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Sample records for batch cooling crystallization

  1. Process Modeling for Batch Cooling Crystallization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The general mathematical model for batch cooling crystallization was established based on the popula tion balance equation considering the change of slurry volume, and simulated with crystallization thermodynamics, kinetics and mass balance employing bed voidage. In the system of vitamin C-water-ethanol, reliability of this model was verified by comparison between simulation results and experimental data. The effects of operation parameters on product quality can be systematically investigated by modeling simulation.

  2. Process Modeling for Batch Cooling Crystallization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈慧萍; 王静康

    2001-01-01

    The general mathematical model for batch cooling crystallization was established based on the population balance equation considering the change of slurry volume, and simulated with crystallization thermodynamics,kinetics and mass balance employing bed voidage. In the system of vitamin C-water-ethanol, reliability of this model was verified by comparison between simulation results and experimental data. The effects of operation parameters on product quality can be systematically investigated by modeling simulation.

  3. Batch cooling crystallization and pressure filtration of sulphathiazole

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Häkkinen, Antti; Pöllänen, Kati; Karjalainen, Milja;

    2005-01-01

    crystal suspensions obtained through an unseeded batch-cooling-crystallization process was studied. Sulphathiazole, which is an antibiotic agent with multiple polymorphic forms, was produced by performing laboratory-scale cooling crystallization experiments from five different mixtures of water and propan...... the samples obtained from different solvents. The crystals produced in the batch-cooling-crystallization experiments were separated from the crystallizing solvents using a batch-type pressure Nutsche filter, and the filtration characteristics of the suspensions were evaluated on the basis of average filter...

  4. Batch Cooling Crystallization of Potassium Sulphate from Water Solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalšan, M.

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Batch cooling crystallization, at the rotation speed of 700 min–1, of an aqueous solution of a potassium sulphate has been investigated on a laboratory scale. The effect of hydrodynamics conditions on the crystallization process were investigated by using different type of impellers. Two types of impellers were investigated; the four-pitched blade impeller which generates axi-al flow and the six-blades Rusthon turbine which generates radial flow. The experiments were performed at four different linear cooling rates in the range from 8-20 °C h–1 for both types of impeller.The influence of the cooling rates on the metastable zone width, the crystallization kinetics and the granulometric properties of the obtained crystals were investigated. The experimental data show that higher cooling rate expands the metastable zone for all the types of impeller (Fig. 2 and influences the crystal size distribution (Fig. 7 and Fig. 8.At low cooling rates, supersaturation was kept at a constant value for a longer period. It resulted in improved conditions for mass transfer and the crystals grew. Bigger crystals were obtained at lower cooling rates (Fig. 7.It is stated that radial flow (Rusthon turbine is particularly inappropriate for the nucleation process, and for crystallization. Nucleation started at a lower temperature and higher supersaturation (Fig. 3. These conditions resulted in a high nucleation’s rate and large number of nucleation centres.Also, the obtained crystals settled on the wall of the reactor, baffles and stirrer. A great part of the obtained crystals was agglomerated. The nucleation order, n and coefficient of nucleation, kn were determined for different cooling rates (Fig. 5a. The nucleation order is higher at radial flow (nucleation started at higher supersaturation. The relation between the rate of concentration drop in a solution and supersaturation has beenapproximated with a power low equation (Fig. 5b. For the used impellers

  5. Systematic Procedure for Generating Operational Policies to Achieve Target Crystal Size Distribution (CSD) in Batch Cooling Crystallization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abdul Samad, Noor Asma Fazli; Singh, Ravendra; Sin, Gürkan;

    Batch cooling crystallization is one of the important unit operations involving separation of solid-liquid phases. Usually the most common crystal product qualities are directly related to the crystal size distribution (CSD). However the main difficulty in batch crystallization is to obtain a uni...

  6. Integration of Generic Multi-dimensional Model and Operational Policies for Batch Cooling Crystallization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abdul Samad, Noor Asma Fazli; Singh, Ravendra; Sin, Gürkan;

    2011-01-01

    A generic multi-dimensional modeling framework for studying batch cooling crystallization processes under generated operational policies is presented. The generic nature of the modeling allows the study of a wide range of chemical systems under different operational scenarios, enabling thereby, t...

  7. Systematic procedure for generating operational policies to achieve target crystal size distribution (CSD) in batch cooling crystallization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abdul Samad, Noor Asma Fazli; Singh, Ravendra; Sin, Gürkan;

    2011-01-01

    A systematic procedure to achieve a target crystal size distribution (CSD) under generated operational policies in batch cooling crystallization is presented. An analytical CSD estimator has been employed in the systematic procedure to generate the necessary operational policies to achieve the ta...

  8. Batch-to-batch learning for model-based control of process systems with application to cooling crystallization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Forgione, M.

    2014-01-01

    From an engineering perspective, the term process refers to a conversion of raw materials into intermediate or final products using chemical, physical, or biological operations. Industrial processes can be performed either in continuous or in batch mode. There exist for instance continuous and batch

  9. Improving batch cooling seeded crystallization of an organic weed-killer using on-line ATR FTIR measurement of supersaturation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewiner, F.; Févotte, G.; Klein, J. P.; Puel, F.

    2001-06-01

    In previous papers, a method for the calibration of ATR FTIR measurement of dissolved solid concentration during cooling crystallizations was presented, and efficient basic procedures for the determination of solubility and metastability curves were described. The present paper reports new experimental results. The crystallization of an organic product is studied thanks to on-line FTIR measurements of supersaturation and off-line crystal size distribution (CSD) determinations. The obtained information is shown to potentially allow a deeper examination of major industrial issues such as the reduction of batch-to-batch variations and the improvement of the CSD of the final particles. A particular attention is focused on the determination of appropriate seeding parameters such as the cooling rate of seeded slurries, the temperature of introduction and the amount of seed. The results obtained demonstrate that, although any modelling approach is outside the scope of this paper, the analysis of the measured supersaturation profiles allows some interpretation of mechanisms governing the final CSD, and consequently, the proposal of improved operating parameters.

  10. Integration of Generic Multi-dimensional Model and Operational Policies for Batch Cooling Crystallization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abdul Samad, Noor Asma Fazli; Singh, Ravendra; Sin, Gürkan;

    Crystallization processes form an important class of separation methods that are frequently used in the chemical, the pharmaceutical and the food industry. The specifications of the crystal product are usually given in terms of crystal size, shape and purity. In order to predict the desired cryst...

  11. 间歇结晶过程的分批优化%Batch-to-batch Optimization of Batch Crystallization Processes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Woranee Paengjuntuek; Paisan Kittisupakorn; Amornchai Arpornwichanop

    2008-01-01

    It is the fact that several process parameters are either unknown or uncertain. Therefore, an optimal control profile calculated with developed process models with respect to such process parameters may not give an optimal performance when implemented to real processes. This study proposes a batch-to-batch optimization strat-egy for the estimation of uncertain kinetic parameters in a batch crystallization process of potassium sulfate produc-tion. The knowledge of a crystal size distribution of the product at the end of batch operation is used in the proposedmethodology. The updated kinetic parameters are applied for determining an optimal operating temperature policy for the next batch run.

  12. Batch cooling solution crystallization of ammonium oxalate in the presence of impurities: Study of solubility, supersaturation, and steady-state inhibition

    OpenAIRE

    Févotte, Gilles; Gherras, Nesrine; Moutte, Jacques

    2013-01-01

    International audience; Compared with equilibrium data in pure solvent, variations of solubility are frequently observed in the presence of dissolved impurities. It is also well-known that impurities can inhibit the crystallization processes and lead to supersaturation barriers below which the growth of crystals is canceled. However, many papers dealing with the inhibiting effects of impurities in solution crystallization are rather unclear about the appropriate way of expressing the supersat...

  13. Monitoring and optimization of industrial batch crystallization processes using NIR and ATR UV-vis spectroscopy

    OpenAIRE

    Hsieh, Chun; Billeter, Julien; Gemperline, Paul

    2010-01-01

    In the pharmaceutical industry, batch crystallization processes at production scale are not always well understood. Several factors have a significant impact on the process of crystallization, such as the physicochemical properties (solubility curve and super-saturation level), the crystal seeding (amount, purity and specific area), the engineering design (crystallizer and propeller), and the control (heating, cooling and stirring rates) [1]. When these factors are poorly understood or insuff...

  14. Monitoring and Characterization of Crystal Nucleation and Growth during Batch Crystallization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kadam, S.S.

    2012-01-01

    Batch crystallization is commonly used in pharmaceutical, agrochemical, specialty and fine chemicals industry. The advantages of batch crystallization lie in its ease of operation and the relatively simple equipment that can be used. On the other hand a major disadvantage associated with it is the i

  15. An Undergraduate Laboratory Exercise for Studying Kinetics of Batch Crystallization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louhi­-Kultanen, Marjatta; Han, Bing; Nurkka, Annikka; Hatakka, Henry

    2015-01-01

    The present work describes an undergraduate laboratory exercise for improving understanding of fundamental phenomena in cooling crystallization. The exercise of nucleation and crystal growth kinetics supports learning of theories and models presented in lectures and calculation exercises. The teaching methodology incorporates precepts the…

  16. Modelling of Batch Process Operations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abdul Samad, Noor Asma Fazli; Cameron, Ian; Gani, Rafiqul

    2011-01-01

    Here a batch cooling crystalliser is modelled and simulated as is a batch distillation system. In the batch crystalliser four operational modes of the crystalliser are considered, namely: initial cooling, nucleation, crystal growth and product removal. A model generation procedure is shown that s...

  17. Continuous preparation of polymer coated drug crystals by solid hollow fiber membrane-based cooling crystallization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Dengyue; Singh, Dhananjay; Sirkar, Kamalesh K; Pfeffer, Robert

    2016-02-29

    A facile way to continuously coat drug crystals with a polymer is needed in controlled drug release. Conventional polymer coating methods have disadvantages: high energy consumption, low productivity, batch processing. A novel method for continuous polymer coating of drug crystals based on solid hollow fiber cooling crystallization (SHFCC) is introduced here. The drug acting as the host particle and the polymer for coating are Griseofulvin (GF) and Eudragit RL100, respectively. The polymer's cloud point temperature in its acetone solution was determined by UV spectrophotometry. An acetone solution of the polymer containing the drug in solution as well as undissolved drug crystals in suspension were pumped through the tube side of the SHFCC device; a cold liquid was circulated in the shell side to rapidly cool down the feed solution-suspension in the hollow-fiber lumen. The polymer precipitated from the solution and coated the suspended crystals due to rapid temperature reduction and heterogeneous nucleation; crystals formed from the solution were also coated by the polymer. Characterizations by scanning electron microscopy, thermogravimetric analysis, laser diffraction spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, and dissolution tests show that a uniformly coated, free-flowing drug/product can be obtained under appropriate operating conditions without losing the drug's pharmaceutical properties and controlled release characteristics. PMID:26772536

  18. Crystallization Thermodynamic and Kinetic Behaviors of Vitamin C in Batch Crystallizer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    The bench-scale cooling crystallization for ternary solution of L-ascorbic acid (Vitamin C) was studied. The solid-liquid phase diagram of Vitamin C-water-ethanol system was obtained on the basis of differential scanning calorimeter (DSC) curves. The heat of crystallization of Vitamin C was calculated with the aid of quantitative analysis. According to the population balance equation under unsteady state, the rates of nucleation and growth were determined. The parameters of crystallization kinetics equations were estimated by regression of experimental data. Crystal morphology and size were determined with x-ray diffraction and TA Ⅱ Coulter Counter.

  19. Study of Growth Mechanism of Lysozyme Crystal by Batch Crystallization Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hai Liang CUI; Yong YU; Wan Chun CHEN; Qi KANG

    2006-01-01

    The lysozyme crystals were made by batch crystallization method and the distribution of aggregate in solution were measured by dynamic light scattering. The results showed that the dimension of aggregate increased with the increase of the concentration of lysozyme and NaC1,lysozyme molecules aggregated gradually in solution and finally arrived at balance each other.The higher the concentrations of lysozyme and NaC1 were, the faster the growth rate of (110) face was. The growth rates of lysozyme crystal were obtained by a Zeiss microscope, and the effective surface energy (α) of growing steps were calculated about 4.01×l0-8 J.cm-2 according to the model of multiple two-dimensional nucleation mechanism.

  20. Colouring cryo-cooled crystals: online microspectrophotometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McGeehan, John [EMBL, 6 rue Jules Horowitz, 38042 Grenoble (France); Biophysics Laboratories, School of Biological Sciences, Institute of Biomedical and Biomolecular Sciences, University of Portsmouth, Portsmouth PO1 2DY (United Kingdom); Ravelli, Raimond B. G., E-mail: ravelli@lumc.nl [EMBL, 6 rue Jules Horowitz, 38042 Grenoble (France); Section Electron Microscopy, Department of Molecular Cell Biology, Leiden University Medical Center (LUMC), PO Box 9600, 2300RC Leiden (Netherlands); Murray, James W. [Laboratory of Molecular Biophysics, Department of Biochemistry, University of Oxford, South Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3QU (United Kingdom); Imperial College, Exhibition Road, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Owen, Robin Leslie [Laboratory of Molecular Biophysics, Department of Biochemistry, University of Oxford, South Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3QU (United Kingdom); Cipriani, Florent [EMBL, 6 rue Jules Horowitz, 38042 Grenoble (France); McSweeney, Sean [ESRF, 6 rue Jules Horowitz, 38043 Grenoble (France); Weik, Martin [Laboratoire de Biophysique Moléculaire, Institut de Biologie Structurale, Jean Pierre EBEL, 41 rue Jules Horowitz, 38027 Grenoble Cedex 1 (France); Garman, Elspeth F., E-mail: ravelli@lumc.nl [Laboratory of Molecular Biophysics, Department of Biochemistry, University of Oxford, South Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3QU (United Kingdom)

    2009-03-01

    A portable and readily aligned online microspectrophotometer that can be easily installed on macromolecular crystallography beamlines is described. It allows measurement of the spectral characteristics of macromolecular crystals prior, during, and after the X-ray diffraction experiment. X-rays can produce a high concentration of radicals within cryo-cooled macromolecular crystals. Some radicals have large extinction coefficients in the visible (VIS) range of the electromagnetic spectrum, and can be observed optically and spectrally. An online microspectrophotometer with high temporal resolution has been constructed that is capable of measuring UV/VIS absorption spectra (200–1100 nm) during X-ray data collection. The typical X-ray-induced blue colour that is characteristic of a wide range of cryo-conditions has been identified as trapped solvated electrons. Disulphide-containing proteins are shown to form disulphide radicals at millimolar concentrations, with absorption maxima around 400 nm. The solvated electrons and the disulphide radicals seem to have a lifetime in the range of seconds up to minutes at 100 K. The temperature dependence of the kinetics of X-ray-induced radical formation is different for the solvated electrons compared with the disulphide radicals. The online microspectrophotometer provides a technique complementary to X-ray diffraction for analysing and characterizing intermediates and redox states of proteins and enzymes.

  1. Batch crystallization of rhodopsin for structural dynamics using an X-ray free-electron laser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Wenting; Nogly, Przemyslaw; Rheinberger, Jan; Kick, Leonhard M.; Gati, Cornelius; Nelson, Garrett; Deupi, Xavier; Standfuss, Jörg; Schertler, Gebhard; Panneels, Valérie, E-mail: valerie.panneels@psi.ch [Paul Scherrer Institute, OFLC/103, 5232 Villigen-PSI (Switzerland)

    2015-06-27

    A new batch preparation method is presented for high-density micrometre-sized crystals of the G protein-coupled receptor rhodopsin for use in time-resolved serial femtosecond crystallography at an X-ray free-electron laser using a liquid jet. Rhodopsin is a membrane protein from the G protein-coupled receptor family. Together with its ligand retinal, it forms the visual pigment responsible for night vision. In order to perform ultrafast dynamics studies, a time-resolved serial femtosecond crystallography method is required owing to the nonreversible activation of rhodopsin. In such an approach, microcrystals in suspension are delivered into the X-ray pulses of an X-ray free-electron laser (XFEL) after a precise photoactivation delay. Here, a millilitre batch production of high-density microcrystals was developed by four methodical conversion steps starting from known vapour-diffusion crystallization protocols: (i) screening the low-salt crystallization conditions preferred for serial crystallography by vapour diffusion, (ii) optimization of batch crystallization, (iii) testing the crystal size and quality using second-harmonic generation (SHG) imaging and X-ray powder diffraction and (iv) production of millilitres of rhodopsin crystal suspension in batches for serial crystallography tests; these crystals diffracted at an XFEL at the Linac Coherent Light Source using a liquid-jet setup.

  2. Temperature control of bench-scaled batch reactor equipped with a monofluid heating/cooling system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teng, Hai-peng; Song, Yi-ming

    2014-04-01

    An advanced control concept, Predictive Functional Control (PFC), is applied for temperature control of a bench-scaled batch reactor equipped with monofluid heating/cooling system. First principles process models are developed. Based on achieved models, significant process variables, which are difficult or impossible to measure online, are estimated from easily measured variables, and cascade PFC control strategy has been projected and implemented in Matlab R14. The dynamics of individual subunits is explicitly taken into consideration by internal model in the control algorithms, and model uncertainty, various process disturbances are compensated by modification of internal model. The experimental results present an excellent capability of tracking the set point, and the success of PFC technique as a process control paradigm is illustratively demonstrated.

  3. Semi-batch Crystallization of 7-Amino-Desacetoxycephalos-poranic Acid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王静廉; 刘越

    2003-01-01

    Semi-batch crystallization of 7-amino-desacetoxycephalosporanic acid (7-ADCA) is a complicated process, in which agglomeration occurs together with nucleation and crystal growth. To systematically study such a process, experiments were conducted to estimate the crystallization thermodyneanics and kinetics, and then the process was simulated by a numerical method. The application of Monte Carlo concept in the algorithm to describe agglomeration event offers an alternative approach of solving the population balance, the intrinsic simplicity of which allows us to investigate several mechanisms and include several internal coordinates in the analysis. Furthermore,present study may be a valuable paradigm for other semi-hatch crystallization processes.

  4. Batch crystallization of rhodopsin for structural dynamics using an X-ray free-electron laser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Wenting; Nogly, Przemyslaw; Rheinberger, Jan; Kick, Leonhard M; Gati, Cornelius; Nelson, Garrett; Deupi, Xavier; Standfuss, Jörg; Schertler, Gebhard; Panneels, Valérie

    2015-07-01

    Rhodopsin is a membrane protein from the G protein-coupled receptor family. Together with its ligand retinal, it forms the visual pigment responsible for night vision. In order to perform ultrafast dynamics studies, a time-resolved serial femtosecond crystallography method is required owing to the nonreversible activation of rhodopsin. In such an approach, microcrystals in suspension are delivered into the X-ray pulses of an X-ray free-electron laser (XFEL) after a precise photoactivation delay. Here, a millilitre batch production of high-density microcrystals was developed by four methodical conversion steps starting from known vapour-diffusion crystallization protocols: (i) screening the low-salt crystallization conditions preferred for serial crystallography by vapour diffusion, (ii) optimization of batch crystallization, (iii) testing the crystal size and quality using second-harmonic generation (SHG) imaging and X-ray powder diffraction and (iv) production of millilitres of rhodopsin crystal suspension in batches for serial crystallography tests; these crystals diffracted at an XFEL at the Linac Coherent Light Source using a liquid-jet setup.

  5. FBRM and PVM investigations of the double feed semi-batch crystallization of 6-aminopenicillanic acid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Min SU; Lin WANG; Hua SUN; Jingkang WANG

    2009-01-01

    6-Aminopenicillanic acid (6-APA) is a crucial pharmaceutical intermediate in the chemistry of semi-synthetic antibiotics. The focused beam reflectance measurement (FBRM) technology and particle vision measurement (PVM) technology were employed to the processes of online-monitoring of 6-APA crystallization behavior in a double-feeding semi-batch crystallizer. Experiments were carried out with four kinds of double-feeding policies and the results were compared with the traditional single-feeding. Records and analysis of FBRM indicated that the nucleation of double feeding policy was much higher than single policy, and chord length of 6-APA was almost determined and had little change after the nucleation peak. Ostwald ripening process had no significant effect on further growth of 6-APA crystal. PVM images showed that the crystal habit of 6-APA was continuously changed during the crystallization process. The development of (002) face in the final crystal for the five feeding policies were different.

  6. Process of making cryogenically cooled high thermal performance crystal optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuzay, Tuncer M.

    1992-01-01

    A method for constructing a cooled optic wherein one or more cavities are milled, drilled or formed using casting or ultrasound laser machining techniques in a single crystal base and filled with porous material having high thermal conductivity at cryogenic temperatures. A non-machined strain-free single crystal can be bonded to the base to produce superior optics. During operation of the cooled optic, N.sub.2 is pumped through the porous material at a sub-cooled cryogenic inlet temperature and with sufficient system pressure to prevent the fluid bulk temperature from reaching saturation.

  7. Effect of cooling rate on crystallization in an aluminophosphosilicate melt

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, S. J.; Zhang, Yanfei; Yue, Yuanzheng

    2011-01-01

    The effect of cooling rate on spontaneous crystallization behavior of an alumino-phospho-silicate melt is studied by means of differential scanning calorimetry, X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and viscometry. The cooling rates of 160, 2100 and 12000 K/s are attained by subjecting ......, the opalescence of the glass can be tuned by adjusting the cooling rate. This makes the production of opal glasses or transparent glass ceramics more efficient and energy saving, since the conventional isothermal treatment procedure can be left out....

  8. Cooling crystallization of aluminum sulfate in pure water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xiaoxue; Sun, Yuzhu; Yu, Jianguo

    2015-06-01

    This study investigated the cooling crystallization of aluminum sulfate to explore the basic data for the recovery of aluminum resources from coal spoil. First, the metastable zone width (MSZW) of aluminum sulfate was reported. A parallel synthesis platform (CrystalSCAN) was used to determine the solubility from 10 °C to 70 °C, and an automatic lab reactor (LabMax) equipped with focused beam reflectance measurement (FBRM) was adopted to determine the supersolubility. The effects of operating variables on MSZW were experimentally explored. Results show that the MSZW of aluminum sulfate decreases with increasing stirring speed, while it increases with increasing cooling rate. Second, the continuous crystallization kinetics of aluminum sulfate was investigated in a laboratory-scale mixed-suspension mixed-product removal (MSMPR) crystallizer at a steady state. Growth kinetics presented size-dependent growth rate, which was well fitted with the MJ3 model. Both the growth rate (G) and the total nucleation rate (BTOT) were correlated in the power law kinetic expressions with good correlation coefficients. Third, aluminum sulfate products were modified by sodium dodecylbenzenesulfonate (SDBS). Crystals with large sizes and regular hexagonal plate morphologies were obtained. These crystals reveal that SDBS can inhibit crystal nucleation and promote crystal growth.

  9. Encapsulation of energetic materials by cooling and electrospray crystallization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reus, M.A.; Horst, J.H. ter; Stankiewicz, A.I.; Heijden, A.E.D.M. van der

    2012-01-01

    In this work cooling and electrospray crystallization have been used to create encapsulated (sub-)micron sized particles of different crystalline materials. Encapsulation experiments have been conducted, creating the core particle in situ from solution, with the model systems isonicotinamide (INA) –

  10. Systematic Modelling and Crystal Size Distribution Control for Batch Crystallization Processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abdul Samad, Noor Asma Fazli; Singh, Ravendra; Sin, Gürkan;

    Crystallization processes form an important class of separation methods that are frequently used in the chemical, the pharmaceutical and the food industry. The specifications of the crystal product are usually given in terms of crystal size, shape and purity. In order to predict the desired cryst...

  11. Crystallization Kinetics of Batch Spontaneous Nucleation of Potassium Nitrate%溶液自发结晶过程动力学参数研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    伍川; 黄培; 黄德春; 杨红群; 徐南平; 时钧

    2005-01-01

    The batch cooling crystallization initiated from spontaneous nucleation for aqueous solution of potassium nitrate was studied. The concentration and transmittance data were acquired on line throughout the operation.Based on solute mass transfer in both liquid and solid phases, a kinetic model was deduced by assuming that the late period of primary nucleation resembles the initial period of the secondary nucleation. Nucleation and crystal growth stages were identified. Kinetic parameters were estimated piecewise from online experimental data and compared with those in literature. The estimated kinetic parameters for stages without apparent primary nucleation agreed well with those in literature. Further, a simulated concentration curve was also drawn from the estimated kinetic parameters and it matched well with that in experiment.

  12. Polymorphic behavior of isonicotinamide in cooling crystallization from various solvents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Thomas B.; Taris, Alessandra; Rong, Ben-Guang; Grosso, Massimiliano; Qu, Haiyan

    2016-09-01

    In this work the nucleation of different polymorphs of isonicotinamide (INA) from different solvents has been studied. The metastable zone width of INA in cooling crystallization from five different solvents has been investigated and attempts have been made to reveal the link between the INA molecular self-association to the polymorphism of the nucleated crystals using ATR FT-IR (Attenuated Total Reflectance Fourier Transform Infrared) and Raman spectroscopy. Raman and IR spectra of INA dissolved in different solvents have demonstrated that the INA molecules might associate in different configurations, whereas, the link between the structure of the molecular self-association and the structure of the nucleated polymorph is complicated by the influence of INA concentration. This is consistent with our previous study with piroxicam. The cooling crystallization of INA from five different solvents resulted in two different polymorphs depending on the initial concentration of the solution. The results obtained in the present work showed that information about self-association of an API (Active Pharmaceutical Ingredient) in a given solvent is not sufficient to predict the polymorphic behavior in all scenarios.

  13. Time-resolved crystallization of deeply cooled liquid hydrogen isotopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuehnel, Matthias

    2014-02-15

    This thesis serves two main purposes: 1. The introduction of a novel experimental method to investigate phase change dynamics of supercooled liquids 2. First-time measurements for the crystallization behaviour for hydrogen isotopes under various conditions (1) The new method is established by the synergy of a liquid microjet of ∼ 5 μm diameter and a scattering technique with high spatial resolution, here linear Raman spectroscopy. Due to the high directional stability and the known velocity of the liquid filament, its traveling axis corresponds to a time axis static in space. Utilizing evaporative cooling in a vacuum environment, the propagating liquid cools down rapidly and eventually experiences a phase transition to the crystalline state. This temporal evolution is probed along the filament axis, ultimately resulting in a time resolution of 10 ns. The feasibility of this approach is proven successfully within the following experiments. (2) A main object of study are para-hydrogen liquid filaments. Raman spectra reveal a temperature gradient of the liquid across the filament. This behaviour can quantitatively be reconstructed by numerical simulations using a layered model and is rooted in the effectiveness of evaporative cooling on the surface and a finite thermal conductivity. The deepest supercoolings achieved are ∼ 30% below the melting point, at which the filament starts to solidify from the surface towards the core. With a crystal growth velocity extracted from the data the appropriate growth mechanism is identified. The crystal structure that initially forms is metastable and probably the result of Ostwald's rule of stages. Indications for a transition within the solid towards the stable equilibrium phase support this interpretation. The analog isotope ortho-deuterium is evidenced to behave qualitatively similar with quantitative differences being mass related. In further measurements, isotopic mixtures of para-hydrogen and ortho-deuterium are

  14. Crystal Ice Formation of Solution and Its Removal Phenomena From Cooled Solid Surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirata, Tetsuo; Ishikawa, Masaaki; Nagasaka, Kouji

    Experimental studies for freezing phenomena of ethylene glycol solution on cooled plate have been performed. A polyvinyl chloride as well as an acrylic resin plates are used for the cooled plates. It is found that the crystal ice formed at the cooled plate is removed from the plate due to buoyancy force acting the crystal ice. It means that ice formation on a cooled plate without deposit ice layer is possible by the present method. It is shown that the cooled plate surface is under cooled about 1.0~1.5 degree below the freezing temperature of the solution during the crystal ice formation and its removal phenomena. The degree of under cooled temperature is unaffected by the cooling temperature of the plate. For higher concentration of solution, it is found that the number of the removed crystal ice per unit time is increased and the volume of each removed ice is decreased.

  15. Structural evolution in the crystallization of rapid cooling silver melt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tian, Z.A., E-mail: ze.tian@gmail.com [School of Physics and Electronics, Hunan University, Changsha 410082 (China); Laboratory for Simulation and Modelling of Particulate Systems School of Materials Science and Engineering, University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW 2052 (Australia); Dong, K.J.; Yu, A.B. [Laboratory for Simulation and Modelling of Particulate Systems School of Materials Science and Engineering, University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW 2052 (Australia)

    2015-03-15

    The structural evolution in a rapid cooling process of silver melt has been investigated at different scales by adopting several analysis methods. The results testify Ostwald’s rule of stages and Frank conjecture upon icosahedron with many specific details. In particular, the cluster-scale analysis by a recent developed method called LSCA (the Largest Standard Cluster Analysis) clarified the complex structural evolution occurred in crystallization: different kinds of local clusters (such as ico-like (ico is the abbreviation of icosahedron), ico-bcc like (bcc, body-centred cubic), bcc, bcc-like structures) in turn have their maximal numbers as temperature decreases. And in a rather wide temperature range the icosahedral short-range order (ISRO) demonstrates a saturated stage (where the amount of ico-like structures keeps stable) that breeds metastable bcc clusters. As the precursor of crystallization, after reaching the maximal number bcc clusters finally decrease, resulting in the final solid being a mixture mainly composed of fcc/hcp (face-centred cubic and hexagonal-closed packed) clusters and to a less degree, bcc clusters. This detailed geometric picture for crystallization of liquid metal is believed to be useful to improve the fundamental understanding of liquid–solid phase transition. - Highlights: • A comprehensive structural analysis is conducted focusing on crystallization. • The involved atoms in our analysis are more than 90% for all samples concerned. • A series of distinct intermediate states are found in crystallization of silver melt. • A novelty icosahedron-saturated state breeds the metastable bcc state.

  16. Effect of Cooling Rate on Crystallization Behavior of Milk Fat Fraction/Sunflower Oil Blends

    OpenAIRE

    Martini, Silvana; Herrera, M. L.; Hartel, R. W.

    2001-01-01

    The effect of cooling rate (slow: 0.1°C/min; fast: 5.5°C/min) on the crystallization kinetics of blends of a highmelting milk fat fraction and sunflower oil (SFO) was investigated by pulsed NMR and DSC. For slow cooling rate, the majority of crystallization had already occurred by the time the set crystallization temperature had been reached. For fast cooling rate, crystallization started after the samples reached the selected crystallization temperature, and the solid fat content curves were...

  17. Thermodynamic equilibrium, metastable zone widths, and nucleation behavior in the cooling crystallization of gestodene-ethanol systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Li-yu; Zhu, Liang; Yang, Li-bin; Wang, Yan-fei; Sha, Zuo-liang; Zhao, Xiao-yu

    2016-03-01

    A systematic investigation of nucleation behavior for the batch cooling crystallization of unseeded gestodene-ethanol solutions was carried out. The solubilities of the two polymorphs (forms I and II) of gestodene in ethanol were gravimetrically measured between 268.15 and 333.15 K under atmospheric pressure of 0.10 MPa. In addition, the metastable zone widths (MSZWs) of the gestodene-ethanol solutions were determined by the polythermal method combined with the focused beam reflectance measurement (FBRM®) technique. Moreover, polymorphic forms of the grown crystals were identified by X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) and optical microscope. Experimental results indicated that the measured MSZWs were dependent on numerous technological parameters, including cooling rate, saturation temperature, and agitation intensity. With variation of the nucleation temperature and cooling rate, forms I, II, and a mixture of the two forms were crystallized from ethanol solution. The nucleation kinetic parameters were estimated from MSZW data using the self-consistent Nývlt-like approach. Due to the high solubility of form I in ethanol at the corresponding temperature range, the stronger solute-solvent interactions confirmed that the nucleation of form I had a greater activation energy than that of form II.

  18. Transparent phosphosilicate glasses containing crystals formed during cooling of melts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, S. J.; Zhang, Yanfei; He, W.;

    2011-01-01

    The effect of P2O5-SiO2 substitution on spontaneous crystallization of SiO2-Al2O3-P2O5- Na2O-MgO melts during cooling was studied by X-ray diffraction (XRD), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and rotation viscometry. Results show that addition of P2O5 leads...... to amorphous phase separation (APS), i.e., phosphate- and silicate-rich phases. It is due to the tendency of Mg2+ to form [MgO4] linking with [SiO4]. Molar substitution of P2O5 for SiO2 enhances the network polymerization of silicate-rich phase in the melts, and thereby the spontaneous...

  19. Estimating Influence of Crystallizing Latent Heat on Cooling-Crystallizing Process of a Granitic Melt and Its Geological Implications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Bangtong; WU Junqi; LING Hongfei; CHEN Peirong

    2008-01-01

    Based on the theory of thermal conductivity, in this paper we derived a formula to estimate the prolongation period (AtL) of cooling-crystallization process of a granitic melt caused by latent heat of crystallization as follows: △t=QL×△tcol/TM-TC×CP where TM is initial temperature of the granite melt, Tc crystallization temperature of the granite melt,CP specific heat, △tcol cooling period of a granite melt from its initial temperature (TM) to its crystallization temperature (TC), QL latent heat of the granite melt. The cooling period of the melt for the Fanshan granodiorite from its initial temperature (900℃) to crystallization temperature (600℃) could be estimated ~210,000 years if latent heat was not considered. Calculation for the Fanshan melt using the above formula yields a AtL value of~190,000 years, which implies that the actual cooling period within the temperature range of 900℃-600℃ should be 400,000 years. This demonstrates that the latent heat produced from crystallization of the granitic melt is a key factor influencing the cooling-crystallization process of a granitic melt, prolongating the period of crystallization and resulting in the large emplacement-crystallization time difference (ECTD) in granite batholith.

  20. Physical and Structural Studies on the Cryo-cooling of Insulin Crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovelace, J.; Bellamy, H.; Snell, E. H.; Borgstahl, G.

    2003-01-01

    Reflection profiles were analyzed from microgravity-(mg) and earth-grown insulin crystals to measure mosaicity (h) and to reveal mosaic domain structure and composition. The effects of cryocooling on single and multi-domain crystals were compared. The effects of cryocooling on insulin structure were also re-examined. Microgravity crystals were larger, more homogeneous, and more perfect than earth crystals. Several mg crystals contained primarily a single mosaic domain with havg of 0.005deg. The earth crystals varied in quality and all contained multiple domains with havg of 0.031deg. Cryocooling caused a 43-fold increase in h for mg crystals (havg=0.217deg) and an %fold increase for earth crystals (havg=0.246deg). These results indicate that very well-ordered crystals are not completely protected from the stresses associated with cryocooling, especially when structural perturbations occur. However, there were differences in the reflection profiles. For multi-mosaic domain crystals, each domain individually broadened and separated from the other domains upon cryo-cooling. Cryo-cooling did not cause an increase in the number of domains. A crystal composed of a single domain retained this domain structure and the reflection profiles simply broadened. Therefore, an improved signal-to-noise ratio for each reflection was measured from cryo-cooled single domain crystals relative to cryo-cooled multi-domain crystals. This improved signal, along with the increase in crystal size, facilitated the measurement of the weaker high- resolution reflections. The observed broadening of reflection profiles indicates increased variation in unit cell dimensions which may be linked to cryo-cooling-associated structural changes and disorder.

  1. Impact of seed loading ratio on the growth kinetics of mono-ammonium phosphate under isothermal batch crystallization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Long, Bingwen; Yang, Haotian; Ding, Yigang [Wuhan Institute of Technology, Wuhan (China)

    2016-02-15

    The effect of seed load ratio on the growth kinetics of Mono-ammonium phosphate (MAP) under isothermal batch crystallization was investigated quantitatively. A direct parameter estimation method was proposed and applied to extract the growth kinetic parameters from a simple crystallization model using our experimental solution concentration decline data. The method assured the globally best parameters to be obtained and was found less sensitive to experimental errors. The linear growth constants k{sub g} and the growth order g were found to be in the range of 1,000-2,600 μm·min{sup -1} and 0.93-1.12, respectively, for MAP crystallized at 40 .deg. C. Both parameters decreased significantly with increase of seed load ratio and k{sub g} even showed a strong linear decline trend. The effective crystallization time also decreased with the seed mass. The proposed methodology could be extended to study the effect of other operation variables such as temperature and initial supersaturation on the crystal growth rate.

  2. A generic multi-dimensional model-based system for batch cooling crystallization processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abdul Samad, Noor Asma Fazli; Singh, Ravendra; Sin, Gürkan;

    2011-01-01

    Highly porous deposits of flame-made aerosol nanoparticles were formed by filtration through a porous substrate (α-alumina, average pore diameter 3.7 μm). The aerosol was characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS) showing average primary an...

  3. Influence of rare earth oxides on the non-isothermal crystallization of phosphosilicate melts during cooling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, S.J.; Shan, Z.T.; Fu, G.Z.;

    2014-01-01

    -isothermal melt-crystallization kinetics can be well described by the Avrami model. The activation energy Ee of crystallization in both the undoped and Yb3+/Er3+ codoped samples during cooling is determined using the differential iso-conversional method of Friedman. The Ee value decreases with crystallinity (θ...

  4. PHYSICS UPDATE: Observation of snow crystals using a chamber cooled by dry ice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kagawa, S.; Kakehi, M.; Ito, F.; Kagawa, K.

    1999-01-01

    It is shown that microscopic observation of natural snow crystals is possible even at relatively high atmospheric temperature, around 0 °C. For this purpose, a partial cooling method was employed. That is, a snow crystal was placed in a chamber cooled by dry ice, which prevented frost production. By using this simple method, snow crystals can be observed in winter (where snow is available). This type of observational experiment is very successful in exciting students' interest in the beauty of natural forms.

  5. Crystal/liquid partitioning in augite - Effects of cooling rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamble, R. P.; Taylor, L. A.

    1980-01-01

    The partitioning of major and minor elements between augite and melt was determined as a function of cooling rate for two high-titanium basalt compositions. The results of this study of lunar rock systems 10017 and 75055 were compared with the results of other kinetic studies of augite-liquid partitioning in other rock systems. It was found that the partitioning of major elements (i.e., Ca, Fe, Mg) is essentially rate independent and is insensitive to bulk rock composition and to the nature and order of appearance of coexisting phases for cooling rates of less than 100 C/hr. The partitioning behavior of minor elements (i.e., Al, Cr, Ti) for the same range of cooling rates is complex, being dependent on cooling rate and bulk rock composition. Consideration of these factors is important when augite chemistry and/or partitioning behavior are used in modeling certain magmatic processes or in estimating the thermal history of basaltic rocks.

  6. Systematic classification of unseeded batch crystallization systems for achievable shape and size analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acevedo, David; Nagy, Zoltan K.

    2014-05-01

    The purpose of the current work is to develop a systematic classification scheme for crystallization systems considering simultaneous size and shape variations, and to study the effect of temperature profiles on the achievable final shape of crystals for various crystallization systems. A classification method is proposed based on the simultaneous consideration of the effect of temperature profiles on nucleation and growth rates of two different characteristic crystal dimensions. Hence the approach provides direct indication of the extent in which crystal shape may be controlled for a particular system class by manipulating the supersaturation. A multidimensional population balance model (PBM) was implemented for unseeded crystallization processes of four different compounds. The effect between the nucleation and growth mechanisms on the final aspect ratio (AR) was investigated and it was shown that for nucleation dominated systems the AR is independent of the supersaturation profile. The simulation results confirmed experimentally also show that most crystallization systems tend to achieve an equilibrium shape hence the variation in the aspect ratio that can be achieved by manipulating the supersaturation is limited, in particular when nucleation is also taken into account as a competing phenomenon.

  7. Crystallization and Cooling of a Deep Silicate Magma Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bower, Dan; Wolf, Aaron

    2016-04-01

    Impact and accretion simulations of terrestrial planet formation suggest that giant impacts are both common and expected to produce extensive melting. The moon-forming impact, for example, likely melted the majority of Earth's mantle to produce a global magma ocean that subsequently cooled and crystallised. Understanding the cooling process is critical to determining magma ocean lifetimes and recognising possible remnant signatures of the magma ocean in present-day mantle heterogeneities. Modelling this evolution is challenging, however, due to the vastly different timescales and lengthscales associated with turbulent convection (magma ocean) and viscous creep (present-day mantle), in addition to uncertainties in material properties and chemical partitioning. We consider a simplified spherically-symmetric (1-D) magma ocean to investigate both its evolving structure and cooling timescale. Extending the work of Abe (1993), mixing-length theory is employed to determine convective heat transport, producing a high resolution model that parameterises the ultra-thin boundary layer (few cms) at the surface of the magma ocean. The thermodynamics of mantle melting are represented using a pseudo-one-component model, which retains the simplicity of a standard one-component model while introducing a finite temperature interval for melting. This model is used to determine the cooling timescale for a variety of plausible thermodynamic models, with special emphasis on comparing the center-outwards vs bottom-up cooling scenarios that arise from the assumed EOS.

  8. Nonlinear MIMO Control of a Continuous Cooling Crystallizer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Alberto Quintana-Hernández

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work, a feedback control algorithm was developed based on geometric control theory. A nonisothermal seeded continuous crystallizer model was used to test the algorithm. The control objectives were the stabilization of the third moment of the crystal size distribution (μ3 and the crystallizer temperature (T; the manipulated variables were the stirring rate and the coolant flow rate. The nonlinear control (NLC was tested at operating conditions established within the metastable zone. Step changes of magnitudes ±0.0015 and ±0.5°C were introduced into the set point values of the third moment and crystallizer temperature, respectively. In addition, a step change of ±1°C was introduced as a disturbance in the feeding temperature. Closed-loop stability was analyzed by calculating the eigenvalues of the internal dynamics. The system presented a stable dynamic behavior when the operation conditions maintain the crystallizer concentration within the metastable zone. Closed-loop simulations with the NLC were compared with simulations that used a classic PID controller. The PID controllers were tuned by minimizing the integral of the absolute value of the error (IAE criterion. The results showed that the NLC provided a suitable option for continuous crystallization control. For all analyzed cases, the IAEs obtained with NLC were smaller than those obtained with the PID controller.

  9. CRC DEPLETION CALCULATIONS FOR THE RODDED ASSEMBLIES IN BATCHES 1, 2, 3, AND 1X OF CRYSTAL RIVER UNIT 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this design analysis is to document the SAS2H depletion calculations of certain rodded fuel assemblies from batches 1, 2, 3, and 1X of the Crystal River Unit 3 pressurized water reactor (PWR) that are required for Commercial Reactor Critical (CRC) evaluations to support the development of the disposal criticality methodology. A rodded assembly is one that contains a control rod assembly (CRA) or an axial power shaping rod assembly (APSRA) for some period of time during its irradiation history. The objective of this analysis is to provide SAS2H calculated isotopic compositions of depleted fuel and depleted burnable poison for each fuel assembly to be used in subsequent CRC reactivity calculations containing the fuel assemblies

  10. CRC DEPLETION CALCULATIONS FOR THE NON-RODDED ASSEMBLIES IN BATCHES 1, 2, AND 3 OF CRYSTAL RIVER UNIT 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this design analysis is to document the SAS2H depletion calculations of certain non-rodded fuel assemblies from batches 1, 2, and 3 of the Crystal River Unit 3 pressurized water reactor (PWR) that are required for Commercial Reactor Critical (CRC) evaluations to support development of the disposal criticality methodology. A non-rodded assembly is one which never contains a control rod assembly (CRA) or an axial power shaping rod assembly (APSRA) during its irradiation history. The objective of this analysis is to provide SAS2H generated isotopic compositions for each fuel assembly's depleted fuel and depleted burnable poison materials. These SAS2H generated isotopic compositions are acceptable for use in CRC benchmark reactivity calculations containing the various fuel assemblies

  11. CRC DEPLETION CALCULATIONS FOR THE NON-RODDED ASSEMBLIES IN BATCHES 1, 2, AND 3 OF CRYSTAL RIVER UNIT 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kenneth D. Wright

    1997-07-29

    The purpose of this design analysis is to document the SAS2H depletion calculations of certain non-rodded fuel assemblies from batches 1, 2, and 3 of the Crystal River Unit 3 pressurized water reactor (PWR) that are required for Commercial Reactor Critical (CRC) evaluations to support development of the disposal criticality methodology. A non-rodded assembly is one which never contains a control rod assembly (CRA) or an axial power shaping rod assembly (APSRA) during its irradiation history. The objective of this analysis is to provide SAS2H generated isotopic compositions for each fuel assembly's depleted fuel and depleted burnable poison materials. These SAS2H generated isotopic compositions are acceptable for use in CRC benchmark reactivity calculations containing the various fuel assemblies.

  12. CRC DEPLETION CALCULATIONS FOR THE NON-RODDED ASSEMBLIES IN BATCHES 4 AND 5 OF CRYSTAL RIVER UNIT 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kenneth D. Wright

    1997-07-30

    The purpose of this design analysis is to document the SAS2H depletion calculations of certain non-rodded fuel assemblies from batches 4 and 5 of the Crystal River Unit 3 pressurized water reactor (PWR) that are required for commercial Reactor Critical (CRC) evaluations to support the development of the disposal criticality methodology. A non-rodded assembly is one which never contains a control rod assembly (CRA) or an axial power shaping rod assembly (APSRA) during its irradiation history. The objective of this analysis is to provide SAS2H generated isotopic compositions for each fuel assembly's depleted fuel and depleted burnable poison materials. These SAS2H generated isotopic compositions are acceptable for use in CRC benchmark reactivity calculations containing the various fuel assemblies.

  13. CRC DEPLETION CALCULATIONS FOR THE NON-RODDED ASSEMBLIES IN BATCHES 4 AND 5 OF CRYSTAL RIVER UNIT 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this design analysis is to document the SAS2H depletion calculations of certain non-rodded fuel assemblies from batches 4 and 5 of the Crystal River Unit 3 pressurized water reactor (PWR) that are required for commercial Reactor Critical (CRC) evaluations to support the development of the disposal criticality methodology. A non-rodded assembly is one which never contains a control rod assembly (CRA) or an axial power shaping rod assembly (APSRA) during its irradiation history. The objective of this analysis is to provide SAS2H generated isotopic compositions for each fuel assembly's depleted fuel and depleted burnable poison materials. These SAS2H generated isotopic compositions are acceptable for use in CRC benchmark reactivity calculations containing the various fuel assemblies

  14. CRC DEPLETION CALCULATIONS FOR THE RODDED ASSEMBLIES IN BATCHES 1, 2, 3, AND 1X OF CRYSTAL RIVER UNIT 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kenneth D. Wright

    1997-09-03

    The purpose of this design analysis is to document the SAS2H depletion calculations of certain rodded fuel assemblies from batches 1, 2, 3, and 1X of the Crystal River Unit 3 pressurized water reactor (PWR) that are required for Commercial Reactor Critical (CRC) evaluations to support the development of the disposal criticality methodology. A rodded assembly is one that contains a control rod assembly (CRA) or an axial power shaping rod assembly (APSRA) for some period of time during its irradiation history. The objective of this analysis is to provide SAS2H calculated isotopic compositions of depleted fuel and depleted burnable poison for each fuel assembly to be used in subsequent CRC reactivity calculations containing the fuel assemblies.

  15. Efficient rotational cooling of Coulomb-crystallized molecular ions by a helium buffer gas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, A K; Versolato, O O; Kłosowski, L; Kristensen, S B; Gingell, A; Schwarz, M; Windberger, A; Ullrich, J; López-Urrutia, J R Crespo; Drewsen, M

    2014-04-01

    The preparation of cold molecules is of great importance in many contexts, such as fundamental physics investigations, high-resolution spectroscopy of complex molecules, cold chemistry and astrochemistry. One versatile and widely applied method to cool molecules is helium buffer-gas cooling in either a supersonic beam expansion or a cryogenic trap environment. Another more recent method applicable to trapped molecular ions relies on sympathetic translational cooling, through collisional interactions with co-trapped, laser-cooled atomic ions, into spatially ordered structures called Coulomb crystals, combined with laser-controlled internal-state preparation. Here we present experimental results on helium buffer-gas cooling of the rotational degrees of freedom of MgH(+) molecular ions, which have been trapped and sympathetically cooled in a cryogenic linear radio-frequency quadrupole trap. With helium collision rates of only about ten per second--that is, four to five orders of magnitude lower than in typical buffer-gas cooling settings--we have cooled a single molecular ion to a rotational temperature of 7.5(+0.9)(-0.7) kelvin, the lowest such temperature so far measured. In addition, by varying the shape of, or the number of atomic and molecular ions in, larger Coulomb crystals, or both, we have tuned the effective rotational temperature from about 7 kelvin to about 60 kelvin by changing the translational micromotion energy of the ions. The extremely low helium collision rate may allow for sympathetic sideband cooling of single molecular ions, and eventually make quantum-logic spectroscopy of buffer-gas-cooled molecular ions feasible. Furthermore, application of the present cooling scheme to complex molecular ions should enable single- or few-state manipulations of individual molecules of biological interest. PMID:24670662

  16. Asymmetric crystallization during cooling and heating in model glass-forming systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Minglei; Zhang, Kai; Li, Zhusong; Liu, Yanhui; Schroers, Jan; Shattuck, Mark D; O'Hern, Corey S

    2015-03-01

    We perform molecular dynamics (MD) simulations of the crystallization process in binary Lennard-Jones systems during heating and cooling to investigate atomic-scale crystallization kinetics in glass-forming materials. For the cooling protocol, we prepared equilibrated liquids above the liquidus temperature Tl and cooled each sample to zero temperature at rate Rc. For the heating protocol, we first cooled equilibrated liquids to zero temperature at rate Rp and then heated the samples to temperature T>Tl at rate Rh. We measured the critical heating and cooling rates Rh* and Rc*, below which the systems begin to form a substantial fraction of crystalline clusters during the heating and cooling protocols. We show that Rh*>Rc* and that the asymmetry ratio Rh*/Rc* includes an intrinsic contribution that increases with the glass-forming ability (GFA) of the system and a preparation-rate dependent contribution that increases strongly as Rp→Rc* from above. We also show that the predictions from classical nucleation theory (CNT) can qualitatively describe the dependence of the asymmetry ratio on the GFA and preparation rate Rp from the MD simulations and results for the asymmetry ratio measured in Zr- and Au-based bulk metallic glasses (BMG). This work emphasizes the need for and benefits of an improved understanding of crystallization processes in BMGs and other glass-forming systems.

  17. Probing polymer crystallization at processing-relevant cooling rates with synchrotron radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cavallo, Dario, E-mail: Dario.cavallo@unige.it [University of Genoa, Dept. of Chemistry and Industrial Chemistry, Via Dodecaneso 31, 16146 Genoa (Italy); Portale, Giuseppe [ESRF, Dubble CRG, Netherlands Organization of Scientific Research (NWO), 38043 Grenoble (France); Androsch, René [Martin-Luther-University Halle-Wittenberg, Center of Engineering Sciences, D-06099 Halle/S. (Germany)

    2015-12-17

    Processing of polymeric materials to produce any kind of goods, from films to complex objects, involves application of flow fields on the polymer melt, accompanied or followed by its rapid cooling. Typically, polymers solidify at cooling rates which span over a wide range, from a few to hundreds of °C/s. A novel method to probe polymer crystallization at processing-relevant cooling rates is proposed. Using a custom-built quenching device, thin polymer films are ballistically cooled from the melt at rates between approximately 10 and 200 °C/s. Thanks to highly brilliant synchrotron radiation and to state-of-the-art X-ray detectors, the crystallization process is followed in real-time, recording about 20 wide angle X-ray diffraction patterns per second while monitoring the instantaneous sample temperature. The method is applied to a series of industrially relevant polymers, such as isotactic polypropylene, its copolymers and virgin and nucleated polyamide-6. Their crystallization behaviour during rapid cooling is discussed, with particular attention to the occurrence of polymorphism, which deeply impact material’s properties.

  18. Igneous cooling history of olivine-phyric shergottite Yamato 980459 constrained by dynamic crystallization experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    First, Emily; Hammer, Julia

    2016-07-01

    Dynamic crystallization experiments were performed on a liquid having the bulk composition of olivine-phyric shergottite Yamato 980459, to constrain the igneous thermal history of this meteorite. Key characteristics of the meteorite's mineralogy and texture, including several morphologically distinct olivine and pyroxene crystal populations and a glassy mesostasis devoid of plagioclase, were replicated upon cooling from 1435 to 909 °C at 1 atmosphere under reducing conditions. Three sequential cooling ramps are required to produce synthetic samples with textures and compositions matching Yamato 980459. Olivine phenocrysts formed at stage suppressed the formation of plagioclase and produced groundmass crystals, consistent with crystallization at lava flow depths of 5-7 cm. Although Y 980459 is unique among Martian meteorites (i.e., preserving a primary glassy mesostasis), its emplacement did not require unique physical conditions. Rather, the second and third cooling stages may reflect cooling within the core of a pāhoehoe-like flow and subsequent breakout on the surface of Mars.

  19. Methodology of Supervision by Analysis of Thermal Flux for Thermal Conduction of a Batch Chemical Reactor Equipped with a Monofluid Heating/Cooling System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghania Henini

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We present the thermal behavior of a batch reactor to jacket equipped with a monofluid heating/cooling system. Heating and cooling are provided respectively by an electrical resistance and two plate heat exchangers. The control of the temperature of the reaction is based on the supervision system. This strategy of management of the thermal devices is based on the usage of the thermal flux as manipulated variable. The modulation of the monofluid temperature by acting on the heating power or on the opening degrees of an air-to-open valve that delivers the monofluid to heat exchanger. The study shows that the application of this method for the conduct of the pilot reactor gives good results in simulation and that taking into account the dynamics of the various apparatuses greatly improves ride quality of conduct. In addition thermal control of an exothermic reaction (mononitration shows that the consideration of heat generated in the model representation improve the results by elimination any overshooting of the set-point temperature.

  20. 7-氨基去乙酰氧基头孢菌素半间歇反应结晶过程%Semi-batch Crystallization of 7-Amino-Desacetoxycephalosporanic Acid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王静康; 刘越

    2003-01-01

    Semi-batch crystallization of 7-amino-desacetoxycephalosporanic acid (7-ADCA) is a complicated pro-cess, in which agglomeration occurs together with nucleation and crystal growth. To systematically study such aprocess, experiments were conducted to estimate the crystallization thermodynamics and kinetics, and then theprocess was simulated by a numerical method. The application of Monte Carlo concept in the algorithm to describeagglomeration event offers an alternative approach of solving the population balance, the intrinsic simplicity of whichallows us to investigate several mechanisms and include several internal coordinates in the analysis. Furthermore,present study may be a valuable paradigm for other semi-batch crystallization processes.

