or outperform the state-of-the-art online and batch methods in virtually all quantitative and qualitative measures.

  5. Online and Batch Supervised Background Estimation via L1 Regression

    KAUST Repository

    Dutta, Aritra; Richtarik, Peter

    2017-01-01

    We propose a surprisingly simple model for supervised video background estimation. Our model is based on $\\ell_1$ regression. As existing methods for $\\ell_1$ regression do not scale to high-resolution videos, we propose several simple and scalable methods for solving the problem, including iteratively reweighted least squares, a homotopy method, and stochastic gradient descent. We show through extensive experiments that our model and methods match or outperform the state-of-the-art online and batch methods in virtually all quantitative and qualitative measures.

  6. Merging arts and bioethics: An interdisciplinary experiment in cultural and scientific mediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couture, Vincent; Bélisle-Pipon, Jean-Christophe; Cloutier, Marianne; Barnabé, Catherine

    2017-10-01

    How to engage the public in a reflection on the most pressing ethical issues of our time? What if part of the solution lies in adopting an interdisciplinary and collaborative strategy to shed light on critical issues in bioethics? An example is Art + Bioéthique, an innovative project that brought together bioethicists, art historians and artists with the aim of expressing bioethics through arts in order to convey the "sensitive" aspect of many health ethics issues. The aim of this project was threefold: 1) to identify and characterize mechanisms for the meeting of arts and bioethics; 2) to experiment with and co-construct a dialogue between arts and bioethics; and 3) to initiate a public discussion on bioethical issues through the blending of arts and bioethics. In connection with an exhibition held in March 2016 at the Espace Projet, a non-profit art space in Montréal (Canada), the project developed a platform that combined artworks, essays and cultural & scientific mediation activities related to the work of six duos of young bioethics researchers and emerging artists. Each duo worked on a variety of issues, such as the social inclusion of disabled people, the challenges of practical applications of nanomedicine and regenerative medicine, and a holistic approach to contemporary diseases. This project, which succeeded in stimulating an interdisciplinary dialogue and collaboration between bioethics and arts, is an example of an innovative approach to knowledge transfer that can move bioethics reflection into the public space. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Testing Suitability of Cell Cultures for SILAC-Experiments Using SWATH-Mass Spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinders, Yvonne; Völler, Daniel; Bosserhoff, Anja-K; Oefner, Peter J; Reinders, Jörg

    2016-01-01

    Precise quantification is a major issue in contemporary proteomics. Both stable-isotope-labeling and label-free methods have been established for differential protein quantification and both approaches have different advantages and disadvantages. The present protocol uses the superior precision of label-free SWATH-mass spectrometry to test for suitability of cell lines for a SILAC-labeling approach as systematic regulations may be introduced upon incorporation of the "heavy" amino acids. The SILAC-labeled cell cultures can afterwards be used for further analyses where stable-isotope-labeling is mandatory or has substantial advantages over label-free approaches such as pulse-chase-experiments and differential protein interaction analyses based on co-immunoprecipitation. As SWATH-mass spectrometry avoids the missing-value-problem typically caused by undersampling in highly complex samples and shows superior precision for the quantification, it is better suited for the detection of systematic changes caused by the SILAC-labeling and thus, can serve as a useful tool to test cell lines for changes upon SILAC-labeling.

  8. [Patient safety culture in hospitals: experiences in planning, organising and conducting a survey among hospital staff].

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Vegten, Amanda; Pfeiffer, Yvonne; Giuliani, Francesca; Manser, Tanja

    2011-01-01

    This article presents the first hospital-wide survey on patient safety climate, involving all staff (medical and non-medical), in the German-speaking area. Its aim is to share our experiences with planning, organising and conducting this survey. The study was performed at the university hospital in Zurich and had a response rate of 46.8% (2,897 valid questionnaires). The survey instrument ("Patientensicherheitsklimainventar") was based on the Hospital Survey on Patient Safety Culture (AHRQ). Primarily it allowed for assessing the current patient safety climate as well as identifying specific areas for improvement and creating a hospital-wide awareness and acceptance for patient safety issues and interventions (e.g., the introduction of a Critical Incident Reporting System [CIRS]). We discuss the basic principles and the feedback concept guiding the organisation of the overall project. Critical to the success of this project were the guaranteed anonymity of the respondents, adequate communication through well-established channels within the organisation and the commitment of the management across all project phases. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier GmbH.

  9. Promoting Hmong refugees' well-being through mutual learning: valuing knowledge, culture, and experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodkind, Jessica R

    2006-03-01

    Refugees who resettle in a new country face numerous struggles, including overcoming past traumas and coping with post-migration stressors, such as lack of meaningful social roles, poverty, discrimination, lack of environmental mastery, and social isolation. Thus, in addition to needing to learn concrete language skills and gain access to resources and employment, it is important for refugees to become a part of settings where their experiences, knowledge, and identity are valued and validated. The Refugee Well-Being Project (RWBP) was developed to promote the well-being of Hmong refugees by creating settings for mutual learning to occur between Hmong adults and undergraduate students. The RWBP had two major components: (1) Learning Circles, which involved cultural exchange and one-on-one learning opportunities, and (2) an advocacy component, which involved undergraduates advocating for and transferring advocacy skills to Hmong families to increase their access to resources in their communities. The project was evaluated using a mixed quantitative and qualitative approach. This article discusses data from qualitative interviews with participants, during which the importance of reciprocal helping relationships and mutual learning emerged as significant themes.