  1. Radiative cooling of solar absorbers using a visibly transparent photonic crystal thermal blackbody.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Linxiao; Raman, Aaswath P; Fan, Shanhui

    2015-10-01

    A solar absorber, under the sun, is heated up by sunlight. In many applications, including solar cells and outdoor structures, the absorption of sunlight is intrinsic for either operational or aesthetic considerations, but the resulting heating is undesirable. Because a solar absorber by necessity faces the sky, it also naturally has radiative access to the coldness of the universe. Therefore, in these applications it would be very attractive to directly use the sky as a heat sink while preserving solar absorption properties. Here we experimentally demonstrate a visibly transparent thermal blackbody, based on a silica photonic crystal. When placed on a silicon absorber under sunlight, such a blackbody preserves or even slightly enhances sunlight absorption, but reduces the temperature of the underlying silicon absorber by as much as 13 °C due to radiative cooling. Our work shows that the concept of radiative cooling can be used in combination with the utilization of sunlight, enabling new technological capabilities. PMID:26392542

  2. An experimental study of pyroxene crystallization during rapid cooling in a thermal gradient; applications to komatiites and chondrites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Bouquain

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available To investigate the crystallization of pyroxene in spinifex-textured komatiites and in chondrites we undertook a series of experiments in which compositions in the CMAS system were cooling rapidly in a thermal gradient. Cooling rates were generally between 5 to 10 °C h−1 but some runs were made at 100–200 °C h−1; thermal gradients were between 10 and 20 °C cm−1. These conditions reproduced those at various levels in the crust of komatiitic lava flow. The starting composition was chosen to have pigeonite on the liquidus and a majority of the experiments crystallized zoned pigeonite-diopside crystals like those in komatiite lavas. A~conspicuous aspect of the experimental results was their lack of reproduceability. Some experiments crystallized forsterite whereas others that were run under similar conditions crystallized two pyroxenes and no forsterite; some experiments were totally glassy but others totally crystallized to pyroxene. The degree of supercooling at the onset of pyroxene crystallization was variable, from less than 25 °C to more than 110 °C. We attribute these results to the difficulty of nucleation of pyroxene. In some cases forsterite crystallized metastably and modified the liquid composition to inhibit pyroxene crystallization; in others no nucleation took place until a large degree of supercooling was achieved, then pyroxene crystallized rapidly. Pigeonite crystallized under a wide range of conditions, at cooling rates from 3 to 100 °C h−1. The notion that this mineral only forms at low cooling rates is not correct.

  3. Liquid-metal-cooled, curved-crystal monochromator for Advanced Photon Source bending-magnet beamline 1-BM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors describe a horizontally focusing curved-crystal monochromator that invokes a 4-point bending scheme and a liquid-metal cooling bath. The device has been designed for dispersive diffraction and spectroscopy in the 5--20 keV range, with a predicted focal spot size of ≤ 100 microm. To minimize thermal distortions and thermal equilibration time, the 355 x 32 x 0.8 mm crystal will be nearly half submerged in a bath of Ga-In-Sn-Zn alloy. The liquid metal thermally couples the crystal to the water-cooled Cu frame, while permitting the required crystal bending. Calculated thermal profiles and anticipated focusing properties are discussed

  4. Biological treatment of thin-film transistor liquid crystal display (TFT-LCD) wastewater using aerobic and anoxic/oxic sequencing batch reactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Chin-Nan; Whang, Liang-Ming; Chen, Po-Chun

    2010-09-01

    The amount of pollutants produced during manufacturing processes of thin-film transistor liquid crystal display (TFT-LCD) substantially increases due to an increasing production of the opto-electronic industry in Taiwan. This study presents the treatment performance of one aerobic and one anoxic/oxic (A/O) sequencing batch reactors (SBRs) treating synthetic TFT-LCD wastewater containing dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), monoethanolamine (MEA), and tetra-methyl ammonium hydroxide (TMAH). The long-term monitoring results for the aerobic and A/O SBRs demonstrate that stable biodegradation of DMSO, MEA, and TMAH can be achieved without any considerably adverse impacts. The ammonium released during MEA and TMAH degradation can also be completely oxidized to nitrate through nitrification in both SBRs. Batch studies on biodegradation rates for DMSO, MEA, and TMAH under anaerobic, anoxic, and aerobic conditions indicate that effective MEA degradation can be easily achieved under all three conditions examined, while efficient DMSO and TMAH degradation can be attained only under anaerobic and aerobic conditions, respectively. The potential odor problem caused by the formation of malodorous dimethyl sulfide from DMSO degradation under anaerobic conditions, however, requires insightful consideration in treating DMSO-containing wastewater.

  5. Crystallization and cooling conditions for the diogenite formation in the turbulent magma ocean of the asteroid 4 Vesta

    CERN Document Server

    Kawabata, Yusuke

    2016-01-01

    The asteroid 4 Vesta has been completely differentiated to core and mantle despite its small size, of which surface materials are howardite-eucrite-diogenite (HED) meteorites that we know the detailed petrology, and therefore, is a good target for understanding differentiation of terrestrial planets. A new differentiation model for crust formation was developed by taking magma ocean fluid dynamics, chemical equilibrium, presence of $^{26}$Al, and cooling into consideration with special care to crystal separation. The role of crystal size, thickness of the conductive lid, and fO2 are evaluated as parameters. The results show that large crystals (1cm) settle and form a km-thick cumulate layer of orthopyroxene with Mg# of 0.70-0.90 in ~20 thousand years, which almost agrees with the Mg# of diogenites, whereas thinner layers are formed if the grain size is smaller.

  6. FORTRAN 77 programs for conductive cooling of dikes with temperature-dependent thermal properties and heat of crystallization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delaney, P.T.

    1988-01-01

    Temperature histories obtained from transient heat-conduction theory are applicable to most dikes despite potential complicating effects related to magma flow during emplacement, groundwater circulation, and metamorphic reaction during cooling. Here. machine-independent FORTRAN 77 programs are presented to calculate temperatures in and around dikes as they cool conductively. Analytical solutions can treat thermal-property contrasts between the dike and host rocks, but cannot address the release of magmatic heat of crystallization after the early stages of cooling or the appreciable temperature dependence of thermal conductivity and diffusivity displayed by most rock types. Numerical solutions can incorporate these additional factors. The heat of crystallization can raise the initial temperature at the dike contact, ??c1, about 100??C above that which would be estimated if it were neglected, and can decrease the rate at which the front of solidified magma moves to the dike center by a factor of as much as three. Thermal conductivity and diffusivity of rocks increase with decreasing temperature and, at low temperatures, these properties increase more if the rocks are saturated with water. Models that treat these temperature dependencies yield estimates of ??c1 that are as much as 75??C beneath those which would be predicted if they were neglected. ?? 1988.

  7. On the Lower Limit of Chondrule Cooling Rates: The Significance of Iron Loss in Dynamic Crystallization Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paque, Julie M.; Connolly, Harold C., Jr.; Lofgren, Gary E.

    1998-01-01

    It is unlikely that the presence of chondrules, and thus their formation, within the protoplanetary nebula would be predicted if it were not for their ubiquitous presence in most chondritic meteorites. The study of these enigmatic, igneous objects has a direct influence on how meteoritic and solar system researchers model the processes operating and the materials present within our protoplanetary nebula. Key to understanding chondrule formation is a determination of constraints on their thermal histories. The three important variables in this history are their peak melting temperatures, the duration of their melting at peak temperatures, and the rate at which these object cool. Although these three variables are interdependent, it is cooling rate that provides the most powerful constraint. Cooling rate has a direct affect on the development of both crystal morphology and the elemental distributions within these grains. To date, experiments have indicated that chondrule cooling rates are in the range of 10's to 100's of degrees per hour for porphyritic chondrules (the most abundant type). The cooling rate for radial and barred chondrules is thought to be more rapid. To generate these cooling rates (rapid relative to the cooling of the nebula as a whole, but slow compared to simple black body radiation) the environment of chondrule formation must have been localized, and the abundance of solid materials must have been greatly enhanced above a gas of solar composition. Thus accurate determinations of chondrule cooling rates is critical in understanding both their formation and the nebular environment in which they formed. In a quest to more accurately determine the lower limit on cooling rates and to determine in more detail the effects of Fe loss from a molten sample to Pt wire loops, Weinbruch et al. have explored this issue experimentally and reevaluated the findings of Radomsky and Hewins in light of their new results. The basic conclusions of their paper are an

  8. Abundant Cool Magnesium-Rich Pyroxene Crystals in Comet Hale-Bopp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wooden, D. H.

    1999-01-01

    Modeling of the observed dust emission from Comet Hale-Bopp over a large range of heliocentric distances (2.8 AU - 0.93 AU -1.7 AU) led to the discovery of Mg-rich pyroxene crystals in the coma These pyroxene crystals are apparent in the 10 micron spectrum only when the comet is close to perihelion (r(sub h) = 1.2 AU) because they are cooler than the other silicate minerals. The pyroxene crystals are cooler than the other species because of their high Mg-content. They do not absorb as efficiently as the other silicate minerals. Given the same high Mg content of Mg/(Mg + Fe) = 0.9, radiative equilibrium computations show that pyroxene crystals are expected to be 150 K cooler than olivine crystals. The pyroxene crystals are also about 10x more abundant than the other silicate mineral species. Their high Mg content and relatively large abundance are in agreement with the preponderance of pyroxene interplanetary dust particles (IDPs) and the recent reanalysis of the PUMA-I flyby of Comet Halley. Before Hale-Bopp, only olivine crystals were detected spectroscopically in comets, probably because the pyroxene crystals are less optically active, hence significantly cooler and harder to detect in contrast to the warmer silicate species. Determining the relative abundances of silicate minerals depends on their Mg contents. If the pyroxene crystals in Comet Hale-Bopp are solar nebula condensates, then they probably had to form during the early FU Orionis epoch when the inner disk was hot enough and be transported out to the region of formation of icy planetesimals without being reheated. Reheating events appear to reincorporate Fe back into the crystals or form Fe-rich rims, which are not consistent with the high-Mg-content crystals. The condensation of Mg-rich pyroxene crystals is expected from solar nebula thermal equilibrium computations. However, their subsequent transport to the outer solar nebula unaltered has yet to be theoretically demonstrated. The discovery of Mg

  9. Crystallization and Mechanical Properties of Polypropylene under Processing-Relevant Cooling Conditions with respect to Isothermal Holding Time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Fischer

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available For semicrystalline thermoplastics, aside from pressure and shear, the temperature-time behavior while cooling the melt significantly affects the geometry and degree of ordered structures (e.g., spherulite size, degree of crystallization, and crystal modification and, as a consequence, the resulting global component properties. Previous research has shown that a higher isothermal holding temperature (e.g., mold temperature and chill-roll temperature leads to the formation of more distinct ordered structures and, therefore, can lead to greater stiffness and strength. Nevertheless, isothermal holding time during manufacturing is typically not taken into account. In this paper, fast scanning calorimetry (FSC measurements were taken using polypropylene to analyze the crystallization during idealized temperature-time profiles based on the dynamic temperature process and to investigate the crystallization behavior at different temperatures and isothermal holding times analytically. Furthermore, iPP foils were extruded and tested mechanically to investigate the knowledge gained experimentally. Analytical and mechanical results show that foils produced at the same isothermal holding temperature can obtain significantly different ordered structures and mechanical properties depending primarily on the isothermal holding time.

  10. Attaining 186-nm light generation in cooled beta-BaB(2)O(4) crystal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouta, H; Kuwano, Y

    1999-09-01

    The transparency range of beta-BaB(2)O(4) (BBO) was expanded by means of cooling, and the resulting absorption coefficient at 193.4 nm was reduced to 0.29cm(-1) at 91 K from 1.39cm(-1) at 295 K. Further, generation of light at 186.0 nm (the measurement limit in air) by type I sum-frequency generation (SFG) based on fundamental (744-nm) and third-harmonic (248-nm) light from a Ti:sapphire laser was confirmed for cooled BBO. Calculations based on observed data for SFG wavelengths and phase-matching angles indicate a potential for cooled BBO to generate wavelengths as low as 181.7 nm.

  11. Attaining 186-nm light generation in cooled beta-BaB(2)O(4) crystal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouta, H; Kuwano, Y

    1999-09-01

    The transparency range of beta-BaB(2)O(4) (BBO) was expanded by means of cooling, and the resulting absorption coefficient at 193.4 nm was reduced to 0.29cm(-1) at 91 K from 1.39cm(-1) at 295 K. Further, generation of light at 186.0 nm (the measurement limit in air) by type I sum-frequency generation (SFG) based on fundamental (744-nm) and third-harmonic (248-nm) light from a Ti:sapphire laser was confirmed for cooled BBO. Calculations based on observed data for SFG wavelengths and phase-matching angles indicate a potential for cooled BBO to generate wavelengths as low as 181.7 nm. PMID:18073993

  12. Further tests on liquid-nitrogen-cooled, thin silicon-crystal monochromators using a focused wiggler synchrotron beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A newly designed cryogenically cooled, thin Si crystal monochromator was tested at the European Synchrotrons Radiation Facility (ESRF) beamline BL3. It exhibited less than 1 arcsec of thermal strain up to a maximum incident power of 186 W and average power density of 521 W/mm2. Data were collected for the thin (0.7 mm) portion of the crystal and for the thick (>25 mm) part. Rocking curves were measured as a function of incident power. With a low power beam, the Si(333) rocking curve at 30 keV for the thin and thick sections was < 1 arcsec FWHM at room temperature. The rocking curve of the thin section increased to 2.0 arcsec when cooled to 78 K, while the thick part was unaffected by the reduction in temperature. The rocking curve of the this section broadened to 2.5 arcsec FWHM and that of the thick section broadened to 1.7 arcsec at the highest incident power. The proven range of performance for this monochromator has been extended to the power density, but not the absorbed power, expected for the Advanced Photon Source (APS) undulator A in closed-gap operation (first harmonic at 3.27 kev) at a storage-ring current of 300 mA

  13. Calculations of thermal deformations in directly water-cooled monochromator crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Computer simulations on the thermal behaviors, i.e., thermal transfer coefficient, temperature distribution and thermal deformations of monochromator crystals have been reported under the condition that they would be used in SPring-8. The calculations have been carried out on the basis of high heat load experiments by the present authors with a finite element analysis code (ANSYS). The bending-magnet (with power density of 0.27 MW/m2 on crystal surface) causes a temperature rise of 4 K and a slope error of 0.27 arcsec on the top surface of crystal. On the prototype X-ray undulator WPH-33J beamline, the crystal receives a power density of 8.1 MW/m2, having a temperature rise of 85 K and a slope error of 2.1 arcsec in the simulation. (author)

  14. Properties of Bi-Te-Sb single crystals grown by the Czochralski method for thermoelectric cooling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports on materials based on Bi, Te, Se, Sb and produced by pressing, extrusion or zone recrystallization that are used usually for the thermoelectric cooling. But by Czochralski method materials have been far less grown. Researches on growing of monocrystalline ingots on the base of combinations Bi-Se-Te and Bi-Sb-Te have been done. Thermoelectric material produced by the Czochralski method does not essentially differ from that one grown by zone recrystallization or Bridgman method

  15. Group IVA irons: New constraints on the crystallization and cooling history of an asteroidal core with a complex history

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCoy, T. J.; Walker, R. J.; Goldstein, J. I.; Yang, J.; McDonough, W. F.; Rumble, D.; Chabot, N. L.; Ash, R. D.; Corrigan, C. M.; Michael, J. R.; Kotula, P. G.

    2011-11-01

    , consistent with an oxidized parent body. The depletions in Ga may reflect decreased siderophilic behavior in a relatively oxidized body, and more favorable partitioning into the silicate portion of the parent body. Phosphate inclusions in EET show Δ 17O values within the range measured for silicates in IVA iron meteorites. EET has a typical ataxitic microstructure with precipitates of kamacite within a matrix of plessite. Chemical and isotopic evidence for a genetic relation between EET and group IVA is strong, but the high Ni content and the newly determined, rapid cooling rate of this meteorite show that it should continue to be classified as ungrouped. Previously reported metallographic cooling rates for IVA iron meteorites have been interpreted to indicate an inwardly crystallizing, ˜150 km radius metallic body with little or no silicate mantle. Hence, the IVA group was likely formed as a mass of molten metal separated from a much larger parent body that was broken apart by a large impact. Given the apparent genetic relation with IVA, EET was most likely generated via crystal-liquid fractionation in another, smaller body spawned from the same initial liquid during the impact event that generated the IVA body.

  16. Pro Spring Batch

    CERN Document Server

    Minella, Michael T

    2011-01-01

    Since its release, Spring Framework has transformed virtually every aspect of Java development including web applications, security, aspect-oriented programming, persistence, and messaging. Spring Batch, one of its newer additions, now brings the same familiar Spring idioms to batch processing. Spring Batch addresses the needs of any batch process, from the complex calculations performed in the biggest financial institutions to simple data migrations that occur with many software development projects. Pro Spring Batch is intended to answer three questions: *What? What is batch processing? What

  17. Effects of micro electric current load during cooling of plant tissues on intracellular ice crystal formation behavior and pH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ninagawa, Takako; Kawamura, Yukio; Konishi, Tadashi; Narumi, Akira

    2016-08-01

    Cryopreservation techniques are expected to evolve further to preserve biomaterials and foods in a fresh state for extended periods of time. Long-term cryopreservation of living materials such as food and biological tissue is generally achieved by freezing; thus, intracellular freezing occurs. Intracellular freezing injures the cells and leads to cell death. Therefore, a dream cryopreservation technique would preserve the living materials without internal ice crystal formation at a temperature low enough to prevent bacterial activity. This study was performed to investigate the effect of micro electrical current loading during cooling as a new cryopreservation technique. The behavior of intracellular ice crystal formation in plant tissues with or without an electric current load was evaluated using the degree of supercooling, degree of cell deformation, and grain size and growing rate of intracellular ice crystal. Moreover, the transition of intracellular pH during plant tissue cooling with or without electric current loading was also examined using the fluorescence intensity ratio to comprehend cell activity at lower temperatures. The results indicated that micro electric current load did not only decrease the degree of cell deformation and grain size of intracellular ice crystal but also reduced the decline in intracellular pH due to temperature lowering, compared with tissues subjected to the same cooling rate without an electric current load. Thus, the effect of electric current load on cryopreservation and the potential of a new cryopreservation technique using electric current load were discussed based on these results. PMID:27343137

  18. Annihilation behaviour under electron irradiation of athermal ω-phase crystals formed by cooling at 131K in a β-Ti-Mo alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Formation of athermal ω-phase crystals due to cooling to 131 K has been directly observed in a β-type Ti-15mass%Mo alloy. The athermal ω-phase crystals easily disappear by electron irradiation during the in-situ observation at 131 K. Incubation phenomenon of the annihilation is also recognized. The annihilation behaviour was investigated based on the dependence on electron irradiation conditions and incubation phenomena. It is concluded that the annihilation mechanism is concerned with interactive effects of temperature rise due to electron irradiation and collective oscillation resulted from inelastic scattering of electron beam.

  19. Construcción de un Simulador Dinámico para Procesos de Cristalización por Lotes a Vacío Dynamic Simulator Construction for Vacuum Batch Crystallization Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús Carrillo

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta un simulador dinámico para procesos de cristalización por lotes a vacío utilizando un modelo no lineal El modelo se basa en la ecuación de balance de población, balances de materia y energía para el interior del cristalizador, la ecuación de continuidad del vapor en la camisa de calentamiento y relaciones constitutivas. Utilizando la técnica de momentos de distribución de tamaño de cristal, la ecuación de balance de población se convierte en ecuaciones diferenciales. La construcción del simulador se realizó utilizando Visual Basic. Se propone un ejemplo y se comparan los resultados con otro simulador y con datos experimentales de un equipo piloto, obteniéndose resultados concordantes.A dynamic simulator for vacuum batch crystallization processes using a non-linear model is presented. The model is based on the equation of balance population, on mass and energy balances inside the crystallizer, on the steam continuity equation for the heating jacket and on constitutive relations. Using the technique of crystal size distribution moments, the equation of balance population is converted into a set of differential equations. The construction of simulator was done using Visual Basic. An example of its use is proposed comparing results with those of another simulator and with experimental information obtained in a pilot equipment pilot, obtaining similar results.

  20. Spring batch essentials

    CERN Document Server

    Rao, P Raja Malleswara

    2015-01-01

    If you are a Java developer with basic knowledge of Spring and some experience in the development of enterprise applications, and want to learn about batch application development in detail, then this book is ideal for you. This book will be perfect as your next step towards building simple yet powerful batch applications on a Java-based platform.

  1. Local thermal resonance control of GaInP photonic crystal membrane cavities using ambient gas cooling

    CERN Document Server

    Sokolov, Sergei; Yüce, Emre; Combrié, Sylvain; Lehoucq, Gaelle; De Rossi, Alfredo; Mosk, Allard P

    2015-01-01

    We perform a spatially dependent tuning of a GaInP photonic crystal cavity using a continuous wave violet laser. Local tuning is obtained by laser heating of the photonic crystal membrane. The cavity resonance shift is measured for different pump positions and for two ambient gases: helium and nitrogen. The use of high-conducting gas in combination with low-conducting semiconductor leads to a resonance control with a spatial resolution better than 4 microns.

  2. Crystallization kinetics of citric acid anhydrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemdili, L.; Koutchoukali, O.; Bouhelassa, M.; Seidel, J.; Mameri, F.; Ulrich, J.

    2016-10-01

    The solubility curve, metastable zone width (MSZW) and Crystallization kinetics (nucleation and growth) were measured and estimated during batch crystallization of citric acid anhydrate (CAA). The solubility of citric acid in pure water was measured over the temperature range from 15 to 60 °C using a refractometer. The experimental data were correlated by the modified Apelblat equation. The MSZW was determined under four cooling rates for different citric acid concentrations by means of an ultrasonic technique. The primary nucleation kinetics of CAA was calculated based on these data and the polythermal method of Nyvlt. It was found that the MSZW obtained is in good agreement with literature. Crystal growth rates were calculated by two methods. The first one used seeded isothermal growth experiments (desupersaturation curve) and the derivatives method of Garside. The second method used the measurement of the dimension change of a single crystal in a microscopic cell at different supersaturation levels.

  3. Unusual crystals of poly(ε-caprolactone) by unusual crystallisation: The effects of rapid cooling and fast solvent loss on the morphology, crystal structure and melting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sanandaji, N.; Ovaskainen, L.; Klein Gunnewiek, M.; Vancso, G.J.; Hedenqvist, M.S.; Yu, S.; Eriksson, L.; Roth, S.V.; Gedde, U.W.

    2013-01-01

    The lateral habit, unit cell structure and melting behaviour of single crystals of poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL) prepared by the rapid expansion of a supercritical solution technique was studied by AFM at ambient and higher temperatures and by grazing-incident X-ray scattering using a synchrotron sourc

  4. Experimental investigation of photon multiplicity and radiation cooling for 150 GeV electrons/positrons traversing diamond and Si crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirsebom, K.; Medenwaldt, R.; Mikkelsen, U.; Møller, S. P.; Paludan, K.; Uggerhøj, E.; Worm, T.; Elsener, K.; Ballestrero, S.; Sona, P.; Romano, J.; Connell, S. H.; Sellschop, J. P. F.; Avakian, R. O.; Avetisian, A. E.; Taroian, S. P.

    1996-10-01

    Detailed experimental investigations of photon multiplicities for 150 GeV electrons/positrons traversing thin diamond and Si crystals have been performed. Along axial directions up to 10 photons are emitted in 1.5 mm diamond for a radiative energy loss larger than 4 GeV. This corresponds to a mean free path for photon emission of about two orders of magnitude shorter than in an amorphous target. This is in agreement with an enhanced radiative energy loss of ˜ 30 times that in amorphous targets. The strongly enhanced photon emission leads to radiation cooling which can result in particles exiting the crystal with a reduced angle to the axis. For incidences along planar directions the average multiplicity is still above one, even for the thinnest crystals used in the present experiment, so a single-photon spectrum can only be obtained for thicknesses ≤50 μm, which, on the other hand, is comparable to the coherence lengths for GeV photons, leading to destruction of the coherent effects.

  5. Hybrid Batch Bayesian Optimization

    CERN Document Server

    Azimi, Javad; Fern, Xiaoli

    2012-01-01

    Bayesian Optimization aims at optimizing an unknown non-convex/concave function that is costly to evaluate. We are interested in application scenarios where concurrent function evaluations are possible. Under such a setting, BO could choose to either sequentially evaluate the function, one input at a time and wait for the output of the function before making the next selection, or evaluate the function at a batch of multiple inputs at once. These two different settings are commonly referred to as the sequential and batch settings of Bayesian Optimization. In general, the sequential setting leads to better optimization performance as each function evaluation is selected with more information, whereas the batch setting has an advantage in terms of the total experimental time (the number of iterations). In this work, our goal is to combine the strength of both settings. Specifically, we systematically analyze Bayesian optimization using Gaussian process as the posterior estimator and provide a hybrid algorithm t...

  6. Effect of cooling and rewarming rate on crystallization of cryoprotectant solution for oocytes%升降温速率对低温保护剂溶液结晶性质的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李维杰; 周新丽; 刘宝林; 吕福扣

    2013-01-01

    When cells are cryopreserved,the morphology of cryoprotectant at crystallization and recrystallization would influence the survival rate of cells.The cryo-microscope system was used to observe the morphology of crystal and sizes of two cryoprotectants during cooling and rewarming at different speeds.It is found that crystals during cooling are smaller and less at higher speed than at lower speed,and the former is favorable for preservation of cells.When the vitrified cryoprotetant is rewarmed,crystals during recrystallization are smaller and less at higher speed than at lower speed,and the former with narrow danger zone is favorable for the survival of oocytes.Besides,high concentration of cryoprotectant is more favorable for the survivalrate of oocytes than lower concentration.

  7. Silica and Pyroxene in IVA Irons; Possible Formation of the IVA Magma by Impact Melting and Reduction of L-LL-Chondrite Materials Followed by Crystallization and Cooling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasson, John T.; Matsunami, Yoshiyuki; Rubin, Alan E.

    2006-01-01

    Group IVA is a large magmatic group of iron meteorites. The mean DELTA O-17 (= delta O-17 - 0.52(raised dot) delta O-18) of the silicates is approx. plus or minus 1.2%o, similar to the highest values in L chondrites and the lowest values in LL chondrites; delta O-18 values are also in the L/LL range. This strongly suggests that IVA irons formed by melting L-LL parental material, but the mean Ni content of IVA irons (83 mg/g) is much lower than that of a presumed L-LL parent (approx. 170 mg/g) and the low-Ca pyroxene present in two IVA meteorites is Fs13, much lower than the Fs20-29 values in L and LL chondrites. Thus, formation from L-LL precursors requires extensive addition of metallic Fe, probably produced by reduction of FeS and FeO. Group IVA also has S/Ni, Ga/Ni, and Ge/Ni ratios that are much lower than those in L-LL chondrites or any chondrite group that preserves nebular compositions, implying loss of these volatile elements during asteroidal processing. We suggest that these reduction and loss processes occurred near the surface of the asteroid during impact heating, and resulted partly from reduction by C, and partly from the thermal dissociation of FeS and FeO with loss of O and S. The hot (approx. 1770 K) low-viscosity melt quickly moved through channels in the porous asteroid to form a core. Two members of the IVA group, Sao Joao Nepomuceno (hereafter, SJN) and Steinbach, contain moderate amounts of orthopyroxene and silica, and minor amounts of low-Ca clinopyroxene. Even though SJN formed after approx. 26% crystallization and Steinbach formed after approx. 77% Crystallization of the IVA core, both could have originated within several tens of meters of the core-mantle interface if 99% of the crystallization occurred from the center outwards. Two other members of the group (Gibeon and Bishop Canyon) contain tabular tridymite, which we infer to have initially formed as veins deposited from a cooling SiO-rich vapor. The silicates were clearly introduced

  8. Experimental investigation of the effects of compound angle holes on film cooling effectiveness and heat transfer performance using a transient liquid crystal thermometry technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seager, David J.; Liburdy, James A.

    1997-11-01

    To further understand the effect of both compound angle holes and hole shaping on film cooling, detailed heat transfer measurements were obtained using hue based thermochromic liquid crystal method. The data were analyzed to measure both the full surface adiabatic effectiveness and heat transfer coefficient. The compound angles that were evaluated consist of holes that were aligned 0 degrees, 45 degrees, 60 degrees and 90 degrees to the main cross flow direction. Hole shaping variations from the traditional cylindrical shaped hole include forward diffused and laterally diffused hole geometries. Geometric parameters that were selected were the length to diameter ratio of 3.0, and the inclination angle 35 degrees. A density ratio of 1.55 was obtained for all teste. For each set of conditions the blowing ratio was varied to be 0.88, 1.25, and 1.88. Adiabatic effectiveness was obtained using a steady state test, while an active heating surface was used to determine the heat transfer coefficient using a transient method. The experimental method provides a unique method of analyzing a three-temperature heat transfer problem by providing detailed surface transport properties. Based on these results for the different hole geometries at each blowing ratio conclusions are drawn relative to the effects of compound angle holes on the overall film cooling performance.

  9. Development of a neutron irradiation device with a cooled crystal filter: Radiation physical properties and applications in in vivo irradiations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The radiation-physical and geometrical properties of a neutron-beam, collimated with a Bi-crystal filter were investigated at the reactor BER II. The influence of the crystal temperature as well as the actions of a reflector and a collimator on neutron flux-density and neutron field of the thermal neutrons were investigated. The dose contributions of the thermal, epithermal and fast neutrons as well as γ-radiation was determined by activation of the sample respective with TLD-measurements. The influence of irradiation and measurement geometry on the sensitivity and detection probability was investigated by means of phantom irradiations. The method prooved to be suitable, to detect changes of the Ca-content in a rat hind leg by about 10%. In investigations on animal groups of about 10 animals a threshold of detectability for changes of the ca-content is to be expected by about 4%. In a further group experiment it was found, that even in the case of multiple radiation the procedure of irradiation and measurement was not followed by a significant change in the Ca-content of the hind legs of the testing animals. (orig.)

  10. Dynamic Batch Bayesian Optimization

    CERN Document Server

    Azimi, Javad; Fern, Xiaoli

    2011-01-01

    Bayesian optimization (BO) algorithms try to optimize an unknown function that is expensive to evaluate using minimum number of evaluations/experiments. Most of the proposed algorithms in BO are sequential, where only one experiment is selected at each iteration. This method can be time inefficient when each experiment takes a long time and more than one experiment can be ran concurrently. On the other hand, requesting a fix-sized batch of experiments at each iteration causes performance inefficiency in BO compared to the sequential policies. In this paper, we present an algorithm that asks a batch of experiments at each time step t where the batch size p_t is dynamically determined in each step. Our algorithm is based on the observation that the sequence of experiments selected by the sequential policy can sometimes be almost independent from each other. Our algorithm identifies such scenarios and request those experiments at the same time without degrading the performance. We evaluate our proposed method us...

  11. Effect of batch and fed-batch growth modes on biofilm formation by Listeria monocytogenes at different temperatures

    OpenAIRE

    Rodrigues, Diana Alexandra Ferreira; Almeida, Marta A. S.; Teixeira, P.; Oliveira, Rosário; Azeredo, Joana

    2009-01-01

    The influence of Listeria monocytogenes (L. monocytogenes) biofilm formation feeding conditions (batch and fed-batch) at different temperatures on biofilm biomass and activity was determined. Biofilm biomass and cellular metabolic activity were assessed by Crystal Violet (CV) staining and 2,3-bis(2-methoxy-4-nitro-5-sulfophenyl)-2H-tetrazolium-5-carboxanilide inner salt (XTT) colorimetric method, respectively. Live/Dead staining was also performed in order to get microscopic visualization of ...

  12. Applications of thin-film sandwich crystallization platforms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Axford, Danny, E-mail: danny.axford@diamond.ac.uk; Aller, Pierre; Sanchez-Weatherby, Juan; Sandy, James [Diamond Light Source, Harwell Oxford, Didcot OX11 0DE (United Kingdom)

    2016-03-24

    Crystallization via sandwiches of thin polymer films is presented and discussed. Examples are shown of protein crystallization in, and data collection from, solutions sandwiched between thin polymer films using vapour-diffusion and batch methods. The crystallization platform is optimal for both visualization and in situ data collection, with the need for traditional harvesting being eliminated. In wells constructed from the thinnest plastic and with a minimum of aqueous liquid, flash-cooling to 100 K is possible without significant ice formation and without any degradation in crystal quality. The approach is simple; it utilizes low-cost consumables but yields high-quality data with minimal sample intervention and, with the very low levels of background X-ray scatter that are observed, is optimal for microcrystals.

  13. Intensified crystallization in complex media: heuristics for crystallization of platform chemicals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Urbanus, J.; Roelands, C.P.M.; Verdoes, D.; Horst, J.H. ter

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents heuristics for the integration of fermentation with the appropriate crystallization based in-situ product recovery (ISPR) technique. Here techniques, such as co-crystallization (CC), evaporative crystallization (EC), template induced crystallization (TIC), cooling crystallization

  14. Cristalização e taxa crítica de resfriamento para vitrificação do poli(sebacato de decametileno) Crystallization and critical cooling rate to vitrify poly(decamethylene sebacate)

    OpenAIRE

    Luciana Maria Guimarães; Edgar Dutra Zanotto

    2003-01-01

    We synthesized Poly(decamethylene sebacate) - P10MS - and studied its overall crystallization rates in a range of temperatures using Differential Scanning Calorimetry in isothermal conditions, which enabled us to identify the crystallization mechanism by means of the Johnson-Mehl-Avrami-Kolmogorov equation. The critical cooling rate (Rc) to vitrify the P10MS was determined using a non-isothermal method proposed by Barandiarán & Colmenero (BC). The value of Rc is around 50-250 K/s, which confi...

  15. Column and Batch Experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge L. Gardea-Torresdey

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Batch and column experiments were performed to determine the Cu(II binding capacity of silica-immobilized humin biomass. For column studies, 500 bed volumes of a 0.1 mM Cu(II solution were passed through humin packed columns at the flow rates of 1, 1.5, 2, and 3 mL/min. The biopolymer showed an average Cu binding capacity of 12 ± 1.5 mg/g and a Cu recovery of about 96.5 % ± 1.5. The breakthrough points for Cu(II alone were approximately 420, 390, 385, and 300 bed volumes for the flow rates of 1, 1.5, 2 and 3 mL/min, respectively. The interference studies demonstrated that at low concentrations, the hard cations Ca(II and Mg(II did not seem to represent a major interference on Cu(II binding to the humin biopolymer. The selectivity showed by this biopolymer was Cu(II>Ca(II>Mg(II. On the other hand, batch experiments showed that Ca(II + Mg(II at 100mM each reduced the Cu(II binding to 73 %. However, 1000 mM concentrations of Ca(II and Mg(II, separately and in mixture, reduced the Cu(II binding to 47 %, 44 % and 31 %, respectively. The results of this study showed that immobilized humin in a silica matrix could represent an inexpensive bio-source for Cu removal from contaminated water, even in the presence of low concentrations of the hard cations Ca(II and Mg(II.

  16. Batch-specific discrimination using nuclear quadrupole resonance spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyriakidou, Georgia; Jakobsson, Andreas; Althoefer, Kaspar; Barras, Jamie

    2015-04-01

    In this paper, we report on the identification of batches of analgesic paracetamol (acetaminophen) tablets using nitrogen-14 nuclear quadrupole resonance spectroscopy ((14)N NQR). The high sensitivity of NQR to the electron charge distribution surrounding the quadrupolar nucleus enables the unique characterization of the crystal structure of the material. Two hypothesis were tested on batches of the same brand: the within the same batch variability and the difference between batches that varied in terms of their batch number and expiry date. The multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) did not provide any within-batches variations, indicating the natural deviation of a medicine manufactured under the same conditions. Alternatively, the statistical analysis revealed a significant discrimination between the different batches of paracetamol tablets. Therefore, the NQR signal is an indicator of factors that influence the physical and chemical integrity of the material. Those factors might be the aging of the medicine, the manufacturing, or storage conditions. The results of this study illustrate the potential of NQR as promising technique in applications such as detection and authentication of counterfeit medicines.

  17. Electron cooling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meshkov, I.; Sidorin, A.

    2004-10-01

    The brief review of the most significant and interesting achievements in electron cooling method, which took place during last two years, is presented. The description of the electron cooling facilities-storage rings and traps being in operation or under development-is given. The applications of the electron cooling method are considered. The following modern fields of the method development are discussed: crystalline beam formation, expansion into middle and high energy electron cooling (the Fermilab Recycler Electron Cooler, the BNL cooler-recuperator, cooling with circulating electron beam, the GSI project), electron cooling in traps, antihydrogen generation, electron cooling of positrons (the LEPTA project).

  18. The effect of CaCO3 addition on the crystallization behavior of ZnO crystal glaze fired at different gloss firing and crystallization temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamaludin A.R.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A glazed ceramic product with crystalline structure gives an artistic effect. In this study, the effects of calcium carbonate (CaCO3 addition into glaze batches on the crystallization behavior of crystal glaze were studied. Samples were fired at different gloss firing temperatures ranging from 1000-1200°C with 1060°C crystallization temperature. Xray diffraction (XRD and energy dispersive X-ray spectrometer (EDX analysis of the phases identified these crystals as willemite (Zn2SiO4 in the form of spherulites. Scanning electron microscope (SEM analysis indicated that willemite crystals are in the acicular needle like shape. XRD result showed that the intensities of crystal peaks decreased with the addition of CaCO3 up to 3.0 wt%. However, there was no willemite crystals formation as the amount of CaCO3 raised to 5.0 wt%. Besides that, the results also indicated that willemite growth occurs during isothermal holding at crystallization temperature instead of during cooling from gloss firing temperature.

  19. Stochastic Cooling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blaskiewicz, M.

    2011-01-01

    Stochastic Cooling was invented by Simon van der Meer and was demonstrated at the CERN ISR and ICE (Initial Cooling Experiment). Operational systems were developed at Fermilab and CERN. A complete theory of cooling of unbunched beams was developed, and was applied at CERN and Fermilab. Several new and existing rings employ coasting beam cooling. Bunched beam cooling was demonstrated in ICE and has been observed in several rings designed for coasting beam cooling. High energy bunched beams have proven more difficult. Signal suppression was achieved in the Tevatron, though operational cooling was not pursued at Fermilab. Longitudinal cooling was achieved in the RHIC collider. More recently a vertical cooling system in RHIC cooled both transverse dimensions via betatron coupling.

  20. Applications of thin-film sandwich crystallization platforms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Axford, Danny; Aller, Pierre; Sanchez-Weatherby, Juan; Sandy, James

    2016-04-01

    Examples are shown of protein crystallization in, and data collection from, solutions sandwiched between thin polymer films using vapour-diffusion and batch methods. The crystallization platform is optimal for both visualization and in situ data collection, with the need for traditional harvesting being eliminated. In wells constructed from the thinnest plastic and with a minimum of aqueous liquid, flash-cooling to 100 K is possible without significant ice formation and without any degradation in crystal quality. The approach is simple; it utilizes low-cost consumables but yields high-quality data with minimal sample intervention and, with the very low levels of background X-ray scatter that are observed, is optimal for microcrystals. PMID:27050266

  1. Data-driven batch schuduling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bent, John [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Denehy, Tim [GOOGLE; Arpaci - Dusseau, Remzi [UNIV OF WISCONSIN; Livny, Miron [UNIV OF WISCONSIN; Arpaci - Dusseau, Andrea C [NON LANL

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we develop data-driven strategies for batch computing schedulers. Current CPU-centric batch schedulers ignore the data needs within workloads and execute them by linking them transparently and directly to their needed data. When scheduled on remote computational resources, this elegant solution of direct data access can incur an order of magnitude performance penalty for data-intensive workloads. Adding data-awareness to batch schedulers allows a careful coordination of data and CPU allocation thereby reducing the cost of remote execution. We offer here new techniques by which batch schedulers can become data-driven. Such systems can use our analytical predictive models to select one of the four data-driven scheduling policies that we have created. Through simulation, we demonstrate the accuracy of our predictive models and show how they can reduce time to completion for some workloads by as much as 80%.

  2. BatchJobs and BatchExperiments: Abstraction Mechanisms for Using R in Batch Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernd Bischl

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Empirical analysis of statistical algorithms often demands time-consuming experiments. We present two R packages which greatly simplify working in batch computing environments. The package BatchJobs implements the basic objects and procedures to control any batch cluster from within R. It is structured around cluster versions of the well-known higher order functions Map, Reduce and Filter from functional programming. Computations are performed asynchronously and all job states are persistently stored in a database, which can be queried at any point in time. The second package, BatchExperiments, is tailored for the still very general scenario of analyzing arbitrary algorithms on problem instances. It extends package BatchJobs by letting the user define an array of jobs of the kind apply algorithm A to problem instance P and store results. It is possible to associate statistical designs with parameters of problems and algorithms and therefore to systematically study their influence on the results. The packages main features are: (a Convenient usage: All relevant batch system operations are either handled internally or mapped to simple R functions. (b Portability: Both packages use a clear and well-defined interface to the batch system which makes them applicable in most high-performance computing environments. (c Reproducibility: Every computational part has an associated seed to ensure reproducibility even when the underlying batch system changes. (d Abstraction and good software design: The code layers for algorithms, experiment definitions and execution are cleanly separated and enable the writing of readable and maintainable code.

  3. Effect of rhodium doping on the growth and characteristics of BaTiO 3 single crystals grown by step-cooling method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madeswaran, S.; Giridharan, N. V.; Varatharajan, R.; Ravi, G.; Jayavel, R.

    2004-06-01

    Single crystals of Rh-doped BaTiO 3 have been grown by high-temperature solution growth technique. The dopant has significant effect on the growth parameters and crystal properties. Bulk single crystals of dimensions 5×5×4 mm 3 have been grown with optimized growth conditions. Layer growth and vein-like structure patterns, indicative of 2D-nucleation mechanism, have been observed on the grown crystals. The dopant level in the grown crystals was estimated by EDX analysis. The crystals possess tetragonal structure and the tetragonality decreases for higher dopant concentration. Rh doping in BaTiO 3 leads to decrease in dielectric constant and Curie temperature ( Tc) values.

  4. Control of Process Operations and Monitoring of Product Qualities through Generic Model-based Framework in Crystallization Processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abdul Samad, Noor Asma Fazli Bin

    to generate the necessary problem-system specific model, the necessary set point using the extended analytical CSD estimator and the response surface method (RSM) and a PAT system design including implementation of monitoring tools and control strategies in order to produce a desired product with its......A generic and systematic model-based framework for the design of a process monitoring and control system to achieve the desired crystal size distribution (CSD) and crystal shape for a wide range of crystallization processes has been developed. This framework combines a generic multi......-based framework is divided into three sections: a) the application of the generic multi-dimensional modelling framework are highlighted: i) the capability to develop and further extend a batch cooling crystallization model is illustrated through a paracetamol case study, supplemented by a sucrose crystallization...

  5. BatchJS: Implementing Batches in JavaScript

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kasemier, D.

    2014-01-01

    None of our popular programming languages know how to handle distribution well. Yet our programs interact more and more with each other and our data resorts in databases and web services. Batches are a new addition to languages that can finally bring native support for distribution to our favourite

  6. Impact of cooling condition on the crystal structure and surface quality of preferred c-axis-oriented AIN films for SAW devices

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Geng-yu; YANG Bao-he; ZHAO Jian; LI Cui-ping; LI Ming-ji

    2011-01-01

    AIN films with preferred c-axis orientation are deposited on Si substrates using the radio frequency (RF) magnetron sputtering method. The post-processing is carried out under the cooling conditions including high vacuum, low vacuum under deposition gas ambient and low vacuum under dynamic N2 ambient. Structures and morphologies of the films are analyzed by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). The hardness and Young's modulus are investigated by the nanoindenter. The experimental results indicate that the (100) and (110) peak intensities decrease in the XRD spectra and the root-mean-square of roughness (Rrms) of the film decreases gradually with the increase of the cooling rate. The maximum values of the hardness and Young's modulus are obtained by cooling in low vacuum under deposition gas ambient. The reason for orientation variation of the films is explained from the perspective of the Al-N bond formation.

  7. The Influence of Cooling Rate During Crystallization on the Effective Partitioning Coefficient in High-Entropy Alloys from Al-Ti-Co-Ni-Fe System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Górecki, Kamil; Bala, Piotr; Cios, Grzegorz; Koziel, Tomasz; Stępień, Milena; Wieczerzak, Krzysztof

    2016-07-01

    An influence of two different cooling rates on the microstructure and dispersion of the components of high-entropy alloy from Al-Ti-Co-Ni-Fe system has been examined. For investigated alloys, the effective partitioning coefficient has been calculated. This factor indicates the degree of segregation of elements and allows for the specification of the differences between dendrites and interdendritic regions. The obtained results allow for the conclusion that the cooling rate substantially affect the growth of dendrites and the volume fraction of interdendritic regions as well as the partitioning of elements in the alloy. Furthermore, the obtained results made it possible to compare the influence of the cooling rate and the chemical composition on the dispersion of the alloying elements.

  8. Physicochemical Characteristics of Transferon™ Batches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilio Medina-Rivero

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Transferon, a biotherapeutic agent that has been used for the past 2 decades for diseases with an inflammatory component, has been approved by regulatory authorities in Mexico (COFEPRIS for the treatment of patients with herpes infection. The active pharmaceutical ingredient (API of Transferon is based on polydispersion of peptides that have been extracted from lysed human leukocytes by a dialysis process and a subsequent ultrafiltration step to select molecules below 10 kDa. To physicochemically characterize the drug product, we developed chromatographic methods and an SDS-PAGE approach to analyze the composition and the overall variability of Transferon. Reversed-phase chromatographic profiles of peptide populations demonstrated batch-to-batch consistency from 10 representative batches that harbored 4 primary peaks with a relative standard deviation (RSD of less than 7%. Aminogram profiles exhibited 17 proteinogenic amino acids and showed that glycine was the most abundant amino acid, with a relative content of approximately 18%. Further, based on their electrophoretic migration, the peptide populations exhibited a molecular mass of about 10 kDa. Finally, we determined the Transferon fingerprint using a mass spectrometry tool. Because each batch was produced from independent pooled buffy coat samples from healthy donors, supplied by a local blood bank, our results support the consistency of the production of Transferon and reveal its peptide identity with regard to its physicochemical attributes.

  9. Physicochemical Characteristics of Transferon™ Batches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Sánchez, Gilberto; Favari, Liliana; Estrada-Parra, Sergio

    2016-01-01

    Transferon, a biotherapeutic agent that has been used for the past 2 decades for diseases with an inflammatory component, has been approved by regulatory authorities in Mexico (COFEPRIS) for the treatment of patients with herpes infection. The active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) of Transferon is based on polydispersion of peptides that have been extracted from lysed human leukocytes by a dialysis process and a subsequent ultrafiltration step to select molecules below 10 kDa. To physicochemically characterize the drug product, we developed chromatographic methods and an SDS-PAGE approach to analyze the composition and the overall variability of Transferon. Reversed-phase chromatographic profiles of peptide populations demonstrated batch-to-batch consistency from 10 representative batches that harbored 4 primary peaks with a relative standard deviation (RSD) of less than 7%. Aminogram profiles exhibited 17 proteinogenic amino acids and showed that glycine was the most abundant amino acid, with a relative content of approximately 18%. Further, based on their electrophoretic migration, the peptide populations exhibited a molecular mass of about 10 kDa. Finally, we determined the Transferon fingerprint using a mass spectrometry tool. Because each batch was produced from independent pooled buffy coat samples from healthy donors, supplied by a local blood bank, our results support the consistency of the production of Transferon and reveal its peptide identity with regard to its physicochemical attributes. PMID:27525277

  10. NDA BATCH 2002-02

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory

    2009-12-09

    QC sample results (daily background checks, 20-gram and 100-gram SGS drum checks) were within acceptable criteria established by WIPP's Quality Assurance Objectives for TRU Waste Characterization. Replicate runs were performed on 5 drums with IDs LL85101099TRU, LL85801147TRU, LL85801109TRU, LL85300999TRU and LL85500979TRU. All replicate measurement results are identical at the 95% confidence level as established by WIPP criteria. Note that the batch covered 5 weeks of SGS measurements from 23-Jan-2002 through 22-Feb-2002. Data packet for SGS Batch 2002-02 generated using gamma spectroscopy with the Pu Facility SGS unit is technically reasonable. All QC samples are in compliance with established control limits. The batch data packet has been reviewed for correctness, completeness, consistency and compliance with WIPP's Quality Assurance Objectives and determined to be acceptable. An Expert Review was performed on the data packet between 28-Feb-02 and 09-Jul-02 to check for potential U-235, Np-237 and Am-241 interferences and address drum cases where specific scan segments showed Se gamma ray transmissions for the 136-keV gamma to be below 0.1 %. Two drums in the batch showed Pu-238 at a relative mass ratio more than 2% of all the Pu isotopes.

  11. Simulated Batch Production of Penicillin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitaker, A.; Walker, J. D.

    1973-01-01

    Describes a program in applied biology in which the simulation of the production of penicillin in a batch fermentor is used as a teaching technique to give students experience before handling a genuine industrial fermentation process. Details are given for the calculation of minimum production cost. (JR)

  12. Batching System for Superior Service

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-01-01

    Veridian's Portable Batch System (PBS) was the recipient of the 1997 NASA Space Act Award for outstanding software. A batch system is a set of processes for managing queues and jobs. Without a batch system, it is difficult to manage the workload of a computer system. By bundling the enterprise's computing resources, the PBS technology offers users a single coherent interface, resulting in efficient management of the batch services. Users choose which information to package into "containers" for system-wide use. PBS also provides detailed system usage data, a procedure not easily executed without this software. PBS operates on networked, multi-platform UNIX environments. Veridian's new version, PBS Pro,TM has additional features and enhancements, including support for additional operating systems. Veridian distributes the original version of PBS as Open Source software via the PBS website. Customers can register and download the software at no cost. PBS Pro is also available via the web and offers additional features such as increased stability, reliability, and fault tolerance.A company using PBS can expect a significant increase in the effective management of its computing resources. Tangible benefits include increased utilization of costly resources and enhanced understanding of computational requirements and user needs.

  13. Cool contrails

    OpenAIRE

    U. Schumann

    2012-01-01

    Contrails are cirrus clouds which warm or cool the Earth depending on flight route and weather. Hence, the climate impact of aviation can be minimised by avoiding warming contrails and allowing for cooling contrails by proper weather dependent route selection. This article summarises recent research results on this topic.

  14. NDA Batch 2002-13

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hollister, R

    2009-09-17

    QC sample results (daily background check drum and 100-gram SGS check drum) were within acceptance criteria established by WIPP's Quality Assurance Objectives for TRU Waste Characterization. Replicate runs were performed on drum LL85501243TRU. Replicate measurement results are identical at the 95% confidence level as established by WIPP criteria. HWM NCAR No. 02-1000168 issued on 17-Oct-2002 regarding a partially dislodged Cd sheet filter on the HPGe coaxial detector. This physical geometry occurred on 01-Oct-2002 and was not corrected until 10-Oct-2002, during which period is inclusive of the present batch run of drums. Per discussions among the Independent Technical Reviewer, Expert Reviewer and the Technical QA Supervisor, as well as in consultation with John Fleissner, Technical Point of Contact from Canberra, the analytical results are technically reliable. All QC standard runs during this period were in control. Data packet for SGS Batch 2002-13 generated using passive gamma-ray spectroscopy with the Pu Facility SGS unit is technically reasonable. All QC samples are in compliance with establiShed control limits. The batch data packet has been reviewed for correctness, completeness, consistency and compliance with WIPP's Quality Assurance Objectives and determined to be acceptable.

  15. Batch-oriented software appliances

    CERN Document Server

    Murri, Riccardo

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents AppPot, a system for creating Linux software appliances. AppPot can be run as a regular batch or grid job and executed in user space, and requires no special virtualization support in the infrastructure. The main design goal of AppPot is to bring the benefits of a virtualization-based IaaS cloud to existing batch-oriented computing infrastructures. In particular, AppPot addresses the application deployment and configuration on large heterogeneous computing infrastructures: users are enabled to prepare their own customized virtual appliance for providing a safe execution environment for their applications. These appliances can then be executed on virtually any computing infrastructure being in a private or public cloud as well as any batch-controlled computing clusters the user may have access to. We give an overview of AppPot and its features, the technology that makes it possible, and report on experiences running it in production use within the Swiss National Grid infrastructure SMSCG.

  16. Combinatorial Batch Codes with Redundancy

    OpenAIRE

    Jung, Jiyoon; Mummert, Carl; Niese, Elizabeth; Schroeder, Michael w.

    2015-01-01

    A combinatorial batch code with redundancy $r$ and parameters $(n,k,m,t)$ can be represented as a system $C$ of $m$ (not necessarily distinct) subsets of an underlying $n$-element set $F$, so that each $k$-subset of $F$ can be covered by every $(m-r)$-subset $K$ of $C$ while taking no more than $t$ elements of $F$ with each set in $K$. The sum of the cardinalities of the sets in $C$ is the weight of the code. We focus on the case $t =1$, and determine the minimal weight for several ranges of ...

  17. Cooling Vest

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-01-01

    Because quadriplegics are unable to perspire below the level of spinal injury, they cannot tolerate heat stress. A cooling vest developed by Ames Research Center and Upjohn Company allows them to participate in outdoor activities. The vest is an adaptation of Ames technology for thermal control garments used to remove excess body heat of astronauts. The vest consists of a series of corrugated channels through which cooled water circulates. Its two outer layers are urethane coated nylon, and there is an inner layer which incorporates the corrugated channels. It can be worn as a backpack or affixed to a wheelchair. The unit includes a rechargeable battery, mini-pump, two quart reservoir and heat sink to cool the water.

  18. Trapping and Sympathetic Cooling of Boron Ions

    CERN Document Server

    Rugango, Rene; Shu, Gang; Brown, Kenneth R

    2016-01-01

    We demonstrate the trapping and sympathetic cooling of B$^{+}$ ions in a Coulomb crystal of laser-cooled Ca$^{+}$, We non-destructively confirm the presence of the both B$^+$ isotopes by resonant excitation of the secular motion. The B$^{+}$ ions are loaded by ablation of boron and the secular excitation spectrum also reveals features consistent with ions of the form B$_{n}^{+}$.

  19. FRIT DEVELOPMENT FOR SLUDGE BATCH 6

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fox, K.; Edwards, T.; Zamecnik, J.

    2010-05-13

    The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) evaluated a large number of Sludge Batch 6 (SB6) composition projections to support frit optimization for SB6 vitrification at the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF). The evaluations discussed in this report occurred over a period of about 4 months, and included about 40 composition projections, developed by both Savannah River Remediation (SRR) and SRNL. Paper study assessments were used to evaluate the sludge composition projections with arrays of potential frit compositions using the predictive models in the DWPF Product Composition Control System (PCCS). Both nominal sludge compositions and sludge compositions with anticipated compositional variation were considered. The model predictions were used to identify candidate frit compositions for each SB6 projection and to provide some guidance to SRR on washing and blending strategies for SB6 preparation. This report presents a chronological review of this process and summarizes the findings at each stage. Following initial feedback from this work, the number of washes in Tank 51 was reduced to increase the projected sodium concentration in SB6. Analyses of predicted frit performance before and after a potential decant of Tank 40 showed that the post-decant SB6 composition would be difficult to process with any frit composition and that this scenario should be avoided. Based on the most recent SB6 projections (February 2010 SB6 composition projections developed at SRNL using the measured SB6 qualification sample composition and the revised Tank Farm washing plan), Frit 418 appears to be viable for SB6 processing at a target waste loading of 36%. A Nominal Stage PCCS Measurement Acceptability Region (MAR) assessment gave projected operating windows of 25-41% waste loading, limited by predictions of nepheline crystallization. The projected operating window is reduced to 25-38% waste loading when anticipated compositional variation is considered, again limited by

  20. Batch process design: an overview from control

    OpenAIRE

    Zuluaga Bedoya, Christian Camilo

    2015-01-01

    Abstract: batch process design: an overview from control In this work, the topic of batch process design is addressed, through an analysis of the phenomenological-based model and using set-theoretic methods to deduce process constraints and parametric effects in state controllability. A review of literature is presented about characterization of batch process from point of view of design problem. Furthermore simultaneous process and control design is also reviewed, considering the main contri...

  1. Cooling towers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper investigates the internal elements of the typical types of cooling towers currently used, delineates their functions and shows how to upgrade them in the real world for energy savings and profitability of operation. Before and after statistics of costs and profits obtained through optimization of colder water by engineered thermal upgrading are discussed

  2. Cooler for obtaining crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cabric, B.; Danilovic, N. [Faculty of Sciences, P.O. Box 60, 34000 Kragujevac (RS); Pavlovic, T. [Faculty of Sciences, P.O. Box 224, 18000 Nis (RS)

    2011-03-15

    A modular air-cooled tube, with a series of movable Tamman test tubes or plugs (modular unilateral and bilateral ''crystallization comb''), installed in a laboratory tube furnace is presented. The setup allows easy regulation and simultaneous crystallization tests of a series of different crystallization parameters in crucible columns, enabling rapid acquisition of crystals. The relationship between the crystallization parameters has been given and numerically analyzed. This method can also be applied in crucible and chamber furnaces. (copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  3. A very cool cooling system

    CERN Multimedia

    Antonella Del Rosso

    2015-01-01

    The NA62 Gigatracker is a jewel of technology: its sensor, which delivers the time of the crossing particles with a precision of less than 200 picoseconds (better than similar LHC detectors), has a cooling system that might become the precursor to a completely new detector technique.   The 115 metre long vacuum tank of the NA62 experiment. The NA62 Gigatracker (GTK) is composed of a set of three innovative silicon pixel detectors, whose job is to measure the arrival time and the position of the incoming beam particles. Installed in the heart of the NA62 detector, the silicon sensors are cooled down (to about -20 degrees Celsius) by a microfluidic silicon device. “The cooling system is needed to remove the heat produced by the readout chips the silicon sensor is bonded to,” explains Alessandro Mapelli, microsystems engineer working in the Physics department. “For the NA62 Gigatracker we have designed a cooling plate on top of which both the silicon sensor and the...

  4. Workshop on beam cooling and related topics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The sessions of the Workshop on Beam Cooling and Related Topics, held in Montreux from 4-8 October 1993, are reported in these Proceedings. This meeting brought together international experts in the field of accelerator beam cooling. Its purpose was to discuss the status of the different cooling techniques currently in use (stochastic, electron, ionization, heavy-ion, and laser) and their actual performances, technological implications, and future prospects. Certain theoretical principles (muon cooling, cyclotron maser cooling) were discussed and are reported on in these Proceedings. Also of interest in this Workshop was the possibility of beam crystallization in accelerators using ultimate cooling. In the first part of these Proceedings, overview talks on the various cooling techniques, their implications, present performance, and future prospects are presented. More detailed reports on all the topics are then given in the form of oral presentations or poster sessions. Finally, the chairmen and/or convenors then present summary talks. (orig.)

  5. Operation of a Batch Stripping Distillation Column

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    A stripping batch distillation column is preferred when the amount of the light component in the feed is small and the products are to be recovered at high purity. The operation modes of a batch stripping are believed to be the same as those of a rectifier. However, the control system of a stripper is different. In this paper, we explore three different control methods with Hysys (Hyprotech Ltd. 1997) for a batch stripper. The main difference is the control scheme for reboiler liquid level: (a) controlled by reflux flow; (b) controlled by reboiler heat duty; (c) controlled by bottom product flow. The main characteristics of operating a batch stripper with different control scheme are presented in this paper. Guidelines are provided for the startup of a batch stripper, the effects of somecontrol tuning parameters on the column performance are discussed.

  6. Analysis and modelling of the energy consumption of chemical batch plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bieler, P.S.

    2004-07-01

    This report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) describes two different approaches for the energy analysis and modelling of chemical batch plants. A top-down model consisting of a linear equation based on the specific energy consumption per ton of production output and the base consumption of the plant is postulated. The model is shown to be applicable to single and multi-product batches for batch plants with constant production mix and multi-purpose batch plants in which only similar chemicals are produced. For multipurpose batch plants with highly varying production processes and changing production mix, the top-down model produced inaccurate results. A bottom-up model is postulated for such plants. The results obtained are discussed that show that the electricity consumption for infrastructure equipment was significant and responsible for about 50% of total electricity consumption. The specific energy consumption for the different buildings was related to the degree of automation and the production processes. Analyses of the results of modelling are presented. More detailed analyses of the energy consumption of this apparatus group show that about 30 to 40% of steam energy is lost and thus a large potential for optimisation exists. Various potentials for making savings, ranging from elimination of reflux conditions to the development of a new heating/cooling-system for a generic batch reactor, are identified.

  7. Batch process. Changes and problems of a batch process; Bacchi prosesu no hensen to kadai

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niwa, T. [Asahi Engineering (Japan)

    1997-09-05

    One of the characteristics of the manufacture of fine chemical products is multikind production. The life cycles of chemical industrial products have become shorter, and the difference between these life cycles and those of the manufacturing facility has become larger. The use of an FMS (Flexible Manufacturing System) has been demanded as the measure for solving the problems, and the advantages of a batch process have begun to be reconsidered. This paper describes the history of the development of a batch process, and then explains the problems of a batch process. The paper mentions the process control techniques, production information control systems, production support systems, training systems and process simulation systems as the main techniques supporting the development of a batch process. The paper mentions the modeling and standardizing of a batch process, systematic batch process designing methods and the modeling of a production control information system as the problems of a batch process. 8 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  8. Cool snacks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grunert, Klaus G; Brock, Steen; Brunsø, Karen;

    2016-01-01

    such a product requires an interdisciplinary effort where researchers with backgrounds in psychology, anthropology, media science, philosophy, sensory science and food science join forces. We present the COOL SNACKS project, where such a blend of competences was used first to obtain thorough insight into young...... people's snacking behaviour and then to develop and test new, healthier snacking solutions. These new snacking solutions were tested and found to be favourably accepted by young people. The paper therefore provides a proof of principle that the development of snacks that are both healthy and attractive...

  9. Cool snacks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grunert, Klaus G; Brock, Steen; brunsø, karen;

    2016-01-01

    product requires an interdisciplinary effort where researchers with backgrounds in psychology, anthropology, media science, philosophy, sensory science and food science join forces. We present the COOL SNACKS project, where such a blend of competences was used first to obtain thorough insight into young...... people's snacking behaviour and then to develop and test new, healthier snacking solutions. These new snacking solutions were tested and found to be favourably accepted by young people. The paper therefore provides a proof of principle that the development of snacks that are both healthy and attractive...

  10. LSF usage for batch at CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    Schwickerath, Ulrich

    2007-01-01

    Contributed poster to the CHEP07. Original abstract: LSF 7, the latest version of Platform's batch workload management system, addresses many issues which limited the ability of LSF 6.1 to support large scale batch farms, such as the lxbatch service at CERN. In this paper we will present the status of the evaluation and deployment of LSF 7 at CERN, including issues concerning the integration of LSF 7 with the gLite grid middleware suite and, in particular, the steps taken to endure an efficient reporting of the local batch system status and usage to the Grid Information System

  11. ATLAS - Liquid Cooling Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Bonneau, P.

    1998-01-01

    Photo 1 - Cooling Unit - Side View Photo 2 - Cooling Unit - Detail Manifolds Photo 3 - Cooling Unit - Rear View Photo 4 - Cooling Unit - Detail Pump, Heater and Exchanger Photo 5 - Cooling Unit - Detail Pump and Fridge Photo 6 - Cooling Unit - Front View

  12. Batch process. Application of CAE technique to a batch process; Bacchi purosesu eno CAE gijutsu no tenkai

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Y.; Nakai, K.; Oba, S. [Aspentic Japan Co. Ltd. (Japan)

    1997-09-05

    This paper introduces recent topics of the application of the CAE technique to a batch process. A batch distillation modeling tool (BATCHFRAC) is aimed at modeling a distillation tower and a batch reactor for a batch process for fine chemical products, and is provided as an expanded additional function for ASPEN FLUS batch distillation. A batch process designing system (BATCH PLUS) is a comprehensive batch process simulator for efficiently carrying out the designing, the development or the analysis of a complicated recipe-based batch process concerning medical treatment, biotechnology and agriculture. A batch process information control system (Batch/21) is provided as a system having an expanded and additional function for a batch process of InfoPlus/21, an information control system which enables the observation, management and controlling of a process. 4 figs.

  13. Cool visitors

    CERN Document Server

    2006-01-01

    Pictured, from left to right: Tim Izo (saxophone, flute, guitar), Bobby Grant (tour manager), George Pajon (guitar). What do the LHC and a world-famous hip-hop group have in common? They are cool! On Saturday, 1st July, before their appearance at the Montreux Jazz Festival, three members of the 'Black Eyed Peas' came on a surprise visit to CERN, inspired by Dan Brown's Angels and Demons. At short notice, Connie Potter (Head of the ATLAS secretariat) organized a guided tour of ATLAS and the AD 'antimatter factory'. Still curious, lead vocalist Will.I.Am met CERN physicist Rolf Landua after the concert to ask many more questions on particles, CERN, and the origin of the Universe.

  14. Phononic crystal devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Kady, Ihab F.; Olsson, Roy H.

    2012-01-10

    Phononic crystals that have the ability to modify and control the thermal black body phonon distribution and the phonon component of heat transport in a solid. In particular, the thermal conductivity and heat capacity can be modified by altering the phonon density of states in a phononic crystal. The present invention is directed to phononic crystal devices and materials such as radio frequency (RF) tags powered from ambient heat, dielectrics with extremely low thermal conductivity, thermoelectric materials with a higher ratio of electrical-to-thermal conductivity, materials with phononically engineered heat capacity, phononic crystal waveguides that enable accelerated cooling, and a variety of low temperature application devices.

  15. Multi-objective optimization of glycopeptide antibiotic production in batch and fed batch processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maiti, Soumen K.; Eliasson Lantz, Anna; Bhushan, Mani;

    2011-01-01

    as pareto optimal solutions. These solutions gives flexibility in evaluating the trade-offs and selecting the most suitable operating policy. Here, ε-constraint approach was used to generate the pareto solutions for two objectives: product concentration and product per unit cost of media, for batch and fed...... batch operations using process model for Amycolatopsis balhimycina, a glycopeptide antibiotic producer. This resulted in a set of several pareto optimal solutions with the two objectives ranging from (0.75gl−1, 3.97g$-1) to (0.44gl−1, 5.19g$-1) for batch and from (1.5gl−1, 5.46g$-1) to (1.1gl−1, 6.34g......$-1) for fed batch operations. One pareto solution each for batch and for fed batch mode was experimentally validated....

  16. Cooling off with physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clarke, Chris [Unilever R and D (United Kingdom)

    2003-08-01

    You might think of ice cream as a delicious treat to be enjoyed on a sunny summer's day. However, to the ice-cream scientists who recently gathered in Thessaloniki in Greece for the 2nd International Ice Cream Symposium, it is a complex composite material. Ice cream consists of three dispersed phases: ice crystals, which have a mean size of 50 microns, air bubbles with a diameter of about 70 microns, and fat droplets with a size of 1 micron. These phases are held together by what is called the matrix - not a sci-fi film, but a viscous solution of sugars, milk proteins and polysaccharides. The microstructure, and hence the texture that you experience when you eat ice cream, is created in a freezing process that has remained fundamentally unchanged since the first ice-cream maker was patented in the 1840s. The ingredients - water, milk protein, fat, sugar, emulsifiers, stabilizers, flavours and a lot of air - are mixed together before being pasteurized and homogenized. They are then pumped into a cylinder that is cooled from the outside with a refrigerant. As the mixture touches the cylinder wall it freezes and forms ice crystals, which are quickly scraped off by a rotating blade. The blade is attached to a beater that disperses the ice crystals into the mixture. At the same time, air is injected and broken down into small bubbles by the shear that the beater generates. As the mixture passes along the cylinder, the number of ice crystals increases and its temperature drops. As a result, the viscosity of the mixture increases, so that more energy input is needed to rotate the beater. This energy is dissipated as heat, and when the ice cream reaches about -6 deg. C the energy input through the beater equals the energy removed as heat by the refrigerant. The process therefore becomes self-limiting and it is not possible to cool the ice cream any further. However, at -6 deg. C the microstructure is unstable. The ice cream therefore has to be removed from the freezer

  17. TIME-TEMPERATURE-TRANSFORMATION DIAGRAMS FOR THE SLUDGE BATCH 3 - FRIT 418 GLASS SYSTEM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Billings, A; Tommy Edwards, T

    2009-03-03

    As a part of the Waste Acceptance Product Specifications (WAPS) for Vitrified High-Level Waste Forms defined by the Department of Energy - Office of Environmental Management, the phase stability must be determined for each of the projected high-level waste (HLW) types at the Savannah River Site (SRS). Specifically, WAPS 1.4.1 requires the glass transition temperature (Tg) to be defined and time-temperature-transformation (TTT) diagrams to be developed. The Tg of a glass is an indicator of the approximate temperature where the supercooled liquid converts to a solid on cooling or conversely, where the solid begins to behave as a viscoelastic solid on heating. A TTT diagram identifies the crystalline phases that can form as a function of time and temperature for a given waste type or more specifically, the borosilicate glass waste form. In order to assess durability, the Product Consistency Test (PCT) was used and the durability results compared to the Environmental Assessment (EA) glass. The measurement of glass transition temperature and the development of TTT diagrams have already been performed for the seven Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) projected compositions as defined in the Waste Form Compliance Plan (WCP). These measurements were performed before DWPF start-up and the results were incorporated in Volume 7 of the Waste Form Qualification Report (WQR). Additional information exists for other projected compositions, but overall these compositions did not consider some of the processing scenarios now envisioned for DWPF to accelerate throughput. Changes in DWPF processing strategy have required this WAPS specification to be revisited to ensure that the resulting phases have been bounded. Frit 418 was primarily used to process HLW Sludge Batch 3 (SB3) at 38% waste loading (WL) through the DWPF. The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) fabricated a cache of glass from reagent grade oxides to simulate the SB3-Frit 418 system at a 38 wt % WL for glass

  18. A crystal barrel

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    The production of crystals for the barrel of the CMS electromagnetic calorimeter has been completed. This is an important milestone for the experiment, which received the last of its 62,960 crystals on 9 March. The members of the team responsible for the crystal acceptance testing at CERN display the last crystal for the CMS electromagnetic calorimeter barrel. From left to right: Igor Tarasov, Etiennette Auffray and Hervé Cornet.One of the six machines specially developed to measure 67 different parameters on each crystal. Igor Tarasov is seen inserting the last batch of crystals into the machine. The last of the 62,960 CMS barrel crystals arrived at CERN on 9 March. Once removed from its polystyrene protection, this delicate crystal, like thousands of its predecessors, will be inserted into the last of the 36 supermodules of the barrel electromagnetic calorimeter in a few days' time. This marks the end of an important chapter in an almost 15-year-long journey by the CMS crystals team, some of whose member...

  19. Conduction cooled high temperature superconducting dipole magnet for accelerator applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zangenberg, N.; Nielsen, G.; Hauge, N.;

    2012-01-01

    impregnated with epoxy and mounted between a support of stainless steel and a collar made from aluminum. The cold mass consisting of the coil assembly and a laminated steel yoke is cooled by two cryocoolers from via copper bars to below 20 K. Current leads were made from the same batch of HTS tape. Cryogen...

  20. Applying prior knowledge to model batch keeping-quality of cucumber batches

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schouten, R.E.; Tijskens, L.M.M.; Kooten, van O.; Jongbloed, G.

    2004-01-01

    Keeping-quality of individual cucumbers is limited by the green colour; the keeping-quality of batches of cucumbers is limited by the time it takes before 5␘f the cucumbers in the batch reach a predefined colour limit. From literature concerning the synthesis and degradation of chlorophyll and a pub

  1. Quality and Batch-to-Batch Consistency of Original and Biosimilar Epoetin Products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halim, Liem Andhyk; Brinks, Vera; Jiskoot, Wim; Romeijn, Stefan; Haselberg, Rob; Burns, Chris; Wadhwa, Meenu; Schellekens, Huub

    2016-02-01

    Comprehensive physicochemical characterization and biological assays are essential parts in assessing quality attributes of biologicals. Here, we compared the quality of different marketed recombinant human erythropoietin (epoetin) products: originators, Eprex and NeoRecormon as well as 2 biosimilars, Retacrit and Binocrit. In addition, assessment of batch-to-batch variability was included by collecting 2 or more batches of each product. Common assays which included sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, high-performance size-exclusion chromatography, asymmetrical flow field-flow fractionation, capillary zone electrophoresis, and potency testing were used. Of the tested products and among batches of single products, variations in epoetin content, isoform profiles, and potency were found. Ultimately, this study demonstrated the high quality of epoetin products with some degree of variation among products and batches, confirming the "similar but not identical" paradigm of biologicals. PMID:26869417

  2. Dynamic Fractional Resource Scheduling vs. Batch Scheduling

    CERN Document Server

    Casanova, Henri; Vivien, Frédéric

    2011-01-01

    We propose a novel job scheduling approach for homogeneous cluster computing platforms. Its key feature is the use of virtual machine technology to share fractional node resources in a precise and controlled manner. Other VM-based scheduling approaches have focused primarily on technical issues or on extensions to existing batch scheduling systems, while we take a more aggressive approach and seek to find heuristics that maximize an objective metric correlated with job performance. We derive absolute performance bounds and develop algorithms for the online, non-clairvoyant version of our scheduling problem. We further evaluate these algorithms in simulation against both synthetic and real-world HPC workloads and compare our algorithms to standard batch scheduling approaches. We find that our approach improves over batch scheduling by orders of magnitude in terms of job stretch, while leading to comparable or better resource utilization. Our results demonstrate that virtualization technology coupled with light...

  3. Exploring the Transition From Batch to Online

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Anker Helms

    2010-01-01

    The transition from using computers in batch mode with punch cards, paper tape, piles of print, and lengthy response times to online mode by way of the video display terminal took place in most organizations in the 1970s and 1980s. The video display terminal was a significant forerunner of the tr......The transition from using computers in batch mode with punch cards, paper tape, piles of print, and lengthy response times to online mode by way of the video display terminal took place in most organizations in the 1970s and 1980s. The video display terminal was a significant forerunner...... structures, and acquire new skills. This work-in-progress paper extends an earlier study of the transition from batch to online, based on oral history interviews with (ex)-employees in two large Danish Service Bureaus. The paper takes the next step by ana-lyzing a particular genre: the commercial computer...

  4. Following an Optimal Batch Bioreactor Operations Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ibarra-Junquera, V.; Jørgensen, Sten Bay; Virgen-Ortíz, J.J.;

    2012-01-01

    The problem of following an optimal batch operation model for a bioreactor in the presence of uncertainties is studied. The optimal batch bioreactor operation model (OBBOM) refers to the bioreactor trajectory for nominal cultivation to be optimal. A multiple-variable dynamic optimization of fed...... as the master system which includes the optimal cultivation trajectory for the feed flow rate and the substrate concentration. The “real” bioreactor, the one with unknown dynamics and perturbations, is considered as the slave system. Finally, the controller is designed such that the real bioreactor...

  5. Thin-Film Evaporative Cooling for Side-Pumped Laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Brian K. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    A system and method are provided for cooling a crystal rod of a side-pumped laser. A transparent housing receives the crystal rod therethrough so that an annular gap is defined between the housing and the radial surface of the crystal rod. A fluid coolant is injected into the annular gap such the annular gap is partially filled with the fluid coolant while the radial surface of the crystal rod is wetted as a thin film all along the axial length thereof.

  6. Environmental compatible cooling water treatment chemicals; Umweltvertraegliche Chemikalien in der Kuehlwasserkonditionierung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gartiser, S.; Urich, E.

    2002-02-01

    In Germany about 32 billion m{sup 3}/a cooling water are discharged from industrial plants and power industry. These are conditioned partly with biocides, scaling and corrosion inhibitors. Within the research project the significance of cooling water chemicals was evaluated, identifying the chemicals from product information, calculating their loads from consumption data of more than 180 cooling plants and investigating the basic data needed for an environmental hazard assessment. Additionally the effects of cooling water samples and products were determined in biological test systems. Batch tests were performed under defined conditions in order to measure the inactivation of cooling water biocides. (orig.)

  7. Influence of pH and method of crystallization on the solid physical form of indomethacin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubbini, Alessandra; Censi, Roberta; Martena, Valentina; Hoti, Ela; Ricciutelli, Massimo; Malaj, Ledjan; Di Martino, Piera

    2014-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of pH and method of crystallization on the solid physical form of indomethacin (IDM). IDM, a non steroidal anti-inflammatory drug poorly soluble in water, underwent two different crystallization methods: crystallization by solvent evaporation under reduced pressure at 50.0°C (method A), and crystallization by cooling of solution from 50.0 to 5.0°C (method B). In both cases, several aqueous ethanolic solutions of IDM of different pHs were prepared. pHs were adjusted by adding acidic solutions (HCl 2M) or alkali (NaOH or NH4OH 2M) to an aqueous ethanolic solution of IDM. Thus, several batches were recovered after crystallization. The chemical stability of IDM was verified through (1)H NMR and mass spectroscopy (FIA-ESI-MS), that revealed that IDM degraded in strong alkali media (pH ≥ 12). Crystals obtained under different crystallization conditions at pHs of 1.0, 4.5, 7.0, 8.0, 10.0 and chemically stable were thus characterized for crystal habit by scanning electron microscopy, for thermal behaviour by differential scanning calorimetry, and thermogravimetry, and for solid state by X-ray powder diffractometry. Under the Method A, IDM always crystallized into pure metastable alpha form when solutions were acidified or alkalized respectively with HCl and NH4OH. On the contrary, in presence of NaOH, IDM crystallized under a mixture of alpha and sodium trihydrate form, because the presence of the sodium counter ion orientates the crystallization towards the formation of the trihydrate salt. Under the method B, at pH of 1.0, IDM crystallized under the alpha form; at pH 4.5, IDM crystallized under the form alpha in presence of some nuclei of gamma form; at pH 7.0, 8.0, and 10.0 for NH4OH, IDM crystallized under the most stable polymorph gamma form, whereas in presence of NaOH, a mix of alpha, and salt forms was formed whatever the pH of the solution.

  8. Influence of pH and method of crystallization on the solid physical form of indomethacin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubbini, Alessandra; Censi, Roberta; Martena, Valentina; Hoti, Ela; Ricciutelli, Massimo; Malaj, Ledjan; Di Martino, Piera

    2014-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of pH and method of crystallization on the solid physical form of indomethacin (IDM). IDM, a non steroidal anti-inflammatory drug poorly soluble in water, underwent two different crystallization methods: crystallization by solvent evaporation under reduced pressure at 50.0°C (method A), and crystallization by cooling of solution from 50.0 to 5.0°C (method B). In both cases, several aqueous ethanolic solutions of IDM of different pHs were prepared. pHs were adjusted by adding acidic solutions (HCl 2M) or alkali (NaOH or NH4OH 2M) to an aqueous ethanolic solution of IDM. Thus, several batches were recovered after crystallization. The chemical stability of IDM was verified through (1)H NMR and mass spectroscopy (FIA-ESI-MS), that revealed that IDM degraded in strong alkali media (pH ≥ 12). Crystals obtained under different crystallization conditions at pHs of 1.0, 4.5, 7.0, 8.0, 10.0 and chemically stable were thus characterized for crystal habit by scanning electron microscopy, for thermal behaviour by differential scanning calorimetry, and thermogravimetry, and for solid state by X-ray powder diffractometry. Under the Method A, IDM always crystallized into pure metastable alpha form when solutions were acidified or alkalized respectively with HCl and NH4OH. On the contrary, in presence of NaOH, IDM crystallized under a mixture of alpha and sodium trihydrate form, because the presence of the sodium counter ion orientates the crystallization towards the formation of the trihydrate salt. Under the method B, at pH of 1.0, IDM crystallized under the alpha form; at pH 4.5, IDM crystallized under the form alpha in presence of some nuclei of gamma form; at pH 7.0, 8.0, and 10.0 for NH4OH, IDM crystallized under the most stable polymorph gamma form, whereas in presence of NaOH, a mix of alpha, and salt forms was formed whatever the pH of the solution. PMID:25064728

  9. Performance enhancement of solar module by cooling: An experimental investigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P G Nikhil, M Premalatha

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The study evaluates the silicone oil cooling of the solar module surface. Solar module with maximum power of 7W was employed for cooling. This paper summarizes the result of an outdoor experiment. The experiments were conducted in batch mode, with the cooling medium spread on the module surface at different thickness from 0mm to 6mm. The performance of the module, throughout the day, for different thickness of the medium is reported. The study also presents a mathematical model, predicting the variation of the maximum power when the module surface is cooled using silicone oil. The results of the equation model are compared and validated with the experimental as well as with results reported in the earlier works. The cooling contributes to appreciable improvement in the module efficiency to above 20%.

  10. Thermal and structural finite element analysis of water cooled silicon monochromator for synchrotron radiation comparison of two different cooling schemes

    CERN Document Server

    Artemiev, A I; Busetto, E; Hrdy, J; Mrazek, D; Plesek, I; Savoia, A

    2001-01-01

    The article describes the results of Finite Element Analysis (FEA) of the first Si monochromator crystal distortions due to Synchrotron Radiation (SR) heat load and consequent analysis of the influence of the distortions on a double crystal monochromator performance. Efficiencies of two different cooling schemes are compared. A thin plate of Si crystal is lying on copper cooling support in both cases. There are microchannels inside the cooling support. In the first model the direction of the microchannels is parallel to the diffraction plane. In the second model the direction of the microchannels is perpendicular to the diffraction plane or in other words, it is a conventional cooling scheme. It is shown that the temperature field along the crystal volume is more uniform and more symmetrical in the first model than in the second (conventional) one.

  11. Hybrid radiator cooling system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    France, David M.; Smith, David S.; Yu, Wenhua; Routbort, Jules L.

    2016-03-15

    A method and hybrid radiator-cooling apparatus for implementing enhanced radiator-cooling are provided. The hybrid radiator-cooling apparatus includes an air-side finned surface for air cooling; an elongated vertically extending surface extending outwardly from the air-side finned surface on a downstream air-side of the hybrid radiator; and a water supply for selectively providing evaporative cooling with water flow by gravity on the elongated vertically extending surface.

  12. Monte Carlo simulation on kinetics of batch and semi-batch free radical polymerization

    KAUST Repository

    Shao, Jing

    2015-10-27

    Based on Monte Carlo simulation technology, we proposed a hybrid routine which combines reaction mechanism together with coarse-grained molecular simulation to study the kinetics of free radical polymerization. By comparing with previous experimental and simulation studies, we showed the capability of our Monte Carlo scheme on representing polymerization kinetics in batch and semi-batch processes. Various kinetics information, such as instant monomer conversion, molecular weight, and polydispersity etc. are readily calculated from Monte Carlo simulation. The kinetic constants such as polymerization rate k p is determined in the simulation without of “steady-state” hypothesis. We explored the mechanism for the variation of polymerization kinetics those observed in previous studies, as well as polymerization-induced phase separation. Our Monte Carlo simulation scheme is versatile on studying polymerization kinetics in batch and semi-batch processes.

  13. The initial cooling of pahoehoe flow lobes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keszthelyi, L.; Denlinger, R.

    1996-01-01

    In this paper we describe a new thermal model for the initial cooling of pahoehoe lava flows. The accurate modeling of this initial cooling is important for understanding the formation of the distinctive surface textures on pahoehoe lava flows as well as being the first step in modeling such key pahoehoe emplacement processes as lava flow inflation and lava tube formation. This model is constructed from the physical phenomena observed to control the initial cooling of pahoehoe flows and is not an empirical fit to field data. We find that the only significant processes are (a) heat loss by thermal radiation, (b) heat loss by atmospheric convection, (c) heat transport within the flow by conduction with temperature and porosity-dependent thermal properties, and (d) the release of latent heat during crystallization. The numerical model is better able to reproduce field measurements made in Hawai'i between 1989 and 1993 than other published thermal models. By adjusting one parameter at a time, the effect of each of the input parameters on the cooling rate was determined. We show that: (a) the surfaces of porous flows cool more quickly than the surfaces of dense flows, (b) the surface cooling is very sensitive to the efficiency of atmospheric convective cooling, and (c) changes in the glass forming tendency of the lava may have observable petrographic and thermal signatures. These model results provide a quantitative explanation for the recently observed relationship between the surface cooling rate of pahoehoe lobes and the porosity of those lobes (Jones 1992, 1993). The predicted sensitivity of cooling to atmospheric convection suggests a simple field experiment for verification, and the model provides a tool to begin studies of the dynamic crystallization of real lavas. Future versions of the model can also be made applicable to extraterrestrial, submarine, silicic, and pyroclastic flows.

  14. Batch process. Optimum designing and operation of a batch process; Bacchi purosesu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hasebe, S. [Kyoto Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1997-09-05

    Since the control of a batch process becomes dynamic, it becomes necessary to handle the process differently from a continuous process in terms of the designing, operating and controlling of the process. This paper describes the characteristics and the problems to be solved of a batch process from three points of view, the designing, operation and controlling of the process. A major problem of a batch process is the designing difficulty. In a batch process, the amount of products capable of being manufactured per unit time by each apparatus and that by the whole plant structured by combining apparatuses are different, and therefore the time and apparatus capacity are wasted in some cases. The actual designing of a batch process involves various factors, such as the seasonal fluctuation of demand for products, the possibility of expanding the apparatuses in the future and the easiness of controlling the process, and the shipment of products during consecutive holidays and periodic maintenance, which are not included in the formulation of mathematical programming problems. Regarding the optimum operation of a batch process and the controlling of the same, descriptions of forming of a dynamic optimum operation pattern and verification of the sequence control system are given. 9 refs., 4 figs.

  15. Batch and fed-batch production of butyric acid by Clostridium butyricum ZJUCB

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HE Guo-qing; KONG Qing; CHEN Qi-he; RUAN Hui

    2005-01-01

    The production of butyric acid by Clostridium butyricum ZJUCB at various pH values was investigated. In order to study the effect of pH on cell growth, butyric acid biosynthesis and reducing sugar consumption, different cultivation pH values ranging from 6.0 to 7.5 were evaluated in 5-L bioreactor. In controlled pH batch fermentation, the optimum pH for cell growth and butyric acid production was 6.5 with a cell yield of 3.65 g/L and butyric acid yield of 12.25 g/L. Based on these results, this study then compared batch and fed-batch fermentation of butyric acid production at pH 6.5. Maximum value (16.74 g/L) of butyric acid concentration was obtained in fed-batch fermentation compared to 12.25 g/L in batch fermentation. It was concluded that cultivation under fed-batch fermentation mode could enhance butyric acid production significantly (P<0.01) by C. butyricum ZJUCB.

  16. Using Forensics to Untangle Batch Effects in TCGA Data - TCGA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehan Akbani, Ph.D., and colleagues at the University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center developed a tool called MBatch to detect, diagnose, and correct batch effects in TCGA data. Read more about batch effects in this Case Study.

  17. Optimal operation of batch membrane processes

    CERN Document Server

    Paulen, Radoslav

    2016-01-01

    This study concentrates on a general optimization of a particular class of membrane separation processes: those involving batch diafiltration. Existing practices are explained and operational improvements based on optimal control theory are suggested. The first part of the book introduces the theory of membrane processes, optimal control and dynamic optimization. Separation problems are defined and mathematical models of batch membrane processes derived. The control theory focuses on problems of dynamic optimization from a chemical-engineering point of view. Analytical and numerical methods that can be exploited to treat problems of optimal control for membrane processes are described. The second part of the text builds on this theoretical basis to establish solutions for membrane models of increasing complexity. Each chapter starts with a derivation of optimal operation and continues with case studies exemplifying various aspects of the control problems under consideration. The authors work their way from th...

  18. Predictive functional control of temperature in a pharmaceutical hybrid nonlinear batch reactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Štampar Simon

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available These days, in times of recession, we are forced by competitiveness and the optimization of production to lower the costs of the temperature control in pharmaceutical batch reactors and increase the quantity and quality of the produced pharmaceutical product (active pharmaceutical substances. Therefore, a control algorithm is needed which provides us rapid and precise temperature control. This paper deals with the development of a control algorithm, where two predictive functional controllers are connected in a cascade for heating and cooling the content of the hybrid batch reactor. The algorithm has to be designed to cope with the constraints and the mixed discrete and continuous nature of the process of heating and cooling. The main goal of the control law is to achieve rapid and exact tracking of the reference temperature, good disturbance rejection and, in particular, a small number of heating and cooling medium switchings. The simulation results of the proposed algorithm give us much better performance compared to a conventional cascade PI algorithm.

  19. Pollution prevention applications in batch manufacturing operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sykes, Derek W.; O'Shaughnessy, James

    2004-02-01

    Older, "low-tech" batch manufacturing operations are often fertile grounds for gains resulting from pollution prevention techniques. This paper presents a pollution prevention technique utilized for wastewater discharge permit compliance purposes at a batch manufacturer of detergents, deodorants, and floor-care products. This manufacturer generated industrial wastewater as a result of equipment rinses required after each product batch changeover. After investing a significant amount of capital on end of pip-line wastewater treatment technology designed to address existing discharge limits, this manufacturer chose to investigate alternate, low-cost approaches to address anticipated new permit limits. Mass balances using spreadsheets and readily available formulation and production data were conducted on over 300 products to determine how each individual product contributed to the total wastewater pollutant load. These mass balances indicated that 22 products accounted for over 55% of the wastewater pollutant. Laboratory tests were conducted to determine whether these same products could accept their individual changeover rinse water as make-up water in formulations without sacrificing product quality. This changeover reuse technique was then implement at the plant scale for selected products. Significant reductions in wastewater volume (25%) and wastewater pollutant loading (85+%) were realized as a direct result of this approach.

  20. Fabrication of spherical fuel element for 10 MW high temperature gas-cooled reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cold quasi-isostatic molding with a silicon rubber die was used for manufacturing the spherical fuel elements of 10 MW high temperature gas-cooled reactor. 44 batches of fuel elements, about 20540 of the fuel elements, were produced. The cold properties of the graphite matrix materials satisfies the design specifications. The mean free uranium fraction in spherical fuel element from 44 batches is 4.57 x 10-5, certified products is 99%

  1. 40 CFR 63.1321 - Batch process vents provisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 11 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Batch process vents provisions. 63.1321... Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutant Emissions: Group IV Polymers and Resins § 63.1321 Batch process vents provisions. (a) Batch process vents. Except as specified in paragraphs (b) through (d) of this...

  2. PHYSICS UPDATE: Production of artificial snow crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kagawa, S.; Ito, F.; Kagawa, K.

    1999-03-01

    Artificial snow crystals can be produced by a fairly simple method in a small closed cylindrical chamber made by combining an aluminium tube and a plastic tube. The chamber is set horizontally at room temperature and the end of the aluminium tube is cooled by dry ice. Water vapour is supplied by a diffusion process from the end of the plastic tube for a suitable time after cooling. The snow crystals are formed on a black sheet inside the end of the aluminium tube. The artificial snow crystals were observed at room temperature using our partial cooling method.

  3. Semiautomated, Reproducible Batch Processing of Soy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thoerne, Mary; Byford, Ivan W.; Chastain, Jack W.; Swango, Beverly E.

    2005-01-01

    A computer-controlled apparatus processes batches of soybeans into one or more of a variety of food products, under conditions that can be chosen by the user and reproduced from batch to batch. Examples of products include soy milk, tofu, okara (an insoluble protein and fiber byproduct of soy milk), and whey. Most processing steps take place without intervention by the user. This apparatus was developed for use in research on processing of soy. It is also a prototype of other soy-processing apparatuses for research, industrial, and home use. Prior soy-processing equipment includes household devices that automatically produce soy milk but do not automatically produce tofu. The designs of prior soy-processing equipment require users to manually transfer intermediate solid soy products and to press them manually and, hence, under conditions that are not consistent from batch to batch. Prior designs do not afford choices of processing conditions: Users cannot use previously developed soy-processing equipment to investigate the effects of variations of techniques used to produce soy milk (e.g., cold grinding, hot grinding, and pre-cook blanching) and of such process parameters as cooking times and temperatures, grinding times, soaking times and temperatures, rinsing conditions, and sizes of particles generated by grinding. In contrast, the present apparatus is amenable to such investigations. The apparatus (see figure) includes a processing tank and a jacketed holding or coagulation tank. The processing tank can be capped by either of two different heads and can contain either of two different insertable mesh baskets. The first head includes a grinding blade and heating elements. The second head includes an automated press piston. One mesh basket, designated the okara basket, has oblong holes with a size equivalent to about 40 mesh [40 openings per inch (.16 openings per centimeter)]. The second mesh basket, designated the tofu basket, has holes of 70 mesh [70 openings

  4. Debuncher cooling performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Derwent, P.F.; McGinnis, David; Pasquinelli, Ralph; Vander Meulen, David; Werkema, Steven; /Fermilab

    2005-11-01

    We present measurements of the Fermilab Debuncher momentum and transverse cooling systems. These systems use liquid helium cooled waveguide pickups and slotted waveguide kickers covering the frequency range 4-8 GHz.

  5. Batch Model for Batched Timestamps Data Analysis with Application to the SSA Disability Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, Qingqi; Yuan, Ao; Che, Xuan; Huynh, Minh; Zhou, Chunxiao

    2016-01-01

    The Office of Disability Adjudication and Review (ODAR) is responsible for holding hearings, issuing decisions, and reviewing appeals as part of the Social Security Administration’s disability determining process. In order to control and process cases, the ODAR has established a Case Processing and Management System (CPMS) to record management information since December 2003. The CPMS provides a detailed case status history for each case. Due to the large number of appeal requests and limited resources, the number of pending claims at ODAR was over one million cases by March 31, 2015. Our National Institutes of Health (NIH) team collaborated with SSA and developed a Case Status Change Model (CSCM) project to meet the ODAR’s urgent need of reducing backlogs and improve hearings and appeals process. One of the key issues in our CSCM project is to estimate the expected service time and its variation for each case status code. The challenge is that the systems recorded job departure times may not be the true job finished times. As the CPMS timestamps data of case status codes showed apparent batch patterns, we proposed a batch model and applied the constrained least squares method to estimate the mean service times and the variances. We also proposed a batch search algorithm to determine the optimal batch partition, as no batch partition was given in the real data. Simulation studies were conducted to evaluate the performance of the proposed methods. Finally, we applied the method to analyze a real CPMS data from ODAR/SSA.

  6. BATCH-GE: Batch analysis of Next-Generation Sequencing data for genome editing assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boel, Annekatrien; Steyaert, Woutert; De Rocker, Nina; Menten, Björn; Callewaert, Bert; De Paepe, Anne; Coucke, Paul; Willaert, Andy

    2016-01-01

    Targeted mutagenesis by the CRISPR/Cas9 system is currently revolutionizing genetics. The ease of this technique has enabled genome engineering in-vitro and in a range of model organisms and has pushed experimental dimensions to unprecedented proportions. Due to its tremendous progress in terms of speed, read length, throughput and cost, Next-Generation Sequencing (NGS) has been increasingly used for the analysis of CRISPR/Cas9 genome editing experiments. However, the current tools for genome editing assessment lack flexibility and fall short in the analysis of large amounts of NGS data. Therefore, we designed BATCH-GE, an easy-to-use bioinformatics tool for batch analysis of NGS-generated genome editing data, available from https://github.com/WouterSteyaert/BATCH-GE.git. BATCH-GE detects and reports indel mutations and other precise genome editing events and calculates the corresponding mutagenesis efficiencies for a large number of samples in parallel. Furthermore, this new tool provides flexibility by allowing the user to adapt a number of input variables. The performance of BATCH-GE was evaluated in two genome editing experiments, aiming to generate knock-out and knock-in zebrafish mutants. This tool will not only contribute to the evaluation of CRISPR/Cas9-based experiments, but will be of use in any genome editing experiment and has the ability to analyze data from every organism with a sequenced genome. PMID:27461955

  7. BATCH-GE: Batch analysis of Next-Generation Sequencing data for genome editing assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boel, Annekatrien; Steyaert, Woutert; De Rocker, Nina; Menten, Björn; Callewaert, Bert; De Paepe, Anne; Coucke, Paul; Willaert, Andy

    2016-01-01

    Targeted mutagenesis by the CRISPR/Cas9 system is currently revolutionizing genetics. The ease of this technique has enabled genome engineering in-vitro and in a range of model organisms and has pushed experimental dimensions to unprecedented proportions. Due to its tremendous progress in terms of speed, read length, throughput and cost, Next-Generation Sequencing (NGS) has been increasingly used for the analysis of CRISPR/Cas9 genome editing experiments. However, the current tools for genome editing assessment lack flexibility and fall short in the analysis of large amounts of NGS data. Therefore, we designed BATCH-GE, an easy-to-use bioinformatics tool for batch analysis of NGS-generated genome editing data, available from https://github.com/WouterSteyaert/BATCH-GE.git. BATCH-GE detects and reports indel mutations and other precise genome editing events and calculates the corresponding mutagenesis efficiencies for a large number of samples in parallel. Furthermore, this new tool provides flexibility by allowing the user to adapt a number of input variables. The performance of BATCH-GE was evaluated in two genome editing experiments, aiming to generate knock-out and knock-in zebrafish mutants. This tool will not only contribute to the evaluation of CRISPR/Cas9-based experiments, but will be of use in any genome editing experiment and has the ability to analyze data from every organism with a sequenced genome. PMID:27461955

  8. Production of ethanol in batch and fed-batch fermentation of soluble sugar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keeping in view of the demand and need for alternate energy source, especially liquid fuels and the availability of raw materials in Pakistan, we have carried out biochemical and technological studies for ethanol through fermentation of renewable substrates. Molasses and sugar cane have been used as substrate for yeast fermentation. Selected yeast were used in both batch and semi continuous fermentation of molasses. Clarified dilute molasses were fermented with different strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Ethanol concentration after 64 hours batch fermentation reached 9.4% with 90% yield based on sugar content. During feed batch system similar results were obtained after a fermentation cycle of 48 hours resulting in higher productivity. Similarly carbohydrates in fruit juices and hydro lysates of biomass can be economically fermented to ethanol to be used as feed stock for other chemicals. (author)

  9. CONVERSION OF PINEAPPLE JUICE WASTE INTO LACTIC ACID IN BATCH AND FED – BATCH FERMENTATION SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah Mochamad Busairi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Pineapple juice waste contains valuable components, which are mainly sucrose, glucose, and fructose. Recently, lactic acid has been considered to be an important raw material for the production of biodegradable lactide polymer. The fermentation experiments were carried out in a 3 litres fermentor (Biostat B Model under anaerobic condition with stirring speed of 50 rpm, temperature at 40oC, and pH of 6.00. Effect of feed concentration on lactic acid production, bacterial growth, substrate utilisation and productivity was studied. The results obtained from fed- batch culture fermentation showed that the maximum lactic acid productivity was 0.44 g/L.h for feed concentration of 90 g/L at 48 hours. Whereas the lactic acid productivity obtained from fed-batch culture was twice and half fold higher than that of batch culture productivity.  Buangan jus nanas mengandung komponen yang berharga terutama sukrosa, glukosa, dan fruktosa. Asam laktat adalah bahan baku yang terbaru dan penting untuk dibuat sebagai polimer laktat yang dapat terdegradasi oleh lingkungan. Percobaan dilakukan pada fermentor 3 liter (Model Biostat B di bawah kondisi anaerob dengan kecepatan pengadukan 50 rpm, temperatur 40oC, dan pH 6,00. Pengaruh konsentrasi umpan terhadap produksi asam laktat, pertumbuhan mikroba, pengggunaan substrat dan produktivitas telah dipelajari. Hasil yang didapatkan pada fermentasi dengan menggunakan sistem fed-batch menunjukkan bahwa produktivitas asam laktat maksimum adalah 0.44 g/L,jam dengan konsentrasi umpan, 90 g/L pada waktu 48 jam. Bahkan produktivitas asam laktat yang didapat pada kultur fed-batch lebih tinggi 2,5 kali dari pada proses menggunakan sistem batch

  10. Sojourn time distributions in a Markovian G-queue with batch arrival and batch removal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Woo Shin

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available We consider a single server Markovian queue with two types of customers; positive and negative, where positive customers arrive in batches and arrivals of negative customers remove positive customers in batches. Only positive customers form a queue and negative customers just reduce the system congestion by removing positive ones upon their arrivals. We derive the LSTs of sojourn time distributions for a single server Markovian queue with positive customers and negative customers by using the first passage time arguments for Markov chains.

  11. TURBINE COOLING FLOW AND THE RESULTING DECREASE IN TURBINE EFFICIENCY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gauntner, J. W.

    1994-01-01

    This algorithm has been developed for calculating both the quantity of compressor bleed flow required to cool a turbine and the resulting decrease in efficiency due to cooling air injected into the gas stream. Because of the trend toward higher turbine inlet temperatures, it is important to accurately predict the required cooling flow. This program is intended for use with axial flow, air-breathing jet propulsion engines with a variety of airfoil cooling configurations. The algorithm results have compared extremely well with figures given by major engine manufacturers for given bulk metal temperatures and cooling configurations. The program calculates the required cooling flow and corresponding decrease in stage efficiency for each row of airfoils throughout the turbine. These values are combined with the thermodynamic efficiency of the uncooled turbine to predict the total bleed airflow required and the altered turbine efficiency. There are ten airfoil cooling configurations and the algorithm allows a different option for each row of cooled airfoils. Materials technology is incorporated and requires the date of the first year of service for the turbine stator vane and rotor blade. The user must specify pressure, temperatures, and gas flows into the turbine. This program is written in FORTRAN IV for batch execution and has been implemented on an IBM 3080 series computer with a central memory requirement of approximately 61K of 8 bit bytes. This program was developed in 1980.

  12. Transfer of Campylobacter from a Positive Batch to Broiler Carcasses of a Subsequently Slaughtered Negative Batch: A Quantitative Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seliwiorstow, Tomasz; Baré, Julie; Van Damme, Inge; Gisbert Algaba, Ignacio; Uyttendaele, Mieke; De Zutter, Lieven

    2016-06-01

    The present study was conducted to quantify Campylobacter cross-contamination from a positive batch of broiler chicken carcasses to a negative batch at selected processing steps and to evaluate the duration of this cross-contamination. During each of nine visits conducted in three broiler slaughterhouses, Campylobacter levels were determined on broiler carcasses originating from Campylobacter-negative batches processed immediately after Campylobacter-positive batches. Data were collected after four steps during the slaughter process (scalding, plucking, evisceration, and washing) at 1, 10, and 20 min after the start of the slaughter of the batches. Campylobacter levels in ceca of birds from Campylobacter-positive batches ranged from 5.62 to 9.82 log CFU/g. When the preceding positive batch was colonized at a low level, no (enumerable) carcass contamination was found in a subsequent negative batch. However, when Campylobacter levels were high in the positive batch, Campylobacter was found on carcasses of the subsequent negative batch but at levels significantly lower than those found on carcasses from the preceding positive batch. The scalding and the evisceration process contributed the least (< 1.5 log CFU/g) and the most (up to 4 log CFU/ g), respectively, to the Campylobacter transmission from a positive batch to a negative batch. Additionally, the number of Campylobacter cells transferred from positive to negative batches decreased over the first 20 min of sampling time. However, the reduction was slower than previously estimated in risk assessment studies, suggesting that pathogen transfer during crosscontamination is a complex process.

  13. Microscopic characterization of defect structure in RDX crystals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouma, R.H.B.; Duvalois, W.; Heijden, A.E.D.M. van der

    2013-01-01

    Three batches of the commercial energetic material RDX, as received from various production locations and differing in sensitivity towards shock initiation, have been characterized with different microscopic techniques in order to visualize the defect content in these crystals. The RDX crystals are

  14. PBSNG—Batch System for Farm Architecture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    J.Fromm; K.Genser; 等

    2001-01-01

    FBSNG [1] is a redesigned version of Farm Batch System (FBS[1]),which was developed as a batch process management system for off-line Run II data processing at FNAL.FBSNG is designed for UNIX computer farms and is capable of managing up to 1000 nodes in a single farm.FBSNG allows users to start arrays of parallel processes on one or more farm computers,It uses a simplified abstract resource counting method for load balancing between computers.The resource counting approach allows FBSNG to be a simple and flexible tool for farm resource management.FBSNG scheduler features include guaranteed and controllable” fair-share” scheduling.FBSNG is easily portable across different flavors of UNIX.The system has been successfully used at Fermilab as well as by off-site collaborators for several years on farms of different sizes and different platforms for off-line data processing,Monte-Carlo data generation and other tasks.

  15. Cavity QED experiments with ion Coulomb crystals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herskind, Peter Fønss; Dantan, Aurélien; Marler, Joan;

    2009-01-01

    Cavity QED experimental results demonstrating collective strong coupling between ensembles of atomic ions cooled into Coulomb crystals and optical cavity fields have been achieved. Collective Zeeman coherence times of milliseconds have furthermore been obtained.......Cavity QED experimental results demonstrating collective strong coupling between ensembles of atomic ions cooled into Coulomb crystals and optical cavity fields have been achieved. Collective Zeeman coherence times of milliseconds have furthermore been obtained....

  16. Batch-to-batch pharmacokinetic variability confounds current bioequivalence regulations: A dry powder inhaler randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burmeister Getz, E; Carroll, K J; Jones, B; Benet, L Z

    2016-09-01

    Current pharmacokinetic (PK) bioequivalence guidelines do not account for batch-to-batch variability in study design or analysis. Here we evaluate the magnitude of batch-to-batch PK variability for Advair Diskus 100/50. Single doses of fluticasone propionate and salmeterol combinations were administered by oral inhalation to healthy subjects in a randomized clinical crossover study comparing three different batches purchased from the market, with one batch replicated across two treatment periods. All pairwise comparisons between different batches failed the PK bioequivalence statistical test, demonstrating substantial PK differences between batches that were large enough to demonstrate bio-inequivalence in some cases. In contrast, between-replicate PK bioequivalence was demonstrated for the replicated batch. Between-batch variance was ∼40-70% of the estimated residual error. This large additional source of variability necessitates re-evaluation of bioequivalence assessment criteria to yield a result that is both generalizable and consistent with the principles of type I and type II error rate control. PMID:27037630

  17. Melting Properties of Loose and Granulated Glass Batch

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Jing; DENG Zhenglu; XIE Jun; CHENG Jinshu; HAN Jianjun; ZHOU Xuedong

    2014-01-01

    The physical properties, the pre-reacting performance and melting properties of the loose glass batch and the granulated glass batch were investigated, respectively. The experimental results showed that compacted glass batch could reduce dust, use ultra-fine powder, and improve heat transfer efficiency. When loose glass batch was compressed into granular, the thermal conductivity was increased from 0.273 W/m•℃to 0.430 W/m•℃, the activation energy Ea of pre-reacting decreased from 178.77 kJ/mol to 143.30 kJ/mol. Using the pre-reacted granular glass batch can significantly reduce the melting time, increase the batch melting rate, and decrease the heat consumption of 1kg molten glass from 3591.24 to 3277.03kJ/kg.

  18. Adaptive quality prediction of batch processes based on PLS model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Chun-fu; ZHANG Jie; WANG Gui-zeng

    2006-01-01

    There are usually no on-line product quality measurements in batch and semi-batch processes,which make the process control task very difficult.In this paper,a model for predicting the end-product quality from the available on-line process variables at the early stage of a batch is developed using partial least squares (PLS)method.Furthermore,some available mid-course quality measurements are used to rectify the final prediction results.To deal with the problem that the process may change with time,recursive PLS (RPLS) algorithm is used to update the model based on the new batch data and the old model parameters after each batch.An application to a simulated batch MMA polymerization process demonstrates the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  19. TANK 50 BATCH 0 SALTSTONE FORMULATION CONFIRMATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Langton, C.