  10. Interactions between Xylotrophic Mushrooms and Mycoparasitic Fungi in Dual-Culture Experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.M. Badalyan

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Seventeen wood-decaying mushroom species (Coriolus versicolor, Flammulina velutipes, Ganoderma sp., Hypholoma fasciculare, H. sublateritium, Kühneromyces mutabilis, Lentinula edodes, Lentinus tigrinus, Pholiota alnicola, Ph. aurivella, Ph. destruens, Pleurotus cornucopiae, Pl. ostreatus, Polyporus subarcularius, Po. squamosus, Po. varius and Schizophyllum commune were paired with three Trichoderma species (T. harzianum, T. pseudokoningii, and T. viride and Clonostachys rosea in dual-culture experiments on an agar-based medium. Xylotrophic mushrooms and mycoparasitic fungi in general showed similar competitive ability; deadlock, or mutual inhibition after mycelial contact, was observed in 45.6% of pairings, while stable inhibition at a distance occurred in 4.4% of pairings. Replacement, or overgrowth of xylotrophic mushroom by a mycoparasitic fungus was observed in 29.4% of pairings; the opposite, overgrowth of the xylotrophic mushroom on the mycoparasitic fungus in 20.6%. of pairings. Of the xylotrophic mushrooms, Pl. ostreatus, Ganoderma sp., F. velutipes and H. fasciculare, showed the highest competitive ability against mycoparasitic fungi. Of the mycoparasitic fungi, T. harzianum showed the strongest competitive activity against xylotrophic mushrooms.

  11. Systematic Methodology for Reproducible Optimizing Batch Operation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonné, Dennis; Jørgensen, Sten Bay

    2006-01-01

    This contribution presents a systematic methodology for rapid acquirement of discrete-time state space model representations of batch processes based on their historical operation data. These state space models are parsimoniously parameterized as a set of local, interdependent models. The present...

  12. Batch extractive distillation for high purity methanol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Weijiang; Ma Sisi

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, the application in chemical industry and microelectronic industry, market status and the present situation of production of high purity methanol at home and abroad were introduced firstly. Purification of industrial methanol for high purity methanol is feasible in china. Batch extractive distillation is the best separation technique for purification of industrial methanol. Dimethyl sulfoxide was better as an extractant. (authors)

  13. Monitoring of batch processes using spectroscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gurden, S. P.; Westerhuis, J. A.; Smilde, A. K.

    2002-01-01

    There is an increasing need for new techniques for the understanding, monitoring and the control of batch processes. Spectroscopy is now becoming established as a means of obtaining real-time, high-quality chemical information at frequent time intervals and across a wide range of industrial

  14. Cultural Psychiatry: A Spotlight on the Experience of Clinical Social Workers' Encounter with Jewish Ultra-Orthodox Mental Health Clients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freund, Anat; Band-Winterstein, Tova

    2017-07-01

    Community is a complex issue, especially in two particular populations overlap: Haredi society, which embraces cultural codes common to closed communities, and the mental health population characterized by its own unique needs. The present study explores the encounter experience of social workers with the cultural perceptions of mental health clients in the Haredi community in light of Community Cultural Psychiatry. A qualitative-phenomenological approach was adopted. In-depth semi-structured interviews were conducted with 27 social workers, mental health professionals, who are in contact with ultra-Orthodox Jewish clients. Three major themes emerged from the data analysis: (1) Exclusion vs. grace and compassion. (2) Mental health: A professional or cultural arena? (3) Mental health help-seeking changing processes. This study shows that the attitude in the Haredi community toward mental health therapy undergoes a process of change. It is important to strengthen this process, together with preserving existing community informal structures of help.

  15. Building a culture of learning through organizational development: the experiences of the Marin County Health and Human Services Department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindberg, Arley; Meredith, Larry

    2012-01-01

    After determining a need for organizational change informed by changes in workforce demographics, community demographics, the socio-political and economic environment, and constraints on resources, one agency sought to transform its organizational culture into that of a learning organization. An external organizational development consultant was hired to work with agency leadership to identify ways that would help move the agency's culture towards one that was conducive to learning. Specifically, the agency director sought to create a culture where communication is encouraged both vertically and horizontally, frontline level workers are engaged and their voices heard, cross-departmental problem solving is practiced, innovative ideas are supported, and evidence-informed practice regularly implemented. This case study describes the experiences of this agency and the process taken toward engaging an external consultant and moving towards the development of a culture of learning. Copyright © Taylor & Francis Group, LLC

  16. Normative cultural values and the experiences of Mexican-American mothers in the neonatal intensive care unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleveland, Lisa M; Horner, Sharon D

    2012-04-01

    To explore the experiences of Mexican-American mothers who have had infants in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). A convenience sample of 15 English-speaking, Mexican-American women was interviewed. The study used an exploratory qualitative approach. Data collection was conducted through audiotaped, transcribed, semistructured, individual interviews and field notes. The 5 normative cultural values for Latino families-(1) simpatia, (2) personalismo, (3) respeto, (4) familismo, and (5) fatalismo-were used as a sensitizing framework to guide data interpretation. The women's discussions of their NICU experiences clearly reflect the 5 normative Latino cultural values. Positive and negative exemplars of these values are provided as evidence. These findings can be used to inform nursing care provided for Mexican-American mothers and their infants by assisting nurses to customize care to meet the cultural needs of this population.

  17. Culture and postpartum mood problems: similarities and differences in the experiences of first- and second-generation Canadian women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamisachvili, Lana; Ardiles, Paola; Mancewicz, Grazyna; Thompson, Sherry; Rabin, Kapri; Ross, Lori E

    2013-04-01

    Few studies have examined the role of culture in a woman's experience of postpartum mood problems (PPMP). This study explored differences and similarities in experiences of PPMP between first- and second-generation Canadian women. In this exploratory qualitative study, we interviewed nine first-generation and eight second-generation women who were clients of the Women's Health Centre at St. Joseph's Health Centre in Toronto, Canada. Using semistructured interviews, we explored how women perceived and experienced PPMP. Four themes reflected cultural issues: PPMP stigma, relationship with parents/in-laws, internalization of society's expectations of motherhood, and identity issues/relationship with self. The results of this study contribute to a limited literature on possible contributing factors to PPMP and can inform development of resources for delivering culturally appropriate mental health care for women dealing with PPMP.