    2006-06-05

    Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) personnel were requested to confirm the Tank 50 Batch 0 grout formulation per Technical Task Request, SSF-TTR-2006-0001 (task 1 of 2) [1]. Earlier Batch 0 formulation testing used a Tank 50 sample collected in September 2005 and is described elsewhere [2]. The current testing was performed using a sample of Tank 50 waste collected in May 2006. This work was performed according to the Technical Task and Quality Assurance Plan (TT/QAP), WSRC-RP-2006-00594 [3]. The salt solution collected from Tank 50 in May 2006 contained approximately 3 weight percent more solids than the sample collected in September 2005. The insoluble solids took longer to settle in the new sample which was interpreted as indicating finer particles in the current sample. The saltstone formulation developed for the September 2005 Tank 50 Batch 0 sample was confirmed for the May 2006 sample with one minor exception. Saltstone prepared with the Tank 50 sample collected in May 2006 required 1.5 times more Daratard 17 set retarding admixture than the saltstone prepared with the September In addition, a sample prepared with lower shear mixing (stirring with a spatula) had a higher plastic viscosity (57 cP) than samples made with higher shear mixing in a blender (23cP). The static gel times of the saltstone slurries made with low shear mixing were also shorter ({approx}32 minutes) than those for comparable samples made in the blender ({approx}47 minutes). The addition of the various waste streams (ETP, HEU-HCAN, and GPE-HCAN) to Tank 50 from September 2005 to May 2006 has increased the amount of set retarder, Daratard 17, required for processing saltstone slurries through the Saltstone facility. If these streams are continued to be added to Tank 50, the quantity of admixtures required to maintain the same processing conditions for the Saltstone facility will probably change and additional testing is recommended to reconfirm the Tank 50 Saltstone formulation.

  20. SULFATE SOLUBILITY LIMIT VERIFICATION FOR DWPF SLUDGE BATCH 7A

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Billings, A.

    2011-04-19

    During processing at the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF), high sulfate concentrations in the feed are a concern to DWPF as it can lead to the formation of a detrimental, sulfate-rich, molten salt phase on the surface of the glass melt pool. To avoid these issues, a sulfate concentration limit was implemented into the Product Composition Control System (PCCS). Related to SB7a frit development efforts, the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) assessed the viability of using the current 0.6 wt % SO{sub 4}{sup 2-} limit set for SB6 (in glass) and the possibility of increasing the SO{sub 4}{sup 2-} solubility limit in PCCS to account for anticipated sulfur concentrations, targeted waste loadings, and inclusion of secondary streams (e.g., Actinide Removal Process (ARP)) with two recommended frits (Frit 418 and Frit 702) for SB7a processing. For a nominal SB7a blend with a 63 inch SB6 heel remaining in Tank 40 (projection SB7a-63), a 0.60 wt% SO{sub 4}{sup 2-} in glass limit was determined for waste loadings of 34 wt% up to 40 wt% with Frit 418 based on crucible melts with batched chemicals. SRNL also examined the inclusion of ARP for the same blending scenario (SB7a-63-ARP) with Frit 418 and at least a 0.6 wt% SO{sub 4}{sup 2-} level, and waste loadings of 34 wt% to 40 wt% were also acceptable. When a visible yellow and/or white sulfate salt layer was visible on the surface of any cooled glass, it was assumed to have surpassed the solubility limit of SO{sub 4}{sup 2-} for that particular composition. All of the glasses fabricated at these concentrations did not exhibit a sulfate rich salt layer on the surface of the glass melt and retained the majority of the batched SO{sub 4}{sup 2-}. At higher levels of SO{sub 4}{sup 2-} 'spiked' into the projected sludge compositions over the aforementioned interval of waste loadings, with Frit 418, low viscosity sulfur layers were observed on the surface of glass melts which confirm exceeding the solubility

  1. ENGINEERING CONTRACT ON FY-2 BATCH 2 SATELLITES SIGNED

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SunQing

    2004-01-01

    The signing ceremony of the Engineering Contract on FY-2 Batch 2 (FY-2 02) Satellites was held in Beijing by Commission of Science, Technology and Industry for National Defense (COSTIND) on August 31, 2004. The contract on the development and manufacture of FY-2 batch 2 satellites and the contract on the launch, test and control of FY-2 Batch 2 satellites were signed by China Meteorological Administration (CMA),

  2. ADVANCES ON BILINEAR MODELING OF BIOCHEMICAL BATCH PROCESSES

    OpenAIRE

    GONZÁLEZ MARTÍNEZ, JOSÉ MARÍA

    2015-01-01

    [EN] This thesis is aimed to study the implications of the statistical modeling approaches proposed for the bilinear modeling of batch processes, develop new techniques to overcome some of the problems that have not been yet solved and apply them to data of biochemical processes. The study, discussion and development of the new methods revolve around the four steps of the modeling cycle, from the alignment, preprocessing and calibration of batch data to the monitoring of batches trajectories....

  3. A Survey of Batch Cataloging Practices and Problems

    OpenAIRE

    Young, Philip

    2011-01-01

    Groups of bibliographic records are added to library catalogs with increasing frequency. Batch cataloging requires knowledge of bulk record transfer as well as current cataloging standards. While more efficient than cataloging items individually, batch cataloging requires different skills and creates new challenges. Responses to a wide-ranging online survey document the workload, tools, practices, and problems of batch cataloging. The unique characteristics of electronic resources affect many...

  4. Initial Cooling Experiment (ICE)

    CERN Multimedia

    Photographic Service

    1978-01-01

    In 1977, in a record-time of 9 months, the magnets of the g-2 experiment were modified and used to build a proton/antiproton storage ring: the "Initial Cooling Experiment" (ICE). It served for the verification of the cooling methods to be used for the "Antiproton Project". Stochastic cooling was proven the same year, electron cooling followed later. Also, with ICE the experimental lower limit for the antiproton lifetime was raised by 9 orders of magnitude: from 2 microseconds to 32 hours. For its previous life as g-2 storage ring, see 7405430. More on ICE: 7711282, 7809081, 7908242.

  5. Power electronics cooling apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanger, Philip Albert; Lindberg, Frank A.; Garcen, Walter

    2000-01-01

    A semiconductor cooling arrangement wherein a semiconductor is affixed to a thermally and electrically conducting carrier such as by brazing. The coefficient of thermal expansion of the semiconductor and carrier are closely matched to one another so that during operation they will not be overstressed mechanically due to thermal cycling. Electrical connection is made to the semiconductor and carrier, and a porous metal heat exchanger is thermally connected to the carrier. The heat exchanger is positioned within an electrically insulating cooling assembly having cooling oil flowing therethrough. The arrangement is particularly well adapted for the cooling of high power switching elements in a power bridge.

  6. High energy electron cooling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parkhomchuk, V. [Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation)

    1997-09-01

    High energy electron cooling requires a very cold electron beam. The questions of using electron cooling with and without a magnetic field are presented for discussion at this workshop. The electron cooling method was suggested by G. Budker in the middle sixties. The original idea of the electron cooling was published in 1966. The design activities for the NAP-M project was started in November 1971 and the first run using a proton beam occurred in September 1973. The first experiment with both electron and proton beams was started in May 1974. In this experiment good result was achieved very close to theoretical prediction for a usual two component plasma heat exchange.

  7. A batch fabricated biomimetic dry adhesive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Northen, Michael T.; Turner, Kimberly L.

    2005-08-01

    The fine hair adhesive system found in nature is capable of reversibly adhering to just about any surface. This dry adhesive, best demonstrated in the pad of the gecko, makes use of a multilevel conformal structure to greatly increase inelastic surface contact, enhancing short range interactions and producing significant amounts of attractive forces. Recent work has attempted to reproduce and test the terminal submicrometre 'hairs' of the system. Here we report the first batch fabricated multi-scale conformal system to mimic nature's dry adhesive. The approach makes use of massively parallel MEMS processing technology to produce 20-150 µm platforms, supported by single slender pillars, and coated with ~2 µm long, ~200 nm diameter, organic looking polymer nanorods, or 'organorods'. To characterize the structures a new mesoscale nanoindenter adhesion test technique has been developed. Experiments indicate significantly improved adhesion with the multiscale system. Additional processing caused a hydrophilic to hydrophobic transformation of the surface and testing indicated further improvement in adhesion.

  8. Characterization of ion Coulomb crystals for fundamental sciences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okada, Kunihiro, E-mail: okada-k@sophia.ac.jp [Sophia University, Department of Physics (Japan); Ichikawa, Masanari [RIKEN Nishina Center for Accelerator-Based Science (Japan); Wada, Michiharu, E-mail: mw@riken.go.jp [Sophia University, Department of Physics (Japan)

    2015-11-15

    We performed classical molecular dynamics (MD) simulations in order to search the conditions for efficient sympathetic cooling of highly charged ions (HCIs) in a linear Paul trap. Small two-component ion Coulomb crystals consisting of laser-cooled ions and HCIs were characterized by the results of the MD simulations. We found that the spatial distribution is determined by not only the charge-to-mass ratio but also the space charge effect. Moreover, the simulation results suggest that the temperature of HCIs do not necessarily decrease with increasing the number of laser-cooled ions in the cases of linear ion crystals. We also determined the cooling limit of sympathetically cooled {sup 165}Ho{sup 14+} ions in small linear ion Coulomb crystals. The present results show that sub-milli-Kelvin temperatures of at least 10 Ho{sup 14+} ions will be achieved by sympathetic cooling with a single laser-cooled Be{sup +}.

  9. Rapid crystallization of externally produced ions in a Penning trap

    CERN Document Server

    Murboeck, T; Birkl, G; Noertershaeuser, W; Thompson, R C; Vogel, M

    2016-01-01

    We have studied the cooling dynamics, formation process and geometric structure of mesoscopic crystals of externally produced magnesium ions in a Penning trap. We present a cooling model and measurements for a combination of buffer gas cooling and laser cooling which has been found to reduce the ion kinetic energy by eight orders of magnitude from several hundreds of eV to micro-eV and below within seconds. With ion numbers of the order of 1000 to 100000, such cooling leads to the formation of ion Coulomb crystals which display a characteristic shell structure in agreement with theory of non-neutral plasmas. We show the production and characterization of two-species ion crystals as a means of sympathetic cooling of ions lacking a suitable laser-cooling transition.

  10. Crystal Meth

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for: Navigation Home / Stories of Hope / Crystal meth Crystal meth Story Of Hope By giovanni January 3rd, ... about my drug addiction having to deal with Crystal meth. I am now in recovery and fighting ...

  11. Examining the role of canister cooling conditions on the formation of nepheline from nuclear waste glasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christian, J. H. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2015-09-01

    Nepheline (NaAlSiO₄) crystals can form during slow cooling of high-level waste (HLW) glass after it has been poured into a waste canister. Formation of these crystals can adversely affect the chemical durability of the glass. The tendency for nepheline crystallization to form in a HLW glass increases with increasing concentrations of Al₂O₃ and Na₂O.

  12. Optimised crystal morphologies for active pharmaceutical ingredients and related studies

    OpenAIRE

    Horgan, Danielle E.

    2015-01-01

    The majority of active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) are crystalline solids in their pure forms. Crystalline solids have definable morphologies, i.e. shape and size. Crystal morphology is determined by both the internal structure of the crystals and external factors during growth from solution. The morphology of a crystal batch can affect key processes during manufacturing. Companies generally accept whatever morphology the manufacturing process provides and deal with any subsequent probl...

  13. Batch-to-batch uniformity of bacterial community succession and flavor formation in the fermentation of Zhenjiang aromatic vinegar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zong-Min; Lu, Zhen-Ming; Yu, Yong-Jian; Li, Guo-Quan; Shi, Jin-Song; Xu, Zheng-Hong

    2015-09-01

    Solid-state fermentation of traditional Chinese vinegar is a mixed-culture refreshment process that proceeds for many centuries without spoilage. Here, we investigated bacterial community succession and flavor formation in three batches of Zhenjiang aromatic vinegar using pyrosequencing and metabolomics approaches. Temporal patterns of bacterial succession in the Pei (solid-state vinegar culture) showed no significant difference (P > 0.05) among three batches of fermentation. In all the batches investigated, the average number of community operational taxonomic units (OTUs) decreased dramatically from 119 ± 11 on day 1 to 48 ± 16 on day 3, and then maintained in the range of 61 ± 9 from day 5 to the end of fermentation. We confirmed that, within a batch of fermentation process, the patterns of bacterial diversity between the starter (took from the last batch of vinegar culture on day 7) and the Pei on day 7 were similar (90%). The relative abundance dynamics of two dominant members, Lactobacillus and Acetobacter, showed high correlation (coefficient as 0.90 and 0.98 respectively) among different batches. Furthermore, statistical analysis revealed dynamics of 16 main flavor metabolites were stable among different batches. The findings validate the batch-to-batch uniformity of bacterial community succession and flavor formation accounts for the quality of Zhenjiang aromatic vinegar. Based on our understanding, this is the first study helps to explain the rationality of age-old artistry from a scientific perspective. PMID:25998816

  14. Measure Guideline: Ventilation Cooling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Springer, D.; Dakin, B.; German, A.

    2012-04-01

    The purpose of this measure guideline on ventilation cooling is to provide information on a cost-effective solution for reducing cooling system energy and demand in homes located in hot-dry and cold-dry climates. This guideline provides a prescriptive approach that outlines qualification criteria, selection considerations, and design and installation procedures.

  15. Passive evaporative cooling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tzoulis, A.

    2011-01-01

    This "designers' manual" is made during the TIDO-course AR0531 Smart & Bioclimatic Design. Passive techniques for cooling are a great way to cope with the energy problem of the present day. This manual introduces passive cooling by evaporation. These methods have been used for many years in traditi

  16. Coherent electron cooling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Litvinenko,V.

    2009-05-04

    Cooling intense high-energy hadron beams remains a major challenge in modern accelerator physics. Synchrotron radiation is still too feeble, while the efficiency of two other cooling methods, stochastic and electron, falls rapidly either at high bunch intensities (i.e. stochastic of protons) or at high energies (e-cooling). In this talk a specific scheme of a unique cooling technique, Coherent Electron Cooling, will be discussed. The idea of coherent electron cooling using electron beam instabilities was suggested by Derbenev in the early 1980s, but the scheme presented in this talk, with cooling times under an hour for 7 TeV protons in the LHC, would be possible only with present-day accelerator technology. This talk will discuss the principles and the main limitations of the Coherent Electron Cooling process. The talk will describe the main system components, based on a high-gain free electron laser driven by an energy recovery linac, and will present some numerical examples for ions and protons in RHIC and the LHC and for electron-hadron options for these colliders. BNL plans a demonstration of the idea in the near future.

  17. Cooling of electronic equipment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    A. Kristensen, Anders Schmidt

    2003-01-01

    Cooling of electronic equipment is studied. The design size of electronic equipment decrease causing the thermal density to increase. This affect the cooling which can cause for example failures of critical components due to overheating or thermal induced stresses. Initially a pin fin heat sink...

  18. DOAS, Radiant Cooling Revisited

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hastbacka, Mildred; Dieckmann, John; Bouza, Antonio

    2012-12-01

    The article discusses dedicated outdoor air systems (DOAS) and radiant cooling technologies. Both of these topics were covered in previous ASHRAE Journal columns. This article reviews the technologies and their increasing acceptance. The two steps that ASHRAE is taking to disseminate DOAS information to the design community, available energy savings and the market potential of radiant cooling systems are addressed as well.

  19. Solar absorption cooling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kim, D.-S.

    2007-01-01

    As the world concerns more and more on global climate changes and depleting energy resources, solar cooling technology receives increasing interests from the public as an environment-friendly and sustainable alternative. However, making a competitive solar cooling machine for the market still remain

  20. INITIAL COOLING EXPERIMENT (ICE)

    CERN Multimedia

    1979-01-01

    ICE was built in 1977, using the modified bending magnets of the g-2 muon storage ring (see 7405430). Its purpose was to verify the validity of stochastic and electron cooling for the antiproton project. Stochastic cooling proved a resounding success early in 1978 and the antiproton project could go ahead, now entirely based on stochastic cooling. Electron cooling was experimented with in 1979. The 26 kV equipment is housed in the cage to the left of the picture, adjacent to the "e-cooler" located in a straight section of the ring. With some modifications, the cooler was later transplanted into LEAR (Low Energy Antiproton Ring) and then, with further modifications, into the AD (Antiproton Decelerator), where it cools antiprotons to this day (2006). See also: 7711282, 7802099, 7809081.

  1. INITIAL COOLING EXPERIMENT (ICE)

    CERN Multimedia

    1978-01-01

    ICE was built in 1977, in a record time of 9 months, using the modified bending magnets of the g-2 muon storage ring. Its purpose was to verify the validity of stochastic and electron cooling for the antiproton project, to be launched in 1978. Already early in 1978, stochastic cooling proved a resounding success, such that the antiproton (p-pbar)project was entirely based on it. Tests of electron cooling followed later: protons of 46 MeV kinetic energy were cooled with an electron beam of 26 kV and 1.3 A. The cage seen prominently in the foreground houses the HV equipment, adjacent to the "cooler" installed in a straight section of the ring. With some modifications, the cooler was later transplanted into LEAR (Low Energy Antiproton Ring) and then, with further modifications, into the AD (Antiproton Decelerator), where it cools antiprotons to this day (2006). See also: 7711282, 7802099, 7908242.

  2. Batch process. Batch process used in a beer brewery; Biru kojo no bacchi purosesu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kihara, K. [Kirin Engneering Co. Ltd. (Japan)

    1997-09-05

    In a beer brewing process, there is a system in which unit operation of chemical engineering is combined with the techniques of food and fermentation engineering in order to brew beer meeting the quality concept. This paper introduces the characteristics of a batch system used in the brewing of beer and the control method for the brewing of beer. The characteristics of the batch system used in a beer brewing process are the following three. In order to minimize the quality variation ascribed to the raw materials and the process, the materials are blended in various parts of the system. In the saccharification step which determines the quality of beer, two methods, i.e. a batch method and a continuous method are used, and beer brewing companies employ a saccharification system meeting the condition for attaining a desired quality of their own products. Two mashing systems are operated at different cycles shifted by half cycle from each other, not starting both at a time, so as to level the peaks of the utilities, whereby the operation of the utility-related facility is optimized. 1 ref., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  3. Improved batch correction in untargeted MS-based metabolomics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wehrens, Ron; Hageman, Jos A.; Eeuwijk, van Fred; Kooke, Rik; Flood, Pádraic J.; Wijnker, Erik; Keurentjes, Joost J.B.; Lommen, Arjen; Eekelen, van Henriëtte D.L.M.; Hall, Robert D.; Mumm, Roland; Vos, de Ric C.H.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Batch effects in large untargeted metabolomics experiments are almost unavoidable, especially when sensitive detection techniques like mass spectrometry (MS) are employed. In order to obtain peak intensities that are comparable across all batches, corrections need to be performed. S

  4. Adaptive scheduling of batch servers in flow shops

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Zee, D.J.

    2002-01-01

    Batch servicing is a common way of benefiting from economies of scale in manufacturing operations. Good examples of production systems that allow for batch processing are ovens found in the aircraft industry and in semiconductor manufacturing. In this paper we study the issue of dynamic scheduling o

  5. Communication and control in small batch part manufacturing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tiemersma, J.J.; Curtis, W.; Kals, H.J.J.

    1993-01-01

    This paper reports on the development of a real-time control network as an integrated part of a shop floor control system for small batch part manufacturing. The shop floor control system is called the production control system (PCS). The PCS aims at an improved control of small batch part manufactu

  6. Deposit control in process cooling water systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to achieve efficient heat transfer in cooling water systems, it is essential to control the fouling of heat exchanger surfaces. Solubilities of scale forming salts, their growth into crystals, and the nature of the surfaces play important roles in the deposition phenomenon. Condensed phosphates, organic polymers and compounds like phosphates are effective in controlling deposition of scale forming salts. The surface active agents inhibit crystal growth and modify the crystals of the scale forming salts, and thus prevent deposition of dense, uniformly structured crystalline mass on the heat transfer surface. Understanding the mechanism of biofouling is essential to control it by surface active agents. Certain measures taken in the plant, such as back flushing, to control scaling, sometimes may not be effective and can be detrimental to the system itself. (author)

  7. Spatial and interannual variability in Baltic sprat batch fecundity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haslob, H.; Tomkiewicz, Jonna; Hinrichsen, H.H.;

    2011-01-01

    in the central Baltic Sea, namely the Bornholm Basin, Gdansk Deep and Southern Gotland Basin. Environmental parameters such as hydrography, fish condition and stock density were tested in order to investigate the observed variability in sprat fecundity. Absolute batch fecundity was found to be positively related...... to fish length and weight. Significant differences in absolute and relative batch fecundity of Baltic sprat among areas and years were detected, and could partly be explained by hydrographic features of the investigated areas. A non-linear multiple regression model taking into account fish length...... and ambient temperature explained 70% of variability in absolute batch fecundity. Oxygen content and fish condition were not related to sprat batch fecundity. Additionally, a negative effect of stock size on sprat batch fecundity in the Bornholm Basin was revealed. The obtained data and results are important...

  8. Dynamic Simulation of Batch Photocatalytic Reactor (BPR) for Wastewater Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutta, Suman

    2012-08-01

    Reactive dyes discharged from dyehouse causes a serious environmental problem. UV/TiO2 photocatalysis has been employed effectively for these organic dyes removal from dye-house effluent. This process produces less amount of non-toxic final product. In this paper a photocatalytic reactor has been designed for Reactive red 198 (RR198) removal from aqueous solution. The reactor is operating in batch mode. After each batch, TiO2 catalyst has been separated and recycled in the next batch. Mathematical model equation of this batch photocatalytic reactor (BPR) has been developed considering Langmuir-Hinshelwood kinetics. Simulation of BPR has been carried out using fourth order Runge-Kutta (RK) method and fifth order RK method (Butcher method). This simulation results can be used to develop an automatic photocatlytic reactor for industrial wastewater treatment. Catalyst activity decay and its effect on each batch have been incorporated in this model.

  9. Cooling Crystallization Kinetics of Potassium Nitrate in K+, +4NH//Cl-, 3NO--H2O System%+K 、+4NH//Cl-、NO-3-H2O体系硝酸钾冷却结晶动力学研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈丽芳; 么佳; 朱华兵; 詹志斌; 党来芳; 陈侠

    2015-01-01

    The cooling crystallization process of potassium nitrate in K+, +4NH //Cl-, 3NO--H2O system was studied via intermittent dynamic method. The moment transform method was applied to the experiment data,from which the kinetic parameters were obtained with the least square method. The corresponding equations of the nucleation rate and the crystal growth rate thus obtained during the crystallization process of potassium nitrate in this system are 0 12B =1.13×10 ⋅4 4.68 0.41 0.50 Tp 6.34 10 exp( )C MNRT×−Δand 5 6 3.791.14 10 4.89 10 exp( )GCRT×=×−Δ. Finally,the effects of the operation parame-ters were analyzed against these model equations. For the process of potassium nitrate produced through double decomposi-tion reaction from potassium chloride and ammonium nitrate,the experimental results can provide basic data for crystallizer design,and have some guiding significance for the optimization of crystallization operation.%采用间歇动态法研究了 K+、+4NH //Cl-、3NO-–H2O 体系中硝酸钾冷却结晶动力学,通过矩量变换法处理实验数据,回归拟合求得动力学参数,建立了该体系硝酸钾成核速率和生长速率动力学方程,分别为012B =1.13×10⋅44.680.410.50 Tp 6.3410 exp()CMNRT ×−Δ、563.791.14104.8910 exp()GCRT×=×−Δ,简要分析了硝酸钾冷却结晶过程的影响因素.实验结果可以为氯化钾–硝酸铵复分解法生产硝酸钾结晶器设计提供基础数据,对结晶操作的优化具有指导意义.

  10. Second sector cool down

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    At the beginning of July, cool-down is starting in the second LHC sector, sector 4-5. The cool down of sector 4-5 may occasionally generate mist at Point 4, like that produced last January (photo) during the cool-down of sector 7-8.Things are getting colder in the LHC. Sector 7-8 has been kept at 1.9 K for three weeks with excellent stability (see Bulletin No. 16-17 of 16 April 2007). The electrical tests in this sector have got opt to a successful start. At the beginning of July the cryogenic teams started to cool a second sector, sector 4-5. At Point 4 in Echenevex, where one of the LHC’s cryogenic plants is located, preparations for the first phase of the cool-down are underway. During this phase, the sector will first be cooled to 80 K (-193°C), the temperature of liquid nitrogen. As for the first sector, 1200 tonnes of liquid nitrogen will be used for the cool-down. In fact, the nitrogen circulates only at the surface in the ...

  11. Effect of glass-batch makeup on the melting process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hrma, Pavel R; Schweiger, Michael J; Humrickhouse, Carissa J; Moody, J Adam; Tate, Rachel M; Rainsdon, Timothy T; Tegrotenhuis, Nathan E; Arrigoni, Benjamin M; Marcial, Jose; Rodriguez, Carmen P; Tincher, Benjamin

    2010-03-29

    The response of a glass batch to heating is determined by the batch makeup and in turn determines the rate of melting. Batches formulated for a high-alumina nuclear waste to be vitrified in an all-electric melter were heated at a constant temperature-increase rate to determine changes in melting behavior in response to the selection of batch chemicals and silica grain-size as well as the addition of heat-generating reactants. The type of batch materials and the size of silica grains determine how much, if any, primary foam occurs during melting. Small quartz grains, 5-μm in size, caused extensive foaming because their major portion dissolved at temperatures <800°C, contributing to the formation of viscous glass-forming melt that trapped evolving batch gases. Primary foam did not occur in batches with larger quartz grains, ±75 μm in size, because their major portion dissolved at temperatures >800°C when batch gases no longer evolved. The exothermal reaction of nitrates with sucrose was ignited at a temperature as low as 160°C and caused a temporary jump in temperature of several hundred degrees. Secondary foam, the source of which is oxygen from redox reactions, occurred in all batches of a limited composition variation involving five oxides, B2O3, CaO, Li2O, MgO, and Na2O. The foam volume at the maximum volume-increase rate was a weak function of temperature and melt basicity. Neither the batch makeup nor the change in glass composition had a significant impact on the dissolution of silica grains. The impacts of primary foam generation on glass homogeneity and the rate of melting in large-scale continuous furnaces have yet to be established via mathematical modeling and melter experiments.

  12. Measuring the coolness of interactive products: the COOL questionnaire

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruun, Anders; Raptis, Dimitrios; Kjeldskov, Jesper;

    2016-01-01

    is the COOL questionnaire. We based the creation of the questionnaire on literature suggesting that perceived coolness is decomposed to outer cool (the style of a product) and inner cool (the personality characteristics assigned to it). In this paper, we focused on inner cool, and we identified 11 inner cool......, rebelliousness and usability. These factors and their underlying 16 question items comprise the COOL questionnaire. The whole process of creating the questionnaire is presented in detail in this paper and we conclude by discussing our work against related work on coolness and HCI....

  13. Cool WISPs for stellar cooling excesses

    CERN Document Server

    Giannotti, Maurizio; Redondo, Javier; Ringwald, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    Several stellar systems (white dwarfs, red giants, horizontal branch stars and possibly the neutron star in the supernova remnant Cassiopeia A) show a preference for a mild non-standard cooling mechanism when compared with theoretical models. This exotic cooling could be provided by Weakly Interacting Slim Particles (WISPs), produced in the hot cores and abandoning the star unimpeded, contributing directly to the energy loss. Taken individually, these excesses do not show a strong statistical weight. However, if one mechanism could consistently explain several of them, the hint could be significant. We analyze the hints in terms of neutrino anomalous magnetic moments, minicharged particles, hidden photons and axion-like particles (ALPs). Among them, the ALP represents the best solution. Interestingly, the hinted ALP parameter space is accessible to the next generation proposed ALP searches, such as ALPS II and IAXO.

  14. Cool WISPs for stellar cooling excesses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giannotti, Maurizio [Barry Univ., Miami Shores, FL (United States). Physical Sciences; Irastorza, Igor [Zaragoza Univ. (Spain). Dept. de Fisica Teorica; Redondo, Javier [Zaragoza Univ. (Spain). Dept. de Fisica Teorica; Max-Planck-Institut fuer Physik, Muenchen (Germany); Ringwald, Andreas [DESY Hamburg (Germany). Theory Group

    2015-12-15

    Several stellar systems (white dwarfs, red giants, horizontal branch stars and possibly the neutron star in the supernova remnant Cassiopeia A) show a preference for a mild non-standard cooling mechanism when compared with theoretical models. This exotic cooling could be provided by Weakly Interacting Slim Particles (WISPs), produced in the hot cores and abandoning the star unimpeded, contributing directly to the energy loss. Taken individually, these excesses do not show a strong statistical weight. However, if one mechanism could consistently explain several of them, the hint could be significant. We analyze the hints in terms of neutrino anomalous magnetic moments, minicharged particles, hidden photons and axion-like particles (ALPs). Among them, the ALP represents the best solution. Interestingly, the hinted ALP parameter space is accessible to the next generation proposed ALP searches, such as ALPS II and IAXO.

  15. Biodenitrification in Sequencing Batch Reactors. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silverstein, J. [Colorado Univ., Boulder, CO (United States). Dept. of Civil, Environmental, and Architectural Engineering

    1996-01-23

    One plan for stabilization of the Solar Pond waters and sludges at Rocky Flats Plant (RFP), is evaporation and cement solidification of the salts to stabilize heavy metals and radionuclides for land disposal as low-level mixed waste. It has been reported that nitrate (NO{sub 3}{sub {minus}}) salts may interfere with cement stabilization of heavy metals and radionuclides. Therefore, biological nitrate removal (denitrification) may be an important pretreatment for the Solar Pond wastewaters at RFP, improving the stability of the cement final waste form, reducing the requirement for cement (or pozzolan) additives and reducing the volume of cemented low-level mixed waste requiring ultimate disposal. A laboratory investigation of the performance of the Sequencing Batch Reactor (SBR) activated sludge process developed for nitrate removal from a synthetic brine typical of the high-nitrate and high-salinity wastewaters in the Solar Ponds at Rocky Flats Plant was carried out at the Environmental Engineering labs at the University of Colorado, Boulder, between May 1, 1994 and October 1, 1995.

  16. Biodegradability of industrial textile wastewater - batch tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paździor, Katarzyna; Klepacz-Smółka, Anna; Wrębiak, Julita; Liwarska-Bizukojć, Ewa; Ledakowicz, Stanisław

    2016-01-01

    Following new trends we applied oxygen uptake rate (OUR) tests as well as long-term tests (in two batch bioreactors systems) in order to assess the biodegradability of textile wastewater. Effluents coming from a dyeing factory were divided into two streams which differed in inorganic and organic contaminants loads. Usefulness of the stream division was proved. Biodegradation of the low-loaded stream led to over 97% reduction of biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5) together with 80% reduction of chemical oxygen demand (COD) and total organic carbon (TOC). Most of the controlled parameter values were below the levels allowed by legislation for influents to surface water, whereas the high-loaded stream was so contaminated with recalcitrant organic compounds that despite the reduction of BOD5 by over 95%, COD, TOC, total nitrogen and total phosphorus levels exceeded permissible values. OUR tests were aimed at determination of the following kinetic parameters: maximum specific growth rate (μMax), half-saturation constant, hydrolysis constant and decay coefficient for activated sludge biomass for both types of textile wastewater studied. The values of kinetic parameters will be applied in activated sludge models used for prediction and optimisation of biological treatment of textile wastewater. PMID:27642827

  17. Kinetic study of batch and fed-batch enzymatic saccharification of pretreated substrate and subsequent fermentation to ethanol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gupta Rishi

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Enzymatic hydrolysis, the rate limiting step in the process development for biofuel, is always hampered by its low sugar concentration. High solid enzymatic saccharification could solve this problem but has several other drawbacks such as low rate of reaction. In the present study we have attempted to enhance the concentration of sugars in enzymatic hydrolysate of delignified Prosopis juliflora, using a fed-batch enzymatic hydrolysis approach. Results The enzymatic hydrolysis was carried out at elevated solid loading up to 20% (w/v and a comparison kinetics of batch and fed-batch enzymatic hydrolysis was carried out using kinetic regimes. Under batch mode, the actual sugar concentration values at 20% initial substrate consistency were found deviated from the predicted values and the maximum sugar concentration obtained was 80.78 g/L. Fed-batch strategy was implemented to enhance the final sugar concentration to 127 g/L. The batch and fed-batch enzymatic hydrolysates were fermented with Saccharomyces cerevisiae and ethanol production of 34.78 g/L and 52.83 g/L, respectively, were achieved. Furthermore, model simulations showed that higher insoluble solids in the feed resulted in both smaller reactor volume and shorter residence time. Conclusion Fed-batch enzymatic hydrolysis is an efficient procedure for enhancing the sugar concentration in the hydrolysate. Restricting the process to suitable kinetic regimes could result in higher conversion rates.

  18. Crystallization of glycine with ultrasound

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Louhi-Kultanen, Marjatta; Karjalainen, Milja; Rantanen, Jukka;

    2006-01-01

    Sonocrystallization has proved to be an efficient tool to influence the external appearance and structure of a crystalline product obtained by various crystallization methods. The present work focuses on high intensity sonocrystallization of glycine by varying amplitude of ultrasound with an ultr......Sonocrystallization has proved to be an efficient tool to influence the external appearance and structure of a crystalline product obtained by various crystallization methods. The present work focuses on high intensity sonocrystallization of glycine by varying amplitude of ultrasound...... with an ultrasound frequency of 20kHz at two temperature ranges 40-50 and 20-30 degrees C in a jacketed 250-ml cooling crystallizer equipped with a stirrer. The polymorph composition of the obtained crystals was analyzed with a temperature variable X-ray powder diffractometer (XRPD). XRPD results showed that...... ultrasound power. This study also showed, the higher the ultrasound amplitude the smaller the crystals obtained....

  19. Simulation of molecular dynamics of silver subcritical nuclei and crystal clusters during solidification

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Molecular dynamics simulation is carried out to investigate the effects of cooling rate on the final configurations of silver after rapid solidification. The cooling rate for the formation of a silver amorphous phase is determined by analyzing its pair distribution function, H-A bond index, and the largest crystal cluster. Further, the equilibrium structures of the subcritical nuclei and crystal clusters are studied. The results show that the solidified microstructure is composed of a mixture of crystal clusters and amorphous phases at a certain cooling rate range. The size of the largest crystal cluster decreases with the increasing cooling rate, and it completely disappears when the cooling rate exceeds a critical value. The structures of the subcritical nuclei and the largest crystal cluster are composed of lamellar structures of fcc and hcp atoms, indicating that the lamellar structure of fcc and hcp atoms in the silver crystal originates from nucleation, and not from the growth of crystals.

  20. Cooling of wood briquettes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adžić Miroljub M.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is concerned with the experimental research of surface temperature of wood briquettes during cooling phase along the cooling line. The cooling phase is an important part of the briquette production technology. It should be performed with care, otherwise the quality of briquettes could deteriorate and possible changes of combustion characteristics of briquettes could happen. The briquette surface temperature was measured with an IR camera and a surface temperature probe at 42 sections. It was found that the temperature of briquette surface dropped from 68 to 34°C after 7 minutes spent at the cooling line. The temperature at the center of briquette, during the 6 hour storage, decreased to 38°C.

  1. Bunched beam stochastic cooling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wei, Jie

    1992-09-01

    The scaling laws for bunched-beam stochastic cooling has been derived in terms of the optimum cooling rate and the mixing condition. In the case that particles occupy the entire sinusoidal rf bucket, the optimum cooling rate of the bunched beam is shown to be similar to that predicted from the coasting-beam theory using a beam of the same average density and mixing factor. However, in the case that particles occupy only the center of the bucket, the optimum rate decrease in proportion to the ratio of the bunch area to the bucket area. The cooling efficiency can be significantly improved if the synchrotron side-band spectrum is effectively broadened, e.g. by the transverse tune spread or by using a double rf system.

  2. Bunched beam stochastic cooling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wei, Jie.

    1992-01-01

    The scaling laws for bunched-beam stochastic cooling has been derived in terms of the optimum cooling rate and the mixing condition. In the case that particles occupy the entire sinusoidal rf bucket, the optimum cooling rate of the bunched beam is shown to be similar to that predicted from the coasting-beam theory using a beam of the same average density and mixing factor. However, in the case that particles occupy only the center of the bucket, the optimum rate decrease in proportion to the ratio of the bunch area to the bucket area. The cooling efficiency can be significantly improved if the synchrotron side-band spectrum is effectively broadened, e.g. by the transverse tune spread or by using a double rf system.

  3. LHC cooling gains ground

    CERN Multimedia

    Huillet-Miraton Catherine

    The nominal cryogenic conditions of 1.9 K have been achieved in sectors 5-6 and 7-8. This means that a quarter of the machine has reached the nominal conditions for LHC operation, having attained a temperature of below 2 K (-271°C), which is colder than interstellar space! Elsewhere, the cryogenic system in Sector 8-1 has been filled with liquid helium and cooled to 2K and will soon be available for magnet testing. Sectors 6-7 and 2-3 are being cooled down and cool-down operations have started in Sector 3-4. Finally, preparations are in hand for the cool-down of Sector 1-2 in May and of Sector 4-5, which is currently being consolidated. The LHC should be completely cold for the summer. For more information: http://lhc.web.cern.ch/lhc/Cooldown_status.htm.

  4. Sisyphus Cooling of Lithium

    CERN Document Server

    Hamilton, Paul; Kim, Geena; Mukherjee, Biswaroop; Tiarks, Daniel; Müller, Holger

    2013-01-01

    Laser cooling to sub-Doppler temperatures by optical molasses is thought to be inhibited in atoms with unresolved, near-degenerate hyperfine structure in the excited state. We demonstrate that such cooling is possible in one to three dimensions, not only near the standard D2 line for laser cooling, but over a range extending to the D1 line. Via a combination of Sisyphus cooling followed by adiabatic expansion, we reach temperatures as low as 40 \\mu K, which corresponds to atomic velocities a factor of 2.6 above the limit imposed by a single photon recoil. Our method requires modest laser power at a frequency within reach of standard frequency locking methods. It is largely insensitive to laser power, polarization and detuning, magnetic fields, and initial hyperfine populations. Our results suggest that optical molasses should be possible with all alkali species.

  5. CONFERENCE: Electron cooling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ECOOL 84, held at the Kernforschungszentrum Karlsruhe (KfK) last year, was the first international meeting on electron cooling and related applications and reflected the increasing interest in this area of particle beam physics

  6. 40 CFR Table 7 to Subpart Jjj of... - Group 1 Batch Process Vents and Aggregate Batch Vent Streams-Monitoring, Recordkeeping, and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 11 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Group 1 Batch Process Vents and Aggregate Batch Vent Streams-Monitoring, Recordkeeping, and Reporting Requirements 7 Table 7 to Subpart JJJ... Table 7 to Subpart JJJ of Part 63—Group 1 Batch Process Vents and Aggregate Batch Vent...

  7. 40 CFR Table 6 to Subpart U of... - Group 1 Batch Front-End Process Vents and Aggregate Batch Vent Streams-Monitoring, Recordkeeping...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Group 1 Batch Front-End Process Vents and Aggregate Batch Vent Streams-Monitoring, Recordkeeping, and Reporting Requirements 6 Table 6 to... 6 to Subpart U of Part 63—Group 1 Batch Front-End Process Vents and Aggregate Batch Vent...

  8. Horizontal-vertical coupling for three dimensional laser cooling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to achieve three dimensional crystal beam, laser cooling forces are required not only in the longitudinal direction, but also in the transverse directions. With the resonance coupling method, transverse temperature is transmitted into longitudinal direction, and we have already demonstrated the horizontal laser cooling experimentally. In the present paper, we will describe an approach to extend this result to three dimensional cooling. The vertical cooling requires that the horizontal oscillation couples with the vertical oscillation. For achieving horizontal-vertical coupling, the solenoid in electron beam cooling apparatus is utilized with an experiment (νx =2.07, νy=1.07). For various solenoidal magnetic fields from 0 to 100 Gauss, horizontal and vertical betatron tunes are measured by beam transfer function. For a certain region of the solenoidal magnetic field, these tunes are mixed up each other. (author)

  9. Anomalous law of cooling

    OpenAIRE

    Lapas, Luciano C.; Ferreira, Rogelma M. S.; Oliveira, Fernando A.; Rubí, J. Miguel

    2014-01-01

    We analyze the temperature relaxation phenomena of systems in contact with a thermal reservoir that undergo a non-Markovian diffusion process. From a generalized Langevin equation, we show that the temperature is governed by a law of cooling of the Newton's law type in which the relaxation time depends on the velocity autocorrelation and is then characterized by the memory function. The analysis of the temperature decay reveals the existence of an anomalous cooling in which the temperature ma...

  10. Cooling with Superfluid Helium

    CERN Document Server

    Lebrun, P

    2014-01-01

    The technical properties of helium II (‘superfluid’ helium) are presented in view of its applications to the cooling of superconducting devices, particularly in particle accelerators. Cooling schemes are discussed in terms of heat transfer performance and limitations. Large-capacity refrigeration techniques below 2 K are reviewed, with regard to thermodynamic cycles as well as process machinery. Examples drawn from existing or planned projects illustrate the presentation. Keywords: superfluid helium, cryogenics

  11. Alternative Room Cooling System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Fazle Rabbi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The rapidly growing population results in an increasing demand for much more residential and commercial buildings, which leads to vertical growth of the buildings and needs proper ventilation of those buildings. Natural air ventilation system is not sufficient for conventional building structures. Hence fans and air-conditioners are must to meet the requirement of proper ventilation as well as space conditioning. Globally building sector consumes largest energy in heating, cooling, ventilation and space conditioning. This load can be minimized by the application of solar chimney and modification in building structure for heating, cooling, ventilation and space conditioning. Passive solar cooling is a subject of interest to provide cooling by using the sun, a powerful energy source. This is done for ensuring human comfort in hot climates. ASHRAE (American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Engineers defines Comfort as ‘that state of mind which expresses satisfaction with the thermal environment.’ The present paper describes the development of a solar passive cooling system, which can provide thermal cooling throughout the summer season in hot and humid climates. The constructed passive system works on natural convection mode of air. Such system reduces the inside temperature of up to 5°C from the atmospheric temperature. Temperature can further be reduced by the judicious use of night ventilation.

  12. A New Batch Verifying Scheme for Identifying Illegal Signatures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Adrian Atanasiu

    2013-01-01

    The concept of batch verifying multiple digital signatures is to find a method by which multiple digital signatures can be verified simultaneously in a lower time complexity than separately verifying all the signatures.In this article,we analyze the complexity of the batch verifying schemes defined by Li,Hwang and Chen in 2010,and propose a new batch verifying multiple digital signature scheme,in two variants:one for RSA-by completing the Harn's schema with an identifying illegal signatures algorithm,and the other adapted for a modified Elliptic Curve Digital Signature Algorithm protocol.

  13. Comparing Social Stories™ to Cool versus Not Cool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leaf, Justin B.; Mitchell, Erin; Townley-Cochran, Donna; McEachin, John; Taubman, Mitchell; Leaf, Ronald

    2016-01-01

    In this study we compared the cool versus not cool procedure to Social Stories™ for teaching various social behaviors to one individual diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder. The researchers randomly assigned three social skills to the cool versus not cool procedure and three social skills to the Social Stories™ procedure. Naturalistic probes…

  14. A new titanium-bearing calcium aluminosilicate phase. 2: Crystallography and crystal chemistry of grains formed in slowly cooled melts with bulk compositions of calcium-aluminium-rich inclusions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barber, David J.; Beckett, John R.; Paque, Julie M.; Stolper, Edward

    1994-01-01

    The crystallography and crystal chemistry of a new calcium- titanium-aluminosilicate mineral (UNK) observed in synthetic analogs to calcium-aluminum-rich inclusions (CAIs) from carbonaceous chondrites was studied by electron diffraction techniques. The unit cell is primitive hexagonal or trigonal, with a = 0.790 +/- 0.02 nm and c = 0.492 +/- 0.002 nm, similar to the lattice parameters of melilite and consistent with cell dimensions for crystals in a mixer furnace slag described by Barber and Agrell (1994). The phase frequently displays an epitactic relationship in which melilite acts as the host, with (0001)(sub UNK) parallel (001)(sub mel) and zone axis group 1 0 -1 0(sub UNK) parallel zone axis group 1 0 0(sub mel). If one of the two space groups determined by Barber and Agrell (1994) for their sample of UNK is applicable (P3m1 or P31m), then the structure is probably characterized by puckered sheets of octahedra and tetrahedra perpendicular to the c-axis with successive sheets coordinated by planar arrays of Ca. In this likely structure, each unit cell contains three Ca sites located in mirror planes, one octahedrally coordinated cation located along a three-fold axis and five tetrahedrally coordinated cations, three in mirrors and two along triads. The octahedron contains Ti but, because there are 1.3-1.9 cations of Ti/formula unit, some of the Ti must also be in tetrahedral coordination, an unusual but not unprecedented situation for a silicate. Tetrahedral sites in mirror planes would contain mostly Si, with lesser amounts of Al while those along the triads correspondingly contain mostly Al with subordinate Ti. The structural formula, therefore, can be expressed as Ca(sub 3)(sup VIII)(Ti,Al)(sup VI)(Al,Ti,Si)(sub 2)(sup IV)(Si,Al)(sub 3)(sup IV)O14 with Si + Ti = 4. Compositions of meteoritic and synthetic Ti-bearing samples of the phase can be described in terms of a binary solid solution between the end-members Ca3TiAl2Si3O14 and Ca3Ti(AlTi)(AlSi2)O14. A Ti

  15. Formation of Piroxicam Polymorphism in Solution Crystallization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruun Hansen, Thomas; Qu, Haiyan

    2015-01-01

    Recently, new insights into crystallization prior to actual nucleation have shown interesting results for drugs showing differences in hydrogen bonding or orientation in various polymorphic forms. On the basis of this concept, piroxicam was chosen as a model compound because the two common forms, I...... and II, show hydrogen bonding between different parts of the molecules and differences in the orientation of molecules in the crystal lattice. The goal of this work is to explore how various methods of controlling polymorphism during production could be employed. The mechanisms behind the nucleation were...... also explored, and new insights into polymorphic control are documented and discussed. The crystal landscape was mapped for cooling crystallization of piroxicam from acetone/water mixtures (0.5 K/min) and for antisolvent crystallization from acetone with water as the antisolvent. Varying cooling rates...

  16. Dip-pen nanolithography-assisted protein crystallization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ielasi, Francesco S; Hirtz, Michael; Sekula-Neuner, Sylwia; Laue, Thomas; Fuchs, Harald; Willaert, Ronnie G

    2015-01-14

    We demonstrate the use of dip-pen nanolithography (DPN) to crystallize proteins on surface-localized functionalized lipid layer arrays. DOPC lipid layers, containing small amounts of biotin-DOPE lipid molecules, were printed on glass substrates and evaluated in vapor diffusion and batch crystallization screening setups, where streptavidin was used as a model protein for crystallization. Independently of the crystallization system used and the geometry of the lipid layers, nucleation of streptavidin crystals occurred specifically on the DPN-printed biotinylated structures. Protein crystallization on lipid array patches is also demonstrated in a microfluidic chip, which opens the way toward high-throughput screening to find suitable nucleation and crystal growth conditions. The results demonstrate the use of DPN in directing and inducing protein crystallization on specific surface locations.

  17. A Study of the Batch Annealing of Cold-Rolled HSLA Steels Containing Niobium or Titanium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Chao; Garcia, C. Isaac; Choi, Shi-Hoon; DeArdo, Anthony J.

    2015-08-01

    The batch annealing behavior of two cold-rolled, microalloyed HSLA steels has been studied in this program. One steel was microalloyed with niobium while the other with titanium. A successfully batch annealed steel will exhibit minimum variation in properties along the length of the coil, even though the inner and outer wraps experience faster heating and cooling rates and lower soaking temperatures, i.e., the so-called "cold spot" areas, than the mid-length portion of the coil, i.e., the so-called "hot spot" areas. The variation in strength and ductility is caused by differences in the extent of annealing in the different areas. It has been known for 30 years that titanium-bearing HSLA steels show more variability after batch annealing than do the niobium-bearing steels. One of the goals of this study was to try to explain this observation. In this study, the annealing kinetics of the surface and center layers of the cold-rolled sheet were compared. The surface and center layers of the niobium steel and the surface layer of the titanium steel all showed similar annealing kinetics, while the center layer of the titanium steel exhibited much slower kinetics. Metallographic results indicate that the stored energy of the cold-rolled condition, as revealed by grain center sub-grain boundary density, appeared to strongly influence the annealing kinetics. The kinetics were followed by the Kernel Average Misorientation reconstruction of the microstructure at different stages on annealing. Possible pinning effects caused by microalloy precipitates were also considered. Methods of improving uniformity and increasing kinetics, involving optimizing both hot-rolled and cold-rolled microstructure, are suggested.

  18. The definition of cool

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nichiporuk, A.

    2005-05-01

    A new air cooling system at Agnico-Eagle's LaRonde mine, located in the Abitibi Region of Quebec is described. The new system serves a mine operating at 7,250 plus feet level. The system is installed at the surface; it utilizes ammonia to cool water, which cools the air. The system consists of four compressors which lower the temperature of the ammonia to minus 2 degrees C. Water, which at this temperature is 14 degrees, and ammonia pass through a plate heat exchanger simultaneously, however, without coming into contact with each other. The heat transfer that occurs causes the water's temperature to drop to 2 degrees C. The total volume of water cooled is 220 litres per second. The system is capable of reducing 636,000 cfm of air from 30 degrees C to 6 degrees C, to which 214,000 cfm of non-cooled air is added. This mixture, which is maintained at approximately 8 degrees C throughout the summer season, is sent underground to the deepest parts of the mine. The system runs from June to September, depending on the weather. In the evenings, when the temperature dips to around four to five degrees C, the water is shut down and side doors are opened to prevent the water from freezing.

  19. Optimal configuration, design and operation of batch distillation processes

    OpenAIRE

    Low, K. H.

    2003-01-01

    The overall objective of this thesis is to study the optimal configuration. design and operating policy of batch distillation processes in different separation scenarios. In so doing, this work also aims to provide conceptual insights and compare the performance of the traditional regular column against unconventional columns. In the first part of the thesis, the optimal operation of extractive batch distillation is investigated. A rigorous dynamic optimisation approach based o...

  20. Optimal control of a fed-batch fermentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dekkers, R.M.

    1984-01-01

    The common cultivation of bakers' yeast is an aerobic fed-batch fermentation under sugar-limited growth. The ultimate objective of on-line computer control is to optimize the process through maximizing the productivity of biomass formation while minimizing the consumption of raw materials for the product. Results obtained on the optimal control of a fed-batch fermentation are given. The aspects to be considered are instrumentation, state estimation, optimization and process control.

  1. Differences of silicon photodiode spectral reflectance among the same batch

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    A.L.Mu(n)oz Zurita; J.Campos Acosta; A.Pons Aglio; A.Shcherbakov

    2008-01-01

    Photodiode's reflectance plays an important role regarding the relation between responsivity and the incident flux. In this work we analyze how the spectral reflectance changes among photodiodes from the same manufacturer and batch and how the reflectance of three standard photodiodes has drifted during six years. The results show that the reflectance changes from diode to diode within the same batch and also show th.at the reflectance ofphotodiodes changes on time. This ageing is spectrally dependent.

  2. Dynamic Extensions of Batch Systems with Cloud Resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Compute clusters use Portable Batch Systems (PBS) to distribute workload among individual cluster machines. To extend standard batch systems to Cloud infrastructures, a new service monitors the number of queued jobs and keeps track of the price of available resources. This meta-scheduler dynamically adapts the number of Cloud worker nodes according to the requirement profile. Two different worker node topologies are presented and tested on the Amazon EC2 Cloud service.

  3. Xylitol production by Candida parapsilosis under fed-batch culture

    OpenAIRE

    Furlan Sandra A.; Castro Heizir F. de

    2001-01-01

    Xylitol production by Candida parapsilosis was investigated under fed-batch cultivation, using single (xylose) or mixed (xylose and glucose) sugars as substrates. The presence of glucose in the medium induced the production of ethanol as secondary metabolite and improved specific rates of growth, xylitol formation and substrate consumption. Fractionated supply of the feed medium at constant sugar concentration did not promote any increase on the productivity compared to the single batch culti...

  4. Morphology and antimony segregation of spangles on batch hot-dip galvanized coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spangles produced by batch hot-dip galvanizing process have a rougher surface and a greater surface segregation of alloying element compared with those in continuous hot-dip galvanizing line (CGL), owing to the cooling rate of the former is much smaller than that of the later. Therefore, typical spangles on a batch hot-dipped Zn-0.05Al-0.2Sb alloy coating were investigated. The chemical, morphological characterization and identification of the phases on the spangles were examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), backscattered electron imaging (BSE), atomic force microscopy (AFM), energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) and X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD). The results showed that the coating surface usually exhibited three kinds of spangles: shiny, feathery and dull spangle, of which extensively antimony surface segregation was detected. The nature of precipitate on the coating surface was identified as β-Sb3Zn4, The precipitated β-Sb3Zn4 particles distributed randomly on the shiny spangle surface, both β-Sb3Zn4 particles and dentritic segregation of antimony dispersed in the dendritic secondary arm spacings of the feathery spangle and on the whole dull spangle surface. The dentritic segregation of antimony and precipitation of Sb3Zn4 compound are discussed by a proposed model.

  5. Shortcut Algorithm for Simulation of Batch Extractive Distillation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Huixiong; XU Shimin; HU Hui; XIAO Bin

    2007-01-01

    The batch extractive distillation (BED) process has the advantages of both batch and extractive distillation. It is one of the most promising means for the separation of azeotropic and close-boiling point systems. However, so far this process has not been applied in industry due to its over-complexity. A new shortcut model was proposed to simulate the operation of the batch extractive distillation operations. This algorithm is based on the assumption that the batch extractive distillation column can be considered as a continuous extractive distillation column with changing feed at anytime. Namely, the whole batch process is simulated as a succession of a finite number of steady states of short duration, in which holdup is considered as constant mole. For each period of time the batch extractive distillation process is solved through the algorithm for continuous extractive distillation. Finally, the practical implementation of the shortcut model is discussed and data from the lab-oratory and literature are presented. It is found that this model has better adaptability, more satisfactory accuracy and less calculative load than previous rigorous model. Hence the algorithm for simulating BED is verified.

  6. Batch process monitoring based on multilevel ICA-PCA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhi-qiang GE; Zhi-huan SONG

    2008-01-01

    In this paper,we describe a new batch process monitoring method based on multilevel independent component analysis and principal component analysis (MLICA-PCA).Unlike the conventional multi-way principal component analysis (MPCA) method,MLICA-PCA provides a separated interpretation for multilevel batch process data.Batch process data are partitioned into two levels:the within-batch level and the between-batch level.In each level,the Gaussian and non-Ganssian components of process information can be separately extracted.I2,T2 and SPE statistics are individually built and monitored.The new method facilitates fault diagnosis.Since the two variation levels arc decomposed,the variables responsible for faults in each level can be identified and interpreted more easily.A case study of the Dupont benchmark process showed that the proposed method was more efficient and interpretable in fault detection and diagnosis,compared to the alternative batch process monitoring method.

  7. OPLS in batch monitoring - Opens up new opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souihi, Nabil; Lindegren, Anders; Eriksson, Lennart; Trygg, Johan

    2015-02-01

    In batch statistical process control (BSPC), data from a number of "good" batches are used to model the evolution (trajectory) of the process and they also define model control limits, against which new batches may be compared. The benchmark methods used in BSPC include partial least squares (PLS) and principal component analysis (PCA). In this paper, we have used orthogonal projections to latent structures (OPLS) in BSPC and compared the results with PLS and PCA. The experimental study used was a batch hydrogenation reaction of nitrobenzene to aniline characterized by both UV spectroscopy and process data. The key idea is that OPLS is able to separate the variation in data that is correlated to the process evolution (also known as 'batch maturity index') from the variation that is uncorrelated to process evolution. This separation of different types of variations can generate different batch trajectories and hence lead to different established model control limits to detect process deviations. The results demonstrate that OPLS was able to detect all process deviations and provided a good process understanding of the root causes for these deviations. PCA and PLS on the other hand were shown to provide different interpretations for several of these process deviations, or in some cases they were unable to detect actual process deviations. Hence, the use of OPLS in BSPC can lead to better fault detection and root cause analysis as compared to existing benchmark methods and may therefore be used to complement the existing toolbox. PMID:25604817

  8. [Characteristic of Particulate Emissions from Concrete Batching in Beijing].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Yi-feng; Zhou, Zhen; Zhong, Lian-hong; Yan, Jing; Qu, Song; Huang, Yu-hu; Tian, He- zhong; Pan, Tao

    2016-01-15

    With the economic development and population growth in Beijing, there is a strong need for construction and housing, which leads to the increase of the construction areas. Meanwhile, as a local provided material, the production of concrete has been raised. In the process of concrete production by concrete batching, there are numerous particulates emitted, which have large effect on the atmospheric environment, however, systematic study about the tempo-spatial characteristics of pollutant emission from concrete batching is still rare. In this study, we estimated the emission of particulates from concrete batching from 1991 to 2012 using emission factor method, analyzed the tempo-spatial characteristics of pollutant emission, established the uncertainty range by adopting Monte-Carlo method, and predicted the future emission in 2020 based on the relative environmental and economical policies. The results showed that: (1) the emissions of particulates from concrete batching showed a trend of "first increase and then decrease", reaching the maximum in 2005, and then decreased due to stricter emission standard and enhanced environmental management. (2) according to spatial distribution, the emission of particulates from concrete batch mainly concentrated in the urban area with more human activities, and the area between the fifth ring and the sixth ring contributed the most. (3) through scenarios analysis, for further reducing the emission from concrete batching in 2020, more stricter standard for green production as well as powerful supervision is needed.

  9. Natural radiative cooling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lazzarin, R.

    1979-01-01

    Natural radiative cooling at night was measured based on the surface-radiation spectrum after the heat balance of the surface exposed to the sun had been reradiated. A concept equivalent to the sky temperature and a concept useful for obtaining the net heat flux are discussed. The highest possible equilibrium temperature of the selective surface can be lowered; however, how to apply this practically is not yet known. A simple radiator, completely enclosed by a transparent screen, can produce a significant and inexpensive cooling effect. The results of experiments carried out in an area such as Padua, Italy, where the climate is not suitable for cooling purposes can still be predicted theoretically. The possibility of using the collector for heat collection during the day and as a radiator at night is indicated.

  10. Core cooling systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The reactor cooling system transports the heat liberated in the reactor core to the component - heat exchanger, steam generator or turbine - where the energy is removed. This basic task can be performed with a variety of coolants circulating in appropriately designed cooling systems. The choice of any one system is governed by principles of economics and natural policies, the design is determined by the laws of nuclear physics, thermal-hydraulics and by the requirement of reliability and public safety. PWR- and BWR- reactors today generate the bulk of nuclear energy. Their primary cooling systems are discussed under the following aspects: 1. General design, nuclear physics constraints, energy transfer, hydraulics, thermodynamics. 2. Design and performance under conditions of steady state and mild transients; control systems. 3. Design and performance under conditions of severe transients and loss of coolant accidents; safety systems. (orig./RW)

  11. Monitoring Cray Cooling Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maxwell, Don E [ORNL; Ezell, Matthew A [ORNL; Becklehimer, Jeff [Cray, Inc.; Donovan, Matthew J [ORNL; Layton, Christopher C [ORNL

    2014-01-01

    While sites generally have systems in place to monitor the health of Cray computers themselves, often the cooling systems are ignored until a computer failure requires investigation into the source of the failure. The Liebert XDP units used to cool the Cray XE/XK models as well as the Cray proprietary cooling system used for the Cray XC30 models provide data useful for health monitoring. Unfortunately, this valuable information is often available only to custom solutions not accessible by a center-wide monitoring system or is simply ignored entirely. In this paper, methods and tools used to harvest the monitoring data available are discussed, and the implementation needed to integrate the data into a center-wide monitoring system at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory is provided.

  12. Doppler cooling a microsphere

    CERN Document Server

    Barker, P F

    2010-01-01

    Doppler cooling the center-of-mass motion of an optically levitated microsphere via the velocity dependent scattering force from narrow whispering gallery mode (WGM) resonances is described. Light that is red detuned from the WGM resonance can be used to damp the center-of-mass motion in a process analogous to the Doppler cooling of atoms. Leakage of photons out of the microsphere when the incident field is near resonant with the narrow WGM resonance acts to damp the motion of the sphere. The scattering force is not limited by saturation, but can be controlled by the incident power. Cooling times on the order of seconds are calculated for a 20 micron diameter silica microsphere trapped within optical tweezers, with a Doppler temperature limit in the microKelvin regime.

  13. Fluidized bed ice slurry generator for enhanced secondary cooling systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meewisse, J.W.

    2004-01-01

    Ice slurries are liquid solutions of a freezing point depressant in water, in which small ice crystals are present. Ice slurries are efficient secondary cooling fluids because they utilize the latent heat effect involved with the ice/water phase change. A high heat capacity is available at relativel

  14. Research on cooling effectiveness in stepped slot film cooling vane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yulong; Wu, Hong; Zhou, Feng; Rong, Chengjun

    2016-06-01

    As one of the most important developments in air cooling technology for hot parts of the aero-engine, film cooling technology has been widely used. Film cooling hole structure exists mainly in areas that have high temperature, uneven cooling effectiveness issues when in actual use. The first stage turbine vanes of the aero-engine consume the largest portion of cooling air, thereby the research on reducing the amount of cooling air has the greatest potential. A new stepped slot film cooling vane with a high cooling effectiveness and a high cooling uniformity was researched initially. Through numerical methods, the affecting factors of the cooling effectiveness of a vane with the stepped slot film cooling structure were researched. This paper focuses on the cooling effectiveness and the pressure loss in different blowing ratio conditions, then the most reasonable and scientific structure parameter can be obtained by analyzing the results. The results show that 1.0 mm is the optimum slot width and 10.0 is the most reasonable blowing ratio. Under this condition, the vane achieved the best cooling result and the highest cooling effectiveness, and also retained a low pressure loss.

  15. Anomalous law of cooling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapas, Luciano C.; Ferreira, Rogelma M. S.; Rubí, J. Miguel; Oliveira, Fernando A.

    2015-03-01

    We analyze the temperature relaxation phenomena of systems in contact with a thermal reservoir that undergoes a non-Markovian diffusion process. From a generalized Langevin equation, we show that the temperature is governed by a law of cooling of the Newton's law type in which the relaxation time depends on the velocity autocorrelation and is then characterized by the memory function. The analysis of the temperature decay reveals the existence of an anomalous cooling in which the temperature may oscillate. Despite this anomalous behavior, we show that the variation of entropy remains always positive in accordance with the second law of thermodynamics.

  16. Multiphase cooling flows

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas, Peter A.

    1996-01-01

    I discuss the multiphase nature of the intracluster medium whose neglect can lead to overestimates of the baryon fraction of clusters by up to a factor of two. The multiphase form of the cooling flow equations are derived and reduced to a simple form for a wide class of self-similar density distributions. It is shown that steady-state cooling flows are \\emph{not} consistent with all possible emissivity profiles which can therefore be used as a test of the theory. In combination, they provide ...

  17. Anomalous law of cooling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We analyze the temperature relaxation phenomena of systems in contact with a thermal reservoir that undergoes a non-Markovian diffusion process. From a generalized Langevin equation, we show that the temperature is governed by a law of cooling of the Newton’s law type in which the relaxation time depends on the velocity autocorrelation and is then characterized by the memory function. The analysis of the temperature decay reveals the existence of an anomalous cooling in which the temperature may oscillate. Despite this anomalous behavior, we show that the variation of entropy remains always positive in accordance with the second law of thermodynamics

  18. Anomalous law of cooling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lapas, Luciano C., E-mail: luciano.lapas@unila.edu.br [Universidade Federal da Integração Latino-Americana, Caixa Postal 2067, 85867-970 Foz do Iguaçu, Paraná (Brazil); Ferreira, Rogelma M. S., E-mail: rogelma.maria@gmail.com [Centro de Ciências Exatas e Tecnológicas, Universidade Federal do Recôncavo da Bahia, 44380-000 Cruz das Almas, Bahia (Brazil); Rubí, J. Miguel, E-mail: mrubi@ub.edu [Departament de Física Fonamental, Facultat de Física, Universitat de Barcelona, Av. Diagonal 647, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Oliveira, Fernando A., E-mail: fernando.oliveira@pq.cnpq.br [Instituto de Física and Centro Internacional de Física da Matéria Condensada, Universidade de Brasília, Caixa Postal 04513, 70919-970 Brasília, Distrito Federal (Brazil)

    2015-03-14

    We analyze the temperature relaxation phenomena of systems in contact with a thermal reservoir that undergoes a non-Markovian diffusion process. From a generalized Langevin equation, we show that the temperature is governed by a law of cooling of the Newton’s law type in which the relaxation time depends on the velocity autocorrelation and is then characterized by the memory function. The analysis of the temperature decay reveals the existence of an anomalous cooling in which the temperature may oscillate. Despite this anomalous behavior, we show that the variation of entropy remains always positive in accordance with the second law of thermodynamics.

  19. A Cool Emperor Penguin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    哇,这只帝企鹅的胸前居然有个心形!It’s cool!(乐天:没错,它的胸前少了这幺撮毛,应该会感觉挺凉快的)cool在这里可不是“凉快”的意思,而是“酷.帅气”的意思。我们《英语大王》的英文名字就叫English Cool Kids哦!(乐天拿出一副墨镜戴上:

  20. Superconductor rotor cooling system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamble, Bruce B.; Sidi-Yekhlef, Ahmed; Schwall, Robert E.; Driscoll, David I.; Shoykhet, Boris A.

    2002-01-01

    A system for cooling a superconductor device includes a cryocooler located in a stationary reference frame and a closed circulation system external to the cryocooler. The closed circulation system interfaces the stationary reference frame with a rotating reference frame in which the superconductor device is located. A method of cooling a superconductor device includes locating a cryocooler in a stationary reference frame, and transferring heat from a superconductor device located in a rotating reference frame to the cryocooler through a closed circulation system external to the cryocooler. The closed circulation system interfaces the stationary reference frame with the rotating reference frame.

  1. Superconductor rotor cooling system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gamble, Bruce B.; Sidi-Yekhlef, Ahmed; Schwall, Robert E.; Driscoll, David I.; Shoykhet, Boris A.

    2004-11-02

    A system for cooling a superconductor device includes a cryocooler located in a stationary reference frame and a closed circulation system external to the cryocooler. The closed circulation system interfaces the stationary reference frame with a rotating reference frame in which the superconductor device is located. A method of cooling a superconductor device includes locating a cryocooler in a stationary reference frame, and transferring heat from a superconductor device located in a rotating reference frame to the cryocooler through a closed circulation system external to the cryocooler. The closed circulation system interfaces the stationary reference frame with the rotating reference frame.

  2. Doppler Cooling a Microsphere

    OpenAIRE

    Barker, P F

    2010-01-01

    Doppler cooling the center-of-mass motion of an optically levitated microsphere via the velocity dependent scattering force from narrow whispering gallery mode (WGM) resonances is described. Light that is red detuned from the WGM resonance can be used to damp the center-of-mass motion in a process analogous to the Doppler cooling of atoms. Leakage of photons out of the microsphere when the incident field is near resonant with the narrow WGM resonance acts to damp the motion of the sphere. The...

  3. Axion Crystals

    CERN Document Server

    Ozaki, Sho

    2016-01-01

    The low-energy effective theories for gapped insulators are classified by three parameters: permittivity $\\epsilon$, permeability $\\mu$, and theta angle $\\theta$. Crystals with periodic $\\epsilon$ are known as photonic crystals. We here study the band structure of photons in a new type of crystals with periodic $\\theta$ (modulo $2\\pi$) in space, which we call the axion crystals. We find that the axion crystals have a number of new properties that the usual photonic crystals do not possess, such as the helicity-dependent photonic band gaps and the nonrelativistic gapless dispersion relation at small momentum. We briefly discuss possible realizations of axion crystals in condensed matter systems as well as high-energy physics.

  4. Diffusion-Cooled Tantalum Hot-Electron Bolometer Mixers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skalare, Anders; McGrath, William; Bumble, Bruce; LeDuc, Henry

    2004-01-01

    A batch of experimental diffusion-cooled hot-electron bolometers (HEBs), suitable for use as mixers having input frequencies in the terahertz range and output frequencies up to about a gigahertz, exploit the superconducting/normal-conducting transition in a thin strip of tantalum. The design and operation of these HEB mixers are based on mostly the same principles as those of a prior HEB mixer that exploited the superconducting/normal- conducting transition in a thin strip of niobium and that was described elsewhere.

  5. Design and Application of Software Sensors in Batch and Fed-batch Cultivations during Recombinant Protein Expression in Escherichia coli

    OpenAIRE

    Warth, Benedikt

    2008-01-01

    Software sensors are a potent tool to improve biotechnological real time process monitoring and control. In the current project, algorithms for six partly novel, software sensors were established and tested in a microbial reactor system. Eight batch and two fed-batch runs were carried out with a recombinant Escherichia coli to investigate the suitability of the different software sensor models in diverse cultivation stages. Special respect was given to effects on the sensors after recombinant...

  6. VERIFICATION OF SMOM AND QMOM POPULATION BALANCE MODELING IN CFD CODE USING ANALYTICAL SOLUTIONS FOR BATCH PARTICULATE PROCESSES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bin Wan; Terry A.Ring

    2006-01-01

    For many processes of industrial significance, due to the strong coupling between particle interactions and fluid dynamics, the population balance must be solved as part of a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulation. In this work, a CFD based population balance model is tested using a batch crystallization reactor. In this CFD model, the population balance is solved by the standard method of moments (SMOM) and the quadrature method of moments (QMOM). The results of these simulations are compared to analytical solutions for the population balance in a batch tank where 1) nucleation, 2) growth, 3) aggregation, and 4) breakage are taking place separately. The results of these comparisons show that the first 6 moments of the population balance are accurately predicted for nucleation, growth, aggregation and breakage at all times.

  7. Seed selections for crystallization of calcium phosphate for phosphorus recovery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SONG Yong-hui; Dietfried DONNERT; Ute BERG; Peter G. WEIDLER; Rolf NUEESCH

    2007-01-01

    Seed induces and promotes the crystallization of calcium phosphate, and acts as carrier of the recovered phosphorus (P). In order to select suitable seed for P recovery from wastewater, three seeds including Apatite (AP), Juraperle (JP) and phosphate-modified Juraperle (M-JP) were tested and compared. Batch and fixed-bed column experiments of seeded crystallization of calcium phosphate were undertaken by using synthetic wastewater with 10 mg/L P phosphate. It shows that AP has bad enduring property in the crystallization process, while JP has better performance for multiple uses, and M-JP is a hopeful seed for P recovery by crystallization of calcium phosphate.

  8. SLUDGE BATCH 7B GLASS VARIABILITY STUDY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, F.; Edwards, T.

    2011-10-25

    The Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) is preparing to initiate processing Sludge Batch 7b (SB7b). In support of the upcoming processing, the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) provided a recommendation to utilize Frits 418 with a 6% Na{sub 2}O addition (26 wt% Na{sub 2}O in sludge) and 702 with a 4% Na{sub 2}O addition (24 wt% Na{sub 2}O in sludge) to process SB7b. This recommendation was based on assessments of the compositional projections for SB7b available at the time from the Savannah River Remediation (SRR). To support qualification of SB7b, SRNL executed a variability study to assess the applicability of the current durability models for SB7b. The durability models were assessed over the expected composition range of SB7b, including potential caustic additions, combined with Frits 702 and 418 over a 32-40% waste loading (WL) range. Thirty four glasses were selected based on Frits 418 and 702 coupled with the sludge projections with an additional 4-6% Na{sub 2}O to reflect the potential caustic addition. Six of these glasses, based on average nominal sludge compositions including the appropriate caustic addition, were developed for both Frit 418 and Frit 702 at 32, 36 and 40% WL to provide coverage in the center of the anticipated SB7b glass region. All glasses were fabricated and characterized using chemical composition analysis, X-ray diffraction (XRD) and the Product Consistency Test (PCT). To comply with the DWPF Glass Product Control Program, a total of thirty four glasses were fabricated to assess the applicability of the current DWPF PCCS durability models. Based on the measured PCT response, all of the glasses were acceptable with respect to the Environmental Assessment (EA) benchmark glass regardless of thermal history. The NL[B] values of the SB7b variability study glasses were less than 1.99 g/L as compared to 16.695 g/L for EA. A small number of the D-optimally selected 'outer layer' extreme vertices (EV) glasses were not

  9. SLUDGE BATCH VARIABILITY STUDY WITH FRIT 418

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, F.; Edwards, T.

    2010-11-29

    The Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) initiated processing Sludge Batch 6 (SB6) in the summer of 2010. In support of processing, the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) provided a recommendation to utilize Frit 418 to process SB6. This recommendation was based on assessments of the compositional projections for SB6 available at the time from the Liquid Waste Organization (LWO) and SRNL (using a model-based approach). To support qualification of SB6, SRNL executed a variability study to assess the applicability of the current durability models for SB6. The durability models were assessed over the expected Frit 418-SB6 composition range. Seventeen glasses were selected for the variability study based on the sludge projections used in the frit recommendation. Five of the glasses are based on the centroid of the compositional region, spanning a waste loading (WL) range of 32 to 40%. The remaining twelve glasses are extreme vertices (EVs) of the sludge region of interest for SB6 combined with Frit 418 and are all at 36% WL. These glasses were fabricated and characterized using chemical composition analysis, X-ray diffraction (XRD) and the Product Consistency Test (PCT). After initiating the SB6 variability study, the measured composition of the SB6 Tank 51 qualification glass produced at the SRNL Shielded Cells Facility indicated that thorium was present in the glass at an appreciable concentration (1.03 wt%), which made it a reportable element for SB6. This concentration of ThO{sub 2} resulted in a second phase of experimental studies. Five glasses were formulated that were based on the centroid of the new sludge compositional region combined with Frit 418, spanning a WL range of 32 to 40%. These glasses were fabricated and characterized using chemical composition analysis and the PCT. Based on the measured PCT response, all of the glasses (with and without thorium) were acceptable with respect to the Environmental Assessment (EA) reference glass

  10. A study on clavulanic acid production by Streptomyces clavuligerus in batch, fed-batch and continuous processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. B. Neto

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Clavulanic acid (CA is a potent inhibitor of beta-lactamases, enzymes that are responsible for the hydrolysis of beta-lactam antibiotics. It is a secondary metabolite produced by the filamentous aerobic bacterium Streptomyces clavuligerus in submerged cultivations. In the present work clavulanic acid production in batch, fed-batch and continuous bioreactors was studied with the objective of increasing productivity. The operating conditions: temperature, aeration and agitation, were the same in all cases, 28º C, 0.5 vvm and 800 rpm, respectively. The CA concentration obtained in the fed-batch culture, 404 mg L-1, was ca twice the value obtained in the batch culture, 194 mg L-1, while 293 mg L-1 was obtained in the continuous culture. The highest productivity was obtained in the continuous cultivation, 10.6 mg L-1 h-1, as compared with 8.8 mg L-1 h-1 in the fed-batch process and 3.5 mg L-1 h-1 in the batch process, suggesting that continuous culture of Streptomyces clavuligerus is a promising strategy for clavulanic acid production.

  11. Butanol production by immobilised Clostridium acetobutylicum in repeated batch, fed-batch, and continuous modes of fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolejš, Igor; Krasňan, Vladimír; Stloukal, Radek; Rosenberg, Michal; Rebroš, Martin

    2014-10-01

    Clostridium acetobutylicum immobilised in polyvinylalcohol, lens-shaped hydrogel capsules (LentiKats(®)) was studied for production of butanol and other products of acetone-butanol-ethanol fermentation. After optimising the immobilisation protocol for anaerobic bacteria, continuous, repeated batch, and fed-batch fermentations in repeated batch mode were performed. Using glucose as a substrate, butanol productivity of 0.41 g/L/h and solvent productivity of 0.63 g/L/h were observed at a dilution rate of 0.05 h(-1) during continuous fermentation with a concentrated substrate (60 g/L). Through the process of repeated batch fermentation, the duration of fermentation was reduced from 27.8h (free-cell fermentation) to 3.3h (immobilised cells) with a solvent productivity of 0.77 g/L/h (butanol 0.57 g/L/h). The highest butanol and solvent productivities of 1.21 and 1.91 g/L/h were observed during fed-batch fermentation operated in repeated batch mode with yields of butanol (0.15 g/g) and solvents (0.24 g/g), respectively, produced per gram of glucose.

  12. Radiant Floor Cooling Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Bjarne W.

    2008-01-01

    In many countries, hydronic radiant floor systems are widely used for heating all types of buildings such as residential, churches, gymnasiums, hospitals, hangars, storage buildings, industrial buildings, and smaller offices. However, few systems are used for cooling.This article describes a floor...

  13. Measure Guideline: Ventilation Cooling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Springer, D. [Alliance for Residential Building Innovation (ARBI), David, CA (United States); Dakin, B. [Alliance for Residential Building Innovation (ARBI), David, CA (United States); German, A. [Alliance for Residential Building Innovation (ARBI), David, CA (United States)

    2012-04-01

    The purpose of this measure guideline is to provide information on a cost-effective solution for reducing cooling system energy and demand in homes located in hot-dry and cold-dry climates. This guideline provides a prescriptive approach that outlines qualification criteria, selection considerations, and design and installation procedures.

  14. Elementary stochastic cooling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tollestrup, A.V.; Dugan, G

    1983-12-01

    Major headings in this review include: proton sources; antiproton production; antiproton sources and Liouville, the role of the Debuncher; transverse stochastic cooling, time domain; the accumulator; frequency domain; pickups and kickers; Fokker-Planck equation; calculation of constants in the Fokker-Planck equation; and beam feedback. (GHT)

  15. Keeping cool, staying virtuous

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Waltorp, Karen

    2015-01-01

    their everyday lives. I focus on love and marriage, the imperatives of appearing cool among peers, and keeping the family’s honour intact through the display of virtuous behaviour. Building on Bourdieu’s writings on the split habitus, I introduce the term composite habitus, as it underscores the aspect...

  16. FRIT DEVELOPMENT FOR HIGH LEVEL WASTE SLUDGE BATCH 5: COMPOSITIONAL TRENDS FOR VARYING ALUMINUM CONCENTRATIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fox, K; Tommy Edwards; David Best; Irene Reamer; Phyllis Workman

    2008-08-28

    for some of the oxides for some of the glasses. Although minor differences were observed, they did not have a significant impact on the conclusions made in this study. Several of the study compositions showed retention of more than 0.5 wt% SO{sub 4}{sup 2-} in glass. Trevorite (a spinel) was the only crystalline phase that was positively identified in a few of the study glasses after the canister centerline cooled (CCC) heat treatment. Spinels are not of concern as they have been shown to have little impact on the durability of high level waste glasses. The crystallization behavior of the surrogate glasses was generally the same as that of their U{sub 3}O{sub 8}-containing counterparts. There are two pairs that were exceptions: SB5-04 (amorphous) and SB5-24 (possible trevorite), along with SB5-07 (amorphous) and SB5-25 (trevorite). In these cases, the surrogate glasses (SB5-24 and SB5-25) appear to be more conservative (more prone to crystallization) than their U{sub 3}O{sub 8}-containing counterparts. Chemical durability was quantified using the Product Consistency Test (PCT). The normalized leachate (NL) values for B, Li, Na and Si for all of the study glasses were well below those of the Environmental Assessment (EA) benchmark glass, regardless of heat treatment or compositional view. This indicates that all of the glasses had very acceptable durability performance. The highest NL [B] for the study glasses was 0.914 g/L (the quenched version of glass SB5-13), normalized using the measured, bias-correct composition. There was little practical impact of the CCC heat treatment on the PCT responses of the study glasses. The measured PCT responses were predictable by the current {Delta}G{sub p} models. In general, the PCT responses for the surrogate glasses or the glasses without U{sub 3}O{sub 8} were quite similar to their U{sub 3}O{sub 8}-containing counterparts. The average percent error in NL [B] normalized by the measured, bias-corrected compositions for the

  17. Measurement and analysis of the mannitol partition coefficient in sucrose crystallization under simulated industrial conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mannitol is a major deterioration product of Leuconstoc mesenteroides bacterial deterioration of both sugarcane and sugar beet. The effect of crystallization conditions on the mannitol partition coefficient (Keff) between impure sucrose syrup and crystal has been investigated in a batch laboratory c...

  18. RNA Crystallization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golden, Barbara L.; Kundrot, Craig E.

    2003-01-01

    RNA molecules may be crystallized using variations of the methods developed for protein crystallography. As the technology has become available to syntheisize and purify RNA molecules in the quantities and with the quality that is required for crystallography, the field of RNA structure has exploded. The first consideration when crystallizing an RNA is the sequence, which may be varied in a rational way to enhance crystallizability or prevent formation of alternate structures. Once a sequence has been designed, the RNA may be synthesized chemically by solid-state synthesis, or it may be produced enzymatically using RNA polymerase and an appropriate DNA template. Purification of milligram quantities of RNA can be accomplished by HPLC or gel electrophoresis. As with proteins, crystallization of RNA is usually accomplished by vapor diffusion techniques. There are several considerations that are either unique to RNA crystallization or more important for RNA crystallization. Techniques for design, synthesis, purification, and crystallization of RNAs will be reviewed here.

  19. 40 CFR 63.492 - Batch front-end process vents-reporting requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Batch front-end process vents-reporting... Batch front-end process vents—reporting requirements. (a) The owner or operator of a batch front-end process vent or aggregate batch vent stream at an affected source shall submit the information...

  20. 40 CFR 63.1322 - Batch process vents-reference control technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 11 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Batch process vents-reference control... Batch process vents—reference control technology. (a) Batch process vents. The owner or operator of a Group 1 batch process vent, as determined using the procedures in § 63.1323, shall comply with...

  1. 40 CFR 63.1327 - Batch process vents-reporting requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 11 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Batch process vents-reporting... Batch process vents—reporting requirements. (a) The owner or operator of a batch process vent or aggregate batch vent stream at an affected source shall submit the information specified in paragraphs...

  2. 40 CFR 63.1326 - Batch process vents-recordkeeping provisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 11 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Batch process vents-recordkeeping... Batch process vents—recordkeeping provisions. (a) Group determination records for batch process vents... batch process vent subject to the group determination procedures of § 63.1323. Except for paragraph...

  3. 40 CFR 63.487 - Batch front-end process vents-reference control technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... assumes that the batch unit operation is operating at the maximum design capacity of the EPPU for 12... 40 Protection of Environment 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Batch front-end process vents-reference... § 63.487 Batch front-end process vents—reference control technology. (a) Batch front-end process...

  4. Protein Crystallization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chernov, Alexander A.

    2005-01-01

    Nucleation, growth and perfection of protein crystals will be overviewed along with crystal mechanical properties. The knowledge is based on experiments using optical and force crystals behave similar to inorganic crystals, though with a difference in orders of magnitude in growing parameters. For example, the low incorporation rate of large biomolecules requires up to 100 times larger supersaturation to grow protein, rather than inorganic crystals. Nucleation is often poorly reproducible, partly because of turbulence accompanying the mixing of precipitant with protein solution. Light scattering reveals fluctuations of molecular cluster size, its growth, surface energies and increased clustering as protein ages. Growth most often occurs layer-by-layer resulting in faceted crystals. New molecular layer on crystal face is terminated by a step where molecular incorporation occurs. Quantitative data on the incorporation rate will be discussed. Rounded crystals with molecularly disordered interfaces will be explained. Defects in crystals compromise the x-ray diffraction resolution crucially needed to find the 3D atomic structure of biomolecules. The defects are immobile so that birth defects stay forever. All lattice defects known for inorganics are revealed in protein crystals. Contribution of molecular conformations to lattice disorder is important, but not studied. This contribution may be enhanced by stress field from other defects. Homologous impurities (e.g., dimers, acetylated molecules) are trapped more willingly by a growing crystal than foreign protein impurities. The trapped impurities induce internal stress eliminated in crystals exceeding a critical size (part of mni for ferritin, lysozyme). Lesser impurities are trapped from stagnant, as compared to the flowing, solution. Freezing may induce much more defects unless quickly amorphysizing intracrystalline water.

  5. Sorption cooling: a valid extension to passive cooling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doornink, D.J.; Burger, J.F.; Brake, ter H.J.M.

    2008-01-01

    Passive cooling has shown to be a very dependable cryogenic cooling method for space missions. Several missions employ passive radiators to cool down their delicate sensor systems for many years, without consuming power, without exporting vibrations or producing electromagnetic interference. So for

  6. Computational crystallization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altan, Irem; Charbonneau, Patrick; Snell, Edward H

    2016-07-15

    Crystallization is a key step in macromolecular structure determination by crystallography. While a robust theoretical treatment of the process is available, due to the complexity of the system, the experimental process is still largely one of trial and error. In this article, efforts in the field are discussed together with a theoretical underpinning using a solubility phase diagram. Prior knowledge has been used to develop tools that computationally predict the crystallization outcome and define mutational approaches that enhance the likelihood of crystallization. For the most part these tools are based on binary outcomes (crystal or no crystal), and the full information contained in an assembly of crystallization screening experiments is lost. The potential of this additional information is illustrated by examples where new biological knowledge can be obtained and where a target can be sub-categorized to predict which class of reagents provides the crystallization driving force. Computational analysis of crystallization requires complete and correctly formatted data. While massive crystallization screening efforts are under way, the data available from many of these studies are sparse. The potential for this data and the steps needed to realize this potential are discussed.

  7. Computational crystallization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altan, Irem; Charbonneau, Patrick; Snell, Edward H

    2016-07-15

    Crystallization is a key step in macromolecular structure determination by crystallography. While a robust theoretical treatment of the process is available, due to the complexity of the system, the experimental process is still largely one of trial and error. In this article, efforts in the field are discussed together with a theoretical underpinning using a solubility phase diagram. Prior knowledge has been used to develop tools that computationally predict the crystallization outcome and define mutational approaches that enhance the likelihood of crystallization. For the most part these tools are based on binary outcomes (crystal or no crystal), and the full information contained in an assembly of crystallization screening experiments is lost. The potential of this additional information is illustrated by examples where new biological knowledge can be obtained and where a target can be sub-categorized to predict which class of reagents provides the crystallization driving force. Computational analysis of crystallization requires complete and correctly formatted data. While massive crystallization screening efforts are under way, the data available from many of these studies are sparse. The potential for this data and the steps needed to realize this potential are discussed. PMID:26792536

  8. Formation of a crystallization courtyard in eutectic systems and crystal growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurin, V. N.; Osipov, V. N.; Derkachenko, L. I.; Korchunov, B. N.; Popova, T. B.

    2014-03-01

    The so-called crystallization courtyard is investigated that forms in processes of mass crystallization around the Ge and Si crystals and their solid solutions (Ge+Si) during cooling of hypereutectic alloys in the Ge-Al, Si-Al, and (Ge+Si)-Al eutectic systems. For the first time, data on the composition and microhardness of this crystallization courtyard are given and its role is shown as a stopper of cracking in an Al-(Ge,Si) system during rapid cooling after the heating system is turned off. For the first time, it is suggested that a crystallization courtyard forms in all hypereutectic systems (including every system in which the amount of the taken solvent does not correspond to the eutectic point).

  9. ALP hints from cooling anomalies

    CERN Document Server

    Giannotti, Maurizio

    2015-01-01

    We review the current status of the anomalies in stellar cooling and argue that, among the new physics candidates, an axion-like particle would represent the best option to account for the hinted additional cooling.

  10. Cooling pond temperature prediction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A model is described which predicts temperature responses in the environment that are associated with the operation of a natural gas fueled thermoelectric power generation station. The model is a piecewise computer simulation, limited at present to closed cooling water systems. However, the techniques developed should be applicable to a much larger class of cooling system. The problem encountered consists of two parts: (1) data characterization and (2) modeling. An efficient characterization scheme for the environmental variables greatly simplifies the task of modeling. Methods borrowed from signal theory, but not yet applied to this field are applicable to and greatly simplify the digital computer investigation of environmental data. An optimal data set, from the point of view of information per unit cost, is described for the model

  11. Water Cooled Mirror Design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dale, Gregory E. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Holloway, Michael Andrew [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Pulliam, Elias Noel [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-03-30

    This design is intended to replace the current mirror setup being used for the NorthStar Moly 99 project in order to monitor the target coupon. The existing setup has limited movement for camera alignment and is difficult to align properly. This proposed conceptual design for a water cooled mirror will allow for greater thermal transfer between the mirror and the water block. It will also improve positioning of the mirror by using flexible vacuum hosing and a ball head joint capable of a wide range of motion. Incorporating this design into the target monitoring system will provide more efficient cooling of the mirror which will improve the amount of diffraction caused by the heating of the mirror. The process of aligning the mirror for accurate position will be greatly improved by increasing the range of motion by offering six degrees of freedom.

  12. Magnetic entropy and cooling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Britt Rosendahl; Kuhn, Luise Theil; Bahl, Christian Robert Haffenden

    2010-01-01

    Some manifestations of magnetism are well-known and utilized on an everyday basis, e.g. using a refrigerator magnet for hanging that important note on the refrigerator door. Others are, so far, more exotic, such as cooling by making use of the magnetocaloric eect. This eect can cause a change...... in the temperature of a magnetic material when a magnetic eld is applied or removed. For many years, experimentalists have made use of dilute paramagnetic materials to achieve milliKelvin temperatures by use of the magnetocaloric eect. Also, research is done on materials, which might be used for hydrogen, helium...... or nitrogen liquefaction or for room-temperature cooling. The magnetocaloric eect can further be used to determine phase transition boundaries, if a change in the magnetic state occurs at the boundary.In this talk, I will introduce the magnetocaloric eect (MCE) and the two equations, which characterize...

  13. The Effect of Temperature and Solution pH on the Nucleation of Tetragonal Lysozyme Crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Judge, Russell A.; Jacobs, Randolph S.; Frazier, Tyralynn; Snell, Edward H.; Pusey, Marc L.

    1999-01-01

    Part of the challenge of macromolecular crystal growth for structure determination is obtaining crystals with a volume suitable for x-ray analysis. In this respect an understanding of the effect of solution conditions on macromolecule nucleation rates is advantageous. This study investigated the effects of supersaturation, temperature, and pH on the nucleation rate of tetragonal lysozyme crystals. Batch crystallization plates were prepared at given solution concentrations and incubated at set temperatures over 1 week. The number of crystals per well with their size and axial ratios were recorded and correlated with solution conditions. Crystal numbers were found to increase with increasing supersaturation and temperature. The most significant variable, however, was pH; crystal numbers changed by two orders of magnitude over the pH range 4.0-5.2. Crystal size also varied with solution conditions, with the largest crystals obtained at pH 5.2. Having optimized the crystallization conditions, we prepared a batch of crystals under the same initial conditions, and 50 of these crystals were analyzed by x-ray diffraction techniques. The results indicate that even under the same crystallization conditions, a marked variation in crystal properties exists.

  14. Run-to-run product quality control of batch processes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIA Li; SHI Ji-ping; CHENG Da-shuai; CHIU Min-sen

    2009-01-01

    Batch processes have been increasingly used in the production of low volume and high value added products.Consequently,optimization control in batch processes is crucial in order to derive the maximum benefit.In this paper,a run-to-run product quality control based on iterative learning optimization control is developed.Moreover,a rigorous theorem is proposed and proven in this paper,which states that the tracking error under the optimal iterative learning control (ILC) law can converge to zero.In this paper,a typical nonlinear batch continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR) is considered,and the results show that the performance of trajectory tracking is gradually improved by the ILC.

  15. Batch Statistical Process Monitoring Approach to a Cocrystallization Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarraguça, Mafalda C; Ribeiro, Paulo R S; Santos, Adenilson O Dos; Lopes, João A

    2015-12-01

    Cocrystals are defined as crystalline structures composed of two or more compounds that are solid at room temperature held together by noncovalent bonds. Their main advantages are the increase of solubility, bioavailability, permeability, stability, and at the same time retaining active pharmaceutical ingredient bioactivity. The cocrystallization between furosemide and nicotinamide by solvent evaporation was monitored on-line using near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) as a process analytical technology tool. The near-infrared spectra were analyzed using principal component analysis. Batch statistical process monitoring was used to create control charts to perceive the process trajectory and define control limits. Normal and non-normal operating condition batches were performed and monitored with NIRS. The use of NIRS associated with batch statistical process models allowed the detection of abnormal variations in critical process parameters, like the amount of solvent or amount of initial components present in the cocrystallization.

  16. Biogas plasticization coupled anaerobic digestion: batch test results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schimel, Keith A

    2007-06-01

    Biogas has unique properties for improving the biodegradability of biomass solids during anaerobic digestion (AD). This report presents batch test results of the first investigation into utilizing biogas plasticization to "condition" organic polymers during active digestion of waste activated sludge (WAS). Preliminary design calculations based on polymer diffusion rate limitation are presented. Analysis of the 20 degrees C batch test data determined the first order (k(1)) COD conversion coefficient to be 0.167 day(-1) with a maximum COD utilization rate of 11.25 g L(-1) day(-1). Comparison of these batch test results to typical conventional AD performance parameters showed orders of magnitude improvement. These results show that biogas plasticization during active AD could greatly improve renewable energy yields from biomass waste materials such as MSW RDF, STP sludges, food wastes, animal manure, green wastes, and agricultural crop residuals. PMID:17054122

  17. Application of gain scheduling to the control of batch bioreactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardello, Ralph; San, Ka-Yiu

    1987-01-01

    The implementation of control algorithms to batch bioreactors is often complicated by the inherent variations in process dynamics during the course of fermentation. Such a wide operating range may render the performance of fixed gain PID controllers unsatisfactory. In this work, a detailed study on the control of batch fermentation is performed. Furthermore, a simple batch controller design is proposed which incorporates the concept of gain-scheduling, a subclass of adaptive control, with oxygen uptake rate as an auxiliary variable. The control of oxygen tension in the biorector is used as a vehicle to convey the proposed idea, analysis and results. Simulation experiments indicate significant improvement in controller performance can be achieved by the proposed approach even in the presence of measurement noise.

  18. Batch variation between branchial cell cultures: An analysis of variance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Heinz Johs. Max; Grosell, M.; Kristensen, L.

    2003-01-01

    We present in detail how a statistical analysis of variance (ANOVA) is used to sort out the effect of an unexpected batch-to-batch variation between cell cultures. Two separate cultures of rainbow trout branchial cells were grown on permeable filtersupports ("inserts"). They were supposed...... and introducing the observed difference between batches as one of the factors in an expanded three-dimensional ANOVA, we were able to overcome an otherwisecrucial lack of sufficiently reproducible duplicate values. We could thereby show that the effect of changing the apical medium was much more marked when...... the radioactive lipid precursors were added on the apical, rather than on the basolateral, side. Theinsert cell cultures were obviously polarized. We argue that it is not reasonable to reject troublesome experimental results, when we do not know a priori that something went wrong. The ANOVA is a very useful...

  19. From Fed-batch to Continuous Enzymatic Biodiesel Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Price, Jason Anthony; Nordblad, Mathias; Woodley, John M.;

    2015-01-01

    In this this paper, we use mechanistic modelling to guide the development of acontinuous enzymatic process that is performed as a fed-batch operation. In this workwe use the enzymatic biodiesel process as a case study. A mechanistic model developedin our previous work was used to determine...... measured components (triglycerides, diglycerides, monoglycerides, free fatty acid and fatty acid methyl esters(biodiesel)) much better than using fed-batch data alone given the smaller residuals. We also observe a reduction in the correlation between the parameters.The model was then used to predict that 5...... reactors are required (with a combined residence time of 30 hours) to reach a final biodiesel concentration within 2 % of the95.6 mass % achieved in a fed-batch operation, for 24 hours....

  20. Method of Estimating Continuous Cooling Transformation Curves of Glasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Dongmei; Zhou, Wancheng; Ray, Chandra S.; Day, Delbert E.

    2006-01-01

    A method is proposed for estimating the critical cooling rate and continuous cooling transformation (CCT) curve from isothermal TTT data of glasses. The critical cooling rates and CCT curves for a group of lithium disilicate glasses containing different amounts of Pt as nucleating agent estimated through this method are compared with the experimentally measured values. By analysis of the experimental and calculated data of the lithium disilicate glasses, a simple relationship between the crystallized amount in the glasses during continuous cooling, X, and the temperature of undercooling, (Delta)T, was found to be X = AR(sup-4)exp(B (Delta)T), where (Delta)T is the temperature difference between the theoretical melting point of the glass composition and the temperature in discussion, R is the cooling rate, and A and B are constants. The relation between the amount of crystallisation during continuous cooling and isothermal hold can be expressed as (X(sub cT)/X(sub iT) = (4/B)(sup 4) (Delta)T(sup -4), where X(sub cT) stands for the crystallised amount in a glass during continuous cooling for a time t when the temperature comes to T, and X(sub iT) is the crystallised amount during isothermal hold at temperature T for a time t.

  1. Cool Stars in Hot Places

    OpenAIRE

    Megeath, S. T.; Gaidos, E.; Hester, J. J.; Adams, F. C.; Bally, J.; Lee, J. -E.; Wolk, S.

    2007-01-01

    During the last three decades, evidence has mounted that star and planet formation is not an isolated process, but is influenced by current and previous generations of stars. Although cool stars form in a range of environments, from isolated globules to rich embedded clusters, the influences of other stars on cool star and planet formation may be most significant in embedded clusters, where hundreds to thousands of cool stars form in close proximity to OB stars. At the cool stars 14 meeting, ...

  2. Ceramic cooling tower packings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Honekamp, H.; Katzmann, A.

    1986-05-01

    No material for cooling tower packings demonstrates all the characteristics desired by the designer. The choice of a specific material must therefore always be oriented towards the limiting conditions of a specific project. Resistance to frost, combustibility and resistance to ageing may, for example, be determining requirements. Ceramic stones will find further possibilities of application in the near future due to their almost unlimited durability.

  3. Electron Cooling of RHIC

    CERN Document Server

    Ben-Zvi, Ilan; Barton, Donald; Beavis, Dana; Blaskiewicz, Michael; Bluem, Hans; Brennan, Joseph M; Bruhwiler, David L; Burger, Al; Burov, Alexey; Burrill, Andrew; Calaga, Rama; Cameron, Peter; Chang, Xiangyun; Cole, Michael; Connolly, Roger; Delayen, Jean R; Derbenev, Yaroslav S; Eidelman, Yury I; Favale, Anthony; Fedotov, Alexei V; Fischer, Wolfram; Funk, L W; Gassner, David M; Hahn, Harald; Harrison, Michael; Hershcovitch, Ady; Holmes, Douglas; Hseuh Hsiao Chaun; Johnson, Peter; Kayran, Dmitry; Kewisch, Jorg; Kneisel, Peter; Koop, Ivan; Lambiase, Robert; Litvinenko, Vladimir N; MacKay, William W; Mahler, George; Malitsky, Nikolay; McIntyre, Gary; Meng, Wuzheng; Merminga, Lia; Meshkov, Igor; Mirabella, Kerry; Montag, Christoph; Nagaitsev, Sergei; Nehring, Thomas; Nicoletti, Tony; Oerter, Brian; Parkhomchuk, Vasily; Parzen, George; Pate, David; Phillips, Larry; Preble, Joseph P; Rank, Jim; Rao, Triveni; Rathke, John; Roser, Thomas; Russo, Thomas; Scaduto, Joseph; Schultheiss, Tom; Sekutowicz, Jacek; Shatunov, Yuri; Sidorin, Anatoly O; Skrinsky, Aleksander Nikolayevich; Smirnov, Alexander V; Smith, Kevin T; Todd, Alan M M; Trbojevic, Dejan; Troubnikov, Grigory; Wang, Gang; Wei, Jie; Williams, Neville; Wu, Kuo-Chen; Yakimenko, Vitaly; Zaltsman, Alex; Zhao, Yongxiang; ain, Animesh K

    2005-01-01

    We report progress on the R&D program for electron-cooling of the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC). This electron cooler is designed to cool 100 GeV/nucleon at storage energy using 54 MeV electrons. The electron source will be a superconducting RF photocathode gun. The accelerator will be a superconducting energy recovery linac. The frequency of the accelerator is set at 703.75 MHz. The maximum electron bunch frequency is 9.38 MHz, with bunch charge of 20 nC. The R&D program has the following components: The photoinjector and its photocathode, the superconducting linac cavity, start-to-end beam dynamics with magnetized electrons, electron cooling calculations including benchmarking experiments and development of a large superconducting solenoid. The photoinjector and linac cavity are being incorporated into an energy recovery linac aimed at demonstrating ampere class current at about 20 MeV. A Zeroth Order Design Report is in an advanced draft state, and can be found on the web at http://www.ags...

  4. Low mass integrated cooling

    CERN Document Server

    Mapelli, Alessandro

    2014-01-01

    Low mass on - detec tor cooling systems are being developed and stud ied by the Detector Technology group (PH - DT) in the CERN Physics Department in close collaboration with LHC and non - LHC experiments . Two approaches are currently being investigated. The first approach, for barrel configurations, consists in integrating the cooli ng apparatus in light mechanical structures support ing the detectors. In this case , the thermal management can be achieved either with light cooling pipes and thin plates or with a network of microchannels embedded in thin strips of silicon or polyimide . Both configuratio ns are being investigated in the context of the 2018 upgrade program of the ALICE Inner Tracking System (ITS). Moreover, it is also possible to use a s ilicon microchannel cooling device itself as structural support for the detectors and electronics. Such a configur ation has been adopted by the NA62 collaboration for the ir GigaTracKer (GTK) as well as by the LHCb collaboration for the 2018 major upgrade of...

  5. Batch-related sterile endophthalmitis following intravitreal injection of bevacizumab

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morteza Entezari

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: To report a series of patients with sterile endophthalmitis after intravitreal bevacizumab (IVB injection from 2 different batches of bevacizumab. Materials and Methods: Records of 11 eyes with severe inflammation after IVB injections from two different batches (7 eyes from one and 4 from the other on two separate days were evaluated. Fifteen eyes of 15 patients in one day were treated with one batch and 18 eyes of 17 patients were treated another day using another batch injected for different retinal diseases. Each batch was opened on the day of injection. We used commercially available bevacizumab (100 mg/4 ml kept at 4°C. Severe cases with hypopyon were admitted to the ward and underwent anterior chamber and vitreous tap for direct smear and culture. Results: Pain, redness and decreased vision began after 11-17 days. All had anterior chamber and vitreous reactions and 5 had hypopyon. Antibiotics and corticosteroids were initiated immediately, but the antibiotics were discontinued after negative culture results. Visual acuity returned to pre-injection levels in 10 eyes after 1 month and only in one eye pars plana vitrectomy was performed. Mean VA at the time of presentation with inflammation (1.76 ± 0.78 logMAR decreased significantly (P = 0.008 compared to the initial mean corrected VA (1.18 ± 0.55 logMAR; however, final mean corrected VA (1.02 ± 0.48 logMAR improved in comparison with the baseline but not to a significant level (P = 0.159. Conclusions: We report a cluster of sterile endophthalmitis following intravitreal injection of bevacizumab from the same batch of bevacizumab that has a favorable prognosis.

  6. Designing modern furnace cooling systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merry, J.; Sarvinis, J.; Voermann, N.

    2000-02-01

    An integrated multidisciplinary approach to furnace design that considers the interdependence between furnace cooling elements and other furnace systems, such as binding, cooling water, and instrumentation, is necessary to achieve maximum furnace production and a long refractory life. The retrofit of the BHP Hartley electric furnace and the Kidd Creek copper converting furnace are successful examples of an integrated approach to furnace cooling design.

  7. Water-Cooled Optical Thermometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menna, A. A.

    1987-01-01

    Water-cooled optical probe measures temperature of nearby radiating object. Intended primarily for use in silicon-growing furnace for measuring and controlling temperatures of silicon ribbon, meniscus, cartridge surfaces, heaters, or other parts. Cooling water and flushing gas cool fiber-optic probe and keep it clean. Fiber passes thermal radiation from observed surface to measuring instrument.

  8. Batch Private Keys Generation for RSA in Security Communication Systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Yun; CHEN Xin

    2005-01-01

    RSA public key cryptosystem is extensively used in information security systems.However, key generation for RSA cryptosystem requires multiplicative inversion over finite field, which has higher computational complexity, compared with either multiplication in common sense or modular multiplication over finite field. In order to improve the performance of key generation, we propose a batch private keys generation method in this paper. The method derives efficiency from cutting down multiplicative inversions over finite field. Theoretical analysis shows that the speed of batch private keys generation for s users is faster than that of s times solo private key generation. It is suitable for applications in those systems with large amount of users.

  9. Stochastic growth logistic model with aftereffect for batch fermentation process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosli, Norhayati; Ayoubi, Tawfiqullah [Faculty of Industrial Sciences and Technology, Universiti Malaysia Pahang, Lebuhraya Tun Razak, 26300 Gambang, Pahang (Malaysia); Bahar, Arifah; Rahman, Haliza Abdul [Department of Mathematical Sciences, Faculty of Science, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 Johor Bahru, Johor (Malaysia); Salleh, Madihah Md [Department of Biotechnology Industry, Faculty of Biosciences and Bioengineering, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 Johor Bahru, Johor (Malaysia)

    2014-06-19

    In this paper, the stochastic growth logistic model with aftereffect for the cell growth of C. acetobutylicum P262 and Luedeking-Piret equations for solvent production in batch fermentation system is introduced. The parameters values of the mathematical models are estimated via Levenberg-Marquardt optimization method of non-linear least squares. We apply Milstein scheme for solving the stochastic models numerically. The effciency of mathematical models is measured by comparing the simulated result and the experimental data of the microbial growth and solvent production in batch system. Low values of Root Mean-Square Error (RMSE) of stochastic models with aftereffect indicate good fits.

  10. Stochastic growth logistic model with aftereffect for batch fermentation process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosli, Norhayati; Ayoubi, Tawfiqullah; Bahar, Arifah; Rahman, Haliza Abdul; Salleh, Madihah Md

    2014-06-01

    In this paper, the stochastic growth logistic model with aftereffect for the cell growth of C. acetobutylicum P262 and Luedeking-Piret equations for solvent production in batch fermentation system is introduced. The parameters values of the mathematical models are estimated via Levenberg-Marquardt optimization method of non-linear least squares. We apply Milstein scheme for solving the stochastic models numerically. The effciency of mathematical models is measured by comparing the simulated result and the experimental data of the microbial growth and solvent production in batch system. Low values of Root Mean-Square Error (RMSE) of stochastic models with aftereffect indicate good fits.

  11. NEPHELINE FORMATION POTENTIAL IN SLUDGE BATCH 4 AND ITS IMPACT ON DURABILITY: SELECTING GLASSES FOR A PHASE 3 STUDY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fox, K

    2006-01-27

    -3 are to batched and fabricated using standard procedures. Visual observations and other analytical techniques are to be used, as needed, to assess the presence of crystals with specific interest in the nepheline primary phase. The durability of these glasses (for both quenched and centerline canister cooled versions) is to be measured using the ASTM PCT Method A. The results from these efforts are to be documented in a subsequent report. The results of this study will provide valuable input for the frit development efforts and subsequent feedback to the CBU regarding the relative viability of the current SB4 option under consideration. The refined nepheline discriminator value will provide a guideline for the avoidance of nepheline crystallization in SB4 glasses and aid in down-selection of frit compositions. These data will be combined with the results of melt rate studies and a paper study of the frits robustness with regard to variability in the sludge composition to provide an optimized frit recommendation to DWPF for immobilization of SB4.

  12. Synthesis and characterization of tetraethylammonium tetrachlorocobaltate crystals

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    M A Kandhaswamy; V Srinivasan

    2002-02-01

    Single crystals of tetraethylammonium tetrachlorocobaltate were grown by solution method and characterized through single crystal X-ray diffraction, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), differential scanning calorimetric studies (DSC) and infrared spectroscopic technique (IR). The crystals were bright, transparent and blue coloured. The unit cell parameters were found to be = = 9.0363 Å and = 14.9879 Å and = = = 90°, showing tetragonal lattice from the XRD data. Thermogravimetric analysis showed a loss of weight at 683 K from which the decomposition reaction was formulated. Thermal anomalies were found for this crystal at temperatures 200 K, 220 K in the cooling cycle and at temperatures 200 K, 240 K in the heating cycle, respectively which showed that this crystal was associated with first order phase transition. All the vibrational frequencies corresponding to (TEA)+ ions and CoCl$^{2-}_4$ ions were assigned from the IR spectral data of this crystal.