  18. Estimation of the Maximum Theoretical Productivity of Fed-Batch Bioreactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bomble, Yannick J [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); St. John, Peter C [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Crowley, Michael F [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-10-18

    A key step towards the development of an integrated biorefinery is the screening of economically viable processes, which depends sharply on the yields and productivities that can be achieved by an engineered microorganism. In this study, we extend an earlier method which used dynamic optimization to find the maximum theoretical productivity of batch cultures to explicitly include fed-batch bioreactors. In addition to optimizing the intracellular distribution of metabolites between cell growth and product formation, we calculate the optimal control trajectory of feed rate versus time. We further analyze how sensitive the productivity is to substrate uptake and growth parameters.

  19. Kinetics and dynamic modelling of batch anaerobic digestion of municipal solid waste in a stirred reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nopharatana, Annop; Pullammanappallil, Pratap C.; Clarke, William P.

    2007-01-01

    A series of batch, slurry anaerobic digestion experiments were performed where the soluble and insoluble fractions, and unwashed MSW were separately digested in a 200 l stirred stainless steel vessel at a pH of 7.2 and a temperature of 38 deg. C. It was found that 7% of the total MSW COD was readily soluble, of which 80% was converted to biogas; 50% of the insoluble fraction was solubilised, of this only 80% was converted to biogas. The rate of digesting the insoluble fraction was about four times slower than the rate of digesting the soluble fraction; 48% of the total COD was converted to biogas and 40% of the total nitrogen was converted to ammonia. Soluble and insoluble fractions were broken down simultaneously. The minimum time to convert 95% of the degradable fraction to biogas was 20 days. The lag phase for the degradation of insoluble fraction of MSW can be overcome by acclimatising the culture with the soluble fraction. The rate of digestion and the methane yield was not affected by particle size (within the range of 2-50 mm). A dynamic model was developed to describe batch digestion of MSW. The parameters of the model were estimated using data from the separate digestion of soluble and insoluble fractions and validated against data from the digestion of unwashed MSW. Trends in the specific aceticlastic and formate-utilising methanogenic activity were used to estimate initial methanogenic biomass concentration and bacterial death rate coefficient. The kinetics of hydrolysis of insoluble fraction could be adequately described by a Contois equation and the kinetics of acidogenesis, and aceticlastic and hydrogen utilising methanogenesis by Monod equations

  20. The cross-cultural validity of the Caregiving Experiences Questionnaire (CEQ) among Danish mothers with preschool children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Røhder, Katrine; George, Carol; Brennan, Jessica

    2018-01-01

    The present study explored the Danish cross-cultural validity of the Caregiving Experiences Questionnaire (CEQ), a new measure of caregiving representations in parent-child relationships. Low-risk Danish mothers (N = 159) with children aged 1.5–5 years completed the CEQ and predictive validity...

  1. Teaching Group Counseling in Botswana: Two U.S.-Trained Counselors Discuss Experiences and Share Cultural Considerations for Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coker, Angela D.; Majuta, Aaron R.

    2015-01-01

    There is a paucity of research in the area of teaching group counseling within an African context. In this article we describe and reflect on our experiences teaching group counseling at an institution of higher learning in the country of Botswana. We discuss cultural traditions and strengths that support an environment of group work in Botswana,…

  2. Can an International Field Experience Assist Health and Physical Education Pre-Service Teachers to Develop Cultural Competency?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winslade, Matthew

    2016-01-01

    An emerging focus of teacher education courses within countries such as Australia centres on the development of cultural competency. An international practicum experience or student mobility programme embedded within pre-service teacher education programmes is one way to provide such an opportunity. In subject areas such as Health and Physical…

  3. Silencing the Everyday Experiences of Youth? Deconstructing Issues of Subjectivity and Popular/Corporate Culture in the English Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savage, Glenn

    2008-01-01

    This paper investigates the influence of popular/corporate culture texts and discourses on the subjectivities and everyday social experiences of young people, and the extent to which such influences are critically analysed in the English classroom. I present two levels of synthesised information using data analysis born of a mixed-methods…

  4. Standardisation vs. adaption : a conjoint experiment on the influence of psychic, cultural and geographical distance on international marketing mix decisions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kraus, Sascha; Meier, Fabian; Eggers, Felix; Bouncken, Ricarda B.; Schuessler, Felix

    2016-01-01

    This paper delivers new insights into how psychic, cultural and geographical distance influence international marketing mix decisions on the basis of a choice-based conjoint analysis with 96 managers from Switzerland and Liechtenstein. In this experiment, the managers had to decide whether the four

  5. Categories of Experience: A Paradigm for the Study of Contemporary World Cultures at Western State College of Colorado.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Robert

    1992-01-01

    Presents a framework used at Western State College to teach an interdisciplinary general education course. The framework helps students organize a large volume of material about Contemporary World Cultures according to a taxonomy of human experience, including artistic/literary expression; thought and belief; relationships/associations with…

  6. Everyday social dynamics and cultural drivers of women's experiences with HIV/AIDS : voices from Buhaya, Tanzania

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Foster Githinji, V.E.

    2015-01-01

    Everyday social dynamics and cultural drivers of women’s experiences with HIV/AIDS: voices from Buhaya, Tanzania is based on ethnographic research conducted in the village of Nsisha in northwestern Tanzania. Like most households in this region, Nsisha has been indirectly or

  7. A Qualitative Investigation of the College Choice Experiences and Reentry Expectations of U.S. American Third Culture Kids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thurston-Gonzalez, Sara J.