  13. Ultraefficient Cooling of Resonators: Beating Sideband Cooling with Quantum Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaoting; Vinjanampathy, Sai; Strauch, Frederick; Jacobs, Kurt

    2012-02-01

    There is presently a great deal of interest in cooling high-frequency micro- and nano-mechanical oscillators to their ground states. The present state of the art in cooling mechanical resonators is a version of sideband cooling, which was originally developed in the context of cooling trapped ions. Here we present a method based on quantum control that uses the same configuration as sideband cooling--coupling the resonator to be cooled to a second microwave (or optical) auxiliary resonator--but will cool significantly colder. This is achieved by applying optimal control and varying the strength of the coupling between the two resonators over a time on the order of the period of the mechanical resonator. As part of our analysis, we also obtain a method for fast, high-fidelity quantum information transfer between resonators.

  14. Crystal Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    SRD 3 NIST Crystal Data (PC database for purchase)   NIST Crystal Data contains chemical, physical, and crystallographic information useful to characterize more than 237,671 inorganic and organic crystalline materials. The data include the standard cell parameters, cell volume, space group number and symbol, calculated density, chemical formula, chemical name, and classification by chemical type.

  15. SULFATE SOLUBILITY LIMIT VERIFICATION FOR DWPF SLUDGE BATCH 7B

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fox, K.

    2011-10-03

    The objective of this study was to determine a sulfate solubility limit in glass for Sludge Batch 7b (SB7b). The SB7b composition projection provided by Savannah River Remediation (SRR) on May 25, 2011 was used as the basis for formulating glass compositions to determine the sulfate limit. Additions of Na{sub 2}O to the projected sludge composition were made by the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) due to uncertainty in the final concentration of Na{sub 2}O for SB7b, which is dependent on washing effectiveness and the potential need to add NaOH to ensure an acceptable projected operating window. Additions of 4, 6, and 8 wt % Na{sub 2}O were made to the nominal May 25, 2011 composition projection. An updated SB7b composition projection was received from SRR on August 4, 2011. Due to compositional similarities, no additional experimental work using the August 4, 2011 compositions was considered to be necessary for this study. Both Frit 418 and Frit 702 were included in this study. The targeted sulfate (SO{sub 4}{sup 2-}) concentrations of the study glasses were selected within the range of 0.6 to 0.9 wt % in glass. A total of 52 glass compositions were selected based on the compositional variables of Na{sub 2}O addition, Actinide Removal Process (ARP) stream addition, waste loading, frit composition, and sulfate concentration. The glasses were batched, melted, and characterized following SRNL procedures. Visual observations were recorded for each glass after it cooled and used as in indicator of sulfur retention. Representative samples of each of the glasses fabricated were subjected to chemical analysis to determine whether the targeted compositions were met, as well as to determine the quantity of sulfate that was retained after melting. In general, the measured composition data showed that there were only minor issues in meeting the targeted compositions for the study glasses, and the measured sulfate concentrations for each study glass were within 10% of

  16. Cooling lubricants; Kuehlschmierstoffe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pfeiffer, W. [Berufsgenossenschaftliches Inst. fuer Arbeitssicherheit, St. Augustin (Germany); Breuer, D. [Berufsgenossenschaftliches Inst. fuer Arbeitssicherheit, St. Augustin (Germany); Blome, H. [Berufsgenossenschaftliches Inst. fuer Arbeitssicherheit, St. Augustin (Germany); Deininger, C. [Berufsgenossenschaftliches Inst. fuer Arbeitssicherheit, St. Augustin (Germany); Hahn, J.U. [Berufsgenossenschaftliches Inst. fuer Arbeitssicherheit, St. Augustin (Germany); Kleine, H. [Berufsgenossenschaftliches Inst. fuer Arbeitssicherheit, St. Augustin (Germany); Nies, E. [Berufsgenossenschaftliches Inst. fuer Arbeitssicherheit, St. Augustin (Germany); Pflaumbaum, W. [Berufsgenossenschaftliches Inst. fuer Arbeitssicherheit, St. Augustin (Germany); Stockmann, R. [Berufsgenossenschaftliches Inst. fuer Arbeitssicherheit, St. Augustin (Germany); Willert, G. [Berufsgenossenschaftliches Inst. fuer Arbeitssicherheit, St. Augustin (Germany); Sonnenschein, G. [Maschinenbau- und Metall-Berufsgenossenschaft, Duesseldorf (Germany)

    1996-08-01

    As a rule, the base substances used are certain liquid hydrocarbons from mineral oils as well as from native and synthetic oils. Through the addition of further substances the cooling lubricant takes on the particular qualities required for the use in question. Employees working with cooling lubricants are exposed to various hazards. The assessment of the concentrations at the work station is carried out on the basis of existing technical rules for contact with hazardous substances. However, the application/implementation of compulsory investigation and supervision in accordance with these rules is made difficult by the fact that cooling lubricants are, as a rule, made up of complicated compound mixtures. In addition to protecting employees from exposure to mists and vapours from the cooling lubricants, protection for the skin is also of particular importance. Cooling lubricants should not, if at all possible, be brought into contact with the skin. Cleansing the skin and skin care is just as important as changing working clothes regularly, and hygiene and cleanliness at the workplace. Unavoidable emissions are to be immediately collected at the point where they arise or are released and safely disposed of. This means taking into account all sources of emissions. The programme presented in this report therefore gives a very detailed account of the individual protective measures and provides recommendations for the design of technical protection facilities. (orig./MG) [Deutsch] Als Basisstoffe dienen in der Regel bestimmte fluessige Kohlenwasserstoffverbindungen aus Mineraloelen sowie aus nativen oder synthetischen Oelen. Durch die Zugabe von weiteren Stoffen erlangt der Kuehlschmierstoff seine fuer den jeweiligen Anwendungsabfall geforderten Eigenschaften. Beschaeftigte, die mit Kuehlschmierstoffen umgehen, sind unterschiedliche Gefahren ausgesetzt. Die Beurteilung der Kuehlschmierstoffkonzentrationen in der Luft am Arbeitsplatz erfolgt auf der Grundlage bestehender

  17. Laser cooling of organic-inorganic lead halide perovskites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Son-Tung; Shen, Chao; Zhang, Jun; Xiong, Qihua

    2016-02-01

    Optical irradiation with suitable energy can cool solids, a phenomenon known as optical refrigeration, first proposed in 1929 and experimentally achieved in ytterbium-doped glasses in 1995. Since then, considerable progress has been made in various rare earth element-doped materials, with a recent record of cooling to 91 K directly from ambient temperatures. For practical use and to suit future applications of optical refrigeration, the discovery of materials with facile and scalable synthesis and high cooling power density will be required. Herein we present the realization of a net cooling of 23.0 K in micrometre-thick 3D CH3NH3PbI3 (MAPbI3) and 58.7 K in exfoliated 2D (C6H5C2H4NH3)2PbI4 (PhEPbI4) perovskite crystals directly from room temperature. We found that the perovskite crystals exhibit strong photoluminescence upconversion and near unity external quantum efficiency, properties that are responsible for the realization of net laser cooling. Our findings indicate that solution-processed perovskite thin films may be a highly suitable candidate for constructing integrated optical cooler devices.

  18. Analysis and modelling of the energy requirements of batch processes; Analyse und Modellierung des Energiebedarfes in Batch-Prozessen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bieler, P.S.

    2002-07-01

    This intermediate report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) presents the results of a project aiming to model the energy consumption of multi-product, multi-purpose batch production plants. The utilities investigated were electricity, brine and steam. Both top-down and bottom-up approaches are described, whereby top-down was used for the buildings where the batch process apparatus was installed. Modelling showed that for batch-plants at the building level, the product mix can be too variable and the diversity of products and processes too great for simple modelling. Further results obtained by comparing six different production plants that could be modelled are discussed. The several models developed are described and their wider applicability is discussed. Also, the results of comparisons made between modelled and actual values are presented. Recommendations for further work are made.

  19. Non-isothermal Crystallization Kinetics of Kaolin Modified Polyester

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Ruixin; GU Mingbo; CHEN Guoqiang

    2011-01-01

    Fiber-class modified kaolin and PET have been blended in the twin-screw and granulated to chips containing 4 wt% of kaolin.Non-isothermal crystallization process of kaolin modified polyester was investigated using a differential scanning calorimetry (DSC),and the addition of kaolin enhances either the melting temperature (Tm) or the crystallization temperature (Tc).The morphology of kaolin modified polyester,the melt of which is cooled at different cooling rate,was observed by scanning electron microscope (SEM).The relationship between Tc and cooling rate F was studied.Semi-crystalline phase t1/2 makes an exponential decline with increasing F,and the higher the cooling rate,the shorter the time of crystallization completion.Non-isothermal crystallization kinetics parameters and the activation energy were calculated,indicating that the higher rate of cooling needs the higher relative crystallinity in the unit crystallization time,the crystallization rate increased while speeding up the temperature reduction,and the activation energy AE was calculated to be -204.1566 kJ/mol for the non-isothermal crystallization processes by the Kissinger's methods.

  20. Abnormal correlation between phase transformation and cooling rate for pure metals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, J. J.; Wang, C. P.; Liu, X. J.; Wang, Y.; Liu, Z.-K.; Zhang, T.-Y.; Jiang, J. Z.

    2016-03-01

    This work aims to achieve deep insight into the phenomenon of phase transformation upon rapid cooling in metal systems and reveal the physical meaning of scatter in the time taken to reach crystallization. The total number of pure metals considered in this work accounts for 14. Taking pure copper as an example, the correlation between phase selection of crystal or glass and cooling rate was investigated using molecular dynamic simulations. The obtained results demonstrate that there exists a cooling rate region of 6.3 × 1011–16.6 × 1011 K/s, in which crystalline fractions largely fluctuate along with cooling rates. Glass transformation in this cooling rate region is determined by atomic structure fluctuation, which is controlled by thermodynamic factors. According to the feature of bond-orientation order at different cooling rates, we propose two mechanisms of glass formation: (i) kinetic retardation of atom rearrangement or structural relaxation at a high cooling rate; and (ii) competition of icosahedral order against crystal order near the critical cooling rate.

  1. Recent developments in cooling towers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Honekamp, H.; Katzmann, A.

    1981-07-01

    The last few years have brought about some interesting developments in large cooling towers. Cooling tower technology and research have already been reviewed from the researcher's point of view. The present article describes some practical problems from the planning engineer's point of view. Only development trends in wet natural-draught cooling towers are considered. The shape of cooling towers has been improved as well as their internals. Hints for cooling tower operation are given on the basis of operating experience in winter.

  2. Lipid production in batch and fed-batch cultures of Rhodosporidium toruloides from 5 and 6 carbon carbohydrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wiebe Marilyn G

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Microbial lipids are a potential source of bio- or renewable diesel and the red yeast Rhodosporidium toruloides is interesting not only because it can accumulate over 50% of its dry biomass as lipid, but also because it utilises both five and six carbon carbohydrates, which are present in plant biomass hydrolysates. Methods R. toruloides was grown in batch and fed-batch cultures in 0.5 L bioreactors at pH 4 in chemically defined, nitrogen restricted (C/N 40 to 100 media containing glucose, xylose, arabinose, or all three carbohydrates as carbon source. Lipid was extracted from the biomass using chloroform-methanol, measured gravimetrically and analysed by GC. Results Lipid production was most efficient with glucose (up to 25 g lipid L−1, 48 to 75% lipid in the biomass, at up to 0.21 g lipid L−1 h−1 as the sole carbon source, but high lipid concentrations were also produced from xylose (36 to 45% lipid in biomass. Lipid production was low (15–19% lipid in biomass with arabinose as sole carbon source and was lower than expected (30% lipid in biomass when glucose, xylose and arabinose were provided simultaneously. The presence of arabinose and/or xylose in the medium increased the proportion of palmitic and linoleic acid and reduced the proportion of oleic acid in the fatty acids, compared to glucose-grown cells. High cell densities were obtained in both batch (37 g L−1, with 49% lipid in the biomass and fed-batch (35 to 47 g L−1, with 50 to 75% lipid in the biomass cultures. The highest proportion of lipid in the biomass was observed in cultures given nitrogen during the batch phase but none with the feed. However, carbohydrate consumption was incomplete when the feed did not contain nitrogen and the highest total lipid and best substrate consumption were observed in cultures which received a constant low nitrogen supply. Conclusions Lipid production in R. toruloides was lower from arabinose and mixed

  3. Laser Cooling of Molecular Anions

    CERN Document Server

    Yzombard, Pauline; Gerber, Sebastian; Doser, Michael; Comparat, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    We propose a scheme for laser cooling of negatively charged molecules. We briefly summarise the requirements for such laser cooling and we identify a number of potential candidates. A detailed computation study with C$\\_2^-$, the most studied molecular anion, is carried out. Simulations of 3D laser cooling in a gas phase show that this molecule could be cooled down to below 1 mK in only a few tens of milliseconds, using standard lasers. Sisyphus cooling, where no photo-detachment process is present, as well as Doppler laser cooling of trapped C$\\_2^-$, are also simulated. This cooling scheme has an impact on the study of cold molecules, molecular anions, charged particle sources and antimatter physics.

  4. Non-isothermal Crystallization Kinetics of Spinels in Vanadium Slag with High CaO Content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Wang; Xie, Bing; Tan, Wen-Feng; Diao, Jiang; Zhang, Xie; Li, Hong-Yi

    2016-09-01

    This paper investigated the non-isothermal crystallization kinetics of the spinel crystals in vanadium slags containing high CaO content. Experiments were performed in combination with theoretical calculation to address this issue, and statistical analyses based on the Crystal Size Distribution theory. The results indicate that low cooling rate and high CaO content benefit the growth of spinel crystals. The growth mechanism is revealed to be controlled by interface reactions and diffusion at the cooling rates of 5 K/min and 15 K/min, respectively. However, at higher temperatures (>1673 K), the growth of spinel crystals is controlled by nucleation. While the temperature is decreased to 1523 K at the cooling rate of 5 K/min, the mean diameter of spinel crystals could reach 36.44 μm. Experimental results combining with theoretical reveal that low cooling rate benefits spinels growth, especially for the interval of 1523 K-1200 K.

  5. Performance comparison of suspended bed and batch contactor chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quiñones-García, I; Rayner, I; Levison, P R; Dickson, N; Purdom, G

    2001-01-26

    In some applications, the purification and recovery of biomolecules is performed via a cascade of batch adsorption and desorption stages using agitated contactors and related filtration devices. Suspended bed chromatography is a recent process-scale innovation that is applicable to these separations. This hybrid technique exploits the benefits of combining batch adsorption in an agitated contactor with elution in an enclosed column system. To some extent, the process is similar to batch contactor chromatography but can be fully contained and significantly quicker. The process has two steps; first the fluid containing the sample is mixed with the adsorbent in a stirred tank. Second, the slurry suspension is transferred directly into a specialized column, such as an IsoPak column. The media with the adsorbed product is formed as a packed bed, whilst the suspension liquid is passed out of the column. The product is then eluted from the packed bed utilizing standard column-chromatography techniques. The performance of the suspended bed and the agitated contactor operations are demonstrated both by full-scale experimental results and process simulations. The purification of ovalbumin from a hen-egg white feedstock by anion-exchange chromatography was used as a case study in order to prove the concept. With the availability of both pump-packed systems and shear-resistant media, suspended bed chromatography is a better alternative for a range of applications than the traditional batch separations using agitated contactors. PMID:11218119

  6. Adaptation to high throughput batch chromatography enhances multivariate screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker, Gregory A; Calzada, Joseph; Herzer, Sibylle; Rieble, Siegfried

    2015-09-01

    High throughput process development offers unique approaches to explore complex process design spaces with relatively low material consumption. Batch chromatography is one technique that can be used to screen chromatographic conditions in a 96-well plate. Typical batch chromatography workflows examine variations in buffer conditions or comparison of multiple resins in a given process, as opposed to the assessment of protein loading conditions in combination with other factors. A modification to the batch chromatography paradigm is described here where experimental planning, programming, and a staggered loading approach increase the multivariate space that can be explored with a liquid handling system. The iterative batch chromatography (IBC) approach is described, which treats every well in a 96-well plate as an individual experiment, wherein protein loading conditions can be varied alongside other factors such as wash and elution buffer conditions. As all of these factors are explored in the same experiment, the interactions between them are characterized and the number of follow-up confirmatory experiments is reduced. This in turn improves statistical power and throughput. Two examples of the IBC method are shown and the impact of the load conditions are assessed in combination with the other factors explored. PMID:25914370

  7. The second batch of environmental standard qualified list released

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    The Ministry of Environmental Protection released the second batch of enterprises list that basically meet environment standards recently. Total 41 enterprises from 10 provinces and autonomous regions of Inner Mongolia, Jiangsu, Jiangxi, Sichuan, Gansu and so on are included in the list.

  8. A fixed-size batch service queue with vacations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ho Woo Lee

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with batch service queues with vacations in which customers arrive according to a Poisson process. Decomposition method is used to derive the queue length distributions both for single and multiple vacation cases. The authors look at other decomposition techniques and discuss some related open problems.

  9. A Storage Assignment Model for Batch Preparation in Process Industries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ashayeri, J.; Selen, W.

    2010-01-01

    A new model formulation is developed for reducing the workload in pre-batching at a manufacturer of flavours and fragrances, by optimally assigning ingredients to different storage types, taking into account past usage of ingredients and several restrictions about volumes and number of storage units

  10. Perancangan Sistem Pengaduk Pada Bioreaktor Batch Untuk Meningkatkan Produksi Biogas

    OpenAIRE

    Candrika Widiartanti Yuwono; Totok Soehartanto

    2013-01-01

    Proses anaerob merupakan proses fermentasi dimana memiliki proses yang berlangsung cukup lama. Dan pada bioreaktor anaerob sistem batch, diduga terdapat indikasi pada penurunan jumlah produksi biogas, yang disebabkan karena tejadi pengendapan atau pemisahan antara limbah cair dengan padatannya. Untuk itu muncul upaya untuk melakukan sistem pengadukan agar terjadi homogenitas dan bisa menyerupai seperti kondisi awal, sehingga diharapkan dapat memperpanjang masa produksi biogas. Adapun pengaduk...

  11. On the track of fish batches in three distribution networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Randrup, Maria; Wu, Haiping; Jørgensen, Bo M.

    2012-01-01

    Three fish products sampled in retail shops were traced back to their origin and fish from the same batch were tracked forward towards the retailer, thereby simulating a recall situation. The resulting distribution networks were very complex, but to the extent that companies were willing to provide...

  12. Research of an Efficient Variant of Batch RSA Algorithm%一种有效的Batch RSA算法的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李云飞; 柳青; 李彤; 郝林

    2011-01-01

    提出了一种改进的Batch RSA算法来提升Batch RSA算法的解密性能.该改进算法结合了负载转移技术和Multi-Power RSA技术,在Batch RSA算法的指数计算阶段提升Batch RSA算法的解密性能.实验结果和理论分析表明,该改进算法使得Batch RSA算法的解密性能得到显著提升,且易于并行实现,可使基于多核平台的Batch RSA算法的整体性能得到进一步提升.%This paper aimed at speeding up Batch RSA decryption. An efficient variant of Batch RSA was proposed to improve the Batch RSA decryption performance. The improved Batch RSA variant speeds up decryption by combining the load transferring technique and multi-power RSA technique in the exponentiation phase. The experimental result and the theoretical values show that the speed of the decryption is substantially improved and the variant can be efficiently implemented in parallel and parallel implementation of the variant on multi-core devices can further improve the overall performance of Batch RSA algorithm.

  13. Liquid crystal tunable photonic crystal dye laser

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buss, Thomas; Christiansen, Mads Brøkner; Smith, Cameron;

    2010-01-01

    We present a dye-doped liquid crystal laser using a photonic crystal cavity. An applied electric field to the liquid crystal provides wavelength tunability. The photonic crystal enhances resonant interaction with the gain medium.......We present a dye-doped liquid crystal laser using a photonic crystal cavity. An applied electric field to the liquid crystal provides wavelength tunability. The photonic crystal enhances resonant interaction with the gain medium....

  14. Concomitant crystallization for in situ encapsulation of organic materials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reus, M.A.; Hoetmer, G.; Heijden, A.E.D.M. van der; Horst, J.H. ter

    2014-01-01

    Concomitant crystallization leads to process intensification through the synergistic combination of the partial processes of particle formation and encapsulation within a single process step. Both cooling and electrospray crystallization in multi-component solutions were used to create (sub-)micron

  15. 间歇结晶过程的分析%Analyses of batch crystallization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林丹; 罗建军; 王胜春; 杨帆

    2001-01-01

    本文概要地介绍了用于研究在间歇悬浮结晶器中的结晶动力学和晶体粒度分布(CSD)的实验技术和数据分析的新进展,讨论了包括最大CSD的特征化、累积CSD方法、热响应技术、最大允许成长速率在内的几个简单而有用的方法.

  16. Computer Simulation of Batch Grinding Process Based on Simulink 5.0

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Xia; YANG Ying-jie; DENG Hui-yong; HUANG Guang-yao

    2005-01-01

    How to use Simulink software in grinding system was studied. The method of designing batch grinding subsystem and the steps of building batch grinding blockset were introduced. Based on batch grinding population balance model, batch grinding was simulated with Simulink. The results show that the simulation system designed with Simulink explain reasonably the impersonal rule of batch grinding. On the basis of batch grinding simulation, the computer simulation of mineral processing system with Simulink of grinding and classification, comminution, etc, can be properly explored.

  17. Cooled spool piston compressor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Brian G. (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    A hydraulically powered gas compressor receives low pressure gas and outputs a high pressure gas. The housing of the compressor defines a cylinder with a center chamber having a cross-sectional area less than the cross-sectional area of a left end chamber and a right end chamber, and a spool-type piston assembly is movable within the cylinder and includes a left end closure, a right end closure, and a center body that are in sealing engagement with the respective cylinder walls as the piston reciprocates. First and second annual compression chambers are provided between the piston enclosures and center housing portion of the compressor, thereby minimizing the spacing between the core gas and a cooled surface of the compressor. Restricted flow passageways are provided in the piston closure members and a path is provided in the central body of the piston assembly, such that hydraulic fluid flows through the piston assembly to cool the piston assembly during its operation. The compressor of the present invention may be easily adapted for a particular application, and is capable of generating high gas pressures while maintaining both the compressed gas and the compressor components within acceptable temperature limits.

  18. ASTROMAG coil cooling study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maytal, Ben-Zion; Vansciver, Steven W.

    1990-01-01

    ASTROMAG is a planned particle astrophysics magnetic facility. Basically it is a large magnetic spectrometer outside the Earth's atmosphere for an extended period of time in orbit on a space station. A definition team summarized its scientific objectives assumably related to fundamental questions of astrophysics, cosmology, and elementary particle physics. Since magnetic induction of about 7 Tesla is desired, it is planned to be a superconducting magnet cooled to liquid helium 2 temperatures. The general structure of ASTROMAG is based on: (1) two superconducting magnetic coils, (2) dewar of liquid helium 2 to provide cooling capability for the magnets; (3) instrumentation, matter-anti matter spectrometer (MAS) and cosmic ray isotope spectrometer (CRIS); and (4) interfaces to the shuttle and space station. Many configurations of the superconducting magnets and the dewar were proposed and evaluated, since those are the heart of the ASTROMAG. Baseline of the magnet configuration and cryostat as presented in the phase A study and the one kept in mind while doing the present study are presented. ASTROMAG's development schedule reflects the plan of launching to the space station in 1995.

  19. Modelling heating effects in cryocooled protein crystals

    CERN Document Server

    Nicholson, J; Fayz, K; Fell, B; Garman, E

    2001-01-01

    With the application of intense X-ray beams from third generation synchrotron sources, damage to cryocooled macromolecular crystals is being observed more commonly . In order to fully utilize synchrotron facilities now available for studying biological crystals, it is essential to understand the processes involved in radiation damage and beam heating so that, if possible, action can be taken to slow the rate of damage. Finite Element Analysis (FEA) has been applied to model the heating effects of X-rays on cryocooled protein crystals, and to compare the relative cooling efficiencies of nitrogen and helium.

  20. Glucoamylase production in batch, chemostat and fed-batch cultivations by an industrial strain of Aspergillus niger

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Henrik; Beyer, Michael; Nielsen, Jens

    2000-01-01

    The Aspergillus niger strain BO-1 was grown in batch, continuous (chemostat) and fed-batch cultivations in order to study the production of the extracellular enzyme glucoamylase under different growth conditions. In the pH range 2.5-6.0, the specific glucoamylase productivity and the specific...... growth rate of the fungus were independent of pH when grown in batch cultivations. The specific glucoamylase productivity increased linearly with the specific growth rate in the range 0-0.1 h(-1) and was constant in the range 0.1-0.2 h(-1) Maltose and maltodextrin were non-inducing carbon sources...... compared to glucose, and the maximum specific growth rate was 0.19 +/- 0.02 h(-1) irrespective of whether glucose or maltose was the carbon source. In fed-batch cultivations, glucoamylase titres of up to 6.5 g 1(-1) were obtained even though the strain contained only one copy of the glaA gene....

  1. Cooling Performance of an Impingement Cooling Device Combined with Pins

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dongliang QUAN; Songling LIU; Jianghai LI; Gaowen LIU

    2005-01-01

    Experimental study and one dimensional model analysis were conducted to investigate cooling performance of an integrated impingement and pin fin cooling device. A typical configuration specimen was made and tested in a large scale low speed closed-looped wind tunnel. Detailed two-dimensional contour maps of the temperature and cooling effectiveness were obtained for different pressure ratios and therefore different coolant flow-rates through the tested specimen. The experimental results showed that very high cooling effectiveness can be achieved by this cooling device with relatively small amount of coolant flow. Based on the theory of transpiration cooling in porous material, a one dimensional heat transfer model was established to analyze the effect of various parameters on cooling effectiveness. It was found from this model that the variation of heat transfer on the gas side, including heat transfer coefficient and film cooling effectiveness, of the specimen created much more effect on its cooling effectiveness than that of the coolant side. The predictions of the one-dimensional mode were compared and agreed well with the experimental data.

  2. Macromolecular Crystal Growth by Means of Microfluidics

    Science.gov (United States)

    vanderWoerd, Mark; Ferree, Darren; Spearing, Scott; Monaco, Lisa; Molho, Josh; Spaid, Michael; Brasseur, Mike; Curreri, Peter A. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    We have performed a feasibility study in which we show that chip-based, microfluidic (LabChip(TM)) technology is suitable for protein crystal growth. This technology allows for accurate and reliable dispensing and mixing of very small volumes while minimizing bubble formation in the crystallization mixture. The amount of (protein) solution remaining after completion of an experiment is minimal, which makes this technique efficient and attractive for use with proteins, which are difficult or expensive to obtain. The nature of LabChip(TM) technology renders it highly amenable to automation. Protein crystals obtained in our initial feasibility studies were of excellent quality as determined by X-ray diffraction. Subsequent to the feasibility study, we designed and produced the first LabChip(TM) device specifically for protein crystallization in batch mode. It can reliably dispense and mix from a range of solution constituents into two independent growth wells. We are currently testing this design to prove its efficacy for protein crystallization optimization experiments. In the near future we will expand our design to incorporate up to 10 growth wells per LabChip(TM) device. Upon completion, additional crystallization techniques such as vapor diffusion and liquid-liquid diffusion will be accommodated. Macromolecular crystallization using microfluidic technology is envisioned as a fully automated system, which will use the 'tele-science' concept of remote operation and will be developed into a research facility for the International Space Station as well as on the ground.

  3. Modelization of cooling system components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the site evaluation study for licensing a new nuclear power facility, the criteria involved could be grouped in health and safety, environment, socio-economics, engineering and cost-related. These encompass different aspects such as geology, seismology, cooling system requirements, weather conditions, flooding, population, and so on. The selection of the cooling system is function of different parameters as the gross electrical output, energy consumption, available area for cooling system components, environmental conditions, water consumption, and others. Moreover, in recent years, extreme environmental conditions have been experienced and stringent water availability limits have affected water use permits. Therefore, modifications or alternatives of current cooling system designs and operation are required as well as analyses of the different possibilities of cooling systems to optimize energy production taking into account water consumption among other important variables. There are two basic cooling system configurations: - Once-through or Open-cycle; - Recirculating or Closed-cycle. In a once-through cooling system (or open-cycle), water from an external water sources passes through the steam cycle condenser and is then returned to the source at a higher temperature with some level of contaminants. To minimize the thermal impact to the water source, a cooling tower may be added in a once-through system to allow air cooling of the water (with associated losses on site due to evaporation) prior to returning the water to its source. This system has a high thermal efficiency, and its operating and capital costs are very low. So, from an economical point of view, the open-cycle is preferred to closed-cycle system, especially if there are no water limitations or environmental restrictions. In a recirculating system (or closed-cycle), cooling water exits the condenser, goes through a fixed heat sink, and is then returned to the condenser. This configuration

  4. COMPARISON OF POLYAMIDE 66/MONTMORILLONITE NANOCOMPOSITES PREPARED FROM POLYAMIDE 6 AND POLYAMIDE 66 BASED MASTER-BATCHES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qing-quan Yang; Zhao-xia Guo; Jian Yu

    2008-01-01

    Two master-batches,polyamide 66 (PA66)/organo-montmorillonite (OMMT) and polyamide 6 (PA6)/OMMT,prepared by melt compounding with methyl methacrylate (MMA) as co-intercalation agent,have been used to prepare nearly exfoliated PA66/montmorillonite (MMT) nanocomposites.The resulting nanocomposites are compared in view of their morphology and properties.Nano-scale dispersion of OMMT is realized in both types of nanocomposites,as revealed by XRD,TEM and Molau tests.PA66/MMT nanocomposites having superior mechanical properties and heat distortion temperature (HDT) can be obtained from either PA66/OMMT or PA6/OMMT master-batch.Those from PA6/OMMT have lower tensile and flexural properties,and HDT than those from PA66/OMMT due to the presence of less stiff and less thermal resistant PA6.The crystallization behavior and crystal structure of the matrix in both types of PA66/MMT nanocomposites are also investigated by DSC and WAXD.

  5. Electronic cooling using thermoelectric devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zebarjadi, M., E-mail: m.zebarjadi@rutgers.edu [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Rutgers University, Piscataway, New Jersey 08854 (United States); Institute of Advanced Materials, Devices, and Nanotechnology, Rutgers University, Piscataway, New Jersey 08854 (United States)

    2015-05-18

    Thermoelectric coolers or Peltier coolers are used to pump heat in the opposite direction of the natural heat flux. These coolers have also been proposed for electronic cooling, wherein the aim is to pump heat in the natural heat flux direction and from hot spots to the colder ambient temperature. In this manuscript, we show that for such applications, one needs to use thermoelectric materials with large thermal conductivity and large power factor, instead of the traditionally used high ZT thermoelectric materials. We further show that with the known thermoelectric materials, the active cooling cannot compete with passive cooling, and one needs to explore a new set of materials to provide a cooling solution better than a regular copper heat sink. We propose a set of materials and directions for exploring possible materials candidates suitable for electronic cooling. Finally, to achieve maximum cooling, we propose to use thermoelectric elements as fins attached to copper blocks.

  6. MASS PRODUCTION OF THE BENEFICIAL NEMATODE STEINERNEMA CARPOCAPSAE UTILIZING A FED-BATCH CULTURING PROCESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonard D. Holmes

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The present study deals with the batch and fed-batch mass production of Steinernema carpocapsae. S. carpocapsae is an entomoparasitic nematode that is used as a biological control agent of soil-borne crop insect pests. The ability and efficiency of fed-batch culture process was successful through the utilization of the nematode’s bacterial symbiont Xenorhabdus nematophila. Results from the fed-batch process were compared to those obtain from the standard batch process. The fed-batch process successively improved the mass production process of S. carpocapsae employing liquid medium technology. Within the first week of the fed-batch process (day six, the nematode density obtained was 202,000 nematodes mL−1; whereas on day six, batch culture mode resulted in a nematode density of 23,000 nematodes mL−1. The fed-batch process was superior to that of batch production with a yield approximately 8.8-fold higher. In fed-batch process, the nematode yield was improved 88.6 % higher within a short amount of time compared to the batch process. Fed-batch seems to make the process more efficient and possibly economically viable.

  7. Model of apparent crystal growth rate and kinetics of seeded precipitation from sodium aluminate solution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Xiao-bin; LIU Zhi-jian; XU Xiao-hui; ZHOU Qiu-sheng; PENG Zhi-hong; LIU Gui-hua

    2005-01-01

    Based on the population balance equation in a batch crystallizer characteristic of seeded precipitation, a model to calculate the rate of apparent crystal growth of aluminum hydroxide from the size distribution was deve-loped. The simulation results indicate that the rate of apparent crystal growth during seeded precipitation exhibits a manifest dependence on the crystal size. In general, there is an obvious increase in the apparent crystal growth rate with the augment in crystal size. The apparent activation energy increases with the increase of characteristic crystal size, which indicates that the growth of small crystals is controlled by surface chemical reaction; it is gradually controlled by both the surface reaction and diffusion with the augment in crystal size.

  8. Non-isothermal crystallization kinetics of polyethylene–clay nanocomposites prepared by high-energy ball milling

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Maryam Abareshi; Seyed Mojtaba Zebarjad; Elaheh K Goharshadi

    2014-08-01

    Non-isothermal crystallization kinetics of pure medium density polyethylene (MDPE) and MDPE–clay nanocomposites have been investigated by differential scanning calorimeter. The modified Avrami, Ozawa, Liu and Ziabicki equations have been applied to describe non-isothermal crystallization process. The results of Avrami analysis showed a very complicated crystallization mechanism. Although, Ozawa equation failed to provide an adequate description for non-isothermal crystallization process, Liu equation could describe it well. The data showed the crystallization rate of MDPE and nanocomposites raises with increasing cooling rate and the crystallization rate of nanocomposite is faster than that of MDPE at a given cooling rate. Ziabicki’s kinetic crystallizability index showed that clay can increase the ability of MDPE to crystallize, when it is cooled at unit cooling rate. The activation energy of samples has been evaluated by Kissinger method. The results showed that the activation energy of nanocomposite was lower than that of MDPE.

  9. To Be Cool or Uncool?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁会珍

    2007-01-01

    The western world has always been divided into two types of people-the cool and the uncool. It is a division that __1__ in school. The cool kids are good at __2__. They are __3__ with the opposite sex. They are good-looking and people want to __4__ their style. They can do their homework but they don't make a big effort. That would __5__ be cool.

  10. Electron Cooling Experiments in CSR

    CERN Document Server

    Xiaodong, Yang

    2011-01-01

    The six species heavy ion beam was accumulated with the help of electron cooling in the main ring of Cooler Storage Ring of Heavy Ion Research Facility in Lanzhou(HIRFL-CSR), the ion beam accumulation dependence on the parameters of cooler was investigated experimentally. The 400MeV/u 12C6+ and 200MeV/u 129Xe54+ was stored and cooled in the experimental ring CSRe, the cooling force was measured in different condition.

  11. Electron cooling experiments in CSR

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PARKHOMCHUK; Vasily; REVA; Vladimir

    2011-01-01

    The six species heavy ion beam was accumulated with the help of electron cooling in the main ring of Cooler Storage Ring of Heavy Ion Research Facility in Lanzhou (HIRFL-CSR). The ion beam accumulation dependence on the parameters of cooler was investigated experimentally. The 400 MeV/u 12C6+ and 200 MeV/u 129Xe54+ were stored and cooled in the experimental ring CSRe, and the cooling force was measured in different conditions.

  12. Film cooling from two rows of holes with opposite orientation angles: injectant behavior and adiabatic film cooling effectiveness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present paper is aiming at describing the injectant behaviors from two rows of film cooling holes with opposite orientation angles. Boundary layer temperature distributions were measured in the streamwise normal plane to illustrate the interaction between the injectant from the holes in the upstream row and from the downstream row. Detailed adiabatic film cooling effectiveness distributions were also measured using thermochromic liquid crystal to investigate how well the injectant covers the film cooled surface. Four film cooling hole arrangements were considered including inline and staggered ones. And three blowing ratios of 0.5, 1.0 and 2.0 were studied. At the blowing ratio of 0.5, the injectant is centered near film cooled surface irrespective of hole configurations to show high film cooling effectiveness. When the blowing ratio exceeds unity the injectant tends to lift off from the wall due to the increase of the wall normal momentum. With the inline configuration, not like other configurations, the injectant is still well attached to the wall with the help of the downwash flow formed at the hole exit

  13. Direct cooled power electronics substrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiles, Randy H [Powell, TN; Wereszczak, Andrew A [Oak Ridge, TN; Ayers, Curtis W [Kingston, TN; Lowe, Kirk T [Knoxville, TN

    2010-09-14

    The disclosure describes directly cooling a three-dimensional, direct metallization (DM) layer in a power electronics device. To enable sufficient cooling, coolant flow channels are formed within the ceramic substrate. The direct metallization layer (typically copper) may be bonded to the ceramic substrate, and semiconductor chips (such as IGBT and diodes) may be soldered or sintered onto the direct metallization layer to form a power electronics module. Multiple modules may be attached to cooling headers that provide in-flow and out-flow of coolant through the channels in the ceramic substrate. The modules and cooling header assembly are preferably sized to fit inside the core of a toroidal shaped capacitor.

  14. Cooling of rectangular bars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A solution of the time-transient Heat Transfer Differential Equation in rectangular coordinates is presented, leading to a model which describes the temperature drop with time in rectangular bars. It is similar to an other model for cilindrical bars which has been previously developed in the Laboratory of Mechanical Metallurgy of UFRGS. Following these models, a generalization has been made, which permits cooling time evaluation for all profiles. These results are compared with experimental laboratory data in the 1200 to 8000C range. Some other existing models were also studied which have the purpose of studing the same phenomenon. Their mathematical forms and their evaluated values are analyzed and compared with experimental ones. (Author)

  15. ATLAS' major cooling project

    CERN Multimedia

    2005-01-01

    In 2005, a considerable effort has been put into commissioning the various units of ATLAS' complex cryogenic system. This is in preparation for the imminent cooling of some of the largest components of the detector in their final underground configuration. The liquid helium and nitrogen ATLAS refrigerators in USA 15. Cryogenics plays a vital role in operating massive detectors such as ATLAS. In many ways the liquefied argon, nitrogen and helium are the life-blood of the detector. ATLAS could not function without cryogens that will be constantly pumped via proximity systems to the superconducting magnets and subdetectors. In recent weeks compressors at the surface and underground refrigerators, dewars, pumps, linkages and all manner of other components related to the cryogenic system have been tested and commissioned. Fifty metres underground The helium and nitrogen refrigerators, installed inside the service cavern, are an important part of the ATLAS cryogenic system. Two independent helium refrigerators ...

  16. Fluid cooled electrical assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinehart, Lawrence E.; Romero, Guillermo L.

    2007-02-06

    A heat producing, fluid cooled assembly that includes a housing made of liquid-impermeable material, which defines a fluid inlet and a fluid outlet and an opening. Also included is an electrical package having a set of semiconductor electrical devices supported on a substrate and the second major surface is a heat sink adapted to express heat generated from the electrical apparatus and wherein the second major surface defines a rim that is fit to the opening. Further, the housing is constructed so that as fluid travels from the fluid inlet to the fluid outlet it is constrained to flow past the opening thereby placing the fluid in contact with the heat sink.

  17. On the choice of batch mode in order to maximize throughput

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weeda, P.J.

    1990-01-01

    An analysis of serial process configurations consisting of three processes and two machines shows interesting relations between the choice of batch mode (or batch structure), utilization of capacities and maximum throughput.

  18. Air cooled absorption chillers for solar cooling applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biermann, W. J.; Reimann, R. C.

    1982-03-01

    The chemical composition of a 'best' absorption refrigerant system is identified, and those properties of the system necessary to design hot water operated, air cooled chilling equipment are determined. Air cooled chillers from single family residential sizes into the commercial rooftop size range are designed and operated.

  19. Effects of temperature and solvent concentration on the solvent crystallization of palm-based dihydroxystearic acid with isopropyl alcohol

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gregory F.L.Koay; Teong-Guan Chuah; Sumaiya Zainal-Abidin; Salmiah Ahmad; Thomas S.Y.Choong

    2012-01-01

    Palm-based dihydroxystearic acid of 69.55% purity was produced in a 500-kg-per-batch operation pilot plant and purified through solvent crystallization in a custom fabricated simultaneous batch crystallizer unit.The effects of temperature and solvent concentration on yield,particle size distribution and purity were studied.The purity was higher,while the yield and particle size were lower and smaller,respectively,at higher temperature and solvent concentration.The solvent crystallization process efficiency was rated at 66-69% when carried out with 70-80% isopropyl alcohol at 20 ℃.

  20. JAVA Implementation of the Batched iLab Shared Architecture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lenard Payne

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The MIT iLab Shared Architecture is limited currently to running on the Microsoft Windows platform. A JAVA implementation of the Batched iLab Shared Architecture has been developed that can be used on other operating systems and still interoperate with the existing Microsoft .NET web services of MIT’s iLab ServiceBroker. The Batched iLab Shared Architecture has been revised and separates the Labserver into a LabServer that handles experiment management and a LabEquipment that handles experiment execution. The JAVA implementation provides a 3-tier code development model that allows code to be reused and to develop only the code that is specific to each experiment.

  1. Nonlinear dynamic modeling of multicomponent batch distillation: a case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Jiménez

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is to compare several of the commercial dynamic models for batch distillation available worldwide. In this context, BATCHFRAC™, CHEMCAD™ BATCH, and HYSYS.Plant® software performances are compared to experimental data. The software can be used as soft sensors, playing the roll of ad-hoc observers or estimators for control objectives. Rigorous models were used as an alternative to predict the concentration profile and to specify the optimal switching time from products to slop cuts. The performance of a nonlinear model obtained using a novel identification algorithm was also studied. In addition, the strategy for continuous separation was revised with residue curve map analysis using Aspen SPLIT™.

  2. Method to incorporate energy integration considerations in multiproduct batch processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corominas, J.; Espuna, A.; Puigjaner, L. (Universidad Politecnica de Cataluna, Barcelona (Spain))

    Systemization of an energy saving grass-root design and retrofitting technology based on process integration is a subject of increasing interest in plants running under the batch mode of operation. In this work, the solution to the product changeover problem is studied in order to achieve a feasible and optimized heat exchange network design for multiproduct batch plants. A new methodology is presented which is based on: (a) the campaign-mode of plant operation; and (b) the study of energy integration for each campaign. The concept of Macronetwork is also introduced. Algorithms to obtain the best feasible matches and energy targets are presented and results of test-case studies are discussed to illustrate this methodology. (author)

  3. A new look at energy integration in multiproduct batch processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corominas, J.; Espuna, A.; Puigjaner, L. (Univ. Politecnica de Catalunya (Spain). Chemical Engineering Dept.)

    1993-01-01

    Systematization of an energy saving grass-root design and retrofitting technology based on process integration is a subject of increasing interest in plants running under the batch mode of operation. In this work, the solution to the changeover product problem is studied in order to achieve a feasible and optimized heat exchange network design for multiproduct batch plants. A new methodology is presented which is based on: (a) the campaign-mode of plant operation, (b) the study of energy integration for each campaign. The concept of Macronetwork is also introduced. This includes the heat exchanger network of all campaigns in an overall design, and contemplates the common matches between networks of campaigns of different products. Algorithms to obtain the best feasible matches and energy targets are presented and results of test-case studies are discussed to illustrate this methodology. (author)

  4. Sorting Olive Batches for the Milling Process Using Image Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Aguilera Puerto

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The quality of virgin olive oil obtained in the milling process is directly bound to the characteristics of the olives. Hence, the correct classification of the different incoming olive batches is crucial to reach the maximum quality of the oil. The aim of this work is to provide an automatic inspection system, based on computer vision, and to classify automatically different batches of olives entering the milling process. The classification is based on the differentiation between ground and tree olives. For this purpose, three different species have been studied (Picudo, Picual and Hojiblanco. The samples have been obtained by picking the olives directly from the tree or from the ground. The feature vector of the samples has been obtained on the basis of the olive image histograms. Moreover, different image preprocessing has been employed, and two classification techniques have been used: these are discriminant analysis and neural networks. The proposed methodology has been validated successfully, obtaining good classification results.

  5. Thermal conductivity of slowly cooled H/sub 2/O and D/sub 2/O ice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The thermal conductivities of H/sub 2/O and D/sub 2/O ice, formed at different cooling rates during solidification process, have been measured between 2 K and 80 K. It is found that the thermal conductivities are almost identical at a particular cooling rate depend upon the cooling rate. The result can be explained by the presence in the crystal dislocations or of tunnelling states arising due to the displacement of oxygen atoms from their crystalline positions. (author)

  6. Liquid Crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-01-01

    Thermochromic liquid crystals, or TLCs, are a type of liquid crystals that react to changes in temperature by changing color. The Hallcrest/NASA collaboration involved development of a new way to visualize boundary layer transition in flight and in wind tunnel testing of aircraft wing and body surfaces. TLCs offered a new and potentially better method of visualizing the boundary layer transition in flight. Hallcrest provided a liquid crystal formulation technique that afforded great control over the sensitivity of the liquid crystals to varying conditions. Method is of great use to industry, government and universities for aerodynamic and hydrodynamic testing. Company's principal line is temperature indicating devices for industrial use, such as non-destructive testing and flaw detection in electric/electronic systems, medical application, such as diagnostic systems, for retail sale, such as room, refrigerator, baby bath and aquarium thermometers, and for advertising and promotion specials. Additionally, Hallcrest manufactures TLC mixtures for cosmetic applications, and liquid crystal battery tester for Duracell batteries.

  7. On the cooling of a deep terrestrial magma ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteux, J.; Andrault, D.; Samuel, H.

    2015-12-01

    In its early evolution, the Earth mantle likely experienced several episodes of complete melting enhanced by giant impact heating, short-lived radionuclides heating and viscous dissipation during the metal/silicate separation. We have developed numerical models to monitor the thermo-chemical evolution of a cooling and crystallizing magma ocean from an initially fully molten mantle. For this purpose, we use a 1D approach accounting for turbulent convective heat transfer. Our numerical model benchmarked with analytical solutions solves the heat equation in spherical geometry. This model also integrates recent and strong experimental constraints from mineral physics such as adiabatic temperature profiles and liquidus/solidus up 140 GPa for different mantle compositions. Our preliminary results show that a deep magma ocean starts to crystallize rapidly after its formation. The cooling efficiency of the magma ocean is strongly dependent on the coupling with the core cooling. Hence, depending on the thermal boundary layer thickness at the CMB, the thermal coupling between the core and magma ocean can either insulate the core during the MO solidification and favor a hot core, generate the formation of a thin basal molten layer or empty the heat from the core. Then, once the melt fraction reaches a critical value, the cooling efficiency becomes limited.

  8. Majorana One-Tonne Cryostat Cooling Conceptual Feasibility Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reid, Douglas J.; Orrell, John L.; Fast, James E.; Aguayo Navarrete, Estanislao

    2011-02-17

    This report evaluates the conceptual plans for a one-tonne (S4) cryostat cooling design. This document is based upon previous design work and experimental results used to evaluate the current MAJORANA DEMONSTRATOR (MJD) thermal design. A feasibility study of a cooling system for S4 based on the MJD thermosyphon experiment is presented. The one-tonne experiment will be a scaled up version of the MJD. There will be many cryostats for the S4 experiment. In this document a cryostat with up to 19 strings of Germanium crystals is analyzed. Aside from an extra outer ring of crystals, the geometry of both systems’ cryostats is very similar. The materials used in the fabrication of both ultra-low background experiments will be underground electroformed copper. The current MJD uses a two-phase liquid-gas cooling system to ensure constant operating temperature. This document presents a theoretical investigation of a cooling system for the S4 experiment and evaluates the heat transfer performance requirements for such a system.

  9. Crystallization, flow and thermal histories of lunar and terrestrial compositions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uhlmann, D. R.

    1979-01-01

    Contents: a kinetic treatment of glass formation; effects of nucleating heterogeneities on glass formation; glass formation under continuous cooling conditions; crystallization statistics; kinetics of crystal nucleation; diffusion controlled crystal growth; crystallization of lunar compositions; crystallization between solidus and liquidus; crystallization on reheating a glass; temperature distributions during crystallization; crystallization of anorthite and anorthite-albite compositions; effect of oxidation state on viscosity; diffusive creep and viscous flow; high temperature flow behavior of glass-forming liquids, a free volume interpretation; viscous flow behavior of lunar compositions; thermal history of orange soil material; breccias formation by viscous sintering; viscous sintering; thermal histories of breccias; solute partitioning and thermal history of lunar rocks; heat flow in impact melts; and thermal histories of olivines.

  10. MACROSCOPIC KINETIC MODELS OF GLYCEROL BATCH FERMENTATION WITH OSMOTOLERANT YEAST

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    l introductionGlycerol production by fermentation has beenwidely investigated to meet the great commercialdemand in last decades and osmotolerant yeast wasthe microorganism studied most. To analyze thefermentation process more efficiently, a kinetic modelshould be established but little works about it werereported because of its complicated metabolism ofglycerol [1-3]. Batch fermentation experiment showedthat low glucose concentration in the latterfermentation stage resulted in decrease in both glucoseconsu...

  11. Batch gating for data association in monocular SLAM

    OpenAIRE

    Guerra Paradas, Edmundo; Munguía Alcalá, Rodrigo Francisco; Bolea Monte, Yolanda; Grau Saldes, Antoni

    2013-01-01

    This work describes the development and implementation of a single-camera SLAM system, introducing a novel data validation algorithm. A 6-DOF monocular SLAM method developed is based on the Delayed Inverse-Depth (DI-D) Feature Initialization, with the addition of a new data association batch validation technique, the Highest Order Hypothesis Compatibility Test, HOHCT. The DI-D initializes new features in the system defining single hypothesis for the initial depth of features by stoch...

  12. Group technology. [Increasing batch-lot production efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rome, C.P.

    1976-01-01

    Group Technology has been conceptually applied to the manufacture of batch-lots of 554 machined electromechanical parts which now require 79 different types of metal-removal tools. The products have been grouped into 7 distinct families which require from 8 to 22 machines in each machine-cell. Throughput time can be significantly reduced and savings can be realized from tooling, direct-labor, and indirect-labor costs.

  13. Feasibility of extractive distillation process variants in batch rectifier column

    OpenAIRE

    Stéger, Csaba; Varga, Viktoria; Horvath, Laszlo; Rev, Endre; Fonyo, Zsolt; Meyer, Michel; Lelkes, Zoltan

    2005-01-01

    A systematic comparison is presented about the separation tasks of azeotropic and close-boiling mixtures applying batch extractive distillation (BED) in rectifier. All the eight possible mixture types with at most a single azeotrope (minimum and maximum boiling azeotropes with heavy, light, and intermediate boiling entrainers; and close boiling mixtures with heavy and light entrainers) are compared. The main results of the feasibility studies on the hitherto unpublished cases are presented. A...

  14. Mathematical modeling of recombinant Escherichia coli aerobic batch fermentations

    OpenAIRE

    Costa, Rafael S; Rocha, I; Ferreira, E. C.

    2008-01-01

    In this work, three competing unstructured mathematical models for the biomass growth by recombinant E. coli strains with different acetate inhibition kinetics terms were evaluated for batch processes at constant temperature and pH. The models considered the dynamics of biomass growth, acetate accumulation, substrate consumption, Green Fluorescence Protein (GFP) production and three metabolic pathways for E. coli. Parameter estimation and model validation was carried out usi...

  15. EFFECT OF DYE CONCENTRATION ON SEQUENCING BATCH REACTOR PERFORMANCE

    OpenAIRE

    A. A. Vaigan ، M. R. Alavi Moghaddam ، H. Hashemi

    2009-01-01

    Reactive dyes have been identified as problematic compounds in textile industries wastewater as they are water soluble and cannot be easily removed by conventional aerobic biological treatment systems. The treatability of a reactive dye (Brill Blue KN-R) by sequencing batch reactor and the influence of the dye concentration on system performance were investigated in this study. Brill Blue KN-R is one of the main dyes that are used in textile industries in Iran. Four cylindrical Plexiglas reac...

  16. Optimization of Recipe Based Batch Control Systems Using Neural Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Šoštarec, A.; Gosak, D.; Hlupić, N.

    2012-01-01

    In the modern pharmaceutical industry many flexible batch plants operate under an integrated business and production system, using ISA S95 and ISA S88 standards for models and terminology, and implementing flexible recipe-based production. In the environment of constantly changing market conditions, adjustment to surroundings is a business necessity. To support necessary production improvement, regulatory authorities have introduced the risk based approach for the control of process dev...

  17. Industrial and Municipal Wastewater Treatment in the Sequencing Batch Reactor

    OpenAIRE

    Vrtovsek, J.; Ros, M.

    2008-01-01

    A mixture of Industrial wastewater from chemical industry (varnish, paint and pigments production) and municipal wastewater was treated in pilot sequencing batch reactor (SBR). Results of the pilot experiments show that the foaming problem has great influence on the behavior of SBR, especially when the ratio between industrial and municipal wastewater is very high. Foaming problem was negligible when the mixture with φ; 20 % of the industrial wastewater and j = 80 % of the municipal wastewate...

  18. SEQUENCING BATCH REACTOR: A PROMISING TECHNOLOGY IN WASTEWATER TREATMENT

    OpenAIRE

    A.H Mahvi

    2008-01-01

    Discharge of domestic and industrial wastewater to surface or groundwater is very dangerous to the environment. Therefore treatment of any kind of wastewater to produce effluent with good quality is necessary. In this regard choosing an effective treatment system is important. Sequencing batch reactor is a modification of activated sludge process which has been successfully used to treat municipal and industrial wastewater. The process could be applied for nutrients removal, high biochemical ...

  19. Integration of virtualized worker nodes in standard batch systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buege, Volker; Kunze, Marcel; Oberst, Oliver; Quast, Guenter; Scheurer, Armin [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Postfach 6980, 76128 Karlsruhe (Germany); Hessling, Hermann [HTW Berlin, University of Applied Sciences, 10318 Berlin (Germany); Kemp, Yves; Synge, Owen, E-mail: Oliver.Oberst@iwr.fzk.d [DESY, Notkestrasse 85, 22607 Hamburg (Germany)

    2010-04-01

    Current experiments in HEP only use a limited number of operating system flavours. Their software might only be validated on one single OS platform. Resource providers might have other operating systems of choice for the installation of the batch infrastructure. This is especially the case if a cluster is shared with other communities, or communities that have stricter security requirements. One solution would be to statically divide the cluster into separated sub-clusters. In such a scenario, no opportunistic distribution of the load can be achieved, resulting in a poor overall utilization efficiency. Another approach is to make the batch system aware of virtualization, and to provide each community with its favoured operating system in a virtual machine. Here, the scheduler has full flexibility, resulting in a better overall efficiency of the resources. In our contribution, we present a lightweight concept for the integration of virtual worker nodes into standard batch systems. The virtual machines are started on the worker nodes just before jobs are executed there. No meta-scheduling is introduced. We demonstrate two prototype implementations, one based on the Sun Grid Engine (SGE), the other using Maui/Torque as a batch system. Both solutions support local job as well as Grid job submission. The hypervisors currently used are Xen and KVM, a port to another system is easily envisageable. To better handle different virtual machines on the physical host, the management solution VmImageManager is developed. We will present first experience from running the two prototype implementations. In a last part, we will show the potential future use of this lightweight concept when integrated into high-level (i.e. Grid) work-flows.

  20. Health advantages of transition to batch management system in farrow-to-finish pig herds

    OpenAIRE

    Vangroenweghe, F; Suls, L; Van Driessche, E.; Maes, Dominiek; De Graef, E.

    2012-01-01

    Sow batch management systems have become more popular due to advantages in labour planning, piglet batch sizes, all-in all-out practices and health management. The present study investigated the potential health advantages of 10 selected farrow-to-finish pig herds before and after transition from a one week batch management system to a four or five week batch management system. Five different animal categories (gilts, sows, piglets, growers and finishers) were sampled at three time points (T0...

  1. On-line Scheduling Algorithm for Penicillin Fed-batch Fermentation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XUE Yao-feng; YUAN Jing-qi

    2005-01-01

    An on-line scheduling algorithm to maximize gross profit of penicillin fed-batch fermentation is proposed. According to the on-line classification method, fed-batch fermentation batches are classified into three categories. Using the scheduling strategy, the optimal termination sequence of batches is obtained. Pseudo on-line simulations for testing the proposed algorithm with the data from industrial scale penicillin fermentation are carried out.

  2. Analyzing data flows of WLCG jobs at batch job level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuehn, Eileen; Fischer, Max; Giffels, Manuel; Jung, Christopher; Petzold, Andreas

    2015-05-01

    With the introduction of federated data access to the workflows of WLCG, it is becoming increasingly important for data centers to understand specific data flows regarding storage element accesses, firewall configurations, as well as the scheduling of batch jobs themselves. As existing batch system monitoring and related system monitoring tools do not support measurements at batch job level, a new tool has been developed and put into operation at the GridKa Tier 1 center for monitoring continuous data streams and characteristics of WLCG jobs and pilots. Long term measurements and data collection are in progress. These measurements already have been proven to be useful analyzing misbehaviors and various issues. Therefore we aim for an automated, realtime approach for anomaly detection. As a requirement, prototypes for standard workflows have to be examined. Based on measurements of several months, different features of HEP jobs are evaluated regarding their effectiveness for data mining approaches to identify these common workflows. The paper will introduce the actual measurement approach and statistics as well as the general concept and first results classifying different HEP job workflows derived from the measurements at GridKa.

  3. Batch fabrication of micro-optical sensing and imaging devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wippermann, F. C.; Reimann, A.; Oelschläger, A.; Dannberg, P.; Blöhbaum, F.; Koburg, C.; Köhler, T.

    2013-03-01

    As demonstrated in microelectronics, the batch fabrication based on the processing of wafers can lead to a significant reduction in prize as well as in size. This concept was adapted to the fabrication of imaging optics extensively used in mobile phone cameras relying on small pixels and low resolutions such as VGA. We report on batch fabricated customer specific opto-electronical modules used in machine sensing and automotive applications relying on large pixel sizes and non-conventional sensor characteristics. We specially focus on the lens mold mastering for the subsequent UV-replication since comparatively large sag heights of 250μm are required. Two technological approaches were applied, first, based on reflow of photoresist and, second, using diamond turning for the generation of a single lens mold and a subsequent step&repeat-process for array mastering on 8" wafers. Aspects of the optical design and simulation, the batch fabrication based on 8" wafers and characterization results are provided by the example of an f/1.1 opto-electronic sensor and an objective for a global shutter imager using 550x550 pixels with 3.6μm pitch.

  4. Fault Diagnosis of Batch Reactor Using Machine Learning Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sujatha Subramanian

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Fault diagnosis of a batch reactor gives the early detection of fault and minimizes the risk of thermal runaway. It provides superior performance and helps to improve safety and consistency. It has become more vital in this technical era. In this paper, support vector machine (SVM is used to estimate the heat release (Qr of the batch reactor both normal and faulty conditions. The signature of the residual, which is obtained from the difference between nominal and estimated faulty Qr values, characterizes the different natures of faults occurring in the batch reactor. Appropriate statistical and geometric features are extracted from the residual signature and the total numbers of features are reduced using SVM attribute selection filter and principle component analysis (PCA techniques. artificial neural network (ANN classifiers like multilayer perceptron (MLP, radial basis function (RBF, and Bayes net are used to classify the different types of faults from the reduced features. It is observed from the result of the comparative study that the proposed method for fault diagnosis with limited number of features extracted from only one estimated parameter (Qr shows that it is more efficient and fast for diagnosing the typical faults.

  5. Perancangan Sistem Pengaduk Pada Bioreaktor Batch Untuk Meningkatkan Produksi Biogas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Candrika Widiartanti Yuwono

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Proses anaerob merupakan proses fermentasi dimana memiliki proses yang berlangsung cukup lama. Dan pada bioreaktor anaerob sistem batch, diduga terdapat indikasi pada penurunan jumlah produksi biogas, yang disebabkan karena tejadi pengendapan atau pemisahan antara limbah cair dengan padatannya. Untuk itu muncul upaya untuk melakukan sistem pengadukan agar terjadi homogenitas dan bisa menyerupai seperti kondisi awal, sehingga diharapkan dapat memperpanjang masa produksi biogas. Adapun pengadukan merupakan salah satu faktor yang berpengaruh pada kehidupan mikroba. Dan pada penelitian ini akan dilakukan perancangan sistem pengaduk yang digerakkan oleh sebuah motor dimana menggunakan timer dan pengatur kecepatan. Desain disesuaikan dengan substrat yang digunakan yaitu limbah cair tahu dan eceng gondok, yang mengalami pengendapan sehingga pada pengaduk memiliki blade yang diletakkan di dasar dalam bioreaktor. Sistem pengadukan dilakukan pada saat nilai pH yang diamati tiap harinya mengalami penurunan, yaitu pada hari ke–24 pH bernilai 6,49. Dan pada pengukuran berikutnya ditunjukkan dengan pH bernilai 6,89. Pengadukan dilakukan secara pelan dengan putaran 170 rpm selama 2 x 1 menit. Hasil daripada jumlah produksi biogas yang dihasilkan bisa dibandingkan antara bioreaktor batch tidak berpengaduk dengan bioreaktor batch berpengaduk, dimana berturut-turut memiliki jumlah volume 467 mL (25 hari dan 873 mL (31 hari.

  6. Cryogenics for the MuCool Test Area (MTA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darve, Christine; Norris, Barry; Pei, Liujin

    2006-03-01

    MuCool Test Area (MTA) is a complex of buildings at Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, which are dedicated to operate components of a cooling cell to be used for Muon Collider and Neutrino Factory R&D. The long-term goal of this facility is to test ionization cooling principles by operating a 25-liter liquid hydrogen (LH2) absorber embedded in a 5 Tesla superconducting solenoid magnet. The MTA solenoid magnet will be used with RF cavities exposed to a high intensity beam. Cryogens used at the MTA include LHe, LN2 and LH2. The latter dictates stringent system design for hazardous locations. The cryogenic plant is a modified Tevatron refrigerator based on the Claude cycle. The implementation of an in-house refrigerator system and two 300 kilowatt screw compressors is under development. The helium refrigeration capacity is 500 W at 14 K. In addition the MTA solenoid magnet will be batch-filled with LHe every 2 days using the same cryo-plant. This paper reviews cryogenic systems used to support the Muon Collider and Neutrino Factory R&D programs and emphasizes the feasibility of handling cryogenic equipment at MTA in a safe manner.

  7. 40 CFR Table 2 to Subpart Vvvvvv... - Emission Limits and Compliance Requirements for Batch Process Vents

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Requirements for Batch Process Vents 2 Table 2 to Subpart VVVVVV of Part 63 Protection of Environment... of Part 63—Emission Limits and Compliance Requirements for Batch Process Vents As required in § 63.11496, you must comply with the requirements for batch process vents as shown in the following...

  8. A General framework for the Synthesis and Operational Design of Batch Processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    The objective of this paper is to present a general problem formulation and a general methodlogy for the synthesis of batch operations and the operational design of individual batch processes, such as mixing, reaction and separation. The general methodology described supplies the batch routes...

  9. A general framework for the synthesis and operational design of batch processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Papaeconomou, Eirini; Gani, Rafiqul; Jørgensen, Sten Bay

    2002-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to present a general problem formulation and a general methodology for the synthesis of batch operations and the operational design of individual batch processes, such as mixing, reaction and separation. The general methodology described supplies the batch routes...

  10. Look-ahead strategies for controlling batch operations in industry : basic insights in rule construction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Zee, D.J.; Sullivan, W.A.; Ahmad, M.M.; Fichtner, D.; Sauer, W.; Weigert, G.; Zerna, T.

    2002-01-01

    Batching jobs in a manufacturing system is a very common policy in most industries. Main reasons for batching are avoidance of set ups and/or facilitation of material handling. Examples of batch-wise production systems are ovens found in aircraft industry and in semiconductor manufacturing. Starting

  11. OSAT: a tool for sample-to-batch allocations in genomics experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Li

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Batch effect is one type of variability that is not of primary interest but ubiquitous in sizable genomic experiments. To minimize the impact of batch effects, an ideal experiment design should ensure the even distribution of biological groups and confounding factors across batches. However, due to the practical complications, the availability of the final collection of samples in genomics study might be unbalanced and incomplete, which, without appropriate attention in sample-to-batch allocation, could lead to drastic batch effects. Therefore, it is necessary to develop effective and handy tool to assign collected samples across batches in an appropriate way in order to minimize the impact of batch effects. Results We describe OSAT (Optimal Sample Assignment Tool, a bioconductor package designed for automated sample-to-batch allocations in genomics experiments. Conclusions OSAT is developed to facilitate the allocation of collected samples to different batches in genomics study. Through optimizing the even distribution of samples in groups of biological interest into different batches, it can reduce the confounding or correlation between batches and the biological variables of interest. It can also optimize the homogeneous distribution of confounding factors across batches. It can handle challenging instances where incomplete and unbalanced sample collections are involved as well as ideally balanced designs.

  12. Effects of crystallization in the presence of the diastereomer on the crystal properties of (SS)-(+)-pseudoephedrine hydrochloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, C H; Grant, D J

    2000-01-01

    The formation and separation of diastereomers is widely used to resolve enantiomers. However, during crystallization of a chiral compound from a solution containing its diastereomer, the diastereomer may be incorporated as an impurity into the host crystal lattice, leading to changes in the thermodynamic properties and intrinsic dissolution rate of the host crystals. This hypothesis was tested by growing crystals of (SS)-(+)-pseudoephedrine hydrochloride (+PC) from aqueous solution containing various amounts of (RS)-(-)-ephedrine hydrochloride (-EC). Although the melting phase diagram of these two solid compounds, determined by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), shows eutectic behavior, 0.034-2.4 mol% of -EC was incorporated into the crystal lattice of +PC during crystallization to form terminal solid solutions with a segregation coefficient of 0.31. In a single batch, the larger crystals contain more incorporated impurities than smaller crystals. The enthalpy and entropy of fusion measured by DSC decrease with increasing incorporation of the guest molecules into the host, indicating increases in the enthalpy and entropy of the solid. The disruption index, which indicates the disruptive effect of guest molecules in the host crystal lattice, is 60 at lattice. The average intrinsic dissolution rate of impure crystals in 2-propanol is 15.8% lower than that of pure host crystals, suggesting the formation of stable solid solutions.

  13. Photonic crystals

    CERN Document Server

    Busch, Kurt; Wehrspohn, Ralf B; Föll, Helmut

    2006-01-01

    The majority of the contributions in this topically edited book stems from the priority program SPP 1113 ""Photonische Kristalle"" run by the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG), resulting in a survey of the current state of photonic crystal research in Germany. The first part of the book describes methods for the theoretical analysis of their optical properties as well as the results. The main part is dedicated to the fabrication, characterization and modeling of two- and three-dimensional photonic crystals, while the final section presents a wide spectrum of applications: gas sensors, micr

  14. Be Cool, Man! / Jevgeni Levik

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Levik, Jevgeni

    2005-01-01

    Järg 1995. aasta kriminaalkomöödiale "Tooge jupats" ("Get Shorty") : mängufilm "Be Cool, Chili Palmer on tagasi!" ("Be Cool") : režissöör F. Gary Gray, peaosades J. Travolta ja U. Thurman : USA 2005. Lisatud J. Travolta ja U. Thurmani lühiintervjuud

  15. Newton's Law of Cooling Revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vollmer, M.

    2009-01-01

    The cooling of objects is often described by a law, attributed to Newton, which states that the temperature difference of a cooling body with respect to the surroundings decreases exponentially with time. Such behaviour has been observed for many laboratory experiments, which led to a wide acceptance of this approach. However, the heat transfer…

  16. Dialogues in the COOL Project

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stalpers, S.I.P.; Kroeze, C.

    2013-01-01

    The Climate Options for the Long-term (COOL) Project is a participatory integrated assessment (PIA) comprising extensive dialogues at three levels: national, European and global. The objective of the COOL Project was to ‘develop strategic notions on how to achieve drastic reductions of greenhouse ga

  17. Liquid gallium metal cooling for optical element with high heat loads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Photon beams from the insertion devices of the Argonne synchrotron facility (APS) have very high total powers, which in some cases will exceed 10 kW, spread over a few cm2. These high heat loads require special cooling methods to keep them from degrading the quality of the photon beam. A set of finite element analysis calculations were made in three dimensions to determine the temperature distributions and thermal stresses in a single crystal of silicon with heat loads of 2 kW to 20 kW. Different geometric arrangements and different cooling fluids (water, gallium, oil, Na, etc.) were considered. The two best fluids for room temperature operation were found to be water and liquid gallium metal. The variation in temperature across the face of the crystal and the distortion of the surface was at least a factor of two less for the gallium cooling case than for the water cooling case. The water cooling was effective only for very high flow rates. Efficient cooling and the very low vapor pressure for liquid gallium (less than 10-12 Torr at 1000C) make liquid gallium a very attractive cooling fluid for high vacuum synchrotron applications. A small electromagnetic induction pump for liquid Ga was built to test this cooling method. The new system is portable, controls the output temperature of the Ga and can handle heat loads of 10 kW. 13 figs

  18. Towards sympathetic cooling of trapped ions with laser-cooled Mg{sup +} ions for mass spectrometry and laser spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cazan, Radu, E-mail: cazan@uni-mainz.de; Geppert, Christopher; Noertershaeuser, Wilfried [Johannes Gutenberg Universitaet, Institut fuer Kernchemie (Germany); Sanchez, Rodolfo [GSI Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung (Germany)

    2010-02-15

    Sympathetic cooling by laser cooled Mg ions has been proposed as a method for fast cooling of highly charged ions to a very low temperature. The paper describes the construction of the solid state laser system at 279.63 nm required for laser cooling of the Mg ions. The laser system is composed of a fiber laser at 1,118.54 nm and two successive second harmonic generation (SHG) ring cavities for frequency quadrupling. In the first SHG cavity, non-critical phase matching of a lithium triborate (LBO) crystal is used for doubling from 1,118.54 to 559.27 nm. The second SHG cavity uses critical phase matching of a {beta}-barium borate (BBO) crystal for doubling from 559.27 to 279.63 nm. With the aid of Boyd-Kleinmann theory, optimum experimental parameters are calculated and used for an efficient SHG. Besides this, the paper intends to be a shortcut for practical applications of the Boyd-Kleinmann theory for SHG.

  19. Radio Galaxies in Cooling Cores

    CERN Document Server

    Eilek, J A

    2003-01-01

    A currently active radio galaxy sits at the center of almost every strong cooling core. What effect does it have on the cooling core? Could its effect be strong enough to offset the radiative cooling which should be occuring in these cores? In order to answer these questions we need to know how much energy the radio jet carries to the cooling core; but we have no way to measure the jet power directly. We therefore need to understand how the radio source evolves with time, and how it radiates, in order to use the data to determine the jet power. When some simple models are compared to the data, we learn that cluster-center radio galaxies probably are energetically important -- but not necessarily dominant -- in cooling cores.

  20. Experiences in solar cooling systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, D. S.

    The results of performance evaluations for nine solar cooling systems are presented, and reasons fow low or high net energy balances are discussed. Six of the nine systems are noted to have performed unfavorably compared to standard cooling systems due to thermal storage losses, excessive system electrical demands, inappropriate control strategies, poor system-to-load matching, and poor chiller performance. A reduction in heat losses in one residential unit increased the total system efficiency by 2.5%, while eliminating heat losses to the building interior increased the efficiency by 3.3%. The best system incorporated a lithium bromide absorption chiller and a Rankine cycle compression unit for a commercial application. Improvements in the cooling tower and fan configurations to increase the solar cooling system efficiency are indicated. Best performances are expected to occur in climates inducing high annual cooling loads.

  1. Closed loop steam cooled airfoil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widrig, Scott M.; Rudolph, Ronald J.; Wagner, Gregg P.

    2006-04-18

    An airfoil, a method of manufacturing an airfoil, and a system for cooling an airfoil is provided. The cooling system can be used with an airfoil located in the first stages of a combustion turbine within a combined cycle power generation plant and involves flowing closed loop steam through a pin array set within an airfoil. The airfoil can comprise a cavity having a cooling chamber bounded by an interior wall and an exterior wall so that steam can enter the cavity, pass through the pin array, and then return to the cavity to thereby cool the airfoil. The method of manufacturing an airfoil can include a type of lost wax investment casting process in which a pin array is cast into an airfoil to form a cooling chamber.

  2. Kinetic study of batch and fed-batch enzymatic saccharification of pretreated substrate and subsequent fermentation to ethanol

    OpenAIRE

    Gupta Rishi; Kumar Sanjay; Gomes James; Kuhad Ramesh

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Enzymatic hydrolysis, the rate limiting step in the process development for biofuel, is always hampered by its low sugar concentration. High solid enzymatic saccharification could solve this problem but has several other drawbacks such as low rate of reaction. In the present study we have attempted to enhance the concentration of sugars in enzymatic hydrolysate of delignified Prosopis juliflora, using a fed-batch enzymatic hydrolysis approach. Results The enzymatic hydroly...

  3. Supercooled liquid-like solvent in trypsin crystals: implications for crystal annealing and temperature-controlled X-ray radiation damage studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weik, M; Schreurs, A M M; Leiros, H K S; Zaccai, G; Ravelli, R B G; Gros, P

    2005-05-01

    The study of temperature-dependent physical changes in flash-cooled macromolecular crystals is pertinent to cryocrystallography and related issues such as crystal annealing, X-ray radiation damage and kinetic crystallography. In this context, the unit-cell volume of flash-cooled trigonal and orthorhombic trypsin crystals has been monitored upon warming from 100 to 200 K and subsequent re-cooling to 100 K. Crystals of both forms were obtained under the same crystallization conditions, yet they differ in solvent content and channel size. An abrupt non-reversible unit-cell volume decrease is observed at 185 K in orthorhombic and at 195 K in trigonal crystals as the temperature is increased; this result is consistent with ultra-viscous solvent leaving the crystals. Concomitant appearance of ice rings in the diffraction patterns suggests that the transported solvent forms crystalline ice. These results demonstrate that solvent in flash-cooled protein crystals is liquid-like near its crystallization temperature, as has been proposed, yet controversially discussed, for the case of pure water. The use of mineral oil prevents the unit-cell volume decrease in trigonal but not in orthorhombic crystals. The observation of liquid-like solvent has implications in the development of annealing protocols and points a way to the rational design of temperature-controlled crystallographic studies that aim either at studying specific radiation damage or at trapping enzymatic intermediate states. PMID:15840916

  4. Simulating the Cooling Flow of Cool-Core Clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Yuan

    2011-01-01

    We carry out high-resolution adaptive mesh refinement simulations of a cool core cluster, resolving the flow from Mpc scales down to pc scales. We do not (yet) include any AGN heating, focusing instead on cooling in order to understand how gas gets to the supermassive black hole (SMBH) at the center of the cluster. We find that, as the gas cools, the cluster develops a very flat temperature profile, undergoing a cooling catastrophe only in the central 10-100 pc of the cluster. Outside of this region, the flow is smooth, with no local cooling instabilities, and naturally produces very little low-temperature gas (below a few keV), in agreement with observations. The gas cooling in the center of the cluster rapidly forms a thin accretion disk. The amount of cold gas produced at the very center grows rapidly until a reasonable estimate of the resulting AGN heating rate (assuming even a moderate accretion efficiency) would overwhelm cooling. We argue that this naturally produces a thermostat which links the coolin...

  5. Central cooling: absorptive chillers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christian, J.E.

    1977-08-01

    This technology evaluation covers commercially available single-effect, lithium-bromide absorption chillers ranging in nominal cooling capacities of 3 to 1,660 tons and double-effect lithium-bromide chillers from 385 to 1,060 tons. The nominal COP measured at operating conditions of 12 psig input steam for the single-effect machine, 85/sup 0/ entering condenser water, and 44/sup 0/F exiting chilled-water, ranges from 0.6 to 0.65. The nominal COP for the double-effect machine varies from 1.0 to 1.15 with 144 psig entering steam. Data are provided to estimate absorption-chiller performance at off-nominal operating conditions. The part-load performance curves along with cost estimating functions help the system design engineer select absorption equipment for a particular application based on life-cycle costs. Several suggestions are offered which may be useful for interfacing an absorption chiller with the remaining Integrated Community Energy System. The ammonia-water absorption chillers are not considered to be readily available technology for ICES application; therefore, performance and cost data on them are not included in this evaluation.

  6. 46 CFR 153.432 - Cooling systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Control Systems § 153.432 Cooling systems. (a) Each cargo cooling system must have an equivalent standby... cooling system. (b) Each tankship that has a cargo tank with a required cooling system must have a manual that contains: (1) A piping diagram for the cooling system; and (2) Instructions for changing over...

  7. Photonic crystals principles and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Gong, Qihuang

    2013-01-01

    IntroductionPrimary Properties of Photonic CrystalsFabrication of Photonic CrystalsPhotonic Crystal All-Optical SwitchingTunable Photonic Crystal FilterPhotonic Crystal LaserPhotonic Crystal Logic DevicesPhotonic Crystal Sensors

  8. Formation of co-crystals: Kinetic and thermodynamic aspects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagnière, E.; Mangin, D.; Puel, F.; Rivoire, A.; Monnier, O.; Garcia, E.; Klein, J. P.

    2009-04-01

    Co-crystallisation is a recent method of great interest for the pharmaceutical industry, since pharmaceutical co-crystals represent useful materials for drug products. In this study, an active pharmaceutical ingredient (carbamazepine (CBZ)) co-crystallized with a vitamin (nicotinamide (NCT)) was chosen as a model substance. This work was focused on the construction of a phase diagram for the system CBZ/NCT, split in six domains for kinetic reasons (the different solid phases which might appear during the crystallisation) and in four domains according to thermodynamic aspects (the stable final phase obtained). Although co-crystals are not ionic compounds, the supersaturation of co-crystals can be evaluated by considering the solubility product. Batch crystallisation operations were carried out in a stirred vessel equipped with an in situ video probe. This latter device was a powerful analysis tool to monitor the CBZ/NCT co-crystals and single CBZ crystals since these two crystalline phases grown in ethanol exhibited needle and platelet habits. As concerns kinetics, the different solid phases which might appear during the experiments were observed and competed against each others. In accordance with thermodynamics, the stable solid form was obtained at the end of the operation. Finally some preliminary results indicate that the nucleation of co-crystals may be favoured by the presence of CBZ crystals. Epitaxial relationships between CBZ/NCT co-crystals and CBZ crystals were suspected.

  9. On-line monitoring of the crystallization process: relationship between crystal size and electrical impedance spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yanlin; Yao, Jun; Wang, Mi

    2016-07-01

    On-line monitoring of crystal size in the crystallization process is crucial to many pharmaceutical and fine-chemical industrial applications. In this paper, a novel method is proposed for the on-line monitoring of the cooling crystallization process of L-glutamic acid (LGA) using electrical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The EIS method can be used to monitor the growth of crystal particles relying on the presence of an electrical double layer on the charged particle surface and the polarization of double layer under the excitation of alternating electrical field. The electrical impedance spectra and crystal size were measured on-line simultaneously by an impedance analyzer and focused beam reflectance measurement (FBRM), respectively. The impedance spectra were analyzed using the equivalent circuit model and the equivalent circuit elements in the model can be obtained by fitting the experimental data. Two equivalent circuit elements, including capacitance (C 2) and resistance (R 2) from the dielectric polarization of the LGA solution and crystal particle/solution interface, are in relation with the crystal size. The mathematical relationship between the crystal size and the equivalent circuit elements can be obtained by a non-linear fitting method. The function can be used to predict the change of crystal size during the crystallization process.

  10. The Cool 100 book

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haselip, J.; Pointing, D.

    2011-07-01

    The aim of The Cool 100 book is to document 100 inspiring, educational and practical examples of sustainable and accessible energy supply solutions created by, or suitable for, isolated communities in the cooler regions of the world. The book features the following projects, explored in detail: 1. Promoting Unst Renewable Energy (PURE) project, a pioneering project that demonstrates how wind power and hydrogen technologies can be combined to meet the energy needs of a remote industrial estate on the island of Unst in the British Isles. 2. The EDISON project, or Electric vehicles in a Distributed and Integrated market using Sustainable energy and Open Networks that explored increased renewable energy use and electric vehicle operation in Denmark, with a case study on the island of Bornholm. 3. The Sarfannguit Wireless Electricity Reading project, which has significantly improved utility metering and enabled improved energy management, reduced electricity demand, and the introduction of renewable energy technologies in the isolated villages of Greenland. 4. The Renewable Energy Croft and Hydrogen facility, which uses innovative technologies to support a gardening facility in the Outer Hebrides (Scotland), and is also a working laboratory for students of the local university to develop a hydrogen energy economy. 5. The Samsoe Renewable Energy Island in Denmark, an iconic example of how an island community can consume only green electricity by using a range of innovative technologies and behavioural changes to reduce demand and to harness green energy resources. 6. The Hydrogen Office Project which demonstrates how a commercial office in the coastal town of Methil in Scotland can be supported by a novel renewable, hydrogen and fuel cell energy system, and how the local community is engaged with the project. 7. The Northern Sustainable House in Nunavut, Canada, which explores the process and results of a project to design and implement housing for local families that

  11. Novel cooling strategy for electronic packages: Directly injected cooling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wits, W.W.; Vaneker, T.H.J.; Mannak, J.H.; Legtenberg, R.

    2009-01-01

    This publication describes the development of a novel cooling strategy for electronic packages. During the conceptual design phase, the engineering disciplines involved are considered simultaneously. Through a case study, it is demonstrated that this integrative approach is an effective methodology

  12. Sympathetic cooling and detection of a hot trapped ion by a cold one

    CERN Document Server

    Guggemos, M; Herrera-Sancho, O A; Blatt, R; Roos, C F

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the dynamics of an ion sympathetically cooled by another laser-cooled ion or small ion crystal. To this end, we develop simple models of the cooling dynamics in the limit of weak Coulomb interactions. Experimentally, we create a two-ion crystal of Ca$^+$ and Al$^+$ by photo-ionization of neutral atoms produced by laser ablation. We characterize the velocity distribution of the laser-ablated atoms crossing the trap by time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy. We observe neutral atom velocities much higher than the ones of thermally heated samples and find as a consequence long sympathethic cooling times before crystallization occurs. Our key result is a new technique for detecting the loading of an initially hot ion with energy in the eV range by monitoring the motional state of a Doppler-cooled ion already present in the trap. This technique not only detects the ion but also provides information about dynamics of the sympathetic cooling process.

  13. The Cooling of Compact Stars

    CERN Document Server

    Page, D; Weber, F; Page, Dany; Geppert, Ulrich; Weber, Fridolin

    2005-01-01

    The cooling of a compact star depends very sensitively on the state of dense matter at supranuclear densities, which essentially controls the neutrino emission, as well as on the structure of the stellar outer layers which control the photon emission. Open issues concern the hyperon population, the presence of meson condensates, superfluidity and superconductivity, and the transition of confined hadronic matter to quark matter. This paper describes these issues and presents cooling calculations based on a broad collection of equations of state for neutron star matter and strange matter. These results are tested against the body of observed cooling data.

  14. CLIC inner detectors cooling simulations

    CERN Document Server

    Duarte Ramos, F.; Villarejo Bermudez, M.

    2014-01-01

    The strict requirements in terms of material budget for the inner region of the CLIC detector concepts require the use of a dry gas for the cooling of the respective sen- sors. This, in conjunction with the compactness of the inner volumes, poses several challenges for the design of a cooling system that is able to fulfil the required detec- tor specifications. This note introduces a detector cooling strategy using dry air as a coolant and shows the results of computational fluid dynamics simulations used to validate the proposed strategy.

  15. CO$_2$ cooling experience (LHCb)

    CERN Document Server

    Van Lysebetten, Ann; Verlaat, Bart

    2007-01-01

    The thermal control system of the LHCb VErtex LOcator (VELO) is a two-phase C0$_2$ cooling system based on the 2-Phase Accumulator Controlled Loop (2PACL) method. Liquid carbon dioxide is mechanically pumped in a closed loop, chilled by a water-cooled freon chiller and evaporated in the VELO detector. The main goal of the system is the permanent cooling of the VELO silicon sensors and of the heat producing front-end electronics inside a vacuum environment. This paper describes the design and the performance of the system. First results obtained during commissioning are also presented.

  16. Stochastic cooling of bunched beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Numerical simulation studies are presented for transverse and longitudinal stochastic cooling of bunched particle beams. Radio frequency buckets of various shapes (e.g. rectangular, parabolic well, single sinusoidal waveform) are used to investigate the enhancement of phase space cooling by nonlinearities of synchrotron motion. The connection between the notions of Landau damping for instabilities and mixing for stochastic cooling are discussed. In particular, the need for synchrotron frequency spread for both Landau damping and good mixing is seen to be comparable for bunched beams

  17. Cooling towers principles and practice

    CERN Document Server

    Hill, G B; Osborn, Peter D

    1990-01-01

    Cooling Towers: Principles and Practice, Third Edition, aims to provide the reader with a better understanding of the theory and practice, so that installations are correctly designed and operated. As with all branches of engineering, new technology calls for a level of technical knowledge which becomes progressively higher; this new edition seeks to ensure that the principles and practice of cooling towers are set against a background of up-to-date technology. The book is organized into three sections. Section A on cooling tower practice covers topics such as the design and operation of c

  18. A design algorithm for batch stirred tank transesterification reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► Simplified algorithm for batch biodiesel reactor design was developed. ► C Sharp software tool for implementing the algorithm was also developed. ► 50 L/batch reactor was constructed and used to process neem oil biodiesel. ► Results showed that the produced neem biodiesel is a fuel grade product. ► Scale-up of the reactor was carried out using the developed software. - Abstract: A 50 L per batch, stirred tank reactor, suitable for carrying out transesterification of vegetable oils was designed and constructed. The major design assumptions included stainless steel plate thickness of 2 mm, reaction temperature of 60–65 °C and an initial/final fluid temperature of 25/70 °C. The calculated impeller Reynolds number was in the mixed regime zone of 10–104; the power number was varied between 1 and 5, while a typical propeller speed of 22.5 rev/s (or 1350 rev/min) was adopted. The limiting design conditions were maximum reactor diameter of 1.80 m, straight side height-to-diameter ratio in the range of 0.75–1.5 and minimum agitator motor power of 746 W (1 Hp). Based upon the design, a simple algorithm was developed and interpreted into Microsoft C Sharp computer programming language to enable scale up of the reactor. Performance testing of the realized reactor was carried out while using it to produce Neem oil biodiesel via base – catalyzed methanolysis, which yielded high quality fuel product.

  19. Persistence of Escherichia coli in batch and continuous vermicomposting systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hénault-Ethier, Louise; Martin, Vincent J J; Gélinas, Yves

    2016-10-01

    Vermicomposting is a biooxidation process in which epigeicearthworms act in synergy with microbial populations to degrade organic matter. Vermicomposting does not go through a thermophilic stage as required by North American legislations for pathogen eradication. We examined the survival of a Green Fluorescent Protein (GFP) labeled Escherichia coli MG1655 as a model for the survival of pathogenic bacteria in both small-scale batch and medium-scale continuously-operated systems to discern the influence of the earthworm Eisenia fetida, nutrient content and the indigenous vermicompost microbial community on pathogen abundance. In batch systems, the microbial community had the greatest influence on the rapid decline of E. coli populations, and the effect of earthworms was only visible in microbially-impoverishedvermicomposts. No significant earthworm density-dependent relationship was observed on E. coli survival under continuous operation. E. coli numbers decreased below the US EPA compost sanitation guidelines of 10(3)Colony Forming Units (CFU)/g (dry weight) within 18-21days for both the small-scale batch and medium-scale continuous systems, but it took up to 51days without earthworms and with an impoverished microbial community to reach the legal limit. Nutrient replenishment (i.e. organic carbon) provided by continuous feed input did not appear to extend E. coli survival. In fact, longer survival of E. coli was noticed in treatments where less total and labile sugars were available, suggesting that sugars may support potentially antagonist bacteria in the vermicompost. Total N, pH and humidity did not appear to affect E. coli survival. Several opportunistic human pathogens may be found in vermicompost, and their populations are likely kept in check by antagonists.

  20. Persistence of Escherichia coli in batch and continuous vermicomposting systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hénault-Ethier, Louise; Martin, Vincent J J; Gélinas, Yves

    2016-10-01

    Vermicomposting is a biooxidation process in which epigeicearthworms act in synergy with microbial populations to degrade organic matter. Vermicomposting does not go through a thermophilic stage as required by North American legislations for pathogen eradication. We examined the survival of a Green Fluorescent Protein (GFP) labeled Escherichia coli MG1655 as a model for the survival of pathogenic bacteria in both small-scale batch and medium-scale continuously-operated systems to discern the influence of the earthworm Eisenia fetida, nutrient content and the indigenous vermicompost microbial community on pathogen abundance. In batch systems, the microbial community had the greatest influence on the rapid decline of E. coli populations, and the effect of earthworms was only visible in microbially-impoverishedvermicomposts. No significant earthworm density-dependent relationship was observed on E. coli survival under continuous operation. E. coli numbers decreased below the US EPA compost sanitation guidelines of 10(3)Colony Forming Units (CFU)/g (dry weight) within 18-21days for both the small-scale batch and medium-scale continuous systems, but it took up to 51days without earthworms and with an impoverished microbial community to reach the legal limit. Nutrient replenishment (i.e. organic carbon) provided by continuous feed input did not appear to extend E. coli survival. In fact, longer survival of E. coli was noticed in treatments where less total and labile sugars were available, suggesting that sugars may support potentially antagonist bacteria in the vermicompost. Total N, pH and humidity did not appear to affect E. coli survival. Several opportunistic human pathogens may be found in vermicompost, and their populations are likely kept in check by antagonists. PMID:27499290

  1. Disinfection of bacterial biofilms in pilot-scale cooling tower systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yang; Zhang, Wei; Sileika, Tadas; Warta, Richard; Cianciotto, Nicholas P; Packman, Aaron I

    2011-04-01

    The impact of continuous chlorination and periodic glutaraldehyde treatment on planktonic and biofilm microbial communities was evaluated in pilot-scale cooling towers operated continuously for 3 months. The system was operated at a flow rate of 10,080 l day(-1). Experiments were performed with a well-defined microbial consortium containing three heterotrophic bacteria: Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Flavobacterium sp. The persistence of each species was monitored in the recirculating cooling water loop and in biofilms on steel and PVC coupons in the cooling tower basin. The observed bacterial colonization in cooling towers did not follow trends in growth rates observed under batch conditions and, instead, reflected differences in the ability of each organism to remain attached and form biofilms under the high-through flow conditions in cooling towers. Flavobacterium was the dominant organism in the community, while P. aeruginosa and K. pneumoniae did not attach well to either PVC or steel coupons in cooling towers and were not able to persist in biofilms. As a result, the much greater ability of Flavobacterium to adhere to surfaces protected it from disinfection, whereas P. aeruginosa and K. pneumoniae were subject to rapid disinfection in the planktonic state.

  2. REAL WASTE TESTING OF SLUDGE BATCH 5 MELTER FEED RHEOLOGY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reboul, S.; Stone, M.

    2010-03-17

    Clogging of the melter feed loop at the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) has reduced the throughput of Sludge Batch 5 (SB5) processing. After completing a data review, DWPF attributed the clogging to the rheological properties of the Slurry Mix Evaporator (SME) project. The yield stress of the SB5 melter feed material was expected to be high, based on the relatively high pH of the SME product and the rheological results of a previous Chemical Process Cell (CPC) demonstration performed at the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL).

  3. Simple multicomponent batch distillation procedure with a variable reflux policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. N. García

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a shortcut procedure for batch distillation simulation with a variable reflux policy. The procedure starts from a shortcut method developed by Sundaram and Evans in 1993 and uses an iterative cycle to calculate the reflux ratio at each moment. The functional relationship between the concentrations at the bottom and the dome is evaluated using the Fenske equation and is complemented with the equations proposed by Underwood and Gilliland. The results of this procedure are consistent with those obtained using a fast method widely validated in the relevant literature.

  4. Batch Mode Data Analysis at ORNL for Radiation Portal Monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Global Nuclear Security Technology Division at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has developed two batch-mode data analysis tools to address the volume of data generated by radiation portal monitors (RPMs) deployed by the Second Line of Defense (SLD). The first of these tools, the ORNL Data Portal (ORNLDP), serves as both a repository and an analysis environment for the data generated by RPMs. The second tool, the In-Country Analysis Tool (ICAT), is portable and serves primarily as a small-scale analysis environment.

  5. Passive low energy cooling of buildings

    CERN Document Server

    Givoni, Baruch

    1994-01-01

    A practical sourcebook for building designers, providing comprehensive discussion of the impact of basic architectural choices on cooling efficiency, including the layout and orientation of the structure, window size and shading, exterior color, and even the use of plantings around the site. All major varieties of passive cooling systems are presented, with extensive analysis of performance in different types of buildings and in different climates: ventilation; radiant cooling; evaporative cooling; soil cooling; and cooling of outdoor spaces.

  6. Study on Characteristics of Crystal Growth of NdFeB Cast Alloys

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李波; 郭炳麟; 王东玲; 刘涛; 喻晓军

    2004-01-01

    The characteristic of crystal growth of NdFeB cast alloys was studied.It is found that the crystal growth orientation of conventional ingots is along or .As the cooling rate increases,the crystallization orientation changes from a axis to c axis,along which the grain is easy to be magnetized.Meanwhile,by analyzing the change of crystallization orientation,the influence on the property of magnets was discussed.

  7. Growth of BPO4 single crystals from Li2Mo3O10 flux

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Guogang; Li, Jing; Han, Shujuan; Guo, Yongjie; Wang, Jiyang

    2010-12-01

    Transparent single crystal of BPO4 with a typical sizes of 5 × 7 × 9 mm3 have been grown by the top-seeded solution growth (TSSG) slow-cooling method using Li2Mo3O10 as the flux. X-ray powder diffraction result shows that the as-grown crystal was well crystallized and indexed in a tetragonal system. The processing parameters and the effects of the flux on the crystal growth were investigated.

  8. Compressor bleed cooling fluid feed system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donahoo, Eric E; Ross, Christopher W

    2014-11-25

    A compressor bleed cooling fluid feed system for a turbine engine for directing cooling fluids from a compressor to a turbine airfoil cooling system to supply cooling fluids to one or more airfoils of a rotor assembly is disclosed. The compressor bleed cooling fluid feed system may enable cooling fluids to be exhausted from a compressor exhaust plenum through a downstream compressor bleed collection chamber and into the turbine airfoil cooling system. As such, the suction created in the compressor exhaust plenum mitigates boundary layer growth along the inner surface while providing flow of cooling fluids to the turbine airfoils.

  9. Cooled Ceramic Turbine Vane Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — N&R Engineering will investigate the feasibility of cooled ceramics, such as ceramic matrix composite (CMC) turbine blade concepts that can decrease specific...

  10. Geothermal heat can cool, too

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article takes a look at how geothermal energy can not only be used to supply heating energy, but also be used to provide cooling too. The article reports on a conference on heating and cooling with geothermal energy that was held in Duebendorf, Switzerland, in March 2008. The influence of climate change on needs for heating and cooling and the need for additional knowledge and data on deeper rock layers is noted. The seasonal use of geothermal systems to provide heating in winter and cooling in summer is discussed. The planning of geothermal probe fields and their simulation is addressed. As an example, the geothermal installations under the recently renewed and extended 'Dolder Grand' luxury hotel in Zurich are quoted. The new SIA 384/6 norm on geothermal probes issued by the Swiss Association of Architects SIA is briefly reviewed.

  11. Surface-induced evaporative cooling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ke Min; Yan Bo; Cheng Feng; Wang Yu-Zhu

    2009-01-01

    The effects of surface-induced evaporative cooling on an atom chip are investigated. The evolutions of temperature, number and phase-space density of the atom cloud are measured when the atom cloud is brought close to the surface. Rapid decrease of the temperature and number of the atoms is found when the atom-surface distance is < 100 μm. A gain of about a factor of five on the phase-space density is obtained. It is found that the efficiency of the surface-induced evaporative cooling depends on the atom-surface distance and the shape of the evaporative trap. When the atoms are moved very close to the surface, severe heating is observed, which dominates when the holding time is > 8 ms. It is important that the surface-induced evaporative cooling offers novel possibilities for the realization of a continuous condensation, where a spatially varying evaporative cooling is required.

  12. Ozonation of cooling tower waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humphrey, M. F.; French, K. R.; Howe, R. D. (Inventor)

    1979-01-01

    Continuous ozone injection into water circulating between a cooling tower and heat exchanger with heavy scale deposits inhibits formation of further deposits, promotes flaking of existing deposits, inhibits chemical corrosion and controls algae and bacteria.

  13. Non-isothermal crystallization kinetics in melt-drawn PCL/PLA microfibrillar composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kratochvíl, Jaroslav; Kelnar, Ivan

    2016-05-01

    The non-isothermal crystallization kinetics of the system poly(ɛ-caprolactone)/poly(lactic acid)/clay C15 and related microfibrillar composites has been studied using a simple method based on mathematical treatment of the DSC cumulative crystallization curves in their inflection point. The method provides three kinetic parameters: temperature of start of crystallization, temperature of maximum crystallization rate, and numerical value of the maximum crystallization rate. In the range of cooling rates 5 - 20°C/min, the temperatures of crystallization start and of maximum crystallization rate are determined with standard deviation of 0.3 and 0.4°C, respectively. Average standard deviation of maximum crystallization rate is 1.0 K-1 corresponding to coefficient of variation 5.8 %. Repeatability is slightly better at lower cooling rates. The modified samples show intensive nucleation effect during the non-isothermal crystallization, as demonstrated by their values of temperatures of crystallization start and of maximum crystallization rate that are significantly higher than that of neat PCL. The highest maximum crystallization rate has been found for the blend PCL/PLA 80/20. The proposed method does not refer to any crystallization model and does not require exact determination of the starting point of crystallization. On the other hand, it does not provide any information about dimensionality of crystal growth. The method is particularly useful for characterizing a series of samples derived by modification of the neat polymer.

  14. Design, fabrication and measurement of a novel cooling arm for fusion energy source

    CERN Document Server

    Jiang, Shui-Dong; Mei, Jia-Bin; Yang, Bin; Yang, Chun-Sheng

    2012-01-01

    The issues of energy and environment are the main constraint of sustainable development in worldwide. Nuclear energy source is one important optional choice for long term sustainable development. The nuclear energy consists of fusion energy and fission energy. Compared with fission, inertial confinement fusion (ICF) is a kind of clean fusion energy and can generate large energy and little environmental pollution. ICF mainly consists of peripheral driver unit and target. The cooling arm is an important component of the target, which cools the hohlraum to maintain the required temperature and positions the thermal-mechanical package (TMP) assembly. This paper mainly investigates the cooling arm, including the structural design, the verticality of sidewall and the mechanical properties. The TMP assembly is uniformly clamped in its radial when using (111) crystal orientation silicon to fabricate cooling arm. The finite element method is used to design the structure of cooling arm with 16 clamping arms, and the ME...

  15. Quantum limit of photothermal cooling

    CERN Document Server

    De Liberato, Simone; Nori, Franco

    2010-01-01

    We study the problem of cooling a mechanical oscillator using the photothermal (bolometric) force. Contrary to previous attempts to model this system, we take into account the noise effects due to the granular nature of photon absorption. This allows us to tackle the cooling problem down to the noise dominated regime and to find reasonable estimates for the lowest achievable phonon occupation in the cantilever.

  16. Turbine Blade Cooling System Optimization

    OpenAIRE

    GIRARDEAU, Julian; PAILHES, Jérôme; SEBASTIAN, Patrick; PARDO, Frédéric; Nadeau, Jean-Pierre

    2013-01-01

    The authors wish to thank turbine designers from TURBOMECA SAFRAN Group.; International audience; Designing high performance cooling systems suitable for preserving the service lifetime of nozzle guide vanes of turboshaft engines leads to significant aerodynamic losses. These losses jeopardize the performance of the whole engine. In the same time, a low efficiency cooling system may affect the costs of maintenance repair and overhaul of the engine as component life decreases. Consequently, de...

  17. Cooling Shelf For Electronic Equipment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanzer, Herbert J.

    1989-01-01

    Heat-pipe action cools and maintains electronics at nearly constant temperature. System designed to control temperatures of spacecraft shelves or baseplates by combining honeycomb sandwich panel with reservoir of noncondensable gas and processing resulting device as variable-conductance heat pipe. Device provides flat surface for mounting heat-dissipating electronics that is effectively cooled and maintained at nearly constant temperature. Potentially useful in freeze drying, refrigeration, and air conditioning.

  18. Single crystal LaB6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Single crystals of LaB6 were prepared by float zone refining of hot pressed blocks of LaB6. The orientations studied were (001), (110), and a high index plane. The resulting crystals and the as-received material were chemically analyzed by vacuum fusion, combustion analysis, self-arc mass spectroscopy, and wet chemical analysis. The first two provided accurate analysis for O, N, H, and C. The remaining elements except for La and B were determined by mass spectroscopy. The wet chemical analyses determined the B/La ratio. Two batches of as-received material had B/La ratios of 6.0 and 5.8, respectively. Slightly lower B/La ratios were obtained in the single crystals grown by the float zone technique from these materials. The single crystals were further characterized by measurements of lattice parameter and density. Work function values were determined by the FERP method and the thermionic method. Work function measurements in conjunction with Auger analysis of the crystals provided insight into the electron emission character of LaB6. Results indicate that for maximum emission from a crystal plane a proper heat treatment is necessary. Brightness of the crystals was measured in a Cambridge S-4 scanning electron microscope using a Broers type gun. Results show that a brightness of 106 amp/cm2 steradian (20kV) may be achieved with a single crystal LaB6 cathode operating at a temperature of 19000K which corresponds to a lifetime greater than 500 hrs for 1 mm cathodes

  19. Energy Efficient Electronics Cooling Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steve O' Shaughnessey; Tim Louvar; Mike Trumbower; Jessica Hunnicutt; Neil Myers

    2012-02-17

    Parker Precision Cooling Business Unit was awarded a Department of Energy grant (DE-EE0000412) to support the DOE-ITP goal of reducing industrial energy intensity and GHG emissions. The project proposed by Precision Cooling was to accelerate the development of a cooling technology for high heat generating electronics components. These components are specifically related to power electronics found in power drives focused on the inverter, converter and transformer modules. The proposed cooling system was expected to simultaneously remove heat from all three of the major modules listed above, while remaining dielectric under all operating conditions. Development of the cooling system to meet specific customer's requirements and constraints not only required a robust system design, but also new components to support long system functionality. Components requiring further development and testing during this project included pumps, fluid couplings, cold plates and condensers. All four of these major categories of components are required in every Precision Cooling system. Not only was design a key area of focus, but the process for manufacturing these components had to be determined and proven through the system development.

  20. Comparison of growth, acetate production, and acetate inhibition of Escherichia coli strains in batch and fed-batch fermentations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luli, G W; Strohl, W R

    1990-04-01

    The growth characteristics and acetate production of several Escherichia coli strains were compared by using shake flasks, batch fermentations, and glucose-feedback-controlled fed-batch fermentations to assess the potential of each strain to grow at high cell densities. Of the E. coli strains tested, including JM105, B, W3110, W3100, HB101, DH1, CSH50, MC1060, JRG1046, and JRG1061, strains JM105 and B were found to have the greatest relative biomass accumulation, strain MC1060 accumulated the highest concentrations of acetic acid, and strain B had the highest growth rates under the conditions tested. In glucose-feedback-controlled fed-batch fermentations, strains B and JM105 produced only 2 g of acetate.liter-1 while accumulating up to 30 g of biomass.liter-1. Under identical conditions, strains HB101 and MC1060 accumulated less than 10 g of biomass.liter-1 and strain MC1060 produced 8 g of acetate.liter-1. The addition of various concentrations of sodium acetate to the growth medium resulted in a logarithmic decrease, with respect to acetate concentration, in the growth rates of E. coli JM105, JM105(pOS4201), and JRG1061. These data indicated that the growth of the E. coli strains was likely to be inhibited by the acetate they produced when grown on media containing glucose. A model for the inhibition of growth of E. coli by acetate was derived from these experiments to explain the inhibition of acetate on E. coli strains at neutral pH. PMID:2187400

  1. Detection and isolation of Bluetongue virus from commercial vaccine batches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bumbarov, Velizar; Golender, Natalia; Erster, Oran; Khinich, Yevgeny

    2016-06-14

    In this report we describe the detection and identification of Bluetongue virus (BTV) contaminations in commercial vaccines. BTV RNA was detected in vaccine batches of Lumpy skin disease (LSD) and Sheep pox (SP) using quantitative PCR (qPCR) for VP1 and NS3 genes. Both batches were positive for VP1 and NS3 in qPCR. The LSD vaccine-derived sample was positive for VP1 and VP2 in conventional PCR. The SP vaccine-derived sample was examined by amplification of VP1, VP4, VP6, VP7, NS2 and NS3 gene segments in conventional PCR. The SP vaccine-derived sample was further propagated in embryonated chicken eggs (ECE) and Vero cells. Preliminary sequence analysis showed that the LSD vaccine-derived sequence was 98-99% similar to BTV9. Analysis of the six genomic segments from the SP vaccine-derived isolate showed the highest similarity to BTV26 (66.3-97.8%). These findings are particularly important due to the effect of BTV on cattle and sheep, for which the vaccines are intended. They also demonstrate the necessity of rigorous vaccine inspection and strict vaccine production control. PMID:27171751

  2. BEclear: Batch Effect Detection and Adjustment in DNA Methylation Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akulenko, Ruslan; Merl, Markus; Helms, Volkhard

    2016-01-01

    Batch effects describe non-natural variations of, for example, large-scale genomic data sets. If not corrected by suitable numerical algorithms, batch effects may seriously affect the analysis of these datasets. The novel array platform independent software tool BEclear enables researchers to identify those portions of the data that deviate statistically significant from the remaining data and to replace these portions by typical values reconstructed from neighboring data entries based on latent factor models. In contrast to other comparable methods that often use some sort of global normalization of the data, BEclear avoids changing the apparently unaffected parts of the data. We tested the performance of this approach on DNA methylation data for various tumor data sets taken from The Cancer Genome Atlas and compared the results to those obtained with the existing algorithms ComBat, Surrogate Variable Analysis, RUVm and Functional normalization. BEclear constantly performed at par with or better than these methods. BEclear is available as an R package at the Bioconductor project http://bioconductor.org/packages/release/bioc/html/BEclear.html. PMID:27559732

  3. Transfer bonding technology for batch fabrication of SMA microactuators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grund, T.; Guerre, R.; Despont, M.; Kohl, M.

    2008-05-01

    Currently, the broad market introduction of shape memory alloy (SMA) microactuators and sensors is hampered by technological barriers, since batch fabrication methods common to electronics industry are not available. The present study intends to overcome these barriers by introducing a wafer scale transfer process that allows the selective transfer of heat-treated and micromachined shape memory alloy (SMA) film or foil microactuators to randomly selected receiving sites on a target substrate. The technology relies on a temporary adhesive bonding layer between SMA film/foil and an auxiliary substrate, which can be removed by laser ablation. The transfer technology was tested for microactuators of a cold-rolled NiTi foil of 20 μm thickness, which were heat-treated in free-standing condition, then micromachined on an auxiliary substrate of glass, and finally selectively transferred to different target substrates of a polymer. For demonstration, the new technology was used for batch-fabrication of SMA-actuated polymer microvalves.

  4. SEQUENCING BATCH REACTOR: A PROMISING TECHNOLOGY IN WASTEWATER TREATMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. H. Mahvi

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Discharge of domestic and industrial wastewater to surface or groundwater is very dangerous to the environment. Therefore treatment of any kind of wastewater to produce effluent with good quality is necessary. In this regard choosing an effective treatment system is important. Sequencing batch reactor is a modification of activated sludge process which has been successfully used to treat municipal and industrial wastewater. The process could be applied for nutrients removal, high biochemical oxygen demand containing industrial wastewater, wastewater containing toxic materials such as cyanide, copper, chromium, lead and nickel, food industries effluents, landfill leachates and tannery wastewater. Of the process advantages are single-tank configuration, small foot print, easily expandable, simple operation and low capital costs. Many researches have been conducted on this treatment technology. The authors had been conducted some investigations on a modification of sequencing batch reactor. Their studies resulted in very high percentage removal of biochemical oxygen demand, chemical oxygen demand, total kjeldahl nitrogen, total nitrogen, total phosphorus and total suspended solids respectively. This paper reviews some of the published works in addition to experiences of the authors.