    2009-01-01

    The focus of this qualitative study is on U.S. third culture kids (TCKs), youth who have grown up abroad because of their parent's work, and their college choice experiences and reentry expectations. Through a background questionnaire and personal interviews with eleven students transitioning from two international secondary schools in a…

  8. "Batch" kinetics in flow: online IR analysis and continuous control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Jason S; Jensen, Klavs F

    2014-01-07

    Currently, kinetic data is either collected under steady-state conditions in flow or by generating time-series data in batch. Batch experiments are generally considered to be more suitable for the generation of kinetic data because of the ability to collect data from many time points in a single experiment. Now, a method that rapidly generates time-series reaction data from flow reactors by continuously manipulating the flow rate and reaction temperature has been developed. This approach makes use of inline IR analysis and an automated microreactor system, which allowed for rapid and tight control of the operating conditions. The conversion/residence time profiles at several temperatures were used to fit parameters to a kinetic model. This method requires significantly less time and a smaller amount of starting material compared to one-at-a-time flow experiments, and thus allows for the rapid generation of kinetic data. Copyright © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. An Integer Batch Scheduling Model for a Single Machine with Simultaneous Learning and Deterioration Effects to Minimize Total Actual Flow Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yusriski, R.; Sukoyo; Samadhi, T. M. A. A.; Halim, A. H.

    2016-02-01

    In the manufacturing industry, several identical parts can be processed in batches, and setup time is needed between two consecutive batches. Since the processing times of batches are not always fixed during a scheduling period due to learning and deterioration effects, this research deals with batch scheduling problems with simultaneous learning and deterioration effects. The objective is to minimize total actual flow time, defined as a time interval between the arrival of all parts at the shop and their common due date. The decision variables are the number of batches, integer batch sizes, and the sequence of the resulting batches. This research proposes a heuristic algorithm based on the Lagrange Relaxation. The effectiveness of the proposed algorithm is determined by comparing the resulting solutions of the algorithm to the respective optimal solution obtained from the enumeration method. Numerical experience results show that the average of difference among the solutions is 0.05%.

  10. An Integer Batch Scheduling Model for a Single Machine with Simultaneous Learning and Deterioration Effects to Minimize Total Actual Flow Time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yusriski, R; Sukoyo; Samadhi, T M A A; Halim, A H

    2016-01-01

    In the manufacturing industry, several identical parts can be processed in batches, and setup time is needed between two consecutive batches. Since the processing times of batches are not always fixed during a scheduling period due to learning and deterioration effects, this research deals with batch scheduling problems with simultaneous learning and deterioration effects. The objective is to minimize total actual flow time, defined as a time interval between the arrival of all parts at the shop and their common due date. The decision variables are the number of batches, integer batch sizes, and the sequence of the resulting batches. This research proposes a heuristic algorithm based on the Lagrange Relaxation. The effectiveness of the proposed algorithm is determined by comparing the resulting solutions of the algorithm to the respective optimal solution obtained from the enumeration method. Numerical experience results show that the average of difference among the solutions is 0.05%. (paper)

  11. Cultural Aspects when Implementing Lean Production and Lean Product Development – Experiences from a Swedish Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Promporn Wangwacharakul

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Lean principles and methods, originating in a Japanese cultural context, have spread to a large number of companies throughout the world. The aim of this case study research is to identify and compare national cultural aspects that influence Lean Production and Lean Product Development implementation in Swedish companies. Data were collected through questionnaires, interviews and an industrial workshop with Swedish Lean practitioners. The study shows that some sub-areas in Lean, such as value definition, control systems, leadership, team development, knowledge management, and strategies, are highly dependent on contextual factors related to human, cultural and organizational aspects. These are related to the national culture and should be considered to a higher extent for successful sustainable implementation of Lean in different cultural contexts. As for implementing Lean in Sweden, national cultural characteristics, such as individualism, autonomy and supportive management style fit well with Lean thinking.

  12. Outline of the presentation on experiences with safety culture from an EDF viewpoint

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanguy, P.Y.

    1994-01-01

    Safe operation must draw on an industrial culture based professionalism and strict enforcement. Experience, from abroad and in France, shows that this is not enough to reach the degree of quality we are aiming at. In addition we need an attitude from both men an organizations that questions, when necessary, ways of thinking and working, to give safety the attention it deserves according to its importance. Before TMI, the nuclear community was convinced that the safety approach that has been progressively built up, on the basis of the research performed in various countries, and with the assistance of multiple committees directing their attention to safety matters, has reached the point where the prevention was so effective that a major accident has become 'incredible'. The enquiry commissions that were convened after the accident identified a common mindset: the 'beyond design accident' will not occur. Today we all know that the TMI accident was 'due to happen' some day or another, in some western nuclear power plant. Before Chernobyl, the nuclear community did not think possible a single accident in a nuclear power plant could have socioeconomical consequences 1500 kilometres away from the site, where people would throw away food products because of their radioactivity content. The first independent Soviet enquiry commission on Chernobyl, under the chairmanship of Dr. Steinberg, published its report in Moscow in June 1991, and concluded that the Chernobyl accident was due to happen some time in some RBMK plant. Today we have no excuse if we pretend that, since all measures have been taken to prevent severe accidents in LWR's, we don't have to worry any more about them. We have to be prepared to face them ,and to protect efficiently the plant personnel, the site environment and the public if such a severe accident does occur in an unpredictable way. But we should not consider that such accident is as sure as fate. We know the way to prevent it. The answer is

  13. Space Station Biological Research Project (SSBRP) Cell Culture Unit (CCU) and incubator for International Space Station (ISS) cell culture experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandendriesche, Donald; Parrish, Joseph; Kirven-Brooks, Melissa; Fahlen, Thomas; Larenas, Patricia; Havens, Cindy; Nakamura, Gail; Sun, Liping; Krebs, Chris; de Luis, Javier; hide