  5. BEclear: Batch Effect Detection and Adjustment in DNA Methylation Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akulenko, Ruslan; Merl, Markus; Helms, Volkhard

    2016-01-01

    Batch effects describe non-natural variations of, for example, large-scale genomic data sets. If not corrected by suitable numerical algorithms, batch effects may seriously affect the analysis of these datasets. The novel array platform independent software tool BEclear enables researchers to identify those portions of the data that deviate statistically significant from the remaining data and to replace these portions by typical values reconstructed from neighboring data entries based on latent factor models. In contrast to other comparable methods that often use some sort of global normalization of the data, BEclear avoids changing the apparently unaffected parts of the data. We tested the performance of this approach on DNA methylation data for various tumor data sets taken from The Cancer Genome Atlas and compared the results to those obtained with the existing algorithms ComBat, Surrogate Variable Analysis, RUVm and Functional normalization. BEclear constantly performed at par with or better than these methods. BEclear is available as an R package at the Bioconductor project http://bioconductor.org/packages/release/bioc/html/BEclear.html. PMID:27559732

  6. Treatemnt of Wastewater with Modified Sequencing Batch Biofilm Reactor Technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡龙兴; 刘宇陆

    2002-01-01

    This paper describes the removel of COD and nitrogen from wastewater with modified sequencing batch biofilm reactor,The strategy of simultaneous feeding and draining was explored.The results show that introduction of a new batch of wastewater and withdrawal of the purifeid water can be conducted simultaneously with the maximum volumetric exchange rate of about 70%,Application of this feeding and draining mode leads to the reduction of the cycle time,the increase of the utilization of the reactor volume and the simplification of the reactor structure.The treatment of a synthetic wastewater containing COD and nitrogen was investigated.The operation mode of F(D)-O(i.e.,simultaneous feeding and draining followed by the aerobic condition)was adopted.It was found that COD was degraded very fast in the initial reaction period of time,then reduced slowly and the ammonia nitrogen and nitrate nitrogen concentrations decreased and increased with time respectively,while the nitrite nitrogen level increased first and then reduced.The relationship between the COD or ammonia nitrogen loading and its removal rate was examined,and the removal of COD,ammonia nitrogen and total nitrogen could exceed 95%,90%and 80% respectively,The fact that nitrogen could e removed more completely under constant aeration(aerobic condition)of the SBBR operation mode is very interesting and could be explained in several respects.

  7. Xylitol production by Candida parapsilosis under fed-batch culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra A. Furlan

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Xylitol production by Candida parapsilosis was investigated under fed-batch cultivation, using single (xylose or mixed (xylose and glucose sugars as substrates. The presence of glucose in the medium induced the production of ethanol as secondary metabolite and improved specific rates of growth, xylitol formation and substrate consumption. Fractionated supply of the feed medium at constant sugar concentration did not promote any increase on the productivity compared to the single batch cultivation.A produção de xylitol por Candida parapsilosis foi investigada em regime de batelada alimentada, usando substratos açucarados de composição simples (xilose ou composta (xilose e glicose. A presença de glicose no meio induziu a formação de etanol como metabólito secundário. A suplementação fracionada do meio de alimentação numa concentração fixa de açúcar não resultou em aumento da produtividade em relação àquela alcançada em batelada simples.

  8. Batch Attribute-Based Encryption for Secure Clouds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Yang

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Cloud storage is widely used by organizations due to its advantage of allowing universal access with low cost. Attribute-based encryption (ABE is a kind of public key encryption suitable for cloud storage. The secret key of each user and the ciphertext are associated with an access policy and an attribute set, respectively; in addition to holding a secret key, one can decrypt a ciphertext only if the associated attributes match the predetermined access policy, which allows one to enforce fine-grained access control on outsourced files. One issue in existing ABE schemes is that they are designed for the users of a single organization. When one wants to share the data with the users of different organizations, the owner needs to encrypt the messages to the receivers of one organization and then repeats this process for another organization. This situation is deteriorated with more and more mobile devices using cloud services, as the ABE encryption process is time consuming and may exhaust the power supplies of the mobile devices quickly. In this paper, we propose a batch attribute-based encryption (BABE approach to address this problem in a provably-secure way. With our approach, the data owner can outsource data in batches to the users of different organizations simultaneously. The data owner is allowed to decide the receiving organizations and the attributes required for decryption. Theoretical and experimental analyses show that our approach is more efficient than traditional encryption implementations in computation and communication.

  9. Crystal growth rates and optical resolution of DL-methionine hydrochloride by preferential crystallization from aqueous solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srimahaprom, Watcharakarn; Flood, Adrian E.

    2013-01-01

    Optical resolution of DL-methionine hydrochloride (DL-met·HCl) by preferential crystallization was studied for the purification of L-met·HCl (the desired enantiomer) from supersaturated solutions of DL-met·HCl. The nucleation thresholds (NT) of DL-met·HCl affect the maximum resolution time suitable for preferential crystallization and also the percentage purity of the product crystals. Crystal growth rates of L-met·HCl single crystals both in supersaturated solutions of DL-met·HCl and in supersaturated solutions of pure L-met·HCl were measured in order to model the preferential crystallization more effectively. Results showed that the growth rate depends strongly on the relative supersaturation (especially from pure L-met·HCl solutions), that there is a wide crystal growth rate distribution in growth from both types of solution, and that the growth is faster from pure L-met·HCl solutions, as expected. A batch crystallizer seeded with L-met·HCl crystals was used to study the preferential crystallization, and to study the behavior of purity decrease of the product crystals during the crystallization process. The purity of the L-met·HCl product decreased to the equilibrium value over time, with almost no plateau at 100% purity (as is hoped for in preferential crystallizations). This is explainable by the very short induction times for nucleation in these solutions, and also that the L-met·HCl seed crystals may act as a template for the nucleation of the counter-enantiomer.

  10. Floor cooling and air-cooling, the effects on thermal comfort or different cooling systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sijpheer, N.C.; Bakker, E.J.; Ligthart, F.A.T.M.; Opstelten, I.J. [ECN Energie in de Gebouwde Omgeving en Netten, Petten (Netherlands)

    2007-09-15

    One of the research areas of the Energy research Centre of the Netherlands (ECN) concerns the built environment. Several facilities to conduct research activities are at ECN's disposal. One of these facilities, are five research dwellings located on the premises of ECN. Measured data from these facilities together with weather data and computer models are used to evaluate innovative energy concepts and components in energy systems. Experiments with different cooling systems in ECN's research dwellings are executed to evaluate their effective influence on both energy use and thermal comfort. Influence of inhabitants' behaviour is taken into account in these experiments. The thermal comfort is indicated by the Predicted Mean Vote (PMV) as defined by P.O. Fanger. For this paper, the results of measurements with a floor cooling and air cooling system are assessed. Effects on the PMV measured during experiments with the two different cooling systems will be presented.

  11. Analysis of crystallization risk in double effect absorption refrigeration systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Absorption refrigeration systems are an alternative to vapor compression ones in cooling and refrigeration applications. In comparison with single effect absorption units, double effect systems have improved performance. Also, they are more available commercially than the other multi effect absorption cycles. An important challenge in the operation of such systems is the possibility of crystallization within them. This is especially true in developing air-cooled absorption systems, which are attractive because cooling tower and associated installation and maintenance issues can be avoided. Therefore, distinguishing the working conditions that may cause crystallization can be useful in the design and control of these systems. In this paper a computational model has been developed to study and compare the effects of operating parameters on crystallization phenomena in three classes of double effect lithium bromide-water absorption refrigeration systems (series, parallel and reverse parallel) with identical refrigeration capacities. It is shown that the range of operating conditions without crystallization risks in the parallel and the reverse parallel configurations is wider than those of the series flow system. - Highlights: → We study crystallization of double effect absorption refrigeration systems. → We consider series, parallel and reverse parallel cycles. → We study the effect of operating conditions on crystallization. → We choose optimum distribution ratio for parallel and reverse parallel systems. → Crystallization possibility is low in parallel and reverse parallel cycles.

  12. A Sensor Fusion Algorithm for Filtering Pyrometer Measurement Noise in the Czochralski Crystallization Process

    OpenAIRE

    M. Komperød; J.A. Bones; Lie, B.

    2011-01-01

    The Czochralski (CZ) crystallization process is used to produce monocrystalline silicon for solar cell wafers and electronics. Tight temperature control of the molten silicon is most important for achieving high crystal quality. SINTEF Materials and Chemistry operates a CZ process. During one CZ batch, two pyrometers were used for temperature measurement. The silicon pyrometer measures the temperature of the molten silicon. This pyrometer is assumed to be accurate, but has much high-frequency...

  13. Non-isothermal Crystallization Kinetics of Modified Poly (ethylene terephthalate) with Ultraviolet Protection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TENG Cui-qing

    2002-01-01

    The non-isothermal crystallization kinetics of modified poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) with the function of ultraviolet (UV) protection was studied by means of differential scanning calorimetry. The kinetics of the modified polymer under non-isothermal crystallization was analyzed by Ozawa equation. The crystallization behavior of the modified polymer obeyed Ozawa theory. The additives in the polymer whose function was UV-resistant acted as crystal nucleus in the processing of crystallization, which resulted in the increase of Avrami index and the crystallization rate of the cooling system.

  14. Phosphate removal and recovery through crystallization of hydroxyapatite using xonotlite as seed crystal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Xuechu; KONG Hainan; WU Deyi; WANG Xinze; LIN Yongyong

    2009-01-01

    Xonotlite was synthesized and tested for phosphate removal and recovery from synthetic solution in a batch mode. The effects of pH, initial calcium concentration, bicarbonate concentration on phosphate removal through crystallization were examined. The morphology and X-ray diffraction (XRD) pattern of xonotlite before and after crystallization confirmed the formation of crystalline hydroxyapatite. The results indicated that, the crystallization product had a very high P content (> 10%), which is comparable to phosphate rock at the dosage of 50-200 mg xonotlite per liter, with a maximum P content of 16.7%. The kinetics of phosphate removal followed the second-order reaction equation. The phosphate removal ability increased with increasing pH. The precipitation of calcium phosphate took place when pH is higher than 7.2, whereas the crystallization occurred at pH 6.0. A high calcium concentration can promote the removal of phosphate via crystallization, while a high bicarbonate concentration also enhanced phosphate removal through that it increased the pH and thus induced the precipitation process. When xonotlite was used to remove phosphate from wastewater, the removal efficiency could reach 91.3% after 24 h reaction time, with removal capacity 137 mg/g. The results indicated that xonotlite might be used as an effective crystal seed for the removal and recovery of phosphate from aqueous solution.

  15. Ilchulbong tuff cone, Jeju Island, Korea, revisited: A compound monogenetic volcano involving multiple magma batches, shifting vents, and discrete eruptive phases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohn, Y.; Brenna, M.; Smith, I. E.; Nemeth, K.; White, J. D.; Murtagh, R.; Jeon, Y.; Kwon, C.; Cronin, S. J.

    2010-12-01

    Ilchulbong (Sunrise Peak) tuff cone is a UNESCO World Heritage site that owes its scientific importance to the outstanding coastal exposures that surround it. It is also one of the classic sites that provided the sedimentary evidence for the primary pyroclastic processes that occur during phreatomagmatic basaltic eruptions. It has been long considered, based on the cone morphology, that this classic cone was produced via eruption from a single vent site. Reanalysis of the detailed sedimentary sequence has now revealed that two subtle paraconformities occur in this deposition sequence, one representing a significant time break of perhaps days to weeks or months, during which erosion and compaction of the lower cone occurred, the conduit cooled and solidified and a subsequent resumption of eruption took place in a new vent location. Detailed geochemical study of the juvenile clasts through this cone reveals that three separate alkali basaltic magma batches were erupted, the first and third erupted may be genetically related, with the latter showing evidence for longer periods of shallow-level fractionation. The second magma batch erupted was generated in a different mantle source area. Reconstructing the eruption sequence, the lower Ilchulbong cone was formed by eruption of magma 1. Cessation of eruption was accompanied by erosion to generate a volcano-wide unconformity, associated with reworked deposits in the lower cone flanks. The eruption resumed with magma 2 that, due to the cooled earlier conduit, was forced to erupt in a new site to the west of the initial vent. This formed the middle cone sequence over the initially formed structure. The third magma batch erupted with little or no interval after magma 2 from the same vent location, associated with cone instability and slumping, and making up the deposits of the upper cone. These results demonstrate how critical the examination for sedimentary evidence for time breaks in such eruption sequences is for

  16. Bagasse hydrolyzates from Agave tequilana as substrates for succinic acid production by Actinobacillus succinogenes in batch and repeated batch reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corona-González, Rosa Isela; Varela-Almanza, Karla María; Arriola-Guevara, Enrique; Martínez-Gómez, Álvaro de Jesús; Pelayo-Ortiz, Carlos; Toriz, Guillermo

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this work was to obtain fermentable sugars by enzymatic or acid hydrolyses of Agave tequilana Weber bagasse in order to produce succinic acid with Actinobacillus succinogenes. Hydrolyses were carried out with mineral acids (sulfuric and hydrochloric acids) or a commercial cellulolytic enzyme, and were optimized statistically by a response surface methodology, having as factors the concentration of acid/enzyme and time of hydrolysis. The concentration of sugars obtained at optimal conditions for each hydrolysis were 21.7, 22.4y 19.8g/L for H2SO4, HCl and the enzymatic preparation respectively. Concerning succinic acid production, the enzymatic hydrolyzates resulted in the highest yield (0.446g/g) and productivity (0.57g/Lh) using A. succinogenes in a batch reactor system. Repeated batch fermentation with immobilized A. succinogenes in agar and with the enzymatic hydrolyzates resulted in a maximum concentration of succinic acid of 33.6g/L from 87.2g/L monosaccharides after 5 cycles in 40h, obtaining a productivity of 1.32g/Lh. PMID:26802183

  17. Intact cell mass spectrometry as a progress tracking tool for batch and fed-batch fermentation processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helmel, Michaela; Marchetti-Deschmann, Martina; Raus, Martin; Posch, Andreas E; Herwig, Christoph; Šebela, Marek; Allmaier, Günter

    2015-02-01

    Penicillin production during a fermentation process using industrial strains of Penicillium chrysogenum is a research topic permanently discussed since the accidental discovery of the antibiotic. Intact cell mass spectrometry (ICMS) can be a fast and novel monitoring tool for the fermentation progress during penicillin V production in a nearly real-time fashion. This method is already used for the characterization of microorganisms and the differentiation of fungal strains; therefore, the application of ICMS to samples directly harvested from a fermenter is a promising possibility to get fast information about the progress of fungal growth. After the optimization of the ICMS method to penicillin V fermentation broth samples, the obtained ICMS data were evaluated by hierarchical cluster analysis or an in-house software solution written especially for ICMS data comparison. Growth stages of a batch and fed-batch fermentation of Penicillium chrysogenum are differentiated by one of those statistical approaches. The application of two matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) instruments in the linear positive ion mode from different vendors demonstrated the universal applicability of the developed ICMS method. The base for a fast and easy-to-use method for monitoring the fermentation progress of P. chrysogenum is created with this ICMS method developed especially for fermentation broth samples.

  18. Lead tungstate crystals for the CMS electromagnetic calorimeter at the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Dafinei, I

    2002-01-01

    With its over 80,000 scintillating lead tungstate PbWO/sub 4/ (PWO) crystals the CMS electromagnetic calorimeter (ECAL) will be the largest one ever constructed. It was designed to work in the demanding LHC environment and give a resolution of 0.5% for photon energies above 50 GeV/c. An important R & D effort was necessary in order to guarantee the production of PWO crystals able to satisfy such challenging constraints. The performance of the pre-production crystal batches (about 6000 barrel crystals) is consistent with the very strict quality parameters defined by the ECAL Collaboration. The meaning of quality controls as well as the main characteristics of these crystals are discussed. More, recent developments in the PWO crystal growth technology may speedup the crystal supplying for the ECAL construction. (15 refs).

  19. Controlled in meso phase crystallization--a method for the structural investigation of membrane proteins.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Kubicek

    Full Text Available We investigated in meso crystallization of membrane proteins to develop a fast screening technology which combines features of the well established classical vapor diffusion experiment with the batch meso phase crystallization, but without premixing of protein and monoolein. It inherits the advantages of both methods, namely (i the stabilization of membrane proteins in the meso phase, (ii the control of hydration level and additive concentration by vapor diffusion. The new technology (iii significantly simplifies in meso crystallization experiments and allows the use of standard liquid handling robots suitable for 96 well formats. CIMP crystallization furthermore allows (iv direct monitoring of phase transformation and crystallization events. Bacteriorhodopsin (BR crystals of high quality and diffraction up to 1.3 Å resolution have been obtained in this approach. CIMP and the developed consumables and protocols have been successfully applied to obtain crystals of sensory rhodopsin II (SRII from Halobacterium salinarum for the first time.

  20. Citric acid production from hydrolysate of pretreated straw cellulose by Yarrowia lipolytica SWJ-1b using batch and fed-batch cultivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaoyan; Lv, Jinshun; Zhang, Tong; Deng, Yuanfang

    2015-01-01

    In this study, crude cellulase produced by Trichoderma reesei Rut-30 was used to hydrolyze pretreated straw. After the compositions of the hydrolysate of pretreated straw were optimized, the study showed that natural components of pretreated straw without addition of any other components such as (NH4)2SO4, KH2PO4, or Mg(2+) were suitable for citric acid production by Yarrowia lipolytica SWJ-1b, and the optimal ventilatory capacity was 10.0 L/min/L medium. Batch and fed-batch production of citric acid from the hydrolysate of pretreated straw by Yarrowia lipolytica SWJ-1b has been investigated. In the batch cultivation, 25.4 g/L and 26.7 g/L citric acid were yields from glucose and hydrolysate of straw cellulose, respectively, while the cultivation time was 120 hr. In the three-cycle fed-batch cultivation, citric acid (CA) production was increased to 42.4 g/L and the cultivation time was extended to 240 hr. However, iso-citric acid (ICA) yield in fed-batch cultivation (4.0 g/L) was similar to that during the batch cultivation (3.9 g/L), and only 1.6 g/L of reducing sugar was left in the medium at the end of fed-batch cultivation, suggesting that most of the added carbon was used in the cultivation.

  1. Biological Treatment of Leachate using Sequencing Batch Reactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WDMC Perera

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE TA Abstract   In Sri Lanka municipal solid waste is generally disposed in poorly managed open dumps which lack liner systems and leachate collection systems. Rain water percolates through the waste layers to produce leachate which drains in to ground water and finally to nearby water bodies, degrading the quality of water. Leachate thus has become a major environmental concern in municipal waste management and treatment of leachate is a major challenge for the existing and proposed landfill sites.   The study was conducted to assess the feasibility of the usage of the Sequencing Batch Reactor in the treatment of the landfill leachate up to the proposed levels in the draft report of “Proposed Sri Lankan standard for landfill leachate to be disposed to the inland waters". Leachate collected from the open dumpsite at Meethotamulla, Western Province, Sri Lanka was used for leachate characterization.   SBR was constructed with a 10-liter working volume operated in an 18 hour cycle mode and each cycle consists of 15hours of aerobic, 2h settle and 0.5 h of fill/decant stages. The Dissolved Oxygen level within the SBR was maintained at 2 mg/l through the aerobic stage. Infeed was diluted with water during the acclimatization period and a leachate to water ratio of 55:45 was maintained. The removal efficiencies for different parameters were; COD (90.5%, BOD (92.6%, TS (92.1%, Conductivity (83.9%, Alkalinity (97.4%, Hardness (82.2%, Mg (80.5%, Fe (94.2%, Zn (63.4%, Cr (31.69%, Pb (99.6%, Sulphate (98.9%, and Phosphorus (71.4% respectively. In addition Ni and Cd were removed completely during a single SBR cycle. Thus the dilution of leachate in the dumpsites using municipal wastewater, groundwater or rainwater was identified as the most cost effective dilution methods. The effluent from the Sequencing batch reactor is proposed to be further treated using a constructed wetland before releasing to surface water.

  2. A new Newton's law of cooling?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleiber, M

    1972-12-22

    Several physiologists confuse Fourier's law of animal heat flow with Newton's law of cooling. A critique of this error in 1932 remained ineffective. In 1969 Molnar tested Newton's cooling law. In 1971 Strunk found Newtonian cooling unrealistic for animals. Unfortunately, he called the Fourier formulation of animal heat flow, requiring post-Newtonian observations, a "contemporary Newtonian law of cooling."

  3. Impingement jet cooling in gas turbines

    CERN Document Server

    Amano, R S

    2014-01-01

    Due to the requirement for enhanced cooling technologies on modern gas turbine engines, advanced research and development has had to take place in field of thermal engineering. Impingement jet cooling is one of the most effective in terms of cooling, manufacturability and cost. This is the first to book to focus on impingement cooling alone.

  4. Cooled snubber structure for turbine blades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, Clinton A; Campbell, Christian X; Whalley, Andrew; Marra, John J

    2014-04-01

    A turbine blade assembly in a turbine engine. The turbine blade assembly includes a turbine blade and a first snubber structure. The turbine blade includes an internal cooling passage containing cooling air. The first snubber structure extends outwardly from a sidewall of the turbine blade and includes a hollow interior portion that receives cooling air from the internal cooling passage of the turbine blade.

  5. Effect of solvent on crystallization behavior of xylitol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Hongxun; Hou, Baohong; Wang, Jing-Kang; Lin, Guangyu

    2006-04-01

    Effect of organic solvents content on crystallization behavior of xylitol was studied. Solubility and crystallization kinetics of xylitol in methanol-water system were experimentally determined. It was found that the solubility of xylitol at various methanol content all increases with increase of temperature. But it decreases when increasing methanol content at constant temperature. Based on the theory of population balance, the nucleation and growth rates of xylitol in methanol-water mixed solvents were calculated by moments method. From a series of experimental population density data of xylitol gotten from a batch-operated crystallizer, parameters of crystal nucleation and growth rate equations at different methanol content were got by the method of nonlinear least-squares. By analyzing, it was found that the content of methanol had an apparent effect on nucleation and growth rate of xylitol. At constant temperature, the nucleation and growth rate of xylitol all decrease with increase of methanol content.

  6. Cooling Efficiency of Laminar Cooling System for Plate Mill

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Dian-hua; WANG Bing-xing; ZHOU Na; YU Ming; WANG Jun

    2008-01-01

    Heat transfer was researched from a perspective of the industry application.On the basis of the first law of thermodynamics,the cooling efficiency was deduced from the change of enthalpy inside hot plate.The relationship between the cooling efficiency and its influencing parameters was regressed from plenty of data collected from the worksite and discussed in detail.The temperature profiles resulting from the online model and the model modified by regressed formulas were presented and compared.The results indicated that the control accuracy of the modified model was increased obviously.

  7. New cooling regulation technology of secondary cooling station in DCS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Xuan; Yan, Jun-wei; Zhu, Dong-sheng; Liu, Fei-long; Lei, Jun-xi [The Key Lab of Enhanced Heat Transfer and Energy Conservation of Ministry of Education, School of Chemical and Energy Engineering, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510641 (China); Liang, Lie-quan [The Key Lab of E-Commerce Market Application Technology of Guangdong Province, Guangdong University of Business Studies, Guangzhou 510320 (China)

    2008-07-01

    In this paper, a kind of new control technology of secondary cooling station (constant flow rate/variable temperature difference) in district cooling system (DCS) is proposed in view of serial consequences including low efficiency and high operating cost caused by low temperature of supply water in DCS. This technology has been applied in DCS of Guangzhou University City. The result has already indicated that such technology can increase the supply and return temperatures of buildings, return water temperature of primary side in the plate heat exchanger unit, moreover, the efficiency of both the chiller and the whole system are improved significantly. (author)

  8. Experimental petrology of ancient lunar mare basalt Asuka-881757: Spinel crystallization as a petrologic indicator

    OpenAIRE

    Arai,Tomoko/Takeda,Hiroshi /Miyamoto,Masamichi

    2006-01-01

    The paucity of titanian chromites in lunar-meteorite basalt Asuka (A)-881757 is unusual compared to the general occurrence of co-existing chromites and ulvospinels in the Apollo and Luna mare basalts. The unique spinel crystallization of A-881757 is expected to hold a key to elucidate the crystallization and cooling episodes of the basalt. In this study, we investigated the possible reason for the missing chromite by conducting isothermal and cooling experiments on the bulk-rock composition o...

  9. THE SLUDGE BATCH 7A GLASS VARIABILITY STUDY WITH FRIT 418 AND FRIT 702

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peeler, D; Edwards, T

    2011-03-24

    The Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) is preparing to initiate processing of Sludge Batch 7a (SB7a) in May 2011. To support qualification of SB7a, the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) was requested to execute a variability study (VS) to assess the applicability of the current Product Composition Control System (PCCS) durability models for the Frit 418-SB7a compositional region of interest. The objective of this study was to demonstrate applicability of the current durability models to the SB7a compositional region of interest and acceptability of the SB7a glasses with respect to the Environmental Assessment (EA) glass in terms of durability as defined by the Product Consistency Test (PCT). To support programmatic objectives, twenty-eight SB7a glasses were selected based on the nominal sludge projections used to support the frit recommendation. Twenty-three of the SB7a VS glasses were based on the use of Frit 418, while 5 glasses were based on the use of Frit 702. Frit 702 was also identified as a viable candidate for SB7a, especially if SO{sub 4} concentrations are found to be higher than anticipated. Frit 702 has shown a higher SO{sub 4} retention capability as compared to Frit 418. With respect to acceptability, the PCT results of the SB7a-VS glasses are acceptable relative to the EA glass regardless of thermal history (quenched or canister centerline cooled) or compositional view (target or measured). More specifically, all of the SB7a glasses have normalized boron release values (NL [B]) less than 0.9 g/L as compared to the benchmark NL [B] value for EA of 16.695 g/L. With respect to the applicability of the current durability models to the SB7a VS compositional region of interest, all of the study glasses (based on target compositions) lie within the 95% confidence intervals of the model predictions. When model applicability is based on the measured compositions, all of the SB7a VS glasses are predictable with the exception of SB7aVS-02 and SB7

  10. Cooling clothing utilizing water evaporation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sakoi, Tomonori; Tominaga, Naoto; Melikov, Arsen Krikor;

    2014-01-01

    . To prevent wet discomfort, the T-shirt was made of a polyester material having a water-repellent silicon coating on the inner surface. The chest, front upper arms, and nape of the neck were adopted as the cooling areas of the human body. We conducted human subject experiments in an office with air......We developed cooling clothing that utilizes water evaporation to cool the human body and has a mechanism to control the cooling intensity. Clean water was supplied to the outer surface of the T-shirt of the cooling clothing, and a small fan was used to enhance evaporation on this outer surface...... temperature ranging from 27.4 to 30.7 °C to establish a suitable water supply control method. A water supply control method that prevents water accumulation in the T-shirt and water dribbling was validated; this method is established based on the concept of the water evaporation capacity under the applied...

  11. Axion Cooling of Neutron Stars

    CERN Document Server

    Sedrakian, Armen

    2015-01-01

    Cooling simulations of neutron stars and their comparison with the data from thermally emitting X-ray sources puts constraints on the properties of axions, and by extension of any light pseudo-scalar dark matter particles, whose existence has been postulated to solve the strong-CP problem of QCD. We incorporate the axion emission by pair-breaking and formation processes by $S$- and $P$-wave nucleonic condensates in a benchmark code for cooling simulations as well as provide fit formulae for the rates of these processes. Axion cooling of neutron stars has been simulated for 24 models covering the mass range 1 to 1.8 solar masses, featuring non-accreted iron and accreted light element envelopes, and a range of nucleon-axion coupling. The models are based on an equation state predicting conservative physics of superdense nuclear matter that does not allow for onset of fast cooling processes induced by phase transitions to non-nucleonic forms of matter or high proton concentration. The cooling tracks in the tempe...

  12. Two-stage assembly-type flowshop batch scheduling problem subject to a fixed job sequence

    OpenAIRE

    F J Hwang; B M T Lin

    2012-01-01

    This paper discusses a two-stage assembly-type flowshop scheduling problem with batching considerations subject to a fixed job sequence. The two-stage assembly flowshop consists of m stage-1 parallel dedicated machines and a stage-2 assembly machine which processes the jobs in batches. Four regular performance metrics, namely, the total completion time, maximum lateness, total tardiness, and number of tardy jobs, are considered. The goal is to obtain an optimal batching decision for the prede...

  13. A CATASTROPHIC-CUM-RESTORATIVE QUEUING SYSTEM WITH CORRELATED BATCH ARRIVALS AND VARIABLE CAPACITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rakesh Kumar

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we study a catastrophic-cum-restorative queuing system with correlated batch arrivals and service in batches of variable sizes. We perform the transient analysis of the queuing model. We obtain the Laplace Transform of the probability generating function of system size. Finally, some particular cases of the model have been derived and discussed. Keywords: Queue length, Catastrophes, Correlated batch arrivals, Broadband services, Variable service capacity, and Restoration.

  14. Effects of modified kaolin on the crystallization property of PP/Kaolin nanocomposites

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Xuening; HU Nan; ZHANG Hongtao; HA Chengyong; YANG Zhizhong

    2005-01-01

    Modified kaolin-filled polypropylene was prepared by blending different kinds of modified kaolin intercalated master batches with polypropylene.The microstructure of PP/Kaolin was studied with X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) photos.The effects of the organic kaolin master batches on the crystallization property of polypropylene were investigated by means of non-isothermal differential scanning calorimetry analysis (DSC) and polarized light microscopy (PLM).Non-isothermal crystallization kinetics of polypropylene was studied by the use of modified Avrami Equation improved by Jeziorny.The results indicate that some organic kaolin can be exfoliated by polypropylene, proved by an invisible 001 peak on XRD pattern and individual layer on transmission electron microscopy (TEM) photos, and the heterogeneous nucleus increased with the addition of modified kaolin, proved by the PLM photos.The filled polypropylene crystallizes fastest at 395 K.The results also show that organic kaolin master batches not only can effectively accelerate the heterogeneous nucleation of polypropylene but also can increase the rate of crystallizing point and the temperature of crystallization.However, the rate constant of crystallization remains unchanged.

  15. Self Nucleation and Crystallization of Poly(vinyl alcohol)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, David; Cebe, Peggy

    Polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) is a hydrophilic, biodegradable, semi-crystalline polymer with uses ranging from textiles to medicine. Film samples of PVA were investigated to assess crystallization and melting behavior during self-nucleation experiments, and thermal degradation, using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and thermogravimetric (TG) analysis, respectively. TG results show that degradation occurred at temperatures close to the observed peak melting temperature of 223 C. Using conventional DSC, PVA was heated at a rate of 10 C/min to various self-nucleation temperatures, Ts, within its melting range, briefly annealed, cooled and reheated. Three distinct crystallization regimes were observed upon cooling, depending upon self nucleation temperature. At low values of Ts, below 227 C, PVA only partially melts; residual crystal anneals while new, less perfect crystals form during cooling. Between 228 C and 234 C, PVA was found to crystallize exclusively by self-nucleation. For Ts above 235 C the PVA melts completely. Fast scanning chip-based calorimetry was used to heat and cool at 2000 K/s, to prevent degradation. Results of self nucleation experiments using fast scanning and conventional DSC will be compared. NSF DMR-1206010.

  16. The Physics of crystallizing white dwarfs

    OpenAIRE

    Isern, J.; Mochkovitch, R.; García--Berro, E.; Hernanz, Margarita

    1997-01-01

    White dwarfs can be used as galactic chronometers and, therefore, provide important information about galactic evolution if good theoretical models of their cooling are available. Consequently, it is natural to wonder if all the sources or sinks of energy are correctly taken into account. One of these sources is partial differentiation of the chemical components of the white dwarf upon crystallization. In this paper we use a new formalism to show that if there is a redistribution of the eleme...

  17. Performance analysis of solar air cooled double effect LiBr/H2O absorption cooling system in subtropical city

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • The meteorological data during the working period of air conditioning was measured. • The suitable working range of collector temperature of system was gotten. • The characteristic of hourly and monthly total efficiency of system were obtained. • The yearly performance of system was calculated. - Abstract: Due to the absence of cooling tower and independent on water, the air cooled solar double effect LiBr/H2O absorption cooling system is more convenient to be used in commercial building and household use. The performance with collector temperature is an important field for such system. The paper mainly deals with the performance with collector temperature for the solar air cooled double effect LiBr/H2O absorption cooling system in subtropical city. The parameters of system are: aperture area of collector array is 27 m2, tilted angle of collector with respect to the horizontal plane is 20 toward to south evaporator temperature is 5 °C and the cooling capacity is 20 kW. The simulation is based on the meteorological data of monthly typical day which was summarized from a year round measured data. A corresponding parametric model was developed. The hourly and average performance with the collector temperature for monthly typical day was obtained and discussed. It was found that the suitable working range of inlet temperature of collector is 110–130 °C to improve performance and lower the risk of crystallization. The difference of hourly total efficiency in 9:00–16:00 is less, and the monthly total efficiency from May to October is approximate. The yearly performance of system including total efficiency, cooling capacity per area of collector and solar fraction was given. Furthermore, the effect of effectiveness of heat exchanger and pressure drop on total efficiency and solar fraction was studied and compared. The paper can serve as a preliminary investigation of solar air cooled double effect LiBr/H2O absorption cooling system in

  18. PRELIMINARY FRIT DEVELOPMENT AND MELT RATE TESTING FOR SLUDGE BATCH 6 (SB6)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fox, K.; Miller, D.; Edwards, T.

    2009-07-21

    The Liquid Waste Organization (LWO) provided the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) with a Sludge Batch 6 (SB6) composition projection in March 2009. Based on this projection, frit development efforts were undertaken to gain insight into compositional effects on the predicted and measured properties of the glass waste form and to gain insight into frit components that may lead to improved melt rate for SB6-like compositions. A series of Sludge Batch 6 (SB6) based glasses was selected, fabricated and characterized in this study to better understand the ability of frit compositions to accommodate uncertainty in the projected SB6 composition. Acceptable glasses (compositions where the Product Composition Control System (PCCS) Measurement Acceptability Region (MAR) predicted acceptable properties, good chemical durability was measured, and no detrimental nepheline crystallization was observed) can be made using Frit 418 with SB6 over a range of Na{sub 2}O and Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} concentrations. However, the ability to accommodate variation in the sludge composition limits the ability to utilize alternative frits for potential improvements in melt rate. Frit 535, which may offer improvements in melt rate due to its increased B2O3 concentration, produced acceptable glasses with the baseline SB6 composition at waste loadings of 34 and 42%. However, the PCCS MAR results showed that it is not as robust as Frit 418 in accommodating variation in the sludge composition. Preliminary melt rate testing was completed in the Melt Rate Furnace (MRF) with four candidate frits for SB6. These four frits were selected to evaluate the impacts of B{sub 2}O{sub 3} and Na{sub 2}O concentrations in the frit relative to those of Frit 418, although they are not necessarily candidates for SB6 vitrification. Higher concentrations of B{sub 2}O{sub 3} in the frit relative to that of Frit 418 appeared to improve melt rate. However, when a higher concentration of B{sub 2}O{sub 3} was coupled

  19. Sample Results From Routine Salt Batch 7 Samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peters, T. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2016-01-14

    Strip Effluent Hold Tank (SEHT) and Decontaminated Salt Solution Hold Tank (DSSHT) samples from several of the “microbatches” of Integrated Salt Disposition Project (ISDP) Salt Batch (“Macrobatch”) 7B have been analyzed for 238Pu, 90Sr, 137Cs, cations (Inductively Coupled Plasma Emission Spectroscopy - ICPES), and anions (Ion Chromatography Anions - IC-A). The analytical results from the current microbatch samples are similar to those from previous macrobatch samples. The Actinide Removal Process (ARP) and the Modular Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction Unit (MCU) continue to show more than adequate Pu and Sr removal, and there is a distinct positive trend in Cs removal (increasing cesium decontamination), due to the use of the Next Generation Solvent (NGS). The bulk chemistry of the DSSHT and SEHT samples do not show any signs of unusual behavior.

  20. Study on the numerical simulation of batch sieving process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIAO Hong-guang; MA Jiao; ZHAO Yue-min; CHEN Lun-jian

    2006-01-01

    Screening was widely used in many sectors of industry. However, it is rather incomplete to the cognition of the sieving process for us due to the daedal separation process involving interactions of thousands of particulates. To address this problem, two dimensional numerical simulation of batch sieving process was performed by adopting advanced discrete element method (DEM), which is one of the highly nonlinear digitized dynamic simulative methods and can be used to reveal the quantitative change from particle dimension level. DEM simulation results show that the jam phenomena of sieve-plate apertures of the "blinding particles" in the screen feed can be demonstrated vividly and results also reveal that the velocity of particle moving on the screen plate will vary along with the screen length. This conclusion will be helpful to the design and operation of screen.

  1. Simulated annealing and joint manufacturing batch-sizing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarker Ruhul

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available We address an important problem of a manufacturing system. The system procures raw materials from outside suppliers in a lot and processes them to produce finished goods. It proposes an ordering policy for raw materials to meet the requirements of a production facility. In return, this facility has to deliver finished products demanded by external buyers at fixed time intervals. First, a general cost model is developed considering both raw materials and finished products. Then this model is used to develop a simulated annealing approach to determining an optimal ordering policy for procurement of raw materials and also for the manufacturing batch size to minimize the total cost for meeting customer demands in time. The solutions obtained were compared with those of traditional approaches. Numerical examples are presented. .

  2. CONSOLIDATING BATCH AND TRANSACTIONAL WORKLOADS USING DEPENDENCY STRUCTURE PRIORITIZATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.NIVETHITHA

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Organizations offer efficient services to their customers through cloud. These services can either be a batch or transactional workloads. To offer a real-time service, there comes a need to schedule these workloads in an efficient way. An idea to consolidate these workloads enables us to cut down the energy consumption and infrastructure cost. It will be harder to consolidate both these workloads due to the difference in their nature, performance goals and control mechanisms. The proposed work implements the concept of Dependency Structure Prioritization (DSP to assign priority to the job. This work tends to make effective resource utilization through reducing the number of job migration and missed deadline jobs by considering the deadline and the priority of the job as the most important evaluation factor.

  3. [Neural network detection of abnormalities in fed-batch fermentation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yun-Feng; Yuan, Jing-Qi

    2005-01-01

    During fermentation, it is often difficult to detect the abnormalities, for example, caused by contamination on-line. Instead, the faults were detected usually by off-line laboratory analysis or other ways, which in most cases, is too late to remedy the situation. In this paper, a simple three-layers BP network was used for the early prediction of the amount of product, based on the difference in prediction errors between normal and abnormal charges and other accessorial information, such as profit function and pH value. In addition, three indications characteristic to abnormal charge are incorporated in practical operation. The prediction for Cephalosporin C Fed-batch Fermentation in a Chinese pharmaceutical factory was studied in details as an example and the result shows the abnormal charge can be discovered early successfully using the method. PMID:15859337

  4. Analytical study plan: Shielded Cells batch 1 campaign; Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radioactive operations in the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) will require that the Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC) perform analyses and special studies with actual Savannah River Site (SRS) high-level waste sludge. SRS Tank 42 and Tank 51 will comprise the first batch of sludge to be processed in the DWPF. Approximately 25 liters of sludge from each of these tanks will be characterized and processed in the Shielded Cells of SRTC. During the campaign, processes will include sludge characterization, sludge washing, rheology determination, mixing, hydrogen evolution, feed preparation, and vitrification of the waste. To complete the campaign, the glass will be characterized to determine its durability and crystallinity. This document describes the types of samples that will be produced, the sampling schedule and analyses required, and the methods for sample and analytical control

  5. Hadoop distributed batch processing for Gaia: a success story

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riello, Marco

    2015-12-01

    The DPAC Cambridge Data Processing Centre (DPCI) is responsible for the photometric calibration of the Gaia data including the low resolution spectra. The large data volume produced by Gaia (~26 billion transits/year), the complexity of its data stream and the self-calibrating approach pose unique challenges for scalability, reliability and robustness of both the software pipelines and the operations infrastructure. DPCI has been the first in DPAC to realise the potential of Hadoop and Map/Reduce and to adopt them as the core technologies for its infrastructure. This has proven a winning choice allowing DPCI unmatched processing throughput and reliability within DPAC to the point that other DPCs have started following our footsteps. In this talk we will present the software infrastructure developed to build the distributed and scalable batch data processing system that is currently used in production at DPCI and the excellent results in terms of performance of the system.

  6. Hybrid modeling of xanthan gum bioproduction in batch bioreactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zabot, Giovani L; Mecca, Jaqueline; Mesomo, Michele; Silva, Marceli F; Prá, Valéria Dal; de Oliveira, Débora; Oliveira, J Vladimir; Castilhos, Fernanda; Treichel, Helen; Mazutti, Marcio A

    2011-10-01

    This work is focused on hybrid modeling of xanthan gum bioproduction process by Xanthomonas campestris pv. mangiferaeindicae. Experiments were carried out to evaluate the effects of stirred speed and superficial gas velocity on the kinetics of cell growth, lactose consumption and xanthan gum production in a batch bioreactor using cheese whey as substrate. A hybrid model was employed to simulate the bio-process making use of an artificial neural network (ANN) as a kinetic parameter estimator for the phenomenological model. The hybrid modeling of the process provided a satisfactory fitting quality of the experimental data, since this approach makes possible the incorporation of the effects of operational variables on model parameters. The applicability of the validated model was investigated, using the model as a process simulator to evaluate the effects of initial cell and lactose concentration in the xanthan gum production.

  7. Uranium Adsorption on Granular Activated Carbon – Batch Testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parker, Kent E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Golovich, Elizabeth C. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Wellman, Dawn M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2013-09-01

    The uranium adsorption performance of two activated carbon samples (Tusaar Lot B-64, Tusaar ER2-189A) was tested using unadjusted source water from well 299-W19-36. These batch tests support ongoing performance optimization efforts to use the best material for uranium treatment in the Hanford Site 200 West Area groundwater pump-and-treat system. A linear response of uranium loading as a function of the solution-to-solid ratio was observed for both materials. Kd values ranged from ~380,000 to >1,900,000 ml/g for the B-64 material and ~200,000 to >1,900,000 ml/g for the ER2-189A material. Uranium loading values ranged from 10.4 to 41.6 μg/g for the two Tusaar materials.

  8. Treatment of Laboratory Wastewater by Sequence Batch reactor technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    These studies were conducted on the characterization and treatment of sewage mixed with waste -water of research and testing laboratory (PCSIR Laboratories Lahore). In this study all the parameters COD, BOD and TSS etc of influent (untreated waste-water) and effluent (treated waste-water) were characterized using the standard methods of examination for water and waste-water. All the results of the analyzed waste-water parameters were above the National Environmental Quality Standards (NEQS) set at National level. Treatment of waste-water was carried out by conventional sequencing batch reactor technique (SBR) using aeration and settling technique in the same treatment reactor at laboratory scale. The results of COD after treatment were reduced from (90-95 %), BOD (95-97 %) and TSS (96-99 %) and the reclaimed effluent quality was suitable for gardening purposes. (author)

  9. Minimum Amount of Slop Cut in Batch Distillation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    The pulse-control operation technique which alternates between total reflux operation and total efflux operation in batch distillation was studied along with the minimum amount of slop cut.Total reflux time was confirmed by dynamic simulation, and total efflux time was adopted by statistic method. For the mixture of hexane and cyclohexane and the traditional constant reflux ratio operation strategy, the amount of slop cut is 1.8-2.1 times of the minimum amount of slop cut; whereas for the pulse-control operation strategy, it is 1.2-1.4 times of the minimum amount of slop cut. So compared with the traditional constant reflux ratio operation, the pulse-control operation can decrease the amount of slop cut and operation time, and meanwhile, enhance separation efficiency and yield.

  10. Fed-batch Fermentation of Lactic Acid Bacteria to Improve Biomass Production: A Theoretical Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beng Lee, Boon; Tham, Heng Jin; Chan, Eng Seng

    Recently, fed-batch fermentation has been introduced in an increasing number of fermentation processes. Previous researches showed that fed-batch fermentation can increase the biomass yield of many strains. Improvement of the biomass yield is interested because biomass from lactic acid bacteria (LAB) fermentation is widely used in food and pharmaceutical industry. The aim of this research is to study the ability and feasibility of fed-batch fermentation to improve biomass production of LAB. Appropriate model has been selected from literature. Monod equation described the substrate limitation of LAB and the product inhibition of LAB follows a non-competitive model. Furthermore, the lactic acid production follows Luedeking and Piret model. Then the models are applied to simulate the fermentation of batch and fed-batch cultures by using MATLAB. From the results of simulation, fed-batch fermentation showed that substrate limitation and substrate inhibition can be avoided. Besides that, the variable volume fed-batch fermentation also showed that product inhibition can be eliminated by diluting the product concentration with added fresh feed. However, it was found that fed-batch fermentation is not economically feasible because large amount of substrate is required to reduce the product inhibition effect. Therefore, fed-batch fermentation plays more importance role if the fermentation strain has high Ks value or low Kp value.

  11. Analysis of Mixing Characteristics of Batch Stirred Vessels Using the Networks-of-Zones Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Batch stirred vessels, being devoid of through flow, cannot be assessed by the classical response technique. However, visible inert tracers can be readily observed in a batch or semi-batch stirred vessel. Visible images of the mixing and dispersion of the tracer present a picture in both space and time of the mixing process. Axi-symmetric networks of backmixed zones were used in an image reconstruction approach to analytically characterize the mixing. Computer generated images were compared with experimental results. The qualitative agreement between the observed and calculated images suggests that the analysis of batch stirred reactors can be used to guide operational strategies to control internal concentration fields.

  12. Lipase-catalysed transesterification of soya bean oil for biodiesel production during continuous batch operation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Wei; Xu, Yuanyuan; Liu, Dehua

    2003-10-01

    The effects of temperature, oil/alcohol molar ratio and by-product glycerol were studied during Lipozyme TL IM-catalysed continuous batch operation when short-chain alcohols were used as the acyl acceptor. In non-continuous batch operation, the optimal oil/alcohol ratio and temperature were 1:4 and 40-50 degrees C; however, during the continuous batch operation, the optimal oil/alcohol ratio and temperature were 1:1 and 30 degrees C; 95% of enzymic activity remained after 10 batches when isopropanol was adopted to remove by-product glycerol during repeated use of the lipase.

  13. Increased CPC batch size study for Tank 42 sludge in the Defense Waste Processing Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A series of experiments have been completed at TNX for the sludge-only REDOX adjusted flowsheet using Tank 42 sludge simulant in response to the Technical Task Request HLW/DWPT/TTR-980013 to increase CPC batch sizes. By increasing the initial SRAT batch size, a melter feed batch at greater waste solids concentration can be prepared and thus increase melter output per batch by about one canister. The increased throughput would allow DWPF to dispose of more waste in a given time period thus shortening the overall campaign

  14. Retardation characteristics of radionuclides in geologic media through batch and packed column experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batch and packed column experiments are performed to investigate the retardation characteristics of radionuclide,i.e, Cs-137 in geologic media. In batch experiment, the effects of important parameters on the sorption of radionuclide in geologic media, such as nuclide concentration, pH, and particle size are examined. The Kd value obtained from breakthrough curve was compared with that from the batch sorption experiment to investigate the applicability of the Kd value from batch experiment to prediction of radionuclide migration in dynamic flow through porous media. The proposed model of radionuclide migration in porous media is also verified using the experimental results. (Author)

  15. An Investigation into the Polymorphism and Crystallization of Levetiracetam and the Stability of its Solid Form.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Kailin; Xiong, Xinnuo; Guo, Liuqi; Wang, Lili; Li, Shanshan; Tang, Peixiao; Yan, Jin; Wu, Di; Li, Hui

    2015-12-01

    Levetiracetam (LEV) crystals were prepared using different solvents at different temperatures. The LEV crystals were systematically characterized by X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD) and morphological analysis. The results indicated that many kinds of crystal habits exist in a solid form of LEV. To investigate the effects of LEV concentration, crystallization temperature, and crystallization type on crystallization and solid phase transformation of LEV, multiple methods were performed for LEV aqueous solution to determine if a new solid form exists in solid-state LEV. However, XRPD data demonstrate that the LEV solid forms possess same spatial arrangements that are similar to the original solid form. This result indicates that the LEV concentration, crystallization temperature, and crystallization type in aqueous solution have no influence on the crystallization and solid phase transformation of LEV. Moreover, crystallization by sublimation, melt cooling, and quench cooling, as well as mechanical effect, did not result in the formation of new LEV solid state. During melt cooling, the transformation of solid form LEV is a direct process from melting amorphous phase to the original LEV crystal phase, and the conversion rate is very quick. In addition, stability investigation manifested that LEV solid state is very stable under various conditions.

  16. Biological Macromolecule Crystallization Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    SRD 21 Biological Macromolecule Crystallization Database (Web, free access)   The Biological Macromolecule Crystallization Database and NASA Archive for Protein Crystal Growth Data (BMCD) contains the conditions reported for the crystallization of proteins and nucleic acids used in X-ray structure determinations and archives the results of microgravity macromolecule crystallization studies.

  17. Sludge Batch 2 (Marcobath 3) Flowsheet Studies with Simulants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koopman, D.C.

    2001-03-02

    Sludge-only process simulations of the Sludge Receipt and Adjustment Tank (SRAT) and the Slurry Mix Evaporator (SME) cycle were conducted for the two most likely scenarios for Sludge Batch 2 (Macrobatch 3). The two scenarios are a roughly 50:50 blend of Tank 8 and Tank 40 washed sludge and Tank 40 washed sludge by itself. The testing used new simulants of Tank 8 and Tank 40 washed sludge prepared at the University of South Carolina. The washing endpoint was about 0.5 moles sodium per liter supernate. This report summarizes both the simulant preparation and process simulation activities. The rheology work requested in the Task Plan will be documented in a separate report. Two scoping SRAT simulations were conducted for Tank 40 sludge. This was followed by a complete SRAT and SME simulation using Sludge Batch 1B acid stoichiometry (137.5 percent). Four scoping SRAT simulations were conducted for the Tank 8/40 blend. Three complete SRAT and SME simulations using blended sludge were then performed. One was at the recommended acid stoichiometry of 125 percent. The second used identical acid stoichiometry with HM levels of noble metals. The final run was at worst case noble metals and assumed complete transfer of the Formic Acid Feed Tank. Testing was completed without any major incidents. Hydrogen flow rates in excess of the design bases (0.65 lbs./hr for the SRAT and 0.23 lbs./hr for the SME) are marked in bold. Full details on the noble metals concentrations can be found in the body of the report.

  18. Integrating PROOF Analysis in Cloud and Batch Clusters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    High Energy Physics (HEP) analysis are becoming more complex and demanding due to the large amount of data collected by the current experiments. The Parallel ROOT Facility (PROOF) provides researchers with an interactive tool to speed up the analysis of huge volumes of data by exploiting parallel processing on both multicore machines and computing clusters. The typical PROOF deployment scenario is a permanent set of cores configured to run the PROOF daemons. However, this approach is incapable of adapting to the dynamic nature of interactive usage. Several initiatives seek to improve the use of computing resources by integrating PROOF with a batch system, such as Proof on Demand (PoD) or PROOF Cluster. These solutions are currently in production at Universidad de Oviedo and IFCA and are positively evaluated by users. Although they are able to adapt to the computing needs of users, they must comply with the specific configuration, OS and software installed at the batch nodes. Furthermore, they share the machines with other workloads, which may cause disruptions in the interactive service for users. These limitations make PROOF a typical use-case for cloud computing. In this work we take profit from Cloud Infrastructure at IFCA in order to provide a dynamic PROOF environment where users can control the software configuration of the machines. The Proof Analysis Framework (PAF) facilitates the development of new analysis and offers a transparent access to PROOF resources. Several performance measurements are presented for the different scenarios (PoD, SGE and Cloud), showing a speed improvement closely correlated with the number of cores used.

  19. Optimal control of batch emulsion polymerization of vinyl chloride

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Damslora, Andre Johan

    1998-12-31

    The highly exothermic polymerization of vinyl chloride (VC) is carried out in large vessels where the heat removal represents a major limitation of the production rate. Many emulsion polymerization reactors are operated in such a way that a substantial part of the heat transfer capacity is left unused for a significant part of the total batch time. To increase the reaction rate so that it matches the heat removal capacity during the course of the reaction, this thesis proposes the use of a sufficiently flexible initiator system to obtain a reaction rate which is high throughout the reaction and real-time optimization to compute the addition policy for the initiator. This optimization based approach provides a basis for an interplay between design and control and between production and research. A simple model is developed for predicting the polymerization rate. The model is highly nonlinear and open-loop unstable and may serve as an interesting case for comparison of nonlinear control strategies. The model is fitted to data obtained in a laboratory scale reactor. Finally, the thesis discusses optimal control of the emulsion polymerization reactor. Reduction of the batch cycle time is of major economic importance, as long as the quality parameters are within their specifications. The control parameterization had a major influence on the performance. A differentiable spline parameterization was applied and the optimization is illustrated in a number of cases. The best performance is obtained when the reactor temperature is obtained when the optimization is combined with some form of closed-loop control of the reactor temperature. 112 refs., 48 figs., 4 tabs.

  20. Strangeness in Neutron Star Cooling

    CERN Document Server

    Lim, Yeunhwan; Lee, Chang-Hwan

    2016-01-01

    We study the thermal evolution of neutron stars in the presence of hyperons or kaons in the core. Our results indicate that the nucleon and hyperon direct Urca processes play crucial roles for the cooling of neutron stars. The presence of hyperons drives fast cooling mechanisms in two ways: 1) it allows the hyperon direct Urca prior to the nucleon direct Urca, 2) and it makes the nucleon direct Urca more feasible by reducing the neutron Fermi momentum. We found that the neutron star equation of state (EOS) with hyperons can be consistent with both mass and temperature observations. We also found that the neutron star EOS with kaon condensation can be consistent with observations, even though the cooling behavior is seldom useful to identify or isolate the effect of kaon condensation.