    2004-01-01

    The CCU and Incubator are habitats under development by SSBRP for gravitational biology research on ISS. They will accommodate multiple specimen types and reside in either Habitat Holding Racks, or the Centrifuge Rotor, which provides selectable gravity levels of up to 2 g. The CCU can support multiple Cell Specimen Chambers, CSCs (18, 9 or 6 CSCs; 3, 10 or 30 mL in volume, respectively). CSCs are temperature controlled from 4-39 degrees C, with heat shock to 45 degrees C. CCU provides automated nutrient supply, magnetic stirring, pH/O2 monitoring, gas supply, specimen lighting, and video microscopy. Sixty sample containers holding up to 2 mL each, stored at 4-39 degrees C, are available for automated cell sampling, subculture, and injection of additives and fixatives. CSCs, sample containers, and fresh/spent media bags are crew-replaceable for long-term experiments. The Incubator provides a 4-45 degrees C controlled environment for life science experiments or storage of experimental reagents. Specimen containers and experiment unique equipment are experimenter-provided. The Specimen Chamber exchanges air with ISS cabin and has 18.8 liters of usable volume that can accommodate six trays and the following instrumentation: five relocatable thermometers, two 60 W power outlets, four analog ports, and one each relative humidity sensor, video port, ethernet port and digital input/output port.

  14. Recommendation of ruthenium source for sludge batch flowsheet studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woodham, W. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2017-09-13

    Included herein is a preliminary analysis of previously-generated data from sludge batches 7a, 7b, 8, and 9 sludge simulant and real-waste testing, performed to recommend a form of ruthenium for future sludge batch simulant testing under the nitric-formic flowsheet. Focus is given to reactions present in the Sludge Receipt and Adjustment Tank cycle, given that this cycle historically produces the most changes in chemical composition during Chemical Process Cell processing. Data is presented and analyzed for several runs performed under the nitric-formic flowsheet, with consideration given to effects on the production of hydrogen gas, nitrous oxide gas, consumption of formate, conversion of nitrite to nitrate, and the removal and recovery of mercury during processing. Additionally, a brief discussion is given to the effect of ruthenium source selection under the nitric-glycolic flowsheet. An analysis of data generated from scaled demonstration testing, sludge batch 9 qualification testing, and antifoam degradation testing under the nitric-glycolic flowsheet is presented. Experimental parameters of interest under the nitric-glycolic flowsheet include N2O production, glycolate destruction, conversion of glycolate to formate and oxalate, and the conversion of nitrite to nitrate. To date, the number of real-waste experiments that have been performed under the nitric-glycolic flowsheet is insufficient to provide a complete understanding of the effects of ruthenium source selection in simulant experiments with regard to fidelity to real-waste testing. Therefore, a determination of comparability between the two ruthenium sources as employed under the nitric-glycolic flowsheet is made based on available data in order to inform ruthenium source selection for future testing under the nitric-glycolic flowsheet.

  15. The effect of hydroxylamine on the activity and aggregate structure of autotrophic nitrifying bioreactor cultures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harper, W.F.; Terada, Akihiko; Poly, F.

    2009-01-01

    Addition of hydroxylamine (NH2OH) to autotrophic biomass in nitrifying bioreactors affected the activity, physical structure, and microbial ecology of nitrifying aggregates. When NH2OH is added to nitrifying cultures in 6-h batch experiments, the initial NH3-N uptake rates were physiologically...... accelerated by a factor of 1.4-13. NH2OH addition caused a 20-40% decrease in the median aggregate size, broadened the shape of the aggregate size distribution by up to 230%, and caused some of the microcolonies to appear slightly more dispersed. Longer term NH2OH addition in fed batch bioreactors decreased...

  16. Monte Carlo simulation on kinetics of batch and semi-batch free radical polymerization

    KAUST Repository

    Shao, Jing

    2015-10-27

    Based on Monte Carlo simulation technology, we proposed a hybrid routine which combines reaction mechanism together with coarse-grained molecular simulation to study the kinetics of free radical polymerization. By comparing with previous experimental and simulation studies, we showed the capability of our Monte Carlo scheme on representing polymerization kinetics in batch and semi-batch processes. Various kinetics information, such as instant monomer conversion, molecular weight, and polydispersity etc. are readily calculated from Monte Carlo simulation. The kinetic constants such as polymerization rate k p is determined in the simulation without of “steady-state” hypothesis. We explored the mechanism for the variation of polymerization kinetics those observed in previous studies, as well as polymerization-induced phase separation. Our Monte Carlo simulation scheme is versatile on studying polymerization kinetics in batch and semi-batch processes.

  17. Thermo- and mesophilic aerobic batch biodegradation of high-strength distillery wastewater (potato stillage)--utilisation of main carbon sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krzywonos, Małgorzata; Cibis, Edmund; Lasik, Małgorzata; Nowak, Jacek; Miśkiewicz, Tadeusz

    2009-05-01

    The aim of the study was to ascertain the extent to which temperature influences the utilisation of main carbon sources (reducing substances determined before and after hydrolysis, glycerol and organic acids) by a mixed culture of thermo- and mesophilic bacteria of the genus Bacillus in the course of aerobic batch biodegradation of potato stillage, a high-strength distillery effluent (COD=51.88 g O(2)/l). The experiments were performed at 20, 30, 35, 40, 45, 50, 55, 60 and 63 degrees C, at pH 7, in a 5l working volume stirred-tank bioreactor (Biostat B, B. Braun Biotech International) with a stirrer speed of 550 rpm and aeration at 1.6 vvm. Particular consideration was given to the following issues: (1) the sequence in which the main carbon sources in the stillage were assimilated and (2) the extent of their assimilation achieved under these conditions.

  18. Language & Culture in English as a Foreign Language Teaching: a socio-cultural experience of some exchange students from Piauí Federal Institute

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giselda dos Santos Costa

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The internationalization of higher education has been dramatically intensified over the last fifteen years in Brazil, creating wide-ranging opportunities as well as threats and limitations in relation to foreign language teaching practices and the teaching of culture. Many linguists and anthropologists (BYRAM, 1997; KRAMSCH, 1993; MCKAY, 2003; JENKINS, 2005 have stated that for communication to be successful the use of language must be associated with other culturally appropriated behavior, not just linguistic rules in the strict sense. In this article, we discuss the problems related to internationalization, more specifically, the discussion revolves around the sociocultural challenges faced by some students of the Federal Institute of Piauí (IFPI regarding their experiences in the Science without Borders program spread through five countries. By using qualitative interviews, the results revealed that students had sociocultural problems which could be avoided if English teachers had worked in the language classroom before the execution of the exchange program.

  19. Fate of 17β-estradiol and 17α-ethinylestradiol in batch and column studies simulating managed aquifer recharge

    KAUST Repository

    Maeng, Sungkyu; Sharma, Saroj K.; Lee, Jaewoo; Amy, Gary L.

    2013-01-01

    Laboratory-scale batch and soil columns experiments were conducted to investigate the attenuation of estrogens (17β-estradiol and 17α-ethinylestradiol) during managed aquifer recharge. The role of microbial activity in the removal of selected

  20. Multi-objective optimization of glycopeptide antibiotic production in batch and fed batch processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maiti, Soumen K.; Eliasson Lantz, Anna; Bhushan, Mani

    2011-01-01

    batch operations using process model for Amycolatopsis balhimycina, a glycopeptide antibiotic producer. This resulted in a set of several pareto optimal solutions with the two objectives ranging from (0.75gl−1, 3.97g$-1) to (0.44gl−1, 5.19g$-1) for batch and from (1.5gl−1, 5.46g$-1) to (1.1gl−1, 6.34g...

  1. Effect of culture density on biomass production and light utilization efficiency of Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straka, Levi; Rittmann, Bruce E

    2018-02-01

    The viability of large-scale microalgae cultivation depends on providing optimal growth conditions, for which a key operational parameter is culture density. Using Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803, we conducted a series of fixed-density, steady-state experiments and one batch-growth experiment to investigate the role of culture density on biomass production and light utilization efficiency. In all cases, the fixed-density, steady-state experiments and batch-growth experiment showed good agreement. The highest biomass production rates (260 mg L -1  d -1 ) and efficiency for converting light energy to biomass (0.80 μg (μmol photons) -1 ) occurred together at a culture density near 760 mg L -1 , which approximately corresponded to the lowest culture density where almost all incident light was absorbed. The ratio of OD 680 /OD 735 increased with culture density up to the point of maximum productivity, where it plateaued (at a value of 2.4) for higher culture densities. This change in OD 680 /OD 735 indicates a photoacclimation effect that depended on culture density. Very high culture densities led to a sharp decline in efficiency of biomass production per photons absorbed, likely due to a combination of increased decay relative to growth, metabolic changes due to cell-cell interactions, and photodamage due to mixing between regions with high light intensity and zero light intensity. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Developmental consequences of early parenting experiences: self-recognition and self-regulation in three cultural communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Heidi; Yovsi, Relindis; Borke, Joern; Kärtner, Joscha; Jensen, Henning; Papaligoura, Zaira

    2004-01-01

    This study relates parenting of 3-month-old children to children's self-recognition and self-regulation at 18 to 20 months. As hypothesized, observational data revealed differences in the sociocultural orientations of the 3 cultural samples' parenting styles and in toddlers' development of self-recognition and self-regulation. Children of Cameroonian Nso farmers who experience a proximal parenting style develop self-regulation earlier, children of Greek urban middle-class families who experience a distal parenting style develop self-recognition earlier, and children of Costa Rican middle-class families who experience aspects of both distal and proximal parenting styles fall between the other 2 groups on both self-regulation and self-recognition. Results are discussed with respect to their implications for culturally informed developmental pathways.

  3. Optimization of cyclosporin A production by Beauveria nivea in continuous fed-batch fermentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong Huijun

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available To develop the effective control method for fed-batch culture of cyclosporin A production, we chose fructose, L-valine and (NH42HPO4 as feeding nutrients and compared their productivities in relation to different concentrations. The feeding rate of three kinds of feeding materials was controlled to maintain the suitable residual concentration. The fed-batch fermentation results indicated that the optimal concentrations of fructose, L-valine and (NH42HPO4 were about 20 g/L, 0.5 g/L and 0.6 g/L for cyclosporin A production, respectively. The cultivation of Beauveria nivea could produce cyclosporin A up to 6.2 g/L for 240 hrs through a continuous feeding-rate-controlled-batch process under the optimal feeding conditions.

  4. Medication waste reduction in pediatric pharmacy batch processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toerper, Matthew F; Veltri, Michael A; Hamrock, Eric; Mollenkopf, Nicole L; Holt, Kristen; Levin, Scott

    2014-04-01

    To inform pediatric cart-fill batch scheduling for reductions in pharmaceutical waste using a case study and simulation analysis. A pre and post intervention and simulation analysis was conducted during 3 months at a 205-bed children's center. An algorithm was developed to detect wasted medication based on time-stamped computerized provider order entry information. The algorithm was used to quantify pharmaceutical waste and associated costs for both preintervention (1 batch per day) and postintervention (3 batches per day) schedules. Further, simulation was used to systematically test 108 batch schedules outlining general characteristics that have an impact on the likelihood for waste. Switching from a 1-batch-per-day to a 3-batch-per-day schedule resulted in a 31.3% decrease in pharmaceutical waste (28.7% to 19.7%) and annual cost savings of $183,380. Simulation results demonstrate how increasing batch frequency facilitates a more just-in-time process that reduces waste. The most substantial gains are realized by shifting from a schedule of 1 batch per day to at least 2 batches per day. The simulation exhibits how waste reduction is also achievable by avoiding batch preparation during daily time periods where medication administration or medication discontinuations are frequent. Last, the simulation was used to show how reducing batch preparation time per batch provides some, albeit minimal, opportunity to decrease waste. The case study and simulation analysis demonstrate characteristics of batch scheduling that may support pediatric pharmacy managers in redesign toward minimizing pharmaceutical waste.

  5. Experiences and Practices of Evolution Instructors at Christian Universities That Can Inform Culturally Competent Evolution Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, M. Elizabeth; Brownell, Sara E.

    2018-01-01

    Students' religious beliefs and religious cultures have been shown to be the main factors predicting whether they will accept evolution, yet college biology instructors teaching evolution at public institutions often have religious beliefs and cultures that are different from their religious students. This difference in religious beliefs and…

  6. Merging experiences and perspectives in the complexity of cross-cultural design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winschiers-Theophilus, Heike; Bidwell, Nicola; Blake, Edward

    2010-01-01

    While our cross-cultural IT research continuously strives to contribute towards the development of HCI appropriate cross-cultural models and best practices, we are aware of the specificity of each development context and the influence of each participant. Uncovering the complexity within our...

  7. Using Facebook for Cross-Cultural Collaboration: The Experience of Students from Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chun-Min

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the use of Facebook among college students in a cross-cultural collaboration project between Taiwan and the United States, and focuses specifically on Taiwanese students' perceptions. Questions explored are: (1) Is Facebook a feasible platform for cross-cultural collaboration? (2) How does this…

  8. Combatting cultural property looting and trafficking: the US experience / Maria P. Kouroupas

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kouroupas, Maria P.

    2015-01-01

    Kultuuriväärtuste rüüstamise ja ebaseadusliku ekspordi vastu võitlemisest Ameerika Ühendriikide näite põhjal. UNIDROIT Convention on Stolen or Illegally Exported Cultural Objects (1995); UNESCO Convention on the Means of Prohibiting and Preventing the Illicit Import, Export and Transfer of Ownership of Cultural Property (1970)

  9. Culturally Responsive Pedagogies in the Classroom: Indigenous Student Experiences across the Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savage, Catherine; Hindle, Rawiri; Meyer, Luanna H.; Hynds, Anne; Penetito, Wally; Sleeter, Christine E.

    2011-01-01

    There is agreement that teaching practices should be responsive to the cultural identities of their students, but less clarity regarding both the specifics of culturally responsive pedagogies and effective strategies for implementing them in classrooms across the curriculum. A mixed-methods research approach evaluated the impact of teacher…

  10. Language Personality in the Conditions of Cross-Cultural Communication: Case-Study Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidovitch, Nitza; Khyhniak, Kateryna

    2018-01-01

    The article is devoted to the problem of identification of a language personality's traits under conditions of cross-cultural communication. It is shown that effective cross-cultural communication is revised under globalization and increasingly intensive social interactions. The results of the authors' research prove that it is possible to develop…

  11. Teaching for Change: New Teachers' Experiences with and Visions for Culturally Relevant Pedagogy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borrero, Noah; Ziauddin, Asra; Ahn, Alexandra

    2018-01-01

    This paper presents the voices of thirteen pre- and in-service teachers to showcase their perspectives of culturally relevant pedagogy as a teaching framework. Positionality, critical consciousness, and cultural assets are used as foundations to explore social justice pedagogy. These new teachers discuss the challenges they face in making the…

  12. Black Deaf Individuals' Reading Skills: Influence of ASL, Culture, Family Characteristics, Reading Experience, and Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Candace; Clark, M. Diane; Musyoka, Millicent M.; Anderson, Melissa L.; Gilbert, Gizelle L.; Agyen, Selina; Hauser, Peter C.

    2010-01-01

    Previous research on the reading abilities of Deaf individuals from various cultural groups suggests that Black Deaf and Hispanic Deaf individuals lag behind their White Deaf peers. The present study compared the reading skills of Black Deaf and White Deaf individuals, investigating the influence of American Sign Language (ASL), culture, family…

  13. Emotion experience and regulation in China and the United States: how do culture and gender shape emotion responding?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Elizabeth; Greenberger, Ellen; Charles, Susan; Chen, Chuansheng; Zhao, Libo; Dong, Qi

    2012-01-01

    Culture and gender shape emotion experience and regulation, in part because the value placed on emotions and the manner of their expression is thought to vary across these groups. This study tested the hypothesis that culture and gender would interact to predict people's emotion responding (emotion intensity and regulatory strategies). Chinese (n=220; 52% female) and American undergraduates (n=241; 62% female) viewed photos intended to elicit negative emotions after receiving instructions to either "just feel" any emotions that arose (Just Feel), or to "do something" so that they would not experience any emotion while viewing the photos (Regulate). All participants then rated the intensity of their experienced emotions and described any emotion-regulation strategies that they used while viewing the photos. Consistent with predictions, culture and gender interacted with experimental condition to predict intensity: Chinese men reported relatively low levels of emotion, whereas American women reported relatively high levels of emotion. Disengagement strategies (especially distancing) were related to lower emotional intensity and were reported most often by Chinese men. Taken together, findings suggest that emotion-regulation strategies may contribute to differences in emotional experience across Western and East Asian cultures.

  14. X-Culture: An International Project in the Light of Experience Gained over the Years (2010-2016

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    József Poór

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The X-Culture project is an innovative modern form of experiential learning predominantly in International Management and International Business. Although experiential learning has some advantages, namely, developing cross-cultural competencies, cultural intelligence, intercultural communication and management skills, differences in personality or conditions also arise as a downside. X-Culture has been evolving throughout the years since 2010 when the original objective was to supplement the theoretical material and in-class teaching. Nowadays more than 4000 master, bachelor and MBA students, mostly of management and economics from more than 37 countries, take part in the project every semester. X-Culture is aimed at students of International Business college courses and training programs with the task of writing a business report or consulting propositions by offering business solutions for a hypothetical client.  This paper outlines the theoretical background of the X-culture project. It describes the evolution and practical and theoretical experience of this project since 2010.

  15. Experiments with a First Prototype of a Spatial Model of Cultural Meaning through Natural-Language Human-Robot Interaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliver Schürer

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available When using assistive systems, the consideration of individual and cultural meaning is crucial for the utility and acceptance of technology. Orientation, communication and interaction are rooted in perception and therefore always happen in material space. We understand that a major problem lies in the difference between human and technical perception of space. Cultural policies are based on meanings including their spatial situation and their rich relationships. Therefore, we have developed an approach where the different perception systems share a hybrid spatial model that is generated by artificial intelligence—a joint effort by humans and assistive systems. The aim of our project is to create a spatial model of cultural meaning based on interaction between humans and robots. We define the role of humanoid robots as becoming our companions. This calls for technical systems to include still inconceivable human and cultural agendas for the perception of space. In two experiments, we tested a first prototype of the communication module that allows a humanoid to learn cultural meanings through a machine learning system. Interaction is achieved by non-verbal and natural-language communication between humanoids and test persons. This helps us to better understand how a spatial model of cultural meaning can be developed.

  16. Cultures of moderation and expression: emotional experience, behavior, and physiology in Chinese Americans and Mexican Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soto, José A; Levenson, Robert W; Ebling, Rachel

    2005-06-01

    Ethnographic accounts suggest that emotions are moderated in Chinese cultures and expressed openly in Mexican cultures. The authors tested this notion by comparing subjective, behavioral, and physiological aspects of emotional responses to 3 (warned, unwarned, instructed to inhibit responding) aversive acoustic startle stimuli in 95 Chinese Americans and 64 Mexican Americans. Subjective reports were consistent with ethnographic accounts; Chinese Americans reported experiencing significantly less emotion than Mexican Americans across all 3 startle conditions. Evidence from a nonemotional task suggested that these differences were not artifacts of cultural differences in the use of rating scales. Few cultural differences were found in emotional behavior or physiology, suggesting that these aspects of emotion are less susceptible to cultural influence.

  17. Laboratory experience with radiometric detection of bacteremia with three culture media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wicher, K.; Koscinski, D.

    1984-01-01

    In two long-term studies, the BACTEC radiometric system for detection of bacteremia was evaluated with three culture media each: (i) BACTEC media 6A (for aerobes) and 7B (for anaerobes) plus a thioglycolate medium and (ii) BACTEC media 6A, 7B, and 8A (hypertonic). In study 1, clinically significant isolates were identified in 1,873 (13.9%) of 13,432 blood cultures with all three media. The thioglycolate medium revealed 143 (1.1%) organisms not recovered from the 6A and 7B media. In study 2, isolates were identified in 1,135 (12.9%) of 8,759 cultures with all three media; 104 (1.2%) organisms were isolated only from the hypertonic medium. The increased yield of positive cultures in the three-medium system is likely due to the larger volume of blood cultured

  18. Cross-cultural medical education in the United States: key principles and experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betancourt, Joseph R; Cervantes, Marina C

    2009-09-01

    The field of cross-cultural care focuses on the ability to communicate effectively and provide quality health care to patients from diverse sociocultural backgrounds. In recent years, medical schools in the United States have increasingly recognized the growing importance of incorporating cross-cultural curricula into medical education. Cross-cultural medical education in the United States has emerged for four reasons: (1) the need for providers to have the skills to care for a diverse patient population; (2) the link between effective communication and health outcomes; (3) the presence of racial/ethnic disparities that are, in part, due to poor communication across cultures; and (4) medical school accreditation requirements. There are three major approaches to cross-cultural education: (1) the cultural sensitivity/awareness approach that focuses on attitudes; (2) the multicultural/categorical approach that focuses on knowledge; and (3) the cross-cultural approach that focuses on skills. The patient-based approach to cross-cultural care combines these three concepts into a framework that can be used to care for any patient, anytime, anywhere. Ultimately, if cross-cultural medical education is to evolve, students must believe it is important and understand that the categorical approach can lead to stereotyping; it should be taught using patient cases and highlighting clinical applications; it should be embedded in a longitudinal, developmentally appropriate fashion; and it should be integrated into the larger curriculum whenever possible. At the Harvard Medical School, we have tried to apply all of these lessons to our work, and we have started to develop a strategic integration process where we try to raise awareness, impart knowledge, and teach cross-cultural skills over the 4 years of schooling.

  19. Optimal operation of batch membrane processes

    CERN Document Server

    Paulen, Radoslav

    2016-01-01

    This study concentrates on a general optimization of a particular class of membrane separation processes: those involving batch diafiltration. Existing practices are explained and operational improvements based on optimal control theory are suggested. The first part of the book introduces the theory of membrane processes, optimal control and dynamic optimization. Separation problems are defined and mathematical models of batch membrane processes derived. The control theory focuses on problems of dynamic optimization from a chemical-engineering point of view. Analytical and numerical methods that can be exploited to treat problems of optimal control for membrane processes are described. The second part of the text builds on this theoretical basis to establish solutions for membrane models of increasing complexity. Each chapter starts with a derivation of optimal operation and continues with case studies exemplifying various aspects of the control problems under consideration. The authors work their way from th...

  20. Improved production of an enzyme that hydrolyses raw yam starch by Penicillium sp. S-22 using fed-batch fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Hai-Yan; Ge, Xiang-Yang; Zhang, Wei-Guo

    2006-11-01

    A newly isolated strain, Penicillium sp. S-22, was used to produce an enzyme that hydrolyses raw yam starch [raw yam starch digesting enzyme (RYSDE)]. The enzyme activity and overall enzyme productivity were respectively 16 U/ml and 0.19 U/ml h in the batch culture. The enzyme activity increased to 85 U/ml by feeding of partially hydrolyzed raw yam starch. When a mixture containing partially hydrolyzed raw yam starch and peptone was fed by a pH-stat strategy, the enzyme activity reached 366 U/ml, 23-fold of that obtained in the batch culture, and the overall productivity reached 3.4 U/ml h, which was 18-fold of that in the batch culture.